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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Educational philosophies and locus of control in homeschooling and schooling parents Wingert, Heather Dianne 1989

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EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES AND LOCUS OF CONTROL-IN HOMESCHOOLINS AND SCHOOLING PARENTS by HEATHER DIANNE WINSERT B. A. Un :i. v e r s :i. t y o f B „ C» , 1964.. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS :i. n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES 1 E d u c a t i o n a I P s y c h o I o g y W e a c c e p t t h :i. s t h e s :i. s a s c o n f o r m :i. n g t o t he r e q u i r ed s t a n c l a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1.989 H e a t h €f r D i a n ne Win g e r t , 1989.. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of hc(lf\oufir£ STOPi£S The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Thr e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s ? t e n who had c h o s e n t o homeschool t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? and t w e n t y p u b l i c s c h o o l p a r e n t s ? t e n who had s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e Mont e s s o r i. p r o g r a m and t e n who had s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e r e g u l a r program c o m p l e t e d t h r e e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measurements and a Q - s o r t on e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s . T w e l v e p a r e n t s were l a t e r i n t e r v i e w e d . H o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s were found t o f e e l more i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s d e s t i n y and l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e and p o w e r f u l o t h e r s t h a n were s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s f e l t l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . T h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n measures o f i n t e r n a l i t y . R e s u l t s o f t h e Q - s o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s d i d not f a l l i n t o r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e l i b e r a l ? m o d e r a t e and c o n s e r v a t i v e g r o u p s . The Q - s o r t ? i n f a c t ? y i e l d e d f o u r f a c t o r s ? one l i b e r a l f a c t o r f o c u s i n g on ' s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' ? one f a c t o r f o c u s i n g on moral d e v e l o p m e n t and good c i t i z e n s h i p ? and one f o c u s i n g on a chi a I l e n g i n g a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . The f o u r t h f a c t o r was s i m i l a r t o t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r but s l i g h t l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e . F a c t o r I was c o m p r i s e d p r i m a r i l y o f h o m e s c h o o I e r s and H o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s ? F a c t o r II o f o n l y ' C h r i s t i a n ' h o m e s c h o o I e r s ? F a c t o r I I I o f M o n t e s s o r i and t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s and F a c t o r IV o f t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s o n l y . I n t e r v i e w s s u g g e s t e d t h a t h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s were w e l l - i n f o r m e d about c h i l d d e v e l opment and e d u c a t i o n w h i l e M o n t e s s o r i and F a c t o r I I I t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s were w£*l I i n f o r m e d about c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t . INDEX A b s t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i Index , i i i L i s t o f Tab I e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Ac know Iedgements. v i i C h a p t e r 1s I n t r o d u e t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C h a p t e r 2s Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e . ..................... 8 Over v i ew.................................... 8 E d u c a t i ana I Opt i oris . 9 E d u c a t i o n a l P h i I o s o p h i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 L o c u s o f C o n t r o l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 O t h e r I n f l u e n c e s on P a r e n t ' s D e c i s i o n s . . . . 3 5 Sumrnar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 C h a p t e r 3s M e t h o d o I o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Over v i e w 3 9 P r o b l e m and R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . 4 0 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . .......................... 43 Samp l i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 D a t a Ana I y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 C h a p t e r 4s R e s u l t s : L o c u s o f C o n t r o l and Q - S o r t . . . . 6 8 Over v i ew • 68 P i l o t S t u d y : C h i l d r e a r i n g LOC............ 68 Main S t u d y : LOC Measures., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Main S t u d y : Q - M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ANOVA o f Bel i e f Statements., .............. 88 Main S t u d y : R e s u l t s o f I n t e r v i e w s . . . . . . . . 96 C h a p t e r 5s R e s u l t s : D e s c r i p t i o n o f P a r e n t B e l i e f ' C I u s t e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 O v e r v i e w . ................................. 110 F a c t o r A r r a y I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 F a c t o r A r r a y 11......... 114 F a c t o r A r r a y 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 F a c t o r A r r a y I V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 C h a p t e r 6s D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 O v e r v i ew................................ 127 L o c u s o f C o n t r o l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 P a r e n t P h i l o s o p h i e s : Q - S o r t and I n t e r v i ews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Cone I u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 T y p e s o f B e l i e f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 0 Review o f t h e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i cms........ 153 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h . . . . 162 Summary.................................163 B i b I i o g r a p h y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 3 a Appendi x I• C o n t a c t w i t h S u b j e c t s : P i I o t . . . . . . . . . . 164 App e n d i x l i s R e c r u i t i n g o f S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Appendi x I l l s C o n t a c t w i t h P a r e n t S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . . 179 App e n d i x IVs I n s t r u m e n t s , . 187 a) I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 7 b) C h i I d - r e a r i n q L... o c u s o f C o n t r o I : 18 i t e r n s ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 c) C h i I d--r ear i n q L o c u s o f C o n t r o l s 12 i terns.. ..................... 200 d'.) R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S e a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 e> L e v e n s o n IPC S c a I e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 5 f :> Q-sor t S t a t e m e n t s . ................. 208 Appendi x Vs I n t e r v i e w s . ........................... 212 F a c t o r A r r a y s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 V TABLES 3-1 s F r e q u e n c i e s o f s c o r e s f o r s t r u c t u r e d Q - s o r t .,«„.. 50 3- 2; Mean number and ages o f c h i l d r e n f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4- 1 s Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measure i n p i Iot s t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4-2s C o r r e I a t i o n o f C h i I d - r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l w i t h f o u r o t h e r LOC m e a s u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4~3s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f LOC measures f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4-4: R e s u l t s o f St ud en t-Neuman-Ken Is M u l t i p l e C o n t r a s t s f o r LOC m e a s u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4-5: R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x o f Q - s o r t C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r A I I P a r e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4-6: S t a t e m e n t s o f b e l i e f r e c e i v i n g a score- more t h a n 1 s d . a b o v e t h e mean on t h e Q - s o r t . . . . . . . . . . 77 4-7: S t a t e m e n t s o f b e l i e f r e c e i v i n g a s c o r e more t h a n 1 s d be Iow t h e mean on t h e Q - s o r t . . . . . . . . . . 8 1 4-8: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f s c o r e s g i v e n e a c h p h i I osop h y <'. 28 i t ems ) w i t h i n eac h o f f i v e f a c t o r a r r a y s ( F a c t o r I, I I , I I I , IV, IVCa It.>>.85 4-9: St ud en t-Neuman-KeuIs MuIt i p I e Comp ar i son M e t h o d s D i f f er enc es i n mean sc o r e s g i v e n eac h p h i l o s o p h y (28 i t e m s ) f o r ea c h o f f i v e f a c t o r a r r a y s ( F a c t o r I, I I , I I I , IV, IV (a I t . ) ) . . . . . . . 8 6 4-10: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e mean s c o r e s g i v e n e ach o f t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i e s by t h e f i v e f a c t o r a r r a y s ( F a c t o r I, I I , I I I , IV and IV (a I t .!>>»... . 87 4 l i s Student-Neuman-Keu I s Mu I t i p I e C o n t r a s t s u D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean s c o r e s on e a c h p h i l o s o p h y between f i v e f a c t o r a r r a y s ( F a c t o r s I, I I , I I I , IV, and I V C a l t . ) ) . . „ „ . . . . . . . . . „ . . . . . 8 8 4--12 s St ud en t -Neuman -Ken I s Mu I t i p I e Comp ar i son method between t h e mean r a n k i n g s f o r i t e m s f o r t h r e e p a r e n t d e c i s i o n g r o u p s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 v:i. 4~-i3s Student-Neuman-Keu Is M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s o n method between t h e mean r a n k i n g s f o r i t e m s f o r t h e f o u r f a c t o r g r o u p s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 V I 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e h e l p o f my f a m i l y i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . My mother? G r a c e M i t c h e l l ? t a u g h t me t o l o v e l e a r n i n g and my f a t h e r ? Gordon Mitchell» t a u g h t me t h a t w i t h f a i t h i n y o u r s e l f and h a r d work you c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g you s e t your mind t o . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my c h i l d r e n ? Marc? Aaron? N i c k ? W i I l i a m ? K a r i a and J o s h who were p a t i e n t and h e l p f u l w h i l e mother went t o s c h o o l „ I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank my husband? John. I t i s o n l y w i t h h i s h e l p ? e n t h u s i a s m and encouragement? t h a t I was a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On March 18? 1989? a front page report in The Vancouver Sun revealed that "More than half of B.C. parents would send their children to independent schools i f they had the money* because they rate the public school system as doing only a " f a i r " job". Some of the comments from educators and school board members in response to the survey suggested that parents did not understand the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the public schools in integrating the educationally and physically handicapped and the non-English speaking? or that they aspired to send their children to "high p r o f i l e e l i t i s t schools". (Vancouver Sun, March 18? 1989). While i t may be that some parents' concerns are t r i v i a l or ephemeral? based on ignorance? i t may also be that parents hold certain b e l i e f s about education — what i t s goals are? how best to accomplish them — and about the nature of the learner? against which they compare the performance- of the school system. If the former i s the case? i f disaffected parents are merely misinformed? then professional educators need only increase their e f f o r t s to explain their goals and methods to parents. If however? parents hold contrary educational philosophies? then a dialogue should ensue to ensure that parents and educators are pursuing common goals and that each understands the b e l i e f s of the other and to promote mutual understanding and respect. The phenomenon o f c h o i c e i n e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t t o e d u c a t o r s . H i r s c h m a n (1970) comments t h a t f i r m s need a c o m b i n a t i o n o f ' a l e r t and i n e r t ' c u s t o m e r s . The a l e r t , ' q u a l i t y c o n s c i o u s ' c u s t o m e r s p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e f i r m , but t h e y w i l l abandon t h e f i r m i f i t d o e s not r e s p o n d t o t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s . He p r o p o s e s t h a t " i f t h e r e i s a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e q u a l i t y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , t h e s e s c h o o l s w i l l l o s e c h i l d r e n o f t h o s e h i g h q u a l i t y c o n s c i o u s p a r e n t s " ( p . 5 1 ) . Some o f t h e s e p a r e n t s move t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and d e v o t e t o t h e s e o f t e n s m a l l e r and f i n a n c i a l l y j e o p a r d i z e d i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o o l s , an e n v i a b l e l o y a l t y C E r i c k s o n , 1979). The a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n t h e ' q u a l i t y c o n s c i o u s ' p a r e n t s and w h i l e g a i n i n g t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e m a j o r i t y would seem t h e haI I mark o f a s c h o o l i n harmony w i t h t h e community i t s e r v e s . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e harmony and p u b l i c s u p p o r t , t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m must j u s t i f y i t s e l f t o p a r e n t s , p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s w h i c h e i t h e r meet t h e e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e s o f p a r e n t s or wh i c h c a n be d e f e n d e d t o p a r e n t s c o n v i n c i n g l y . I t i s assumed t h a t p a r e n t s who have c h o s e n v a r i o u s o p t i o n s do so as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s t h e y h o l d . "An i d e o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n may be d e f i n e d a s t h e s e t o f i d e a s and b e l i e f s h e l d by a g r o u p o f p e o p l e about t h e for m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y s c h o o l i n g . . . and by imp I i c a t i o n . . . I e a r n i n g a t home" (Meighan and Brown, 1980. p . 1 3 9 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e i d e o l o g i e s or b e l i e f s b e c a u s e "The a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s t r a n s l a t e r a t h e r d i r e c t l y i n t o ways o f t r e a t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n " C S t r a t t o n , 1988. p . 1 6 ) . P a r e n t s t e n d t o form ' b e l i e f c l u s t e r s ' which a r e r e s i s t a n t t o change- and w h i c h , even when i n t e r n a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t , can be c o n n e c t e d by ' o v e r a r c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' . S i g a l (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t " P r e d i c t a b i l i t y ( o f b e l i e f s ) t o b e h a v i o u r can be i m p r o v e d , I b e l i e v e , b e c a u s e an a c t i o n component may welI be i n h e r e n t or i n t r u s i v e i n t h e b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e " ( p . 3 6 9 ) . He n o t e s however, t h a t " r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have been r e p o r t e d l i n k i n g p a r e n t a l b e l i e f t o p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r . Most o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on p a r e n t a l b e l i e * f s w i t h l i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r a l o u t c o m e s . " ( p . 3 5 2 ) P a r e n t s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be a s k e d about t h e i r g e n e r a l b e l i e f s t h a n about t h e i r o p i n i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s . S u r v e y s — b o t h l o c a l , s u c h a s E r I a u t ' s s u r v e y o f D i s t r i c t #43 on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a lower m a i n l a n d (1979) and n a t i o n a l , s u c h a s t h e G a l l u p s u r v e y s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s — t e n d t o f o c u s upon s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , s u c h a s d i s c i p l i n e or t h e p r o v i s i o n o f F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n i n t h e c a s e o f t h e l o c a l s u r v e y or n a t i o n - w i d e t e s t i n g o f s t u d e n t s and t h e a d e q u a c y o f d r u g or a l c o h o l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n a l s u r v e y . Other s e r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o t a p p u b l i c o p i n i o n , s u c h a s " L e t ' s T a l k About S c h o o l s " (1985) and t h e 4 S u l l i v a n R e p o r t "A L e g a c y f o r L e a r n e r s " (1988) , w h i l e c a ) I i n g f o r p u b l i c i n p u t , measure r e s p o n s e s t o c e r t a i n p r o g r a m s or f e a t u r e s o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . In g e n e r a l > t h e f o c u s i s on t h e q u e s t i o n ' and p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f or a g a i n s t any p r o p o s a l . T h i s p r o b l e m c a n be c l a r i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e t o E y s e n c k ' s model o f a t t i t u d e s t r u c t u r e s ( E y s e n c k , 1957, a s q u o t e d i n Meighan, 1986 p.156. ). S p e c i f i c o p i n i o n ( "That n o i s y c h i l d i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t s p o i l e d my meal") l e a d s t o h a b i t u a l o p i n i o n ( " C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be s e e n and not h e a r d " ) . T h i s h a b i t u a l o p i n i o n i n t u r n i s subsumed under an a t t i t u d e ( " C h i l d r e n need f i r m d i s c i p l i n e " ) w hich i t s e l f f a l l s under t h e b r o a d e r r u b r i c o f c o n s e r v a t i v i s m . S u r v e y s t e n d t o e n q u i r e a t t h e l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c or h a b i t u a l o p i n i o n . Whether t h e r e i s any c o n n e c t i o n between b e i n g i n f a v o u r o f s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e and, f o r example, F r e n c h Immersion or any o t h e r s p e c i f i c i s s u e , i s not c o n s i d e r e d , nor i s whether t h e r e s p o n d a n t ' s b e l i e f s a r e drawn from a c o h e r e n t s e t o f b e l i e f s w hich a r e s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r p a r e n t s and w h i c h a r e s e t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o an a l t e r n a t e p h i l o s o p h y . P a r e n t s who c h o o s e t o keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n out o f s c h o o l and e d u c a t e them a t home can be e x p e c t e d t o have d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n t h a n do p a r e n t s who s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s . W i t h i n t h o s e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , p a r e n t s who c h o o s e t h e M o n t e s s o r i a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d a l s o be e x p e c t e d h o l d b e l i e f s w hich d i f f e r from those of parents who, after considering that alternative, reject i t in favour of the t r a d i t i o n a l program. Kerlinger (1970, 1984) has found two constellations of b e l i e f about education amongst educators, progressive and conservative but l i t t l e research has been done to describe the b e l i e f s of parents. If parents d i f f e r from one another in their responses to such issues as a r e f l e c t i o n of their adherance to certain b e l i e f s , i t would be wise to define the spectrum of b e l i e f and whether certain types of actions flow from these b e l i e f s . The parents in disparate groups — homeschoolers, Montessori parents and tra d i t i o n a l parents — have acted upon their b e l i e f s by choosing one form of education and rejecting others. The question before us now i s to define their b e l i e f s , how they came to their b e l i e f and to what degree there i s overlap among the groups. Perhaps t h i s information can help educators assess more precisely the degree of discontent within the school system. If homeschooling parents are similar to either of the other groups, one must ask why these people have elected to educate their children at home Similarly, i f d i s t i n c t groups are found to exist amongst those parents remaining in the school system, one must recognize that educational reforms which make suppositions about the nature of the c h i l d and the best environment for learning may appeal mightily to one group but may appall another. On the other hand, aI I public school parents may hold certain views in common. In 6 e i t h e r c a s e , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f s h e l d by p a r e n t s s h o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t o r s a t t e m p t i n g t o communicate e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s . Homeschoo!ing p a r e n t s c a n be s e e n a s h a v i n g o p t e d out o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , by t a k i n g o v e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s (who l o b b i e d f o r and e v e n t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d M o n t e s s o r i e l e m e n t a r y programs!) by d e f i n i n g t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y wanted, a t t e m p t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r e f f o r t s r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s y s t e m w h i c h , i n t h e i r view, d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m . Thus i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine v a r i e t i e s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d w h o l l y by t h e i r b e l i e f s or whether t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own a b i l i t y t o g u i d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . T h i s s e n s e o f c o n f i d e n c e i n one's own e f f i c a c y or s e n s e o f one's own empowerment can be c o n c e p t u a l i s e d a s l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I t i s t h e r e f o r e , o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e s e p a r e n t s d i f f e r from one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a s i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o i n q u i r e whether i n d i v i d u a l s who w i t h d r a w t h e i r c h i l d r e n from s c h o o l or t h o s e who l o b b y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a l t e r n a t e s y s t e m d i f f e r i n t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t from t h o s e p a r e n t s who a c c e p t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s y s t e m . 7 A l t h o u g h drawn from t h e B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e and p e r h a p s o v e r s t a t e d , some heed s h o u l d be t a k e n o f M e i g h a n ' s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s i n e d u c a t i o n " an i n c e s t u o u s form o f d e b a t e when t h i n g s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be wrong w i t h s c h o o l s . E d u c a t i o n a l i s t d e b a t e s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l i s t w i t h t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p u p i l s and p a r e n t s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d " ( p . 3 9 8 ) . B o t h p a r e n t s who have o p t e d out o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h o s e who have c o n s c i o u s l y c h o s e n t o r e m a i n w i t h i n i t c a n be s e e n , i n H i r s c h m a n ' s t e r m s a s " a l e r t c o n s u m e r s " . Some g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g may be g a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s and how t h e s e b e l i e f s have s h a p e d t h e i r c h o i c e i n e d u c a t i o n . Pur p_ose _o f _ t h e _ S t udy_ The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s h e l d by p a r e n t s who have c h o s e n t o e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home, t h o s e who have c h o s e n a M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram and t h o s e who p r e f e r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and t h e number and n a t u r e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s which may be h e l d by t h e s e p a r e n t s . I t wi I I a l s o a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , t h e s e n s e o f power o v e r o n e ' s own l i f e , and t h e t e n d e n c y t o c h o o s e a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g . P e r h a p s e x a m i n i n g p a r e n t a l c h o i c e s c a n r e f i n e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o e d u c a t i o n and c l a r i f y c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f p a r e n t a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h pub I i c educ a t i on. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Overview On one hand l i e s the actual choice made by the parent and on the other, the educational philosophy held by the parent. Between the b e l i e f s of the parent and their final choice l i e s the personal events unique to the parent and their sense of control over their c h i l d ' s destiny. By examining each of these issues, the options, the philosophies, locus of control and the possible' issues within the l i v e s of the families that may affect their decisions, one can, perhaps, describe how parents make choices in education. E»efore embarking on a discussion of parental choice in education, therefore, these several areas must be examined. The educational options which these parents have chosen must be discussed, descriptions of educational philosophy must be examined, the rationale behind the use of the locus of control measure elaborated and any other possible influences on parental motivations noted. A b r i e f look at the options within D i s t r i c t #43, and a description of what t r a d i t i o n a l schooling i s and how schools d i f f e r , both by intent and by accident i s followed by a description of the basic views proported by Maria Montessori. The two major viewpoints adopted by homeschoolers are described, 9 as i s some of the research about the homeschooIers themselves. After outlining the educational options, i t i s important to describe the theories of education from which one may extract common themes which may express the essence of parental educational philosophies. The* concept of locus of control will be discussed and some similar studies using locus of control noted. The final section consists of those other influences on parental decisions such as the parent's education, the needs of the c h i l d and the wider areas of parental b e l i e f s . Educat io n a I 0 git. i^ons There are approximately 514,000 children attending school in B r i t i s h Columbia (Ministry of Education, 1986) compared with the 1000-3000 families educating their youngsters at home (Sullivan, 1988). This great body of parents whose children attend public school are not, as a Vancouver newspaper reported, e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d with the school their children attend but may be tied to them by bonds of necessity, i n e r t i a or lack of viable alternatives. Private schools, attended by &"/. of the school age population are frequently denominational and always an additional financial burden to the parents. Home schooling requires a moderately knowledgable parent who has the committment, organisational s k i l l s , rapport with her children and time to imp Iemenent an e f f e c t i v e program (Wade, 1986). Since i t i s generally the mother who teaches (Lines, 1986), those who work outside the home are by necessity precluded from attempting to 10 home s c h o o l . T h e s e o p t i o n s a r e t h u s c l o s e d t o some f a m i l i e s . Some s c h o o l s y s t e m s i n B.C. p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m s s u c h a s F r e n c h Immersion or M o n t e s s o r i i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s or t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e Program i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . W h i l e t h e B a c c a l a u r e a t e program and F r e n c h Immersion e i t h e r r e q u i r e or a r e s e e n a s r e q u i r i n g a d e g r e e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r owess, the M o n t e s s o r i system d i f f e r s from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s y s t e m l a r g e l y i n t h e s t y l e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Where t h e s e p r o g r a m s f u n c t i o n , r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e sometime p l a c e d on g e n e r a l e n r o l m e n t from t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d by g i v i n g p r e f e r e n t i a l e n r o l m e n t t o c h i l d r e n from M o n t e s s o r i p r e s c h o o l s . S i n c e t u i t i o n i n t h e s e p r e s c h o o l s c a n be between $1,000 - $2,000 p e r y e a r , e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e program h a s some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a s a d m i t t a n c e t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . However, t h i s p r o g r am d o e s a t t r a c t some n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h i l d r e n who l a c k t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s a s w e l l a s t h o s e p a r e n t s who f e e l t h e e x t r a $100 - $200 a month i s j u s t i f i e d by t h e f i v e - d a y r a t h e r t h a n two or t h r e e — d a y p r o g ram and t h e s t y l e o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r e s c h o o l . The p u b l i c s c h o o l program, w h i c h h a s been e x t a n t f o r t e n y e a r s , c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t e s i n two e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s and s e r v e s 192 c h i l d r e n . Thus, t h e M o n t e s s o r i program f u n c t i o n s a s t h e t r u e a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s y s t e m i n s p i t e o f some r e s t r i c t i o n s on a t t e n d a n c e . U n i f o r m i t y h a s not been a ha I I mark o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and from t h e t i m e S o c r a t e s q u e s t i o n e d A t h e n i a n y o u t h s i n t h e market, 11 d e b a t e as t o how and what t o t e a c h and as t o t h e u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e of e d u c a t i o n h a s r a g e d . A r i s t o t l e ' s a s s e s s m e n t made 2300 y e a r s ago i s s t i I I t i m e l y : For mankind a r e by no means a g r e e d about t h e t h i n g s t a u g h t ? whether we l o o k t o v i r t u e or t h e b e s t l i f e . N e i t h e r i s i t c l e a r whether e d u c a t i o n i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n t e l l e e t u a I or w i t h moral v i r t u e . The e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e i s p e r p l e x i n g ; no one knows on what p r i n c i p l e * we s h o u l d p r o c e e d s h o u l d t h e u s e f u l i n l i f e ? or s h o u l d v i r t u e * or s h o u l d t h e h i g h e r knowledge be t h e aim o f our t r a i n i n g s a l I t h r e e o p i n i o n s have been e n t e r t a i n e d . (Jowet t ? 1943. p.321) A l t h o u g h a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m s w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m a g a i n became p o p u l a r i n t h e 1960s? t h e r e had been p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s a t c r e a t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h o o l s . E a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y t h e Dal t o n P l a n ? which u t i l i z e d t h e i d e a o f c o n t r a c t s and u n i t s ? t h e W i n n e t k a P l a n o f Car I e t o n Washbourne, w h i c h p e r m i t t e d c h i l d r e n t o se*t t h e i r own g o a l s and the* G a r y P l a n which encompassed an t o t a l v iew o f e d u c a t i o n from k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l ( I q n a s & C o r s i n i ? 1979) had a l l been e n a c t e d and e v e n t u a l l y d i s m i s s e d . In t h e Unite*d S t a t e s ? an a t t e m p t t o a d d r e s s t h e v a r i e t y o f needs has l e d t o the* r i s e * o f " s c h o o l s o f c h o i c e " ? magnet s c h o o l s ? a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l s and s p e c i a l t y s c h o o l s u s i n g m o d els s u c h as t h e ' s c h o o l w i t h i n a s c h o o l ' , open e n r o l l m e n t and s a t e l l i t e s c h o o l s (Reywind, 1985; F a n t i n i , 1973) a s some o f t h e o p t i o n s i n an a11 empt t o rneet t h e n e e d s and expec t a t i ons o f t he pub I i c and d e f u s e d i s c o n t ent or i n an a11 empt by e d u c a t or s t o i mpr ove t he s y s t e m (Reywind, 1987). In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e y have a l s o been used t o f a c i l i t a t e r a c i a l d e s e g r e g a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s have been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one a n o t h e r l a r g e l y by ' s c h o o l c l i m a t e ' t R u t t e r , 1979), however t h e y have g e n e r a l l y s h a r e d f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c o m p u l s o r y a t t e n d a n c e f o r c e r t a i n age g r o u p s ; a t t e n d e n c e o f a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a c e r t a i n c atchment a r e a a t a d e s i g n a t e d s c h o o l , a s s i g n m e n t o f a number o f c h i l d r e n ( i n B.C. t h e a v e r a g e i s 24 as o f 1986/87) whose b i r t h d a t e s f a l I w i t h i n a one y e a r p e r i o d t o t h e c o n t r o l o f a t e a c h e r s r e s t r i c t i o n o f movement w i t h i n and between c l a s s e s ; and e v a l u a t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e c a l l o f s p e c i f i e d v e r b a l ( s p o k e n or w r i t t e n ) m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s l a i d out i n a common c u r r i c u l u m t o be t a u g h t t o a l l c h i l d r e n CIgnas 2< C o r s i n i , 1979). 0 ' N e i I I CI981) s u g g e s t s t hat Amer i c an pub I i c educ a t i on's mai n goal i s t o " p r e s e r v e and t r a n s m i t e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r " by e n c o u r a g i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e dominent s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o s u c c e e d i n t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r and c r e a t i n g c i t i z e n s who a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o be e f f e c t i v e - members o f s o c i e t y . I t i s s e c o n d a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s o l v i n g 13 s k i l l s i n i n d i v i d u a l and group s i t u a t i o n s , and t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n on t h e i r own b a s e d on r a t i o n a I - s c i e n t i f i c v e r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . A t t i t u d e s o f s c h o o l s a u t h o r i t i e s and e d u c a t o r s t o w a r d p a r e n t s i s v a r i e d . Some a u t h o r s s u c h a s DeBruyn (.1986) t a k e a c o n c i l i t o r y but somewhat p a t e r n a I i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d p a r e n t - e d u c a t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h a d v i s i n g t e a c h e r s t o " a l w a y s o p e r a t e on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t p a r e n t s c a r e " (p.23) and w a r n i n g t e a c h e r s a g a i n s t d i s s e m b l i n g , he p r o p o s e s a h e l p i n g r o l e f o r t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e " h a n d l i n g and h e l p i n g ( o f ) t h e u p s e t p a r e n t " (p.25) and e n c o u r a g e s t e a c h e r s t o " s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " w i t h t h e p a r e n t r a t h e r t h a n t a k i n g i t a l I upon t h e m s e l v e s . A 1982 s e m i n a r s p o n s o r e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e Br i t i sh Col umb i a Counc i I f o r Lead er sh i p i n Ed uc a t i on a I A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e n t i 1 1 e d Exp I o r i n g P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t i n E d u c a t i o n i n d e e d a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l o r e a v e n u e s f o r p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . C o n c e r n s i n c l u d e d what a r e a s were ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' f o r p a r e n t s t o i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n . N i c h o l a s B e a t t i e (1985) compared p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , I t a l i a n and West German p a r e n t movements. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t was p e r m i t t e d by a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g t i m e s o f c r i s i s r a t h e r t h a n e v o l v i n g from a d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . P a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p e r m i t t e d t o l e g i t i m a t i z e t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a l s o some t e n d e n c y t o move toward a r e s p o n s i v e model. In b o t h t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s ? t h e i n i t i a l aim i s t o r e d u c e c o n t r o v e r s y and a v o i d c r i s e s . W h i l e t h e r e s p o n s i v e model gave p a r e n t s a v o i c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s and enhanced two way communication? t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f what c o u l d be communicated were drawn by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In t h e l e g i t i m a c y mode* I ? c o m m u n i c a t i o n f l o w e d o n l y from t h e e x p e r t s t o t h e p a r e n t s . A somewhat c y n i c a l n o t e i s added by M e i g h a n ' s (.1986) r e p o r t o f r e s e a r c h on what c o n s t i t u t e s a 'good p a r e n t ' i n t h e e y e s o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . The 'good' p a r e n t i s one who u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s c h o o l i d e o l o g y ? t a k e s and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n ? u n d e r s t a n d s t h e t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n scheme and p l a y s t h e r o l o f t h e 'good p a r e n t ' . For example? a 'good p a r e n t ' t e a c h e s t h e c h i l d a t home but c a r e f u l l y a v o i d s l e t t i n g anyone know - s i n c e 'good p a r e n t s ' a r e n ' t s u p p o s e d t o do t h a t . A i t ken? B a s t i a n and Goode (1988) d i s c u s s how i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l g i v e s a p a r e n t ' f a m i l i a r i t y ' w i t h t h e s y s t e m . "What v e r y few p a r e n t s o f any k i n d get? however? a r e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f what t h e s c h o o l i s d o i n g and more p a r t i c u l a r l y ? how and why i t i s d o i n g i t . , a l t h o u g h many p a r e n t s i n t h e sample appear t o be b e t t e r i n f o r m e d about l i f e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l s ? i t s r o u t i n e s and o r g a n i s a t i o n ? t h e y do not n e c e s s a r i l y d e r i v e c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g from t h e t h i n g s t h e y o b s e r v e and e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 54 ) By becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s c h o o l , p a r e n t s c l a r i f y what t h e y b e l i e v e and come t o have a more s y m p a t h e t i c v i e w o f t h e v i r t u e s and f o l l i e s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t a l s o e n c o u r a g e s p a r e n t s t o c o r r e c t s c h o o l p r o b l e m s by p r o v i d i n g c o m p e n s a t o r y e d u c a t i o n a t home. They w i s e l y n o t e t h a t : P a r e n t a l v a l u e s y s t e m s and i d e o l o g i e s about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a r e v e r y d i v e r s e . . . G i v i n g a few p a r e n t s more s a y w i l l not a f f e c t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s and s t a n c e s t o w a r d t h e s c h o o l . <1 p. 174 ) Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l , t h e r e i s some h e s i t a t i o n a bout a c t i v e l y e n f r a n c h i s i n g p a r e n t s . I f p a r e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n , what p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s w i l l t h e y b r i n g t o t h i s r o l e ? W o rking from t h e a c t i o n s - t h e c h o i c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s --• back t o t h e b e l i e f s h e l d by t h e a c t o r s , c o u l d b e g i n t o d e l i n e a t e some o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f v a l u e s y s t e m s and i d e o l o g i e s . A l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m may be b a s i c a l l y c u r r i c u l a r , s u c h a s F r e n c h Immersion or t h e y may be m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t , h a v i n g , a t I eaist t h e o r e t i c a l l y , a u n i q u e v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n a s l e a r n e r s and t h e r o l e 16 o f t h e t e a c h e r , s u c h a s t h e M o n t e s s o r i a l t e r n a t i v e . The M o n t e s s o r i method i s b a s e d on t h e work and w r i t i n g s o f M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i , an I t a l i a n p h y s i c i a n and e d u c a t o r , who d e v e l o p e d her t h e o r i e s i n t h e e a r l y 1900s f i r s t , a s a r e s u l t o f her work w i t h c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d a s m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e , l a t e r i n the* c r e a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s House ( C a s a d i B a m b i n i ) f o r s l u m c h i l d r e n . A l t h o u g h M o n t e s s o r i d e v e l o p e d a program e n c o m p a s s i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d t h r o u g h a d o l e s c e n c e , i t i s her p r e s c h o o l and e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m s which s h e d e v e l o p e d b a s e d on c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , t h a t a r e most p o p u l a r . F o l l o w e r s o f M o n t e s s o r i have s p l i t i n t o s e v e r a l f a c t i o n s , t h e p u r i s t AMI, t h e more p r o g r e s s i v e AMA and o t h e r s p l i n t e r g r o u p s C H a i n s t o c k , 1978) however, t h e b a s i c methods a r e s i m i l a r . I d e a l l y , c l a s s r o o m s span t h r e e y e a r g r o u p i n g s r e l a t e d t o ' s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d s ' o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h r e s p o n d t o d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g methods. The c h i l d , who i s s e e n a s n a t u r a l l y s t r i v i n g t o w a r d competence and m a t u r i t y , i s t a u g h t by means o f s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s . The c h i l d c h o o s e s t h e a r e a i n w hich he or s h e w i s h e s t o work and i s f r e e t o r e m a i n a t t h a t t a s k u n t i l s a t i s f i e d . T e a c h e r s , u t i l i z i n g t h e c l a s s i c ' t h r e e p e r i o d l e s s o n ' , a r e admonished "The fewer t h e words, t h e more p e r f e c t t h e l e s s o n " ( M o n t e s s o r i , 1967 ,p,106) . The t e a c h e r i s c a l l e d a ' d i r e c t r e s s ' s i n c e her r o l e i s t o c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e t h e c h i l d and i n t r o d u c e him t o t h e m a t e r i a l s a s he comes t o need them. " A c t i v i t y h a s h i t h e r t o been t h e s p e c i a l competence o f t h e 17 t e a c h e r , but i n our s y s t e m i t i s l e f t m a i n l y t o t h e c h i I d " C p . 1 4 9 ) . L e s t t h i s t e c h n i q u e sound much l i k e t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f Summerhi I I , i t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t M o n t e s s o r i p l a c e d much e m p h a s i s on s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . The c h i l d ' s l i b e r t y s h o u l d have a s i t s l i m i t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e g r o u p t o which he b e l o n g s . I t s form s h o u l d c o n s i s t i n what we c a l l good b r e e d i n g and b e h a v i o u r . We s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e p r e v e n t a c h i l d from d o i n g a n y t h i n g which may o f f e n d or h u r t o t h e r s or which i s i m p o l i t e or unbecoming. But e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , e v e r y a c t t h a t c an be u s e f u l i n any way w h a t e v e r , may be e x p r e s s e d . . . ( a n d ) s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d by t h e t e a c h e r , (p.50) Thus t h e program d i f f e r s from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r a m i n t h e g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s , i n t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i e g r o u p i n g , i n t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r , i n t h e d e - e m p h a s i s on v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s and i n t h e e m p h a s i s on s e l f - d i s c i p I i n e and ' p r a c t i c a l l i f e ' s k i l l s ( w a i t i n g t a b l e s , g a r d e n i n g e t c . ) o v e r s e l f - - e x p r e s s i o n , c r e a t i v i t y and f a n t a s y . 18 Home schoolers d i f f e r from schoolers in their rejection of the i n s t i t u t i o n of school, but i t appears that they may also d i f f e r widely from each other, in their c u r r i c u l a and their views of education and the nature of the c h i l d . On one hand, we have one of their most eloquent spokespersons, the late John Holt who moved from c a l l s to reform schools to despair that they could be changed and a b e l i e f that education was "learning cut off from l i f e and done under the pressure of bribe or threat, greed or fear." (Holt, 1976) Harold Bennett (1972:), the author of No !J!?I*_E'ybXic_Schc<CiX openly d i r e c t s some of his suggestions on how to create a 'school in a suitcase' to those peripetatic parents who are on the move to avoid the authorities, a posture which reinforces the image of homeschoolers as people on the fringes of respectable society. At the other extreme are those parents who leave the school system because of their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with what they f€*el are secular values undermining their Christian b e l i e f s . These individuals often do not reject public schooling but may disagree with the early age of entrance (Moore, 1979) and humanist values. They may, in fact, recognise that free and compulsory education has helped make America strong. Few who have v i s i t e d countries where the pr i v i l e g e of schooling i s reserved for the bright and the r i c h would want to abandon the public school system. (Wade, p. 15) This i s surely a different view from that of fellow home-schooler, Holt, who, in reference to educational authorities, asserts that: They want everyone to believe that only what i s learned in school i s worth anything. But t h i s idea, as much as any other, freezes the class structure of society and locks the poor into poverty. (Holt, 1381. p.72) Obviously, adherants of these d i f f e r i n g views must d i f f e r in their approach to education even though they share the label 'home schooIer'. Indeed, there i s much d i v e r s i t y in the curriculum they teach. Lines (1986) refers to two studies reporting that to what degree home schoolers used commercially available c u r r i c u l a or designed their own. In the better educated sample of parents, 727. designed their own curriculum, while in the less well-educated sample, 47/i did so. It seems l i k e l y therefore, that homeschoolers would vary widely in what they are teaching and that their educational philosophies may be very personal. What they share i s a b e l i e f that parents should be involved in their children's education. (Lines, 1986; Mahan and Ware, 1987; VanGalen, 1987; P r e i s n i t z , 1987). Using ten statements a r t i c u l a t i n g the common reasons given for homeschooling, Mahen and Ware (1987) surveyed parents in Ohio regarding their motives. By far the most popular reasons were t h a t t h e y w i s h e d t o t e a c h r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s which c o n f l i c t e d w i t h p u b l i c s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s and t h a t t h e y d e s i r e d t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . A l s o c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t were c o n c e r n s about p e e r p r e s s u r e ? a d e s i r e t o have f a m i l y l i f e ? r a t h e r t h a n s c h o o l s c h e d u l e s ? paramount and a b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e b e t t e r s o c i a l i s e d by e x p o s u r e t o a d u l t s t h a n t o peer s. A l t h o u g h a v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s (Van Galen? 