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Student teacher attitudes towards children of different grade levels as indicated by the Minnesota teacher.. Rollins, Colin 1972-12-31

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STUDENT TEACHER ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDREN. OF DIFFERENT GRADE LEVELS AS INDICATED B3T THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY by COLIN ROLLINS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 196l A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n t h e Department of Educational  We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  Psychology  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST,  1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s an advanced degree at  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  o f the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  available  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  for e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  for  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial  written  i s understood that copying or gain s h a l l  £h  U CATi  0 *JA I-  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada  a  t  e  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  D  not  ^  ^  ^  B  g  £  /^73.  publication  TSV^hitLOGy  ABSTRACT Many w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r i t " d e s i r a b l e " t h a t t e a c h e r s h o l d " d e m o c r a t i c " a t t i t u d e s towards those they t e a c h . number o f s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y (MTAI) may i n d i c a t o r of a respondent s T  pupils.  A  Minnesota  be used as an  " d e m o c r a t i c " a t t i t u d e s towards  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g the MTAI t o study  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s have shown t h a t groups o f s e c ondary  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean  s c o r e s than d i d groups of elementary T h i s f i n d i n g may  student teachers.  i n d i c a t e t h a t elementary  student t e a c h e r s  tend t o h o l d more " d e m o c r a t i c " a t t i t u d e s towards the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y than do secondary teachers.  student  Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d s e r v e as a b a s i s  f o r c r i t i c i s m o f the procedures whereby c a n d i d a t e s f o r secondary  t e a c h i n g are s e l e c t e d and  I n t h i s study, a r i v a l and t e s t e d . f i n d i n g may  trained.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  The w r i t e r proposed  that the  advanced  aforementioned  i n d i c a t e that student teachers g e n e r a l l y hold  d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t and grade l e v e l s .  age  I n an e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t o f t h i s  inter-  p r e t a t i o n , the w r i t e r examined the c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h r e e major p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1.  Secondary  student t e a c h e r s completing the MTAI  read such g e n e r a l words as " p u p i l " and  express  a t t i t u d e s which they c o n s i d e r t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s than, t o grade f o u r s t u d e n t s ; however, elementary  student  t e a c h e r s express a t t i t u d e s which they c o n s i d e r t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o grade f o u r s t u dents than t o grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . 2.  Secondary and elementary  student t e a c h e r s o b t a i n  h i g h e r s c o r e s when they respond  t o the MTAI  w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade f o u r s t u d e n t s than do when they respond  they  t o the MTAI w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . 3.  There i s no d i f f e r e n c e betweem the mean s c o r e s o f elementary  and secondary  when both groups respond  student  teachers  t o t h e MTAI w i t h  erence t o s t u d e n t s o f the same s p e c i f i e d level  ( e i t h e r grade f o u r o r grade  grade  eight).  Each o f 294 randomly s e l e c t e d elementary a r y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n a one-year graduate  ref-  and second-  transfer  program r e c e i v e d an I n v e n t o r y i n one o f t h r e e  forms:  the MTAI i n i t s standard form, the MTAI i n a form  requir-  i n g completion w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade f o u r s t u d e n t s o r the MTAI i n a form r e q u i r i n g completion w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . arranged  Scores o f 214 respondents  were  i n a 3^2x2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  three f i x e d f a c t o r s :  t h e "MTAI C o n d i t i o n " f o r t h e s u b j e c t  (3 f o r m s ) , "Sex" o f the s u b j e c t (2 forms) and " S p e c i a l t y "  iii o f the s u b j e c t  (elementary o r s e c o n d a r y ) .  Twenty-four s u b j e c t s who  elementary and t h i r t y - e i g h t  completed  secondary  the s t a n d a r d form o f the MTAI  i n d i c a t e d the grade l e v e l  ( e i t h e r f o u r o r e i g h t ) t o which  t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r responses t o a p p l y most a p p r o p r i a t ely.  T h e i r c h o i c e s were t a l l i e d  in* a 2 x 2 c o n t i n g e n c y  table. R e s u l t s o f a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s u p p o r t e d the proposition!.  first  That i s , secondary respondents tended to  c o n s i d e r t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s t o a p p l y more t o grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s than to grade f o u r s t u d e n t s , and  elem-  e n t a r y respondents tended t o r e v e r s e the o r d e r o f the grades.  R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and  comparisons tions.  multiple  d i d not support the second and t h i r d  proposi-  N e i t h e r elementary nor secondary s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d  i n t h e i r MTAI s c o r e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade f o u r grade e i g h t p u p i l s .  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  and  elementary  s u b j e c t s had h i g h e r s c o r e s than secondary s u b j e c t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o b o t h grade f o u r and grade e i g h t  pupils.  T h e s i s Committee Chairman?  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER  I  CHAPTER  II  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER  -IV  CHAPTER  V  CHAPTER  VI  1  REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  3  1. The P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e MTAI ...  3  2. The MTAI as an I n d i c a t o r o f "Democ r a t i c " A t t i t u d e s Towards Students ....  5  3. S t u d i e s o f A t t i t u d e s o f P r o s p e c t i v e and P r a c t i c i n g T e a c h e r s  8  4. Statement CHAPTER I I I  v i i  o f the Problem  12  RESEARCH HYPOTHESES  14  1. R a t i o n a l e F o r t h e Hypotheses  14  2. The R e s e a r c h Hypotheses  17  RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES  20  1. The D e s i g n  20  2. P r e - E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e s  23  3. S u b j e c t s and Sampling  24  4. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) o f t h e MTAI  27  5. Returns  30  6. S c o r i n g t h e Returns  33  7. Data A n a l y s i s  35  STATISTICAL RESULTS  38  DISCUSSION  47  1. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e s u l t s  47  2. L i m i t a t i o n s  51  V  PAGE 3. F u r t h e r Research  55  4* C o n c l u s i o n  58  REFERENCES  62  APPENDICES  68  A.  LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM  :  SEMINAR ADVISERS B. :;  LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM STUDENT TEACHERS  C.  72  LETTER THANKING STUDENT TEACHERS FOR THEIR RESPONSES  F.  71  LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR COLLECTING RETURNS  E.  70  LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR THEIR COOPERATIONS  D.  69  73  A REPORT TO PARTICIPANTS INI THE STUDY INVOLVING THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY  74  G.  NOTES ON STATISTICAL PROCEDURES  77  H.  TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS  I.  82  FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF 214 MEAN DEVIATION! SCORES GROUPED IN CLASS INTERVALS OF TEN  J.  86  MODIFICATIONS TO THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY FOR EACH OF THE THREE CONDITIONS  67  vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1  RETURNS  31  2  NUMBER OF SUBJECTS AND INVENTORY MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS  3  SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR INVENTORY SCORES  4  41  HONFERROM t-STATISTICS FOR SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS:  5  39  oC = .05  42  NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SUBJECTS INDICATING GRADE OF PUPILS TO WHOM THEIR RESPONSES APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY: MTAI (STANDARD);  6  45  ODD-EVEN RELIABILITY* FOR EACH OF THE SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION! GROUPS AND FOR EACH OF THE THREE FORMS OF THE MTAI  46  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish t o acknowledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e I have r e c e i v e d from D r . J.R. M i t c h e l l  and a l l  A d v i s e r s o f r e g u l a r E d u c a t i o n 497 and 499 Seminars:  through t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n , t h e  d a t a o f t h i s study were  collected.  F o r t h e guidance g i v e n t o me d u r i n g study,  I am g r a t e f u l  this  t o members o f my committee:  Dr. W i l s o n E . Schwann,. Chairman; Dr. Robert F. Conry; Dr. S.F. F o s t e r ; and Dr. Bi.C. Munro. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my w i f e , Maxine, f o r h e r c o n t i n u a l h e l p and encouragement.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In  t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e term  "attitude"  i s used t o mean a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o respond  im a part-  i c u l a r way toward  a specified  class of objects  Hovland, McGuire,, Abelson and Brehm,  I960,  (Rosenberg,  p. 1)  G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n s t a t e "The importance  o f under-  s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s would c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f y any  (1963,, p. 522).  e f f o r t s t o make t h e MTAI more m e a n i n g f u l " The  r o l e s o f many t e a c h e r s may be changed by advances i m  educational technology. mechanical  Relieved of the f u n c t i o n s o f  i n s t r u c t i o n , a t e a c h e r may be r e q u i r e d t o make  a "... more s k i l l f u l use o f t h e human f a c t o r i n t h e development o f h i s p u p i l s "  (Laycock, 1971,  p. 177).  There  i s i n c r e a s i n g evidence t o s u p p o r t t h e view t h a t t h e a t t i tudes o f t e a c h e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s (Yee and F r u c h t e r , 1971,  p. 131).  So i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i m  t h e f u t u r e c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s may be c o n s i d e r e d important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r prospective teachers.  Many e d u c a t o r s  and w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t c h i l d r e n have teachers  w i t h " d e m o c r a t i c " r a t h e r than " a u t h o r i t a r i a n "  tudes  (McGee, 1955;  1963;  Hlume, 1964;  1971;  Alcock,  C o l e , 1959; Vogt,  1971).  1968;  Grand, 1959; S c a r r , 1970;  The MTAI appears  atti-  Remmers, Burbidge,  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  respondents w i t h " a u t h o r i t a r i a n " a t t i t u d e s from those w i t h "democratic"  attitudes.  2 Researchers  have found  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be-  tween t h e MTAI mean s c o r e s o f v a r i o u s groups o f p r o s p e c t i v e and  p r a c t i c i n g teachers.  Over t h e course o f twenty y e a r s ,  s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t e a c h e r s and student  teachers of  the secondary s p e c i a l t y tend t o o b t a i n lower s c o r e s do t e a c h e r s and student ialty;  t e a c h e r s o f t h e elementary  than spec-  n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e may be no warrant f o r t h e i n -  f e r e n c e t h a t elementary s p e c i a l i s t s tend t o have more "democratic"  a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n than do second-  ary s p e c i a l i s t s .  U n t i l r e s e a r c h e r s a r e a b l e t o account  f o r t h e elementary-secondary d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e MTAI, t h i s i n v e n t o r y should n o t be used as a " s c r e e n i n g " d e v i c e . Although  many have s p e c u l a t e d on t h e meaning o f t h e  " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e , few have advanced e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t a b l e hypotheses t o account f o r i t .  The p r e s e n t  study  was an attempt t o examine e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a p l a u s i b l e explanation f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e often  found  between t h e MTAI mean s c o r e s o f groups o f secondary and elementary s t u d e n t  teachers.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1.  THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MTAI  The MTAI was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e purpose "...  o f measuring  those a t t i t u d e s o f a t e a c h e r which p r e d i c t how w e l l  he w i l l g e t a l o n g w i t h p u p i l s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l ships;; and i n d i r e c t l y how w e l l s a t i s f i e d  relation-  he w i l l be w i t h  t e a c h i n g as a v o c a t i o n " (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , p. 3).  I t c o n s i s t s o f 150 statements  format, so t h a t a respondent  1952,  i n a Likert Scale  can s t r o n g l y agree,  agree,  be undecided,, d i s a g r e e o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . - The I n v e n t o r y was e m p i r i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between teachers c l a s s i f i e d  as " s u p e r i o r " o r " i n f e r i o r " on: t h e  b a s i s o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s r a t i n g s of. t h e i r a b i l i t y t o maintain) "harmonious r e l a t i o n s " i n : the classroom 1950,.. p. 7).  (Leeds,  The d e v i c e has been shown t o have h i g h  split-half reliability,  and some c o n c u r r e n t  validity  s t u d i e s w i t h t h e i n i t i a l and p u b l i s h e d forms o f t h e MTAI have y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s up t o  .63 (Leeds, 1950; Leeds,  1952; C a l l i s ,  R o c c h i o and Thompson, 1956). idation criteria  1953; Cook,, Kearney,  I n these s t u d i e s the v a l -  c o n s i s t e d o f r a t i n g s p r o v i d e d by groups  such as p r i n c i p a l s , expert o b s e r v e r s and s t u d e n t s .  In a  p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y study,, S t e i n and Hardy (1956) r e l a t e d MTAI s c o r e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t o r a t i n g s made d u r i n g  4 subsequent p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g .  The combined r a t i n g s o f  p u p i l s and u n i v e r s i t y a d v i s e r s when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the MTAI s c o r e s o f elementary and secondary student gave v a l i d i t y The  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .387 and .559 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  r e s u l t s o f c e r t a i n o t h e r v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s have  not been as encouraging. found  teachers  C h a p p e l l and C a l l i s  (1954)  t h a t MTAI s c o r e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o  criteria ratings i n a military training situation. study's  The  c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n i s d i f f e r e n t  from t e a c h i n g a d u l t s o l d i e r s . concluded  Sandgren and Schmidt  (1956)  from t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f -  i c a n t r e l a t i o n between MTAI s c o r e s and t h e r a t i n g s o f critic  teachers.  Other s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p between MTAI s c o r e s and t h e r a t i n g s o f supervisors  (Oelke, 1956; F u l l e r , 1951).  Yee (1967) found  o n l y a " s m a l l " r e l a t i o n s h i p between MTAI s c o r e s and p u p i l ratings  ( r = .17) and a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f MTAI s c o r e s t o  r a t i n g s o f p r i n c i p a l s which was o n l y "modest" ( r = .24). The  f o r e g o i n g f i n d i n g s suggest  that there are teaching  s i t u a t i o n s i n which v a r i o u s " r a t e r s " may n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t a t e a c h e r w i t h "democratic"  a t t i t u d e s has  "harmonious r e l a t i o n s " i n the classroom.  accomplished  Furthermore,  what i s good t e a c h i n g r a p p o r t i m the o p i n i o n o f some may be poor t e a c h i n g r a p p o r t i n t h e view o f o t h e r s and  Jackson,  and  a t t i t u d e s may be some f u n c t i o n o f classroom  ( c f . Getzels  1963,, p. 575). Because a t e a c h e r ' s  behavior atmos-  5 phere,. i t i s p r e c a r i o u s t o a c c e p t c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y as a substantiation of predictive v a l i d i t y . teachers e x h i b i t "democratic"  a t t i t u d e s on t h e MTAI and  c o n c u r r e n t l y a r e r a t e d as having i n p a r t i c u l a r classrooms  The f a c t t h a t  "harmonious r e l a t i o n s "  i s not a s u f f i c i e n t basis f o r  c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e same t e a c h e r s would e s t a b l i s h "harmoni o u s r e l a t i o n s " i n any classroom' o f s t u d e n t s .  Because  much o f the case f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e MTAI i s based on c o n c u r r e n t  comparisons o f t h e s c o r e s and r a t i n g s o f  i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s , t h e r e i s some doubt t h a t the Invent o r y can be used f o r i t s i n t e n d e d p r e d i c t i v e purposes (Cronbach, 2.  