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Student teacher attitudes towards children of different grade levels as indicated by the Minnesota teacher.. 1972

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STUDENT TEACHER ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDREN. OF DIFFERENT GRADE LEVELS AS INDICATED B3T THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY by COLIN ROLLINS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 196l A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n the Department of Educational Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1972 In p r e sen t ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and s tudy . I f u r t he r agree tha t permiss ion for e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f £h U CATi 0 *JA I- TSV^hitLOGy The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada D a t e ^ ^ ^ B g £ / ^ 7 3 . ABSTRACT Many writers consider i t "desirable" that teachers hold "democratic" at t i t u d e s towards those they teach. A number of studies have indicated that the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) may be used as an i n d i c a t o r of a respondent Ts "democratic" at t i t u d e s towards p u p i l s . Several researchers using the MTAI to study student teacher at t i t u d e s have shown that groups of sec- ondary student teachers obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean scores than did groups of elementary student teachers. This f i n d i n g may indicate that elementary student teachers tend to hold more "democratic" at t i t u d e s towards the education of c h i l d r e n generally than do secondary student teachers. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n could serve as a basis f o r c r i t i c i s m of the procedures whereby candidates f o r secondary teaching are selected and t r a i n e d . In t h i s study, a r i v a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was advanced and tested. The writer proposed that the aforementioned f i n d i n g may i n d i c a t e that student teachers generally hold d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards children of d i f f e r e n t age and grade l e v e l s . In an experimental t e s t of t h i s i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n , the writer examined the c r e d i b i l i t y of three major propositions: 1. Secondary student teachers completing the MTAI read such general words as " p u p i l " and express a t t i t u d e s which they consider to apply more appropriately to grade eight students than, to grade four students; however, elementary student teachers express at t i t u d e s which they consider to apply more appropriately to grade four stu- dents than to grade eight students. 2. Secondary and elementary student teachers obtain higher scores when they respond to the MTAI with reference to grade four students than they do when they respond to the MTAI with reference to grade eight students. 3. There i s no di f f e r e n c e betweem the mean scores of elementary and secondary student teachers when both groups respond to the MTAI with r e f - erence to students of the same s p e c i f i e d grade l e v e l ( e i t h e r grade four or grade e i g h t ) . Each of 294 randomly selected elementary and second- ary student teachers i n a one-year graduate t r a n s f e r program received an Inventory i n one of three forms: the MTAI i n i t s standard form, the MTAI i n a form r e q u i r - ing completion with reference to grade four students or the MTAI i n a form r e q u i r i n g completion with reference to grade eight students. Scores of 214 respondents were arranged i n a 3^2x2 f a c t o r i a l design with the following three f i x e d f a c t o r s : the "MTAI Condition" f o r the subject (3 forms), "Sex" of the subject (2 forms) and "Specialty" i i i of the subject (elementary or secondary). Twenty-four elementary and t h i r t y - e i g h t secondary subjects who completed the standard form of the MTAI indicated the grade l e v e l ( e i t h e r four or eight) to which they considered t h e i r responses to apply most appropriat- e l y . Their choices were t a l l i e d in* a 2x2 contingency t a b l e . Results of a chi-square te s t supported the f i r s t proposition!. That i s , secondary respondents tended to consider t h e i r expressed att i t u d e s to apply more to grade eight students than to grade four students, and elem- entary respondents tended to reverse the order of the grades. Results of analysis of variance and multiple comparisons did not support the second and t h i r d proposi- t i o n s . Neither elementary nor secondary subjects d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r MTAI scores with reference to grade four and grade eight p u p i l s . The r e s u l t s indicated that elementary subjects had higher scores than secondary subjects with reference to both grade four and grade eight p u p i l s . Thesis Committee Chairman? TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3 1. The P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y of the MTAI ... 3 2. The MTAI as an Indicator of "Demo- c r a t i c " A ttitudes Towards Students .... 5 3. Studies of Attitudes of Prospec- t i v e and P r a c t i c i n g Teachers 8 4. Statement of the Problem 12 CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 14 1. Rationale For the Hypotheses 14 2. The Research Hypotheses 17 CHAPTER -IV RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 20 1. The Design 20 2. Pre-Experimental Procedures 23 3. Subjects and Sampling 24 4. Administration) of the MTAI 27 5. Returns 30 6. Scoring the Returns 33 7. Data Analysis 35 CHAPTER V STATISTICAL RESULTS 38 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION 47 1. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Results 47 2. Li m i t a t i o n s 51 V PAGE 3. Further Research 55 4* Conclusion 58 REFERENCES 62 APPENDICES 68 A. LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM: SEMINAR ADVISERS 69 B:;. LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM STUDENT TEACHERS 70 C. LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR THEIR COOPERATIONS 71 D. LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR COLLECTING RETURNS 72 E. LETTER THANKING STUDENT TEACHERS FOR THEIR RESPONSES 73 F. A REPORT TO PARTICIPANTS INI THE STUDY INVOLVING THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY 74 G. NOTES ON STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 77 H. TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS 82 I. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF 214 MEAN DEVIATION! SCORES GROUPED IN CLASS INTERVALS OF TEN 86 J. MODIFICATIONS TO THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTI- TUDE INVENTORY FOR EACH OF THE THREE CONDITIONS 67 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 RETURNS 31 2 NUMBER OF SUBJECTS AND INVENTORY MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS 39 3 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR INVENTORY SCORES 41 4 HONFERROM t-STATISTICS FOR SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS: oC = .05 42 5 NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SUBJECTS INDICATING GRADE OF PUPILS TO WHOM THEIR RESPONSES APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY: MTAI (STANDARD); 45 6 ODD-EVEN RELIABILITY* FOR EACH OF THE SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION! GROUPS AND FOR EACH OF THE THREE FORMS OF THE MTAI 46 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the assistance I have received from Dr. J.R. M i t c h e l l and a l l Advisers of regular Education 497 and 499 Seminars: through t h e i r cooperation, the data of t h i s study were c o l l e c t e d . For the guidance given to me during t h i s study, I am g r a t e f u l to members of my committee: Dr. Wilson E. Schwann,. Chairman; Dr. Robert F. Conry; Dr. S.F. Foster; and Dr. Bi.C. Munro. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my wife, Maxine, f o r her continual help and encouragement. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the following discussions, the term " a t t i t u d e " i s used to mean a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to respond im a part- i c u l a r way toward a s p e c i f i e d class of objects (Rosenberg, Hovland, McGuire,, Abelson and Brehm, I960, p. 1) Getzels and Jackson state "The importance of under- standing teacher at t i t u d e s would c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f y any e f f o r t s to make the MTAI more meaningful" (1963,, p. 522). The r o l e s of many teachers may be changed by advances im educational technology. Relieved of the functions of mechanical i n s t r u c t i o n , a teacher may be required to make a "... more s k i l l f u l use of the human f a c t o r i n the de- velopment of h i s p u p i l s " (Laycock, 1971, p. 177). There i s increasing evidence to support the view that the a t t i - tudes of teachers s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence the classroom behavior and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e i r students (Yee and Fruchter, 1971, p. 131). So i t i s conceivable that im the future c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s may be considered important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r prospective teachers. Many educators and writers consider i t d e s i r a b l e that c h i l d r e n have teach- ers with "democratic" rather than " a u t h o r i t a r i a n " a t t i - tudes (McGee, 1955; Cole, 1959; Grand, 1959; Remmers, 1963; Hlume, 1964; Vogt, 1968; Scarr, 1970; Burbidge, 1971; Alcock, 1971). The MTAI appears to d i f f e r e n t i a t e respondents with " a u t h o r i t a r i a n " a t t i t u d e s from those with "democratic" a t t i t u d e s . 2 Researchers have found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f erences be- tween the MTAI mean scores of various groups of prospective and p r a c t i c i n g teachers. Over the course of twenty years, studies have shown that teachers and student teachers of the secondary s p e c i a l t y tend to obtain lower scores than do teachers and student teachers of the elementary spec- i a l t y ; nevertheless, there may be no warrant f o r the i n - ference that elementary s p e c i a l i s t s tend to have more "democratic" a t t i t u d e s towards children than do second- ary s p e c i a l i s t s . U n t i l researchers are able to account f o r the elementary-secondary differences on the MTAI, t h i s inventory should not be used as a "screening" device. Although many have speculated on the meaning of the " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e , few have advanced e m p i r i c a l l y te s t a b l e hypotheses to account f o r i t . The present study was an attempt to examine experimentally a p l a u s i b l e explanation f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e often found between the MTAI mean scores of groups of secondary and elementary student teachers. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MTAI The MTAI was designed f o r the purpose of measuring "... those a t t i t u d e s of a teacher which predict how well he w i l l get along with pu p i l s i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n - ships;; and i n d i r e c t l y how well s a t i s f i e d he w i l l be with teaching as a vocation" (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1952, p. 3). I t consists of 150 statements i n a L i k e r t Scale format, so that a respondent can strongly agree, agree, be undecided,, disagree or strongly disagree. - The Invent- ory was e m p i r i c a l l y constructed to discriminate between teachers c l a s s i f i e d as "superior" or " i n f e r i o r " on: the basis of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s ratings of. t h e i r a b i l i t y to maintain) "harmonious r e l a t i o n s " in: the classroom (Leeds, 1950,.. p. 7). The device has been shown to have high s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y , and some concurrent v a l i d i t y studies with the i n i t i a l and published forms of the MTAI have yielded s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s up to .63 (Leeds, 1950; Leeds, 1952; C a l l i s , 1953; Cook,, Kearney, Rocchio and Thompson, 1956). In these studies the v a l - i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a consisted of ratings provided by groups such as p r i n c i p a l s , expert observers and students. In a pr e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y study,, St e i n and Hardy (1956) r e l a t e d MTAI scores of student teachers to rat i n g s made during 4 subsequent p r a c t i c e teaching. The combined ratings of pup i l s and u n i v e r s i t y advisers when correlated with the MTAI scores of elementary and secondary student teachers gave v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .387 and .559 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s of ce r t a i n other v a l i d i t y studies have not been as encouraging. Chappell and C a l l i s (1954) found that MTAI scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to c r i t e r i a r a tings i n a m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The study's conclusion was that teaching c h i l d r e n i s d i f f e r e n t from teaching adult s o l d i e r s . Sandgren and Schmidt (1956) concluded from t h e i r research that there was no s i g n i f - i c a n t r e l a t i o n between MTAI scores and the ratings of c r i t i c teachers. Other studies revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between MTAI scores and the ratings of super- v i s o r s (Oelke, 1956; F u l l e r , 1951). Yee (1967) found only a "small" r e l a t i o n s h i p between MTAI scores and p u p i l ratings ( r = .17) and a r e l a t i o n s h i p of MTAI scores to rati n g s of p r i n c i p a l s which was only "modest" (r = .24). The foregoing findings suggest that there are teaching s i t u a t i o n s i n which various " r a t e r s " may not consider that a teacher with "democratic" a t t i t u d e s has accomplished "harmonious r e l a t i o n s " i n the classroom. Furthermore, what i s good teaching rapport im the opinion of some may be poor teaching rapport i n the view of others ( c f . Getzels and Jackson, 1963,, p. 575). Because a teacher's behavior and a t t i t u d e s may be some function of classroom atmos- 5 phere,. i t i s precarious to accept concurrent v a l i d i t y as a substantiation of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . The f a c t that teachers exh i b i t "democratic" a t t i t u d e s on the MTAI and concurrently are rated as having "harmonious r e l a t i o n s " i n p a r t i c u l a r classrooms i s not a s u f f i c i e n t basis f o r claiming that the same teachers would e s t a b l i s h "harmon- ious r e l a t i o n s " i n any classroom' of students. Because much of the case f o r the v a l i d i t y of the MTAI i s based on concurrent comparisons of the scores and ratings of in s e r v i c e teachers, there i s some doubt that the Inven- tory can be used f o r i t s intended p r e d i c t i v e purposes (Cronbach, 1953, p. 798). 