1988? 1987?; L i n e s ? 1986; Pitman? 1987 • Common and M a c M i l l a n ? 1986; M c M i l l a n ? 1985s K i l g o r e ? 1987s Mahan and Ware? 1987; Nel s o n ? 1986; W i l l i a m s e t al ? 1984) have f o c u s e d b r i e - f l y or i n d e p t h on why p a r e n t s c h o o s e t o home s c h o o l and a few (Ray. 1986) on outcome measures? t h e r e has been l i t t l e e f f o r t t o d i s c o v e r how p a r e n t s who homeschool d i f f e r from t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l e r s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . Van G a l e n (1987) d i v i d e d A m e r i c a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s i n t o i d e o l o g u e s and pedagogues. I d e o l o g u e s a r e t h o s e p a r e n t s who o b j e c t t o c e r t a i n t e a c h i n g s i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m and w i s h t o im p r o v e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . They a r e g e n e r a l l y f u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n s ? a r e s o c i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e and t e a c h t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . They f e e l t h a t t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d i s a c a l l i n g from God. Pedagogues o b j e c t ? not t o what i s t a u g h t ? but t o how i t i s t a u g h t . They a r e w e l l i n f o r m e d on e d u c a t i o n and c h i I d r e a r i n g . They t e n d t o p r e f e r i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g and v a l u e i n d e p e n d e n c e and f e e l t h a t e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d i s p a r t o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e i r c h i l d . B r i t i s h h o m e s c h o o I e r s were divided into three categories (Biacker,1981 as quoted in liei ghan, 1984) : competitors, who supported 'the authoritarian vision predominant in state schooling' but f e l t they could do i t better; compensators, who s i m i l a r l y supported the goals of state schools but whose children had run into unresolvable d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and rebels, which were the smallest group who adopted alternative IifestyIes and an anti-authoritarian stance. It appears that parents of public school children are not s a t i s f i e d with the performance of public schools. The Ministry of Education's 1985 publication Lets_X^L!i_About.„SchooJ_s included a Gallup survey of both the general public and professional educators. Results indicated that both groups f e l t the goal of education was i n t e l l e c t u a l development and that more than half of each group f e l t that the quality of public education had declined in the preceding fiv e years. The public, however, was substantially less sanguine than were professional educators regarding teacher and administrator performance. They were also less i n c l i n e d to give teachers more freedom to set standards and choose their own methods of teaching and evaluating students (Summary and Highlights, p.29). In a smaller survey of one d i s t r i c t , ErIaut (1979) found that of the 246 parents and non-parents of D i s t r i c t #43, 17.4"/. of respondents f e l t that d i s c i p l i n e was a biggest problem in public schooIs. Among the parents of elementary schooI chiIdren, t h i s figure increases to 23°/.. When asked p a r t i c u l a r l y about "strictness"? only .7"/. f e l t schools were too s t r i c t while 48.3V. f e l t they were not s t r i c t enough. Of the remaining half? 37.57. wer e sat i s f i ed, while 13.4% had no op i n i on. L i t t l e research has been done? however, to determine how these parents, both the s a t i s f i e d and the d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i f f e r from home schoolers or from those parents whose children attend alternate programs. There are, in fact, several areas in which they may d i f f e r from one another. These include general philosophical attitude, locus of control, and personal experiences unique to the parents or to the parent-child dyad. Educat i.onai. Phi I osophi es How closely do those parents whose children attend public schoo resemble those parents who home school or those who send their children to a Montessori program in the area of educational philosophy? B e l i e f s about the nature and purpose of education should guide behaviour. Attitudes toward education can be described in terms of two factors, t r a d i t i o n a l and progressive (Kerlinger and Kaya, 1970) O'Neill (1981), following Myrdal (1944), also suggests that the basic American dichotomy i s I iber a I--conservative. Myrdal was s p e c i f i c a l l y interested in the tension created by American propensity to i d e a l i s t i c anarchy based on the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l t o d e c i d e whether a law i s j u s t or u n j u s t w i t h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t , a t t i m e s d o g m a t i c , t r a d i t i o n r o o t e d i n t h e A m e r i c a n P u r i t a n h e r i t a g e which he b e l i e v e d l e d t o a c o n f l i c t between l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h Myrdal d i d not c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s , h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n p s y c h e p r o v i d e d t h e framework f o r O ' N e i l 1 . Q ' N e i l I p r o p o s e s t h r e e l i b e r a l and t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l v a r i a n t s , e a c h h a v i n g a r e l i g i o u s and a s e c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n . He s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n s e r v a t i v e s a r e s 1) e d u c a t i o n a l f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s , a d h e r a n t s o f r e l i g i o u s B i b l i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y or p o p u l i s t ' bac k™to-~the-good~o I d~ d a y s ' movements, who a r e , i n g e n e r a l , a r d e n t l y nat i o n a I i s t i c. 2) E d u c a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who b e l i e v e i n t h e p u r s u i t , g o v e r n e d by l o g i c , o f an a t t a i n a b l e s p i r i t u a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l . 3) e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s , who e n c o u r a g e r e s p e c t f o r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s t o a t t a i n a c c o m p l i s h s o c i a l s u r v i v a l and p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n i t s r e l i g i o u s g u i s e , p r o p e r moral c h a r a c t e r . 24 The l i b e r a l s a r e : i> e d u c a t i o n a l l i b e r a l s who s e e k t o i m p r o v e s o c i e t y by e n h a n c i n g each c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . O ' N e i l l i n c l u d e s wide v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s camp from M o n t e s s o r i t o Dewey t o A.S. Ne i I I . 2) e d u c a t i o n a l I i b e r a t i o n i s t s who a l l o t t o t h e s c h o o l t h e r o l e o f o b j e c t i v e ( r a t i o n a l ) but not n e u t r a l ? agent o f change. The s c h o o l s have a committment t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k and t o d i r e c t them t o t h e b e s t c o u r s e s o f s o c i a l ac t i on. 3) e d u c a t i o n a l a n a r c h i s t s who s u b s c r i b e t o t h e l i b e r a l s y s t e m s o f open s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n i s t i c e n q u i r y ? but p r o p o s e t o remove i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s and d e s c h o o l s o c i e t y i n t h e manner p r o p o s e d by I l l i c h and H o l t . O ' N e i l l h as a l s o d e v i s e d an E d u c a t i o n a l I d i o l o g i e s I n v e n t o r y ? a L i k e r t - s c a I e w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 104 q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o s u g g e s t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l s committment t o any p a r t i c u l a r p h i I osophy. The l i b e r a l end o f t h e c o n t i n u u m r a n g e s from t h e d e s c h o o l e r s s u c h a s I l l i c h t h r o u g h t h e moderate r e f o r m i s t s s u c h a s Dewey t o t h e m i l d 'method l i b e r a l s ' s u c h a s M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i . At t h e conservative end of the spectrum are arrayed a range of opinions from the mild c r i t i c i s m of the Council for Basic Education through the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l conservativism' of Mortimer Ad Ier to the extreme conservativism Max Rafferty and other advocates of reaction and a return to the 'good old days'. O'Neill's taxonomy, however, has d i f f i c u l t y describing the relationship between 'reactionary conservativism', ' i n t e l l e c t u a l conservativism' and 'social conservativism'. While social conservativism seems to have t i e s to both reactionary and i n t e l l e c t u a l conservativism, the two latter forms seem to have basic differences from each other. The ' i n t e l l e c t u a l conservative' t r a d i t i o n as examplified by The_Pai.di_ea,J^rorjosaj.. (.19821) and the subsequent syllabus, The_Pajldiea_Program (1984) places a central role on learning and knowledge and the value of i n t e l l e c t u a l pursuits as a gateway to the good, virtuous or happy l i f e . This attitude stands in stark contrast to the what O'Neill describes as the ' t a c i t anti-intelIectualism' of the educational fundamentalists. O'Neill, however, i s not alone in proposing a l i b e r a l -conservative dichotomy. Kerlinger (1984) discusses his studies on the t r a d i t i o n a l vs. progressive values in education. Kerlinger's studies took place in the 1950s and 1960s and i t was not until the late s i x t i e s that the deschooling movement began to flower. Although his studies did not consistently y i e l d two factors alone, he f e l t that the factors yielded tended to be i n t e r p r e t a b I e a s r e p r e s e n t i n g e i t h e r a t r a d i t i o n a I / p r o g r e s s ! v e d i c h o t o m y or a s v a r i e t i e s o f t h i s d i c h o t o m y . K e r l i n g e r ' s work i s most u s e f u l b e c a u s e he a l s o u s e d a Q - s o r t t o d e f i n e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f r e s p o n d a n t s . A q u e s t i o n remains? however? as t o whether a s i m p l e d i c h o t o m y now e x i s t s . The r i s e o f t h e d e s c h o o l i n g movement o f f e r s t o t h e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n which? w h i l e t h e y may have e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e o f K e r l i n g e r ' s s t u d y ? were n e i t h e r c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d a s p a r t o f a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y nor were t h e y t h e common c u r r e n c y o f a p o p u l a r movement. Summer h ILL w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1.96,0 and I M i c h ' s D§LS?.b.,2SLi.tlQ.._Soci_et.Y- (1971) t e n y e a r s l a t e r ? m a r k i n g t h e movement from f r e e s c h o o l t o no school„ E d w a i- d * J. P o w e r ( 1982) s e p a r a t e s t h e o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n f r o m t h e o r i e s o f s c h o o l i n g . I t would seem however? t h a t t h i s d i v i s i o n w h i l e f r u i t f u l f o r t h e t h e o r i s t i s l i k e l y t o be n o n - e x i s t e n t amongst l a y p e r s o n s . E l e a n o r R o s c h ' s (1975? 1976? 1978) work on c a t e g o r i e s and c o n c e p t s e l a b o r a t e s how b a s i c c a t e g o r y s u c h a s ' b i r d ' w i l l c o n t a i n s u b o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s s u c h a s ' r o b i n ' (a good e x a m p l a r ) or ' p e n g u i n ' (a poor e x a m p l a r ) . Her r e a s e a r c h h as a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h a t e x p e r t s w i l l have a s b a s i c ? c a t e g o r i e s which t o t h e l a y p e r s o n a r e s u b o r d i n a t e . N e i s s e r (1979) used R o s c h ' s t h e o r y o f c o n c e p t s t o d i s c u s s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e ' ? s u g g e s t i n g t h a t th€*re i s a p r o t o t y p i c a l ' i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n ' and p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s may be? l i k e t h e r o b i n 'good e x a m p l a r s ' or l i k e t h e penguin? 'poor e x a m p l a r s ' o f t h e p r o t o t y p e . Thus as N e i s s e r r e i t e r a t e s ' t h e c a t e g o r y c o n c e p t s o f d a i l y l i f e may l a c k d e c i s i v e d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s ' . ( p . 1 8 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a t e r m s u c h a s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y ' or ' s c h o o l i n g ' would be ' f u z z y ' and have much o v e r l a p f o r a l l b u t t h e s p e c i a l i s t . Thus t h e r e i s r e a s o n a b l e e v i d e n c e t o assume t h a t t h e o r i e s o f s c h o o l i n g and t h o s e o f e d u c a t i o n would o v e r l a p c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e mind o f t h e layman. The work o f Rosch and t h e s p e c u l a t i o n o f N e i s s e r would a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t one might be q u i t e s a f e i n c o l l a p s i n g l i k e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h would be ' b a s i c ' t o t h e l a y p e r s o n , even i f s u c h c o n g l o m e r a t i o n s were an a b o m i n a t i o n t o t h e e x p e r t . Power p r o p o s e s f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s : r a t i o n a l or r e l i g i o u s humanism, pra g m a t i s m , e x i s t e n t i a l i s m and a n a l y t i c . He s u g g e s t s t h a t one would be h a r d - p r e s s e d t o f i n d e x a m ples o f t h e l a t t e r two i n e d u c a t i o n . P r a g m a t i s m i s w e l I - r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e works o f Dewey w h i l e O ' N e i l l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s would f e e l a t home amongst Power's h u m a n i s t s . He t h e n t u r n s t o t h e o r i e s o f s c h o o l i n g which he would have s e p a r a t e from t h o s e o f e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e f o u r t h e o r i e s d i s c u s s e d , one can be s a f e l y i g n o r e d and two subsumed under o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s b u t t h e f o u r t h must be examined on i t s own m e r i t s . A l t h o u g h b e h a v i o u r i s m has p r o d u c e d a n o t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l t h e o r i s t i n t h e p e r s o n o f B.F. S k i n n e r , i t s impact seems t o l i e i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t s t e c h n i q u e s r a t h e r t h a n i n i t s t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n c e . Neo-p r o g r e s s i v i s m seems t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r t o O ' N e i l I ' s 28 L i b e r a t i o n i s t s and a c c o r d i n g t o Power owes a de b t t o t h e o l d e r p r o g r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s from t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . E s s e n t i a I i s t s , Power f e e l s , a r e n o t synonomous w i t h r e l i g i o u s or r a t i o n a l humanism a l t h o u g h he c o n c e d e s t h a t t h e l a t t e r would be "amenable t o p u t t i n g t h e i r f e e t i n an e s s e n t i a I i s t i c s t r e a m " . (Power, p.189) He d e s c r i b e s a s e s s e n t i a l i s t s i n d i v i d u a l s whom O ' N e i l l d e s c r i b e s a s s e c u l a r c o n s e r v a t i v e s . The ' p h i l o s o p h y o f s c h o o l i n g ' w h i c h d e s e r v e s our a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Power a s ' r o m a n t i c humanism'. D i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o r a t i o n a l humanism, r o m a n t i c humanism i s ta n t a m o u n t t o t h e ' e d u c a t i o n a l a n a r c h y ' d e s c r i b e d by O ' N e i l l and w i t h i t s d i s m i s s a l o f s c h o o l i n g a s i r r e l e v a n t f orms a d i s t i n c t ' e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y ' . F i n a l l y , P r a t t e (1971) l i n k s one b r a n c h o f p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n w i t h Dewey's p r a g m a t i s m . He s e e s e s s e n t i a l i s m a s b a s i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e w h i l e he d e s c r i b e s t h e r a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s h u m a n i s t s / i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s a s p e r e n n i a l i s t s . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m i s s e e n a s a s e p a r a t e p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e v e i n o f O ' N e i l l ' s I i b e r a t i o n i s t s and Power's n e o - p r o g r e s s i v e s . Amongst t h i s p l e t h o r a o f l a b e l s and c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e r u n t h r e e s t r a n d s . The f i r s t i s c o n s e r v a t i v e . In i t s c r u d e s t form i t seems t o a d v o c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n need t o be e d u c a t e d t o be improved and t h a t t h e b e s t way t o do t h i s i s by e x p o s i n g them t o a s t a n d a r d body o f knowledge, g l e a n e d from, a l t h o u g h not l i m i t e d t o , t h e p a s t . T h i s knowledge, w h i c h i s ' t r u e ' i n some s e n s e , w i l l make t h e c h i l d r e n b e t t e r c i t i z e n s or b e t t e r human b e i n g s i n an o b j e c t i v e s e n s e . T h i s g r o u p seems t o c o v e r t h e e s s e n t i a l i s t s and c o n s e r v a t i v e movements a s welI a s t h e r a t i o n a l / r e l i g i o u s h u m a n i s t s t r e a m , a l s o known a s p e r e n n i a l i s t s or i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s whose f o c u s i s e d u c a t i o n a s an i n t e l l e c t u a l or a c a demic p e r s u i t . The s e c o n d t h r e a d i s t h e I i b e r a I / p r a g m a t i s t t h r e a d . In a b r o a d s e n s e , t h e s e t h e o r i s t s do not e s p o u s e any p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f knowledge a s ' t r u e ' and, i f c o n s e r v a t i v e s r e g a r d c h i l d r e n a s c l a y t o be molded t o p e r f e c t i o n , l i b e r a l s r e g a r d c h i l d r e n a s f l o w e r s t o be t e n d e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might bloom. The e d u c a t i o n comes e s s e n t i a l l y from w i t h i n t h e c h i l d . E d u c a t i o n has a s o c i a l p u r p o s e a i d i n g p r o g r e s s and i s not o n l y a c a d e m i c . T h i s g r o u p a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s and t o some d e g r e e t h e neo-p r o g r e s s i v e s . A t h i r d s t r a n d i s t h e r o m a n t i c h u m a n i s t s t r a n d w h i c h O ' N e i l l c a l l s e d u c a t i o n a l a n a r c h i s t . A l t h o u g h t h i s g r o u p s h a r e s some a t t i t u d e s w i t h t h e I i b e r a l / p r a g m a t i s t s , t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l a s a medium o f e d u c a t i o n s e t s them a p a r t . T h i s r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l makes them a g r o u p s u n l i k e t h e I i b e r a l / p r a g m a t i s t s b e c a u s e one c a n a l s o be a c o n s e r v a t i v e and r e j e c t s c h o o l i n g . It must be remembered t h a t Canada's h i s t o r y i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C h u r c h and s t a t e a r e not s e p a r a t e d i n Canada a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and p a r a l l e l s y s t e m s f o r d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s , f o r P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c a r e t r a d i t i o n a l , even t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t N e w foundland p r o v i d e s s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s f o r v a r i o u s P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s . <!J. D o n a l d W i l s o n , 1981) I t may be t h a t C a n a d i a n b e l i e f s f a l l a l o n g t h e I i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n t i n u u m : however, c a u t i o n must a l w a y s be-us e d when e x t r a p o l a t i n g from A m e r i c a n t o C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e . P a r e n t s who s h a r e a common p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be presumed t o embrace common e d u c a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s which would d i f f e r from t h o s e o f p a r e n t s a d h e r i n g t o a l t e r n a t e v i ews on ed uc a t i on. Lo£ys__oJ_Cont r cd_ A s e c o n d a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i s d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . L o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s whether t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s e v e n t s a r e under h i s c o n t r o l , c o n t r o l l e d by f a t e or under t h e c o n t r o l o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s . I n t e r n a l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s a i d t o make g r e a t e r e f f o r t s a t c o p i n g w i t h or a t t a i n i n g m a s t e r y o v e r t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s , a r e l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o c o n t r o l and i n f l u e n c e from o t h e r s and a r e more a c t i v e i n s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t P h a r e s , 1976). " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d how i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y s e e k power or c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h o u t an a c c o m p a n y i n g b e l i e f i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r " CPhares, p.176) *3 I %J .1. P h a r e s r e p o r t s on a p l e t h o r a o f s t u d i e s c o v e r i n g a c ademic a c h i e v e m e n t i n c h i l d r e n ? f a m i l y a n t e c e d e n t s ? l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and s o c i a l a c t i o n ? l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n p r i s o n i n m a t e s among o t h e r s . L o c u s o f c o n t r o l has a l s o been u s e d t o examine h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s (Wall stem and Wall son? 1981)? a l c o h o l i s m ( W o r r e l l and T u m i l t y ? 1981)? d i f f e r e n c e s i n J a p a n e s e and A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e s (Weisz? Rothbaum and B l a c k b u r n ? 1984)? and t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s (Kremer? 1985). The o r i g i n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e ? t h e R o t t e r I n t e r n a I - E x t e r n a I L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ? i s a 29 i t e m s c a l e o f which s i x i t e m s a r e u n s c o r e d . H i g h s c o r e s i n d i c a t e e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ? low s c o r e s ? i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . A l m o s t from i t s i n c e p t i o n t h e r e have been c r i t i c i s m s t h a t l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s not an u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t . Marsh and R i c h a r d s (1987)? u s i n g , c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ? c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be an over a I I I--E c o n s t r u c t ? t h e s c a l e i s mu I t i — d i mensi ona I . T h e i r view i s c o n f i r m e d by o t h e r s (Waters? P o p o v i c h ? M a r t e l I ? 1987; Anderson? Madonna? B a i l e y and Wesley? 1987) while- M c l n i s h and L ee (1987) c o n t r a d i c t s u g g e s t i n g a o n e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n u s i n g t h e V e r y S i m p l e S t r u c t u r e i n d e x . The R o t t e r S c a l e ? i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e IAR ( I n t e l l e c t u a l A c h i e v e m e n t R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) ? t h e Reid-Ware t h r e e f a c t o r s c a l e and t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l ? Chance and P o w e r f u l O t h e r s s u b s c a l e s "may be v i e w e d a s t h e p r o t o t y p e s f o r many o f t h e newer a s s e s s m e n t d e v i c e s " ( L e f c o u r t , 1.981. p. 5 ) . The L e v e n s o n ICP s c a l e assumes t h a t i n t e r n a l i t y and e x t e r n a l i t y a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and t h e e x t e r n a l i t y i s not an u n i f i e d c o n c e p t . Thus, e x t e r n a l i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o c o n t r o l by " p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ' and c o n t r o l by ' c h a n c e ' . H i g h s c o r e s on any o f t h e t h r e e s c a l e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o h i b i t h i g h s c o r e s on any o f t h e o t h e r s u b s c a l e s nor d o e s a low i n t e r n a l s c o r e i m p l y a h i g h e x t e r n a l s c o r e . L e v e n s o n (1981) r e p o r t s s t u d i e s u s i n g her s c a l e on a wide v a r i e t y o f g r o u p s : 9 t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s , u n d e r g r a d s , a l c o h o l i c s , t h e e l d e r l y , p r i s o n e r s , c h r o n i c p a i n s u f f e r e r s , p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s , b l a c k w h i t e and H i s p a n i c A m e r i c a n s and J a p a n e s e . L e v e n s o n r e p o r t s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s r a n g i n g from .51--. 64 f o r t h e i n t e r n a l s c a l e , .72-.82 f o r ' p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ' and .73.-.79 f o r the- c h a n c e s c a l e . Corre-I a t i o n s o f t h e R o t t e r I-E s c a l e a r e r e p o r t e d t o be between -.15 and -.41 w i t h t h e I n t e r n a l s c a l e , .22 t o .25 w i t h t h e P o w e r f u l o t h e r s s c a l e and .43 t o .56 wit h t h e c h a nc e s u b s c a l e . S t u d i e s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t s which u s e d t h e IPC s c a l e s u g g e s t t h a t under some c o n d i t i o n s a c t i v i s t s may s c o r e more h i g h l y on t h e P o w e r f u l o t h e r s s u b s c a l e . T h i s would seem a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e members o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s or who have* had t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s t h w a r t e d . Of a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s who f e l t t h a t ant i - p o I I ut i on measures were i m p o r t a n t , those- who were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n g r o u p s were more l i k e l y t o have low s c o r e s on t h e ' c h a n c e ' s u b s c a l e t h a n t h o s e who were c o n c e r n e d but had t a k e n no a c t i o n s . T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r n a l i t y or b e l i e f i n c o n t r o l by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s . When ' p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ' a r e i n v o l v e d , s u c h a s i n a s i m i l a r s t u d y where t h e ' p o w e r f u l o t h e r ' was p e r c e i v e d t o be a l a r g e p o l l u t i n g company, a c t i v i s t s were no more i n t e r n a l t h a n n o n - a c t i v i s t s , but were more o p t i m i s t i c a bout t h e p o t e n t i a l outcome. One might s u r m i s e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i s t s , l i k e a n t i - p o I I u t i o n a c t i v i s t s , might f e e l c h a n c e p l a y e d a l e s s i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i r I i v e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l h a v e been i m p l i c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t i n g b e h a v i o u r s . G e l e j s and P e a s e (1986) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s w i t h e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l d i f f e r e d b o t h i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f an ' i d e a l p a r e n t ' and t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r from p a r e n t s w i t h i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Swick and G r a v e s (1986) r e p o r t some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and p a r e n t i n g and r e m i n d s c h o o l s o f t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n c o u r a g e e f f i c a c i o u s b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s by b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e c h i l d and s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p a r e n t ' s s i t u a t i o n . Reywind (1987) u s e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as a measure i n a s t u d y o f s c h o o l c h o i c e and t h e r e s u l t a n t empowerment o f p a r e n t s . In g e n e r a l , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l t h e o r y would s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e p a r e n t s who b e l i e v e d t h e y were a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and t h e outcome o f h i s e d u c a t i o n would be more l i k e l y t o t a k e a c t i o n t o e x e r t an e f f e c t whereas p e o p l e w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l would be l i k e l y t o r e g a r d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s u l t i m a t e a c a d e m i c d e s t i n y a s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . In s p i t e o f i t s i n h e r e n t l o g i c , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s a c o n s t r u c t t h a t s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . Goodman and Waters <1S87> c o n c l u d e d i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f f i v e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e s t h a t o n l y ' c hance' or ' f a t e ' and p e r h a p s ' p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l ' had a d e q u a t e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y a c r o s s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . A more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m comes from R i c h a r d s ( 1 9 8 3 ) . U s i n g d a t a from t h e N a t i o n a l L o n g i t u d i n a l EJtudy o f t h e H i g h S c h o o l o f 1972 sample o f 8,271 s t u d e n t s , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t n e i t h e r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l or s e I f--esteem were s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . He q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f the* measures u s e d and t h e t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g them. D e s p i t e these* weaknesses, i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o ask whether t h e i r a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l between p a r e n t s who c h o o s e a l t e r n a t e methods o f s c h o o l i n g and t h o s e who a c c e p t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l program. B o t h t h e R o t t e r and t h e IPC c a n be s e e n a s s u i t a b l e measures o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I t seems w i s e , however, i n v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h t o f o l l o w L e f c o u r t (1981) c a u t i o n s t h a t " g l o b a l measures a f f o r d o n l y weak p r e d i c t i v e power t o t h e assumed c r i t e r i a . The more s p e c i f i c a measure, t h e 35 g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e power o f t h a t measure i n p r e d i c t i n g r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a " (p.386) In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s a d v i c e , a b r i e f 12 i t e m l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e , a s s e s s i n g p a r e n t ' s b e l i e f i n t h e i r e f f i c a c y t o a f f e c t t h e i r c h i I d ' s b e h a v i o u r , h i s s u c c e s s i n l i f e and i n s c h o o l and i n t h e m s e l v e s a s e d u c a t o r s was d e v i s e d t o be u s e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e IPC and R o t t e r I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e . Qib^I„lGiik^O£SS_on__Par e n t ^ s _ D e c i s i ons A f i n a l a r e a o f i n t e r e s t , and one more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h o s e s t u d i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e s upon t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w hich a r e u n i q u e t o t h e f a m i l y w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n . T h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s may be r e l a t e t o t h e p a r e n t ' s s c h o o l i n g , t o t h e i r c h i l d ' s needs, or t o o t h e r p e r s o n a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d them t o p u r s u e a n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . P r i v a t e s c h o o l s have l o n g r e l i e d on t h e c h i l d r e n o f ' o l d b o y s ' t o f i l l t h e i r r o s t e r s . Eiarman (1984) d e s c r i b e s how p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were c r e a t e d t o s e r v e " t h e O l d C o u n t r y t y p e who a r e t h e m s e l v e s t h e p r o d u c t o f p r i v a t e s c h o o l s a t home and f i r m b e l i e v e r s i n t h e s y s t e m o f p r i v a t e e d u c a t i o n " (p.55) A l t h o u g h t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e now p r e s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s a s r e p o s i t o r i e s o f a c a d e m i c m e r i t and h i g h s t a n d a r d s , r a t h e r t h a n a s purely a r i s t o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , in a 1971 survey of Shaughnessy residents, SOX of whom had been educated in private schools, "87 per cent (of respondants) also said that at least one c h i l d was being or had been educated p r i v a t e l y and in most cases,...all children had some private schooling."(p. 164!) John Holt in Teach ...Your. _Qwn defends h i s theories in part with iI lustrations from his public school days, where he learned about peer b r u t a l i t y and his private school days. In both, he claims " i t was a rare day indeed in my schooling when I got f i f t e e n minutes of teaching, that i s , of concerned and thoughtful adult talk about something I found interesting, puzzling or important." (p.59) Van Galen (1988), describing how parents become home schoolers, notes that some have had "prior p o s i t i v e experience with learning at homes One mother had done her highschool could work at home through a correspondence program, and her own mother had been taught at home by her grandmother."(p.92) Similarly, the perceived needs of the c h i l d also provide motivation to parents to provide alternate schooling. lie Iii I I an (1985) recommends homeschooling for gi f t e d children, Colfax (1988) traces the beginning of his family's successful homeschooling venture, which eventually led his sons to Harvard, to their eldest son's unhappiness in his f i r s t year of public school. The Moore's recommendation that children not begin school unt i l they are between eight and twelve years of age i s a l s o t a k e n t o h e a r t by some p a r e n t s . Van G a l e n w r i t e s t h a t i n 'becoming home s c h o o l e r s ' ? some p a r e n t s found t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v i n g " c o n s i d e r a b l e - academic and e m o t i o n a l t r o u b l e * f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . T h e s e p a r e n t s had p e r s i s t e n t l y but u n s u c c e s s f u l l y s o u g h t a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t h e i r c h i I d r e n " C 1 9 8 8 ? p.93) As N a u l t and U c h i t e l l e (1982) found i n e x a m i n i n g f e a t u r e s o f s c h o o I c h o i c e ? " r e f l e c t i v e c h o i. c e w a s m o r e* c c rn m o n t h a t c u r s o r y s e l e c t i o n " and " p a r e n t s a f f o r d e d a choice* became more k n o w l e d g a b l e about t h e s c h o o l t o w h i c h t h e y s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h a n d i d s i m i l a r p a r e n t s a s s i g n e d t o a n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l . " Cogan (1979) r e s e a r c h e d f a m i l y c h o i c e i n D i s t r i c t #43 ( C o q u i t l a m ) ? c o m p a r i n g v a r i o u s a t t r i b u t e s o f p a r e n t s who c h o s e F r e n c h Immersion or r e g u l a r non-Immersion i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s or o p t e d f o r t h e l o c a l p r i v a t e s c h o o l s y s t e m . She d e s c r i b e d t h r e e t y p e s o f p a r e n t s ! P a s s i v e p a r e n t s who s i m p l y a c c e p t e d t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n ; n a r r o w a c t i v e c h o o s e r s ? who r e s e a r c h e d p r o g r a m s w i t h i n t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l ; and wide* a c t i v e c h o o s e r s who r e s e a r c h e d t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e b o t h i n t h e i r I o c a s c h o o l and f u r t h e r a f i e l d . She found t h a t the* p r o p o r t i o n o f p a s s i v e c h o o s e r s d i d not v a r y much w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c . s t a t u s ? but a c t i v e wide c h o o s e r s i n c r e a s e d i n number w i t h i n c r e a s i n g SES Gooclnow (1985) d i s c u s s e s how p a r e n t s d e v e l o p and c h a n g e i d e a s on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d and t h e role* o f the* p a r e n t . She* p o i n t s out t h a t n a i v e c h i l d d e v e lopment t h e o r y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n and t h e age o f t h e c o h o r t t o which t h e p a r e n t b e l o n g s . "Modern" s o c i e t y i n s i s t s t h a t t h e f u t u r e i s open and t h a t t h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e p a t h s t o any goal,. A l t h o u g h t e r m s s u c h a s ' r e f r i g e r a t o r m o t h e r s ' a r e no l o n g e r u s e d and m o t h e r s a r e no l o n g e r s e e n as c u l p a b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s d e v i a n c i e s , m o t h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o " l e a r n about o p t i o n s — c r e a t e them i f need be — and make c h o i c e s " ( p . 252) C h i I d — r e a r i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s a s wel I a s p a r e n t a l m o d e r n i t y a r e a l I c o r r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n . ( S c h a f e r and E d g e r t o n , 1985) Summary The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r e n t a l c h o i c e i n e d u c a t i o n i s a phenomenon g u i d e d by p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , SES, and age. These demographic f e a t u r e s combine w i t h t h e p a r e n t ' s own e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e ' s , m o d e r n i t y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d , and t h e ' a v a i l a b l e ' i d e o l o g i e s t o p r o d u c e , i n c o n c e r t , t h p a r e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . Whether t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s e x p r e s s e d i n a c t i o n may depend on t h e p a r e n t ' s l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and f a i t h i n t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l o n e ' s own l i f e . 39 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Qyeryiew A discussion of the problem and research questions will be followed by a general discussion of how the problem was approached. The instrumentation consists of three locus of control measures, a O-sort and an interview. Two of the locus of control measures were drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e and are described b r i e f l y . The th i r d was designed for the study and i t s design and p i l o t i n g i s discussed f u l l y . The creation and p i l o t i n g of the items used in the Q-sort i s also discussed with a br i e f discussion of the interview. Four sets of subjects were drawn. One set was selected for the development of the new locus of control measures. Two separate groups of subjects were used in the design of the Q-sort. The selection of the final group of subjects, those actually used for the main body of the study wi l l be described in d e t a i l . From t h i s group, a subset was selected to be interviewed. The re s u l t i n g data included that from the locus of control measures, the Q-sort, and the interviews. The data analysis section w i l l discuss how the analysis of each set of data was conducted. 40 A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g body o f l i t e r a t u r e on h o m e s c h o o l i n g , " l i t t l e i s known about t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and m o t i v e s o f p a r e n t s who c h o o s e t o home s c h o o l " (Van G a l e n , 1988). Mahen and Ware's (1987) c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f h o m e s c h o o I e r s and s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s toward t h e b e n e f i t s o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g seems t o be a l o n e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o compare t h e a t t i t u d e s o f h o m e s c h o o I e r s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d g r o u p s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t one c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g or whether i t i s an example o f t h e f l i g h t o f t h e d i s a f f e c t e d q u a l i t y - c o n s c i o u s consumer u n l e s s one knows how s i m i l a r t h e i r v i e w s a r e t o t h o s e o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s . I t i s however, known, t h a t t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l u n d e r c u r r e n t o f d i s c o n t e n t amongst p a r e n t s and t h a t a t l e a s t some p a r e n t s c h o o s e a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m s t h a t appear t o o f f e r a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f t h e c h i l d a s a l e a r n e r . The p a r e n t who c h o o s e s t o homeschool by d e f i n i t i o n h a s a d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y t o t h a t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l at l e a s t a s r e g a r d s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n (Meighan, 1986, p . 1 7 3 ) . The p a r e n t must a l s o f e e l t h a t t a k i n g a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f h i s c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n wiI I have d i r e c t r e s u l t s on t h e c h i l d ' s e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s - t h e p a r e n t must f e e l t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s outcome i s under t h e p a r e n t ' s c o n t r o l . The p a r e n t who c h o o s e s an a l t e r n a t e s y s t e m s h a r e s a p h i l o s o p h y w i t h t h e a l t e r n a t e s y s t e m and p r e s u m a b l y i s l e s s enamoured o f t h e r e g u l a r s y s t e m . T h i s 41. p a r e n t may a l s o f e e l t h e c h i l d ' s outcome i s t o some d e g r e e under t h e p a r e n t ' s c o n t r o l . The p r o b l e m t h e r e f o r e i s t o d e s c r i b e how t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s d i f f e r and what a r e t h e i s s u e s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from one a n o t h e r . Do t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s h o l d d i f f e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n ? Do p a r e n t s who r e m a i n i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m c a s t an a c t i v e v o t e o f t h a t s y s t e m , or s i m p l y b e l i e v e t h a t the*ir c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l f u t u r e i s i n t h e hands o f f a t e or p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ? F i n a l l y , a r e t h e s e p a r e n t g r o u p s s e t a p a r t not by p h i l o s o p h y or by d e g r e e o f f a t a l i s m but by s p e c i f i c e v e n t s u n i q u e t o e a c h f a m i l y ? T h i s s t u d y w i l l examine: 1) Whether p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s f a l l i n t o c a t e g o r i e s which can be t y p i f i e d a s b e i n g l i b e r a l , m oderate or c o n s e r v a t i v e . 2) Whether g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s who c h o o s e d i f f e r i n g methods o f e d u c a t i o n ( ' d e c i s i o n g r o u p s ' ) e x h i b i t s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r endorsement o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i I o s o p h i e s . a) Whether t h e s e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s a r e homegeneous w i t h i n t h e g r o u p i n t h e i r endorsement o f a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n . b) Whether t h e r e a r e s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e l i e f between h o m e s c h o o l i n g and s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . 3) Whether t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s d i f f e r w i t h r e g a r d t o mean v a l u e s on a g e n e r a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t . 4) Whether t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s d i f f e r w i t h r e g a r d t o mean v a l u e s on a l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measure s p e c i f i c t o c h i l d -r e a r i ng. 5) Whether t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures. 6) Whether t h e r e a r e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s which a r e d e s c r i b e d by p a r e n t s which might e x p l a i n t h e i r s c h o o l i n g c h o i c e s . T h i s m u l t i p l e c a s e s t u d y u t i l i z e s t h r e e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures, a Q ~ s o r t o f 84 s t a t e m e n t s about e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , and a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n an a t t e m p t t o p r o b e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s and p a r e n t a l c h o i c e i n s c h o o l i n g . Y i n (1984) a s s e r t s t h a t "how" and "why" q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o c u s on c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s o f which t h e r e s e a r c h e r has no c o n t r o l a r e b e s t examined i n a c a s e s t u d y . 43 A case study i s an empirical enquiry that: Ca) investigates a contempory phenomenon within i t s real l i f e context? when <b) the boundries between phenonmenon and context are not c l e a r l y evident; and in which (c) multiple sources of evidence are used. (Yin, p. 23) The sources of evidence u t i l i z e d in the present study are the three locus of control measures, the Q-sort and the semi-structured interview. The research i t s e l f f e l l into three parts; the creation and p i l o t i n g of a 'child-rearing locus of control' measure; a general study involving t h i r t y parents who completed a Q-sort and locus of control measures; and the interview of the 'most representative' parents from each group. Instrumentation Several instruments were used in t h i s study, two developed s p e c i f i c a l l y for i t . The design and p i l o t i n g of the C h i l d -Rearing Locus of Control measure preceded the main body of the study in the p i l o t study. It was used in conjunction with two established locus of control measures, Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control instrument and Levenson's IPC. Subsequently a 44 Q - s o r t was d e v e l o p e d and r e f i n e d . F i n a l l y , a s e t o f i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i ons wer e c h o s e n . A) L2£yS_£'i_^ntroX ( - i •> Ul*LJ^QILt<Hr__L~E_ScaJ_e,_and_the...Levenson_IPC The R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e i s a 29 i t e m s c a l e o f which s i x i t e m s a r e u n s c o r e d . H i g h s c o r e s i n d i c a t e e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , and low s c o r e s i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . However, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i t was s c o r e d i n r e v e r s e s o t h a t h i g h s c o r e s would i n d i c a t e i n t e r n a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g LOC and t h e L e v e n s e n I n t e r n a l s u b s c a l e . The L e v e n s o n IPC c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s u b s c a l e s , I n t e r n a l , P o w e r f u l O t h e r s and Chance, c o n s i s t i n g o f 9 i t e m s e a c h . H i g h s c o r e s a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , nor do low s c o r e s on i n t e r n a l i t y i m p l y e x t e r n a l i t y . Items a r e s c o r e d on a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e w i t h i t e m s r a n g i n g from -3 ( s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) t o +3 ( s t r o n g l y a g r e e ) . The r e s p o n d a n t i n d i c a t e s agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h s t a t e m e n t s which a t t r i b u t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e v e n t s t o o n e ' s own a c t i o n s , l u c k or c h a n c e , or t h e a c t i o n s o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s . The C h i l d - R e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure i s a 1 2 - i t e m s c a l e d e v i s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e t o which p a r e n t s f e e l t h e y h a v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and a c ademic a c h i e v e m e n t . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s c a l e f o l I o w s . Ci i ) Ihe_Pi_J_ot _ S t u d y j Chi_]_dr ear ioa_.Loc.us_.of ...Contro.l_ The o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 18 s i t u a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g or a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c h i l d - r e a r i n g w hich c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r e n t or under t h e c o n t r o l o f c h a n c e e v e n t s s u c h a s l u c k or h e r e d i t y or under t h e c o n t r o l o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ? s u c h a s t e a c h e r s ? p e e r s or 'bad i n f l u e n c e s ' . T h e s e t h r e e a r e a s were c h o s e n a s b e i n g p a r a l l e t o t h o s e used by L e v e n s o n (1981) i n her d e v e l o p m e n t o f her l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measure? t h e L e v e n s o n IPC. H a v i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d e v e l opment o f o n e ' s c h i l d i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s b e i n g s i m i l a r t o t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' d i m e n s i o n on L e v e n s o n ' s s c a l e . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was c or r e I a t ed w i t h Rot t e r ' s In t er na I-E x t e r n a I Loc us o f Con t r oI S c a l e < P h a r e s ? 1976) and L e v e n s o n ' s IPC s c a l e (Levenson? 1981) B> Ihe._Q-Sort :'- Qzd&tb.'2do.Loc_y_5 G e n e r a l PJ.i^ ~y._>_>L,2Q Q-methodoIogy i s a form o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w hich f a c t o r s p e o p l e r a t h e r t h a n i t e m s i n t o g r o u p s . Q~methodoIogy i s most u s e f u l f o r r e s e a r c h i n w hich on i s t e s t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t o r y t h e o r y or t h e o r i e s . ( K e r l i n g e r ? 1978 ) A l a r g e number o f i t e m s can be compared t o one a n o t h e r i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e and w i t h l i t t l e c o n f u s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t ( N u n n a l l y ? 1967). Q - s o r t s a r e a l s o d e s i r a b l e s i n c e most p e o p l e e n j o y d o i n g them. 46 Q - s o r t s have been u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e a wide v a r i e t y o f a r e a s from i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s t o p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t m e n t (Cronbach? 1955) t o d e s c r i b i n g t e a c h i n g methods i n s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s (Abraham? 1982). K e r l i n g e r ' s p r e l i m i n a r y work ( a s q u o t e d i n K e r l i n g e r ? 1984) on e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s from which he d e r i v e d h i s ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' v s . ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' d i c h o t omy? was b a s e d on Q - s o r t s u s i n g p e r s o n s b e l i e v e d t o be e x e m p l a r s o f each g r o u p . G e l j a s and P e a s e (1986) us e d Q - s o r t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures t o compare p a r e n t s b e l i e f s about what a 'good p a r e n t ' d o e s w i t h what t h e y t h e m s e l v e s d i d . They found d i f f e r e n c e s between ' i n t e r n a l s ' and ' e x t e r n a l s ' a s t o what t h e y f e l t t h e f e a t u r e s o f good p a r e n t s were and what t h e y s a i d t h e y d i d . Q-methodoIogy was a l s o u s e d by S a m a r o f f and F e i I (1985) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h ' v i g n e t t e s ' t o which p a r e n t s r e sponded? i n t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p a r e n t s as s y m b i o t i c ? c a t e g o r i c a l ? c o m p e n s a t i n g and p e r s p e c t i v i s t i c . M a r i l y n S e g a l (1985) u s e d a 3 0 - i t e m Q - s o r t t o compare p a r e n t s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e m s e l v e s a s e d u c a t o r s t o t h e i r b e l i e f s a bout c h i l d r e n . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r e n t s who s e e t h e m s e l v e s a s e d u c a t o r s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be c o n c e r n e d about o b e d i e n c e w h i l e t h o s e who a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c i p l i n a r y m a t t e r s do not s e e t h e m s e l v e s a s e d u c a t o r s . She a l s o found t h a t m o t h e r s i n s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s put more e m p h a s i s on 47 c o m p e t i t i o n and o b e d i e n c e and t h a t h i g h e r SES was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o c e s s g o a l s . • - m e t h o d o l o g y may have- some d i s a d v a n t a g e s . S i n c e a l l i t e m s a r e s o r t e d r e l a t i v e t o one a n o t h e r , any p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e - p o i n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e s o r t w i l l have a v a l u e u n i q u e t o t h e s o r t e r . One p e r s o n d o i n g a Q - s o r t may i n t e n s e l y d i s a g r e e w i t h t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e i t e m s , w h i l e a n o t h e r may a g r e e s t r o n g l y w i t h t h r e e -q u a r t e r s o f t h e i t e m s . S i n c e , however t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f e a c h i t e m i s t h e same, t h e s e two i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y s o r t t h e c a r d s i n an i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e i t e m s a r e compared w i t h e a c h o t h e r , t h e y can be c o n c e i v e d t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f one a n o t h e r . I f t h e s o r t e r e x a m i n e s a l I t h e c a r d s b e f o r e s o r t i n g them, he or s h e forms an i m p l i c i t c r i t e r i a w h ich i s kept i n mind and a g a i n s t which e v e r y s t a t e m e n t i s compared, r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l l y c o m p a r i n g one s t a t e m e n t a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . I f t h e i t e m s a r e not c o n c e p t u a l i s e d a s b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t o f one a n o t h e r i n t h i s f a s h i o n t h e number o f d e g r e e s o f freedom i s d e c r e a s e d . N u n n a l l y C19G7) c a u t i o n s r e a d e r s t h a t " I t i s b e s t not t o make f i n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y v a l u e s found i n a p p l y i n g i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s t o p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g t h e sample of c o n t e n t . One d o e s b e t t e r t o c o n s i d e r them a s r o u g h g u i d e s t o 48 t h e p r o b a b l e g e n e r a l i t y o f f i n d i n g s o v e r l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s o f s t i m u l i o f t h e same g e n e r a l k i n d . " ( p . 5 5 3 ) . However, i f t h e number o f i t e m s i s f a i r l y l a r g e , t h i s becomes an u n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e and K e r l i n g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t F i s c h e r ' s a d v i c e be f o l l o w e d and a more r i g o u r o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l be a d o p t e d i f one w i s h e s t o make i n f e r e n c e s t o a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973. p . 5 9 5 ) . I n c r e a s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f F has t h e same* g e n e r a l e f f e c t on t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o whether t o a c c e p t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a s d o e s d e c r e a s i n g t h e number o f d e g r e e s o f freedom. T h i s a p p r o a c h c a n be u s e d s h o u l d one be c o n c e r n e d about t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f i t e m s . In a f o r c e d s o r t , t h e v a r i a n c e amongst s u b j e c t s i s l o s t . Thus, u s i n g Q - s o r t m e t h o d o l o g y , mean d i f f e r e n c e s a r e u n i m p o r t a n t but " t h e r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s w i i b i D i n d i v i d u a l s or g r o u p s i s i m p o r t a n t " ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973. p.597) and t h u s i p s a t i v e s c o r e s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e . The Q - s o r t was d e v e l o p e d from two p i l o t s o r t s and, i n i t s f i n a l v e r s i o n , was a s t r u c t u r e d s o r t c o n s i s t i n g o f 84 c a r d s drawn from s t a t e m e n t s about e d u c a t i o n found i n works on e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , p a r e n t s u r v e y s and t h e works o f e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c s . A s t r u c t u r e d f o r m a t , a s s u g g e s t e d by N u n n a l l y (p.549) was d e v i s e d a s s u m i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n s e r v a t i v e , p r a g m a t i c / I i b e r a l and r o m a n t i c h u m a n i s t / I i b e r t a r i a n . T h e s e i t e m s were h e n c e f o r t h c l a s s i f i e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' , 'moderate' and ' l i b e r a l ' . E a ch o f t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , which were t h e 49 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , c o n t a i n e d 28 i t e m s . Items c o v e r e d a r e a s s u c h a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e o f g r o u p i n g , t h e l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e amount o f s t r u c t u r e , t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a good t e a c h e r , t h e s p e e d o f . c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e l o n g t e r m g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n , as welI how t o meet n e b u l o u s g o a l s s u c h a s c r e a t i v i t y , set f--esteem and l e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n . A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s , g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t o p i c i s i n c l u d e d i n Ap p e n d i x IV <! f ) . (. i i ) The J 3 - S o r t : PLLet_Studi.es The o r i g i n a l p i l o t Q - s o r t was c o m p i l e d from s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n s , worded more s i m p l y , from O ' N e i l l ' s E d u c a t i o n a l I d e o l o g i e s I n v e n t o r y , s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g i s s u e s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o h o m e s c h o o I e r s , and t h o s e s e e n t o be o f i m p o r t a n t t o p a r e n t s i n g e n e r a l (Page, Page and T r e m b l e , 1987). T h e s e were s o r t e d i n t o t e n c a t e g o r i e s by s u b j e c t s i n t o a q u a s i - n o r m a I d i s t r i b u t i o n b a s e d on how s t r o n g l y t h e s u b j e c t a g r e e s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . The o r i g i n a l Q - s o r t was a d m i n s t e r e d t o t h e f i r s t t e n s u b j e c t s and a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c r i t i q u e , t h e i t e m p o o l was e n l a r g e d , i t e m s which were d i f f i c u l t t o s o r t were d r o p p e d and i t e m s were r e w r i t t e n t o i m p r o v e r e a d i b i l i t y and r e d u c e a m b i g u i t y . A s e c o n d group o f s u b j e c t s were g i v e n 104 s t a t e m e n t s on c a r d s w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d e n v e l o p e s and a l e t t e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o how t o c o m p l e t e t h e c a r d s o r t . S e v e n t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e twenty who v o l u n t e e r e d r e t u r n e d t h e i r c a r d s c o r r e c t l y s o r t e d . They were 50 i n t e r v i e w e d b r i e f l y i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and whether t h e y had any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s w i t h s o r t i n g t h e c a r d s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e i r r e t u r n s l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i t e m pool by e l i m i n a t i n g or r e f i n i n g t h o s e i t e m s which d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between g r o u p s . T h e s e f i n a l i t e m s were r e w r i t t e n t o f i t t h e format o f a s t r u c t u r e d Q - s o r t and t h e r e s u l t i n g 84 i t e m s c o m p r i s e d t h e f i n a l Q - s o r t . T h e s e i t e m s were t o be s o r t e d i n t o t e n c a t e g o r i e s , w hich were t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s , w i t h c a t e g o r y 1 b e i n g " l e a s t l i k e my b e l i e f s " and c a t e g o r y 10 b e i n g "most l i k e my b e l i e f s " . T a b l e 3-1 i n d i c a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e r a n k i n g s . Tab I e 3-1 s ELSStiSQE Y._J21.J^ C a t e g o r i e s 3 4 5 6 8 10 14 20 20 14 ( i i i ) _ Jhe_Q-Sor t±_ .Mai n_St ud_/ I n i t i a l l y , p l a n s c a l l e d f o r m a i l r e s p o n s e s o n l y from t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e lower m a i n l a n d . However, s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s were l e a v i n g f o r h o l i d a y s and r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s be d r o p p e d o f f s o t h e y c o u l d m a i l i t from t h e i r 51 d e s t i n a t i o n . I t a l s o became o b v i o u s t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e s u b j e c t s were r u s h i n g t h r o u g h t h e Q - s o r t i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e l u n c h , t e n d t o c h i l d r e n , or t o t h e i r h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . S u b j e c t s were t h e r e f o r e ctsked whether t h e y would p r e f e r t h e m a t e r i a l s t o be l e f t w i t h them t o c o m p l e t e a t t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e or whether t h e y would p r e f e r t o s e t a s p e c i f i c t i m e t o do i t . Most s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r e d t o do t h e s o r t on t h e i r own t i m e and t h i s p r a c t i c e l e d t o a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a t t r i t i o n r a t e t h a n might have o t h e r w i s e been t h e c a s e . C )_ LQ„ex.yJ^ew " P r o b a b l y t h e c e n t r a l v a l u e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w a s a r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e i s t h a t i t a l l o w s b o t h p a r t i e s t o e x p l o r e t h e meaning o f t h e q u e s t i o n s and a n swers i n v o l v e d . " ( B r e n n e r , Brown and C a r t e r , 1985, p.3) The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was g e t i n f o r m a t i o n from p a r e n t s about t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d , o f t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g t h e method o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y c h o s e . They were a l s o q u e s t i o n e d about what t h e y f e l t t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e o t h e r p a r e n t s were, t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h o i c e t h e y had made, and whether t h e y would c o n s i d e r any o f t h e o t h e r o p t i o n s . O t h e r q u e s t i o n s a t t e m p t e d t o p r o b e how a c t i v e l y t h e y had p u r s u e d i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and e d u c a t i o n , whether t h e y f e l t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n was i n j e p o a r d y and t h e i r l e v e l o f commitment t o i t . A f i n a l q u e s t i o n a s k e d about t h e new p r i m a r y program, whether i t a p p e a l e d t o them and whether t h e y t h o u g h t i t would a p p e a l t o o t h e r members o f t h e i r g r o u p . F i n a l Iy? t h e y were shown t h e f a c t o r a r r a y f o r t h e i r f a c t o r and were a s k e d t o comment. A c o p y of t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a p p e a r s i n Ap p e n d i x IV(a>. S u b j e c t s were a g a i n i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s w i l l be anonymous and t h a t t h e y were f r e e t o w i t h d r a w from t h e s t u d y at any t i m e . A co p y o f t h e c o n s e n t form a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x I I I . Sjamp.li.ng A > The „P i . Lot _S t u d i_e s :'- ^  !2£Y„L*l„f!i^ Measure T h i r t y - t w o employees? i n t h e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g d e p a r t m e n t o f a l a r g e u r b a n p u b l i c u t i l i t y ? a l l o f whom were p a r e n t s ? v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y o f whom 29 c o m p l e t e d t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I n d i v i d u a l s sampled from t h i s domain were middle' c l a s s and? b e c a u s e t h e y l i v e d i n d i v e r s e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s ? had c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d many d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s ? t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g any p r o b l e m s b i a s o f c o n f o u n d i n g u n i q u e t o one s c h o o l or d i s t r i c t . I n i t i a l l y o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l age? between 4 1/2 and 13 were a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r ? however two s u b j e c t s w i t h f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d . B e c a u s e 28 o f t h e o r i g i n a l v o l u n t e e r s were male? and t h e e v e n t u a l p o p u l a t i o n t o be s t u d i e d was e x p e c t e d t o be p r e d o m i n a t e l y female? i t was sugge-sted t o t h e male v o l u n t e e r s t h a t t h e i r w i v e s c o m p l e t e t h e s u r v e y s i f t h i s was p o s s i b l e . The f i n a l s a m p le c o n s i s t e d o f i=:o 2 5 f e m a l e s and 4 m a l e s . A l l but t h r e e o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y had c h i l d r e n between 4 1 / 2 and 13? two had c h i l d r e n who were 14 and one d i d not i n d i c a t e t h e age r a n g e o f h i s c h i l d r e n . H a l f t h e s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure f i r s t and h a l f t h e C h i l d - r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure f i r s t . S u b s e q u e n t l y a l l s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d L e v e n s o n ' s IPC s c a l e . (. i i ) ._|3eve]_orjment _ o f „t.he _Q-Sor t The o r i g i n a l g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e Q - s o r t were s e l e c t e d t o i n c l u d e b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h e x p e r t i s e t o c r i t i c a l l y examine t h e s t a t e m e n t s and i n d i v i d u a l s who were ' n o n - e x p e r t s ' t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s were r e a s o n a b l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o n o n - e d u c a t o r s . The o r i g i n a l n i n e s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d t h r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ? one o f whom i s r e t i r e d ? one M o n t e s s o r i p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r ? two ' i n f o r m e d ' p a r e n t s who have a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d t h e m s e l v e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s ? a ' n o n - i n f o r m e d ' p a r e n t ? who has l i m i t e d her i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l m a t t e r s t o t h o s e i s s u e s p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v i n g her c h i l d r e n and two men? a r e t i r e d manager w i t h no s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n ? and a computer s p e c i a l i s t w i t h c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r man had been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . Each s o r t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and t h e s o r t e r was a s k e d t o d i s c u s s a l o u d what he or she was d o i n g ; t h e i t e m s were r e v i e w e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a t t h e end o f t h e s o r t . 54 A r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Q - s o r t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o two groups? 10 m o t h e r s whose p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d a t a l o c a l M o n t e s s o r i p r e s c h o o l and who had no c h i l d r e n i n t h e p u b l i c M o n t e s s o r i e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m and 10 p r e s c h o o l s t a f f ( t e a c h e r s ? p r o g ram d i r e c t o r s ? and o n e - t o - o n e w o r k e r s ) a t a l o c a l s p e c i a l n e e d s p r e s c h o o l . B •> J h e_ Ma i.n._St udy T h e r e were 30 s u b j e c t s i n t o t a l who were s e l e c t e d from t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s ! 10 home s c h o o l e r s ? 10 M o n t e s s o r i a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l e r s and 10 t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l e r s . In k e e p i n g w i t h c a s e s t u d y methodology? s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d a s e x e m p l a r s o f t h e i r group? by b e i n g r e f e r r e d by o t h e r members o f t h e group? or by t h e i r v o l u n t e e r i n g . The home s c h o o l e r s were s e l e c t e d from v o l u n t e e r s from two home-s c h o o l i n g s u p p o r t g r o u p s . The New L i f e Community C h u r c h o f f e r s a s u p p o r t g r o u p t o C h r i s t i a n f a m i l i e s w i s h i n g t o e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home. I n d i v i d u a l s r e c r u i t e d from t h i s g r o u p a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s " . The s e c o n d g r o u p o f h o m e s c h o o l e r s was s e l e c t e d from t h e Ridge-Meadows a r e a o f B.C. which h a s a s e c u l a r home s c h o o l s u p p o r t g r o u p and p u b l i s h e s a ho m e s c h o o I i n g newspaper. One i n d i v i d u a l ? who was not c o n n e c t e d w i t h e i t h e r group? v o l u n t e e r e d a f t e r h a v i n g h e a r d o f t h e s t u d y t h r o u g h a t h i r d p a r t y . T h i s group? which u l t i m a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l s from t h e lower m a i n l a n d o f B.C. and s o u t h e r n 55 V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e ' n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s . T h i s g r o u p was f e l t t o be more l i k e l y t o have a s members t h o s e p a r e n t s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h and had sympathy f o r t h e w r i t i n g s o f John H o l t (1976, 1981) or c o m p a r a b l e d e s c h o o t e r s . The C h r i s t i a n homeschool e r s were met a s a group i n t h e i r c h u r c h s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e t h e s t u d y o c c u r r e d , g i v e n an o u t l i n e o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s and a s k e d i f any members would l i k e t o v o l u n t e e r . The e d i t o r o f t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r * s n e w s l e t t e r i n t h e Ridge-Meadows a r e a i n c l u d e d an a d v e r t i s m e n t i n t h e l e t t e r . In o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s a m p l e d c o n s t i t u t e d a g r o u p o f c o mmitted h o m e s c h o o l e r s ? i t was i n i t i a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t o n l y t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who had no e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l and who had been h o m e s c h o o l i n g f o r a t l e a s t 1 1/2 y e a r s ? or have n e v e r s e n t t h e i r c h i l d t o s c h o o l and were p l a n n i n g t o c o n t i n u e home e d u c a t i o n i n the- F a l l ? would be e l i g i b l e . T h i s was t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e p a r e n t s who had w i t h d r a w n t h e i r c h i l d a s a t e m p o r a r y measure but who would l i k e l y r e t u r n t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m when f a c e d w i t h t h e f o r m i d a b l e t a s k o f p l a n n i n g a n o t h e r y e a r o f s c h o o l i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d . I t was a l s o hoped t h a t t h i s would e l i m i n a t e t h o s e p a r e n t s who w i t h d r e w a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d from s c h o o l b e c a u s e t h a t c h i l d was i n some s e n s e ' d e v i a n t ' ? r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e t h e p a r e n t was a c o m m i t t e d h o m e s c h o o l e r . The f i n a l s ample c o n t a i n e d one p a r e n t who had her y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l b e c a u s e s h e had t o work f u l l t i m e . However? b e c a u s e s h e had home-schooled f o r many y e a r s t'.a c o l l e g e -age son had begun p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g r a d e 11) ? had kept her n e x t 56 o l d e s t c h i l d o ut o f s c h o o l even d u r i n g t h i s t i m e and i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n t o f u l l - t i m e h o m e s c h o o l i n g i n t h e f a l l , s h e was c o n s i d e r e d t o meet t h e u n d e r l y i n g c r i t e r i o n o f b e i n g a c o m m i t t e d h o m e s c h o o l e r . A t o t a l o f e i g h t C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s and n i n e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s was r e c r u i t e d . Two o f t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s d i d not meet t h e commitment c r i t e r i o n and one d r o p p e d out d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . Of t h e n o n - a l i g n e d p a r e n t s , one p e r s o n d r o p p e d o u t , and t h e r e s u l t o f f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s were not u s u a b I e f o r r e a s o n s s u c h as f a i l u r e t o r e t u r n t h e s u r v e y on t i m e . The f i n a l s a m p le c o n t a i n f i v e m o t h e r s from t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l i n g s u p p o r t g r o u p and f i v e n o n - a l i g n e d m o t h e r s . Seven o f t h e m o t h e r s were from t h e lower m a i n l a n d and t h r e e were from s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . When c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t r e s s e d her i d e n t i t y a s a ' p a r e n t ' a s i t was s u g g e s t e d by some h o m e s c h o o I e r s t h a t t h e y f e l t somewhat under s e i g e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e u n v e i l i n g o f t h e new r e g i s t r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h o m e s c h o o I e r s . I t was hoped t h a t t h e y might be more f o r t h c o m i n g i f t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s a p a r e n t r a t h e r t h a n an e d u c a t o r . I t was a l s o hoped t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h might a l s o e l i c i t more r e v e a l i n g a n s w e r s from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s . T r a d i t i o n a l and M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s were c h o s e n from H a r b o u r v i e w E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l i n D i s t r i c t #43. D i s t r i c t #43 was c h o s e n 57 b e c a u s e i t has had a M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram f o r 10 y e a r s . The program h a s been l o c a t e d i n H a r b o u r v i e w S c h o o l f o r t h e p a s t f o u r y e a r s . The H a r b o u r v i e w a r e a i s a m i d d l e c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d and e n r o l l s l o c a l c h i l d r e n o f s i m i l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a s t h e c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d t h e M o n t e s s o r i program. A l I t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l r e s p o n d e n t s had a t l e a s t one c h i l d i n G rade 3 or below and have e d u c a t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n o n l y i n t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e g r o u p t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t i n g . T h i s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d p a r e n t s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be aware o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i a l t e r n a t i v e and t o have c o n s i d e r e d i t . T h o s e p a r e n t s who had a p p l i e d t o e n t e r t h i s p rogram and were r e j e c t e d were not c o n s i d e r e d a s s u b j e c t s a s t h e y had n o t ' c h o s e n ' t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p rogram. One p a r e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e s h e had not been aware o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g r a m when s h e r e g i s t e r e d her c h i l d a s s h e was new t o t h e a r e a , she was happy t o have c h o s e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r ogram and would not r e g i s t e r her younger c h i l d i n i t . T h e s e p a r e n t s were r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h n o t i c e s i n p u b l i c p l a c e s , f l y e r s s e n t door t o door and by 'word o f mouth'. P a r e n t s who had s e r v e d on t h e PTA e x e c u t i v e were s o l i c i t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r and p a r e n t v o l u n t e e r s were a s k e d t o s u g g e s t p e r s o n s who, l i k e t h e m s e l v e s , had d e c i d e d a g a i n s t p l a c i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i program. I t was assumed t h a t t h o s e p a r e n t s who were wiI I i n g t o v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y on e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s had an o p i n i o n t h e y w i s h e d t o e x p r e s s . A g r e a t number o f p a r e n t s had a t t e m p t e d t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n M o n t e s s o r i , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t h e p r e v i o u s two y e a r s and a s a r e s u l t , many p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e s u b j e c t p o o l . None o f t h e s u b j e c t s had e d u c a t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home. The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s were i n i t i a l l y t o have been r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h a n o t i c e i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i N e w l e t t e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e f i n a l e d i t i o n o f t h e n e w l e t t e r was not p u b l i s h e d , however, s e v e r a l p a r e n t s on t h e e x e c u t i v e v o l u n t e e r e d . E a c h v o l u n t e e r was a s k e d i f t h e y knew o f someone who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g who had s i m i l a r i d e a s t o t h e m s e l v e s and someone who t h e y t h o u g h t might have d i f f e r e n t i d e a s . A l l but one o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s had c h i l d r e n i n G r a d e 3 or below. The y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n t h a t r e m a i n i n g f a m i l y was i n G r a d e 4 and was t h e c h i l d o f a p a r e n t who was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d on t h e M o n t e s s o r i e x e c u t i v e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . A l l p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d had s c h o o l e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g r a m s i n c e p r e s c h o o l , none had removed a c h i l d from t h e program, had h o m e s c h o o l e d a c h i l d or had a c h i l d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l program. In a l l c a s e s , any p a r e n t who was a t e a c h e r and had t a u g h t i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s was e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s was t o p r e v e n t t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s n a i v e t h e o r y w i t h t h o s e t h e o r i e s p r e v a l e n t i n e d u c a t i o n c i r c l e s . M o n t e s s o r i t r a i n i n g was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be an impediment a s i t i s not uncommon f o r p a r e n t s t o t a k e some M o n t e s s o r i t r a i n i n g a f t e r e n r o l l i n g t h e i r c h i l d i n 59 p r e s c h o o l . I n v a r i a b l y p a r e n t s become enamoured o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i method b e f o r e t a k i n g t h e c o u r s e s , r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h e c o u r s e s c r e a t e t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y . T a b l e 3-2 d e s c r i b e s t h e a g e s and numbers o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s . Tab I e 3-2: Mean_number__an _?i_P.ar e n t s Mean HomeschooIer s Mon t e s s o r i Tr ad i t i ona I <n==10> <'.n==10> <n=iO> Number o f C h i l d r e n 3.1 2.4 2.6 Age o f C h i l d r e n 8.4 7.9 6.7 i n Y e a r s . C ) SeJ_ ec t i on_o f _ P a r en ts_tg_Be___Inter v i e w e d T h o s e p a r e n t s from e a c h group who were t h e h i g h e s t l o a d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s on e a c h o f t h e f a c t o r s were c h o s e n a s i n t e r v i e w e e s . I t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t h a t a s u b j e c t s h o u l d have a minimum l o a d i n g o f .60 on a f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d a ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' i n d i v i d u a l . U l t i m a t e l y , t w e l v e i n d i v i d u a l s were c h o s e n t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , two n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s , two C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s , t h r e e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s , and f i v e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . These i n d i v i d u a l s were c o n t a c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l s o r t and a s k e d i f t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d and i f t h e y would r e s o r t t h e c a r d s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e Q - s o r t . E l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e i n t e r v i e w e e s were a b l e t o do s o . One p e r s o n from F a c t o r IV was moving out o f town and a g r e e d t o t h e i n t e r v i e w but d i d n o t have t i m e t o s o r t t h e c a r d s . T h r e e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d , one from e a c h g r o u p , two M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and a h o m e s c h o o I e r . . A r e p l a c e m e n t p e r s o n was c h o s e n from F a c t o r IV t o r e - s o r t t h e c a r d s . The f i n a l g r o u p w h i c h p a r t o o k i n t h e r e - s o r t c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s from each o f t h e p a r e n t g r o u p s . Da. t a,_An a l_y s i s D a t a were a n a l y s e d t o d i s c e r n s 1> whether t h e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s f a l l i n t o t h r e e f a c t o r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t h r e e h y p o t h e t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l c 3.t eg or i e s (. c on s e r v a t i ve, mod er a t e or l i b e r a l ) . 2) whether t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s l o a d on d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . 3) what a r e t h e main f e a t u r e s o f e a c h f a c t o r a r r a y d e s c r i b e d by t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . 4) w h i c h i t e m s were r a n k e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r or lower by one or two o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s . 5) w h i c h i t e m s were r a n k e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r or lower by one o f t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s . 6) whether w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r a r r a y , s i g n i f i c a n t l y 61 h i g h e r s c o r e s a r e g i v e n t o one p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e ( c o n s e r v a t i v e , m o d e r a t e or I i b e r a l ) o v e r t h e o t h e r s or whether t h e c a r d s have been s o r t e d r a n d o m l y or a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a i e . w h i c h p h i l o s o p h y , i f any, i s f a v o u r e d by each f a c t o r array. 7) whether any p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y ( c o n s e r v a t i v e , moderate, or l i b e r a l ) i s r e c e i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g s on one f a c t o r a r r a y o v e r o t h e r f a c t o r a r r a y s i e . compared w i t h each o t h e r , i s any f a c t o r a r r a y s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e , more l i b e r a l or more pragmat i c. 8) whether t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r mean s c o r e s on g e n e r a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t s a s d e t e r m i n e d by a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and a m u l t i p l e c o n t r a s t o f means p r o c e d u r e . 9) whether t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r mean s c o r e s on a l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t s p e c i f i c t o c h i l d - r e a r i n g a s d e t e r m i n e d by a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and a m u l t i p l e c o n t r a s t o f means p r o c e d u r e . 10) t h e d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n between g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures o f t h e p i l o t s a m ple. 11) t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f b o t h t h e g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures from t h e p i l o t s a m ple. 12) whether p a r e n t s , when i n t e r v i e w e d , r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s a s m o t i v a t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e o f s c h o o l i n g . 62 13) whether p a r e n t s who a c t i v e l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n about e d u c a t i o n or c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e more l i k e l y t o c h o o s e i an a l t er nat e f o r m o f educ a t i on. 14) whether p a r e n t s who f e e l t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i s i n j e o p a r d y f e e l g r e a t e r l o y a l t y . 15) whether any d e c i s i o n g r o u p or p h i l s o p h i c a l g r o u p f a v o u r s t h e p r o p o s e d new u n g r a d e d p r i m a r y program. Y i n (1984) d e s c r i b e s " p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g " a s a s u i t a b l e d a t a a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e f o r c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h . I t would seem t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e " n a t u r a l l y o c c u r i n g " p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s o f p a r e n t p h i l o s o p h y . The n a t u r a l l y o c c u r i n g p a t t e r n s a r e : a) h o m e s c h o o l e r v. M o n t e s s o r i v . t r a d i t i o n a I b) s c h o o l e r v. d e s c h o o l e r c) a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l e r v. r e g u l a r s c h o o l e r . A l l t h r e e o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t r e a l b e h a v i o u r a l Iy d e f i n e d d i v i s i o n s w hich may be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s Q s o r t . T h e r e a r e a l s o t h e o r e t i c a l p a t t e r n s s u c h a s t h e I i b e r a l / m o d e r a t e / c o n s e r v a t i v e t r i a d w h i c h may u n d e r l i e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . The p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w c an be used t o s u p p o r t or m o d i f y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e Q - s o r t by e n l a r g i n g upon p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s , a s w e l l a s t o p r o v i d e d a t a i n d e p e n d e n t l y on i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e d e g r e e t o which p a r e n t s s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i I d r e a r i n g . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d t h e n be g e n e r a t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h m o t i v a t e p a r e n t s t o home s c h o o l or t o c h o o s e a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m s . A) Ib.e._Pi.Let ...Study. D a t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g LERTAP, w h i c h i s a computer p a c k a g e d e s i g n e d t o a n a l y z e d a t a from t e s t s and s u r v e y s ( G a l e n and Enson, 1986). LERTAP a n a l y z e s e a c h i t e m and "computes i n d i c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f each i t e m . " ( C a r t e r , 1986.) and an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measure f o r t h e e n t i r e t e s t . L e r t a p c a n a l s o c or r e l a t e eac h i t em w i t h an e xt er n a I c r i t er i on. Cor r eI a t i ons between t h e 5 m e asures ( C h i l d - r e a r i n g , R o t t e r and t h e t h r e e L e v e n s o n s u b s c a l e s ! ) were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e o f t h e computer p a c k a g e SAS ( S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s S y s t e m s ) (SAS I n s t i t u t e , 1982). The R o t t e r was s c o r e d i n r e v e r s e f o r e a s e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t h i g h s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l s u b s c a l e and t h e C h i l d -r e a r i n g LOC. T h o s e i t e m s w h i c h n e i t h e r c o r r e l a t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e s u b s c a l e or w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h t h e R o t t e r and t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l or p o s i t i v e l y w i t h Chance and P o w e r f u l O t h e r s were d e l e t e d . One i t e m which had t h e wrong p o l a r i t y was l e f t i n a s i t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e C h i l d - r e a r i n g LOC and t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h i s i t e m w i t h t h e s c a l e was f e l t t o o u t w e i g h t h e a p p a r e n t d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i t e m . The r e s u l t i n g 1 2 - i t e m s c a l e was u t i l i z e d i n t h e main p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . See A p p e n d i x IV f o r t h e c o m p l e t e s c a l e s . 64 B> I b * _ M a i n _ S t u d ^ A one-way ANOVA and was c o n d u c t e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measures t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on any o f t h e f i v e m easures u s i n g SPSS-X ( S t a t i s t i c P a ckage f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s - E x t e n d e d V e r s i o n R e l e a s e 2 . 0 ) . The Neuman-KeuIs M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s o n method was used t o d i s c o v e r which means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f ferent» i _______ _°. j..o o.y The 30 s u b j e c t s were e a c h shown t h e deck o f 84 s t a t e m e n t s about-e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y which were t y p e d on 1 1/2" x 3 1/2" A v e r y l a b e l s a t t a c h e d t o 3" x 5" i n d e x c a r d s . They were a l s o g i v e n 10 w h i t e l e t t e r - s i z e e n v e l o p e s numbered from 1 t o 10. Each e n v e l o p e a l s o had a b r a c k e t e d p h r a s e below t h e number ( e g . 5 c a r d s ) i n d i c a t i n g t h e number o f c a r d s w h i c h c o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . The e x t r e m e c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d "most l i k e my b e l i e f s " f o r e n v e l o p e 10 and " l e a s t l i k e my b e l i e f s " f o r e n v e l o p e 1. The e n v e l o p e s were l a i d out from l e f t t o r i g h t w i t h e n v e l o p e 1 one t h e l e f t . S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e a d t h e c a r d s and ask t h e m s e l v e s "How much l i k e my own b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n i s t h i s s t a t e m e n t ? " They were t o l d t h a t ' e d u c a t i o n ' meant t h o s e i t e m s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t a u g h t by s c h o o l s r a t h e r t h a n t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t g o e s on i n f a m i l i e s . I n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n were t o l d a s an example t h a t ' l e a r n i n g t o r e a d ' would t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d ' f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ' b e c a u s e i t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s , w h i l e ' l e a r n i n g good t a b l e manners' would n o t , b e c a u s e i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t a u g h t a t home. They were admonished t o remember t o compare t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e i r b e l i e f s , not t h o s e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m t o h o l d . I t was s u g g e s t e d t o them t h a t t h e y r e a d t h r o u g h t h e c a r d s and p l a c e them i n t h r e e p i l e s ' y e s ' 'no' and 'not s u r e ' and t h e n go t h r o u g h t h e c a r d s a g a i n t o d i v i d e them i n t o t h e t e n c a t e g o r i e s . The s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o p l a c e t h e c a r d s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e w h i t e e n v e l o p e when t h e y had c o m p l e t e d t h e s o r t . App€*ndix I I I c o n t a i n s t h e l e t t e r s e n t t o t h o s e p a r e n t s who r e s p o n d e d by m a i l . R e s u l t s o f t h e 30 s o r t s c r e a t e d a 30 x 84 m a t r i x o f raw s c o r e s . T h i s was r e d u c e d t o a 30 x 30 c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was s u b j e c t e d t o a p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s u s i n g a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n u s i n g t h e program UBC FACTO C1983). The r e s u l t o f t h i s r o t a t i o n was t h e c r e a t i o n o f ' f a c t o r s ' o f i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e deck o f Q - s o r t c a r d s . E ach i n d i v i d u a l i s now p a r t o f a f a c t o r o f p e o p l e s h a r i n g a common s e t o f b e l i e f s a s i n d i c a t e d by t h t ' i r r a n k i n g s o f t h e Q~ s o r t s t a t e m e n t s . Now, e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s g i v e n a w e i g h t u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a r / ( . 1 - r ^ ) . T h i s w e i g h t i s t h e r e f o r e b a s e d on t h e l o a d i n g w hich t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s on t h a t f a c t o r . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s raw s c o r e s a r e m u l t i p l i e d by h i s w e i g h t i n g and t h e r e s u l t i n g s c o r e s f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e f a c t o r a r e a v e r a g e d 66 f o r each i t e m . T h e s e a v e r a g e s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o z - s c o r e s which can t h e n be r a n k e d . T h i s was done u s i n g t h e M i n i t a b g e n e r a l p u r p o s e d a t a a n a l y s i s - s y s t e m (1985) In t h i s manner an ' i d e a l ' s o r t , t h e f a c t o r a r r a y ? i s c r e a t e d . H a v i n g q u e s t i o n s which a t t e m p t t o c o v e r t h r e e p e r s u a s i o n s ? c o n s e r v a t i v e ? m o d e r a t e and l i b e r a l ? r e s u l t s i n a s o r t which can be d e s c r i b e d a s ""one way s t r u c t u r e d s o r t " because* t h e r e i s one b a s i s o f v a r i a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i s d i r e c t l y a n a l o g o u s t o simple* one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . " (Ker I i n g e r » 1973. p. 590) Thus t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s t h e m s e l v e s can be examined u s i n g an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i e n c e procedure* t o s e e i f t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n means s c o r e s g i v e n t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t h e a r r a y . T h e r a n k o r d e r e d i t e m s are* r e s c o r e d ? a s t h e y would be had t h e y been s o r t e d . The i t e m w i t h t h e h i g h e s t z - s c o r e r e c e i v e s a 10? t h e n e x t two i t e m s a 9 and s o on down t o the* lowest z - s c o r e which r e c e i v e s a 1. Thus? f o r e a c h o f t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s i t can be d e t e r m i n e d i f any s e t o f 28 i t e m s i s g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g s w i t h i n t h a t f a c t o r a r r a y and t h e r e f o r e d e t e r m i n e i f t h a t f a c t o r a r r a y i s ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' ? 'moderate*' or ' l i b e r a l ' . In c a s e where t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p h i l o s o p h i e s (p. < .01)? a Student-Neuman K e u I s M u I t i p I e C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e which p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n was f a v o u r e d by each f a c t o r . Each b l o c k o f 28 i t e m s can a l s o be compared a c r o s s t h e c l u s t e r s . Thus, i t can be s e e n i f any f a c t o r a r r a y g i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g s t o c o n s e r v a t i v e i t e m s t h a n do t h e o t h e r c l u s t e r s t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n i ng i f an y p ar t i c u I a r c I u s t er i s s i g n i f i c an 11y more c o n s e r v a t i v e , m o derate or l i b e r a l t h a n any o t h e r . In c a s e s where t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c l u s t e r s (g_ < . 0 1 ) , a Neuman—Keuls M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e which g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r . The raw s c o r e s g i v e n by t h e t h i r t y s u b j e c t s f o r e a c h o f t h e 84 i t e m s were a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o an one-way ANOVA, o f each i t e m by dec i s i on gr oup, u s i ng SPSS-X f B r eakdown f pr ogr am. T h i s pr ogr am g i v e s an F - r a t i o f o r each i t e m i n d i c a t i n g i f t h e i r i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a n k i n g s g i v e n t h a t i t e m by t h e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t r e s p o n d a n t s . T h i s program was u t i l i z e d t o s e l e c t q u e s t i o n s which d i s c r i m i n a t e d between t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r s , t h e M o n t e s s o r i a n s and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s , ( t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s ) and a l s o t o s e l e c t w h i c h q u e s t i o n s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between c l u s t e r s ( t h e p h i I i s o p h i c a l . g r o u p s ) . A g a i n t h e Neuman-Keuls M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s i o n method was u s e d t o compare t h e means o f t h e gr oups f or s i gn i f i c a n t d i f f e r enc e s . 68 CHAPTER IV RESULTS: LOCUS OF CONTROL AND Q-SORT Qyeryiew The r e s u l t s of the study are embodied in three types of measure, the locus of control instruments, the Q-sort and the interview. The locus of control measures describe differences between the three groups of parents in their sense of control over events in their l i v e s and the destiny of their children. The Q-sort, which was administered on the same occasion as the locus of control measures, gave parents an opportunity to compare and rank various statements about educational b e l i e f s . The two parents from each group (Homeschooler, Montessori or Traditional) who had the highest loading on each factor were interviewed at a later date. It was a r b i t r a r i l y decided that a minimum loading of .60 on a factor was required for a parent to be considered 'representative' of her group on the factor. The subsequent interviews, which are discussed in Chapter V, were compared for issues which would lend support for descriptions of the factors, and for indications of s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences between factors or parental groups. E'ii2i_Study^ ChjU dr earing_Locus_oi_ControX The original 18-item Chi I drearing Locus of Control yielded an internal r e l i a b i l i t y coeffecient CHoyt estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y ) o f .52. The f i n a l v e r s i o n , i n s p i t e o f i t s t r u n c a t e d form, y i e l d e d a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f e c i e n t o f .60. The t h r e e m e a s u r e s us e d r e s u l t e d i n f i v e * s u b s c a l e s c o r e s . The i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t h r e e m e asures f o r t h i s g r o u p o f t w e n t y - n i n e i n d i v i d u a l s i s r e p o r t e d i n Table* 4-1. The* r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e m o d e rate t o good r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a l l s c o r e s . T a b l e 4-1s Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m easures i n p i l o t s t u d y (N=23) R o t t e r L e v e n s o n L e v e n s o n L e v e n s o n C h i l d - r e a r i n g C h i I d~r e*ar i ng I/E I n t e r n a l P o w e r f u l Chance LOC (18 i t e m s ) LOC ( 1 2 i t e m s ) .85 .54 .85 .76 .52 .60 T£*b I e 4-2 r e p o r t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e f o u r s e a I e s / s u b s c a I es a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the* p i l o t s t u d y and t h e C h i l d — r e a r i n g Loc us o f Cont r oI measur e (18 i t ems) and t he c or r eI a t i ons between t h e s e s c a l e s f o r t h e r e v i s e d C h i l d - r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure (12 i t e r n s ) . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h s c o r e s on t h e C h i l d - r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure c o r r e l a t e * p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h I n t e r n a l s c o r e s on t h e R o t t e r and w i t h s c o r e s on t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l s u b s c a l e and n e g a t i v e l y w i t h t h e L e v e n s o n Chance and P o w e r f u l O t h e r s s u b s c a l e s and t h a t t h e 1 2 - i t e r n s r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e measure* i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e o r i g i n a l . 70 Tab I e 4-2: Cor £ e j a t i o n _ ^ measures and _ f o u r l p c u s _ o j [ _ . c o n t r o l wieasures_~_Pi, I o t _ S t u d y (N=29) R o t t e r L e v e n s o n L e v e n s o n L e v e n s o n I/E I n t e r n a l P o w e r f u l Chance C h i I d r e a r i n g .26 .13 -.20 -.28 LOC (18 i t e m s ) C h i I d r e a r i ng LOC (12 i t e m s ) .38 .34 -.23 -.38 As a r e s u l t o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure ( 1 2 - i t e m f o r m a t ) had moderate r e l i a b i l i t y and c o r r e l a t e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m e asures. The C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure a p p e a r s t o measure t h e same u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t a s do o t h e r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m e asures. „§.L*l„§t_udy_: L o c u s _o f _Cont r o J Measur e s The r e s u l t s o f an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures a r e summarised i n T a b l e 4-3. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s a t t h e .05 l e v e l were o b t a i n e d on t h e L e v e n s o n P o w e r f u l O t h e r s S c a l e , t h e L e v e n s o n Chance S c a l e and t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e . T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g r o u p s on t h e Le v e n s o n I n t e r n a l and t h e R o t t e r s c a l e s . 71 One s u b j e c t had a s c o r e o f 3 on t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l S c a l e . She e x p l a i n e d t h a t s h e had c o m p l e t e d i t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o her C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s and, s i n c e God c o n t r o l l e d her l i f e ? r a t h e r t h a n h e r s e l f ? s h e was u n a b l e t o a t t r i b u t e c o n t r o l t o her own a c t i o n s . Some c o n c e r n a r o s e a s t o how t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e s a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s and whether s h e s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d and a n o t h e r C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r found? or whether t h e y were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f her g r o u p . The ANOVA was r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a n o t h e r h o m e s c h o o l e r ( n o n - a l i g n e d ) who had not c o r r e c t l y f o l l o w e d t h e Q-s o r t i n s t r u c t i o n s ? and who had been e l i m i n a t e d from t h e sample. Her l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures? however? were c o m p l e t e d c o r r e c t l y . T h i s r e c a l c u l a t i o n o f r e s u l t s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e F ' - t e s t s or t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f them and i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t ? d e s p i t e t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c n a t u r e o f her r e s p o n s e s ? s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d . F u r t h e r comments on t h e u s e o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m e a sures w i t h s u c h s u b j e c t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . T a b l e 4-4 i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e Newman-Keuls M u l t i p l e C o n t r a s t s P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e t h r e e t e s t s h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d ? low s c o r e s on Chance and P o w e r f u l O t h e r s s u g g e s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s t h a t t h e s e f o r c e s do n o t p l a y a p a r t i n t h e i r l i v e s ? w h i l e h i g h s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f a t t r i b u t i o n o f outcome's t o t h e s e f a c t o r s . In c o n t r a s t ? h i g h s c o r e s on t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f 72 C o n t r o l i n d i c a t e c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e ' s a b i l i t y a s a p a r e n t t o a f f e c t t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r ? i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and p e r s o n a l i t y . Tab I e 4--3s Ana l ^ s _ s _ _ ! _ v a ^ tl_____b.__Li.__? i _Q„_I____1___Q_i _______ S o u r c e o f Sum o f d f var i a t i on Squar e s Mean Pr ob, Rat i o R o t t e r Between G r o u p s Wi t h i n G r o u p s 39.2557 ________ _. _______ L Between G7.4000 Gr o u p s W i t h i n G r o u p s __„___S_______l_L_Q_b_L_ Between 364.0667 2 Grou p s Wi t h i n G r oups ________ __b_Q__ Between 442.0667 Groups Wi t h i n G r o u p s _bLL___„____ Bet ween 104.4667 Groups Wi t h i n Groups 82.5000 27 19. 6S 238.9000 27 71.7998 7000 1943.4000 27 71.9778 182. 1313.4000 27 48.6444 221, 546.9000 27 20.25E 52. 3•0556 2.2189 .1282 4682 .6311 1.7421 .0368* 10.9122 0003** 17.0945 .0000** *£=<.05 **B=<.01 7 Tab Ie 4-4: R e s u l t s _ o f _ S t u d e n t - N ^ ^ i£^y„_*J.„_ont^ l£___:__2Q__.±_£___s_ Measure T r a d i t i o n a l L e v e n s o n P o w e r f u l o t h e r s L e v e n s o n Chance M 19.00 14. 00 Gr oup M o n t e s s o r i <n=io:> _ 4 _ 0 0 . 1 HomeschooIer s <n=io:> .1Q__ 4.6 Chi I d r e a r i n g M 5_9. _____ 10.00 No_e. Means which a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a r e j o i n e d by under I i n i ng. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e 84 i t e m Q - s o r t r e s u l t e d i n 5 f a c t o r s . The f i f t h f a c t o r was a ' j u n k ' f a c t o r w i t h l o a d i n g s between -.29961 and +.47604? t h e m a j o r i t y o f l o a d i n g s f a l l i n g between 74 .20 and +20. The r e m a i n i n g f o u r f a c t o r s were i n t e r p r e t a b I e . T a b Ie 4-5 r e c o r d s t h e l o a d i n g s on t h e f o u r f a c t o r s . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , w e i g h t e d s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d t o a r r i v e a t an i t e m a r r a y f o r e a c h f a c t o r w i t h a z - s c o r e f o r e a c h i t e m i n d i c a t e d t h e l e v e l o f p r e f e r e n c e g i v e n i t by t h a t g r o u p . T h e s e f a c t o r a r r a y s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t an ' i d e a l s o r t ' f o r i n d i v i d u a l s on t h a t f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x V. T a b l e s 4-6 and 4-7 l i s t t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h r e c e i v e d z - s c o r e s o f more t h a n z=+1.00 or l e s s t h a n z=-1.00 f o r each f a c t o r on t h e i r i t e m a r r a y . T h i r t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , l o a d e d on F a c t o r I. T h e s e i n c l u d e d a l l 5 o f t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s ( t h a t i s , a l l t h o s e not r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n Homeschool s u p p o r t g r o u p ) , 7 o f t h e 10 M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and 1 T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t . T h i s c l u s t e r a p p r o v e d o f l i b e r a l and m o d e r a t e b e l i e f s t a t e m e n t s f o c u s i n g on a c h i l d - c e n t r e d a t m o s p h e r e i n which t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p s h i s own g o a l s , v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s . B e l i e f s r e j e c t e d by t h i s c l u s t e r were t h o s e f o c u s i n g on r e l i g i o n , t r a d i t i o n and a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a n c e s . F a c t o r I I had a l l and o n l y t h e 5 C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s . T h i s c l u s t e r d i d not f a v o u r any o f t h e t h r e e p r o p o s e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e s . I t t e n d e d t o s u p p o r t l i b e r a l and p r a g m a t i c methods s u c h a s l e a r n i n g from r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and k e e p i n g s t r u c t u r e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d and c o n s e r v a t i v e g o a l s s u c h a s c r e a t i n g good c i t i z e n s and p e r s o n s w i t h h i g h moral s t a n d a r d s . T h i s c l u s t e r r e j e c t e d b e l i e f s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n must be r u n by e x p e r t s and a l s o t h o s e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n do not need a d u l t g u i d a n c e . F a c t o r I I I c o n s i s t e d o f 3 M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and 3 T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . T h i s c l u s t e r a p p r o v e d o f moderate b e l i e f s o v e r I i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e o n e s . In p a r t i c u l a r ? t h i s c l u s t e r f a v o u r e d b e l i e f s about t h e form o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m and s t a t e m e n t s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n may have t o be c o e r c e d i n t o l e a r n i n g . B e s i d e s r e j e c t i n g b e l i e f s about t h e p l a c e o f r e l i g i o n i n e d u c a t i o n ? t h i s c l u s t e r r e j e c t e d t h o s e b e l i e f s w h ich s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n must g u i d e t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . The r e m a i n i n g & T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s l o a d e d on F a c t o r IV. T h i s c l u s t e r ? l i k e F a c t o r I? p r e f e r r e d l i b e r a l o v e r c o n s e r v a t i v e and m oderate b e l i e f s and was u n i q u e i n g i v i n g h i g h r a n k i n g s t o s t a t e m e n t s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n had a r o l e i n s o c i a l r e f o r m . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t h r e e p a r e n t d e c i s i o n g r o u p s d i d not h o l d t h r e e d i s t i n c t e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s l i b e r a l ? m o d e r a t e or c o n s e r v a t i v e and t h a t ? i n f a c t ? amongst t h e t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s t u d y ? f o u r s e t s o f b e l i e f e x i s t e d and t h a t e a c h d e c i s i o n g r o u p l o a d e d on more t h a n one f a c t o r . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t g r o u p s who h o l d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n may c h o o s e d i f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p a t h s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o s i n g t h e same mode o f e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n may h o l d d i f f e r i n g b e l i e f s . TABLE 4-5: R o t a t e d _ £ a c t o r _ M a ^ b£;IS„_£_oo_in^ Fac t or P e r s o n F l F2 F3 F4 F5 HS 1 .79634* .12147 -.09661 .09819 .28344 HS .73681 .23876 .09647 -.03870 .04499 HS o .79393* .07820 .11905 .00291 .09270 HS 4 .20104 .84688* .12324 -.15950 -.02273 HS 5 .00140 .75723 a 13731 n 1 .20447 HS 6 .06701 . 77447* .24773 . 1&7 -.27983 HS 7 .78141 .18641 .12082 -.18591 -.24970 HS 8 .02631 .69783 -.17747 -.20787 .36620 HS 9 .73301 .05435 .10385 -.16849 .25400 HS 10 . 277E30 .67789 .06351 --. 15486 -.07948 li 1 .75072* .10630 .20378 -.40652 -.04123 li 2 .55303 .05003 .52176 -.36144 .02150 li o .76447* .08336 • 28567 --. 17010 h 1 ~) \Tj 1 li 4 .73418 .15349 .06693 -.24866 .03508 ii 5 --. 11080 .01224 .87372* ~.09256 -.01300 li 6 .48586 .11508 .46327 .13491 .47603 ii 7 .64519 .16891 .46491 "™* n J~! 1 -.05689 li 8 .69515 -.02279 .23942 -.21758 15267 ii 9 .31082 .06378 .56978 -.24143 .05908 ii 10 .24522 .35594 .57935 -.16741 .13201 T 1 .45003 .13975 .36973 - . 4 7 9 8 5 .29962 T 2 .20140 .11022 .67244* -.46417 -.07203 T 3 .29351 .11308 .33364 - .43791 .35068 T 4 .31785 .01545 .22957 - . 6 0 3 8 3 .28834 T 5 .14006 «381S3 .02256 - . 6 7 7 1 0 * .11712 T 6 .17434 .07372 .32501 - . 7 0 0 3 4 * -.08083 T 7 .06900 .07956 .19370 - . 6 6 8 2 0 •-.10871 T 8 .66548* -.03306 .42485 .19439 .08912 T 9 .47809 .10027 .60766* a •u-F XT.f Cj j-,. -.05250 T 10 • 37716 .16310 .51483 -.26579 a ^3038 Note.. Note!" H i g h e s t a b s o l u t e l o a d i n g f o r e a c h s o r t e r i n b o l d f a c e t y p e . A s t e r i s k (*> i n d i c a t e s i n d i v i d u a l s c h o s e n f o r i n t e r v i e w . 77 J_-_!_s__*Z__ 8t.§t.em^ 0. Fac t or z-score B e l i e f Bel i e f s f a v o u r e d by a l l f o u r c l u s t e r s : 9 M*I 1.60 A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s t o d i s c o v e r I I 1.50 knowledge f o r t h e m s e l v e s r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y I I I 1. 10 r e a d or hear about i t . IV 1.58 84 L I 2. 84 ' C r e a t i n g l i f e t i m e l e a r n e r s ' i s an i m p o r t a n t II 2. 49 f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h c an be I I I 1.31 a c c o m p l i s h e d by e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n ' s IV 2. 69 c r e a t i v i t y and n a t u r a l l o v e o f l e a r n i n g . Be l__ef s _ l_vour_ed_ J_Y. _.t hr_ee _o f _ t h e _ four. _c i.ust er s s_ 6 li I I 1.02 C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n a m a i n l y c o o p e r a t i v e I I I 2.26 e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n r e s t r i c t e d t o IV 1.26 c o m p e t i t i o n between g r o u p s o f w i t h o n e ' s own p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e . 25 li I 1.59 A good t e a c h e r l o v e s l e a r n i n g . I I 1.21 IV 1.45 38 li I I 1.02 The c u r r i c u l u m must be f l e x i b l e t o a l l o w t h e 111 •-••=; i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new t o p i c s and s u b j e c t s from IV 1.87 t i m e t o t i m e a s wel1 a s new i n f o r m a t i o n about si: : i e n c e and h i s t o r y . / — B c I 1 oo X n ~ w / E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c r e a t e p e o p l e who l o v e II 2. 49 knowledge and seek t r u t h . IV 1.50 B e l i e f s f a v o u r e d by. two o f t h e f o u r c l u s t e r s : 1.1. L I 1. 19 A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from ' r e a l II 1. 93 l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o n e s . 14 li I 1.03 C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e where t h e II 1.64 s t r u c t u r e i s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d and c h i l d r e n c an make some c h o i c e s about what t h e y a r e g o i n g t o do and how t h e y a r e g o i n g t o do i t . 78 27 M I 1 .49 A good t e a c h e r d o e s n ' t a c t u a l l y t e a c h - s h e / h e IV 1 o 20 a c t s a s a c a t a l y s t and a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . 28 L II 1 A good t e a c h e r l o v e s c h i l d r e n I I I 1 . 00 80 M I 1 .54 The b e s t way f o r e d u c a t i o n t o enha n c e a c h i l d ' s IV 1 .07 s e l f - e s t e e m i s by r e s p e c t i n g h i s f e e l i n g s and a c c e p t i n g h i m t h e way he i s . §*^ieiii_„_JVOured_b__ o n e _ c j _ u s t e r _onl y : F a c t o r I 56 M 1.39 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o s e t t h e i r own g o a l s and s t a n d a r d s and t r y t o meet them w i t h o u t c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r s . 81 l_ 1.37 E d u c a t i o n e n h a n c e s a c h i l d ' s s e l f - e s t e e m when t h e c h i l d g u i d e s h i s own e d u c a t i o n and f o l l o w s h i s own i n t e r e s t s and ne e d s . 60 L 1.32 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c r e a t e and c l a r i f y t h e i r own v a l u e s . 5 L 1.31 C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f c o o p e r a t i o n where c o m p e t i t i o n i s a v o i d e d . 54 L 1.23 A l l c h i l d r e n a r e n a t u r a l l y c r e a t i v e and t h e r o l e o f a good e d u c a t i o n i s t o make s u r e t h i s n a t u r a l c r e a t i v i t y i s not d e s t r o y e d by r e s t r i c t i v e p r a c t i c e s . Fac t or 11 7E/ M 1.07 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c r e a t e good c i t i z e n s 22 C 1.07 A good t e a c h e r i s an example o f moral b e h a v i o u r . 74 C 1.04 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c r e a t e p e o p l e who have h i g h moral s t a n d a r d s . F a c t o r I I I 49 M 1.66 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f o c u s on a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s -v o c a t i o n a l ? academic? l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and l i f e s t y l e i s s u e s ( s e x e d u c a t i o n ? d r u g and a l c o h o l abuse e d u c a t i o n e t c . ) 79 79 C 1.50 E d u c a t i o n can e n h a n c e a c h i l d s e I f - e s t e e m by s e t t i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s f o r a c a d e m i c a c c o m p l i s h -ment and b e h a v i o u r and e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o meet them t h r o u g h h a r d work and s e l f ~ d i s c i p l i n e . 17 M 1.48 C h i l d r e n l o v e t o l e a r n what i s e a s y and p l e a s a n t f o r them, but u n f o r t u n a t e l y sometimes have t o be f o r c e d t o s t u d y t h o s e a r e a s which a r e more d i f f i c u l t and l e s s p l e a s a n t . 23 C 1.25 To be a good t e a c h e r , one must be weI I e d u c a t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t i n many a r e a s . 41 l i 1.05 A l l c h i l d r e n need t o l e a r n c e r t a i n b a s i c s u b j e c t s , but a f t e r t h a t t h e y s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and t a l e n t s . F a c t o r IV 78 L 1.12 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c r e a t e p e o p l e who w i l l i m p r o v e s o c i e t y. fcNotei C O C o n s e r v a t i v e b e l i e f , CM) M o d e r a t e b e l i e f , CL) L i b e r a l b e I i e f . 80 I_^_i____Zi _„.§j?.emerits_p^ Q Fac t o r z - s c or e Be I i <& f B._Ii_._s_r._Jl_£_____ l _ y r . _ _ l l _ _ . t _ E . _ l N'-'ne & e^__\£ _ _ _ _ _ _ „ _ _ _ _ . . _ ^ 15 L * I I -1.49 C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f I I I -1.97 freedom, f r e e o f e x t e r n a l l y imposed s t r u c t u r e s IV -1.07 r u l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . 16 C I -1.56 Most c h i l d r e n would p r o b a b l y s pend a l l o f t h e i r II -1.38 t i m e p l a y i n g and l e a r n l i t t l e i f t h e y were I I I -1.06 l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s . 31 C I -2.97 What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by I I I -3.21 r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B i b l e or B i b l i c a l s t a n d a r d s . IV -3.22 32 C I -1.20 What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by I I I -1.44 r e f e r r i n g t o what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been IV -1.44 t a u g h t . 40 C I -1.59 A l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be t a u g h t t h e same s u b j e c t s II -1.24 t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . IV - 1 . 0 2 42 L I -1.69 T h e r e i s n o t h i n g a l l c h i l d r e n need t o l e a r n . I l l -2.94 IV -1.37 57 L I I -1.28 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d not i n f l i c t a r b i t r a r y I I I -1.85 s t a n d a r d s upon t h e c h i l d - t h e c h i l d s h o u l d IV -1.22 d e c i d e how i m p o r t a n t t h e t a s k i s and t h e amount o f e f f o r t he or s h e w i s h e d t o expend on i t . 58 C I -2.10 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c o n f o r m I I I -2.94 t o t r a d i t i o n a l J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . IV -2.81 59 M I -1.66 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o a c c e p t I I I -1.30 and c o n f o r m t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r IV -1.91 r e I i g i ous or e t hn i c c ommun i t y. 81 1 M I -1.01 The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from I I -1.57 an a d u l t l e a d e r w i t h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n t h e same age. 37 C I I I -1.06 A l t h o u g h t h e c u r r i c u l u m h a s t o be a d j u s t e d t o IV •-1. 04 i n c l ude s c i e n t i f i c d i sc o v e r i e s and r ec ent h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s , t h e t o p i c s c o v e r e d and t h e s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d can r e m a i n b a s i c a l l y unchanged from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . 55 C I -1.23 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o s t r i v e IV -1.46 f o r e x c e l l e n c e and a c h i e v e m e n t o f g o a l s s e t by t e a c h e r s / t u t o r s , p a r e n t s , or o t h e r a u t h o r — a t a t i v e b o d i e s , <!eg. u n i v e r s i t i e s , award g r a n t i n g g r o u p s , e t c . ) 82 C I -1.60 The g o a l o f " c r e a t i n g l i f e t i m e l e a r n e r s ' w h i l e II -1.57 p e r h a p s a d m i r a b l e i s not a p r a c t i c a l one and d e t r a c t s from more a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s . Fac t or I 83 l i -1.44 G o a l s s u c h a s ' c r e a t i n g l i f e t i m e l e a r n e r s ' c a n b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by e x p o s i n g c h i l d r e n t o a r i g o r o u s a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h g i v e s them knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n t o p u r s u e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n i f and when t h e y want t o . 8 C -1.35 A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s by d r i l l i n g and m e m o r i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l t h e y c a n r e c a l l i t i n s t a n t l y . 64 C -1.08 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y . 67 C -1.03 T e s t s may be u n p o p u l a r but t h e y a r e a good way t o measure how w e l l a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n i s p r o g r e s s i ng. F a c t o r II 60 L -2.49 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c r e a t e and c l a r i f y t h e i r own v a l u e s . -2.20 The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from o t h e r c h i I d r e n . 82 &5 M -1.72 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a I u e s o f s o c i e t y. 19 C -1.57 Most c h i l d r e n a r e r e a d y t o b e g i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y a r e s i x and s h o u l d be a I I owed t o do s o . 39 L -1.23 The c u r r i c u l u m must be c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g t o r e f I e c t what i s c u r r ent i n our soc i e t y . 50 L -1.18 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . 26 M -1.16 To be a good t e a c h e r ? one must have s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g methods'. 33 M -1.16 What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by e x p e r t s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and e d u c a t i o n . 20 M -1.04 The t r a d i t i o n a l age o f s i x i s a good age t o s t a r t formal e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e i t i s t h e age most c h i l d r e n a r e r e a d y f o r i t . F a c t o r I I I 5 L -1.50 What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by what t h e c h i l d wants t o l e a r n . 30 L -1.31 A good t e a c h e r l e t s t h e c h i l d s e l e c t what t h e c h i l d wants t o l e a r n . 44 M -1.08 E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l e t c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r what t h e y a r e n a t u r a l l y good at? r a t h e r t h a n f o r c e them t o do what t h e y d i s l i k e or f i n d d i f f i c u l t . 45 L -1.03 No m a t t e r how h a r d you t r y ? you c a n n o t t e a c h a c h i l d s o m e t h i n g i f t h e c h i l d d o e s not f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g ? e n j o y a b l e or r e l e v a n t i n some manner. F a c t o r IV 21 L. -1.48 Most c h i l d r e n a r e not r e a d y t o b e g i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n u n t i l welI a f t e r age s i x and s h o u l d not be pushed i n t o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n u n t i l t h e y a r e r e a d y . * N £ _ e _ C O C o n s e r v a t i v e B e l i e f ? CM) M o d e r a t e B e l i e f ? C D L i b e r a l B e l i e f . 83 The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s on t h e Q - s o r t must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w p o i n t s i m p l i c i t l y p o s i t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e d Q - s o r t . V a r i a t i o n s from t h e t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s , c o n s e r v a t i v e , m o d e r a t e and l i b e r a l c an t h e n be examined i n l i g h t o f t h e p a r e n t c l u s t e r s which r e s u l t e d . The t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s , h o m e s c h o o l e r , M o n t e s s o r i and t r a d i t i o n a l , d i d not form u n i q u e c l u s t e r s . H o m e s c h o o l e r s c l u s t e r e d on f a c t o r I and f a c t o r I I , M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s c l u s t e r e d on f a c t o r I and f a c t o r I I I and t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s were d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s f a c t o r I, I I I and IV, a l t h o u g h t h e y l o a d e d p r e d o m i n a t e l y on f a c t o r IV. S i m i l a r l y , f o u r r a t h e r t h a n t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s were fou n d . In o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n whether any o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s was p r e d o m i n a t e l y l i b e r a l , m oderate or c o n s e r v a t i v e two ANOVA's and s u b s e q u e n t m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means were c o n d u c t e d on t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s . The r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 4-8 and 4-9 i n d i c a t e t h a t F a c t o r I, I I I and IV r a n k e d one s e t o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r or lower t h a n t h e o t h e r s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t F a c t o r I and IV f a v o u r l i b e r a l and p r a g m a t i c b e l i e f s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n t h e y do c o n s e r v a t i v e b e l i e f s . F a c t o r I I I , on t h e o t h e r hand, f a v o u r s M o d e r a t e b e l i e f s o v e r l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e o n e s . F a c t o r IV ( a l t . ) i s a f a c t o r a r r a y c r e a t e d by i n c l u d i n g Q - s o r t s o f o n l y t h o s e p e r s o n s who l o a d e d on F a c t o r IV a t g r e a t e r t h a n .5. The ANOVA o f t h e t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e f a c t o r a r r a y a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e ( j _ ~ . 0511) and e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c l u s t e r may f a v o u r a l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y . F a c t o r I I 84 d o e s not appear t o f a v o u r any p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e s o r t e d t h e c a r d s a t random or b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e from t h e one p o s i t e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Q - s o r t . The h o m o g e n a e i t y o f t h e f a c t o r , t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l o a d i n g s , h i g h s o r t - r e s o r t c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e two i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t e r v i e w p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y and t h e s u p p o r t l o a n e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s t h e c a s e . The s e c o n d ANOVA compared e a c h s e t o f 28 i t e m s which c o m p r i s e d a p h i l o s o p h y a c r o s s t h e d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f c l u s t e r s . T a b l e 4-10 and 4—11 i n d i c a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s ANOVA and s u b s e q u e n t m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n o f means. The q u e s t i o n now was whether t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r a r r a y s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e mean r a n k i n g s t h e y gave t o e a c h s e t o f i t e m s . A g a i n , F a c t o r IV ( a l t . ) was t h e m o d i f i e d F a c t o r IV w i t h t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who had mixed l o a d i n g s removed. T h i s ANOVA s u g g e s t e d t h a t F a c t o r s I and II d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e how f a v o u r a b l y t h e y r a n k e d c o n s e r v a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . F a c t o r II was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n f a c t o r I. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a n k i n g s g i v e n p r a g m a t i c i t e m s on t h e f i v e f a c t o r a r r a y s . F a c t o r I, r a n k e d l i b e r a l i t e m s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n d i d f a c t o r s I I , I I I and IV. 85 TABLE 4-8: Anaiysis„.of„yari.ance_of I V _ a n d _ I V _ a i t . 2 Sour c e o f Var i a t i on Sum o f d f S q u a r e s Mean S q u a r e s F Rat i o Prob, E_____.__ Bet ween G r o u p s Wi t h i n G r o u p s 48.0741 176.9286 81 24.0357 11.0038 .0001** 2. 184C F a c t o r Between 6.4524 2 Gr o u p s W i t h i n 225.3571 81 Gr o u p s _ a c t o r _ I I I Between 31.4524 2 Groups W i t h i n 205.5357 81 Gr o u p s Between 23.5238 2 Gr o u p s W i t h i n 119.4286 81 G r o u p s E____L___._I_L*_ Between 15.6429 2 Groups W i t h i n 205.2500 81 Groups 3.2262 2.7945 15.7262 2.5375 11.7619 2.4621 7.8214 1.1545 .3204 6.1976 .0031** 4.7772 .0109* 3.0867 .0511 Note,,. *fi< . 05. **fi< . 01 86 TABLE 4-9; R e s u l t s _ o _ f _ S t u d i£_jD_2____,____i^ _-.L_._2 Group C o n s e r v a t i v e M o d e r a t e L i b e r a l F a c t o r I 4.4643 5 _ Z § _ Z ______ C o n s e r v a t i v e M o d e r a t e L i b e r a l II __Q1Z_ ______ _ _ Z i 5 7 C o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l M o d e r a t e I I I 4 ..9286 5 -.2500 6.3571 C o n s e r v a t i v e M o d e r a t e L i b e r a l IV 4.7857 5..7857_._ C o n s e r v a t i v e M o d e r a t e L i b e r a l IV ( a l t ) 5.1071 5.2132 6.0714 Note. Means which a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a r e j o i n e d by under I i n i n g . 87 TABLE 4-10: A n a l y s j l s_o_f_yar m__D__§£er.._5_._iY*Ll._._„£b S o u r c e o f Sum o f d f Mean Var i a t i on Squar e s Squar e s F Pr ob. o f Rat i o F Rat i o C o n s e r v a t i v e Between 27.8143 4 G r o u p s £..'3536 2.9306 0232* W i t h i n G r o u p s 320.3214 135 2.3728 ______£_. Between G r o u p s 11.6379 4 2.9095 1.1364 421 Wi t h i n G r o u p s 354.6478 135 2.5604 Li_ber a l_ Bet ween Groups ^4.2571 4 8.5643 3.4235 0106* Wi t h i n Gr o u p s . 337.7143 135 2.5016 88 Tab Ie 4 - 1 1 : R e s u l t s _ o f _ S t u d e n t _ M „ l _ „ _ _ £ _ _ _ i „ _ _ _ „ _ m „ - ^ ^ l i y _ _ I _ £ t o r _ _ _ _ _ y s _ I F a c t o r P h i I o s o p h i c a I Or i e n t a t i on F a c t o r I V C a l t ) IV I I I II C o n s e r v a t i v< II I IV I V C a l t ) I I I Mod er a t e ..... 5 . 4543 _ 5 „ 7 § 5 7 __QQQO 6 . 0 6 9 0 _ _ 3 2 1 4 I I I II IV I V C a l t ) . i ber a I 8929 5_0357 5 _ 2143 ______ 6.2500 Note.. Means which a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a r e j o i n e d by under I i n i ng. __QVA._of_Ran_ings._Gw In o r d e r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e which b e l i e f s s e p a r a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l c l u s t e r s and which b e l i e f s s e p a r a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n g r o u p s an a l t e r n a t e approach' was t a k e n w h i c h i s d i v e r g e s from Q-methodology. T h i s was t o r e t u r n t o t h e raw d a t a and a n a l y z e which i t e m s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s or t h e f o u r p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s . The mean s c o r e s o f t h o s e i t e m s which s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between g r o u p s a t g=.01 l e v e l were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e S t u d e n t - N e u m a n - K e u l s ITIU 11 i p I e c ompar i son pr oc edur e t o a s c er t a i n wher e t h e d i f f er enc e s l a y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ? which u t i l i z e d t h e SPSS—X 'Breakdown' program? can be s e e n i n T a b l e s 4-12 and 4-13. Tab I e 4-12 l i s t s t h e s t a t ement s f or wh i c h t he*r e wer e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a n k i n g s between t h e t h r e e p a r e n t d e c i s i o n g r o u p s ( h o m e s c h o o l e r s ? M o n t e s s o r i and t r a d i t i o n a l ) . T a b l e 4-13 l i s t s t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means o f t h e raw s c o r e s f o r i t e m s as r a n k e d by t h e p a r e n t s f o r m i n g e a c h t h e f o u r p h i l o s o p h i c a l c I u s t e r s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e between t h e t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s c o u l d i n d i c a t e what a t t i t u d e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e s c h o o l e r s from n o n -s c h o o l e r s ? or t h o s e p a r e n t s who c h o s e a l t e r n a t e e d u c a t i o n from t h o s e who p r e f e r t h e r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s c r e a t e d by t h e f a c t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e would i l l u m i n a t e which f e a t u r e s d i v i d e d the* d e c i s i o n groups? how C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s d i f f e r e d from t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s on F a c t o r I? how t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s on F a c t o r I I I d i f f e r e d from t h o s e on F a c t o r IV and how t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s on F a c t o r I I I we*re d i s s i m i l a r from t h o s e on F a c t o r I. S i m i l a r l y ? t h i s t w o - p r o n g e d a p p r o a c . h h e l p s d i s c e r n w h i c h tael i e f s may b e c o n g r u e n t w i t h d e s c h o o l i n g a n d w h i c h c a n b e h e l d w h i l e r e m a i n i n g i n t h e s y s t e m . T h e F a c t o r I l i o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s a n d t h e F a c t o r I h o m e s c h o o I e r s s h a r e many b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d a n d t h e b e s t w a y s t o l e a r n ? b u t u l t i m a t e l y d i f f e r i n how t o e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i I d r e n . 91 9._2y„._.s. r.i -1(-> ' 1. The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from an a d u l t l e a d e r w i t h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n t h e same age. Tr ad. Mont e s s e r i HS — _ ™™ik 3.6 3. The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s i n a o n e - t o - o n e s i t u a t i o n from a p a r e n t or t u t o r . HS T r a d M o n t e s s o r i 7.4 5.5 5.3 11. A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from ' r e a l l i f e ' e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o n e s . HS T r a d M o n t e s s o r i 7 „ 8 5_8 5_B 19 Most c h i l d r e n a r e r e a d y t o b e g i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y a r e s i x and s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o do s o . M o n t e s s o r i T r a d HS 6...0 5_2 3. 9 21. Most c h i l d r e n a r e not r e a d y t o b e g i n u n t i l w e l l a f t e r age s i x and s h o u l d not be pushed i n t o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n u n t i l t h e y a r e r eady. HS M o n t e s s o r i T r a d G . l 3.9 3.9 23. To be a good t e a c h e r one must be i n t e l I i g e n t and be w e l l e d u c a t e d i n many a r e a s . M o n t e s s o r i T r a d HS 6_4 5_5 4._6 26. To be a good t e a c h e r , one must have s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g methods. T r a d M o n t e s s o r i HS 6.1 5.8 3.7 33. What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by e x p e r t s i n c h i l d d e v e l opment and e d u c a t i o n . M o n t e s s o r i T r a d HS 5.8 5.3 4.1 35. What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by what a c h i l d wants t o know. HS M o n t e s s o r i T r a d 5_9 . 5. 1 4,„4 39. The c u r r i c u l u m must be c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g t o r e f l e c t what i s c u r r e n t i n our s o c i e t y . T r a d M o n t e s s o r i HS 6_.,5 6_JL 4.6 42. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t h a t a l I c h i l d r e n need t o know. HS M o n t e s s o r i T r a d 4 „ 0 4_._0 2. 5 49. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f o c u s on a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s - v o c a t i o n a l ? academic? l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and l i f e s t y l e i s s u e s ( s e x e d u c a t i o n ? d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e e d u c a t i o n e t c . ) Tr ad Mon t e s s o r i HS 58. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c o n f o r m t o t r a d i t i o n a l J u d e o — C h r i s t i an v a I u e s . HS T r a d M o n t e s s o r i 4_7 4_._0 2. 2 72.A c a r e e r or a job? i s t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n . S t u d e n t s l e a r n more from w o r k i n g i n t h e r e a l w o r l d t h a n t h e y do from f o r m a l e d u c a t i on. HS T r a d M o n t e s s o r i 6.0 4.8 4.5 81. E d u c a t i o n e n h a n c e s a c h i l d ' s s e l f - e s t e e m when t h e c h i l d g u i d e s h i s own e d u c a t i o n and f o l l o w s h i s own n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s . HS Mont T r a d ' 6.7 6.7 4.8 Note. HS=Homeschoo I e r s ? M o n t = M o n t e s s o r i ? T r a d = T r a d i t i o n a l Means j o i n e d by u n d e r l i n i n g not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t _ < » 0 5 . I«_L___:_ri._l^ groups.. 1. The* b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from an a d u l t l e a d e r w i t h a gr o u p o f c h i l d r e n t h e same age. I l l IV I II 5 b_33 __ 5 3 «__3£$ 2. The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from o t h e r c h i l d r e n . I I I I IV I I 5„ZZ_._._ __§Z 4__ 5 ~_ _ _ _ _ _ 3 . The b e s t way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s i n a o n e - t o - o n e s i t u a t i o n from a p a r e n t or s i m i l a r a d u l t t u t o r . I I I IV I I I 8. 0 5_.84 5^83 6. C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n a m a i n l y c o o p e r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n r e s t r i c t e d t o c o m p e t i t i o n between g r o u p s or w i t h o n e ' s own p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e . I I I I I I IV 8. 5 §__.§ 6__2 5..3 9. A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s t o d i s c o v e r knowledge f o r t h e m s e l v e s r a t h e r t h a n i m p l y r e a d or hea r about i t . I I I I I I IV 7._5 Z_„ 6 5._5 11. A good way f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from ' r e a l l i f e ' e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n formal e d u c a t i o n a l o n e s . I I I I I I IV 8__.0 &_•__  5 _._> __.__3 15. C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f freedom, f r e e o f e x t e r n a l l y imposed s t r u c t u r e s , r u l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . I II I I I IV e=; i "=: o p o «=• o I v.j. \. %j ^_«_t_ v__v«___ _______'_™™ 17. C h i l d r e n l o v e t o l e a r n what i s e a s y and p l e a s a n t f o r them bu t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y s ometimes have t o be f o r c e d t o s t u d y t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h a r e most d i f f i c u l t or l e s s p l e a s a n t . I l l II IV I 7. 17 5.8 5.6 4.JB 30. A good t e a c h e r l e t s t h e c h i l d s e l e c t what t h e c h i l d wants t o I e a r n . I I I IV I I I 5.77 4.8 4.66 3.83 94 31. What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B i b l e or B i b l i c a l s t a n d a r d s . II IV I I I I 6.8 3.0 „._§_? 35. What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by what t h e c h i l d wants t o l e a r n . I I I I I I IV 5^8 5.6 4.3 4.0 36. What s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e c h i l d — h i s t e a c h e r , t u t o r or p a r e n t . II I I I I IV 5_§ 5^ ,2 4_5 4_17 38. The c u r r i c u l u m must be f l e x i b l e t o a l l o w t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of new t o p i c s and s u b j e c t s from t i m e t o t i m e a s welI a s new i n f o r m a t i o n about s c i e n c e * and h i s t o r y . I I I IV I I I 8.17 6_83 ___ _6._§0___ 6_„38 39 The* c u r r i c u l u m must c o n s t a n t l y be c h a n g i n g t o r e f l e * c t what i s c u r r e n t i n our s o c i e t y . IV I I I I I I 6„5 6. 5 5_69 4. 0 42. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n need t o l e a r n . I I I I I I IV 4.38 3_4_ 3.17 2. 0 44. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l e t c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r what t h e y a r e n a t u r a l l y good a t , r a t h e r t h a n f o r c e them t o do what t h e y d i s l i k e or f i n d d i f f i c u l t . I I I IV I I I 6 „ 4 6 5_8 4.83 4_66 49. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f o c u s on a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s — v o c a t i o n a l , a c a d e m i c , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and l i f e s t y l e i s s u e s ( s e x e d u c a t i o n , d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e . ) I l l IV I I I 7.83 7.5 6.61 4.6 50. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . IV I I I I II 7.0 6.69 6.17 3.8 35 51. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o be happy and a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e y a r e . IV I I I I I I 7. 66 6_ 15 6_0 5_._6 57. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d n ot i n f l i c t a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s upon t h e c h i l d - t h e c h i l d s h o u l d d e c i d e how i m p o r t a n t a t a s k i s and t h e amount o f e f f o r t he or she w i s h e s t o s p e n d on i t . I IV I I I I I 5.46 4_17 3_8 3 „ 1 7 58. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c o n f o r m t o J u d e o -C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . II IV I I I I 6.6 5.0 2.61 2-0 60. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o c r e a t e and c l a r i f y t h e i r own v a l u e s . I IV I I I I I 7_07 6_._83 6_. 16 2.14 62. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o s e t t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s o f n e a t n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . IV l " I I I II 5_8 5_Z_ i ~ 5 -64. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y and t r a d i t i on. II I I I IV I 6„4 6_3 5_8 4.2 66. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n what i s wrong w i t h s o c i e t y and g i v e them t h e t o o l s t o f i x i t . IV I I I I I I 7.17 5_15 4_6 4_3 76. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c r e a t e good c i t i z e n s . I I IV' I I I I 7„ 2 Z_iZ_ §_2 §_§ 81. E d u c a t i o n e n h a n c e s a c h i l d ' s s e l f--esteem when t h e c h i l d g u i d e s h i s own e d u c a t i o n and f o l l o w s h i s own n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s . I II I I I IV 7.23 _ &_Q0 5_17 4..5 Ni2_e." F a c t o r I, n = 13: F a c t o r II? n = 5 ; F a c t o r I I I , n=6, F a c t o r IV, n=6. Means j o i n e d by u n d e r l i n i n g n ot s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t _<.05. 96 E l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e i n d i v i d u a l s who were i n t e r v i e w e d r e s o r t e d t h e c a r d s . The t w e l f t h i n d i v i d u a l was r e p l a c e d by a n o t h e r s u b j e c t from her f a c t o r and t h r e e more i n d i v i d u a l s were s e l e c t e d , two M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and one h o m e s c h o o l e r t o r e s o r t t h e deck o f c a r d s . C o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d from .56 t o .88. The two lowest c o r r e l a t i o n s were from t h e two F a c t o r IV p a r e n t s . The mean c o r r e l a t i o n was a r r i v e d a t v i a F i s h e r Z - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . A one-way t - t e s t g a v e a c r i t i c a l t v a l u e o f 16.789 w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .0005 l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e Q - s o r t . _i*i__§_ydy.L Bi^yiik^Qi-.^.h^—lD.^i^LYk^^ The i n t e r v i e w s ( s e e A p p e n d i x IV f o r sample p r o t o c o l s ) c o v e r e d t h r e e p r i m a r y t o p i c s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e p a r e n t ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s a s a s c h o o l g i r l , t h e s e c o n d , her e x p e r i e n c e s a s a p a r e n t , t h e t h i r d , h er e x p e r i e n c e s a s a h o m e s c h o o l i n g , M o n t e s s o r i or r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l p a r e n t . The* f i r s t t o p i c , t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s own e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s c o v e r e d i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e l o c a t i o n and t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n , any s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t a n c e s which may have a f f e c t e d her d e c i s i o n , her a w a r e n e s s o f p e e r s who had had a l t e r n a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and her f e e l i n g s a s t o whether h e r e x p e r i e n c e s d i d i n d e e d a f f e c t her d e c i s i o n . The s e c o n d t o p i c a t t e m p t e d t o p r o b e how i n t e n t l y t h e p a r e n t s o u g h t out i n f or mat i on about c h i I d - r e a r i n g or educ a t i on a f t e r s h e bee ame a p a r e n t , whether t h e r e was a n y t h i n g about t h e c h i l d or t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t prompted her d e c i s i o n and how t h a t d e c i s i o n 97 was r e a c h e d . D i d i t e v o l v e or was i t a r e a c t i o n t o a c r i s i s ? The f i n a l s e c t i o n c o v e r s a wide r a n g e o f t o p i c s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m c h o s e n . Q u e s t i o n s i n q u i r e d a s t o b e n e f i t s and p r o b l e m s o f t h e i r c h o i c e ? what q u a l i t i e s a p a r e n t or a c h i l d needed t o engage i n t h a t form o f e d u c a t i o n , how happy t h e y were w i t h t h e i r c h o i c e and whether and under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y would make a d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e . They were a l s o a s k e d why t h e y f e l t o t h e r p a r e n t s made a d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e and whether t h e y f e l t t h e i r c h o i c e was j e o p a r d i z e d i n any way (by l a c k o f f u n d i n g , government i n t e r f e r e n c e e t c . ) . They were a s k e d how t h e y f e l t about t h e new p r o p o s e d p r i m a r y program and whether i t would a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n i n any manner. At t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , o n l y t h e most p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n had been r e l e a s e d , t h u s p a r e n t s were making t h e i r d e c i s i o n on l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n a s k e d them how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r v i e w s t h e y f e l t t h e f a c t o r a r r a y f o r t h e i r g r o u p was. A >_ _Th e ...Parent __s JE xper i e n c e _.a s _,a _.S t u de n t The p a r e n t s r a n g e d i n age from t h e i r l a t e 20s t o t h e i r 40s w i t h most b e i n g i n t h e l a t e 30s t o e a r l y 40s r a n g e . Thus, most a t t e n d e d s c h o o l between t h e mid-1950s and t h e e a r l y 1970s. N i n e o f t h e t w e l v e were e d u c a t e d i n B.C., w i t h one e a c h b e i n g e d u c a t e d i n O n t a r i o , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and E n g l a n d . Two o f t h e f o u r h o m e s c h o o l e r s were e d u c a t e d 'out o f p r o v i n c e ' . Two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s were e d u c a t e d i n a t r u l y r u r a l 'one-or-two-room s c h o o l ' e n v i r o n m e n t , the* r e s t i n u r b a n , smal I town or s u b u r b a n s c h o o l s . T h r e e o f t h e p a r e n t s had been e d u c a t e d f o r some t i m e i n C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s had been v e r y b r i e f . The r e m a i n i n g two were b o t h F a c t o r I p a r e n t s , one a n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r , who was unhappy i n t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e o t h e r a M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t who s p o k e h i g h l y o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g and l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l l p a r e n t s had g r a d u a t e d from g r a d e 12. T h r e e o f t h e f o u r h o m e s c h o o I e r s had a t I e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , one h a v i n g a t e a c h i n g d e g r e e , a n o t h e r a f o u r - y e a r I i b e r a l a r t s d e g r e e . The r e m a i n i n g h o m e s c h o o l e r had some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The t h r e e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s had a l l c o m p l e t e d g r a d e 12. They were i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t a l l had r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l a f t e r h a v i n g had c h i l d r e n . One, who had t a k e n a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d c o u r s e a f t e r g r a d e 12, r e t u r n e d t o t a k e her M o n t e s s o r i t r a i n i n g and ECE d e g r e e , a s e c o n d had t a k e n her M o n t e s s o r i t r a i n i n g and was g o i n g t o r e t u r n t o U n i v e r s i t y and t a k e a e d u c a t i o n d e g r e e , w h i l e t h e t h i r d was c u r r e n t l y a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y p a r t - t i m e a s an u n d e r g r a d u a t e i n p s y c h o l o g y . A l l f i v e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s had c o m p l e t e d g r a d e 12 and two had c o n t i n u e d on t o t a k e p o s t -s e c o n d a r y b u s i n e s s or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In g e n e r a l , t h i s s ample was w e l l - e d u c a t e d . H o m e s c h o o I e r s had i n i t i a l l y had a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s , but t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s had, u n l i k e o t h e r p a r e n t s , a l l r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l a f t e r h a v i n g had c h i l d r e n . 9 9 A l t h o u g h t h r e e o f t h e h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s s p o k e n e g a t i v e l y o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s , one C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s p o k e o f l o v i n g s c h o o l . H o m e s c h o o I e r s v i e w s r a n g e d from m i l d l y d i s a p p r o v i n g t o g e n u i n e l y e m b i t t e r e d . The t h r e e whose e x p e r i e n c e s were u n p l e a s a n t a l l f e l t t h e i r p e e r g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s had not been s a l u b r i o u s and f e l t v a r i o u s l y i s o l a t e d or r e j e c t e d . Two o f t h e s e p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e i r o n l y good e x p e r i e n c e was "one - c o u n t 'em -one good t e a c h e r " . The t h i r d p a r e n t was l e s s unhappy w i t h her s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e t h e f o u r t h e n j o y e d s c h o o l , her t e a c h e r s and her p e e r s . A l l f o u r n o t e d t h a t t h e y e n j o y e d l e a r n i n g and none found s c h o o l i n o r d i n a t e l y d i f f i c u l t . None o f the* t h r e e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s d i s l i k e d s c h o o l a l t h o u g h one n o t e d t h a t s h e was s e n s i t i v e t o what she f e l t were a b u s e s o f power and i n j u s t i c e s i n t h e s y s t e m . A n o t h e r p a r e n t a l s o n o t e d d i s l i k i n g an u n u s u a l l y s t r i c t t e a c h e r , but l o v i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be i n an u n g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m i n w h i c h s h e was f r e e t o p r o c e e d a t her own pace*. She n o t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were h a n d - p i c k e d a s b e i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y competent and n o t b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s and f e l t t h i s added t o t h e g e n e r a l ambience o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . The r e m a i n i n g p a r e n t l o v e d s c h o o l . A l l were r e a s o n a b l y good s t u d e n t s . One m e n t i o n e d her g r a d e s d r o p p i n g a s s h e grew o l d e r and became more i n t e r e s t e d i n her s o c i a l l i f e , t h e o t h e r n o t e d t h a t a s a h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s h e g o t v e r y good g r a d e s but s t i l I l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e t h a t s h e was ' s m a r t ' . A l l h a v e c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h e y a l s o e n j o y l e a r n i n g . Fewer o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s had p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and none i oo m e n t i o n e d h a v i n g t a k e n c o u r s e s a f t e r t h e end o f t h e i r formal e d u c a t i o n . B o t h t h e c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e h i g h s c h o o l y e a r s . One o f t h e c l u s t e r I I I t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f e l t s h e was a good s t u d e n t , t h e o t h e r d i d not comment e i t h e r way. An u n e x p e c t e d , but t e l l i n g f a c t , i s t h a t t h r e e o f t h e f o u r h o m e s c h o o I e r s a l l u d e d t o an i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g . One was a t e a c h e r , a s e c o n d s a i d she had p l a n n e d t o t e a c h i n a ' f r e e s c h o o l ' when s h e was a s t u d e n t and a t h i r d n o t e d t h a t s h e ' d a l w a y s l o v e d p l a y i n g s c h o o l a s a c h i l d . In f a c t , f o u r o f t h e f i v e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s e i t h e r had t a k e n or had p l a n n e d t o t a k e e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . The f i f t h worked i n a r e s p o n s i b l e non-academic p o s i t i o n a t a u n i v e r s i t y . Two p a r e n t s , one M o n t e s s o r i and one* homeschool er who e n j o y e d t h e i r own s c h o o l i n g , s a i d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s d i d not a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r d e c i s i o n s were ba s e d on t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n one c a s e r e l i g i o n , i n t h e o t h e r , c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t . Both n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s were d e f i n i t e t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s had s h a p e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o deschool» The c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t whose e x p e r i e n c e i n an u n g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m was e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e wanted her c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d an u n g r a d e d , i n d i v i d u a l i s e d program. The c l u s t e r I t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t , who d e s c r i b e d her c h i l d h o o d a s e x t r e m e l y happy a l s o f e l t her p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n her n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l had a f f e c t e d her d e c i s i o n t o c h o o s e t h e r e g u l a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d program. Two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s , one on c l u s t e r I I I and one on c l u s t e r IV f e l t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s c o n v i n c e d them t h a t c h i l d r e n needed 101 s t r u c t u r e and t h e r e b y i n f l u e n c e d them t o c h o o s e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p rogram o v e r M o n t e s s o r i . The c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t f e l t t h i s was a b e n e f i c i a l f e a t u r e o f her s c h o o l i n g i n E n g l a n d w h i l e t h e c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t f e l t her e d u c a t i o n had been l a c k i n g s t r u c t u r e . B) Jh_;_E_*_____s_£^ AI I t h e p a r e n t s e x c e p t f o r t h e two c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y had r e a d w i d e l y on c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n were s m a l l . One c l u s t e r I I I T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t commented t h a t she was a l w a y s a t t h e l i b r a r y and r e a d a l I t h e books - a l t h o u g h s h e t o o k t h e a d v i c e w i t h a g r a i n o f s a l t . A n o t h e r c l u s t e r I p a r e n t commented on a l I t h e b o o k s l i s t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s examples? w r i t i n g a b r i e f c r i t i q u e * o f each one. AI I f o u r h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s had a l l r e a d about e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n were o f s c h o o l age* as d i d the* c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i p ar en t . The Chr i s t i an homesc h o o I e r s t e n d ed t o r e a d aut h o r s w i t h a ' C h r i s t i a n ' b i a s ? James Dob son, Raymond Moore and the* l i k e * , w h i l e t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s b o t h e x p r e s s e d e n t h u s i a s m about t h e w r i t i n g s o f John H o l t . The two c l u s t e r I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s o n l y r e a d about e d u c a t i o n a f t e r the*ir c h i l d r e n began a t t e n d i n g a M o n t e s s o r i p r e s c h o o l . Al I but one* p a r e n t s a i d t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g u n u s u a l about t h e i r c h i l d w hich g u i d e d t h e i r c h o i c e . That p a r e n t , the* c l u s t e r I T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t c o n s i d e r e d M o n t e s s o r i but f e l t he*r c h i l d was t o o d i s t r a c t i b l e and t h a t , b e c a u s e h i s f a t h e r was d y s l e x i c , was a t r i s k f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . She c h o s e t h e T r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r a m b e l i e v i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e and g u i d a n c e g i v e n was more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r her c h i l d . A l t h o u g h t h e homeschool e r s gave f a c e t s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y or b a c k g r o u n d a s s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n ( f o r example, two h o m e s c h o o I e r s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p a r t i a l l y o f N a t i v e b a c k g r o u n d ) , t h e y a l I f e l t t h e d e c i s i o n was b a s e d on r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n s or t h e r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r l e a r n i n g . P a r e n t s were a s k e d how t h e y came t o t h e i r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . The homeschoo I e r s f e l t i t e v o l v e d from p r e v i o u s e v e n t s or r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n . One M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t made her d e c i s i o n b a s e d on her knowledge o f c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t , a n o t h e r b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n from a r e s p e c t e d f r i e n d and a t h i r d ( t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t ) on her r e a d i n g . A l l t h r e e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y had been l o o k i n g f o r t h e ' r i g h t e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ' t h a t met c e r t a i n n e e d s when t h e y came a c r o s s M o n t e s s o r i . The c l u s t e r I I I T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s b o t h s p o k e o f a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s r e g a r d i n g F r e n c h Immersion and M o n t e s s o r i and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e o p t i o n s b e f o r e f i n a l l y d e c i d i n g on a r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l program. The two c l u s t e r IV T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s d i d not look i n t o o p t i o n s f o r m a l l y but r e l i e d on t h e ' p a r e n t n e t wor k' f o r i n f or mat i on. £2 l b s - P a r e n t ^ The h o m e s c h o o I e r s a l l a g r e e d t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s pend t i m e w i t h o n e ' s c h i l d r e n was a b e n e f i t o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g , a s was t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c h i l d t o f o l l o w h i s or her own i n t e r e s t s . The- n o n - a l i g n e d homeschool e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t was a b e n e f i t , w h i l e a t l e a s t one o f t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s f e l t i t was a mixed b l e s s i n g . Two o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s m e n t i o n e d t h e a c a d e m i c f o c u s o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i program t o be an a t t r a c t i o n ? w h i l e ' r e s p e c t f o r the- c h i l d ' was a l s o f e l t t o be? i m p o r t a n t . T h i s ' r e s p e c t ' was se e n a s b e i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d e i t h e r by p e r m i t t i n g t h e c h i l d t o make c h o i c e s or by not t a l k i n g down t o t h e c h i l d ? by " t r e a t i n g him a s an i n t e l I i g e n t p e r s o n . The- t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s m e n t i o n e d the* b r o a d c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s a s i m p o r t a n t . One c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t d e s c r i b e d t h e s c h o o l a s g i v i n g t h e c h i l d a ' w e l l - r o u n d e d ' e d u c a t i o n w h i l e t h e F a c t o r I p a r e n t p r a i s e d t h e s c h o o l s f o r b e i n g ' f l e x i b l e ' . P a r e n t s were a l s o a s k e d t o comment on t h e ' h e a d a c h e s ' . The non-a l i g n e d homeschool e r s b o t h s a i d the»re were no p r o b l e m s w i t h h o m e s c h o o I i n g w h i l e t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s b o t h m e n t i o n e d t h a t s o m etimes t h e p a r e n t e n c o u n t e r e d ' r e s i s t a n c e ' from t h e c h i l d w hich would normal l y be- h a n d l e d by a t e a c h e r i n the- c l a s s r o o m ? but under h o m e s c h o o l i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s had t o be d e a l t w i t h by t h e p a r e n t . Some c o n c e r n was a l s o e v i d e n c e d about t h e i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e e x p e r t i s e i n a I I n e c e s s a r y a r e a s and one h o m e s c h o o l e r d e s c r i b e d at l e n g t h her e - f f o r t s t o e n s u r e her c h i l d had b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and group e x p e r i e n c e s and was p r o p e r l y i n s t r u c t e d i n a r t s and c r a f t s w hich her mother d i d not f e e l competent t o t e a c h . A n o t h e r C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r n o t e d t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n might be b e n e f i c i a l t o o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o g i v e them a s e n s e o f what t h e i r 104 s t r e n g t h s and w e aknesses were. She f e l t her son l a c k e d f a i t h i n h i s a b i l i t i e s b e c a u s e he had not had t h e c h a n c e t o compete. W h i l e one M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t f e l t t h a t t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f M o n t e s s o r i were n e g l i g i b l e , t h e o t h e r two p a r e n t s ? one on c l u s t e r I and one on c l u s t e r I I I were f a r more c r i t i c a l . One f e l t t h a t ' s c h o o l M o n t e s s o r i ' was a ' b a s t a r d i z e d v e r s i o n ' and r o u n d l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e s y s t em f or down p l a y i n g t h e i mp or t an c e o f a t t r a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s t o m o t i v a t e t h e c h i l d r e n , f o r h i r i n g i m p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s ? and f o r t r y i n g t o d i s t o r t t h e M o n t e s s o r i c u r r i c u l u m and method t o f i t t h e s t r u c t u r e and c u r r i c u l u m o f B.C. p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The o t h e r p a r e n t ? who l o a d e d on F a c t o r I I I ? was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f what s h e f e l t t o be t h e l a c k o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram and t h e r e f u s a l t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n amongst t h e c h i l d r e n . T h e s e p a r e n t had b o t h c o n s i d e r e d moving t h e i r c h i l d from t h e program? t h e former c o n s i d e r i n g p r i v a t e M o n t e s s o r i s c h o o l s or t h e W a l d o r f s c h o o l ? t h e l a t t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l program. Two o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s ? one c l u s t e r I? t h e o t h e r on c l u s t e r IV f e l t t h a t c l a s s s i z e and f u n d i n g were p r o b l e m s f o r t h e s c h o o l . The o t h e r c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t f e l t t h a t h a v i n g t h e same t e a c h e r y e a r a f t e r y e a r might be a p r o b l e m f o r t h e new p r i m a r y program. The two c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s had no c o m p l a i n t s about t h e pub I i c s c h o o l s . P a r e n t s were a s k e d what q u a l i t i e s a p a r e n t or c h i l d needed f o r each o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . H o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s f e l t 105 v a r i o u s l y t h a t p a r e n t s needed c o n f i d e n c e and d e d i c a t i o n ? t h a t t h e y must e n j o y b e i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . A C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r remarked t h a t p a r e n t s must be p a t i e n t and t h a t t h e c h i l d must r e s p e c t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f h i s p a r e n t s or t h e p a r e n t , c o u l d n ' t t e a c h . The n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s f e l t t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e n e f i t from h o m e s c h o o l i n g a s d i d one C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r . The p r a c t i c a l h o m e s c h o o l e r who n o t e d t h a t p a r e n t s need p a t i e n c e a l s o f e l t t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h s e v e r e h y p e r a c t i v i t y may not be s u i t a b l e f o r h o m e s c h o o I i n g a s t h e p a r e n t s may need a b r e a k . The l i o n t e s s o r i a n s noted? ( t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t w i t h more t h a n a t o u c h o f i r o n y ) t h a t t h e p a r e n t s needed f a i t h t h a t t h e s y s t e m would work. The s a t i s f i e d p a r e n t from c l u s t e r I f e l t t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t ? t h e o t h e r l e s s c o n t e n t e d p a r e n t ? t h a t some might need more s t r u c t u r e . The c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t f e l t t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t ? but t h a t p e r h a p s t h e y d i d n ' t need a f u l l ' s e v e n - y e a r d o s e ' . T h r e e o f t h e f o u r h o m e s c h o o l e r s s a i d t h e y were ' e x t r e m e l y ' happy w i t h h o m e s c h o o l i n g w h i l e one demurred s l i g h t l y s a y i n g s h e was 'somewhat t o e x t r e m e l y ' happy. A l l f a v o u r e d h o m e s c h o o l i n g o v e r t h e o t h e r o p t i o n s but had some t e n d e n c y t o r a n k M o n t e s s o r i more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n t h e r e g u l a r program. One c l u s t e r I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t was e x t r e m e l y happy w i t h M o n t e s s o r i . She a l s o f e l t q u i t e warmly t o w a r d s t h e r e g u l a r program but c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d h o m e s c h o o l i n g . The o t h e r c l u s t e r I M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram r a n k e d h e r s e l f 'somewhat happy' w i t h M o n t e s s o r i f o r one o f her c h i l d r e n 106 and 'somewhat unhappy' w i t h M o n t e s s o r i f o r t h e o t h e r . She r a n k e d ' p u r e M o n t e s s o r i ' but r a n k e d h o m e s c h o o I i n g more f a v o u r a b l y t h a n she r a n k e d e i t h e r ' s c h o o l M o n t e s s o r i ' or t h e r e g u l a r program. The c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s ' s l i g h t l y happy' w i t h M o n t e s s o r i . She i n f a c t d i d not r a n k any s y s t e m v e r y h i g h l y and f e l t M o n t e s s o r i t o be o n l y s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e r e g u l a r program. The T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s ? w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ? r a n k e d t h e m s e l v e s as 'somewhat happy' w i t h t h e r e g u l a r program. The c l u s t e r I p a r e n t r a n k e d h e r s e l f a s ' e x t r e m e l y happy" w i t h t h e r e g u l a r program. A l l but one p r e f e r r e d t h e r e g u l a r program t o t h e M o n t e s s o r i and t h e M o n t e s s o r i t o h o m e s c h o o I i n g . One t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t i n c l u s t e r IV who had been e d u c a t e d i n a r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and f e l t h o m e s c h o o l i n g was an o p t i o n r a n k e d h o m e s c h o o l i n g and t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram e q u a l l y . She? however? c o n s i d e r e d h o m e s c h o o I i n g an o p t i o n o n l y i n i s o l a t e d s e t t i n g s but f e l t i t was j u s t a s e f f e c t i v e b ecause? s h e f e l t ? i t a l l depended on t h e t e a c h e r . The c l u s t e r I t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t f e l t e q u a l l y f a v o u r a b l y t o w a r d M o n t e s s o r i and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l program? but? a s n o t e d e a r l i e r ? had c h o s e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r am f o r r e a s o n stemming from her c h i l d ' s n e e d s . Th e non-a I i g ned h omesc h o o I e r s wouId not move t o a n o t h e r s y s t em o f e d u c a t i o n nor would t h e two c l u s t e r I I I t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s nor one o f t h e c l u s t e r IV t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . The o t h e r c l u s t e r IV t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t would homeschool her c h i l d r e n i f s h e had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e i n an i s o l a t e d a r e a i n n o r t h e r n B.C. The* 107 r e m a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t ? who l o a d e d on c l u s t e r I? might s e n d her younger c h i l d t o M o n t e s s o r i . The two C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s i n t e n d at some time? t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p r i v a t e C h r i s t i a n s c h o o l or p e r h a p s p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l . The c o n t e n t e d c l u s t e r I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s a i d s h e would not move her c h i l d out o f M o n t e s s o r i ? however? i f s h e had t o s h e f e l t s h e c o u l d f i n d a r e g u l a r program which was s i m i l a r t o M o n t e s s o r i i n i t s r e s p e c t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The d i s c o n t e n t e d F a c t o r I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t , s a i d she might s e n d her son t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l or a W a l d o r f s c h o o l and had c o n s i d e r e d s e n d i n g her d a u g h t e r t o l a t e F r e n c h Immersion. The c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i a n a l s o was c o n s i d e r i n g s e n d i n g her c h i l d t o t h e r e g u l a r program. When a s k e d why p a r e n t s c h o o s e o t h e r o p t i o n s t h a n t h e one t h a t p a r e n t had c h o s e n t h e h o m e s c h o o I e r s s t a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e ? p e r h a p s had t o work? b e l i e v e d one had t o be an e x p e r t t o t e a c h ? d i d n ' t r e a l i z e t h e damage s c h o o l s d i d or j u s t d i d n ' t c a r e enough about t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s f e l t t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r s were t r y i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n from t h e ' r e a l w o r l d ' or had r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s t h a t were i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t p a r e n t s d i d n ' t send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o M o n t e s s o r i b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t t a k e t h e t r o u b l e t o i n f o r m t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e o p t i o n s ? f e l t M o n t e s s o r i was e l i t i s t ? f e l t i t was t o o s t r u c t u r e d or had h e a r d t h e c h i l d r e n were u n d i s c i p l i n e d and d i d n ' t l i k e t h e n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e ? ungraded? a s p e c t s . The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s f e l t t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s 108 t h o u g h t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were ' s p e c i a l '. or l i k e d t h e method. A l t h o u g h ' e l i t i s m ' was not c h a r g e d o p e n l y , i t was a l l u d e d t o . T h e r e were v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n c e r n about government i n t e r v e n t i o n amongst h o m e s c h o o I e r s a l t h o u g h t h r e e o f t h e f o u r d i d not a c t i v e l y p r e d i c t p r o b l e m s . One p a r e n t was wiI l i n g t o be a ' t e s t c a s e ' t o d e f y t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t homeschool i n g p a r e n t s r e g i s t e r . The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s were s p l i t a s t o whether t h e p r o gram would c o n t i n u e . One c l u s t e r I p a r e n t was s u r e i t would grow, t h e o t h e r f e l t t h e s c h o o l b o a r d was t r y i n g t o p h a s e i t o u t . The c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t was u n s u r e . The c l u s t e r I I I and IV T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s f e l t t h e r e would be no d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s i n s c h o o l i n g i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . There- was no c o n s i s t e n c y a s t o how w i l l i n g t h e y would be t o become i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s w i t h one c l u s t e r IV and t h e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t f e e l i n g t h e y c o u l d become p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d t o e f f e c t r e f o r m i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i f need be. The c l u s t e r I p a r e n t f e l t t h e r e would be d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . No h o m e s c h o o I e r s f e l t t h e new p r i m a r y p r o g ram would l u r e them away from t h e i r c h o s e n e d u c a t i o n a l method. Among t h e M o n t e s s o r i a n s one c l u s t e r I p a r e n t f e l t i t might a t t r a c t some p e o p l e , but not ' t r u e M o n t e s s o r i a n s ' w h i l e t h e o t h e r was q u i t e p o s i t i v e t o w a r d t h e new program. The c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t b e l i e v e d t h e new p r o g ram was s o s i m i l a r t o M o n t e s s o r i t h a t i t removed t r u e 109 c h o i c e from t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . She f e l t t h a t i f M o n t e s s o r i d i d n ' t work, sh e wanted a c l e a r a l t e r n a t i v e program f o r her c h i l d . The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s had mixed r e s p o n s e s . The c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s was v e r y e n t h u s e d , a s was one c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t who had e x p e r i e n c e d f a m i l y g r o u p i n g a s a c h i l d i n a r u r a l two-room s c h o o l . The o t h e r p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e d i t i n words r a n g i n g from m o d erate e n t h u s i a s m t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e m s e l v e s as ' w o r r i e d ' and g e n e r a l sk ep t i c i sm. A c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , a r r a n g e d by F a c t o r c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x V . 110 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS: DESCRIPTION OF THE PARENT B E L I E F CLUSTERS O v e r v i e w The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i s a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s from t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s ? t h e a n a l y s i s o f variance o f t h e i t e m s and t h e i n t e r v i e w s . The_Factor._Ar _ay_s: Var _ e t _ es,_gf JBe.[.i.ef s_Amongst ...Parents B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h s e p a r a t e d t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a r r a y s ? i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t c e r t a i n r a t h e r t e l l i n g s t a t e m e n t s u n i t e d p a r e n t s . A l l g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s a g r e e d s t r o n g l y t h a t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d c r e a t e ' l i f e t i m e ' l e a r n e r s by e n c o u r a g i n g q u a l i t i e s w h i c h were i n h e r e n t i n t h e c h i l d ? h i s n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y and l o v e o f l e a r n i n g . A l l p a r e n t s a l s o s t r o n g l y f a v o u r e d d i s c o v e r y a s a method o f l e a r n i n g . T h e r e seemed t o be? t o some degree? a u n i v e r s a l and o p t i m i s t i c b e l i e f t h a t ? c h i l d r e n do e n j o y l e a r n i n g and do i t s p o n t a n e o u s l y . A l l g r o u p s ? f o r example gave a m o d e r a t e l y low r a t i n g t o t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i f l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s c h i l d r e n would spend t h e i r t i m e p l a y i n g and l e a r n l i t t l e . Where b e l i e f s began t o d i f f e r was i n t h e d e g r e e t o w hich t h e y f e l t t h i s a u t o d i d a c t i c u r g e c o u l d be t r u s t e d t o e d u c a t e t h e c h i I d . I l l I t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n mind t h a t d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e d a t a have been t a k e n w i t h i n t h e s t u d y . The s t r u c t u r e d Q - s o r t was d e s i g n e d t o p r e d i c t t h r e e f a c t o r s . T h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s d i d not mat er i a I i z e, nor d i d t he dec i s i ons gr oup a r r ange t hemseIves on unique* f a c t o r s . In f a c t , o n l y F a c t o r I I , which was composed on a l l C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s , formed a u n i q u e , homogeneous f a c t o r . However, t h e f a c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s can be d e s c r i b e * d and t h e b e l i e f s p r e f e r r e d by t h e c l u s t e r o f p a r e n t s on t h a t f a c t o r examined. The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r a r r a y s can d e s c r i b e t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h a t f a c t o r t o f a v o u r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i t e m s w h i l e t h e ANOVA o f e a c h p h i l o s o p h y between t h e f o u r f a c t o r a r r a y s can c l a r i f y whether any p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more or l e s s f a v o u r a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y t h a n the* o t h e r s . A s e c o n d a p p r o a c h t o t h e raw d a t a o f t h e Q - s o r t came from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s u s i n g a b e t w e e n - g r o u p s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i e n c e . T h i s d a t a c a n be use+d t o d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n c e s between d e c i s i o n g r o u p s and t o t e n t a t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e b e l i e f c l u s t e r s . A) E_c._*r.„Axr a ^ The b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f a c t o r array o f f a c t o r I c o u l d might a l s o be d e s c r i b e d a s p r o g r e s s i v e , R o u s s e a u i a n or r o m a n t i c . On t h i s f a c t o r I oade*d a l l t h e n o n - a l i g n e d homeschool e r s , t h o s e who would be c o n s i d e r e d "pedagogues" i n Van G a l e n ' s s e n s e , s e v e n o f t h e t e n M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and one t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t . These b e l i e f s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t u n i q u e t o h o m e s c h o o l e r s , but c a p t u r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e b e l i e f s o f some M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and o f a t l e a s t one p a r e n t who h a s s c h o o l e d her c h i l d t r a d i t i o n a l l y and i s so f a r v e r y happy w i t h her c h o i c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i s s a t i s f y i n g some p a r e n t s h o l d i n g t h e s e b e l i e f s a s s u m i n g t h e y do not a l s o h o l d h o m e s c h o o I i n g b e l i e f s . C l u s t e r I p a r e n t s s e e a t e a c h e r a s a p e r s o n who l o v e s l e a r n i n g and a c t s a s a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . The c h i l d i s a t t h e c e n t r e — e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w s h i s needs, c a r e f u l l y a v o i d i n g r e s t r i c t i v e p r a c t i c e s t h a t s t i f l e c r e a t i v i t y . C o m p e t i t i o n i s a v o i d e d and c h i l d r e n a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s e t t h e i r own g o a l s w i t h o u t c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r s i n an a t m o s p h e r e where- s t r u c t u r e * i s i n the* b a c k g r o u n d . A c h i l d ' s ' s e l f - e s t e e m ' i s f e l t t o be enh a n c e d by f o l l o w i n g t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s , r e s p e c t i n g h i s f e e l i n g s and a c c e p t i n g him as he i s . F a c t o r a r r a y I r a n k e d t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t s e l f - e s t e e m r e q u i r e s t h a t a c h i l d g u i d e h i s own e d u c a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n d i d o t h e r f a c t o r s . D i s c o v e r y methods or ' r e a l l i f e ' i s s e e n t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e * manner o f l e a r n i n g . C h i l d r e n a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o c r e a t e and c l a r i f y t h e i r own v a l u e s . The g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o c r e a t e p e o p l e who a r e happy and w e l l a d j u s t e d and who l o v e knowledge and seek t r u t h . S t a t e m e n t s about t h e c u r r i c u l u m were not among t h o s e most f a v o u r e d , a s t h e main f o c u s o f f a c t o r a r r a y I seems t o be t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d and h i s freedom i n t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . F a c t o r a r r a y I s h a r e s w i t h a l l o t h e r c l u s t e r s e x c e p t f a c t o r a r r a y 113 I I , a s t r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f a l l t h e r e l i g i o u s s t a t e m e n t s : r e f e r r i n g t o t h e B i b l e f o r c u r r i c u l u m , e n c o u r a g i n g J'udeo-Chr i s t i an v a l u e s , e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o a c c e p t t h e v a l u e s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s or e t h n i c community. F a c t o r a r r a y I a l s o r e j e c t s t h o s e v i e w s r e d o l e n t o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , a n t i - i n d i v i d u a l i s m or t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , s u c h a s t e a c h i n g a l l c h i l d r e n t h e same s u b j e c t s , e n c o u r a g i n g r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y and t r a d i t i o n and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e o f an a d u l t l e a d e r and c h i l d r e n . A l s o r e j e c t e d a r e l e a r n i n g by d r i l l and m e m o r i s a t i o n , t e s t s , s t r i v i n g f o r e x c e l l e n c e when t h a t s t a n d a r d o f e x c e l l e n c e i s d e f i n e d by o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t i e s by t h e y i n s t i t u t i o n a l or p a r e n t a l . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , f a c t o r array I r e j e c t s t h e i d e a t h a t ' c r e a t i n g l i f e t i m e l e a r n e r s ' i s f r i v o l o u s or t h a t i t can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by e x p o s i n g c h i l d r e n t o a r i g o r o u s c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s f a c t o r a r r a y ( w i t h f a c t o r array I I ) r a n k s ' d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g ' and ' l e a r n i n g from r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s ' s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n do t h e a r r a y s o f t h e two ' s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r s ' ( f a c t o r I I I and I V ) . They a l o n e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f freedom, t h a t a good t e a c h e r l e t t h e c h i l d s e l e c t what t h e c h i l d wants t o l e a r n , t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d i n f l i c t no a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s o f t h e c h i l d . W i t h t h e p a r e n t s c l u s t e r e d on f a c t o r IV, t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n c l u s t e r s I I and I I I t o l e t t i n g c h i l d r e n s e t t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s o f n e a t n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n and a r e more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n t h e ' s c h o o l e r s ' t o t h e 114 s t a t e m e n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d h e l p c h i l d r e n l e a r n what t h e y a r e good a t , not f o r c e them t o do what t h e y d i s l i k e . They a r e more f a v o u r a b l e t o c l u s t e r II t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e b e s t was f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n i s from o t h e r c h i l d r e n and more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n c l u s t e r IV t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a l l c h i l d r e n need t o I e a r n . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e becomes one o f a c h i l d - c e n t r e d e d u c a t i o n -t h e c h i l d c h o o s i n g h i s own t a s k s , s e t t i n g h i s own s t a n d a r d s , t h e a t m o s p h e r e n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h o n l y b a c k g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e . No v a l u e s y s t e m i s imposed, t h e c h i l d c r e a t e s h i s own. T h e r e i s no t e s t i n g , no g o a l s a r e s e t by e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s f a c t o r array has r a n k s I i b e r a l and p r a g m a t i c / m o d e r a t e v i e w s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w s and i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l do t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s o f F a c t o r s I I , I I I or IV. C ) Lactor,._Ar r a y . 1 1 s _Educat _on_as_Preg.arat ion.