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An evaluation of natural and formal language programmes with deaf children Bunch, Gary Owen 1975

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AN EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND FORMAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMMES WITH DEAF CHILDREN by Gary Owen Bunch B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of Education i n the department of S p e c i a l Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard v THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date r i i Chairman: P r o f e s s o r Bryan R. Clarke ABSTRACT This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed to evaluate the success of the n a t u r a l and formal language teaching programmes f o r deaf c h i l d r e n i n teaching the usage of s e l e c t e d grammatical p r i n c i p l e s . E v a luations of the success of each programme r e l a t i v e to the language a b i l i t i e s of young normally hearing c h i l d r e n and of each programme r e l a t i v e to the other were performed. Forty-nine subjects were s e l e c t e d from a r e s i d e n t i a l school using the n a t u r a l method of teaching language and twenty-six subjects were s e l e c t e d from a r e s i d e n t i a l school employing formal methods. The subjects from each school were d i v i d e d i n t o three age ranges; nine years to ten yea r s , eleven months; twelve years to t h i r t e e n years, Eleven months; f i f t e e n years to s i x t e e n y e a r s , eleven months. Subject s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a i n c luded c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s , hearing l o s s , absence of major a d d i t i o n a l handicapping c o n d i t i o n s , school-age career h i s t o r y and age of onset of deafness. Extensive q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was performed on the v a r i a b l e s of method, age and sex. Test instruments were Menyuk's Test of Grammatical  Competence and Berko's Test of Morphological Rules. Examination of programme goals revealed that n e i t h e r school had d e l i n e a t e d goals i n the area of language programme i n a manner conducive to the e v a l u a t i o n of any s p e c i f i c language p r i n c i p l e . Intended s i t u a t i o n a l , i n p u t , process and outcome f a c t o r s were not congruent w i t h t h e i r observed counterparts. Observed outcomes d i d not approximate intended outcomes as i m p l i e d i n the language programme goals. Goals and t a r g e t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n were recommended f o r both schools. Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s demonstrated that n e i t h e r language teaching programme enabled deaf c h i l d r e n i n the age ranges examined to deal w i t h the s e l e c t e d language p r i n c i p l e s w i t h anything approaching the a b i l i t y d i s p l a y e d by nursery school and kin d e r g a r t e n age normally hearing c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n taught under one programme d i d not f a r e any b e t t e r than c h i l d r e n taught under the other. Some evidence that females d e a l w i t h language p r i n c i p l e s on a higher l e v e l than males was found. Language a b i l i t y appeared to be age-related w i t h o l d e r i i i c h i l d r e n a c h i e v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than younger. Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that a l i m i t e d number of deaf c h i l d r e n demonstrated considerable competence i n d e a l i n g w i t h the language p r i n c i p l e s examined. The m a j o r i t y of the s e v e n t y - f i v e subjects demonstrated almost t o t a l i n a b i l i t y to deal w i t h any grammatical p r i n c i p l e . As a group the deaf subjects of t h i s study performed as though they were memorizing grammatical r u l e s ra'ther than i n t e r n a l i z i n g them. L i t t l e support was found f o r t h e o r i e s suggesting that deaf c h i l d r e n p a r a l l e l normally hearing c h i l d r e n i n language development though at a somewhat slower pace or that deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n approach language tasks w i t h common r u l e s of performance. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . PROBLEM 5 1. Statement of the Problem 5 2. Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 6 I I I . METHOD 1 9 1. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 19 2. Sampling and Subjects 20 3. Instruments 21 4. Scoring 26 5. Examiner 26 6. E v a l u a t i v e Considerations 27 7. Design 2 8 8. Experimental Hypotheses 29 IV. EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION . . . . 3 1 1. Programme E v a l u a t i o n i n Schools f o r the Deaf 31 2. P o l i c y Goals and Programme Objectives 35 3. Observed S i t u a t i o n a l Factors 37 4. Observed Input Factors 39 5. Observed Process Factors 43 V. RESULTS 5 0 1. Data A n a l y s i s 50 2. R e s u l t s of Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s 51 3. R e s u l t s of Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s 74 V VI. DISCUSSION 94 1. Interpretation of Results 94 VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 113 1. Summary 113 2. Results 114 3. Conclusions 117 4. Implications 120 5. Suggested Future Research . . . . . . 122 6. Limitations. 123 REFERENCES 124 APPENDICES 128 A Assessing Communication S k i l l s - Yoder Model. . . 128 B Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Items and Error Source 130 C Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence 131 Administration Instructions ' D Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Scaled Scoring System . . . 133 E Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Category Definitions and Examples 134 F Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Sample Item 137 G Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Items and Error Source 138 t • • * H Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Administration Instructions 140 I Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Scaled Scoring System . . . 141 J Subject Scores for Menyuk Items-Tables 33 to 38 148 K Subject Scores for Berko Items-Tables 39to 44 ]54 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Subject D i s t r i b u t i o n by Language Method, Age and Sex 22 2. Sentences Not Corrected i n Non-Spontaneous Mode by At Least 25% of Subjects i n Each Group 53 3. Summary Anova Table of N a t u r a l and Formal Language Method Deaf Subject. Groups f o r Non-Spontaneous C o r r e c t i o n of Items on Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence 54 4. Summary of Menyuk Non-Spontaneous Mode Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts 55 5. Summary Anova Table of Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Groups f o r P e r f e c t C o r r e c t i o n of E r r o r Source i n Menyuk Test of Grammatical Competence Items 57 6. Summary of Menyuk P e r f e c t C o r r e c t i o n of E r r o r Source Non-Spontaneous Mode Deaf Subjects Age Con t r a s t s . . . . 58 7. Summary Anova Table f o r Responses by Hearing and Deaf Subjects to Items on Berko's Test of Morphological Rules 59 8. Summary of Berko Hearing vs Deaf Contrasts 60 9. Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko's Test of Morphological Rules 62 10. Summary of Berko T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts 63 11. Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko P l u r a l Form Items . . . 64 12. Summary of Berko P l u r a l Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts 65 13. Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko Tense Form Items. . . . 66 14. Summary of Berko Tense Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts 67 v i i 15. Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko Possessive Form Items " 7 0 16. Summary of Berko Possessive Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts 71 17. Summary of Berko Possessive Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Method X Sex Contrasts 72 18. Summary of Berko Pos s e s s i v e Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Method X Age Contrasts 73 19. Categorized Responses f o r A l l Subjects to the R e p e t i t i o n Without C o r r e c t i o n Phase of Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence 75 20. Categorized Response f o r A l l Subjects to the R e p e t i t i o n With C o r r e c t i o n Phase of Menyuk's 76 Test of Grammatical Competence 21. Summary of P e r f e c t E r r o r Source C o r r e c t i o n s Independent of A d d i t i o n a l E r r o r s or M o d i f i c a t i o n s of Meaning on Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence f o r a l l N and F Deaf Subjects 78 22. T o t a l C o r r e c t i o n of Menyuk Items by Each g^ N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group 23. Obtained Responses to Berko Item One from g^ N a t u r a l Method Age Groups 24. Obtained Responses to Berko Item One from g^ Formal Method Age Groups 25. E r r o r Response Categories Stated i n Percentages ft f o r A l l Berko Test Items 26. Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal gg Method Groups Berko E r r o r Category Responses 27. Summary of Berko E r r o r Age Contrasts 89 28. Summary of Berko E r r o r Category Contrasts 90 29. Summary of Berko E r r o r Age X Category Responses 92 30. Sentences Spontaneously Corrected by 25% or More of Subjects i n Menyuk's Kindergarten and ONS Groups and Each Deaf Group v i i i 31. Sentences Corrected i n Non-Spontaneous Mode by 75% or More of Subjects i n Menyuk's Kindergarten and ONS Groups 102 32. Percentage ,of Subjects Responding C o r r e c t l y to Stimulus Items from Berko's Test of Morphological Rules 106 33. N^ Scores f o r Menyuk Items. 148 34. F^ Scores f o r Menyuk Items. 149 35. N£ Scores f o r Menyuk Items. . 150 36. F2 Scores f o r Menyuk Items 151 37. N^ Scores f o r Menyuk Items 152 38. F 3 Scores f o r Menyuk Items 153 39. N 1 Scores f o r Berko Items 154 40. F^ Scores f o r Berko Items 155 41. ^ Scores f o r Berko Items 156 42. F2 Scores f o r Berko Items 157 43. N^ Scores f o r Berko Items 158 44. F„ Scores f o r Berko Items 159 i x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. An E v a l u a t i o n Framework: SIPO Model 33 2. Causal E v a l u a t i o n : SIPO Model . 34 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There e x i s t s i n every country a f a i r l y l a r g e group of deaf people w i t h whom the m a j o r i t y of i n h a b i t a n t s are unable to converse using the medium of speech. I t would appear a r e l a t i v e l y simple matter to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by teaching the deaf person to read and w r i t e and, thus, b u i l d a p r i n t e d symbol system which, w h i l e perhaps awkward to use at times, would provide a common and e f f e c t i v e avenue f o r communication. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the deaf person's primary handicap i s not the l o s s of hearing but the l o s s of normal a c q u i s i t i o n of language s k i l l s and a r e s u l t a n t p l e t h o r i c d i f f i c u l t y i n expressing or r e c e i v i n g thoughts through speech or w r i t i n g . The i n a b i l i t y of the average deaf person to achieve a normal range of vocabulary and comprehension i n language has been w e l l -documented (Wrightstone, Aronow and Moskowitz, 1962; Lenneberg, 1967; G e n t i l e , 1969; Quigley, 1969). The r e s u l t i s a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n the concepts he wishes to r e c e i v e or express. Seemingly, i t matters l i t t l e how extensive the vocabulary of a deaf c h i l d i s . When he begins to s t r i n g words together, he experiences d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a t i n g language which a hearing person would recognize as conventional. Lenneberg (1967) c r i t i c i z e s e x i s t i n g methods of teaching as pre s e n t i n g a "meta-language, a language about the language which they do not yet have. (p. 322)". He questions whether these meta-language methodologies coupled w i t h the l a r g e - s c a l e d e f i c i e n c y i n model examples occasioned 2 by a u d i t o r y impairment, w i l l ever r e s u l t i n normal language a b i l i t y i n the deaf p o p u l a t i o n . Garber (1967) c r i t i c i z e s teaching methods f o r the deaf as not exposing the deaf c h i l d to the extensive language experiences enjoyed by normally hearing c h i l d r e n . Lowenbraun (1969) c r i t i c i z e s language teaching methods f o r deaf c h i l d r e n as d e v i a t i n g from the language a c q u i s i t i o n p a t t e r n of other c h i l d r e n . Doctor (1950) and Streng (1964) have c r i t i c i z e d t r a d i t i o n a l methodologies f o r a strong tendency towards over-whelming teacher involvement and minimal c h i l d involvement. Researchers i n the f i e l d of education of the deaf c h i l d are w e l l aware of the f a c t that deaf c h i l d r e n are " s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r i n a l l aspects of language development and f a c i l i t y . . . ( M o o r e s , 1970, p. 10)" when compared to t h e i r hearing peers. Over the past two hundred years those i n d i v i d u a l s concerned w i t h the education of the deaf c h i l d have laboured to discover methods of teaching language which would enable the deaf c h i l d to u t i l i z e language w i t h ease and fl u e n c y . One main t h r u s t i n t h i s endeavour has been toward the development of what has been termed fo r m a l , or grammatical, methods of teaching language. These methods have been open to c r i t i c i s m s i n c e exposure to a f o r m a l i z e d method of l e a r n i n g language places the deaf c h i l d i n the p o s i t i o n of l e a r n i n g to communicate i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than h i s hearing counterpart. O'Connor (Groht, 1958) summarizes the c r i t i c i s m s of these attempts when he s t a t e s that "a deaf c h i l d so exposed cannot p o s s i b l y equal or approach the language f l u e n c y of h i s hearing peers (p. v i i ) " . While some were d e l i n e a t i n g formal methods of teaching 3 language to the deaf c h i l d , others were developing what i s known as the; " n a t u r a l method". O'Connor s t a t e s that Groht has demonstrated that the s k i l l f u l use of the n a t u r a l method w i l l enable deaf c h i l d r e n to "acquire f l u e n t use of E n g l i s h comparable to that of the hearing... (p. v i i ) . " Groht (1958) a f f i r m s her personal b e l i e f i n the n a t u r a l method when she s t a t e s that through the use of t h i s method "The deaf c h i l d can acquire a n a t u r a l and d e s i r a b l e use of language as can a hearing person (p. 183)." A more recent statement of the n a t u r a l method may be found i n Van Uden's d i s c u s s i o n of the maternal-r e f l e x i v e method (1970). A v a r i e t y of language i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been undertaken i n the past but f o r the most part have been of a r a t h e r general nature. They have not examined s p e c i f i c language p r i n c i p l e s and r e l a t e d them to the l i n g u i s t i c development of deaf c h i l d r e n . This tendency toward g e n e r a l i t y has been c r i t i c i z e d by Cooper and Rosenstein (1966) and Quigley (1969). The two former researchers emphasized that though the general f a c t of a s i g n i f i c a n t language r e t a r d a t i o n among deaf i n d i v i d u a l s was known, most s t u d i e s "of the language of deaf c h i l d r e n are of l i m i t e d usefulness because the data have not been r e l a t e d i n any meaningful way to what deaf c h i l d r e n know about language (p. 66).". Quigley's c r i t i c i s m s were even more sweeping. His review of research w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n f o r the February 1969 Review of Educational Research s t a t e d "The extensive l i t e r a t u r e on the education of deaf c h i l d r e n contained very l i t t l e o b j e c t i v e research. The few s t u d i e s that were published were s c a t t e r e d among a number of ed u c a t i o n a l areas, and there were no attempts to examine any important areas... i n a systematic manner." The s i x years s i n c e 1969 have seen l i t t l e change the scene described by these three reviewers. 5 CHAPTER I I PROBLEM 1. Statement of the Problem Studies by Heider and Heider (1941), Templin (1950), Myklebust (1960), M a c G i n i t i e (1964), Brannon (1968), Nunnally and Blanton (1966), Garber (1967), Schmitt (1970) and others l e d to Moore's (1970) statement regarding the general d e f i c i e n c y of deaf c h i l d r e n i n the area of language. A l l document the wide d i f f e r e n c e between the manner i n which deaf c h i l d r e n and hearing c h i l d r e n t r e a t language. However, the m a j o r i t y of these s t u d i e s d i d not concern themselves w i t h s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s nor d i d they attempt to evaluate the e f f i c i e n c y of s p e c i f i c methods i n teaching s p e c i f i c language p r i n c i p l e s . Thus, teachers of deaf c h i l d r e n have been l e f t i n the p o s i t i o n of being aware of the ge n e r a l i z e d language d i f f i c u l t y of t h e i r charges but being unaware of s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s not ameliorated by the method i n use. As r e c e n t l y as 1969 Lowenbraun found that "the sequence i n which expressive language develops does not even approximate the sequence of formal language input u t i l i z e d i n the school...(p. 103)" i n which she c a r r i e d out her study i n t o the s y n t a c t i c competence of deaf c h i l d r e n . She a l s o s t a t e d that she considered i t premature at that time "to discuss the probable i n f l u e n c e of teaching method on the development of language i n deaf c h i l d r e n . . . ( p . 103)". While i t may be premature, due to a p a u c i t y of appropriate assessment instruments, to evaluate the success of e n t i r e methods, i t 6 would be most u s e f u l to teachers of the deaf i f the deaf c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g of s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s were evaluated and i f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n were t i e d to p a r t i c u l a r language teaching programmes. Such ev a l u a t i o n s would go a long way toward answering c r i t i c i s m s regarding the nonmeaning-f u l n e s s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In the recent past i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n t o the language of normally hearing c h i l d r e n have developed a v a r i e t y of t e s t instruments to assess language development. Though they were developed f o r use w i t h the hearing c h i l d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to use a number of these instruments i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the process of language development and the s t a t e of language knowledge i n the deaf c h i l d . Concomitant w i t h the development of instruments s u i t a b l e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the expressive language performance of deaf c h i l d r e n , the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n has y i e l d e d a number of models to a s s i s t the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n asses s i n g the success of v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l programme approaches. A combination of the new l i n g u i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n instruments and ed u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n techniques provides a v e h i c l e f o r the assessment of language development of the deaf c h i l d i n s p e c i f i c areas and to r e l a t e that development to the success of teaching programmes i n those areas. 2. Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Language Teaching Programmes f o r the Deaf C h i l d Two main v a r i e t i e s of language teaching programmes have been developed f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . These two, the formal and the n a t u r a l approaches or major aspects of them, are u t i l i z e d i n the great m a j o r i t y of schools f o r the deaf i n North America. 7 Formal Programmes Three formal programmes s u r v i v e i n teaching language to deaf c h i l d r e n . Of these three two, the Wing Symbols (Wing, 1887) and the F i v e - S l a t e System (Barry, 1899), are used i n f r e q u e n t l y and mostly only i n p a r t w h i l e the t h i r d , the Key ( F i t z g e r a l d , 1929) i s the primary language teaching programme i n many schools. The Wing Symbol system c o n s i s t s of l e t t e r s , numbers and other symbols placed over w r i t t e n language to e x p l a i n the form and f u n c t i o n of the p a r t s of a normal sentence. The main aspect of the system i s a s e r i e s of eigh t symbols: S = s u b j e c t ; V = verb; V = t r a n s i t i v e verb; V '_> = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb; V = passive verb; 0 = o b j e c t ; AC = A d j e c t i v e complement; N = noun or pronoun complement. The Barry F i v e - S l a t e System c o n s i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y of f i v e d i v i s i o n s f o r a normal sentence. These d i v i s i o n s ( s u b j e c t , verb, o b j e c t of the verb, p r e p o s i t i o n , o b j e c t i v e of the p r e p o s i t i o n ) were used as f i x e d guides under which appropriate p a r t s of a sentence were to be w r i t t e n . In group work these d i v i s i o n s were each on l a r g e separate s l a t e s w h i l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l work each c h i l d had a smaller s l a t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i v i d e d . E v e n t u a l l y a s i x t h d i v i s i o n or s l a t e was added f o r time expressions. The F i t z g e r a l d Key i s reminiscent i n par t of the Barry F i v e -S l a t e System. I t too i s a f i x e d sentence guide c o n s i s t i n g of v a r i o u s columns. The columns are headed by i n t e r r o g a t i v e words designed to represent p a r t s of a sentence and the f u n c t i o n of those sentence p a r t s . A s i m p l i e d form of the Key found i n many classrooms i s : 8 What: How o f t e n : How much: Whom: Where: For: When: (Object)(Place) ( M o d i f i e r s (Time) of the verb) C h i l d r e n begin w i t h simple sentences using only a few p a r t s of the guide and work toward more complex s t r u c t u r e s . N a t u r a l Programmes The n a t u r a l programme approach i s best described by Groht (1958) though i t or s i m i l a r forebears have been i n use f o r over one hundred years. This approach attempts to develop language a b i l i t i e s on the b a s i s of the needs of the c h i l d and eschews any predetermined system. Word d r i l l s , textbook e x e r c i s e s or d r i l l s on language p r i n c i p l e s and patterns are considered i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e they do not grow d i r e c t l y from s i t u a t i o n s of i n t r i n s i c meaning to the c h i l d . While many ideas f o r language s t i m u l a t i o n are given and many p o s s i b l e language teaching techniques are d i s c u s s e d , no type of guide i s suggested. In p r a c t i c e , many schools have designed language c u r r i c u l a which suggest predetermined systems f o r teaching v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s as w e l l as l e s s o n p a t t e r n s and teaching techniques. A more recent statement of a programme that f i t s under the general n a t u r a l heading comes from Holland (Van Uden, 1970). The maternal r e f l e x i v e method i s based on the language which a mother would use w i t h her normally hearing c h i l d as he passes through v a r i o u s stages of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . As w i t h other n a t u r a l methods, claims of considerable success w i t h the maternal r e f l e x i v e method are made, but e m p i r i c a l evidence of t h i s success i s l a c k i n g . Who: What: =__==_ (Subject) (Verb) 9 Transformational Grammar Recent years have witnessed the advent of v a r i o u s transforma-t i o n a l grammar systems f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . Representative of these i s the Apple Tree programme ( C a n i g l i a et a l , 1972). The authors s t a t e : I t i s the i n t e n t of t h i s language program to present a s e q u e n t i a l and s p i r a l i n g method of teaching the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s of the E n g l i s h language to the deaf or to those who do not have E n g l i s h as t h e i r primary language, (p. i ) While such programmes make use of the terminology of transforma-t i o n a l grammar, they move toward a c q u i s i t i o n of sentence patt e r n s i n a formal manner reminiscent of the F i t z g e r a l d Key. In form and present use the m a j o r i t y of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar systems are much more a k i n to formal systems of teaching language than to n a t u r a l . One system which avoids much of the f o r m a l i t y of many t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar systems i s McCarr's Lessons i n Syntax (1973). This system gives much more freedom to the c h i l d i n b u i l d i n g up h i s language r e p e r t o i r e and may be u t i l i z e d at many l e v e l s . I t appears to combine many of the strengths of the maternal r e f l e x i v e method and the s t r u c t u r e of the formal systems. Studies of the Language A b i l i t y of Deaf C h i l d r e n Cooper and Rosenstein (1966) reviewed s t u d i e s a n a l y s i n g samples of the w r i t t e n language of deaf i n d i v i d u a l s . They summarized the concerns of these s t u d i e s as " p r o d u c t i v i t y , complexity, f l e x i b i l i t y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t s of speech, and correctness (p. 62).". They noted that the v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y undertaken have not r e s u l t e d i n "a d e s c r i p t i o n of language as a system (p. 62).". Thus, these s t u d i e s have revealed that the w r i t t e n language of deaf c h i l d r e n i s i n f e r i o r to that of t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l hearing peers and somewhat more l i k e that of younger hearing c h i l d r e n . They have not, however, shed l i g h t on how t h i s s i t u a t i o n came to e x i s t nor how i t might be remedied. Heider and Heider (1941) analyzed the compositions w r i t t e n by deaf eleven to seventeen year olds and hearing eight to fourteen year o l d s . Their study r e s u l t e d i n a d e t a i l e d enumeration of q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s . In essence the deaf sample demonstrated a simpler w r i t i n g s t y l e w i t h s h o r t e r sentences, fewer compound and complex sentences, l e s s p r e c i s i o n of meaning, greater use of f i x e d forms, a preference f o r d i s c u s s i o n of a c t u a l happenings ra t h e r than p o s s i b l e happenings and a greater tendency to e x p l a i n why events occurred. The Heiders' a n a l y s i s of the productions of o l d e r and younger deaf c h i l d r e n agreed w i t h Goda's (1959) which l e d him to s t a t e that the q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of language appear to be r e l a t e d to