2. THE MTAI AS AN INDICATOR OF "DEMOCRATIC" ATTITUDES TOWARDS STUDENTS Although the MTAI's p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r i t s designed purpose i s questionable, i t may be used as; an i n d i c a t o r of a respondent's a t t i t u d e s towards pupils (Yee, 1967, p. 158). In b u i l d i n g the MTAI, Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s assumed that a teacher with a high score would work with h i s pup i l s i n a "... s o c i a l atmosphere of co- operative endeavor where i n d i v i d u a l s were permitted the freedom to think, act and speak one's mind with mutual respect f o r the f e e l i n g s , r i g h t s and a b i l i t i e s of others" (1951,p. 3). On the other hand, the authors of the MTAI assumed that a teacher with a low score would resem- ble the " a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y " described by Adorno 6 et a l (1950). Following t h e i r f a c t o r a n a l y t i c study of the MTAI, Ferguson, Brown and C a l l i s (1954) concluded that i t meas- ures a sing l e a t t i t u d e f a c t o r ; however, more methodol- o g i c a l l y adequate f a c t o r analyses by Horn and Morrison (1965) and Yee and Fruchter (1971) revealed that the MTAI does not measure a s i n g l e unitary t r a i t . A t o t a l MTAI score represents several l a r g e l y independent response consistencies. Five major f a c t o r s have emerged. Factor I has been l a b e l l e d "Understanding and democratic versus aloof, harsh and autocratic i n dealings with p u p i l s " . Agreement with Factor II items suggests a "... desire to subordinate p u p i l i n t e r e s t and i n c l i n a t i o n to a s t r i c t subject-centered curriculum! and a u t h o r i t a r i a n teacher expectations". Disagreement with Factor II items r e f l e c t s a view that the p u p i l s ' i n t e r e s t s , motivation and open i n t e r a c t i o n with teachers i s basic to e f f e c t i v e learning s i t u a t i o n s . Factor III has been t i t l e d "Punitive I n t o l - erance Versus Permissive Tolerance f o r Child Misbehavior". Factor IV tends to describe "... an a t t i t u d e that concerns f a c i l i t a t i n g p u p i l s ' i n t e r e s t s and achievement" e i t h e r by " c o n t r o l l i n g " or " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " methods. The items i n Factor V express the view that "... most children and pupils acquiesce to the teacher and imply that they should" (Yee and Fruchter, 1971, pp. 121-128). Horn and Morrison (1965) employed responses of 305 college students enrolled i n education courses. Yee and Fruchter (1971) used r e - 7 sponses of 368 i n - s e r v i c e teachers with an average of about ten years of teaching experience. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between Horn and Morrison's and Yee and Fruchter's r e s u l t s suggest that f a c t o r analyses of MTAI responses of other samples of prospective or p r a c t i c i n g teachers "... w i l l not produce r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t outcomes" (Yee and Fruchter, 1971, p. 131). Horn and Morrison (1965) reported that i n t e r c o r r e l a - t ions of t h e i r f i v e major f a c t o r s f e l l i nto a p o s i t i v e manifold. This consideration has permitted Morrison and Romoser to write that the t o t a l MTAI scale "evidently involves a syndrome which could be l a b e l l e d a u t h o r i t a r - i a n " (1967, p. 58). Some support f o r the foregoing state- ment may be found i n the r e s u l t s of research involving the MTAI and the F Scale. P i e r s (1955) and Sheldon,, Coale and Copple (1959) found that "democratic" person- a l i t y types tend to obtain high MTAI scores, while "author- i t a r i a n " p e r s o n a l i t y types tend to obtain low MTAI scores (Getzels and Jackson, 1963, p. 522). Researchers who have found d i f f e r e n c e s between elemen- tary and secondary subjects on the MTAI have made compar- isons of scores based on the t o t a l scale of the Inventory. Eecause the wri t e r i s concerned with such d i f f e r e n c e s , he too w i l l examine scores based on the t o t a l scale of the MTAI. This study was designed to t e s t one p a r t i c u l a r explanation of the di f f e r e n c e often found between mean 8 t o t a l MTAI scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers. The explanation was developed independ- ently of the consideration that the differences observed between t o t a l MTAI scores may be differences ons only c e r t a i n f a c t o r s withim the scale. Although the content of the MTAI can be more pre- c i s e l y defined with d e s c r i p t i o n s of i t s separate f a c t o r s rather than i t s t o t a l scale, the present study assumes that r e l a t i v e l y high MTAI t o t a l scores r e f l e c t a c o l l e c - t i o n of a t t i t u d e s which may be characterized as "democrat- i c " and that r e l a t i v e l y low MTAI scores r e f l e c t a c o l l e c - t i o n of a t t i t u d e s which may be described as " a u t h o r i t a r i a n " . Some writers i n describing the a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d by r e l a t i v e l y high MTAI scores have used such words as " f a - vorable" and " s o c i a l l y acceptable" (Sandgren and Schmidt,, 1 9 5 6 ; Walberg, 1 9 6 4 ) . When such terms are used to des- cribe " s p e c i a l t y " d i f ferences on the MTAI, secondary respondents tend to appear l e s s f i t to teach the young than do elementary respondents. This type of conclusion would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f a i r i f i t could be demonstrated that the d i f f e r e n c e s between MTAI mean scores of elem- entary and secondary respondents were the r e s u l t s of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Inventory. 3. STUDIES OF THE ATTITUDES OF PROSPECTIVE AND PRACTICING TEACHERS Using the MTAI, researchers have completed many 9 studies of the a t t i t u d e s of teachers and student teachers. A number of these studies have indicated that increases i n formal education are generally accompanied by s i g n i f - i c a n t increases i n the mean MTAI scores of groups of student teachers ( C a l l i s , 1950"1"; Sandgren and Schmidt,, 1956; Dunham, 1958; Hoyt and Cook, I960; Munro, I960; Brim, 1966; Thompson, 1967; McEwin, 1968; Muuss, 1969); however, actual teaching experience often i s accompanied by s i g n i f i c a n t decreases i n the mean MTAI scores of be- ginning teachers ( C a l l i s , 1950; Day,, 1959; Hoyt and Cook,, I960; Rabinowitz and Rosenbauro,, I960; Oana,, 1965; Gewinner, 1967; Muuss, 1969). The d i f f i c u l t i e s of meas- uring "true change" and of a s c r i b i n g t h i s "change" to the influence of p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s prevent one from forming p o s i t i v e conclusions about the "changes" of MTAI scores described i n the foregoing sentences (Campbell and Stanley, 1963; Cronbach and Furby, 1970); furthermore, "... our c u l t u r a l stereotypes are such that we would almost never consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of the student's behavior causing the teacher's" (Campbell and Stanley, 1963, p. 235). I t i s possible that the events most pertinent to the 1. In h i s study C a l l i s used an inventory which was a " s l i g h t extension" of the one o r i g i n a l l y developed by Leeds. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the extended and o r i g i n a l inventories was .95 ( C a l l i s , 1950, p. 718). Of the 150 items i n the published MTAI, 129 were taken from Leeds' 1 6 4 item inventory and 21 from C a l l i s ' 239 item inventory (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1951, p. 1 3 ) . 10 r i s e or f a l l of a teacher's MTAI score i s her experience with the students she teaches. This consideration i s encouraged by studies which have indicated that groups of elementary teachers tend to have higher MTAI mean scores than do groups of secondary teachers (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1952; St e i n and Hardy, 1957; Hoyt and Cook, I960). I t seems p l a u s i b l e that the experience of teaching young ch i l d r e n i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the experience of teaching adolescents. The data of several studies show that the mean MTAI scores of groups of students preparing to teach elemen- tary grades often exceed those obtained by groups of students preparing to teach secondary grades. Using the 239-item form of the Inventory, C a l l i s studied beginning juniors and graduating seniors i n the College of Education! at the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. He concluded that "... there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n teacher-pupil a t t i - tudes among subjects c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r major curriculum and ... these differences are present i n about the same magnitude at the beginning of professional t r a i n i n g as at the end of i t ..." (1950,. p. 726). C a l l i s found that the MTAI mean score of elementary student teachers was higher than that of secondary student teachers. Sangren and Schmidt (1956) studied 393 senior stud- ents at a midwestern state teachers college. On a f i r s t administration of the MTAI, elementary, secondary academic and secondary non-academic groups obtained, r e s p e c t i v e l y , mean scores of 57, k5.8 and 37.2. The order of group means remained the same on a second administration of the Inventory following p r a c t i c e teaching. The mean scores were 6 5 . 8 , 53.1 and 4 8 . 8 . The researchers did not comment on the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these f i n d i n g s . Nbrmal school students enrolled i n a one-year course at the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba were studied by Stein and Hardy (1957). They found that the MTAI " d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y " between student teachers of d i f f e r e n t "grade-levels". The mean score of the prospective elemen- tary teachers was greater than that of the prospective secondary teachers. Beamer and Ledbetter (1957) examined the MTAI scores of teachers enrolled i n education courses at North Texas State College. The mean score of eighty-seven elementary subjects was greater than that of f i f t y - f o u r secondary subjects. The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the di f f e r e n c e was not reported. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study by Hoyt and Cook (I960) indicated that, from t h e i r f i r s t to t h e i r l a s t years of professional t r a i n i n g at the Un i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, elementary stud- ent teachers tended to have higher l e v e l s of MTAI scores than d i d secondary student teachers. With teaching experience, both elementary and secondary teachers tended to produce lower MTAI mean scores; however, the elemen- 12 tary teachers remained with higher mean scores than did the secondary teachers. Hoyt and Cook summarized t h e i r f i n d i n g s of twelve years of study with the MTAI: elemen- tary student teachers t y p i c a l l y score 60 i n t h e i r j u n i o r year and 80 i n t h e i r senior year; secondary student teachers t y p i c a l l y score 45 i n t h e i r j u n i o r year and 65 i n t h e i r senior year. Munro (I960) administered the MTAI to groups of students i n d i f f e r e n t programs i n the Faculty of Education at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l subjects intended to teach the next year. Results showed that the mean score of the elementary group (Juniors) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of each of the secondary groups (Third year students, I n d u s t r i a l a r t s students and Graduate one-year-program-students). McEwin (1968) used the MTAI i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study at East Texas State U n i v e r s i t y . His data revealed a pattern s i m i l a r to that found by other researchers. The MTAI mean score of a group of elementary student teachers exceeded that of a group of secondary student teachers on each of 3 administrations: at the beginning of the spring semester methods courses, at the beginning of student teaching and a f t e r completion of student teaching. 4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM On the basis of observed differences s i m i l a r to those discussed i n the foregoing paragraphs,, Sandgren and 13 and Schmidt concluded, "Elementary curriculum student teachers have more favorable at t i t u d e s toward school work and chi l d r e n as expressed by t h e i r MTAI scores than do student teachers following other c u r r i c u l a " (1956,, p. 579). Kearney and Rocchio have suggested that teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s should b u i l d t h e i r curriculums "with reference to improvement on MTAI scores" (1956, p. 706). Acceptance of Sandgren's and Schmidt's conclusion and Kearney's and Rocchio's suggestion may lead a reader to suspect that s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs f o r second- ary teachers are somehow l e s s adequate and more i n need of r e v i s i o n than those f o r elementary teachers. At the very l e a s t , a reader may come to believe that "... i n - v e s t i g a t i o n i n the area of teachers* a t t i t u d e s might be worthwhile to determine, i f possible, the factors i n our soc i e t y that produce such d i f f e r e n c e s i n attitudes ..." as those that have been observed between various groups of student teachers (Munro, I960). Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n may reveal that Sandgren and Schmidt's conclusion i s un- warranted and that Kearney and Rocchio's suggestion should not be considered s e r i o u s l y while the MTAI remains i n i t s present form. The problem of examining one possible explanation of why groups of elementary student teachers u s u a l l y obtain higher MTAI mean scores than do groups of secondary student teachers i s the concern of the present study. CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 1. RATIONALE FOR THE HYPOTHESES A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the MTAI may have some bearing uporo the present research problem. The authors of the MTAI have written: "Due to possible ambiguity and the general nature of some of the items, there may be varying i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1951, p. 5). The authors consider i t an important f a c t o r im the In- ventory to have subjects "... answer items according to t h e i r own understanding of them" (1951, p. 5). But, with reference to psychological measuring devices of various kinds, G u i l f o r d has stated,, "When the i n s t r u c t i o n s leave too much to the imagination of the examinee, he invents hi s own goal and his own task and i f these d i f f e r among examinees, we have l o s t the experimental conditions nec- essary f o r meaningful scores" (1967,; p. 277). A symbol's connotative or a f f e c t i v e meanings held by two i n d i v i d u a l s cannot be meaningfully compared unless the denotative meaning of the symbol i s s i m i l a r f o r both i n d i v i d u a l s . Of the 150 items im the MTAI, 113 contain such general words as " p u p i l " , " p u p i l s " , " c h i l d " , " c h i l d r e n " and "young people". The dif f e r e n c e s that have been observed between the MTAI mean scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t responses 15 these groups make to systematically d i f f e r e n t conceptions of the referent of such general words as " p u p i l " . Yee and K r i e w a l l have claimed that the MTAI "... remains the most popular and perhaps best indicant of teacher's a t t i - tudes towards childre n ..." (1969, p. 11). I t i s possible that secondary student teachers responding to the MTAI do not have " c h i l d r e n " i n mind. In h i s "Dictionary of Psychology", Drever states that an at t i t u d e involves "... expectancy of a ce r t a i n kind of experience and readiness with an appropriate response ..." (1956, p. 22). A student teacher preparing to teach at c e r t a i n grade l e v e l s reasonably expects that he w i l l have teaching experience at those grade l e v e l s . I t i s p l a u s i b l e that i f t h i s teacher were asked to express hi s a t t i t u d e s towards "p u p i l s " , he would make his responses with reference to the " p u p i l s " that he expects to teach and/or has already taught during h i s p r a c t i c e teaching sessions. Generally, elementary student teachers prepare themselves to teach c h i l d r e n from s i x to t h i r t e e n , the approximate age at which puberty and adolescence begin (Sandstrom, 1969). Almost a l l pupils taught by teachers of secondary grades have entered t h e i r adolescent stage of growth. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of "c h i l d r e n " and "adolescents" have been discussed by many wri t e r s . ( J e r s i l d and Tasch, 1949; Laycock, 1954; Crow and Crow, 1965; Coan, 1966; Sand- 16 strom, 1968; Alexander, 1969 ?to name a few.) There appears to be widespread agreement that, unlike c h i l d - hood, adolescence i s a stage of development often char- a c t e r i z e d by considerable stres s and c o n f l i c t . I t i s the time of " r e b e l l i o n against authority at home and at school" ( J e r s i l d , 1968, p. 15). Because the adolescent may f i n d i t safer to rebel against l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g symbols of authority, he may be more h o s t i l e with adults who are permissive and sympathetic than he i s with those who are severe and oppressive (Alexander, 1969, p. 252). Student teachers may well expect the behavior of adolescent pupils to d i f f e r somewhat from that of pupils who are c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards these two classes of pu p i l s may be d i f f e r e n t . I t seems reasonable that the MTAI responses of student teachers may vary as d i f f e r e n t reference groups are evoked f o r such words as " p u p i l " . Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s a t t r i b u t e d no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i - cance to t h e i r f i n d i n g that teachers of grades one to three scored highest while teachers of grades seven and eight scored lowest on the MTAI (1951, p. 12). This wr i t e r suspects that such f a c t s may intimate not only the nature of the attitudes elementary and secondary student teachers hold towards the pupils they expect to teach, but also the nature of the a t t i t u d i n a l adjustments elementary and secondary student teachers would tend to make i f they were asked r e s p e c t i v e l y to consider "adoles- cents" and " c h i l d r e n " in. t h e i r responses to items of the MTAI. A study may help to determine the following: whether or not groups of elementary and secondary student teachers responding to the MTAI consider d i f f e r e n t reference groups of such words as " p u p i l " ; whether or not groups of elemen- ta r y and secondary student teachers hold d i f f e r e n t a t t i - tudes towards " p u p i l s " of a s p e c i f i e d age and grade l e v e l ; whether or not groups of the same student teaching s p e c i a l - ty (elementary or secondary) hold d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards " p u p i l s " of d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i e d age and grade l e v e l s ; and f i n a l l y , whether or not student teachers generally hold d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards " p u p i l s " of d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i e d age and grade l e v e l s . 2. THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES I Elementary student teachers completing the MTAI with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l obtain a higher meam score than do secondary student teachers completing the MTAI with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s . [The Inventory with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be re f e r r e d to as the "MTAI (Standard)".] II a Secondary student teachers completing the MTAI with standard i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l consider t h e i r expressed at t i t u d e s to apply more appropriately to grade eight pu p i l s than; to grade four p u p i l s . 18 b Elementary student teachers completing the MTAI with standard instructions w i l l consider their expressed attitudes to apply more appro- priately to grade four pupils than to grade eight pupils. I l l There w i l l be no difference between the mean scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers who complete the MTAI with instructions to make a l l responses with refer- ence to grade four pupils (ages 9 to 11). JjThe Inventory with such instructions w i l l be referred to as the "MTAI (MOD 4)".] IV There w i l l be no difference between: the mean scores of groups of elementary and secondary student teachers who complete the MTAI with instructions to make a l l responses with refer- ence to grade eight pupils (ages 13 to 15)- JThe Inventory with such instructions w i l l be referred to as the "MTAI (MOD 8 ) " . ) V Secondary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 4) w i l l obtain a higher mean score than w i l l secondary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 8 ) . VI Elementary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 4) w i l l obtain a higher mean score than w i l l elementary student teachers completing the MTAI (MOD 8 ) . 19 VII The mean score of student teachers (elementary and secondary) completing the MTAI (MOD 4) w i l l be higher than; the mean score of student teachers (elementary and secondary) completing the MTAI (MOD 8). I t i s expected that the r e s u l t s of empirical t e s t s of these seven hypotheses w i l l help to refute Sandgren and Schmidt's conclusion that "Elementary curriculum stud- ent teachers have more favorable a t t i t u d e s toward school work and chi l d r e n as expressed by the MTAI scores than do student teachers following other c u r r i c u l a " ( 1 9 5 6 , p. 6 7 9 ) . CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 1. THE DESIGN A 3x2x2 f a c t o r i a l design: with three f i x e d f a c t o r s and unequal c e l l frequencies was used in<this study (see Table Q., p.39). The fi x e d f a c t o r s were as follows: a. Condition; Factor. The three l e v e l s of t h i s f a c t o r were three forms of the MTAI: 1) The f i r s t l e v e l was the MTAI i n i t s standard form JMTAI (Standard)}. Subjects completing t h i s Inventory were required to make t h e i r responses with reference to such general symbols as " p u p i l " , " p u p i l s " , " c h i l d " , " c h i l d r e n " and "young people". To the bottom of the l a s t page of the Inventory was attached the statement, "Please i n d i c a t e the grade l e v e l of the students to whom you consider your expressed opinions to apply more ap- pr o p r i a t e l y : Grade 4 CZI or Grade 8 (Z3 ". 2) The second l e v e l was the Inventory i n a modified form [MTAI (MOD 4)). To the top of each page of t h i s MTAI was attached the statement: "Note: Please consider a l l statements to be made with reference to Grade 4 pupils (ages 9 to 11)." 21 3) The t h i r d l e v e l of the condition, f a c t o r was the Inventory i n a modified form [MTAI (MOD 8)"). To the top of each page of t h i s MTAI was attached the statement: "Note: Please consider a l l statements to be made with reference to Grade 8 pupils (ages 13 to 15)." Grades four and eight were selected as ap- proximate l e v e l s between: which considerable changes of behavior often occur i n students. Sandstrom considers the way of l i f e of a ten- year- old c h i l d to be normally harmonious and well balanced and that the eleventh year i s an uncommonly happy phase (1968, p. 220 and p. 62). According to Alexander, the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t i e s and behavior im the middle childhood period u s u a l l y are more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d than i n e i t h e r the early childhood or adolescent periods (1969, p. 159). The adolescent may seek release from the adult control he accepted i n h i s c h i l d - hood (Crow and Crow, 1965,, p. 212). Seeking independence, he suddenly may become un w i l l i n g to accept adults as protectors and supervisors (Laycock, 1954, p. 33)• He even may resent adult assistance when i t i s offered to him (Crow and Crow, 1965, p. 8). S p e c i a l t y Factor. The s p e c i a l t y categories involved i n t h i s study were as follows: 1) Students i n the "One-Year Programme (Second- ary) f o r Graduates" (The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Calendar, 1971/72, p. 158). These students held f i r s t degrees and were preparing to teach secondary grades (3 to 12). 2) Students i n the One-Year Programme (Elemen- tary) f o r Graduates. These students held f i r s t degrees and were preparing to teach intermediate grades (4 to 7) and primary grades (1 to 3). Research has indicated that MTAI scores of primary student teachers tend to exceed those of intermediate student teachers. (Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s , 1951; S t e i n and Hardy, 1957). However, the small number of students with f i r s t degrees who were preparing to teach primary grades prevented the writer from including "primary" as a separate l e v e l of the s p e c i a l t y f a c t o r . Sex Factor. Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s reported "Men and women graduate students i n general have mean MTAI scores which are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t " (1952,. p. 7). On the other hand, 23 Sandgren and Schmidt (1956),. studying elemen- tary and secondary seniors, found that the women had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on the MTAI than did the men. Si m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained by McEwin (1968). His study indicated that, i n both elementary and secondary s p e c i a l t i e s , the women student teachers obtained higher MTAI scores than did the men. On the basis of a study with elementary junior student teachers at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Munro (I960) concluded that the p o s s i b i l i t y of sex diffe r e n c e s i n MTAI scores should be investigated. Because " s p e c i a l t y " d i fferences that have been observed i n some previous studies may have been due to "sex" di f f e r e n c e s , i t was decided that sex would be included as a f a c t o r i n t h i s study. 2. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Requests f o r permission^ to administer the MTAI to a sample of students i n the one-year graduate t r a n s f e r pro- gramme a f t e r the November pr a c t i c e teaching session were sent to Elementary and Secondary Directors i n the Faculty of Education at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Permission was granted, and ire October of 1971, the names of a l l students enrolled i n the one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programme were obtained from the Student Teaching O f f i c e . There were t h i r t e e n regular student teaching seminars (Education) 497) to which students i n the elementary one- year graduate t r a n s f e r programme had been assigned, and there were t h i r t y - s i x seminars (Education 499) to which the students i n the secondary one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programme had been assigned. A l e t t e r requesting assistance was sent to each of the elementary and secondary seminar advisers (see Append- i x A). Each adviser was asked i f he would permit randomly selected students i n his seminar to complete anonymously the MTAI. A l i s t of names of a l l students i n the seminar was included i n the l e t t e r . Advisers indicated t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to help by returning the l i s t of names with corrections of any errors and/or omissions. Permission to proceed with the study was received from a l l advisers by l e t t e r or telephone. 