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Method of analysis of Videotaped infant behavior relevant to the acquisition of speech Woodward, Patricia E. 1977

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A METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF VIDEOTAPED INFANT BEHAVIOR RELEVANT TO THE ACQUISITION OF SPEECH by P a t r i c i a E. Woodward M.A., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the Department of Educational Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 © Patricia E. Woodward, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to evaluate a new method by which to observe and categorize infant pre-speech behavior and to r e l a t e such behavior to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. Pre-speech behavior i n t h i s study was observable behavior that occurred p r i o r to the c h i l d ' s produc-t i o n of h i s f i r s t word. The s a l i e n t innovations of the new Method are: the use of a time frame, use of e t h o l o g i c a l categories, and use of two l e v e l s of coding. Videotapes of the inf a n t ' s n atural behavior at home are f i r s t dubbed with an inconspicuous v i s u a l time s i g n a l . Primary coding of the auditory and v i s u a l information on the tape i s done according to the e t h o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of elements of behavior. Secondary coding of the same data may be done i n whatever units or d e f i n i t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t o r s wish. The videotapes of raw data and computer f i l e s of primary coding c o n s t i t u t e a data bank which f a c i l i t a t e s c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y analyses. The Method i s also a p p l i c a b l e to observation of speech behavior. Evaluation of the new Method was done by applying i t i n a f i e l d t r i a l l o n g i t u d i n a l study of two i n f a n t s . Five minute samples of behavior were analyzed f o r each month from the ninth to the f i f t e e n t h month i n c l u -s i v e . Secondary coding r e f l e c t e d theories of non-verbal communication, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , and Piagetian c o g n i t i v e development. Communications analogous to language functions (Jakobson, 1960) and operations of reference (Brown, 1973) were found before speech. E t h o l o g i c a l findings i n c i d e n t a l to the f i e l d t r i a l were consistent with findings reported for the human inf a n t ethogram. i i , The main strengths of the Method, demonstrated in the f i e l d t r i a l , were i t s success in allowing the investigator to monitor the r e l i a b i l i t y of the coding and to find and relate individual moments in the original data to several simultaneous types of analysis. The expense of the Method may limit i t s application except by multi-disciplinary research groups. Cross-disciplinary discussion of the findings suggested future applica-tions of the Method as a source of data for research in the area of speech acquisition. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I PROBLEMS AND INNOVATIONS IN THE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR RELEVANT TO THE ACQUISITION OF SPEECH—NEED FOR AN INTEGRATIVE METHOD 4 Theoretical Approaches to the Investigation of the Ac q u i s i t i o n of Speech 5 I l l u s t r a t i v e Problems i n Psy c h o l i n g u i s t i c and Cognitive Research 7 Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s of a Method of Ps y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and Cognitive Investigation of Speech A c q u i s i t i o n . . . 13 Applications of Ethology to Pre-Speech Studies 14 Units of Observation . 16 R e l i a b i l i t y 17 The Problem of Time 17 Data Recording 18 Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s Derived from Ethology for Investigation of Speech A c q u i s i t i o n 19 Applications of S o c i a l Psychology to Pre-Speech Studies . . 20 Methods f or Dealing with Context 20 Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s Derived from S o c i a l Psychology for Investigation of Speech A c q u i s i t i o n 23 Summary 23 II DESIRABLE CAPABILITIES FOR A NEW METHOD 24 Raw Data Recording 24 A b i l i t y to Capture Natural Observations 25 Comprehensiveness 25 Unobtrusiveness 26 Repeatability 26 Coded Data—Primary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 27 S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Open Coding 27 A b i l i t y to C l a s s i f y Non-verbal Behaviour 27 A b i l i t y to C l a s s i f y Environmental Information 28 A b i l i t y to Identify Time of Occurrence and Duration of Data 29 A b i l i t y to Serve as a "Lingua Franca" 29 Coded Data—Secondary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 32 A b i l i t y to Accommodate D i f f e r i n g Theories . . . 32 S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Computer Analysis 33 A p p l i c a b i l i t y to C l i n i c a l Diagnosis and Treatment . . . . 34 Summary 35 i v Chapter I I I PROCEDURES OF THE METHOD DESIGNED .•FOR THE STUDY OF PRE-SPEECH BEHAVIOR 36 Raw Data C o l l e c t i o n 36 Equipment 37 Portable T e l e v i s i o n Camera and Videotape Recorder 37 Magnetic Tape 37 "Slow Motion" Videotape Recorder 37 Monitor 37 Head Phones 37 Record ing 38 Continuity 38 Time Signal Slot 38 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 39 Dubbing the Time Signal 39 Coding Procedures 40 Videotape Record Log 40 Primary Coding 42 General Data Run 42 Auditory Data Run 43 Deceptive Action Run 44 Vi s u a l Data Run 45 A c t i v i t y Unit Run 48 Secondary Coding 50 General Procedures 50 Secondary Codes Used 50 Computer Analysis 51 Information R e t r i e v a l 51 Summary of Data 52 Errors i n Data F i l e s 52 Frequency of Codes 52 Duration of Codes 52 Average Duration 52 Variance of Duration 52 R e l i a b i l i t y of Data 52 Duration of Agreement 52 Frequency of Agreement 53 Cross Tabulation of Data 53 Summary 54 IV DESIGN FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE METHOD 55 The Rationale of the Evaluation 55 The Evaluation Approach i n Summary 56 Desc r i p t i o n of the Evaluative F i e l d T r i a l 57 Subjects 57 Observation Schedule 57 Sele c t i o n of Raw Data Sequences 58 Content and Locus of Observations 59 Procedures of Data C o l l e c t i o n and Analysis 60 v R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 — T h e P h y l o g e n y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s 6 1 D e f i n i t i o n o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s U s e d i n t h e F i e l d T r i a l 6 2 T h e P r i m a t e L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . 6 4 L a n c a s t e r , 1 9 6 6 . . . . . . 6 4 M a r l e r , 1 9 6 5 . . . 6 4 G a r d n e r a n d G a r d n e r , 1 9 6 9 6 7 T h e P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c L i t e r a t u r e o n C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s 6 8 W e i r , 1 9 6 2 6 8 G r e e n f i e l d , 1 9 6 7 , a n d M c N e i l l , 1 9 7 0 . 6 9 S t a t e m e n t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n O n e 7 1 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 — T h e O n t o g e n y o f O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e 7 2 T h e P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c L i t e r a t u r e o n O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e 7 3 B l o o m , 1 9 7 3 7 3 B r o w n , 1 9 7 3 7 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e U s e d i n t h e F i e l d T r i a l 7 4 N o m i n a t i o n 7 4 R e c u r r e n c e 7 4 N o n e x i s t e n c e 7 5 P i a g e t i a n L i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f S p e e c h . . . 7 6 D e f i n i t i o n s o f P i a g e t i a n C o n c e p t s U s e d i n t h e F i e l d T r i a l 7 6 P i a g e t i a n S t a g e s 7 7 S t a t e m e n t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n T w o 7 8 E t h o l o g i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n s 7 9 S u m m a r y 7 9 V R E L I A B I L I T Y O F T H E M E T H O D . . . • 8 1 T h e P r o b l e m o f P r i v i l e g e d I n f o r m a t i o n 8 1 P r o c e d u r e f o r C a l c u l a t i n g R e l i a b i l i t y 8 2 S e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e l i a b i l i t y S a m p l e s 8 3 M e a s u r e s o f R e l i a b i l i t y 8 3 D u r a t i o n o f A g r e e m e n t . 8 3 I n c i d e n c e o f A g r e e m e n t 8 4 S o u r c e s o f L o w R e l i a b i l i t y 8 6 C o d i n g I n a c c u r a c y 8 6 P o o r T e c h n i c a l Q u a l i t y o f R a w D a t a 8 7 V u l n e r a b i l i t y o f S h o r t T e r m I t e m s ; . . 8 7 U n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f A g r e e m e n t s b y R E L 8 8 L e v e l s o f A c c e p t a b l e R e l i a b i l i t y 8 8 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C o d i n g E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r 9 0 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C o d i n g E l e m e n t s o f E n v i r o n m e n t 9 9 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C o d i n g A c t i v i t y U n i t s 9 9 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C o d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s 1 0 3 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C o d i n g P i a g e t i a n C o n c e p t s 1 0 5 v i R e l i a b i l i t y Findings and the Prospective Use of the Method 107 Improvements to R e l i a b i l i t y . 107 Changes i n the Method . 107 Changes i n Training of Raters . . . . . 108 Changes i n the Measurement of R e l i a b i l i t y 108 Summary 109 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FIELD TRIAL 110 The Phylogeny of Communication Functions: Existence and Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Communication Functions i n Infant Pre-Speech Behavior I l l Procedures Used f o r the Analysis I l l Occurrence of Communication Functions 116 Overview of Associated Data 118 Vo c a l i z a t i o n 118 "Looking at people" 120 F a c i a l and Head Elements of Behavior 120 Gestural Elements 121 Immobile 124 Behaviors Co-occurring with Communication Functions as a Group 124 Development and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Communication Functions , 124 Poetic and Metalingual Communication . . . . 142 Re f e r e n t i a l Communication 144 Conative Communication 148 Expressive Communication 149 Phatic Communication 152 Possible Roles of Elements of Behavior 155 Summary of Findings f o r Communication Functions 159 The Ontogeny of Operations of Reference: Existence and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Operations of Reference i n Infant Pre-Speech Behavior 161 Occurrence of Operations of Reference 163 Nomination Hold Out 163 Nomination Point 165 Recurrence Reach 165 Operations of Reference i n General 166 Occurrence of Piagetian Stages 167 Piagetian Stage 3 167 Piagetian Stage 4 167 Piagetian Stage 5 170 Piagetian Stage 6 170 Occurrence of Piagetian Configurations 170 Imitation 170 Symbolic Play 170 Contingent Occurrence of Piagetian Stages, Given Operations of Reference 172 Operations of Reference and the Object Concept 174 The "Meanings" i n Sensori-Motor Behaviors 175 Reference and Representation 180 v i i Summary of Findings f o r Operations of Reference 185 Eth o l o g i c a l Findings 186 Coding E f f i c i e n c y 187 Limits 187 Comprehensiveness 189 Supplementary Codes 190 Addi t i o n a l Elements of Behavior 193 Toward an Ethogram 196 Comparison of L i s t s 196 Summary 198 VII OVERVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE METHOD 199 Strengths 200 S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Developmental Study 200 P a r t i c i p a t i o n 201 Discovery 201 Shared Understanding 204 C l i n i c a l Application 205 Usefulness f o r Collection* and Analysis of Pre-speech Data 206 C o l l e c t i o n of Comprehensive Available Data 207 Reexamination of Raw Data 208 Reanalysis of O r i g i n a l Data 209 Multiple Analysis of Data 209 Rigorousness i n the Use of Observational Inference . . . 210 Information Raw Data 210 Reliab l e and Comprehensive D e f i n i t i o n s 211 Controlled Coding Bias 212 Regulated Coding Consistency 213 Limitations 213 V u l n e r a b i l i t y to Coding Error and Sampling Bias 214 Time-Consuming 216 Exacting 217 Expensive 217 Conclusion 217 Summary 218 LITERATURE CITED 220 APPENDIX I D e f i n i t i o n s of Elements of Behavior 225 APPENDIX II D e f i n i t i o n s of Communication Functions 249 APPENDIX III Functional D e f i n i t i o n s of Piagetian Stages 251 APPENDIX IV Operational D e f i n i t i o n s (Object Concept) of Piagetian Stages 265 APPENDIX V D e f i n i t i o n s of Piagetian Configurations 267 v i i i APPENDIX VI Tables Showing Contingent Occurrence of Selected Elements of Behavior and Individual Communication Functions 268 APPENDIX VII Piagetian Reanalysis of O r i g i n a l Coding 280 APPENDIX VIII Program PAT 2 87 APPENDIX IX Program REL 2 9 0 APPENDIX X Program INF 2 9 8 APPENDIX XI P a r t i c i p a t i o n Agreement 3 0 0 i x LIST OF TABLES Table V 1 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Categories of Elements of Behavior of Head 91 V 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Categories of Elements of Behavior of Limbs ; 92 V 3 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Selected Elements of Behavior Relevant to Communication Functions 94 V 4 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Other Frequent F a c i a l Elements of Behavior 95 V 5 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: V o c a l i z a t i o n Elements and Immobile Posture 96 V 6 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Selected Gestures and Manipulations 97 V 7 R e l i a b i l i t y of D e f i n i t i o n s : Estimates from Various Procedures 98 V 8 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Categories of Elements of Environment of Head . 100 V 9 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Categories of Elements of Environment of Limbs 101 V 10 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: "Looking at People" 102 V 11 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Communication Functions 104 V 12 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding: Piagetian Stages 106 VI 1 Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative, Expressive, Phatic, Poetic, Metalingual, Communication and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 117 VI 2 Occurrence and Co-occurrence: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking at People", Speech 119 VI 3 Occurrence: Normal Face, Heavy Breathing, Smile, Wide Eyes, Play Face, Chew L i p s , Low Frown, Eyebrow Flash 122 VI 4 Occurrence: Point, Hold Out, Immobile 123 x. VI 5 J o i n t Occurrence: V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" (L), V o c a l i z a t i o n or "Looking at People" [,(V0UL)7 (V0/)L;)i] Vocal-i z a t i o n and "Looking at People" (V0OL); Point (P0), Hold Out (H0), Immobile (IM); and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 125 VI 6 Joi n t Occurrence: Normal (NL), Heavy Breathing (HB), Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Chew Lips (CS), Eyebrow Flash (EF) ; and Communication Functions as a.Group (CF) 126 VI 7 Contingent Occurrence of V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" (L), Point (P0), Hold Out (H0), Immobile (IM), Given Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 127 VI 8 Contingent Occurrence of Normal Face (NL), Heavy Breathing (HB), Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Chew Lips (CS), Eyebrow Flash (EF), Given Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 128 VI 9 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group (CF), Given V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" (L) , Point (P0) , Hold Out (H0) , Immobile (IM) 131 VI 10 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group (CF), Given Normal Face (NL), Heavy Breathing (HB), Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Chew Lips (CS) , Eyebrow Flash (EF) 132 VI 11 P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n or Negative Association: Communica-t i o n Functions as a Group (CF) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) 134 VI 12 P o s i t i v e Association or Negative Association: R e f e r e n t i a l Communication (RF) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) . 146 VI 13 P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n or Negative Association: Conative Communication (CN) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) . 150 VI 14 P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n or Negative Association: Expressive Communication (EX) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) . 153 VI 15 P o s i t i v e Association or Negative Association: Phatic Communication (PJ) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) . 156 VI 16 Frequency of Data: Occurrence of Item Codes 158 VI 17 Occurrence: Operations of Reference: Nomination Hold Out (H), Nomination Point (P), Recurrence Reach (R) . . . . 164 x i VI 18 Occurrence: Piagetian Stages 168 VI 19 Occurrence Piagetian Configuration: Imitation (IM), Delayed Imitation (DI), Symbolic Play (SY), Motor Representation (MR) 171 VI 20 Contingent Occurrence: Piagetian Stages given Nomin-at i o n (H) , Nomination (P) and Recurrence(R) 173 VI 21 V.T.R. Log Summary of Behaviors Seen i n A c t i v i t y Units 17, 18, 19, Observation 14K 176 VI 22 V.T.R. Log Summary of Behaviors Seen i n A c t i v i t y Unit 32, Observation 14K 182 VI 23 Occurrence: Sequences Coded "No Data" (ND) i n Categories of Elements of Behavior 188 APPENDIX VI Tables Showing Contingent Occurrence of Selected Elements of Behavior and Individual Communication Functions 268 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ), Communication and Vo c a l i z a t i o n (V0) 269 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ), Communication and "Looking at People" (L) 270 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Normal Face (NL) 271 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Heavy Breathing (HB) 272 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Smile (ZL) 273 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Wide Eyes (WE) 274 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Play Face (PF) 275 x i i Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Chew Lips (CS) 276 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Point (P0) 277 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN), Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Hold Out (H0) 278 Contingent Occurrence: R e f e r e n t i a l (RF), Conative (CN) , Expressive (EX), Phatic (PJ) Communication and Immobile (IM) 279 APPENDIX VII VII 1 The Relations between S i g n i f i c a n t s and S i g n i f i c a t e s According to Piaget 281 VII 2 V.T.R. Log Summary Showing Types of S i g n i f i c a n t s , Observation 14K 283 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Levels of Analysis of L i n g u i s t i c Data 31 2 FORTRAN Coding Form 41 3 Design f or Longitudinal Observation Study . 58 4 Communication Model 64 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Holophrastic Speech and the Ages at Which They F i r s t Emerged 70 6 Comparison of Coding Orientation Elements by Rater A and Rater B .' • 85 7 Example of Cross Tabulation Table: R e f e r e n t i a l Communication Function (RF) and "Looking at People" (L) 113 8 A l l Communication Functions 138 9 R e f e r e n t i a l Communication 139 10 Conative Communication 139 11 Expressive Communication 140 12 Phatic Communication 140 13 Poetic Communication 141 14 Metalingual Communication , 141 15 Occurrence: Piagetian Stages 169 x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many people have helped to make t h i s thesis possible during i t s three years of preparation. F i r s t , the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y committee who grappled with an unwieldy topic and by t h e i r questions and experience helped to trim i t , and r e f i n e i t and set standards f o r i t s evaluation. My thanks go to the chairperson, Dr. Emily Goetz, f o r u n f a l t e r i n g support of a nonconforming approach, to Dr. David Thomas, co-chairperson, for consistent administrative f a c i l i t a t i o n , to Dr. Robert Boese whose apprecia-t i o n of the f i r s t question—how we know what we know—helped to focus the in v e s t i g a t i o n , to Dr. Ruth McConnell for tact i n helping me to recognize and remedy some of the gaps i n my preparation, to Dr. S a l l y Rogow for sharing her enthusiasm f o r the education of a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , and to Dr. Jim S h e r r i l l whose patient and l o g i c a l discussion helped to e s t a b l i s h a f i r m footing f o r the mathematical a n a l y s i s . Second, my thanks to those who laboured with me, Norm Lew, the best of research a s s i s t a n t s , long-suffering, accurate and funny; and Linda McAlpine, an indefatigable companion through many midnights, who i s applying the Method i n her own research. Carol Thew, of English Education, also contributed most generously both ideas and sources from her current studies. Two departments.'in the Education Faculty provided strong t e c h n i c a l support. Credit for the three computer programs used belongs to Lewis Varga, programmer of the S t a t i s t i c s Laboratory. My thanks to him, also, for presiding over my ad hoc o r i e n t a t i o n to the computer. A l l the members of the Audio V i s u a l Department have provided t e c h n i c a l services and xv i n s t r u c t i o n . My thanks to them and to the Faculty of Education, f o r providing equipment on a long-term bas i s . Similar thanks go to Geoid Media Services and to Ken Clark, for generously lending expensive equipment for months on end. I would also l i k e to express warm appreciation of the two subjects, K. and P. whose continuous presence on the T.V. monitors for over a year established them as v i v i d p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the lab. To t h e i r f a m i l i e s and to the f a m i l i e s of the other two infants not analyzed whose mothers a l l welcomed me every f o r t n i g h t throughout the spring and summer of 1974, my warmest gratitude. The Public Health Department i n Chilliwack, who c a r r i e d out the preliminary screening of subjects p r i o r to the study, are also high on my l i s t of busy people who provided help. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to make a point of acknowledging the contribu-t i o n of those who had nothing to do with the research but whose forbearance and support made i t possible f o r me to neglect other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to carry i t out. At work, these were my colleagues, the secretary and depart-ment heads i n the Training and Education group at Woodlands, whom I have to thank for making the l e a s t of t h e i r • d i f f i c u l t i e s i n carrying an extra administrative load during my leave of absence. And my own family, both those who l i v e f a r from U.B.C. and thus did not see me for days on end, and those who l i v e close and saw me more than frequently as an overnight guest. A complete acknowledgement should include many others unmentioned but appreciated f o r timely assistance as well as those remembered above who thought they were backing a sp r i n t e r but found themselves involved i n a marathon. Thinking of a l l of them I am astonished at how unhesitatingly and how generously so many i n d i v i d u a l s contributed time, took trouble, and gave thought to t h i s research. I am very g r a t e f u l to them. They made i t pos s i b l e . x v i INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method"'" for the c o l l e c t i o n and analysis of data about infant behavior relevant to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. This Method was designed to combine the c a p a b i l i t i e s and remedy the d e f i c i e n c i e s of some of the present methods used i n the f i e l d s of study concerned with pre-speech behavior and speech a c q u i s i t i o n . The scope of the methodological problem i n the study of behavior p r i o r to speech and during the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech has long been recog-nized. In an early discussion of what the content and approach of t h i s area, which he termed"prelinguistics",should be, Trager (1949) gave as hi s d e f i n i t i o n : "physical and b i o l o g i c a l events from the point of view of the organization of statements about them into systems of data useful to the l i n g u i s t " (p. 2). Trager's systems of data, the components of p r e l i n g u i s t i c study i n h i s view, were: cerebration, encoding, voice set, voice q u a l i t y , body set and motion q u a l i t y . To achieve such band width, current pre-speech and speech a c q u i s i t i o n research requires contributions from cognitive psychology, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , phonology, non-verbal com-munication, ethology and k i n e s i c s , as well as other re l a t e d f i e l d s . Moreover, to draw together so broad a spectrum of data types requires new approaches to data analysis which can f a c i l i t a t e communication between "*"This w i l l henceforth be c a p i t a l i z e d as "Method", i n order to designate i t as the subject under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1 2 investigators from the many contributing d i s c i p l i n e s . Evaluation of the Method designed to span these f i e l d s and f a c i l -i t a t e i n t r a - d i s c i p l i n a r y communication was done through a f i e l d t r i a l which tested the usefulness of the Method i n two representative areas of p r e l i n g u i s t i c study. Although the f i e l d t r i a l focused on two current research questions, t h i s study as a whole i s d e s c r i p t i v e rather than experimental. Chapter I i s an examination of the question of why the current study of pre-speech behavior needs broader and more av a i l a b l e data resources. On the basis of t h i s review of problems i n the c o l l e c t i o n and analysis of data, desiderata are adduced for an appropriate method i n Chapter II and the r a t i o n a l e f or the Method chosen i s presented. Chapter III i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedures of the new Method, supported by d e f i n i t i o n s f or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data presented i n Appen-dices I, I I , III,. IV and V which are, i n e f f e c t , a coding manual for the Method. Chapter IV presents the r a t i o n a l e f or and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i e l d t r i a l used for evaluation of the Method. This t r i a l consisted of a l o n g i t u d i n a l observational study of two subjects between the ages of nine and f i f t e e n months. The l i t e r a t u r e of the two p r e l i n g u i s t i c research questions investigated i n the f i e l d t r i a l i s given i n t h i s chapter. Chapter V gives the r e l i a b i l i t i e s found i n the f i e l d t r i a l a p p l i c a -t i o n of the Method and discusses them from the point of view of the prospective user of the Method. Findings from the m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y data c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d t r i a l are discussed i n Chapter VI i n terms of the two research questions 3 investigated. Because the f i e l d t r i a l was not extensive, the r e s u l t s are d e s c r i p t i v e of the two subjects only and general a p p l i c a t i o n i s treated s p e c u l a t i v e l y . Inferences are drawn about the v a l i d i t y of the findings produced by the Method by checking the computer r e s u l t s against the o r i g i n a l data record. In the f i n a l chapter, VII, conclusions are formed about the over-a l l usefulness of the Method for pre-speech and speech a c q u i s i t i o n investigations and some prospective applications are suggested. CHAPTER I PROBLEMS AND INNOVATIONS IN THE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR RELEVANT TO THE ACQUISITION OF SPEECH—NEED FOR AN INTEGRATIVE METHOD This chapter reviews some representative research problems and promising research methods i n the f i e l d s of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , cognitive psychology, ethology and s o c i a l psychology. The f i r s t group of studies c i t e d i l l u s t r a t e s the need f o r a f a c i l i t a t i v e method of obtaining and analyzing data to support p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive investigations of pre-speech behavior and i t s relevance to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. Studies considered l a t e r help to i d e n t i f y and define s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for a s a t i s f a c t o r y method for such study. The approach and assumptions of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are i n the t r a d i t i o n of behavioral psychology, but i t i s not the intent of the investigator to convert other d i s c i p l i n e s to behaviorist notions.^ Rather, i t i s the intent of the investigator to r e c r u i t one of the strengths of behavioral technique, objective observation of behavior, to provide r e l i a b l e p l e n t i f u l data on what infants do before and during the time when they acquire speech, and to make these data a v a i l a b l e to various d i s c i p l i n e s i n a form that i s useful to them. This i s not a "'"Neither i s i t the intent of the investigator to impugn the v a l i d i t y of the findings chosen to i l l u s t r a t e the need f o r a new method. In f a c t , a l l of the i l l u s t r a t i v e studies were chosen p r e c i s e l y because they have made important contributions i n t h e i r respective f i e l d s . 4 5 p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c or an e t h o l o g i c a l or a s o c i a l or cognitive psycho-l o g i c a l study, but s p e c i f i c questions i n a l l these f i e l d s are touched upon, f i r s t i n t h i s chapter to i l l u s t r a t e the c a p a b i l i t i e s needed i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y method, and then i n Chapters IV, V, VI and VII to i l l u s t r a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the new Method that i s the subject of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . The investigator assumes that behavioral data c o l l e c t e d before, during and a f t e r a c h i l d begins to speak are a l l relevant to the acquis-i t i o n of speech, but has elected to concentrate on pre-speech and early speech behavior because the methodological need seems most apparent there. Theoretical Approaches to the Investigation of the A c q u i s i t i o n of Speech A review of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals that the systematic i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of infant behavior p r i o r to speech from l i n g u i s t i c points of view advocated by Trager (1949) has not taken place; and therefore theoret-i c a l concepts from the l i t e r a t u r e of early speech can be extended to the pre-speech period only with caution. On the other hand, t h e o r e t i c a l concepts from the l i t e r a t u r e of early cognitive development have been widely applied to pre-speech behavior. In f a c t , a great deal of specu-l a t i o n i s current i n the l i t e r a t u r e s of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s and cognitive psychology about the semantic and cognitive bases for speech a c q u i s i t i o n (Bloom, 1970, 1973; Brown, 1973; Edwards, 1973; Ingram, 1971; Schlesinger, 1971; S i n c l a i r , 1973; Slobin, 1971). 2 One of the e a r l i e s t to state an i n t e r e s t i n these questions, 2 E a r l i e s t i n the f i e l d of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s : t h i s i s an old question for the Piagetians. 6 Church (1971) gave clear recognition to the research issues involved: If we are going to be able to integrate the study of l i n g u i s t i c development with the study of cognitive development i n general, we w i l l have to persuade the l i n g u i s t s to give up some of t h e i r notions about language. The concept of the i d e a l i z e d speaker-hearer i s not h e l p f u l . We have to examine language, not as i f a c h i l d was developing i n i s o l a t i o n , but i n communicative, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contexts. (Church, 1971, pp. 176-177) The methodological implications of Church's statement are: 1. the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i n g u i s t i c development and cognitive development should be investigated through i n t e g r a t i v e studies. 2. a new a n a l y t i c approach i s required f o r the new research focus. 3. the communicative use of language and i t s s o c i a l context are important sources of information f o r t h i s f i e l d of study. Edwards also questions the use of t r a d i t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c methods for c h i l d language studies: Two basic reservations must be made about such [adult speaker] i n t e r -pretations. F i r s t l y , how do we know we are not a t t r i b u t i n g to the c h i l d a too sophisticated, or perhaps a language-specific model of r e l a t i o n s between e n t i t i e s i n the r e a l world? Secondly, even i f the c h i l d possesses such concepts and behaves i n terms of them, what kind of evidence t e l l s us what h i s actual utterances mean when spoken? (Edwards, 1973, p. 413) F i n a l l y , Ervin-Tripp (1973) points to new di r e c t i o n s for methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n of early speech: "We need much r i c h e r studies of the i n t e n t i o n a l evidence concerning these r e l a t i o n s using techniques which are not l i n g u i s t i c " (p.210). Two n o n - l i n g u i s t i c kinds of information have been used by i n v e s t i -gators i n order to a r r i v e at conclusions about the speech intentions of 7 very young (one to three year old) c h i l d r e n . These n o n - l i n g u i s t i c sources are: a u x i l i a r y data about the environmental context of the c h i l d ' s speech and about the c h i l d ' s non-verbal communication as i t accompanies speech; and t h e o r e t i c a l inferences about the c h i l d ' s cognitive model of the world. However, as shown i n the next section, techniques for gather-ing, recording and analyzing data from these domains and for integ r a t i n g such data into speech a c q u i s i t i o n studies are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to investigators i n t h i s f i e l d . I l l u s t r a t i v e Problems i n P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and Cognitive Research A c e n t r a l problem for the psycholinguist interested i n speech a c q u i s i t i o n i s the dearth of systematically recorded n o n - l i n g u i s t i c data i n the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . A b r i e f look at the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of such data to the authors of f i v e current studies i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Concerned p a r t i c u l a r l y with the psychological r e a l i t y of a c h i l d ' s e a r l i e s t speech competence, Schlesinger (1971) l i n k s cognition and speech through the hypothesis that the meaning of the s i t u a t i o n to the c h i l d i s the template for an inte n t i o n marker which produces a speech utterance: I markers are determined by the innate cognitive capacity of the c h i l d . There i s nothing s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c about t h i s capac-i t y and i n t h i s i t i s unlike the innate propensity postulated by McNeill (1966 and t h i s volume). I t i s j u s t the way the c h i l d views the world, and w i l l be the same whether he learns to speak, or f a i l s to learn to speak due to some organic or environmental handicap. (Schlesinger, 1971, p. 70) Schlesinger's data are examples of eight types of semantic r e l a t i o n s between two words which he extracted from the l i t e r a t u r e of developmental p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . The r e l a t i o n between each pair i s i n f e r r e d by 8 Schlesinger from the context reported i n anecdotal form or implied i n discussion by the various authors c i t e d . Although h i s arguments require inferences about the beginning speakers' intentions, only verbal descrip-tions and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by former investigators are a v a i l a b l e f or h i s an a l y s i s . Non-verbal behavior and s o c i a l context are important bases of Ingram's (1971) language a c q u i s i t i o n hypothesis. His p o s i t i o n i s that: Unlike most discussions which have ignored much of the contextual and i n t o n a t i o n a l information of early utterances, t h i s one observes them and t h e i r semantic r o l e i n the c h i l d ' s evolving grammar . . . . Language a c q u i s i t i o n i s then seen as the development of semantic categories with eventual syn t a c t i c marking . . . . Grammar, then, i n the semantic sense, begins i n the c h i l d ' s f i r s t months of cognitive development. I t s f i r s t expression, marked by the syn t a c t i c use of gesture, intonation and one-word utterances, occurs at the end of the f i r s t year of l i f e . (Ingram, 1971, p. 889) Ingram's support for t h i s p o s i t i o n , however, rather than newly observed data about context, intonation or i n f e r r e d meaning, i s a re-analysis of Leopold's written d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s daughter Hildegard's language development (Leopold, 1949). These data, although copious, are l i m i t e d to what Leopold recorded of what he observed. (See Bloom's discussion of t h i s point on p. 10.) The c r i t i c a l use of gesture by the c h i l d to indicate meaning has to be hypothesized by Ingram: The wish element, i f consistent with children's gesture systems, i s r e a l i z e d (we hypothesize) as some reach gesture made by the c h i l d . . . Ah was then used at 1:5 i n the sense 'What i s that?'. . . (I hypothesize the use of the pointing gesture) . . . Leopold has not d e t a i l e d a l l gestures, but each marking i s l i k e l y from discussion on gesture by others. (Ingram, 1971, pp. 901-902) As i t stands, the v a l i d i t y of Ingram's idea of semantic t r a n s i t i v i t y i n c h i l d language rests on his hypotheses about Leopold's data. However, his model i s testable i f a method that provided current pertinent obser-9 va t i o n a l data could be applied. Bloom's (1970) semantic analysis of si n g l e and two-word utterances i s based on her systematic data recording which includes a number of categories f o r " n o n - l i n g u i s t i c " context items. Bloom's conclusion about language a c q u i s i t i o n i s predicated on the i n t e r a c t i o n of the new speaker with h i s r e a l l i f e context: Children i n t e r a c t i n a world of objects, events and re l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r perceptual cognitive strategies f o r apprehending t h i s experience no doubt include the r e a l i z a t i o n of such r e l a t i o n a l notions as have been discussed. Learning l i n g u i s t i c structures, i n t h i s view, would depend on the p r i o r development of c e r t a i n conceptual structures as observed by Piaget (1968). (Bloom, 1970, p. 26) The contribution of the contextual data, which i s presented i n the appendix of Bloom's study, i s to give general substantiation for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made by Bloom, but not to provide the basis for detail e d analysis of the i n t e r a c t i o n of the speaker with h i s environment. Bloom's 1973 p u b l i c a t i o n includes a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of four 40 minute videotapes made to supplement a set of diary observations. The method required the tapes to be viewed and reviewed i n r e a l time (as opposed to slow motion) with several assistants i n order to record the data i n dialogue form with supplementary notes covering actions and environment. (This, apparently, was not seen as a coding task and no r e l i a b i l i t y measures were reported.) The data were divided by the c r i t e r i o n of "a s h i f t of topic or focus" into speech events (p. 148). The element of time was not described: "What has not been captured i s the time lapse between and within events. There were v a r i a b l e pauses throughout" (p. 148). Bloom's evaluation of t h i s methodological innovation points to 10 the high information l e v e l and r e l i a b i l i t y of such data: Considerably more of the s i t u a t i o n a l context was added i n the f i n a l v e rsion and the f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n took approximately 6 hours' time for each 40-minute session. Part of the reason for t h i s was the fa c t that we were f i n d i n g new material i n the tapes—behavior that none of us had noticed although the tapes had been viewed many, many times. This experience of t r a n s c r i b i n g the material so c a r e f u l l y and watching the recordings so c l o s e l y has made us aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s i n audio recording alone, and cautious of data that are not mechanically recorded at a l l so that they can be reviewed repeatedly before descrip-tions, judgements or inte r p r e t a t i o n s are made. Werner Leopold's four-volume diary and several of the other diary studies that have become landmarks i n the l i t e r a t u r e are even more impressive to us now, but at the same time we have an even sharper sense of how much they must have missed. (Bloom, 1973, p. 148) Brown (1973) finds the semantic inte r p r e t a t i o n s based on context made by Bloom (1973) to be congruent with h i s emerging picture of the f i r s t stage of speech. (The substance of h i s thesis i s touched upon i n Chapter IV as background to a research question i n the f i e l d t r i a l used to test the Method.) Brown's analysis of Stage I speech draws upon the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e f o r records of 22 children, not a l l of them English speaking, but he, too, reports himself d i s s a t i s f i e d with the a v a i l a b l e data. For the purpose of analysis of the semantic roles and grammatic r e l a t i o n s of the f i r s t words, he characterizes the data as "fragmentary" because often not enough information i s given about the context of the words spoken to judge a c h i l d ' s meaning (Brown, 1973, p. 193). In summary, a b r i e f look at the data resources a v a i l a b l e to meet the needs of f i v e current investigators concerned with speech a c q u i s i t i o n reveals a l a r g e l y unmet need. The exception to t h i s i s Bloom's (1973) videotape data and her statement, above, confirms Church's opinion (p. 6) about the value of contextual data. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development of speech and the develop-11 merit of thought has long been a c e n t r a l theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e of cognitive development. The positions of Piaget (1959), Vygotsky (1962), L u r i a (1961), and Bruner (1966) and the c r i t i c i s m s of these positions from Skinner, (1957) and Fodor, (1971) have provoked a multitude of studies,, 3 many of them i n areas related to pre-speech research. Brown (1973) states the general p o s i t i o n of many American psycho-l i n g u i s t s : "Though I have not worked out the r e l a t i o n i n any d e t a i l , i t i s my impression that the f i r s t meanings are an extension of the kind of i n t e l l i g e n c e that Jean Piaget c a l l s sensorimotor" (p. 198). A systematic analysis using Piagetian constructs i s presented by Edwards (1973). Although contextual and non-verbal data, as well as speech data from his own and Bloom's (1970) subjects, are used by Edwards, no data about the sensori-motor behavior of these p a r t i c u l a r subjects are provided to r e l a t e t h e i r actual cognitive a c t i v i t i e s to the discus-sion of Piagetian theory on which Edwards' analysis r e s t s . Researchers attempting studies i n order to synthesize psycho-l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive theories are also hampered by the great d i f f i c u l t y of t r a n s l a t i n g the terms of one into the terms of another: e.g., i s Piaget's (1950) "representation" analogous to Brown's (1973) "nomination"; or i s a word d e f i n i t i o n comparable to a cognitive schema? This problem was avoided i n two ingenious recent studies the findings of which support an hypothesis that action structures underlie language structures. 3 The present investigator produced two, both unpublished. The f i r s t , (Woodward, 1965) her M.A. thesi s , demonstrated Piagetian stages i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of quantity by retarded children; the second (Woodward, 1969), an analysis of the a c q u i s i t i o n of language by a non-speaking c h i l d , showed how data about the a c q u i s i t i o n of a concept could be organized to provide either a Piagetian or a Skinnerian analysis. 12 Greenfield (1972) found strong corroboration f o r a developmental p a r a l l e l between manipulative strategies used by 11 to 36 month old ch i l d r e n for stacking handleless nesting cups i n order of s i z e and t y p i c a l sentence types used by the ch i l d r e n . Each time one cup acts upon another to form a structure there i s a r e l a t i o n of actor-action-acted upon, a r e l a t i o n most simply r e a l i z e d i n sentence structure as subject-verb-object. In t h i s conception, cups are the units equivalent to noun phrases i n a sentence. (Greenfield, 1972, p. 302) . . . the importance of the action-grammar analogy l i e s i n the p o s s i b i l i t y that the same human capacities may be responsible f o r both types of structure. (Greenfield, 1972, p. 305) Goodnow and Levine (1973) came to s i m i l a r conclusions following an analysis of the rules devised by somewhat older c h i l d r e n for the paths used by t h e i r p e n c i l s when copying figu r e s . These two studies took the d i r e c t approach of comparing sensori-motor behavior to language development. Like the study by Edwards discussed above (p. 11) they are bridges between d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of study with a common i n t e r e s t i n language development. The congruences between the subjects' sensori-motor behavior i n the test s i t u a t i o n s described above and t h e i r everyday speech provoke speculation of how data about t h e i r everyday sensori-motor behaviour might elucidate speech development over time. Mehrabian and Williams (1971), i n discussing the Piagetian test they devised to predict speech a c q u i s i t i o n , state the need f o r a means 13 of assessing a c h i l d ' s t y p i c a l behavior i n Piagetian terms: If a c h i l d uses non-verbal media f o r communication p r i o r to h i s use of language, then i t would seem that, from among his pre-verbal r e p e r t o i r e of behaviours, those which most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e to representational a b i l i t y should be the best predictors of h i s subsequent speed i n acquiring language. (Mehrabian and Williams, 1971, p. 114) Several methodological approaches to achieving the i n t e g r a t i v e research enjoined by Church (p. 6) were seen i n the foregoing studies. However, none solved the methodological problem of r e l a t i n g observed speech behaviour to i n f e r r e d cognitive c a p a b i l i t i e s i n a form applicable to l o n g i t u d i n a l speech a c q u i s i t i o n studies. Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s of a Method of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and Cognitive  Investigation of Speech A c q u i s i t i o n The l i n e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n opened up by the authors of the a c t i o n structure studies mentioned above (p. 12) c a l l s f o r a method with the c a p a b i l i t y to record and analyze simultaneously a c h i l d ' s observed action pattern i n terms of his cognitive development, and h i s observed speech i n terms of language development. Piagetian theory was suggested by several authors as appropriate to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of speech a c q u i s i t i o n ; however, no method for Piagetian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f r e e l y observed behavior was discovered i n the l i t e r a t u r e . A means of record-ing ongoing sensori-motor behavior seems necessary i f Piagetian inference i s to be grounded i n current observational data. 14 In addition, as p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s moves toward the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of speech a c q u i s i t i o n , a more comprehensive method of data recording and analysis i s needed to r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l of semantic analyses. The foregoing review of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c research needs i n t h i s area suggests that findings can be strengthened by access to current r e l i a b l e observa-4 t i o n a l data i n the areas of context and non-verbal communication. A method which meets these needs by providing Piagetian, l i n g u i s t i c , contextual and non-verbal data would also f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o l l a b o r a t i o n . A promising n o n - l i n g u i s t i c approach to i n v e s t i g a t i o n of non-verbal communication i s that of ethology, to which area t h i s survey now turns. Applications of Ethology to Pre-Speech Studies It has long been an accepted f a c t that non-verbal communication not only accompanies human speech, but often precedes i t i n the devel-opment of the c h i l d . The present lack of adequate methodological tools to study t h i s early behavior i s described by Richards: Though i t i s f a i r l y easy to sketch out some of the broad features of t h i s p r e l i n g u i s t i c s o c i a l communication, a more thorough analysis i s l i m i t e d by the extreme crudity of our methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and our lack of a conceptual vocabulary which does not imply f u l l membership of a l i n g u i s t i c community. (Richards, 1974, p. 92) This change of research focus to include non speech data also brings these research methods closer to those i n the f i e l d of language use (Halliday, 1973; Jakobson, 1960; Morris, 1946; Tough, 1974) which make use of the investigator's observation of the subjects' language behavior i n the s o c i a l context, i . e . of the pragmatic function of language. 15 The study of adult human non-verbal communication brings a promising breadth of approach and a new methodology to t h i s s i t u a t i o n , that of ethology. The et h o l o g i c a l approach i s distinguished from the psy c h o l i n g u i s t i c by a s h i f t of focus from the i n d i v i d u a l as a speaker to the i n d i v i d u a l as a verbal and non-verbal communicator i n a s o c i a l context as described by Byers and by Argyle: When we study communication or the process by means of which people r e l a t e to each other, we must look at the context i n which i t o c c u r s — t h e human r e l a t i o n s h i p . (Byers, 1972, p. 6) The discovery of the importance of non-verbal communication (NVC) has transformed the study of human s o c i a l behavior. U n t i l quite recently s o c i a l psychologists were b a f f l e d by the s u b t l e t i e s and i n t r i c a c i e s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and often analyzed i t i n terms of how long encounters lasted, or who spoke most often. Now a new l e v e l of analysis has been opened u p — t h e l e v e l of head-nods, s h i f t s of gaze, f i n e hand-movements, bodily posture, etc. (as well as a s i m i l a r d e t a i l e d analysis of the verbal compo-nent). This kind of research started i n the early 1960's; rather l a t e r we r e a l i z e d that ethologists, e s p e c i a l l y those doing f i e l d studies of primates, were using very s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s . I t looked as i f human NVC was s i m i l a r to animal s o c i a l behaviour, and perhaps conveyed s i m i l a r messages. Humans also have a verbal channel of communication, but other research showed that speech i s accompanied by an i n t r i c a t e set of vocal and gestural non-verbal s i g n a l s , which a f f e c t meaning, emphasis, and other aspects of utterances. This kind of research has led to f r u i t f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n with l i n g u i s t s . (Argyle, 1972, p. 243) 16 Units of Observation In the area of non-verbal communication, methodologies make use of units of observation of human context and non-verbal communication which vary i n s i z e from the ki n e s i c observations of one subject f o r f r a c t i o n s of a second necessary to analyse head nods ( B i r d w h i s t e l l , 1971), to the long term observations of interpersonal development which are the focus of s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c s (Hymes, 1971). The un i t s of observation i n etho-l o g i c a l studies are at a macroscopic l e v e l , which i s to say that they can be perceived without assistance i n ordinary human i n t e r a c t i o n (although the a id of slow-motion reproduction i s necessary for some analyses). Figure 1, p. 31 shows how these units appear midway i n the scale of observation u n i t s used by the various d i s c i p l i n e s concerned with speech a c q u i s i t i o n . The approach of ethology to the behavioral observation of commun-i c a t i o n i s a refinement of the " a p p l i c a t i o n of e t h o l o g i c a l methods to the study of human behavior" (Grant, 1969, p. 526). Modified units which, i n primate ethology, have s i g n a l (that i s , communicative) value and thus exert s o c i a l c o n t r o l , are included i n a complete c h e c k - l i s t of behavior the scope of which aims to cover a l l observed behavior (Brannigan and Humphries, 1972). The units are operationally defined. (See Appendix I for the version used i n t h i s study.) While the s e l e c t i o n of the appropriate s i z e and d e f i n i t i o n of units i s made according to the needs of the study (Richards and Bernal, 1972; Smith and Connolly, 1972), many studies make use of commonly defined units (Anderson, 1972; Blurton Jones, 1972b, 1972c; Connolly and Smith, 1972; Leach, 1972; McGrew, 1972; and t h i s study). There i s general agreement i n the f i e l d that: 17 Modern studies of displays, whatever the s i z e of unit employed, describe and define these units i n a way which allows r e p l i c a -t i o n of the studies. (Blurton Jones, 1972a, p. 273) R e l i a b i l i t y E t h o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e i s l e s s p o s i t i v e with regard to i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y : Stress on d e s c r i p t i o n and hence r e p l i c a b i l i t y i n ethology may account for the neglect of i n t e r - r a t e r . . . r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t -ing which has characterized the work of ethologists on animals and, to a l e s s e r extent, on man. (Blurton Jones, 1972b, p. 13) Studies which do record r e l i a b i l i t y are those of Garvey (1974), McGrew (1972), and Smith and Connolly (1972). McGrew provides the basis for the measurement of i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h i s study (Chapter V, p. 83). Inter-rater agreement of 80% was achieved i n Garvey's study for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of four types of play patterns of nursery school c h i l d r e n . Raters used the following safeguards against misinterpretations of children's meanings i n play episodes recorded on videotape: that the behavior be t y p i c a l , that both the verbal and non-verbal context of events be taken into account, and that the consequences of an event be included as evidence of the meaning of the event. Smith and Connolly (1972) report i n t e r - r a t e r "concordance" of 70% for 60 categories of the behavior of nursery school c h i l d r e n ; and s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s from 48% to more than 60% for the same categories. The Problem of Time Et h o l o g i c a l approaches to " d e t a i l e d sequential recording of a l l that i s taking place i n a s i t u a t i o n " (Gordon and Jester, 1973, p-. 184) have not solved the problem of recording the r e l a t i v e time of many simultaneous events of varying durations. 18 The information processing capacity of the unaided observer becomes c r i t i c a l , too, i n attempts to handle large numbers of d i f f e r e n t units occurring i n rapid sequence. Grant (1969) has defined 118 items of non-verbal behaviour, more than h a l f a r i s i n g from the face, and t h i s l i s t i s not complete. These units have d i f f e r e n t durations and may overlap i n complex ways i n the sequence. . . . Grant's (1968) method of summarising s t o c h a s t i c a l l y the non-verbal behaviour i n interviews by tr e a t i n g i t as a simple sequence of t h i r t y or so units i n the c l a s s i c a l manner . . . can now be seen to be an over-s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the problem. The unaided observer can handle l i m i t e d aspects of the subject's behaviour but video-recording f a c i l -i t i e s are preferable where r e l i a b l e complete accounts are required. (Brannigan and Humphries, 1972, p. 44) These authors give an example of how seven types of simultaneous events can be recorded on. an "approximate time scale" but provide no information of how t h i s time scale may be used i n analysis. Smith and Connolly summarize some of the problems with time sampl-ing approaches as "a lack of sequential analysis of behavior sequences or temporal a s s o c i a t i o n of behaviour c l u s t e r s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s " (Smith and Connolly 1972, p. 73). Possibly as a consequence of t h i s unsatisfactory methodology i n terms of the time dimension, the analysis i n most e t h o l o g i c a l research does not require the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of simultaneous events or sequences. Instead, e t h o l o g i c a l research has focussed on the d e s c r i p t i o n of t y p i c a l behaviors and behavior c l u s t e r s seen i n i n d i v i d u a l s and s p e c i a l groups as discovered through f a c t o r analysis (Blurton Jones, 1972c; Blurton Jones, 1972b; Leach, 1972; Smith and Connolly, 1972). Data Recording Although anecdotal recording of observations, usually a s s i s t e d by a tape recorder, and event recording, as s i s t e d by a mechanical event recorder, are commonly used i n e t h o l o g i c a l research (Smith and Connolly, 1972), an increasing trend toward preservation of raw data by f i l m or 19 videotape i s apparent. These films and tapes provide a pub l i c , repeatable and complete record that preserves information which would escape i f the notations of a human observer were the f i r s t step i n a study. McGrew (1972) o f f e r s a model a p p l i c a t i o n of et h o l o g i c a l methodol-ogy i n his study of nursery school c h i l d r e n . He applied two l e v e l s of coding to h i s raw videotape data. F i r s t he coded each c h i l d ' s behavior using the operational d e f i n i t i o n s of the et h o l o g i c a l elements of behavior, then he grouped and recoded the resultant data according to the more infe r e n -t i a l categories of s o c i o l o g i c a l theory. In t h i s way he obtained in f e r e n -t i a l data without loss of the o r i g i n a l information. The advantages of such multiple coding of data are discussed at greater length i n the next chapter. While the focus of t h i s chapter i s on methodological requirements for the successful study of speech a c q u i s i t i o n behavior, the a b i l i t y to r e l a t e such research to studies i n other developmental areas has been recognized as of desirable a n c i l l a r y value. The e t h o l o g i c a l approach could provide the basis f o r j u s t such a common l i n k because i t i s also being used i n many other areas of c h i l d study. For example, Bruner (1975) sees applications from primate ethology to the understanding of the func-ti o n of human play, and Tinbergen and Tinbergen (1972) make a very strong plea f o r the use of e t h o l o g i c a l findings f o r the diagnosis and treatment of psychogenic autism i n ch i l d r e n . Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s Derived from Ethology f o r Investigation of Speech  A c q u i s i t i o n This section on Et h o l o g i c a l approaches has presented the methodology which Argyle (1972, p. 243) introduced as having led to " f r u i t f u l c o l l a b -20 oration" between s o c i a l psychologists and l i n g u i s t s . I t f i t s the require-ment for a s a t i s f a c t o r y methodology to deal with non-verbal data arrived at i n the previous section dealing with p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive approaches because i t has been found to present non-verbal data i n a public way, capable of being shared by viewers of fil m s or videotapes. It i s also r e p l i c a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y r e l i a b l e because of i t s operationally defined categories. However, e t h o l o g i c a l research has not solved the problem of r e l a t i n g observed data to a time frame although the problem has frequently been discussed. Recording s o c i a l context i s not seen as a problem, and i s handled by a p p l i c a t i o n of operationally defined categories to observed int e r a c t i o n s i n such studies as those of Garvey (1974), Leach (1972), and McGrew (1972). Methods for de t a i l e d recording and analysis of physi c a l context, i . e . , environmental stimuli,were not found i n the eth o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Applications of S o c i a l Psychology to Pre-Speech Studies Methods f or Dealing with Context Although ethology acknowledges the need f o r context i n order to understand the meaning of the units of behavior observed, the et h o l o g i c a l method does not analyze contextual events i n as systematic a way as i t records and analyzes the elements of behavior observed i n i t s subjects. Two recent s o c i o l o g i c a l (or human ecological) studies provide examples of recording of observed context which are i n s t r u c t i v e . Caldwell (1968) has devised APPROACH, a "computer compatible recording system" (p. 79) for recording f i e l d observations i n terms of human ecology. Using t h i s on school chi l d r e n , she and her fellow i n v e s t i g a t o r s have refined the method to include "nine subjects and objects and only s i x t y to ninety verbs" (p. 108). The method requires the observer to audiotape a d e s c r i p t i o n of on-going behavior i n the APPROACH language which i s then transcribed and number coded for computer storage. Observations of context are recorded i n a s e t t i n g statement of unambiguously defined categories, e.g., "story period", "home", "non-family adult" (p. 90). This system i s reported as being both r e l i a b l e and reproduceable. However, much of the APPROACH recording system i s so c l o s e l y t a i l o r e d to the hypotheses of i t s creator that i t could not be used for general observations. For example, the "verbs" of the " l a n -guage" i n which the raw data are recorded describe a l l behavior i n s p e c i a l i z e d categories, e.g., " c o n t r o l " , "information g i v i n g " , " p o s i t i v e reinforcement" that are not designed to permit a l t e r n a t i v e analyses of the data. White and Watts (1973) recognize context or environment as a power-f u l determinant of s o c i a l competence i n t h e i r extensive observational study of the development of young c h i l d r e n from ages one to three. They define an environment as: . . . a set of human and non-human elements i n the external world that are d i r e c t l y and observably connected with the c h i l d ' s exper-ience and that may a f f e c t h i s development of competence either through p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a developmentally pertinent experience, or by making such an experience more or l e s s l i k e l y to occur, or more or le s s pleasurable for the c h i l d . (White and Watts, 1973, p. 157) Audiotape records dictated as part of on-the-spot p e r i o d i c obser-vations are used as the raw data about the environment. Two simultaneous analyses of q u a l i t i e s of the environment, the human i n t e r a c t i o n and the object i n t e r a c t i o n , are coded numerically for computer r e t r i e v a l d i r e c t l y from t h i s audiotaped continuous record. The s i x categories of the human i n t e r a c t i o n scale vary from the objective, e.g., dimension one "the person with whom the c h i l d i s i n t e r a c t i n g " to the i n f e r e n t i a l , e.g., dimension f i v e "whether the other person encouraged or discouraged the a c t i v i t y " . White reports that r e l i a b i l i t y i s high f o r the objective categories and lower f o r those which require i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The object i n t e r a c t i o n s cale i s almost e n t i r e l y objective and the r e l i a b i l i t y reported i s close to 100 percent. Similar d i f f i c u l t i e s attend the a p p l i c a t i o n of the environment scales i n White's study to general use as were found to impede the a p p l i c -a b i l i t y of Caldwell's scale. F i r s t , White's raw data cannot be shared by the reader since i t i s not reported i n d e t a i l i n the protocol. Second, the coding d e f i n i t i o n s used f o r recording those data are designed to be applicable only to the s o c i o l o g i c a l theories underlying the study and cannot be used f o r recording observations which would have general applications across several f i e l d s . Caldwell's data and White's data cannot be compared because each has used d i f f e r e n t and i d i o s y n c r a t i c units to record that data. I f both had provided a public record of raw data and had included a preliminary procedure which made use of operationally defined units f o r recording raw data, i t i s l i k e l y that these two groups of researchers following c l o s e l y r e l a t e d l i n e s of inquir y could have communicated with each other by com-paring t h e i r d i f f e r i n g analyses of s i m i l a r data. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that White points out that he was unacquainted with any other a n a l y t i c techniques f o r gathering data on the on-going experiences of infants and toddlers when he started h i s research, although l a t e r he discovered Caldwell's p u b l i c a t i o n . 23 Desirable C a p a b i l i t i e s Derived from S o c i a l Psychology for Investigation  of Speech A c q u i s i t i o n The fa c t that observed environmental s t i m u l i and s o c i a l context can be r e l i a b l y recorded i f d e f i n i t i o n s are operational and objective was demonstrated by t h i s b r i e f look at the methods used i n two recent comprehensive studies of the s o c i a l development of c h i l d r e n . The need to provide a bridge between d i f f e r e n t recording and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems, apparent within the f i e l d , i s doubly necessary i f s o c i a l and environmental data are to be re l a t e d to other f i e l d s of speech a c q u i s i t i o n research. Summary This chapter has reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e s of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , cognition, ethology and s o c i a l psychology'as they r e l a t e to methods for i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. In order to bring together the various kinds of data considered pertinent by researchers i n the various f i e l d s , and to do so i n a form that would f a c i l i t a t e , i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y c o l l a b o r a t i o n , the needed c a p a b i l i t i e s of methods appropri-ate for speech a c q u i s i t i o n research were i d e n t i f i e d i n each area. These form the basis for the d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n t e g r a t i v e methodology for the study of pre-speech behavior and speech a c q u i s i t i o n which i s presented i n the next chapter. CHAPTER II DESIRABLE CAPABILITIES FOR A NEW METHOD This chapter presents a compilation of c a p a b i l i t i e s desirable for an i n t e g r a t i v e method to supply the broad and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e data resources found wanting i n the previous chapter; and draws upon the promising approaches and techniques mentioned there. These c a p a b i l i t i e s are described as performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and are grouped according to the phase of the Method which they a f f e c t : raw data recording, primary coding of data or secondary coding of data. D i v i s i o n of the task of c l a s s i f y i n g raw data into two coding phases, primary and secondary, i s the most important feature of the Method. This device of multiple coding solves many of the problems discussed i n Chapter I by separating the conversion of the data into analyzable form (primary coding) from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the same data into categories of i n t e r e s t f o r research (secondary coding). "Multiple coding" i s frequently the enabling p r i n c i p l e i n the catalogue of desirable c a p a b i l i t i e s which follows. The discussion i n th i s chapter presents the r a t i o n a l e for the procedures of the Method given i n Chapter I I I . Raw Data Recording Raw data i n t h i s study are, s t r i c t l y speaking, the actual behav-i o r s of the subjects before the video camera. However, although i t i s 24 25 recognized that the lens s e l e c t i v e l y edits the whole p i c t u r e , usage throughout t h i s paper i s that the information on the video tape i s "raw data". C a p a b i l i t i e s needed f o r recording these data are the subject of t h i s section. A b i l i t y to Capture Natural Observations I t i s desirable to have a method capable of observational as well as experimental a p p l i c a t i o n s . This i s the approach of the eth o l o g i s t s : The e t h o l o g i c a l approach d i f f e r s from that of experimental psych-ology and other branches of behavioral science i n that i t i n s i s t s upon an ethogram as the legitimate point of departure of any exper-imental study. Before attempting to modify behavior, the et h o l -o g i s t demands to know what behavior there i s to modify. Before reaching conclusions about the e f f e c t s of external phy s i c a l stim-u l i , he seeks to know the endogenously generated patterns of behavior shown by an organism. Psychologists seem constrained to stimulate t h e i r subjects of study. Ethologists generally prefer to leave them alone. U n t i l we know what an animal w i l l do i n the absence of a p a r t i c u l a r stimulus, we are i n no p o s i t i o n to make assertions regarding the e f f e c t of the stimulus. (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p. 16) In the c l a s s i c phrase, the Method should be capable of the " d i r e c t observation of behavior i n the natural habitat" (Kugelmass, 1970, i n t r o -duction) . Comprehensiveness The recording should include not only the subject's v o c a l i z a t i o n and speech but also h i s non-verbal behavior and h i s environmental context. Facts should be recorded whether or not the "observer" i s aware of them. Both sound f i l m and videotape recording f u l f i l l these requirements. (So also do combinations of f i l m and audio tape, but these have proven unwieldy because they are so d i f f i c u l t to synchronize (Bullowa et a l . , 1970). 26 An a d d i t i o n a l value of sound f i l m and videotape i s t h e i r capacity for slow motion and stop frame presentation of v i s u a l data, without which important recorded d e t a i l may not be perceived. An example of such loss i n r e a l time analysis of filmed data i s described by Hutt and Hutt: It was found that any a c t i v i t i e s or v i s u a l f i x a t i o n s shorter than 1.5 seconds could not be r e l i a b l y timed; they were thus i n c o r -porated i n the subsequent a c t i v i t y . Such a c t i v i t i e s consisted of f l e e t i n g glances, perhaps while some other a c t i v i t y was i n progress, or t r a n s i t o r y movements, such as turning, which were often a prelude to the subsequent a c t i v i t i e s . (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p. 50) The use of two cameras increases the comprehensiveness of the data (Mueller, 1972; Stern, 1974) but because t h e i r coordination requires studio f a c i l i t i e s , much f l e x i b i l i t y i s l o s t . Unobtrusiveness The method should be adapted to a wide v a r i e t y of natural locations and i n t e r f e r e as l i t t l e as possible with the natural behavior of the sub-j e c t . The quiet and portable t e l e v i s i o n equipment (p. 37) chosen for the Method combines the information gathering c a p a b i l i t i e s of both f i l m and audiotape with t h e i r r e l a t i v e unobtrusiveness i n the hands of a competent operator. . Repeatability Ease of r e p e t i t i o n of the raw data i s imperative for r e l i a b l e coding because i t may take as many as twenty replays to i d e n t i f y and c l a s s i f y accurately a l l the data recorded (see Chapter I I I ) . In addition, the raw data should be a v a i l a b l e to other i n v e s t i g a t o r s , students, and the subjects themselves (or those responsible for them) on request. Video-tape i s easier to rerun than sound f i l m f o r such purposes. 27 Coded Data—Primary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In order to obtain the maximum benefit from multiple coding, the procedures for coding the raw data should permit retention of as much information as possible i n the l e a s t d i s t o r t e d form. The desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for primary coding i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s section were defined by t h i s need. S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Open Coding Specimen d e s c r i p t i o n , as defined by Gordon and Jester (1973), sum-marizes most of the c a p a b i l i t i e s required for recording the raw data; open coding, as defined by Wright (1960), f u l f i l l s the need to preserve i t for inspection a f t e r coding has been done: Specimen d e s c r i p t i o n means de t a i l e d sequential recording of a l l that i s taking place i n a s i t u a t i o n . This may be accomplished by audio- or video-tape recording or by continuous note-taking. Following the recording, a coding or scoring scheme i s imposed on the record as contrasted to coding during the o r i g i n a l c o l l e c -t i o n of data. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis i s done only a f t e r the o r i g i n a l records have been coded. Wright (1960) c a l l s t h i s an open method because the coding follows the moment-to-moment r e -cording. A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of open and closed systems i s that an open system preserves the raw data so that i t i s a v a i l a b l e for other coding systems while the closed system imposes a coding scheme at the time of i n i t i a l data c o l l e c t i o n . (Gordon and Jester, 1973, p. 184) A b i l i t y to C l a s s i f y Non-verbal Behavior In a ddition to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of utterances, the coding system should r e l i a b l y make note of a l l important non-verbal behavior. Etho-l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of elements of behavior are admirably suited to t h i s (see Appendix I ) . The source for the codes used i n the Method i s the categories devised by McGrew (1972) f or h i s videotape research into the s o c i a l behavior of nursery school c h i l d r e n . Following the investigations 28 of the B r i t i s h school of e t h o l o g i c a l research into the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of behavior patterns used by the species homo sapiens (Grant, 1969), McGrew compiled a c h e c k l i s t capable of r e l i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Two versions of the c h e c k l i s t are combined i n the present research. These defined Elements of Behavior are l i s t e d i n Appendix I, and possible additions to the catalogue are discussed on pages 193-196>. A b i l i t y to C l a s s i f y Environmental Information The coding system should record and r e l a t e i n f l u e n t i a l environmental s t i m u l i to ongoing behavior. The ecology or environment, that i s , the s i t u a t i o n a l factors that a f f e c t behavior, i s as important f o r e t h o l o g i c a l analysis as the body movements (defined as elements) which produce the morphology of behavior. Both are necessary to produce an ethogram. Hutt comments that " i n prac-t i c e a complete analysis of behavior w i l l consist of a conjunction of the two classes of measurement, a p a r t i c u l a r action being re l a t e d to i t s environmental consequences" (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p. 50). A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t seems to t h i s author, a complete record should show the r e l a t i o n of behavior to concurrent and antecedent environmental s t i m u l i . Since no prototype for coding moment-by-moment environmental information with e t h o l o g i c a l data was a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e , a system was devised to provide a way of coding proximal s t i m u l i f o r the mouth, and the upper and lower limbs, and to record the d i s t a l s t i m u l i i n f e r r e d to be received by the eyes and ears. Rather than confining the environmental observations to a pre-defined set of code categories, the Method allows the r a t e r to create objective d e f i n i t i o n s f o r up to 999 environmental objects and people i n each observation. (See pp. 42-43). A b i l i t y to -Identify Time of Occurrence and Duration of Data The video tape record provides the viewer with 60 v i s u a l - a u d i t o r y frames per second, which can be played i n r e a l time, i n slow motion (7:1) or as s t i l l s . Data, considered as b i t s of information, consist of suc-cessive pertinent changes seen or heard i n the record. The exact moment of occurrence of each change, that i s to say, of each datum, and i t s dura-t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to other data, i s the foundation of the a n a l y s i s . The rate at which these observable changes occur, about one every twenty frames, or .33 second, creates coding problems. Neither the tape counter on the videotape recorder nor contextual cues can provide a s u f f i c i e n t l y stable framework for pinpointing the changes seen. To overcome t h i s , the Method provides a small v i s u a l s i g n a l with figures showing minutes, seconds, and sixths of a second which i s dubbed onto the raw data tape p r i o r to a n a l y s i s . This provides each ten frame sequence of tape with an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number which i s part of the o v e r a l l time sequence. A b i l i t y to Serve as a "Lingua Franca" A communication medium between d i s c i p l i n e s must be as neutral as possible i n respect to the assumptions of any p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . Data coded as Elements of Behavior are r e l a t i v e l y removed from t h e o r e t i c a l bias, even that of the e t h o l o g i s t : that i s to say, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a datum as an Element of Behavior (see Appendix I) answers the question, "What i s the subject doing?" without immediately imposing a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on h i s behavior. In t h i s way i t also tends to be "open" i n the sense defined by Wright (1960) i n the preceding section. I f the primary coding by e t h o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n says that 30 the subject i s holding out h i s hand, v o c a l i z i n g , s i t t i n g and glancing at h i s mother, investigators from various d i s c i p l i n e s can accept t h i s coding as a common de s c r i p t i o n . Then each, including the et h o l o g i s t , can go on, as a second step, to i n f e r the meaning, according to h i s own d i s c i p l i n e , of these four Elements alone or as a configuration. Were i t not for the f i r s t common code step, each inves t i g a t o r would begin with the second s p e c i a l code step, e f f e c t i v e l y excluding the others by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the raw data according to his p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . Once a l l have shared t h i s common code, i t forms a bridge which allows d i f f e r e n t analyses of the same raw data to be rela t e d to one another, or to be compared. Figure 1, p. 31, i s a scale which i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s i n regard to any si n g l e item of l i n g u i s t i c data. Note that as the l e v e l of analysis changes from microscopic to molar, i n Figure 1, data units not only become more complex, longer or broader i n scope, they also become more d i f f i c u l t to define and require more i n f e r -ences on the part of the observer. A d d i t i o n a l l y , as data units become larg e r , the focus passes from tissues and organs (microscopic), to in d i v i d u a l s (macroscopic) and f i n a l l y to groups of people (molar). In t h i s scale, e t h o l o g i c a l analysis occupies the l e a s t i n f e r e n t i a l p o s i t i o n at the l e v e l where the focus i s on the i n d i v i d u a l person. The reason f o r choosing e t h o l o g i c a l categories for primary coding was to obtain the greatest r e l i a b i l i t y and d e t a i l of observation and the l e a s t i n f e r e n t i a l bias i n coding without l o s i n g sight of the wholeness of the subject as an i n d i v i d u a l . In the procedures of the Method described i n Chapter I I I the anal-y s i s of data begins at the macroscopic l e v e l with primary coding 31 Level of Analysis Appropriate F i e l d of Study Data Units Appropriate Issues, Questions Microscopic Physiology Changes i n state of muscles, glands etc. Operation of the speech apparatus Phonology Phoneme morpheme Analysis of speech sounds Audiology Soundwave Speech sound reception Kinesics Kine, Kineme Non-verbal communication i n r e l a t i o n to language (Birdwhistell) Macroscopic Ethology Element of Behavior Morphology and functions of animal behavior including primates (Grant) Psycho- Operations A c q u i s i t i o n of speech, l i n g u i s t i c s of Refer-ence Single word Sentence Structure and function of language (Bloom) Molar Cognitive Psychology A c t i v i t y Unit Piagetian Stage Attention Episodes Ontogeny of thought (Piaget) Structure of dyadic i n t e r -actions (Stern) Human Com-munication Communication Function Ontogeny of communication (Hymes) Semiotics Modes of com-munication Pragmatics of communica-tio n (Morris) Sociology Connected discourse S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n e.g. agonistic behavior (McGrew) Human Ecology S o c i a l tasks Group behavior Adaptive behavior (White) Learning environment (Caldwell) Figure 1 Levels of Analysis of L i n g u i s t i c Data (Areas of concern to the present study are underlined; represent-a t i v e sources mentioned i n the text appear i n parentheses.) 