1953, p. 798). THE MTAI AS AN INDICATOR OF "DEMOCRATIC" ATTITUDES TOWARDS STUDENTS  Although designed  t h e MTAI's p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r i t s  purpose i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , i t may be used as; an  i n d i c a t o r o f a respondent's (Yee, and  a t t i t u d e s towards p u p i l s  1967, p. 1 5 8 ) . I n b u i l d i n g the MTAI, Cook, Leeds  C a l l i s assumed t h a t a t e a c h e r w i t h a h i g h s c o r e would  work w i t h h i s p u p i l s i n a "... s o c i a l atmosphere o f coo p e r a t i v e endeavor where i n d i v i d u a l s were p e r m i t t e d t h e freedom t o t h i n k , a c t and speak one's mind w i t h mutual r e s p e c t f o r t h e f e e l i n g s , r i g h t s and a b i l i t i e s o f o t h e r s " ( 1 9 5 1 , p . 3 ) . On the o t h e r hand, t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e MTAI assumed t h a t a t e a c h e r w i t h a low s c o r e would resemb l e t h e " a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y " d e s c r i b e d by Adorno  6 et  al  (1950).  F o l l o w i n g t h e i r f a c t o r a n a l y t i c study of the MTAI, Ferguson,  Brown and  Callis  (1954) concluded  t h a t i t meas-  u r e s a s i n g l e a t t i t u d e f a c t o r ; however, more methodolo g i c a l l y adequate f a c t o r a n a l y s e s by Horn and (1965) and Yee  Morrison  and F r u c h t e r (1971) r e v e a l e d t h a t the  MTAI does not measure a s i n g l e u n i t a r y t r a i t .  A  total  MTAI s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l l a r g e l y independent consistencies. I  F i v e major f a c t o r s have emerged.  has been l a b e l l e d  "Understanding  Agreement w i t h F a c t o r I I items suggests s u b o r d i n a t e p u p i l i n t e r e s t and  a "... d e s i r e t o  authoritarian  strict  teacher  Disagreement w i t h F a c t o r I I items  a view t h a t the p u p i l s ' i n t e r e s t s , m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s i s b a s i c to e f f e c t i v e situations.  F a c t o r I I I has been t i t l e d  versus  pupils".  i n c l i n a t i o n to a  s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d c u r r i c u l u m ! and  Factor  and democratic  a l o o f , h a r s h and a u t o c r a t i c i n d e a l i n g s w i t h  expectations".  response  reflects open  learning  "Punitive Intol-  erance Versus P e r m i s s i v e T o l e r a n c e f o r C h i l d  Misbehavior".  F a c t o r IV tends to d e s c r i b e "... an a t t i t u d e t h a t  concerns  f a c i l i t a t i n g p u p i l s ' i n t e r e s t s and achievement" e i t h e r " c o n t r o l l i n g " or " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " methods.  The  items i n  F a c t o r V express the view t h a t "... most c h i l d r e n p u p i l s a c q u i e s c e t o the t e a c h e r and (Yee and F r u c h t e r , 1971, (1965) employed responses i n education courses.  Yee  o f 305  and  imply t h a t they  pp. 121-128).  by  Horn and  c o l l e g e students  should"  Morrison enrolled  and F r u c h t e r (1971) used  re-  7 sponses about  o f 368 i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s w i t h an average o f  t e n years o f teaching experience.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s  between Horn and M o r r i s o n ' s and Yee and F r u c h t e r ' s r e s u l t s suggest t h a t f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f MTAI responses o f o t h e r samples o f p r o s p e c t i v e o r p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s "... w i l l not produce 1971,  r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t outcomes" (Yee and F r u c h t e r ,  p. 1 3 1 ) . Horn and M o r r i s o n (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t  t i o n s o f t h e i r f i v e major f a c t o r s f e l l manifold.  intercorrela-  into a positive  T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n has p e r m i t t e d M o r r i s o n  and Romoser t o w r i t e t h a t t h e t o t a l MTAI s c a l e i n v o l v e s a syndrome which c o u l d be l a b e l l e d ian"  "evidently  authoritar-  (1967, p. 5 8 ) . Some s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o r e g o i n g s t a t e -  ment may be found  i n the r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g  the MTAI and t h e F S c a l e . Coale and Copple  P i e r s (1955) and Sheldon,,  (1959) found t h a t "democratic"  person-  a l i t y types tend t o o b t a i n h i g h MTAI s c o r e s , w h i l e  "author-  i t a r i a n " p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s tend t o o b t a i n low MTAI s c o r e s ( G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n , 1963, p. 522). Researchers  who have found d i f f e r e n c e s between elemen-  t a r y and secondary  s u b j e c t s on t h e MTAI have made compar-  i s o n s o f s c o r e s based  on t h e t o t a l s c a l e o f t h e I n v e n t o r y .  Eecause t h e w r i t e r i s concerned w i t h such d i f f e r e n c e s , he too w i l l MTAI.  examine s c o r e s based  on t h e t o t a l s c a l e o f t h e  T h i s study was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t one p a r t i c u l a r  e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t e n found between mean  8 t o t a l MTAI s c o r e s of groups of elementary student teachers.  The  e x p l a n a t i o n was  and  secondary  developed  independ-  e n t l y o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s observed between t o t a l MTAI s c o r e s may f a c t o r s w i t h i m the Although  be d i f f e r e n c e s ons o n l y  scale.  the content o f the MTAI can be more p r e -  c i s e l y defined with d e s c r i p t i o n s of i t s separate r a t h e r than i t s t o t a l s c a l e , the p r e s e n t  t i o n of a t t i t u d e s which may and  factors  study assumes  t h a t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h MTAI t o t a l s c o r e s r e f l e c t a  ic"  certain  collec-  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "democrat-  t h a t r e l a t i v e l y low MTAI s c o r e s r e f l e c t a  t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s which may  be d e s c r i b e d as  collec-  "authoritarian".  Some w r i t e r s i n d e s c r i b i n g the a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d  by  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h MTAI s c o r e s have used such words as " f a v o r a b l e " and 1956;  " s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e " (Sandgren and  Walberg, 1 9 6 4 ) .  When such terms a r e used to des-  c r i b e " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e s on the MTAI, respondents  Schmidt,,  secondary  tend t o appear l e s s f i t t o t e a c h the young  than do elementary  respondents.  T h i s type of c o n c l u s i o n  would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f a i r i f i t c o u l d be demonstrated t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between MTAI mean s c o r e s of eleme n t a r y and  secondary  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the 3.  respondents Inventory.  STUDIES OF THE AND  were the r e s u l t s o f a  ATTITUDES OF  PROSPECTIVE  PRACTICING TEACHERS  U s i n g the MTAI, r e s e a r c h e r s have completed many  9  s t u d i e s o f the a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s and  student  teachers.  A number o f these s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n are g e n e r a l l y accompanied by  signif-  i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n the mean MTAI s c o r e s o f groups o f student teachers 1956;  Dunham, 1958;  Brim, 1966;  1950" "; Sandgren and  (Callis,  1  Cook, I 9 6 0 ; Munro, I 9 6 0 ;  Hoyt and  Thompson, 1967;  McEwin, 1968;  however, a c t u a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e by s i g n i f i c a n t decreases ginning teachers  Gewinner, 1967;  Muuss, 1 9 6 9 ) ;  o f t e n i s accompanied  i n the mean MTAI s c o r e s o f  ( C a l l i s , 1950;  Cook,, I 9 6 0 ; Rabinowitz  Schmidt,,  Day,, 1959;  Hoyt  and  and Rosenbauro,, I 9 6 0 ; Oana,,  Muuss, 1 9 6 9 ) .  u r i n g " t r u e change" and  be-  1965;  The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f meas-  o f a s c r i b i n g t h i s "change" t o the  i n f l u e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s prevent  one  from  forming  p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s about the "changes" o f MTAI s c o r e s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o r e g o i n g sentences 1963;  Cronbach and Furby,  (Campbell  1970); furthermore,  and "...  Stanley, our  c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s are such t h a t we would almost  never  c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the s t u d e n t ' s b e h a v i o r  causing  the t e a c h e r ' s " (Campbell  and  S t a n l e y , 1963,  p.  235).  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the events most p e r t i n e n t to  the  1. I n h i s study C a l l i s used an i n v e n t o r y which was a " s l i g h t e x t e n s i o n " of the one o r i g i n a l l y developed by Leeds. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the extended and o r i g i n a l i n v e n t o r i e s was .95 ( C a l l i s , 1950, p. 718). Of the 150 items i n the p u b l i s h e d MTAI, 129 were taken from Leeds' 1 6 4 item i n v e n t o r y and 21 from C a l l i s ' 239 item i n v e n t o r y (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1951, p. 1 3 ) .  10 rise or f a l l  o f a t e a c h e r ' s MTAI s c o r e i s h e r e x p e r i e n c e  w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s she t e a c h e s .  This consideration i s  encouraged by s t u d i e s which have i n d i c a t e d t h a t groups of  elementary  t e a c h e r s tend t o have h i g h e r MTAI mean s c o r e s  than do groups o f secondary Callis, It  t e a c h e r s (Cook, Leeds and  1952; S t e i n and Hardy, 1957; Hoyt and Cook, I 9 6 0 ) .  seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g young  c h i l d r e n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from  the experience o f teaching  adolescents. The d a t a o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s show t h a t t h e mean MTAI s c o r e s o f groups o f s t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g t o t e a c h element a r y grades  o f t e n exceed  those o b t a i n e d by groups o f  s t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g t o t e a c h secondary 239-item form  grades.  o f the Inventory, C a l l i s  Using the  studied beginning  j u n i o r s and g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r s i n t h e C o l l e g e o f Education! at  the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota.  He concluded  t h a t "...  there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n teacher-pupil a t t i tudes among s u b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r major c u r r i c u l u m and  ... these d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t i n about t h e same  magnitude a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g as at  t h e end o f i t ..." (1950,. p. 726). C a l l i s found  the MTAI mean s c o r e o f elementary h i g h e r than t h a t o f secondary  that  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s was  student t e a c h e r s .  Sangren and Schmidt (1956) s t u d i e d 393 s e n i o r s t u d ents a t a midwestern s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e MTAI, elementary,  On a f i r s t  secondary  academic  and  secondary  non-academic groups o b t a i n e d ,  mean s c o r e s o f 57, k5.8  and 37.2.  respectively,  The o r d e r o f group  means remained t h e same on a second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Inventory  following practice teaching.  were 6 5 . 8 , 53.1 and 4 8 . 8 .  The mean s c o r e s  The r e s e a r c h e r s d i d n o t comment  on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these Nbrmal s c h o o l s t u d e n t s  findings.  e n r o l l e d i n a one-year  course  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba were s t u d i e d by S t e i n and Hardy (1957).  They found  t h a t t h e MTAI " d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y " between s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f d i f f e r e n t "grade-levels".  The mean s c o r e o f the p r o s p e c t i v e elemen-  t a r y t e a c h e r s was g r e a t e r than t h a t o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e secondary  teachers.  Beamer and L e d b e t t e r of teachers enrolled State College.  (1957) examined t h e MTAI s c o r e s  i n e d u c a t i o n courses a t North  The mean s c o r e o f e i g h t y - s e v e n  s u b j e c t s was g r e a t e r than t h a t o f f i f t y - f o u r subjects.  Texas  elementary secondary  The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e  was n o t r e p o r t e d . A l o n g i t u d i n a l study by Hoyt and Cook (I960) i n d i c a t e d t h a t , from t h e i r f i r s t  to t h e i r l a s t years of p r o f e s s i o n a l  t r a i n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota, ent t e a c h e r s tended than d i d secondary experience,  elementary  stud-  t o have h i g h e r l e v e l s o f MTAI s c o r e s student t e a c h e r s .  both elementary  With t e a c h i n g  and secondary  teachers  tended  t o produce lower MTAI mean s c o r e s ; however, t h e elemen-  12 t a r y t e a c h e r s remained w i t h h i g h e r mean s c o r e s than d i d the secondary  teachers.  Hoyt and Cook summarized  their  f i n d i n g s o f twelve years o f study w i t h t h e MTAI:  elemen-  t a r y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t y p i c a l l y s c o r e 60 i n t h e i r  junior  y e a r and 80 i n t h e i r s e n i o r year; secondary  student  t e a c h e r s t y p i c a l l y s c o r e 45 i n t h e i r j u n i o r year and 65 i n t h e i r s e n i o r y e a r . Munro (I960) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e MTAI t o groups o f s t u d e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t programs i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. i n t e n d e d t o t e a c h t h e next y e a r . the mean s c o r e o f t h e elementary  A l l subjects  R e s u l t s showed t h a t group ( J u n i o r s ) was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t o f each o f t h e secondary groups ( T h i r d year s t u d e n t s , I n d u s t r i a l a r t s and Graduate  students  one-year-program-students).  McEwin (1968) used t h e MTAI i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l a t E a s t Texas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .  study  His data revealed a  p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t found by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . The MTAI mean s c o r e o f a group o f elementary  student  t e a c h e r s exceeded t h a t o f a group o f secondary t e a c h e r s on each o f 3 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s :  student  a t the b e g i n n i n g  o f t h e s p r i n g semester methods courses, a t the b e g i n n i n g o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and a f t e r 4.  completion  o f student t e a c h i n g .  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  On t h e b a s i s o f observed  differences s i m i l a r to  those d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g paragraphs,, Sandgren and  13 and  Schmidt concluded,  "Elementary  curriculum student  t e a c h e r s have more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l work and c h i l d r e n as expressed  by t h e i r MTAI s c o r e s  do s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s f o l l o w i n g o t h e r c u r r i c u l a " p. 579). Kearney and Rocchio  have suggested  e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s should b u i l d t h e i r  than  (1956,,  that teacher  curriculums  " w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o improvement on MTAI s c o r e s " (1956, p. 706). Acceptance  o f Sandgren's and Schmidt's c o n c l u s i o n  and Kearney's and R o c c h i o ' s  s u g g e s t i o n may l e a d a r e a d e r  t o s u s p e c t t h a t s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs f o r seconda r y t e a c h e r s a r e somehow l e s s adequate and more i n need o f r e v i s i o n than those f o r elementary  teachers.  At the  v e r y l e a s t , a r e a d e r may come t o b e l i e v e t h a t "... i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e area o f t e a c h e r s * a t t i t u d e s might be worthwhile  t o determine,  i f p o s s i b l e , t h e f a c t o r s i n our  s o c i e t y t h a t produce such d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s ..." as those t h a t have been observed of student teachers  between v a r i o u s groups  (Munro, I960).  Further investigation  may r e v e a l t h a t Sandgren and Schmidt's c o n c l u s i o n i s unwarranted  and t h a t Kearney and R o c c h i o ' s  suggestion  s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y w h i l e the MTAI remains i n i t s p r e s e n t form.  The problem o f examining  e x p l a n a t i o n o f why groups o f elementary  student  one p o s s i b l e teachers  u s u a l l y o b t a i n h i g h e r MTAI mean s c o r e s than do groups o f secondary study.  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i s t h e concern o f the p r e s e n t  CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 1.  RATIONALE FOR THE HYPOTHESES  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the MTAI may have some b e a r i n g uporo t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h problem. MTAI have w r i t t e n : g e n e r a l nature  authors  ventory  "Due t o p o s s i b l e ambiguity  o f some o f t h e items,  interpretations" The  The authors  of the and t h e  t h e r e may be v a r y i n g  (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s ,  c o n s i d e r i t an important  1951, p. 5 ) .  f a c t o r i m the I n -  t o have s u b j e c t s "... answer items a c c o r d i n g t o  t h e i r own u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f them" (1951, p. 5 ) . But, w i t h  r e f e r e n c e t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l measuring d e v i c e s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , G u i l f o r d has stated,, "When the i n s t r u c t i o n s  leave  too much t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e examinee, he i n v e n t s h i s own g o a l and h i s own t a s k and i f these d i f f e r among examinees, we have l o s t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  c o n d i t i o n s nec-  e s s a r y f o r m e a n i n g f u l s c o r e s " (1967, p. 277). A symbol's ;  c o n n o t a t i v e o r a f f e c t i v e meanings h e l d by two i n d i v i d u a l s cannot be m e a n i n g f u l l y  compared u n l e s s t h e d e n o t a t i v e  meaning o f t h e symbol i s s i m i l a r f o r both Of t h e 150 items  i m the MTAI, 113 c o n t a i n such g e n e r a l  words as " p u p i l " , " p u p i l s " , " c h i l d " , "young p e o p l e " .  