„for _ R e s _ o n s i b _ e _ _ y. ______ _ On F a c t o r I I , l o a d e d a l l and o n l y t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s making t h i s , p e r h a p s , a C h r i s t i a n or moral f a c t o r . L i k e f a c t o r a r r a y I, f a c t o r array II p r e f e r s d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g and l e a r n i n g from r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . P a r e n t s on t h i s b e l i e f c l u s t e r want a f l e x i b l e ( a s o p p o s e d t o s t a t i c or c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g ) c u r r i c u l u m , t a u g h t by people- who l o v e l e a r n i n g , l o v e c h i l d r e n and a r e examples o f moral b e h a v i o u r . C h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n i n a 115 m a i n l y c o o p e r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h m o d i f i e d c o m p e t i t i o n between g r o u p s or w i t h o n e ' s p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e r e i s b a c k g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e , w i t h c h i l d r e n h a v i n g some c h o i c e s . E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n t o l o v e knowledge and s e e k t r u t h , t o be good c i t i z e n s and t o have h i g h moral s t a n d a r d s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h a t f a c t o r a r r a y I I a d h e r e n t s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s f u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n s who have c h o s e n t o hom e s c h o o l , t h e b o t t o m s t a t e m e n t s on t h i s a r r a y were t h o s e w h i c h i m p l i e d t h a t c h i l d r e n do not need a d u l t g u i d a n c e . R e j e c t e d s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e t h o s e a d v o c a t i n g c h i l d r e n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own v a l u e s , t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d not i n f l i c t a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s , or t h a t i t s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o q u e s t i o n s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . A l s o r e j e c t e d i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t from o t h e r c h i l d r e n or i n an a t m o s p h e r e f r e e o f e x t e r n a l r u l e s . A c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c u r r i c u l u m r a t e s near t h e b o t t o m o f t h e f a c t o r array a s wel I and w h i l e h a v i n g a l l c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e same t h i n g s i s r e j e c t e d , s o i s h a v i n g n o t h i n g t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n need l e a r n . As might be e x p e c t e d o f a s e t o f b e l i e f s h e l d by h o m e s c h o o l e r s , t h i s F a c t o r r e j e c t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g (an a d u l t w i t h c h i l d r e n ) , s c h o o l e n t r y b e f o r e or even a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l age o f s i x , s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t e a c h e r s or t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by e x p e r t s . F a c t o r II a l s o g i v e s low s t a n d i n g t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d h e l p c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e t h e i r f e e I i ngs. 116 A l t h o u g h not r a n k e d among t h e t o p i t e m s C i e . t h o s e . - s c o r e s o f 1.00 or above) f a c t o r a r r a y II? r a n k e d r e l i g i o u s i t e m s more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r a r r a y s . These b e l i e f s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e d r e f e r r i n g t o B i b l i c a l s t a n d a r d s t o s e t t h e c u r r i c u l u m and e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o a c c e p t J u d e o ~ C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s were not r a n k e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t . In b o t h c a s e s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s , who seemed r a t h e r amused by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a s s u m p t i o n s , r e s p o n d e d t h a t one c o u l d not f o r c e a n o t h e r p e r s o n t o b e l i e v e . They b o t h f e l t t h a t ' l o v i n g knowledge and s e e k i n g t r u t h ' would p r o b a b l y l e a d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' t o J e s u s ' and t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was i n e n c o u r a g i n g t h a t l o v e o f knowledge i n a C h r i s t i a n atmosphere*. However, t h e unanimous r e j e c t i o n r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e by t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s , s u g g e s t s t h e c l u s t e r I I p a r e n t s may not be u n d u l y s u s p i c i o u s when t h e y a s s e r t t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l i s i n i m i c a l t o t h e i r b e l i e f s . P a r e n t s on who l o a d e d on f a c t o r I I , l i k e t h o s e who l o a d e d on f a c t o r I, r a n k e d s t a t e m e n t s s t a t i n g t h a t one* c o u l d d e c i d e what s h o u l d be t a u g h t by c o n s u l t i n g t h e c h i l d or by c o n s u l t i n g the* p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o u r a b l y t h a n d i d t h o s e p a r e n t s who l o a d e d on f a c t o r I I I or IV. The ANOVA o f F a c t o r I I d i d not i n d i c a t e any p r e f e r e n c e f o r one 117 p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e p a r e n t s s o r t e d c a r d s r a n d o m l y . However? t h e h o m o g e n a e i t y o f t h e f a c t o r ? t h e g e n e r a l l y h i g h l o a d i n g s t h e r e u p o n and h i g h s o r t - r e s o r t c o r r e l a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e p a r e n t s r e f l e c t a more e c l e c t i c s e t o f b e l i e f s t h a n t h a t m o d e l l e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e d Q - s o r t . F a c t o r a r r a y II b e l i e f s d i f f e r from t h o s e o f f a c t o r a r r a y I i n g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g s t o c o n s e r v a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . Any p o r t r a y a l o f t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s a s s i m p l y a g r o u p h o l d i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e b e l i e f s i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n by t h e i t e m s on f a c t o r a r r a y II? f o r i t i s more complex t h a n t h a t . F a c t o r a r r a y II i s a b e l i e f s e t which a c c e p t s t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d have some c h o i c e i n what t o l e a r n and w i l l l e a r n b e s t by ' d i s c o v e r y ' or from r e a l l i f e but? however? r e j e c t s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e g o a l s o f t h e l e a r n i n g s p r i n g from w i t h i n t h e c h i l d . P e r h a p s t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e c o m p a r i n g f a c t o r array I w i t h f a c t o r a r r a y I I i s t h e s e n s e t h a t c l u s t e r I I p a r e n t s s e t f o r e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c g o a l s ? which r e l a t e t o t h e B i b l i c a l a d m o n i t i o n t o " t r a i n up t h e c h i l d up i n t h e way he s h o u l d go and when he i s o l d he wiI I not d e p a r t from i t " . ( P r o v . 2 2 : 6 ) Both p a r e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p s p o k e o f t h e i r s t r o n g b e l i e f s t h a t c h i l d r e n must l e a r n from a d u l t s a s o t h e r c h i l d r e n a r e ? b e c a u s e o f t h e i r y o u t h and i n e x p e r i e n c e ? not a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e m odels. One p a r e n t ' s remark o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s "Who do you want your c h i l d t o become? What's b e s t f o r your c h i l d ? " seems t o b e s t e x p r e s s t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s r e l a t i v e l y l i b e r a l methods i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i r q u i t e 118 t r a d i t i o n a I g o a I s . C * E, _ „feor _ 1115 .Ed u c a t ion _a s _ t b e... A c qu i_s i.t _on _o f ._a _ B o d_ _o f _r___L__,Q_ T h r e e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and t h r e e T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s I oe*ded on F a c t o r I I I . The f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s g i v e n i m p o r t a n c e on t h i s f a c t o r a r r a y and a s i s i t s a b i l i t y t o c o v e r a wide v a r i e t y o f s k i I I s ; a c a d e m i c , v o c a t i o n a l , l e i s u r e and l i f e s t y l e . A model c l a s s r o o m b a s e d on t h i s f a c t o r a r r a y would s e e c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g b a s i c s u b j e c t s , t h e n f o l l o w i n g t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , w o r k i n g i n a c o o p e r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h l i m i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n . T e a c h e r s would be i n t e l I igc*nt and wel I e d u c a t e d and l o v e c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r i n g t o u s e d i s c o v e r y methods o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . I t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t c h i l d r e n l o v e t o l e a r n what i s p l e a s a n t , t h e y may have t o be f o r c e d t o l e a r n what i s n o t . S e l f - e s t e e m i s s e e n t o be enhanced by h a v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n meet h i g h s t a n d a r d s t h r o u g h h a r d work and d i s c i p l i n e . F a c t o r array I I I v e h e m e n t l y r e j e c t s r e l i g i o n or t r a d i t i o n a s a s u i t a b l e f o c u s o f e d u c a t i o n a s w e l l a s l e a v i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m b a s i c a l l y unchanged from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . L e t t i n g t h e c h i l d d e c i d e what he wants t o l e a r n was a l s o r e j e c t e d a s an a p p r o p r i a t e way t o d e c i d e on t h e c u r r i c u l u m and a s an a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e ' l a i s s e z - f a i r e ' a p p r o a c h t o d i r e c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s 119 l e a r n i n g was d i s m i s s e d . The b e l i e f s t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f freedom and t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d d e c i d e how much e f f o r t t o expend on a t a s k were b o t h r e j e c t e d a s was t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l e t a c h i l d f i n d o ut what he i s good a t r a t h e r t h a n f o r c e him t o do what i s d i f f i c u l t or u n p l e a s a n t or t h a t you c a n n o t t e a c h a c h i l d s o m e t h i n g he d o e s n ' t want t o know. In c o m p a r i s o n t o p a r e n t s i n o t h e r c l u s t e r s , c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o u r a b l e t o p r o v i d i n g a b a l a n c e between c o m p e t i t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n t h a n were o t h e r f a c t o r s . They a l s o gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g t o t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n wiI I l e a r n what t h e y e n j o y on t h e i r own, but may have t o be f o r c e d t o do what i s d i f f i c u l t or u n p l e a s a n t . A l t h o u g h a f l e x i b l e c u r r i c u l u m was r a t e d a s i m p o r t a n t on o t h e r f a c t o r a r r a y s , i t was s t i l l g i v e n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a n k i n g by par en t s i n t h i s cI u s t e r . T h i s c l u s t e r seems t o be a t r u l y t r a d i t i o n a l c l u s t e r . C u r r i c u l u m t o p i c s a r e m e n t i o n e d s e v e r a l t i m e s a t t h e t o p and b o t t o m o f t h e f a c t o r a r r a y . I t seems t h a t what i s t a u g h t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p a r e n t s i n t h i s c l u s t e r . T h i s f a c t o r a r r a y r a n k s h i g h l y t h e b e l i e f t h a t h a r d wor k, seI f d i sc i p I i n e and p e r s o n a I a c c o m p l i s h m e n t a r e a means t o a c h i e v i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . S t a t e m e n t s a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n may need, a s one- M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t who l o a d e d on F a c t o r I I I put i t "a k i c k i n t h e b u t t f a c t o r " t o s u c c e e d were r a n k e d h i g h l y . A n o t h e r p a r e n t ? when i n t e r v i e w e d ? n o t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n not j u s t d e c i d e t o l e a r n what t h e y want t o l e a r n b e c a u s e t h e y "need a g r o u n d i n g i n t h e b a s i c s . " What i s t a u g h t was m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s ? one p a r e n t a p p l a u d i n g t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram b e c a u s e i t was not ' p a r e d down' w h i l e a n o t h e r d i v e r g e d from t h e q u e s t i o n s t o d i s c u s s why t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s h o u l d g i v e p a r e n t s d e t a i l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The need f o r s t r u c t u r e was m e n t i o n e d by i n t e r v i e w e e s a s were comments d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f an a t m o s p h e r e were a c h i e v e m e n t was e x p e c t e d . S c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s were r e g a r d e d w i t h a c e r t a i n f o n d n e s s m o d e rated w i t h s c e p t i c i s m . The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t was c o n s i d e r i n g s e n d i n g her c h i l d t o t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram and commented t h a t s h e t h o u g h t her c h i l d would be a b l e t o " c a t c h up no m a t t e r how bad t h e t e a c h i n g i s . " A t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t commented p o s i t i v e l y on t h e t e a c h e r s a s b e i n g " e n t h u s i a s t i c and keen" but f e l t t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c s c h o o l was " l e a s t o b n o x i o u s " o f t h e o p t i o n s . Even t h e most e n t h u s i a s t i c o f t h e t h r e e p a r e n t s commented s l y l y t h a t when p a r e n t s h e l p e d a t t h e s c h o o l ? t h e y were g i v e n t h e " b o r i n g j o b s " . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note? t h a t a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e p a r e n t s ? w h i l e not a c t i v e i n a ' p o l i t i c a l s e n s e ' or i n v o l v e d on t h e e x e c u t i v e o f e i t h e r t h e PTA or t h e M o n t e s s o r i S o c i e t y ? were* v e r y i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g a t t h e s c h o o l ? one t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t b e i n g t h e o n l y n o n - e x e c u t i v e member o f t h e PTA who r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d e d t h e open m e e t i n g s . 121 Al I three* p a r e n t s were quite* wel I and b r o a d l y i n f o r m e d on c h i l d r e n r e a r i n g but t e n d e d t o be s c e p t i c a l . A l l c o n s i d e r e d a l t e r n a t i v e programs? one* c h o o s i n g M o n t e s s o r i ? two r e j e c t i n g F r e n c h Immersion. The two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s s a i d t h e y would d e f e n d c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r s c h o o l t o some d e g r e e but not t o t h e e x t e n t o f j o i n i n g a p o l i t i c a l g r o u p . The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t was " u n s u r e " i f t h e r e was any t h r e a t t o M o n t e s s o r i i n t h e d i s t r i c t . She n o t e d t h a t t h e program was s t i l l t u r n i n g p e o p l e away. T h e s e p a r e n t s were a l s o somewhat s c e p t i c a l about t h e new p r i m a r y program. One* t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s s a i d she* " s u p p o s e d " s h e would l i k e i t b e c a u s e s h e l i k e d t h e u n g r a d e d a s p e c t and i t had t e a c h e r s u p p o r t s o i t would p r o b a b l y be s u c c e s s f u l . A n o t h e r n o t e d t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t y between M o n t e s s o r i and t h e new p r i m a r y p r o g ram and commented " I t sound l i k e a b i g mix-up". The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t ? a f t e r n o t i n g t h a t s h e was not i m p r e s s e d ? c o n c u r r e d " I f M o n t e s s o r i i s n ' t working? I want an a l t e r n a t i v e and t h e s y s t e m i s g o i n g toward M o n t e s s o r i f o r e v e r y b o d y . " In g e n e r a l ? f a c t o r a r r a y I I I i s an array which c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h the* m a t e r i a l t o be t a u g h t . The e n v i r o n m e n t i s humane and n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e * but i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t h a t the* s t u d e n t s acquire? t h e i n f o r m a t i o n even i f t h e y happen t o p r e f e r t o do othe*rwise*. F a c t o r array III r a n k s moderate i t e m s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n i t e m s which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s on who l o a d e d on F a c t o r I I I s u g g e s t e d a g r o u p o f w e l l i n f o r m e d p a r e n t s who a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l a s v o l u n t e e r s . The t e r m ' s c e p t i c a l ' i s one t h e y u s e d and i s one t h a t seems t o d e s c r i b e them. They do not seem t o ask a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m beyond t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n humane Iy but e f fee t i v e I y . D _ _ _ _ _ _ I V . s Ed u c a t i o n _. for. _Ha _ _ i.e r_ _Peo_ J_e ______ ..Better _ W orld The p a r e n t s who l o a d e d on F a c t o r IV were a l l t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . They t e n d e d t o a g r e e w i t h c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s about what t h e y d i d n ' t l i k e ? but h e l d u n i q u e v i e w s about what t h e y d i d l i k e . F a c t o r a r r a y IV, b e s i d e s f a v o u r i n g t h e u b i q u i t o u s s t a t e m e n t t h a t l i f e t i m e l e a r n e r s c a n be c r e a t e d by e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l c r e a t i v i t y and e n t h u s i a s m f o r l e a r n i n g , a c k n o w l e d g e d , l i k e f a c t o r a r r a y I I I , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a f l e x i b l e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e v a l u e o f d i s c o v e r y methods o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g , and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n w o r k i n g i n a m a i n l y c o o p e r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n r e s t r i c t e d . I t i s deemed i m p o r t a n t t o enhance c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v i t y by g i v i n g them o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o do c r e a t i v e t h i n g s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d l o v e l e a r n i n g and a c t as a c a t a l y s t r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g . The c h i l d ' s s e l f -e steem i s i n c r e a s e d by r e s p c - c t i n g h i s f e e l i n g s and a c c e p t i n g t h e 123 c h i l d a s he or s h e i s . The g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e t o c r e a t e p e o p l e who l o v e knowledge and seek t r u t h and who w i l l i m p r o v e soc i e t y. F a c t o r a r r a y IV s h a r e s w i t h f a c t o r a r r a y I I I a r e j e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a s a forum f o r r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n . I t a l s o p l a c e s t h e b e l i e f t h a t t r a d i t i o n h a s any p l a c e i n d e c i d i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m at t h e bottom o f t h e f a c t o r a r r a y . I t s t r o n g l y r e j e c t s t h e i d e a t h a t most c h i l d r e n a r e not r e a d y f o r s c h o o l u n t i l a f t e r age s i x or t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a I I I e a r n t h e same t h i n g once t h e y a r e t h e r e . Near t h e bo t t o m o f t h e f a c t o r a r r a y i s a l s o found b o t h s t a t e m e n t s which s u g g e s t t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l e t t h e c h i l d d e c i d e how i m p o r t a n t a t a s k i s and how much e f f o r t he wiI I expend and a n o t h e r s t a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d s t r i v e f o r e x c e l l e n c e a s d e f i n e d by e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s ( p a r e n t s ? t e a c h e r s ? or for m a l i n s t i t u t i c m s ) . T h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t i n an atm o s p h e r e o f freedom was a l s o r e j e c t e d s t r o n g l y on f a c t o r a r r a y IV. The i t e m s r e j e c t e d seemed t o d e a l p r e d o m i n a t e l y w i t h what i s t a u g h t ? w i t h an acknowledgement t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n ' t l e a r n i n an e n v i r o n m e n t which h a s no r u l e s or s t r u c t u r e and i n t e r e s t i n g l y ? w i t h r e j e c t i o n b o t h o f l e t t i n g t h e c h i l d c h o o s e how much i m p o r t a n c e t o p l a c e on a s u b j e c t and o f e n c o u r a g i n g t h e v i g o u r o u s p u r s u i t o f t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e . In i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r e n t s ? i t a p p e a r e d t h a t b o t h were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e r m " e x c e l l e n c e " a s t h e y b o t h f e l t t h a t many c h i l d r e n c o u l d not a t t a i n e x c e l l e n c e . Thus, t h e message was, c h i l d r e n c a n n o t c h o o s e t h e i r own g o a l s , but e q u a l l y , t h e y must not be p ushed. The p o s i t i v e i t e m s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f a s o c i a l change i t e m . The p a r e n t s i n t h i s c l u s t e r a l s o r a n k e d t h e s t a t e m e n t " E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n what i s wrong w i t h s o c i e t y and g i v e them t h e t o o l s t o f i x i t " s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n d i d any o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s . In c o n c e r t w i t h c l u s t e r I I , t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a p p r o v i n g o f c r e a t i n g good c i t i z e n s a s a v a l i d g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h a t o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o be happy and a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e y a r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r a n k i n g t h i s f a c t o r a r r a y gave was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n t h a t g i v e n by f a c t o r array II f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t f a v o u r i n g e d u c a t i o n e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o c o n f o r m t o J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s , i t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t g i v e n by f a c t o r a r r a y s I and I I I . L i k e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s . e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o s e t t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s o f n e a t n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n was r a n k e d f a v o u r a b l y by c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s . The two i n t e r v i e w e e s who l o a d e d on F a c t o r IV b o t h m e n t i o n e d t h e i r own l a c k o f e n t h u s i a s m i n h i g h s c h o o l and b o t h wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o e n j o y s c h o o l and l e a r n i n g more t h a n t h e y had. Both d i g r e s s e d a t some l e n g t h d i s c u s s i n g what c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s s o c i a l i s s u e s . One p a r e n t d e s c r i b e d a f r i e n d ' s i n s e n s i t i v e t r e a t m e n t by a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r w h i c h c a u s e d t h e f r i e n d t o d r o p out o f s c h o o l l e a v i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e e w i t h o u t a c l o s e f r i e n d and s i m p l y 'marking t i m e ' u n t i l g r a d u a t i o n . The o t h e r s p o k e p o i g n a n t l y about her c o n c e r n s - a b o u t g e t t i n g her y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h s h e d i d not d e t a i l t h e c h i I d ' s p r o b l e m s h e i n t i m a t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d had a m o derate p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p but was i n t e l l e c t u a l l y n o r m a l . P a r e n t s i n c l u s t e r IV want t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m t o h e l p i m p r o v e s o c i e t y . They seem t o be f i n d t h e r e j e c t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n more d i s t a s t e f u l and u n r e a l i s t i c t h a n t h e y f i n d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e , c o m p e t i t i o n , t o be d e s i r a b l e . They do not want c o m p e t i t i o n b a n i s h e d but want t h e c h i l d a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o h i s a b i l i t i e s . They do not l i k e t h e i d e a o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g p ushed. One p a r e n t n o t e d t h e major a d v a n t a g e s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l was t h e a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f needs, a l t h o u g h s h e n o t e d t h a t s e v e r e m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n s or s e v e r e b e h a v i o r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s might r e n d e r a c h i l d u n f i t f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l . The two p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d had r e a d l e s s w i d e l y on c h i l d d e v e l opment t h a n had t h e p a r e n t s i n t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . They had not s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s , h e a r i n g about them o n l y t h r o u g h t h e ' p a r e n t ' s n e twork'. They were b o t h b a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r s y s t e m and f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . They were b o t h q u i t e wiI l i n g t o t a k e a c t i o n t o d e f e n d t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m or t o s u p p o r t i t : . One p a r e n t was e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i m p e n d i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e p r i m a r y system? h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d f a m i l y g r o u p i n g i n her r u r a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ? w h i l e t h e o t h e r was " w o r r i e d " b e c a u s e s h e f e l t i t had not been c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d t o p a r e n t s . The e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r e n t was c o n c e r n e d t h a t unhappy t e a c h e r s might s a b o t a g e t h e c h a n g e s . One p a r e n t n o t e d t h a t s h e had c o n s i d e r e d p r i v a t e s c h o o l b e c a u s e her c h i l d had a m i l d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y but was d i s c o u r a g e d by t h e c o s t and t h e d i s t a n c e and d e c i d e d t h a t i t p r o b a b l y w o u l d n ' t be much b e t t e r t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l . She f e l t p u b l i c s c h o o l c l a s s e s were t o o l a r g e and t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o v e r e d t o o much m a t e r i a l i n t o o s h o r t a t i m e . She b e l i e v e d i t s h o u l d e i t h e r be na r r o w e d or a n o t h e r y e a r added on and g r a d u a t i o n o c c u r i n Gr a d e 13. A l t h o u g h p a r e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p seem t o f e e l c o m p e t i t i o n i s t h e " r e a l w o r l d " ? i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e t h e y seem i n t e r e s t e d i n m i n i m i z i n g i t s i m p a c t . One p a r e n t ? who was not a i n t e r v i e w e e ? but who a l s o l o a d e d on F a c t o r IV commented a f t e r s o r t i n g t h e c a r d s t h a t s h e had neve r r e a l i z e d how much she expe-cted t h e s c h o o l t o do. With amusement? she n o t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n were t o l e a r n t o compete? but a l s o t o cooperate*; t h e y were t o l e a r n t o t h i n k f o r t h e m s e l v e s ? but not t o be r e b e l l i o u s ; t h e y were t o l e a r n a l l t h e i r s c h o o l work? but not be pushed; t h e y were t o be r e s p e c t e d and g i v e n freedom? but a l s o be d i s c i p l i n e d and not a l l o w e d t o ' a c t up'. She wondere-d? a f t e r h a v i n g been f o r c e d t o t h i n k about her o p i n i o n s ? i f p a r e n t s had s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d what t h e y r e a l l y wanted and how? or whether? i t c o u l d be done. 127 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y e v o l v e d from severatl measurement i n s t r u m e n t s and a d d r e s s e d s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measure wiI I be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e Q - s o r t and i n t e r v i e w s must be d i s c u s s e d from t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s . The f i r s t i s t o compare t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e p a r e n t s as e x p r e s s e d by t h e f o u r f a c t o r a r r a y s a s has been done i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . A s e c o n d a p p r o a c h must be t o compare t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p i n g s i n t o which t h e s e n a t u r a l l y o c c u r i n g g r o u p s f a l I and ask how s c h o o l e r s d i f f e r from non-s c h o o l e r s and how p a r e n t s who seek i n f o r m a t i o n and a c t i v e l y c h o o s e t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t d i f f e r from t h o s e who a r e more p a s s i v e . A t h i r d method i s t o examine t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between n a t u r a l l y o c c u r i n g g r o u p s . How do non-a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s d i f f e r from C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s ? What d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h e r e amongst t h e M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s or t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s ? The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s t o a p p r o a c h t h e d a t a f i r s t ? i n l i g h t o f t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures? and t h e n t o compare t h e n a t u r a l Iy o c c u r i n g g r o u p s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r a s members o f more g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s u s i n g t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l d a t a and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . k-£,_kl__£^f._£I____2l C a u t i o n s h o u l d be u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s were not s e l e c t e d a t random but were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y were a c t i v e i n t h e i r s c h o o l or g r o u p or were v o l u n t e e r s . B o th a c t i v i s m and v o l u n t a r i s m may c o n f o u n d t h e r e s u l t s , however s i n c e a l I t h r e e g r o u p s were c h o s e n by s i m i l a r methods i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t any b i a s a f f e c t e d a l I t h r e e g r o u p s e q u a l l y . I t can be t e n t a t i v e l y s u g g e s t e d t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s d i f f e r , not i n t h e d e g r e e t o which t h e y f e e l t h e y a r e i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own l i v e s a s much a s t h e d e g r e e t o which t h e y f e e l c h a n c e and p o w e r f u l o t h e r s p l a y a r o l e . T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s f e e l more c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e and p o w e r f u l o t h e r s t h a n do h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s f a l l i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n on b o t h s c a l e s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e Chance s c a l e . The l i t e r a t u r e h a s p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n s a r e more e x t e r n a l t h a n a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e not f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s . In t h i s sample, however, a l t h o u g h C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s were not examined s e p a r a t e l y , t h e y d i d form h a l f t h e h o m e s c h o o l i n g g r o u p , and d i d not appear t o a f f e c t t h e Chance or P o w e r f u l O t h e r s s c a l e i n a d i r e c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h e y f e l t c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t one C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r d r o p p e d out o f t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e s h e f e l t she c o u l d not answer t h e IPC or t h e R o t t e r b e c a u s e t h e y d i d not r e f l e c t her b e l i e f i n God. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned? a n o t h e r h o m e s c h o o l e r gave q u i t e i d i o s y n c r a t i c r e s u l t s f o r a s i m i l a r r e a s o n ? and two o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I i n g g r o u p commented on t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h e y had w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m e a sures may be i n a d e q u a t e when compar i n g p€*rsons who b e l i e v e t h a t God c o n t r o l s t h e i r l i f e w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who do not s h a r e t h i s b e l i e f or s h a r e i t t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e . One r e s p o n d e n t ? w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e L e v e n s o n IPC? commented t h a t her l i f e i s c o n t r o l l e d by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ? t h a t i s God and t h e d e v i I ? but s h e assumed t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s meant ' p o w e r f u l o t h e r s ' a s ' t h e w o r l d ' s e e s i t — husbands? b o s s e s ? p e o p l e i n a u t h o r i t y -— s o s h e would answer i t i n t h a t f a s h i o n . It becomes d i f f i c u l t f o r someone o u t s i d e t h a t b e l i e f s y s t e m t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e f o r e what a h i g h s c o r e on t h e P s c a l e or a low s c o r e on t h e I s c a l e means. The Chi I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l s c a l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s c l e a r l y between p a r e n t s who homeschool and o t h e r p a r e n t s ? w i t h h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s f e e l i n g f a r more s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s a f f e c t t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r ? i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e lopment and per s o n a I i t y . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s f e e l l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by f a t e and p o w e r f u l o t h e r s and more d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s e n s e o f d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l a c k o f a t t r i b u t i o n o f e v e n t s t o o u t s i d e f o r c e s seem t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r a c t i o n s i n h o m e s c h o o l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In i n t e r v i e w s ? s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s f r e q u e n t l y made comments su c h a s 'To t e a c h your own c h i l d you need t o be c o n f i d e n t ? maybe o v e r c o n f i d e n t . . ' . A s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t who was s y m p a t h e t i c t o h o m e s c h o o l e r s n o t e d t h a t she wouldn't homeschool b e c a u s e s h e d i d n ' t have t h e c o n f i d e n c e and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y . HomeschooIers? i n t u r n ? a t t r i b u t e d t h e f a c t t h e s c h o o l e r s s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l ? i n p a r t t o t h e s c h o o l e r s l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home. M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s f e l t l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n d i d T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s ? but more c o n t r o l l e d t h a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s . T h i s r e f l e c t s p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t s u g g e s t t h a t p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v i s t movements f e e l l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n do c o n c e r n e d but n o n - a c t i v i s t i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e ho m e s c h o o I e r s ? who have r e j e c t e d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s ' a u t h o r i t y f e e l l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s t h a n do t h e M o n t e s s o r i or t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s f e e l more c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n e i t h e r g roup and b o t h s c h o o l i n g g r o u p s a r e more l i k e l y t o f e e l c o n t r o l l e d by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s . 131 Ih_t„E_E____^ Ih^..-^z§.2L^..~Mi^lD.%.§x.y.L§-.v.s In d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s , s i x p o s s i b l e - c o m p a r i s o n s can be made; A) a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f o u r p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s or p a r e n t c l u s t e r s w hich were c r e a t e d by t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s a s c o n d u c t e d i n C h a p t e r V. B) a c o m p a r i s i o n w i t h i n e a c h d e c i s i o n g r o u p o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s I o a d i n g on d i f f e r i n g f a c t o r s i e . t h e d :i. f f e r e n t b e I i e f s wi t h i n e a c h g r o u p - F o t" e x a m pi e s i> F a c t o r I h o m e s c h o o l e r s v. F a c t o r II h o m e s c h o o l e r s i i ) F a c t o r I M o n t e s s o r i a n s v F a c t o r I I I M o n t e s s o r i a n s i i i ) F a c t o r I I I t r a d i t i o n a l v. F a c t o r IV t r a d i t i o n a l C) A c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s between t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p i n g s i n t o which t h e t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s f a l l t o examine whether t h e r e a r e s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between: i ) h o m e s c h o o I e r s v. s c h o o l e r s i i ) a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l e r s v. t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o I e r s The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o u r c l u s t e r s i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r makes i t a p p a r e n t t h a t each group may h o l d more t h a n one s e t o f b e l i e f s and t h e r e f o r e e a c h s e t o f d a t a must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e o t h e r . Comparing t h e b e l i e f s o f a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l e r s ( M o n t e s s o r i and h o m e s c h o o I e r s ) w i t h r e g u l a r s c h o o l e r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c e r t a i n a s t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l e r s s p r e a d o v e r t h r e e c l u s t e r s ( I , I I , and I I I ) w h i l e t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e r e g u l a r p a r e n t s a r e m a i n l y r e p r e s e n t e d by f a c t o r a r r a y s I I I and IV. A Q a L L Q 9.._ t_b. e______„_„_L„L_? Q_LL__L_U1_.Y. „2Q__ j_i_gned In o r d e r t o compare h o m e s c h o o l e r s v. s c h o o l e r s one must d e c i d e whether t h e h o m e s c h o o I e r s a r e a homogeneous g r o u p . W i t h i n t h i s sample, a l l n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s l o a d e d on F a c t o r I, w h i l e a l I C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s l o a d e d on F a c t o r I I . The two f a c t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f a t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l i n g s i t u a t i o n , t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d not be r u s h e d i n t o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t u t o r i n g , t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t t e a c h e r s need s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , and t h e a d o p t i o n o f ' d i s c o v e r y methods o f l e a r n i n g ' and ' l e a r n i n g from r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ' . They d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e i r g o a l s however and, p r e s u m a b l y , i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d . W h i l e t h e g o a l s o f t h e n o n - a l i g n e d p a r e n t s c an be s e e n a s ' s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' f o r t h e c h i l d and t h e i r s t a n c e a I i b e r a t i o n i s t one, t h e C h r i s t i a n s want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be moral and t o be good c i t i z e n s . In t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e n o n - a l i g n e d p a r e n t s were more r e j e c t i n g o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s c h o o l i n g t h a n were t h e C h r i s t i a n s , who t e n d e d t o t a k e t h e v i e w t h a t s c h o o l i n g might be a c c e p t a b l e , i f i t were of t h e r i g h t t y p e and i f t h e c h i l d were o l d e r . P e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s were b a s i n g t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f 1 OO J. w » 0 s c h o o l i n g on f a u l t s w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m w h i l e t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s c o u l d s u p p o r t t h e i r d e c i s i o n on r e l i g i o u s g r o u n d s , t h e C h r i s t i a n s h o m e s c h o o I e r s were more l i k e l y t o admit t o p r o b l e m s w i t h h o m e s c h o o I i n g . The n o n - a l i g n e d p a r e n t s c l a i m e d o n l y b e n e f i t s w h i c h c o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o a l l c h i l d r e n . Most p a r e n t s , t h e y c l a i m e d , c o u l d t e a c h a t home i f t h e y want«-d. To what d e g r e e t h i s r e f l e c t e d a n e a r - u t o p i a n s i t u a t i o n and t o what degree- t h i s r e f l e c t e d t h e i r need t o j u s t i f y t h e i r d e c i s i o n i s u n c e r t a i n . The C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s a d m i t t e d f a c i n g r e s i s t a n c e from t h e i r c h i l d r e n and a c k n o w l e d g e d a need f o r p a t i e n c e ; a s one p a r e n t n o t e d , a l m o s t a p o l o g e t i c a l l y , t h e c h i l d r e n have t o r e s p e c t t h e p a r e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y . T h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f the- works o f Raymond Moore, who a d v o c a t e s home e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l y y e a r s makes i t e a s i e r f o r them t o c o n s i d e r s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e , s i n c e i t i s not s c h o o l i n g t h e y oppose, but p r e m a t u r e formal s c h o o l i n g or s c h o o l i n g i n a ' s e c u l a r h u m a n i s t ' e n v i r o n m e n t . B o t h C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d , f e l t t h e y would put t h e i r c h i l d i n s c h o o l at some t i m e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e c h i l d ' s C h r i s t i a n commitment, s e l f - e s t e e m , and p e r s o n a l d e s i r e t o go t o s c h o o l . Both a c k n o w l e d g e some f e a t u r e s o f s c h o o l t h a t were d e s i r a b l e , one f e e l i n g her c h i l d might need someone t o compare h i m s e l f t o , t o g e t a b e t t e r s e n s e o f h i s s t r e n g t h s and f e e l i n g he may be m i s s i n g s o m e t h i n g by not b e i n g a b l e t o work on 'group p r o j e c t s ' , t h e o t h e r b e i n g c o n c e r n e d t h a t s h e might not be a b l e t o o f f e r her c h i l d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s and 134 a g a i n t h a t some s u b j e c t s may be b e s t t a u g h t i n a g r o u p . F a c t o r I p a r e n t s , w h i l e r e a d y t o se n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l t o s t u d y c e r t a i n t o p i c s , seemed t o r e g a r d s c h o o l a s g e n e r a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . W h i l e v e r y open about t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s were a n x i o u s not t o be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e " l u n e t i c f r i n g e " and a c k n o w l e d g e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y t h a t t h e r e may be some bad examples o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . A l l h o m e s c h o o l e r s a c t i v e l y p u r s u e d i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n s , on one hand, t e n d e d t o r e a d t h o s e a u t h o r s who w r o t e from a C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e ( a l t h o u g h not e x c l u s i v e l y ) w h i l e t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about John H o l t . B Ib.§_ £.2__ £_J§or j; a n s j E_:__i_2m„Y_.Di§^ The M o n t e s s o r i a n s l o a d on F a c t o r s I and I I I r e p r e s e n t i n g c l e a r l y t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e t w i n t h r e a d s o f l i b e r t y and d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h p e r m e a t e M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i " s work. In i n t e r v i e w s , a l l t h r e e M o n t e s s o r i a n s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n e d about t h e ' r e s p e c t ' o f t h e t e a c h e r f o r t h e c h i l d and t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , about n o t t a l k i n g down t o t h e c h i l d or w a t e r i n g down i n f o r m a t i o n , f e a t u r e which f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n M o n t e s s o r i ' s w r i t i n g . However, t h e y d i f f e r i n how t h i s r e s p e c t i s b e s t m a n i f e s t e d . 135 F o r t h e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s , t h e r e s p e c t i s d i s p l a y e d by p e r m i t t i n g t h e c h i l d f r eedom t o c h o o s e h i s own work. For t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t i t i s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m which t r e a t s t h e c h i l d a s a s e r i o u s s e e k e r o f knowledge and not someone t o be t r i f l e d w i t h . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t w h i l e a l l p a r e n t s l i k e ' M o n t e s s o r i * , two o f them were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e program a s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , one b e c a u s e s h e f e l t i t was ' h i p p i e ~ d i p p i e , a i r y - f a i r y ' , t h e o t h e r b e c a u s e s h e f e l t i t was a ' b a s t a r d i z e d v e r s i o n ' . The unhappy c l u s t e r I p a r e n t f e l t t h a t d e v i a t i o n from p u r e M o n t e s s o r i (not r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e a u t i f u l , a t t r a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s , g r a f t i n g M o n t e s s o r i o n t o t h e ' t i m e t a b l e - o r i e n t e d ' p u b l i c s c h o o l , a t t e m p t i n g t o combine t h e c u r r i c u l u m s ) d e s t r o y e d t h e s t r u c t u r e which p e r m i t t e d M o n t e s s o r i s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n on t h e i r own and d e v e l o p s e I f - d i s c i p I i n e . The unhappy c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t f e l t t h a t t h e r e was a l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n , prompted by what s h e f e l t was an a r t i f i c i a l d e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s p a r e n t drew on her own e x p e r i e n c e i n an u n g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m where e v e r y o n e worked a t t h e i r own s p e e d . I t was t h e p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e which e n c o u r a g e d her t o e n r o l her c h i l d i n M o n t e s s o r i . B o t h , i n e s s e n c e , f e l t t h e i r c h i l d r e n (who were d e m o n s t r a b l y b r i g h t ) were not p r o g r e s s i n g welI i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and f e l t t h e y needed more s t r u c t u r e . F o r one, t h e answer was t o r e t u r n t o M o n t e s s o r i p r i n c i p l e s , f o r t h e o t h e r , i t was t o p e r m i t c o m p e t i t i o n . 