32 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the raw data on the videotape into Elements of Behavior and i n t o Elements of Environment i n f e r r e d to a f f e c t the behavior. A f t e r t h i s i s completed, the analysis proceeds to the molar l e v e l where the Elements of Behavior and Environment are grouped into A c t i v i t y Units. At t h i s point secondary coding i s done—the i n f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Piagetian Stage, Piagetian Configuration and Communication Functions i s made. The value of the molar l e v e l of analysis with i t s large complex units i s that such units permit s t r u c t u r a l inferences such as those d i s -cussed i n the implications of the findings from the f i e l d t r i a l i n Chapter VII. The use of et h o l o g i c a l categories for primary coding i s an i n t e g r a l part of the Method, but the form of p a r t i c u l a r secondary codings i s optional: a f t e r the f i r s t step i n e t h o l o g i c a l coding, the second step can be up or down the scale, depending on the f i e l d of study of the in v e s t i g a t o r . Coded Data—-Secondary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Secondary coding c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s define the i n f e r e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t to the in v e s t i g a t o r . Any coding scheme f o r which video-taped observations are su i t a b l e raw data could be used i n the secondary coding phase of the Method: f or example, analysis of speech intonations, discourse a n a l y s i s , behavioral r a t i n g scales or dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n check-l i s t s . A b i l i t y to Accommodate D i f f e r i n g Theories The introduction of a second l e v e l of coding to transform data into whatever categories a p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t o r wishes to use, and the 33 capacity to do t h i s simultaneously from several d i f f e r e n t approaches, make possible the multiple analysis of data by the Method. As the common primary code i s a v e h i c l e f o r communication between i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s p e c i a l i z e d secondary codes provide a mechanism for i n v e s t i g a t i n g synthe-s i z i n g hypotheses. Two areas which synthesize pre-speech theories have been chosen as part of the t r i a l of the Method i n t h i s study. One takes a look at the notion that there i s a phylogeny of communication which can be traced from non-human primate gesture to the functions of human language. The other seeks concrete evidence of the previously quoted impression of many psycholinguists that, "the f i r s t meanings are an extension of the kind of i n t e l l i g e n c e Jean Piaget c a l l s sensorimotor" (Brown, 1973, p. 198). The ra t i o n a l e f o r these and formal statements to test them appear i n Chapter IV on design f o r the evaluation of the Method, (p. 55 et seq.)- The f i n d -ings are given i n Chapter VI, (p. 110 et seq.). S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Computer Analysis Without the assistance of computer techniques the summarization of data c o l l e c t e d by wide band observational methods would be overwhelming. Moreover, the use of the computer as a data bank from which information keyed to raw data can be retri e v e d would permit widespread sharing of data between in v e s t i g a t o r s . These desirable computer c a p a b i l i t i e s are achieved by means of the introduced time s i g n a l (pp. 39-40) linked to every item of observed and in f e r r e d data. The computer programs written f o r the Method perform the following operations: 3 4 1. display of coding errors 2 . r e t r i e v a l of s p e c i f i c information from the data f i l e i n computer by time or data category or code 3 . tabulation of frequency and duration of primary and secondary codes 4 . coross-tabulation of selected primary and secondary codes 5 . comparison of 3 and 4 6. comparison of coding done by two rate r s The procedure f o r preparation of data to make computer f i l e s was developed to si m p l i f y the job of the ra t e r and key punch operator. By coding d i r e c t l y onto a modified FORTRAN sheet (Figure 2 , p. 4 l ) , loss of time and errors of copying are avoided; by using l e t t e r codes rel a t e d to the d e f i n i t i o n s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , rather than numbers, errors are reduced and the data can be d i r e c t l y read o f f the coding logs or p r i n t -outs; by using a red p e n c i l and leaving a blank column between each category, white space and colour pattern act as a guide to prevent c l e r -i c a l e r r o r s . A p p l i c a b i l i t y to C l i n i c a l Diagnosis and Treatment A desirable d e r i v a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n would be the d i r e c t use of the Method i n c l i n i c a l or educational diagnosis. What i s learned i n t h i s study and subsequent applications of the Method could contribute to the development of an observational substitute for some kinds of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g and an innovation i n the area of language assessment. For instance, evidence of the s i g n i f i c a n c e and sequence of pre-speech behaviors may c l a r i f y the understanding of the non-speaking c h i l d and may a s s i s t i n making better diagnoses of developmental anomalies at e a r l i e r stages than now possible. This use would be p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable to ch i l d r e n with 35 severe developmental delay. Remediation of language d i f f i c u l t i e s , too, could be enhanced by more information about the significance and sequence of normal pre-speech behavior both in terms of assessing readiness for intervention and in terms of providing content for speech acquisition programs. Summary This chapter has presented a compilation of capabilities desirable in a method of analysis of infant behavior i f i t is to be relevant to the investigation of the acquisition of speech. The rationale for the design features chosen for raw data collection, primary coding and secondary coding were presented as each topic was discussed. The next chapter describes the procedures of the Method as they were used i n the study. CHAPTER III PROCEDURES OF THE METHOD DESIGNED FOR THE STUDY OF PRE-SPEECH BEHAVIOR This chapter describes the basic Method designed for the study of pre-speech behavior as d i s t i n c t from the example of i t s use i n the eval-uative f i e l d t r i a l which i s described i n Chapter IV. The dif f e r e n c e has to do with the secondary coding. The basic Method includes the s p e c i f i c equipment and procedures for the c o l l e c t i o n and preservation of raw data, i t s preparation for coding, s p e c i f i c e t h o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s and proced-ures for primary coding, s p e c i f i c computer treatment of the primary data and a framework for secondary coding. I t does not include s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s and procedures f o r secondary coding. The p a r t i c u l a r focus of each speech a c q u i s i t i o n or other i n v e s t i g a t i v e use to which the Method may be put w i l l d i c t a t e i t s own secondary coding d e f i n i t i o n s and s p e c i a l computer analysis as required. The p a r t i c u l a r secondary codes and pro-cedure used i n the f i e l d t r i a l are presented i n Chapter IV, and Appendices I I , I I I , IV, and V. Raw Data C o l l e c t i o n Because the observational procedures of the Method are not l i m i t e d to any one source or schedule of data c o l l e c t i o n , these features of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n are not discussed here. Natural settings and l o n g i t u d i n a l designs, such as the f i e l d t r i a l described i n Chapter IV, were used i n 3 6 37 t h i s study, but standardized environments, experimental s i t u a t i o n s or studio locations would be equally f e a s i b l e , as would simultaneous record-ing and analysis from two i n t e r a c t i n g subjects. Equipment Portable T e l e v i s i o n Camera and Videotape Recorder (V.T.R). A Sony % inch portable camera with b u i l t - i n d i r e c t i o n a l microphone and 1:7 zoom lens attachment was used to record the raw data. The compre-hens i v i t y of recorded sound from t h i s type of equipment i s excellent for recording both environmental and vocal/verbal auditory data. V i s u a l information i s cl e a r i n good natural l i g h t i n g but suff e r s when high contrasts enter the f i e l d or i n very poor l i g h t . Magnetic Tape. Memorex, heavy duty, \ inch, 20 minute r e e l video-tape was used. "Slow Motion" Videotape Recorder. A Sanyo " J a v e l i n " \ inch V.T.R. i n which the cathode ray tr a v e l s down the screen 60 times per second, producing 60 d i f f e r e n t pictures of "frames" per second, was used to ed i t and analyze the data. This was played i n r e a l time, slowed down to 10 frames per second, one frame at a time, or held i n stop motion. Monitor. A Sony 11" screen studio monitor with excellent reso-l u t i o n and sound volume control was used. Head Phones. These were not necessary f o r analysis but added much to the comfort of fellow workers. The studio equipment required f o r dubbing the v i s u a l time s i g n a l onto the raw data tape to be analysed w i l l be described below with that procedure. The best technical r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n maintaining synchronization of s i g n a l s , were obtained when the i d e n t i c a l videotape recorder was used for dubbing and f o r playback. Recording Continuity. A continuous recording was made of each observa-t i o n , adhering to e t h o l o g i c a l precepts, i n order to avoid occasion b i a s . Technically, also an unbroken recording was preferred to one that s t a r t s and stops since synchronization i s b r i e f l y l o s t each time the tape changes speed. The camera operator secured an excellent s i g n a l with optimal adjustment of focus, zoom and l i g h t stop and some idea of the probable i t i n e r a r y of the subject, which would have to be followed, before pressing the 'record' switch. During recording the operator attempted at a l l times to keep a l l parts of the subject's body i n view and to face the subject. When t h i s was not possible, preference was given to recording the behavior of face and hands. Time Signal S l o t . To insure that important data would not be obscured by the time s i g n a l f i g u r e s , a small (1/8" x 1/2") piece of masking tape was attached over the lower l e f t hand corner of the camera viewer during the recording sessions. In automatically avoiding t h i s small blank space, the camera operator insured that no s a l i e n t informa-t i o n was recorded i n the area where the time s i g n a l information was to be superimposed l a t e r . "'"Lack of "synch" causes a jumpy motion f o r a few seconds which so i n t e r f e r e s with the viewer's perception that some data are l o s t , i n e f f e c t , although the i n d i v i d u a l frames can be seen as s t i l l s . 39 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n As a precaution against l o s i n g track of the provenance of each separate piece of data, e s p e c i a l l y because many s i m i l a r observations were made and then dubbed onto new tape r e e l s , the camera operator recorded data and subject by voice on the tape before the data were recorded. This information was transferred to each V.T.R. Log page used i n coding. Dubbing the Time Signal Because neither the tape counter on the recorder, which i s r e l a t i v e to the changing circumference of the r e e l , nor the environmental context, i n which many events are repeated i n s i m i l a r sequences, i s s p e c i f i c enough to f i x the occurrence of unique behaviors i n the raw data, a time s i g n a l was introduced into the raw data before i t was coded. This i s a small, picture dubbed onto the raw data tape which shows minutes, seconds and 1/6 seconds from 0:00:0 to 4:59:5. The source of the p i c t u r e i s a 16 mi l l i m e t r e animated f i l m showing a changing row of four white numbers against a black background. Running at the regular 24 frames per second, the 1/6 second f i g u r e changes every four frames of the f i l m , the one second figures every 24 frames, and the minute f i g u r e every 1440 frames. This f i l m was projected onto a screen and recorded by a t e l e v i s i o n camera connected to a s p e c i a l e f f e c t s generator which superimposed the p i c t u r e of the numbers over the lower l e f t hand corner of the data videotape running i n r e a l time so that, at 60 frames per second, the 1/6 second fi g u r e changed every ten frames of the videotape, the one second figures every 60 frames and the minute f i g u r e every 3600 frames. Thus every ten frame sequence of dubbed videotape showed the same i n d i v i d u a l number to i d e n t i f y that p a r t i c u l a r 1/6 second i n the data. Because the background of the number f i l m was black, i t did not replace the information already on the tape, and the o r i g i n a l t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e continued to appear i n the space between the numbers. Videotape Record Log A l l data were logged on a modified FORTRAN coding form, an example of which i s shown i n Figure 2, p. 41. On t h i s form, information i d e n t i -f y i n g the coder, the date of the observation, observation number, tape number, page of log and subject was recorded at the top of each page. The 80 spaces for coding i n the body of the form, corresponding to the standard key-punch p o s i t i o n s , were assigned as follows: The three secondary coding c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s shown i n columns 62-72 i n Figure 2 were s p e c i f i c to the p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of the Method i n the f i e l d t r i a l . Those columns would be a v a i l a b l e f or a l t e r n a t i v e relevant secondary codes i n other a p p l i c a t i o n s . The coder used a sharp coloured p e n c i l to write the code l e t t e r s and numbers i n the two right-hand columns of each three Coding Procedures 1 5 29 59 62 73 4 Time s i g n a l 28 Elements of Environment 58 Elements of Behavior 61 A c t i v i t y Unit Number 72 Secondary coding as required 80 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of data 41 CODER: V/VOl DATE: Y - F - ^ U TIME JMQU o h 1 0 2 N ft ELEMENTS QF ENVIRQNMFJd 8 ! 9 O A CiA Y E A R ^RCE_ CONT^STIMULUS L 131141 i i I 0 0 t i N <2 ?! is IN Ki 0 p. STIMULUS |?3! <• 0 26 28|29 i 30 N F A C E N 25 C5 4*_ I 122 0 0 d ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOUR HEAD 36 0\ 0* DRIEN-fAT 10.11 VOCAL B38 39 40 L 0 ' •M4 0 |4!i42 0 0 i i 1:1.1.. 0 IA i n ilA M/G LEFT 45| 46 CIV) M A l i M/G RT U *1 POJ LEG 51 M TI" GROSS! LQCO 55 56 57 0 14 0 58 PAGE OF OBS. IH TAPE *4 K AU 159 62 COM. FUNCTK " " 65 63 WR5 0 68 AG El 1 CON FIG, IDENTIFICATION 751 76 78 79 Figure 2 FORTRAN Coding Form 42 column c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Two V.T.R. Log sheets were used f o r each page of data, one for entering codes to be key-punched, the other f o r supplementary notes, p r i n c i p a l l y on the content of auditory data. The coder also used the supplementary sheet to make other written comments about the data as needed, f o r instance about h i s or her inferences when the three nega-t i v e codes of the Method were used. D e f i n i t i o n s of these are given i n Appendix I. Primary Coding A l l eighteen primary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of data could not be attended to by the coder at once. The coding procedure was broken up, therefore, into f i v e perceptually d i f f e r e n t coding tasks which, when done i n sequence, b u i l t up, i n codes, a composite record of the behavior seen and heard which approached the completeness of r e a l i t y . Each task required the coder to run through the data by playing i t and replaying i t on the V.T.R. looking and l i s t e n i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r aspect to code. D e f i n i t i o n s of the Elements of Behavior codes used are given i n Appendix I. General Data Run. The coder f i r s t ran through the e n t i r e observation i n r e a l time to f a m i l i a r i z e himself with the persons, objects, places and sounds i n the data. A l i s t was made of the persons and objects i n the environment with which the subject interacted, and each one not previously coded was given a unique two l e t t e r or two d i g i t code. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n l a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were avoided by t h i s early r e a l time immersion i n the data by the coder. The l i s t of a r b i t r a r y codes assigned to Elements of Environment by the coder during the general runs was a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and numerically arranged with a verbal d e s c r i p t i o n and i d e n t i f y i n g time s i g n a l c i t a t i o n f or each. This became the source of environmental code d e f i n i t i o n s for coding. Auditory Data Run. The coder returned to the beginning of the observation and reviewed the f i r s t 15 to 30 seconds of data, an amount which would f i l l approximately one page of the V.T.R. Log. He noted on the supplementary Log the s t a r t and stop time, source and content of every auditory stimulus heard, and of overlapping and superimposed sounds. S p e c i f i c descriptions of vocal and verbal 2 content were written as they sounded i f they could not be rendered i n English. The exact time of the beginning and end of each item was checked by stopping the recorder to note f r a c t i o n s of a second on the time s i g n a l . From these notes e i t h e r at t h i s time or during the subsequent v i s u a l run, data were coded on the Log for key punching as follows: a) sounds o r i g i n a t i n g i n the vocal apparatus of the subject were recorded i n the Vocal column of the Elements of Behavior using the appropriate codes (see Appendix I ) . The mother's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was followed.in deciding which v o c a l i z a t i o n s were words. b) sounds from the environment including other speech were recorded i n the two Elements of Environment columns for Ear, Source and Content using codes from the general run notes and from the Elements of Behavior (Appendix I ) . 2 Systematic phonetic recording would be appropriate i n research focused on speech. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c sounds made by objects were coded S0 -e.g., D0 S0 when a door was shut. The source of sounds made by the subject's a c t i v i t i e s were coded SE - e.g., SE CL for crawling; those of other persons by name - e.g., MA WK for mother walking. When more than one sound occurred at the same time, the coder recorded the one to which the subject was attending, or, i f that could not be determined, the louder sound. Sounds l a s t i n g l e s s than 1/6 second were given 1/6 second duration. Repeated sounds with le s s than 3/6 second i n t e r v a l s were recorded as continuous. The coder completed the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the auditory data f o r the e n t i r e observation, moving ahead i n 15-30 second sequences, before returning to analyze the v i s u a l data. Deceptive Action Run. As a preliminary to analysis of the v i s u a l data, the coder reviewed the f i r s t 15-30 seconds i n r e a l time, noting multiple repeat actions and complex Elements which can be exaggerated or missed i n slow motion. For example, by d e f i n i t i o n "pat" was recorded only once although i t usually appears i n a multiple repeat s e r i e s ; nor was i t recorded as a s e r i e s of "move upper limb" Elements. "Laugh", "rub", "nod", "shake", " s h u f f l e " , are other examples with s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On the other hand, rather than exaggerating a behavior, slow motion sometimes conceals i t . For example, a small head shake can be detected only i n r e a l time. Actions l a s t i n g l e s s than 1/6 second were given 1/6 second duration. S i m i l a r l y , Elements of Environment which repeatedly touched the subject as for example the f l o o r during arm and leg movements i n crawling were recorded as continuous. Each Element of Behavior was coded from the beginning as a u n i f i e d a c t i o n . For instance, although a crouching posture i s t r a n s i t i o n a l i n standing up or s i t t i n g down, i t was not coded unless the subject remained stationary i n the crouch p o s i t i o n . Walk was recorded from the beginning of the f i r s t step; crawl from the f i r s t leg movement. This r e a l time review was made of each 15-30 second sequence of data before i t was coded during the slow-motion v i s u a l data run. V i s u a l Data Run. On t h i s run primary coding of columns 1 to 58 was completed for key punching. A review of the format of the Videotape Record Log shown i n Figure 2, p. 41 i s given here to c l a r i f y the step by step d e s c r i p t i o n of the coding procedure which follows. To avoid coding duplications or omissions, the Elements of Behavior were grouped on the Videotape Record Log into nine general categories which followed McGrew (1972) with only s l i g h t changes. These were placed i n columns headed, "Face", "Head", "Orientation", "Vocal", "Manipulation and Gesture L e f t " , "Manipulation and Gesture Right", "Posture and Leg", "Gross", and "Locomotion". To accommodate 46 the complexity of the data, two columns were a l l o t t e d to f a c i a l patterns, the one on the l e f t f o r behavior involving the upper part of the face - e.g. " b l i n k " , "eyebrow,flash", the one on the r i g h t f o r behavior involving the lower part of the face - e.g. "chew l i p s " , "bared teeth." Elements involving the whole face were coded i n the l e f t column with "no a c t i v i t y " recorded i n the r i g h t - e.g. "pucker face": PE N0, "normal face": NL N0. Each new Element of Behavior was coded from the beginning of the act i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s of Elements of Behavior and Negative Codes are given i n Appendix I. The columns for Elements of Environment correspond generally to the Elements of Behavior columns. Coded abbreviations from the general run notes f o r persons and objects seen i n the data to be proximal s t i m u l i of the subject's mouth were recorded under the column heading, "Mouth." S i m i l a r l y , proximal s t i m u l i of the l e f t hand or arm were recorded i n the l e f t column of "Stimulus L e f t " , s t i m u l i of the l e f t l e g or foot i n the r i g h t column of "Stimulus L e f t " , those of the r i g h t hand or arm i n the l e f t column of "Stimulus Right", and those of the r i g h t l eg or foot i n the r i g h t column of Stimulus Right." The procedure for coding data which are auditory s t i m u l i i n the columns under the heading "Ear" was described i n the Auditory Data Run above. Codes assigned by the rater during the general run f o r data which are i n f e r r e d to be the chief s t i m u l i of the subject's sight receptors at each p a r t i c u l a r moment of coding, were entered i n the "Eye" column. 47 Step 1: The coder reviewed the f i r s t ten seconds i n slow motion, noting any information which needed to be transferred from the supplementary sheet during the period. Step 2: The coder rewound and stopped the tape at the f i r s t frame. The time shown on the viewer, "0:00:0" was recorded i n the time column of the top row of the V.T.R. log for key punching. A l l of the remaining columns i n the f i r s t row from 3 "Mouth" to "Locomotion" were then systematically completed using codes appropriate to the data seen on the viewer or negative codes, i f necessary. For instance, when only one item of data was seen or heard i n categories which have two columns, "N0"was recorded i n the other column... Step 3: The coder ran the tape forward i n slow motion or turned the frame knob u n t i l a recordable ( d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n ) behavior or environmental change occurred i n the data for any column. The tape was stopped at t h i s point and the time recorded i n the next row of the time column. (Note that the end of any recorded item was always the s t a r t time for the next.) Once again the remaining columns i n the row were completed, but codes were written to designate new data only; continuous "^Reasonable inferences were made from a v a i l a b l e context within each tape, so that, although a l l parts of the infant's body or environment were not always present i n the data, "ND" i s not always recorded. For instance, i f an infant crawls along behind a s t o o l with only h i s back v i s i b l e , "support" i s recorded for the manipulation/gesture columns even though the coder does not a c t u a l l y see hands and knees do t h i s momentarily. S i m i l a r l y , i f an infant looks r i g h t and the camera has very recently recorded mother there, "mother" i s recorded i n the Eye column, etc. behavior was indicated by a v e r t i c a l l i n e through the c e l l s i n the column below the c e l l row where i t s s t a r t time was recorded; termination of behavior was indicated by an arrow sign attached to the v e r t i c a l l i n e i n the l a s t c e l l during which the behavior occurred. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2 , p. 41 . Step 4: The coder repeated step 3 u n t i l a l l the data from the f i r s t ten seconds were coded. Information from the supple-mentary sheet was integrated with v i s u a l data as i t occurred i n the time sequence. Step 5: When moving from one Log page to the next, the coder repeated the l a s t row of the f i n i s h e d page as the f i r s t row of the new page, omitting the time code and entering the code l e t t e r s or numbers of the data instead of v e r t i c a l l i n e s where these occurred. This l i n e was not keypunched but served instead to prevent omissions and errors i n t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The coder repeated the procedure of Steps 1 to 4 u n t i l a l l the data were coded. A c t i v i t y Unit Run. The A c t i v i t y Unit was an a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n of the stream of data devised to f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y sis. I t consisted of a portion of raw data which corresponded to a paragraph of l i n g u i s t i c behavior. The d e f i n i t i o n of a paragraph i s a sequence of utterances which the l i s t e n e r , from contextual evidence, i n f e r s to be rel a t e d to one another. In t h i s case, the "paragraphs" were r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s or utterances, and the contextual evidence was the context of behavior which appeared i n the videotape record. Reorientation of the head by the behavior element, "look", was used as a cue for making 49 inferences about the beginning and end of a re l a t e d sequence of observed a c t i v i t y . The coder returned to the beginning of the observation and reviewed the videotape showing the data coded i n the series of rows s t a r t i n g with the f i r s t "look" and ending with a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the subject's head i n a new "look" i n order to i d e n t i f y the action topic of th i s portion of the data. To do t h i s the coder took the point of view of the subject and looked for a un i f y i n g theme centered on a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n or object or goal. He or she sought to i d e n t i f y i t c l e a r l y by pinpointing both i t s beginning and i t s end. These were usually coincident with changes of or i e n t a t i o n by the subject, but, i n any case, on the Log for keypunching, the coder gave the sequence a number, underlining i t for easy i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n , i n the A c t i v i t y Unit column i n the row where i t began and drew a v e r t i c a l arrow down to the row where i t ended. The coder then entered the A c t i v i t y Unit number at the correct time i n the supplementary Log and made a b r i e f note there describing the topic - e.g., "retr i e v e s b a l l " or "vocalizes to mother." A c t i v i t y Units were numbered i n sequence beginning with "1" for each observation. Rapidly a l t e r n a t i n g topics were treated as separate short A c t i v i t y Units, except f o r those i n which an or i e n t i n g glance interrupts a continuous behavior, i n which case, the continuous behavior was one A c t i v i t y Unit. The coder continued through the whole observation i d e n t i f y i n g A c t i v i t y Unit sequences, numbering and summarizing them. A l l the data were divided i n th i s way, the end of A c t i v i t y Unit 1 being the beginning of A c t i v i t y Unit 2, the end of 2, the beginning of 3 and so on. This process provided a good check of errors of t r a n s c r i p t i o n or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n because i t required a review of a l l the previous coding. Secondary Coding General Procedures. The eleven key punch columns assigned to secondary coding may be used to code whatever aspect or aspects of the data an invest i g a t o r chooses to study. The space can e a s i l y accommo-date four or f i v e simultaneous factors and many more could be added by assigning two punch cards to each time change. The Method w i l l encom-pass data types l i k e Piagetian Stages which require continuous c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of a l l the behavior seen, or types l i k e Communication Functions which occur s p o r a d i c a l l y and involve only part of the observed data. It can f a c i l i t a t e molar studies because of the grouping of data into A c t i v i t y Units or confine i t s e l f to the macroscopic l e v e l of separate elements. In general, secondary coding of grouped data follows the proce-dure used to i d e n t i f y A c t i v i t y Units, and secondary coding of sporadic data the procedure for i d e n t i f y i n g Elements. No secondary coding use has yet been suggested which i d e n t i f i e s information a d d i t i o n a l to that of the primary coding. (This would require the i n s e r t i o n of new time reference rows i n the V.T.R. Log obviating part of the usefulness of the primary code). The secondary coding process i t s e l f should not s t a r t u n t i l the coder has completed the primary coding which f a m i l i a r i z e s him with the minutiae of the data as well as i t s thematic sequence. There should be a separate run for each type of secondary data coded. Secondary Codes Used. The f i e l d t r i a l made use of three secondary code groups: Communication Functions, Piagetian Stages and Piagetian Configurations. Two sets of three columns, 62-64, and 65-67, were assigned so that two simultaneous Communication Functions could be coded. (See discussion p. 71). D e f i n i t i o n s of Communication Functions are given i n Appendix II and guidelines f o r t h e i r use are provided i n the des c r i p t i o n of the f i e l d t r i a l on p. 71.-Columns 68-70 were assigned to code Piagetian Stages, and 71-72 to code Piagetian Configurations. D e f i n i t i o n s and examples used i n assigning these Piagetian codes are given i n Appendices I I I , IV and V, and guidelines f o r t h e i r use are provided i n the desc r i p t i o n of the f i e l d t r i a l on pp. 77 -78. Afte r primary coding had been completed, the same coder recorded the Communication Function Codes i n both columns i n one run; and the Piagetian Stages and Piagetian Configurations i n another run. Computer Analysis Following standard procedures, one card was keypunched and v e r i f i e d f o r each row of data on the V.T.R. Log. The cards were then read into the computer i n sequence to make a separate, i d e n t i f i e d data f i l e f o r each observation. Information R e t r i e v a l The computer provided display or printed r e t r i e v a l of information from the data f i l e s by time or data category or code. Because whatever information was re t r i e v e d was always keyed to the time s i g n a l , the exact sequence of raw data i n the videotape which corresponded to i t could be i d e n t i f i e d and reviewed when necessary. This process was a small scale example of the use of the computer as a common data bank f or information organized by the Method. 52 Summary of Data Program PAT was created to summarize the data c o l l e c t e d by the Method. I t provided the following information and findings: Errors i n Data F i l e s . Feedback on major errors i n the data was provided i n two ways. F i r s t , the program would not run unless the time si g n a l numbers could be interpreted as minutes, seconds and 1/6 seconds; and were i n e r r o r l e s s sequence. Second, the printout of findings showed misplaced or misspelled codes due to errors i n keypunching or coding. Frequency of Codes. The occurrence of each code was reported i n a frequency count. Duration of Codes. The t o t a l number of seconds and the percentage of the t o t a l time of the observation during which each code was observed was reported. Average Duration. The average number of seconds i n the occurrences of each code i n the observation was reported. Variance of Duration. The variance i n the duration of each code i n the observation was reported. The analyses i n the f i e l d t r i a l did not make use of the findings for average duration or v a r i a n c e — f i n d i n g s which would be pertinent i n a normative study. Program PAT appears i n Appendix VIII. R e l i a b i l i t y of Data Program REL was created to compare the coding of the same raw data by two raters or one rater repeating the coding process. The program made use of the formulas given i n the discussion of r e l i a b i l i t y i n Chapter V, p. 83, and provided the following f i n d i n g s : Duration of Agreement. The percentage of the t o t a l time either or both raters recorded a code, that both recorded i t , was reported for each code and f o r a l l the codes i n each coding category. The durations of agree-ment for each code, and for a l l the codes i n each coding category, were also reported. Frequency of Agreement. The percentage of the number of occur-rences of a code recorded by either or both, that both recorded i t , was reported for each code and for a l l the codes i n each coding category. The number of s t a r t time coincidences was also reported for each code and for a l l the codes i n each coding category. The number of s t a r t time coincidences for a l l the codes i n each coding category i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p a r t i c u l a r codes used was also reported. This measurement provided a check on possible misapplication of coding d e f i n i t i o n s by the r a t e r s , showing as i t did that both agreed that something happened but did not agree what i t was. Program REL appears i n Appendix IX. Cross Tabulation of Data Program INF was created to cross-tabulate up to 23 s i n g l e or com-bined data codes i n order to analyse "what went with what". The use of these cross tabulations to estimate p r o b a b i l i t i e s of occurrence for v a r i -ous configurations of data i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7, p. 113 and d i s -cussed i n Chapter VI, pp. 112-113. Program INF appears i n Appendix X. Summary This chapter has presented the procedures of the Method designed to have optimal c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the study of pre-speech behavior. The next chapter describes the f i e l d t r i a l i n which the Method was applied as a means of evaluating i t s usefulness f o r pre-speech research. CHAPTER IV DESIGN FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE METHOD The Rationale of the Evaluation Special considerations put forward concerning c r i t e r i a f o r the evaluation of observational methodologies, l i k e the f a m i l i a r c r i t e r i a for measurement instruments, may be divided into assessments of v a l i d i t y , and assessments of r e l i a b i l i t y . To put the subject i n perspective, consider f i r s t a statement about evaluation p r i o r i t i e s from the American Education Research Assoc-iation- Second Handbook of Research on Teaching: An issue not yet discussed i s the point at which various measures of r e l i a b i l i t y must be obtained. If an author of an observa-t i o n a l instrument has a set of hypotheses or v a r i a b l e s which he considers important, he would spend h i s time most p r o f i t a b l y by f i r s t determining the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the v a r i a b l e s and then attempting to t r a i n others to observe events according to h i s categories. The p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y may diminish or i n -crease as soon as r e l i a b l e observational data are used i n a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , but at l e a s t the researcher would know whether the v a r i a b l e s are worth studying. Many writers of ob-se r v a t i o n a l instruments reverse these two steps; they obtain observer agreement and neglect the study of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . Frequently writers of d i s s e r t a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of classroom i n t e r a c t i o n have l i m i t e d time and resources which p r o h i b i t the gathering of both types of data. When these l i m i t s apply, we advocate the c o l l e c t i o n of data on v a l i d i t y without the r e l i a b i l -i t y data, so long as audio- or video-tape recordings accompany the report. Then these materials could be placed i n a data bank, and measures of observer agreement and subsequent reanalyses could be made by other researchers. (Rosenshine and Furst, 1973, pp. 169-170) 55 56 Second, consider a general statement about the foundations of v a l i d i t y i n observational studies: . . . the l i s t of sources of i n v a l i d i t y which experimental designs c o n t r o l can be seen as a l i s t of frequently p l a u s i b l e hypotheses which are r i v a l to the hypothesis that the experi-mental v a r i a b l e has had an e f f e c t . Where an experimental design "con t r o l s " f o r one of these f a c t o r s , i t merely renders t h i s r i v a l hypothesis implausible. . . . Where controls are lacking i n a quasi-experiment, one must, i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s , consider i n d e t a i l the l i k e l i h o o d of uncontrolled factors accounting for the r e s u l t s . (Campbell and Stanley, 1963, p. 36) These two considerations determined the approach to evaluation of the Method. The Evaluation Approach i n Summary In order to evaluate the Method, i t was given a f i e l d t r i a l designed to control for unwanted v a r i a b l e s . This f i e l d t r i a l provided a t e s t of the expectations i m p l i c i t i n the desirable c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r a method described i n Chapter I I . The emphasis i n evaluation was p r i m a r i l y on questions of v a l i d i t y — does the Method have value for the study of how infants acquire speech— and t h i s was focussed by i n v e s t i g a t i n g two research'questions derived from the l i t e r a t u r e of p r e l i n g u i s t i c s . R e l i a b i l i t y was given subsidiary emphasis. Measures of the r e l i -a b i l i t y of coding estimated from eight minute^long samples of the data are given i n Chapter V, both so that the reader may q u a l i f y h i s accept-ance of the main find i n g s , and so that future users may be informed of the p r a c t i c a l strengths and weaknesses of t h i s f i r s t generation model of the Method. Description of the Evaluative F i e l d T r i a l 57 The. following procedure was ca r r i e d out as a t y p i c a l example of how the Method could be used to study the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. Subj ects The choice of subjects was made to control f or s e l e c t i o n of an a t y p i c a l sample from the age group. K. and P., the subjects, were selected from a pool of eight names submitted to the invest i g a t o r by the Chilliwack, B r i t i s h Columbia, Public Health Unit as f u l f i l l i n g the following c r i t e r i a : a. not previously known to the investigator b. born s i x to seven months p r i o r to s e l e c t i o n c. developmentally normal on the basis of the Denver Developmental Scale (Frankenburg and Dodds, 1967) d. average socio-economic l e v e l — P u b l i c Health Nurse estimate e. i n t a c t family f. family speaks English as i t s only language g. normal pre-natal, b i r t h , neo-natal and infant h i s t o r y — P u b l i c Health records Variables of s i b l i n g order, race and sex were considered unimportant. The two subjects selected were the f i r s t and second whose parents agreed to take part i n the study. By chance, both happened to be boys. Raw data were also c o l l e c t e d on the t h i r d and fourth infants whose fa m i l i e s agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e , as a hedge against drop-outs, but these data were not analyzed. The parents of each c h i l d signed a p a r t i c i p a t i o n agreement permit-t i n g the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h e i r home to be used f o r research and teaching. (See Appendix XI.) Observation Schedule The observation schedule shown i n Figure 3, p. 58, was designed to 58 take regular rather than s e l e c t i v e samples of behavior. F i f t e e n 10-minute videotaped observations were made of each infant between February and August, 1974, at approximately two week i n t e r v a l s . K -0 0 0 0 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-P r-0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Week 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Obs.No. 1 2 3 4* 5 6 7* 8 9* 10 11* 12 13* 14* 15* Figure 3 Design for Longitudinal Observation Study * Observations which were the source of data i n t h i s study ** Observational samples (0) were taken from the continuous r e a l l i f e behavior ( ) of the subjects without introducing standardized test materials or structure Selection of Raw Data Sequences From the f i f t e e n observations made of each subject, seven 5^minute sequences were eventually reported on i n t h i s study. The f i r s t observa-t i o n was not used because the e f f e c t of the presence of the observer and the t e l e v i s i o n equipment was presumably greatest at the i n i t i a l contact (Webb, Campbell, Schwartz and Sechrest, 1966). The second observation was not used because the procedures used i n coding the raw data were revised a f t e r i t had been coded and time did not permit receding the observation to make i t s findings comparable with the others. Alternate observations were eliminated a f t e r observation 2 had been coded when i t was discovered that the process of coding was generating much more data and taking much more time than anticipated on the basis of preliminary p r a c t i c e with short sequences from other subjects. (In a l l , the t r a i n i n g of two raters and standardization of the coding process required the f u l l time work of two people f o r one year.) In the end, the data analysed consisted of the following observations made at the following ages: Observation 4 K 0-10-5 P 0-9-9 Observation 7 1 K 0-11-16 P 0-10-20 Observation 9 K 1-0-14 P 0-11-18 Observation 11 K 1-1-11 P 1-0-15 Observation 13 K 1-2-16 P 1-1-20 Observation 14 K 1-2-30 P 1-2-3 Observation 15 K 1-3-20 P 1-2-24 The f i v e minute sequence selected from each ten minute recording was chosen for optimal t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y . I t was not considered neces-sary to correct f o r observation e f f e c t s , f o r instance, by eliminating the f i r s t or l a s t few minutes of each recording systematically, because the camera always followed the subject for a minute or two before the record-ing equipment was activated ( i n order to adjust focus l i g h t stop, etc.) and f o r a few minutes a f t e r the ten minutes were up and the subject and h i s mother did not know exactly when the actual recording began and ended. Content and Locus of Observations In approaching "the organism i n i t s natural habitat" the i n v e s t i -gator asked only that the infant be present and awake and that the mother "'"Observation 6 had to be eliminated f o r poor te c h n i c a l q u a l i t y . 