individuals.  " c h i l d r e n " and  The d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t have been  observed  between t h e MTAI mean s c o r e s o f groups o f elementary and secondary student  t e a c h e r s may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t  responses  15 t h e s e groups make t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t  conceptions  o f the r e f e r e n t o f such g e n e r a l words as " p u p i l " .  Yee  and K r i e w a l l have claimed t h a t the MTAI "... remains the most p o p u l a r and  perhaps b e s t i n d i c a n t o f t e a c h e r ' s  tudes towards c h i l d r e n t h a t secondary  ..."  (1969, p. 11).  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s responding  atti-  I t i s possible t o the MTAI  do not have " c h i l d r e n " i n mind. I n h i s " D i c t i o n a r y o f Psychology", t h a t an a t t i t u d e i n v o l v e s "...  Drever s t a t e s  expectancy  ofa certain  k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e and r e a d i n e s s w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e response  (1956, p. 22).  ..."  A student t e a c h e r p r e p a r i n g  t o t e a c h a t c e r t a i n grade l e v e l s r e a s o n a b l y expects t h a t he w i l l have t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t those grade l e v e l s . It  i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t i f t h i s t e a c h e r were asked t o express  h i s a t t i t u d e s towards " p u p i l s " , he would make h i s  responses  w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the " p u p i l s " t h a t he expects t o t e a c h and/or has a l r e a d y taught d u r i n g h i s p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g sessions.  G e n e r a l l y , elementary  themselves  t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n from s i x t o t h i r t e e n , t h e  approximate age  student t e a c h e r s  a t which p u b e r t y and  adolescence  prepare  begin  (Sandstrom, 1969).  Almost a l l p u p i l s taught by t e a c h e r s  o f secondary  have e n t e r e d t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t  grades  stage  o f growth. The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f " c h i l d r e n " and " a d o l e s c e n t s "  have been d i s c u s s e d by many w r i t e r s . 1949;  Laycock,  1954; Crow and  ( J e r s i l d and  Tasch,  Crow, 1965; Coan, 1966; Sand-  16 strom, 1968; appears  Alexander, 1 9 6 9 t o name a few.)  There  ?  t o be widespread  hood, a d o l e s c e n c e  agreement t h a t , u n l i k e  child-  i s a stage o f development o f t e n char-  a c t e r i z e d by c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s and  conflict.  It is  the time o f " r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y a t home and school" may  ( J e r s i l d , 1968,  p. 15).  Because the a d o l e s c e n t  f i n d i t s a f e r to r e b e l against l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g  of a u t h o r i t y , he may p e r m i s s i v e and  sympathetic  p. 252).  are  Student  w e l l expect the b e h a v i o r o f a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s  and  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards these two  may  be d i f f e r e n t .  are  I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t the MTAI  o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s may  Cook, Leeds and  children,  classes of p u p i l s  v a r y as  different  r e f e r e n c e groups a r e evoked f o r such words as  cance  are  t h a n he i s w i t h those who  t o d i f f e r somewhat from t h a t of p u p i l s who  responses  symbols  be more h o s t i l e w i t h a d u l t s who  s e v e r e and o p p r e s s i v e (Alexander, 1969, t e a c h e r s may  at  "pupil".  C a l l i s a t t r i b u t e d no p a r t i c u l a r  signifi-  to t h e i r f i n d i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s o f grades one  to  t h r e e s c o r e d h i g h e s t w h i l e t e a c h e r s o f grades seven e i g h t s c o r e d l o w e s t on the MTAI (1951, p. 12). w r i t e r s u s p e c t s t h a t such f a c t s may  and  This  i n t i m a t e not o n l y  the nature of the a t t i t u d e s elementary  and  secondary  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s h o l d towards the p u p i l s they expect to t e a c h , but a l s o the n a t u r e o f the a t t i t u d i n a l elementary  and secondary  make i f they were asked  adjustments  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s would tend t o r e s p e c t i v e l y to consider "adoles-  c e n t s " and " c h i l d r e n " in. t h e i r responses  t o items o f t h e  MTAI. A study may h e l p t o determine or  n o t groups o f elementary  responding of  the f o l l o w i n g :  and secondary  student  whether teachers  t o t h e MTAI c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e groups  such words as " p u p i l " ; whether o r n o t groups o f elemen-  t a r y and secondary  student t e a c h e r s h o l d d i f f e r e n t  atti-  tudes towards " p u p i l s " o f a s p e c i f i e d age and grade whether o r n o t groups o f t h e same student t e a c h i n g ty  (elementary  o r secondary)  hold d i f f e r e n t  level; special-  attitudes  towards " p u p i l s " o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i e d age and grade l e v e l s ; and f i n a l l y ,  whether o r n o t s t u d e n t  teachers  g e n e r a l l y h o l d d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards " p u p i l s " o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i e d age and grade l e v e l s . 2.  THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES  I  Elementary  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s completing t h e  MTAI w i t h standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l h i g h e r meam s c o r e than do secondary t e a c h e r s completing instructions.  student  t h e MTAI w i t h s t a n d a r d  [The I n v e n t o r y w i t h  instructions w i l l  obtain a  standard  be r e f e r r e d t o as the "MTAI  (Standard)".] II  a  Secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s completing t h e MTAI with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l expressed to  consider t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y  grade e i g h t p u p i l s than; t o grade f o u r p u p i l s .  18 b  Elementary  student teachers completing the  MTAI with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l consider t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s to apply more approp r i a t e l y to grade four pupils than to grade eight p u p i l s . Ill  There w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers who complete the MTAI with i n s t r u c t i o n s to make a l l responses with r e f e r ence to grade four pupils (ages 9 to 11). JjThe Inventory with such i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the "MTAI (MOD 4)".]  IV  There w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between: the mean scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers who complete the MTAI with i n s t r u c t i o n s to make a l l responses with r e f e r ence to grade eight pupils (ages 13 to 15)JThe Inventory with such i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the "MTAI (MOD 8 ) " . )  V  Secondary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 4) w i l l obtain a higher mean score than w i l l secondary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 8 ) .  VI  Elementary  student teachers completing the MTAI  (MOD 4) w i l l obtain a higher mean score than w i l l elementary MTAI (MOD 8 ) .  student teachers completing the  19 VII  The mean s c o r e o f student t e a c h e r s and  secondary)  (elementary  completing t h e MTAI (MOD 4) w i l l  be h i g h e r than; t h e mean s c o r e o f student (elementary  and secondary)  completing  teachers  t h e MTAI  (MOD 8 ) . It of  i s expected  that the r e s u l t s of empirical t e s t s  these seven hypotheses  w i l l h e l p t o r e f u t e Sandgren  and Schmidt's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "Elementary  curriculum stud-  ent t e a c h e r s have more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l work and c h i l d r e n as expressed  by t h e MTAI s c o r e s than do  student teachers f o l l o w i n g other c u r r i c u l a "  (1956,  p. 6 7 9 ) .  CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 1.  THE DESIGN  A 3x2x2 f a c t o r i a l design: w i t h t h r e e f i x e d f a c t o r s and unequal  c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s was used  T a b l e Q., p.39). a.  i n < t h i s study  (see  The f i x e d f a c t o r s were as f o l l o w s :  Condition; F a c t o r .  The t h r e e l e v e l s o f t h i s  f a c t o r were t h r e e forms o f the MTAI: 1)  The f i r s t form  l e v e l was the MTAI i n i t s s t a n d a r d  JMTAI ( S t a n d a r d ) } .  Subjects  completing  t h i s I n v e n t o r y were r e q u i r e d t o make t h e i r responses  w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o such g e n e r a l  symbols as " p u p i l " , " p u p i l s " ,  "child",  " c h i l d r e n " and "young p e o p l e " .  To t h e bottom  o f the l a s t page o f the I n v e n t o r y was a t t a c h e d the statement,  " P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e grade  l e v e l o f the s t u d e n t s t o whom you c o n s i d e r your  expressed  Grade 4 CZI o r Grade 8 (Z3 ".  propriately: 2) The second  o p i n i o n s t o a p p l y more ap-  l e v e l was t h e I n v e n t o r y i n a  m o d i f i e d form  [MTAI (MOD 4)).  To t h e t o p o f  each page o f t h i s MTAI was a t t a c h e d t h e statement: statements  "Note:  Please consider a l l  t o be made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o  Grade 4 p u p i l s  (ages 9 t o 11)."  21 3) The  third  l e v e l of the c o n d i t i o n , f a c t o r  the I n v e n t o r y i n a m o d i f i e d form  [MTAI (MOD  To the top o f each page o f t h i s MTAI a t t a c h e d the statement: c o n s i d e r a l l statements  "Note:  proximate  8)").  was  Please  t o be made w i t h  r e f e r e n c e t o Grade 8 p u p i l s Grades f o u r and  was  (ages 13 t o 15)."  e i g h t were s e l e c t e d as  ap-  l e v e l s between: which c o n s i d e r a b l e  changes o f b e h a v i o r o f t e n o c c u r i n s t u d e n t s . Sandstrom c o n s i d e r s the way  of l i f e  of a ten-  y e a r - o l d c h i l d t o be n o r m a l l y harmonious and w e l l balanced and  t h a t the e l e v e n t h year i s an  uncommonly happy phase (1968, p. 220 and p. A c c o r d i n g t o Alexander,  the c h i l d ' s  and b e h a v i o r i m the middle  62).  activities  childhood period  u s u a l l y are more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d than i n e i t h e r the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d o r a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d s (1969, p. 159).  The  a d o l e s c e n t may  seek r e l e a s e  from the a d u l t c o n t r o l he a c c e p t e d i n h i s hood (Crow and  Crow, 1965,, p. 212).  independence, he suddenly may  child-  Seeking  become u n w i l l i n g  to a c c e p t a d u l t s as p r o t e c t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s (Laycock, 1954,  p. 33)•  He  even may  resent  a d u l t a s s i s t a n c e when i t i s o f f e r e d t o (Crow and Crow, 1965,  p. 8 ) .  him  Specialty Factor.  The  specialty categories  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study were as f o l l o w s : 1) Students  i n the "One-Year Programme  a r y ) f o r Graduates"  (The U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia Calendar, These s t u d e n t s h e l d f i r s t  1971/72, p. degrees  p r e p a r i n g to t e a c h secondary 2) Students  f i r s t degrees  grades  (3 t o 1 2 ) .  These s t u d e n t s h e l d  (4 t o 7) and  primary  (1 t o 3 ) .  Research  has i n d i c a t e d t h a t MTAI s c o r e s o f  student t e a c h e r s tend t o exceed  of i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . and  and were  and were p r e p a r i n g to t e a c h  i n t e r m e d i a t e grades  primary  158).  i n the One-Year Programme (Elemen-  t a r y ) f o r Graduates.  grades  (Second-  Callis,  1951;  those  (Cook, Leeds  S t e i n and Hardy, 1957).  However, the s m a l l number o f s t u d e n t s w i t h degrees grades  who  were p r e p a r i n g t o t e a c h  prevented  the w r i t e r from  first  primary  including  " p r i m a r y " as a s e p a r a t e l e v e l o f the  specialty  factor. Sex F a c t o r . "Men  Cook, Leeds and  and women graduate  C a l l i s reported  s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l have  mean MTAI s c o r e s which are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different"  (1952,. p. 7 ) .  On the o t h e r hand,  23 Sandgren and Schmidt (1956),. s t u d y i n g element a r y and secondary had  s e n i o r s , found  t h a t t h e women  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e MTAI than  d i d t h e men.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d by  McEwin (1968).  H i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n  both elementary  and secondary  s p e c i a l t i e s , the  women student t e a c h e r s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r MTAI s c o r e s than d i d t h e men. study w i t h elementary  On t h e b a s i s o f a  j u n i o r student teachers  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Munro (I960) concluded  t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f sex  d i f f e r e n c e s i n MTAI s c o r e s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Because " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t have been observed due  i n some p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s may have been  t o "sex" d i f f e r e n c e s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t  sex would be i n c l u d e d as a f a c t o r i n t h i s 2.  study.  PRE-EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  Requests f o r permission^ t o a d m i n i s t e r the MTAI t o a sample o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e one-year graduate  transfer  pro-  gramme a f t e r t h e November p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n were sent t o Elementary  and Secondary D i r e c t o r s i n the F a c u l t y  of Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h P e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d , and ire October  Columbia.  o f 1971, t h e names  o f a l l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e one-year graduate  transfer  programme were o b t a i n e d from t h e Student  Office.  Teaching  There were t h i r t e e n r e g u l a r student t e a c h i n g  seminars  (Education) 497) year graduate  t o which s t u d e n t s i n the elementary t r a n s f e r programme had been a s s i g n e d ,  t h e r e were t h i r t y - s i x seminars the s t u d e n t s i n the secondary programme had  ( E d u c a t i o n 499) one-year  the elementary A).  and  secondary  Each a d v i s e r was  seminar  asked  was  graduate  transfer  A list  sent t o each o f  a d v i s e r s (see Append-  t o complete  anonymously  of names of a l l s t u d e n t s i n the  i n c l u d e d i n the l e t t e r .  Advisers indicated  w i l l i n g n e s s t o h e l p by r e t u r n i n g the l i s t  proceed w i t h the study was  seminar  their  of names w i t h  c o r r e c t i o n s o f any e r r o r s and/or o m i s s i o n s . to  t o which  i f he would permit randomly  s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s i n h i s seminar the MTAI.  and  been a s s i g n e d .  A l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e was  ix  one-  Permission  r e c e i v e d from a l l a d v i s e r s  by l e t t e r o r t e l e p h o n e . 3.  SUBJECTS AND  Student and  secondary  SAMPLING  teachers at various l e v e l s of  elementary  p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g were c o n s i d e r e d f o r  i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study.  I t was  d e c i d e d t h a t o n l y the  p o p u l a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i n one-year  graduate  transfer  programmes would be sampled i n o r d e r t o reduce the sible effects  pos-  (upon MTAI s c o r e s ) of s u b j e c t s h a v i n g  d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n elementary or  secondary  education.  t a r y and secondary  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from  seminar  advisers indicated that  group o f s t u d e n t s i n the r e g u l a r graduate  transfer  elementhe pro-  25 gramme consisted of 57 men  (elementary programme) ,, 86  women (elementary programme), 222 men  (secondary programme)  and 155 women (secondary programme). Three hundred copies of the MTAI were purchased. The research design required that there be three groups of subjects f o r each of four specialty-sex (see  Table 2, p. 3 9 ).  combinations  The sampling f r a c t i o n s of the  specialty-sex sub-populations could not be made equal without reducing the possible maximum s i z e of the three elementary male groups to an unacceptably low number"'". I t was decided that the assumptions iance would be more e a s i l y met  f o r analysis of var-  i f the sampling were not  representative of the specialty-sex composition of the population of graduate t r a n s f e r students.  The  effect  of t h i s d e c i s i o n was to preclude any p o s s i b i l i t y that the r e s u l t s of t h i s study could be generalized to the entire population of graduate t r a n s f e r students.  This l o s s of  "external v a l i d i t y " i s regrettable, but not uncommon according to Runyon and Haber (1967).  They state:  In the t y p i c a l experimental s i t u a t i o n , the actual population or universe does not e x i s t . What we attempt to do i s f i n d out something about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population i f i t d i d e x i s t . Thus our sample groups provide us with i n formation about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a population i f i t d i d , i n f a c t , e x i s t (1967, p. 127).  