UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Intellectual aspects of regular school integration for physically disabled children Copeland, Elizabeth M. J. 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 C67.pdf [ 4.01MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054402.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054402-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054402-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054402-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054402-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054402-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054402-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054402-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054402.ris

Full Text

INTELLECTUAL ASPECTS OF REGULAR SCHOOL INTEGRATION FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED CHILDREN by ELIZABETH M.J. COPELAND HONS. B.A., QUEENS UNIVERSITY, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational.Psychology and Special Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1931 © Elizabeth M.J. Copeland, 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Educational Psychology and Department of Special Education  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 6, 1981 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT In recent years there has been a trend towards i n t e -gration, or mainstreaming, for educating the handicapped c h i l d . The aim of t h i s study was to explore some ef f e c t s of integrating physically disabled children into regular school from a special school and thus obtain data to aid in making further integration decisions. S p e c i f i c a l l y i n th i s study two groups of physically disabled children who had attended a special r e h a b i l i t a -tion hospital school were compared i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i -t i e s , after one group had integrated into the regular school It was hypothesized that, as several verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children appear to be i n -fluenced by environmental s t i m u l i , those integrated into the regular school w i l l have increased scaled scores over those who remained i n the special school. To discuss r e s u l t within a broader framework i t was also hypothesized that gains would be correlated with higher motivation l e v e l s , a lesser degree of severity of d i s a b i l i t y , and better s o c i a l adjustment. An analysis of covariance indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t im-provement i n verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e by the experimental group in comparison to the control group, with the most gains bein made by the youngest age group ( 6 - 8 years). Results showed that not only did those i n the experimental group improve but that those who stayed i n the special school declined in comparison to t h e i r own previous scores. This decline was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident for those children with the highest verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e scores i n the control group, which were in the average range for the test normative sample. Pearson cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s indicated that gains in verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e did not appear to be related to either school or non-school inter e s t l e v e l , the severity of the d i s -a b i l i t y , sex or s o c i a l adjustment. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 1 Statement of the Problem 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem 4 Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 6 Organization of the Thesis 7 I I PREVIOUS RELATED RESEARCH 9 Success of Mainstreaming 9 I n t e l l i g e n c e and the Environment 15 The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r C h i l d r e n (WISC or WISC-R) 16 P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n 19 School Adjustment Considerations 20 Hypotheses 24 I I I METHOD 26 Subjects 26 Instruments 31 Design 37 Procedure 38 Data A n a l y s i s 41 IV RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS 4 3 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51 Summary 51 Conclusions 53 Discussion 56 Imp l i c a t i o n s 64 L i m i t a t i o n s 67 Suggestions f o r Further Research 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 V TABLE OF CONTENTS - continued CHAPTER Page APPENDICES A. Cascade Models of Reynolds (1962) Deno (1970) and Instructional Cascade Model by Reynolds and Birch (1977) 78 B. The Pultibec System for the Medical Assessment of Handicapped Children - Lindon (1963) as modified by Anderson (1973) 84 C. The Hurewitz-Quick Scoring Behaviour Adjustment Scale by Hurewitz (1974). 87 v i LIST OF TABLES Table 1 - Suggested Functions and I n f l u e n c i n g Factors of the WISC-R Table 2 - Verbal Comprehension (Factor A) Loadings of WISC-R Subtests Showing Median Scores f o r Eleven Age Groups (Varimax Rotation) Table. 3 - Types of D i s a b i l i t i e s by Group Table 4 - Grade of S e v e r i t y of P h y s i c a l D i s -a b i l i t y by t-Test A n a l y s i s Table 5 - Verbal I.Q. Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n Minimum and Maximum Scores Table 6 - Age Groups by P r e t e s t Ages Table 7 - Frequencies Showing Time I n t e r v a l s Between School I n t e g r a t i o n and Post-Test Dates Table 8 - Frequencies Showing Time I n t e r v a l s Between Pre and Post-WISC-R T e s t i n g f o r Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups Table 9 - Changes Between Pre and Post-Test Verbal I.Q. Scores and Pre-Test Verbal I.Q. Scores Table 10- Post-Test Verbal I.Q. Mean Scores by A n a l y s i s of Covariance Table 11- Post-Test F u l l Scale and Verbal I.Q. Scores by A n a l y s i s of Covariance Table 12- WISC-R Subtest Scores by A n a l y s i s of Covariance Table 13- M o t i v a t i o n by t-Test A n a l y s i s of Per-c e n t i l e Rank Scores on the School and Non-School I n t e r e s t Scales of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery Page 18 19 28 29 29 31 39 40 44 45 45 46 47 Table 14- Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Showing Change i n Verbal I.Q. Scores 48 v i i LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page Table 14- continued with Age Group, Verbal Intelligence Levels, Grade of D i s a b i l i t y , Social Adjustment and School and Non-School Interest 48 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE I Hypo t h e t i c a l Curves showing D i s t r i b u t i o n of Test I.Q. Scores f o r Normal and Cerebral P a l s i e d Populations from Hopkins, Bice and Colton (1954) 30 FIGURE I I Verbal I.Q. A l l Means (Pre and Post-Tests) 4 3 FIGURE I I I Schematic Diagram of Factors A f f e c t i n g Academic Performance 64 FIGURE IV E c o l o g i c a l Model of Regular and S p e c i a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l Teams Serving the Handicapped C h i l d (Weisgerber, 1979) 66 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would l i k e to express her appreciation to Dr. Peggy Koopman, Dr. Sa l l y Rogow and Dr. J u l i e Conry for t h e i r suggestions during the study. Also to Dr. Ronald Jarmon for his help i n organizing the study i n i t s i n i t i a l stages. Thanks also to the s t a f f at G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre for t h e i r patience and help with data c o l l e c t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr. John MacDonald, head of the Psychology Department, for his enthusiasm and support. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem The trend of the educational history of the handicapped i s one of progressive inclusion (Turnbull and Schulz.,.,. 1979). In ancient times there was no education for the handicapped, but beginning i n the 18th century r e s i d e n t i a l and day schools were developed for both education and t r a i n i n g . In the 1900' there were many r e s i d e n t i a l and special schools for the b l i n d deaf and the physically handicapped but special classes i n regular schools were preferred for only the mildly, cogni-t i v e l y impaired. Gradually, there was increased acceptance of the needs and benefits of education for the handicapped. This, togethe with the b e l i e f of the educability of handicapped individuals and the development of assessment tools for the measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e and expected p o t e n t i a l , led to the emergence in the 1960's of administrative models for the planning of special education. These models show a continuum of educa-t i o n a l services. They are based on the b e l i e f that the wide d i v e r s i t y of handicaps, together with the varying degrees of severity, demand many d i f f e r e n t combinations of assistance. The most commonly ci t e d organizational schemes are the Cascade Models of Reynolds (1962), Deno (1970) and the Instructional Cascade Model by Reynolds and Birch (1977) (see Appendix A). 2 The Reynolds and Birch model (1977), suggests that reg-ular classes become expandingly diverse, thus reducing the dependence on separate specialized environments. This model r e f l e c t s the philosophy of mainstreaming, that i s the education of children i n the least r e s t r i c t i v e environment which for many children i s the regular class. Along with this philosophy has been the development of special classes, or a combination of regular and special classes, for many of those previously i n an i n s t i t u t i o n or receiving no educa-t i o n a l programme. According to the National Advisory Council on Education Professions Development (1976), ". . .. mainstreaming i s the conscientious e f f o r t to place handicapped children into the least r e s t r i c t i v e educational setting which i s appropriate to t h e i r needs. The primary objective of t h i s process i s to provide children with the most e f f e c t i v e educational experiences which w i l l enable them to become s e l f - r e l i a n t adults. Within t h i s objective, i t i s thought preferable to educate children the least distance away from the mainstream of society. Hence there i s a heavy emphasis on movement into the regular classroom whenever possible." (p. 7.) S t a t i s t i c s however, revealed a great discrepancy between thi s intention and i t s implementation. In the 1975 congres-sional preamble to the U.S. Public Law 94-142 i t was e s t i -mated that of the eight m i l l i o n handicapped children i n the United States, four m i l l i o n did not have appropriateueducational opportunities and one m i l l i o n were e n t i r e l y excluded from 3 the public school system (United States Office of Education, 1975). To try to remedy th i s s i t u a t i o n , Public Law 94-142 was passed i n the United States. This i s known as the "Education for A l l Handicapped Children Act of 19 75". I t stipulated that a l l handicapped children must have access to a free and appropriate public education, i n the least r e s t r i c t i v e environment with special education and related services available when needed. The passing of t h i s b i l l has had far reaching effects on catapulting the philosophy of mainstreaming (or integration) into r e a l i t y . Statement of the Problem The main problem of t h i s study was to determine the benefits and appropriateness of the integrated school place-ment which i s suggested by the mainstreaming philosophy. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study was concerned with a population of physically handicapped children who had been integrated into a regular school from a special hospital school for the physically disabled. The purpose was to assess whether know-ledge and a b i l i t i e s related to environmental influences had improved since t h i s exposure to the mainstream of society. The t o o l used to assess these changes was an i n t e l l i g e n c e scale. In Chapter II a discussion regarding environmental influences on i n t e l l i g e n c e and a rationale for the use of p a r t i c u l a r subtests of the scale i s given. 4 To assess results within a wider context, an intere s t scale, school adjustment factors, and the l e v e l of severity of d i s a b i l i t y are also discussed within the framework of t h i s research. Significance of the Problem The transfer from the sheltered environment of the i n -s t i t u t i o n or hospital setting into the fast-moving mainstream of normal children and adolescents i s often a dramatic one, involving many physical, s o c i a l , emotional and educational adaptations. These aspects of the transfer have to be weighed against the limi t a t i o n s of the segregated, special school. These stem p a r t i c u l a r l y from the dependence on a s o c i a l or-ganization geared to meet the child's needs. Dibner and Dibner (1973) ndte with regard to the physically disabled i n the sheltered special school, "He may lose motivation to be a produc-ti v e individual because the special grouping prevents few problems, hurdles or challenges which require his stretching to adjust. I t i s adjusted to him. (p. 181). The impetus for t h i s study came from frequent observations of the controversy over t h i s transfer and from the need for objective analysis of the benefits of placement i n a regu-l a r school. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed that very l i t t l e has been documented with reference to mainstreaming the phy-5 s i c a l l y handicapped. Areas mentioned include, for example, guidebooks for classroom teachers (Turnbull and Shulz, 1979, Dahl, Appleby and Lipe, 1978 and Love and Walthall 1977); a t t i t u d i n a l changes of both teachers and students ( P e l l , 1972; Rapier, J ., Adelson, R., Carey, R. and Croke, K., 1972, Walker, 1974 and Anderson, 1973) and s o c i a l integration - (Friedman,. ;1975; Jones, 1974, and Anderson, 1973). There i s l i t t l e evidence, however, regard-ing one of the main premises of the philosophy of mainstream-ing - that educationally these children are comparatively benefitting from t h e i r integration into regular school. Alle n (1980) also found t h i s lack of research stating, "The mainstreaming movement has grown enormously over the past several years, despite a lack of well researched guide-lines for implementing the concept or well researched methods for evaluating i t s effectiveness. E x i s t i n g research, sparse, fragmented, and inconsistent, i s primarily descriptive or anecdotal rather than, empirical and data-based." (p. 54.) Further, Ackerman and Moore (19 76) note that mainstreaming i s operating under the assumed-value argument that i s often t y p i c a l of change i n educational practice. I t i s the purpose of this study to provide empirical data for a s p e c i f i c group, namely the phy s i c a l l y or motor disabled, with respect to some i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f e c ts of i n -tegrating into, regular school. 