60 continue with the normal routine of the day. In p r a c t i c e t h i s usually meant that the mother was present part of the time, doing housework or caring f o r or playing with her c h i l d . Often s i b l i n g s and other r e l a -t i v e s or friends were present, fathers and baby s i t t e r s o c casionally. Similar observational circumstances are described i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l study of v o c a l i z a t i o n and v e r b a l i z a t i o n by the Massachusetts Mental Health Centre: Each observation consists of . . . spontaneous a c t i v i t y of the c h i l d and any i n t e r a c t i o n i n which she engages. . . . The mother i s not expected to stage a performance, but rather to do and say whatever she f e e l s l i k e with her c h i l d . (Bullowa et a l . , 1970, pp. 387-388) No attempt was made to standardize environmental s t i m u l i between subjects but, i n f a c t , many of the types of toys and household objects seen were common to both. The recording took place wherever the c h i l d was when the invest i g a t o r was ready to begin. Each c h i l d was always v i s i t e d at approximately the same time of day (allowing f o r changing nap schedules). Procedures of Data C o l l e c t i o n and Analysis C o l l e c t i o n and analysis of the data followed the procedures f o r the Method given i n Chapter H I and here below. The procedures used to estimate r e l i a b i l i t y are described, together with the findings f o r r e l i -a b i l i t y , i n Chapter V. The two research questions discussed i n the next two sections of t h i s chapter were put forward to test the v a l i d i t y of the Method f o r pre-speech research. A t h i r d test was the face v a l i d i t y of the et h o l o g i c a l data as a contr i b u t i o n to a human ethogram. However, a fourth approach, to gain some notion of the d i r e c t c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Method by 61 comparing i t with concurrent formal Piagetian test r e s u l t s from the sub-j e c t s , was not ca r r i e d out. This decision was made when i t was d i s -covered that the time required f o r coding i s at least one week for each f i v e minute sample. This would be p r o h i b i t i v e for a c l i n i c a l instrument. Research Question 1 - The Phylogeny of Communication Functions If the basis of speech i s to be found i n meaning, and i t s o r i g i n s are antecedent to the f i r s t word, then investigators interested i n speech a c q u i s i t i o n must be equipped to cross t r a d i t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c boundaries and study meaning i n behavior that antedates speech. In order to introduce the "equipment", the bridging concepts, applicable to both pre-speech and speech behavior which were used i n the f i e l d t r i a l , and to show how they were organized as secondary coding d e f i n i t i o n s to be used by the Method, a survey and discussion of the l i t e r a t u r e i s given below. The methodological task was to apply concepts derived from the l i t e r a t u r e s of two widely d i f f e r i n g d i s c i p l i n e s , primate ethology and speech, that deal with behavior before and a f t e r the phylogenetic appearance of the spoken word, to observed infant pre-speech behavior. Communication functions were chosen as constructs applicable to both non-verbal and verbal behavior, 2 for t h i s purpose. Dealing with the r e l a t i o n of signs to i n t e r p r e t e r s , these functions belong to the pragmatic aspect of communication, as opposed to the semantic or sy n t a c t i c . 2 The term "sign" i s used i n the general sense of an event ( s i g -n i f i c a n t ) standing for another event ( s i g n i f i c a t e ) rather than i n the sp e c i a l sense given by Piaget which i s discussed i n Appendix VII. 62 D e f i n i t i o n of Communication Functions Used i n the F i e l d T r i a l "The addresser sends a message to the addressee". (Jakobson, 1960, p. 353) This simplest model of speech communication has three parts. Further analysis distinguishes four aspects of the message: the channel which c a r r i e s i t , e.g., the voice; the form q u a l i t y i t expresses, e.g., poetry; the code i n which i t i s symbolized, e.g., standard English; and the i d e a t i o n a l content symbolized, e.g., " S o f t l y as t o l l s the evening chime". These aspects may be seen as parts of a speech communication sys-tem, the functions of which can be deduced by observing the choices pos-s i b l e i n each: channel choices serve to contact the r e c e i v e r — e . g . , s e l e c t i o n of auditory or v i s u a l media, etc. form choices serve to set up a f f e c t i v e connotations—e.g., the aesthetic or r h e t o r i c a l purposes of poetry. code choices serve to make the process of symbolization more r e l i a b l e — e . g . , s e l e c t i o n of case markers, p l u r a l s etc. content choices serve to meet the needs of the speaker i n r e l a t i o n to: the addresser—expressive of s e l f — e . g . , exclamatory remarks the a d d r e s s e e — d i r e c t i n g or persuading—e.g., imperative remarks the c o n t e x t — d e s c r i b i n g or analysing the environment—e.g., de c l a r a t i v e remarks. The underlined words i n the preceding paragraph are "the c o n s t i t u t i v e factors i n any speech event" (Jakobson, 1960, p. 353). Each one gives r i s e to a function of language: the phatic function of the language channel, the poetic function of language forms, the metalingual function of language codes, the expressive function of language about the addresser, the conative function of language d i r e c t i n g the addressee, the r e f e r e n t i a l function of language describing the environment. 63 Jakobson points out that, i n p r a c t i c e , a verbal message often f u l f i l l s more than one of these functions. 3 This analysis evolved from several sources. Buhler (1933) described the basic functions of speech as meeting the three psychological needs of self-expression, control of others and reference to the environ-ment. To these, Jakobson (1960) added three non-content functions, phatic, (which he a t t r i b u t e s to Malinowski) poetic and metalingual. Hymes (1971) somewhat broadened the a p p l i c a t i o n of the functions from a s o c i a l l i n g u i s t i c point of view i n discussion of t h e i r usefulness i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l behavior. Halliday's functions of c h i l d l a n -guage deal only with the use of language by the c h i l d to r e a l i z e h i s own intent i o n s , and e x p l i c i t l y not with metalingual or poetic language behavior (Halliday, 1973). The s i x component language systems he describes, how-ever, carry out intentions which are very congruent with the phatic, expressive, conative and r e f e r e n t i a l motivations behind Jakobson's l a n -guage functions. In order to apply Jakobson's language concepts to pre-speech as well as to speech behavior f o r t h i s study, the general communication terms, "sender", " r e c e i v e r " and "environment" were substituted f o r the s p e c i f i c speech terms, "addresser", "addressee" and "context". The r e s u l t i n g con-ceptual model for the si x Communication Functions of the study, Phatic, Poetic, Metalingual, Expressive, Conative and R e f e r e n t i a l , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4, p. 64. D e f i n i t i o n s used i n coding the Communication Functions are given i n Appendix I I . 3 Jakobson's c i t a t i o n i s Buhler, K., "Die Axiomatik der Sprachwissen-schaft", Kant Studien ,,1933, 38, 19-90. 64 environment sender message: form (Poetic) channel (Phatic) -receiver Icontent code (Metalingual) sender (Expressive) receiver (Conative) \_environment (Referential) Figure 4 Communication Model Showing Co n s t i t u t i v e Factors and Their Communication Functions The Primate L i t e r a t u r e The l i t e r a t u r e of primate ethology provided a d e s c r i p t i o n of non-speech behaviors recognized as having communication functions i n the general sense f o r comparison with the Communication Function d e f i n i t i o n s . Lancaster, 1966. The natural communication of apes and monkeys i s described as a display system, the basic motives f o r which are "to express emotion and to f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s " (p. 455). The f i r s t motive f i t s the d e f i n i t i o n of the Expressive Communication Function; but c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the second i s not possible without more information, since any Communication Function could serve s o c i a l purposes. Lancaster implies that the function of reference i s not present i n natural primate communication: . The most l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to name objects would be highly adaptive even at the simplest l e v e l of i t s development because i t served a new function not met by the p r i m i t i v e primate display system of communication. (pp. 455-456) Marler, 1965. A more de t a i l e d analysis of primate communication i s provided by Marler. Vocal and auditory displays, although usually combined i n natural behavior, are described separately by Marler, using 65 the general semiotic terminology of Morris (1946). Morris' b e h a v i o r i s t i c approach i n c l a s s i f y i n g signs by the response d i s p o s i t i o n they engender i n the i n t e r p r e t e r rather than by the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s inference about the sender's inner "meanings" emphasizes t h e i r pragmatic s o c i a l function. The l o g i c of t h i s behavioral approach used by Marler was adopted for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the non-verbal communication of infants which was f o l -lowed i n the f i e l d t r i a l of the Method. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of primate signals i n the following summary according to Communication Functions i s an addition by the investigator to Marler's a n a l y s i s . Primate sound si g n a l s , according to Marler, are of four types: 1) I d e n t i f i e r s , (sic) disposing the r e c i p i e n t to d i r e c t his responses to a c e r t a i n spatio-temporal region . . . [often] to a t t r a c t the gaze of the r e c i p i e n t who may then receive further information from v i s u a l signals that are emitted simultaneously. (p. 566) Examples given are infant c l i c k s or soft adult grunts. This type of s i g n a l f i t s the d e f i n i t i o n of Phatic Communication. 2) "Appraisors (sic) disposing the r e c i p i e n t to respond p r e f e r e n t i a l l y to c e r t a i n objects rather than to others" (p. 566). Grunting with increased frequency i s an example of t h i s s i g n a l . The function seems conative, and/or expressive, with the referent understood. 3) "Prescriptors (sic) that dispose the r e c i p i e n t to make a p a r t i c u l a r class of response," (p. 566) among them, response to the sender's assertion of dominance or response to the presence of a predator. Examples are aggressive growls or warning barks. These " q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t " signals seem to have p r i m a r i l y a conative but also an expressive communication f u n c t i o n — w i t h the referent understood. 66 4) "Designators . . . dispose the receiver toward response sequences associated with p a r t i c u l a r objects, animate or inanimate," (p. 566) such as the cry of a l o s t j u v e n i l e . The example i s distressed screeching and screams. These signals appear to have expressive and conative f u n c t i o n s — w i t h the referent understood-also. According to Marler, v i s u a l s i g n a l s , although much more numerous than auditory s i g n a l s , serve s i m i l a r s o c i a l needs: By far the greater number seem to mediate agonistic and p a c i f -i c a t o r y exchanges within the group, with a smaller number serving reproductive purposes and care of the young. Within the classes of designative information, motivational information looms f a r larger than any other type. (p. 580) Descriptions of i n d i v i d u a l v i s u a l signals by Marler show t h e i r communica t i o n functions to be consistent with those of the auditory signals j u s t reviewed: they are expressive i n t h e i r a f f e c t i v e discharge, conative i n constraining the receiver to make p a r t i c u l a r responses; and they do not 4 provide e x p l i c i t denotation of these responses. For example: A r i c h array of s i g n a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y v i s u a l and t a c t i l e . . . seem to serve a p a c i f y i n g function, p r i m a r i l y by e l i c i t i n g  some response that i s incompatible with f i g h t i n g behavior and thus i n d i r e c t l y i n h i b i t i n g to i t . However, there i s another element, which i s most c l e a r l y seen i n the crouching, prostrate posture of a defeated animal, that seems to i n h i b i t d i r e c t l y further attack . . . . In t h i s case the e f f e c t i s achieved . . . by minimizing the signals that might provoke an attack. (p. 581; u n d e r l i n i n g the present author's) Marler points out that primates have l i t t l e i n the way of a r e p e r t o i r e o designative information concerning s p e c i f i c objects. In the t y p i c a l Only one s i g n a l described seemed to have possible denotative content: "As a s p e c i a l case of postural s i g n a l , the leader of a g o r i l l a group sometimes gets the others to prepare for departure by facing i n the chosen d i r e c t i o n and standing motionless for as long as ten seconds" (p. 576) 67 auditory and v i s u a l examples presented above, objects, states and actions i n the environment are implied rather than referred to. This does not impair communication since the environment i s usually obvious to both the sender and the receiver, and the responses enjoined, already i n the re p e r t o i r e of the receiver, need not be described. Gardner and Gardner, 1969. What of the Communication Functions of a " t a l k i n g ape"? There i s no doubt that Washoe, the female chimpanzee rai s e d by the Gardners, l i k e several other chimpanzees, (Premack and Premack, 1971; Fouts, 1972; Rumbaugh, 1973) has learned signs.^ The process of a c q u i s i t i o n of American Sign Language by Washoe i n a na t u r a l -i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r to that i n which human language learning takes place i s i n s t r u c t i v e . Washoe had several spontaneous signals before formal teaching began, the most prominent of which was a "begging" s i g n a l — unequivocally conative. The begging s i g n a l — h a n d out palm u p — i s reported to be common i n caged laboratory chimpanzees and has also been described i n the wild (Goodall, 1971). This conative motive c a r r i e d over into Washoe's spontaneous multiple item sequences: Four s i g n s — " p l e a s e " , "come-gimme", "hurry", and "more", used with one or more other signs, account f o r the largest share of Washoe's early combinations. In general these four signs have functioned as emphasizers, as i n "please open hurry", and "gimme drink please". (p. 671) Of the f i r s t 34 r e l i a b l e signs used spontaneously by Washoe (Gardner and Gardner, 1969, pp. 668-669) a l l except one, the r e f e r e n t i a l "cats", (unless Washoe was asking f o r cats) had a conative function for Washoe. According to the reported context, 20 combined t h i s with a r e f e r e n t i a l The usage here i s Piaget's (1966) i n which a sign i s defined as an a r b i t r a r y s i g n i f i c a n t based on s o c i a l convention—e.g., speech;and a s i g n a l i s defined as an a r b i t r a r y s i g n i f i c a n t that i s part of the s i g n i f i c a t e — • e.g., the begging s i g n a l hand p o s i t i o n i s part of the holding object hand p o s i t i o n which i s i t s s i g n i f i c a t e . 68 function, and 4 also met an expressive need. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to learn that the metalingual use of sign language appeared as learning progressed, evoking pseudo i m i t a t i o n from the "parents": We have encouraged Washoe's babbling by our responsiveness; clapping, smiling and repeating the gesture much as you might repeat "goo" to a human i n f a n t . (p. 667) In sum, a review of the primate l i t e r a t u r e suggests that the Com-munication Functions to be found i n the natural communication of non-human primates are overwhelmingly expressive or conative. A few signals also carry out phatic motives. The use of r e f e r e n t i a l communication i s not necessary to meet t h e i r basic needs for s e l f expression and s o c i a l i n t e r -action. In c a p t i v i t y , referents can be learned (and metalingual p r a c t i c e of them observed) but, when used spontaneously, referents tend to appear i n expressive and conative "utterances". The next section reviews the use of the concept of Communication Functions i n the l i t e r a t u r e of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . The P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c L i t e r a t u r e on Communication Functions Jakobson's language functions have been described i n children's early speech by Weir (1962), Greenfield ( c i t e d i n McNeill, 1970) and McNeill (1970). They are also mentioned i n passing by Bloom (1972) but do not form part of her data. (Language functions w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as synonomous with the sub-suming concept of Communication Functions for the remainder of t h i s discussion). Weir, 1962. An audiotape record of the bedtime s o l i l o q u i e s of a 28-30 month old boy was the raw data which Weir c l a s s i f i e d according to Jakobson's language functions. She distinguished t h i s material from her subject's daytime utterances as an example of "inner speech for the c h i l d — a l t h o u g h v o c a l — a s t h i s stage of development would lead one to 69 expect;" (Preface) and pointed out that i t was more r e s t r i c t e d i n vocab-ulary and le s s r e f e r e n t i a l than the speech of daytime i n t e r a c t i o n s . Two and three word sentences were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the subject with only 3% of h i s sentences ranging s i x to ten words. Weir found the non-content aspects of language very evident i n the p l a y f u l , p e r s i s t e n t s e l f - i n i t i a t e d language learning 'exercises' which appeared frequently throughout the data. In these, poetic experience with speech sounds and rhythms was combined with.metalingual p r a c t i c e and experimentation with s y n t a c t i c forms and phonemic contrasts. Some speech with a phatic function, such as babbling and naming members of the house-hold without c a l l i n g , appeared j u s t before the c h i l d dropped o f f to sleep. Conative utterances were, however, the most frequent and "the fa c t that imperative constructions outweigh a l l the others i s good evidence of the importance of t h i s function for the c h i l d " (Weir, 1962, p. 106). On the other hand, r e f e r e n t i a l messages "c o n s t i t u t e a minority as was shown by the r e l a t i v e l y few unambiguously d e c l a r a t i v e sentences and by the even fewer questions" (Weir, 1962, p. 106). The "emotive" (expressive) func-t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d by extra heavy stress or long drawn-out s y l l a b l e s but does not seem to have been a prominent feature. Weir used p r i v i l e g e d information about context to c l a s s i f y her data, sharing t h i s i n discus-sion with the reader. No s t a t i s t i c s about the frequencies of language functions are given, and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the method of data c l a s s i f i -cation used was not evaluated. Greenfield, 1967, and McNeill, 1970. Less information i s a v a i l -able about Greenfield's unpublished study which i s reported by McNeill (1970). Her data came from a younger c h i l d who was observed from the holophrastic or s i n g l e word stage at 8 months on to 20 months when patterned speech utterances of more than one word were w e l l established. As McNeill points out, the v a l i d i t y of Greenfield's findings i s attested by the f a c t that she found an orderly progression of new r e l a t i o n s . He found s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the 8-10 month speech of Leopold's c h i l d during the holophrastic period. McNeill's summary of the emergence of Communication Functions i s shown below i n Figure. 5.f Expressive Conative R e f e r e n t i a l P r e d i c a t i v e Assertion of Properties Locative Object of verb Object of preposition Subject of sentence holophrastic speech patterned speech _ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 months Figure 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Holophrastic Speech and the Ages (with two children) at which they f i r s t emerged. (From McNeill, 1970) Greenfield's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of language functions was made on the basis of context, presumably through p r i v i l e g e d information. The frequency and duration of the observations and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure were not reported. The f i n d i n g of i n t e r e s t here i s that utterances combining expressive and conative communication functions and others combining the r e f e r e n t i a l 71 function with an assumed pre d i c a t i o n appeared before language showing more grammatic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . To summarize the l i t e r a t u r e i n terms of the categories of Commun-i c a t i o n Functions: phatic, expressive and conative functions can be in f e r r e d i n non-human primate behavior; expressive, conative and referen-t i a l functions have been reported i n connection with human sing l e word utterances at about ten months and continuing on into speech; phatic, poetic, metalingual, expressive, conative and r e f e r e n t i a l functions have been reported i n human speech at 28-30 months. Statement of Research Question One The f i r s t research question of the f i e l d t r i a l seeks for early evidence of human Communication Functions: can Communication Functions be i d e n t i f i e d i n the behavior of infants before the f i r s t word? Corollary issues are: w i l l expressive and conative functions appear before the r e f e r e n t i a l function; what are the behaviors associated with p a r t i c u l a r Communication Functions; and what are the roles played by these associated behaviors i n the communication process? The Method was applied by having the rater use the d e f i n i t i o n s given i n Appendix II for secondary coding of the raw data gathered i n the f i e l d t r i a l . Since two Communication Functions were described i n the l i t e r a t u r e as sometimes occurring simultaneously, two 3-column groups of the V.T.R. Log form were assigned to code Communication Function informa-t i o n . The procedure used i s described i n Chapter III under "Secondary Coding". Findings about pre-speech Communication Functions produced by the f i e l d t r i a l of the Method are presented i n Chapter VI. 7 2 Research Question 2 - The Ontogeny of Operations of Reference The second approach used for crossing t r a d i t i o n a l boundaries i n t h i s study turned to the speech behavior of ch i l d r e n when they f i r s t combine words. The methodological task was to apply d e f i n i t i o n s of behaviors used by ch i l d r e n i n early speech acts to i d e n t i f y s i m i l a r behaviors i n pre-speech a c t i v i t y . Bloom used t h i s type of approach i n projecting c h i l -dren's f i r s t sentence meanings back onto s i n g l e word utterances: The conceptual notions expressed i n children's single-word u t t e r -ances can be analysed within a framework provided by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the conceptual r e l a t i o n s that have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the early two-word utterances of older c h i l d r e n . That i s , knowing the kinds of things c h i l d r e n t a l k about when they f i r s t use sentences, i t i s reasonable to look for s i m i l a r notions i n l i n g u i s t i c a l l y e a r l i e r data, as evidence of input to learning grammar. (Bloom, 1 9 7 3 , p. 2 0 ) In taking t h i s procedure one step further back to pre-speech acts, the l i n g u i s t i c - c o g n i t i v e concepts of Operations of Reference were chosen to c l a s s i f y the data. This was done f or two reasons: f i r s t , the con-cepts themselves do not nec e s s a r i l y require speech f o r t h e i r use, as Bloom points out: There i s no reason that I can see why a c h i l d would need to say the words (or, perhaps, even know the words) which represent such notions i n order to have an awareness or r e a l i z a t i o n of such aspects of h i s n o n l i n g u i s t i c environment . . . I do not believe that . . . saying or even 'knowing' the words "there", "away", and "more" was a necessary condition f o r . . . becoming aware of the existence, disappearance, and recurrence of objects and events i n (the) environment. (Bloom, 1 9 7 3 , p. 1 4 1 ) Second, when Operations of Reference are expressed, i t i s often by speech linked to p a r t i c u l a r gestures i n c e r t a i n contexts. In t h i s circumstance, inferences about what the infant means by h i s behavior, when he does not speak but makes the same gestures i n the same circumstances, have a reasonable foundation. The concept of Operations of Reference has roots i n both psycho-73 l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive (Piagetian) f i e l d s of study. The P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c L i t e r a t u r e on Operations of Reference Bloom, 1973. Bloom describes Operations of Reference, which she terms 'functional r e l a t i o n s ' , as semantic r e l a t i o n s between two words the meanings of which are: . . . dependent upon the meaning of one of the words. That i s , there (are) c e r t a i n words (such as "more" and "no") that occur . . . with (1) many d i f f e r e n t words and (2) consistent semantic function (such as coding the notions 'recurrence' and 'nonexistence'). (p. 21) She contrasts t h i s with grammatic semantic r e l a t i o n s expressed i n case r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are "derived from the t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between words (as, f o r example, between actor and action, action and goal, agent and o b j e c t ) . " (Bloom, 1973, p. 21). Bloom found the " f u n c t i o n a l r e l a -t i o n s " of existence, nonexistence and recurrence i n both s i n g l e and two word utterances. On the whole, Bloom found that her subjects were able to t a l k about these r e l a t i o n s before they were able to name the objects and actions of the fun c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . This suggests that function gestures may be more evident i n pre-speech behavior than vocal proto-names. Brown, 1973. Brown uses the term "operations of reference" to describe these functions i n the speech of ch i l d r e n f i r s t combining words (Stage I speech). These, together with references to s e l f or mother, account for 76% of Stage I speech i n a wide sample of studies made by Brown: Even a casual impression of Stage I speech suggests that a great many utterances are concerned with the expression of three operations of reference, a kind of closed semantic set . . . "nomination",^ "recurrence", and "nonexistence" . . . Equivalent to Bloom's "existence". 74 accessible to the c h i l d of 18 months or so, since they are among the attainments of what Piaget c a l l s sensorimotor i n t e l -l igence. . . . In addition, these operations tend to be linked with j u s t a very few words: i n the case of nomination, t h i s , that, see, there, here and t h e i r equivalents i n Finnish, Swedish and Spanish; i n the case of recurrence, more, another and t h e i r equivalents; i n the case of nonexistence, a l l gone, no more, no and t h e i r equivalents. . . . They have the widest possible range of a p p l i c a t i o n . Any thing, person, q u a l i t y or process can be named, can recur, and can disappear. (p. 170) D e f i n i t i o n of Operations of Reference Used i n the F i e l d T r i a l Non-verbal and contextual configurations of data form the basis for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Operations of Reference i n speech behavior, according to Brown. Nomination. "The presence of the referent made manifest by some action c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to i t for the members of the communicating group, usually a dyad, defines t h i s operation" (Brown, 1973, p. 189). This ac t i o n by the c h i l d may occur spontaneously, according to Brown, or come about i n response to parental questions such as "What's that?" or (looking at a book) "Where's the x?". In terms of the Method, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n can be f u l f i l l e d by the Elements of Behavior Point or Hold Out associated with a person i n the i n f e r r e d v i s u a l environment and/or a v o c a l i z a t i o n by the i n f a n t . I t i s not necessary to specify an object i n the environment since the d e f i n i -tions of Point and Hold Out require objects. Recurrence. This i s defined, a f t e r Bloom, as: "the construction either comments on (declarative) or requests (imperative) 'recurrence' of a thing, person, or process" (Brown, 1973, p. 190). Brown makes cl e a r that recurrence does not always r e f e r to an a d d i t i o n a l quantity: "In the l e s s mature samples, more i s sometimes involved, simply as a request 75 form. As the samples become more advanced t h i s " i n c o r r e c t " usage drops out (Brown, 1973, p. 190). In terms of the Method, i t i s not possible to f i n d an Element of Behavior which i s a l i k e l y analogue of a de c l a r a t i v e specifying quantity. However, many Elements may take part i n configurations which communicate an imperative request f o r the f i r s t instance or a recurrence of whatever i s desired by the inf a n t . The d e f i n i t i o n can be f u l f i l l e d by the Element of Behavior, Reach, combined with a person i n the in f e r r e d v i s u a l environ-ment and/or a v o c a l i z a t i o n by the inf a n t . These s i t u a t i o n s are predom-inan t l y those i n which objects are requested. (Reach i n other contexts would not nec e s s a r i l y have p r e - l i n g u i s t i c importance.) Also, the con-f i g u r a t i o n of Grasp or P u l l , associated with a person as the Element of Environment acted upon (that i s the infant grasping or p u l l i n g the person), may also f i t the d e f i n i t i o n of a request for a thing, person or process. Nonexistence. This i s described rather than defined by Brown, also a f t e r Bloom: " . . . the synta c t i c expression of negation (as opposed to one-word expression) began with the meaning of nonexistence and then progressed to r e j e c t i o n and d e n i a l " (Brown, 1973, p. 191). In terms of the Method, the symbolic use of Shake Head, although highly u n l i k e l y i n t h i s age range, exactly f i t s d e n i a l . No si n g l e e t h o l o g i c a l element has the connotation of search, which would act out the concept of nonexistence. Repel (persons) and Throw (objects) would f i t r e j e c t i o n only under c e r t a i n circumstances. This Operation of Reference was not defined i n et h o l o g i c a l terms. Although operational d e f i n i t i o n s for the Operations of Reference have been made by drawing e x c l u s i v e l y on the ps y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , a broader understanding of the function of Operations of Reference i n infant behavior may be gained by looking at current Piagetian thinking. Piagetian L i t e r a t u r e and the A c q u i s i t i o n of Speech Many authors have pointed out the general relevance of Piaget's epistemological analysis of cognitive development to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. A s p e c i f i c p a r a l l e l between use of the Piagetian concept of object permanence and use of Operations of Reference has more recently been drawn: I t i s probably no coincidence that among the very f i r s t u n i v e r s a l utterances the i n d i c a t i o n of disappearance and app a r i t i o n i s so frequent; one of the f i r s t permanent properties of objects i s t h e i r very existence. (H. Sinclair-de-Zwart, 1973, p. 23) and: Let us consider some of the i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s of Stage I meanings. Nomination and recurrence both presume the a b i l i t y to recognize objects and actions. Nonexistence presumes the a b i l i t y to a n t i c i p a t e objects and actions from various n a t u r a l l y occurring signs and also to notice when such a n t i c i p a t i o n s of appearance or existence are not confirmed. (Brown, 1973, p. 199) Although i t i s not within the scope of the f i e l d t r i a l to explore i n depth the:complex r e l a t i o n between Piagetian representation and psycho-l i n g u i s t i c reference, a demonstration of what the Method might have to o f f e r i n t h i s area was made by providing s p e c i f i c Piagetian data to match the l i n g u i s t i c data about the subjects. This was done by c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of the data, unit by u n i t , i n Piagetian terms. D e f i n i t i o n s of Piagetian Concepts Used i n the F i e l d T r i a l Two kinds of Piagetian concepts were defined for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the data, the c l a s s i c sensori-motor stages, given i n Appendix I II and Appendix IV, and the s p e c i a l configurations of behavior which indi c a t e 77 use of imagery, (Piaget 1966), given i n Appendix V. Piagetian Stages. Two approaches to the d e f i n i t i o n of Piagetian Stages were t r i e d . In one, the rater was given an operational d e f i n i -t i o n of object concept attainment, with as few inferences as possible necessary for i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . In the other, the rater was given a condensed ve r s i o n of the f u n c t i o n a l descriptions of several aspects of sensori-motor behavior from which the f i r s t set of d e f i n i t i o n s had been drawn. The l a t t e r required many inferences on the part of the r a t e r about the intentions of the subjects. Both sets of d e f i n i t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e f or each coding d e c i s i o n . The object concept d e f i n i t i o n s are given i n Appendix IV. The f u n c t i o n a l descriptions are given i n Appendix I I I . These contain d e f i n i t i v e examples of stage by stage sensori-motor behavior i n three main areas: behavior with objects, play and communication. The stage d e f i n i t i o n s f o r object behavior were found i n Decarie's study of object concept and object r e l a t i o n s (Decarie, 1965); the d e f i n i t i o n s f o r play and communication were part of an informal, unpublished c l i n i c a l instrument previously used by the inve s t i g a t o r (Mackie and Woodward, 1973) compiled from a great many sources, p r i n c i p a l l y Piaget,: 1959, 1966, and 1967, with l a t e r additions from Morehead and Morehead, 1974. One a d d i t i o n a l guideline was used by raters coding behavior i n which a subject j u s t watched something. Such behavior presents very few cues to guide the coder. Although prolonged v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n i s achieved by i n f a n t s at Stage 3, and i s t y p i c a l of the period, i t often appears i n the midst of more advanced behaviors. Rather than record a "regression" to Stage 3 for these sequences, the coders adopted the r u l e that, i f the watching led d i r e c t l y to a c t i o n at Stage 4 or 5 etc., i t 78 should be coded as continuous with, and at the l e v e l of, the action to which i t l e d . To summarize the l i t e r a t u r e , Operations of Reference are found i n singl e word and Stage I speech. Their use has been defined by the presence of c e r t a i n gestures and c e r t a i n contexts. Attainment of Piagetian object permanence i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y necessary for the developing use of Operations of Reference. Statement of Research Question Two The second research question of the f i e l d t r i a l seeks for early evidence of the use of Operation of Reference: can Operations of Reference be i d e n t i f i e d i n the behavior of infants before as we l l as a f t e r the f i r s t word? Coro l l a r y issues are: can Piagetian Stages be i d e n t i f i e d i n the i d e n t i c a l behavior; w i l l behavior that expresses an Operation of Reference be at le a s t at Stage 4; and can Piagetian Configurations be i d e n t i f i e d i n some of the i d e n t i c a l data? No predictions can be made about the order of appearance of Opera-tions of Reference on the basis of the l i t e r a t u r e ; nor can the order or Stage of onset of Piagetian Configurations be s p e c i f i e d . The Method was applied to test the f i r s t clause of question two by programming the computer to retrieve.and make frequency counts of data gathered i n the f i e l d t r i a l conforming to the d e f i n i t i o n s of Operations of Reference given on pages 74-75. This i s an a l t e r n a t i v e procedure for obtaining secondary coding and, with the apprehension that these computer d e f i n i t i o n s might be too li m i t e d to i d e n t i f y every instance of the use of Operations of Reference, notes were kept on sit u a t i o n s where context i n d i -cated the infant's meaning to be nomination, recurrence or nonexistence, i n one observation as a spot check. 