1 In a w r i t t e n reply to t h i s writer's request f o r information, A l b e r t H. Yee of the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin indicated that i f "sex" and " s p e c i a l t y " were c r i t i c a l f a c t ors, then the c e l l frequencies should be much l a r g e r than ten.  Im the p r e s e n t s t u d y then, an " a r t i f i c i a l p o p u l a t i o n " was  assumed. All  men  fifty-seven  ( o r 100 p e r cent) o f t h e elementary  received i n v i t a t i o n s to participate  (see Appendix  B3) .  Simple random samples were drawn from t h e o t h e r subp o p u l a t i o n s t o determine which s t u d e n t s would r e c e i v e invitations.  S i z e s o f t h e samples  were as f o l l o w s :  sixty-  n i n e ( o r 80 p e r cent) o f t h e elementary women,, n i n e t y (or  40 p e r cent) o f t h e secondary men and s e v e n t y - e i g h t  (or  50 p e r cent) o f t h e secondary women.  Each o f t h e  f i f t y - s e v e n elementary men was a s s i g n e d a t random t o one of  t h r e e groups,, and each o f t h e t h r e e groups was randomly  a s s i g n e d t o a c o n d i t i o n jjMTAI ( S t a n d a r d ) , MTAI (MOD 4) or the  MTAI (MOD 8)"]. random samples  secondary women.  The same procedure was f o l l o w e d w i t h o f elementary women, secondary men and I n t h i s way, twelve  c o n d i t i o m groups were formed random assignment  specialty-sex-  (see T a b l e 2, p. 39 ).  The  o f s u b j e c t s t o groups and groups t o  c o n d i t i o n s was an attempt t o a c h i e v e a p r e t r e a t m e n t " e q u a l i t y " o f t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n groups w i t h i n i each spec i a l t y - s e x sample (Campbell and S t a n l e y , 1963,, p. 1 7 6 ) . T h i s a l l - p u r p o s e method was used i n l i g h t o f L o r d ' s a s s u r ance t h a t "There i s s i m p l y no l o g i c a l o r s t a t i s t i c a l procedure t h a t can be counted on t o make t h e p r o p e r a l l o w a n c e f o r u n c o n t r o l l e d p r e - e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between groups"  (1967, p. 3 0 5 ) .  27 4.  ADMINISTRATION OF THE MTAI  The name o f each s t u d e n t i m each of the twelve c i a l t y - s e x - c o n d i t i o n groups was c a r d was  typed on a c a r d , and  s t a p l e d t o an envelope which was  w i t h the name o f the s t u d e n t ' s seminar ing  practice.  ing  items: a.  marked o n l y  I n t o the envelope were p l a c e d the f o l l o w -  An a p p r o p r i a t e form o f the MTAI determined  MTAI ( S t a n d a r d ) , MTAI (MOD An; IBM  by  to r e c e i v e :  4) or MTAI (MOD  8).  answer sheet a t the top o f which was  of twelve Roman numerals i d e n t i f y i n g particular c.  this  adviser f o r teach-  the " c o n d i t i o n " the student was  b.  spe-  specialty-sex-condition  one  the s t u d e n t ' s  group.  A l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g the s t u d e n t ' s a s s i s t a n c e (see  Appendix B ) .  were as  Other purposes  of t h i s l e t t e r  follows:  1) To a s s u r e the student t h a t he c o u l d become an; anonymous respondent  by simply removing  h i s name card from the envelope,  [sorenson  (1956) found t h a t s i g n i n g o r not s i g n i n g answer sheet may 2) To promise  an  a f f e c t MTAI scores.}  the student a summary o f the  results.  JjVIcLeish (1969) b e l i e v e s t h a t  a promise  helped t o i n c r e a s e the  of h i s survey returns.}  study's such  percentage  3) To ask the student and  t o complete a l l q u e s t i o n s ,  t o r e p l a c e the MTAI and answer sheet  i n t o t h e envelope. 4) To r e q u e s t  t h a t t h e student  return the sealed  envelope t o h i s seminar a d v i s e r . (1965) r e p o r t e d  that a subject's  [Rosenberg "evaluative  a p p r e h e n s i o n " can confound t h e e f f e c t s o f a treatment.  A student  c o u l d be r e l u c t a n t t o  respond c a n d i d l y i f he suspected  that h i s  seminar a d v i s e r c o u l d e a s i l y a p p r a i s e h i s response sheet  before  sending i t t o t h e  experimenter.j The  filled  envelopes o f t h e students  seminar s e c t i o n were p l a c e d  i n a particular  i n t o a l a r g e r envelope on  which was w r i t t e n t h e name o f the seminar a d v i s e r and the number o f student  envelopes  enclosed.  To the l a r g e envelope was a t t a c h e d adviser  a l e t t e r to the  (see Appendix C ) , t h e purposes o f which were as  follows: a.  To thank t h e a d v i s e r f o r h i s h e l p .  b.  To r e q u e s t  t h a t the a d v i s e r d i s t r i b u t e t h e  envelopes t o t h e s t u d e n t s c.  i n h i s seminar.  To ask t h e seminar a d v i s e r t o l e a v e w i t h t h e w r i t e r ' s f a c u l t y a d v i s e r s t h e r e t u r n s which he receives.  Materials described  i n the foregoing  paragraphs  were m a i l e d t o t h e seminar a d v i s e r s on November 19th,, a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s had completed t h e i r f i r s t teaching  s e s s i o n o f the academic y e a r .  On t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n the  practice  received  seminar advisers,, i t was decided  be made t o s t a n d a r d i z e MTAI. In; some cases,  from some o f  t h a t no attempt would  the mode o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  advisers  of the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would not  be convenient f o r s t u d e n t s t o complete t h e MTAI d u r i n g the  seminar meeting time; f u r t h e r m o r e , i t was  recognized  t h a t n o t a l l s t u d e n t s would be r e g u l a r o r p u n c t u a l seminar a t t e n d a n c e .  im their  F o r these reasons,, no time l i m i t s f o r  completions o f t h e MTAIs o r i n s t r u c t i o n s s p e c i f y i n g adm i n i s t r a t i v e procedures were l e f t w i t h t h e a d v i s e r s . A l t h o u g h i t can be argued t h a t f a i l u r e t o 1  administration  o f t h e MTAIs j e o p a r d i z e d  standardize  the i n t e r n a l  v a l i d i t y o f t h e study, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s of standardization  introduced  any s y s t e m a t i c  bias  lack into  the  results.  The MTAI i s l a r g e l y s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g :  all  i n s t r u c t i o n s needed f o r i t s completion a r e found  w i t h i m the i n v e n t o r y .  A l l o f t h e a d v i s e r s were members  o f a F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n and presumably were aware o f the  influence their introductory  comments might have upon  a s t u d e n t ' s r e s p o n s e s t o an a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y . greater  s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s the f a c t t h a t  f o r the three  Of subjects  c o n d i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d a t random from  30 s p e c i a l t y - s e x groups w i t h o u t any seminar s e c t i o n s .  So  i t was  groups might have i n c l u d e d 5.  t h a t anyone of the 49  students i n a l l three  hundred n i n e t y - f o u r  162  turned  (55 per  December  cent) o f the i n v e n t o r i e s had  been r e -  i n completed c o n d i t i o n . (67  per  f i c a t i o n method was  expressing  c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a was  (see Appendix D).  v i s e r s , and  sent  to each seminar  The  received  Each note r e q u e s t e d t h a t not done so  the  already.  the l a s t MTAIs were c o l l e c t e d from  ad-  increased  cent).  number o f r e t u r n s  i s displayed  had  the f i n a l t o t a l o f u s e a b l e r e t u r n s  (73 per  To  Attached to t h i s l e t t e r were  s t u d e n t r e t u r n h i s MTAI i f he had F e b r u a r y 11th,  direct  thanks f o r a s s i s t -  thank-you n o t e s f o r a l l seminar members who MTAIs (see Appendix E ) .  i n Table  0  1.  had  surreptitious identi-  t o i n d i v i d u a l nonrespondents.  encourage r e t u r n s , a l e t t e r  adviser  no  useable  Because the MTAIs  used, the w r i t e r c o u l d not  appeals f o r cooperation  ance w i t h the  By January 18th,  cent).  been completed anonymously and  t o 214  conditions.  By  r e t u r n s numbered 198  On  seminar  envelopes f o r s t u d e n t s were  t o seminar a d v i s e r s om November 19th.  18th,  the  RETURNS  Two sent  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  f o r each s p e c i a l t y - s e x group  31 TABLE 1 RETURNS  Number o f Returns (and Returns as a Percentage o f Sample) SpecialtyMale  Elementary  Secondary  - N = 38- -  Female N = 42  (67 per cent)  ( 6 l p e r cent)  N = 70  w =  (78 p e r cent)  (82 per cent)  64  The r e t u r n r a t i o s o f t h e elementary group and t h e secondary group  (63.5 p e r cent)  (78.8 per cent) were s i g n i f i c a n t -  l y d i f f e r e n t (p < .03) (see Appendix G l ) .  The l i t e r a t u r e  does n o t appear t o o f f e r any r a t i o n a l e f o r such a f i n d i n g . I t might be e x p l a i n e d  by t h e f a c t t h a t an approximate mean  number o f t e n MTAIs was d i s t r i b u t e d by each seminar a d v i s e r , w h i l e secondary a d v i s e r s about f i v e MTAIs.  elementary  each d i s t r i b u t e d  C o n c e i v a b l y i t i s more convenient t o  c o l l e c t f i v e MTAIs than i t i s t o c o l l e c t t e n MTAIs. A l s o , i t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s informed t h a t they v*ere p a r t o f a "random sample". an e f f o r t t o meet d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e w r i t e r all  were In included  elementary men and 80 p e r cent o f t h e elementary  women.  T h i s means t h a t almost a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e elemen  t a r y seminars r e c e i v e d i n v e n t o r i e s .  By c o n t r a s t , t h e  number o f s u b j e c t s i n each secondary seminar was a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l  c l a s s membership.  The " s p e c i a l  a t t e n t i o n " r e c e i v e d by secondary s u b j e c t s may have aged  individual participation  encour  (a "Hawthorne" e f f e c t ) ,  whereas t h e a p p a r e n t l y " i n d i s c r i r a i n a n t group  treatment"  r e c e i v e d by elementary s u b j e c t s may have p r o v i d e d l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( a " r e v e r s e Hawthorne"  effect).  Student comments w r i t t e n on s e v e r a l o f t h e r e t u r n e d MTAIs suggested a t l e a s t one p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k of response o f some elementary and secondary  subjects.  F o u r respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e time o f MTAI b u t i o n ! was i n c o n v e n i e n t . j u s t had completed  distri-  On November 19th, t h e s t u d e n t s  two weeks o f p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g and i n  twenty-one days they would b e g i n t o w r i t e Christmas exams It  i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some s t u d e n t s s i m p l y d i s c a r d e d t h e  MTAI i n s t e a d o f spending s t u d y - t i m e i n i t s c o m p l e t i o n . In> t h e l e t t e r accompanying each MTAI, t h e v / r i t e r asked t h e s t u d e n t s t o respond t o a l l statements and t o return a l l materials.  Seven respondents r e t u r n e d o n l y  t h e i r IBM answer s h e e t s .  Each o f t h r e e o t h e r respondents  r e t u r n e d h i s answer sheet t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s t r i p o f paper t h a t had been f a s t e n e d t o t h e bottom page o f h i s MTAI b o o k l e t .  o f the l a s t  (On t h i s s t r i p o f paper was  the r e q u e s t t h a t the s t u d e n t  i n d i c a t e t o which one o f two  s p e c i f i e d grade l e v e l s he would c o n s i d e r h i s responses t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y . ) the f o r e g o i n g sentences  S u b j e c t b e h a v i o r s noted i n  suggest  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some  o f t h e nonrespondents may have kept t h e MTAI and i t s answer sheet because o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e v i c e . I n t h i s study, an arrangement s h o u l d have been: made t o p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h c o p i e s o f the i n v e n t o r y they were asked 6.  t o complete and r e t u r n .  SCORING THE RETURNS  Cook,, Leeds and C a l l i s developed  an e m p i r i c a l s c o r i n g  key f o r the MTAI by c o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e responses (see Chapter  o f 100 " s u p e r i o r " and 100 " i n f e r i o r "  teachers  I I , P a r t 1 ) . With t h e " e m p i r i c a l " key, h i g h  s c o r e s do r e f l e c t  child  centered, permissive  attitudes;  however, the s c o r i n g weights o f some o f t h i s key's appear t o be i l l o g i c a l item one r e a d s ,  (Cronbach,. 1953).  items  F o r example,  "Most c h i l d r e n a r e o b e d i e n t . "  Responses  a r e weighted as f o l l o w s : S t r o n g l y agree Agree Undecided o r u n c e r t a i n Disagree Strongly disagree  (1) (-1) (0) (-1) (0)  Both "agreement" and "disagreement" on t h i s item a r e  34 penalized. Keys w i t h s c o r i n g weights  t h a t a r e more " l o g i c a l "  have been d i s c u s s e d by Gage (1957) and Yee (1969).  These l o g i c a l keys do not appear  and  to g i v e the  MTAI a p p r e c i a b l y h i g h e r measures o f v a l i d i t y bility. ing  The  Kriewall  and  relia-  p r i n c i p l e advantage claimed f o r l o g i c a l  over e m p i r i c a l s c o r i n g i s t h a t w i t h the  former,  "MTAI measures can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms o f tively  simple and  The  some e x p l a n a t i o n o f the secondary-elementary  In  rela-  communicable t h e o r y " (Gage, 1957,  o b j e c t i v e o f the p r e s e n t study i s t o  t h a t has appeared  p.  215).  attempt difference  i n the r e s u l t s o f a number o f r e s e a r c h e s .  t h e s e r e s e a r c h e s , o n l y the e m p i r i c a l s c o r i n g key  used.  scor-  was  So t h a t the p r e s e n t study would have a d i r e c t  r e l e v a n c e t o the work t h a t a l r e a d y had been done, the e m p i r i c a l key was  used t o s c o r e the r e t u r n e d i n v e n t o r i e s .  Of the MTAIs r e t u r n e d , 214 were u s e a b l e ; were not because they were p a r t i a l l y w i t h or without f o u r were from  explanations. s t u d e n t s who  or t o t a l l y  Of the seventeen  incomplete inventories,  r e f u s e d t o cooperate  expressed such o b j e c t i o n s as: origin,  seventeen  and  the i n v e n t o r y i s o f "foreign!'  completing the i n v e n t o r y i s a "waste o f time",  and p u p i l s s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as " o b j e c t s " . MTAIs were r e t u r n e d without any responses comments.  The  or w r i t t e n  remaining s i x answer s h e e t s were  because they l a c k e d response  f o r one  Seven  unuseable  o r more i t e m s .  35 The u s e a b l e MTAIs were s c o r e d by hand a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s found i m the MTAI Manual.  Together w i t h a  t o t a l s c o r e f o r each answer s h e e t , a s c o r e f o r odd  items  and a s c o r e f o r even items xvas determined t o f a c i l i t a t e an odd-even s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y Appendix  H). •  c a l c u l a t i o n (see  • -  Each s u b j e c t under the MTAI (Standard) c o n d i t i o n ; was asked t o i n d i c a t e whether he c o n s i d e r e d h i s responses t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o grade f o u r p u p i l s o r t o grade eight pupils. tallied  Completed  responses f o r t h i s item were  i n a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e f o r each  specialty-sex  group. 7.  DATA ANALYSIS  Data o f t h i s study were a n a l y s e d t o p e r m i t a t e s t of each o f the f o l l o w i n g n u l l hypotheses of  a t the .05  level  significance; I  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s c o r e s o f elementary s u b j e c t s i n the MTAI (Standard) c o n d i t i o n and secondary s u b j e c t s i n the MTAI (Standard)  II  condition.  With r e g a r d to the grade l e v e l s t o which  they  r e p o r t t h e i r responses t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between' elementary s u b j e c t s i m the MTAI (Standard) c o n d i t i o n , a n d secondary s u b j e c t s i n the MTAI (Standard)  condition.  Ill  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s  o f elementary s u b j e c t s  i n t h e MTAI  (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n and secondary s u b j e c t s  i n the  MTAI (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n . IV  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between; t h e mean s c o r e s  o f elementary s u b j e c t s  i n t h e MTAI  (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n and t h e secondary s u b j e c t s i n ; the MTAI (MOD 8) condition'. V  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s  o f secondary s u b j e c t s  i n t h e MTAI  (MOD 4) condition , and t h e secondary s u b j e c t s i n : 1  In t h e MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n . VI  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s  o f elementary s u b j e c t s  i n t h e MTAI  (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n and t h e elementary  subjects  i n t h e MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n . VII  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between' t h e mean s c o r e s  of the subjects  (elementary and  secondary) iro t h e MTAI (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n and t h e subjects  (elementary and secondary) i n t h e  MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l procedures used i n t h e t e s t i n g hypotheses I , I I I , IV, V, VI and V I I i n c l u d e d : c a l c u l a t i o n : o f means and standard the twelve c e l l s , a c h i - s q u a r e of c e l l frequencies,  a test  of n u l l the  d e v i a t i o n s f o r each o f  test f o r proportionality  f o r the normality  of the  data d i s t r i b u t i o n s , , B a r t l e t t ' s the twelve unequal  t e s t f o r homogeniety o f  c e l l variances,, an a n a l y s i s  of variance with  c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s (a g e n e r a l l i n e a r model) and t h e  B o n f e r r o n i t - s t a t i s t i c f o r a l l planned The  procedure  square  used  comparisons.  w i t h n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I I was t h e c h i -  t e s t o f t h e independence o f c a t e g o r i c a l  Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s  (195D  variables.  