6 Operational Definitions The Physically Handicapped The term physically handicapped covers a wide range of conditions which may be due to congenital abnormalities or acquired through accident, i n f e c t i o n or disease. A c h i l d with a physical impairment i s not necessarily a handi-capped c h i l d ; the c r i t i c a l determiner i s the adjustment factor. A c h i l d i s handicapped only when his physical im-pairment interferes with his da i l y functioning. The physically handicapped include, for example, those with p h y s i c a l l y weakening conditions such as asthma, causing low v i t a l i t y ; the chronic i l l n e s s e s , such as heart disorders, diabetes and haemophilia; and the orthopaedic d i s a b i l i t i e s where the muscles, bones and joint s are impaired, such as i s caused by p o l i o m y e l i t i s , Perthes disease and muscular dys-trophy. One of these serious c r i p p l i n g conditions, cerebral palsy, i s the most common (Gearheart, 1976) , with an e s t i -mated 1-5 cerebral palsy births per 1,000 of population (Cruikshank, 1976) or about 15% of the c h i l d population. About 57% of those with cerebral palsy are males. Although cerebral palsy can be acquired as a r e s u l t of a head injury or an infectious disease, i t i s most often present at b i r t h . It i s characterized by the disturbance of voluntary movements because of brain injury. Motor d e f i c i t s vary widely includ-7 ing, hemi-, di p l e g i a , quadraplegia or paraplegia with spas-t i c i t y , -athetosis, ataxia, r i d i g i t y or mixed forms. Since there may be varying degrees of brain injury, many of these children w i l l have multiple handicapping conditions, such as hearing impairments, v i s u a l and speech problems. They may also have learning disorders, behaviour problems and/or i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t s . Developmental delays are common. Many theorists have commented on the relat i o n s h i p of learning and motor develop-ments; for example, Piaget's (19 68) developmental approach to concept formation, Kephart's (1960) concept of motor learn-ing as a base for development and Cratly's (1969) concept of movement as an adjunct to learning. Thus the physically handicapped c h i l d may be further disadvantaged i n develop-ment, growth, and learning developmentally normal in t e r a c t i o n with peers. In t h i s study, the sample children a l l had orthopaedic handicaps and a high proportion had been diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Manifestations vary widely but a l l had some form of muscle weakness i n gross or fin e motor s k i l l s which in h i b i t e d d a i l y functioning. Most used physical aids, such as braces or wheelchairs, to f a c i l i t a t e mobility. Organization of the Thesis This f i r s t chapter i s introductory and includes a general background of the problem, a statement of the problem, the 8 significance of the problem, and operational d e f i n i t i o n s . The remainder of the thesis i s organized as follows. Chap-ter II consists of a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , rationale for the hypotheses, and a statement of the hypotheses. In Chapter III information regarding the subjects and i n s t r u -mentation i s presented. A description of the design and procedures used i n conducting the study and analysing the results i s also provided. Chapter IV presents the r e s u l t s . The f i f t h chapter summarizes the findings of the study and sets forth conclusions and the implications for further research. 9 CHAPTER II PREVIOUS RELATED RESEARCH This chapter i s concerned with related research. F i r s t -l y , the success of mainstreaming i s presented within the context of three areas; vocational success, levels of s e l f concept and academic achievement. Secondly, the influences of the environment on i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y are discussed and an argument for the use of a s p e c i f i c i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , the WISC-R i s r a t i o n a l i z e d . Thirdly, information regarding school adjustment considerations i s given with reference to motivation, severity of d i s a b i l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment. F i n a l l y two hypotheses are stated. Success of Mainstreaming A review of research shows that although there i s general agreement that the adjustment of the physically handicapped person to the 'normal' world i s l i k e l y to be easier i f he has had frequent interaction with i t i n e a r l i e r l i f e , there i s a paucity of research to support t h i s assumption. There are, however, :a, few studies i n the areas of vocational success, self-concept and academic achievement. Vocational Success One related area, that has been researched, i s the a b i l i t y to lead an independent l i f e . This i s measured as the degree 10 of success i n finding and keeping a job. Studies include Ingram's (1965) with young adults with cerebral palsy, Robertson's (1963) with the mentally retarded and Cutsforth's (1962) with the b l i n d . A l l the studies compare the vocational success of young adults who had been i n regular school place-ments with those i n a special school or class. They generally decide that a c h i l d who has attended an ordinary class has a . better or equal chance of occupational success. Robertson, for example, attempted to ascertain the occupational success in students who had been ascertained subnormal. 303 students had attended special schools and 167 of the controls had been assessed as needing a special school but had attended a regular secondary modern school. Special school attendance f a i l e d to indicate an advantage i n occupational success.. However, the design was weakened by the i n a b i l i t y to trace many of the school leavers... Self-Concept Another way to investigate the e f f e c t s of schooling i s to assess self-concept; how a person feels about himself and his handicap. Evidence., however, i n t h i s area i s contradic-tory. On the one hand there i s evidence that the separation of handicapped from non-handicapped children leads to f e e l -ings of i n f e r i o r i t y (Jones 1974, Meyerowitz 1965, 1967). Carrol (1967) found, with educable mentally retarded, that children who had remained part-time in regular classes showed 11 a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the extent to which they devalued themselves compared to those who were segregated who showed a s i g n i f i c a n t increase on the self-derogation scale. Budoff and Gottlieb's work (1976) indicates an improved self-image among the mainstreamed retarded who have been integrated into regular classes. On the other hand, Walker (1974) found no s i g n i f i c a n t difference regarding self-concept when using the B r i s t o l S ocial Adjustment Guides when a group assigned to a regular class., (receiving resource room i n s t r u c t i o n when needed) was compared to a group i n a self-contained special class. Some researchers argue that regular class placement provides models in comparison with which the physically handicapped c h i l d feels i n f e r i o r . Thus, t h i s setting may impose more s o c i a l and emotional strains on the children than would the sheltered setting.. Jones (1974 b) notes that special class students reported more posit i v e evaluations of t h e i r schools than regular class students. Also Easton (1979) related, i n her study with physically handi-capped children, that the children i n a special school saw themselves as functioning better with peers than did the group of children attending school with normal children. Another view i s presented by Strang, Smith and Rogers (1978) who found that academically handicapped children, integrated into the educational mainstream for part of 12 each school day, exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t l y augmented s e l f -concepts r e l a t i v e to other academically handicapped c h i l -dren who remained i n segregated special classrooms. Secondly, they found that these p a r t i a l l y mainstreamed c h i l -dren exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased self-concept while f u l mainstreamed children exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased s e l f -concept. They state that t h i s occurred possibly as a r e s u l t of the p a r t i a l l y mainstreamed children's a b i l i t y to compare the d i f f e r e n t reference groups. They concluded that the two experiments provided s t r i k i n g confirmation of the hypothesis derived from s o c i a l comparison theory and group reference theory. Myers (1976) found that those with higher I.Q. (71-85) appeared to have an equally positive self-concept i n any of the three administrative settings of special school, special class or regular class. Lower I.Q. (49-70) pupils, however>. appeared to have a more po s i t i v e self-concept i n the special school than i n either the regular or special class. Academic S k i l l s Carrol (1967) compared the effects of two school pro-grammes (segregated and p a r t i a l l y integrated) with educa-t i o n a l l y mentally retarded (EMR) children. She found that 13 the EMR p a r t i a l l y integrated group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater growth i n the area of reading, but no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between EMR groups was found i n the areas of s p e l l i n g and arithmetic. Walker (1974) found that children i n regular classes with resource room programmes were s i g n i f i c a n t l y better i n a l l academic areas at each of two testings 8 months apart. However, over a two year period, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the gains i n self-concept, s o c i a l adjustment, and arithmetic. The regular classroom children obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher gains i n word reading and vocabulary than the special class children over t h i s 2 year period. They conclude that the academic and s o c i a l -emotional needs of the mentally retarded c h i l d can be met as well, i f not better, i n the regular class with resource room programmes, as i n the special class. Myers (1976) used two groups of high and low, I.Q. (7.1-85 and 49-70 respectively) .... Three placement settings were u t i l i z e d -special school, special c l a s s , and regular c l a s s , which he found to have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on high and low I.Q. The special school appeared to be a p r e f e r e n t i a l educational setting for the low I.Q. group for academic achievement while no substantial differences seemed to e x i s t for the high I.Q. group i n terms of educational placement. 14 Easton (1979) studied a group of physically handicapped children over three years after they were transferred from an i s o l a t e d special school to a setting integrated with nor-mal children. , She found that scores on the PIAT increased ' substantially 1 for those integrated with normal children, but does not give s p e c i f i e . s t a t i s t i c a l evidence. Jones (1974) hypothesized that as.the degree of physi-c a l dependency decreased and as mobility increases, the ortho-paedically disabled c h i l d becomes more i n t e r n a l l y controlled and better adjusted to his or her relationships with s i g n i -f i c a n t others (e.g. teachers and peers) and achieves higher l e v e l s . The converse i s that with increased physical depen-dency and with decreased mobility the c h i l d becomes externally centered i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p to his environment, has im-paired relationships with significant, others, and achieves at a lower l e v e l . The findings however showed no support for the hypotheses that suggested that impaired mobility and physical dependency influence orthopaedically disabled c h i l d -ren's school achievement or teacher rated interpersonal r e l a -tionships . In conclusion, the measurement of the effects of regu-l a r class placement by either vocational success, more posi-t i v e self-concept or academic achievement appear inconclu-sive and dependent on a::wide range of variables. In t h i s study, an alternative concept for assessing the benefits of 15 the regular school setting for the physically handicapped was used. In the next section a multi-dimensional approach, which compares the results of the subtest scores of an i n t e l l i g e n c e scale, i s r a t i o n a l i z e d with regard to the integration model. Intelligence and the Environment An i n t e l l i g e n c e test i s one way to evaluate an i n d i v i -dual's unique a b i l i t i e s on a multi-dimentional l e v e l . Wechsler (1958), for example, defined i n t e l l i g e n c e as -" . . . the aggregate or global capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l to act purposefully, to think r a t i o n a l l y and to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with his environment." (p. 7.) Although there has been considerable theorizing between the nature-nurture bases of i n t e l l i g e n c e there appears to have been a coalescing of viewpoints with stress being placed on both developmental as well as innate influences on i n t e l l i g e n c e . S a t t l e r (1974), for example, writes -"Intelligence i s viewed as being a central ' f l u i d ' kind of genetically determined basic a b i l i t y which i s modified by exper-ience." (p. 15.) Tyler (1971) also observes that an I.Q. i s not a pure measure of innate capacity -" . . . rather i t r e f l e c t s experience as well as po t e n t i a l , education as well as aptitude." (p. 48.) 16 Vernon (1969) describes three d i f f e r e n t meanings associated with the term ' i n t e l l i g e n c e ' . Intelligence A is used with regard to innate a b i l i t y , or genotypic form. It can never be measured d i r e c t l y . Intelligence B i s an individual's observed behaviour or phenotypic form. I t i s b u i l t up through the individual's reaction with his environ-ment. Vernon's t h i r d meaning of i n t e l l i g e n c e , Intelligence C, i s affected by e x t r i n s i c factors and i s sampled by the results obtained on specia l i z e d t e s t s , for example, mech-an i c a l . I t i s the environmentally influenced Intelligence B which i s pertinent i n thi s study. The tests Vernon sug-gests for sampling Intelligence B are the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale and the verbal scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. I t w i l l be shown that s p e c i f i c subtests of the WISC are the most appropriate tools for t h i s study. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC or WISC-R) The WISC rather than the Stanford Binet was chosen for this study because of the p r e f e r e n t i a l format. Whereas the Stanford.Binet has an age scale system, the WISC i s based on a point scale system which measures the same aspects of behaviour at every age. This comparability factor of the Wechsler Scale makes i t an i d e a l t e s t for t h i s study. The 17 WISC o r i g i n a l l y developed i n 1949 was revised i n 1974. This revised e d i t i o n , known as the WISC-R, i s the test used through-out t h i s study. However, the WISC and WISC-R are b a s i c a l l y similar (changes are discussed i n Chapter IV) and thus stud-ies regarding both the WISC and WISC-R are discussed. In reviewing analyses of the subtests of the WISC and WISC-R i t has been suggested that some subtests are more i n -fluenced by environmental s t i m u l i than others. Whether look-ing at factor analytic findings, for example, Cohen (1959) and Kaufman (1975), an ego psychological approach such as Rapaport, G i l l and Schafer (1968) or the c l i n i c a l interpre-tations by Glasser and Zimmerman (1967) s i m i l a r i t i e s appear regarding subtest functions and influencing factors. I t appears that primarily four subtests are influenced by con-tact with the environment. These are the information, com-prehension, s i m i l a r i t i e s and vocabulary subtests of the verbal scale as S a t t l e r (1974) shows i n Table 1.. y- • Kaufman (19 75) completed a factor analytic study of the WISC-R. He found f i v e factors similar to those obtained by Cohen (1959) with the WISC. Verbal Comprehension 1 i s pre-sumed to r e f l e c t knowledge from formal education. The Perceptual Organization factor i s non-verbal and r e f l e c t s a b i l i t y to i n t e r -pret and organize v i s u a l material. The Freedom from D i s t r a c t -i b i l i t y factor may measure the a b i l i t y to concentrate. The Verbal Comprehension Factor 11 represents the application 18 of verbal s k i l l s i n situations that are new, or judgement i n verbal situations. The l a s t factor, the Quasi-Specific, has no psychological interpretation. He further defined three d i s t i n c t factors; the Verbal Comprehension factor being com-prised of primary factors 1 and 11 and being representative of environmental influences on a verbal dimension. The sub-tests with the highest loadings i n the Verbal Comprehension factor score are Information, Comprehension, S i m i l a r i t i e s and Vocabulary, followed by arithmetic which has a moderate loading. Suggested Functions and Influencing Factors of the WISC-R Table 1 Subtest Function Influencing Factors Information Range of knowledge Long-range memory Natural endowment Richness of early envir-onment Extent of schooling Cultural predilections Interests Comprehension Social judgement, s o c i a l convention-a l i t y , or common sense Meaningful and emo-t i o n a l l y relevant use of facts Extensiveness of c u l t u r a l opportunities Development of conscience or moral sense A b i l i t y to evaluate and use past experience S i m i l a r i t i e s Verbal concept formation Logical thinking A minimum of c u l t u r a l opportunities, i n t e r -ests and reading patterns Vocabulary Learning a b i l i t y Fund of information Early educational environment Richness of ideas Memory Concept formation Language development 19 The Performance Scale subtest loadings were a l l lower than those on the Verbal Scale. Interestingly two performance tests showed greater loadings on thi s factor than the rest of the performance subtests. These were Picture Completion, which involves verbal responses for most children, and P i c -ture arrangement which Kaufman (1975) suggests requires more verbal mediation than other performance subtests. Table 2 Verbal Comprehension (Factor A) Loadings of WISC-R Subtests Showing Median Scores for Eleven Age Groups (Varimax Rota-tion) ' ' ' '  Subtest mdn Information 63 S i m i l a r i t i e s 64 Arithmetic 37 Vocabulary 72 Comprehension 64 Picture Completion 35 Picture Arrangement 33 Block Design 27 Object Assembly 21 Coding 15 P r a c t i c a l Application Most researchers state consistent, moderate but dependable relationships between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achieve-ment scores (Vernon 1970, Sa t t l e r 1974). Resnick (1976), for example, states that i n t e l l i g e n c e tests measure primarily academic i n t e l l i g e n c e . Wesman (1968) also states that tests with d i f f e r e n t names (e.g. i n t e l l i g e n c e , achievement, or 20 aptitude) are for the most part measuring si m i l a r a b i l i t i e s . These are a) that i n t e l l i g e n c e i s an a t t r i b u t e , and b) that i t i s a summation of the learning experiences of the i n d i v i d u a l . Humphreys (1962) found that scores on I.Q. and achievement tests correlated as highly as scores on two d i f -ferent I.Q. tests (WISC and Stanford Binet). The c o r r e l a t i o n between achievement and i n t e l l i g e n c e has also been assessed by Bloom (1964) who reported an average c o r r e l a t i o n of .85 whilst Tyler (1974) found correlations varying from .40 to .60. Limitations mentioned were r e s t r i c t i o n s of range, language predictions and the s u i t a b i l i t y of tests for d i f f e r e n t age groups. Academic achievement i s one of the primary objectives of educational experiences. The advantage of using the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children i n t h i s study i s the p r a c t i c a l implication regarding academic achievement. School Adjustment Considerations Although the chosen focus of t h i s study was on i n t e l l e c -tual changes related to mainstreaming i t would be an error to view t h i s area i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n . As Anderson (1973) stated with reference to the integration of cerebal palsied children -"'Education 1 has to be understood here in i t s very widest sense as including three major aspects of the c h i l d ' s devel-opment, f i r s t l y his educational needs, secondly his physical needs and t h i r d l y his s o c i a l and emotional needs." (p. 15) 21 Thus, i n thi s study,data was gathered to assess results with-in a wider context. From the wide realm of factors related to the adjustment of the physically disabled c h i l d into the regular school. Three major areas were chosen for discussion. These were f i r s t l y , i n t e r e s t i n school and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , or motivation; secondly,the extent of the physical d i s a b i l i t y and t h i r d l y , s o c i a l adjustment on a broad spectrum. Motivation Although many opinions have been documented analyzing motivation and how i t energizes human behaviour (Madsen, 1974 and Weiner, 1974), generally educational motivation i s described within the framework of the following statement by Kolesnik -"From the standpoint of humanistic psychology, classroom motivation i s largely a process of helping the student to perceive that certain learning experiences can help him to become what he i s capable of becoming and what he wants to become: a f u l l y functioning, happy, s e l f a c t u a l i z i n g person." (P. 170-171) Motivation therefore i s very pertinent to the philosophy and success of mainstreaming. Motivation was sampled by using the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Education Battery Interest subtests. This scale tests preferences i n Reading, Mathematics and Written Language on the scholastic scale and physical and s o c i a l interests on the non-scholastic scale; thus pro-viding information on motivation across a broad spectrum. 22 Severity of D i s a b i l i t y As one of the main c r i t e r i a for placement i n a regular school i s the extent of the physical handicap, t h i s area was chosen as p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent to thi s study. Anderson (1973) wrote -"Clearly severity of handicap i s a po t e n t i a l l y important factor i n deter-mining the success or f a i l u r e of a c h i l d i n various aspects of school l i f e , and indeed i n determining whetherthat c h i l d i s placed i n an ordinary school at a l l . " (p. 32) School l i f e involves constant u t i l i z i n g of both gross and fine motor s k i l l s . Although the f a c i l i t i e s and accommo-dation of the school are an important consideration there are certain fundamental a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l be i n h i b i t e d . These include, many sports a c t i v i t i e s on the gross motor side to fine-motor dexterity i n the classroom, a f f e c t i n g speed in performance. The Pulbetic assessment system was chosen that rates both fine and gross motor s k i l l s on the l e f t and ri g h t sides i n d i v i d u a l l y , to obtain a mild, moderate or severe categori-zation. I t was administered with the modifications based on Anderson's (1973) research. Social Adjustment Wilson (1973) writes -"One of the important factors that influence an individual's a b i l i t y to achieve i n academic areas and to develop his i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i s the degree to which he i s able to acquire and main-tai n a state of personal and s o c i a l adjustment. (p. 477). 23 Social adaptation, or adjustment, was defined by Doll (1953) as -'the functional a b i l i t y of the human organism for exercising per-sonal independence and s o c i a l re-s p o n s i b i l i t y . ' (p. 4) Lunzer (1966) expanded t h i s idea to emphasize that s o c i a l competence i s not a re s u l t i n g factor of only innate cogni-t i v e a b i l i t i e s and personality but also the ef f e c t s on him of d i f f e r e n t environmental experiences. However, Richardson (1969) pointed out that many physi-c a l l y handicapped children have, by the very nature of t h e i r d i s a b i l i t y , missed experiences common to non-handicapped children. Anderson (1973) commented further that the extent to which the s o c i a l environment i s impoverished i s l i k e l y to be related to the severity of the physical handicap and to the r e s u l t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on a c t i v i t i e s . An evaluation by the classroom teacher of various as-pects of adjustment was considered p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t for t h i s study. The areas chosen are those of the Hurewitz Quick Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale and include s o c i a l and work habits, relationships with parents and other adults, emotional responses, general physical appearance and health, and use of c r a f t s and creative media. 24 HYPOTHESES Previously an explanation of integration was given which hypothesized benefits obtained from the environment and states that children w i l l become the most s e l f - r e l i a n t adults i f they are educated the least distance away from the mainstream of society. In t h i s study an expanded environment has been d i s -cussed within the framework of attending a regular school versus the r e s t r i c t e d setting of a segregated special school for the p h y s i c a l l y disabled, i n a hospital setting. Also a rationale for using an Intelligence Scale was discussed with suggestions that certain subtests are more environmentally influenced than others. Following t h i s rationale i t i s hy-pothesized that -1. If the philosophy of integration i s v i a b l e , then know-ledge and a b i l i t i e s related to increased environmental influences should improve afte r regular school placement. S p e c i f i c a l l y , WISC-R resu l t s obtained from physically handicapped children i n regular school should be improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y over results obtained from the same c h i l -dren when tested i n a special school, and over children who have stayed i n the special school. Secondly some factors related to school adjustment were d i s -cussed. I t was suggested that there are many other variables related to maximizing the opportunities of the regular class environment. Three were chosen for discussion; motivation, severity of handicap, and s o c i a l adjustment. I t i s hypothesized that -25 2. The WISC-R scores of the groups of children who have integrated into regular school compared to the scores of those who have remained i n the special school w i l l improve i n r e l a t i o n to: a. a higher l e v e l of motivation. b. less severity of d i s a b i l i t y . c. po s i t i v e s o c i a l adjustment to the regular school. 26 CHAPTER III METHOD This section includes a description.of the subjects and the procedures employed i n the present study. Next, a description of the instruments used and the. possible l i m i t a t i o n s of the design are also discussed. The procedure that was used i s detailed for r e p l i c a t i o n and f i n a l l y , methods by which the data were analyzed are also included. Subjects Subjects for thi s study were children who had a l l at-tended the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre School for the physically disabled. This i s the central educational-thera-peutic setting for the physically disabled i n B r i t i s h Colum-bia and hereafter w i l l be referred to as the special school. D e f i n i t i o n of Groups Two administrative groups were i d e n t i f i e d . a) The ex-perimental group consisted of students who had attended the G.F. Strong School and have since entered regular school. Placement may be i n a regular classroom, a special c l a s s , some learning'assistance centre placement, or a combination of setting. b) The control group consisted of students 27 who have remained attending the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation School. Selection of Subjects The subjects used were a l l those for whom resu l t s of previous testing on the WISC-R was available and included children who had been integrated between 1976 and 1980. Students were not included who had pre-test verbal scores be-low an I.Q. of 55. In the f i n a l analysis, 12 of those who were integrated and 16 of those children who remained i n the G.F. Strong school could be used i n the study. Physical D i s a b i l i t i e s A l l the subjects had motor handicaps which in t e r f e r e with d a i l y functioning. There were several types of d i s -a b i l i t i e s , (see Table 3), although 68% had cerebral palsy. This percentage i s close to the figure of 65% of the motor disabled children i n the Swedish school system being diag-nosed with cerebral palsy (Anderson 1973). 