3. SUBJECTS AND SAMPLING Student teachers at various l e v e l s of elementary and secondary professional t r a i n i n g were considered f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study. I t was decided that only the population of students i n one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programmes would be sampled i n order to reduce the pos- s i b l e e f f e c t s (upon MTAI scores) of subjects having d i f f e r e n t lengths of professional t r a i n i n g i n elementary or secondary education. Information received from elemen- tary and secondary seminar advisers indicated that the group of students i n the regular graduate t r a n s f e r pro- 25 gramme consisted of 57 men (elementary programme) ,, 86 women (elementary programme), 222 men (secondary programme) and 155 women (secondary programme). Three hundred copies of the MTAI were purchased. The research design required that there be three groups of subjects for each of four specialty-sex combinations (see Table 2, p. 3 9 ). The sampling fractions of the specialty-sex sub-populations could not be made equal without reducing the possible maximum size of the three elementary male groups to an unacceptably low number"'". It was decided that the assumptions for analysis of var- iance would be more easily met i f the sampling were not representative of the specialty-sex composition of the population of graduate transfer students. The effect of this decision was to preclude any p o s s i b i l i t y that the results of this study could be generalized to the entire population of graduate transfer students. This loss of "external v a l i d i t y " i s regrettable, but not uncommon according to Runyon and Haber (1967). They state: In the typical experimental situation, the actual population or universe does not exist. What we attempt to do i s find out something about the characteristics of the population i f i t did exist. Thus our sample groups provide us with i n - formation about the characteristics of a population i f i t did, i n fact, exist (1967, p. 127). 1 In a written reply to this writer's request for information, Albert H. Yee of the University of Wisconsin indicated that i f "sex" and "specialty" were c r i t i c a l fact- ors, then the c e l l frequencies should be much larger than ten. Im the present study then, an " a r t i f i c i a l population" was assumed. A l l f i f t y - s e v e n (or 100 per cent) of the elementary men received i n v i t a t i o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e (see Appendix B3) . Simple random samples were drawn from the other sub- populations to determine which students would receive i n v i t a t i o n s . Sizes of the samples were as follows: s i x t y - nine (or 80 per cent) of the elementary women,, ninety (or 40 per cent) of the secondary men and seventy-eight (or 50 per cent) of the secondary women. Each of the f i f t y - s e v e n elementary men was assigned at random to one of three groups,, and each of the three groups was randomly assigned to a condition jjMTAI (Standard), MTAI (MOD 4) or MTAI (MOD 8)"]. The same procedure was followed with the random samples of elementary women, secondary men and secondary women. In t h i s way, twelve specialty-sex- conditiom groups were formed (see Table 2, p. 39 ). The random assignment of subjects to groups and groups to conditions was an attempt to achieve a pretreatment " e q u a l i t y " of the three condition groups withini each spe- c i a l t y - s e x sample (Campbell and Stanley, 1963,, p. 176). This all-purpose method was used i n l i g h t of Lord's assur- ance that "There i s simply no l o g i c a l or s t a t i s t i c a l procedure that can be counted on to make the proper allowance f o r uncontrolled pre-existing differences be- tween groups" (1967, p. 305). 27 4. ADMINISTRATION OF THE MTAI The name of each student im each of the twelve spe- c i a l t y - s e x - c o n d i t i o n groups was typed on a card, and t h i s card was stapled to an envelope which was marked only with the name of the student's seminar adviser f o r teach- ing p r a c t i c e . Into the envelope were placed the follow- ing items: a. An appropriate form of the MTAI determined by the "condition" the student was to receive: MTAI (Standard), MTAI (MOD 4) or MTAI (MOD 8). b. An; IBM answer sheet at the top of which was one of twelve Roman numerals i d e n t i f y i n g the student's p a r t i c u l a r s pecialty-sex-condition group. c. A l e t t e r requesting the student's assistance (see Appendix B). Other purposes of t h i s l e t t e r were as follows: 1) To assure the student that he could become an; anonymous respondent by simply removing h i s name card from the envelope, [sorenson (1956) found that signing or not signing an answer sheet may a f f e c t MTAI scores.} 2) To promise the student a summary of the study's r e s u l t s . JjVIcLeish (1969) believes that such a promise helped to increase the percentage of h i s survey returns.} 3) To ask the student to complete a l l questions, and to replace the MTAI and answer sheet i n t o the envelope. 4) To request that the student return the sealed envelope to h i s seminar adviser. [Rosenberg (1965) reported that a subject's "evaluative apprehension" can confound the e f f e c t s of a treatment. A student could be reluctant to respond candidly i f he suspected that h i s seminar adviser could e a s i l y appraise his response sheet before sending i t to the experimenter.j The f i l l e d envelopes of the students i n a p a r t i c u l a r seminar sec t i o n were placed i n t o a l a r g e r envelope on which was written the name of the seminar adviser and the number of student envelopes enclosed. To the large envelope was attached a l e t t e r to the adviser (see Appendix C), the purposes of which were as follows: a. To thank the adviser f o r his help. b. To request that the adviser d i s t r i b u t e the envelopes to the students i n his seminar. c. To ask the seminar adviser to leave with the writer's f a c u l t y advisers the returns which he receives. Materials described i n the foregoing paragraphs were mailed to the seminar advisers on November 19th,, a f t e r the students had completed t h e i r f i r s t p r a c t i c e teaching session of the academic year. On the basis of information received from some of the seminar advisers,, i t was decided that no attempt would be made to standardize the mode of administration of the MTAI. In; some cases, advisers indicated that i t would not be convenient f o r students to complete the MTAI during the seminar meeting time; furthermore, i t was recognized that not a l l students would be regular or punctual im t h e i r seminar attendance. For these reasons,, no time l i m i t s f o r completions of the MTAIs or i n s t r u c t i o n s s p e c i f y i n g ad- m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures were l e f t with the advisers. Although i t can1 be argued that f a i l u r e to standardize administration of the MTAIs jeopardized the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study, i t seems u n l i k e l y that t h i s lack of standardization introduced any systematic bias into the r e s u l t s . The MTAI i s l a r g e l y self-administering: a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s needed f o r i t s completion are found withim the inventory. A l l of the advisers were members of a Faculty of Education and presumably were aware of the influence t h e i r introductory comments might have upon a student's responses to an a t t i t u d e inventory. Of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s the f a c t that subjects f o r the three conditions were selected at random from 30 specialty-sex groups without any consideration of the seminar sections. So i t was that anyone of the 49 seminar groups might have included students i n a l l three conditions. 5. RETURNS Two hundred ninety-four envelopes f o r students were sent to seminar advisers om November 19th. By December 18th, 162 (55 per cent) of the inventories had been r e - turned i n completed condition. By January 18th, useable returns numbered 198 ( 6 7 per cent). Because the MTAIs had been completed anonymously and no s u r r e p t i t i o u s i d e n t i - f i c a t i o n method was used, the writer could not d i r e c t appeals f o r cooperation to i n d i v i d u a l nonrespondents. To encourage returns, a l e t t e r expressing thanks f o r a s s i s t - ance with the c o l l e c t i o n of data was sent to each seminar adviser (see Appendix D). Attached to t h i s l e t t e r were thank-you notes f o r a l l seminar members who had received MTAIs (see Appendix E). Each note requested that the student return h i s MTAI i f he had not done so already. On February 11th, the l a s t MTAIs were c o l l e c t e d from ad- v i s e r s , and the f i n a l t o t a l of useable returns increased to 214 (73 per cent). The number of returns f o r each specialty-sex group i s displayed i n Table 1. 0 TABLE 1 31 RETURNS Specialty- Number of Returns (and Returns as a Percentage of Sample) Male Female Elementary - N = 38- - (67 per cent) N = 42 (6l per cent) Secondary N = 70 (78 per cent) w = 6 4 (82 per cent) The return r a t i o s of the elementary group (63.5 per cent) and the secondary group (78.8 per cent) were s i g n i f i c a n t - l y d i f f e r e n t (p < .03) (see Appendix G l ) . The l i t e r a t u r e does not appear to o f f e r any r a t i o n a l e f o r such a f i n d i n g . I t might be explained by the f a c t that an approximate mean number of ten MTAIs was d i s t r i b u t e d by each elementary seminar adviser, while secondary advisers each d i s t r i b u t e d about f i v e MTAIs. Conceivably i t i s more convenient to c o l l e c t f i v e MTAIs than i t i s to c o l l e c t ten MTAIs. Also, i t may be s i g n i f i c a n t that a l l subjects were informed that they v*ere part of a "random sample". In an e f f o r t to meet design requirements, the writer included a l l elementary men and 80 per cent of the elementary women. This means that almost a l l students i n the elemen tary seminars received inventories. By contrast, the number of subjects i n each secondary seminar was a small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l class membership. The " s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n " received by secondary subjects may have encour aged i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (a "Hawthorne" e f f e c t ) , whereas the apparently "indiscrirainant group treatment" received by elementary subjects may have provided l i t t l e i n centive f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (a "reverse Haw- thorne" e f f e c t ) . Student comments written on several of the returned MTAIs suggested at l e a s t one possible reason f o r the lack of response of some elementary and secondary subjects. Four respondents indicated that the time of MTAI d i s t r i - bution! was inconvenient. On November 19th, the students ju s t had completed two weeks of practice teaching and i n twenty-one days they would begin to write Christmas exams I t i s conceivable that some students simply discarded the MTAI instead of spending study-time i n i t s completion. In> the l e t t e r accompanying each MTAI, the v / r i t e r asked the students to respond to a l l statements and to return a l l materials. Seven respondents returned only t h e i r IBM answer sheets. Each of three other respondents returned his answer sheet together with the s t r i p of paper that had been fastened to the bottom of the l a s t page of his MTAI booklet. (On t h i s s t r i p of paper was the request that the student indicate to which one of two s p e c i f i e d grade l e v e l s he would consider h i s responses to apply more appropriately.) Subject behaviors noted i n the foregoing sentences suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y that some of the nonrespondents may have kept the MTAI and i t s answer sheet because of personal i n t e r e s t i n the device. In t h i s study, an arrangement should have been: made to provide inte r e s t e d subjects with copies of the inventory they were asked to complete and return. 6 . SCORING THE RETURNS Cook,, Leeds and C a l l i s developed an empirical scoring key f o r the MTAI by considering the dif f e r e n c e s between the responses of 100 "superior" and 100 " i n f e r i o r " teachers (see Chapter I I , Part 1). With the "empirical" key, high scores do r e f l e c t c h i l d centered, permissive a t t i t u d e s ; however, the scoring weights of some of t h i s key's items appear to be i l l o g i c a l (Cronbach,. 1953). For example, item one reads, "Most c h i l d r e n are obedient." Responses are weighted as follows: Strongly agree (1) Agree (-1) Undecided or uncertain- (0) Disagree (-1) Strongly disagree (0) Both "agreement" and "disagreement" on t h i s item are 34 penalized. Keys with scoring weights that are more " l o g i c a l " have been discussed by Gage (1957) and Yee and K r i e w a l l ( 1 9 6 9 ) . These l o g i c a l keys do not appear to give the MTAI appreciably higher measures of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a - b i l i t y . The p r i n c i p l e advantage claimed f o r l o g i c a l scor- ing over empirical scoring i s that with the former, "MTAI measures can be conceptualized i n terms of r e l a - t i v e l y simple and communicable theory" (Gage, 1957, p. 215). The objective of the present study i s to attempt some explanation of the secondary-elementary d i f f e r e n c e that has appeared i n the r e s u l t s of a number of researches. In these researches, only the empirical scoring key was used. So that the present study would have a d i r e c t relevance to the work that already had been done, the empirical key was used to score the returned inventories. Of the MTAIs returned, 214 were useable; seventeen were not because they were p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y incomplete with or without explanations. Of the seventeen inventories, four were from students who refused to cooperate and expressed such objections as: the inventory i s of "foreign!' o r i g i n , completing the inventory i s a "waste of time", and pu p i l s should not be considered as "objects". Seven MTAIs were returned without any responses or written comments. The remaining s i x answer sheets were unuseable because they lacked response f o r one or more items. 