and Yee (1967) used  the Spearman-Brown method w i t h odd-even c o r r e l a t i o n s t o e s t i m a t e t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e standard of t h e MTAI as .89.  To examine m o d i f i c a t i o n e f f e c t s upon  the I n v e n t o r y ' s s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y t h i s study, odd-even i n t e r n a l performed  with subjects i n  c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s were  f o r each o f t h e t h r e e MTAI forms.  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  form  of a difference  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r independent  A test f o r  between) two c o r r e l a t i o n  samples was used  the c o e f f i c i e n t o f the MTAI (Standard)  t o compare  form w i t h t h a t  o f each m o d i f i e d form o f t h e I n v e n t o r y . When major a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a were complete, b r i e f summary o f r e s u l t s was prepared  a  ( s e e Appendix F ) .  On A p r i l 4th, 1972,, each seminar a d v i s e r was sent t h i s summary t o g e t h e r w i t h c o p i e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o h i s seminar members who had been asked  to p a r t i c i p a t e .  CHAPTER V STATISTICAL RESULTS Numbers of subjects and Inventory mean scores f o r groups in) t h i s study are displayed im Table 2.  Group  frequencies do not depart s i g n i f i c a n t l y from proportioma l i t y , and no adjustment of frequencies was made (*X df = 6; p >  .98)  (see Appendix G 2 ) .  group are found i n Appendix H.  =  .885;  Raw scores f o r each  These scores were used  i n t e s t s of two of the standard assumptions f o r the analy s i s of variance.  The assumption! that group scores were  sampled from normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s was supported by a c h i square t e s t (V^ =  15.116;  df =  9;  p >  .05)  .  A frequency  d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean: d e v i a t i o n scores i s displayed i n Appendix I .  Results of B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t f o r the assumption  of homogeniety of group variances permitted acceptance of the hypothesis that variances are equal df = 11; p >- .01)  .  (*X = 20.66;  On the bases of the foregoing two  assumptions and the knowledge that scores were sampled at random from independent populations, an analysis of variance f o r unequal c e l l frequencies was undertaken.^ 2 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "Goodness of F i t Tests" UBC FREQ July, 1971. 3 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, " B a r t l e t t ' s test f o r Homogeniety of Variance" UBC HVAR September, 1970. 4 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "General Linear Hypothesis" UBC B M D X 6 4 August,  1971.  TABLE 2 NUMBER OF SUBJECTS AND INVENTORY MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS  Specialty-  Condition  Sex MTAI (Standard)  MTAI (MOD 4)  MTAI (MOD 8)  X = 31.07 N = 15  X = 57.91 N = 11  X = 62.58 N = 12  Female  X = 67.86 N = 14  X - 69.54 N = 13  X = 62.47 N = 15  Male  X - 38.67 N = 24  X - 37.86 N = 21  X = 37.16  X = 33.60 N = 20  N = 22  X = 41.32 N = 73  Male E l ementary  Secondary Female MTAI C o n d i t i o n Means  Specialty  Sex  Means  Means  X = 58.63  Female  N = 80  N = 25  X = 38.88  X = 41.50  X = 44.23 N =. 22  N = 134 '  X = 48.49 N = 67  X = 48.51  Male  X = 50.43 N = 106  X = 41.72 N = 108  N = 74  VO  40 A summary of the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d The  e f f e c t s upon the MTAI s c o r e s .  "main e f f e c t s " i n c l u d e those  o f S p e c i a l t y , Sex and  x Condition.  indicate a highly significant (F = 20.  nificant  The  of  d a t a of Table  Also  i s the maim e f f e c t o f Sex  d f = 1/202; p = .037).  The  3  e f f e c t o f S p e c i a l t y upon  57; d f = 1/202; P = .00002).  i n t h i s study  sig-  (F =4.27;  F r a t i o f o r the main e f f e c t  o f C o n d i t i o n s d i d not r e a c h the (F = 1.89;  Con-  S p e c i a l t y x Condition,, Sex x C o n d i t i o n  S p e c i a l t y x Sex  scores  Three  Four " i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s " i n c l u d e those  S p e c i a l t y x Sex, and  3.  a n a l y s i s of variance allows f o r estimation of  seven d i f f e r e n t  dition'!.  i n Table  .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  d f = 2/202; p = .148).  That i s , we  cannot  c o n f i d e n t l y d i s c o u n t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t observed  dif-  f e r e n c e s among means o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t MTAI groups were due  t o chance f a c t o r s . B o n f e r r o n i t - s t a t i s t i c s were used t o make the s i x  planned  comparisons among the mean s c o r e s o f t h i s  (see Appendix G3).  The  d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 4.  study  r e s u l t s o f the comparisons The  c o n c e p t u a l u n i t f o r the  are sig-  n i f i c a n c e l e v e l u s i n g B o n f e r r o n i t - s t a t i s t i c s i s the c o l l e c t i o n o f planned  comparisons.  The  l o n g run  entire  average  of Type I e r r o r s t h a t w i l l be made f o r the s i x comparisons i s (A = .05.  C o n t r a s t s found  to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t  per-  m i t t e d acceptance o f n u l l hypotheses I , V, VI and  VII.  C o n t r a s t s found  to be s i g n i f i c a n t p e r m i t t e d  rejection  of  TABLE 3 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR INVENTORY SCORES  df  MS  F  Specialty-  1  19309.41  20.57  < .001  Sex  1  4007.92  4.27  <.05  Condition  2  1774.62  1.89  Spec, x Sex  1  2506.26  2.67  Spec, x Cond.  2  536.03  .57  Sex x Cond.  2  683.17  .73  Spec, x Sex x Cond.  2  2708.29  2.88  Error  202  938.55  Source  Sig. Level  TABLE 4 BONFERRONI t-STATISTICS FOR SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS:  Null Hypothesis  Means Compared  Absolute Value of Contrast  Critical Difference (d)  o<  =.05  Confidence Interval Lower Upper Limit Limit  Significant Difference  I  Elem. MTAI (Stand.) vs Sec. MTAI (Stand.)  12.26  19.64  -7.38  31.90  Mo  III'  Elem. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 4)  24.49  20.92  3.57  45.41  Yes  IV  Elem. MTAI (MOD 8) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 8)  22.05  19.83  2.22  41.88  Yes  V  Sec. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 8)  .75  17.33  -16.58  18.08  No  VI  Elem. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Elem. MTAI (MOD 8)  1.69  23.04  -21.35  24.73  No  VII  Elem.-Sec. (MOD 4) vs Elem.-Sec. (MOD 8)  .02  13.84  -13.82  13.86  No  43 n u l l hypotheses  I I I and IV  Twenty-nine elementary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s completed Of t h e s e two  groups,  (see  p.36).  and f o r t y - f o u r  secondary  the standard form o f the MTAI.  t w e n t y - f o u r and t h i r t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , responded  t o the f o r c e d c h o i c e item t h a t  was  f a s t e n e d t o the l a s t page o f the s t a n d a r d MTAI.  The  item r e q u e s t e d t h a t the s u b j e c t choose f o u r or e i g h t  as t h e grade l e v e l o f s t u d e n t s t o whom he would c o n s i d e r h i s I n v e n t o r y responses  t o a p p l y most a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  T a b l e 5 d i s p l a y s the f r e q u e n c i e s o f c h o i c e s made by s u b j e c t s . Because the elementary ent and  and  secondary  the d a t a were t a l l i e d  groups were  independ-  i n d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s , the  c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f the independence o f c a t e g o r i c a l a b l e s was  applied.  hypothesis II ( 0 C tailed  a  R e s u l t s l e d to r e j e c t i o n of n u l l 32.97; d f = 1; p < .0005 i n one-  =  t e s t ) (see Appendix G4) .  t h a t secondary  men  vari-  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s showed  and women d i d not d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t  t o t h e i r c h o i c e o f grade l e v e l : choose grade e i g h t .  both groups tended  Among elementary  ed a l e s s pronounced tendency f o u r ; however, the observed  s u b j e c t s , men  to show-  than women t o choose grade  c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f .603  was  much s m a l l e r t h a n the c r i t i c a l v a l u e r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at The  c<~ =  .05.  odd-even s c o r e s o f the twelve s p e c i a l t y - s e x -  c o n d i t i o n groups and completed  o f t h e t h r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s  who  d i f f e r e n t forms o f the MTAI a r e found i n Append-  44 i x H.  D i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 6 a r e the c o r r e c t e d  reliability condition  1  odd-even  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each o f the s p e c i a l t y - s e x -  groups and f o r the t h r e e forms o f the I n v e n t o r y ,  (see Appendix G5 f o r " c o r r e c t i o n " formula)  Each group  o f s u b j e c t s who completed a f o r m o f the MTAI was r e g a r d e d as an independent sample, and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e reliability for  s i g n i f i c a n c e (see Appendix G6) .  reliability for  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e t h r e e groups were t e s t e d Comparisons o f the  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e MTAI (Standard) w i t h those  t h e MTAI (MOD 4) and t h e MTAI (MOD 8) showed neg-  l i g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s £ z (Standard vs MOD and g (Standard vs MOD  4) = .422, p >  8) = .601, p > .54).  5 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, " T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package" UB C TRIP Febr u a r y , 1972. :  .67  TABLE 5 NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY  AND SECONDARY SUBJECTS  INDICATING GRADE OF PUPILS TO WHOM THEIR RESPONSES APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY:  Specialty-  Choice o f Grade Four  MTAI  Row  (STANDARD)  Total  Eight  E l ementary  18  6  24  Secondary  1  37  38  Column Total  19  43  62  Sex i n Elementary Specialty  Choice o f Grade Four  Row  Total  Eight  Male  7  4  11  Female  11  2  13  Columm Total  18  6  24  Sex i m Secondary Specialty  Choice o f Grade Four  Row  Total  Eight  Male  1  20  21  Female  0  17  17  Columm Total  1  37  38  TABLE 6 ODD-EVEN! RELIABILITY* FOR EACH OF THE SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION! GROUPS AND FOR EACH OF THE THREE FORMS OF THE MTAI  Group Spec.  Sex  Cond.  Elem-. Males (Stand.) Elem. Males (MOD 4) Elem. Males (MOD 8) Elem. Females (Stand.) Elem'. Females (MOD 4) Elem. Females (MOD 8) Sec. Males (Stand.) Sec. Males (MOD 4) See. Males (MOD 8) Sec. Females (Stand.) Sec. Females (MOD 4) Sec. Females (MOD 8)  Formiof MTAI Standard MOD 4 MOD 8  *  No. o f Subjects 73 67 74  No. of Subjects  SD  Correlation! Coefficient  31.86 25.55 27.45 18.86 18.60 23.58 31.96 33.45 26.34 26.54 40.03 40.48  15 11 12 14 13 15 24 21 25 20 22 22  SD  .891 .931 .942 .839 .736 .813 .926 .912 .885 .769 .907 .913  Correlation Coefficient  30.85  .885  34.13 32.28  .906  .901  C o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n w i t h t h e SpearmanBrown f o r m u l a .  CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION 1.  INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS  The outcome o f t h e comparison  between the mean s c o r e s  of secondary s u b j e c t s i n t h e MTAI (Standard) c o n d i t i o n and elementary s u b j e c t s i n t h e MTAI (Standard) c o n d i t i o n was not as p r e d i c t e d i n r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s I .  Although t h e  d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e expected d i r e c t i o n , i t d i d n o t r e a c h the c r i t i c a l v a l u e needed f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 w i t h t h e BONFERRONI t p r o c e d u r e .  I t s h o u l d be noted  t h i s procedure i s v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e :  level that  "The advantage o f  b e i n g a b l e t o make a l l planned comparisons  i s gained a t  the expense o f an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f making a type I I e r r o r "  ( K i r k , 1968, p. 8 1 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between  s p e c i a l t y group means on t h e s t a n d a r d MTAI was almost e n t i r e l y due t o t h e h i g h mean s c o r e o f t h e elementary women.  The mean s c o r e o f t h e elementary men was s l i g h t l y  below those o f t h e secondary men and women. The r e s u l t s p r o v i d e grounds hypothesis I I .  f o r accepting research  As p r e d i c t e d , t h e r e appeared  t o be a s t r o n g  tendency amongst secondary s u b j e c t s i n t h e MTAI  (Standard)  c o n d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s as b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o grade e i g h t p u p i l s t o grade f o u r p u p i l s .  than  Elementary s u b j e c t s under t h e same  c o n d i t i o n tended t o choose grade f o u r as t h e l e v e l t o which t h e i r a t t i t u d e s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d .  Incidental  48 comments made by s u b j e c t s upon r e t u r n e d i n v e n t o r i e s  also  suggested t h a t secondary and elementary s u b j e c t s i n completi n g MTAI items may be r e f e r r i n g t o " p u p i l s " a t grade they expect t o t e a c h .  levels  Three s u b j e c t s p r o t e s t e d , i n v a r i o u s  ways, t h e r e q u e s t t h a t they respond w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a grade l e v e l t h e y had never taught and/or never expected t o teach. The tendency t o s e l e c t grade f o u r over grade e i g h t was more e v i d e n t amongst elementary women than amongst element a r y men.  I n t h e group o f elementary men,(whose MTAI (Stand-  ard} mean s c o r e was s i m i l a r t o those o f secondary s u b j e c t s } f o u r o f e l e v e n who responded  t o the grade-choice-item  s e l e c t e d grade e i g h t over grade f o u r ; o n l y two o f t h i r t e e n elementary women respondents d i d s o . performance  T h i s suggests t h a t  l e v e l on t h e MTAI may be r e l a t e d t o t h e grade  l e v e l of the " p u p i l "  c o n s i d e r e d by s u b j e c t s as they  complete  the i n v e n t o r y ; however, t h i s i n d i c a t i o n was not supported by t h e o t h e r r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . The  e x p e c t a t i o n expressed by r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s I I I  was t h a t elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s under t h e MTAI (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n would o b t a i n s i m i l a r mean s c o r e s .  Evi-  dence i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e elementary s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s than d i d secondary s u b j e c t s when both groups were i n s t r u c t e d t o make responses w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade f o u r c h i l d r e n .  The groups ranked i n  o r d e r o f t h e i r means from h i g h e s t t o lowest xvere:  elemen-  t a r y women, elementary men, secondary women and secondary  49  men.  Research h y p o t h e s i s IV was t h a t elementary and second-  a r y groups under  the MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n would n o t d i f f e r  i n t h e i r i n v e n t o r y mean s c o r e s .  The f i n d i n g o f t h i s  study  was t h a t t h e elementary group o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e than d i d t h e secondary group.  In; t h e  elementary group, t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e men s l i g h t l y exceeded t h e mean o f t h e women; i n t h e secondary group,, t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e women exceeded  t h e mean o f t h e men.  The f a i l u r e o f r e s e a r c h hypotheses I , I I I and IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e phenomenon o f a " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e on t h e MTAI d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r when grade l e v e l s were s p e c i f i e d , , r a t h e r i t became more e v i d e n t than i t was w i t h elementary and  secondary groups i n t h e MTAI (Standard)  condition.  H y p o t h e s i s V s t a t e d t h a t secondary s u b j e c t s under MTAI (MOD 4) would o b t a i n a h i g h e r mean s c o r e than would secondary s u b j e c t s under MTAI (MOD 8 ) . R e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e secondary groups under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . research hypothesis VI.  Results also  contradicted  That i s , elementary s u b j e c t s  completing t h e MTAI (MOD 8) d i d n o t o b t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean s c o r e than elementary s u b j e c t s completing t h e MTAI (MOD 4 ) . The f a i l u r e o f r e s e a r c h hypotheses V and VI appears t o i n d i c a t e t h a t n e i t h e r elementary s u b j e c t s n o r secondary s u b j e c t s h o l d more a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s grade e i g h t p u p i l s than towards  grade f o u r p u p i l s .  towards Second-  a r y groups o b t a i n r e l a t i v e l y low MTAI means w i t h r e f e r e n c e  50 t o b o t h grade e i g h t and grade f o u r p u p i l s ; elementarygroups o b t a i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h MTAI means w i t h  reference  t o b o t h grade f o u r and grade e i g h t p u p i l s . The  p r e d i c t i o n of hypothesis  V I I was t h a t the mean  s c o r e o f elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s under the MTAI (MOD 4) c o n d i t i o n would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the mean s c o r e o f elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s under the MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n .  T h i s study r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e  d i f f e r e n c e was n e g l i g i b l e :  the responses o f s u b j e c t s  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study gave no support t h a t student  t o the h y p o t h e s i s  t e a c h e r s who c o n s i d e r grade e i g h t p u p i l s o b t a i n  lower MTAI s c o r e s than do student  t e a c h e r s who  consider  grade f o u r p u p i l s . The variance  f a c t o r which made t h e l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study was the " S p e c i a l t y "  of r e s p o n d e n t s .  