28 Table 3 Types of D i s a b i l i t i e s by Group D i s a b i l i t i e s Experimental n = 12 Control n = 16 Diplegia 2 2 Quadriplegia 4 9 Paraplegia Cerebral palsy Hemiplegia 1 T r i p l e g i a 1 Pseudo Hypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy 1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy 1 Arthrogryposis 1 Freidreich's Ataxia 2 Trauma (Motor Vehicle Accident) 1 Spina B i f i d a 1 Smith-Lemli Opitz Syndrome 1 Meningioma Posterior Fossa 1 When measured by the Pulbetic system (see Chapter IV) t-Test analysis showed that there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the l e v e l of the severity of d i s a b i l i t y between the two groups (Table 4). 29 Table 4 Grade of Severity of Physical D i s a b i l i t y by t-Test Analysis  n M SD t Control 16 1.31 0.48 -1.66 Experimental 12 1.67 0.65 Pre-Test Verbal I.Q. of Groups Calculation of the means of the two groups showed that the experimental group was s l i g h t l y higher i n Verbal I.Q. although t h i s was not a s i g n i f i c a n t difference. The range and standard deviation were larger i n the control group. Table 5 Verbal I.Q.", Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum and Maximum Scores  Scores n M SD Min. Max. Experimental 12 81.67 12.4 59 101 Control 16 78.56 18.69 55 107 As would be expected with, a group with a high percentage of cerebral palsy (Cruikshank, Hallahan and Bice (1976), the mean I.Q. was lower than i s average for the general population. 3 0 A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I . Q . s c o r e s f o r n o r m a l a n d c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d c h i l d r e n i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e I t o p u t t h e s e i n p e r s p e c t i v e . - 2 5 o •H -P m r H Cu o iw O -P c <D O U (D PM 2 0 C e r e b r a l P a l s i e d / \ P o p . j \ 5 / / \ \ N o r m a l P o p u l a t i o n 20 60 1 0 0 1 4 0 1 8 0 I . Q . F i g u r e I H y p o t h e t i c a l c u r v e s s h o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e s t I . Q . s c o r e s f o r n o r m a l a n d c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m H o p k i n s , B i c e a n d C o l t o n , ( 1 9 5 4 )  A g e a n d S e x o f S u b j e c t s A s t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s w a s s m a l l , t h e y w e r e g r o u p e d b y c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e . A g e c a t e g o r i e s c h o s e n w e r e 1) 6 - 8 y e a r s , 2 ) 9 - 1 1 y e a r s a n d 3) 1 2 y e a r s a n d o v e r . T a b l e 6 s h o w s t h a t t h e a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s w e i g h t e d i n f a v o u r o f y o u n g e r a n d o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d t h e m i d d l e a g e g r o u p i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h b o t h g r o u p s h a v e a s p r e a d i n a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . T h e s e x r a t i o w a s 7 f e m a l e s a n d 5 m a l e s i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l , g r o u p a n d 8 o f e a c h i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . 31 Table 6 Age Groups by Pretest Ages Age Group n 6-8 years 9-11 years 12 and over Experimental 12 3 6 3 Control 16 7 3 6 Instruments To test Hypothesis 1 the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was given to a l l subjects. The whole test was administered i n accordance with standardization procedures. Description and Evaluation, of the WISC-R The WISC i s a well known instrument that i s widely used. It was revised i n 1974 (WISC-R) twenty f i v e years after i t s o r i g i n a l publication. Standardization of the WISC-R i s ex-ce l l e n t , and includes both white and non-white children. R e l i a b i l i t i e s for the scale scores of the verbal, per-formance, and f u l l scales of the WISC-R are very high, aver-aging .94, .90, and .96 respectively. The standard error of measurement for the f u l l scale i s about three I.Q. points. 32 Congruent v a l i d i t y studies indicate findings s i m i l a r to the WISC; a correlation of .82 for the f u l l scale I.Q. of the WISC-R with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, (WPPSI), .95 with the Wechsler Adult I n t e l l i -gence Scale and .73 with the Stanford-Binet. Limitations of the WISC-R relevant to thi s study are a problem of c u l -t u r a l l y biased items and the d i f f i c u l t y i n scoring some subtests. To t e s t Hypothesis 2, three measures were chosen; the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery to assess moti-vation, the Pultibec System for the medical assessment of handicapped children to measure severity of d i s a b i l i t y and the Hurewitz Quick-Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale to assess adaptive behaviour. The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery The Woodcock-Johnson in t e r e s t l e v e l subtests were chosen as they provide a broad.focus on both scholastic and non-scholastic preferences. This recent t e s t has the further advantage of being standardized for both elementary and high school students. The scholastic subtests consist of a student's prefer-ence i n reading, mathematics and written language and the non-scholastic subtests address physical and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . 33 High r e l i a b i l i t i e s are recorded; for example a median r e l i -a b i l i t y of .88 on reading int e r e s t , .86 on mathematics, .88 on written language, .87 on physical i n t e r e s t and .79 on s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . Most v a l i d i t y studies focus on the cognitive and achievement parts of the test. Only one table related to interes t scale appears, showing concurrent v a l i d i t y of .47 between l i k i n g school on an opinion questionnaire and scholas-t i c i n t e r e s t scale. The Pultibec System for:the Medical Assessment of Handicapped  Children This system was chosen because it.was designed to evalu-ate the p o s i t i v e functional capacities of the i n d i v i d u a l be-sides his overt d e f i c i t s , thus providing a f u l l assessment for categorization. The Pultibec System also has the advan-tage of providing a system of comparison, regarding severity of handicap, to be made both between children with the same diagnostic l a b e l and between children with quite d i f f e r e n t d i s a b i l i t i e s . I t also provides a means of comparing not only the o v e r a l l severity of the handicap but also the d i s t r i b u -tion of functional impairments within and between indiv i d u a l s ; for example, whether hand control i s more impaired than mobility. In the Pultibec System a child's functional capacities are placed under 8 main headings, the code l e t t e r s of which 34 form the term 'Pultibec'. These 8 headings embrace 4 physi-c a l q u a l i t i e s and 4 q u a l i t i e s of behaviour and communication. Of these, the f i r s t four motor q u a l i t i e s are relevant to the study. These are P for physical capacity, U for upper limbs divided into Rt hand and arm, l e f t hand and arm, L for loco-motion which includes r i g h t lower limb and l e f t lower limb and T for t o i l e t i n g . As the Pultibec System involves 6 and sometimes 11 sug-gested rating categories i n the motor scales a modified sys-tem u t i l i z e d by Anderson (1973) w i l l be used. (see Appendix B). In her study regarding physically handicapped children the ratings for severity of handicap were compressed to four; that i s grade 1 indicated complete normality, grade 2 a 'minor1 problem and grades 3 or 4 a 'major' problem. Further Ander-son (1973) provides s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a for rating a c h i l d as mildly, moderately or severely handicapped as follows. 1. Mildly handicapped children are those who have no major problems and not more than 4 minor problems. 2. Moderately handicapped children are those with at least one but not more than three major problems or children with more than four minor problems. 3. Severely handicapped children are those with more than 3 major problems. Anderson (1973) reports high r e l i a b i l i t y for this system, but no s p e c i f i c figures were given. 35 The Hurewitz Quick Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale The Hurewitz Quick Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale (see Appendix c) i s an unpublished test. I t was chosen because i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to evaluate educational program-mes and covers a wide spectrum of appropriate variables for this study. Further i t i s one of the few scales i n this area that can be used for both high school and elementary students. Variables covered include 1) s o c i a l habits, 2) r e l a t i o n -ships with adults, 3) relationships with parents, 4) emotional response, 5) work habits and achievement, 6) general physical appearance and health, 7) use of cr a f t s and creative media. The scale i s used to show i f there has been any improve-ment or change i n the child's functioning. The rating scale includes two parts: the f i r s t i s a q u a l i t a t i v e rating, using for example behaviour deteriorating or good improvement. The second part i s concerned with the frequency of these responses. A c h i l d for example who shows good improvement i n an area would receive a. .rating of 2 (good improvement) . If the c h i l d shows some good changes, but the changes occur only some-times , he would be rated 1 (showing f a i r improvement). I f an area of adjustment i s generally good and there i s no need for improvement, the c h i l d should be rated with a 2 (good) or three (excellent). No s p e c i f i c information i s given regarding r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . I t i s stated that over one thousand students 3 6 and teachers have used these scales. The categories were developed with teachers and other professionals, and they were found to be observable and ratable. They warn that the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of a category i n the test should be questioned i f half the items i n the category are not ratable by that person. 37 Design A quasi-experimental design, the nonequivalent control group design, Campbell and Stanley (1963), was employed as i t was not possible to randomly assign the subjects to groups. This design involves a pre-test, post-test and an interven-ing treatment. In thi s study both groups were administered the WISC-R for the pre-test, the experimental group had re-ceived the treatment, or independent variable, which was the integration into a regular school and both groups were post-tested with the WISC-R. Ideally with t h i s design.the treatment should be random-ly assigned. Unfortunately t h i s was not possible due to the event having already taken place. Gay (1976) warns that i n t h i s design the lack of random assignment adds sources of i n v a l i d i t y , not associated with the pre-test - post-test control group design, such as pos-s i b l e regression and interaction between selection and v a r i -ables such as maturation, history and testing. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance here i s the matching of groups. Again unfortunately, due to the small numbers available, manipulation was not fea-s i b l e . In• t h e vreview of the subjects, however, i t was shown that the three age categories were represented for both groups and that subjects did not d i f f e r i n the severity of d i s a b i l -i t y or have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mean I.Q. scores. How-38 ever, as the range and standard deviations of both groups did show differences, analysis of covariance was chosen for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. Both the stated hypotheses are deductive, d i r e c t i o n a l ones stating i n Hypothesis 1 that there w i l l be increased verbal I.Q. scores from those who were integrated into main-streaming and i n Hypothesis 2 that increases i n verbal I.Q. w i l l be related to higher motivation, those less disabled , and children showing greater s o c i a l adjustment. As i s common in experimental research the s t a t i s t i c s employed were con-cerned with the acceptance or re j e c t i o n of the d i r e c t i o n a l hypothesis which was i n turn applied to supporting the re-search hypotheses. The .05 significance l e v e l was chosen for a l l areas except for the subtests of the WISC-R. The .01 significance l e v e l was used for these smaller units. Procedure 'Pre-test' WISC-R scores were col l e c t e d from the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre records for both the experimen-t a l and control groups. The independent variable - the entry into the regular school system and being further exposed to the mainstream of society - had already taken place. The experimental group were located i n the regular school setting and the post-test, that i s the readministration of the WISC-R, was completed for both groups. 39 The time period between integration and testing for the experimental group ranged from .5 to 1.9 school years (see Table 7). The mean time period between tests for both groups was 2 years and 1 month. Pre- and post-test i n t e r v a l s are provided i n Table 8. Table 7 Frequencies Showing Time Intervals Between School Integration and Post-Test Dates Interval i n Mean Interval Group n School Years i n School Years Experimental 12 1.9 1.3 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.3 1 1 1 .9 .8 .5 Both groups were administered the Interest Scale of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery. Data regarding the physical limitations of the experimental and control groups were coll e c t e d from the physiotherapy department of G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre using the modified Pulbetic System. F i n a l l y a l l the i n i t i a l teachers after the integration of the-. 40 Table 8 Frequencies Showing Time Intervals Between Pre- and Post-WISC-R Testing for Experimental and Control Groups Group n Interval Years Months Mean Years Months Experimental 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 6 6 4 4 2 10 10 3 1 1 Control 16 3 8 3 4 3 -3 -2 6 2 2 2 1 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 8 1 7 1 5 1 4 1 4 1 4 children i n the experimental group, were given the Hurewitz Quick Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale to complete. Ratings were based 41 on changes during the f i r s t year of integration or t o t a l time integrated i f this was less than a school year. Data Analysis To test Hypothesis 1: One-way analyses of covariance, involving pre- and post-test scores and the decision of school entry, were employed. Hence, scores on the dependent variable, post-test WISC-R res u l t s , were adjusted for the i n i t i a l differences in the pre-test performance. Focus was on the ca l c u l a t i o n of the main ef f e c t s from F u l l Scale WISC-R scores, verbal scale scores and the four subtests of the WISC-R (comprehension, s i m i l a r i t i e s , vocabulary and general information) deemed most influenced by the environment. Although the time l i m i t s imposed i n the Performance Scale of the WISC-R make i t inappropriate for many of the physically disabled, i t was f e l t that comparison of the re-sults of the test as normally scored would also be useful for p r a c t i c a l implications. To test Hypothesis 2: A 2-tailed t - t e s t was employed.to assess the differences between the experimental and control groups on the int e r e s t scale. A one c e l l t - t e s t was employed to assess changes on the Hurewitz Adjustment Scale for the control group. 