age. The o l d e r deaf c h i l d uses a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r number of words i n h i s speaking and w r i t i n g and w i l l g e n e r a l l y express him s e l f w i t h r e l a t i v e l y longer and more complex sentences. Taken as a group these and other s i m i l a r s t u d i e s have documented that deaf c h i l d r e n add, omit, s u b s t i t u t e f o r or i n c o r r e c t l y order words at a r a t e greater than that of t h e i r hearing peers. The analyses of these e a s i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e aspects of language have served to describe the w r i t t e n language of the deaf c h i l d i n comparison w i t h that of the hearing c h i l d . These s t u d i e s have not attempted to evaluate the success of any p a r t i c u l a r language programme and have not delved i n t o whether or not any language p r i n c i p l e discussed a c t u a l l y had been taught to the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . Such e v a l u a t i o n s may"not have been p o s s i b l e at the time due to l a c k of appropriate instruments 11 though i t cannot be denied that t h e i r usefulness would have been enhanced i f the success of the programmes employed were subjected to s c r u t i n y . E v a l u a t i o n may be e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t s i n c e many teachers used only one b a s i c programme approach c o n s i d e r i n g i t to o f f e r the only r e a l opportunity of success i n language teaching. Studies of L i n g u i s t i c Development of Deaf C h i l d r e n In recent years a few researchers have attempted to go beyond the aforementioned type of study and determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of language problems and development i n the deaf p o p u l a t i o n . These s t u d i e s are of two d e f i n i t e types. The f i r s t type tended to u t i l i z e sentence completion or s i n g l e word c l o z e type tasks i n an attempt to d e f i n e aspects of the deaf student's a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h s t r u c t u r a l and l e x i c a l meanings (Hart and Rosenstein, 1966), to p r e d i c t appropriate missing words from c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n (Odom, Blanton and Nunnally, 1967) or to employ word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s developed f o r the hearing to compare patte r n s of word a s s o c i a t i o n i n the deaf and hearing c h i l d (Kopkin, Odom, Blanton and Nunnally, 1967; Nunnally and Blanton, 1966). The demonstration of greater r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s t r u c t u r a l versus l e x i c a l meanings (Hart and Rosenstein, 1966), the suggestion that the r u l e s used by the deaf i n d i v i d u a l i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a sentence are d i f f e r e n t from those used by hearing c h i l d r e n " e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to f u n c t i o n words (Odom, Blanton and Nunnally, 1967)", and the suggestion that words as a group are l e s s meaningful f o r deaf c h i l d r e n than f o r hearing (Nunnally and Blanton, 1966) have l a i d the groundwork f o r more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s . These f u t u r e s t u d i e s , t o be more e f f e c t i v e , should evaluate the success of e x i s t i n g language teaching 12 programmes and suggest new techniques and/or programmes to improve the language l e a r n i n g of the deaf c h i l d . The second type of l i n g u i s t i c study w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n i s that designed on a generative grammar model. These have not been numerous but they have been of great: i n t e r e s t . Those who have ventured to c a r r y out i n v e s t i g a t i o n s based on generative grammar models have been faced w i t h a very fundamental question which has not posed d i f f i c u l t y f o r those working w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n . Most i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n have been conducted o r a l l y f o r the very good reason that o r a l productions give the most accurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the performance l e v e l of the speaker. The m a j o r i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h the deaf have been non-oral due to the speech i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y problems endemic among the deaf. In most cases paper and p e n c i l s t y l e t e s t s have been devised or adapted from those o r a l t e s t s used w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n . I t i s r e a l i z e d that normally hearing c h i l d r e n may score some-what d i f f e r e n t l y i f the o r a l t e s t s were replaced by w r i t t e n t e s t s . However, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to administer w r i t t e n t e s t s to normally hearing c h i l d r e n due to the ages at which such c h i l d r e n are t e s t e d f o r these s t u d i e s . While deaf c h i l d r e n of age e i g h t years or o l d e r possess the reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s and developing language l e v e l s d e s i r e d , normally hearing pre-school or k i n d e r g a r t e n age c h i l d r e n do not possess the r e q u i s i t e reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . Deaf c h i l d r e n cannot be t e s t e d at younger ages due to t h e i r l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t language and s u f f i c i e n t speech and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . Cooper (1965) compared the development of s e l e c t e d morphological pa t t e r n s i n terms of r e c e p t i v e and expressive c o n t r o l i n deaf and 13 hearing c h i l d r e n through a p p l i c a t i o n of a Berko-type t e s t . The average performance of the deaf subjects was below that of t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l peers. The scores f o r nineteen year o l d deaf c h i l d r e n were below the average score f o r hearing ten year o l d s . Cooper found that there i s an apparent p a r a l l e l i n the development of morphological patte r n s by deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . Garber (1967) i n v e s t i g a t e d the "...morphological a b i l i t i e s of deaf c h i l d r e n i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o r r e c t i n f l e c t i o n s under three divergent t e s t c o n d i t i o n s , namely reading, speechreading, and speech-reading w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l c l u e of t a c t i o n . " His f o r t y - f i v e deaf subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age; group "A" being 6.7 to 9.6 years o l d , group "B" 9.7 to 11.6 years o l d and group "C" 11.7 to 13.6 years o l d . Three groups of hearing c h i l d r e n w i t h a t o t a l age range of 5.6 to 8.8 years were used f o r comparison purposes. The deaf and hearing groups were examined i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to i n f l e c t l e x i c o n and nonsense words. Garber's t e s t i n g instruments were Berko's t e s t and Newfield's l e x i c o n word l i s t which p a r a l l e l s Berko's t e s t both m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and p h o n o l o g i c a l l y . Garber's r e s u l t s demonstrated a h i e r a r c h i a l l y s i m i l a r ranking f o r performance on the l e x i c a l and nonsense l i s t w i t h reading over speechreading and t a c t i o n and speechreading r e s p e c t i v e l y . Despite the d i f f e r e n c e i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages of h i s groups, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf groups i n a b i l i t y to i n f l e c t verbs and possessives was found though one was noted f o r the i n f l e c t i o n of l e x i c o n nouns. There was a s i m i l a r tendency f o r the deaf and hearing groups to improve i n performance w i t h increase i n age but the increase f o r the deaf groups di d not even approximate that f o r the hearing groups. In a d d i t i o n , 14 Garber noted a d i f f e r e n c e i n progression of the a c q u i s i t i o n of allomorphs i n the deaf and hearing groups and a tendency f o r the deaf groups to o v e r - g e n e r a l i z e i n the a d d i t i o n of / - s / f o r p l u r a l nouns and of /-ed/ f o r the past tense of verbs. The f i n d i n g of a d i f f e r e n c e i n progressions f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of allomorphs suggests that the p a r a l l e l f o r deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of morphological patt e r n s noted by Cooper may be only general at best. These two s t u d i e s may be c r i t i c i s e d on a common and major ground. Both researchers l i m i t e d the p o s s i b l e response items of the deaf subjects by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a set of items from which to s e l e c t t h e i r responses. For example, Cooper provided the f o l l o w i n g form f o r an i r r e g u l a r i n f l e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n : Mary has a t i f e . Jack has a t i f e . They have two ( t i f e , t i f e s , t i v e s , t i v e ) . Garber provided such forms as: This i s a wug. Now there i s another one. Now there are two of them. There are two ._. (wug, wugs, wugses) Such forms f a i l to a l l o w f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of whether the deaf c h i l d would suggest responses beyond those given. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t , i f given a f r e e choice, the deaf subjects would respond w i t h morphological forms not given i n the p o s s i b l e response items. I f such were the case, the f i g u r e s f o r c o r r e c t responses quoted by the researchers would be spuriously, h igh. In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of morphological pa t t e r n s by deaf c h i l d r e n i s based, at l e a s t i n p a r t , on . the r esearchers' preconceived ideas of what c o n s t i t u t e p o s s i b l e response forms and not on the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t u a l r e p e r t o i r e of responses. 15 Research w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n provides f o r an open-endedness of response not present i n the two s t u d i e s mentioned above. Cooper a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an unsuccessful attempt w i t h Kaye (1967) to develop a paper and p e n c i l task to cast l i g h t on deaf c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c competence. Their t e s t c o n s i s t e d of f i v e sub-tests designed to probe f o r in f o r m a t i o n regarding knowledge of l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s . They concluded that deaf and hearing i n d i v i d u a l s share some b a s i c r u l e s f o r the generation of responses but, that the deaf d i f f e r from the hearing i n that they have "...a grammar which i s d i f f e r e n t i n terms of a few s u p e r f i c i a l r u l e s . . . o r that d i f f e r e n c e s e x h i b i t e d i n production can be a t t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s i n r u l e s of performance." I f the l a t t e r i s the case, much research w i l l have to be undertaken to f e r r e t out these r u l e s and to develop techniques to i n c u l c a t e r u l e s more l i k e those of the hearing p o p u l a t i o n . Schmitt (1970) designed a study focused on the " . . . s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y needed to process sentence transformations and verb tenses, by e x p l o r i n g both comprehension and production processes, and by i s o l a t i n g and manipulating s y n t a c t i c v a r i a b l e s i n c o n t r o l l e d experimental s i t u a t i o n s . " He found that the deaf c h i l d r e n i n h i s sample generated surface s t r u c t u r e s based on r u l e s which, at l e a s t i n a few cases, are i n c o r r e c t (the P a s s i v e - A c t i v e Rule, the ^ - N^ Rule, and the No Negative R u l e ) . These i n c o r r e c t r u l e s appear to operate both e x p r e s s i v e l y and r e c e p t i v e l y and may be m a n i f e s t i n g themselves i n s u b t l e manners i n reading and w r i t i n g . I f f u r t h e r research supports these f i n d i n g s , educators of the deaf w i l l be faced w i t h the need to lead f u t u r e deaf c h i l d r e n to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o r r e c t r u l e s . T h i s , of course, means the development of teaching techniques capable of producing 16 the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . L i n g u i s t i c Tests Used With Deaf C h i l d r e n : During the 1960's a f a i r l y l a r g e number of s t u d i e s were under-taken i n attempts to d e s c r i b e the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of language. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concerned themselves w i t h analyses of the productions of c h i l d r e n from the e a r l i e s t stages of. the onset of speech to the age of school entrance and s l i g h t l y beyond. Yoder (1972) has developed a model f o r a s s e s s i n g communication behaviour (Appendix A). A n a l y s i s of the model i n d i c a t e s that an i n v e s t i g a t o r could assess aspects of the deaf c h i l d ' s knowledge of two d i v i s i o n s , morphology and syntax, of language s t r u c t u r e through w r i t t e n productions. Yoder a l s o has suggested s e l e c t e d t e s t s w i t h which to evaluate morphological and s y n t a c t i c a l aspects of language. Among these are two which have been adapted as p e n c i l and paper t e s t s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . These two t e s t s , Berko's Test of Morphological Rules and Menyuk's Test of Grammatical  Competence i n Normal-Speaking C h i l d r e n , are doubly p e r t i n e n t s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of items t e s t p r i n c i p l e s taught to deaf c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the f i r s t three years of school experience under a l l language teaching programmes. In one of a s e r i e s of l i n k e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s Menyuk (1969) presented t w e n t y - f i v e agrammatical sentences to a young preschool group (34 to 39 months o l d ) , to an o l d e r preschool group (52 to 57 months o l d ) , and a k i n d e r g a r t e n group (70 to 75 months o l d ) . The c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d to repeat each sentence as given o r a l l y by the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r and then, a f t e r a l l the sentences had been t r e a t e d , the c h i l d r e n were t o l d the sentences had been i n c o r r e c t . The sentences were repeated and the c h i l d r e n asked "How should I say t h a t ? " i n order to 17 e l i c i t a b i l i t i e s to c o r r e c t agrammatical sentences on command. In apply-ing t h i s technique Menyuk was attempting to t e s t the hypothesis ". . . t h a t r e p e t i t i o n i s dependent on the r u l e s i n the l i s t e n e r ' s grammar ra t h e r than being mere i m i t a t i o n , only l i m i t e d by memory span." In general the f i n d i n g of the s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that the most common d e v i a t i o n s from complete r e p e t i t i o n were not omission or s u b s t i t u t i o n s but " . . . m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n s of non-grammatical forms." Such a f i n d i n g supported the hypothesis being t e s t e d . In a d d i t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s i n spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that the l e v e l of grammatical competence of the va r i o u s groups was being r e f l e c t e d (Appendix B). Berko (1958) designed a study to t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of morphological r u l e s . She created nonsense words to t e s t the c h i l d ' s system of r u l e s f o r the c r e a t i o n of the p l u r a l , s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l p o s s e s s i v e s , the t h i r d person s i n g u l a r of the verb, the pr o g r e s s i v e tense, the past tense and the comparative and s u p e r l a t i v e of the a d j e c t i v e . C artoon-style p i c t u r e of imaginary beings or people performing imaginary acts were created and a t e x t p r i n t e d w i t h the p i c t u r e s . The t e x t contained a blank f o r the d e s i r e d form of the nonsense word being used (Appendix G). A n a l y s i s was performed on the r e s u l t s f o r f i f t y - s i x c h i l d r e n between the ages of four to seven years i n c l u s i v e . Those c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t grade achieved higher percentage scores on a l l items than d i d c h i l d r e n at the preschool l e v e l . This general d i f f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e d a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b i l i t y to generate c o r r e c t morphophonemic surface s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. However, the groups were not 18 q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r responses. Both appeared to be employing "the same s i m p l i f i e d , morphological r u l e s . " In general Berko a t t r i b u t e d r e l a t i v e success or d i f f i c u l t y to the frequency w i t h which the v a r i o u s i n f l e c t i o n s appear i n the models presented to the c h i l d and the complexity of r u l e s governing t h e i r use. The higher l e v e l s of success were met w i t h forms that were the most r e g u l a r . The p i c t u r e f o r a l l groups was one of "con s i s t e n c y , r e g u l a r i t y and s i m p l i c i t y . " 19 CHAPTER I I I METHOD 1. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Deaf - a mean hearing l o s s of no l e s s than 80 dB I.S.O. i n the b e t t e r ear f o r the frequencies 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. w i t h onset of impairment at or p r i o r to b i r t h . I.S.O. - I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n reference zero l e v e l f o r pure-tone audiometers. Formal Language System - a language teaching system focussed on the l e a r n i n g of s e q u e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l r u l e s of language. N a t u r a l Language System - a language teaching system focussed on the l e a r n i n g of language i n a manner p a r a l l e l to that of the hearing c h i l d . Language P r i n c i p l e - an accepted r u l e f o r the c o r r e c t production of a part of language. e.g. the r u l e f o r the a d d i t i o n of the morpheme I-si to create the p l u r a l form of a noun. Programme E v a l u a t i o n - "the process of d e l i n e a t i n g , o b t a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r judging d e c i s i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s (Stufflebeam, 1971, p.- 267)". E r r o r Source - a) the word or words i n Menyuk's Test of Grammatical  Competence items the a l t e r a t i o n , d e l e t i o n , i n s e r t i o n or rearrangement of which renders the item c o r r e c t . b) the stimulus word i n Berko's Test of Morphological Rules items. Programme Goal - an observable and p r e d i c t a b l e change i n the behaviour of a subject as the r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a programme of i n s t r u c t i o n . Exogenously deaf - having been deafened by some cause other than h e r e d i t y . Endogenously deaf - having been deafened by h e r e d i t a r y causes. 2. Sampling and Subjects Three study groups were s e l e c t e d from each of a r e s i d e n t i a l school f o r the deaf employing the n a t u r a l method of teaching language (N^, N^, N^) and a r e s i d e n t i a l school f o r the deaf employing more fo r m a l i z e d methods of teaching language (F^, F^, F^). The most common formal method i n use was the F i t z g e r a l d Key ( F i t z g e r a l d , 1929) though some teaching s t a f f have r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the formal grammatical c u r r i c u l a designed f o r use w i t h non-hearing-impaired c h i l d r e n . In recent years a number of teaching s t a f f have adopted f o r m a l i z e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar systems ( C a n i g l i a et a l , 1972; McCarr, 1973). Ba s i c s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r each subject were: 1. having an average hearing l o s s of 80 dB. I.S.O. or greater i n the b e t t e r ear across 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. 2. having a t e s t e d I.Q. l e v e l of between 85 and 115 as determined by examination of school p s y c h o l o g i c a l records. 3. having no a d d i t i o n a l major handicapping c o n d i t i o n s as determined by a n a l y s i s of school medical and psycho-l o g i c a l records and d i s c u s s i o n of each subject's i n - c l a s s f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h the school p s y c h o l o g i s t and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f . 4. having spent h i s / h e r e n t i r e school-age career i n e i t h e r of the schools s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. 5. having onset of deafness during the pre- or p e r i n a t a l . , stage. To evaluate the e f f e c t of the e d u c a t i o n a l methodologies over time subjects were s e l e c t e d i n three age spans of equal l e n g t h . The f i r s t age span (A^, 9 years, 0 months to 10 years, 11 months) was chosen to ensure that a l l subjects had been exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a minimum of three years. The two remaining age spans (A^, 12 years, 0 months to 13 years, 11 months; A^, 15 years, 0 months to 16 years, 11 months) were chosen to a l l o w periods of continued i n s t r u c t i o n between e v a l u a t i o n ages and f o r e v a l u a t i o n p r i o r to the common school l e a v i n g age of 17 to 19. Due to the l i m i t e d number of p o s s i b l e subjects i n the n a t u r a l and formal method schools ( r e s p e c t i v e school populations of l e s s than 400 and 225), a l l subjects meeting the c r i t e r i a were in c l u d e d (Table 1 ) . 3. Instruments As noted p r e v i o u s l y instruments possessing the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and s e n s i t i v i t y to i n v e s t i g a t e the language knowledge of deaf c h i l d r e n are few. The instruments i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r known u t i l i t y as t e s t s of language a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y as paper and p e n c i l t e s t s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n i n the age groups as c i t e d . Both are among the instruments suggested by Yoder (1972, Appendix A) f o r the assessment of morphological and s y n t a c t i c a l aspects of language s t r u c t u r e . Both have been used s u c c e s s f u l l y as paper and p e n c i l t e s t s w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n (Garber, 1967, Bunch, 1971). Table 1 Subject D i s t r i b u t i o n by Language Method, Age Group and Sex N a t u r a l Method Formal Method A l A 2 A 3 A l A 2 A 3 M F M F M F M F M F M F 7 10 7 12 7 6 6 3 4 5 2 6 Each t e s t suggested by Yoder was considered by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . A l l , w i t h the exceptions of the two s e l e c t e d and the "Grammatical Compre- hension Test" by B e l l u g i - K l i m a were r e j e c t e d as being too a u d i t o r i a l l y based and/or possessing other design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s rendering them i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r deaf s u b j e c t s . Since i t proved impossible to o b t a i n a copy of the "Grammatical Comprehension Test" through normal sources, B e l l u g i was contacted and a request f o r a copy of the t e s t made. She wrote to inform the i n v e s t i g a t o r that w h i l e some thought had been devoted to such an instrument, i t had not been completely developed. Berko's Test of Morphological Rules The f i r s t instrument s e l e c t e d (Appendix G) was developed by Berko (1958) to assess the normally hearing c h i l d ' s knowledge of morphological r u l e s . Research w i t h the deaf c h i l d has i n d i c a t e d that one of h i s primary language problems centers on the i n c o r r e c t use of p l u r a l forms, tense markers and possessive forms. Since the a s s i m i l a t i o n of such morphological r u l e s seems to be a p a r t i c u l a r problem f o r the deaf c h i l d and s i n c e c o r r e c t a s s i m i l a t i o n i s necessary to f a c i l i t a t e communication, a t e s t of morphological r u l e s should r e v e a l to what extent these r u l e s have been i n t e r n a l i z e d . Berko u t i l i z e d twenty-seven p i c t u r e s of c a r t o o n - l i k e characters She pointed to a p i c t u r e and read the t e x t to her subject. The subject responded o r a l l y and the response was recorded. Researchers working w i t h the deaf c h i l d modified Berko's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedure by p r e s e n t i n g the p i c t u r e and the t e x t v i s u a l l y . The deaf subjects i n previous s t u d i e s responded by i n d i c a t i n g one of a number of p o s s i b l e choice words. For reasons p r e v i o u s l y discussed, the deaf subjects i n the present study responded by r e c o r d i n g a word of t h e i r choice on the response sheet. The m a j o r i t y of Berko's t e s t items were s e l e c t e d by Garber (1967) as appropriate f o r t e s t i n g deaf r e s i d e n t i a l school subjects between the ages of 6.7 and 13.6 years. This study made use of the Garber s e l e c t i o n and included the t e s t i n g of possessive forms s i n c e both the formal and n a t u r a l method schools presented these to t h e i r students by the age of n i n e . The s p e c i f i c grammatical r u l e s assessed are: 1- nouns p l u r a l Is/ and /es/ forms 2- verbs present p r o g r e s s i v e tense past tense i n /ed/ i r r e g u l a r past tense • t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense i n I si and /es/ 3- possessive s i n g u l a r / ' s / form p l u r a l Is'/ and /es'/ forms Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Menyuk created a t e s t of grammatical competence by s e l e c t i n g items from agrammatical utterances of preschool and k i n d e r g a r t e n hearing c h i l d r e n (Appendix B). These sentences were given o r a l l y to a sample of c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from two y e a r s , ten months to s i x years, three months. In the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the c h i l d r e n were asked to repeat the sentences. In a second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the c h i l d r e n were informed that each sentence contained an e r r o r . They were requested to c o r r e c t that sentence. Menyuk t h e o r i z e d that " . . . r e p e t i t i o n i s dependent on the r u l e s i n the l i s t e n e r ' s grammar rath e r than being mere i m i t a t i o n , l i m i t e d by memory span (1969, p. 113-114)." She found support f o r t h i s hypothesis i n a c o r r e l a t i o n of only .03 between sentence l e n g t h and n o n - r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r c o r r e c t grammatical order. This f i n d i n g was i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g that s t r u c t u r e , r a t h e r than memory span, was the l i n c h - p i n of r e p e t i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the f i n d i n g that m o d i f i c a t i o n of transforma-t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n of grammatical forms were more common than omissions or s u b s t i t u t i o n s l e n t f u r t h e r support to her hypothesis. I f one can agree that these f i n d i n g s do, indeed, argue f o r the possession of l i n g u i s t i c competence by young hearing c h i l d r e n , s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n should argue f o r a s i m i l a r degree of competence. Conversely, opposing f i n d i n g s would argue f o r a l e s s e r command of language w i t h dependency on memorized language p a t t e r n s . The s t r u c t u r e s i n v e s t i g a t e d by t h i s instrument were v a r i e d (Appendix B). Each sentence contains obvious e r r o r sources which, i f co r r e c t e d , render the sentence acceptable. In most cases each sentence contains only one e r r o r source. Menyuk's sentence number twenty-two "You can't put no more water i n i t . " was deleted s i n c e the double negative had not been f o r m a l l y presented to the youngest group of subjects i n one school. A v i s u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system replaced Menyuk's o r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system i n t h i s study. D e t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s may be found i n Appendix C. 4. Scoring A l l responses were scored as c o r r e c t (1) or i n c o r r e c t (0) f o r s t a t i s t i c a l comparison w i t h the normally hearing subjects i n the Berko and Menyuk s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , d e t a i l e d analyses employing s c a l e d s c o r i n g systems were devised f o r s t a t i s t i c a l comparison of the deaf subjects taught under n a t u r a l and formal language methods. These systems, one f o r each instrument, were designed to focus on the e r r o r source i n each item and to give c r e d i t f o r v a r y i n g degrees of apparent i n s i g h t i n t o the language concepts being i n v e s t i g a t e d . C o n s u l t a t i o n s were hel d w i t h knowledgeable educators of deaf c h i l d r e n w i t h t r a i n i n g i n language to determine a h i e r a r c h i a l s c o r i n g system based on q u a l i t y of response to items f o r each instrument (Appendices D and I ) . A l l items were scored by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and then rescored i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the major research a d v i s o r . Agreement on the s c o r i n g of a l l items was reached. A l l responses f o r a random s e l e c t i o n of twenty per-cent of the subjects were submitted to a panel of diploma i n education of the deaf student teachers and scored. N i n e t y - f i v e per-cent of scores by t h i s panel agreed w i t h s c o r i n g by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Scores which d i d not agree could be traced to ambiguity i n s c o r i n g d i r e c t i o n s . Changes were made to p e r t i n e n t d i r e c t i o n s and agreement reached on one hundred per-cent of a l l items. 