Over a l l c o n d i t i o n s , elementary  g e n e r a l l y obtained subjects.  h i g h e r mean s c o r e s t h a n d i d secondary  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i a l t y x c o n d i t i o n  interaction. those  subjects  This f i n d i n g not only i s consistent  reviewed i n Chapter I I :  i t appears t o l e n d  with cre-  dence t o Sandgren and Schmidt's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "Elementary curriculum  student  teachers  have more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s  towards s c h o o l work and c h i l d r e n as expressed s c o r e s than do student  teachers  by t h e MTAI  f o l l o w i n g other  curricula"  (1956, p. 679). The  o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e "Sex" f a c t o r t o  v a r i a t i o n i n MTAI s c o r e s was s i g n i f i c a n t .  Over a l l con-  d i t i o n s , women g e n e r a l l y o b t a i n e d h i g h e r mean s c o r e s than did  men.  action.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t sex x c o n d i t i o n  inter-  The f i n d i n g o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e MTAI i s  s i m i l a r t o those o f Sandgren (I960) and McEwin (1968).  and Schmidt  (1956), Munro  The i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  s p e c i a l t y x sex i n t e r a c t i o n suggests t h a t women tend t o o b t a i n h i g h e r s c o r e s i n b o t h elementary and secondary specialties. Odd-even s p l i t - h a l f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f each o f t h e t h r e e MTAI forms r e v e a l e d t h a t a s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e grade l e v e l o f " p u p i l s " t o be c o n s i d e r e d by respondents o f t h e MTAI does not a p p r e c i a b l y i n c r e a s e t h e " i n t e r n a l ency" o f the i n v e n t o r y .  The r e l i a b i l i t y  consist-  coefficients  o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study suggest t h a t t h e MTAI t o t a l s c o r e i s an i n d i c a t o r o f some form o f homogeneous a t t i t u d e pattern. 2.  LIMITATIONS  The observed d i f f e r e n c e s between groups may have been i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s o t h e r than those i n c l u d e d i n the  d e s i g n o f t h i s study.  Random methods o f s e l e c t i o n  were used i n an attempt t o a c h i e v e a pre-treatraent " e q u i v a l e n c e " o f groups.  The presumption o f group  equality,  i n terms o f extraneous i n f l u e n c e s , i s i m p l a u s i b l e due t o the  appearance  of s i g n i f i c a n t l y different return  for  elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s .  ratios  I t i s conceivable  t h a t some u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r which produced t h e d i f f e r e n t  52 r e t u r n r a t i o s a l s o accounted f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t ences observed between I n v e n t o r y s c o r e s and  secondary  differ-  o f elementary  subjects.  Another r i v a l  h y p o t h e s i s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s observed  between " s p e c i a l t i e s " i s t h a t s y s t e m a t i c  differences exist  between a p p l i c a n t s f o r secondary and elementary training.  teacher  I n o t h e r words, t h e e f f e c t s o f " s p e c i a l t i e s "  may w e l l be confounded w i t h a " s e l e c t i o n " e f f e c t . One cannot d i s c o u n t were somehow b i a s e d  by t h e f a c t t h a t i n v e n t o r i e s  completed by s u b j e c t s Intervening  the p o s s i b i l i t y that the r e s u l t s were  over a p e r i o d o f n e a r l y t h r e e  months.  t h e d a t e s o f " i n i t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n " and " f i n a l  c o l l e c t i o n " were such events as the Christmas exams and the Christmas h o l i d a y s .  I d e a l l y , a l l subjects  have completed t h e i n v e n t o r i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y periods  should so t h a t t h e  o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g might have been  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same.  As i t was, d i f f e r e n t numbers o f  elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s , depending upon s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l t i e s , may have d e c i d e d plete t h e i r inventories during  t o com-  t h e Christmas break.  An  MTAI completed a f t e r exams and i n f e s t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from an MTAI completed after a challenging  p r a c t i c e teaching  directly  session.  The " i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y " o f t h i s study may have been much i n c r e a s e d other  by the use o f g r e a t e r  hand, i n c r e a s e d  controls.  On t h e  c o n t r o l s may have reduced the f e a s i -  bility  o f t h i s study and may have themselves produced  d i s t o r t i o n s within the r e s u l t s .  To i l l u s t r a t e :  o f seminar a d v i s e r s made i t c l e a r t h a t they would  a number assist  w i t h t h e study o n l y i f each o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s were f r e e t o choose whether o r n o t he would complete t h e i n v e n t o r y . So  i t was d e c i d e d  t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e study would be  based upon o n l y v o l u n t a r y  responses.  I f t h e w r i t e r had  i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l i n v e n t o r i e s be completed a t a c e r t a i n time, he would have l o s t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n and  o f many a d v i s e r s ,  q u i t e p o s s i b l y , some o f t h e r e t u r n s he would have r e -  c e i v e d would have been from i n c o n v e n i e n c e d and i r a t e respondents. The  f i n d i n g s o f a study w i t h " e x t e r n a l  may be g e n e r a l i z e d  to certain populations,  validity" settings,  treatment v a r i a b l e s and measurement v a r i a b l e s and  Stanley,  1963, p. 175).  The treatment and measurement  v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study have been d e s c r i b e d replicable.  and a r e e a s i l y  The l e v e l s o f t h e " c o n d i t i o n " f a c t o r were  " f i x e d " and so t h e f i n d i n g s have no r e l e v a n c e e r a t i o n s o f grade l e v e l s o t h e r The  (Campbell  to consid-  than f o u r and e i g h t .  measurement v a r i a b l e was t h e MTAI i n t h r e e forms a l l  scored  w i t h t h e " e m p i r i c a l key".  "Population"  and " e c o l o g i c a l " v a l i d i t i e s a r e , t o say  the l e a s t , d i f f i c u l t  t o a c h i e v e f o r a study o f a t t i t u d e s .  Some attempt has been made t o d e s c r i b e  the features  s e t t i n g from which t h e r e s u l t s emerged; however,  of the  left  54 u n d e s c r i b e d a r e many a s p e c t s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r times and s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h i s study was completed.  I t i s quite  p o s s i b l e that the s e t t i n g o f the Faculty of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e f a l l  o f 1972  o r 1973 w i l l be q u i t e - d i f f e r e n t from what t h a t s e t t i n g was i n t h e f a l l  o f 1971. F o r example, t h e r e  o f a growing s u r p l u s This trend  of teachers  inBritish  i s evidence Columbia.  c o u l d w e l l produce changes i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and  courses o f the F a c u l t y o f Education;  i t a l s o could  changes i n e n r o l l m e n t s and a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t The  "target" population  produce  teachers.  o f t h i s study could be d e s c r i b -  ed as s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n elementary and secondary oney e a r graduate t r a n s f e r programs. research,  the "experimentally  At the outset  of the  a c c e s s i b l e " population  was the  group o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e elementary and secondary one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programmes w i t h i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e fall it  o f 1971. Requirements o f t h e r e s e a r c h  d e s i g n made  n e c e s s a r y t o use unequal sampling f r a c t i o n s f o r t h e  f o u r s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e a v a i l a b l e group; f u r t h e r more, r e t u r n s  from t h e samples were p a r t i a l .  p r e v e n t an i n f e r e n c e generalized  t h a t the r e s u l t s o f t h e study may be  t o the a c t u a l population  g r a d u a t e t r a n s f e r programmes. be  These f a c t s  of students i n the  I n f a c t , t h e r e s u l t s may  applicable to only a "hypothetical" population  untary respondents.  The problem i n v o l v e d  of v o l -  i n generalizing  55 any  study r e s u l t  by B r a c h t  to a " t a r g e t " p o p u l a t i o n has been  expressed  and G l a s s ; "The-degree of c o n f i d e n c e w i t h which an  experimenter can g e n e r a l i z e t o a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s never knowm because the experimenter i s never a b l e t o sample randomly from-the t r u e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n " P.  (1968,  441). At l e a s t  one  limitation  o f t h i s study i s r e l a t e d  the type o f a n a l y s i s employed. variance techniques,  i t was  to  I n u s i n g the a n a l y s i s of  a mathematical n e c e s s i t y to  assume t h a t random samples were drawn from " v i r t u a l l y i n f i n i t e p o p u l a t i o n s " i n which MTAI s c o r e s had distributions.  ( S t a n l e y and G l a s s , 1970,  cause the p o p u l a t i o n sampled was randomization"  and  non  parametric  p. 274).  clearly finite, techniques  more a p p r o p r i a t e methods f o r t h i s study.  3.  f i n d i n g s (Campbell and  techniques  p o s s i b l y more  S t a n l e y , 1963,  S t a n l e y s t a t e t h a t "...  m u l t i p l e experimentation  The  have been  p.  194).  FURTHER RESEARCH  Campbell and  once and  Be-  "urn  may  Such  would have produced s m a l l e r e r r o r terras and "significant"  normal  i s more t y p i c a l of s c i e n c e  for a l l definitive  present  continuous  study has f a i l e d  experiments" (1963, p. to support  a r e l a t i o n between the s c o r e s o f student grade l e v e l of " p u p i l s " they  than 173).  the h y p o t h e s i s  of  t e a c h e r s and  the  c o n s i d e r w h i l e responding  the MTAI; n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t  the  to  56  h y p o t h e s i s warrants study,  i t was  further empirical testing.  presumed t h a t a h a n d p r i n t e d  this  instruction fasten-  ed t o the top o f each i n v e n t o r y page would be c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y by each respondent  In  follox^ed  (see Appendix J ) .  It  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these i n s t r u c t i o n s d i d not i n t r u d e s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t o the awareness o f the s u b j e c t w h i l e he completing  the MTAI.  A more i m p r e s s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  i n s t r u c t i o n s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n more i m p r e s s i v e Various research designs  does not r e q u i r e an enormous f a i t h t h a t equation",  H. Yee  has been suggested  of the MTAI c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d  One  d e s i g n , which  "randomization  to t h i s w r i t e r by A l b e r t  o f the U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n .  The  three versions  i n v a r y i n g sequences to  each s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d a t random from the v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s o f student t e a c h e r s . t o make "... factors" Yee  each person h i s own  ( A l b e r t H. Yee,  effects.  should be c o n s i d e r e d i n  t e s t i n g the hypotheses o f t h i s t h e s i s .  is  was  sub-  T h i s d e s i g n would c o n t r o l i n other  serve  competing  p e r s o n a l communication, 1972).  and K r i e w a l l ' s " p e n t a c h o t o u s - l o g i c a l " s c o r i n g key  f o r the MTAI employs s c o r i n g weights which are more psychol o g i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e than those of the " e m p i r i c a l " s c o r i n g key.  The  " e m p i r i c a l " key tends  to produce  b u t i o n s which a r e f l a t - t o p p e d , whereas the l o g i c a l " key tends spreads  "pentachotomous-  to produce d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h g r e a t e r  among extreme p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s c o r e s  and K r i e w a l l , 1969,  distri-  p. 13).  The  f o r e g o i n g two  (Yee  considera-  57 t i o n s suggest t h a t p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r  and  more m e a n i n g f u l  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups would appear i f Yee wall's  key  were used t o s c o r e  inventories  and  Krie-  i n a future  test  of the hypotheses o f t h i s paper. One the  approach to f u r t h e r s e p a r a t i n g  sources of variance  b u t i o n s o f MTAI s c o r e s g a t e each s u b j e c t ' s  w i t h i n and  and  understanding  between the  of s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s may  subscale scores  e s t a b l i s h e d dimensions of the MTAI.  distribe t o  investi-  on f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l l y Such an approach  r e v e a l t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between elementary secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s e x i s t on o n l y  may and  certain unitary  traits. Differences  between mean s c o r e s  o f elementary  secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s have been observed various  stages of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  s h o u l d be made t o determine how influenced and  by the  "subject's  Attempts  these d i f f e r e n c e s  s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i a l t y " .  outset  student teaching.  during  are  separate f a c t o r s of " s p e c i a l t y experience"  would i n v o l v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r i o r t o the  and  o f the  Such attempts  i n v e n t o r i e s to  subjects  of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l course work  and  I f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared  o n l y a f t e r some p e r i o d  of t r a i n i n g and  student  teaching,  t h e r e would be b a s i s f o r a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t secondary s t u dent t e a c h e r d e v e l o p a t t i t u d e s towards a d o l e s c e n t and  generalize  pupils  t h e s e a t t i t u d e s to c h i l d r e n , whereas elemen-  t a r y student t e a c h e r s develop a t t i t u d e s towards p u p i l s vrtio  58 are  c h i l d r e n and g e n e r a l i z e  are  t h e s e a t t i t u d e s t o p u p i l s who  adolescents. 4. The  CONCLUSION purpose o f t h i s study was t o e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t a  r a t i o n a l l y developed major h y p o t h e s i s t h a t between MTAI mean s c o r e s  differences  o f elementary and secondary  student teachers are a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t a t t i tudes- w i t h which student t e a c h e r s as a group r e g a r d  "pupils"  of d i f f e r e n t age and grade l e v e l s .  The d a t a supported t h e  hypotheses t h a t  tend t o r e g a r d  elementary s u b j e c t s  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t a n d a r d MTAI as b e i n g more  their  appropriate  f o r grade f o u r p u p i l s than f o r grade e i g h t p u p i l s , and t h a t secondary s u b j e c t s  tend t o r e g a r d  the MTAI as b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e t h a n f o r grade f o u r p u p i l s . the  t h e i r responses t o  f o r grade e i g h t  The d a t a , however,  contradicted  h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e s between elementary and  secondary s u b j e c t s  r e s p o n d i n g t o i n v e n t o r i e s which s p e c i f y  t h a t grade f o u r p u p i l s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d ; no  pupils  similarly,  grounds were found f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s  e x i s t between elementary and secondary s u b j e c t s  responding  t o i n v e n t o r i e s which s p e c i f y t h a t grade e i g h t p u p i l s a r e to be c o n s i d e r e d . subjects score  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  elementary  under t h e MTAI (MOD 1+) c o n d i t i o n o b t a i n e d a mean  n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o b t a i n e d by  elementary s u b j e c t s  under t h e MTAI (MOD 8) c o n d i t i o n .  The  same o b s e r v a t i o n was made f o r groups o f secondary-  subjects . support  Finally,  t h e outcomes o f t h i s study  the hypothesis  f a i l e d to  t h a t elementary and secondary one-  year graduate t r a n s f e r s t u d e n t s ,  combined,, o b t a i n a s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r MTAI mean s c o r e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade f o u r " p u p i l s " than they do w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade e i g h t "pupils". T h i s study  showed t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  source  o f v a r i a n c e i n i n v e n t o r y responses was t h e " s p e c i a l t y " o f t h e respondents; elementary s u b j e c t s tended t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r MTAI mean s c o r e s than d i d secondary subjects  (P = .00002).  have o c c u r r e d  Similar "specialty" differences  i n t h e r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l researches,,  s u b j e c t s a t d i f f e r e n t stages  with  of professional training,.  under d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e conditions,, i n w i d e l y a r a t e s e t t i n g s and over t h e space o f two decades. and  S t a n l e y have w r i t t e n , " t h e g o a l o f s c i e n c e  not o n l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s  sep-  Gampfeell  includes  and times  but t o o t h e r n o n - i d e n t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e t r e a t ment" ( 1 9 6 3 , , p. 202). I n t h i s study,, t h e standard s l i g h t l y modified ing of higher  forms o f t h e MTAI were used.  and two  The f i n d -  elementary performances emerged p a r t i c u l a r l y  from t h e MTAI (MOD 4 ) and MTAI (MOD 8 ) c o n d i t i o n s . The "sex"  o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t source  o f v a r i a n c e vras t h e  o f r e s p o n d e n t s ; female s u b j e c t s tended t o o b t a i n  h i g h e r s c o r e s then male s u b j e c t s  (P = .037).  