42 Pearson correlations for both groups were also c a l c u l a t -ed for motivation and grade of severity of d i s a b i l i t y with changes between pre- and post-test verbal I.Q. scores. The s o c i a l adjustment scores for the experimental group were also correlated with changes i n verbal I.Q. These co r r e l a -tions were used to assess the relationship between i n t e l l e c -tual changes and higher motivation, the l e v e l of d i s a b i l i t y and changes i n s o c i a l adjustment. Further Comparative S t a t i s t i c a l Information.. An analysis of covariance was completed for sex and verbal I.Q, and age category and verbal I.Q. Pearson cor-r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were also completed for grouped age, i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l as measured by verbal I.Q. and grade of severity of d i s a b i l i t y with change i n verbal I.Q. scores-, to assess the data within wider frameworks. Further a q u a l i t a t i v e analysis of the Comprehension sub-test responses was completed, including pre- and post-test responses for 75% of both groups. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS In this chapter the results of the study are presented in r e l a t i o n to the two hypotheses stated i n Chapter I I . Fur-ther comparative s t a t i s t i c s are also presented. The re-sults w i l l be discussed, within the context of thi s re-search study, i n Chapter V. Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 stated that WISC-R scores should be improved after regular class placement over results obtained from the same children when tested e a r l i e r i n the special school and over children who stayed i n the special school. Estimates of c e l l means for Verbal I.Q., shown i n Figure I I , display an increase i n the Verbal I.Q. for the experimental group and a decline i n the control group i n thi s measure. 90 —I a 80-1 t—i 5 70 u CD > 6.0 78.56 Pre Post 87.00 Pre Post Control a Experimental b Figure II Verbal I.Q. C e l l Means (pre and post-tests) Note: a = 16 n n 44 Verbal I.Q. change frequencies, (see Table 9) show 10 gains and one decline i n the experimental group, and 3 gains and 12 declines i n the control group. One subject i n each group gained the same score on both pre and post-tests. Table 9 Changes Between Pre and Post-Test Verbal I.Q. Scores and Pre-Test Verbal I.Q.  Group n V.I.Q. Changes V.I.Q. Pre-Test Scores Experimental 12 14 101 12 80 11 91 7 78 7 90 5 65 4 78 4 81 4 90 3 59 0 72 -7 72 Control 16 +5 + 3 +1 0 -2 -3 -4 -4 -4 -8 -8 -10 -13 -16 -22 -26 67 69 100 82 60 57 96 55 58 66 95 69 73 97 107 106 45 As predicted, one-way analyses of covariance showed that there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n f u l l scale I.Q. and verbal I.Q., pre- and post-test WISC-R scores. .Specifically for F u l l Scale I.Q. F (1,23) = 7.2, p < .01 and for Verbal I.Q. F (1,25) = 21.74, p < .0001. Thus the n u l l hypothesis -that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the pre-test and post-test r e s u l t s for these two groups was re-jected, lending support to the experimental hypothesis. (See Tables 10 and 11). Table 10 Verbal I.Q. Mean Scores by Analysis of Covariance Post-Test) Group i i Group Mean Adjusted Group Mean SEm Experimental> ! 12 86.99 85.53 2.07 Control 16 71.62 72.73 1.79 Table 11 F u l l Scale and Verbal I.Q. Scores by Analysis of Covariance Measures (Post-Test) df ss F Verbal Scale I.Q. Equality of C e l l M Error 1 25 1113.99 1281.19 21.74** F u l l Scale I.Q. Equality of C e l l M Error 1 23 281.41 898.32 7.2* Note: ** p < .0001 * P < .01 46 Regarding the subtests of the WISC-R, deemed most influenced by the environment, S i m i l a r i t i e s (F(l,25) = 10.57, p < .01),, Vocabulary (F(l,25) = 7.79 , p <. .01) and Compre-hension (F(l,25) = 16.33, p <C .001) showed s i g n i f i c a n t changes whilst Information did not. A further one-way ana-l y s i s of covariance showed that Arithmetic, the f i f t h sub-test i n the Verbal Scale, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t pre-post-test difference (F(l,25) = 4.39, p < .05) - but not at the required .01 significance l e v e l . Thus i t appeared that S i m i l a r i t i e s , Vocabulary, and Comprehension were the main contributors to the significant, difference i n the Verbal Scale I.Q. Score. (See Table 12). Table 12 WIS.C.-'R Subtest Scores by Analysis of Covariance Subtests df . SS F Information Equality of Error C e l l M 1 25 22.80 144.53 3.94 S i m i l a r i t i e s Equality of Error C e l l M 1 25 47.22 111.73 10.57** Vocabulary Equality of Error C e l l M 1 25 38.19 122.36 7.79** Comprehension Equality of Error C e l l M 1 25 102.83 157.39 16.33*** Arithmetic Equality of Error C e l l M 1 25 14.59 83.14 4.39* Note; *p < . 05 , **p_ < . 01, and *** £ <. .001 47 Hypothesis 2 a. Motivation measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery. Two-tailed t - t e s t comparisons showed no s i g n i f i c a n t between-group differences with regard to either school or non-school i n t e r e s t . (See Table 13). A Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t also showed no c o r r e l a t i o n with change i n Ver-bal I.Q. (Table 14). Thus the n u l l hypothesis was not re-jected and the research hypothesis - that increased scores would be related to motivation - was not supported. Table 13 Motivation by t_-T.est Analysis of Percentile Rank Scores on the School and Non-school Interest Scales of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery Measure n M SD t School Interest Control 16 58.0 31.19 1.21 Experimental 12 43.17 33.5 Non-School Interest Control 16 41.38 35. 85 -0.40 Experimental 12 46.75 39.49 b. Level of Severity of the Modified Pulbetic Physical System. D i s a b i l i t y Measured by A Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n also showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -tionship between the l e v e l of. severity of d i s a b i l i t y and 48 Table 14 Pearson Correlation Coefficients Showing Change i n Verbal I.Q. Scores with Age Group, Verbal Intelligence Levels, Grade of D i s a b i l i t y , S o c i a l Adjustment, and School and Non-School Interest . Change i n Verbal I.Q. r Experimental Group Age by Group -0.6 3* Verbal I.Q. 0.2 Grade of D i s a b i l i t y 0.21 School Interest -0.03 Non-School Interest 0.29 Soc i a l Adjustment 0.17 Control Group Age by Group 0.38 Verbal I.Q. -0.55 Grade of D i s a b i l i t y 0.14 School Interest -0.48 Non-School Interest 0.17 Note: *p < .05 49 change i n verbal I.Q. (See Table 14). Thus the n u l l hypo-thesis was not rejected and the research hypothesis - that gainsin WISC-R scores would be related to less severity of d i s a b i l i t y was not supported. c. Social Adjustment Measured by the Hurewitz Rating Scale. A one c e l l t-Test showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e changes in s o c i a l adjustment scores for the experimental group (t = 9.98, df 9, p < .001). A Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n , however showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between changes i n s o c i a l adjustment and changes i n pre and post-test Verbal I.Q. (See Table 14). Thus the n u l l hypothesis that changes i n Verbal I.Q. for those integrated would be d i r e c t l y related to s o c i a l adjustment were not supported. Further comparative s t a t i s t i c a l information was col l e c t e d . a. Sex; An analysis of covariance showed that sex was not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor when analyzing changes i n Verbal I.Q. scores. b. Age: A Pearson co r r e l a t i o n showed a s i g n i f i c a n t nega-t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age group and change i n Verbal I.Q. scores of the experimental group. This i n -dicates that the younger group made greater gains on the WISC-R Verbal Scale between pre and post-tests (r < .05). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n be-tween age and changes i n Verbal I.Q. for the control group (See Table 14). 50 c. Intelligence: Intelligence was measured by pre-test Verbal I.Q. scores. A s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n was found between Intelligence and pre and post-test change i n Verbal I.Q. for the control group (r < .05). This shows that those who were the more i n t e l l i g e n t i n the group showed the greatest declines i n Verbal I.Q. between the pre and post-tests. No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -tion was found for the experimental group regarding In-t e l l i g e n c e and change i n Verbal I.Q. scores (See Table 14) . d. A Qualitative Analysis of the Comprehension Subtests. Subtest responses showed no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between experimental and control groups. Both length of ut-terance and sub-item response scatter were sim i l a r for both groups i n pre and post-test responses. 51 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Chapter V i s a summary of the study and a discussion of r e s u l t s . These re s u l t s w i l l be examined within a broad theoreti c a l framework.in order to explain the findings and discuss t h e i r implications. F i n a l l y , l i m i t a t i o n s and sug-gestions for further research w i l l be given. Summary,of the Study In recent years there has been a trend towards integra-tion, or mainstreaming, for educating the handicapped c h i l d . This involves a child's r i g h t to an education i n the least r e s t r i c t i v e environment with support services appropriate to his needs. Thus the trend i s away from the special school and often the special c l a s s . Planning these changes however, i s d i f f i c u l t for physically handicapped children for whom there are many considerations. I t would appear that l i t t l e research has been completed regarding the e f f i c a c y of the i n -tegration model p a r t i c u l a r l y concerning the phy s i c a l l y d i s -abled . I t was the purpose of th i s study to look at two groups of physically disabled children who had been i n a spec i a l school and compare t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s a f t e r one of the groups had integrated into the regular school. I t was 52 hypothesized that, as several verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children appear to be influenced by environmental s t i m u l i , those integrated into the regular school w i l l have increased scaled scores over those who re-mained i n the sheltered setting. To discuss results within a broader framework i t was also hypothesized that gains would be correlated with higher motivation l e v e l s , a lesser degree of severity of d i s a b i l i t y , and better s o c i a l adjustment. S p e c i f i c a l l y the sample was taken of those children who had attended the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre i n Van-couver, B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l subjects required previous WISC-R results that could be coll e c t e d from hospital records. In a l l 2 8 students were e l i g i b l e for the study - 12 i n the experimental group who had been integrated and 16 for the control group. Post-test WISC-R scales were then administer-ed to both groups together with the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery school and non-school inte r e s t question-naire. The Modified Pulbetic System for the assessment of physical d i s a b i l i t y was completed by hospital physiothera-p i s t s for both the experimental and control subjects. Also the Hurewitz Social Adjustment Schedule: for the experimental group was ci r c u l a t e d and where possible (82%) completed by the i n i t i a l teacher after integration. The results of the study are summarized below. 53 Conclusions of the Study Within the limi t a t i o n s of the design of th i s study presented i n Chapter IV, the following conclusions were made. Effects on Intelligence Levels 1. The Physically disabled children who were integrated into regular school from a spe c i a l school for the ph y s i c a l l y disabled improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n i n t e l l i g e n c e when com-pared to a group who remained i n the special school, when th i s dimension was measured by Verbal I.Q. on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. 2. Motivation There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the moti-vation levels of physically disabled children i n the special school as compared to regular school, as measured by either the school or non-school i n t e r e s t scales of the Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery. 3. Severity of D i s a b i l i t y There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the experi-mental and control groups i n the l e v e l of physical d i s a b i l i t y . Also there was no li n e a r relationship between the l e v e l of severity of d i s a b i l i t y and gains i n Verbal I.Q. i n the ex-perimental group or declines i n Verbal I.Q. i n the control group. 54 4. Social Adjustment Although a l l of the experimental group made gains i n s o c i a l adjustment, the a b i l i t y to adjust well was not re-lated s p e c i f i c a l l y to the gains i n Verbal Intelligence. Population Characteristics Sex; Sex i s not related to changes i n Verbal I.Q. i n the integrated or sheltered settings. Age; In the experimental group the change between pre and post Verbal I.Q. was greatest i n the youngest age group ( 6 - 8 years). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t age group rela t i o n s h i p with changes i n Verbal I.Q. for the control group. I.Q.; I t would appear that i n the control group those i n the average I.Q. range had a s i g n i f i c a n t disadvantage i n t e l l e c -t u a l l y from being i n the special school s e t t i n g . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship i n the experimental group between I.Q. and pre and post-test Verbal I.Q. changes. Verbal Qualitative Changes; From an analysis of verbal re-sponses on the comprehension subtests there appeared to be no obvious way to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the expressive verbal a b i l i -t i e s of the control and experimental groups. Those integrated appeared to score higher i n comparison to former t e s t i n g , whereas the control scored lower, but the integrated group did not appear to be more succinct or more explanatory than t h e i r counterparts i n the sheltered setting. S i m i l a r l y 55 no d e f i n i t e areas could be i d e n t i f i e d i n which the control group s i g n i f i c a n t l y lacked information. 