5. Examiner The i n v e s t i g a t o r administered the instruments to a l l subjects The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a t r a i n e d and experienced teacher of the deaf and 27 t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r . He i s competent i n the various communication modes employed w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n i n . t h e schools s e l e c t e d . 6. E v a l u a t i v e Considerations E v a l u a t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l programme i s o f t e n hampered by inadequately defined programme goals and g o a l - r e l a t e d assumptions. E v a l u a t i o n may a l s o be hampered by attempts to i n v e s t i g a t e too l a r g e and complex a programme w i t h inadequate instrumentation and other resources. The f i r s t of these major d i f f i c u l t i e s i s o f t e n inescapable i f one wishes to evaluate a s p e c i f i c programme i n operation p r i o r to the i n i t i a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n . The second may be ameliorated by choosing aspects of the o v e r a l l programme which may be i n v e s t i g a t e d thoroughly w i t h the resources at hand. The n a t u r a l language school i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n the midst of designing a "programme book" which w i l l " s t a t e the programme goals of a l l school a c t i v i t i e s thus p r o v i d i n g the framework f o r a l l o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . . . (Wollaston, 1974, p. 3 ) . " The s t a f f of t h i s school were d i r e c t e d by M i n i s t r y of Education o f f i c i a l s to read Mager's Preparing I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j ectives (1962) to a s s i s t i n the task of c r e a t i n g a "programme book" and were r e f e r r e d to the work of Ralph W. T y l e r as a guide. No t r a i n i n g i n the s t a t i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s or the b a s i c T y l e r i a n p r i n c i p l e s of c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n were provided. Language c u r r i c u l a were prepared f o r a l l age l e v e l s . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and teaching personnel i n d i c a t e d that the formal method school has no set programme o b j e c t i v e s or c u r r i c u l a . C e r t a i n of the formal methods being used 28 (e.g. F i t z g e r l a d Key) l a y down s e q u e n t i a l steps of language development ( B u e l l , 1954; Pugh, 1955). Given the incompletely or inadequately s t a t e d language programme goals i n the schools and the d i f f i c u l t y of attempting to evaluate a l l aspects of on-going language programmes w i t h the t o o l s at hand, the i n v e s t i g a t o r chose to evaluate only those aspects of language surveyed by the t e s t s s e l e c t e d and only those t e s t items which school o f f i c i a l s and documents i n d i c a t e d were s p e c i f i c a l l y taught to students of the ages s e l e c t e d w i t h the u l t i m a t e goal of mastery. These items are given.Mn Appendices B and F. 7. Design Subjects were administered the t e s t s i n groups of seven to ten. Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence was administered f i r s t (45 minutes) and Berko's Test of Morphological Rules (30 minutes) second i n separate s i t t i n g s . Scheduling was arranged so that subjects d i d not have opportunity to d i s c u s s t e s t items w i t h one another. A n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s comparing hearing c h i l d r e n and deaf c h i l d r e n was e f f e c t e d by one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . Scores f o r these analyses were coded c o r r e c t (1) or i n c o r r e c t (0). A n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s comparing deaf subjects was e f f e c t e d by 2 X 3 X 2 (method X age X sex) analyses of v a r i a n c e . Scaled s c o r i n g systems f o r the two instruments were employed. B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s were employed to t r a c e sources of v a r i a t i o n found f o r main and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . A l l c o n t r a s t s were suggested a p r i o r i by the hypotheses. An alpha l e v e l of .05 was s e l e c t e d f o r a l l analyses. 29 8. Experimental Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 A d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the hearing three to seven and one-half year old s i n Menyuk's study and each of the deaf groups i n t h i s study i n response to Menyuk t e s t items w i t h the deaf groups o b t a i n i n g lower scores. Hypothesis 2 A d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the hearing four to seven year olds i n Berko's study and each of the deaf groups i n t h i s study i n response to Berko test, items w i t h the deaf groups o b t a i n i n g lower scores. Hypothesis 3 No d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the deaf groups taught language under d i f f e r e n t language programmes i n response to Menyuk t e s t items. Hypothesis 4 No d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the deaf groups taught language under d i f f e r e n t language programmes i n response to Berko t e s t items. Hypothesis 5 No d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between male and female deaf subjects taught under d i f f e r e n t language programmes i n response to Menyuk t e s t items. Hypothesis 6 No d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between male and female deaf s u b j e c t s taught under d i f f e r e n t language programmes i n response to Berko t e s t items. Hypothesis 7 A d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between deaf subjects of d i f f e r e n t ages 30 i n response to Menyuk t e s t items w i t h younger subjects o b t a i n i n g lower scores. Hypothesis 8 A d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between deaf subjects of d i f f e r e n t ages i n response to Berko t e s t items w i t h younger subjects o b t a i n i n g lower scores. 31 CHAPTER IV EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION 1. Programme E v a l u a t i o n i n Schools f o r the Deaf A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that no school f o r the deaf has reported e n t e r i n g i n t o a formal programme e v a l u a t i o n and d e l i n e a t e d the success of i t s language i n s t r u c t i o n programme i n ach i e v i n g defined or understood goals. As noted e a r l i e r v a r i o u s schools have cooperated i n research s t u d i e s designed to provide i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the language a b i l i t y of deaf i n d i v i d u a l s . These st u d i e s have been d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than e v a l u a t i v e i n nature. Various schools have performed " i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s " but the dependence of such ev a l u a t i o n s on "casual o b s e r v a t i o n , i m p l i c i t goals, i n t u i t i v e norms and s u b j e c t i v e judgement (Stake, 1967, p. 523)." has not r e s u l t e d i n a knowledge regarding the s p e c i f i c success of a teaching programme considered i n the absolute or r e l a t i v e sense. Yet i t appears that d e c i s i o n s on c u r r i c u l u m change, goal m o d i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y , i f they are to be e f f e c t i v e , must be based on hard data. To o b t a i n t h i s "hard data" formal e v a l u a t i o n s embodying appropriate experimental designs are c a l l e d f o r . An argument que s t i o n i n g the u t i l i t y of experimental design i n programme e v a l u a t i o n has been co n t i n u i n g f o r a number of years. At present the d i s c u s s i o n seems to be swinging i n favour of the use of experimental design. Glass (1970) summarized the arguments f o r and against experimental design and concluded that the arguments f o r f a r outweight the arguments a g a i n s t . Stufflebeam (1971) probed the use 32 of experimental design i n r e l a t i o n to the CIPP e v a l u a t i o n model (Context e v a l u a t i o n , Input e v a l u a t i o n , Process e v a l u a t i o n , Product e v a l u a t i o n ) and concluded that i t possessed hig h relevance f o r product e v a l u a t i o n and could be u s e f u l i n the area of input e v a l u a t i o n . I t would appear that programme e v a l u a t i o n embodying experimental design would be p o s s i b l e i n the area of teaching language to deaf c h i l d r e n i f an appropriate model were employed. F u r t h e r , c a r e f u l l y designed e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s could provide teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h a data base from which to examine present language programmes and goals r e l a t e d to those programmes w i t h a view toward p o s i t i v e change. Conry and Ungerleider (1974) created an e v a l u a t i o n model (Figure 1) based on the e a r l i e r work of Stake (1967) and Stufflebeam (1969). Their SIPO model considers s i t u a t i o n a l ( S ) f a c t o r s , input (I) f a c t o r s , process (P) f a c t o r s and outcome (0) f a c t o r s f o r each of goals e v a l u a t i o n , r a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n , t a r g e t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n , and causative e v a l u a t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n of c a u s a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s that t h e i r model would be appropriate to the e v a l u a t i o n of the success of language teaching programmes i n schools f o r the deaf. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be based on the SIPO model, the s t a t e d or i m p l i e d programme goals f o r the methods being evaluated and the cause-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p between the observed s i t u a t i o n , observed i n p u t s , observed processes (Figure 2) i n the schools s t u d i e d . Observed outcomes are discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Figure 1 P o l i c y Goals and Programme Objectives Observed S i t u a t i o n Observed Inputs Observed Processes Observed Outcomes Intended S i t u a t i o n Intended Inputs Intended Processes Intended Outcomes An E v a l u a t i o n Framework: SIPO Model Intended and Observed S i t u a t i o n , Inputs Processes and Outcomes as derived from P o l i c y Goals and Programme Objectives (Conry and U n g e r l e i d e r , 1974) Figure 2 P o l i c y Goals and Programme Objectives Observed S i t u a t i o n Observed Inputs Observed Processes Observed Outcomes Causal E v a l u a t i o n : SIPO Model A n a l y s i s of Cause-Effect R e l a t i o n s h i p s between Outcomes and S i t u a t i o n s , Inputs and Processes (Conry and U n g e r l e i d e r , 1974) 35 2. P o l i c y Goals and Programme Objectives P o l i c y goals and programme o b j e c t i v e s as they r e l a t e to the teaching of language are not w e l l defined i n e i t h e r the n a t u r a l method or the formal method school. While teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n both schools i n d i c a t e d that the attainment of language s k i l l s i s a major programme, s p e c i f i c p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and programme goals are l a c k i n g . As noted p r e v i o u s l y the n a t u r a l method school r e c e n t l y i n i t i a t e d a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to formulate programme goals. The programme book (Wollaston, 1974) created by s t a f f members considers p o l i c y goals but does not s t a t e programme goals as defined i n t h i s study though the goals s t a t e d are considered programme goals by o f f i c i a l s of the school. No s p e c i f i c statement i s made f o r language sin c e i t i s subsumed under the goal and sub-goals f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme. I n s t r u c t i o n : to develop optimum and harmonious growth i n communicative, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , emotional, a e s t h e t i c and moral aspects of a l l p u p i l s e n r o l l e d , a) Academic: to develop i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y to the f u l l e s t extent p a r t i c u l a r l y i n academic subject areas, to enable the p u p i l to continue h i s education at the post-secondary l e v e l should he so d e s i r e (p. 12). I t i s noted that language i s considered a sub-section or programme a c t i v i t y under i n s t r u c t i o n (p. 15) and that "a statement of o b j e c t i v e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l programmes and courses of study i n a l l subject areas (p. 15)..." e x i s t i n the school. In f a c t , these statements of o b j e c t i v e s were i n t r a n s i t i o n at the time of t h i s study and tended not to d e l i n e a t e s p e c i f i c goals f o r the teaching of s p e c i f i c language p r i n c i p l e s . No s p e c i f i c language goals were a v a i l a b l e other than those i m p l i e d i n the c u r r i c u l a f o r v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of the sch o o l . These c u r r i c u l a i n d i c a t e that the p r i n c i p l e s assessed by the instruments i n t h i s study are presented by age nine but do not suggest goals a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e a r n i n g of these p r i n c i p l e s (Ontario School f o r the Deaf, M i l t o n , J u n i o r School C u r r i c u l a , 1966). The formal method school does not have s t a t e d p o l i c y goals or programme o b j e c t i v e s nor does i t have set language c u r r i c u l a beyond those suggested by the language teaching methods i n use. Teachers are r e l a t i v e l y f r e e to s e l e c t and implement any of a v a r i e t y of methods. The great m a j o r i t y of teachers have s e l e c t e d programmes centered on formal s t r u c t u r e s and teach according to the suggested development of that s t r u c t u r e . A common element of the methods i n use i s that a l l present the language p r i n c i p l e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h i n the f i r s t few years of i n s t r u c t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r discussed teacher goals i n presenting i n d i v i d u a l language p r i n c i p l e s w i t h teaching and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of both schools. In a l l cases the common goal was to enable the deaf c h i l d to employ the p r i n c i p l e c o r r e c t l y i n spontaneous language s i t u a t i o n s . In no case were programme goals s t a t e d i n a form which made them s u s c e p t i b l e to programme e v a l u a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r was l e f t i n the p o s i t i o n of imputing that s i n c e v a r i o u s language p r i n c i p l e s were taught, students were expected to l e a r n to employ them spontaneously and c o r r e c t l y . 3. Observed S i t u a t i o n a l Factors The n a t u r a l method school serves a p o p u l a t i o n of j u s t over 2,000,000 i n an area approximately 70 by 120 m i l e s . The school i s i n a community of JO,000 w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n centres of 2,500,000 and 500,000 w i t h i n t h i r t y m i l e s . Over h a l f of the school p o p u l a t i o n of 400 attend on a d a i l y b a s i s w h i l e the balance l i v e i n a residence four n i g h t s a week. P u p i l s come from both urban and r u r a l s e t t i n g s . I n s t r u c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f i v e and one-half hours per day 185 to 190 days per year. Admittance r o u t i n e l y f a l l s i n the f i f t h year. A v a r i e t y of pre-school s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n below age f i v e . S e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e on a d a i l y b a s i s i n l a r g e r centres while l i m i t e d to once a week or s l i g h t l y l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n r u r a l areas. Funding f o r the school comes from the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r y of education and a l l s t a f f are employed by that m i n i s t r y . Classes vary i n s i z e from two or three to seven or e i g h t . The smaller c l a s s e s are maintained f o r m u l t i p l y handicapped students, who comprise approximately o n e - t h i r d of the school p o p u l a t i o n (Bunch, 1973). A l l classrooms are b r i g h t , spacious and well-equipped. The language teaching method i s based on the n a t u r a l method described e a r l i e r . The formal method school serves a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 2,300,000 i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The school i s s i t u a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l sect-ion of a m e t r o p o l i t a n areasof over 1,000,000. As w i t h the n a t u r a l method school approximately h a l f of the school p o p u l a t i o n of 225 l i v e at home. Of the balance, approximately h a l f are unable to v i s i t t h e i r homes more than a few times each term due to 38 the great d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d . P u p i l s come from both r u r a l and urban s e t t i n g s . I n s t r u c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f i v e and one-half hours per day f o r between 190 and 195 days per year. Admittance i s i n the f i f t h or s i x t h year. P r i o r to age ajx pre-school s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e to many of the c h i l d r e n but by no means a l l . A v a i l a b i l i t y of pEe-school s e r v i c e s i s l i m i t e d by the i s o l a t i o n of many communities and the l a c k , u n t i l recent date, of any p r o v i n c i a l l y organized s e r v i c e . Funding comes from the p r o v i n c i a l department of education which department employs a l l teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the school. Class s i z e v a r i e s from three or four to seven or e i g h t . M u l t i p l y handicapped students comprise approximately f i f t y per-cent of the school p o p u l a t i o n (Watson, 1973). A l l classrooms are b r i g h t , spacious and well-equipped. . Various formal methods serve as the b a s i s f o r the language programme. A few teachers make use of a modified n a t u r a l method. Subjects fou t h i s study were not s e l e c t e d from classrooms u s i n g a modified n a t u r a l method approach. Though the populations served by the two schools are s i m i l a r , the a c t u a l school populations d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y ( n a t u r a l method sc school p o p u l a t i o n = 400; formal method school p o p u l a t i o n = 225). The l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n of the n a t u r a l method school may be a s c r i b e d to a number of f a c t o r s . D i a g n o s t i c s e r v i c e s i n the much smaller area served by t h i s school are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e when compared to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s i n the r u r a l areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. The n a t u r a l method school accepts c h i l d r e n approximately one year younger than dees the formal method school and a l s o r e t a i n s students to l a t e r ages. A number of students from the geographical area of a neighbouring school attend the n a t u r a l method school to a v a i l themselves of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g not a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r s chool. F i n a l l y a number of f a m i l i e s have moved i n t o the d a i l y bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n area of the n a t u r a l method school so that t h e i r c h i l d r e n might be day students. Such move-ment i s r e l a t i v e l y easy i n the h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d area of the n a t u r a l method school compared to the huge region served by the formal method sc h o o l . There appears to be no reason to hypothesize a higher r a t e of deafness i n the n a t u r a l method school catchment area. 4. Observed Input Factors A l l subjects i n t h i s study meet the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d under sampling and subjects i n chapter three. The m a j o r i t y of teachers i n both schools are t r a i n e d to teach deaf c h i l d r e n though the formal method school has r e c e n t l y added a number of untrained i n d i v i d u a l s to i t s teaching s t a f f . The major input d i f f e r e n c e i s that of communication method. The n a t u r a l method school has t r a d i t i o n a l l y used the o r a l method of communication i n i n s t r u c t i o n though i t added f i n g e r s p e l l i n g to i t s communication r e p e r t o i r e i n the f a l l of 1973. The formal method school has employed the t o t a l communication method f o r a number of years i n a l l departments. P r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t o t a l method, the j u n i o r department (ages 5 to 11) employed the o r a l method. Both methods f e a t u r e a heavy r e l i a n c e on w r i t t e n forms of language i n teaching s i t u a t i o n s . A v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s on the v a r i a b l e of communication method 40 have been completed and are d i v i d e d on which communication method i s most b e n e f i c i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes ( B i r c h and S t u c k l e s s , 1966; Montgomery, 1966; Quigley, 1969; Kates, 1972). In general these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that s l i g h t advantages accompany the use of manual forms of communication when i t i s i n i t i a t e d at the preschool l e v e l . Owrid (1971) and Rhodda (1973) have discussed the design f a u l t s of most communication method s t u d i e s . One design f a u l t of these s t u d i e s has been the f a i l u r e to c o n t r o l the v a r i a b l e of e t i o l o g y . T his f a u l t occurs i n more s t u d i e s than any o t h e r . T y p i c a l l y the non-manual groups were composed of exogenously deaf c h i l d r e n . Vernon (1966) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of e t i o l o g y of deafness and concluded that endogenously deaf c h i l d r e n d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from other groups of deaf c h i l d r e n . Other design f a u l t s r e l a t e to su b j e c t s e l e c t i o n , procedures and c r e a t i o n of an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of study groups. These f a u l t s have created a s i t u a t i o n i n which knowledgeable educators and researchers admit that no d e f i n i t e statement on communication method may be made. This l a c k of a proven "best" method i s r e f l e c t e d i n the use of v a r y i n g methods of communication i n North American schools f o r . t h e deaf. I f communication method does have an e f f e c t , one would expect the formal method school s u b j e c t s to be more advanced than the n a t u r a l s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area and the i n c o n c l u s i v e n e s s of what has been done does not support any d e f i n i t e statement of an advantage f o r e i t h e r method used i n schools i n t h i s study. Educators of the deaf have accepted the view that the p r o v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n by w e l l - t r a i n e d teachers from approximately age f i v e i s s u f f i c i e n t to achieve e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . S i m i l a r l y each school i n t h i s study s e l e c t e d the language teaching methods i n use as 41 those methods which would best enable the deaf c h i l d to l e a r n the E n g l i s h language. The methods employed were designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n . Proponents of each method b e l i e v e that the method they employ o f f e r s the best opportunity of language a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the deaf i n d i v i d u a l . Every subject r e c e i v e d language i n s t r u c t i o n on a d a i l y b a s i s . Long range and short range teacher planning c a l l e d f o r p e r i o d i c review of language p r i n c i p l e s taught but not mastered. Language p r i n c i p l e s p r e v i o u s l y presented were used r o u t i n e l y under a l l modes of communication and subjects were expected to be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r use. A c t u a l teaching lessons were very s i m i l a r under both methods though the r a t i o n a l e f o r the d e c i s i o n to teach p a r t i c u l a r lessons at p a r t i c u l a r times d i f f e r under n a t u r a l and formal methods according to method philosophy. Students i n both schools were he l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r mastery of a l l language p r i n c i p l e s taught. Language e r r o r s were c o r r e c t e d i n a l l subject areas whether or not language was the f o c a l p o i n t of any les s o n . Teachers, e s p e c i a l l y teachers of younger c h i l d r e n , attempted to communicate w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s e s using only the language p r i n c i p l e s to which they had been exposed. Reading m a t e r i a l was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of s i m p l i c i t y of language s t r u c t u r e s and r e s t r i c t e d vocabulary. Both schools make extensive and i n t e n s i v e use of group and i n d i v i d u a l a u d i t o r y a i d s to a s s i s t younger c h i l d r e n i n understanding i n s t r u c t i o n . The n a t u r a l method school continues the p r o v i s i o n of group a i d s w i t h o l d e r students. Basic to the use of group and i n d i v i d u a l a i d s i s the b e l i e f that deaf c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t e d u c a t i o n a l l y from 42 maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s i d u a l hearing. Trained a u d i o l o g i s t s are employed i n both schools to a s s i s t and advise teachers i n the p r o v i s i o n of the best use of a u d i t o r y a i d s f o r c h i l d r e n of a l l degrees of hearing handicap. Both schools provide f i l m p r o j e c t o r s , overhead p r o j e c t o r s , s l i d e p r o j e c t o r s and c l o s e d c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r the use of teaching s t a f f . These v a r i o u s types of v i s u a l hardware are employed to p r o j e c t p i c t u r e s , f i l m s and l i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h language to a s s i s t deaf c h i l d r e n i n mastering the language p r i n c i p l e s taught. Both schools employ teaching s t a f f w i t h s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s and provide i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g to a l l teaching s t a f f . Language m a t e r i a l s are l a r g e l y teacher constructed and designed to meet s p e c i f i c language needs. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true at the younger age l e v e l s . Few deaf c h i l d r e n are able to work from language schemes prepared f o r normally-hearing c h i l d r e n s i n c e these schemes assume p r i o r language competency and progress from p r i n c i p l e ' ; to p r i n c i p l e w i t h an economy of d r i l l and review not considered s u i t a b l e f o r the deaf c h i l d . A l i m i t e d number of t e x t s have been w r i t t e n and were i n r o u t i n e use i n schools according to language teaching method. B a s i c a l l y teachers i n the n a t u r a l method school taught from language courses of study prepared f o r that school w h i l e teachers i n the formal method school used the t e x t f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r choice of method as a teaching guide. I t i s apparent that input f a c t o r s are s i m i l a r f o r both schools w i t h the exception of communication method, the e f f e c t of which has not been a s c e r t a i n e d . On the b a s i s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n can be found f o r h y p o t h e s i z i n g a d i f f e r e n c e between 43 language methods. 5. Observed Process Factors Time and space do not al l o w a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l process f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n and l e a r n i n g of the language p r i n c i p l e s evaluated i n t h i s study. I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to describe s p e c i f i c type lessons u t i l i z e d to present grammatical p r i n c i p l e s . The f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n examples were s e l e c t e d from observation of on-going classroom processes, a - p r e p o s i t i o n " o f f " N a t u r a l Method School P r e p a r a t i o n : A number of pieces of paper were placed i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s around the room p r i o r to the l e s s o n , e.g. a paper on a t a b l e a paper on a desk a paper on a c h a i r The c h i l d r e n were seated on c h a i r s i n a s e m i - c i r c l e f a c i n g the teacher who sat by the blackboard. A l l c h i l d r e n wore headsets f o r the group hearing a i d system. P r e s e n t a t i o n : a-The teacher gave a command using speech and f i n g e r -s p e l l i n g . She a l s o wrote the command on the board, e.g. Blow the paper o f f the t a b l e , Robert. b-The p u p i l blew the paper o f f the t a b l e . c-The teacher asked the p u p i l to w r i t e what he had done on the board beside the command. With a s s i s t a n c e the p u p i l wrote: I blew the paper o f f the t a b l e . 44 d-The teacher had a l l p u p i l s say and f i n g e r s p e l l the sentence. e-The teacher asked the p u p i l s f o r the meaning of " o f f " . A number of p u p i l s pantomimed the paper f a l l i n g o f f the t a b l e . The teacher agreed that " o f f " i n d i c a t e d the movement of the paper from t a b l e to f l o o r . f-The other pieces of paper were blown from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . Each time steps a) through d) were repeated. Summary: The teacher had the c l a s s read and f i n g e r s p e l l a l l the sentences. She emphasized that the word " o f f " was used i n a l l cases. Formal Method School P r e p a r a t i o n : The c h i l d r e n were seated f a c i n g the teacher. A l l wore headsets f o r the classroom group hearing a i d system. P r e s e n t a t i o n : a-The teacher, u s i n g t o t a l communication, t o l d the c h i l d r e n to stand on t h e i r c h a i r s . A l l d i d so. b-The teacher t o l d a l l the c h i l d r e n to "Jump o f f your c h a i r s . " . A l l d i d so. c-The teacher asked the c h i l d r e n i f they knew the word f o r the s i g n " o f f " . No p u p i l knew the word. d-The teacher s a i d and f i n g e r s p e l l e d " o f f " . She then wrote the word on the board. e-The teacher asked one p u p i l to stand on h i s c h a i r . She then asked him to jump o f f i t and asked him what he .had done. f-With a s s i s t a n c e the p u p i l signed that he had jumped o f f the c h a i r . h-The teacher now gave the p u p i l s the commands "Stand on your c h a i r s . " and "Jump o f f your c h a i r s . " . i-The teacher now gave the p u p i l s the command to w r i t e what they had done i n t h e i r workbooks. A l l responses were checked and a s s i s t a n c e given as necessary, j-Steps h) and i ) were repeated w i t h d i f f e r e n t commands, e.g. Push your book o f f the desk. Push the toy car o f f the desk. b-past tense N a t u r a l Method School: P r e p a r a t i o n : The teacher had prepared f l a s h c a r d s f o r the l e s s o n . A s l o t chart was ready at the f r o n t :of the classroom. The c h i l d r e n were seated on c h a i r s i n a s e m i - c i r c l e f a c i n g the teacher. A l l c h i l d r e n wore headsets f o r the classroom group hearing a i d . P r e s e n t a t i o n : a-The teacher showed a f l a s h c a r d bearing the p r i n t e d word "push". A l l c h i l d r e n read the card. The teacher then asked one p u p i l to "push" h i s desk. b-The p u p i l pushed h i s desk. The teacher pointed to the f l a s h c a r d as the desk was being pushed. When the p u p i l stopped, she q u i c k l y stopped p o i n t i n g to the word on the f l a s h c a r d . c-The teacher t o l d the c l a s s that the p u p i l had stopped pushing the t a b l e . Now they could not use the word "push". The boy had f i n i s h e d w i t h pushing the t a b l e . The teacher put the f l a s h c a r d i n the s l o t c h a r t . 46 d-The teacher asked the c l a s s i f they knew how to change the word to show that the boy was f i n i s h e d pushing. No p u p i l was able to provide the c o r r e c t response. e-The teacher t o l d the p u p i l s that two l e t t e r s /ed/ were added to the word to show that i t was f i n i s h e d . She showed a new f l a s h c a r d bearing the word "pushed". f - A l l p u p i l s s a i d and f i n g e r s p e l l e d the new word. The teacher placed i t i n the s l o t c h a r t beside the word "push". g-Steps a) through f ) were repeated f o r the words "pl a y , walk, p u l l , c o l o u r . " The p u p i l s placed a l l cards i n the s l o t c h a r t . Summary: The teacher t o l d the p u p i l s that the d i f f e r e n t forms of the word had d i f f e r e n t names. She introduced the words "present" and "past" and l a b e l l e d the word columns a p p r o p r i a t e l y . She t o l d the p u p i l s that they had to remember that the l e t t e r s /ed/ had to be added when an a c t i o n was f i n i s h e d . Formal Method School: P r e p a r a t i o n : The teacher had s e l e c t e d a number of p i c t u r e s demonstrating a c t i o n s i n the present and past tenses. A l l c h i l d r e n were seated f a c i n g the teacher. A l l p u p i l s were wearing group hearing a i d s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : a-The teacher showed the p u p i l s a p i c t u r e of a boy p u l l i n g a wagon. She s a i d "The boy i s p u l l i n g the wagon." and wrote the sentence on the board under the F i t z g e r a l d Key headings "Who verb What." b-The teacher kept the p i c t u r e i n s i g h t and emphasized 47 that the c h i l d r e n can see the boy p u l l i n g the wagon. c-The teacher placed the f i r s t p i c t u r e face down and showed a second p i c t u r e w i t h the wagon s t i l l and the boy walking away. The teacher s a i d that the boy was not p u l l i n g the wagon. He had f i n i s h e d p u l l i n g i t . d-The teacher asked "What d i d the boy do?". e-The teacher a s s i s t e d the p u p i l s i n responding to the question. One p u p i l wrote "The boy p u l l e d the wagon." on the board beside the: i n i t i a l sentence. f-The teacher pointed out that the two sentences were almost i d e n t i c a l . Only the verb had changed because the boy had f i n i s h e d p u l l i n g the wagon. g-Steps a) through f ) were repeated f o r d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s ' of p i c t u r e s . No i r r e g u l a r verbs were attempted. Summary: The teacher reviewed the s e r i e s of sentences emphasizing that the verb changed i n form when an a c t i o n had been completed. I t w i l l be noted that lessons i n both schools are q u i t e s i m i l a r . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s found w i t h regard to a l l p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s the r a t i o n a l e f o r teaching any l e s s o n and the r a t i o n a l e f o r review work and d r i l l t h a t d i f f e r s from method to method. As noted e a r l i e r the n a t u r a l method depends on the teacher's a n a l y s i s of the changing needs of her p u p i l s and lessons and review are -to be p r a c t i c a l and meaningful at the time of p r e s e n t a t i o n . A c u r r i c u l u m i s considered only a guide and not a set of steps to be followed i n order to ensure that a l l language p r i n c i p l e s are taught i n a r a t i o n a l ; , sequence. D r i l l 48 i s considered undesirable and nonproductive but i t . was observed that d r i l l was a r o u t i n e part of the programme i n the. n a t u r a l method sc h o o l . The formal methods s t a t e d e f i n i t e sequences i n which language i s to be taught. Language i s perceived as a complex b u i l d i n g which one must b u i l d b l o c k on block cementing the whole s t r u c t u r e w i t h d r i l l and review. While the teacher may e l e c t to teach a few p r i n c i p l e s out of sequence to respond to immediate needs, the m a j o r i t y of p r i n c i p l e s are taught i n the laid-down sequence. The arguments f o r the intended form of process f a c t o r s are the same f o r both methods and are congruent w i t h intended i n p u t s . P r i n c i p l e s are to be presented i n a l o g i c a l manner extending i n t o the realm of the unknown from that of the known. Language processes are prepared and presented by t r a i n e d teachers of the deaf employing the best hardware and software a v a i l a b l e . A t t e n t i o n i s given to the p r o v i s i o n of an appropriate a u d i t o r y environment. Communication i s r o u t i n e l y i n the form p r e s c r i b e d f o r the school as a u n i t . The heavy dependency of deaf c h i l d r e n on v i s u a l input decides the r e l i a n c e on p i c t u r e s , f l a s h c a r d s and w r i t e n work. To t h i s p o i n t intended s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , input f a c t o r s and process f a c t o r s meld to present a w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d whole. The one d i s r u p t i n g ' f a c t o r i s the vagueness or absence of p o l i c y goals and programme o b j e c t i v e s . While the three f a c t o r s mentioned above are w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to judge whether or not they w i l l serve to meet the general goals and o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d . As noted t h e i r congruency w i t h t h e i r observed p a r a l l e l s does not appear to be p e r f e c t . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of " r e s u l t s " or "outcome f a c t o r s " w i l l i n d i c a t e the a c t u a l e f f i c a c y of the programmes r e l a t i v e to the language a n i l i t y of the normally hearing c h i l d and r e l a t i v e to each other. From observation and a n a l y s i s of s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , input f a c t o r s and process f a c t o r s i t i s not apparent that the two methods would be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s . CHAPTER V RESULTS 1. Data A n a l y s i s Both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s are of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study. S p e c i f i c models, as discussed below, were employed to f a c i l i t a t e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of r e s u l t s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s Two s c o r i n g models were used to prepare subject responses f o r a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t was a simple c o r r e c t (1) or i n c o r r e c t (0) system. Both Menyuk and Berko employed t h i s type of dichotomous s c a l e i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The second s c o r i n g model was a s c a l e d system. Two s c a l e d systems, one f o r responses to Menyuk t e s t items and one f o r responses to Berko items, were devised to f e r r e t out s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the subjects taught under the two language programmes. An e a r l i e r study (Bunch, 1971) i n d i c a t e d that deaf subjects responded to items on both t e s t s w i t h decided v a r i e t y . A simple c o r r e c t - i n c o r r e c t s c a l e would not permit i n v e s t i g a t i o n of "degrees of c o r r e c t n e s s " i n responses not wholly c o r r e c t and might conceal important d i f f e r e n c e s between the e f f e c t s of the two language programmes. The hypotheses suggest c e r t a i n c o n t r a s t s i f s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s and/or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s are noted. The B o n f e r r o n i t_ t e s t was s e l e c t e d as an a ppropriate s t a t i s t i c to i n v e s t i g a t e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . This t e s t of m u l t i p l e comparison of means allows f o r a 51 p r i o r i and a p o s t e r i o r i , orthogonal and non-orthogonal c o n t r a s t s , as w e l l as y i e l d i n g conservative r e s u l t s ( K i r k , 1968). Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s u l t s A q u i t e general model was employed f o r the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s . A l l responses to both instruments were analyzed and categ o r i z e d on the b a s i s of type. This approach permitted d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of types of e r r o r s as w e l l as degree of correctness of responses demonstrating some understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s being examined. I t was considered imperative to discover the types of e r r o r s made under c o n t r a s t i n g language programmes to evaluate programme e f f e c t s f u l l y . 2. R e s u l t s of Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Menyuk's t e s t was administered to a l l s u b j e c t s as d e t a i l e d i n Appendix D. Analyses were performed only f o r the non-spontaneous mode si n c e i t i s t h i s mode which y i e l d s the most i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the deaf s u b j e c t s ' knowledge of the language p r i n c i p l e s being i n v e s t i g a t e d . In the spontaneous mode many subjects w i l l not demonstrate t h e i r t r u e competence i n t r e a t i n g v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s due to the i n s t r u c t i o n only to repeat the st i m u l u s . Menyuk's o l d e r nursery group ( n = 43, age 4 years, 4 months to 5 years, 3 months) i s the s p e c i f i c group to which the deaf subject groups were compared. Menyuk presented her data f o r the non-spontaneous mode i n the form of s t i m u l i sentences not co r r e c t e d by at l e a s t t wenty-five 52 per-cent of her s u b j e c t s . The category " c o r r e c t e d " i n c l u d e s m o d i f i c a t i o n s and transformations as defined i n Appendix E. A s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s of -responses by deaf subjects revealed that no Menyuk sentence was responded to c o r r e c t l y by twenty-five per cent of any deaf group (Table 2 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between the hearing group and each of the deaf groups i s so obvious as not to n e c e s s i t a t e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that deaf c h i l d r e n between ages 9 years and 16 years d i d not c o r r e c t agrammatical sentences i n the non-spontaneous mode w i t h the f a c i l i t y of younger hearing c h i l d r e n . Hypothesis one s t a t i n g a d i f f e r e n c e between Menyuk's hearing group and each of the deaf groups i n t h i s study i s supported. Further analyses were performed on responses to Menyuk items to i n v e s t i g a t e whether deaf subjects d i f f e r e d on the v a r i a b l e s of method, age and sex. The f i n d i n g of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between methods (Table 3) supports hypothesis three which suggested no d i f f e r e n c e would be found. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r both age and sex. This r e s u l t was hypothesized f o r age but not f o r sex. The age d i f f e r e n c e was i n v e s t i g a t e d using B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the youngest (A^) age group and the o l d e s t (A^) age group and the middle (A^) and o l d e s t age groups (Table 4 ) . The means f o r males (9.9394) and females (24.3570) d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that hypothesis f i v e , which suggested no d i f f e r e n c e would be found, may be r e j e c t e d . The above a n a l y s i s was performed on r e s u l t s from the s c a l e d 53 Table 2 Sentences Not Corrected i n Non-Spontaneous Mode by At Least 25% of Subjects i n Each Group Groups Sentences Menyuk N l N 2 N 3 F l F 2 F. 1 X X X X X X 2 X X X X X X 3 X X X X X X X 4 X X X X X X .5 X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X 7 X X X X X X 8 x X X X X X X 9 X X X X X X 10 X X X X X X 11 X X X X X X 12 X X X X X X 13 X X X X X X X 14 X X X X X X X 15 X X X X X X 16 X X X X X X 17 X X X X X X X 18 X X X X X X 19 X X X X X X X 20 X X X X X X 21 X X X X X X 22 X X X X X X X 23 X X X X X X 24 X X X X X X 3 Table 3 Summary Anova Table of N a t u r a l and Formal Language Method Deaf Subject Groups f o r Non-Spontaneous C o r r e c t i o n of Items on Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Source df Mean Square F Method 1 1178.75719 2.37034 Age 2 4525.45577 9.10016* Sex 1 2750.63022 5.53119* Method X Age 2 545.40999 1.09676 Method X Sex 1 4.01829 .00808 Age X Sex 2 1180.68311 2.37421 Method X Age X Sex 2 570.21416 1.14663 E r r o r 63 497.29419 * p r o b a b i l i t y <.05 Table 4 Summary of Menyuk Non-Spontaneous Mode Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ^  V = A^ - T~2 1.910 > V 1 > -28.075 V 2 = A^ - A^ -13.429 > T 2 > -45.736 * ^3 = ^2 " ^3 " * 5 9 3 " f 3 " _ 3 2 - 4 0 7 * C e l l Means A^ = 4.8461 A^ = 17.9286 A^ = 34.4285 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l , where A^ = 9 years, 0 months to 10 years, 11 months = 12 years, 0 months to 13 years, 11 months A Q = 15 years, 0 months to 16 years, 11 months s c o r i n g system (Appendix D) f o r Menyuk items. This system allow s c r e d i t f o r a wide range of responses i n c l u d i n g p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source i n a p e r f e c t l y repeated sentence, p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source i n a sentence c o n t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s and imperfect c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source. A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was performed on the b a s i s of p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source whether or not a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s appeared i n the response (Table 5 ). Once again no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between methods w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r sex and age. Bo n f e r r o n i t^ t e s t s f o r age i n d i c a t e d that s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences e x i s t e d between A^ and A^ and A^ and A^(Table 6). The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between means f o r males (2.4545) and females (4.8809) i n d i -cates a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y to respond to Menyuk items. These var i o u s f i n d i n g s are s i m i l a r to those f o r the o v e r a l l Menyuk a n a l y s i s . Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Berko's t e s t was administered to a l l deaf subjects as d e t a i l e d i n Appendix H. A n a l y s i s of vari a n c e (Table 7) i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between means f o r groups. B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s were employed to t r a c e the source of v a r i a t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d (Table 8) a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the hearing group and each of the deaf groups w i t h the hearing group o b t a i n i n g the higher score i n each case. This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that hypothesis two s t a t i n g that such a d i f f e r e n c e would be found i s supported. Further a n a l y s i s w i t h the deaf subjects alone were c a r r i e d out to t e s t hypotheses f o u r , s i x and e i g h t . The f i r s t of these analyses suggested no d i f f e r e n c e would be found between methods. 57 Table 5 Summary Anova Table of Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal .and Method Groups For P e r f e c t C o r r e c t i o n of E r r o r Source i n Menyuk Test of Grammatical Competence Items Source df Mean Square F Method 1 45.65703 1.94103 Age 2 213.84224 9.09112* Sex 1 96.19249 4.08945* Method X Age 2 24.80982 1.05474 Method X Sex 1 .01391 .00059 Age X Sex 2 46.79467 1.98939 Method X Age X Sex 2 24.95053 1.06073 E r r o r 63 23.52211 * p r o b a b i l i t y <• .05 58 Table 6 Summary of Menyuk P e r f e c t C o r r e c t i o n of E r r o r Source Non-Spontaneous Mode Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts Estimated Contract 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r J ¥ = A - A 2 .623 Z. V1> -5.898 ^2 = Ai ~ A 3 -2.742 > V2 > -9.771 * V = A - A - .161 i f 3 > -7.077 * C e l l Means A = 1.0769 A 2 = 3.7143 A 3 = 7.3333 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 59 Table 7 Summary Anova Table f o r Responses by Hearing and Deaf Subjects to Items on Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Source df Mean Square F Groups Items Groups X Items 6 26 156 12522.69 469.0114 176.2721 71.04* * p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Table 8 Summary of Berko Hearing vs Deaf Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r f . *1 = «b = =b - N 2 74.345 52.456 > ^ 2 ^ 55.284 33.062 * A h = \ 52.567 > ^ > 33.507 * \ = \ " ? 1 73.345 > > 4 54.284 A " ? 2 53.123 > f > 5 " 34.062 A " ? 3 47.234 > V> 6 28.173 A C e l l Means \ = 64 .81481 ? 1 = 1.00000 0 .00000 ? 2 =21.22222 H 2 = 21 .88889 =27.11111 w3 = 21 .77778 * equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l where K = Berko subjects Subject t o t a l scores w i t h marking of responses on the b a s i s of the Berko t e s t scaled s c o r i n g system (Appendix I) were u t i l i z e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups was found (Table 9). A s i m i l a r f i n d i n g of a l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r sex supported hypothesis s i x which i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e f o r sex would be found. B o n f e r r o n i t t e s t s were employed to t r a c e the source of v a r i a t i o n f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between age groups (Table 10). S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between A^ and A^ and A^ and A^. These f i n d i n g s support hypothesis eig h t which i n d i c a t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n of o l d e r subjects would be found. Berko's t e s t i n v e s t i g a t e s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to respond i n the areas of p l u r a l forms, tense forms and possessive forms. Analyses were performed f o r each of these areas to d i s c o v e r whether or not language method, sex or age s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the a b i l i t y to respond c o r r e c t l y i n these s p e c i f i c areas. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r method or sex f o r items demanding p l u r a l forms (Table 11). The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r age was i n v e s t i g a t e d (Table 12) and as w i t h the preceding a n a l y s i s the source of v a r i a t i o n was found between groups A^ and A^ and A^ and A^. The a n a l y s i s f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n responding to items r e q u i r i n g knowledge of tense forms again i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e f o r method or sex but a d i f f e r e n c e f o r age (Table 13). The d i f f e r e n c e f o r age was traced to s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between age groups A^ and A^ and age groups A^ and A^ (Table 14). The f i n a l a n a l y s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n responding to nonsense words r e q u i r i n g possessive s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l 62 Table 9 Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko Test of Morphological Rules Source df Mean Square F Method 1 "• 503.18461 .74711 Age 2 7376.44811 10.95233* Sex 1 403.37268 .59892 Method X Age 2 67.60386 .10038 Method X Sex 1 2081.92815 3.09118 Age X Sex 2 295.47744 .43872 Method X Age X Sex 2 382.32698 .56767 E r r o r 63 673.50513 * p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Table 10 Summary of Berko T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ¥ ¥ = A - A 2 -11.968 > -46.894 * * 2 = A - A 3 -15.194 > ¥ 2 > -52.788 * ^ 3 = A 2 - A 3 13.941 > ^ 3 > -23.060 C e l l Means A = 1.9615 A 2 = 31.3928 A 3 = 35.9523 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 64 Table 11 Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko P l u r a l Form Items Source df Mean Square F Method 1 65.41736 .55090 Age 2 1664.94091 14.02086* Sex 1 20.06586 .16898 Method X Age 2 20.01485 .16855 Method X Sex 1 382.61729 3.22211 Age X Sex 2 54.03508 .45504 Method X Age X Sex 2 79.17787 .66678 E r r o r 63 118.74739 * p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Table 12 Summary of Berko P l u r a l Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ¥ y = A - A -6.604 > ¥ > -21.275 * 1 1 2 1 ¥ 2 = A L - A 3 -7.893 > ^ > -23.701 * V 3 = A 2 - A 3 5.923 > * 3 > " 9.638 C e l l Means A = 1.3462 A 2 = 15.2857 A 3 = 17.1428 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 66 Table 13 Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko Tense Form Items Source df Mean Square F Method 1 27.75417 .17664 Age 2 1286.47689 8.18793* Sex 1 240.91398 1,53333 Method X Age 2 19.80577 .12606 Method X Sex 1 228.46209 1.45407 Age X Sex 2 66.24610 .42163 Method X Age X Sex 2 62.27228 .39634 E r r o r 63 157.11861 * p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Table 14 Summary of Berko Tense Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r *F y = A - A -4.811 > V > "21.656 * 1 1 2 1 * = A - A 3 -4.537 > ^ > -22.716 * ¥ = A 2 - A 3 8.549 > ^ > - 9.334 C e l l Means A = .2308 A 2 = 13.4643 A 3 = 13.8571 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 68 forms. Once again no d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r method or sex w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r main e f f e c t s f o r age and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r method X age and method X sex (Table 15). B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s were used to t r a c e the source of v a r i a t i o n i n a l l cases. I t was found that the source of v a r i a t i o n l a y between age groups and A^ (Table 16). Here, as i n a l l cases where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r age, the d i f f e r e n c e was i n the d i r e c t i o n of the o l d e r age group. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r method X sex l a y between n a t u r a l method males and n a t u r a l method females (Table 17). No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found w i t h i n or across methods by sex. I n the case of the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r method X age, the v a r i a t i o n was t r a c e d to the d i f f e r e n c e between the N^ group and the F^ group w i t h the l a t t e r group possessing the higher score (Table 18). These l a t t e r three analyses cast a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on the f i n d i n g s f o r hypotheses f o u r , s i x and e i g h t . No matter which p r i n c i p l e was examined i n i s o l a t i o n ( p l u r a l s , tenses, p o s s e s s i v e s ) , c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the A^ and A^ age groups and an almost as c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e between the A^ and A^ age groups. I n a d d i t i o n i t was found that there was no main e f f e c t sex or method d i f f e r e n c e i n a b i l i t y to respond to the i s o l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s . Leaf 69 omitted i n page numbering. 70 Table 15 Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Responses to Berko Possessive Form Items Source df Mean Square F Method 1 44.27967 2.07452 Age 2 184.73326 8.65482* Sex 1 4.59830 .21543 Method X Age 2 99.67977 4.67003* Method X Sex 1 165.75116 7.76550* Age X Sex 2 6.88303 .32247 Method X Age X Sex 2 33.81396 1.58420 E r r o r „ 63 21.34456 * p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Table 16 Summary of Berko Possessive Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Age Contrasts i Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r .854 > ¥ > -5.370 1.138 > ¥ 2 > -7.807 * 1.076 > T. > -5.494 C e l l Means .3846 2.6428 4.8517 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 72 Table 17 Summary of Berko Possessive Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Method X Sex Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ¥ = M 1 S 1 " M 1 S 2 - .301 > *1 > -17.216 = M 1 S 1 - M 2 S 2 1.225 > \ > - 7.082 = M 2 S 1 " M 1 S 2 2.802 > ¥ 3 > - 4.319 \ = M 2 S 1 " M 2 S 2 4.767 > \ > - 4.624 C e l l Means M 1S 2 = 3.7586 M~2~s"2~ = 2.9286 M1S = 0.0000 M 2S 1 = 3.0000 Table 18 Summary of Berko Possessive Form T o t a l Score Deaf Subjects Method X Age Contrasts Estimated C o n t r a s t . 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ¥. = M 1 A 1 " M 2 A 2 4.873 > > - 5.501 = M 1 A 1 " M 2 A 3 - 2.617 > > - 13.428 = M 2 A 1 " M 1 A 2 1.971 > *3 > - 8.240 *4 = M 2 A 1 " M 1 A 3 3.212 > \ > - 7.708 *5 = M 1 A 2 -M 2A 3 .527 > > - 10.120 \ = M 2A 2 " M 1 A 3 3.434 > \ > - 7.486 C e l l Means M A = .3529 M ^ = .4444 M XA 2 = 3.5789 M ^ = .6667 M A = 2.6923 M ^ = 8.3750 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . 74 3. R e s u l t s of Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence In Sentences C h i l d r e n Use Menyuk suggests that the s t r u c t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r sentence and not i t s l e n g t h determined whether or not young c h i l d r e n could repeat her agrammatical sentences as given ( r e p e t i t i o n ) , w i t h a c o r r e c t change i n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ( m o d i f i c a t i o n ) , or spontaneously c o r r e c t them ( c o r r e c t i o n ) . Memory was not the v e h i c l e or response w h i l e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of grammatical r u l e s was. Support f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n was found i n the f a c t that d e v i a t i o n s from complete r e p e t i t i o n s were m o d i f i c a t i o n s and spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n s . I f omission of p a r t s of sentences and s u b s t i t u t i o n s of other words or morphemes had been the most frequent d e v i a t i o n s , the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of r u l e s p o s i t i o n would have been weakened w i t h a concomitant strengthening of a memory p o s i t i o n . With t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the manner i n which c h i l d r e n approach Menyuk's t e s t i n mind, analyses of subject responses to the requirement f i r s t to repeat agrammatical sentences and then to co r r e c t them were made (Tables 19 and 20). Menyuk's c o r r e c t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s were subsumed under C o r r e c t i o n . Responses c r e d i t e d under Attempted C o r r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e that: an apparent attempt was made to change the element causing the i n i t i a l problem (the e r r o r s ource), but that a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s were made somewhere i n the response. I t w i l l be noted that of the 1800 r e p e t i t i o n phase responses the s e v e n t y - f i v e deaf subjects were able to c o r r e c t the agrammatical sentences spontaneously i n only 102 cases. Deviations i n the form of omissions and s u b s t i t u t i o n s were found more f r e q u e n t l y than 75 Table 19 Categorized Responses for A H Subjects to the R e p e t i t i o n Without C o r r e c t i o n Phase of Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence s C R NR AC 0 SUB WO A 1 3 28 23 10 6 3 2 2 4 19 12 4 25 11 3 6 5 17 4 30 13 4 17 20 7 5 22 3 1 5 4 28 4 1 28 9 5 6 1 35 5 1 22 10 1 7 3 26 8 29 7 2 8 48 7 4 11 5 9 • 6 26 7 11 14 7 4 10 7 23 12 6 20 6 1 11 2 63 2 5 3 12 .1 39 8 2 22 3 13 50 7 1 12 5 14 34 10 29 2 15 56 3 2 4 10 16 2 69 1 2 1 17 3 24 4 41 3 18 14 42 10 8 1 19 7 23 5 1 29 10 20 15 18 10 9 21 2 21 44 6 20 2 2 1 22 31 1 32 11 23 2 65 4 2 1 1 24 5 45 1 13 10 1 102 861 160 67 450 141 8 11 Where: S = Sentence c = C o r r e c t i o n R = R e p e t i t i o n NR Non-Response AC = Attempted C o r r e c t i o n 0 = Omission SUB = S u b s t i t u t i o n WO = Word Order A = A d d i t i o n 76 Table 20 Categorized Responses f o r A l l Subjects to the R e p e t i t i o n With C o r r e c t i o n Phase of Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence s C R NR AC 0 SUB WO A 1 8 31 10 1 15 6 3 1 2 8 27 9 3 20 6 1 1 3 9 7 10 3 32 13 1 4 18 23 10 6 12 5 1 5 5 30 4 5 . 23 8 6 4 37 6 4 9 11 3 1 7 1 27 6 6 21 9 5 8 5 46 7 3 10 3 1 9 11 22 6 16 12 2 6 10 17 22 7 9 12 8 11 9 60 1 2 3 12 4 34 5 3 16 11 2 13 10 52 5 7 1 14 13 34 10 3 14 1 15 6 51 4 2 6 4 1 1 16 9 53 2 1 2 l 6 2 17 5 25 2 4 31 5 2 1 18 20 41 2 1 7 1 3 19 14 23 3 3 22 7 1 1 20 18 15 4 13 19 5 21 2 46 4 5 13 5 1 22 3 32 1 2 27 8 1 23 13 51 1 4 5 1 24 14 38 2 12 9 226 827 119 99 349 137 14 29 Where: s = Sentence c = C o r r e c t i o n R = R e p e t i t i o n NR = Non-Response AC = Attempted C o r r e c t i o n 0 = Omission SUB - S u b s t i t u t i o n WO = Word Order A = A d d i t i o n 77 m o d i f i c a t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s (t = 7.43; p < .05; df = 23). In the non-spontaneous mode a greater number of omissions and s u b s t i t u t i o n s were made as w e l l ( t = 3.95; p < .05; df = 23). The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s i n view of Menyuk's arguments w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n a l a t e r chapter. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l age groups under the two methods have members who are unable to respond c o r r e c t l y to e i t h e r a l l of or the great m a j o r i t y of Menyuk items w h i l e age groups A^ and have members who respond w i t h a f a i r degree of correctness to the m a j o r i t y of items (Table 21). Though e a r l i e r analyses i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r ages, there i s not a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y of a l l group members to respond to the s t i m u l i . This f i n d i n g i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t , w h i l e most Menyuk sentences are c o r r e c t e d , the c o r r e c t i o n s may be a t t r i b u t e d to only a very few subjects (Table 22). In view of the f a c t that a l l members of any s i n g l e school group have met the same b a s i c s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and have experienced exposure to s i m i l a r teaching methods over the years, t h i s f i n d i n g i s of considerable i n t e r e s t . In a d d i t i o n to d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l subject r e a c t i o n to the spread of Menyuk items, there was i n t e r e s t i n g r e a c t i o n - to s p e c i f i c items. Both of these tendencies are r e f l e c t e d i n t a b l e s 33 to 38 i n c l u s i v e (Appendix J ) . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to a n a l y z i n g responses to items i n a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t a t i s t i c a l manner to i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e main and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . The unfortunate balance of subjects (Table 1) mi t i g a t e d against such a procedure. Any attempt to achieve propor-t i o n a l i t y of subjects would r e s u l t i n the d e l e t i o n of too great a Table 21 Summary of P e r f e c t E r r o r Source C o r r e c t i o n s Independent of A d d i t i o n a l E r r o r s or M o d i f i c a t i o n s of Meaning on a l l N and F Deaf Subjects N a t u r a l Method Formal Method Group Subject Sex T o t a l Subject Sex T o t a l Correct Correct Responses Responses N - F 1 F 2 1 M 3 2 M 1 2 F 3 F 3 M 4 F 4 M 4 5 F 1 5 F 6 F 6 F 7 . M 7 M 8 M 1 8 M 2 9 M 1 9 M 10 F 2 11 , F 1 12 F 1 13 F 2 14 F 1 15 M 3 16 M 2 17 M 1 N - F ,1 F 1 F 2 Z 2 F . 1 2 M 5 3 M 1 3 M 5 4 F 20 4 M 5 M 1 5 F 3 6 M 4 6 F 16 7 F 1 7 F 5 8 M 8 M 9 F 9 F 21 10 M 11 M 1 12 F 1 13 F 2 14 F 9 15 F 16 M 1 17 F 4 18 F 19 F 1 continued 79 Table 21 (continued) N a t u r a l Method Formal Method Group Subject Sex T o t a l Subj ect Sex T o t a l Correct Correct Responses Responses N - F 1 M 5 1 F 6 J 3 2 F 1 2 M 10 3 M 3 3 F 4 F 20 4 F 12 5 F 1 5 F 19 6 M 2 6 F 19 7 F 16 7 F 3 8 F 11 8 M 5 9 M 1 10 M 16 11 F 12 12 M 1 13 M 1 80 Table 22 T o t a l C o r r e c t i o n of Menyuk Items by Each N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Groups Item $ N 2 N 3 ¥ ± F 2 F 3 1 1 1 2 4 2 1 1 2 4 3 4 1 2 4 2 2 3 1 3 3 5 1 1 2 1 6 2 1 7 1 8 2 2 9 2 1 3 2 1 10 5 5 2 2 11 2 2 1 1 12 1 1 13 1 4 2 3 14 2 4 2 4 15 1 3 1 16 1 1 3 2 17 1 1 2 18 6 4 1 1 2 3 19 2 5 4 2 20 6 3 3 21 1 22 23 2 3 4 4 24 1 3 1 3 4 number of subjects and render s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s meaningless. The f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was made i n place of q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . Only one i n d i v i d u a l i n or F^ gave two p e r f e c t l y c o r r e c t responses. These two groups were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by almost t o t a l i n a b i l i t y to respond w i t h any i n d i c a t i o n of grasping the grammatical p r i n c i p l e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Groups N 2 and F^, however, contained i n d i v i d u a l s who e x h i b i t e d considerable a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s as presented by Menyuk (N 2 subjects 4 and 14; F 2 s u b j e c t s , 6 and 9 ) . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was found f o r and F^ s u b j e c t s w i t h a greater number i n each group demonstrating increased competence (N^ s u b j e c t s , 4, 7, 8, and 11; F^ subjects 2, 4, 5, and 6). Conversely a l l groups included members who demonstrated t o t a l or almost t o t a l i n a b i l i t y to deal w i t h any p r i n c i p l e . C e r t a i n items presented almost u n i v e r s a l d i f f i c u l t y . . Among these were items 6. He l i k e s to look at (noun phrase omitted) , 7. My daddy has new o f f i c e downtown, ( a r t i c l e o m i t t e d ) , 8. He growed bigger and bigger, (verb form), 12. What name you're w r i t i n g ? (word o r d e r ) , 15. Don't put the hat. ( p a r t i c l e ) , 21. I t i s n ' t any more r a i n . ("There" i n s e r t i o n ) and 22. He took h i s k n i f e from f a l l i n g , (verb i n a p p r o p r i a t e ) . Other items were co r r e c t e d at an above average r a t e . Among these were items 4. The barber cut o f f h i s h a i r o f f . ( p r e p o s i t i o n redundancy), 9. He l i k e t e d that funny game, (verb form), 10. The l i t t l e boy i s washing h i s s e l f . ( r e f l e x i v e form), 13. There's three t r e e s , (verb-number agreement), 14. Two brothers and one s i s t e r I have, (word o r d e r ) , 18. Where are the peoples? (noun form), 20. The teacher w r i t e s that numbers, (determiner: noun form); 82 23. This dress green, (verb omitted) and 24. She took i t away the hat. (noun phrase redundancy). C e r t a i n e r r o r sources seemed to be noted by an above average number of subjects who attempted, but were unable, to make c o r r e c t i o n s . These included item 3. They get mad and then they pushed him. (verb-tense agreement) and items 9. and 12. These r e s u l t s w i l l be the subject of l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s of f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t to note that of the s e v e n t y - f i v e deaf subjects only nine responded c o r r e c t l y to h a l f or more of the Menyuk items. A l l nine were female. Berko's Test of Morphological Rules This t e s t has been used to i n v e s t i g a t e the development of morphological r u l e s i n both hearing and deaf c h i l d r e n . In g e n e r a l , the f i n d i n g s w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n of most re g u l a r a f f i x e s and i n c r e a s i n g c o n t r o l over i r r e g u l a r a f f i x e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. The v a r i o u s -findings f o r deaf c h i l d r e n (Cooper, 1965; Garber, 1967) may be questioned on the b a s i s of l i m i t e d f o rced choice f o r responses. Subjects i n t h i s study, who. were f r e e to give any response they d e s i r e d , provided a much greater v a r i e t y of responses than were a v a i l a b l e to the deaf subjects i n Garber's and Cooper's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Tables 23 and 24). Subjects under both methods i n t h i s study responded to Berko stimulus items w i t h c l o s e to i n d i v i d u a l v a r i e t y . P e r f e c t responses were infrequent r e l a t i v e to imperfect responses. Q u a l i t a t i v e examin-a t i o n of responses, however, suggests that c e r t a i n responses demonstrate a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the grammatical concepts being s t u d i e d which i s not apparent i n a p e r f e c t - i m p e r f e c t a n a l y s i s . The s c o r i n g s c a l e s Table 23 Obtained Responses to Rerko Item One From N a t u r a l Method Age Groups Group T o t a l s Correct Response N^ N^ N^ Response wugs wugs - 6 4 a wugs 1 wug 7 2 1 a wug 1 wuggest 1 wurg 1 wup 1 chickens 2 b i r d s 3 1 ducks 1 word 1 wax 1 wig 1 love 1 chicken 1 bug 2 b i r d 5 1 legs 1 tiwn 1 No response 2 84 Table 24 Obtained Responses to Berko Item One From Formal Method Groups Correct Response Response F l Group Responses F 2 F 3 wugs wugs 4 3 wug 1 1 b i r d s 1 2 1 ducks 1 bugs 1 wings 1 legs 2 b i r d 1 b r i d 2 F l y 1 1 + 2 = 3 1 No response 3 85 (Appendix i ) developed f o r t h i s t e s t represent an attempt to c r e d i t p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t responses. A n a l y s i s on the b a s i s of these s c a l e s has been discussed. As w i t h Menyuk's t e s t there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l subject r e a c t i o n to Berko items and i n t e r e s t i n g g e n e r a l i z e d r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c items. These r e a c t i o n s are summarized i n t a b l e s 39 to 44 i n c l u s i v e (Appendix K ) . Once again systematic s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of responses to items was i n a p p r o p r i a t e due to the unfortunate imbalance of subjects (Table 1). In general the youngest subjects under both methods were unable to respond c o r r e c t l y . A few N subjects were able to c o r r e c t most items (^ subjects 4, 14 and 18). A number of H and subjects responded c o r r e c t l y to approximately h a l f of the items (N 2 subjects 7, 8 and 9; subjects 2, 3, 6 and 9 ) . Both the and F^ groups included members who were unable to respond c o r r e c t l y to the m a j o r i t y of items (N^ subjects 4 and 5; F^ subjects 2 and 4) w h i l e the group a l s o i ncluded members who responded c o r r e c t l y to approximately h a l f of the items (N^ subjects 1, 3, 7 and 8). In c o n t r a s t to these subjects who react w i t h a f a i r degree of c o r r e c t n e s s , are a l a r g e number i n each group who demonstrate few s k i l l s i n r e a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y to the items. C e r t a i n items appeared to present l e s s e r d i f f i c u l t y to the sub-j e c t s , than others. Among these were some but not a l l p l u r a l items i n I-si and past tense items i n /-ed/ ( s p e c i f i c a l l y items 1. wugs; 9. l u n s ; 5. r i c k e d ) . Also i n c l u d e d were the r e a l word items " g l a s s e s " and "rang". Other items presented e x t r a d i f f i c u l t y . Among these were the present p r o g r e s s i v e tense item " z i b b i n g " and the two t h i r d person s i n g u l a r items "nazzes" and "loodges" and the possessive items as a group. The possessive p l u r a l items were e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t . C e r t a i n other items i n d i c a t e d the tendency of many subjects to respond w i t h a word d e s c r i b i n g the stimulus p i c t u r e r a t h e r than w i t h the stimulus word (1. wugs; 7, t o r s ; 2. gutches; 4. kazhes; 10. n i z z e s ) . Examination of e r r o r s from a l l groups i n d i c a t e d that c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of e r r o r response could be defined. Table 25 presents e r r o r r a t e s by category as percentages of t o t a l group e r r o r s . Table 26 i n d i c a t e s that s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between ages, between c a t e g o r i e s and i n the case of the age X category i n t e r a c t i o n . As might be expected from e a r l i e r Berko analyses the source of v a r i a t i o n between ages was traced to a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the A^ and A^ age groups (Table 27). A number of sources of v a r i a t i o n were found when the s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r category was i n v e s t i g a t e d (Table 28). Subjects chose to respond by r e p e a t i n g the stimulus word or d e s c r i b i n g the p i c t u r e at an equal l e v e l . T h i r d choice was r e p e t i t i o n of part of the stimulus t e x t . This response was chosen s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than r e p e t i t i o n of the stimulus word but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than d e s c r i p t i o n of the p i c t u r e . In t o t a l responses the next choice was not to respond at a l l though t h i s choice was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than response by r e p e t i t i o n of p a r t of the stimulus t e x t . Over-g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r u l e s and miscellaneous response were chosen at an equal l e v e l and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than any other response except i n the case of the c o n t r a s t between r e p e t i t i o n of part of the stimulus t e x t and o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . 87 Table 25 E r r o r Response Categories Stated i n Percentages For A l l Berko Test Items Groups Category N L N 2 N 3 F l F 2 F 3 D e s c r i p t i o n of P i c t u r e 15.25 18.16 44.99 7.44 26.97 43.23 Over-G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of Rules 1.09 10.15 9.23 2.07 7.87 11.61 R e p e t i t i o n of P a r t of Stimulus Text 23.97 20.83 11.92 22.73 8.99 3.87 R e p e t i t i o n of Stimulus Word 39.65 28.04 11.15 38.43 26.41 15.49 No Response 12.85 20.29 13.46 20.25 21.35 23.23 Miscellaneous 7.19 2.67 9.23 9.09 8.43 2.58 N^ - t o t a l e r r o r s N^ - t o t a l e r r o r s N^ - t o t a l e r r o r s F^ - t o t a l e r r o r s F^ - t o t a l e r r o r s F„ - t o t a l e r r o r s 459 i n 459 responses 375 i n 513 responses 260 i n 351 responses 242 i n 243 responses 178 i n 243 responses 155 i n 216 responses 88 Table 26 Summary Anova Table f o r Deaf N a t u r a l and Formal Method Group Berko E r r o r Category Responses Source df Mean Square F Method : 1 .11111 .10811 Age 2 6.86111 6.67568* Category 5 25.51111 24.82161* Method X Age 2 .19444 .18919 Method X Category 5 1.04444 1.01622 Age X Category 10 11.49444 11.18378* E r r o r 10 1.02778 * p r o b a b i l i t y <.05 Table 27 Summary of Berko E r r o r Age Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ^  ¥^ = A^ - 2.355 > ^ ^ -.022 ^2=A^-A^ 2.605 > ^ > .228 * ^ 3 = A^ - A^ 1.338 > Y 3 > -.938 C e l l Means A^ = 4.0833 A^ = 2.9167 AT = 2.6667 *equ i v a l e n t to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . Table 28 Summary of Berko E r r o r Category Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ^ *1 = - 6.407 > V 1.926 * A, = - s 4.241 > * 2 * - .241 h = - c 4 1.574 > f 3 > -2.907 \ = \ - s 4.074 > f 4 ^ - .407 = \ - 6.574 > 2.093 * \ - .074 > \>- -4.407 !7 = - ^4 -2.593 > -7.074 * = - s - .093 > -4.574 * = - ^6 2.407 > Y9>> -2.074 Y 10 - ^4 - .426 - 1 0 - -4.907 * 11 = - 2.074 >y > - 11 " -2.407 12 = - ^6 4.574 >y > " 12 " .093 * 13 = ^4 - S 4.741 >y > - 13 " .259 A 14 = - ^6 7.241 ^ 1 4 >~ 2.759 * 15 - °6 4.741 ^ 1 5 & .259 * C e l l Means C, = 5.1667 C. = 5.8333 1 4 C 2 = 1.0000 C 5 = 3.3333 C 0 = 3.1667 C, = .8333 3 o *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . A number of s i g n i f i c a n t sources of v a r i a t i o n were found f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t age X category i n t e r a c t i o n (Table 29). Age group A^ responded by d e s c r i b i n g the stimulus p i c t u r e at a r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than A^ or A^. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t e of response i n the cases of o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n or miscellaneous e r r o r s was found. The A^ group chose to repeat part of the stimulus t e x t at a r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that of the A^ or A^ groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r the A^ - A^ or A^ - A^ c o n t r a s t s . In the case of r e p e t i t i o n of the stimulus word the A^ age group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the A^ age group as d i d the A^ age group. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the r a t e at which age groups e l e c t e d not to respond. Berko's t e s t contains three r e a l words which the subjects would normally experience i n the classroom ( g l a s s e s , melted, rang). I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that some subjects broke c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of e r r o r or non-response to c o r r e c t both " g l a s s e s " and "rang". I t i s d i f f i c u l t to comment on "melted" s i n c e i t was the only exemplar of i t s p a r t i c u l a r type. However, " g l a s s e s " and "rang" had other exemplars and i n both cases were responded to c o r r e c t l y more so than were t h e i r coexemplars (glasses = 25, average f o r four other exemplars = 8.5; rang = 13, average f o r two other exemplars = 0 ) . This f i n d i n g i s of c o nsiderable i n t e r e s t when one examines the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of r u l e s p o s i t i o n and the memorization of r u l e s p o s i t i o n . These w i l l be discussed r e l a t i v e to t h i s f i n d i n g i n a subsequent chapter. Once again i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that of :the eleven subjects who c o r r e c t e d t h i r t e e n . o r more Berko items, ei g h t were females. Table 29 Summary of Berko E r r o r Age X Category Contrasts Estimated Contrast 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l f o r ¥ ¥ 1 = C 1 A 1 " °1 A2 2 , 9 6 9 - " " 4 , 9 6 9 ¥ 2 = C 1 A 1 " C 1 A 3 " 1 " 5 3 1 - ¥ 2 " " 9 ' 4 6 9 * ¥ 3 = C 1 A 2 " °1 A3 " 5 ' 3 0 7 - *3 " " 8 , 4 6 9 * V. = C„A, - C_A„ 2.469 > ¥ > - 5.469 4 2 1 2 2 4 . ¥ 5 = C ^ - C 2A 3 2.469 > ¥ 5 > - 5.469 ¥, = C„A„ - C_A„ 3.969 > V > - 3.969 6 2 2 2 3 b V = C 3A - C 3A 2 7.469 > ¥ ? > - .469 ¥g = C3A± - C 3A 3 8.969 > Y g > 1.031 * ¥ = C 3A 2 - C 3A 3 5.469 > Vg > - 2.469 = C.A. - C.A„ 8.969 >T' > 1.031 * 10 4 1 4 2 10 H?,, = C.A. - C.A. 11.469 >¥ > 3.531 * 11 4 1 4 3 11 ¥ 1 0 = C.A- - C.A. 6.469 >¥ > - 1.469 12 4 2 4 3 1^ * 1 3 = - C 5A 2: 3.969 > ¥ 1 3 > - 3.969 = CeA- - C CA 0 5.969 >¥.. > - 1.969 14 5 1 5 3 14 ¥15 = °5 A2 " C 5 A 3 5 , 9 6 9 " W15 ~ " 1 , 9 6 9 = C,A, - C>A„ 4.969 >*.,>- 2.969 16 6 1 6 I ID = C,A. - C CA 0 4.969 > - 2.969 17 6 1 6 3 1/ *18 = C 6 A 2 " C 6 A 3 3 , 9 6 9 **18 * ' 3 , 9 6 9 *equivalent to s i g n i f i c a n c e at .05 l e v e l . continued 93 Table 29 (continued) C e l l Means C 1 A 1 ¥ 2 " ¥ 3 " ¥ 2 " C 3 A 2 3.0000 4.0000 8.5000 0.0000 1.5000 1.5000 6.0000 2.5000 1,0000 C 4 A 1 ^ 2 " ¥ 3 V i " V 2 " 10 .0000 5 .0000 2.5000 4.0000 4.0000 2.0000 1.5000 .5000 .5000 94 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION 1. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of R e s u l t s Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s  Hypothesis 1 No deaf group under e i t h e r method was able to c o r r e c t Menyuk's items w i t h the f a c i l i t y of 4 year, 4 month to 5 year, 3 month o l d "•y normally hearing c h i l d r e n . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n i n g were so defined as to beg s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t i s r e a d i l y apparent that the hypothesis of a d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n of young hearing c h i l d r e n i s sustained. Hypothesis 2 A main e f f e c t f o r groups was found f o r the a n a l y s i s between the hearing group and the deaf groups f o r Berko items as hypothesized. I n v e s t i g a t i o n employing B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s t r a c e d the source of v a r i a t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the hearing four to seven year o l d group and each of the deaf groups w i t h the hearing group o b t a i n i n g higher scores. Deaf c h i l d r e n between ages nine years and s i x t e e n years are unable to respond to Berko items w i t h the a b i l i t y of much younger hearing c h i l d r e n . This r e s u l t agrees w i t h the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s of Cooper (1965) and Garber (1967). The d i f f e r e n c e s found i n t h i s study were much more pronounced than i n e i t h e r of these s t u d i e s . This d i f f e r e n c e i n degree may be c r e d i t e d to the open-endedness of response i n t h i s study r e l a t i v e to the r e s t r i c t e d response choices a v a i l a b l e to subjects i n the Cooper and Garber s t u d i e s . 95 Hypothesis 3 An a n a l y s i s of responses to Menyuk items was performed f o r deaf groups alone on the b a s i s of method, age and sex. This a n a l y s i s made use of the sc a l e d s c o r i n g system for'Menyuk items. As hypothesized no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found f o r method. In a d d i t i o n no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i n v o l v i n g method was found. The n a t u r a l and formal methods were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n enabling deaf subjects to respond to Menyuk items. A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s on the b a s i s of p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source i g n o r i n g other e r r o r s i n responses a l s o i n d i c a t e d no main or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r method. Hypothesis 4 A n a l y s i s of Berko items was performed f o r t o t a l scores f o r a l l items and f o r p l u r a l items, tense items and possessive items. The s c a l e d s c o r i n g system designed f o r Berko items was employed. As hypothesized no main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e f o r method was found i n any a n a l y s i s . The n a t u r a l and formal language teaching methods are e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n enabling deaf subjects to respond to Berko items. S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r method X age and method X sex were found f o r the a n a l y s i s of possessive form responses. No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were found f o r other analyses. In the case of the s i g n i f i c a n t method X age i n t e r a c t i o n the source of v a r i a t i o n was tr a c e d to a d i f f e r e n c e between the N^ group and the group. The youngest n a t u r a l method subjects had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean than d i d the o l d e s t formal method subjects (.3529 and 8.3750 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . On the b a s i s of treatment i t was expected that younger groups would have lower means than o l d e r groups. 96 Such a d i s t i n c t l y l o p s i d e d s i t u a t i o n i n the absence of s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r method i n d i c a t e s that the formal method has a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t f o r o l d e r subjects than does the n a t u r a l method f o r younger. The source of v a r i a t i o n f o r the method X sex i n t e r a c t i o n was found to be between n a t u r a l method males and n a t u r a l method females. This i s a strong i n d i c a t i o n t h a t , i n the case of possessive forms, the n a t u r a l method has a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t f o r males and females. D e f i n i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s not p o s s i b l e due to the l a c k of i n d i c a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r other language p r i n c i p l e s t e s t e d . Hypothesis 5 S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r sex were found i n both Menyuk item analyses. No d i f f e r e n c e was hypothesized. Female deaf subjects i n the age ranges t e s t e d performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than d i d male deaf s u b j e c t s . Though d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female normally hearing subjects i n language a r t s have been noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e , no mention has been made of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female deaf subjects i n the area of w r i t t e n language. The f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s case must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n due to the l a c k of s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s elsewhere. Language st u d i e s w i t h deaf subjects have not normally i n v e s t i g a t e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Further s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g t h i s f a c t o r need to be undertaken before one might c o n f i d e n t l y hypothesize the existence or non-existence of d i f f e r e n t i a l language l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s among male and female deaf s u b j e c t s . The f i n d i n g s here, however, suggest that a d i f f e r e n c e may e x i s t and i n d i c a t e a need f o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t . Hypothesis 6 As hypothesized no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e f o r sex was. found f o r any Berko a n a l y s i s . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r possessive forms has been discussed. This f i n d i n g i s contrary to the f i n d i n g f o r Menyuk items and should be considered to render any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Menyuk f i n d i n g s extremely t e n t a t i v e . Hypothesis 7 Both analyses f o r Menyuk items found a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r age as hypothesized. B o n f e r r o n i _t t e s t s f o r c o n t r a s t s traced the source of v a r i a t i o n to d i f f e r e n c e s between the A^ and A^ and and A^ age groups f o r both analyses. This f i n d i n g of i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to c o r r e c t grammatical e r r o r s i n sentences suggests that the r a t e of increase i n a b i l i t y i s slow at the younger ages but p i c k s up i n the teen-age years. This f i n d i n g agrees w i t h Garber's f i n d i n g of a slow r a t e of increase i n the a b i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n to i n f l e c t nonsense words and Lowenbraun's (1969) f i n d i n g of an increase w i t h age to produce grammatically acceptable productions. A d d i t i o n a l support i s found i n Schmitt's (1970) study of Deaf C h i l d r e n ' s Comprehension and  Production of Sentence Transformations. His f i n d i n g s w i t h deaf ei g h t to seventeen year o l d c h i l d r e n bear out h i s . h y p o t h e s i s that the develop-ment of s y n t a c t i c competence would be age-related. The f i n d i n g s of the present study and those mentioned above are contrary to f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g a p l a t e a u e f f e c t i n language, a b i l i t y from approximately age ten to s i x t e e n (Pugh, 1946; Wrightstone et a l , 1962; G e n t i l e , 1969). 98 The performance of subjects on Menyuk items i n t h i s study suggests that there i s an increment i n language a b i l i t y under both methods over time. This increase does not provide the deaf subject w i t h the degree of language competence enjoyed by the much younger hearing c h i l d . Hypothesis 8 As suggested i n the hypothesis s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r age were found f o r a l l Berko analyses. In each case a s i g n i f i c a n t source of v a r i a t i o n was found between the A^ and A^ age groups. In each case except possessive forms a s i g n i f i c a n t source of v a r i a t i o n was found between the A^ and A^ age groups. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y quick growth i n the a b i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n under both methods to respond c o r r e c t l y to Berko items or to give evidence of some understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s being t e s t e d . A s i m i l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e growth does not occur i n the teen-age years. This i s the reverse of the f i n d i n g s f o r Menyuk items. The d i f f e r i n g age ranges i n v a r i o u s s t u d i e s make comparison d i f f i c u l t but i n general t h i s f i n d i n g disagrees w i t h the steady increase w i t h age of Lowenbraun and Schmitt but agrees w i t h the p l a t e a u e f f e c t found by Pugh, Wrightstone et a l and G e n t i l e and w i t h Garber's f i n d i n g of increase to age 13.6. Deaf c h i l d r e n may react d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to s p e c i f i c grammatical p r i n c i p l e s i n d i f f e r i n g grammatical s e t t i n g s . The Berko t e s t items examined only s u f f i x e s and the subjects were w e l l aware of the s p e c i f i c e r r o r source. Given t h i s s e t t i n g deaf subjects i n the two o l d e r groups met s i m i l a r success w h i l e younger c h i l d r e n demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e r grasp of the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d . The Menyuk t e s t items examined a wide v a r i e t y of grammatical p r i n c i p l e s and the subjects were not aware of s p e c i f i c e r r o r sources. Given t h i s s e t t i n g the youngest subjects demonstrated l i t t l e success w h i l e the o l d e r groups demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l s of success. In t u r n the o l d e s t group demonstrated i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the items when compared to the second o l d e s t group. These f i n d i n g s suggest that the p i c t u r e s of age-related a b i l i t y or p l a t e a u e f f e c t painted by other researchers may not be as dichotomous as they appear. Depending on the grammatical task presented, deaf subjects may r e a c t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y at d i f f e r e n t ages. Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s u l t s Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Menyuk has presented the view that a b i l i t y to repeat agrammatical sentences or to c o r r e c t them spontaneously i n d i c a t e s that young hearing c h i l d r e n have i n t e r n a l i z e d c e r t a i n grammatical r u l e s and are able to put them i n t o p l a y at the performance l e v e l . Her arguments that these young c h i l d r e n were responding on the b a s i s of i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s and not on the b a s i s of memory are strong. Menyuk re p o r t s on the r e p e t i t i o n phase of her study i n terms of s t r u c t u r e s spontaneously c o r r e c t e d by at l e a s t t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of her s u b j e c t s . Comparison of the r e s u l t s f o r Menyuk's Kindergarten (5 years, 4 months to 6 years, 3 months) and Older Nursery School (ONS, 4 years, 4 months to 5 years, 3 months) groups w i t h each deaf group i n d i c a t e s that no deaf group spontaneously c o r r e c t e d sentences w i t h the f a c i l i t y of younger hearing c h i l d r e n (Table 30). Only the o l d e s t group of deaf subjects under both methods co r r e c t e d 100 Table 30 Sentences Spontaneously Corrected by 25% or More of Subjects i n Menyuk's Kindergarten and ONS Groups and Each Deaf Group Sentence Groups Kinder- ONS N N N F F 2 F garten 1 X X 2 X 3 x X 4 x X 5 x X 6 7 X X 8 9 X 10 X 11 12 X X 13 14 15 16 X 17 18 19 X 20 21 X 22 23 24 X X 101 more than one item at the t w e n t y - f i v e per cent l e v e l . The youngest n a t u r a l method group c o r r e c t e d one item at the same l e v e l . Menyuk found that her ONS s u b j e c t s tended to make spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y than her Kindergarten s u b j e c t s . She p o s t u l a t e d that the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were more t a s k - o r i e n t e d thar. the younger and repeated agrammatical sentences without being d i s t r a c t e d by t h e i r oddness. Younger c h i l d r e n , not having i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s to the same ext e n t , ignore the sentence e r r o r s and respond w i t h a c o r r e c t sentence. Using t h i s reasoning one could argue that the o l d e r deaf c h i l d r e n do not spontaneously c o r r e c t s i n c e they are l e s s confused by the agrammatical s t i m u l u s and, being more t a s k - o r i e n t e d , repeat the sentence e x a c t l y . The f a c t that s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n c o r r e c t e d more sentences than d i d s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the ONS c h i l d r e n i n the non-spontaneous mode supported Menyuk's p o s i t i o n (Table 31). The p i c t u r e obtained f o r deaf s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . No sentence was responded to c o r r e c t l y by seventy-f i v e percent of any deaf group. I n the non-spontaneous mode deaf s u b j e c t s were a b l e to produce more c o r r e c t i o n s (226 to 102) but were g e n e r a l l y unable to make c o r r e c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y . I n the case of sentence seven, fewer c h i l d r e n were ab l e to give non-spontaneous c o r r e c t i o n s than spontaneous (Table 19 and 20). I f Menyuk's arguments are v a l i d , i t appears that the deaf s u b j e c t s i n the present study have not i n t e r n a l i z e d b a s i c grammatical r u l e s to the same extent as k i n d e r g a r t e n age or even younger hearing c h i l d r e n . Responses seem to be made on the b a s i s of e x t e r n a l i z e d , or c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e d , r u l e s o r , at l e a s t , d i f f e r e n t and h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r u l e s . Table 31 Sentences Corrected i n Non-Spontaneous Mode by 75 Per-cent or More of Subjects i n Menyuk's Kindergarten and ONS Groups Sentence Kindergarten ONS 1 X X 2 X X 3 X 4 X 5 X X 6 X X 7 X X 8 X 9 X X 10 X X 11 X X 12 X X 13 14 15 X X 16 X X 17 X 18 X X 19 X 20 X X 21 X X 22 X 23 X 24 X X 103 I f the deaf subjects have i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s s i m i l a r to those of young hearing c h i l d r e n , they should spontaneously c o r r e c t or modify and not omit or s u b s t i t u t e when faced w i t h Menyuk items. However, omissions and s u b s t i t u t i o n s are e x a c t l y what are given. As noted e a r l i e r the t o t a l number of omissions and s u b s t i t u t i o n s under both modes was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t i o n s / m o d i f i c a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , there were numerous nonresponses, attempted c o r r e c t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s and word order e r r o r s documented (Tables 19 and 20). I t appeared that the deaf subjects i n t h i s study d i d those things which Menyuk suggested are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n d i v i d u a l s who do not possess an i n t e r n a l i z e d grammar. C e r t a i n l y the normally hearing four to s i x year o l d s coped w i t h the tasks more competently than d i d the nine to s i x t e e n year o l d deaf s u b j e c t s . Part of the deaf s u b j e c t s ' d i f f i c u l t y may be a t t r i b u t e d to the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s though one would be hard put to f i n d a more e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t e to the a u d i t o r y . P a r t of the d i f f i c u l t y may be a t t r i b u t e d to forms which the deaf c h i l d would not normally produce but which are o f t e n produced by young hearing c h i l d r e n (e.g. l i k e t e d ) . Few such forms appeared i n the items and, when they d i d appear, were among the b e t t e r handled items f o r deaf s u b j e c t s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , deaf nine to s i x t e e n year o l d subjects d i d not demonstrate the l i n g u i s t i c competence of hearing four to s i x year o l d s . They were not able to meet the goal of demonstrating the a b i l i t y to handle the language p r i n c i p l e s taught. There was no d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n performance which was method-related. 104 Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Berko "set out to di s c o v e r what i s learned by c h i l d r e n exposed to E n g l i s h morphology (1958, p. 13)." She t h e o r i z e d that one could discover whether a normally hearing c h i l d had i n t e r n a l i z e d a morphological r u l e by r e q u i r i n g him to i n f l e c t nonsense words. I f the c h i l d g e n e r a l i z e d the c o r r e c t morphological form from E n g l i s h to the nonsense word, i t could be concluded that the r u l e was i n t e r n a l i z e d . Berko found that by age seven c h i l d r e n possessed a good grasp of the r u l e s f o r the most common morphological i n f l e c t i o n s and a f a i r grasp of the r u l e s f o r the l e s s common i n f l e c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n d i d not react to new words w i t h unique, i n d i v i d u a l responses. There was d e f i n i t e evidence of a common, shared grammar. Garber and Cooper transposed Berko's theory to the study of morphological a b i l i t i e s i n deaf c h i l d r e n . Garber a p p l i e d the Berko t e s t and an analogous r e a l word t e s t to deaf c h i l d r e n . His b a s i c f i n d i n g was that h i s deaf subjects (CA range 6.7 to 13.6) lagged i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of morphological r u l e s when compared to hearing subjects (CA ranged 5.6 to 8.6). He concluded that t h i s l a g was due i n part to t h e i r h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d school environment, the i n e f f e c -t i v e n e s s of parents i n p r o v i d i n g experiences and the inadequacy of teaching methods. Cooper used a Berko-type task i n an attempt to create a t e s t of deaf c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c competence. He te s t e d r e c e p t i v e and productive c o n t r o l of i n f l e c t i o n a l and d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x e s i n a f o r t y - e i g h t item t e s t . His subjects were deaf seven to nineteen year olds and hearing second, f o u r t h and s i x t h graders. The deaf subjects 105 obtained much lower scores than d i d the hearing s u b j e c t s but p a r a l l e l e d them i n the development of morphological p a t t e r n s . From t h i s study and a l a t e r one w i t h Kaye (1967) Cooper concluded that deaf c h i l d r e n and h e aring c h i l d r e n share " u n i v e r s a l " grammatical r u l e s . The deaf s u b j e c t ' s grammar was d i f f e r e n t i n terms of a few s u p e r f i c i a l r u l e s o r , i f the grammars were a c t u a l l y s i m i l a r , appeared d i f f e r e n t on the performance l e v e l due to d i f f e r e n t r u l e s f o r performance. The r e s u l t s of the present study agree w i t h Garber's conclusions e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to the inadequacy of teaching methods. When compared to Berko's young hearing s u b j e c t s deaf c h i l d r e n do l a g i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of morphological r u l e s (Table 32). The phonemic l a g apparent i n Garber's s u b j e c t s was much more s e r i o u s than Garber r e a l i z e d however. The same comment holds f o r Cooper's c o n c l u s i o n s though i t i s d i f f i c u l t to comment on h i s t o t a l a n a l y s i s of l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s s i n c e he conducted more than one study i n the area and i n v e s t i g a t e d more than morphological type t e s t s o n l y . I t does appear safe to suggest that i n v e s t i g a t o r s cannot assume, as d i d Cooper, that deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n share " u n i v e r s a l " r u l e s w i t h the deaf d e v i a t i n g s u p e r f i c a l l y o n l y . Both Cooper and Garber committed the same major methodological e r r o r , a methodological e r r o r not found i n Berko's o r i g i n a l study. Berko allowed her s u b j e c t s to g i v e any response they wished. Cooper and Garber l i m i t e d t h e i r s u b j e c t s to three or fo u r p o s s i b l e responses r e s p e c t i v e l y . These responses were determined by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s and r e f l e c t t h e i r b e l i e f s regarding the p o s s i b l e range of response from deaf s u b j e c t s . Thus, both researchers documented deaf students' responses to what the researchers f e l t were responses i n the s u b j e c t s ' 106 Table 32 Percentage of Subjects Responding C o r r e c t l y to Stimulus Items From.Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Item Berko Garber Present (4 - 7 years) ( 6 - 1 3 . 6 years) (9 - 16.11 years) wugs 91 87 24 tors 85 76 15 luns 86 73 24 eras 79 71 20 heafs/heaves 82 22 20 gutches 36 27 9 kazhes 31 73 11 nizzes 28 82 9 tasses 36 73 17 glasses 91 76 33 spowed 52 82 21 ricked 73 80 24 motted 33 84 17 bodded 31 44 21 melted 73 38 24 glinged/glang 77 57 20 binged/bang 78 65 16 ringed/rang 17 44 32 zibbing 90 73' 27 loodges 56 40 9 nazzes 48 29 8 wug's 84 56 24 bik's 87 62 11 n i z z ' s 49 73 9 wugs1 88 ** 5 b i k s ' 93 ** 3 nizzes' 76 A* 5 **not recorded. 107 r e p e r t o i r e s and not the s u b j e c t s ' a c t u a l range of p o s s i b l e responses. Such a l i m i t a t i o n was not suggested i n the research questions posed by the two i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The present study allowed the deaf c h i l d r e n to respond as they wished. The average number of responses was 12 and 13 w i t h ranges of 8 to 16 and 8 to 18 f o r the n a t u r a l and formal method groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both Berko and Garber presented t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n the form of percentage of c h i l d r e n c o r r e c t l y responding to items. Table 32 summarizes these f i n d i n g s and the responses f o r t h i s study. I t i s obvious that subjects i n t h i s study demonstrated f a r l e s s a b i l i t y to add c o r r e c t s u f f i x e s than d i d those i n the Berko or Garber s t u d i e s . Age groups respond i n c e r t a i n manners to Berko s t i m u l i . - These response p a t t e r n s , discussed e a r l i e r , may equate to r u l e s i n the grammars of some of the deaf subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study. P o s s i b l e r u l e s appear below. 1. Repeat the stimulus word when you do not know what to do. 2. Do not respond when you do not know what to do. 3. Describe or e x p l a i n the stimulus p i c t u r e when i n doubt about how to respond to the stimulus word and p i c t u r e . 4. Repeat part of the stimulus t e x t when you do not know what to do. 5. Use some s u f f i x you know when u n c e r t a i n as to what s u f f i x to use. (No general r u l e could be s t a t e d f o r the use of s p e c i f i c i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u f f i x e s ( o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ) when faced w i t h the demand to respond to Berko items. The subj e c t s i n t h i s study over-generalized the s u f f i x e s / s / , /es/, /ed/, / i n g / , / i e s / , / ' s / and /s'/.) 108 I t i s obvious that the v a r i o u s age groups respond w i t h considerable s i m i l a r i t y when faced w i t h items they do not know. The group chose r u l e s 1, 4, 2, 3, and 5 i n that order. The A^ group chose r u l e s 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 i n that order and r e l i e d on r u l e 1 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s frequency than d i d the A^ group. The A^ group a l s o r e l i e d on r u l e 3 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s frequency than d i d the A^ group. This l a t t e r group ordered i t s choice of r u l e s 3, 1, 2, 5, 4. In comparison w i t h the A^ group the A^ group r e l i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more on r u l e 3 and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s on r u l e s 1 and 4. These suggested r u l e s are important f o r two reasons. They i n d i c a t e t h a t age i s the most important f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g which r u l e s deaf subjects f o l l o w when faced w i t h a Berko-type task and that method i s not an important f a c t o r . The importance of the age f a c t o r here u n d e r l i n e s the importance of the f i n d i n g s of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r age found i n the e a r l i e r , s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Perhaps the most important f a c t i s that these suggested r u l e s do not appear i n the grammar of normally-hearing c h i l d r e n . They speak of a group of people who have s i m p l i f i e d grammars, grammars which change w i t h age at a much l a t e r date than do the grammars of other c h i l d r e n . Though a good many deaf subjects appear to share v a r i o u s of these suggested r u l e s , they are not " u n i v e r s a l " . Responses tend to be h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c even w i t h i n these g e n e r a l i z e d r u l e s . These f i n d i n g s are opposed to the suggestion by Cooper (1965) that responses to Berko-type items i n d i c a t e that deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n share u n i v e r s a l r u l e s of grammar. The deaf subjects i n t h i s study deviated g r e a t l y from the hearing and appear to be employing unique r u l e s f o r response. 