7 9 The second and t h i r d clauses of the question required the rater to use the d e f i n i t i o n s f o r Piagetian Stages, given i n Appendices I I I and IV, for secondary coding of the same data. The procedure used i s described i n Chapter I I I under "Secondary Coding". Findings about the use of Operations of Reference produced by the f i e l d t r i a l are presented i n Chapter VI. E t h o l o g i c a l Descriptions The v a l i d i t y of the ethogrammatic p r o f i l e produced by the Method res t s on the assumption that the two subjects are normal and that the samples of behavior observed are t y p i c a l . Obviously t h i s assumption can only be tested by repeated observations of the same i n d i v i d u a l s , of s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n the same culture and of other i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l groups. A l l t h i s i s beyond the scope of a sin g l e i n v e s t i g a t o r study. However, Blurton Jones suggests that, by the time a c h i l d can walk, "the r e p e r t o i r e of f a c i a l expressions and noises i s comparably complete" (Blurton Jones, 1972b, p. 276). The large amount of data c o l l e c t e d on the two subjects studied was summarized and i t s consistency with other etho-l o g i c a l findings forms,part of .the discussion of findings i n Chapter VI. Summary This chapter has described the f i e l d t r i a l conducted to evaluate the new Method for i n v e s t i g a t i n g pre-speech behavior which i s the subject of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . The approach to both research questions i n v e s t i -gated i n the f i e l d t r i a l was the same—a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c concept developed to analyze speech behavior was defined i n the l i g h t of relevant 80 l i t e r a t u r e and then applied to pre-speech behavior by using the proced-ures of the Method. The next two chapters present the r e s u l t s of the f i e l d t r i a l . CHAPTER V RELIABILITY OF THE METHOD In keeping with the subsidiary emphasis decided upon as appropriate for r e l i a b i l i t y at t h i s stage i n the development of a new method, (Chapter IV, p. 56) no attempt was made to produce an exhaustive analysis of r e l i -a b i l i t y i n t h i s study. Two general questions were thought to be pertinent: i s r e l i a b i l i t y of coding a p r a c t i c a l attainment i n a method using multiple coding, and what are the comparative merits of the a l t e r n a t i v e forms of reporting r e l i a b i l i t y f indings, by duration or by incidence, provided by the Method. The Problem of P r i v i l e g e d Information A seldom s c r u t i n i z e d source of bias which could lead to u n r e l i a b i l i t y i n coding data i s the coder's or rater's p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n — t h e e f f e c t on h i s judgements of h i s previous experience with the subject and with h i s own cu l t u r e . F a m i l i a r i t y with the subject i s more often the r u l e than the excep-t i o n i n l o n g i t u d i n a l l i n g u i s t i c research where the investigator i s often a parent and must be at l e a s t a very frequent v i s i t o r . Moreover, the pro-cedures of l i n g u i s t i c analysis require that the inve s t i g a t o r be that expert, the "adult speaker" who, by v i r t u e of h i s knowledge, undertakes such tasks as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the phonemes, or r u l i n g on the p e r m i s s i b i l i t y of the utterances i n the data. I t would be impossible to have i t otherwise since a l l the rules f or such judgements are not yet written. 81 82 In the present l o n g i t u d i n a l pre-speech research, although operational d e f i n i t i o n s were given f o r primary coding and extensive c r i t e r i a were written f o r secondary coding, a large element of p r i v i l e g e d information was assumed to influence the coding judgements: the perceptions of behavior coded were human perceptions, the r u l e s f o r the judgements known to an adult member of the cultu r e , the coder 1 or r a t e r , but not yet f u l l y w r i t t e n . This i s not to say that methods r e l y i n g on p r i v i l e g e d information need not be subjected to the assessment of r e l i a b i l i t y . Two questions can r e a d i l y be answered: does a r a t e r or coder apply c o n s i s t e n t l y the rules he does know?— i n t t i - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y ; do two ra t e r s or coders apply the r u l e s they know to achieve consistent r a t i n g s ? — i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Both types of r e l i a b i l i t y contributed to the evaluation of the Method. Procedure f o r Calculating R e l i a b i l i t y A second r a t e r learned the primary and secondary codes used i n the f i e l d t r i a l by studying and discussing the coding d e f i n i t i o n s (Appendices I, I I , I I I , J_V, V) together with portions of four tapes, and t h e i r respective videotape record logs ,of the two subjects which had been coded by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . 1 The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that some of the ru l e s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g non-verbal behavior are not known to a l l adult members of the cu l t u r e , since non-verbal signals are so often ignored i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (Bowlby 1969, Tinbergen and Tinbergen, 1972). I t was discovered during the study that coders, a l s o , have to be taught to perceive the d i s -tinguishing d e t a i l s of a few elements of behavior. 83 Selection of the R e l i a b i l i t y Samples The four "learning" tapes were excluded from the pool of coded data from which four i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y samples, each one minute long, were randomly drawn. A l l the data coded by each rater were a v a i l a b l e f o r the random s e l e c t i o n of four i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y samples. In a l l , eight of the seventy minutes of coded data were analysed for r e l i a b i l i t y : four one minute i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y samples, and four one minute i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y samples. Because the focus was on general r e l i a b i l i t y and the number of each of the two types of r e l i a b i l i t y samples small, data for i n t e r - and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y samples are combined i n the summaries given l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, and a l l reported findings f o r r e l i a b i l i t y of coding are based on the pool of eight samples. Measures of R e l i a b i l i t y Two r e l i a b i l i t y measures were used i n the analysis of each sample: duration of agreement, and incidence of agreement. Duration of Agreement. The c a l c u l a t i o n of the duration, or percent-age of time, of agreement for two r a t e r s , or one rater repeating the coding process, used the formula: duration of agreement (A + B)  duration of agreem't (A+B) + duration seen by A only + durat'n "seen by B only This formula i s derived from the r e l i a b i l i t y formula for number of agree-ments given by McGrew (1971, p. 24). The formula can be more simply stated as the proportion of the t o t a l duration of agreements of both to the t o t a l duration seen by either one or both: 84 duration Of agreements A and B duration of agreements A and/or B For example, i n the 4 4/6 second sequence i n Figure 6 (p. 85), showing the coding of the Orientation Elements of Behavior L 0 , GL, GF, N0 and ND (Appendix I) by rate r s A and B, the lengths of time of agreement are bracketed. Cal c u l a t i o n of the t o t a l duration of agreements of both A and B requires summing the time within the brackets: the t o t a l dura-t i o n of agreement A and B « 6 + l + 9 + 7«r'23. Since there i s no time i n the sample when neither r a t e r recorded a code, the t o t a l duration seen by e i t h e r or both i s the equivalent of the t o t a l duration: 29. This gives a duration of agreement » 23/29 « 79.31%. The duration of agreement A and B f o r code L 0 = 6 + 9 = 15; the duration of e i t h e r or both A and B f o r L 0 » 7 + 12 « 19; and the duration of agreement of L 0 * 15/19 » 78.95%. S i m i l a r l y the duration of agreement of GL » 1/5 = 20.00,%; that of GF - 7/9 - 77.78%; N0 - 0/1 - 0.00% and ND - 0/1 -0.00%. Incidence of Agreement. The incidence of agreement, or percentage of items coded i d e n t i c a l l y , f o r two rate r s or one r a t e r repeating the coding process, i s the proportion of the t o t a l number of coded observa-tions which are coded i d e n t i c a l l y by A and B: number of items coded i d e n t i c a l l y by A and B number of items coded by A and/or B The t o t a l number of coded observations i s counted by tabulating the number of s t a r t times f o r every code. Items coded i d e n t i c a l l y are those with the same code whose s t a r t times have a di f f e r e n c e of 3/6 second or l e s s . In the example i n F i g .6, p. 85the number of s t a r t times, equal to the number of coded observations =12. The number of items coded 85 Rater A Rater B F u l l Time Time Orientation Time Orientation Duration of : agreement 0:00: 0 00 0 *L0 0 00 0 *L0 0 01 1 0 01 3 0 01 4 0 02 5 0 03 2 *GL I N0 *L0 L0 I *GF 0 01 0 0 01 2 0 01 3 0 01 5 0 03 4 *GL I ND *GL *L0 23 L0 look N0 no behavior GF gaze fixate ND no data GL glance * items coded identically Figure 6 Comparison of Coding Orientation Elements by Rater A and Rater B Juxtaposed to i l l u s t r a t e the calculation of duration of agreement and incidence of agreement, "Time" and "Orientation" columns appear as they would in a Videotape Record Log. The code letters are entered at the time the behavior begins and the vertical arrows indicate duration of each behavior u n t i l the time i t ends. The "F u l l Time" column showing every 1/6 second i s given here to assist i n conceptualizing and calculating the durations and start times of coding. 86 i d e n t i c a l l y (within 3/6 second of one another) = 9; and the t o t a l incidence of agreement * 9/12 • 75.00%. The number of observations coded L0 = 5; the number of items coded L0 whose s t a r t times have a di f f e r e n c e of 3/6 second or le s s • 4; and the incidence of agreement for L0 - 4/5 = 80. 00%. S i m i l a r l y the incidence of agreement for GL -3/3 - 100%; GF - 2/2 - 100%; N0 - 0/1 - 0.00%; and ND - 0/1 - 0.00% Sources of Low R e l i a b i l i t y Apart from the i n t e g r a l problem of p r i v i l e g e d information as a possible source of u n r e l i a b i l i t y , evidence of four sources of low r e l i a b i l i t y external to the Method was found. These w i l l be reviewed here before s p e c i f i c examples are discussed i n the r e l i a b i l i t y f i n d i n g s . Coding Inaccuracy Accuracy of coding Improved s t e a d i l y during the approximately three week period required f o r t r a i n i n g a r a t e r . I t appeared that three s k i l l s were required: t e c h n i c a l competence with the videotape recorder and monitor, s e n s i t i z e d perception of both v i s u a l and auditory data on the videotape, and memory f o r the 140''Elements of Behavior, uncounted Elements of Environment, and 28 secondary coding d e f i n i t i o n s used. The time required to code f i v e seconds of data decreased from about two hours to f i f t e e n minutes with p r a c t i c e . Trained r a t e r s were able to code an average of twenty seconds of data per hour, but s t i l l reported some questions about correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r Communication Functions and Piagetian. Stages. Most of the low r e l i a b i l i t y f i n d i n g s are assumed to be,at l e a s t i n part, a r e s u l t of coding inaccuracy. 87 Poor Technical Quality of Raw Data Raters reported uncertainty about how to code data of poor technical q u a l i t y , and t h i s may be assumed to have resulted i n some inaccurate coding. Examples were: f a c i a l expressions i n a dim l i g h t or fuzzy focus; environmental sounds, p a r t i c u l a r l y voices, recorded j u s t at threshold; and small movements i n data which were out of synchronization. However, neither the d i s t o r t i o n s of the sound by slow motion, nor the lag i n stopping the tape spool running i n r e a l time required i n the auditory run of the coding procedure affected the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding v o c a l i z a t i o n s , which was 98.02% for duration and 92.6% for incidence. V u l n e r a b i l i t y of Short Term Items The shorter the period of time a coded item lasted, the more v u l -nerable i t seemed to be to two sources of low r e l i a b i l i t y . F i r s t , the chance for agreement between two raters was r e s t r i c t e d by the very short-ness of the time a v a i l a b l e i n , say, a 1/6 second item. Hutt reports eliminating items of 1.5 seconds or l e s s , by combining them with sub-sequent observations (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p. 50) . Second, the percentages given i n the findings by the computer program REL to f a c i l i t a t e comparison of r e l i a b i l i t y findings for duration and incidence, masked the weights of the fi n d i n g s . For example, a 2/6 second item with 50% agreement has 1/6 second error, while a two second item with 50% agreement has a one second e r r o r — s i x times as much—and yet both contribute the same value to the average which summarizes the f i n d -ings. Because short items were more l i k e l y to be le s s accurate, the r e l i -a b i l i t y of coding agreements for behavior that occurs b r i e f l y , l i k e b l i n k , 51.56% for duration and 82.68% for incidence, was l i k e l y to be systematically underestimated. 88 Underestimation of Agreements by REL The computer program, REL, designed f o r tabulation of agreements i n the coding done by two rat e r s , compares the data column by column and code by code. Where data can be coded i n optional columns (as i s the case for Communication Functions, which have two columns for simultaneous recording), without r e s t r i c t i o n of s p e c i f i c codes to one or the other p o s i t i o n (as i s the case for the two F a c i a l Elements columns), the agreement of two raters w i l l not be counted unless they happen to record the same code i n the same column. Inspection of VTR logs showed that coders frequently used d i f f e r e n t columns to record the same item, which was thus not included i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of agreements. A s i m i l a r circumstance resulted i n the probable underestimation of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r Piagetian Stages where the three d i f f e r e n t codes, f o r each stage (e.g. 04, A4, B4) were not read as the same by the computer program. Here refinement of the d e f i n i t i o n s made i t impossible to estimate general agreement about stages. These sources of low r e l i a b i l i t y can be eliminated by the minor revisions to the coding procedures of the Method, discussed on p. 107. Levels of Acceptable R e l i a b i l i t y Levels f o r acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y of primary coding were a r b i t r a r i l y set somewhat higher than the l e v e l s f o r secondary coding, because i t was assumed that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of operationally defined items, such as Elements of Behavior, would be less subject to error than the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l l y described sequences l i k e Piagetian Stages. I t was reasoned that the smaller the amount of inference required of a r a t e r , the greater the p o s s i b i l i t y that he would be able to make accurate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of data. Inter - r a t e r and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r coding Elements of Behavior and Elements of Environment, both as to duration of agreement and incidence of agreement, was set at 70%, following McGrew who regarded agreements for Elements of Behavior below 70% as unac-ceptable (McGrew, 1972, p. 24). Inter - r a t e r and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y for coding A c t i v i t y Units, Communication Functions, Piagetian Stages and Piagetian Con-f i g u r a t i o n s , both as to duration of agreement and incidence of agree-ment, was a r b i t r a r i l y set at 60%. It should be noted that with the r e l i a b i l i t y formula used i n t h i s study, a f i g u r e of 50% does not,, a§; u-s.ual,. i n d i c a t e chance agrees ment. The l e v e l of chance varies according to the number of possible choices which are a v a i l a b l e . For instance, i f three codes are being assigned, as was the case i n most of the observations where three Piagetian Stages were i d e n t i f i e d , chance would give a percentage of agreement = 20.00%. For example, i f chance were the only determinant for the choice of Stage X or Stage Y or Stage Z, Rater A would agree with Rater B i n 33.33% of h i s choices of Stage X; he would choose Stage X alone (without B's agreement) i n 66.66% of h i s choices; and B would choose Stage X alone (without A's agreement) i n 66.66% of hi s choices. Entering these figures into the formula: Number of Agreements (A + B) No. of Agreements (A+B) + No. seen by A alone + No. seen by B alone,' 33.33% + 66.66% + 66.66% 33.33% 33.33% 166.65% = 20.00%. The larger the number of d e f i n i t i o n s considered by two coders i n making any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n decision, the lower the percentage f i g u r e which i n -dicates chance. The f i g u r e of 33% i s obtained when only two choices are considered. Although some coding categories contain ten or more possible choices, coders discovered i n p r a c t i c e , that, the' uncertainty i n any one observation being coded'was r e s t r i c t e d so that probably only two to four choices were a c t i v e l y considered. Combined i n t e r - and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y for a l l ten categories of Elements of Behavior seen i n the eight r e l i a b i l i t y samples was 76.05% for agreement on incidence of codes and 85.57% for agreement on duration of codes. (Tables V 1 and V 2, pp. 91-92). An average of 57.14% of the samples i n each category of Elements of Behavior exceeded the accept-able l e v e l set for primary coding of 70% agreement on incidence of codes The range of agreement on incidence of codes f o r i n d i v i d u a l categories i n the samples was 37.04% to 100.00%. An average of 86.25% of the samples i n each category of Elements of Behavior exceeded the acceptable l e v e l of 70% agreement on duration of codes. The range of agreement on dura-t i o n f or i n d i v i d u a l categories i n the samples was 32.13% to 99.72%. R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding Elements of Behavior TABLE V -1 RELIABILITY OF CODING: CATEGORIES OF ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR. OF HEAD Orientation F a c i a l Elements.l F a c i a l Elements.2 Head Elements Elements Vocal Elements Obs. Incidence % Starts Duration % Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-t i o n % Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time 4P 63.83 78.67 64.00 69.25 41.17 52.91 80.00 86.60 81.82 97.78 4K 84.72 94.18 92.22 88.64 96.88 96.12 96.00 90.86 91.84 94.46 7P 96.30 97.23 87.50 97.23 86.36 95.29 97.22 99.45 83.33 99.45 7K 96.29 98.61 96.55 98.61 81.82 97.78 100.00 98.06 100.00 99.72 IIP 57.69 72.14 63.16 82.73 69.57 93.04 69.39 77.44 100.00 99.72 13P 61.90 82.55 47.37 83.93 58.33 87.53 72.34 90.30 93.75 96.40 14P 67.80 79.34 75.51 80.72 38.46 55.92 63.41 83.75 a a 14K 76.71 75.41 66.67 71.82 75.86 90.33 65.52 85.36 100.00 98.62 X 75.66 84.77 74.12 84.12 68.57 83.62 80.49 89.00 92.96 98.02 I > 70% 50.00 100.00 50.00 87.50 50.00 75.00 62.50 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% agreement that no behavior was happening was not tabulated here because i t would have spuriously i n f l a t e d the agreement fi g u r e s . TABLE V 2 RELIABILITY OF CODING: CATEGORIES OF ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR OF LIMBS Manipulations Manipulations Posture & Gross Locomotion Movements Elements Obs, Incidence % Starts Duration % Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time Incidence Duration % % Starts Time Incidence % Starts Duration % Time 4P 37.04 32.13 56.25 65.10 62.50 93.07 76.47 87.81 _ a _ a 4K 88.16 90.30 84.40 88.64 100.00 95.84 100.00 98.34 100.00 98.06 7P 92.77 91.41 100.00 99.45 86.67 97.51 100.00 99.17 100.00 99.45 7K 81.40 79.50 85.11 78.39 96.77 97.51 73.17 91.41 100.00 99.17 IIP 80.00 91.36 53.85 90.25 45.95 48.19 58.06 75.77 52.63 81.34 13P 53.06 79.50 61.11 72.30 94.12 97.23 61.76 63.99 53.85 89.47 14P 51.72 55.65 56.00 79.89 41.02 67.49 50.75 59.78 83.33 96.97 14K 51.06 64.92 69.44 70.99 66.67 86.19 66.67 83.98 94.74 95.96 X 66.90 73.10 70.77 80.69 74.21 85.40 73.36 82.53 83.50 94.49 ; > 70% 50.00 62.50 37.50 87.50 50.00 75.00 50.00 75.00 71.43 100.00 a100.00% agreement that no behavior was happening was not tabulated here because i t would have spuriously i n f l a t e d the agreement figur e s . 93 The combined i n t e r - i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r selected i n d i v i d u a l Elements of Behavior, shown In Tables V3, V4, V5, and V6, pp. 94-97, are discussed i n connection with the findings of the f i e l d t r i a l i n . Chapter VI. The most s i m i l a r study for comparison of these r e l i a b i l i t y findr-ings i s that of McGrew (1972). McGrew gives i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r himself and one other r a t e r . The data used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g i n t e r - r a t e r agreement f o r F a c i a l Elements were a s e r i e s of 4 inch x 6 inch black and white s t i l l photographs; f o r the remainder of the 80 Elements of Behavior i n h i s r e l i a b i l i t y study, McGrew used four videotapes t o t a l l i n g 3 hours running time. From context i t seems that he calculated incidence of agreement but, apparently, simultaneity of t h i s agreement was not required. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the present study are a d i r e c t measure of the coder's accuracy rather than a measure of a r e l a t e d task as i n McGrew's study. Generally, McGrew was more interested i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d e f i n i t i o n s as e t h o l o g i c a l concepts than i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of coders using a method of observation. He d i d not code environmental data or any of the secondary types of data c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n t h i s study. Comparison of the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the selected Elements of Behavior analysed i n the f i e l d t r i a l with the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r counterparts i n McGrew's study would be misleading from the point of view of r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , since the two sets of findings are based on such widely d i f f e r e n t coding tasks. However, j u s t as McGrew combined two approaches to evaluating the e t h o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s used i n h i s study, the t h i r d approach provided by the present study can be looked at as a t e s t of the TABLE V 3 RELIABILITY OF CODING: SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR RELEVANT TO COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS3 Normal Heavy Breathing Smile Wide Eyes Play Face Chew Lips  I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura-dence ti o n dence t i o n dence ti o n dence t i o n dence tion dence ti o n Obs. % Starts % time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time 4P 75.00 39.29 50.00 9.09 - - - - - - - -4K 80.00 94.74 85.71 60.00 93.33 86.96 - - 90.91 88.52 100.00 100.00 7P 85.71 56.25 85.71 82.09 - - - - - - - -7K 100.00 86.21 - - 100.00 85.71 100.00 90.00 - - - -IIP 60.00 65.13 66.67 44.44 83.33 68.42 50.00 18.75 - - - -13P 70.59 61.06 - - 50.00 14.29 - - 100.00 85.71 - -14P 70.00 65.08 - - 100.00 82.05 - - 100.00 80.00 - -14K 47.05 33.04 100.00 78.57 66.67 25.00 66.67 68.75 X 73.54 62.60 72.02 48.91 87.78 69.33 72.22 44.58 89.40 80.75 100.00 100.00 % >'•' 70%75.00 25.00 50.00 25.00 83.33 66.67 33.33 33.33 75.00 75.00 100.00 100.00 Low frown did not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. TABLE V 4 RELIABILITY OF CODING: OTHER FREQUENT FACIAL ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR Bli n k Eyebrow Flash Narrow Eyes Eyes Closed Mouth Open Obs. I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-tion % Time I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n % St a r t s % Time I n c i - Dura-dence time % Starts % Time 4P 66.67 5.36 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 66.67 64.77 4K 85.71 75.00 - - 83.33 75.00 - - 86.21 67.29 7P 100.00 100.00 - - 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.33 97.19 7K 100.00 100.00 - - - - - - 100.00 96.00 IIP 66.67 16.67 - - - - - - 57.14 70.97 13P 85.71 33.33 - - 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 3.22 14P 66.67 40.00 66.67 50.00 0.00 0.00 - - 50.00 11.11 14K 90.00 42.11 100.00 100.00 — - — - 28.57 48.15 X 82.68 51.56 83.34 75.00 36.67 35.00 50.00 50.00 60.24 37.34 %' ; >7p% 62.50 37.50 50.00 50.00 40.00 40.00 50.00 50.00 37.50 37.50 TABLE V 5 RELIABILITY OF CODING: VOCALIZATION ELEMENTS & IMMOBILE POSTURE Vocalizations One Word Laugh A l l Vocal . Elements Immobile Obs. Incidence % Starts Duration % Time I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % Starts Dura-t i o n % Time Incidence % St a r t s Duration % Time Incidence % St a r t s Duration % Time 4P 80.00 55.56 - - - - 81.82 97.78 33.33 83.72 4K 91.30 81.98 - - - - 91.84 94.46 100.00 98.08 7P 80.00 66.67 - - - - 83.33 99.45 80.00 98.02 7K 100.00 93.33 - - - - 100.00 99.72 - -IIP 100.00 85.71 - - - - 100.00 99.72 50.00 22.22 13P lOOiOO 57.14 - - 80.00 69.23 93.75 96.40 100.00 95.65 14P -• - - - - - . _ a - -14K - - 100.00 76.92 100.00 33.33 100.00 98.62 - -X 91.88 73.40 100.00 76.92 90.00 51.28 92.96 98.02 72.67 79.53 i >70% 100.00 75.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 00.00 100.00 100.00 60.00 80.00 100.00% agreement that no behavior was happening was not tabulated here because i t would have spuriously i n f l a t e d the agreement f i g u r e s . TABLE V 6 RELIABILITY OF CODING: SELECTED GESTURES AND MANIPULATIONS& A l l Gestures & Manipulations Automanipulate Reach Grasp Hold Out Obs. Incidence Duration I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- Incidence Duration Incidence Duration % Starts % Time dence tio n dence tio n % S t a r t s % Time % Sta r t s % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time 4PL b 37.04 32.13 0.00 5.97 100.00 60.00 52.63 34.75 R 56.25 65.10 0.00 31.65 100.00 75.00 62.50 69.54 - -.4KL 88.16 90.30 - 50.00 50.00 100.00 96.36 — -R 84.40 88.64 100.00 66.67 88.89 85.00 86.96 85.87 0.00 0.00 7PL 92.77 91.41 100.00 88.89 100.00 90.48 87.50 40.48 100.00 95.65 R 100.00 99.45 100.00 85.71 100.00 83.33 100.00 100.00 — -7KL 81.40 79.50 0.00 0.00 100.00 69.23 62.50 57.89 - — R 85.11 78.39 51.14 16.67 100.00 88.89 88.89 76.67 - -11PL 80.00 91.36 100.00 69.23 - - - • - — — R 53.85 90.25 40.00 40.00 0.00 0.00 66.67 94.29 0.00 50.00 13PL 53.06 79.50 66.67 55.00 57.44 37.50 - - - -R 61.11 72.30 28.57 51.19 100.00 60.00 57.14 11.54 - -14PL 51.72 55.65 28.57 38.06 66.67 33.33 44.44 57.33 - — R 56.00 79.89 66.67 10.00 66.67 25.00 42.11 67.46 - -14KL 51.06 64.92 66.67 26.67 66.67 42.86 — - - — R 69.44 70.99 80.00 61.11 80.00 35.00 50.00 76.19 - — X 68.84 76.86 55.22 43.12 78.40 55.71 69.33 66.80 33.33 48.55 %> 70% 43.75 75.00 33.33 13.33 60.00 33.33 38.46 46.15 33.33 33.33 Point d i d not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. Lef t and Right hand manipulations and gestures were recorded separately. 98 comparable r e l i a b i l i t y of the d e f i n i t i o n s used i n coding. These are shown below i n Table V 7. Table V 7 R e l i a b i l i t y of D e f i n i t i o n s : Estimates from Various Procedures R e l i a b i l i t y of R e l i a b i l i t y of d e f i n i t i o n s : Element of Behavior d e f i n i t i o n s : McGrew, 1972 present study videotape" - s t i l l p i c t u r e s videotape Eyes Closed 50.00% ( 2 ) a 88.00% Mouth Open 60.24% (8) 86.00% Narrow Eyes 36.67% (5) 83.00% Normal Face 73.54% (8) 71.00% Play Face 89.40% (4) 83.00% Smile 87.78% (6) 78.00% Wide Eyes 72.22% (3) 86.00% Laugh 90.00% (2) 92.00% Verbalize 100.00% (1) 95.00% Vocalize 91.88% (6) 92.00% Automanipulate 55.22% (7) 85.00% Hold Out 33.33% (3) 90.00% Reach 78.40% (7) 78.00% Immobile 72.67% (5) 83.00% aNumber of r e l i a b i l i t y samples i n which Element occurred are shown i n parentheses. R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding Elements of Environment 99 Combined i n t e r - and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r a l l eight cate-gories of Elements of Environment seen i n the eight r e l i a b i l i t y samples were 75.91% for agreement on incidence of codes and 86.49% for agreement on duration of codes. (Tables V8 and V9, pp. 100-101). An average of 55.21% of the samples i n each category of Elements of Environment exceeded the acceptable l e v e l set for primary coding of 70% agreement on incidence of codes. The range of agreement on incidence of codes for i n d i v i d u a l categories i n the samples was 20.00% to 100.00%. An average of 79.69% of the samples i n each category of Elements of Environment exceeded the acceptable l e v e l of 70% agreement on duration of codes. The range of agreement on duration f or i n d i v i d u a l categories i n the samples was 26., 74% to 100.00%. The only i n d i v i d u a l Elements of Environment f o r which r e l i a b i l i -t i e s were calculated were the codes, MA (mother), CA (camera), and 0B (observer) i n the "Eye" category. These are discussed i n the findings for "Looking at people" i n Chapter VI, p. 120, and appear i n Table V 10, p. 102. R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding A c t i v i t y Units Because the p a r t i c u l a r numbers used i n coding A c t i v i t y Units did not r e f e r to'any d e f i n i t i o n , but served only to i d e n t i f y the sequence and beginning of each A c t i v i t y Unit d i v i s i o n of the raw data, agreement between raters was measured on the basis of s t a r t times with the code number ignored. This incidence of agreement was 93.47%, with 100.00% of the samples exceeding the acceptable l e v e l of 60% agreement. TABLE V 8 RELIABILITY OF CODING: CATEGORIES OF ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENT OF HEAD Obs. Mouth Incidence % Starts Stimuli Duration % Time Eye Stimuli Incidence Duration % Starts % Time Ear Source Incidence % Starts S t i m u l i Duration % Time Ear Content Incidence % Starts S t i m u l i Duration % Time 4P 75.86 91.41 49.06 75.62 49.24 43.99 54.55 41.00 4K 100.00 98.89 90.24 96.12 96.30 92.80 97.04 94.18 7P - 93.88 98.06 93.24 93.07 95.27 93.35 7K - - 88.37 95.57 93.79 91.41 95.17 91.97 IIP 50.00 95.82 51.43 56.82 65.55 60.45 64.71 56.82 13P - - 68.85 74.51 54.03 66.76 55.65 66.76 14P - - 51.61 70.52 59.38 66.94 60.94 68.32 14K - - 66.33 73.76 65.00 67.96 65.71 69.34 X 75.29 95.37 69.97 80.12 72.06 72.86 73.63 72.72 % > 70% 66.66 100.00 37.50 87.50 37.50 37.50 37.50 37.50 TABLE V 9 RELIABILITY OF CODING: CATEGORIES OF ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENT OF LIMBS Obs. L e f t Hand Incidence % Starts Stimuli Duration % Time Lef t Leg Stimuli Incidence Duration % Starts % Time Right Hand S t i m u l i Incidence Duration % Starts % Time Right Incidence % Starts Leg Stimuli Duration % Time 4P 80.00 85.04 100.00 100.00 83.33 90.30 100.00 100.00 4K 94.74 98.06 62.50 95.84 93.75 98.89 61.54 95.29 7P 97.67 98.34 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.72 100.00 100.00 7K 86.49 96.40 100.00 99.72 82.61 96.12 100.00 100.00 IIP 100.00 97.21 30.77 26.74 57.14 85.79 57.14 94.15 13P 81.25 92.80 50.00 99.72 74.42 89.20 100.00 100.00 14P 68.57 68.32 50.00 98.90 20.00 96.42 100.00 100.00 14K 70.27 85.91 100.00 100.00 69.39 83.43 58.82 95.30 X 84.87 90.26 74.16 90.00 72.58 92.48 84.69 98.09 % > 70% 87.50 87.50 50.00 87.50 62.50 100.00 62.50 100.00 TABLE V 10 RELIABILITY OF CODING: "LOOKING AT PEOPLE" MA " CA ' 0B a l l "Eye"" Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Obs. % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time 4P - * - 80.00 91.85 0.00 0.00 49.06 75.62 4K 94.74 94.78 100.00 100.00 100.00 83.33 90.24 96.12 7P 100.00 100.00 100.00 96.55 75.00 95.93 93.88 98.06 7K 100.00 90.91 100.00 100.00 - - 88.37 95.57 IIP 66.67 70.37 100.00 91.80 66.67 75.00 51.43 56.82 13P - - 100.00 85.19 0.00 0.00 68.85 74.52 14P 100.00 89.29 100.00 97.30 - - 51.61 70.52 14K 40.00 44.74 92.31 79.41 0.00 0.00 66.33 73.76 X 83.57 81.68 96.54 92.76 40.28 42.38 69.97 80.12 %' >.: 70% 66.67 83.33 100.00 100.00 33.33 .50.00 37.50 87.50 103 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding Communication Functions The combined i n t e r - and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the four i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions that appeared i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample and for the four Communication Functions as a group are given i n Table V 11, p. 104. Incidence of agreement was greater than dura-t i o n of agreement for a l l four i n d i v i d u a l Functions, but incidence was le s s than duration for the four combined. This, i s a r e s u l t of measuring the coded agreement between raters that, for long stretches of time between communication behaviors, no communication was taking place. The same pattern can be observed i n other tables where short term items of data are separated by r e l a t i v e l y long stretches of time coded N0 (no behavior of t h i s category). This f i n d i n g i l l u s t r a t e s how the measurement of incidence of agreement i s more accurate for short-term items such as the i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions, while the measurement of duration of agreement gives a truer p i c t u r e of long-term items, such as N0 was i n t h i s case. The systematic underestimation of the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding Communication Functions which occurred i n the study was discussed on page 88; the implications of t h i s f or the findings of the f i e l d t r i a l are presented i n Chapter VI, p. 159. In s p i t e of the le s s stringent l e v e l of a c c e p t a b i l i t y for secondary coding, only 50% of the measurements of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions exceeded the acceptable l e v e l of 60% agreement. TABLE V 11 RELIABILITY OF CODING: COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS3 A l l C.F. Refer e n t i a l Expressive Phatic Poetic Obs. Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Sta r t s % Time % Starts % Time 4 P l b 77.77 98.06 85.11 53,33 2 50.00 93.07 - - - - 0.00 0.00 4K1 87.04 92.80 100.00 50.00 87.50 92.09 — — 2 94.44 91.14 100.00 92.31 - — 100.00 70.30 100.00 83.33 7P1 100.00 99.72 100.00 100.00 100.00 66.67 — _ 2 100.00 99.17 - - - - 100.00 96.47 7K1 75.00 97.23 0.00 0.00 100.00 83.33 — 2 40.00 94.46 0.00 0.00 — — 0.00 0.00 11P1 62.50 93.59 0.00 0.00 40.00 9.09 _ 2 55.56 90.53 0.00 0.00 - — 33.33 58.97 13P1 85.71 91.41 83.33 49.12 2 36.36 78.12 40.00 11.36 - — 50.00 9.52 14P1 100.00 97.80 - - 100.00 81.40 2 57.14 92.84 - — — — 66.67 48.00 14K1 71.43 97.24 - - 100.00 88.57 — _ 2 66.67 93.92 66.67 66.67 — — 50.00 46.88 X 72.48 93.82 45.19 35.59 87.07 65.46 50.00 41.27 100.00 83.33 % i> 60%68.75 100.00 44.44 33.33 87.50 62.50 37.50 25.00 100.00 100.00 Conative and Metalingual Communication Functions did not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. Two columns were used to code the Communication Functions. 105 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding Piagetian Concepts No estimate of the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding Piagetian Configurations was made because none of these codes appeared i n the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. It i s l i k e l y that the findings for r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s group of codes would have been s i m i l a r to the findings f o r Piagetian Stages reported below because they required the same kind of inference by the coders. Combined i n t e r - and i n t r a - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r a l l three of the Piagetian Stages seen i n the eight r e l i a b i l i t y samples were 50.65% for incidence of agreement and 59.27% for duration of agreement. (Table V 12, p. 106). The acceptable l e v e l set for secondary coding, 60% agreement on incidence of codes, was exceeded i n 25.00% of the samples. The range of agreement on incidence of codes for i n d i v i d u a l samples was 18.18% to 92.31%. The acceptable l e v e l of 60% agreement on duration of codes was exceeded i n 50.00% of the samples; and the range of agreement for i n d i v i d -ual samples was 11.98% to 100.00%. The r e l i a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l Piagetian Stages i s discussed with the findings of the f i e l d t r i a l i n Chapter VI, pp. 167-170. The f i n d i n g of 98.86% agreement on s t a r t times for Piagetian Stages when the code used i s ignored, as shown i n Table V 12, p. 106 indicates that the A c t i v i t y Units provided a workable framework for d i v i d i n g raw data into units f o r Piagetian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Were t h i s not so, the sequences of behavior given a Piagetian Stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would have had a d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g time because the procedure followed allowed the coder to use h i s own judgement to begin and end any Piagetian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n whenever the content of the data seen required i t . In f a c t , inspection of the coding logs showed that the Piagetian TABLE V 12 RELIABILITY OF CODING: PIAGETIAN STAGES A l l Piagetian Stages Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 % S t a r t s Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Obs. code ign'd % Starts % Time % Starts % Time % Star t s % Time % Starts % Time 4P 100.00 47.05 70.91 60.00 57.93 33.33 72.52 4K 100.00 87.50 89.47 - - 93.33 89.47 7P 100.00 92.31 100.00 100.00 100.00 85.71 100.00 7K 100.00 57.14 21.05 - - 80.00 21.05 0.00 0.00 IIP 100.00 18.18 11.98 - 0.00 0.00 13P 100.00 40.00 55.96 - - 33.33 46.10 66.67 32.67 14P 90.90 36.36 37.19 - - 0.00 0.00 80.00 72.19 14K 100.00 26.67 87.57 - 0.00 32.84 36.36 88.86 X 98.86 50.65 59.27 80.00 78.97 46.53 51.71 36.60 38.74 % > 6 0 % L 0 O . O O 25.00 50.00 100.00 50.00 42.86 42.86 40.00 40.00 107 Configurations were not t i e d to the A c t i v i t y Units. The high agreement on s t a r t times, when the code i s ignored, also indicates that agreement on the.duration of Piagetian Stages was v i t i a t e d by inaccurate a p p l i c a t i o n of the d e f i n i t i o n s given i n Appendices III and IV. R e l i a b i l i t y Findings and the Prospective Use of the Method The foregoing findings about the degree of agreement of two raters i n coding raw data, using the d e f i n i t i o n s and procedures of the Method, have in d i c a t i o n s f or the future use of the Method and for modifications to improve i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . F i r s t , the o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y of primary coding, i . e . , the coding of Elements of Behavior and Elements of Environment, i s acceptable although improvement i n the accuracy of coding some i n d i v i d u a l Elements i s necessary i f findings about those behaviors are to be v a l i d . Second, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i v i s i o n of the raw data into A c t i v i t y Units i s acceptable. Third, the o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y of secondary coding, i . e . , the coding of Communication Functions, Piagetian Stages and (probably) Piagetian Configurations, i s not acceptable, and v a l i d i t y v a r i e s from one i n d i v i d u a l f i n d i n g to another. Improvements to R e l i a b i l i t y Changes i n the Method. The f i r s t step i n improving r e l i a b i l i t y should be to modify the coding procedures to regulate the p o s i t i o n on the VTR log of codes for Communication Functions and to rename the Piagetian Stages so that a l l may be counted by REL. Other minor changes and additions to coding d e f i n i t i o n s proposed i n the discussion of e t h o l o g i c a l findings on pp. 190-196, would also improve r e l i a b i l i t y by decreasing uncertainty i n coding. I f , a f t e r more intensive t r a i n i n g , the findings for agreement 108 i n the coded s t a r t s of Piagetian stages remained higher when the code was ignored, reworking of the Piagetian d e f i n i t i o n s would be indicated. Changes i n Training of Raters. Probably the most important change for improvement of r e l i a b i l i t y would be the i n s t i g a t i o n of more e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g of r a t e r s . The use of the computer program REL for feedback from both i n t e r - r a t e r and i n t r a - r a t e r comparisons during t r a i n i n g would document progress and diagnose weaknesses. Changes i n the Measurement of R e l i a b i l i t y . Findings discussed above have suggested that the measurement of rater agreement on the i n c i -dence of codes i s appropriate for short-term items and that the measure-ment of rater agreement on the duration of codes i s appropriate for long-term items as well as giving a more balanced o v e r a l l p i cture. Further study i s required to evaluate the question of whether both are necessary. A further question about the measurement of r e l i a b i l i t y concerns the measurement of the r e l i a b i l i t y of multiple coding. In t h i s study, the inference of r e l i a b i l i t y or u n r e l i a b i l i t y of multiple coding concepts such as the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of v o c a l i z a t i o n given R e f e r e n t i a l Com-munication ^ / l , ^ 1 (Appendix VI) has been based on knowledge of the r e l i -a b i l i t y of coding the separate components, i n t h i s case v o c a l i z a t i o n and R e f e r e n t i a l Communication. I n t u i t i v e l y , i t seems u n l i k e l y that the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding the j o i n t occurrence of these would be equivalent to the j o i n t p r o b a b i l i t y of the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding each. Like t h e i r j o i n t occurrence, t h e i r j o i n t r e l i a b i l i t y may be much higher than would be predicted from chance. A modification of REL for d i r e c t measurement of the r e l i a b i l i t y of these j o i n t events would s e t t l e t h i s question. 