This  tend-  60 ency appeared t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g w i t h i n the elementary  specialty. Sandgren and  Schmidt concluded  that,"Elementary  c u r r i c u l u m s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s have more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards s c h o o l work and  c h i l d r e n as expressed  by  their  MTAI s c o r e s than do s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s f o l l o w i n g o t h e r ricula"  (1956,  p. 6 7 9 ) .  cur-  They wrote t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  a f t e r s t u d y i n g " s e n i o r s t u d e n t s a t a midwestern s t a t e teachers college"  (1956,..  p r e s e n t study was  to c a s t doubt upon Sandgren and  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n without  p. 6 7 3 ) .  The  o b j e c t i v e o f the Schmidt's  questioning t h e i r i m p l i c i t  assump-  t i o n t h a t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h MTAI s c o r e s r e f l e c t " f a v o r a b l e " a t t i t u d e s i n student teachers. hypothesized secondary  I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t was  t h a t the MTAI mean s c o r e s o f elementary  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n one-year graduate  and  transfer  programmes would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i f the grade l e v e l s of " p u p i l s " t o be As  c o n s i d e r e d were s p e c i f i e d .  i t i s , Sandgren and Schmidt's c o n c l u s i o n has s u r v i v e d  the e m p i r i c a l t e s t s of t h i s study; o t h e r s t u d i e s demonstrate t h a t elementary  and  secondary  do not have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards  may  student  teachers  children.  Sandgren and Schmidt's assumption t h a t h i g h MTAI scores r e f l e c t  " f a v o r a b l e " a t t i t u d e s does not l e n d  to e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g .  I t s acceptance  itself  o r r e j e c t i o n depends  on the p h i l o s o p h y and v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s of those who  use  61 MTAI, and, continues  a c c o r d i n g t o Yee  and F r u c h t e r , the  t o b:e a p o p u l a r r e s e a r c h and  (1971, p. 131).  Inventory-  screening  tool  REFERENCES Adorno, T.W., F.renkel-Brunswick, E., L e v i n s o n , D.J., and S a n d f o r d , R.N. The A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: Harper, 1950. A l c o c k , Norman. How Long W i l l Your C h i l d r e n L i v e ? Weekend Magazine, 1971, V o l . 21, No. 7, P. 18. Efeamer, G.C. and Ledbetter,. E l a i n e W. The R e l a t i o n B3etween Teacher A t t i t u d e s and S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n t e r e s t . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, May 1957, L, Pp. 655. Blume, Robert A l l e n . Self-Esteem o f P u p i l s i n R e l a t i o n t o the T e a c h e r s ' S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s Toward Democratic T e a c h i n g . D o c t o r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1964. Dissertation A b s t r a c t s 25: 7073. B r a c h t , Glenn H. and G l a s s , Gene V. The E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of Experiments. American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l , Nov. 1968, V o l . 5, No. 4 Pp. 437-474. Brim, B.J.  A t t i t u d e Changes i n Teacher E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1966, LIX, Pp.  441-445.  Burbidge,, D. Should The S c h o o l s Produce Workers o r C i t i z e n s ? The B?.C. Teacher, J a n . 1971, V o l . 50, No. 4,  Pp. 123-126.  Callis,  R. Change I n T e a c h e r - P u p i l A t t i t u d e s R e l a t e d t o T r a i n i n g and E x p e r i e n c e . E d u c a t i o n a l and Psychol o g i c a l Measurement, 1950, X, Pp. 718-727.  C a l l i s R.  The E f f i c i e n c y o f the MTAI f o r P r e d i c t i n g I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n the Classroom. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology, 1953, 37, Pp. 82-85.  Campbell,  Donald T. and J u l i a n C. S t a n l e y . E x p e r i m e n t a l and Q u a s i - E x p e r i m e n t a l Designs f o r R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g . I n N.L. Gage ( E d . ) , Handbook o f Research on T e a c h i n g . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y ,  1963, Pp. 171-246.  C h a p p e l l , T.L., and C a l l i s , R. The E f f i c i e n c y o f The MTAI f o r P r e d i c t i n g I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n a N a v a l S c h o o l . C i t e d by J.W. G e t z e l s and P.W. J a c k s o n , The MTAI. I n N.L. Gage ( E d . ) , Handbook o f Research on T e a c h i n g . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1963, P. 511.  63 Coan, R i c h a r d W. C h i l d P e r s o n a l i t y and Developmental P s y c h o l o g y . I n Raymond B. C a t t e l l ( E d . ) , Handbook o f M u l t i v a r i a t e E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1966, Pp. 732-752. Cole, L u e l l a . Psychology of Adolescence. R i n e h a r t and Company, 1959.  New  York:  Cook, W.W.,  Leeds, C.H. and C a l l i s , R. MTAI. New York: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1951. (Manual, 1952).  Cook W.W.,  Kearney,, N.C., R o c c h i o , P.D. and Thompson, A. S i g n i f i c a n t F a c t o r s i n T e a c h e r s ' Classroom A t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . 1956,. 7, Pp. 274-279.  Cronbach, L . J . Minnesota Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y . I n O.K. Buros ( E d . ) , The F o u r t h M e n t a l Measurements Yearbook. H i g h l a n d Park, New J e r s e y : Gryphon P r e s s , 1953, Pp. 798-802. Cronbach, L.F. and Furby, L i t a . How We Measure Change o r Should We? P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 74, No. 1, 1970, Pp. 68-80. Crow, L.D. and Crow, A. A d o l e s c e n t Development and Adjustment . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1965. Day, Harry P. A t t i t u d e Changes o f B e g i n n i n g Teachers A f t e r I n i t i a l Teaching Experience. J o u r n a l o f Teacher Education.. Sept. 1959, 10, Pp. 326-328. D r e v e r , James. A D i c t i o n a r y o f P s y c h o l o g y . Penquin Books,. 1956.  Toronto:  Dunham,. D a r r e l l R o b e r t . A t t i t u d e s o f Student T e a c h e r s , C o l l e g e S u p e r v i s o r s and S u p e r v i s i n g Teachers toward Youth. D o c t o r s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n a , 1958. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 19: 1297. Ferguson, J . L . , Brown, K.B-., and C a l l i s , R. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Of The MTAI. C i t e d by J.W. G e t z e l s and P.W. J a c k s o n , The MTAI. I n N.L. Gage ( E d . ) , Handbook o f Research on T e a c h i n g . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1963, P. 517. F u l l e r , E l i z a b e t h M. The Use o f T e a c h e r - P u p i l A t t i t u d e s , S e l f - R a t i n g aid Measures o f G e n e r a l A b i l i t y i n The P r e s e r v i c e S e l e c t i o n o f N u r s e r y S c h o o l Kindergarten-primary Teachers. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1951, 4 4 „ Pp. 675-686.  64 Gage, N.L.  L o g i c a l Versus E m p i r i c a l S c o r i n g Keys: The Case o f The MTAI. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, Apr. 1957, 48,, Pp. 213-216.  G e t z e l s , J.W., and Jackson, P.W. The MTAI. I n N.L. Gage ( E d . ) , Handbook o f Research on T e a c h i n g . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1963, Pp. 508-522. Gewinner, Marcus N. A Study o f The R e s u l t s o f The I n t e r a c t i o n o f Student Teachers With T h e i r S u p e r v i s i n g T e a c h e r s D u r i n g t h e Student T e a c h i n g P e r i o d . Doctor's Thesis, M i s s i s s i p p i State U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 29: 165-A. Grand,  Helen E. Tomson. A Comparison o f the Depth and Range o f Knowledge and I n f o r m a t i o n About the I n d i v i d u a l C h i l d i n t h e Classroom Possessed By Democratic and A u t h o r i t a r i a n T e a c h e r s . Doctor's T h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , , 1959. Dissertation A b s t r a c t s 20: 4033.  G u i l f o r d , J.P. Response B i a s e s and Response S e t s . I n M a r t i n F i s h b e i n ( E d . ) , Readings I n A t t i t u d e Theory and Measurement. New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1967. Pp. 277-281. Horn, J . L . and M o r r i s o n , W.L. Dimensions o f Teacher Attitudes. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1965,, L V I , Pp. 118-125. Hoyt,, C y r i l J . and Cook, W.W. The S t a b i l i t y o f MTAI S c o r e s D u r i n g Two t o Seven Years o f T e a c h i n g . Journal o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n , Dec. I960, 11, Pp. 487-491. J e r s i l d , A.T. and Tasch, R.J. Childrens' Interests. C i t e d by A r t h u r T. J e r s i l d , C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I960, Pp. 430-431. J e r s i l d , , A r t h u r T. The P s y c h o l o g y o f A d o l e s c e n c e . M a c M i l l a n , 1968.  New  York:  Kearney,, N.C. and R o c c h i o , P.D. The E f f e c t o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n on t h e Teacher's A t t i t u d e . Journal o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1956, XLIX, Pp. 703-708. K i r k , Roger E. E x p e r i m e n t a l Design: P r o c e d u r e s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Brooks/ C o l e , 1968. Laycock, S.R. T e a c h i n g and L e a r n i n g . C l a r k , 1954.  Toronto:  Copp  65 Laycock, S.R. The Human F a c t o r i n the Classroom. The ff.C. Teacher, Feb:. 1971, V o l . 50, No. 5, Pp.  175-177.  Leeds, C.H. A S c a l e f o r Measuring T e a c h e r - P u p i l A t t i t u d e s and T e a c h e r - P u p i l Rapport. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, 1950, 64, No. 6 (Whole no. 312). Leeds, C.H. A Second V a l i d i t y Study o f the MTAI. Eleme n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1952, 52, Pp. 396-405. L o r d , F.M. A Paradox i n the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Group Comparisons. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1967, 68,  Pp.  304-305.  McEwin,, Tom. A t t i t u d i n a l Change o f Students During Methods Courses and Student T e a c h i n g . D o c t o r ' s T h e s i s , E a s t Texas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 2 9 : 169-A. McGee, Henry M o r r i s o n . Measurement o f A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o T e a c h e r s ' Classroom B e h a v i o r . G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y Monographs', Aug.  1955, L I I , Pp. 89-146'.  M c L e i s h , John. Teachers' A t t i t u d e s : A Study o f N a t i o n a l and Other D i f f e r e n c e s . Cambridge: Cambridge I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1969. Morrison,  W.L. and Rosomer, R.C. P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e and Dimensions o f Teacher A t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 1967, 35, Pp. 55-58.  Munro, B a r r y C. The Use o f The Minnesota Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y i n a Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Teacher T r a i n i n g Program. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. Muuss, R o l f E. D i f f e r e n t i a l E f f e c t s o f Studying V e r s u s T e a c h i n g on T e a c h e r s ' A t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n Research, 1969, 63, Pp. 185-189. Oana,, Robert George. An A n a l y s i s o f the Use o f the Minnesota Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y i n a P r e s e r v i c e Program i n Childhood E d u c a t i o n . Doctor's T h e s i s , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1965. Dissertation Abstracts 27: 129-A. Oelke, M e r r i t t C. A Study o f Student T e a c h e r s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward C h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, Apr. 1956, 47, Pp. 193-198.  66 R a b i n o w i t z , W i l l i a m and Rosenbaunr, I r a . Teaching E x p e r i ence and Teachers* A t t i t u d e s . Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , Mar. I960, 60, Pp. 313-319. Remmers, H.H. (Ed.) Schools.  A n t i d e m o c r a t i c A t t i t u d e s i n American Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963.  Rosenberg,  M i l t o n J . , Hovland, C a r l I . , McGuire, W i l l i a m J . , A b e l s o n , Robert P. and Brehm, Jack W. A t t i t u d e O r g a n i z a t i o n and Change. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960.  Rosenberg,  M i l t o n J . When Dissonance F a i l s : On E l i m i n a t i n g E v a l u a t i v e Apprehension F r o m n A t t i t u d e Measurement. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, J a n .  1965,  1, Pp. 28-42.  Runyon,. R i c h a r d and Haber, Audrey. Fundamentals o f Beh a v i o r a l S t a t i s t i c s . Massachusettes: AddisonWesley, 1967. Sandgren,  D.L. and Schmidt, L.G. Does P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g Change A t t i t u d e s Towards Teaching? Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1956, XLIX, Pp. 673-680.  Sanstrom,  C.I. The P s y c h o l o g y o f C h i l d h o o d and A d o l e s c e n c e . Edinburgh: P e l i c a n Books, 1968.  S c a r r , Sandra. How t o Reduce A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m Among T e a c h e r s : The Human Development Approach. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Apr. 1970,  V o l . 63, No. 8, Pp. 367-372.  Sheldon, M. Stephen, Coale, J a c k M. and Copple, Rockne. C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y o f the "Warm Teacher" S c a l e . E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . Feb. 1959, 50, Pp. 37-40. Sorenson, A. G a r t h . A Note on The F a k a b i l i t y o f the MTAI. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology, June 1956, 40,  Pp. 192-194.  S t a n l e y , J u l i a n C. and G l a s s , Gene V. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1970. S t e i n , H. and Hardy, J . A V a l i d a t i o n Study o f the MTAI i n Manitoba. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research,  1957,  1, Pp. 321-338.  Thompson, James Newton. S t a b i l i t y and Change i n Measured A t t i t u d e s and V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s o f Women i n a Teacher E d u c a t i o n Program. D o c t o r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , Columbia, 1967. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 28: 4035-A  67 Vogt, Anton, Techniques and S k i l l s a r e Not Enough f o r our F u t u r e C o l l e a g u e s . The B\C. Teacher,Mar. 1968, V o l . 47, No. 6, P. 245. Walberg,  H e r b e r t Johm. Dynamics o f S e l f C o n c e p t i o n D u r i n g Teacher T r a i n i n g . Doctor's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1964. U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago M i c r o f i l m ;  T 10469.  Yee, A l b e r t H. I s the MTAI V a l i d and Homogeneous? Journal o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement, 1967, 4(3), Pp. 151-  _61_  Yee, A l b e r t H. and K r i e w a l l , T. A New L o g i c a l S c o r i n g Key f o r the MTAI. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement . 1969, V o l . 6, No. 1, Pp. 11-14. Yee, A l b e r t H. and F r u c h t e r , Etenjamin. F a c t o r Content o f the MTAI. American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l ,  J a n . 1971, V o l . 8, No. 1, Pp. 119-133.  Yee, A l b e r t H.  P e r s o n a l Communication,  Feb. 7,  1972.  COMPUTER PROGRAMS B^jerring, J.H. and Seagreaves, P a u l . Implementation o f UBC TRIP ( T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package) on t h e U.B.C. 360 Computer. Coshow, W. Implementation o f UBC HVAR ( B a r t l e t t ' s T e s t F o r Homogeneity o f V a r i a n c e ) on the U.B.C. 3 6 O Computer. Coshow, W. Implementation o f UBC B M D X 6 4 ( G e n e r a l L i n e a r H y p o t h e s i s ) on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. R u s s e l l , Robin. Implementation o f UBC FREQ (Goodness o f F i t T e s t s ) on the U.B.C. 360 Computer.  APPENDIX  69 APPENDIX A LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM SEMINAR ADVISERS  Dear I am a p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r completing a t h e s i s f o r an M.Ed, degree a t U.B1.C. My a d v i s e r s a r e Dr. W. Schwahn, Dr. S.F. F o s t e r and Dr. BIC. Munro. A l s o a s s i s t i n g me a r e Dr. J.R. M i t c h e l l and Mr. Robert F. Conry. Dr. J.R. M c i n t o s h (or Dr. F.H. Johnson) has g r a n t e d me p e r m i s s i o n t o proceed w i t h a study which r e q u i r e s a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f an a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y t o a random sample o f t h e one-year secondary t r a n s f e r graduates ( o r oney e a r elementary t r a n s f e r graduates) who complete t h e November p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n . P l e a s e , would you p e r m i t randomly s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s o f your E d u c a t i o n 499 ( o r 497) c l a s s t o complete anonymously t h e a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r November s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e ? The time u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o complete the i n v e n t o r y i s twenty t o t h i r t y minutes. With your consent, I would send l a b e l l e d w i t h t h e name o f a randomly your charge. Each envelope c o n t a i n s a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y and an IBM answer  you envelopes, each s e l e c t e d student i n i n s t r u c t i o n s , an sheet.  