109 Dichotomy of Subject Responses C e r t a i n groups of s u b j e c t s under both language teaching methods appeared unable to respond c o r r e c t l y to a l l or almost a l l Menyuk and Berko items. Other subjects i n the and A^ age groups responded c o r r e c t l y to n e a r l y a l l items w h i l e others c o r r e c t e d h a l f or more. A l l A^ subjects demonstrated i n a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the items (Tables 33 to 44 Appendices J and K). I n a l l cases except one, those subjects i n the lowest q u a r t i l e s of responses to Menyuk items appeared i n the lowest q u a r t i l e s or responses to Berko items. Though there i s not so s t r i k i n g a comparison f o r the upper two q u a r t i l e s , there i s a tendency f o r those who do w e l l on one to do w e l l on the other. The Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n between the two measures was r = .59 ( s i g n i f i c a n t at .05; df = 7 3 ) . Why do some subjects demonstrate such a b i l i t y w h i l e the m a j o r i t y demonstrate t o t a l or almost t o t a l i n a b i l i t y to respond c o r r e c t l y ? I t would be simple to d i s m i s s the u n i v e r s a l l a c k of a b i l i t y among the youngest subjects as a r e s u l t of inappropriateness of t e s t m a t e r i a l s or i n s t r u c t i o n . Yet a few subjects do respond w i t h p e r f e c t correctness to one or two items w h i l e others demonstrate v a r y i n g degrees of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p r i n c i p l e s being examined. In a d d i t i o n a l l language p r i n c i p l e s u t i l i z e d had been presented to a l l s u b j e c t s . By age nine some of these p r i n c i p l e s had been reviewed r e g u l a r l y f o r a p e r i o d of three years. The f a c t t h a t subjects d i d c o r r e c t or attempt to c o r r e c t items i n d i c a t e s that at l e a s t some understood the i n s t r u c t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y a l l words and language c o n s t r u c t i o n s were 110 f a m i l i a r to the s u b j e c t s . In a d d i t i o n a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s were presented i n s i g n language w i t h which the subjects were f a m i l i a r . I t i s even more d i f f i c u l t to suggest reasons why so many old e r subjects o b t a i n minimal scores w h i l e a l i m i t e d number deal e a s i l y w i t h the m a j o r i t y of items. Attempts were made to group the subjects i n t o low-high s c o r i n g groups f o r s t a t i s t i c a l comparison on the v a r i a b l e s of h e a r i n g , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and e t i o l o g y . Age and sex comparisons had already been made. Unfortu n a t e l y a number of d i f f i -c u l t i e s arose. E t i o l o g y was not s u i t a b l e as a v a r i a b l e s i n c e approximately h a l f of the subjects f e l l i n the unknown e t i o l o g y category. In a d d i t i o n n e i t h e r set of t e s t scores revealed a p l a t e a u where a l o g i c a l break i n t o low-high groups was p o s s i b l e . At t h i s time, given the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , a d e f i n i t e e x p l a nation cannot be o f f e r e d . One d e f i n i t e statement can be made. This phenomenon occurs under both methodologies and to approximately the same extent f o r both t e s t s . Response to I n d i v i d u a l Test Items I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t responses to Menyuk and Berko items due to the i n a b i l i t y to perform an item a n a l y s i s . As noted e a r l i e r a few items i n each t e s t were somewhat more or l e s s d i f f i c u l t . However, a l l items i n each :test were beyond the c o r r e c t i o n a b i l i t y of the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s . Menyuk's t e s t contained too few exemplars of any language p r i n c i p l e to suggest any r u l e s of performance. Item 6 i n which a noun phrase was omitted appeared to present e x t r a d i f f i c u l t y . Item 24 i n which a noun phrase redundancy appeared was among the b e t t e r answered items. S i m i l a r comparisons can be made f o r items 8 and 9, both verb form items, and 12 and 14, both word order items. A l l other items were the only exemplars of t h e i r type. No p a t t e r n i s apparent except that revealed i n e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l analyses f o r age and sex. Berko's t e s t contained a. number of exemplars of most morphological forms i n v e s t i g a t e d . Possessive items as a group plus the present p r o g r e s s i v e tense form (zibbing) and the two t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense forms (nazzes and loodges) appeared to present e x t r a d i f f i c u l t y to the A^ and A^ age groups. The possessive forms appeared e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r the A^ formal method group. A l l items were of s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y f o r the A^ s u b j e c t s . Two aspects of responses to Berko items stand out. One i s that some /s/ and /ed/ items r e c e i v e d more c o r r e c t responses than other exemplars of t h e i r type. This occurred d e s p i t e the f a c t that these other exemplars were s i m i l a r i n every way except f o r the stimulus p i c t u r e and word. I t i s obvious that subjects responded i n c o n s i s t e n t l y to s i m i l a r items r e q u i r i n g demonstration of the same r u l e . One explanation f o r t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c y would be that some subjects had not i n t e r n a l i z e d the r u l e s and were applying them on some b a s i s other than i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . The p o s s i b i l i t y that memory might be p l a y i n g an important r o l e i n responses must be considered when the r e a l word items " g l a s s e s " and "rang" are examined. Though these items are formed using the same r u l e s as t h e i r exemplars, they stand out as being c o r r e c t e d at a much higher l e v e l . The only l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n i s that some su b j e c t s r e c a l l e d the forms of these s p e c i f i c words from p r i o r experience 112 and responded to them from memory. Such a memory l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g would e x p l a i n many of the response patterns or l a c k of p a t t e r n i n response noted f o r both t e s t s . The Berko and Menyuk arguments i n favour of an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n p o s i t i o n f o r hearing c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s t u d i e s , argue f o r a memory p o s i t i o n f o r the deaf subjects i n t h i s study. One cannot assume a l l deaf c h i l d r e n are memorizing grammatical r u l e s r a t h e r than i n t e r n a l i z i n g them. The a b i l i t y of some deaf subjects to respond c o r r e c t l y to most stimulus items i n d i c a t e s f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d performance l e v e l s . At the same time i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n cannot be assumed. The t o t a l or almost t o t a l incompetence of many deaf subjects i n responding to Berko and Menyuk items would not permit such an assumption. 113 CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of n a t u r a l and formal language teaching programmes devised f o r use w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n . The two methods were evaluated r e l a t i v e to each other and r e l a t i v e to the a b i l i t y of hearing c h i l d r e n i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i e d grammatical p r i n c i p l e s . F o r t y - n i n e n a t u r a l method and twenty-six formal method subjects p a r t i c i p a t e d . Subjects were assigned to three age groups (A^ - 9 years, 0 months to 10 years, 11 months; A^ - 12 years, 0 months to 13 years, 11 months; A^ - 15 years, 0 months to 16 yea r s , 11 months). Groups were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by teaching method (N^, N^ and N^ = n a t u r a l method A^, A^ and A^ groups; F^, F 2 , F^ = formal method A^, A^, and A^ groups). Excluded from t h i s study were those students w i t h I.Q.'s of l e s s than 85 or more than 115, w i t h a b e t t e r ear hearing l o s s of l e s s than 80 dB. I.S.O., who were deafened p o s t - n a t a l l y , who sustained a m u l t i p l y handicapping c o n d i t i o n , w i t h a school h i s t o r y of l e s s than three years or who had attended more than one day or r e s i d e n t i a l school f o r the deaf. A l l s ubjects were administered Menyuk's Test of Grammatical  Competence and Berko's Test of Morphological Rules. These instruments were employed to f a c i l i t a t e the e v a l u a t i o n of each programme under the SIP0 ( s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , input f a c t o r s , process f a c t o r s , outcome f a c t o r s ) programme e v a l u a t i o n model. Appropriate s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were u t i l i z e d to compare t e s t r e s u l t s f o r hearing c h i l d r e n and the r e s u l t s f o r n a t u r a l and formal method s u b j e c t s . These l a t t e r comparisons i n v e s t i g a t e d method, age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s . R e s u l t s f o r deaf subjects were subjected to d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . 2. R e s u l t s Q u a n t i t a t i v e Both n a t u r a l and formal method deaf subjects obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores on the Menyuk and Berko t e s t s than d i d hearing s u b j e c t s . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between each deaf group and the hearing group f o r each t e s t . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that hypotheses one and two, s t a t i n g that such a d i f f e r e n c e would be found, could not be r e j e c t e d . Hypotheses three and fo u r s t a t e d that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would be found between the deaf groups f o r method. The only s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n t h i s area were a method X sex and a method X age i n t e r a c t i o n f o r possessive items on the Berko t e s t . Though these two s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h i s one language p r i n c i p l e d e t r a c t s l i g h t l y from the consistency of r e s u l t s f o r the s i x major analyses i n v o l v e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the methods f a c t o r , i t appears that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n a t u r a l method does not d i f f e r from that of the formal method. Hypotheses f i v e and s i x i n d i c a t e d that no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e would be found f o r responses to e i t h e r t e s t . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r both Menyuk analyses. No s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r the four Berko analyses though a s i g n i f i c a n t method X sex i n t e r a c t i o n was found f o r possessive items. These contrary f i n d i n g s , i n the l i g h t of no other f i n d i n g s f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s among deaf subjects i n other language s t u d i e s , w h i l e i n t e r e s t i n g are not e l u c i d a t i n g . The suggestion that sex may be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r f o r some language f u n c t i o n s i n d i c a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g area of f u t u r e research. The l i t e r a t u r e has been d i v i d e d on the question of age d i f f e r e n c e s f o r language a b i l i t y of deaf s u b j e c t s . Hypotheses seven and e i g h t , suggesting s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s question. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the and A^ and the A^ and A^ groups were found f o r Menyuk analyses. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the A^ and A^ groups were found f o r a l l Berko analyses. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the A^ and A^ groups were found f o r a l l Berko analyses except possessives. These f i n d i n g s argue s t r o n g l y f o r the acceptance of hypotheses seven and e i g h t . They a l s o i n d i c a t e that the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language a b i l i t y and age i s somewhat more complex than other s t u d i e s would suggest. Q u a l i t a t i v e The analyses of response patt e r n s to the two t e s t s suggested that the language a b i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n may be lower than some i n v e s t i g a t o r s had estimated. In the case of phonological a b i l i t i e s i t would appear that previous researchers erred i n r e s t r i c t i n g p o s s i b l e subject responses and reported s p u r i o u s l y i n f l a t e d data. General d i f f i c u l t y was evinced when subjects were r e q u i r e d to repeat agrammatical sentences f i r s t as they were given and then w i t h appropriate c o r r e c t i o n s . Many subjects were unable to repeat the 116 sentences under e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n . Deaf c h i l d r e n d i d not d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r number of c o r r e c t i o n s to the agrammatical sentences when requested to make c o r r e c t i o n s . Menyuk's study i n d i c a t e d t h a t much younger hearing c h i l d r e n experienced l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y performing such requested c o r r e c t i o n s . U n l i k e the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d by Menyuk, the deaf nine to s i x t e e n year o l d plus s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study demonstrated more omissions and s u b s t i t u t i o n s than c o r r e c t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . Various Menyuk items proved more or l e s s d i f f i c u l t than average f o r the deaf s u b j e c t s . I t was not p o s s i b l e to note any p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s f o r d i f f i c u l t y due to the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t exemplars of any one grammatical p r i n c i p l e and the unfortunate imbalance of s u b j e c t s which rendered s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i m p o s s i b l e . Deaf s u b j e c t s demonstrated a c o n c l u s i v e l a g i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of morphological r u l e s i n response to Berko items. That such a l a g e x i s t e d had been i n d i c a t e d i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s but the extent of the l a g was s h i e l d e d by c e r t a i n design problems i n those s t u d i e s . P a t t e r n s of response to Berko items are apparent. These pa t t e r n s may be r e l a t e d to r u l e s i n deaf c h i l d r e n ' s grammar. Suggested r u l e s were noted e a r l i e r . Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t the degree to which deaf s u b j e c t s t u r n to these suggested r u l e s appears to be a g e - r e l a t e d and not method-related. In a d d i t i o n , these r u l e s are not apparent i n the grammar of normally-hearing c h i l d r e n . As w i t h Menyuk items c e r t a i n Berko items presented g r e a t e r or l e s s e r d i f f i c u l t y to the deaf s u b j e c t s . Possessive items were d i f f i c u l t f o r the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s as were the present p r o g r e s s i v e tense item and the two t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense items. A number of p l u r a l items i n /s/ and one past tense item i n /ed/ presented l e s s d i f f i c u l t y to the deaf subjects than d i d other items of s i m i l a r nature. Not a l l deaf subjects were unable to deal w i t h Menyuk and Berko items. A l i m i t e d number demonstrated a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of competence when faced w i t h items from both t e s t s . A few others appeared able to deal w i t h the items i n one t e s t but demonstrated l e s s e r a b i l i t y when faced w i t h the other. Both Berko and Menyuk advanced t h e o r i e s to e x p l a i n how they were able to conclude that the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s t u d i e s had i n t e r n a l i z e d grammatical r u l e s . These t h e o r i e s were based on patterns of response apparent i n the data obtained. I f the Menyuk and Berko p o s i t i o n s can be accepted, the deaf c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study have not i n t e r n a l i z e d these same grammatical r u l e s to the same extent as much younger hearing c h i l r e n . There i s more support f o r a statement that deaf c h i l d r e n memorize r u l e s than that they i n t e r n a l i z e them. 3. Conclusions Q u a n t i t a t i v e and Q u a l i t a t i v e N e i t h e r the n a t u r a l method nor the formal method language teaching programme provides the deaf c h i l d w i t h the language a b i l i t y of much younger hearing c h i l d r e n . A few deaf c h i l d r e n i n the age range twelve to s i x t e e n years demonstrate a f a i r degree of a b i l i t y but the great m a j o r i t y of subjects i n t h i s study do not. The n a t u r a l method i s no more s u c c e s s f u l than the formal 118 method i n enabling the deaf c h i l d to deal w i t h the language p r i n c i p l e s s t u d i e d . Both r e s u l t i n remarkably low standards of performance f o r the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s employing Berko type t e s t s d i d not r e v e a l the true extent of language d e f i c i e n c y . I t i s not c l e a r whether or not a sex d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s i n response to language items. Other language s t u d i e s have not examined t h i s f a c t o r and the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are not s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c l u s i v e to support a f i r m statement i n t h i s area. I t i s c l e a r that age i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n response to language items of the type s t u d i e d here. Other s t u d i e s agree w i t h t h i s f i n d i n g but not a l l agree that language a b i l i t y i n creases w i t h age at a s i g n i f i c a n t r a t e . Pugh (1946), Wrightstone et a l (1962) and G e n t i l e (1969) a l l present f i n d i n g s which i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to approximately age ten or twelve w i t h a p l a t e a u e f f e c t t h e r e a f t e r . Garber (1967), Lowenbraun (1969) and Schmitt (1970) o f f e r evidence of a continued slow r a t e of increase i n a b i l i t y w e l l past these ages. This study agreed w i t h the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n but suggested d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e s of increase r e l a t i v e to d i f f e r i n g language t a s k s . The wide range of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d responses to Menyuk and Berko items and the apparent patterns f o r i n c o r r e c t responses to Berko items suggested that some i n c o r r e c t l y i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s may be f u n c t i o n i n g i n groups of deaf i n d i v i d u a l s . The f a c t that normal r u l e s f o r the grammatical p r i n c i p l e s examined have not been i n t e r n a l i z e d i s obvious. The deaf subjects i n t h i s study d i d not respond as do i n d i v i d u a l s who have i n t e r n a l i z e d grammatical r u l e s i f the arguments f o r i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n advanced f o r subject responses i n the Berko and Menyuk s t u d i e s are v a l i d . The subjects of t h i s study c o n s i s t e n t l y d i d those t h i n g s which are much more consonant w i t h responses based on attempted memorization of the r u l e s i n v o l v e d . The f i n d i n g s of one study are f a r from s u f f i c i e n t to even suggest that the m a j o r i t y of deaf subjects f u n c t i o n on the b a s i s of memorization of language r u l e s . However, they are s u f f i c i e n t to render i t untenable to assume an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of r u l e s p o s i t i o n . Programme E v a l u a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n of the success of the two language programmes was d i f f i c u l t . The major o b s t a c l e f a c i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r was the l a c k of f o r m u l a t i o n of programme goals i n a manner conducive to e v a l u a t i o n . Though the n a t u r a l method school had developed a "programme book", t h i s "book" d i d not s t a t e e x p l i c i t goals i n the area of language. C u r r i c u l a are being prepared and i t i s the i n t e n t of school o f f i c i a l s that s p e c i f i c goals w i l l be s t a t e d , but these statements were not a v a i l a b l e at the time of t h i s study. Though goals e v a l u a t i o n was not an o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study, i t i s obvious that both schools would b e n e f i t from e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s type. Due to the vagueness or l a c k of goals i t was impossible to conclude whether the intended s i t u a t i o n s , inputs and processes grew l o g i c a l l y from programme goals. These f a c t o r s do appear l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one another. However, some incongruencies appeared between intended and observed inputs and processes. The n a t u r a l method school r e l i e d to some degree on d r i l l work and i n many respects t r e a t e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m guide as a d e f i n i t e d e l i n e a t i o n of the order i n which grammatical p r i n c i p l e s were to be taught. Both a c t i o n s depart 120 from the intended philosophy of the n a t u r a l method. The formal methdd school employed a number of teachers without s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n the area of hearing impairment. In a d d i t i o n minimal a t t e n t i o n was paid to the p r o v i s i o n of a u d i t o r y a m p l i f i c a t i o n systems f o r o l d e r students. Both of these a c t i o n s depart from accepted p r a c t i c e t i n p r o v i d i n g the best language i n s t r u c t i o n f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . Observation of processes i n both schools i n d i c a t e d that l e s s o n plans were o f t e n modified and intended processes thereby a l t e r e d . I t was a l s o observed that t e a c h e r - c h i l d communications were not always i n the form intended f o r use i n each school. I t would appear that the extent to which intended and observed inputs and processes are congruent i s l e s s than p e r f e c t . Though t a r g e t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n , which i s concerned w i t h the extent of such congruency, was not an o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study, such e v a l u a t i o n would be of considerable i n t e r e s t . The d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s or outcomes and d i s c u s s i o n of programme goals i n d i c a t e s that a s i m p l e , p o s i t i v e or negative response as to whether e i t h e r programme met the goals i m p l i e d f o r i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . C e r t a i n l y the outcomes f o r the programmes as u n i f i e d schemes do not meet the programme goals s t a t e d . A l i m i t e d number of i n d i v i d u a l s do meet success i n employing grammatical p r i n c i p l e s but the m a j o r i t y do not. 4. I m p l i c a t i o n s Programme E v a l u a t i o n Education of the deaf i n d i v i d u a l appears to be a f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the programme evaluator. U n l i k e other areas of education, education of the deaf has not been i n v o l v e d i n c l o s e s c r u t i n y of school programmes beyond the a c c r e d i t a t i o n l e v e l found i n American 121 schools. Glass (1970) has o u t l i n e d the weaknesses of the a c c r e d i t a t i o n model i n programme e v a l u a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that many schools f o r the deaf may not possess w e l l - d e f i n e d programme goals. In a d d i t i o n incongruencies e x i s t between intended and observed s i t u a t i o n a l , i n p u t , process and outcome f a c t o r s w h i l e the contingencies imputed f o r these f a c t o r s are h i g h l y suspect. Extensive e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t y could w e l l a s s i s t educators and others i n d e f i n i n g u n i f i e d c u r r i c u l a and i n p r o v i d i n g a much c l e a r e r view of the p o t e n t i a l growth of deaf i n d i v i d u a l s i n v a r i o u s programme areas. Language Programme S e l e c t i o n O f f i c i a l s i n a school f o r the deaf t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e l e c t one of the two present mainstream language approaches f o r u n i v e r s a l use i n that school. Various reasons are o f f e r e d f o r the s e l e c t i o n of that programme. This study i n d i c a t e s that n e i t h e r the n a t u r a l approach nor the formal approach i s e f f e c t i v e i n teaching language to the m a j o r i t y of deaf students nor i s one approach more e f f e c t i v e than the other. C a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of process f a c t o r s suggests that more s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t s i n a c t u a l l e s s o n methodology than i s apparent i n the p h i l o s o p h i e s underlying supposedly d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed programmes. Extensive q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e examiniation of outcomes demonstrates remarkably s i m i l a r programme e f f e c t s . One i m p l i c a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s i s that educators of the deaf may be much more f l e x i b l e i n choosing a method to f i t the c h i l d . A second i m p l i c a t i o n i s that research i n t o a l t e r n a t e methods of teaching language and f i n a n c i a l and moral support of promising programmes i s necessary. 122 5. Suggested Future Research 1. The major question r i s i n g from t h i s study r e l a t e s to the a b i l i t y of a l i m i t e d number of deaf subjects to de a l w i t h the language p r i n c i p l e s examined w h i l e the m a j o r i t y demonstsate almost t o t a l l a c k of such success. I n d i v i d u a l s of both types should be the subjects of d e t a i l e d examination to determine i f the language methods were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the success of some subjects or i f the f a c t o r s necessary f o r success are not r e l a t e d to programme. Extensive n e u r o l o g i c a l examination should not be ignored. 2. Refinement of the two t e s t instruments i s suggested. Both appear to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among deaf subjects on the b a s i s of langauge a b i l i t y but the a d d i t i o n of more items to probe s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s would r e s u l t i n heightened d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . The range of p r i n c i p l e s examined could be u s e f u l l y extended to add to the d i a g n o s t i c value as w e l l . 