35 The useable MTAIs were scored by hand according to i n s t r u c t i o n s found im the MTAI Manual. Together with a t o t a l score f o r each answer sheet, a score f o r odd items and a score f o r even items xvas determined to f a c i l i t a t e an odd-even s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n (see Appendix H). • • - Each subject under the MTAI (Standard) condition; was asked to i n d i c a t e whether he considered his responses to apply more appropriately to grade four pupils or to grade eight p u p i l s . Completed responses f o r t h i s item were t a l l i e d i n a contingency table f o r each specialty-sex group. 7. DATA ANALYSIS Data of t h i s study were analysed to permit a t e s t of each of the following n u l l hypotheses at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ; I There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of elementary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition and secondary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition. II With regard to the grade l e v e l s to which they report t h e i r responses to apply more appropri- a t e l y , there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between' elementary subjects im the MTAI (Standard) condition,and secondary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition. I l l There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of elementary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 4) condition and secondary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 4) condition. IV There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between; the mean scores of elementary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 8) condition and the secondary subjects in; the MTAI (MOD 8) condition'. V There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of secondary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 4) condition 1, and the secondary subjects in: In the MTAI (MOD 8) condition. VI There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of elementary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 4) condition and the elementary subjects i n the MTAI (MOD 8) condition. VII There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between' the mean scores of the subjects (elementary and secondary) iro the MTAI (MOD 4) condition and the subjects (elementary and secondary) i n the MTAI (MOD 8) condition. S t a t i s t i c a l procedures used i n the t e s t i n g of n u l l hypotheses I, I I I , IV, V, VI and VII included: the calculation: of means and standard deviations f o r each of the twelve c e l l s , a chi-square t e s t f o r p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y of c e l l frequencies, a t e s t f o r the normality of the data d i s t r i b u t i o n s , , B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t f o r homogeniety of the twelve c e l l variances,, an analysis of variance with unequal c e l l frequencies (a general l i n e a r model) and the Bonferroni t - s t a t i s t i c f o r a l l planned comparisons. The procedure used with n u l l hypothesis II was the c h i - square t e s t of the independence of ca t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s . Cook, Leeds and C a l l i s (195D and Yee (1967) used the Spearman-Brown method with odd-even c o r r e l a t i o n s to estimate the i n t e r n a l consistency of the standard form of the MTAI as .89. To examine modification e f f e c t s upon the Inventory's s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y with subjects i n t h i s study, odd-even i n t e r n a l consistency estimates were performed f o r each of the three MTAI forms. A t e s t f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a di f f e r e n c e between) two c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r independent samples was used to compare the c o e f f i c i e n t of the MTAI (Standard) form with that of each modified form of the Inventory. When major analyses of the data were complete, a b r i e f summary of r e s u l t s was prepared (see Appendix F ) . On A p r i l 4th, 1972,, each seminar adviser was sent t h i s summary together with copies f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to h i s seminar members who had been asked to p a r t i c i p a t e . CHAPTER V STATISTICAL RESULTS Numbers of subjects and Inventory mean scores for groups in) this study are displayed im Table 2. Group frequencies do not depart significantly from proportiom- a l i t y , and no adjustment of frequencies was made (*X = .885; df = 6; p> .98) (see Appendix G 2 ) . Raw scores for each group are found i n Appendix H. These scores were used in tests of two of the standard assumptions for the anal- ysis of variance. The assumption! that group scores were sampled from normal distributions was supported by a chi- square test (V^ = 15.116; df = 9; p > .05) . A frequency distribution of mean: deviation scores i s displayed in Appendix I. Results of Bartlett's test for the assumption of homogeniety of group variances permitted acceptance of the hypothesis that variances are equal (*X = 20.66; df = 11; p >- .01) . On the bases of the foregoing two assumptions and the knowledge that scores were sampled at random from independent populations, an analysis of variance for unequal c e l l frequencies was undertaken.^ 2 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "Goodness of F i t Tests" UBC FREQ July, 1971. 3 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "Bartlett's test for Homogeniety of Variance" UBC HVAR September, 1970. 4 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "General Linear Hypothesis" UBC BMDX64 August, 1971. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF SUBJECTS AND INVENTORY MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS Specialty- Sex Condition Specialty Means Sex Means MTAI (Standard) MTAI (MOD 4) MTAI (MOD 8) E l ementary Male X = 31.07 N = 15 X = 57.91 N = 11 X = 62.58 N = 12 X = 58.63 N = 80 Female X = 50.43 N = 106 Female X = 67 .86 N = 14 X - 6 9 . 5 4 N = 13 X = 62.47 N = 15 Secondary Male X - 38.67 N = 24 X - 37.86 N = 21 X = 3 7 . 1 6 N = 25 X = 38.88 N = 134 ' Male X = 41.72 N = 108 Female X = 33 .60 N = 20 X = 41.50 N = 22 X = 4 4 . 2 3 N =. 22 MTAI Condition Means X = 41 .32 N = 73 X = 48.49 N = 67 X = 48.51 N = 74 VO 40 A summary of the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s i s presented i n Table 3. The a n a l y s i s of variance allows f o r estimation of seven d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s upon the MTAI scores. Three "main e f f e c t s " include those of S p e c i a l t y , Sex and Con- dition'!. Four " i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s " i n c l u d e those of S p e c i a l t y x Sex, S p e c i a l t y x Condition,, Sex x Condition and S p e c i a l t y x Sex x Condition. The data of Table 3 i n d i c a t e a highly s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of S p e c i a l t y upon scores (F = 20. 57; df = 1/202; P = .00002). Also s i g - n i f i c a n t i n t h i s study i s the maim e f f e c t of Sex (F =4.27; df = 1/202; p = .037). The F r a t i o f o r the main e f f e c t of Conditions d i d not reach the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e (F = 1.89; df = 2/202; p = .148). That i s , we cannot confidently discount the p o s s i b i l i t y that observed d i f - ferences among means of three d i f f e r e n t MTAI groups were due to chance f a c t o r s . Bonferroni t - s t a t i s t i c s were used to make the s i x planned comparisons among the mean scores of t h i s study (see Appendix G3). The r e s u l t s of the comparisons are displayed i n Table 4. The conceptual u n i t f o r the s i g - n i f i c a n c e l e v e l using Bonferroni t - s t a t i s t i c s i s the en t i r e c o l l e c t i o n of planned comparisons. The long run average of Type I errors that w i l l be made f o r the s i x comparisons i s (A = .05. Contrasts found to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t per- mitted acceptance of n u l l hypotheses I, V, VI and VII. Contrasts found to be s i g n i f i c a n t permitted r e j e c t i o n of TABLE 3 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR INVENTORY SCORES Source df MS F S i g . Level Specialty- 1 19309.41 2 0 . 5 7 < .001 Sex 1 4 0 0 7 . 9 2 4.27 <.05 Condition 2 1774 . 62 1.89 Spec, x Sex 1 2 5 0 6 . 2 6 2 . 6 7 Spec, x Cond. 2 5 3 6 . 0 3 . 5 7 Sex x Cond. 2 683.17 . 7 3 Spec, x Sex x Cond. 2 2708 . 29 2 . 8 8 E r r o r 2 0 2 938 . 5 5 TABLE 4 BONFERRONI t-STATISTICS FOR SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS: o< =.05 Null Hypothesis Means Compared Absolute Value of Contrast C r i t i c a l Difference (d) Confidence Interval Lower Upper Limit Limit Significant Difference I Elem. MTAI (Stand.) vs Sec. MTAI (Stand.) 12 . 2 6 19.64 -7.38 31.90 Mo III' Elem. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 4) 24.49 20.92 3.57 45.41 Yes IV Elem. MTAI (MOD 8) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 8) 22.05 19.83 2.22 41.88 Yes V Sec. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Sec. MTAI (MOD 8) .75 17.33 -16.58 18.08 No VI Elem. MTAI (MOD 4) vs Elem. MTAI (MOD 8) 1.69 23.04 -21.35 24.73 No VII Elem.-Sec. (MOD 4) vs Elem.-Sec. (MOD 8) . 0 2 13.84 -13.82 13.86 No 43 n u l l hypotheses I I I and IV (see p . 3 6 ) . Twenty-nine elementary and f o r t y - f o u r secondary student teachers completed the standard form of the MTAI. Of these two groups, twenty-four and t h i r t y - e i g h t subjects, r e s p e c t i v e l y , responded to the forced choice item that was fastened to the l a s t page of the standard MTAI. The item requested that the subject choose four or eight as the grade l e v e l of students to whom he would consider h i s Inventory responses to apply most appropriately. Table 5 displays the frequencies of choices made by subjects. Because the elementary and secondary groups were independ- ent and the data were t a l l i e d i n d i s c r e t e categories, the chi-square t e s t of the independence of c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i - ables was applied. Results l e d to r e j e c t i o n of n u l l hypothesis II ( 0 C a = 32.97; df = 1; p < .0005 i n one- t a i l e d test) (see Appendix G4) . Further analysis showed that secondary men and women did not d i f f e r with respect to t h e i r choice of grade l e v e l : both groups tended to choose grade eight. Among elementary subjects, men show- ed a l e s s pronounced tendency than women to choose grade four; however, the observed chi-square value of .603 was much smaller than the c r i t i c a l value required f o r s i g - n i f i c a n c e at c<~ = .05. The odd-even scores of the twelve specialty-sex- condition groups and of the three groups of subjects who completed d i f f e r e n t forms of the MTAI are found i n Append- 44 i x H. Displayed i n Table 6 are the corrected odd-even r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each of the specialty-sex- condition 1 groups and f o r the three forms of the Inventory, (see Appendix G5 f o r "c o r r e c t i o n " formula) Each group of subjects who completed a form of the MTAI was regarded as an independent sample, and the di f f e r e n c e s among the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the three groups were tested f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e (see Appendix G6) . Comparisons of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the MTAI (Standard) with those f o r the MTAI (MOD 4) and the MTAI (MOD 8) showed neg- l i g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s £ z (Standard vs MOD 4) = .422, p > .67 and g (Standard vs MOD 8) = .601, p > .54). 5 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Center, "Triangular Regression Package" UB:C TRIP Feb- ruary, 1972. TABLE 5 NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SUBJECTS INDICATING GRADE OF PUPILS TO WHOM THEIR RESPONSES APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY: MTAI (STANDARD) Specialty- Choice of Grade Row Total Four Eight E l ementary 18 6 24 Secondary 1 37 38 Column Tota l 19 43 6 2 Sex i n Elementary S p e c i a l t y Choice of Grade Row Total Four Eight Male 7 4 11 Female 11 2 13 Columm Total 18 6 24 Sex im Secondary Sp e c i a l t y Choice of Grade Row Total Four Eight Male 1 20 21 Female 0 17 17 Columm To t a l 1 37 38 TABLE 6 ODD-EVEN! RELIABILITY* FOR EACH OF THE SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION! GROUPS AND FOR EACH OF THE THREE FORMS OF THE MTAI Group No. Correlation! of SD Spec. Sex Cond. Subjects C o e f f i c i e n t Elem-. Males (Stand.) 15 31.86 .891 Elem. Males (MOD 4) 11 25.55 .931 Elem. Males (MOD 8) 12 27.45 .942 Elem. Females (Stand.) 14 18.86 .839 Elem'. Females (MOD 4) 13 18.60 .736 Elem. Females (MOD 8) 15 23.58 .813 Sec. Males (Stand.) 24 31.96 .926 Sec. Males (MOD 4) 21 33.45 .912 See. Males (MOD 8) 25 26.34 .885 Sec. Females (Stand.) 20 26.54 .769 Sec. Females (MOD 4) 22 40.03 .907 Sec. Females (MOD 8) 22 40.48 .913 F o r m iof MTAI No. of Subjects SD Cor r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Standard 7 3 30 . 8 5 . 8 8 5 MOD 4 6 7 3 4 . 1 3 .901 MOD 8 7 4 3 2 . 2 8 . 9 0 6 * Corrected f o r attenuation with the Spearman- Brown formula. CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION 1. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS The outcome of the comparison between the mean scores of secondary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition and elementary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition was not as predicted i n research hypothesis I. Although the dif f e r e n c e was i n the expected d i r e c t i o n , i t did not reach the c r i t i c a l value needed f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l with the BONFERRONI t procedure. I t should be noted that t h i s procedure i s very conservative: "The advantage of being able to make a l l planned comparisons i s gained at the expense of an increase i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of making a type II error" (Kirk, 1968, p. 81). The differ e n c e between s p e c i a l t y group means on the standard MTAI was almost e n t i r e l y due to the high mean score of the elementary women. The mean score of the elementary men was s l i g h t l y below those of the secondary men and women. The r e s u l t s provide grounds f o r accepting research hypothesis I I . As predicted, there appeared to be a strong tendency amongst secondary subjects i n the MTAI (Standard) condition to consider t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s as being more appropriately applicable to grade eight pupils than to grade four p u p i l s . Elementary subjects under the same condition tended to choose grade four as the l e v e l to which t h e i r a t t i t u d e s more appropriately applied. Incidental 48 comments made by subjects upon returned inventories also suggested that secondary and elementary subjects i n complet- ing MTAI items may be r e f e r r i n g to " p u p i l s " at grade l e v e l s they expect to teach. Three subjects protested, i n various ways, the request that they respond with reference to a grade l e v e l they had never taught and/or never expected to teach. The tendency to se l e c t grade four over grade eight was more evident amongst elementary women than amongst elemen- tary men. In the group of elementary men,(whose MTAI (Stand- ard} mean score was s i m i l a r to those of secondary subjects} four of eleven who responded to the grade-choice-item selected grade eight over grade four; only two of t h i r t e e n elementary women respondents did so. This suggests that performance l e v e l on the MTAI may be r e l a t e d to the grade l e v e l of the " p u p i l " considered by subjects as they complete the inventory; however, t h i s i n d i c a t i o n was not supported by the other r e s u l t s of the study. The expectation expressed by research hypothesis I I I was that elementary and secondary subjects under the MTAI (MOD 4) condition would obtain s i m i l a r mean scores. E v i - dence indicated that the elementary subjects obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than did secondary subjects when both groups were inst r u c t e d to make responses with reference to grade four c h i l d r e n . The groups ranked i n order of t h e i r means from highest to lowest xvere: elemen- tary women, elementary men, secondary women and secondary 4 9 men. Research hypothesis IV was that elementary and second- ary groups under the MTAI (MOD 8) condition would not d i f f e r i n t h e i r inventory mean scores. The f i n d i n g of t h i s study was that the elementary group obtained a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean score than did the secondary group. In; the elementary group, the mean score of the men s l i g h t l y ex- ceeded the mean of the women; i n the secondary group,, the mean score of the women exceeded the mean of the men. The f a i l u r e of research hypotheses I, I I I and IV indicates that the phenomenon of a " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e on the MTAI did not disappear when grade l e v e l s were specified,, rather i t became more evident than i t was with elementary and secondary groups i n the MTAI (Standard) condition. Hypothesis V stated that secondary subjects under MTAI (MOD 4) would obtain a higher mean score than would secondary subjects under MTAI (MOD 8). Results showed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the secondary groups under these conditions. Results also contradicted research hypothesis VI. That i s , elementary subjects completing the MTAI (MOD 8) did not obtain a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean score than elementary subjects completing the MTAI (MOD 4). The f a i l u r e of research hypotheses V and VI appears to in d i c a t e that neither elementary subjects nor secondary subjects hold more a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s towards grade eight p u p i l s than towards grade four p u p i l s . Second- ary groups obtain r e l a t i v e l y low MTAI means with reference 50 to both grade eight and grade four p u p i l s ; elementary- groups obtain r e l a t i v e l y high MTAI means with reference to both grade four and grade eight p u p i l s . The p r e d i c t i o n of hypothesis VII was that the mean score of elementary and secondary subjects under the MTAI (MOD 4) condition would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the mean score of elementary and secondary subjects under the MTAI (MOD 8) condition. This study revealed that the di f f e r e n c e was n e g l i g i b l e : the responses of subjects involved i n t h i s study gave no support to the hypothesis that student teachers who consider grade eight pupils obtain lower MTAI scores than do student teachers who consider grade four p u p i l s . The f a c t o r which made the l a r g e s t contribution to variance i n the r e s u l t s of t h i s study was the "Specialty" of respondents. Over a l l conditions, elementary subjects generally obtained higher mean scores than did secondary subjects. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i a l t y x condition i n t e r a c t i o n . This f i n d i n g not only i s consistent with those reviewed i n Chapter I I : i t appears to lend cre- dence to Sandgren and Schmidt's conclusion that "Elementary curriculum student teachers have more favorable a t t i t u d e s towards school work and ch i l d r e n as expressed by the MTAI scores than do student teachers following other c u r r i c u l a " (1956, p. 679). The o v e r a l l contribution of the "Sex" f a c t o r to v a r i a t i o n i n MTAI scores was s i g n i f i c a n t . Over a l l con- d i t i o n s , women generally obtained higher mean scores than did men. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t sex x condition i n t e r - a c t i o n . The f i n d i n g of sex differences on the MTAI i s s i m i l a r to those of Sandgren and Schmidt (1956), Munro (I960) and McEwin (1968). The i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s p e c i a l t y x sex i n t e r a c t i o n suggests that women tend to obtain higher scores i n both elementary and secondary s p e c i a l t i e s . Odd-even s p l i t - h a l f c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of the three MTAI forms revealed that a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the grade l e v e l of " p u p i l s " to be considered by respondents of the MTAI does not appreciably increase the " i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t - ency" of the inventory. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained i n t h i s study suggest that the MTAI t o t a l score i s an i n d i c a t o r of some form of homogeneous at t i t u d e pattern. 2. LIMITATIONS The observed differences between groups may have been influenced by fa c t o r s other than those included i n the design of t h i s study. Random methods of s e l e c t i o n were used i n an attempt to achieve a pre-treatraent "equiv- alence" of groups. The presumption of group equality, i n terms of extraneous influences, i s implausible due to the appearance of s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t return r a t i o s f o r elementary and secondary subjects. I t i s conceivable that some uncontrolled f a c t o r which produced the d i f f e r e n t 52 return r a t i o s also accounted f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ences observed between Inventory scores of elementary and secondary subjects. Another r i v a l hypothesis f o r the differences observed between " s p e c i a l t i e s " i s that systematic differences e x i s t between applicants f o r secondary and elementary teacher t r a i n i n g . In other words, the e f f e c t s of " s p e c i a l t i e s " may well be confounded with a " s e l e c t i o n " e f f e c t . One cannot discount the p o s s i b i l i t y that the r e s u l t s were somehow biased by the f a c t that inventories were completed by subjects over a period of nearly three months. Intervening the dates of " i n i t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n " and " f i n a l c o l l e c t i o n " were such events as the Christmas exams and the Christmas holidays. I d e a l l y , a l l subjects should have completed the inventories simultaneously so that the periods of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g might have been approximately the same. As i t was, d i f f e r e n t numbers of elementary and secondary subjects, depending upon s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l t i e s , may have decided to com- plete t h e i r inventories during the Christmas break. An MTAI completed a f t e r exams and i n f e s t i v e surroundings may be quite d i f f e r e n t from an MTAI completed d i r e c t l y a f t e r a challenging p r a c t i c e teaching session. The " i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y " of t h i s study may have been much increased by the use of greater c o n t r o l s . On the other hand, increased controls may have reduced the f e a s i - b i l i t y of t h i s study and may have themselves produced d i s t o r t i o n s within the r e s u l t s . To i l l u s t r a t e : a number of seminar advisers made i t c l e a r that they would a s s i s t with the study only i f each of t h e i r students were free to choose whether or not he would complete the inventory. So i t was decided that the r e s u l t s of the study would be based upon only voluntary responses. I f the writer had i n s i s t e d that a l l inventories be completed at a c e r t a i n time, he would have l o s t the cooperation of many advisers, and quite possibly, some of the returns he would have r e - ceived would have been from inconvenienced and i r a t e respondents. The findings of a study with "external v a l i d i t y " may be generalized to ce r t a i n populations, s e t t i n g s , treatment v a r i a b l e s and measurement va r i a b l e s (Campbell and Stanley, 1963, p. 175). The treatment and measurement var i a b l e s i n t h i s study have been described and are e a s i l y r e p l i c a b l e . The l e v e l s of the "condition" f a c t o r were " f i x e d " and so the findings have no relevance to consid- erations of grade l e v e l s other than four and eight. The measurement v a r i a b l e was the MTAI i n three forms a l l scored with the "empirical key". "Population" and " e c o l o g i c a l " v a l i d i t i e s are, to say the l e a s t , d i f f i c u l t to achieve f o r a study of a t t i t u d e s . Some attempt has been made to describe the features of the s e t t i n g from which the r e s u l t s emerged; however, l e f t 54 undescribed are many aspects of the p a r t i c u l a r times and si t u a t i o n s i n which t h i s study was completed. I t i s quite p o s s i b l e that the se t t i n g of the Faculty of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the f a l l of 1972 or 1973 w i l l be q u i t e - d i f f e r e n t from what that s e t t i n g was i n the f a l l of 1971. For example, there i s evidence of a growing surplus of teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This trend could well produce changes i n the structure and courses of the Faculty of Education; i t also could produce changes i n enrollments and atti t u d e s of student teachers. The "target" population of t h i s study could be describ- ed as students enrolled i n elementary and secondary one- year graduate t r a n s f e r programs. At the outset of the research, the "experimentally a c c e s s i b l e " population was the group of students enrolled i n the elementary and secondary one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programmes within the Faculty of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the f a l l of 1971. Requirements of the research design made i t necessary to use unequal sampling f r a c t i o n s f o r the four sub-populations within the a v a i l a b l e group; f u r t h e r - more, returns from the samples were p a r t i a l . These f a c t s prevent an inference that the r e s u l t s of the study may be generalized to the actual population of students i n the graduate t r a n s f e r programmes. In f a c t , the r e s u l t s may be applicable to only a "hypothetical" population of v o l - untary respondents. The problem involved i n generalizing 55 any study r e s u l t to a "target" population has been expressed by Bracht and Glass; "The-degree of confidence with which an experimenter can generalize to a target population i s never knowm because the experimenter i s never able to sample randomly from-the true target population" (1968, P. 441). At l e a s t one l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s r e l a t e d to the type of a n a l y s i s employed. In using the analysis of variance techniques, i t was a mathematical necessity to assume that random samples were drawn from " v i r t u a l l y i n f i n i t e populations" i n which MTAI scores had normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s . (Stanley and Glass, 1970, p. 274). Be- cause the population sampled was c l e a r l y f i n i t e , "urn randomization" and non parametric techniques may have been more appropriate methods f o r t h i s study. Such techniques would have produced smaller error terras and possibly more " s i g n i f i c a n t " findings (Campbell and Stanley, 1963, p. 194). 