The i n s t r u c t i o n s ask t h e s t u d e n t t o complete t h e i n v e n t o r y , t o p l a c e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e envelope, t o remove h i s name l a b e l and t o r e t u r n t h e envelope t o you. The planned study c o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t t o you and your s t u d e n t s . When i t i s complete, I s h a l l g i v e you a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . P l e a s e , may I i n c l u d e your one-year t r a n s f e r graduates i n a ' p o o l from which w i l l be drawn a random sample? I f you g i v e me p e r m i s s i o n , p l e a s e c o r r e c t any e r r o r s and/or o m i s s i o n s i n t h e accompanying l i s t and send i t t o me i n the addressed envelope. I a p p r e c i a t e your h e l p . Sincerely, Colin  Rollins  70 APPENDIX B3  LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM STUDENT TEACHERS  Dear P l e a s e , w i l l you a s s i s t i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s u r v e y by f r a n k l y marking your p o s i t i o n on each statement i n t h e f o l l o w i n g "Inventory"? Your name was one o f 300 s e l e c t e d a t random from p o o l s o f t h e names o f graduate s t u d e n t s i n t h e one-year elementary and secondary t r a n s f e r programs. By removing your name card which i s s t a p l e d t o t h e brown envelope, you can become an "anonymous r e s p o n d e n t " . ( I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t h a t you w r i t e your name anywhere on t h e b o o k l e t o r answer sheet.) When t h e planned s u r v e y i s completed, c o p i e s o f a summary o f i t s r e s u l t s w i l l be s e n t t o your seminar adviser. P l e a s e , w i l l you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e survey by: 1. 2. 3. 4.  r e s p o n d i n g t o a l l statements and q u e s t i o n s . r e p l a c i n g t h e completed b o o k l e t and answer sheet i n t h e envelope. removing your name c a r d . r e t u r n i n g the s e a l e d envelope t o your seminar adviser.  Your h e l p i s s i n c e r e l y  appreciated.  Colin Rollins  71 APPENDIX C  LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR  THEIR COOPERATION  Dear Thank you f o r r e t u r n i n g the l i s t o f names o f the one-year elementary t r a n s f e r graduates i n your E d u c a t i o n 497 ( o r 499) seminar. The accompanying envelopes a r e l a b e l l e d w i t h names of your s t u d e n t s who were randomly s e l e c t e d . Each envel o p e c o n t a i n s a r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e ( p l e a s e see the f o l l o w i n g page). P l e a s e , w i l l you g i v e t h e s e envelopes to your students? E n v e l o p e s r e t u r n e d t o you may be p l a c e d i n the l a r g e brown envelope. When you have as many envelopes as your s t u d e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o r e t u r n , p l e a s e l e a v e the l a r g e brown envelope i n the m a i l room f o r Dr. Schwahn; o r Dr. Stephen F o s t e r . A g a i n , I am g r a t e f u l f o r your h e l p .  Sincerely,  Colin Rollins  APPENDIX D  LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR COLLECTING RETURNS  Dear Thank you f o r h e l p i n g roe t o c o l l e c t the d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r a study w i t h the "Minnesota Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y " . I s h a l l be a b l e t o send you a summary o f the d a t a when I have r e c e i v e d more returns. P l e a s e f i n d a t t a c h e d t o t h i s page n o t e s t o your 497 ( o r 499) seminar memb e r s who r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I appreciate  your  assistance.  Sincerely,  Colin; R o l l i n s  APPENDIX E  LETTER THANKING STUDENT TEACHERS FOR THEIR RESPONSES  Dear Thank you f o r p r o v i d i n g the d a t a which w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o complete a study w i t h the "Minnesota Teacher A t t i t u d e I n ventory". I f , i n f u t u r e , I can h e l p you as you have helped me, p l e a s e phone . I s h a l l be a b l e t o send you a statement o f t h e s t u d y ' s purpose and a summary o f t h e d a t a when mere completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and answer s h e e t s have been r e t u r n e d . A g a i n , thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e .  Sincerely,  Colin  Rollins  74 APPENDIX F A REPORT TO PARTICIPANTS IN THE STUDY INVOLVING THE  "MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY"  INTRODUCTION S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t groups o f secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean MTAI s c o r e s than d i d groups o f elementary s t u d e n t teachers. I f , as some w r i t e r s suggest, t h e MTAI may be used as an i n d i c a t o r o f a respondent's "democratic" a t t i tudes towards c h i l d r e n , then t h e f o r e g o i n g f i n d i n g s p o s s i b l y c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t , f o r v a r i o u s reasons, elementary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s tend t o h o l d more " d e m o c r a t i c " a t t i t u d e s towards t h e e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l than do secondary student t e a c h e r s . To i n v e s t i g a t e the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which d i s p u t e s t h e p r e v i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e w r i t e r arranged t h e p r e s e n t study as a t e s t f o r t h r e e major hypotheses: 1.  Secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s completing t h e MTAI read such g e n e r a l words as " p u p i l " and express a t t i t u d e s which they c o n s i d e r " t o a p p l y more a p p r o p r i a t e l y " t o grade V I I I s t u d e n t s than t o grade IV s t u d e n t s . The o p p o s i t e i s t r u e o f elementary student t e a c h e r s .  2.  Secondary and elementary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o b t a i n h i g h e r s c o r e s when t h e y respond t o t h e MTAI w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade IV s t u d e n t s than they do when they respond t o t h e MTAI w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grade V I I I s t u d e n t s .  3.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s o f elementary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and secondary student t e a c h e r s when both groups respond t o t h e MTAI w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t s o f t h e same s p e c i f i e d grade l e v e l ( e i t h e r grade IV o r grade V I I I )  POPULATION S t u d e n t s i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study were randomly s e l e c t e d graduates i n t h e elementary and secondary o n e - y e a r - t r a n s f e r programs a t U.B .C. 5  75 SAMPLES AND RETURNS  Elem. Males  Item  Approximate t o t a l No. o f grad. trans, students i n 57 F a c u l t y of Education U.B?.C. 71-72 T o t a l simple random sample Number o f completed and u n s p o i l e d r e t u r n s and t h i s number as a p e r centage o f t o t a l simple random sample  Group Elem. Sec. Females Males  Sec. Females  86  155  222  57(100%) 69(80%)  90(40%) 78(50%)  18=67%  70=78% 90  57  42=61% o9  64=82%  IE  DESIGN AND RESULTS I n s t r u c t i o n s accompanying MTAI The S t a n d a r d MTAI ( a t t h e end o f t h i s inventory, subjects are asked t o i n d i cate whether t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s a p p l y most approp r i a t e l y t o grade IV o r grade V I I I students).  The MTAI modif i e d with i n structions to make r e s p o n s e s with reference t o grade IV students.  The MTAI modi f i e d with i n structions to make responses with reference to grade V I I I students.  Elem. N=15 Male X=31.07 student SD=31.86 teachers  HKL1 X=57.91 SD=25.55  1=12  Elem. N=14 Female X=67.86 student SD= 18.86 teachers  NKL3  X=69.54 SD=18.60  NHL 5 X=62.47 SD=23.58  Second. N=24 Male X=38.67 Student SD=31.98 teachers  N=23 X=37.86 SD=33.45  N=25 X=37.06 SD=26.34  Second. N=20 Female X=33.60 student t e a c h e r s SD=26.54  N=22 X=41.50 SD=40.04  N=22 X=44.23 SD=40.48  Group  X=62.58 SD=27.45  76 S u b j e c t s completing t h e s t a n d a r d form o f t h e MTAI o n l y were i n s t r u c t e d t o t h i n k i n terms o f the " g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n " when r e s p o n d i n g t o i t e m s . GRADE LEVEL OF PUPILS TO WHOM SUBJECTS CONSIDERED THEIR RESPONSES TO APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY Grade  Choices  Subject considered h i s responses t o a p p l y most approp r i a t e l y t o grade IV s t u d e n t s .  Subject considered h i s responses t o a p p l y most a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o grade V I I I s t u d e n t s .  Elem. s t . teachers (Standard MTAI)  Number o f completed returns =18  Number o f completed returns = 6  Second, s t . teachers (Standard MTAI)  Number o f completed returns = 1  Numher o f completed r e t u r n s = 37  Group  Elementary and Secondary student t e a c h e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P .01) i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f a grade l e v e l t o which they c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r responses t o a p p l y roost a p p r o p r i a t e l y . T h i s f i n d i n g tends t o support hypothesis I. Evidence from the study does n o t support hypotheses I I and I I I . I f t h e MTAI i s c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d i c a t o r o f " d e m o c r a t i c " a t t i t u d e s towards s t u d e n t s , then i t would appear t h a t , f o r as y e t undetermined r e a s o n s , t h e randomly s e l e c t e d elementary student t e a c h e r s from t h e one-yeart r a n s f e r program tended t o be more "democratic" i n t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and e a r l y " a d o l e s c e n t s than d i d t h e randomly s e l e c t e d secondary s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s from t h e o n e - y e a r - t r a n s f e r program. (Anova F = 20.57; P = .00002)  77  APPENDIX G NOTES ON STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 1  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY RETURN RATIOS.  A t e s t f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between two independent p r o p o r t i o n s i s d e f i n e d i n Ferguson ( 1 9 7 D as •p  j>  where Z  = A unit-normal-curve  f  deviate.  + fx.  = —I = E s t i m a t e o f a p r o p o r t i o n based N| +• N a_ on the two samples combined. Y = Number o f r e t u r n s f o r sample 1 .  p  •f = Number o f r e t u r n s f o r sample 2 . N, = Number i n sample  1.  N3. = Number i n sample 2 . q  = P-1  n  f N ,  •p _ -fa. For elementary r e t u r n r a t i o = . 6 3 4 and secondary r e t u r n r a t i o = .798  X  = 2.203  In a two-tailed t e s t , the c r i t i c a l value required f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l i s 1 . 9 6 ; hence, we r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e elementary and secondary return ratios.  78 APPENDIX G (continued) 2  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DEPARTURE FROM PROPORTIONALITY OF CELL FREQUENCIES  A test f o r proportionality defined i n Ferguson (1971) as  fa I  c-l  n.  of c e l l frequencies i s  re  where n. r = —— C  ^  — = the expected frequency of c e l l i n r t h row and cth column.  tlx*- ~ marginal frequencies f o r rows. rt.c = marginal frequencies f o r columns. N  - t o t a l frequency of c e l l s .  n.rc. = frequency of c e l l i n r t h row and cth column, R  = number of rows.  C  = number of columns.  79 APPENDIX G 3  (continued)  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES IN SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS  Bonferroni's _ t - s t a t i s t i c test i s defined i n K i r k (1968) as  where d = t h e d i f f e r e n c e t h a t a comparison must i n o r d e r t o be d e c l a r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .  exceed  £'2> "Va i s o b t a i n e d from a t a b l e (D.16 i n K i r k ) which i n d i c a t e s t h e v a l u e o f a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l oc e v e n l y d i v i d e d among c comparisons. c = t h e number o f comparisons t h a t a r e t o be made among means. v = degrees  o f freedom f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  error.  Cj = t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e j t h mean. n j = t h e number o f s c o r e s i n t h e j t h treatment level. "primes" a r e used t o d e s i g n a t e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the t r e a t m e n t . MS  = population error variance.  APPENDIX G 4  (continued)  THE CHI-SQUARE TEST OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF CATEGORICAL VARIABLES. This as  t e s t i s defined  I  £  O,  -  /el  i n Runyon and Halier (1967)  «*/*(«-/Xc-/)  -0,5-)*  where R = number o f rows C = number o f columns i - observed f r e q u e n c y o f c e l l a  /  e  = expected f r e q u e n c y o f c e l l  ( I n t h e one-degree-of-freedom s i t u a t i o n , a c o r r e c t i o n for  continuity i s required  to obtain  a closer  approxi-  mation o f t h e o b t a i n e d *X v a l u e s t o the t h e o r e t i c a l distribution.  The c o r r e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f s u b t r a c t i n g  0.5 from t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e | jcell.)  0  - f  &  | f o r each  81 APPENDIX G 5  (continued)  THE SPEARMAN-BROWN FORMULA (USED TO CORRECT THE ODD-EVEN CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ATTENUATION) T h i s t e s t i s d e f i n e d i n Ferguson (1971) as ' x. x  —  i/here l ^ x . = An estimate o f the r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the whole t e s t . TKVV= The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficient  coefficient.  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR INDEPENDENT SAMPLES T h i s t e s t i s d e f i n e d i n Ferguson; (1971) as  2  =  Z'r,  -  g/ «. r  where 5£ = A Unit-Nbrraal-Curve Z  deviate.  = Fisher's transformation  o f r,.  Z-'rg = F i s h e r ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  o f n>  N^ = Number o f s u b j e c t s i n independent sample 1, N  2  = Number o f s u b j e c t s i n independent sample 2,  APPENDIX H TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD  SCORES OF SUBJECTS  IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION* GROUPS  s No. 01 02 03 04 05 06  07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  24 25  Groups ElementaryMale (Stand. ) T o t a l Even -31 -12 -10 6 8 20 41 42 47 48 55 56 59 68 69  -17 3 -11 15 9 20 31 35 30 28 43 37 40 43 37  Odd -14 -15 1 -9 -1 0 10 7 17 20  12 19 19 25 32  ElementaryMale (MOD 8)  ElementaryMale (MOD 4) T o t a l Even 5 34 50 51 56 58  62  63 66 92 100  9 24 30  26 31 27 40 39 36 46 48  Odd  -4  10 20 25 25 31 22 24 30  46 52  T o t a l Even -3  42 44 46 '64 66 70 75 75 81 90 101  8 30 28 26 31 44 40 46 46 47 53 54  Odd  -11  12  16 20 33  22 30 29 29  34 37 47  83 APPENDIX H TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD  (continued)  SCORES OF SUBJECTS  IN SPECIALTT-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS  Groups S No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13  14 15 16 17  18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  ElementaryFemale (Stand.) T o t a l Even 39 46 49 50 55  64 64 68 72 76 86 89 95 97  26  33 36 29 31 3937 32 34 41 52 49 53 52  Odd 13 13 13 21 24 25 27 36 38 35  34 40 42 45  Elementary Female (MOD 4) T o t a l Even 31 43 51 62 71 71 74 74 76 78 87 93 93  17 24 32 40 43 36 37 44 29 36  43 49 47  Odd 14 19 19 22 28 35 37 30 47 42 44 44 46  Elementary Female (MOD 8) T o t a l Even 14 34 37 50 50 52 55  59-  69  80 84 86 87 90 90  5 15 26  22 33 32 32 31 37 57 42 43 50 49 55  Odd 9  19 11 28 17 23 26 28 32  23 42  43 37 41 35  84 APPENDIX H  (continued)  TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS  Groups  No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  17 18 19 20 21 22  23  24 25  SecondaryMale (Stand .)  Secondary Male (MOD 4)  Secondary Male (MOD 8)  Total  Even  Odd  Total  Even  Odd  Total  Even  Odd  -56 -5 9 12 18 24 25  -24 -1 6 12 15 14 20  -32  -44 -20 -9 1 10 31  12 18 29 31  -16 -8 -13 -10 1 9 17 9 8 14  -26  30 31 35 37 44 47 49 50 52 54 54 58 71 75 88 100  -28 -12 4 11 9 22 15 25 27 33 34 31 37 33 42 40 35 42 56  15 17 24 19  -14 -11 6 13 13 10 18 16 24 14 25 29 18 25  -12 -3 2 -4 2 13 5 11 4 16 8 8 22 15 14 12 9  26  20  32 27  30 35 28  32  36 40  32  49 49 53  -4 3 0 3 10 5 6 18 13 6 6 12 20 19 15 24 22 18 18 39  26  39 47  32  34 35 40  46  48 51 55 56 65 68 69 72 76 79  26 23  23  32 26 29 37 34  23  -14 8 9 15  23 23  27 28 30 33 37 40 40 40 43 43 56 58  62  63 69 73 74 75  26  31 34 33 39 43 37 42 42 41 41  23  19 19  26  27 31 33 34  85 APPENDIX H  (continued)  TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITIONI GROUPS  Groups SecondaryFemale (Stand.) No. 01 02 03 04 05  06  07 08 09 10  11  12 13 14  15  16 17 18 19 20 21  22  23 24  25  SecondaryFemale (MOD 4)  SecondaryFemale (MOD 8)  Total  Even  Odd  Total  Even  Odd  Total  Even  Odd  -56  -24  -32 -4  -44 -20 -9  -28  -16  -14  -12  10 31  11  -13 -10  -26 -14  9 15 23 23 27 28 30  13 13 10 18 16 24 14 25 29 18 25 26 31 34  -4  9  -5  9 12 18 24 25 26 30 31 35 37 44 47 49 50  52  54 54 58 71 75  88  100  -1 6  12 15 14 20 20 12 18 29 31 32 27 30 35 28 32 36 40  32  49 49 53  3 0 3  10  5 6 18  13  6 6  12 20 19 15 24  22  18 18 39 26 39 47  1  32  34 35 40 46 48 51  -12 4  22  15 25 27 26 23  33  56  34 31 37  68 69 72 76 79  42 40 35 42 56  55  65  33  -8  1  9 17 9  8  14  23  15 17 24 19 32  26  29 37 34  23  8  33  37 40 40 40 43 43  56  58  62 63 69 73 74 75  -11 6  33  39 43 37 42 42 41 41  -3 2  2  13  5 11  4 16  8 8 22  15 14 12 9  23  19 19 26 27 31  33  34  APPENDIX I FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF 214 MEAN DEVIATION SCORES GROUPED IN CLASS INTERVALS OF TEN  34 32  30 28 26 24  22 o  20  % 18 »  u  16  14 12 10 8 6  4 2  I I. I.1 -60  -50  -40 - 3 0 - 2 0 - 1 0  0  10  20  Mean D e v i a t i o n Score (Midpoint  30  40  50  60  of Interval)  70  80  90  100 ON  87 APPENDIX J MODIFICATIONS TO THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY" FOR EACH OF THE THREE CONDITIONS I  THE "STANDARD CONDITION"  A r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n was g l u e d t o t h e bottom o f t h e l a s t page o f t h e MTAI b o o k l e t : PLEASE INDICATE THE GRADE LEVEL OF THE "STUDENTS" TO WHOM: YOU CONSIDER YOUR EXPRESSED OPINIONS TO APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY. GRADE 4 OR GRADE 8  II  THE "MOD  4 CONDITION."  An i n s t r u c t i o n was g l u e d t o t h e t o p o f each page o f t h e MTAI b o o k l e t : NOTE: PLEASE CONSIDER ALL STATEMENTS TO BE MADE WITH REFERENCE TO GRADE 4 PUPILS (AGES 9 t o 1 1 ) .  Ill  THE "MOD  8 CONDITION"  An i n s t r u c t i o n was g l u e d t o t h e t o p o f each page o f t h e MTAI b o o k l e t : NOTE: PLEASE CONSIDER ALL STATEMENTS TO BE MADE WITH REFERENCE TO GRADE 8 PUPILS (AGES 13 t o 15).  * The M i n n e s o t a Teacher A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y and S c o r i n g Sheet may be purchased from The Guidance C e n t e r 1000 Yonge S t r e e t Toronto 289, O n t a r i o Canada  

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