3. A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s of the congruence between programme o b j e c t i v e s and s i t u a t i o n a l , i n p u t , process and outcome f a c t o r s i s recommended. Programme o b j e c t i v e s appear un r e l a t e d to outcome f a c t o r s . Intended s i t u a t i o n a l , input and process f a c t o r s appear congruent but t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y i n l e a d i n g to intended outcome f a c t o r s c a l l e d f o r by programme goals i s o b v i o u s l y d e f i c i e n t . There are e a s i l y observable incongruencies between intended and observed i n p u t , process and outcome f a c t o r s . Studies focussed on goals e v a l u a t i o n and t a r g e t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n are recommended f o r both schools. 4. Studies of the success of other language teaching programmes f o r deaf c h i l d r e n should be undertaken. The success of v a r i o u s programmes should be stud i e d w i t h a view toward d e f i n i n g a language programme most s u i t e d to the needs of deaf i n d i v i d u a l s . 123 5. Studies examining the f a c t o r of sex i n language success should be undertaken. 6. A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s examining the f a c t o r of age i n language success should be undertaken. 7. I t i s the view of a number of i n d i v i d u a l s concerned w i t h the education of deaf c h i l d r e n that there are p a r a l l e l s between the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h by deaf c h i l d r e n and the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h as a second language by non-English speaking i n d i v i d u a l s . I t would be of (V i n t e r e s t to apply the t e s t s used i n t h i s study to members of t h i s l a t t e r group to document s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups. B e n e f i t s may accrue to both as the r e s u l t of such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . 5. L i m i t a t i o n s 1. The subjects of t h i s study were s e l e c t e d from the populations a v a i l a b l e i n two s p e c i f i c schools. Each school had developed an i n d i v i d u a l approach to one of two s p e c i f i c mainstream techniques of teaching language to deaf c h i l d r e n . The s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s of t h i s study cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d beyond deaf c h i l d r e n meeting the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n i n schools w i t h s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n a l , input and process f a c t o r s . 2. The t e s t instruments i n v e s t i g a t e d a l i m i t e d number of grammatical p r i n c i p l e s . G e r n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s beyond these p r i n c i p l e s i s unwarranted. 3. C e r t a i n grammatical p r i n c i p l e s were not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n depth by the instruments employed. General statements regarding response patterns based on responses to these p r i n c i p l e s i s unwarranted. 4. Programme goals were not w e l l - d e f i n e d by e i t h e r school. Programme goals were i m p l i e d by o f f i c i a l s and c u r r i c u l a i n both schools/: but these i m p l i e d goals should not be g e n e r a l i z e d to other schools: 124 REFERENCES Barry, K.E. 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B e l l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Deaf, Inc., 1964. Stufflebeam, D.L. E v a l u a t i o n as enlightenment f o r d e c i s i o n making. In Improving Educational Assessment and an Inventory of A f f e c t i v e  Behavior. Washington, D.C.: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and Curriculum Development, N.E.A., 1969. C i t e d by R. Conry and C. U n d e r l e i d e r , Notes on the development of a general framework of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. Stufflebeam, D.L. The use of experimental design i n e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement, 1971, 8, 267-274. Vernon, M. M u l t i p l y handicapped deaf c h i l d r e n : A study of the s i g n i f i c a n c e and causes of the problem. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Claremont Graduate School, 1966. Templin, M.C. 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APPENDIX A ASSESSING COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOR YODER MODEL Comprehension Au d i t o r y I A c u i t y P e r c e p t i o n Production W r i t t e n Speech Gesture I• Language Content Semantics Concepts Vocabulary I I . Language S t r u c t u r e Phonology Morphology Syntax I I I . E x t r a - L i n g u i s t i c V a r i a b l e s A t t e n t i o n P e r c e p t i o n D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Memory IV. Task V a r i a b l e s Stimulus M a t e r i a l s — T H E t h i n g ; t h i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n Response F o r m — V e r b a l ; w r i t t e n ; g e s t u r a l ; r e f u s a l Consequences—Motivational events V. S i t u a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s P h y s i c a l Environment—Home; c l i n i c ; h o s p i t a l ; school Examiner-Examinee Status Language Code D i f f e r e n c e s V i s u a l I Motor Graphic 129 SELECTED TESTS OF LANGUAGE BEHAVIOR TO ASSESS THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OF LANGUAGE (YODER) Language S t r u c t u r e Phonology - Speech sounds Morphology - Word forms tenses, p l u r a l i t y p o ssessive, comparative pronoun changes, p r e f i x e s , s u f f i c e s and Syntax - Word order phrase s t r u c t u r e transformations Semantics - Word meaning vocabulary (choice, v a r i e t y and number) concepts ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , r e l a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l ) b. c. a. b. Tests Templin-Darley Screening and Di a g n o s t i c Tests of A r t i c u l a t i o n Goldman-Fristoe A r t i c u l a t i o n Test The Deep Test of A r t i c u l a t i o n (McDonald) Developmental A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (Hejna) Test of E n g l i s h Morphology (Berko) E x p l o r a t o r y Test of Grammar (Berry and Talbot) A u d i t o r y Test f o r Language Comprehension (Carrow) Northwestern Syntax Screening Test (Lee) E v a l u a t i o n of Grammatical Capacity (Menyuk) Grammatic Closure-subtest of ITPA ( K i r k and McCarthy) Grammatical Comprehension Test ( B e l l u g i - K l i m a ) A n a l y s i s of spontaneous Language samples Selected items from Peabody Language Development K i t s Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (Dunn) WISC: Vocabulary and S i m i l a r i t i e s Subtest B i n e t : Vocabulary subtest ITPA: A u d i t o r y r e c e p t i o n V i s u a l r e c e p t i o n Verbal expression Manual expression A u d i t o r y v o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n V i s u a l Motor a s s o c i a t i o n e. The Basic Concept Inventory (Engleman) f. Boehm Test of Ba s i c Concepts (Boehm) g. A n a l y s i s of spontaneous language samples h. Selected items from Peabody Language Development K i t s h. c. d. APPENDIX B Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Items and E r r o r Source Sentence 1. He wash h i s d i r t y face. 2. They s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r beds. 3. They get mad and then they pushed him. 4. The barber cut o f f h i s h a i r o f f . 5. I want to go New York i n the morning. 6. He l i k e s to look at 7. My daddy has new o f f i c e downtown. 8. He growed bigger and bigger. 9. He l i k e t e d that funny game. 10. The l i t t l e boy i s washing h i s s e l f . 11. You p i c k up i t . 12. What name you're w r i t i n g : 13. There's three t r e e s . 14. Two brothers and one s i s t e r I have. 15. Don't put the hat. 16. I want a m i l k . 17. He took me at the c i r c u s today. 18. Where are the peoples? 19. Mommy was happy so he k i s s e d B e t t y . 20. The teacher w r i t e s that numbers. 21. I t i s n ' t any more r a i n . 22. He took h i s k n i f e from f a l l i n g . 23. This dress green. 24. She took i t away the hat. E r r o r Source verb form omitted a u x i l i a r y omitted verb tense agreement p r e p o s i t i o n redundancy p r e p o s i t i o n omitted noun phrase omitted a r t i c l e omitted verb form verb form r e f l e x i v e form word order word order verb-number agreement su b j e c t - o b j e c t i n v e r s i o n p a r t i c l e a r t i c l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p o s i t i o n i n a p p r o p r i a t e noun form subject-pronoun agreement determiner noun form "There" i n s e r t i o n verb i n a p p r o p r i a t e verb omitted noun phrase redundancy 131 APPENDIX C Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s A l l i n s t r u c t i o n s are to be given i n the a u d i t o r y , f i n g e r s p e l l e d , manual and p r i n t e d forms. Subjects are to be t e s t e d i n groups of seven to ten. R e p e t i t i o n of Sentences: 1. The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l say to the c l a s s . " I w i l l show you some sentences on the screen. You w i l l see one sentence each time. Write the sentence a f t e r you read i t . Write the sentence a f t e r I t u r n o f f the p r o j e c t o r . Do not ask any questions about the sentence." 2. A s i n g l e sample sentence w i l l be p r o j e c t e d . Seven seconds w i l l be allowed, e.g. They saw the dogg. 3. The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l say to the c l a s s . "Write the sentence now. Look at me when you are f i n i s h e d . I w i l l show you another sentence." 4. The remaining items w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. R e p e t i t i o n of Sentences w i t h C o r r e c t i o n : 1. The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l say to the c l a s s . " I w i l l show you the sentences again. The sentences are wrong. Make them c o r r e c t . Write each sentence a f t e r you have read i t . Do not ask any questions about the sentence." 132 2. The sample sentence w i l l be p r o j e c t e d f o r seven seconds, e.g. They saw the dogg. 3. The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l say to the c l a s s . "Write the sentence now. Look at me when you are f i n i s h e d . I w i l l show you another sentence. Remember to make the sentence c o r r e c t . " 4. The t e s t sentences w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. APPENDIX D Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Scaled Scoring System C r i t e r i a - p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source -no a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s excluding s p e l l i n g - a l l words included -punctuation not necessary - p e r f e c t c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source -some a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r e.g. Sentence 3-They got mad and they pushed him. 7-My daddy has a new o f f i c e i n downtown. 9-He l i k e d thay funny t h a t . a-perfect c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source - m o d i f i c a t i o n of sentence meaning - a l l words or a p p r o p r i a t e s u b s t i t u t e s i n c l u d e d - i f a l l words not i n c l u d e d , the sentence must end w i t h appropriate punctuation e.g. Sentence 2-They are s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r bags. 4-The barber was c u t t i n g h i s h a i r o f f . 19-Mommy was happy to see h i s son so she k i s s e d h i s son on the cheek. b-perfect c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source - m o d i f i c a t i o n of sentence meaning -some a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r e.g. Sentence 12-What are you w r i t i n g the name of t h i s s t o r y -imperfect c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r source but an obvious attempt -may have a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s e.g. Sentence 3-They get mad and them they pushing to them. 12-What name you are w r i t i n g ? 21-It i s n ' t r a i n any more. - m o d i f i c a t i o n of sentence meaning -no a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s e.g. Sentence 3-They get mad at him because he pushed them. 12-What i s your name? 15-Don't hang the hat. 18-The teacher w r i t e s a name. - a l l other responses i n c l u d i n g non-response 134 APPENDIX E Menyuk's Test of Grammatical Competence Category D e f i n i t i o n s and Examples C o r r e c t i o n - any c o r r e c t response i n c l u d i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s or truncated, but c o r r e c t , responses followed by the appropriate punctuation mark, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence He wash h i s d i r t y face. Responses: He washed h i s d i r t y face. He washes h i s d i r t y face. He washed. R e p e t i t i o n - a compete r e p e t i t i o n of the agrammatical sentence. S p e l l i n g and punctuation e r r o r s were ignored, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence He wash h i s d i r t y face. Response: He wash h i s d i r t y face. N o n - r e p e t i t i o n - no response at a l l or a response of only one or two words at the beginning of the sentence, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence He wash h i s d i r t y face. Response: None He Attempted C o r r e c t i o n - an attempt to c o r r e c t the source of agrammati-c a l i t y but w i t h an i n c o r r e c t form or w i t h a c o r r e c t form but w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s . e.g. Agrammatical Sentence They s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r beds. Responses: They sleeped i n t h e i r beds. They sleeped at t h e i r bed. Omission - the omission of a word(s) or a morpheme, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence They s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r beds. Responses: They s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r bed. The s l e e p i n g t h e i r bed. A d d i t i o n - the a d d i t i o n of a word(s) or morpheme, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence My daddy has new o f f i c e downtown. Responses: My daddy has new o f f i c e i n the downtown. S u b s t i t u t i o n - the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a word(s) or a morpheme f o r that given i n the sentence, e.g. Agrammatical Sentence He wash h i s d i r t y f a ce. Response: He was a d i r t y face. Word Order - a change i n the order of the o r i g i n a l sentence. 136 e.g. Agrammatical Sentence They s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r beds. Response: They s l e e p i n g t h e i r i n beds. APPENDIX F Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Sample Item This i s a wug. Now there i s another one. There are two of them. There are two 138 APPENDIX G Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Items and E r r o r Source Item E r r o r Source 1. This i s a wug. p l u r a l form Now there i s another one. There are two of them. There are two S i m i l a r l y f o r items: 2. gutch; 4. kazh; 7. t o r ; 9. l u n ; 10. n i z ; 12. e r a ; 13. t a s s ; 17. heaf; 18. g l a s s : 2. This i s a mean who knows how to spow. past tense form He i s spowing. He d i d the same t h i n g yesterday. What d i d he do yesterday? Yesterday he . S i m i l a r l y f o r items: 5. r i c k ; 11. mot; 14. bod; 19. g l i n g ; 20. b i n g ; 23. r i n g : 3. This i s a man who knows how to naz. He i s nazzing. He does i t every day. t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense form Every day he S i m i l a r l y f o r item: 20. loodge: 4. This i s a n i z z who owns a hat. Whose hat i s i t ? possessive s i n g u l a r form I t i s the hat. Now there are two n i z z e s . They both own hats. possessive p l u r a l form Whose hats are they? They are the hats. 5. This i s a man who knows how to z i b . present p r o g r e s s i v e form 139 What i s he doing? He i s . 6. This i s an i c e cube. Ice melts. I t i s m e l t i n g . Now i t i s a l l gone. What happened to i t ? I t past tense form APPENDIX H Berko's Test of Morphological Rules A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s A l l i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be given i n the a u d i t o r y , f i n g e r s p e l l e d , manual and p r i n t e d forms. Subjects are to be t e s t e d in: groups of seven to ten. 1. The experimenter w i l l i s s u e the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . " I want you to look at some p i c t u r e s on the screen. Look at the p i c t u r e s and read the sentences." 2. The f i r s t p i c t u r e and the accompanying t e x t w i l l be presented. A f t e r f i v e seconds the experimenter w i l l emphasize the need to read the t e x t by p o i n t i n g to each sentence. 3. The experimenter w i l l p o i n t to the blank l e f t i n the t e x t and ask, "What word do you need here? Think to y o u r s e l f and do not t e l l anyone." 4. The experimenter w i l l d i s t r i b u t e the response sheets a f t e r i s s u i n g the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . " I w i l l give you an answer sheet. Look at number one... Write the word you need. You need only one word. Think c a r e f u l l y . 5. The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l ensure that a l l attempt the question. 6. The remaining items w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. 141 APPENDIX I Berko's Test of Morphological Rules Scaled Scoring System P l u r a l Form: Items: wugs, t o r s , l u n s , eras, gutches, kazhes, n i z z e s , t a s s e s , g l a s s e s , heafes/ves: Score C r i t e r i a 4 - p e r f e c t response 3 -use of major part of stimulus word (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word - c o r r e c t p l u r a l ending e.g. bugs, t a r s , l e a v e s , c r a c k e r s , cros 2 a-stimulus word - c o r r e c t p l u r a l ending - i n a p p r o p r i a t e accompanying a r t i c l e e.g. a wugs b-stimulus word - i n a p p r o p r i a t e p l u r a l ending e.g. lunes, n i z z s , c r a i e s c - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of stimulus p i c t u r e to produce a r e a l word - c o r r e c t p l u r a l ending - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. chickens, b i r d s , t e e t h , mushrooms d-use of a r e a l word d e s c r i b i n g some part of the stimulus p i c t u r e - c o r r e c t p l u r a l ending - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. hooks, l e g s , eyes 1 a-stimulus word - i n a p p r o p r i a t e p l u r a l ending 142 e.g. a gutchs, a kazhs b-use of an appropriate pronoun form e.g. them c-any response w i t h an appropriate p l u r a l ending e.g. chosts, traughts 143 Past Tense Form: Items: spowed, r i c k e d , motted, bodded, melted, glinged/glang, binged/bang, ringed/rang: Score C r i t e r i a 4 - p e r f e c t response 3 -use of major part of stimulus word (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word - c o r r e c t past tense marker e.g. bringed, binned, matted, g l i n d e d , bonged 2 a-stimulus word - c o r r e c t past tense marker -no double f i n a l consonant where r e q u i r e d e.g. boded, moted b-stimulus word - c o r r e c t past tense marker -double f i n a l consonant where not re q u i r e d e.g. bingged c - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of stimulus p i c t u r e to produce a r e a l word - c o r r e c t past tense marker - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. walked, played, climbed d-use of a r e a l word d e s c r i b i n g some pa r t of the stimulus p i c t u r e - c o r r e c t past tense marker - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. bowled, .speaked 1 a-use of major part of stimulus word (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word -no double f i n a l consonant where r e q u i r e d - c o r r e c t past tense marker e.g. mated .b-use of major part of stimulus (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word -double f i n a l consonant where not re q u i r e d - c o r r e c t past tense marker .g. gringged a l l other responses i n c l u d i n g non-response 145 Present P r o g r e s s i v e Tense Form: Item: z i b b i n g : Score C r i t e r i a - p e r f e c t response -Use of major pa r t of stimulus word to form some other r e a l or non-real word - c o r r e c t present p r o g r e s s i v e tense marker e.g. r i b b i n g a-stimulus word - c o r r e c t present p r o g r e s s i v e tense marker -no double f i n a l consonant where r e q u i r e d e.g. z i b i n g b - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of stimulus p i c t u r e to produce a r e a l word - c o r r e c t present p r o g r e s s i v e tense marker - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. c a r r y i n g -any response w i t h an appropriate present p r o g r e s s i v e tense marker e.g. e a r r i n g - a l l other responses i n c l u d i n g non-response 146 T h i r d Person S i n g u l a r Present Tense Form: Items: nazzes, loodges: Scores C r i t e r i a 4 - p e r f e c t response 3 -use of major part of stimulus word (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word - c o r r e c t t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense marker e.g. loodgs 2 -stimulus word - i n a p p r o p r i a t e t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense marker e.g. nazzs 1 -stimulus word - i n a p p r o p r i a t e t h i r d person s i n g u l a r present tense marker form -no f i n a l double consonant where r e q u i r e d e.g. nazs 0 - a l l other responses i n c l u d i n g non-response 147 Si n g u l a r and P l u r a l Possessive Forms: Items: n i z z ' s , b i k ' s , wug's, n i z z e s ' , b i k s ' , wugs': Score C r i t e r i a 4 - p e r f e c t response 3 -use of major part of stimulus word (50% minimum) to form some other r e a l or non-real word - c o r r e c t possessive form e.g. b i k e s ' , k i k ' s 2 a-stimulus word - i n a p p r o p r i a t e possessive form e.g. wug's ( f o r wugs'), b i k s ' ( f o r b i k ' s ) b - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of stimulus p i c t u r e to produce a r e a l word - c o r r e c t possessive form - c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g e.g. b i r d ' s , t o a s t e r ' s , square's 1 a - r e p e t i t i o n of word from stimulus t e x t - c o r r e c t possessive form e.g. own's b - s u b s t i t u t i o n of appropriate possessive pronoun form e.g. h i s ( f o r s i n g u l a r ) , t h e i r ( f o r p l u r a l ) c-any response w i t h an / ' s / or / s ' / ending e.g. n i z z e ' s , i t s ' , wuges's, bubs's 0 - a l l other responses i n c l u d i n g non-response 148 APPENDIX J Subject Scores f o r Menyuk Items Table 33 N^ Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Item Sex F M F F F F M M M F F F F F M M M 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 6 1 7 8 9 5 4 4 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 4 4 18 5 4 4 4 5 5 19 20 21 22 23 5 24 5 4 T o t a l 9 5 5 3 3 4 9 4 5 8 6 14 9 4 149: Table 34 F^ Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Item Sex M F M M F F M M M 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 11 4 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 4 4 20 4 21 22 23 24 5 T o t a l 13 16 150". Table 35 N_ Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Item Sex F F M F M M F M F M M F F F F M F F F 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 4 2 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 4 5 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 2 5 T o t a l 5 5 100 7 19 5 2 3 3 9 44 2 4 20 5 151 Table 36 F Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Item Sex F M M M F F F M F 1 5 5 4 2 4 4 5 5 3 2 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 2 5 5 6 7 5 8 5 5 9 5 2 3 5 10 4 3 3 5 11 3 5 12 1 5 13 5 5 14 4 3 5 15 1 16 5 5 5 17 4 3 5 18 5 5 19 5 5 3 20 5 3 4 1 5 21 22 23 4 5 5 5 5 24 5 5 5 T o t a l 9 22 25 16 71 21 1 104 152 Table 37 N Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Item Sex M F M F F M F F M M F M M 1 5 2 3 5 3 2 2 1 2 4 4 3 3 5 4 4 3 5 3 4 5 6 4 5 5 4 4 7 4 8 9 4 4 4 5 2 5 5 10 5 3 5 5 5 5 11 5 5 5 12 2 5 2 13 5 5 5 2 5 14 5 5 5 5 4 15 5 5 5 16 3 5 5 17 4 2 18 4 3 5 4 19 4 3 4 4 5 20 4 5 5 5 4 4 21 3 4 4 22 3 23 4 5 5 4 5 24 3. 5 5 5 5 T o t a l 24 6 14 82 5 8 75 52 6 31 57 5 3 153 Table 38 F Scores f o r Menyuk Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Item Sex F M F F F F F M 1 5 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 6 3 5 7 4 4 8 2 3 2 9 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 10 5 5 3 4 4 11 5 3 3 12 2 2 3 13 2 2 5 5 5 14 4 5 5 5 5 4 15 5 4 16 4 4 4 17 5 5 4 18 1 5 5 5 19 5 5 4 20 4 2 3 4 5 21 2 22 3 23 4 5 5 5 5 4 24 . 5 5 5 5 T o t a l 32 49 2 64 86 90 12 20 154 APPENDIX K Subject Scores f o r Berko Items Table 39 N., Scores f o r Berko Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Item Sex F M F F F F M M M F F F F F M M M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 21 22 23 2 24 2 25 1 26 1 27 T o t a l 2 2 6 155 Table 40 F^ Scores f o r Berko Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Item Sex M F M M F F M M M 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 4 4 1 3 5 1 6 2 2 7 2 8 1 2 9 1 1 10 1 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 4 T o t a l 4 12 2 1 17 156' Table 41 N. Scores f o r Berko Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Item Sex F F M F M M F M F M M F F F F M F F F 1 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 4 5 2 4 3 4 4 6 2 2 4 2 2 2 7 3 2 2 4 4 2 . 2 8 4 4 2 2 9 2 4 4 10 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 11 4 4 4 4 4 12 2 4 4 4 4 4 13 1 4 4 4 14 2 4 •2 4 4 4 15 4 16 3 4 1 4 4 17 3 4 4 4 18 4 4 4 4 4 19 2 4 2 4 20 4 4 21 1 22 4 23 4 24 4 4 25 4 26 3 27 1 1 T o t a l 15 38 7 95 24 4 53 58 54 2 1 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 1 4 2 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 10 1 12 97 10 8 86 16 151 Table 42 Scores f o r Berko Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Item Sex F M M M F F F M F 1 4 4 4 2 3 2 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 4 1 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 6 2 2 2 1 2 7 3 2 2 2 8 2 2 2 9 4 4 2 3 10 4 4 4 4 11 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 4 13 4 4 3 3 14 2 4 4 4 15 4 4 16 4 4 3 4 17 4 3 4 18 4 4 4 4 4 19 3 4 4 20 2 4 21 1 2 22 1 23 3 24 25 2 26 27 T o t a l 10 53 65 14 3 49 26 2 69 •158 -Table 43 N„ Scores f o r Berko Items Subj ect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Item Sex M F M F F M F F M M F M M 1 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 2 4 2 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 2 6 2 2 '2 J 4 4 4 1 2 7 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 8 4 2 2 4 2 2 9 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 1 10 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 11 4 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 4 2 4 13 4 2 4 4 2 4 14 4 2 4 4 4 15 2 16 4 4 3 4 4 17 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 18 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 19 2 4 2 1 4 20 4 21 4 22 4 2 4 23 4 2 1 24 4 2 1 25 1 1 1 26 1 1 1 1 27 1 1 1 1 T o t a l 54 3 59 90 73 9 57 49 2 6 9 1? 159, Table 44 F^ Scores f o r Berko Items Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Item Sex F M F F F F F M 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 '• . 4 2 2 5 2 4 4 2 6 2 4 2 2 2 2 7 2 . 4 2 2 1 2 8 2 4 2 9 4 4 4 10 4 4 4 4 11 2 4 4 2 12 4 4 4 2 13 4 3 4 2 14 4 4 4 2 15 4 4 4 4 16 4 4 3 17 3 3 18 4 -4 4 4 19 4 4 20 1 2 4 21 4 22 4 4 4 2 4 23 4 4 4 2 4 24 4 4 2 2 25 1 4 1 2 26 4 1 2 27 1 4 1 T o t a l 3 75 99 77 35 11 26 1 

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