109 Summary This chapter has provided an overview and discussion of the r e l i -a b i l i t y of the coding of the data of the f i e l d t r i a l . Primary coding of Elements of Behavior, Elements of Environment, and A c t i v i t y Units usually met the c r i t e r i o n set for r e l i a b i l i t y . Secondary coding often did not. Reasons f or low r e l i a b i l i t y and recommendations f or improvement of coding and measurement of r e l i a b i l i t y were made. Findings d i r e c t l y bearing on the two research questions are presented i n the next chapter. CHAPTER VI FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FIELD TRIAL The f i e l d t r i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of two research questions concerning the existence of Communication Functions and Operations of Reference i n infant pre-speech behavior described i n Chapter IV, was undertaken as a working test of the use of the Method for research. The three sections of t h i s chapter present the r e s u l t s of the f i e l d t r i a l under headings dealing with the question of the phylogeny of Communication Functions, the question of the ontogeny of Operations of Reference and e t h o l o g i c a l f i n d -ings i n c i d e n t a l to the research. Results of the f i e l d t r i a l presented i n the f i r s t two sections of t h i s chapter demonstrate the methodological u t i l i t y of multiple coding of data. In these r e s u l t s , the psychological and l i n g u i s t i c concepts of Communication Functions and Operations of Reference introduced through secondary coding (see Chapter IV) were analysed by making use of the e t h o l o g i c a l concept of Elements of Behavior and the p a r a l l e l notion of Elements of Environment introduced through primary coding (see Chapter I I I ) . Stated simply, without reference to the structure of the process, analyses of Communication Functions and Operations of Reference were possible because the Method provided data on e t h o l o g i c a l behaviors and environmental context present when each Communication Function or Operation of Reference was i d e n t i f i e d . The a d d i t i o n a l secondary coding of Piagetian concepts added to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data. 110 I l l The f i e l d t r i a l also produced findings about the occurrence of p a r t i c u l a r Elements of Behavior which are of general e t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t . These are presented i n the t h i r d section of t h i s chapter. The Phylogeny of Communication Functions: Existence and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of Communication Functions i n Infant Pre-Speech Behavior The f i r s t research question posed to t e s t the Method was whether the Communication Functions i d e n t i f i e d i n primate behavior and human speech could be found i n the pre-speech behavior of infants and, i f so, i n what sequence and what forms (see Chapter IV, p. 61 et seq.). The observa-t i o n a l f i e l d t r i a l c a r r i e d out to gather data to answer t h i s question was also described i n Chapter IV. Procedures Used for the Analysis An inductive sequence w i l l be followed i n t h i s section presenting the findings and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s concerning Communication Func-ti o n s . A f t e r t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the approach taken for the a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t two subsections, "Occurrence of Communication Functions", and "Overview of Associated Data", report the durations of occurrence of the Communication Functions i n d i v i d u a l l y and as a group, and of the i n d i v i d u a l Elements of Behavior most frequently associated with them. These data are expressed as percents of the f i v e minute observation times.in Tables VI 1, p. 117; VI 2, p. 119; VI 3, p. 122; VI 4, p. 123. Next, i n the subsection, "Behaviors Co-occurring with Communication", the durations of coded j o i n t occurrence or i n t e r s e c t i o n of a l l the Communication Functions as a group with selected Elements of Behavior are reported. These are expressed as percents of the f i v e minute observation times i n Table VI 5,.. p.125 ; and Table VI 6, p. 126. 112 The median was chosen i n preference to the mean as the measure of ce n t r a l tendency for each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data because i t i s l e s s s e n s i -t i v e to the instances of extreme v a r i a b i l i t y shown i n some of the data. Because t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y also contravened the assumption of homogeneity necessary to the s t a t i s t i c a l measurement of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f -ference between subjects, no basis could be established f or pooling the data, and each subject was considered separately i n the an a l y s i s . In the f i n a l subsection, "Development and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Commun-i c a t i o n Functions", the data on duration of occurrence and j o i n t occurrence mentioned above are compared with data on duration of j o i n t occurrence of the items expressed as a percentage of the duration of one or the other. The form of these l a s t data i s termed "contingent occurrence". For example, ZL O EX the r a t i o — — — i s the contingent occurrence of the duration of j o i n t EX occurrence of the Element of Behavior, Smile (ZL) with the Communication Function, Expressive (EX) i n the t o t a l duration of the Expressive Communi-cation Function, or more s u c c i n c t l y , the contingent occurrence of Smile i n ZL Expressive Communication, T T ^ . Tables VI 6, 7 and 8, pp. 126, 127, 128, EX give figures f or the contingent occurrence of each of the selected Elements of Behavior with a l l of the Communication Functions as a group. Tables VI 9 and 10, pp. 131, 132, give the contingent occurrence of a l l the Com-munication Functions as a group with each of the selected Elements of Behavior. A group of eleven tables i n Appendix VI give the figures for the contingent occurrence of the selected Elements of Behavior with the i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions, R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative, Expressive and Phatic; and the contingent occurrence of each of the i n d i v i d u a l Communi-cati o n Functions with each of the selected Elements of Behavior. M u l t i v a r i a t e data such as those i n Table VI 5, p. 125, were re t r i e v e d 113 by INF from the data f i l e s i n computer by s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the i n t e r s e c -t i o n or disjuncture of codes for two or more v a r i a b l e s . These appear as a printout table l i k e the one shown i n Figure 7, below. Findings of contingent occurrence were obtained by d i v i d i n g the j o i n t occurrence by the marginal t o t a l s f o r occurrence, as shown i n Figure 7. BIVARIATE TABLE OF RF + L TOTAL PERCENTAGE ZERO I- 1 = 30.72% = RFOL RF 18.95 = 25.22% = RFOL contingent occur-rence of "looking at people", given r e f e r e n t i a l communication contingent occur-rence of r e f e r -e n t i a l communica-t i o n given "looking at people" Figure 7 Example of Cross Tabulation Table: R e f e r e n t i a l Communication Function (RF) and "Looking at People" (L) a d u r a t i o n of RFHL as percentage of t o t a l time of observation .ktotal time of observation i n 1/6 seconds 114 R e f e r e n t i a l Communication i s shown on the v e r t i c a l axis of the table: i . e . , RF does not occur for 84.44% of the time; RF does occur f o r 15.56% of the time. "Looking at people" i s shown on the h o r i z o n t a l axis of the table: i . e . , L does not occur for 81.05% of the time; L does occur for 18.95% of the time. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of findings i n Tables VI 11-15 i s based on the concept of independent events: " I f , f o r two events, A and B, p(AOB) i s not equal to p(A)p(B), then A and B are said to be associated or dependent" (Hays, 1973, p. 118). The following paraphrase of the r a t i o n a l e f o r the use of the concept of independent events given by Hays (1973, p. 118) i l l u s t r a t e s the l o g i c a l paradigm used i n analysis of the data. Consider a sample space with elementary events con s i s t i n g of a l l the 1/6 seconds i n a l l 7 of the observation times of subject K. We wish to answer the question, "For t h i s subject, i s smiling, as defined i n Appendix I, independent of the s i x Communication Functions defined i n Appendix I I , considered a group?" Let us c a l l event A "Smile"—coded ZL, and B "Communication Functions"—coded CF. Now we see i n the column headed Smile i n Table VI 3, p. 122, that the median percentage of time i n the 7 observations coded ZL was 4.67%; i f each 1/6 second i s equally l i k e l y to be selected, the p r o b a b i l i t y of event A i s thus .047. We see also i n the column headed A l l C F . i n Table VI 1, p. 117, that the median percent-age of time coded CF was 21.61% so that p(B) = .216. F i n a l l y , the prob-a b i l i t y of the j o i n t occurrence Ar\B, our observing a 1/6 of a second coded ZL and CF, was .040,based on the median j o i n t percentage of 4.00% 115 of the time shown i n the column headed ZLf)CF i n Table VI 6, p. 126.^ If the events were independent, t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y p(A/1B) should be equal to p(A)«p(B) which i s (.047) (.216) = .010; the actual p r o b a b i l i t y was .040. This leads immediately to the conclusion that these two events, Smile and Communication Functions, are not independent (or are associated). The median duration of the actual observed contingent occurrence of Communication Functions i n a given duration of smile was 85.65%, as shown i n the column headed — — i n Table VI 10, p. 132. Thus the data provide an estimate of contingent p r o b a b i l i t y p(B/A) = .857. If Smile and Communication Functions were independent, i t should be true that p(B/A) = p(B) = .216; the actual p r o b a b i l i t y was .857. Once again, t h i s time by comparison of the p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of a v a r i a b l e with i t s contin-gent p r o b a b i l i t y , we reach"the conclusion that these two are associated. This comparison can also be made for the observed p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of smile p(ZL) = .047 with the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of Smile i n Communication Functions derived from i t s median contingent occurrence, 12.07%, i n Table VI 8, p. 128: p(ZL/CF) = .121. The differ e n c e i n these p r o b a b i l i t i e s once again points to an association between the two events. The l o g i c of Hays' r a t i o n a l e propounded above underlies the presen-t a t i o n of findings i n Tables VI 11, (pp. 134-135); VI 12, (pp. 146-147); VI 13, (pp. 150-151); VI 14, (pp. 153-154); and VI 15, (pp. 156-157). Since the purpose of analysis was to discover not only "what went with what", ''"The r a t i o n a l e f o r conversion of j o i n t occurrence to estimate of p r o b a b i l i t y i s stated by Hays: Given the random samples from a s p e c i f i c j o i n t or b i v a r i a t e d i s -t r i b u t i o n of events, the obtained r e l a t i v e frequencies of the various j o i n t events must, i n the long run, equal the probab i l -i t i e s f o r such j o i n t events. Thus any sample's j o i n t d i s t r i b u -t i o n provides an estimate of the j o i n t p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , j u s t as for sin g l e v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . (Hays, 1963, p. 127) but also as much as possible about the form of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a r i -ables, the contingent occurrence of the variables was analyzed rather than t h e i r simple j o i n t occurrence. Table VI 11 shows these compari-sons for Selected Elements of Behavior and the Communication Functions considered as a group. The findings are presented i n one of two c o l -umns according to whether the var i a b l e s i n each analysis were discovered to be p o s i t i v e l y or negatively associated. Tables,VI 12-VI 15 present the findings f o r those i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions and Elements of Behavior which occurred frequently enough i n the observations to provide s u f f i c i e n t data for ana l y s i s . These r e s u l t s are given at the end of t h i s section, following the des c r i p t i o n of the data on which they are based. Occurrence of Communication Functions A l l s i x communication Functions described i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Chapter IV, p. 62 et seq.) were i d e n t i f i e d i n the behavior of each subject during the f i e l d t r i a l , but there was wide v a r i a t i o n i n the amount of each. Summary data are presented i n Table VI 1, p. 117 and Figures 8-14, pp. 138-141. The infants were coded as showing behavior defined as a Communication Function for durations ranging .. from 0.00% to 34.60% of the f i v e minutes of an observation, with a median duration for a l l Communication Functions as a group of 21.61% of the observation time f o r subject K and 23.18% for subject P. Four of the s i x Communication Functions appeared i n the r e l i -a b i l i t y samples. The procedures of the r e l i a b i l i t y study described i n Chapter V produced findings f o r these four Communication Functions as a group of 72.5% agreement f o r incidence and 93.8% agreement f o r TABLE VI 1 OCCURRENCE: REFERENTIAL, CONATIVE, EXPRESSIVE, PHATIC, POETIC, METALINGUAL, COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) Duration of occurrence as percent of observation time Observation Referential Conative Expressive Phatic Poetic Metalingual A l l C.F. 4K 1.89 0.00 22.56 11.94 1.78 0.00 27.33 7K 3.89 2.89 4.28 0,50 1.44 0.50 9.22 9K 10.45 .11.28 14.12 6.89 0.56 3.28 33.13 11K 5.17 2.33 14.17 8.00 0.00 0.00 21.61 13K 14.15 .67 10.46 4.57 6.07 2.34 24.62 14K 15.56 .72 8.56 5.28 1.22 1.06 21.12 15K .44 4.42 4.69 0.00 0.00 13.47 Median 6.43 .72 10.46 5.28 1.22 0.50 21.61 4P 0.00 0.00 4.61 22.51 0.00 0.00 23.18 7P 18.61 6.06 11.61 13.83 1.67 0.00 31.06 9P 1.11 0.00 8.85 15.69 0.00 1.11 21.87 IIP 3.78 0.17 7.50 12.01 0.00 1.00 19.29 13P 5.41 0.35 26.08 6.33 0.00 0.00 34.60 14P 5.51 0.00 4.56 5.56 0.00 7.23 19.03 15P 14.46 OjOO 414J> 7^50 12.17 1JD6 23.85 Median 5.41 0.00 7.50 12.01 0.00 1.00 23.18 118 duration. Overview of Associated Data Analysis of the Communication Functions as a whole and of each Communication Function separately was done not only by looking at the l o n g i t u d i n a l frequency of i t s occurrence, but also by i n v e s t i g a t i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to c e r t a i n concurrent Elements of Behavior and Environment. On the basis of the l i t e r a t u r e discussed i n Chapter IV and a cross-tabular search of p i l o t observations for those Elements of Behavior occurring s e l e c t i v e l y with Communication Functions, the Elements chosen for analysis were: V o c a l i z a t i o n , which included both verbal and non-verbal sounds produced by the i n f a n t s ' speech apparatus; the f a c i a l Elements, Normal Face, Smile, Wide Eyes, Play Face, Chew Li p s , Eyebrow Flash and Low Frown; Immobile posture; the head Element, Heavy Breathing; and the gestures Hold Out and Point. The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l of these are given i n Appendix I. The environmental context of "Looking at people", defined by the co-occurrence of the o r i e n t i n g Elements, Look, Glance or Gaze Fixate, together with a person i n the column for i n f e r r e d eye stimulus, was also analyzed. A review of these associated data i s given i n t h i s section as background information to the analysis of the Communication Functions, which follows. V o c a l i z a t i o n . The two infants vocalized for median duration of 10.12% and 6.07% of the observation time. The range for K was 3.06% to 14.54%; the range f o r P, 1.33% to 14.12%, as shown i n Table VI 2, p. 119. Coder r e l i a b i l i t y for a l l v o c a l i z a t i o n s was 91.88%, for incidence TABLE VI 2 OCCURRENCE AND CO-OCCURRENCE: VOCALIZATION, "LOOKING AT PEOPLE", SPEECH Duration of occurrence as percent of observation time Looking at V o c a l i z a t i o n Speech &. V o c a l i z a t i o n Observations Vocalization Speech People & Looking Looking or Looking 4K 11.11 0.00 40.61 4.44 0.00 47.28 7K 7.22 0.00 10.78 2.28 0.00 15.72 9K 12.34 2.78 31.68 2.89 0.67 41.13 11K 3.50 0.00 29.33 1.44 0.00 31.39 13K 14.54 0.78 10.36 1.11 0.00 23.79 14K 10.12 4.84 18.95 2.17 1.83 26.90 15K 3.06 0.00 19.79 0.67 0.00 22.18 Median 10.12 0.00 19.79 2.17 0.00 26.90 4P 1.33 0.00 28.79 0.50 0.00 29.63 7P 7.39 0.00 26.00 1.56 0.00 31.83 9P 6.07 0.00 23.15 0.00 0.00 29.22 IIP 2.17 0.00 32.30 0.44 0.00 34.02 13P 5.76 0.00 10.02 0.92 0.00 14.85 14P 9.91 0.00 32.11 4.90 0.00 37.12 15P 14.12 (MM) 13.25 1.11 0.00 26.24 Median 6.07 0.00 26.00 0.92 0.00 29.63 120 and 73.4% for duration of v o c a l i z a t i o n behaviors—one of the highest i n the study. Speech occurred i n three of the observations of subject K at 12, 14%, and 15 months. The one instance of speech that occurred i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample provides an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s coding: 100% for agreement of incidence and 76.92% for agreement of duration. (See Table V 5, p. 96). "Looking at people". The conjunction of a v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n by Look, Glance or Gaze Fixate with a person i n the infant's i n f e r r e d f i e l d of v i s i o n occurred for a median duration of 19.79% and 26.00%, of the observation time for subjects K and P, as shown i n Table VI 2, p. 119. The r e l i a b i l i t y of "Looking at people" depends on the r e l i a -b i l i t y of coding persons as Elements of Environment seen because the "looking" aspect i s constant except for the infrequent moments when the subjects' eyes close. "Mother", "camera", and "observer" were the three persons coded i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample. The l a s t two, r e f e r -r i n g to the same person, were distinguished by whether the c h i l d looked at the camera and the observer together or looked around the camera to see the observer. The r e l i a b i l i t y of "Looking at Mother", which appeared i n s i x observations, was 83.57%-for incidence-and"81.68% for duration; "Looking at the Camera", which appeared i n a l l eight observations, was 96.54% for.incidence arid 92.76% f o r duration; and "Looking at Observer", which appeared i n s i x observations, was 40.28% for incidence and 42.38% f o r duration. The figures for r e l i a b i l i t y appear i n Table V 10, p. 102. F a c i a l and Head Elements of Behavior. The median durations of the f a c i a l Elements which accompanied Communication Functions for 121 the two subjects ranged from 21.46% and 31.46% of the observation time for Normal Face, to 0.00% and 0.00% for Low Frown, as shown i n Table VI 3, p. 122. The infrequent f a c i a l Element, Eyebrow Flash, was coded continually i n the behavior of subject P but very seldom i n subject K, and, conversely, Low Frown was never coded for subject P. The small number of observations involved precluded s t a t i s t i c a l anal-y s i s of these l a s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of data and they were not i n -cluded further i n the analysis of f i n d i n g s . Five of the f a c i a l Elements occurring with Communication Func-tions were present i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample. R e l i a b i l i t y of coding Normal Face, estimated on the basis of the eight observations i n which i t occurred, was 73.5% for incidence and 62.6% for duration: Smile i n s i x observations, was 87.8% f o r incidence and 69.4% f o r duration; Play Face, i n four observations, was 89.4% for incidence and 80.8% for duration; Wide Eyes, i n three observations, was 72.2% for incidence and 44.6% for duration; and Chew Lips, i n one observation, was 100.0% for both. The head Element, Heavy Breathing, occurred i n four of the observations, with agreement of coding for incidence of 72.0% and for duration of 48.9%. The figures for r e l i a b i l i t y appear i n Tables V 3 and 4, pp. 94-95. Gestural Elements. The gestural Elements, Point and Hold Out, occurred very infrequently i n the data. Point, which occurred i n s i x observations for subject K. only, was coded for a median duration of 1.22%; Hold Out occurred i n four observations of K for a median dur-ation of 0.11% and i n four observations of P, for a median duration of 0.17%, as shown i n Table VI 4, p. 123. TABLE VI 3 OCCURRENCE: NORMAL FACE, HEAVY BREATHING, SMILE, WIDE EYES, PLAY FACE, CHEW LIPS, LOW FROWN, EYEBROW FLASH Duration of occurrence percent of observation time Observations Normal Face Heavy Breathing Smile Wide Eyes Play Face Chew Lips Low Frown Eyebrow Flash 4K 12.11 0.50 8.00 4.17 7.39 1.00 0.00 0.00 7K 26.89 4.00 1.11 1.17 0.00 0.28 2.06 0.00 9K 12.17 2.28 4.67 2.61 0.78 0.11 0.00 0.00 11K 35.83 3.00 11.39 0.28 0.17 2.56 0.00 0.22 13K 59.83 0.72 4.74 4.35 0.11 2.84 0.00 0.00 14K 17.95 0.50 3.84 6.89 0.89 3.89 0.22 0.17 15K 21.46 0.00 2.17 2.06 0.00 3.84 0.00 0.11 Median 21.46 bT72 4.67 2.61 0.17 2.56 0.00 0.00 4P 31.46 0.78 4.00 7.56 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 7P 5.44 44.94 9.28 1.22 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.11 9P 24.87 33.50 0.06 5.90 2.67 1.50 0.00 0.22 IIP 36.80 5.39 5.50 3.06 0.72 3.78 0.00 0.06 13P 34.02 0.75 0.40 1.67 0.69 0.12 0.00 0.12 14P 43.29 0.11 2.84 4.23 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.28 15P 31.30 0.83 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 Median 31.46 0.83 2.84 3.06 0.28 0.22 0.00 0.11 TABLE VI 4 OCCURRENCE: POINT, HOLD OUT, IMMOBILE Observations Duration of occurrence as % of Observation Time Point Hold Out Immobile 4K 0.00 0.11 8.94 7K 0.61 0.44 8.50 9K 0.83 0.39 1.28 U K 4.72 0.00 5.33 13K 2.17 0.00 3.18 14K 1.22 3.78 6.39 15K 4.61 0.00 6.84 Median 1.22 0.11 6.39 4P 0.00 0.17 29.18 7P 0.00 13.56 7.78 9P 0.00 0.22 2.28 IIP 0.00 5.61 9.67 13P 0.00 0.00 11.40 14P 0.00 0.00 26.10 15P 0.00 0.00 20.79 Median 0.00 0.17 11.40 124 Point d i d not appear i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample. Hold out occurred i n three r e l i a b i l i t y observations, and rater agreement was 33.3% f o r incidence and 48.6% for duration (Table V 6, p. 97). Immobile. The postural Element, Immobile, occurred f o r a wide range of durations from a low of 1.28% i n one of the observa-tions of subject K, to a high of 29.18% i n one of the observations of subject P. The median duration f o r K was 6.39%, for P, 11.40%. Figures summarizing thesedata are shown i n Table VI 4, p. 123. The r e l i a b i l i t y of coding Immobile was 72.7% f o r incidence and 79.5% for duration as shown i n Table V 5, p. 96. Consideration of these gestural and p o s t u r a l Elements concludes the review of primary coding data relevant to the secondary coding of Communication Functions. No other Element of Behavior was discovered which co-occurred s e l e c t i v e l y with Communication Functions. Behaviors Co-occurring with Communication Functions as a Group The durations of j o i n t occurrence or i n t e r s e c t i o n of the selected Elements of Behavior and Communication Functions considered as a group are reported as percents of the f i v e minute observation time in. Tables VI 5-6, pp. 125-126. These j o i n t occurrences seldom appear d i r e c t l y i n the following a n a l y s i s , but contribute to the c a l -c u l a t i o n of contingent occurrences and contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . Development and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Communication Functions Tables VI 7 and VI 8, p. 127 and p. 128, present the contingent occurrence of selected Elements of Behavior and Communication Func-tions considered as a group. The contingent occurrence of selected TABLE VI 5 JOINT OCCURRENCE: VOCALIZATION (V0), "LOOKING AT PEOPLE" (L), VOCALIZATION OR "LOOKING AT PEOPLE", [ (V0UL) /_ (V0OL) ]H.Cf t VOCALIZATION AND "LOOKING AT PEOPLE" ( V 0 H L ) ; POINT (P0) , HOLD OUT (H0), IMMOBILE (IM); and COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) Duration of Joint Occurrence as % of Observation Time Observations V0OCF LOCF .[(iV0UL)/CV0rtL)]'rteF V0 f \ L n CF P0n CF H0H CF IM n CF 4K 10.83 16.00 22.39 4.44 mm 0.00 3.83 7K 7.11 2.72 7.56 2.28 0.61 0.22 0.00 9K 12.06 16.73 25.90 2.89 0.83 0.39 0.00 11K 3.33 11.17 13.06 1.44 4.72 - 0.00 I3K 14.37 6.52 19.78 1.11 2.17 - 3.18 14K 9.62 8.17 15.62 2.17 1.22 3.39 0.28 15K 2.95 5.00 7.28 0.67 2.28 - 1.67 Median 9.62 8.17 15.62 2.17 1.70JT 0.3ia 0.28 4P 0.83 6.84 7.23 0.44 — 0.17 8.78 7P 6.67 16.00 21.11 1.56 - 13.11 6.67 9P 5.45 12.24 17.70 - - 0.00 2.28 IIP 2.06 14.34 16.01 0.39 - 2.89 2.33 13P 5.58 3.87 8.64 0.92 - - 3.63 14P 9.57 10.57 15.30 4.84 - - 2.23 15P 13.62 5.84 18.34 1.11 - - 4.56 Median 5.58 10.57 16.01 1.02a — 1.53a 3.63 a Median i s calculated on fewer than 7 observations (See footnote 2, p. 133) TABLE VI 6 JOINT OCCURRENCE: NORMAL FACE (NL), HEAVY BREATHING (HB), SMILE (ZL), WIDE EYES (WE), PLAY FACE (PF), CHEW LIPS (CS), EYEBROW FLASH (EF); and COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) Duration of Joi n t Occurrence as % of Observation Time Observations NLO CF HBHCF ZLHCF WE n CF PFflCF CSRCF EFDCF 4K 0.00 0.22 7.61 1.33 7.22 0.17 7K 0.44 0.00 0.28 0.00 - 0.00 9K 5.28 0.44 4.00 1.56 0.78 0.00 11K 1.28 1.11 11.22 0.00 0.17 0.17 0.00 13K 5.24 0.17 4.74 2.34 0.11 0.22 14K 1.06 0.33 2.45 5.23 0.89 1.17 0.11 15K 0^06 - U06 1.11 - 1.22 0.00 Median 1.06 0.28a 4.00 1.33 0.78a 0.17 0.0C a 4P 8.28 0.61 3.67 4.61 - 0.11 7P 0.78 12.61 9.11 0.33 - 0.00 0.06 9P 1.06 7.12 0.06 5.06 2.67 0.00 0.11 IIP 5.95 0.22 4.56 0.61 0.72 2.28 0.00 13P 14.51 0.75 0.40 0.75 0.69 0.00 0.00 14P 4.12 0.00 2.73 1.50 0.28 - 0.28 15P 6.56 0A± = OjOO z = -Median 5.95 0.61 3.20a 0.75 0.70a 0.00* 0 J)6 a Median i s calculated on fewer than 7 observations (See footnote 2, p. 133) TABLE VI 7 CONTINGENT OCCURRENCEaOF VOCALIZATION ( V 0 ) , "LOOKING AT PEOPLE" (L), POINT ( P 0 ) , HOLD OUT ( H 0 ) , IMMOBILE (IM), GIVEN COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) Contingent Occurrence of Elements in CF as % of Duration of CF Observa- V0O CF LOCE [(V0UL)/(V0ftL)]^ CF V0r\LHCF P0fYCF H0HCF IM HCF tions CF CF CF . CF CF CF CF 4K 39.63 58.54 81.92 16.25 _ 0.00 14.01 7K 77.11 29.50 82.00 24.73 6.61 2.39 0.00 9K 36.40 50.50 78.18 0.09 2.50 1.18 0.00 UK 15.41 51.69 60.43 6.66 21.73 0.00 13K 58.37 26.48 80.34 4.51 8.81 — 12.91 14K 45.55 38.68 73.96 10.27 5.89 16.35 1.35 15K 23.34 42.44 61.80 5.69 19.35 — 14.18 Median 39.63 42.44 78.18 6.66 7.71& 1.79b 1.35 4P 3.58 29.51 31.19 1.90 _ 0.73 37.88 7P 21.47 51.51 67.97 5.02 — 43.22 22.00 9P 24.92 55.97 80.93 — - 0.00 10.45 IIP 10.68 74.34 83.00' 2.02 15.38 12.40 13P 16.13 11.47 24.97 2.66 — — 10.49 14P 50.29 55.54 80.40 25.43 — — 17.50 15P 57.11 24.48 69.89 4.65 — — 19.12 Median 21.47 51.51 69.89 3.66D — 8.06b 17.50 ^Contingent occurrence on the occurrence of one variable given the occurrence of another. Median i s calculated on fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) TABLE VI 8 CONTINGENT OCCURRENCE3OF NORMAL FACE (NL), HEAVY BREATHING (HB), SMILE (ZL), WIDE EYES (WE), PLAY FACE (PF), CHEW LIPS (CS), EYEBROW FLASH (EF) GIVEN COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) Contingent Occurrence of Elements i n CF as % of Duration of CF Observations NLOCF HBO CF ZLOCF WE OCF PFHCF CSH CF EFHCF CF CF CF CF CF CF CF 4K 0.00 0.80 27.84 4.87 26.42 0.62 7K 4.72 0.00 3.04 0.00 - 0.00 9K 15.94 1.33 12.07 4.70 2.35 0.00 11K 5.92 5.14 51.92 0.00 0.79 0.79 0.00 13K 21.29 0.69 19.25 9.50 0.45 0.89 14K 50.02 1.56 11.60 24.76 4.21 5.54 0.52 15K 0.51 9.00 9^42 - • 10.36 0.00 Median 5.92 1.07b 12707 4787 2.35 b o 7 7 9 0 . 0 0 1 ? 4P 35.72 2.63 15.83 19.89 - 0.47 7P 2.51 40.60 29.33 1.06 - 0.00 0.19 9P 4.85 32.56 0.27 23.14 12.21 0.00 0.50 IIP 30.84 1.14 23.64 3.16 3.73 11.82 0.00 13P 41.94 2.17 1.16 2.17 2.00 0.00 0.00 14P 21.65 0.00 14.35 7.88 1.47 - 1.47 15P 27.50 0.46 0.00 - 0.00 - _ _ Median 27750 27l7 15.09° ' 37l6 2.87° 0 . 0 0 ° u . ± y bContingent occurrence on the occurrence of one var i a b l e given the occurrence of another. Median was calculated on fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) 129 Elements of Behavior and i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions are given i n Tables 1-11, Appendix VI. Analysis of Communication Functions was made by comparison of the p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of a v a r i a b l e i n the data with i t s contin-gent p r o b a b i l i t y given another v a r i a b l e . (See footnote 1, p. 115). A paradigmatic example of th i s l o g i c a l process was given on p. 114. In Tables VI 11 (pp.'134-135), 12 (pp. 146-147), 13 (pp. 150-151), 14 (pp. 153-154) and 15 (pp. 156-157), p r o b a b i l i t i e s based on relevant findings from the preceding occurrence and contingent occurrence tables are assembled to summarize the r e s u l t s of the comparisons. In these tables, comparisons i n d i c a t i n g apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of Elements and Communication Functions ( p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence le s s than p r o b a b i l i t y of contingent occurrence) are shown i n the l e f t column; and comparisons i n d i c a t i n g apparent negative as s o c i a t i o n ( p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence more than p r o b a b i l i t y of contingent occurrence) are shown i n the r i g h t column. When a l l s i x Communication Functions were considered as a group, as shown i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135, p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between them and V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people" became apparent, which i s i n d i -cated by t h e i r appearance i n the " P o s i t i v e l y Associated" l e f t hand column. The p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of the Communication Functions as a group i n each observation, .216 for K and .232 for P, (Table VI 1, p. 117), was less than the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of Communication Functions given V o c a l i z a t i o n which was .975 and .949 Table VI 9, p. 131. The p r o b a b i l i t y of V o c a l i z a t i o n , .101 for K and .061 for P (Table VI 2, p. 119), was also less than the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of V o c a l i z a t i o n given Communication Functions, .396 and .215 Table VI 7, p. 127. These comparisons indi c a t e an apparent p o s i t i v e association between V o c a l i z a t i o n and Communication 130 Functions as a group. Again, the p r o b a b i l i t y of Communication Functions reported above was l e s s than the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of Communication Functions given "Looking at people" which was .394 for K and .441 for P (Table VI 9, p. 131). While the p r o b a b i l i t y of "Looking at people" was .198-for K and .260 for P (Table VI 2, p. 119) ,.. the contingent, p r o b a b i l i t y of "Looking at people" given Communication Functions was .424 and .515 "(Table VI, p. 127). During 48.09% of the time for K and 58.18% of the time for P that one or the other of these behaviors was coded as appearing, a Communication Function was also coded (Table VI 9 and 10, pp. 131 and 132). These figures rose to 100% and 99.39% re s p e c t i v e l y during that part of the observation time when the codes for V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people" occurred together. These findings about V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people" lead to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s that both were necessary for the unequivocal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of communication as represented by the Communication Functions as a group. However, on the basis of the comparisons of p r o b a b i l i t i e s reviewed above, communication appeared more c l o s e l y associated with V o c a l i z a t i o n than with "Looking at people" i n the observed behavior of the two i n f a n t s . C l e a r l y V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people" may be highly important to the understanding of communication behavior p r i o r to speech as well as a f t e r i t has been acquired. Examination of the r e l a t i o n s of these behaviors to i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions i n subsequent subsections of t h i s chapter (p. 142 et seq.) provides some idea of the possible ro l e s they may play. TABLE VI 9 CONTINGENT OCCURRENCEaOF COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF), GIVEN VOCALIZATION ( V 0 ) , "LOOKING AT PEOPLE ( L ) , POINT ( P 0 ) , HOLD OUT ( H 0 ), IMMOBILE (IM) Contingent Occurrence of CF i n Elements as % of-Duration of Each Observa- V0nCF LHCF ~ [(V0UL)/(V0OL)]nCE V 0 O L a C F P0HCF H0r»CF IMHCF tions V0 L V0PL-' V 0 O L P0 H 0 IM 4K 97.48 39.40 47.36 100.00 0.00 42.84 7K 97.48 25.23 48.09 100.00 100.00 0.50 0.00 9K 97.73 52.81 62.97 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 U K 95.14 38.08 41.61 100.00 100.00 — 0.00 13K 98.83 62.93 83.14 100.00 100.00 - 100.00 14K 95.06 43.11 58.07 100.00 100.00 89.68 4.38 15K 96.41 25.27 32.82 100.00 100.00 — 24.42 Median 97.48 39.40 48.09 100.00 100.00b 45.09b 4.38 4P 62.41 23.76 24 .40 88.00 „ 100.00 30.04 7P 90.26 61.54 66.32 100.00 - 96.68 85.73 9P 89.79 52.87 60.57 - - 0.00 100.00 IIP 94.93 44.40 47.06 88.64 - 51.51 24.10 13P 96.88 39.62 58.18 100.00 - - • 31.84 14P 96.57 32.92 41.22 98.78 - - 8.54 15P 96.46 44.14 76.90 100.00 - - 21.93 Median 94.93 4404 58 0 8 99.39b Z 74.10° 307o4 bContingent occurrence on the occurrence of one var i a b l e given the occurrence of another. Median i s calculated on fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) TABLE VI 10 CONTINGENT OCCURRENCE OF COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) GIVEN NORMAL FACE (NL) , HEAVY BREATHING (HB) , SMILE (ZL), WIDE EYES (WE), PLAY FACE (PF), CHEW LIPS (CS), EYEBROW FLASH (EF) i 1 Contingent Occurrence of CF i n Elements as % of Duration of Each Observa- NLHCF HBHCF ZLOCF WEHCF PFHCF C S H C F EFnCF tions NL HB ZL WE PF CS EF 4K 0.00 44.00 95.13 31.90 97.70 0.17 -7K 1.64 0.00 25.23 0.00 - 0.00 -9K 43.39 19.30 85.65 61.30 100.00 0.00 -11K 3.57 37.00 98.51 0.00 100.00 6.64 0.00 13K 8.76 23.61 100.00 53.79 100.00 7.75 -14K 5.90 66.00 63.80 75.91 100.00 30.08 64.70 15K 0.24 _ 48.85 53.88 - 31.77 0.00 Median 3.57 30.31° 85.65 53.79 100.00° 6.64 0.00b 4P 35.72 78.21 91.75 60.98 — 39.29 -7P 14.34 28.06 98.17 27.05 - 0.00 54.55 9P 4.26 21.25 100.00 85.76 100.00 0.00 50.00 IIP 16.17 4.08 82.91 19.93 100.00 60.32 0.00 13P 41.94 100.00 100.00 44.91 100.00 0.00 0.00 14P 2.28 0.00 96.13 35.46 100.00 - 100.00 15P 20.95 13.25 - 0.00 - 0.00 -Median 16.17 21.25 97.15? 35.46 100.00° 0.00° 50.00° Contingent occurrence on the occurrence, of one var i a b l e given the occurrence of another. Median calculated on fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) 133 The other Elements of Behavior i n the analysis summarized i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135, also showed signs of s e l e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Communication Functions considered as a group. Two Elements, Normal Face and Chew Lips, had an apparently negative association with Communication Functions as shown by the f i n d i n g that t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence i n the observations was greater than t h e i r contingent occurrence with Communication Functions (Table VI 11, pp. 134-135). The contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s f or Chew 2 Lips of subject P were calculated on the basis of s i x observations. Two elements, Heavy Breathing and Immobile, revealed an equivocal r e l a t i o n s h i p to Communication Functions. Heavy Breathing, on the basis of the comparisons of p r o b a b i l i t i e s i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135, appeared to have a r e l a t i o n with Communication Functions which was neither strongly p o s i t i v e nor strongly negative. The contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s f or Heavy Breathing for subject K were c a l -culated on the basis of s i x observations (see footnote 2, below). Immobile was the only Element of Behavior i n which the analysis com-p l e t e l y discriminated between subjects: i n K, Immobile was apparently negatively associated with Communication; i n P, i t was apparently p o s i t i v e l y associated with Communication. The p r a c t i c e of reporting findings based on fewer than the f u l l seven observations was followed i n two circumstances i n which i t was thought that the f i n d i n g would contribute more by i t s i n c l u s i o n than by i t s exclusion. When the contingent p r o b a b i l i t y of A given B could not be calculated because the subject did not perform either or both of those behaviors during an observation, then p(A/B) was n i l or nonexistent. Where t h i s occurred,the median was not calculated to include the n i l r e s u l t s and the p r o b a b i l i t y of which i t i s an estimate i s based on fewer than seven observations. Such findings, footnoted, are included i n the analysis i n cases ;such as Chew Lips for subject P i n Table VI 14, p. 153, where there i s only one n i l observation; and i n cases such as Play Face for both subjects i n Table VI 14, where the incomplete f i n d i n g s are homogeneous and do not include more than three n i l observations. 134 TABLE VI 11 POSITIVE ASSOCIATION"OR NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION: ' COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS AS A GROUP (CF) AND SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (EB) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated Sub- with CF: p.(occurrence)< with CF: p.(occurrence)> j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) p.(contingent occurrence) p(CF) < p(CF/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/CF) p(CF) > p(CF/EB) p(EB) > p (EB/CF) Vo c a l i z a t i o n K P .216 .232 .975 .949 .101 .061 .396 .215 II Looking at people" K P .216 .232 .394 .441 .198 .260 .424 .515 Normal Face K P .216 .232 .036 .215 .162 .315 .059 .275 Heavy Breathing K P .216 . 303a .007 .008 .on a .022 .232 .213 Smile K P .216 ..232 .857 .972** .047 .028 .120 .151a Wide Eyes K P .216 .232 .538 .355 .026 .031 .049 .032 Play Face K P .216 -.232 i.ooa i.ooa .002 .003 • 024a .029a Chew Lips K P .216 ..232 .066 .026 .000a .002 .008 .000a-1 3 5 T a b l e V I 1 1 ( c o n t . ) E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r P o s i t i v e l y E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r N e g a t i v e l y A s s o c i a t e d A s s o c i a t e d S u b - w i t h C F : p . ( o c c u r r e n c e ) < w i t h C F : p . ( o c c u r r e n c e ) > j e c t p . ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p . ' ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( C F ) < p ( C F / E B ) p ( E B ) < p ( E B / C F ) p ( C F ) > p ( C F / E B ) p ( E B ) > p ( E B / C F ) P o i n t K . 2 1 6 1 . 0 0 a . 0 1 2 . 0 7 7 a P X X X X H o l d O u t K X X X X P X X X X I m m o b i l e K . 2 1 6 . 0 4 4 .064 . 0 1 4 P . 2 3 9 . 3 0 0 . 1 1 4 . 1 7 5 p r o b a b i l i t y i s c a l c u l a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f f e w e r t h a n 7 o b s e r v a t i o n s ( s e e f o o t n o t e 2 , p . 1 3 3 ) . x d a t a i n s u f f i c i e n t 136 Three Elements, Smile, Play Face and Wide Eyes, appeared to be strongly p o s i t i v e l y associated with Communication Function on the basis of the comparisons i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135, of t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence (low) with t h e i r contingent p r o b a b i l i t y i n Communication Functions (high). Part of the analyses of both Smile and Play Face were made on the basis of fewer than seven observations. The f i n d i n g that Normal Face, the f a c i a l Element of Behavior s p e c i f i c a l l y free of any unusual configuration which could give i t s i g n a l value, was associated less p o s i t i v e l y with the Communication Functions as a group than, with the observed behavior as a whole, i s i n t u i t i v e l y p l a u s i b l e . The opposite f i n d i n g would have cast some doubt on the v a l i d i t y of the Method. Supporting the same common sense i n t e r p r e t a t i o n were the findings of strong p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n with Communication Functions for Smile, Wide Eyes and Play Face, Elements i n which the changed shape of the physiognomy can be a s i g n a l . (For d e f i n i t i o n s , see Appendix I ) . The almost t o t a l recruitment of Smile and Play Face to communication was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . Interpretation of the findings f or the gestural Elements, Point and Hold Out i n r e l a t i o n to Communication Functions as a group was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y p ossible because of i n s u f f i c i e n t data. Some anecdotal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s presented i n the discussion of findings f or the i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions i n the next section. The f i n d i n g that the elements with a large d i s p a r i t y i n number of occurrences such as Immobile and Heavy Breathing: f = 107, f = 51 137 for P; f = 39, f = 27 for K, as shown i n Table VI 16, p. 158, were also those i n which d i f f e r e n t findings were obtained for the two sub-j e c t s i n regard to the Communication Functions (Table VI 11, pp. 134-135), suggests that i n t h i s research multiple causation i s probably the r u l e . The occurrence of each Element l i k e l y r e f l e c t s the e f f e c t s of an i d i o s y n c r a t i c c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f a c t o r s . Examination of the s i x i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions i n the next stage of the analysis i s focussed on the differences i n the e f f e c t s of the eleven Elements of Behavior which were i d e n t i f i e d as factors apparently p o s i t i v e l y or negatively associated with the Communication Functions as a group i n t h i s section, on the s i x Communication Functions considered separately. This analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data could well be characterized as the "botanizing" described by Mehler i n a discussion of the requirements of model users by the Study Group on Mechanisms of Language Development. He describes the exploratory stage as "botanizing . . . the stage of f i n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s " , and says further: There i s a type of botany which serves the purpose of presenting us with data which might lead to a f r u i t f u l hypothesis . . . . Good botany r e s u l t s i n making p r o v i s i o n a l hypotheses to order the world around you, not i n a d i c t i o n a r y fashion but i n a r a t i o n a l i s t i c system. (Mehler, 1971, p. 156) Figures 8-14, pp. 138-141, provide a v i s u a l summary Table VI 1, p. 117, giving graphic expression to the f a c t that the subjects were observed, over the s i x months of the study, to produce s i m i l a r amounts of each type of communication as well as s i m i l a r amounts of communication as a whole. 138 5 0 4 5 Subject K Subject P 4 0 Figure 8 A l l Communication Functions 139 Age i n Months Figure 9 Refe r e n t i a l Communication Age i n Months Figure 10 Conative Communication 140 CU e o tu 60 cfl 4-) (3 d) O !-J 0) PM 30-| 251 20-15-10~ Subject K Subject P 10 11 12 13 14 Age i n Months Figure 11 Expressive Communication 15 16 6 •H H m o cu 60 cfl 4J c CU o M CU P H 30-25-20"" 15 10" Subject K Subject P 10 11 12 13 Age i n Months Figure 12 Phatic Communication 14 15 16 301 25 — Subject K _ Subject P 20-151 10' 5 0J 14 15 16 Age i n Months Figure 13 Poetic Communication 30' 25" Subject K Subject P 20" 15" 51 11 1*2 13 Age i n Months Figure 14 Metalingual Communication 142 More than the actual i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each Communication Func-t i o n i n the behavior of each in f a n t , the r e g u l a r i t y apparent i n Figures 8-14, pp. 138-141, gives c r e d i b i l i t y to the enterprise of applying the concept of Communication Functions to pre-speech behavior. While no strong developmental trends i n the data on Communica-t i o n Functions were apparent during t h i s period of time when each infant was reported by h i s mother to have said h i s f i r s t word—at 10 months for K, and at 13 months for P — t h e general p i c t u r e does change. The early expressive and phatic functions of communication decrease and a slow increase i n r e f e r e n t i a l behavior i s seen from about the time of the " f i r s t word". The discussion of i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions which f o l -lows does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather to i n t e r p r e t high-l i g h t s from the findings which indi c a t e the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the Method for the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of research questions such as the present one on the Phylogeny of Communication Functions. Poetic and Metalingual Communication. The Method provided a t o t a l of 12 instances of Poetic data and 18 instances of Metalingual data i n the seven f i v e minute observations of K; and 13 instances of Poetic and 14 instances of Metalingual i n the p a r a l l e l observations of P (see Table VI 16, p. 158). The r e l i a b i l i t y of Poetic Communication which occurred i n only one of the r e l i a b i l i t y samples, was 100% for incidence and 83.3% for duration. Metalingual Communication did not occur i n any of the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. These two functions occurred for very small proportions of the behavior of each i n f a n t , with median durations for K of 1.22% and 0.50%; and for P of 0.00% and 1.00% of the f i v e minute observation time. The ranges for Poetic Communication were 0.00% to 6.07% for K; and 0.00% to 12.17% for P. The ranges for Metalingual Communication were 0.00% to 3.28% for K; and 0.00% to 7.23% for P (see Table VI 1, p. 117). This i s consistent with Weir's f i n d i n g of low incidence of these functions i n day time speech (Weir, 1962, Preface). Although many observations showed no poetic behavior, i n several observations of both subjects, bursts of r e p e t i t i v e sounds made for pleasure lasted for a duration of up to 30 seconds, i n t r o -ducing the variance which prevented further s t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis of the data. The most noteworthy instance of metalingual behavior i n the study was the production by subject P at fourteen months of age of pseudosentences which reproduced- the intonation and general phonemic contour of two short shouted speech acts of h i s brother (also recorded i n the data). These imitations were repeated several times with considerable vigor and e f f o r t but without being directed at anyone. Findings not reproduced i n tabular form because t h e i r paucity or v a r i a b i l i t y made them unsuitable f o r s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, showed 80% to 100% j o i n t occurrences of Metalingual and Poetic Communication with V o c a l i z a t i o n , a fi n d i n g i m p l i c i t i n the d e f i n i t i o n of these Com-munication Functions. (See Appendix I I ) . (The remaining 20%, on inspection of the videotape, turned out to be pauses i n v o c a l i z a t i o n ) . A further f i n d i n g showed 0.00% to 92.00% j o i n t occurrence of these Communication Functions with "Looking at people" i n the observations. These findings i n d i c a t e that, when Poetic and Metalingual behaviors happened, the infants were not only v o c a l i z i n g , but also looking at 144 people for a large part of the time. Although, by d e f i n i t i o n , the Poetic and Metalingual Communication Functions do not transmit mes-sage content, or e s t a b l i s h contact with the receiver, a l l of V0HL, except the small part occurring with Poetic and Metalingual Communication, was associated with "content" or "contact" communi-cation by the adult speakers who coded the data. (See the contingent occurrence of the Communication Functions as a group i n V0HL i n Table VI 9, p. 131.) In e f f e c t , as far as v o c a l i z a t i o n and looking at people were concerned, the infants behaved during much of the non-content, non-contact communication i n the same way they behaved when transmitting messages or getting i n touch with the receiver. The question raised by t h i s f i n d i n g i n several observa-tions of each infant i s whether V0r\L i s a necessary consequence of transmitting information from sender to receiver or whether the com-bina t i o n may be learned and practised by infants before i t i s r e c r u i t e d to interpersonal communication. Inspection of Table VI 2, p. 119 shows the duration of V0P\L i n each observation; and i t seems f u l l y as evident at the beginning of the study as at the end. This sug-gests that the behavior of v o c a l i z i n g and looking at people was acquired p r i o r to eight months of age and probably before the f i r s t words of each subject. R e f e r e n t i a l Communication. The Method provided a t o t a l of 110 instances of R e f e r e n t i a l data for subject K, and 58 instances for subject P (Table VI 16, p. 158)- R e f e r e n t i a l Communication occurred f o r a median duration of 6.43% of the observation time and a range from 1.89% to 15.56% for subject K; and a median duration of 5.41% 145 with a range from 0.00% to 18.61% for subject P, as shown i n Table VI 1, p. 117. The r e l i a b i l i t y of coding R e f e r e n t i a l Communication, e s t i -mated on the basis of the f i v e one minute r e l i a b i l i t y samples i n which i t occurred, was 45.19% for incidence and 35.59% for duration. In a d d i t i o n to the circumstance that the computer program f o r measuring r e l i a b i l i t y d i d not compare a l l of the items coded Refer-e n t i a l (as described i n Chapter V, p. 88), inaccuracy i n the a p p l i -cation of the d e f i n i t i o n f o r R e f e r e n t i a l Communication by the coders probably contributed to t h i s low r e l i a b i l i t y . R e f e r e n t i a l was the most d i f f i c u l t of the Communication Func-tions to i d e n t i f y c l e a r l y because of the ingrained tendency of the coders, as adult speakers who use vocal communication almost exclu-s i v e l y for r e f e r e n t i a l purposes, to i n f e r reference i n the subject's behavior without s u f f i c i e n t evidence for i t . Lack of stringency i n coding R e f e r e n t i a l Communication prevents useful comparison of R e f e r e n t i a l and Expressive communication findings with the primate l i t e r a t u r e . In the analysis of the r e l a t i o n of selected Elements of Behavior to R e f e r e n t i a l Communication which follows, the Referen-t i a l f indings may be more accurately thought of as quasi-referen-t i a l , i n cluding as they do some responses to s p e c i f i c objects as w e l l as the references to them. Table VI 12 pp. 146-147 summarizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the selected Elements of Behavior with R e f e r e n t i a l Communication, i n terms of t h e i r contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . Differences between these findings and the comparable ones for Communication Functions 146 TABLE VI 12 POSITIVE ASSOCIATION OR NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION:.. COMMUNICATION (RF) AND SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (EB) REFERENTIAL Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Associated Sub- with RF: p.(occurrence)< j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated with RF: p.(occurrence)> p.(contingent occurrence) p(RF) < p(RF/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/RF) p(RF) > p(RF/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/RF) Vo c a l i z a t i o n K P .064 .054 .618 a .335 .101 .061 .813 a .487 ii 'Looking at people" K P .064 .054 a .080 .055 .198 .260 .229 a .343 Normal Face K P . 064 .054 .018 .047 .215 .315 .028 .222 Heavy Breathing K P .064 .054 . o o o a .ooo a .007 .008 .ooc a .ooo a Smile K P X .047 .055 .064 X X .035 X Wide Eyes K P .064 .054 .ooo a .000 .026 .031 .000 .001 Play Face K P X X X X X X X X Chew Lips K .064 .054 .000 — —3. .026 .000 .00Ca P .000. .002 147 Table VI 12 (cont.) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y -Associat- Elements of Behavior Negatively assoc-Sub- ed with RF: p.(occurrence)< i a t e d w i t h R F : p. (occurrence)> j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) p.(contingent occurrence) p(RF) < p(RF/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/RF) p(RF) > p(RF/EB) p(EB)r> p(EB/RF) Point  K .064 .988 .012 .149 P x x x Hold Out K x P x x x x x X X Immobile K - -054 ,000 a .114 .000 a •064 .000^ .064 .000 Probability is calculated on the basis of fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133). x data insufficient o 148 considered as a group i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135 indicated which of the Elements may play a s p e c i a l part i n Re f e r e n t i a l Communication. V o c a l i z a t i o n and Point increased t h e i r p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n to commun-i c a t i o n when the r e f e r e n t i a l function only was considered. "Looking at people" maintained i t s p o s i t i v e association. Normal Face and Chew Lips maintained t h e i r negative r e l a t i o n . However, Heavy Breathing, Wide Eyes, Immobile and Smile a l l appeared to be negatively associated with R e f e r e n t i a l Communication i n contrast to th e i r apparent p o s i t i v e association or equivocal r e l a t i o n s h i p with commun-i c a t i o n as a whole. There were i n s u f f i c i e n t data to analyse Play Face and Hold Out i n r e l a t i o n to Re f e r e n t i a l Communication. In summary, the contribution of Re f e r e n t i a l Communication to the findings f o r the Communication Functions considered as a group was made through V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking at people" and Point. The fac t these behaviors were s e l e c t i v e l y present to carry the message during Referential Communication has apparent v a l i d i t y since i t i s common experience to use vo c a l i z a t i o n and va r i a t i o n s of the pointing gesture (accompanied by looking at the receiver) as channels f o r the s p e c i f i c symbols used i n speech pr sign language. Because this f i n d i n g i s so predictable, i t would be t r i v -i a l were i t not for the unpredicted accompanying f i n d i n g that the f a c i a l and body Elements were apparently negatively associated with R e f e r e n t i a l Communication. Conative Communication. The Method provided a t o t a l of 12 instances i on Conative data for subject K and 10 instances for subject P (Table VI 16, p. 158). Conative communication occurred f o r a median duration of 0.72% of the observation time with a range of 0.00% to 11.28% for subject K; and a median duration of 0.00% with a range from 0.00% to 6.06% for subject P 149 (see Table VI 1, p. 117). Probably because of i t s r e l a t i v e r a r i t y , Conative Communication did not occur i n any of the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. In the observations of each subject, Conative communication occurred the l e a s t of a l l the Communication Functions, a s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g , since behavior which disposes others to a s s i s t the sender presumably serves primary infant needs. The fac t that the subjects were always observed i n the comfortable surroundings of home just a f t e r a nap or a meal may have influenced this f i n d i n g . On the other hand, the findings from primate studies (Marler, 1965) and ps y c h o l i n g u i s t i c studies (McNeill, 1970 and Weir, 1962) discussed i n the survey of the l i t e r a t u r e on pp. 64 eit seq. , are not quanti f i e d , so the present r e s u l t s cannot be compared with them. Table VI 13, pp. 150-151, summarizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the selected Elements of Behavior with Conative Communication i n terms of t h e i r contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . For much of the analysis, as would be expected with data which occurred at such a low rate, data were i n s u f f i c i e n t for s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons. For th i s reason, none of the data f o r subject P could be analysed. In the data for subject K Conative Communication d i f -fered from a l l the Communication Functions as a group i n that only V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people" were found to have an apparent p o s i t i v e association with i t . A l l of the other Elements showed a weak negative association with Conative Communication. Expressive Communication. The Method provided a t o t a l of 136 instances of Expressive data for subject K, and 91 instances f o r subject P (see Table VI 16, p.158). Expressive Communication occurred f o r a median duration of 10.46% of the observation time and a range from 4.28% to 22.56% for subject K; and a median duration of 7.50% with a range from 4.45% to 26.08% for subject P (Table VI 1, p. 117). 150 TABLE VI 13 POSITIVE ASSOCIATION,OR NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION: CONATIVE COMMUNICATION (CN) AND SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (EB) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Elements of Behavior Negatively ; Associated - Associated Sub- with CN: p. (occurrence)< withCN: p.(occurrence)> j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) p. (contingent occurrence) p(CN) < p(CN/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/CN) p(CN) > p(CN/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/CN) Vo c a l i z a t i o n K P .007 .046 a X .101 .253 a X X X 1  Looking at people" K P x x .198 .276 X X X X Normal Face K P X .007 X X .006 a .215 X .057 a Heavy Breathing K P X .007 X X .ooo a .007 X .ooo a Smile K P X .007 X X .000 .047 X .000 Wide Eyes K P X .007 X X .ooo a .026 X . 000a Play Face K P X .007 X X .ooo a .002 X . ooo a Chew Lips K P X .007 X X .ooo a .026 X . 000a 151 Table VI 13 (cont.) Sub-j e c t Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Associated with CN: p. (occurrence)< p. (contingent occurrence) p(CN) < p(CN/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/CN) Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated with CN: p. (occurrence)> p. (contingent occurrence) p(CN) > p(CN/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/CN) Point .007 .000 3 .012 .000 a 2E x x Hold Out K X X X X P X X X X Immobile K .007 . ooo-a .064 .000 a P X X X X K P x Probability is calculated on the basis of fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p.133). x data i n s u f f i c i e n t 152 The r e l i a b i l i t y of coding Expressive Communications, estimated on the basis of i t s occurrence i n a l l eight r e l i a b i l i t y samples, was 87.5% for incidence and 65.5% for duration. Expressive Communication was the most frequent of the i n d i v i d u a l Communication Functions. Table VI 14, pp. 153-154, summarizes the r e l a -tionship of the selected Elements of Behavior with Expressive Communication i n terms of t h e i r contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The differences between these findings and the comparable ones for Communication Functions as a group i n Table VI 11, pp. 134-135, showed an increase i n p o s i t i v e association with Smile, a s l i g h t decrease i n Vo c a l i z a t i o n , and a more p o s i t i v e association, for both subjects, with Heavy Breathing. The Elements, Immobile and Point were apparently negatively associated with Expressive communication. The findings of a switch to negative association f or both Wide Eyes and "Looking at people" during behaviors coded as Expressive i n the case of subject K, r e f l e c t e d the circumstance that he often vocalized a f f e c t i v e l y during s o l i t a r y play. The f i n d i n g that these change together i s consistent with the finding that Wide Eyes i s strongly associated with contact, discussed i n the next section. Phatic Communication. The Method provided a t o t a l of 66 instances of Phatic data f or subject K, and 56 instances f or subject P (Table VI 16, p. 158). Phatic Communication occurred for a median duration of 5.28% of the observation time and a range from 0.50% to 11.94% for subject K; and a median duration of 12.01% with a range from 5.56% to 22.51% for subject P (Table VI 1, p. 117). The r e l i a b i l i t y of coding Phatic Communication, estimated on the basis of i t s occurrence i n a l l eight samples was 50% for incidence and 41.3% for duration. Phatic Communication was p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable to the 153 TABLE VI 14 POSITIVE ASSOCIATION OR NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION: EXPRESSIVE COMMUNICATION (EX) AND SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (EB) Elements of Behavior.Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively .As s o c i a t e d _Associated Sub- with EX: p. occurrence < with EX: p. occurrence > j e c t p. contingent occurrence p. contingent occurrence p(EX) < p(EX/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/EX) p(EX) > p(EX/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/EX) Vo c a l i z a t i o n K P .105 .075 .578 .601 .101 .061 .396 .180 I I 'Looking at people" K P .105 .220 .198 .487 .075 .040 .260 .230 Normal Face K P .105 .075 .003 .011 .215 .315 .008 .0.32 Heavy Breathing K P .105 .075 .118** .133 .007 .008 .005** .029 Smile K P .105 .075 .833 .939** .045 .028 .286 .555** Wide Eyes K P .105 .213 .026 .040 .075 .026 .031 .024 Play Face K P .105 .075 1.00** 1.00** X X X X Chew Lips K P X .105 X .000 .026 .002 .000 .000 ** 154 Table VI 14 (cont.) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated - Associated Sub- with EX: p. occurrence < with EX: p. occurrence > j e c t p. contingent occurrence p. contingent occurrence p(EX) < p(EX/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/EX) p(EX) > p(EX/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/EX) Point K .105 .000** .012 . 000** P X X X X Hold Out K X X X X P X X X X Immobile K .105 .000 .064 .000** P .075 .000 .114 .000 ** p r o b a b i l i t y i s calculated on the basis of fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) x data i n s u f f i c i e n t 155 p e c u l i a r i t y of the coding procedures which resulted i n an underestimation of the r e l i a b i l i t y of Communication Functions. (See Chapter V, p. 88) f o r . a discussion of t h i s problem). Table VI 15, pp. 156-157, summarizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the selected r Elements of Behavior with Phatic Communication i n terms of t h e i r contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . Comparison of these findings with those f o r Communication Functions as a group i n Table VI 11 (pp. 134-135) shows that "Looking at people" and Wide Eyes had t h e i r strongest p o s i t i v e association with Phatic communication. Vo c a l i z a t i o n and Normal Face were equivocally associated with Phatic alone of the Communication Functions. The apparent p o s i t i v e association of Immobile behavior with Communication Functions for subject P was found to be mostly a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Phatic Communication function, and inspection of the relevant raw data revealed that this was due to his tendency to s i t s t i l l and look at or gaze f i x a t e at the camera and observer. Possible Roles of Elements of Behavior. In summary, the findings suggest that the r o l e of V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at people", the behaviors with the strongest p o s i t i v e association with the "content" Communication Functions, R e f e r e n t i a l and Conative, was to carry information about the envi-ronment. Point had a s i m i l a r but very l i m i t e d r o l e to play. Data for Hold Out tended i n the same d i r e c t i o n but were i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r analysis. The r o l e of "Looking at people" i n conjunction with the f a c i a l and head Elements, Wide Eyes, Smile and Heavy Breathing, the behaviors with the strongest p o s i t i v e association with the "contact" Communication Function, Phatic, was to e s t a b l i s h v i s u a l contact with the receiver. Play Face also seemed to have a tendency i n this d i r e c t i o n although the data were i n s u f f i -c i e n t f or a n a l y s i s . Both "content" and "contact" behaviors may be i n f e r r e d to play a 156-TABLE VI 15 POSITIVE ASSOCIATION OR NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION: PHATIC COMMUNICATION (PJ) AND SELECTED ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR (EB) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated •- Associated Sub- with PJ: p.(occurrence)< with PJ: p.(occurrence)> j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) p.(contingent occurrence) p(PJ) < p(Pj/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/PJ) p(PJ) > p(PJ/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/PJ) V o c a l i z a t i o n K P .053 .163 .101 .219 .120 .110 .061 .043 i 'Looking at people" K P .053 .120 .223 .363 .198 .260 .898 .748 Normal Face K P .120 .134 .315 .053 .331 .000 .215 .000 Heavy Breathing K P .007 .008 .031 a .053 .018 .120 .013 a .041 Smile K P .053 .120 .251 .345a; .047 .028 .209 . 164 a Wide Eyes K P .053 .120 .225 .144 .026 .031 .079 .110 Play Face K P X X X X X X X X Chew Lips K P .053 .120 .000 .000 a .026 .002 .000 .000 a 157 Table VI 15 (cont.) Elements of Behavior P o s i t i v e l y Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated Sub- with PJ: p.(occurrence)< with PJ: p.(occurrence) > j e c t p.(contingent occurrence) p. (contingent occurrence) p(PJ) < p(PJ/EB) p(EB) < p(EB/PJ) p(PJ) > p(PJ/EB) p(EB) > p(EB/PJ) Point K .053 .000 .012 a .000 P X X X X Hold Out K .053 .ooo a .001 .ooo a P X X X X Immobile K a .053 .000 .064 .000 a P .120 .280 , .114 .442 a P r o b a b i l i t y i s calculated on the basis of fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133). x data i n s u f f i c i e n t TABLE VI 16 FREQUENCY OF DATA: OCCURRENCE OF ITEM CODES Observa- Communication Functions Vocal Elements F a c i a l and Other Elements of Behavior tions RF CN EX PJ PW ME V0 WD NL HB ZL WE PF CS LN . EF. P0 H0 ' IM 4K 4 0 29 15 3 0 22 0 26 ' 4 21 18 15 3 0 0 0 1 6 7K 9 3 9 2 2 1 16 0 45 12 4 5 0 1 2 0 1 2 7 9K 26 3 26 11 1 10 37 9 26 13 10 8 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 U K 8 2 27 19 0 0 20 0 68 2 20 3 1 9 0 4 6 0 3 13K 25 1 15 4 5 5 30 2 62 5 8 12 2 13 0 0 6 0 2 14K 28 2 18 11 1 2 37 8 30 3 10 20 3 12 1 3 2 9 4 15K 10 1 12 4 0 0 21 0 31 0 3 6 0 8 0 1 5 0 4 E. 110 12 136 66 12 18 - 183 19 288' 39 76 72 23 47 3 8 21 13 27 Median 10 2 18 11 1 1 22 0 31 4 10 8 2 8 0 0 2 1 4 4P 0 0 9 4 0 0 11 0 36 4 8 11 0 2 0 0 0 2 13 7P 15 6 22 9 2 0 31 0 15 45 14 2 0 1 0 2 0 5 5 9P 3 0 23 11 0 2 31 0 30 39 1 13 3 3 0 2 0 1 1 H P 9 2 7 9 0 4 17 0 38 12 9 10 2 6 0 1 0 9 5 13P 10 2 13 6 0 0 23 0 35 2 3 5 2 1 0 1 0 0 7 14P 6 0 9 9 0 7 24 0 38 1 5 12 2 0 0 5 0 0 11 15P 15 0 8 8 11 1 20 0 25 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 9 E 58 : 10 91 56 13 14 157 0 217 107 40 55 9 14 0 11 0 17 51 Median 9 0 9 9 0 1 23 0 35 4 5 10 2 1 0 1 0 1 7 I—1 U l 0 0 159 r o l e i n Expressive Communication on the basis of t h e i r apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n with the Expressive Communication Function. The small amount of data for Play Face also tended i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The Elements of Behavior, Normal Face, and Chew Lips, consistently negatively associated with the Communication Functions rather than randomly associated with a l l , may have had value as a si g n a l that no communication was intended. The fact that the association of Immobile was found to be d i f f e r e n t f o r each subject may i n d i c a t e that i t was responsive to some f a c t o r other than communication. The factor of attention i s i n t u i t i v e l y reasonable as a determinant of the immobile posture, but the f i e l d t r i a l analyses were not designed to produce findings on this question. Summary of Findings for Communication Functions The r e s u l t s presented above suggest that the Method provides a promising approach f o r answering some of the questions about pre-speech behavior raised by the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , but that the Method cannot be productive of v a l i d data f o r the exploration of phylogenetic l i n k s i n the development of communication behavior unless the coding procedures for Communication Functions are revised. In summary, analysis of the behavior of two subjects i n a f i e l d t r i a l of the Method suggested these answers to the research questions posed on p. 71 : "Can Communication Functions be i d e n t i f i e d i n the behavior of infants before the f i r s t word?" The Six Communication Functions were i d e n t i f i e d i n the pre-speech behavior of two normal infants with adequate o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y , but questionable i n d i v i d u a l r e l i a b i l i t i e s . Each Communication Function appeared to have a generally s i m i l a r pattern of occur-rence for both subjects. 160 " W i l l expressive and conative functions appear before the r e f e r e n t i a l function?" Although t h i s did, i n fact happen, the v a r i a b i l i t y of the data and the probable r e f e r e n t i a l bias of the coders make i t a questionable f i n d i n g . "What are the behaviors associated with p a r t i c u l a r Communication Functions? And what are the roles played by these associated behaviors i n the commun-i c a t i o n process?" Eleven Elements of Behaviors appeared to have s e l e c t i v e l y associative r e l a t i o n s with four of the s i x Communication Functions. V o c a l i z a t i o n showed a strong p o s i t i v e association, and Point and Hold Out a less documented p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n with the "content" Communication Functions, R e f e r e n t i a l and Conative, which transmit environmental information; the f a c i a l and head Elements, Wide Eyes, Smile, Heavy Breathing and possibly Play Face, were p o s i t i v e l y associated with the "contact" function, Phatic; and a l l of these, together with "Looking at people," were p o s i t i v e l y associated with Expressive Communication. Normal Face and Chew Lips tended toward a negative association with a l l Communication Functions and Immobile was inconsistent i n i t s associations. The "non content" Communications Functions, Poetic and Metalingual, occurred too infrequently for analysis. The basic d i f f i c u l t y that l i m i t e d the usefulness of the f i e l d t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the Method to the study of the phylogeny of Communication Functions was what Richards describes as "lack of a-conceptual vocabulary which does not imply f u l l membership of a l i n g u i s t i c community" (Richards, 1974, p. 92). The d e f i n i t i o n s and procedures designed for secondary coding of Communication Functions i n the f i e l d t r i a l attempted to deal with t h i s problem by adopting the conceptual framework of Morris (1946) 161 which Marler (1965) used to describe the non-verbal communication of non-human primates. These d e f i n i t i o n s were not su c c e s s f u l l y used i n the f i e l d t r i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the coding of the Re f e r e n t i a l Communication Function; and a need has been demonstrated for a more stringent d e f i n i t i o n to ensure i t s unequivocal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Because the foregoing analyses using a q u a s i - r e f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data indicated patterns i n the behavior of both infants which may warrant in v e s t i g a t i n g with a more r e l i a b l e t o o l , alternate approaches for i n v e s t i g a -t i n g r e f e r e n t i a l communication are considered i n Appendix VII. The Ontogeny of Operations of Reference: Existence and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Operations of Reference i n Infant Pre-Speech Behavior The second research question posed by the f i e l d t r i a l to t e s t the Method (p. 78) was whether the Operations of Reference posited by the psy-c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i e t e r a t u r e (Bloom, 1973b; Brown, 1973) could be found i n the pre-speech behavior of i n f a n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t was asked whether Piagetian Stages and Piagetian Configurations could be i d e n t i f i e d i n the same behavior, and i f so at what Piagetian stage Operations of Reference would appear. The observational f i e l d t r i a l c a r r i e d out to gather data to answer this question and i t s c o r o l l a r i e s was described i n Chapter IV, (p. 72 et seq.). Data about Operations of Reference upon which the findings i n t h i s area are based were obtained by two d i f f e r e n t procedures for secondary coding. The f i r s t was a computer procedure c a r r i e d out by program INF, which i d e n t i f i e d and made frequency counts on each instance of Operations of Ref-erence. The d e f i n i t i v e configurations of primary coded data were derived from Brown (1973) and are described on pp. 74-76. The second was an informal matching by one of the raters of the extended descriptions of Operations of Reference given by Brown (1973) to the data as they were being coded, a technique s i m i l a r to the procedure used to match Piagetian descriptions to 162 data f o r the coding of Piagetian Stages. The computer analysis was done on a l l the data f o r both subjects a f t e r a l l the coding was complete; the i n -f e r e n t i a l analysis by the rater was done on one f i v e minute observation, 14K, following primary coding. Observation 14K was chosen because i t seemed to be p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h i n speech related behavior. The purpose of using a human rater to spot check the computer was to see whether a l l of the Operations of Reference i n the observation would be picked up by the computer program: i n e f f e c t , to give an estimate of i n t e r -rater r e p l i c a b i l i t y f o r Operations of Reference. A subsidiary v i r t u e of the informal analysis was the opportunity i t provided for intensive exploration of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the Piagetian findings with Operations of Reference. A s i m i l a r sequence to that taken i n presenting the findings f o r the f i r s t research question w i l l be followed f o r the second research question here, with findings from both procedures for i d e n t i f y i n g Operations of Reference given i n each analysis. As i n the previous discussion, the findings for each subject are reported separately, and the median i s used as the measure of ce n t r a l tendency. The f i r s t subsections, "Occurrence of Operations of Reference", "Occurrence of Piagetian Stages", and "Occurrence of Piagetian Configura-tions", w i l l present the durations of occurrence of the i n d i v i d u a l Opera-tions and Stages expressed as percentages of the f i v e minute observation times. The next subsection, "Contingent Occurrence of Piagetian Stages, Given Operations of Reference", does not make use of the concept of inde-pendent events described on pp. 114-116, and used i n the analysis of Commun-i c a t i o n Functions previously, because most of the median values i n the present set of findings are not based on enough data to serve as estimates of prob-a b i l i t y . However, because there are few va r i a b l e s , the findings are evident from inspection of the summarized data. 163 In the f i n a l subsections, "Operations of Reference and the Object Concept" and "Reference and Representation", anecdotal information from the raw data of the videotapes i s used to i n t e r p r e t the findings concerning Operations of Reference and Piagetian Stages and Configurations. Occurrence of Operations of Reference The computer program INF was run with the following s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for Operations of Reference: Nomination Hold Out ( H ) — t h e code H0 i n the columns f o r Manipulations and Gestures i n t e r s e c t i n g with the codes MA, 0B, CA or codes for other persons i n the column f o r Eye and/or the codes V0, WD, WS, UW i n the column for Voca l i z a t i o n . (See Appendix I for d e f i n i t i o n of codes.) Nomination Point ( P ) — the code P0 i n t e r s e c t i n g with the same codes i n the same way. Recurrence Reach ( R ) — t h e code RE i n t e r s e c t i n g with the same codes i n the same way. Computer s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r Recurrence using the Elements, Grasp and P u l l , with a person as object and for Nonexistence using the Elements, Shake Head or Throw or Repel, were not written because the r e q u i s i t e j o i n t occurrences were not found by inspection of the frequency printout, PAT. Nomination Hold Out. The defined configuration of codes f o r Nomination by the manipulation Hold Out was i d e n t i f i e d by INF i n four of the seven observations of subject K for a median duration of 0.11% of the ob-servation time; and i n two of the seven observations of subject P f o r a median duration of 0.00% of the observation time (Table VI 17, p. 164). Variable r e l i a b i l i t y of coding of th i s f i n d i n g may be i n f e r r e d from the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the component Elements: 33.33% f o r incidence and 48.55% f or duration of Hold Out, 69.97% f o r incidence and 80.12% f o r duration of "Looking at people", and 92.96% f o r incidence and 98.02% f o r duration of TABLE VI 17 Occurrence: Operations of Reference; Nomination Hold Out (H), Nomination Point (P), Recurrence Reach (R) Duration as % of observation time Observation Nomination (H) Nomination (P) Recurrence (R) H0 rv(V0 JU L) P0 H(V0 U L) RE (n V0 U L ) 4K 0.11 0.00 1.61 7K 0.28 0.00 0.89 9K 0.39 0.17 0.83 U K 0.00 2.78 0.56 13K 0.00 0.39 0.95 14K 2.61 0.28 0.89 15K 0.00 0.44 1.33 Median 0.11 0.28 0.89 4P 0.00 0.00 0.22 7P 9.06 0.00 1.44 9P 0.00 0.00 1.50 H P 1.95 0.00 0.39 13P 0.00 0.00 0.52 14P 0.00 0.00 1.17 15P 0.00 0.00 1.17 Median 0.00 0.00 1.17 165 V o c a l i z a t i o n (Tables V 5, p. 96; V 6, p. 97; V 10, p. 102). The rater check of 14K showed that, i n that observation, Nomination Hold Out consisted of seven incidents combining Hold Out with V o c a l i z a t i o n and/or "Looking at people", only one of which conformed to the d e f i n i t i o n given for Nomination given i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Brown, 1973). A l l of the incidents i d e n t i f i e d by the computer were d e f i n i t i v e l y Operations of Reference, but most were examples of Nonexistence or Recurrence, according to Brown's d e f i n i t i o n s . These findings are discussed at length i n a subsequent subsection. Nomination Point. The defined configuration of codes for Nomina-tio n by the gesture Point was i d e n t i f i e d by INF i n f i v e of the seven observations of subject K for a median duration of 0.28% of the observation time; and i n none of the observations of subject P since Point was a ges-ture which never occurred i n the data for P (Table VI 17, p. 164). Although Point did not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample, some notion of the r e l i a b i l i t y of coding of this f i n d i n g may be i n f e r r e d from the r e l i a b i l i t - ' ies of the other component elements l i s t e d above. The rater check of 14K showed that, i n that observation, Nomination Point consisted of one incident combining Point with "Looking at people" which conformed w e l l to the d e f i n i t i o n of Recurrence given i n the l i t e r -ature (Brown, 1973). In addition, the rater check of 14K discovered 22 incidents which contained neither Hold Out nor Point but which were Nominative or quasi-Nominative i n terms of the d e f i n i t i o n for Nomination given i n the l i t e r -ature. Thirteen of these incidents were based on v o c a l i z a t i o n s other than speech, seven were based on speech, and two were s i l e n t behaviors. Recurrence Reach. The defined configuration of codes for Recurrence 166 by the gesture Reach was i d e n t i f i e d i n a l l seven of the observations of subject K for a median duration of 0.89% of the observation time; and i n a l l seven of the observations of subject P for a median duration of 1.17% of the observation time (Table VI 17, p. 164). The r e l i a b i l i t y of coding of t h i s f i n d i n g may be i n f e r r e d from the r e l i a b i l i t y of the component e l e -ments presented under Nomination Hold Out above and the r e l i a b i l i t y of Reach which was 78.40% for incidence and 55.71% for duration of agreement (Table V 6, p. 97). The r a t e r check of 14K showed that, i n that observation, Recurrence Reach consisted of two incidents combining Reach with V o c a l i z a t i o n and/or "Looking at people", one which seems to conform to the d e f i n i t i o n given by the l i t e r a t u r e for Nomination, and another which may be Recurrence; but i n one case the gesture Reach does not seem necessary to the meaning of the utterance. (Reach i s used i n putting the hand down i n preparing to crawl). A t h i r d incident involving Reach, when a toy previously put down i s r e -tr i e v e d , conforms to the Recurrence d e f i n i t i o n , but would not have been picked up by INF since neither V o c a l i z a t i o n nor "Looking at people" i s con-current with Reach i n the data. In addition, an incident i n which K s i l e n t l y grasps a b u i l d i n g block as h i s mother says, "Do another one",may i l l u s t r a t e the receptive use of Recurrence. Operations of Reference i n General. While the computer program, INF, did i d e n t i f y e f f i c i e n t l y both verbal and non-verbal behaviors by the d e f i n i t i o n s for Operations of Reference suggested by Brown (1973), the spot check .by.a rater showed that the d e f i n i t i o n s used did not i d e n t i f y a l l instances of the behaviors they were designed to cover. Moreover, the behaviors which were i d e n t i f i e d were not always examples of one p a r t i c u l a r Operation of Reference. U n t i l rules f or a l l the configurations of behavior 1 6 7 a n d c o n t e x t d e f i n i n g e a c h O p e r a t i o n o f R e f e r e n c e a r e k n o w n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s w i l l e v i d e n t l y h a v e t o r e m a i n w i t h a h u m a n c o d e r r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o m p u t e r . T h e f i n d i n g s a r e n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a l a w f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n i f i c a n t t o s i g n i f i c a t e w h i c h w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y i f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e w e r e t o b e t h o u g h t o f a s t h e b a s i s f o r s o m e s i m p l e p r e - v e r b a l " l a n g u a g e " . T h e f a c t t h a t b o t h n o n - v e r b a l a n d v e r b a l O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e w e r e s e e n t o s h a r e s o m e , s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o n t i n u i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f -e r e n c e a n d r e a l i t y d o e s n o t s e e m t o b e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y r e f e r e n t i a l . O c c u r r e n c e o f P i a g e t i a n S t a g e s B e h a v i o r c l a s s i f i e d a s P i a g e t ' s S t a g e 2 d i d n o t o c c u r i n t h e s e v e n o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r w h i c h f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e , a l t h o u g h i t w a s n o t e d i n o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e o n e m o n t h e a r l i e r , f o r b o t h s u b j e c t s . P i a g e t i a n S t a g e 3 . B e h a v i o r c l a s s i f i e d a s P i a g e t ' s S t a g e 3 o c c u r r e d i n f o u r o f t h e s e v e n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s u b j e c t K.. a n d i n f o u r o f t h e s e v e n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s u b j e c t P . S t a g e 3 b e h a v i o r a p p e a r e d s l i g h t l y m o r e p r e v a l -e n t w i t h P , m e d i a n 3 . 