56 Discussion Pre - Post Test WISC-R Changes Although i t i s int e r e s t i n g to f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t gains on the F u l l Scale Score, and allows comparability under nor-mal standardization procedures, i t i s important to remember that the performance scale i s frequently not appropriate for the ph y s i c a l l y disabled. This i s due to the fine dexterity needed and the speed required, both of which present d i f f i -c u l t i e s for many types of h a n d i c a p f o r example s p a s t i c i t y and ataxia. Focus therefore w i l l be on the s i g n i f i c a n t changes be-tween the experimental and control groups on the verbal scale. I t i s int e r e s t i n g to see that not only did mean V.I.Q. scores for the experimental group increase but that mean scores for the control group declined. This i s an important contribu-ti o n to the decision making process as a double negative i s implied for those staying i n the sheltered setting; not only may students not,have the stimuli to improve but t h e i r scaled scores may deteriorate i n comparison to t h e i r own previous scaled scores. As the mean F u l l Scale I.Q. of post test WISC-R results of the control.group f e l l into the educable mentally retarded (EMR) range th i s study can be compared with Myers (1976) and does not support his suggestion that 57 the special school provides a reasonable educational a l t e r -native for EMR pupils. This i s reinforced, i n this study, by the finding that the most i n t e l l i g e n t of the control group (in the average range) declined the most i n t h e i r Verbal In-tel l i g e n c e l e v e l . This data does however, corroborate the research of Carrol (1967), Walker (1974) and Easton (1979) who found some s p e c i f i c academic gains af t e r integration into a more 'norma-l i z e d ' environment. WISC-R Subtest Changes Although the Verbal I.Q. scores of the experimental group, who had integrated into regular school, increased s i g -n i f i c a n t l y over the control group, who had stayed i n the sheltered school environment, the subtest analysis showed variances. The s i g n i f i c a n t increase of the WISC-R Verbal I.Q. was not due to a l l four subtests deemed most influenced by the environment, that i s information, vocabulary, s i m i l a r -i t i e s and comprehension. In fact three of these subtests: s i m i l a r i t i e s , vocabulary and comprehension showed a s i g n i f i -cant difference with the f i f t h subtest on the verbal scale, arithmetic, also showing some gains. As the functions and influencing factors on these four subtests are so interwoven i t i s d i f f i c u l t to present a pre-cise rationale for t h i s r e s u l t . Suggestions can be formu-lated however. 58 In Chapter II a breakdown of the functions and i n f l u -encing factors of the four subtests: s i m i l a r i t i e s , vocabu-la r y , and comprehension were discussed. In r e f e r r i n g back to t h i s , i t can be seen that the information subtest i s i n f l u -enced p a r t i c u l a r l y by the range of knowledge developed from a r i c h environment and extent of schooling. S i m i l a r i t i e s and comprehension are p a r t i c u l a r l y influenced by the exten-siveness of c u l t u r a l opportunities; s o c i a l awareness i s also stressed as a function of comprehension while s i m i l a r i t i e s involves l o g i c a l thinking and verbal concept formation. Vocabulary also involves concept formation and language de-velopment. I t could be argued that the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i v e s k i l l s required with regard to the l a t t e r three subtests are more l i k e l y those that w i l l be i n i t i a l l y influenced by the exposure to a broader s o c i a l spectrum. This rationale t i e s i n with the pattern of response by experimental subjects re-garding t h e i r integration into regular school. A l l but one student, who was ambivalent, were intensely enthusiastic about the i r new school placements. Frequently mentioned areas were the enjoyment of extended peer group interactions and participation i n 'regular' s o c i a l events, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the school s e t t i n g . This implies s o c i a l 'normalizations' which should influence comprehension and provide wider en-virons on which to base verbal concept formation, l o g i c a l thinking and language development. Thus th i s exposure ap-59 pears to be counteracting the diminished c u l t u r a l opportu-n i t i e s of the e a r l i e r sheltered setting. With regard to the information subtest three rationales w i l l be discussed. F i r s t l y , because the acq u i s i t i o n of i n -formation i s a large body of knowledge acquired over a long period of time, the ef f e c t s of integration might take a greater time period to be r e a l i z e d . Thus i t could be argued that the i n i t i a l focus i s on s o c i a l aspects while a long term benefit would show gains i n information. Secondly, one could argue on the other hand, that as the questions on the WISC-R are closer to curriculum materials, t h i s i s not an area that has suffered i n the sheltered setting. In fact because of lim i t a t i o n s i n other areas, increased emphasis i s placed on formal learning. Thus the extended environment did not show s i g n i f i c a r i t e f f e c ts on these scores. Thirdly, again when viewing the subtest analysis by S a t t l e r (1974) , i t i s int e r e s t i n g that natural endowment i s suggested as an influencing factor i n Information a c q u i s i t i o n . L'Abate and Curtis (1975) also suggest, from findings regarding i n t e r -subtest correlations, that inheritance may be involved i n some t r a i t s more than others. They mention Information as one l i k e l y subtest. Thus i t could be argued that the Infor-mation subtest i s more l i k e l y to be stable and would be less l i k e l y to change with environmental s t i m u l i ; p a r t i c u l a r l y when thi s area has been of p a r t i c u l a r focus i n the sheltered setting. 60 In conclusion only speculative ideas can be discussed within t h i s study; p a r t i c u l a r l y as the verbal subtest fac-tors tend to be very cl o s e l y related. To make more informed judgements, a larger population involving more data, with programmed longitudinal studies, i s indicated. 61 Level of Severity of D i s a b i l i t y Regarding data analysis concerning hypothesis 2, i t was found that changes i n Verbal I.Q. were not related to the severity of d i s a b i l i t y . Anderson (1973) noted that t h i s very v i s i b l e aspect of the child's functioning i s often cen-t r a l i n the decision of regular school placement from the special school. I t i s also often apparent i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centres that considerably more time i s spent on physical considerations than on s o c i a l , emotional, and educational aspects of the child's s i t u a t i o n . Thus, the finding that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups regarding t h e i r physical d i s a b i l i t y i s worth p a r t i c u l a r mention. I t appears that the most disabled, as outlined i n the Pulbetic System, are l i k e l y to benefit from i n t e -gration with a regular school from a special school to the same extent as those who are minimally disabled. No s i g n i f i -cant l i n e a r relationships between the gains i n Verbal I.Q. in the experimental group or declines i n the control group with r e l a t i o n to physical handicap were evident. Verbal Intelligence Level Pearson co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t negative relationships between change in Verbal I.Q. scores 62 and i n t e l l i g e n c e measured by pretest Verbal I.Q. scores for the control group. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t trends for the experimental group. Both control group posttest mean verbal scale score and posttest f u l l scale score from the WISC-R were i n the edu-ca t i o n a l l y mentally retarded range. (In fact, the mean scores of these children i n the special school were lower than those in the study as pretest verbal scores below 55 were consider-ed not suitable for the study.) The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n (Chapter III) shows that the greatest declines i n Verbal I.Q. scores were by children whose pretest WISC-R scores were i n the average range. For example, a Verbal I.Q. of 106 declined 26 points, Verbal I.Q. of 107 declined 22 points, and a Ver-bal I.Q. of 97 declined 16 points. These scores were those moving towards the mean of the group i n the special c l a s s . This study would support the conclusions of Findley and Bryan (1971) who reviewed several United States studies and re-ported that students tend to move towards the mean i n acade-mic performance. I t would appear from t h i s study that those i n the con-t r o l group with average I.Q. are being disadvantaged i n the sheltered school setting where the mean i n i n t e l l i g e n c e i s in the educably retarded range. 63 This finding should be given special consideration. In a s e t t i n g which i s oriented primarily to physical d i s -a b i l i t i e s aspects concerning educational considerations such as t h i s , may be overlooked. Age Group Although no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found for the control group, a negative s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was found for the experimental group regarding age and changes i n pre and post-test V.I.Q. This indicates that the youngest age group (6-8) made the most posit i v e gains i n Verbal Intelligence. These re-sults support Bloom's (1964) findings. He reviewed longitu-dinal studies of i n t e l l i g e n c e which used the Standford Binet and other i n t e l l i g e n c e tests. He found that data suggested that i n terms of i n t e l l i g e n c e measured at age 17, about 50% of the development takes place between conception and age 4, about 30% between ages 4 and 8, and about 20% between ages 8 and 17. He notes that.the effects of the environment appear to be greatest i n the early periods of i n t e l l i g e n c e develop-ment and least i n the l a t e r periods of development. Bloom (1974) states -". . . evidence so far available suggests marked changes i n the environment i n the early years can produce greater changes i n i n t e l l i g e n c e than w i l l equally marked changes i n the environment at l a t e r periods of development." (p. 89) 64 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to produce some data on which to help base d e c i s i o n s regarding the i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n from the s p e c i a l school to a r e g u l a r school. A n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d i m p l i e s that from an i n t e l l e c t u a l standpoint there i s an advantage i n being i n the r e g u l a r school environment f o r a l l l e v e l s of d i s a b i l i t y , whether m i l d l y impaired or confined to a wheelchair w i t h m i n i -mal hand, motion. I t must be s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t t h i s area should not be viewed i n i s o l a t i o n ; that there are many s o c i a l , emotional and p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t are c r u c i a l regard-i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n process. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , to a greater or l e s s e r extent, are important f o r a l l s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n as shown by Figure I I I from L'abate and C u r t i s (1975). Intellectual Level Prior (Inadequate), Teaching Sensory Discrimination Prior Experience *. Competence Physical Cultural/ Background Cognitive Style Emotional Adjustment FIGURE III Schematic Diagram of Factors Af f e c t i n g Academic Performance 65 It i s important to keep a l l these aspects i n perspective and not l e t the possibly most v i s i b l e d i s a b i l i t y , physical d i s -a b i l i t y , cloud the decision-making process. It would also appear from these results that regular school placement would probably be appropriate for a l l the levels of i n t e l l i g e n c e that were used i n t h i s study (range 55-107 V.I.Q.) and physical d i s a b i l i t i e s that attend the special school. I t can be reasoned that these children could e a s i l y go to a regular school; with aides to help those with par-t i c u l a r l y severe d i s a b i l i t i e s . Although these children w i l l s t i l l need s p e c i f i c therapies, these could be provided by it i n e r a n t therapists. A successful model for t h i s i s pro-vided by the Alberta Children's Hospital i n Calgary. The reduction of t r a v e l l i n g time and broadening of l o c a l peer group contact are also both p o s i t i v e aspects towards encour-aging an extension of the normalized environment at home. The c r u c i a l aspect of integration i s the support systems available and the integrative procedures with teachers, peers, parents and the c h i l d themselves. Weisgerber (1974) graphically i l l u s t r a t e d the ecological relationships of the regular classroom, environment and the special class environ-ment i n terms of human influences on the handicapped c h i l d (See Figure IV) to produce the optimum environment for the c h i l d . FIGURE IV Ecological Model of Regular and Special Instructional Teams Serving the Handicapped Child (Weisgerber, 19 79) In terms of thi s model the findings of thi s study appear at a s i g n i f i c a n t era i n this province. Of p a r t i c u l a r impor-tance i s the commitment of the Minister of Education i n B.C. to integration, encouraging the le a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment for needs approach.. Special reference has also, been made re-garding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the integration from the shel-tered setting with the support s t a f f necessary. Also many school d i s t r i c t s are i n d i v i d u a l l y undergoing reorganization for the integration of children with special needs and par-t i c u l a r l y the physically disabled. For example, Fort St. John has an i t i n e r a n t teacher for the physically disabled, Prince George has several s o c i a l workers employed by the school board to coordinate the integration of children with special needs. The Vancouver school board has committed themselves to the gradual modification of old school buildings to ac-67 ceptable standards for the disabled. New schools under construction are on one l e v e l for t o t a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y . F i n -a l l y , i n t h i s , the International Year of the Disabled, many projects are being funded for the assimilation and accept-a b i l i t y of the physically disabled into the community. Limitations The interpretation of these results must take into con-sideration certain l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. Sample size (n = 28) i s small for analysis of covari-ance (Gay, 1976). The design for thi s study was weakened by not being able to randomly assigned treatment to groups. I t was necessary to take those who had already been assigned- to regular school and compare them to those who had remained i n special school. As Gay (19 76) mentions, this i s a common d i f f i c u l t y i n educa-t i o n a l research. A problem with t h i s approach i s that the research may not include some c r u c i a l areas. In this study pertinent considerations i n the decision to integrate those p a r t i c u l a r children may have been ommitted. These might i n -clude, for example, a supportive family or p a r t i c u l a r person-a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This lack of random assignment adds sources of i n v a l i d -i t y such as possible regression and interaction between se-le c t i o n of variables. These include maturation, history, and testing. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance here i s the matching 68 of groups. Again t h i s was not feasible as a l l those for whom pre-test WISC-R results were available, and who s t i l l f e l l into the WISC-R age group for the post-test range, were used/- (except those below a V.I.Q. of 55). In Chapter 3, the review of the subjects shows that the three age categories were represented for both groups. The sex r a t i o , of 7 females and 5 males i n the exper-imental group and 8 of each sex i n the control group, was good. The groups did not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mean VIQ scores. The two groups also showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n the severity of d i s a b i l i t y . To add a further secur-i t y to results analyses of covariance were used. Small sample sizes also hindered more i n depth analysis regarding the l e v e l of physical d i s a b i l i t y , and d i f f e r e n t areas of s o c i a l adjustment.. Regarding physical d i s a b i l i t y analysis, hand function between the two groups as an i n d i v i d -ual measure would be useful as regular school work requires dexterity and speed. Although this information was c o l l e c t -ed i n the Pulbetic System, c e l l sizes were too small for analysis. Analysis of the s o c i a l adjustment scale was s i m i l a r l y hindered by sample si z e . The area of s o c i a l adjustment i s mentioned frequently i n the l i t e r a t u r e on mainstreaming with most definitence stating that mainstreaming must involve 69 s o c i a l interaction and acceptance. It i s f e l t that just as a physical d i s a b i l i t y can place l i m i t s on achievement, so can feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, attitudes of re-jection on the part of parents, or the r i d i c u l e or i s o l a t i o n of peers. The Hurewitz Scale covered these areas and more but again c e l l sizes were too small to investigate subtest interactions. Aside from sampling considerations, problems attendent upon the construction of the tests were evident. The Hurewitz scale lacked r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y data. The method of using the same scores for 'some improvement' or 'no need to improve' was ambiguous. Further the d i v e r s i t y of areas covered and the design of using a mean of both p o s i t i v e and negative scores could l i m i t the interpretation of r e s u l t s . (In fact, no negative scores were reported i n t h i s study). Regarding the WISC-R, some subtests are more d i f f i c u l t to score than others., p a r t i c u l a r l y the comprehension subtest, although scoring procedures are much improved i n the WISC-R over the WISC. Suggestions for Further Research The results of t h i s investigation suggest that further study of the problem i s warranted. I t i s suggested that there i s a relationship between i n t e l l i g e n c e and the school environment with decline i n the special school and increase 70 in the regular school. This has significance regarding the decision-making process concerning the transference of the physically disabled from the sheltered setting into the regular school which i s close to the mainstream of society. A longitudinal analysis of physically handicapped c h i l d -ren tra n s f e r r i n g into the regular school would provide i n -creased data with which to analyze these and other s i g n i f i -cant areas more e f f e c t i v e l y . This could include e f f e c t s on score differences after various time periods of integration, for example one, two or three years; as was suggested regard-ing the possible long term e f f e c t on the information subtest. The areas of s o c i a l adjustment and the breakdown of levels of severity of d i s a b i l i t y i n terms of upper and lower limbs could be explored. S p e c i f i c ages rather than age groups could be analyzed. Further analysis of data regarding placement i n a special class or regular class or regular class with learning assistance time would also help give more e x p l i c i t information on which to base integration decisions. 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman and Moore, J r . , P.R. and Moore, M.G. "Delivery of Educational Services to Preschool Handicapped Children." In T.D. Tjassen (Ed.) Intervention .Strategies  for High Risk Infants and LovTng~Children, Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976. A l l e n , K.A. Mainstreaming: What have we learned? Young  Children, 1980, 54 - 63. Anastasi, A. Psychological Testing. New York: The Mac-mil lan Company, 1961. Anderson, E.M. The Disabled Schoolchild. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1973. Bloom, B.S. S t a b i l i t y and Change i n Human Char a c t e r i s t i c s . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964. Budoff, M., and Gottlieb, J. Special Class students main-streamed: A Study of an aptitude (learning potential) and treatment in t e r a c t i o n . American Journal of Mental  Deficiency. 1976, 81, 1-11. Campbell, D.T., and Stanley, J.C., Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company, 197 6. Carrol, A. The e f f e c t s of Segregated and P a r t i a l l y Inte-grated School Programmes on Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of Educable Mental Retardes. Exceptional  Children, 1967, 34_, (2), 93-9. Cashdan, A. Child Rearing Practices and the Development of the Handicapped c h i l d i n Loming, J. and Mason A. (Ed.) The Spastic School Child and the Outside World. London: Spastics Society & William Heinemann Ltd., 1966. Cohen, L. The f a c t o r i a l structure of the WISC at ages'7-6, 10-6 and 13-6. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1959, 2_3, 285-299. Coopersmith, S. The Antecedents of Self Esteem. San Fran-c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Co., 1967. Cope, C. and Anderson, E. Special Students.in Ordinary Schools London: University of London Institute of Education, 1977. 72 Cratty, B.J. Movement, perception and thought: the use of t o t a l body movement as a learning modality. Palo Alto, C a l i f . : Reek Publications, 1969. Cruikshank, W.M., Hallahan, D.P., & Bice, H.V. The evaluation of i n t e l l i g e n c e . In W.M. Cruikshank (Ed.), Cerebral  palsy: A developmental d i s a b i l i t y (3rd rev. ed.) Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1976. Cutsforth, T.D. 'Personality and s o c i a l adjustment among the b l i n d ' i n Zahl, P.A. (Ed.) Blindness, New York: Hafner, 1962. Dahl, P.R., Appleby, J.A. and Lipe, D. Mainstreaming Guide- 1  book for Vocational Educators. Salt Lake Cit y : Olym-pus Publishing Company, 1978. Dale, P.S. Language Development. Hinsdale, I l l i n o i s : The Dryden Press Inc., 1972. Deno, E. Special Education as Developmental C a p i t a l . Exceptional. Children, 1970, 37_ 229-237. Dibner, S.S. and Dibner, A.F. Integration or segregation for the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : Thomas, 1973. D o l l , E.A. The Measurement of Social Competence. Minneapolis, Minn.: Educational Test Bureau, 1953. Easton, J.K. and Schuler, J. Academic Achievement and Peer  Relations i n Handicapped Children Attending Integrated  and Special Schools. 56th Annual Session of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1979. Estes, W.K. Intelligence and cognitive psychology. In L.B. Resnick (Ed.) The nature of i n t e l l i g e n c e . H i l l s d a l e , New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1976. Findley, W.G. and Bryan, M.M. A b i l i t y groupings: , 1970 Status  Impact and Alternatives. Athens, Georgia: Center for Educational Improvement, University of Georgia, 1971. Friedman, R.S. The peer-peer program: A model project for the integration of severely p h y s i c a l l y handicapped  youngsters with non-disabled peers. Albertson, N.Y.: Human Resources Schools, Aug. 1975. Gay, L.R. Educational Research. Competencies for Analysis  and Application. Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Publishing Company, 19 76. 73 Gearheart, B.R. & Weishahn, M.W. The handicapped c h i l d i n  the regular classroom. Saint Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1976. Glasser, A.J. & Zimmerman, I.L., C l i n i c a l interpretations of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1967. Hewitt, F.M. Education of Exceptional Learners. Boston: A l l y n & Bacon, Inc., 1977. Hopkins, T.W., Bice, H.V., & Colton, K.C. Evaluation and  education of the cerebral palsied c h i l d . Arlington, Va.: Council for Exceptional Children, 1954. Humphreys, L.G. The nature and organization of human a b i l i t i e s . In M. Katz (Ed.) The 19th Yearbook of the National  Council on Measurement i n Education. Hines, Iowa: National Council on Measurement i n Education, 1962. Hurewitz, P. Hurewitz Quick-Scoring Behaviour Rating Scale. Unpublished Test, New York, Education Dept. Herbert H. Lehman College. Ingram, T.T.S. Education - for what purpose i n Loring, J. (Ed.) Teaching the Cerebral-Palsied C h i l d . Suffold: Lavenham Press, 1965. Jones, R.L., Correlates of Orthopedically Disabled School Children's School Achievement and Interpersonal Rela-tionships. Rehabilitation L i t e r a t u r e , 1974 , 35_ (9), 272-274 (a). Jones, R.L. Labels and stigma i n special education Exceptional Children, 1974, 38, 553-564. (b) Kaufman, A.S. Factor analysis of the WISC-R at eleven age levels between 6*s and 16% years. Journal, of Consulting  and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1975, 43_ (2), 135-147. Kephart, N.C. The Slow Learners i n the Classroom. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Publishing Co., 1960. Kolesnik, W.B. Motivation, Understanding and Influencing  Human Behaviour. Boston: A l l y n & Bacon, 1978. L'Abate, L. and Curtis, N. Teaching the exceptional c h i l d . Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company, 1975. 74 Lindon, R.L. The Pultibec System for the Medical Assess-ment of Handicapped Children. Developmental Medicine  and Child Neurology, 1963, 5, 125-145. Love, H.D. & Walthall, J.E. A Handbook of Medical, Educa- t i o n a l , and Psychological Information for Teachers of  Physically Handicapped Children. S p r i n g f i e l d : Charles C. Thomas, 1977. Lunzer, E.A. The Manchester Scales of Social Adaptation, Slough, Bucks: NFER, 1966. Madsen, M.C. Developmental- and Cross-Cultural Differences in Cooperative and Competitive Behaviour of Young People. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2: 365-371, 1971. Meyerowitz, J.H. Family background of educable mentally retarded children i n Goldstein, H. Moss, J.W. and Gordon, L.J. (Eds). The E f f i c a c y of Special Education  Training on the Development of Mentally Retarded  Children. Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s I n s t i t u t e for Research on Exceptional Children, 1965. Meyerowitz, J.H. Peer groups and special classes. Mental  Retardation, 1967, 5, 23-26. Myers, James K. The Special Day School Placement of High I.Q. and Low I.Q.. EMR Pupils. Paper presented at the annual International.Convention, The Council for Exceptional Children, A p r i l , 1976. National Advisory Council on Education Professions Develop-ment. Mainstreaming: Helping Teachers Meet the  Challenge. Washington, D.C: National Advisory Council on Educations Professions Development, 1976. P e l l , D.M. Teacher acceptance and perception of behaviour of physically handicapped pupils transferred from special to regular classes. Dissertation Abstracts  International, 1973, 33, (8), 4209A. Phelphs, W.M. The Cerebral Palsied. In Melsen, W.E. (Ed.) M i t c h e l l Nelson Textbook of . P e d i a t r i c s. Philadelphia: Suanders, 1950. Piaget, J. Six psychological studies. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, Inc. 1968. 75 Rapaport, D., G i l l , M.N. & Schafer, R. Diagnostic psycho- logical t esting. (Rev. Ed.) New York: International Un i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1968. Rapier, J . , Adelson, R., Carey, R. and Croke, A. Changes i n Children's Attitudes toward the Physically Handicapped. Exceptional Children. 1972. 39 (3), 219-223. Resnick, L.B. The Mature of Intelligence. H i l l s d a l e , New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbanm Associates, 1976. Reynolds, M.C. A Framework for Considering some Issues i n Special Education: Exceptional Children, 1962, 28, 367-370. Reynolds, M.C. and Birch, J.W. Teaching, Exceptional Children  i n a l l America's Schools - a F i r s t Course for Teachers  and P r i n c i p a l s . Reston, V i r g i n i a : Council for Exceptional Children, 1977. Robertson, J.S. Occupational success of E.S.N. School-leavers i n Lindsay. The Medical O f f i c e r , 1963, 109, 361-368. Safford, P.L. Teaching Young Children with Special Needs. St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1978. S a t t l e r , J.M. Assessment of Children's Intelligence. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1974. S i l v e r s t e i n , A.B. Alternative Factor Analytic Solutions for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1977, 37, 121-124. Strang, L., Smith, M. and Rogers, C a r l . Social Comparison, Multiple Reference Groups and the Self-Concepts of Academically Handicapped Children Before and A f t e r Mainstreaming. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70, (4), 487-497. Terman, L., and M e r r i l l , M. ,The Stanford-Binet Intelligence  Scale. Manual for 3rd e d i t i o n , Form L-M. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1973. Turnbull, A.P. & Schulz, J.B. Mainstreaming Handicapped Students: A Guide for the Classroom Teacher. Boston: Al l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1979. Tyler, L.E. The Psychology of Human Differences. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 19 65. Tyler, L.E. Tests and Measurements (2nd ed). Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice H a l l , 1971 Tyler, L.E. Individual Differences: A b i l i t i e s and Motiva- t i o n a l Directions. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1974. Vernon, P.E. Intelligence, and Cultural Environment. London: Methuen Co. Ltd., 19 69. Vernon, P.E. Intelligence i n W.B. Dockrell (Ed.,), On I n t e l l i -gence . London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1970. U.S. Office of Education. Estimated Numbers of Handicapped  Children i n the United States, 1974-1975. Washington, D.C: Bureau for the Education of the Handicapped, 1975. Wechsler, D. The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult I n t e l l i -gence . (4th edition) Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1958. Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Association, 1949. Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence  Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1955. Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary  Scale of Intelligence. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1967. Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Asso-c i a t i o n , 1974. Weiner, B. Motivational Psychology and Educational Re-search. Educational Psychologist, 1974, 11, 96-101. Wesman, A.G. I n t e l l i g e n t t e s t i n g , American Psychologist, 1968, 23, 267-274. Wilson, M.I. Children with Crippling and Health D i s a b i l i t i e s in L.M. Dunn (Ed.) Exceptional Children i n the Schools (2nd Edition) New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 19 77 Woodcock, R.W. The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Massachusetts: Teaching Resources, 1978. Weisgerber, R.A. Individualized Learning and the Special Child i n R. Heinich (Ed.) Educating a l l Handicapped  Children. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications 19 79. 78 APPENDIX The Original Special Education Cascade 4 Limited educational environments outside of the school if SI Full time residential school Special treatment and detention centers Hospitals 'Homebound" instructors $.' j Fulltime &. I special day school it SI •si si */ / / / Full time special class Regular classroom plus part time special class Regular classroom plus resource room help-Regular classroom with assistance by itinerant specialists Regular classroom with consultative assistance Regular classroom ft v V*. A (Reynolds, 1962) 79 APPENDIX A The Cascade System UVAl I Level II liftrul III U r a l IV Levol V Lcvil VI Level VII Children In regular class** , Including those "handicapped" abla to gat along with regular class accommodations with or without medical or counseling supportive therapies Regular class attendance plus Supplementary instructional services fart-time special class Full-time special class Special . stations. Homobound -x-L Instruction In hospital or domiciled settings / \ "Noneducationar service (medical and welfare care and supervision) _ -OUT-PATIENT-PROGRAMS (Assignment of pupils governed by the school system) •IN-PATIENT" PROGRAMS (Assignment of Children to facilities governed by health or welfare •geneies) The cascade system of special education service. The tapered design Indicates the con-siderable difference in the numbers involved at the different levels and calls attention to the fact that the system serves as a diagnostic filter. The most specialized facilities are likely to be needed by the fewest children on a long term basis. This organizational model can be applied to develop-ment of special education services for all types of disability. (Deno,1970) 80 APPENDIX The Instructional Cascade •It b assumed that ao educational "place" it impervious to change and development and that through good efforts many of the varieties of iperitfaed and intensive form* of edu-cation can be mowed into « developing mainstream. •Hare, at in the caw of the original cascade, h b assumed that students should be removed Iron the mainstream only for baited periods and compelling reasons, thai when m special-bad and limited CDvironmcats their progress should he monitored carefully and regularly, and that they should be returned to the mainstream as soon as feasible. (Reynolds and B i r c h , 1977) 81 APPENDIX A Changes Occurring in the Cascade (Fewer Specialized Places; More Diverse "Regular" Places) (Reynolds and Birch, 1977) 82 APPENDIX A The Instructional Cascade r INSTRUCTIONAL MODE S « C I » l I N J K I K I I O M • HQ S > f C I » l C U M I C U I U M « n c i » i m«T«uctio« H U J » c « « » i cu»«ieuiuM 1 SMCIAI ms»«uc tio« WI1HIN tC»C»H CUMICIUU" t t » t « » l i«sl«ucno» W I I H I N » t « t « » l C U M I C U I U M -3 83 APPENDIX PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION X M O C K A C T S K I L L S or L IV ING M A N A G E M E N T MONET PROPERTY A NO R E S O U R C E S r> S T U D E N T R e c e i v e s A S P E C - * . . C U R R I C U L U M F O R A L L I N S T R U C T I O N C S T U O K N T <S P L A V J E O IN T H E G E N E R A L C U R R I C U L U M A N D R E C E I V E S S P E C I A L I N S T R U C T I O N F O R S O M E T A S K S T H A T S U P P L E M E N T T H E I N S T R U C T I O N R E C E I V E D I N G E N E R A L C U R R I C U L U M • ' S T U D E N T IS P L A C E D IN T H E G E N E R A L C U R R I C U L U M A N D R E C E I V E S S P E C I A L I N S T R U C T I O N F O R C E R T A I N T A S K S W I T M I N T H E C J R B I C J L J M A S T U O C N T I S P L A C E D I N T H E G E N E R A L C U R R I C U L U M F O R A L L I N S T R U C T I O N I. WHAT GOALS A N O NOW MANY O B J E C T I V E S WILL STUQCNf N C C O TO M C E 1 ' H O S E G O A L S 1 N O W IMTCNSIVK A N O HOW f X t C M S l v E W I L L m s r f t u c n o N H A V E I O B E * 1 W M A I T C A C M E R S A N O M A I f R l A l S A R E M K C D C O « T S T U O C N T S * r P E R F O R M A N C E OH COOHITIVC A I T f C T I V t P S Y C H O M O T O R T A S K ! O B J E C T I V E S B A S E D O N T A S K P E R F O R M A N C E M O O E S I A S E O ON TA if O B J E C T I V E S 84 APPENDIX B: - ASSESSMENT OF DISABILITIES The notes below summarize the c r i t e r i a used i n evaluat-ing the children's functional d i s a b i l i t i e s on a four-point scale. As stated they are derived mainly from the Pultibec system described by Lindon (1963) which was s l i g h t l y modified for the purposes of Anderson's (197 3) study. PHYSICAL CAPACITY (HEALTH) 1. Physical capacity, general health, stature, body b u i l d , exercise tolerance and endurance, good average to ex-ceptional. Capable of a f u l l day's work. (No person with an overt defect can be placed in t h i s grade.) (Note that children with functional d i f f i c u l t i e s but without any overt defect should be recorded under the appropriate quality only. P i n these instances would remain grade I.) 2. Physical capacity etc. low to average but within nor-mal l i m i t s . If any one or more of these factors are affected or any defect such as s c o l i o s i s i s present, even i f they do not a f f e c t general health, the person should not be graded higher than P2. 3. Physical capacity less than in 2 but nevertheless capable of a f u l l day's work i f the environment i s suitable. (Open employment l i k e l y . ) APPENDIX B 85 4. Physical capacity etc. reduced to an extent of render-ing the person incapable of a f u l l day's normal work or t r a v e l l i n g without special f a c i l i t i e s . ( P r o b a b l y sheltered employment.) UPPER LIMBS 1. Normal. 2. Slight loss of i n t r i c a t e s k i l l due to loss of co-ordina-ti o n but power and range normal for manual work - able to feed and wash. 3. Range and/or power limited as well as s k i l l - not able to feed but can grasp objects. 4. Severe lo s s . Useless for a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes ( i n -cludes amputations). LOCOMOTION 1. Able to use limb/limbs i n a completely normal way. 2. Sl i g h t d i f f i c u l t y - able to run and walk but with less than usual dexterity and speed. May have some d i f f i c u l -ty with s t a i r s and crowds. Distance usually t r a v e l l e d i n everyday l i f e i s not a problem. 3. Moderate d i f f i c u l t y . Able to walk only short to moder-ate distances ( i . e . approximately 20-200 yards) without Bb APPENDIX B a rest at a slow pace and i f necessary with aids. Tendency to f a l l rather e a s i l y . Running impractical but possible with one good limb. Stairs take time -some help may be needed. 4. May be able, with close supervision, to walk a few steps and to stand when holding on or supported. Stairs and gradients v i r t u a l l y impossible. Suitable building and transport necessary. Wheelchair needed when help not available, or a l l the time. TOILET 1. Normal. 2. Nocturnal enuresis - no special arrangement for day care. 3. Continent for p r a c t i c a l purposes with, i f necessary, aid of a urinary bag or catheter for bladder control or s pecial t r a i n i n g for bowel control. Special arrange-ments of width and space of t o i l e t arrangements or hand r a i l s etc. render c h i l d independent of further a s s i s t -ance. Able to attend to himself with special provi-sions. 4. As in 3, with additional problems such as manipulative d i f f i c u l t i e s , necessitating help i n addition to, i f necessary, special arrangements as in 3. APPENDIX C 0 / HUREWITZ-QUICK SCORING BEHAVIOR ADJUSTMENT SCALE..Dr. P a u l H u r e w i t z - 1974 Name: Class: Date: Evaluated By Please use the rating scale below. Place a number rating in each box. If you cannot rate a response because of insufficient information place a (?) in the box. RATING SCALE: -1. Behavior deteriorating, extreme response 0. L i t t l e or no improvement (seldom) 1. Fair improvement (sometimes) 2. Good improvement (usually) 3. Excellent improvement (almost alway A. SOCIAL HABITS 1. Desire to relate to others and be accepted. 2. Acceptance by others. 3. Level of Social Maturity. 4. Response to social group controls and norms. _ 5. Degree of self-confidence in social relationships. 6. Sharing things, bringing things to class. 7. Accepting social and work responsibilities. 8. Social leadership. *Rate either item 9 or 10 (whichever applies). Use this scale: 3: seldom, 2: sometimes,1: usually,0: almost always, -1: always. * 9 . Submissiveness to peers. 10. Dominates others or is aggressive verbally or physically. Total: Use average scores. Divide total by no. of responses. B. RELATIONSHIP WITH ADULT 1. Response to individual praise and attention. 2. Willingness to share persona] experience with adult. 3. Reaction to limits. Total: Average: D. EMOTIONAL RESPONSE 1. Response to inner controls: degree of freedom to express self and emotion 2. Degree of self-confidence in new situations or in trying something new. 3. Ability to accept construct-ive criticism. Rate items 4-8 using this scale: 3:Seldom, 2:Sometimes, l:usually, 0:almost always, -1:always 4. Need for special attention. 5. Need for personal approval. 6. Need for affection & love. 7. Appears guilty and puts self down. 8. Mood swings-cries easily, anger-fearful, sad-happy. Total: Average: E. WORK HABITS AND ACHIEVEMENT 1 . Degree of organization in work and study habits. 2. Completion of work. 3. Degree of self-confidence in trying new work. '>. Subject improvement. f>. General, a t t: e n t i o n s p a n . 7. Response to special a I tent ion and help. 8 . Use of potential. To t a1: Ave rage: 88 APPENDIX C C. RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENTS (Note i f there is a poor relationship with one of the parents.) ___ Parent-child relationship 1. Parent's view point. __  2. Child's view point. 3. Parent's interest in work. 4. Parent's follow through and consistency. 5. Quality of parental discipline. 6. Parental acceptance of child's abilities and limits. * Rate either item 7 or 8 (whichever applies). Use this scale: 3: seldom, 2: sometimes, 1: usually, 0: almost always, -1: always. *7. Parental over-protection. *8. Parental neglect. Total: Average: SUMMARY Change A. Social Habits. B. Rel. with adult. _____ C. Rel. with parents. D. Emotional response. ______ E. Ifork Habits. ______ F. Gen. Appearance & Health __ G. Creative Media. F. GENERAL PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND HEALTH 1. Self-care:dress, neatness and health. 2. P o s t u r e . 3. Motor Coordination. Rate items 4-8 using this scale. (Rate either item 4 or item 5). 3: seldom, 2: sometimes, 1: usually, 0: almost always, -1: always. 4. Lethargic. 5. Hyperactive. 6. Nervous habits - tics, etc 7. Somatic complaints: rashes , head-aches, stomach-aches. Total: Average: G. USE OF CRAFTS AND CREATIVE MEDIA 1. Shows interest and ability in use of new creative material. 2. Plans use of materials. 3. Development of new interests and hobbies. 4. Care of materials. 5. Acceptance of product made • Total: Average: Total: Change ± 89 APPENDIX C Directions f o r Scoring the Rating Scale The scale should be used a f t e r you have had a chance to observe the c h i l d f o r one or two months. The scale i s used to show i f there has been any improvement or change i n the child's functioning, (See the directions on the rating scale before you read the r e s t ) . The rating scale includes Wo parts: The f i r s t i s a quali t a t i v e rating as f a i r or good improvement. The second part i s concerned with the frequency of these responses. A more objective rating w i l l be obtained i f you keep both of these aspects i n mind as you are rating a c h i l d . For example: i f a c h i l d usually shows good im-provement i n an area, the rating would be 2 (good im-provement). If the c h i l d shows some good changes, but these changes occur only sometimes, you would rate him 1 showing ( f a i r improvement), In the same manner i f a c h i l d usually shows good improvement, but he regressed i n behavior once, you might s t i l l rate him 2 showing good improvement ^usually). Use the Main Rating Scale f o r a l l the items unless otherwise noted. A few items are rated only on a f r e -quency scale. These items are s p e c i f i c a l l y marked with an asterisk. If an area of adjustment i s generally good and there i s no need f o r improvement, you may mark i t with a 2 or 3o For example: a c h i l d may always dress neatly and needs no improvement. You would therefore rate t h i s c h i l d with a 2 (Good) or a 3 (excellent). 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054402/manifest

Comment

Related Items