3. FURTHER RESEARCH Campbell and Stanley state that "... continuous multiple experimentation i s more t y p i c a l of science than once and f o r a l l d e f i n i t i v e experiments" (1963, p. 173). The present study has f a i l e d to support the hypothesis of a r e l a t i o n between the scores of student teachers and the grade l e v e l of " p u p i l s " they consider while responding to the MTAI; nevertheless, t h i s writer believes that the 56 hypothesis warrants further empirical t e s t i n g . In t h i s study, i t was presumed that a handprinted i n s t r u c t i o n fasten- ed to the top of each inventory page would be follox^ed conscientiously by each respondent (see Appendix J ) . I t i s possible that these i n s t r u c t i o n s did not intrude suf- f i c i e n t l y into the awareness of the subject while he was completing the MTAI. A more impressive presentation of i n s t r u c t i o n s could have re s u l t e d i n more impressive e f f e c t s . Various research designs should be considered i n t e s t i n g the hypotheses of t h i s t h e s i s . One design, which does not require an enormous f a i t h that "randomization i s equation", has been suggested to t h i s writer by Albert H. Yee of the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin. The three versions of the MTAI could be administered i n varying sequences to each subject selected at random from the various sub- populations of student teachers. This design would serve to make "... each person h i s own control i n other competing f a c t o r s " (Albert H. Yee, personal communication, 1972). Yee and Kriewall's "pentachotous-logical" scoring key f o r the MTAI employs scoring weights which are more psycho- l o g i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e than those of the "empirical" scoring key. The "empirical" key tends to produce d i s t r i - butions which are flat-topped, whereas the "pentachotomous- l o g i c a l " key tends to produce d i s t r i b u t i o n s with greater spreads among extreme p o s i t i v e and negative scores (Yee and K r i e w a l l , 1969, p. 13). The foregoing two considera- 57 t i o n s suggest that possibly greater and more meaningful di f f e r e n c e s between groups would appear i f Yee and K r i e - wall's key were used to score inventories i n a future t e s t of the hypotheses of t h i s paper. One approach to further separating and understanding the sources of variance within and between the d i s t r i - butions of MTAI scores of student teachers may be to i n v e s t i - gate each subject's subscale scores on f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l l y established dimensions of the MTAI. Such an approach may reveal that s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between elementary and secondary student teachers e x i s t on only c e r t a i n u n i t a r y t r a i t s . Differences between mean scores of elementary and secondary student teachers have been observed during various stages of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Attempts should be made to determine how these differences are influenced by the separate f a c t o r s of " s p e c i a l t y experience" and "subject's s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i a l t y " . Such attempts would involve administration of the inventories to subjects p r i o r to the outset of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l course work and student teaching. I f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared only a f t e r some period of t r a i n i n g and student teaching, there would be basis f o r a hypothesis that secondary stu- dent teacher develop a t t i t u d e s towards adolescent pupils and generalize these a t t i t u d e s to children, whereas elemen- tary student teachers develop att i t u d e s towards pupils vrtio 58 are c h i l d r e n and generalize these a t t i t u d e s to pupils who are adolescents. 4. CONCLUSION The purpose of t h i s study was to emp i r i c a l l y t e s t a r a t i o n a l l y developed major hypothesis that differences between MTAI mean scores of elementary and secondary student teachers are a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t a t t i - tudes- with which student teachers as a group regard " p u p i l s " of d i f f e r e n t age and grade l e v e l s . The data supported the hypotheses that elementary subjects tend to regard t h e i r responses to the standard MTAI as being more appropriate f o r grade four pupils than f o r grade eight p u p i l s , and that secondary subjects tend to regard t h e i r responses to the MTAI as being more appropriate f o r grade eight pupils than f o r grade four p u p i l s . The data, however, contradicted the hypothesis of no dif f e r e n c e s between elementary and secondary subjects responding to inventories which specify that grade four pupils are to be considered; s i m i l a r l y , no grounds were found f o r the hypothesis that no dif f e r e n c e s e x i s t between elementary and secondary subjects responding to inventories which specify that grade eight pupils are to be considered. The r e s u l t s indicated that elementary subjects under the MTAI (MOD 1+) condition obtained a mean score not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that obtained by elementary subjects under the MTAI (MOD 8) condition. The same observation was made f o r groups of secondary- subjects . F i n a l l y , the outcomes of t h i s study f a i l e d to support the hypothesis that elementary and secondary one- year graduate t r a n s f e r students, combined,, obtain a s i g - n i f i c a n t l y higher MTAI mean score with reference to grade four " p u p i l s " than they do with reference to grade eight " p u p i l s " . This study showed that the most s i g n i f i c a n t source of variance i n inventory responses was the " s p e c i a l t y " of the respondents; elementary subjects tended to obtain s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher MTAI mean scores than did secondary subjects (P = .00002). S i m i l a r " s p e c i a l t y " d i f f e r e n c e s have occurred i n the r e s u l t s of several researches,, with subjects at d i f f e r e n t stages of professional training,. under d i f f e r e n t administrative conditions,, i n widely sep- arate settings and over the space of two decades. Gampfeell and Stanley have written, "the goal of science includes not only g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to other populations and times but to other non-identical representations of the t r e a t - ment" ( 1 9 6 3 , , p. 202). In t h i s study,, the standard and two s l i g h t l y modified forms of the MTAI were used. The f i n d - ing of higher elementary performances emerged p a r t i c u l a r l y from the MTAI (MOD 4 ) and MTAI (MOD 8) conditions. The other s i g n i f i c a n t source of variance vras the "sex" of respondents; female subjects tended to obtain higher scores then male subjects (P = .037). This tend- 60 ency appeared to be p a r t i c u l a r l y strong within the elemen- tary s p e c i a l t y . Sandgren and Schmidt concluded that,"Elementary curriculum student teachers have more favorable a t t i t u d e s towards school work and c h i l d r e n as expressed by t h e i r MTAI scores than do student teachers following other cur- r i c u l a " ( 1 9 5 6 , p. 6 7 9 ) . They wrote t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a f t e r studying "senior students at a midwestern state teachers college" ( 1 9 5 6 , . . p. 6 7 3 ) . The objective of the present study was to cast doubt upon Sandgren and Schmidt's g e n e r a l i z a t i o n without questioning t h e i r i m p l i c i t assump- t i o n that r e l a t i v e l y high MTAI scores r e f l e c t "favorable" a t t i t u d e s i n student teachers. In t h i s research, i t was hypothesized that the MTAI mean scores of elementary and secondary student teachers i n one-year graduate t r a n s f e r programmes would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i f the grade l e v e l s of " p u p i l s " to be considered were s p e c i f i e d . As i t i s , Sandgren and Schmidt's conclusion has survived the empirical t e s t s of t h i s study; other studies may demonstrate that elementary and secondary student teachers do not have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n . Sandgren and Schmidt's assumption that high MTAI scores r e f l e c t "favorable" a t t i t u d e s does not lend i t s e l f to empirical t e s t i n g . I t s acceptance or r e j e c t i o n depends on the philosophy and value preferences of those who use 61 MTAI, and, according to Yee and Fruchter, the Inventory- continues to b:e a popular research and screening t o o l (1971, p. 131). 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Journal of Educational Research, 1956, XLIX, Pp. 673-680. Sanstrom, C.I. The Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence. Edinburgh: P e l i c a n Books, 1968. Scarr, Sandra. How to Reduce Authoritarianism Among Teachers: The Human Development Approach. Journal of Educational Research, Apr. 1970, V o l . 63, No. 8, Pp. 367-372. Sheldon, M. Stephen, Coale, Jack M. and Copple, Rockne. Concurrent V a l i d i t y of the "Warm Teacher" Scale. Educational Psychology. Feb. 1959, 50, Pp. 37-40. Sorenson, A. Garth. A Note on The F a k a b i l i t y of the MTAI. Journal of Applied Psychology, June 1956, 40, Pp. 192-194. Stanley, J u l i a n C. and Glass, Gene V. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n Education and Psychology. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1970. S t e i n , H. and Hardy, J . A V a l i d a t i o n Study of the MTAI i n Manitoba. Journal of Educational Research, 1957, 1, Pp. 321-338. Thompson, James Newton. S t a b i l i t y and Change i n Measured Attitudes and Vocational Interests of Women i n a Teacher Education Program. Doctor's Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri, Columbia, 1967. D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts 28: 4035-A 67 Vogt, Anton, Techniques and S k i l l s are Not Enough f o r our Future Colleagues. The B\C. Teacher,Mar. 1968, V o l . 47, No. 6, P. 245. Walberg, Herbert Johm. Dynamics of S e l f Conception During Teacher T r a i n i n g . Doctor's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1964. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Microfilm ; T 10469. Yee, Albert H. Is the MTAI V a l i d and Homogeneous? Journal of Educational Measurement, 1967, 4(3), Pp. 151- _61_ Yee, Albert H. and Kri e w a l l , T. A New L o g i c a l Scoring Key f o r the MTAI. Journal of Educational Meas- urement . 1969, V o l . 6, No. 1, Pp. 11-14. Yee, A l b e r t H. and Fruchter, Etenjamin. Factor Content of the MTAI. American Educational Research Journal, Jan. 1971, V o l . 8, No. 1, Pp. 119-133. Yee, Albert H. Personal Communication, Feb. 7, 1972. COMPUTER PROGRAMS B^jerring, J.H. and Seagreaves, Paul. Implementation of UBC TRIP (Triangular Regression Package) on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. Coshow, W. Implementation of UBC HVAR ( B a r t l e t t ' s Test For Homogeneity of Variance) on the U.B.C. 3 6 O Computer. Coshow, W. Implementation of UBC B M D X 6 4 (General Linear Hypothesis) on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. R u s s e l l , Robin. Implementation of UBC FREQ (Goodness of F i t Tests) on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. APPENDIX APPENDIX A 69 LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM SEMINAR ADVISERS Dear I am a pub l i c school teacher completing a th e s i s f o r an M.Ed, degree at U.B1.C. My advisers are Dr. W. Schwahn, Dr. S.F. Foster and Dr. BIC. Munro. Also a s s i s t - ing me are Dr. J.R. M i t c h e l l and Mr. Robert F. Conry. Dr. J.R. Mcintosh (or Dr. F.H. Johnson) has granted me permission to proceed with a study which requires a si n g l e administration of an at t i t u d e inventory to a random sample of the one-year secondary t r a n s f e r graduates (or one- year elementary t r a n s f e r graduates) who complete the November pr a c t i c e teaching session. Please, would you permit randomly selected students of your Education 499 (or 497) class to complete anony- mously the a t t i t u d e inventory s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r November school experience? The time u s u a l l y required to complete the inventory i s twenty to t h i r t y minutes. With your consent, I would send you envelopes, each l a b e l l e d with the name of a randomly selected student i n your charge. Each envelope contains i n s t r u c t i o n s , an at t i t u d e inventory and an IBM answer sheet. The i n s t r u c t i o n s ask the student to complete the inventory, to place materials i n the envelope, to remove his name l a b e l and to return the envelope to you. The planned study could be of i n t e r e s t to you and your students. When i t i s complete, I s h a l l give you a summary of the r e s u l t s . Please, may I include your one-year tr a n s f e r graduates i n a'pool from which w i l l be drawn a random sample? I f you give me permission, please correct any errors and/or omissions i n the accompanying l i s t and send i t to me i n the addressed envelope. I appreciate your help. Sincerely, C o l i n R o l l i n s APPENDIX B3 70 LETTER REQUESTING ASSISTANCE FROM STUDENT TEACHERS Dear Please, w i l l you a s s i s t i n the completion of a survey by f r a n k l y marking your p o s i t i o n on each statement i n the following "Inventory"? Your name was one of 300 selected at random from pools of the names of graduate students i n the one-year elementary and secondary t r a n s f e r programs. By removing your name card which i s stapled to the brown envelope, you can become an "anonymous respondent". ( I t i s not necessary that you write your name anywhere on the booklet or answer sheet.) When the planned survey i s completed, copies of a summary of i t s r e s u l t s w i l l be sent to your seminar ad- v i s e r . Please, w i l l you p a r t i c i p a t e i n the survey by: 1. responding to a l l statements and questions. 2. replacing the completed booklet and answer sheet i n the envelope. 