13& The s a t i s f i e d M o n t e s s o r i a n l i s t e d many b e n e f i t s t o M o n t e s s o r i and t r a v e l s a good d i s t a n c e o u t s i d e her own s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o a t t e n d . She i s a v e r y s o c i a l p e r s o n who v a l u e s t h e s e n s e o f s h a r e d v a l u e s and community which s h e f i n d s i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i e n v i r o n m e n t . A l I M o n t e s s o r i a n s were welI r e a d i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and a l I m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h e s - D r u i k e r s , Ad I e r i a n , P a r e n t E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g - but o n l y t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t had r e a d about M o n t e s s o r i b e f o r e p u t t i n g her c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e M o n t e s s o r i s c h o o l . The two c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s t o o k t h e M o n t e s s o r i t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , one p l a n s t o go back t o U n i v e r s i t y t o become a t e a c h e r , w h i l e t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t c o n s i d e r e d becoming a t e a c h e r , but i s c u r r e n t l y an u n d e r g r a d u a t e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y p a r t - t i m e w i t h t h e l o n g t e r m g o a l o f becoming a p s y c h o l o g i s t . They had a l l been f a i r l y happy w i t h t h e i r own s c h o o l i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t one M o n t e s s o r i a n , w h i l e g i v i n g p u r e M o n t e s s o r i a 10, r a n k e d , h o m e s c h o o l i n g above s c h o o l M o n t e s s o r i . Where she d i f f e r e d from t r u e h o m e s c h o o l e r s i s i n her a s s e r t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t from s c h o o l g r o u p i n g t o h€'lp t h e i r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and i n her l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t s h e c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y t e a c h her c h i l d . Her s o l u t i o n t o her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h M o n t e s s o r i was i n t e r e s t i n g . She c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r a n o t h e r p r o g r a m ( W a l d o r f ) or t h e r e g u l a r program w i t h ' e n r i c h m e n t ' a t home. The c o n t e n t e d M o n t e s s o r i a n a l s o f e l t t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram c o u l d be s u i t a b l e i f t h e t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l had t h e p r o p e r a t t i t u d e t o t h e c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e c l u s t e r I I I M o n t e s s o r i a n a l s o s a i d s h e would c o n s i d e r s e n d i n g her c h i l d r e n t o t h e r e g u l a r program. The s a t i s f i e d M o n t e s s o r i a n d e s c r i b e d her c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h t h e program t o a l a r g e d e g r e e i n t e r m s o f t h e t e a c h e r - c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The unhappy M o n t e s s o r i a n s were c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not b e n e f i t t i n g from t h e i r s c h o o l i n g b e c a u s e o f a f l a w i n the* s t r u c t u r e o f t h e program. In f a c t , b o t h c l u s t e r I M o n t e s s o r i a n s r a n k e d h o m e s c h o o I i n g q u i t e p o s i t i v e l y , w h i l e t h e c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t , a l t h o u g h somewhat norv-p I u s s e d , a d m i t t e d t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h s h e would h e r s e l f h o m e s c h o o l . C) SjchooJ_er sj_ _Narrow__Schoolingl„y„lB_2_^d„„£b£'£'iiD__. F a c t o r s I I I and IV y i e l d f a c t o r a r r a y s which a r e s u p p o r t e d by n i n e o f t h e t e n s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . They a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l as a p l a c e t o t e a c h r e I i g i o n and i n t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a f l e x i b l e c u r r i c u I urn, modi f i e d c o m p e t i t i o n and d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g . They d i f f e r i n t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r and t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n . The p l a c e o f m o d i f i e d c o m p e t i t i o n h a s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e f o r f a c t o r a r r a y I I I , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s o t h a n f o r f a c t o r a r r a y IV, even t h o u g h f a c t o r a r r a y IV a l s o r a t e s i t h i g h l y . P a r e n t c l u s t e r I I I a l s o i s c l e a r i n i t s v i e w t h a t c h i l d r e n need e x t e r n a l o u t s i d e g u i d a n c e and s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o do t h e i r b e s t a c a d e m i c a l l y . These p a r e n t s no " b r o a d g o a l s ' f o r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e t o p few i t e m s . P a r e n t c l u s t e r IV on t h e o t h e r hand, has b r o a d g o a l s - c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o l o v e knowledge and s e e k t r u t h and i m p r o v e s o c i e t y . T h i s b r o a d s o c i e t a l g o a l ? s e p a r a t e s f a c t o r a r r a y IV from f a c t o r arrray I I I . In i t , f a c t o r a r r a y IV l o o k s more l i k e f a c t o r a r r a y II - i t p o s i t s g o a l s o u t s i d e t h e c h i l d as a l e g i t i m a t e f o c u s o f e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e f a c t o r a r r a y s I and I I I s e e t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n as r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e c h i l d , e i t h e r t h e goal o f , what c o u l d l o o s e l y be c a l l e d , s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , or an unspoken g o a l o f g i v i n g t h e c h i l d knowledge. The c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s a r e b e t t e r i n f o r m e d i n m a t t e r s o f c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n a r e c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s , and i t may be t h a t t h e b r o a d e r g o a l s o f f a c t o r a r r a y IV a r e a r e s u l t o f b e i n g l e s s welI i n f o r m e d about s p e c i f i c o p t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n . The most n o t a b l e f e a t u r e about c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s was t h e i r d~etached s c e p t i c i s m about e d u c a t i o n . They g e n e r a l l y e n j o y e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , or r e g a r d e d i t a s u n r e m a r k a b l e and two o f t h e t h r e e commented o u t r i g h t t h a t t h e y were good s t u d e n t s . They a c t i v e l y c h o s e t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n , one c h o o s i n g M o n t e s s o r i , t h e o t h e r two a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s on F r e n c h Immersion f o r t h e i r o l d e s t c h i l d r e n b e f o r e d e c i d i n g a g a i n s t i t . They a l s o were u n c o n v i n c e d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d be p e r m i t t e d freedom o f c h o i c e . Two p a r e n t s s p o k e d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t i t . In c o n t r a s t , one c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t f e l t t h a t one t h i n g s h e had l e a r n e d from her own e d u c a t i o n was t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have more s a y i n how t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d p r o c e e d . u > H£'.m_.._Jb_£'_£__§„Y_Sc h p c ^ e x s Despite* c l a i m s by homeschool e r s t h a t t h e i r number h o l d any v a r i e t y o f b e l i e f s ? a l l t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r s i n t h i s sample l o a d e d on two f a c t o r s ? F a c t o r I and F a c t o r I I . F a c t o r a r r a y I i s n o t a b l e f o r i t s b e l i e f i n c h i l d - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g ? a v i e w o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t might be d e s c r i b e d a s a ' s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' p e r s p e c t i v e and a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o r e j e c t r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e c h i l d ? c o m p e t i t i o n or a d u l t d i r e c t i o n . C l u s t e r I I p a r e n t s a r e a l I t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s and o n l y t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s . T h i s u n i q u e group e m p h a s i z e s a c o n s e r v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n , a p r a g m a t i c or l i b e r a l v i e w o f t h e means o f e d u c a t i o n and? w h i l e s h a r i n g o t h e r h o m e s c h o o I e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c h i l d - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g ? d o e s not f e e l t h i s means a d u l t s s h o u l d a b d i c a t e t h e i r r o l e a s g u i d e s t o e d u c a t i o n . F a c t o r array I gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o l i b e r a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a n d i d F a c t o r a r r a y I I . T h e r e were however? s e v e r a l s t a t e m e n t s which were p r e f e r r e d by h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s o v e r t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s r e f l e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , h o m e s c h o o l e r s r e j e c t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f a one-t o - o n e t u t o r i n g s i t u a t i o n . They were l e s s i n f a v o u r o f c h i l d r e n s t a r t i n g s c h o o l e a r l y and more f a v o u r a b l e t o d e l a y i n g s c h o o l u n t i l t h e c h i l d was beyond s i x . They were more e n t h u s i a s t i c about ' r e a l l i f e ' e x p e r i e n c e s o v e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n and t o b e l i e v e a j o b was t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n . N a t u r a l l y , t h e y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o b e l i e v e t h a t t e a c h e r s need s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n or t h a t what s h o u l d be t a u g h t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by e x p e r t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y ? 140 t h e y a l s o s e e l e s s need f o r t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o change c o n s t a n t l y . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e y can be d e s c r i b e d a s a g r o u p who b e l i e v e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e , one t o one, i n f o r m a l l y i n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was not a u n i v e r s a l r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l . The C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I e r s d i d not r e j e c t s c h o o l a s a r d e n t l y a s d i d t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s o f p a r e n t c l u s t e r I. A l l f e l t t h e i r c h o i c e o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g had e v o l v e d , r a t h e r t h a n been t a k e n p r e c i p i t o u s l y and, a l t h o u g h t h r e e o f t h e f o u r commented n e g a t i v e l y on t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f e i t h e r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m or t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u o f t h e schooI g r o u n d , one p a r e n t was v e r y happy w i t h her s c h o o l i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b e i n g unhappy w i t h one's own s c h o o l i n g i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r becoming a h o m e s c h o o l e r . W h i l e a l l f o u r h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were ' t y p i c a l ' , a l l n o t e d a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e o f at l e a s t one o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h a t c o n f i r m e d t o t h e p a r e n t s b e l i e f t h a t s c h o o l was not an o p t i o n . T h e s e f e a t u r e s v a r i e d from s e e m i n g ' t o o young' or b e i n g deveIopmentaI Iy s l o w e r t o b e i n g a c a d e m i c a l l y ad van c ed or o f a r a c i a l m i nor i t y. Sc h o o l i n g p a r e n t s a l s o saw t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s ' t y p i c a l ' and t h o s e who m e n t i o n e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s h a v i n g had some' p r o b l e m s t e n d e d t o be s c e p t i c a l as t o whether t h e s c h o o l s c o u l d d e a l w i t h them. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t one h o m e s c h o o l i n g i n d i v i d u a l was a t e a c h e r , and t h a t two o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n d i c a t e d some i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g , one m e n t i o n i n g how s h e e n j o y e d ' p l a y i n g s c h o o l ' and t h e o t h e r n o t i n g t h a t s h e had p l a n n e d t o t e a c h i n a ' f r e e s c h o o l ' . 141 Two o f the M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s had t a k e n t h e M o n t e s s o r i t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s and one had b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d becoming a t e a c h e r ? but d e c i d e d a g a i n s t i t . A l l h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r e n t s c o u l d t e a c h i f t h e y wanted t o o and t h a t most p a r e n t s l a c k c o n f i d e n c e . S c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s t e n d e d t o a g r e e t h a t h o m e s c h o o l e r s had c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t e a c h but were l e s s s u r e i t was w e l I - p l a c e d . S c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s a l s o t e n d e d to comment t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e y c o u l d n ' t t e a c h or t o i n d i c a t e t h e t e a c h e r s had s p e c i a l knowledge t h a t t h e y d i d not have. ( " P a r e n t s s h o u l d n ' t e x p e c t t o be p a r t n e r s w i t h t e a c h e r s - t h a t ' s a s k i n g t o o much" n o t e d a t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t . ) H o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s a l s o wondered d a r k l y i f some s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s s i m p l y wanted t o f o i s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n o f f o n t o someone e l s e . S c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s ? i n t e r e s t i n g Iy? a l s o n o t e d t h a t some p a r e n t s were u n w i l l i n g t o h e l p a t t h e s c h o o l ? and w h i l e a t t r i b u t i n g t h i s i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h e p a r e n t s worked? s u g g e s t e d some s i m p l y might not be i n t e r e s t e d . S c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t h o m e s c h o o I e r s might have r e l i g i o u s c o m p u n c t i o n s w h i c h p r e v e n t e d them from : s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l and more t h a n one n o t e d d i s a p p r o v i n g l y t h a t h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s want t o p r o t e c t t h e i r c h i l d from new i d e a s . T h a t a l l h o m e s c h o o l e r s were happy w i t h t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s seems o b v i o u s . I f t h e y were not? t h e y would have no d i f f i c u l t y i n moving t o a n o t h e r o p t i o n . S c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s were happy? too? e x c e p t f o r two M o n t e s s o r i a n s b o t h o f whom were s t i l l somewhat enamoured o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i method but d i s g r u n t l e d w i t h i t s e v o l u t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . No h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t f e l t t h a t t h e new p r i m a r y p r o g ram would i n d u c e them t o r e t u r n t o t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . As m e n t i o n e d F a c t o r II p a r e n t s seemed l e s s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a n d i d F a c t o r I h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . C o n c l u s i o n s The s t u d y has a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y some q u e s t i o n s about t h e n a t u r e o f p a r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s , p a r e n t a l t r a i t s and c h o i c e i n s c h o o l i n g . A) H S f i f - J S b o o i - I I H o m e s c h o o l e r s a r e not a s h e t e r o g e n e o u s a g r o u p a s h a s sometimes been c l a i m e d . In f a c t , t h i s sample y i e l d e d two f a c t o r s , s i m i l a r t o Van G a l e n ' s i d e o l o g u e s and pedagogues. One g r o u p h e l d b e l i e f s t h a t c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s l i b e r a l , R o g e r i a n or R o u s s e a u i a n and c o n c e p t u a l i s i n g a v i e w t h a t e d u c a t i o n l e a d s t o s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The o t h e r , h e l d by t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s , w h i l e s i m i l a r i n method t o t h e o t h e r h o m e s c h o o l e r s , had g o a l s which s e r v e d t o mold t h e c h i l d t o s e r v e a l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t o make t h e c h i l d m o r a l , a good c i t i z e n , and an i n d i v i d u a l who l o v e d knowledge and s o u g h t t r u t h . A l l h o m e s c h o o l e r s had c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f p a r e n t s t o e d u c a t e and a b e l i e f t h a t ' r e a l l i f e ' was i t s e l f an e d u c a t i o n . 143 They were prone? a s a group? t o ' f o l l o w t h e c h i l d ' ? p r e f e r r i n g t o b e g i n formal e d u c a t i o n l a t e r r a t h e r t h e n e a r l i e r and t o a l l o w t h e c h i l d v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f freedom t o f o l l o w h i s i n t e r e s t s and c h o o s e h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s . As a group? h o m e s c h o o l e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y t o a t t r i b u t e o c c u r r e n c e s t o c h a n c e or t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s and were more l i k e l y t o f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s . T h i s b e l i e f t h a t c h a n c e d i d not i n f l u e n c e t h e i r l i f e i s s i m i l a r t o r e s u l t s found w i t h some a c t i v i s t s . S i n c e t h i s g r o u p h a s s u c c e s s f u l l y removed i t s e l f from t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system? t h e f e e l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t " p o w e r f u l o t h e r s " do not c o n t r o l t h e i r l i v e s may be w e l l f o u n d e d . I t was not n e c e s s a r y t o have been unhappy a t s c h o o l a s a c h i l d t o p r e f e r h o m e s c h o o l i n g ? a l t h o u g h a l l h o m e s c h o o l e r s n o t e d t h e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t o f l a r g e g r o u p s o f u n s o c i a l i z e d c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g . H o m e s c h o o l e r s had a t t e m p t e d t o make t h e m s e l v e s w e l l i n f o r m e d about c h i l d d e v e lopment and e d u c a t i o n and b a s e d t h e i r b e l i e f s t h e i r r e a d i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s s h a r e d p a r e n t c l u s t e r I w i t h s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s ? t h e y appear t o be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y e s p o u s e c a n n o t be e n a c t e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s a r e more c o n c i l i a t o r y t o t h e i d e a o f s c h o o l i n g ? however? t h e y a r e a l o n e on t h e i r f a c t o r . 144 C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s s t r o n g l y r e j e c t t h e B i b l i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n h e l d by t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s . however, i t seems t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l would have- d i f f i c u l t y e n c o m p a s s i n g b o t h v i e w s and i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s group w i l l f i n d i t s v i e w s b e s t s e r v e d by h o m e s c h o o l i n g or pr i v a t e sc hoc I s . In d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s g r o u p o f p a r e n t s , e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s would be w i s e t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t w h i l e t h e y h o l d some v i e w s i n common w i t h some s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s , t h e y b e l i e v e t h e i r g o a l s c a n n o t be met i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . 5j3ome, i n t h e smal I group sampled, were s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . How w i d e l y t h a t s u s p i c i o n i s h e l d , c a n n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s s m a l l g r o u p o f h o m e s c h o o l e r s a l s o h e l d d i f f e r i n g , a l t h o u g h c o h e r e n t , p h i l o s o p h i e s on which t h e y were a c t i n g and about w h i c h t h e y were we I I i n f o r m e d . I f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i t would seem d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , t o l u r e them i n t o t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . The n o n - a l i g n e d p a r e n t s a l r e a d y s h a r e t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y w i t h some s c h o o l e r s but f i n d t h e i d e a o f g r o u p s c h o o l i n g t o be anathema. The p u b l i c s c h o o l would have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y a d a p t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s b e l i e f s w i t h o u t a l i e n a t i n g i t s o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s . Hence, t h e p o l i c y o f t o l e r a n c e o f t h i s form o f s c h o o l i n g seems w i s e . P e r h a p s , t h e a p p r o a c h o f a c l u s t e r IV T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t who s u g g e s t e d , t e n t a t i ve I y, t h a t t h e government s h o u l d be m o n i t o r i n g h o m e s c h o o l e r s f o r s i g n s o f 145 d i s c o n t e n t amongst p a r e n t s and t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n , i s b e s t . The h o m e s c h o o I e r s i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r t o f a l I i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s , s i m i l a r t o V a n G a l e n ' s i d e o l o g u e s and pedagogues one f a v o u r i n g ' s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' a s a g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e o t h e r , p r e d o m i n a t e l y r e l i g i o u s , f a v o u r i n g moral d e v e l o p m e n t and c i t i z e n s h i p a s g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n . The two g r o u p s d i f f e r l e s s i n method o f e d u c a t i o n as i n g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n . H o m e s c h o o l e r s who based t h e i r c h o i c e on p e d a g o g i c a l b e l i e f s seem t o be l e s s w i l l i n g t o a c k n o w l e d g e p r o b l e m s w i t h h o m e s c h o o l i n g and r e c o g n i z e b e n e f i t s of s c h o o l i n g t h a n a r e t h o s e h o m e s c h o o I e r s who b a s e t h e i r c h o i c e on r e l i g i ous b e I i e f s . B > Th e .J_1on.t e s s o ^ The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s l o a d on F a c t o r I w i t h t h e h o m e s c h o o l e r s , and on F a c t o r I I I . T h i s d i v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e two t r e n d s i n M o n t e s s o r i . The ' s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' t r e n d , f r e e i n g t h e c h i l d t o d i s c o v e r f o r h i m s e l f i s t h e t r e n d r e p r e s e n t e d by most p a r e n t s , a l t h o u g h i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e p a r e n t s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l o a d i n g on t h i s f a c t o r t e n d t o be p e o p l e who have been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i A s s o c i a t i o n . The a c q u i r i n g knowledge t r e n d i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h r e e p a r e n t s . In i n t e r v i e w s , b o t h s e t s o f p a r e n t s e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e c h i l d and t h i s i n s i s t e n c e on r e s p e c t i n g t h e c h i l d seems t o be a s t r o n g f e a t u r e o f M o n t e s s o r i . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s f e e l l e s s 146 c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e e v e n t s t h a n do t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s , but more c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n a r e h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . L i k e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s , t h e y have l e s s f a i t h i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a f f e c t t h e i r c h i l d ' s a c a demic and b e h a v i o r a l outcomes t h a n do h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s . The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d had a c t i v e l y s o u g h t knowledge about t h e b e s t way t o r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They had a l l f u r t h e r e d t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were i n p r e s c h o o l i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d s . They were* w i l l i n g t o i n c o n v e n i e n c e * t h e m s e l v e s g r e a t l y t o g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n what t h e y b e l i e v e d were t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e program. The M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s v a r i e d i n whether t h e y t h o u g h t t h e program would be p h a s e d o u t , but t h e a g r e e d t h a t t h e new p r i m a r y program would not r e p l a c e M o n t e s s o r i f o r " r e a l M o n t e s s o r i a n s " . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y f a l l i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s , t h o s e f a v o u r i n g s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a s a g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n and t h o s e f a v o u r i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge a s a goal o f e d u c a t i o n . C ^  Xb. „ _ „ _ _ i . Y_e,_ Ch o o s er_s P a r e n t s who c h o o s e t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n , as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h o s e p a r e n t s who homeschool or whose c h i l d r e n a r e i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i program, a r e l e s s l i k e l y t h a n p a r e n t s who r e m a i n i n t h e r e g u l a r p r o g r a m i n p u b l i c s c h o o l t o be*lieve* t h e i r l i v e s are* 147 g o v e r n e d by c h a n c e . The smalI g r o u p i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t s t h a t o v e r a l l , t h e y may have more a c t i v e l y s o u g h t out knowledge on how t o r a i s e - t h e i r c h i I d r e n and how t o e d u c a t e them. T h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s whose v i e w s were r e p r e s e n t e d by f a c t o r a r r a y s I and I I I i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r o p t i o n s and a c t i v e l y g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about them? but c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n was not r i g h t f o r t h e i r c h i l d . In t h i s sample, p a r e n t s who c h o o s e a l t e r n a t e forms o f e d u c a t i o n t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n e d u c a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s about c h i l d d e velopment and b e h a v i o u r . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t p a r e n t s who a c t i v e l y s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s p r e s c h o o l y e a r s , were more l i k e l y t o s eek an a l t e r n a t i v e program. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t H i r s h m a n ' s v i e w i s c o r r e c t . I t i s t h e most i n f o r m e d c o n sumers who l e a v e t h e company when t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e q u a l i t y t o be deteriorating» Wise e d u c a t o r s would pay heed t o t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s . D T._„_XL_d.L_L°._§,.l The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s a r r a y e d t h e m s e l v e s on t h r e e o f t h e f o u r f a c t o r s , one* on F a c t o r I, t h r e e on F a c t o r I I I and s i x on F a c t o r IV. A l l p a r e n t s r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a s somewhat t o e x t r e m e l y happy w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d 148 t h a t a l I p a r e n t s had c h i l d r e n i n t h e same s c h o o l and were f a m i l i a r o n l y w i t h t h a t s c h o o l - As a r e s u l t , one c a n make no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l o f p a r e n t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, b e c a u s e a l l t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s had been e x p o s e d t o t h e same ' s c h o o l c l i m a t e ' , d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e l i e f c a n be presumed t o have been a r r i v e d a t i n s p i t e o f s h a r i n g a common e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . T h i s was a h e t e r o g e n e o u s group w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f and l e v e l o f a c t i v e s e e k i n g o f knowledge about c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t . The c l u s t e r I p a r e n t i n d i c a t e d t h e same c h i l d - c e n t r e d o r i e n t a t i o n a s d i d o t h e r c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s . The c l u s t e r I I I p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d a d e g r e e o f s c e p t i c i s m , a na r r o w s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l s , an e m p h a s i s on c u r r i c u l u m , and an r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n may not a l w a y s want t o do what i s p e r c e i v e d by a d u l t s t o be i n t h e c h i l d ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t and t h a t t h e a d u l t must e n s u r e t h e c h i l d d o e s i t . C l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s , w h i l e t h e y were not i n f a v o u r o f l e t t i n g t h e c h i l d d e c i d e how he was t o be e d u c a t e d , were not i n f a v o u r o f ' p u s h i n g ' t h e c h i l d e i t h e r . T h e i r g o a l s were b o t h t o make t h e c h i l d happy and t o c r e a t e a p e r s o n who w i l l i m p rove s o c i e t y . O b v i o u s l y , i f t h e g o a l s o f t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s a r e a t a l I r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v i e w s h e l d by p a r e n t s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e r e i s not u n i n t e r r u p t e d harmony w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m . What a I I g r o u p s do a g r e e on, however, i s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d be modern and keep up w i t h the* t i m e s . 149 P a r e n t s who a r e ' c h o o s e r s ' w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l system? h a v i n g a c t i v e l y s o u g h t o ut i n f o r m a t i o n on o t h e r systems? made more e f f o r t t o be welI i n f o r m e d on c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t m a t t e r s t h a n d i d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s o f c l u s t e r IV. T r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o s e e t h e i r l i v e s a s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by c h a n c e t h a n a r e M o n t e s s o r i or h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s and a r e more l i k e l y t o s e e t h e i r l i v e s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s t h a n a r e h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . They a l s o f e e l l e s s a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e academic or b e h a v i o r a l outcome- o f the-ir c h i I d r e n . The v i e w s o f p a r e n t s on t h e new p r i m a r y s y s t e m a r e mixed? w i t h a common c o m p l a i n t b e i n g l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n . S e v e r a l p a r e n t s f e l t i t would be more l i k e M o n t e s s o r i . H o l d i n g t o g e t h e r t h e s e d i s p a r a t e v i e w s o f e d u c a t i o n under one common s c h o o l i n g p h i l o s o p h y would seem d i f f i c u l t a t b e s t . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n ? e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e F a c t o r I I I p a r e n t s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e remark o f t h e F a c t o r I I I M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t who n o t e d t h a t i f a p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m wasn't w o r k i n g s h e "wanted an a l t e r n a t i v e " . 150 _Y_.__._S _ „ _ * _ _ _ _ . P a r e n t a l b e l i e f s have s e v e r a l f o c i . One i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d . F a c t o r a r r a y s I i s a b e l i e f s e t w hich seems t o presume* t h e b a s i c ' g o odness' o f t h e c h i l d and h i s or her w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n w i t h o u t m o t i v a t i o n from o t h e r s . In f a c t , t h e c h i l d l e a r n s b e s t when u n t r a m m e l l e d by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s or r e s t r i c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . F a c t o r a r r a y I I I , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e p r e s e n t s t h e c h i l d a s a h e d o n i s t , he i s ' i m p e r f e c t ' - he wiI I l e a r n what he e n j o y s , but t h e r e i s no g e t t i n g a r o u n d i t , he must be f o r c e d t o l e a r n c e r t a i n t h i n g s w h i c h a r e l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g or more d i f f i c u I t . The s e c o n d f o c u s i s t h e n a t u r e o f what i s t o be l e a r n e d . I m p l i e d i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d i s 'good', i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t e i t h e r t h e c h i l d w i l l want t o l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g he s h o u l d or t h a t t h e o n l y t h i n g a w orth l e a r n i n g i s what t h e c h i l d wants t o l e a r n . In c o n t r a s t , f a c t o r a r r a y s I I and I I I a r e c l e a r i n d e f i n i n g a c u r r i c u l u m as h a v i n g c e r t a i n g o a l s or i t e m s t h a t a r e u n i v e r s a l , be t h e y moral or a c a d e m i c . N o t e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e b o t h t h a t t h e c h i l d i s b a s i c a l l y 'good' and t h a t some t h i n g s must be l e a r n e d . One must o n l y assume t h a t t h e b a s i c a l l y 'good' c h i l d wi I I c h o o s e t o l e a r n those* t h i n g s . On t h e o t h e r hand, one c a n b e l i e v e t h a t whatever t h e c h i I d n e e d s t o l e a r n w i l l be s p o n t a n e o u s l y c h o s e n by him - i f he d o e s n ' t c h o o s e i t , he d o e s n ' t need i t . I t seems however, d i f f i c u l t t o combine p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s which p o s i t an ' i m p e r f e c t " c h i l d w i t h an ' o p t i o n a l ' c u r r i c u l u m s i n c e t h e r o l e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s t o ' p e r f e c t ' t h e c h i l d and an ' i m p e r f e c t ' c h i l d would be u n a b l e t o c h o o s e wi s e I y . The t h i r d f o c u s i s t h e g o a l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e s e can be s e e n a s b e i n g i n w a r d - l o o k i n g g o a l s or o u t w a r d ~ I o o k i n g g o a l s . Inward l o o k i n g g o a l s assume t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s f o r t h e s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e 'good' c h i l d or t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l improvement of t h e ' i m p e r f e c t ' c h i l d . Outward l o o k i n g g o a l s assume t h a t e d u c a t i o n w i l l make a c h i l d a t t a i n s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e norms. Any e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m which s e e k s t o a d o p t o u t w a r d l o o k i n g g o a l s assumes t h e r e i s a c o n s e n s u s a s t o what g o a l s s h o u l d be p u r s u e d . C l u s t e r I I p a r e n t s a l l a c c e p t t h e g o a l s d e f i n e d by t h e i r r e l i g i o n . C l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s want b o t h h a p p i n e s s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and s o c i a l improvement. F o r t h e " p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m t o a t t e m p t t o meet t h o s e g o a l s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t s i n c e e x a c t l y how t o d e f i n e or a t t a i n an improvement i n s o c i e t y i s a moot p o i n t . I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a I i b e r a l / c o n s e r v a t i v e d i c h o t o m y i s t o o s i m p l e . K e r l i n g e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t b e i n g a c o n s e r v a t i v e was not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e o p p o s i t e o f b e i n g a l i b e r a l and i n d e e d , i t seems t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e b e l i e f s can be d e s c r i b e d a s d i c h o t o m i e s some o f t h e d i c h o t o m i e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f one* a n o t h e r . In t h i s sample, p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s a p p e a r e d t o d i f f e r a r o u n d t h r e e f o c i ; t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d ; whether t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s o p t i o n a l or mandatory; t o what d e g r e e t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d or t h e good o f t h e community. D i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be s e e n t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s . C o n s e r v a t i v i s m or l i b e r a l i s m i n one £*rea o f b e l i e f can be s e e n a s b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t o f c o n s e r v a t i v i s m or l i b e r a l i s m i n a n o t h e r a r e a . 153 A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s can c l a r i f y how t h e p i e c e o f t h e c a s e s t u d y f i t t o g e t h e r t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d . 1. Do p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s f a l l i n t o c a t e g o r i e s which can foe t y p i f i e d a s b e i n g l i b e r a l , m o d e r a t e or c o n s e r v a t i v e ? The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s do not f a l l n e a t l y i n t o t h o s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The f a c t o r a r r a y s g e n e r a t e d from F a c t o r I and IV a r e more l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h i e s t h a n a r e t h e o t h e r f a c t o r a r r a y s and t h e y g i v e s h i g h e r r a n k i n g s t o i t e m s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d m o derate or l i b e r a l . The f a c t o r a r r a y g e n e r a t e d from F a c t o r I I I g i v e s h i g h e r r a n k i n g s t o i t e m s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d m o derate t h a n t o t h o s e which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e . The f a c t o r a r r a y g e n e r a t e d from F a c t o r II d o e s not appear t o f a v o u r any p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y a s t h e y a r e d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y but i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n f a c t o r a r r a y I. T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a l i b e r a l t r e n d and a m o d e r a t e t r e n d . A c o n s e r v a t i v e t r e n d d o e s not appear t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h i s samp Ie. 2. Do g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s who c h o o s e d i f f e r i n g methods o f e d u c a t i o n ( ' d e c i s i o n g r o u p s ' ) e x h i b i t s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r endorsement o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s ? 154 The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y d o e s not d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l e a r l y between g r o u p s . H o m e s c h o o l e r s a r e n e a t l y d i v i d e d between n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s who f a v o u r t h e l i b e r a l p r e c e p t s o f f a c t o r a.rra.y I and t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s who p r e f e r t h e u n i q u e c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i b e r a l methods and c o n s e r v a t i v e g o a l s e x p r e s s e d i n f a c t o r a r r a y I I . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s a r e s i m i l a r l y s p l i t between t h e m a j o r i t y , who c l u s t e r w i t h t h e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s o f p a r e n t c l u s t e r I and t h e m i n o r i t y who f a v o u r t h e l e s s c h i l d - c e n t r e d , more c u r r i c u l u m - o r i e n t e d s t a n c e o f f a c t o r a r r a y I I I . The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s a r e found w i t h i n p a r e n t c l u s t e r s I, I I I and IV. F a c t o r a r r a y IV i s , l i k e f a c t o r a r r a y I, a more l i b e r a l f a c t o r . I t d i f f e r s from f a c t o r a r r a y I i n f a v o u r i n g s o c i a l a c t i v i s t g o a l s and b e i n g l e s s s u p p o r t i v e o f R o u s s e a u i a n v i e w s o f c h i l d h o o d . a) I s t h e r e a s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e between h o m e s c h o o l i n g and sc h o o l i n g par ent s ? I t would appear t h a t h o m e s c h o o l i n g and s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s c a n s h a r e s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l s o p h i e s . C e r t a i n l y n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s , M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s and t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s do s h a r e t h e l i b e r a l b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d i n f a c t o r a r r a y I. However, h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e t o ' i n f o r m a l ' e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s s u c h a s l e a r n i n g from r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r m i t t i n g c h i l d r e n some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . They a r e a l s o l e s s l i k e l y t o b e l i e v e t h a t 155 t e a c h e r s need s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e or t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by e x p e r t s . In g e n e r a l , t h e y f a v o u r i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h some c o n t r o l from t h e c h i l d and r e j e c t t h e r o l e o f e x p e r t s i n p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n , however, t h e y s h a r e many b e l i e f s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d and t h e b e s t methods t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n w i t h sc h o o I e r s. 3> Do t h e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s d i f f e r w i t h r e g a r d t o mean v a l u e s on a g en er a I l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n s t r umen t ? T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s i n t h e i r mean s c o r e s on t h e R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l Measure or i n t h e s c o r e s on t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l s u b s c a l e . However, h o m e s c h o o I e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y t o a t t r i b u t e c o n t r o l o v e r e v e n t s t o c h a n c e or p o w e r f u l o t h e r s t h a n were e i t h e r M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s or t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y t o a t t r i b u t e c o n t r o l o v e r e v e n t s t o chance- t h a n were- t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s . 4) Do t h e t h r e e d e c i s i o n g r o u p s d i f f e r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r mean s c o r e s on a measure s p e c i f i c t o c h i l d - r e a r i n g ? Yes. The h o m e s c h o o l e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and academic s u c c e s s were under t h e i r c o n t r o l t h a n were s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s . 156 5) I s t h e r e a c o r r e l a t i o n between g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c l o c u s o f c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s ? Yes. T h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l and b o t h t h e R o t t e r I--E S c a l e which was s c o r e d i n r e v e r s e s o h i g h s c o r e s i n d i c a t e i n t e r n a l i t y . (.38) and t h e L e v e n s o n I n t e r n a l S u b s c a l e (.34). T h e r e i s a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l s c a l e and t h e L e v e n s o n P o w e r f u l O t h e r s S u b s c a l e (-.23) and t h e L e v e n s o n Chance S u b s c a l e (-.38). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C h i I d r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e measure t h e same u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t u c t a s t h e more g e n e r a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o I s e a I e s . 6) A r e t h e r e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d by p a r e n t s w hich might e x p l a i n t h e i r s c h o o l i n g c h o i c e s ? N o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o I e r s r e j e c t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f s c h o o l a s an a p p r o p r i a t e * p l a c e t o I e a r n w h i l e C h r i s t i a n homeschoo I e r s r e * j e c t t h e s e c u l a r m a t e r i a l o f t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and what t h e y s e e t o be t h e a b d i c a t i o n o f a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g u i d i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t s e m p h a s i z e d ' r e s p e c t f o r t h e c h i l d ' which some saw as p e r m i t t i n g t h e c h i l d t o g u i d e h i s own l e a r n i n g and o t h e r s saw a s s e t t i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s and not ' t a l k i n g down' t o t h e c h i l d . Among t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s , p a r e n t s who had c o n s i d e r e d o p t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e r e g u l a r program were more l i k e l y t o have s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n or r e a d about c h i l d d evelopment d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d ' s p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . P a r e n t who were ' c h o o s e r s ' i n t h a t s e n s e , were more l i k e l y t o f a v o u r v i e w s e x p r e s s e d on f a c t o r a r r a y s I and I I I . P a r e n t s f a v o u r i n g f a c t o r a r r a y IV were l e s s l i k e l y t o have r e a d w i d e l y about c h i l d d e velopment and l e s s l i k e l y t o h a v e s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n about e d u c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , two o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g but u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g s were e n c o u n t e r e d . T h e r e were f o u r f a c t o r a r r a y s g e n e r a t e d . F a c t o r a r r a y I was a l i b e r a l , c h i l d - c e n t r e d s e t o f b e l i e f s w hich s u p p o r t e d g o a l s s u c h a s t h e c h i l d g u i d i n g h i s own l e a r n i n g . F a c t o r a r r a y I I f o c u s e d on l i b e r a l m e t h o d o l o g y and but h e l d c o n s e r v a t i v e g o a l s and b e l i e v e d t h a t a d u l t s u l t i m a t e l y g u i d e c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g . F a c t o r a r r a y I I I f o c u s e d on m o d erate t e a c h i n g methods and g o a l s b u t , l i k e f a c t o r array II d o u b t e d t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o g u i d e h i s e d u c a t i o n . F a c t o r a r r a y IV was l i b e r a l i n i t s s o c i a l a c t i v i s m and i n t e r e s t i n t h e a f f e e t i v e g o a I s o f e d u c a t i o n , but c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s v i e w o f t h e c h i l d as a b l e t o g u i d e h i s own l e a r n i n g . I t seemed i n e x a m i n i n g t h e f a c t o r a r r a y s t h a t l i b e r a l i s m , m o d e r a t i o n or c o n s e r v a t i v i s m were n o t , f o r t h i s sample, 158 n e c e s s a r i l y c o h e r a n t b e l i e f s y s t e m s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s may be l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d but t h a t t h i s does not mean t h e y w i l l be s i m i l a r l y l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e about o t h e r a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n s u c h a s t h e b e s t methods t o u s e . V i e ws on e d u c a t i o n may be c o h e r e n t w i t h o u t b e i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . The g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n may be* seen- f o r example t o l i e w i t h i n t h e c h i l d or w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r community. T h e s e g o a l s , i n t u r n , may be l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e . F a c t o r a r r a y s I and I I I b o t h f a v o u r e d ' i n w a r d ' g o a l s f o r e d u c a t i o n , however, f a c t o r a r r a y I f o c u s e d on g o a l s l e a d i n g t o what c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s ' s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' w h i l e f a c t o r a r r a y I I I f o c u s e d on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge by t h e c h i l d . F a c t o r a r r a y s I.I and IV b o t h n o t e d e x t e r n a l ' s o c i a l ' g o a l s , however, f o r t h e former i t was t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e goal o f c r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n who would be 'good c i t i z e n s ' w h i l e f o r t h e l a t t e r i t was t h e l i b e r a l g o a l o f c r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n who would ' i mpr ove soc i e t y'. One o f t h e most awkward p a r t s o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e c o m b i n i n g o f n o r m a t i v e p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d measures? s u c h a s l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA o f the* r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e d i f f e n t g r o u p s w i t h t h e Q - s o r t f a c t o r a r r a y , w hich p r o d u c e d s e t s o f b e l i e f s . F o r example, t h e r a n k i n g s o f t h e i t e m s on t h e f a c t o r a r r a y a l l o w f o r t h e w e i g h t i n g o f i t e m s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l o a d i n g o f each i n d i v i d u a l on t h e f a c t o r . The ANOVA o f r e s p o n s e s w e i g h t s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s e s s e p e r a t e l y . Thus i n one i n s t a n c e we a r e t a l k i n g about a c e n t r a l h y p o t h e t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and i n a n o t h e r about t h e s c o r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s . The a p p r o a c h , which was t o d i s c u s s t h e f a c t o r a r r a y , and p r o v i d e s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e from t h e ANOVA and t h e i n t e r v i e w s , was not i d e a l , but i t i s hoped, p r o v i d e d some en I :i. ghtenment. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e was some u n g a i n l i n e s s d i s c u s s i n g a t one t i m e , n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g c h o i c e s , a t a n o t h e r f a c t o r s , a t a n o t h e r d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h o s e n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g c h o i c e s . A g a i n , i t i s hoped t h a t d e s p i t e t h i s , a s e n s e o f t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p a r e n t s from v a r i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s can be d i s c e r n e d . Eiecause t h e s u b j e c t s were t o some d e g r e e s e l e c t e d and b e c a u s e t h e i t e m s were a r r a n g e d i n an a t t e m p t t o c o v e r t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s t h e r e c an be no r e a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s beyond t h i s sample. What c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d i s t h a t c e r t a i n b e l i e f s e t s e x i s t and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who have made d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l i n g c h o i c e s may s h a r e c e r t a i n i d e a l s and v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s t oward t h e i r c h i l d ' s s c h o o l i n g ? s i n c e t h e y a l l a t t e n d e d t h e same s c h o o l can o n l y r e f l e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l and ca n n o t speak even f o r o t h e r s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t . A c a s e can be made t h a t t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be made from t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures? however? a c o n f i r m a t o r y s t u d y u s i n g a random sample would be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn. It must be n o t e d however? t h a t s e v e r a l o f t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o I i n g p a r e n t s c o m p l a i n e d about t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures. I t seems t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n _.„i.taD_?_bai;^kl_g i s d i f f e r e n t e*nough from t h e m a i n s t r e a m view t h a t q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g them about t h e c o n t r o l o f f a t e ? c h a n c e or t h e i r own a c t i o n s i n t h e i r l i v e s h as an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t meaning t o them t h a n i t doe s t o l e s s r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e y make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i s b a s i c a l l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b I e i f one i s n ot a f e l l o w b e l i e v e r . The p r o b l e m o f s u b j e c t a c q u i s i t i o n and a t t r i t i o n p l a g u e s r e s e a r c h e r s and t h i s s t u d y was no e x c e p t i o n . The M o n t e s s o r i s u b j e c t s were e a s y t o f i n d and none d r o p p e d o u t . The h o m e s c h o o I e r s were w i l l i n g t o v o l u n t e e r ? however two d r o p p e d out b e c a u s e t h e y f o u n d t h e R o t t e r and t h e L e v e n s o n o f f e n s i v e ? one 161 m i s s o r t e d her Q - s o r t , and two o t h e r s d e c i d e d e v e n t u a l l y t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t have t h e t i m e . The t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were r e l i a b l e o n ce t h e y had v o l u n t e e r e d . One was r e j e c t e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e s u r v e y b e c a u s e she m e n t i o n e d s h e had t r i e d t o g e t her c h i l d i n t o t h e M o n t e s s o r i program. F i n d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t s who would p a r t i c i p a t e was more d i f f i c u l t t h a n f i n d i n g v o l u n t e e r s from e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s . A s e c o n d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s g r o u p o f p a r e n t s was t h a t many o f them, who had c h i l d r e n g o i n g i n t o g r a d e one t h i s y e a r (which i n c l u d e d a l a r g e number o f p a r e n t s who had o l d e r c h i l d r e n ) , had a p p l i e d t o put t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i program and t h u s were d i s q u a l i f i e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was u s u a l l y t h e s e p a r e n t s who were a n x i o u s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know i f t h e s e p a r e n t s were more s i m i l a r t o c l u s t e r I, c l u s t e r I I I or c l u s t e r IV p a r e n t s . B e c a u s e i t was d i f f i c u l t t o g e t ' r e g u l a r ' p a r e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e r e may be s o m e t h i n g u n i q u e about t h e v i e w s o f t h o s e who d i d - t h e y may h o l d b e t t e r d e f i n e d v i e w s , t h e y may be more sympathet i c t o ' s c i e n c e ' . An a r e a o f p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c i s m f o r t h i s s t u d y i s i n t h e makeup o f t h e Q-sort.- By d e f i n i n g c e r t a i n s t a n c e s a s l i b e r a l , m o d e r a t e or c o n s e r v a t i v e , one i s t r e a d i n g on s h a k y g r o u n d . However, t h e r e i s a p l e t h o r a o f t a x o n o m i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and a d i v i s i o n o f i t e m s , w h i l e no doubt a t t i m e s a r g u a b l e , c a n be d e f e n d e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t i s a t e n t a t i v e * d i v i s i o n and, h o p e f u l l y , h a s some h e u r i s t i c v a l u e . 1 I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e how c l o s e l y t h e b e l i e f s o f t e a c h e r s match t h o s e o f p a r e n t s . Do t e a c h e r s v a r y a l o n g t h e same ax e s ; t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d , t h e mandatory or o p t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e i n w a r d or o u t w a r d g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n ? K e r l i n g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t e x a m i n i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f b e l i e f s s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p r o g r a m s i s a t a s k welI s u i t e d t o Q--sort m e t h o d o l o g y . I t would a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see whether, a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s o f t h e new p r i m a r y program, a s s u m i n g i t i n d e e d i s implemented a s an f a m i l y g r o u p i n g s y s t e m w i t h a n o n - g r a d e d c u r r i c u l u m , t h e same f a c t o r s a p p ear and what t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a c t o r s would be. I t would a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t , a s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t o d i s c o v e r whether t h o s e p a r e n t s who t r i e d t o e n r o l l i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram a r e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , t o what d e g r e e t o p a r e n t b e l i e f s change s i m p l y by b e i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h a program s u c h a s M o n t e s s o r i ? Does h a v i n g i t i n t h e s c h o o l c r e a t e c l u s t e r I p a r e n t s ? Of c o u r s e t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s a s t o how g e n e r a I i s a b Ie t h e s e c l u s t e r s a r e and how w i d e s p r e a d or r e l a t i v e l y p o p u l a r t h e b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d on t h e f a c t o r a r r a y a r e . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e d e g r e e t o which a 'match* between p a r e n t b e l i e f s and t h e s t a t e d p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e s c h o o l c r e a t e s p a r e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . 163 Summary It would seem from t h i s s t u d y t h a t t r u e n o n - a l i g n e d h o m e s c h o o l e r s w i l l not be s a t i s f i e d w i t h s c h o o l i n g ? nor i s t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e w i s h e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n h o m e s c h o o l e r s w i t h o u t p r o v o k i n g t h e i r e o f s c h o o l e r s . I t d o e s seem? however? t h a t s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t s may be more s a t i s f i e d i f t h e y h a v e c h o i c e . P r e v i o u s l y ? i n D i s t r i c t #43? t h e need f o r c h o i c e was met by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f M o n t e s s o r i ? F r e n c h Immersion and t h e r e g u l a r program. S h o u l d t h e r e g u l a r program now ape M o n t e s s o r i ? one f a c e t o f c h o i c e w i l l d i s a p p e a r . C h o o s e r s a r e w e l l i n f o r m e d and a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and may be b e l l w e t h e r s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . C a r e f u l l y e x a m i n i n g p a r e n t b e l i e f s i n d e p t h -remembering t h a t t h e p a r e n t who b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c h i l d i s i n h e r e n t l y 'good' and w i l l s p o n t a n e o u s l y l e a r n i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m from t h e p a r e n t who b e l i e v e s t h a t c h i I d r e n . m u s t be ex p o s e d t o and e x p e c t e d t o master an academic c u r r i c u l u m - c o u l d l e a d t o t h e d e s i g n o f p r o g r a m s o f c h o i c e i n a manner which m i n i m i z e s t h e number o f p r o g r a m s but m a x i m i z e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r e n t a l c h o i c e . The s c h o o l s y s t e m can n e v e r s a t i s f y a l l p a r e n t s b ut i t can do a b e t t e r j o b i f i t know what p a r e n t s want. 163a BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham? M i c h a e l R. (1 9 8 2 ) . A D e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u m e n t For Use i n In v e s t i g a t :i. n g 9 c i e n c e L a b o r a t o ' r i e s . J o u r n a I o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g 19 (2) 155-165, Ad I er ? Mor t i trier J., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The P a i d e i a P r o p o s a l s An E d u c a t i o n a l M a n i f e s t o . New Yo r k : M a c M i l l a n . < 1 984) . I h e J _ _ M ^ S y l I a b u s . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n . Anderson? Howard N.? Madonna? S t e p h e n J r . ? B a i l e y ? G l e n d a K.? & Wesley? A n d r e a L. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . F u r t h e r C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e M u I t :i. d i m e n s i o n a I i t y a n d F" a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f t h e R o 11 e r L... o c u s o f Cont r o I Sc a l e . P s y c h o I ,oq i c a I Repor t s ? 60 ? 1059-1062. At ki n ? J a n e t B a s t i an i ? John w i t h Goode? J a c k i e (1.988). Schpo I Re I at i ons. Beckenham, Kent? G.B.s Croom Helm. Barman? J e a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) . 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P j _ t e r ^ ^ S c h o o l i n g s The C o q u i t l a m E x p e r i e n c e . (ERIC Document R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e No. ED 173 973). Common? Ron W. &: MacMul I en ? M a r i l y n (.1.986). Home S c h o o l i n g A Growing Move-ment» E d u c a t i on Canada 26 (2) 4-7. Col f a x , D a v i d & M i c k i (1988) . Home sc: h oo I i n q f o r E x c e l l e n c e . New York: Warner Books. 163b Cronbach. L. J . ( 1 9 5 3 ) . The C o r r e l a t i o n Between P e r s o n s as a R e s e a r c h T o o l . In H. 0. liowrer (Ed.)? Psyc hot her apy; T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h (pp. 376-388). New Y o r k . R o n a l d P r e s s . C uI I i n g f o r d Ced r i c ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Th e B a t t i e f o r t h e Sch o o I s s a11 i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s t o wards e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a I St u.d i e s 10, 2, 113-119. de Bruyn? R o b e r t L „ (1986).. R e l a t i n q t o P a r e n t s P r o f e s s i o n a I I y. Manhatten, K a n s a s . The M a s t e r T e a c h e r I n c . E r i c kson? Dona Id A„ ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r eI a t i on sh i p s i n p u b l i c and i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o o l s ; an i n t e r i m r e p o r t o f t h e "Base I i n e S u r v e y " , an a s p e c t o f COFIS; a s t u d y o f c o n s e q u e n c e s o f f u n d i n g i nd epend en t sc h o o I s • V a n c o u v e r , B.C.; Ed u c a t i o n a I R e s e £i r c h I n s t i t u t e o f B. C „ E r I a u t • G. Roy ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A S u r v e y o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n on S e l e c t e d E d u c a t i qna I Issue- i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 43? C iog iui it ij i i am. U n p u b I i s h e d m a s t e r s t h e s i s . S i m o n F" r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ? B u r n a b y ? B.C. F a n t i n i ? M a r i o D. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f C h o i c e . New Yor k; S i m o n a n d S h u s t e r . G a I e. j s ? I r ni a a n d P e a s e ? D a m a r i s (1986 ) . 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D e s e n o o I i n q S o c i e t y„ New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row. J o w e t t , B e n j a m i n ( t r a n s . ) ( 1 . 9 4 3 ) . T h e PoI i t i c s o f A r : i . s t o t I e. New Y o r k s R a n d o rn H o u s e . K e r l i n g e r ? F r e d N. ( 1 . 9 7 3 ) . F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o u r a l R e s e a r c h ( 2 n d e d . ) . New Y o r ks H o I t R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n . ( 1 9 8 4 ) L i b e r a I i sm a n d C o n s e r v a t i v i sm s The. Nj§t u r ^ ^ . H i l l s d a l e ? N . J . 5 E r I b a u m . K e r l i n g e r ? F r e d & K a y a ? E s i n ( 1 . 9 7 0 ) . T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d F a c t o r A n a l y t i c V a l i d a t i o n o f S c a l e s t o M e a s u r e A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d E d u c a t i o n . I n G e n e F. S u m m e r s ( E d . ) A t t :i. t u d e M e a s u r ement,? C h i c a g o ; R a n d M c N a l l y . K i I g o r e ? P e t e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) . P r o f i l e o f F a m i l i e s Who Home S c h o o l i n  M a i n e . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 2 9 5 2 8 0 ) . K r e n t e r ? L y a ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L o c u s o f C o n t r o l ? A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d E d u c a t i o n a n d T e a c h i n g B e h a v i o u r s S c a n d i n a v i a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l E^micjil 27, 1? 1-11. L a i ? C a l v i n ( 3 . 9 8 6 ) . UBC_i3Pi_3_Xi _ = _ L 3 j L i _ ^ ^ S c i e n c ej5...z...Ex t ^  C C o m p u t e r P r o g r a m M a n u a l "J. V a n c o u v e r B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . L e ? C h i n h ( 1 9 8 3 ) » F a c t o r A n a I y s i s IC o m p u t e r F:' r o g r a rn M a n u a l II V a n e o u v e r ? B.C.; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co I u m b i a C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . L e f c o u r t ? H e r b e r t M. ( E d . ) . (1981)„ R e s e a r c h w i t h t h e L o c u s o f C_2_J_r^ New Y o r k ; A c a d e m i c P r e s s . L e t ' s T a l k A b o u t S c h o o l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ? P r o v :i. n c e o f B r i t i s h C o Iumb i a . L e v e n s o n ? H a n n a ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t e r n a l i t y ? P o w e r f u l O t h e r s a n d C h a n c e . I n H e r b e r t M. L e f c o u r t ( E d . ) R__-sear,ch..^ Q o Q ^ ^ ( p p . 1 . 5 - 5 9 ) . New Y o r k s A c a d e m i c P r e s s . L i n e s ? P a t r i c i a M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Home I n s t r u c t i o n s A n O v e r v i e w . P o l i c y I s s u e s . A p p a l a c h i a E d u c a t i o n a l L a b o r a t o r y . (EIRIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 2 9 6 4 5 3 ) . 163d Ma hen, Bern i c e M a r i e & Ware?, Br en da J o y c e (.1987). Home Edy_.:§M and P u b l i c S c h o o l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s Toward t h e B e n e f i t s o f Home S c h o o l i n g . CERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e IMo. ED 286 624) . Marsh, H e r b e r t W. & R i c h a r d s G a r r y E. C1987). The Mul t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e R o t t e r I---E S c a l e and i t s H i g h e r - o r d e r St r uc t ur e: An Ap p I i c a t i on o f Con f i r mat or y Fac: t or An a I y s i s. M u l t i v a r i a t e B e h a v i o u r a l R e s e a r c h 22, 39-69. Mc I r t i s h , H. Thomas & Lee, Mei Van ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Mu I t i d i men s i on a I i t y o f R o t t e r ' s L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e . P s y c h o l o q i c a I Repor t 61 __ 273-274. M c M i l l a n , B a r b a r a D. (19 8 5 ) . Home E d u c a t i o n f o r G i f t e d C h i l d r e n , G/C/T/ 4 1 , 55-56. Mei ghan , Ro I and (1984a) ,. Home-Based and Educ a t :i. on Aut nor i t i e s s t h e a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n a m y t h o l o g y . Eld uc a t i on a I S t u d i e s 10. 3, 273-285. (1984b). 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Wade, T h e o d o r e E. & o t h e r s , ( 1 9 8 6 ) , The_JHc_^ P a r e n t s Who Te a c h T h e i r Own C h i l d r e n . Auburn, Ca I i f o r n i a s Gaz e I Ie Pub I i c a t i ons„ Waters, I. K., P o p o v i c h , P a u l a M., & M a r t e l l i , T h e r e s a A. (19 8 7 ) . C o n g r u e n t V a l i d i t y o f t h e P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S c a l e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s §J__ p. 314 „ W e i t z , John R., Rothbaum, F r e d M.?& B l a c k b u r n , Thomas C. (1984). S t a n d i n g Out and S t a n d i n g Ins The P s y c h o l o g y o f C o n t r o l i n A m e r i c a and J a p a n . A j r _ t r j _ _ a ^ ^ 19, ( 9 ) , 955-969. . W i l l i a m s , D a v i d D. et a l C1984). U | i d _ e r _ i t ^ ^ C ase Stuc_.es o f Home Sc h o o l s (ERIC Document R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e No. ED 244 392) W i l s o n , J . D o n a l d C1981), R e l i g i o n and E d u c a t i o n s The Oth e r S i d e o f P l u r a l i s m . In W i l s o n , J . D o n a l d CEd,)„ C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n , i n t h e 1980's, C a l g a r y : D e t s e I :i. g E n t e r p r i s e s . Y in? R o b e r t K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Case S t u d y R e s e a r c h s D e s i g n and Methods. B e v e r l e y Hi I Is? C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . 164 APPENDI X I CONTACTS WITH PARENTS PILOT SIGN UP SHEET I would be wi I l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t by c o m p l e t i n g t o b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , I u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e f o r c a l i b r a t i n g t h e t e s t s o n l y and a r e not p a r t o f t h e a c t u a l body o f r e s e a r c h . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and t h a t I am f r e e t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . Dear Thank you f o r a g r e e i n g t o h e l p me w i t h my ' p i l o t r u n ' o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . You w i l l r e c e i v e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ? t h e R o t t e r I n t e r n a I - E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l measure and my n e w l y - d e s i g n e d measure? t h e C h i l d - R e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l Measure. You w i l l be r e c e i v i n g t h e f i r s t o f t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o d a y ? and t h e s e c o n d i n about one week's t i m e . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d w i l l be u s e d t o h e l p w i t h t h e d e s i g n and f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e " C h i l d - R e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l " q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Your r e s p o n s e s w i l l r e m a i n e n t i r e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l ? w i l l not be i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n any manner and wiI I be u s e d s o l e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e s i g n i n g and i m p r o v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . B o th t e s t s wiI I have t h e same number on them. Your name wiI I be a t t a c h e d on a r e m o v a b l e t a g . P l e a s e remove t h e t a g w i t h your name on i t b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t h e s h e e t . The s i g n — u p l i s t s wiI I be d e s t r o y e d when t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been s e n t out and r e t u r n e d and no l i s t o f names or r e c o r d o f which p e r s o n answered which q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be k e p t . I t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o s i g n a c o n s e n t form a s c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be ' c o n s e n t ' . Thank you v e r y much f o r your h e l p w i t h t h i s p a r t o f my p r o j e c t . S i n c e r e I y ? H e a t h e r W i n g e r t . 166 29 May 1989 Dear A t t a c h e d you wiI I f i n d t h e s e c o n d o f t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o be f i l l e d o u t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the__same_gerson f i l l s out b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Thank you a g a i n f o r v o l u n t e e r i n g a s s u b j e c t s . Y o u r s t r u I y , June, 1989 Dear The c o m m i t t e e o v e r s e e i n g my r e s e a r c h h a s r e q u e s t e d t h a t I c or r e l a t e my Ch i I d ~-r ear i n g Loc us o f Con t r o I measur e w i t h a se> w e l I - e s t a b I i s h e d measure. I would l i k e t o ask you, t h e r e f o r e c o m p l e t e t h i s t h i r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e (The L e v e n s o n I, P, and C S c a l e ) . T h i s s c a l e i s v e r y b r i e f and s h o u l d t a k e about f i v e m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . A g a i n , your r e s p o n s e s w i l l r e m a i n c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a r e t o be u s e d s o l e l y f o r t h e development o f t h e C h i l d - r e a r i n g L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e . I thank you v e r y much f o r your p a t i e n c e and a s s u r e you t h a t I a p p r e c i a t e your c o o p e r a t i o n a s i t wiI I s a v e me a s u b s t a n t i a l arnount o f t i m e and e f f o r t . S i n c e r e l y , H e a t h e r W i n g e r t . 168 HELP! I f you have a p r e s c h o o l c h i l d i n M o n t e s s o r i and no c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r i m a r y M o n t e s s o r i program, I would l i k e t o ask you t o v o l u n t e e r t o s o r t out about 100 s t a t e m e n t s about e d u c a t i o n t h i s weekend. T h i s i s f o r a p i l o t p r o j e c t f o r my M a s t e r ' s t h € * s i s . I t wiI I t a k e you about a ha I f an hour or s o and i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g t o do. I t i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y o f c o u r s e ( you c a n drop out i f you don't have t i m e or i t ' s b o r i n g ) and i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . T h a nks!!! H e a t h e r W i n g e r t ( J o s h ' s mom) PM c l a s s - S u z e t t e and K r i s t i n a ' s s i d e . 170 APPENDIX II RECRUITING 0Fr SUBJECTS SURVEY In c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Dr. R o b e r t C o n r y , Ph.D. o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I am c o n d u c t i n g o f s t u d y o f e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s o f p a r e n t s i n M o n t e s s o r i and R e g u l a r Progams and t h o s e o f homesc h o o I e r s. I f you a r e s 1) a p a r e n t w i t h a c h i l d a t H a r b o u r v i e w S c h o o l 2) have a c h i l d i n Grade 1, 2, or 3 I would l i k e t o t a l k t o you. T h i s would t a k e about 2 h o u r s o f your t i m e and I c o u l d come t o your home whenever i t i s c o n v e n i e n t w i t h you. A l l i n f or mat i on i s s t r i c t l y c on f i d ent i a I „ I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g or would l i k e more i n f o r m a t i o n , p l e a s e l e a v e your name and phone number below or t a k e a phone number and c a l I me f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n . Name A d d r e s s or I would be I would l i k e Phone Number w i l l i n g t o more i n f o r m a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e 171 19 A p r i I 1989 Dear I would v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e i t i f you c o u l d r u n t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t i c e i n your n e w s l e t t e r . I have s p o k e n t o C a r o l y n n e F i t z g e r a l d and she h a s g r a c i o u s l y a g r e e d t o p o s t some n o t i c e s a t t h e c I a s s r ooms. N o t i c e WANTED: MONTESSORI PARENTS AS RESEARCH SUBJECTS I am w r i t i n g by M.A. T h e s i s ( E d u c a t i o n a I P s y c h o l o g y ? U.B.C) on " C h o i c e s : Why P a r e n t s Choose E d u c a t i o n a l A l t e r n a t i v e s " and I hope t o i n t e r v i e w home s c h o o l e r s ? M o n t e s s o r i P a r e n t s and t r a d i t i o n a l ( r e g u l a r s c h o o l ) p a r e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s ? t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and a t t i t u d e s t oward t h e r o l e o f p a r e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n . I would r e q u i r e about 2 h o u r s o f your t i m e and would l i k e you t o answer a few b r i e f q u e s t i o n a i r e s ? i n d i c a t e your v i e w s on v a r i o u s s t a t e m e n t s about e d u c a t i o n and t e l l me why you c h o s e M o n t e s s o r i . Al I i n f o r m a t i o n wiI I be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and you wiI I be 1.75 i n t e r v i e w w i l l c o n s i s t o f . The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t h a t I'm l o o k i n g f o r h o m e s c h o o I e r s ? i t w i l l o n l y t a k e a c o u p l e o f h o u r s and b e c a u s e I r e a l i z e - t h e y a r e busy. I'm g o i n g t o t r y t o make s u r e i t wiI I be a s c o n v e n i e n t a s p o s s i b l e f o r them and t h a t i t ' s c o n f i d e n t i a l and t h e y can w i t h d r a w any t i m e . ( I ' d do h a n d s p r i n g s t o o , i f I t h o u g h t i t would g e t me v o l u n t e e r s ) . And, o f c o u r s e , how t o c o n t a c t me. Thank you a g a i n . S i n c e r e I y , Heat her (Wi nger t ) 180 how i t has i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i on. Thank you a g a i n f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . I hope y o u w i l l f i n d t h i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y i n which t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The next page i s a c o n s e n t form, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t you have r e a d t h i s , u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t , a r e aware t h a t you can w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e and t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n f i d e n t i a l and t h a t your c o n s e n t i s f r e e l y g i v e n . S i n c e r e I y , CONSENT FORM. P l e a s e s i g n t h i s c o p y and r e t u r n i t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and Q — s o r t c a r d s . P l e a s e keep t h e a t t a c h e d l e t t e r and t h e s e c o n d c o p y o f t h e c o n s e n t form f o r p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s . Thank you. I have a g r e e d t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e s t u d y "A C o m p a r i s o n E d u c a t i o n a l B e l i e f s o f P a r e n t s who Have Chosen Home S c h o o l i n g , t h e M o n t e s s o r i A l t e r n a t i v e P rogram and T r a d i t i o n a l Program i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s " . I have r e a d t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , am aware o f t h e g u a r a n t e e o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , what w i l l be r e q u i r e d o f me, and t h e amount o f my t i m e t h i s s t u d y wiI I t a k e . I am a l s o aware t h a t I aim f r e e t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . Name s Date; I have r e c e i v e d a co p y o f t h e c o n s e n t form and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s s t u d y (." A C o m p a r i s o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l B e l i e f s o f P a r e n t s Who Have Chosen Home S c h o o l i n g , t h e M o n t e s s o r i A l t e r n a t i v e and t h e T r a d i t i o n a l Program i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s " ) Name: Dat e: 181 INFORMATION SHEET GROUPS TRADITIONAL SCHOOLING RESPONDANT #s P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e answers Number o f c h i l d r e n : 1 2 3 4 more t h a n 4 My c h i l d r e n have a t t e n d e d t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l f o r : 1 2 3 4 more t h a n 4 y e a r s I i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e r e g u l a r program i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l i n t h e f a l I : y e s no I was aware o f t h e M o n t e s s o r i a l t e r n a t i v e program i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l . y e s no I t r i e d t o r e g i s t e r my c h i l d / c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i program but was unabIe t o . y e s no I have? or have had? c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram at t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . y e s no I have 'home s c h o o l e d ' my c h i l d r e n ( i e . t a u g h t them a t home i n s t e a d o f s e n d i n g them t o p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s c h o o l . ) y e s no I f you a l s o have? or have had? c h i l d r e n i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram or have h o m e s c h o o l e d your c h i l d ? c o u l d you s t a t e b r i e f l y your r e a s o n s ( e g . o t h e r c h i l d had f r i e n d s i n t h e M o n t e s s o r i program: l i v e d i n i s o l a t e d a r e a ? no s c h o o l s n e a r b y ) I have been a p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r : y e s no I have t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s : y e s no 1.82 INFORMATION SHEET GROUPS HOMESCHOOLERS RESPONDANT #s P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e - answers Number o f c h i l d r e n : 1 2 3 4 more t h a n 4 Ages o f c h i l d r e n : I have been h o m e s c h o o I i n g f o r : l e s s t h a n 1 1/2 y e a r s ( s t a r t e d a f t e r J a n . 1988) : more t h a n 1 1/2. y e a r s ( s t a r t e d b e f o r e J a n . 1988) I i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e h o m e s c h o o I i n g i n t h e f a l l : y e s no I have c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l : y e s no I f y e s , c o u l d you s t a t e b r i e f l y your r e a s o n s ( e g . h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t ) I have been a p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r : yc^s no I have t a u g h t i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s : y e s no A COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL B E L I E F S OF PARENTS WHO HAVE CHOSEN TO HOME SCHOOLING, THE MONTESSORI ALTERNATIVE AND THE TRADITIONAL PROGRAM IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 1 Dear E n c l o s e d p l e a s e f i n d t h e c a r d s w h i c h I would l i k e you t o s o r t . You may n o t i c e t h a t t h e s e a r e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e you s o r t e d a few weeks ago. T h i s i s b e c a u s e i t i s u s e f u l t o have p e o p l e do i t t w i c e . That way, we can make s u r e t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e c l e a r enough and a r e not vague or ambiguous. T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d mean b a s i c a l l y t h e same t h i n g t o d a y a s t h e y d i d two or t h r e e weeks ago and t h e b e s t way f o r us t o f i n d out i s t o ask you t o do i t a g a i n . P l e a s e s o r t them and put them i n t h e e n v e l o p e s w h i c h you wiI I f i n d h e r e i n . Each e n v e l o p e has a number from i -10. As you wi I I remember, e n v e l o p e 1 i s f o r t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a r e __________ your own p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n and e n v e l o p e 10 i s f o r t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s most_l_i_ke_.your own p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n . U n d e r n e a t h t h e s e numbers a r e t h e words "3 c a r d s " or "17 c a r d s " which d e s c r i b e s t h e number o f c a r d s you can p l a c e i n each c a t e g o r y . 1) S o r t t h e c a r d s 2) P l a c e them i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s m a l l e n v e l o p e and s e a l e ach enveI ope 3) P l a c e a l l t h e s e a l e d e n v e l o p e s i n t o t h e l a r g e brown enveI ope I wiI I p i c k up t h e e n v e l o p e tomorrow i n t h e a g r e e d f a s h i o n . Thank you a g a i n f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e r e Iy, H e a t h e r W i n g e r t . 187 APPENDIX IV INSTRUMENTS INTERVIEW The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s I would have been a s k i n g you i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w . I f you c o u l d w r i t e your a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s and r e t u r n them t o me* I wiI I be a b l e t o ' f o l low-up' by phone any a n s w e r s w h i c h I would l i k e t o p u r s u e . P l e a s e use e x t r a paper i f n e c e s s a r y . As you know. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n why p e o p l e choose, or don't c h o o s e , a l t e r n a t e forms o f e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , I would l i k e t o ask you about y o u r s e l f and your own e d u c a t i o n . HS #1 Ages 19-25 26-30 31-35 35-40 41 + 1. Where ( i n what c o u n t r y or p r o v i n c e ) d i d you r e c e i v e most o f your ed uc a t i on? 2. C o u l d you d e s c r i b e your e d u c a t i o n s ( p r i v a t e v s . p u b l i c , r u r a l v s . u r b a n , g r a d e s a t t e n d e d e t c . ) 3„Did you e n j o y your s c h o o l i n g ? Do any e v e n t s or p a r t s o f your s c h o o l i n g s t a n d out a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y p l e a s a n t ? Do any e v e n t s or p a r t s s t a n d out a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y u n p l e a s a n t ? ( P l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y ) 4.Do you f e e l your own e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s (or t h o s e o f p e o p l e c l o s e t o you) a f f e c t e d your d e c i s i o n t o home s c h o o l your c h i I d ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e . 5. When you were g r o w i n g up, d i d you know anyone who was t a u g h t a t home? I f s o , how d i d t h i s a f f e c t your d e c i s i o n t o h o m e s c h o o l . Now I'd l i k e t o t a l k about your a d u l t l i f e and your e x p e r i e n c e s a s a p a r e n t . 6. When your c h i l d r e n were y o u n g e r , d i d you c o n s u l t books on c h i l d - r e a r i n g - s u c h a s Dr. Spock, B u r t o n White, James Dobson, books on d i s c i p l i n e or c o m m u n i c a t i n g ( s u c h a s P.E.T. or S.T.E.P.), b o o k s on c r a f t s and t h i n g s t o do w i t h c h i l d r e n ( s u c h 188 a s The M o t h e r ' s Almanac.) or books on c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t ( s u c h a s t h e s e r i e s Your Two Year O l d , Your T h r e e Year O l d e t c . ) ? I f so , c o u l d you g i v e me an example o f t h e typ.es o f books you r e a d and ( i f you remember) which books or a u t h o r s made t h e most i m p r e s s i o n on you. 7. D i d you r e a d much about e d u c a t i o n or e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s b e f o r e you began t o h o m e - s c h o o l ? ( f o r example, John H o l t , Raymond Moore, M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i or b o o k s about h e r , e t c . ) I f so, which o n e s made t h e g r e a t e s t i m p r e s s i o n on you. 8. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about your c h i l d w h i c h prompted you t o hornesc h o o I ? ( f o r example, u n u s u a l l y b r i g h t , v e r y shy, l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d e t c . ) 9. Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g about t h e l o c a l s c h o o l or s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t prompted you t o h o m e s c h o o l . ? 10. C o u l d you d e s c r i b e t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o your d e c i s i o n t o h o m e s c h o o l ? Was i t a d e c i s i o n w h i c h ' e v o l v e d ' ? Was i t i n r e a c t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t ? Were you p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s u e e s s e s o f o t h e r h o m e s c h o o l e r s , by books e t c . Now I would l i k e t o ask you about your e x p e r i e n c e s a s a ho m e s c h o o I e r . 11. What do you t h i n k a r e t h e g r e a t e s t b e n i f i t o f h o m e s c h o o l i n g ? What a r e t h e b i g g e s t h e a d a c h e s ? 12. Do you f e e l t h a t h o m e s c h o o I i n g i s a p r a c t i c e t h a t most p a r e n t s c o u l d u n d e r t a k e ? What q u a l i t i e s do you need t o be a h o m e s c h o o l i n g p a r e n t ? 13. Do you f e e l t h a t homeschoo I i ng i s a p r a c t i c e ' t h a t would be b e n i f i c i a l t o most c h i l d r e n . What q u a l i t i e s does a c h i l d need t o s u i t him t o h o m e s c h o o l i n g ? • 14. Do you f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a r i s k t h a t h o m e s c h o o l i n g may be f o r b i d d e n or t h a t t h e r i g h t t o homeschool may be l i m i t e d by t h i s or f u t u r e government a u t h o r i t i e s ? 15. How happy a r e you w i t h h o m e s c h o o I i n g a s a way o f e d u c a t i n g your c h i I d r e n . E x t r e m e l y happy E x t r e m e l y unhappy Somewhat happy Somewhat unhappy S l i g h t l y happy S l i g h t l y unhappy 16. Why do you t h i n k o t h e r p a r e n t s would p r e f e r t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e r e g u l a r ( t r a d i t i o n a l program) or t o a M o n t e s s o r i 189 program i n t h e p u b l i c schools'? (eg. work o u t s i d e home, don't u n d e r s t a n d b e n e f i t s , l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n t e a c h i n g a b i l i t i e s , a r e n ' t i n t e r e s t e d enough i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ) 17. Do you p l a n t o s e n d your c h i l d r e n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h e f u t u r e ? Under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 18. Comparing M o n t e s s o r i and t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram t o h o m e s c h o o I i n g , i f h o m e s c h o o I i n g i s a 10, how would you r a t e M o n t e s s o r i or t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 10. 19. The government i s i n t r o d u c i n g a new p r i m a r y program f e a t u r i n g , f o r example u n g r a d e d p r i m a r y c l a s s e s and o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s . Do you t h i n k t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s would make p u b l i c sc h oo I mor e a t t r ac t i ve t o some homese hoo I er s ? 20. A t t a c h e d i s a c o p y o f F a c t o r 1's ' i d e a l s o r t ' . T h i s r a n k i n g o f s t a t e m e n t s was c r e a t e d by m a t h e m a t i c a l l y g i v i n g each p e r s o n i n t h a t f a c t o r a ' w e i g h t ' i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r 'importance-' and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s f o r t h a t g r o u p . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e o p l e might c o u n t a s two people-, v e r y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e o p l e might c o u n t a s ha I f a p e r s o n . P l e a s e l o o k o v e r t h a t l i s t o f i t e m s and make any comments r e g a r d i n g how a c c u r a t e l y you f e e l t h a t r e p r e s e n t s your v i e w s . Keep t h e l i s t a s I may have s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s when I phone you. A f t e r t a l k i n g t o you on t h e phone, your r o l e a s a s u b j e c t w i l l be c o m p l e t e . I wiI I be s e n d i n g a I I s u b j e c t s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . So f a r , i t l o o k s a s i f t h e y wiI I be q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . Thank you. 130 INTERVIEW The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s I would have been a s k i n g y o u i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w . I f you c o u l d w r i t e your a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s and r e t u r n them t o me, I w i l l be a b l e t o ' f o l l o w - u p ' by phone any answers which I would l i k e t o p u r s u e . P l e a s e u s e e x t r a paper i f n e c e s s a r y . As y ou know» I am i n t e r e s t e d i n why p e o p l e choose? or don't choose? a l t e r n a t e forms o f e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t ? I would l i k e t o ask you about y o u r s e l f and your own e d u c a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l #i Ages 13-25 2G-30 31-35 35-40 41+ 1. Where ( i n what c o u n t r y or p r o v i n c e ) d i d you r e c e i v e most o f your e d u c a t i o n ? 2 . C o u l d you d e s c r i b e your e d u c a t i o n : ( p r i v a t e v s . p u b l i c ? r u r a l v s . urban? g r a d e s a t t e n d e d e t c . ) 3.Did you e n j o y your s c h o o l i n g ? Do any e v e n t s or p a r t s o f your s c h o o l i n g s t a n d out a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y p l e a s a n t ? Do any e v e n t s or p a r t s s t a n d o ut a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y u n p l e a s a n t ? ( P l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y ) 4.Do you f e e l your own e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s (or t h o s e o f p e o p l e c l o s e t o you) a f f e c t e d your d e c i s i o n t o c h o o s e a a r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n f o r your c h i l d r a t h e r t h a n c h o o s e an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f e d u c a t i o n . PI e a s e d e s c r i be. 5. When you were g r o w i n g up? d i d you know anyone who s e n t t h e i r c h i l d t o an a l t er nat e sc h ooI .? I f so? how d i d t h i s a f f e c t your d e c i s i o n ? Now I'd l i k e t o t a l k about your a d u l t l i f e and your e x p e r i e n c e s a s a p a r e n t . 6. When your c h i l d r e n were younger? d i d you c o n s u l t b o o k s on c h i I d - r e a r i n g - sue h as Dr. Sp oc k ? Bur t on White? James Dob son ? books on d i s c i p l i n e or c o m m u n i c a t i n g ( s u c h a s P.E.T. or S.T.E.P.)? books on c r a f t s and t h i n g s t o do w i t h c h i l d r e n ( s u c h 191 a s The M o t h e r ' s Almanac) or books on c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t ( s u c h a s t h e s e r i e s Your Two Year O l d , Your T h r e e Year O l d e t c . ) ? I f so, c o u l d you g i v e me an example o f t h e t y f i e s o f books you r e a d and ( i f you remember) which books or a u t h o r s made t h e most i m p r e s s i o n on you. 7. D i d you r e a d much about e d u c a t i o n or e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s b e f o r e you made.your d e c i s i o n about how t o e d u c a t e your c h i l d . ( f o r example? John H o l t , Raymond Moore, M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i or books about h e r , e t c . ) I f s o , which ones made t h e g r e a t e s t i m p r e s s i o n on you. 8 . I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about your c h i l d w hich prompted you t o t o f e e l t h a t t h e r e g u l a r program was p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p rograms. ( f o r example, u n u s u a l l y b r i g h t , v e r y shy, l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d e t c . ) 9. Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g about t h e . I o c a I s c h o o l or s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t prompted you t o c h o o s e i t o v e r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s ? 10. C o u l d you d e s c r i b e t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o your d e c i s i o n t o send your c h i l d t o t h e r e g u l a r program? D i d you l o o k i n t o any o t h e r p r o g r a m s ? Now I would l i k e t o ask you about your e x p e r i e n c e s a s a M o n t e s s o r i p a r e n t . 11. What do you t h i n k a r e t h e g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s o f t h e r e g u l a r program? What a r e t h e b i g g e s t h e a d a c h e s or p r o b l e m s ? 12. Do you t h i n k t h e r e g u l a r program b e n e f i t s e v e r y c h i l d ? Does t h e s c h o o l ask a n y t h i n g o f p a r e n t s i n t h e way o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l •-- i n t e r m s o f r e q u e s t s f o r t i m e , c o o p e r a t i o n ? Do you t h i n k p a r e n t s g e t i n v o l v e d enough? I f n o t , why n o t ? 13. Do you t h i n k t h e r e a r e any s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s i c s a c h i l d n eeds t o b e n e f i t from t h e r e g u l a r p r o g ram.? A r e t h e r e any t h i n g s t h a t might make a c h i l d u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u b l i c s c h o l I program 14. Do you f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a r i s k t h a t t h i s or f u t u r e g o v ernments may s e v e r e l y c u t f u n d i n g t o s c h o o l s -•- p e r h a p s move t o a d r a s t i c a l l y new s y s t e m . Do you f e e l t h a t t h e r e g u l a r program'might change d r a m a t i c a l l y o v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s or do you t h i n k t h a t i t wiI I r e m a i n p r e t t y much a s i t i s i n t h e f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e ( e g . u n t i l your y o u n g e s t c h i l d l e a v e s t h e s y s t e m . ) I am i n t e r e s t e d i n how i n t e n s e l y people- s u p p o r t t h e i r c h o i c e i n s c h o o l i n g . I f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m were t o c hange dramatically» t o what d e g r e e would you s u p p o r t c h a n g e s you were i n f a v o u r o f or oppose t h o s e w i t h which you d i s a g r e e d . (eg. a t t e n d m e e t i n g s , r a i s e funds, s i g n p e t i t i o n s , speak w i t h your l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d , become i n v o l v e d w i t h an " a c t i o n " g r o u p or a p o l i t i c a l g r o u p . 15. How happy a r e you w i t h t h e r e g u l a r program a s a way o f e d u c a t i n g your c h i l d r e n . E x t r e m e l y happy E x t r e m e l y unhappy Somewhat happy Somewhat unhappy S l i g h t l y happy S l i g h t l y unhappy 16 Why do you t h i n k o t h e r p a r e n t s would p r e f e r t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e M o n t e s s o r i p r o g ram i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s or t o home s c h o o l them? 17. Do you p l a n t o s e n d your c h i l d r e n t o t h e M o n t e s s o r i program or