3. removing your name card. 4. returning the sealed envelope to your seminar adviser. Your help i s s i n c e r e l y appreciated. C o l i n R o l l i n s APPENDIX C 71 LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR THEIR COOPERATION Dear Thank you f o r returning the l i s t of names of the one-year elementary t r a n s f e r graduates i n your Education 497 (or 499) seminar. The accompanying envelopes are l a b e l l e d with names of your students who were randomly selected. Each enve- lope contains a request f o r assistance (please see the following page). Please, w i l l you give these envelopes to your students? Envelopes returned to you may be placed i n the large brown envelope. When you have as many envelopes as your students are w i l l i n g to return, please leave the large brown envelope i n the mail room f o r Dr. Schwahn; or Dr. Stephen Foster. Again, I am g r a t e f u l f o r your help. Sincerely, C o l i n R o l l i n s APPENDIX D LETTER THANKING SEMINAR ADVISERS FOR COLLECTING RETURNS Dear Thank you f o r helping roe to c o l l e c t the data required f o r a study with the "Minnesota Teacher At t i t u d e Inventory". I s h a l l be able to send you a summary of the data when I have received more returns. Please f i n d attached to t h i s page notes to your 497 (or 499) seminar mem- bers who received the questionnaire. I appreciate your assistance. Sincerely, Colin; R o l l i n s APPENDIX E LETTER THANKING STUDENT TEACHERS FOR THEIR RESPONSES Dear Thank you f o r providing the data which w i l l make i t possible to complete a study with the "Minnesota Teacher Attitude In- ventory". I f , i n future, I can help you as you have helped me, please phone . I s h a l l be able to send you a statement of the study's purpose and a summary of the data when mere completed questionnaires and answer sheets have been returned. Again, thank you f o r your assistance. Sincerely, C o l i n R o l l i n s 74 APPENDIX F A REPORT TO PARTICIPANTS IN THE STUDY INVOLVING THE "MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY" INTRODUCTION Several researchers have reported that groups of secondary student teachers obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean MTAI scores than did groups of elementary student teachers. I f , as some writers suggest, the MTAI may be used as an i n d i c a t o r of a respondent's "democratic" a t t i - tudes towards children, then the foregoing findings possibly could be interpreted to mean that, f o r various reasons, elementary student teachers tend to hold more "democratic" a t t i t u d e s towards the education of students i n general than do secondary student teachers. To investigate the p l a u s i b i l i t y of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which disputes the previous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the w r i t e r arranged the present study as a tes t f o r three major hy- potheses: 1. Secondary student teachers completing the MTAI read such general words as " p u p i l " and express a t t i t u d e s which they consider "to apply more appropriately" to grade VIII students than to grade IV students. The opposite i s true of elementary student teachers. 2. Secondary and elementary student teachers obtain higher scores when they respond to the MTAI with reference to grade IV students than they do when they respond to the MTAI with reference to grade VIII students. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of elementary student teachers and secondary student teachers when both groups respond to the MTAI with reference to students of the same s p e c i f i e d grade l e v e l ( e i t h e r grade IV or grade VIII) POPULATION Students i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study were randomly selected graduates i n the elementary and secondary one-year-transfer programs at U.B5.C. 75 SAMPLES AND RETURNS Group Item Elem. Males Elem. Females Sec. Males Sec. Females Approximate t o t a l No. of grad. trans, students i n Faculty of Education U.B?.C. 71-72 57 86 222 155 T o t a l simple random sample 57(100%) 69(80%) 90(40%) 78(50%) Number of completed and unspoiled returns and t h i s number as a per- centage of t o t a l simple random sample 18=67% 57 42=61% o9 70=78% 90 64=82% IE DESIGN AND RESULTS Instructions accompanying MTAI The Standard MTAI (at the end of t h i s inventory, subjects are asked to i n d i - Group cate whether t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s apply most appro- p r i a t e l y to grade IV or grade VIII students). The MTAI modi- f i e d with i n - st r u c t i o n s to make responses with reference to grade IV students. The MTAI mod- i f i e d with i n - str u c t i o n s to make responses with reference to grade VIII students. Elem. Male student teachers N=15 X=31.07 SD=31.86 HKL1 X=57.91 SD=25.55 1=12 X=62.58 SD=27.45 Elem. Female student teachers N=14 X=67.86 SD= 18.86 NKL3 X=69.54 SD=18.60 NHL 5 X=62.47 SD=23.58 Second. Male Student teachers N=24 X=38.67 SD=31.98 N=23 X=37.86 SD=33.45 N=25 X=37.06 SD=26.34 Second. Female student teachers N=20 X=33.60 SD=26.54 N=22 X=41.50 SD=40.04 N=22 X=44.23 SD=40.48 76 Subjects completing the standard form of the MTAI only were inst r u c t e d to think i n terms of the "general s i t u a t i o n " when responding to items. GRADE LEVEL OF PUPILS TO WHOM SUBJECTS CONSIDERED THEIR RESPONSES TO APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY Grade Choices Group Subject considered his responses to apply most appro- p r i a t e l y to grade IV students. Subject considered his responses to apply most appropriately to grade VIII students. Elem. s t . teachers (Standard MTAI) Number of completed returns =18 Number of completed returns = 6 Second, s t . teachers (Standard MTAI) Number of completed returns = 1 Numher of completed returns = 37 Elementary and Secondary student teachers were s i g - n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P .01) i n t h e i r choice of a grade l e v e l to which they considered t h e i r responses to apply roost appropriately. This f i n d i n g tends to support hypoth- e s i s I. Evidence from the study does not support hypotheses II and I I I . I f the MTAI i s considered as an i n d i c a t o r of "democratic" a t t i t u d e s towards students, then i t would appear that, f o r as yet undetermined reasons, the randomly selected elementary student teachers from the one-year- t r a n s f e r program tended to be more "democratic" i n t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e s towards ch i l d r e n and early"adolescents than did the randomly selected secondary student teachers from the one-year-transfer program. (Anova F = 20.57; P = .00002) 7 7 APPENDIX G NOTES ON STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 1 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY RETURN RATIOS. A t e s t f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the di f f e r e n c e between two independent proportions i s defined i n Ferguson ( 1 9 7 D as •p j> where Z = A unit-normal-curve deviate. f + fx. p = — I = Estimate of a proportion based N| +• N a_ on the two samples combined. Y = Number of returns f o r sample 1 . •f = Number of returns f o r sample 2 . N, = Number i n sample 1. N3. = Number i n sample 2. q = P - 1 f n N , •p _ -fa. For elementary return r a t i o = .634 and secondary return r a t i o = .798 X = 2 .203 In a two-tailed t e s t , the c r i t i c a l value required f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l i s 1 .96; hence, we r e j e c t the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the elementary and secondary return r a t i o s . APPENDIX G (continued) 78 2 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DEPARTURE FROM PROPORTIONAL- ITY OF CELL FREQUENCIES A test for proportionality of c e l l frequencies i s defined in Ferguson (1971) as f a I c-l n. re where n. r C = —— — = the expected frequency of c e l l ^ in rth row and cth column. tlx*- ~ marginal frequencies for rows. rt.c = marginal frequencies for columns. N - total frequency of c e l l s . n .rc . = frequency of c e l l in rth row and cth column, R = number of rows. C = number of columns. APPENDIX G (continued) 79 3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES IN SIX PLANNED COMPARISONS Bonferroni's _ t - s t a t i s t i c t e s t i s defined i n Kir k (1968) as where d = the di f f e r e n c e that a comparison must exceed i n order to be declared s i g n i f i c a n t . £'2> "Va i s obtained from a table (D.16 i n Kirk) which ind i c a t e s the value of a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l oc evenly divided among c comparisons. c = the number of comparisons that are to be made among means. v = degrees of freedom f o r experimental error. Cj = the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the j t h mean. nj = the number of scores i n the j t h treatment l e v e l . "primes" are used to designate d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the treatment. MS = population error variance. APPENDIX G (continued) 4 THE CHI-SQUARE TEST OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF CATEGORICAL VARIABLES. This t e s t i s defined i n Runyon and Halier (1967) as I £ O, - /el - 0 , 5 - ) * « * / * ( « - / X c - / ) where R = number of rows C = number of columns ia - observed frequency of c e l l / e = expected frequency of c e l l (In the one-degree-of-freedom s i t u a t i o n , a c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y i s required to obtain a closer approxi- mation of the obtained *X values to the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . The cor r e c t i o n consists of subtracting 0.5 from the absolute d i f f e r e n c e | j-0 - f& | f o r each c e l l . ) APPENDIX G (continued) 81 5 THE SPEARMAN-BROWN FORMULA (USED TO CORRECT THE ODD-EVEN CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ATTENUATION) This t e s t i s defined i n Ferguson (1971) as ' x. x — i/here l ^ x . = An estimate of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the whole t e s t . TKVV= The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR INDEPENDENT SAMPLES This t e s t i s defined i n Ferguson; (1971) as 2 = Z ' r , - g / r « . where 5£ = A Unit-Nbrraal-Curve deviate. Z = Fisher's transformation of r,. Z-'rg = Fisher's transformation of n> N^ = Number of subjects i n independent sample 1, N 2 = Number of subjects i n independent sample 2, APPENDIX H TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION* GROUPS s Groups Elementary- Elementary- Elementary- Male (Stand. ) Male (MOD 4) Male (MOD 8) No. Tota l Even Odd T o t a l Even Odd To t a l Even Odd 01 -31 -17 -14 5 9 -4 - 3 8 -11 02 -12 3 -15 34 24 10 42 30 12 03 -10 -11 1 50 30 20 44 28 16 04 6 15 -9 51 26 25 46 26 20 05 8 9 -1 56 31 25 '64 31 33 0 6 20 20 0 58 27 31 66 44 22 07 41 31 10 62 40 22 70 40 30 08 42 35 7 63 39 24 75 46 29 09 47 30 17 66 36 30 75 46 29 10 48 28 20 92 46 46 81 47 34 11 55 43 12 100 48 52 90 53 37 12 56 37 19 101 54 47 13 59 40 19 14 68 43 25 15 69 37 32 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 APPENDIX H (continued) 83 TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTT-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS S Groups Elementary- Elementary Elementary Female (Stand.) Female (MOD 4) Female (MOD 8) No. To t a l Even Odd To t a l Even Odd To t a l Even Odd 01 39 2 6 13 31 17 14 14 5 9 02 46 33 13 43 24 19 34 1 5 19 03 49 36 13 51 32 19 37 2 6 11 04 50 29 21 62 40 22 50 22 28 05 5 5 31 24 71 43 28 50 33 17 06 64 39- 25 71 36 35 52 32 23 07 64 37 27 74 37 37 55 32 26 08 68 32 3 6 74 44 30 59- 31 2 8 09 72 34 3 8 76 29 47 6 9 37 3 2 10 76 41 3 5 78 3 6 42 80 57 23 11 86 52 34 87 43 44 84 42 4 2 1 2 89 49 40 93 49 44 86 43 43 1 3 95 53 42 93 47 46 87 50 37 14 97 52 45 90 49 41 15 9 0 55 35 16 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 APPENDIX H (continued) 84 TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITION GROUPS Groups Secondary- Secondary Secondary No. Male (Stand .) Male (MOD 4) Male (MOD 8) To t a l Even Odd Tota l Even Odd Tota l Even Odd 01 -56 -24 -32 -44 -28 -16 -26 -14 -12 02 -5 -1 -4 -20 -12 -8 -14 -11 -3 03 9 6 3 -9 4 -13 8 6 2 04 12 12 0 1 11 -10 9 13 -4 05 18 15 3 10 9 1 15 13 2 06 24 14 10 31 22 9 23 10 13 07 25 20 5 32 15 17 23 18 5 08 26 20 6 34 25 9 27 16 11 09 30 12 18 35 27 8 28 24 4 10 31 18 13 40 26 14 30 14 16 11 35 29 6 46 23 23 33 25 8 12 37 31 6 48 33 15 37 29 8 13 44 32 12 51 34 17 40 18 22 14 47 27 20 55 31 24 40 25 15 15 49 30 19 56 37 19 40 26 14 16 50 35 15 65 33 32 43 31 12 17 52 28 24 68 42 26 43 34 9 18 54 32 22 69 40 29 56 33 23 19 54 36 18 72 35 37 58 39 19 20 58 40 18 76 42 34 62 43 19 21 71 32 39 79 56 23 63 37 26 22 75 49 26 69 42 27 23 88 49 39 73 42 31 24 100 53 47 74 41 33 25 75 41 34 85 APPENDIX H (continued) TOTAL, EVEN AND ODD SCORES OF SUBJECTS IN SPECIALTY-SEX-CONDITIONI GROUPS Groups Secondary- Secondary- 4) Secondary- 8) No. Female (Stand.) Female (MOD Female (MOD Tota l Even Odd Tota l Even Odd Tota l Even Odd 01 -56 -24 -32 -44 -28 -16 -26 -14 -12 02 -5 -1 -4 -20 -12 -8 -14 -11 -3 03 9 6 3 -9 4 -13 8 6 2 04 12 12 0 1 11 -10 9 13 -4 05 18 15 3 10 9 1 15 13 2 06 24 14 10 31 22 9 23 10 13 07 25 20 5 32 15 17 23 18 5 08 26 20 6 34 25 9 27 16 11 09 30 12 18 35 27 8 28 24 4 10 31 18 13 40 26 14 30 14 16 11 35 29 6 46 23 23 33 25 8 12 37 31 6 48 33 15 37 29 8 13 44 32 12 51 34 17 40 18 22 14 47 27 20 55 31 24 40 25 15 15 49 30 19 56 37 19 40 26 14 16 50 35 15 65 33 32 43 31 12 17 52 28 24 68 42 26 43 34 9 18 54 32 22 69 40 29 56 33 23 19 54 36 18 72 35 37 58 39 19 20 58 40 18 76 42 34 62 43 19 21 71 32 39 79 56 23 63 37 26 22 75 49 26 69 42 27 23 88 49 39 73 42 31 24 100 53 47 74 41 33 25 75 41 34 APPENDIX I FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF 214 MEAN DEVIATION SCORES GROUPED IN CLASS INTERVALS OF TEN 34 3 2 30 28 2 6 2 4 22 o 20 % 18 » 1 6 u 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 I I . I . 1 - 6 0 - 5 0 -40 - 3 0 - 2 0 - 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 40 5 0 6 0 7 0 80 90 1 0 0 Mean Deviation Score (Midpoint of Interval) ON APPENDIX J 87 MODIFICATIONS TO THE MINNESOTA TEACHER ATTITUDE INVENTORY" FOR EACH OF THE THREE CONDITIONS I THE "STANDARD CONDITION" A request f o r information was glued to the bottom of the l a s t page of the MTAI booklet: PLEASE INDICATE THE GRADE LEVEL OF THE "STU- DENTS" TO WHOM: YOU CONSIDER YOUR EXPRESSED OPINIONS TO APPLY MOST APPROPRIATELY. GRADE 4 OR GRADE 8 II THE "MOD 4 CONDITION." An i n s t r u c t i o n was glued to the top of each page of the MTAI booklet: NOTE: PLEASE CONSIDER ALL STATEMENTS TO BE MADE WITH REFERENCE TO GRADE 4 PUPILS (AGES 9 to 11). I l l THE "MOD 8 CONDITION" An i n s t r u c t i o n was glued to the top of each page of the MTAI booklet: NOTE: PLEASE CONSIDER ALL STATEMENTS TO BE MADE WITH REFERENCE TO GRADE 8 PUPILS (AGES 13 to 15). * The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory and Scor- ing Sheet may be purchased from The Guidance Center 1000 Yonge Street Toronto 289, Ontario Canada

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