6 3 % , t h a n w i t h K , m e d i a n 0 . 5 0 % ( T a b l e V I 1 8 , p . 1 6 8 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y o f c o d i n g S t a g e 3 b e h a v i o r w a s 8 0 . 0 0 % f o r i n c i d e n c e a n d 7 8 . 9 7 % f o r d u r a t i o n ( T a b l e V 1 2 , p . 1 0 6 ) . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d t o w a r d a d e c r e a s e i n S t a g e 3 b e h a v i o r f r o m a h i g h p o i n t i n t h e f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n o f b o t h s u b j e c t s i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 5 , p . 1 6 9 . P i a g e t i a n S t a g e 4 . B e h a v i o r c l a s s i f i e d a s P i a g e t ' s S t a g e 4 o c c u r r e d i n a l l o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f b o t h s u b j e c t s . T h e m e d i a n d u r a t i o n f o r K w a s 5 7 . 3 7 % o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e ; a n d f o r P , 6 9 . 5 9 % o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e ( T a b l e V I 1 8 , p . 1 6 8 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y o f c o d i n g S t a g e 4 b e h a v i o r w a s 4 6 . 5 3 % T A B L E V I 1 8 O c c u r r e n c e : P i a g e t i a n S t a g e s D u r a t i o n a s % o f O b s e r v a t i o n T i m e O b s e r v a t i o n S t a g e 3 S t a g e 4 S t a g e 5 S t a g e 6 4 K 2 1 . 7 8 7 8 . , 2 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 7 K 0 . 0 0 9 1 , . 6 7 6 . 1 1 0 . 0 0 9 K 1 . 3 9 5 7 , , 3 7 4 0 . 7 4 0 . 0 0 U K 0 . 0 0 3 9 . , 2 2 6 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 3 K 0 . 5 0 5 8 . , 2 7 4 1 . 2 3 0 . 0 0 1 4 K 0 . 0 0 2 2 , , 2 3 5 9 . 5 3 2 . 5 6 1 5 K 1 . 1 7 2 8 . , 6 8 6 8 . 0 4 0 . 0 0 M e d i a n 0 . 5 0 5 7 , , 3 7 4 1 . 2 3 0 . 0 0 4 P 2 0 . 5 1 3 5 , . 2 4 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 7 P 8 . 6 7 8 6 . , 1 7 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 9 P 4 . 4 5 9 4 , . 9 4 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 H P 0 . 0 0 7 1 , . 2 1 3 . 6 1 0 . 0 0 1 3 P 3 . 6 3 2 4 , . 6 8 5 3 . 5 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 P 0 . 0 0 1 , . 6 1 6 7 . 5 6 0 . 0 0 1 5 P 0 . 0 0 6 9 , , 5 9 2 7 . 3 5 0 . 0 0 M e d i a n 3 . 6 3 6 9 . 5 9 3 . 6 1 0 . 0 0 169 Subject K 100 80 60 40 -20 -0 -S \ / \ Stage 3 \ ° ° Stage 4 ft 4 Stage 5 \ / N \ 10 11 12 13 14 15 Age i n Months 16 Subject P 100' 80" 601 40 20-o- ' - ' V Stage 3 o o Stage 4 ft * Stage 5 Age i n Months Figure 15 Occurrence: Piagetian Stages 170 f o r incidence and 51.71% for duration (Table V 12, p. 106). Stage 4 behavior was the most prevalent throughout the study, and a developmental trend showing early increase and gradual tapering off toward the end of the study i s apparent i n Figure 15, p. 169. Piagetian Stage 5. Behavior c l a s s i f i e d as Piaget's Stage 5 occurred i n s i x of the seven observations of subject K, and i n four of the seven ob-servations of subject P. Stage 5 behavior appeared more prevalent with sub-j e c t K, median 41.23% than with subject P, median 3.61% (Table VI 18, p. 168). R e l i a b i l i t y of coding Stage 5 behavior was 36.60% for incidence and 38.74% f o r duration (Table V 12, p. 106). A developmental trend s t a r t i n g from zero incidence early i n the study and increasing throughout i s apparent i n F i g -ure 15, p. 169. Piagetian Stage 6. Behavior c l a s s i f i e d as Piaget's Stage 6 occurred i n only one observation, 14K. I t did not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample. Occurrence of Piagetian Configurations Behaviors c l a s s i f i e d as Imitation and Symbolic Play by the d e f i n i t i o n s i n Appendix V occurred i n the data f o r each subject. Delayed Imitation and Motor Representation were not seen (Table VI 19, p. 171). The category of Piagetian Configurations did not occur i n any of the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. Imitation. Imitation was seen i n s i x of the seven observations of subject K, and i n f i v e of the seven observations of subject P. The median durations were 2.28% and 1.28% of the observation time, respectively (Table VI 19, p. 171). Most of the sequence of i m i t a t i o n involved v o c a l i z a t i o n , but i m i t a t i o n of gestures was also common. Usually the behavior imitated was that of the mother. Symbolic Play. This configuration of behavior was seen i n four of the seven observations of subject K, and i n three of the seven observations 171 TABLE VI 19 Occurrence Piagetian Configuration: Imitation (IM) , Delayed Imitation (DI), Symbolic Play (SY), Motor Representation (MR) Observation Duration of occurrence as % of observation time Imitation Delayed Imitation Symbolic Play Mo tor Representation 4K 2. 89 0.00 0. 72 0.00 7K 1. 72 0.00 0. 00 0.00 9K 2. 89 0.00 0. 00 0.00 U K 0. 44 0.00 0. 00 0.00 13K 2. 28 0.00 8. 58 0.00 14K 2. 50 0.00 5. 39 0.00 15K 0. 00 0.00 0. 78 0.00 Median 2. 28 0.00 0. 72 0.00 4P 0. 00 0.00 0. 00 0.00 7P 0. 00 0.00 0. 00 0.00 9P 4. .56 0.00 0. 00 0.00 IIP •1. ,28 0.00 0. .00 0.00 13P 2. .13 0.00 2. 53 0.00 14P 3. .34 0.00 4. ,40 0.00 15P 1. ,28 0.00 12. ,17 0.00 Median 1. ,28 0.00 0. ,00 0.00 172 of subject P. The median durations were 0.72% and 0.00% of the observation time, respectively (Table VI 19, p. 171). The t y p i c a l instance of Symbolic Play involved "pretending" to run a toy truck or car. Contingent Occurrence of Piagetian Stages •, Given Operations of Reference Table VI 20, p. 173, shows that, i n a l l of the observations i n which they were i d e n t i f i e d by the computer program INF, the Operation of Reference Nomination Hold Out and the Operation of Reference Nomin-ation Point occurred only with Piagetian Stages 4, 5, or 6. For example, reading across observation 11K i n Table VI 20, p. 173, Nomin-ation Hold Out did not occur, but under Nomination Point i n the column PH4 — - — , the contingent 1 occurrence of Stage 4 i n Nomination (Point) i s P 3.96% and, i n the column — - — , the contingent occurrence of Stage 5 i n Nomination (Point) i s 96.04%. Together these account f o r 100.00% of the Nomination (Point) i n the observation. The Operation of Reference Recurrence occurred only with Stages 4 or 5 i n a l l but one observation, 9K, i n which 20.48% of i t occurred with Stage 3 behavior. This very regular r e s u l t f or the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Operations of Reference i d e n t i f i e d by INF and Piagetian Stages i d e n t i f i e d by r a t e r s , despite the questionably imprecise d e f i n i t i o n s of the one and the low (but s t i l l w e l l above change: see p. 89) r e l i a b i l i t y of the other, suggests that these problems do not change the o v e r a l l r e s u l t . I f the computer d e f i n i t i o n s do not discriminate between the various Oper-ations of Reference, they s t i l l i d e n t i f y Operations of Reference as a whole; and i f the raters dp not agree p r e c i s e l y on Stage 3, 4 and 5 behaviours, they s t i l l separate the more advanced from the less advanced ( i n Piagetian terms) behavior. TABLE VI 20 Contingent Occurrence: Piagetian Stages Given Nomination (H) , Nomination (P) and Recurrence (R) Observation Nomination H Nomination P Recurrence R  H A 3 H r> 4 H n 5 H l~\ 6 P H 3 P O 4 P f\ 5 P f\ 6 R r> 3 R r\4 R O 5 R O 6 H H H H P P P P R R R R 4K 0.00 100.00 -* - * _ * _ * _ * _ * o.OO 100.00 - * - * 7K - * 100.00 0.00 - - - - - - *100.00 0.00 9K 0.00 100.00 0.00 - 0.00 0.00 100.00 - 20.48 80.72 0.00 11K - - * - 3.96 96.04 - - 0.00 100.00 13K - - _ _ o.OO 15.38 84.62 - 0.00 34.74 64.21 14K - 0.00 2.30 98.08 - 0.00 100.00 0.00 - 6.74 93.26 0.00 15K - - 0.00 0.00 100.00 - 0.00 16.54 66.92 Median 0.00**100.00** 0.00** 98.08** 0.00** 0.00**100.00** 0.00** 0.00**34.74 65.57** 0.00** 4P _ * _ * _ * _ * _ * _ * _ * - * 0 . 0 0 100.00 - * - * 7P 0.00 100.00 - - - - - 0.00 100.00 9P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o.OO 100.00 IIP - 96.92 3.07 - - - - - * 84.62 15.38 13P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o.OO 44.23 55.77 14P - - - - - - - - 0.00 90.60 15P = - - - - - 23.93 76.07 -Median 0.00** 98.46** 3.07** - - - _ - 0.00**84.62 65.92** -* no contingent occurrence because of the absence of one or both variables i n the observation ** median i s calculated on fewer than 7 observations (see footnote 2, p. 133) 174 The analysis of the videotape data for the fourteenth observation of subject K undertaken i n the next subsection tends to confirm t h i s i n t e r -p retation of the findings f or contingent occurrence of Piagetian Stages with Operations of Reference. I t serves as well to evaluate the use of these concepts i n speech a c q u i s i t i o n research. In making the following analysis of behavior analogous to Brown's (1973) Operations of Reference i n observation 14K the investigator's inferences about the meaning of the subject's actions were derived from raw data showing environmental context and the subject's non-verbal as well as his verbal behavior. This information was a v a i l a b l e and'could be repeated as often as needed by playing the videotape. Analysis was ass i s t e d by the v i s u a l time s i g n a l seen on the monitor and by the 23 categories of coded information and t r a n s c r i p t s of v o c a l i z a t i o n s and speech keyed p r e c i s e l y to the time s i g n a l , which were recorded on the V.T.R. Logs. Operations of Reference and the Object Concept Analysis of the behavior seen and heard i n observation 14K i l l u -s t rates much that has been written spe c u l a t i v e l y about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the Piagetian concept of a Permanent Object and r e f e r e n t i a l speech (Bloom, 1972; Edwards, 1973; S i n c l a i r de Zwart 1971 and 1973). The subject's play and his i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s mother can be interpreted i n terms of the development of e i t h e r the r e v e r s i b l e cognitive structure of Object Permanence (Piaget, 1954) or the "closed set" of Operations of Reference (Brown, 1973). In the experimentation and exploration of the subject's play, sensori-motor behaviors such as Hold Out and Point were seen to take varying roles and this accounts for t h e i r f a i l u r e to adhere to the adult d e f i n i t i o n s proposed by Brown for Operations of 175 Reference. The "Meanings" i n Sensori-Motor Behaviors. The f i n d i n g that sensori-motor behaviors play varying r o l e s rather than being r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n a l functions i n the behavior studied i s well i l l u -s t r a t e d by the sequence of events i n A c t i v i t y Units 17, 18 and 19 i n observation 14 of subject K. Table VI 21, pp. 176-177, shows the pertinent coded data from the V.T.R. Logs of 14K. The s e t t i n g f or t h i s sequence i s the infant's home and he i s s i t t i n g on the l i v i n g room f l o o r with h i s mother who has j u s t suggested that he use a small box for a garage for h i s toy car. (K was almost exactly 15 months old and was reported to be using a number of s i n g l e words at the time of the observation.) The sequence begins i n A c t i v i t y Unit 17 with the subject looking toward the box, opening his eyes wide, leaning forward and looking care-f u l l y at the box toward which his mother, i s now pointing. The small "card-board box i s lying- on i t s side with the open end-toward him and h i s v i s u a l search indicates that he has a concept of an object i n mind since he knows something i s missing. The r e l a t i v e permanence of t h i s object concept i s i n f e r r e d from the fact that he looks f o r something even though he has not j u s t seen i t removed—in Piaget's terms i t has undergone an " i n v i s i b l e displacement" (Piaget, '.1954). However, the subject did use the cue or index of the empty box to s t a r t the search, thus placing t h i s p a r t i c u l a r object permanence a c t i v i t y at the beginning of Stage 5 (see Appendix I I I ) . There i s no communication i n t h i s A c t i v i t y Unit, but some inner representation of nonexistence may be i n f e r r e d from the subject's behavior. In A c t i v i t y Unit 18, the subject s i t s up, looks at h i s mother and TABLE VI 21 V.T.R. Log Summary of Behaviors Seen a i n A c t i v i t y Units 17, 18, 19, Observation 14K Act-i v i t y Unit Time Piagetian Commun-Config- i c a t i o n Elem. Elem. Stage uration Function Behav. Env't. Description Operation of Reference 17 1481-1541 A5 18 19 1 1541-1570 1573-2002 2 2020-2061 06 06 06 3 2062- 06 2063 4 2101- 06 2104 RF RF RF EX RF EX WE LW L0 V0 P0 PU H0 SH VO WE H0 WE Opens eyes wide as he f i r s t sees box (30). 30 Leans forward and searches v i s u -a l l y around i t . 30 "Hm gyngl" ["All gone"?] MA Comment to mother about empty box. (30) Mother r e p l i e s "Urn Hml" 30 Points to pi c t u r e on empty box (30) MA Mother r e p l i e s , "There's your blocks, aren't they" [correction] "stacking b a r r e l s . " 30 Picks up box (30), holds out to MA mother, shakes i t , looks i n (29). 29 Mother says "Where are your stack-ing b a r r e l s , they're not i n the box, are they?" 29 "Eh'." as looks with wide-eyes into empty box (29). CA Holds out box (30) to camera then MA mother. Mother says, "Where did 30 you put them l a s t ? " Nonexistence Nonexistence Nonexis tence (Nomination?) Nonexistence Nonexistence Nonexistence TABLE VI 21 (cont.) Act-i v i t y Unit Time Piagetian Commun-Config- i c a t i o n Elem. Elem. Stage uration Function Behav. Env't. Description Operation of Reference 2122-2125 06 RF EX H0 WE MA 30 Holds out box to mother for inspection. Mother says, "Are they i n your truck?" Nonexistence Pertinent excerpts rather than entire sequences are presented here. 178 makes an exclamatory v o c a l i z a t i o n that sounds l i k e " A l l gone!" The behavior i s coded as having R e f e r e n t i a l and Expressive Communication Functions. The v a l i d i t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s as a comment about the s i t u a t i o n rests on the mother's aff i r m a t i v e reply. The Piagetian Stage of t h i s sequence i s derived from the subject's immediately subsequent behavior as w e l l as the current A c t i v i t y Unit. Object Constancy and the use of symbols and signs to convey 3 meanings are f i r s t achieved at Stage 6 and i t seems that during the remainder of this sequence the subject was not i n v e s t i g a t i n g whether the object was gone, but rather demonstrating i t s absence and using v o c a l i z a t i o n as a s p e c i f -i c symbol to r e f e r to the l o s s . This behavior also f i t s the d e f i n i t i o n of the Operation of Reference of Nonexistence because of the character of the v o c a l i z a t i o n and the context of the action. In the next second ( A c t i v i t y Unit 19 1) the subject again; turns h i s attention to the box and points to the picture of the missing contents on i t and then looks back at h i s mother. Although there i s no v o c a l i z a t i o n , this action i s coded as R e f e r e n t i a l Communication by inference from the mother's reply which indicates that she thinks that the subject has referred to the p i c t u r e . The Point gesture probably indicates Nonexistence, but could a l t e r n a t i v e l y be thought of as Nomination of the missing object. The subject's next action ( A c t i v i t y Unit 19 2) i s to pick up the box, hold i t out to h i s mother, shake i t and look into i t s empty i n t e r i o r . This seems to be a clear example of sensori-motor behavior used for acting out a concept as described by Piaget (1967). The f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n being acted out seems to be Nonexistence. The mother r e p l i e s as i f to a 3 This analysis i s derived from Piaget (1966) and described f u l l y i n Appendix VII, pp. 280-286. 179 statement, and the infant's action i s coded as having a R e f e r e n t i a l Commun-i c a t i o n Function (although, as l a t e r discussion w i l l show, t h i s may be a questionable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . In the next 1/6 second ( A c t i v i t y Unit 19 3), a small exclamation by the subject while looking into the box sounds and looks l i k e a vocal confirmation by the subject of h i s mother's j u s t previous remark, and has been coded as Expressive Communication and Nonexistence. The observer and camera are included i n the next non-verbal commun-i c a t i o n exchange (19 4). Here, the manipulation of the box by Hold Out expresses the Operation of Reference, Nonexistence. The action i s coded Expressive Communication because of the infant's wide-eyed look and R e f e r e n t i a l Communication because of the mother's question i n reply, confirming the t o p i c . The f i n a l a ction i n the sequence (19 5) i n which the infant again holds out the box, t h i s time c l o s e r to h i s mother for inspection,as she asks him a second question, ignores the content of both questions and continues to r e i t e r a t e the nonexistence of the missing object. This i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t e d "here and now" q u a l i t y of the subject's concept of the object, which i s t i e d to e x i s t i n g environmental cues when f i r s t achieved, as described by Piaget (l966)> The action, again, i s coded as serving Expressive and R e f e r e n t i a l Communication Functions. In summary, V o c a l i z a t i o n , Hold Out and Point were the key behaviors used to express the content or "meaning" of the communication i n A c t i v i t y Units 18 and 19, and Wide Eyes with "Looking at people" was the key behavior used for contact i n 17 and 19 of observation 14 of subject K. (See findings f or the r o l e s of Elements of Behavior i n Communication Functions, pp. 159-161.) 180 The "content" behaviors a l l expressed the same general "meaning" or f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n , "nonexistence". In t h i s data they were used a l t e r n a t i v e l y by the subject rather than c o n j o i n t l y . However, the f i n d i n g that these behaviors were used one at a time may be an a r t i f a c t of the slow motion analysis, since V o c a l i z a t i o n , Point and Hold Out a l l occurred within 25 seconds, which would, i n many analyses, be considered simultaneous. The f i n d i n g that Point may be used to i n d i c a t e Nonexistence i s consistent with Anderson's d e s c r i p t i o n of the attachment behavior out-of-doors of 15 to 30 month old children,who were often seen to point to the absence of a (presumed) object (Anderson, 1972). The pattern throughout the three A c t i v i t y Units analyzed was a " c i r c u l a r " one, i n the Piagetian sense, i n that the subject repeated actions with minor v a r i a t i o n s which served to c l a r i f y and test the con-cepts or schemas they were i n f e r r e d to express: alternations were seen between attending to the box and attending to the mother or camera, the one reviewing the schema of "nonexistence", the other communicating the "nonexistence" and r e c e i v i n g confirmation for the concept communicated. In the sequence analysed, the subject's systematic exploration (Piagetian Stage 5 behavior) led to a seri e s of expressions of object permanence (early Stage 6 behavior). No Piagetian Configurations were seen i n the A c t i v i t y Units 17, 18 or 19. Reference and Representation. The achievement of the concept of Object Constancy or Permanence i s , i n Piaget's view, the achievement of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the object as a meaning or representation. This mean-ing, by Stage 6, i s reversible:: i . e . , although the object may disappear, the infant has learned that reappearance i s pos s i b l e . However, i n the 181 sensori-motor period the concept i s s t i l l t i e d to concrete experience,as shown by the behavior described i n the preceding section. The achievement of Object Constancy has been suggested as a pre-r e q u i s i t e f or spoken Operations of Reference or " f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s " i n Bloom's terminology, (Bloom, 1973). Thus, the non-verbal Operations of Reference i d e n t i f i e d i n behavior i n t h i s study may be seen as strategies used by the infant during sensori-motor play to explore the constancy of objects. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of infant behavior i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n A c t i v i t y Unit 32 i n observation 14 of subject K. Table VI 22, p. ^82 shows the pertinent coded data from the V.T.R. Log of 14K. The sequence i n A c t i v i t y Unit 32 occurs about one minute a f t e r the behavior described i n A c t i v i t y Units 17, 18 and 19, above. I t begins i n A c t i v i t y Unit 32 1, with the subject putting a small toy dog on the box into which h i s mother has j u s t put a small g i r a f f e . His v o c a l i z a t i o n , "Wuh! Wuh!", i s an accepted "word" f o r a dog. The behavior i s coded as having a R e f e r e n t i a l Communication function, and Nomination i s i n f e r r e d . The f i x i n g of t h i s behavior at Stage 5 rather than Stage 6 was made on the basis of the subject's subsequent actions which seem to be ah exploration of the permanence of two objects, of which t h i s i s one, with apparent lack of absolute c e r t a i n t y about the r e v e r s i b i l i t y of t h e i r disappearance. In the next action (32 2) the subject imitates h i s mother's action by dropping the dog into the box. His v o c a l i z a t i o n seems to state that he has done so, and i s coded R e f e r e n t i a l . The operation of Reference i s thus, Nonexistence. The next a c t i o n two seconds l a t e r r e i t e r a t e s the one j u s t previous a f t e r the dog, which was caught on the l i p of the box momentarily, d i s -appears from view. TABLE VI 22 V.T.R. Log Summary of Behaviors Seen i n A c t i v i t y Unit 32, Observation 14K Act- Piagetian Commun- Operation i v i t y Config- i c a t i o n Elem. Elem. of Unit Time Stage uration Function Behav. Env't. . . Description Reference 32 1 3372-3383 05 — RF WS GR 32 30 Puts small toy dog (32) on box (30): "Wuh! Wuh!" Nomination 2 3394-3400 05 IN RF V0 DR 32 30 29 Inserts and drops dog (32) into box (30) (as mother j u s t did for small g i r a f f e ) : "Ah wah!" Nonexistence 3 3414-3415 05 — RF 30 "Ah Wah!" as dog disappears into box (30). Nonexistence 4 3433-3470 05 GR LI L0 30 29 Grasps and l i f t s box (30) looking into i t (29) as he raises box and continues to look i n a f t e r toys have f a l l e n out. Mother: "Ooh!", laughs. Recurrence (Nonexistence?) 5 3473-3474 05 EX RF SG ZL V0 30 34 "Eeeeh!" Shrug and smile as toy animals (34) seen. Recurrence 6 3474-3505 05 EX RF RE AM V0 32 Reaches f or and auto-manipulates one toy (32): "Eh, beah beah!" Recurrence 7 3511-3560 05 EX RF RE AM V0 31 Then gets the other (31): "Baah Bweh!" Mother: "Um Hm!" Recurrence r -00 183 In the next a c t i o n (32 4),the subject sets out to reverse the non-existence he and h i s mother have created i n making the toys disappear into the box. He grasps and l i f t s i t , turning i t upside down and watching the toys f a l l out. Then, rather than look for them on the f l o o r , he looks into the empty box over h i s head, i n d i c a t i n g that he does not absolutely believe that i f they are i n one place, they cannot be i n another. This a c t i o n may possibly i n d i c a t e Nonexistence. (Perhaps other experiences playing with more than one object have not given him c l e a r evidence on t h i s point.) There i s no communication here, but the actions are used for the operation of Recurrence. The mother's v o c a l i z a t i o n and laughter seems more a response to the f a l l i n g of the animals than a comment on t h e i r reappearance. Within a second, the subject looks down to see the animals and the i n t e n s i t y of h i s f e e l i n g i s indicated by a quick shrug and broad smile as he v o c a l i z e s . This v o c a l i z a t i o n i s coded as having Expressive and R e f e r e n t i a l Communication Functions, but may, l i k e the mother's v o c a l i z a -t i o n , be more a response to the s i t u a t i o n than a reference to i t . In either case, Recurrence i s the operation involved (32 5). The l a s t two actions i n the f i n a l ten seconds of the sequence; serve to confirm the reappearance of f i r s t one and then the other toy f o r the subject; and h i s mother's remark echoes his.--- His v o c a l i z a t i o n s , coded Expressive and R e f e r e n t i a l , f i t the d e f i n i t i o n of Recurrence. The p r o b a b i l i t y that i t i s t h e i r reappearance rather than any other character-i s t i c of the toys, that he i s commenting on, rests on the f a c t that he merely fingers them rather than engaging i n more active behavior with them at t h i s point. In summary, behaviors analogous to those termed by Brown (1973), 1 8 4 N o m i n a t i o n , N o n e x i s t e n c e a n d R e c u r r e n c e w e r e s e e n b o t h w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s p e e c h , i n A c t i v i t y U n i t 3 2 o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h o b s e r v a t i o n o f s u b j e c t K . T h e s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o r a t i o n o f a s c h e m a w h i c h i s t h e e s s e n c e o f P i a g e t ' s S t a g e 5 b e h a v i o r w a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s e q u e n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t i e s . I m i t a t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r b y t h e s u b j e c t a n d c o n f i r m a t i o n o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n s b y h e r v o c a l i z a t i o n s w e r e b o t h i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n . T h e s u b j e c t ' s v o c a l i z a t i o n s m a r k e d t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s i n h i s p l a y f u l u s e o f w h a t B r o w n ( 1 9 7 3 ) t e r m s a " c l o s e d s e t " o f t h r e e O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e . T h e t w o a n a l y s e s j u s t p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h b a s e d o n l e s s t h a n o n e m i n u t e o f d a t a i n t o t a l , p r o b a b l y h a v e g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o m a n y s e q u e n c e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h i s s u b j e c t a t t h i s a g e . T h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e a n a l y z e d s e q u e n c e s a r e t y p i c a l f o r t h e s u b j e c t r e s t s o n t h e f a c t s t h a t b o t h A c t i v i t y U n i t s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s a m e c o n c e p t u a l t o p i c , a n d t h a t A c t i v i t y U n i t s 2 3 , 2 7 , 3 4 a n d 3 5 w e r e s e e n , b y t h e s a m e k i n d o f s i m u l t a n e -o u s a n a l y s i s , t o b e v a r i a t i o n s o f A c t i v i t y U n i t 3 2 . A l t h o u g h e p i s o d e s o f b e h a v i o r q u i t e l i k e t h o s e a n a l y z e d a r e a p p a r e n t i n o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m 7 K o n w a r d , a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m i l a r s e q u e n c e o c c u r s i n o b s e r v a t i o n 1 5 K , t w e n t y d a y s l a t e r . ^ " ' I n o b s e r v a t i o n 1 5 K , t h e s u b j e c t s p e n d s w e l l o v e r a m i n u t e i n f i v e A c t i v i t y U n i t s w o r k i n g o n t h e s p e c i a l o b j e c t c o n c e p t p r o b l e m p o s e d b y a h o l e i n t h e d e c k o f t h e f a m i l y s u m m e r c o t t a g e , d o w n w h i c h s m a l l o b j e c t s m a y b e d r o p p e d b u t n o t r e t r i e v e d . ( A d u l t c o n v e r s a t i o n h e a r d i n t h e b a c k -g r o u n d o f t h e t a p e t e s t i f i e s t o t h e t y p i c a l n e s s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r ) . T h i s s e q u e n c e b e g i n s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t " r e c o g n i z i n g " a l o n g t w i g h e h a p p e n s u p o n w h i c h h a s f a l l e n f r o m a t r e e o v e r h a n g i n g t h e d e c k . ( P e r h a p s h e p e r c e i v e s i t a s a r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e s a m e t w i g h e h a s p l a y e d w i t h b e f o r e ? ) H e t h e n c a r r i e s t h e t w i g d i r e c t l y t o t h e h o l e , i n s e r t s i t , a n d d r o p s i t i n . H o w -e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e t w i g i s l o n g , i t i s s t i l l j u s t r e a c h a b l e a f t e r i t h a s f a l l e n , a n d c a n b e m a d e t o r e a p p e a r b y r e a c h i n g i n t h e h o l e a n d p u l l i n g i t u p . T h e s u b j e c t t e s t s t h i s r e c u r r e n c e b y n i n e v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n , " n o n e x i s t e n c e — r e c u r r e n c e " , b e f o r e l o s i n g t h e t w i g d o w n a s e c o n d h o l e . 185 Summary of Findings for Operations of Reference In s p i t e of the l i m i t a t i o n s to the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of f i n d -ings about s p e c i f i c Operations of Reference by the computer program INF, and the unproven generality of the examples of Operations of Reference found i n the small rater spot check, the r e s u l t s summarized below suggest that the Method provides a promising approach to answering the second research ques-t i o n , an approach worth following i n speech a c q u i s i t i o n research a f t e r improvement of i t s coding procedures for Operations of Reference. In summary, analysis of the behavior of two subjects i n a f i e l d t r i a l of the Method suggested these answers to the research questions posed on p. 78: "Can Operations of Reference be i d e n t i f i e d i n the behavior of infants before as well as a f t e r the f i r s t word?" A l l three Operations of Reference i n the extended descriptions given by Brown (1973) were i d e n t i f i e d i n both verbal and non-verbal behavior by a coder reviewing the raw videotape data. However, a p p l i c a t i o n of the l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n s suggested by Brown (see pp. 74-75) for two types of Nomination and one type of Recurrence i n the analysis by computer was not wholly successful. "Can Piagetian Stages be i d e n t i f i e d i n the i d e n t i c a l behavior?" Yes; the foregoing analysis of the f i e l d t r i a l data demonstrated how, with r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e data at a macroscopic l e v e l , i t i s possible to analyze infant behavior simultaneously by the two conceptual frame-works of Operations of Reference and Piagetian Stages. " W i l l behavior that expresses an Operation of Reference be at l e a s t at (Piagetian) Stage 4?" Findings about the contingent occurrence of Piagetian Stages i n Opera-tions of Reference support the conclusion that Operations of Reference 186 begin at Stage 4, but the questionable r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the coding of the two types of data involved make t h i s a tentative conclu-sion. "Can Piagetian Configurations be i d e n t i f i e d i n some of the i d e n t i c a l data?" The configurations Imitation and Symbolic Play were seen, but i n f r e -quently, i n behavior c l a s s i f i e d as showing an Operation of Reference. Once again, the basic d i f f i c u l t y l i m i t i n g the usefulness of the f i e l d t r i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n r e l i a b i l i t y of secondary c o d i n g — t h i s time of Piagetian Stages and Operations of Reference. Improvement of coder t r a i n i n g was the remedy proposed f o r Piagetian Stages on pp. 107-108". Re-assignment of the task of coding Operations of Reference to human coders (instead of continuing to use computer i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) was proposed on,, p. 166. An example of the operation of the Method to pursue further i n v e s t i -gation of the constructs of reference and representation i s discussed i n Appendix VII (pp. 280-286). E t h o l o g i c a l Findings The purpose of t h i s section of the findings chapter i s to report on two aspects of the c o l l e c t i o n of e t h o l o g i c a l data c l a s s i f i e d as Elements of Behavior by the primary coding procedures of the Method (see pp. 40-48). The f i r s t aspect i s data c o l l e c t i o n . In the subsection, "Coding E f f i c i e n c y " , the effectiveness of the raw data recording technique and the expectation that the e t h o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s could record a l l of the behavior seen and heard i s discussed. The second aspect i s fin d i n g s . The subsection, "Toward an Ethogram",summarizes the e t h o l o g i c a l findings produced by the f i e l d t r i a l of the Method. 1 8 7 C o d i n g E f f i c i e n c y E f f i c i e n c y i n c o d i n g d a t a d e p e n d s , a p a r t f r o m t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t e r s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V ( p p . 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 ) , f i r s t u p o n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e c o r d e d d a t a p r e s e n t e d , a n d s e c o n d , u p o n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e c o d -i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p r o v i d e d . M e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y t h e g e n e r a l c o d e s " N o d a t a " ( N D ) , w h i c h w a s e n t e r e d i n t h e V T R L o g w h e n -e v e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o m a k e a c o d i n g d e c i s i o n w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y s i g n a l o n t h e v i d e o t a p e , a n d " U n c l a s s i f i a b l e " ( U N ) , w h i c h w a s e n t e r e d i n t h e V T R L o g w h e n e v e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h o u g h p l a i n l y p e r c e i v e d b y t h e c o d e r , d i d n o t f i t i n t o a n y o f t h e c o d i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p r o v i d e d . L i m i t s . T h e a m o u n t o f l e s s t h a n e f f i c i e n t d a t a a c c e p t a b l e i n t h i s M e t h o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n w a s a r b i t r a r i l y s e t a t 2 0 % o r l e s s f o r a n y o n e c a t e -g o r y o f d a t a c o d e d " N D " d u r i n g - a n o b s e r v a t i o n , a n d 1 0 % o r l e s s f o r a n y o n e c a t e g o r y o f d a t a c o d e d " U N " d u r i n g a n o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e c o d e U N o c c u r r e d i n o n l y t w e l v e o f t h e p o s s i b l e 1 4 0 i n s t a n c e s o f t h e t e n c a t e g o r i e s o f E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r i n t h e s e v e n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e t w o s u b j e c t s . A l l o f t h e s e w e r e w e l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f d a t a c o d e d u n c l a s s i f i a b l e i n o n e c a t e g o r y i n o n e o b s e r v a t i o n b e i n g 4 . 7 8 % . B e h a v i o r s m o s t o f t e n c o d e d " U N " w e r e i n t h e c o d i n g c a t e g o r y f o r t h e l o w e r f a c e , . 0 9 % ; t h e h e a d , . 0 4 % ; a n d v o c a l i z a -t i o n , . 0 4 % . ( N o s u m m a r y t a b l e w a s i f e q i i i ' r - e d i f o r t t h e s e d d a f a ) ) F i n d i n g s f o r t h e c o d e " N D " i n t h e f i e l d t r i a l o f t h e M e t h o d a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V I 2 3 , p . 1 8 8 . T h e c a t e g o r i e s o f E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r f o r O r i e n t a -t i o n , V o c a l i z a t i o n , M a n i p u l a t i o n s a n d G e s t u r e s o f t h e L e f t H a n d , M a n i p u l a -t i o n s a n d G e s t u r e s o f t h e R i g h t H a n d , L e g a n d P o s t u r e p a t t e r n s , G r o s s p a t -t e r n s a n d L o c o m o t i o n , a l l f a l l w i t h i n t h e a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t , w i t h m e d i a n T A B L E V I 2 3 O c c u r r e n c e : S e q u e n c e s C o d e d " N o D a t a " ( N D ) i n C a t e g o r i e s o f E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r D u r a t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e a s % o f o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e O b s e r - O r i e n - L e g L o c o -v a t i o n F a c e 1 F a c e 2 H e a d t a t i o n V o c a l M / G L M / G R P o s t u r e G r o s s m o t i o n N D N D ND N D ND N D N D N D N D N D 4 K 5 3 . 6 4 4 5 . 1 4 4 4 . 9 8 3 . 1 1 0 . 0 0 4 . 2 8 2 . 7 8 2 . 1 1 2 . 7 2 2 . 1 1 7 K 6 3 . 1 9 5 9 . 7 4 5 5 . 8 6 5 . 3 9 0 . 0 0 4 . 6 1 6 . 7 2 2 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 9 K 6 9 . 8 9 5 8 . 4 4 5 8 . 2 2 1 . 8 9 0 . 0 0 2 3 . 7 8 1 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 0 . 6 7 0 . 6 7 U K 2 7 . 9 8 2 4 . 2 1 2 3 . 9 3 2 . 0 5 0 . 0 0 1 . 9 4 1 . 4 4 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 3 K 1 9 . 2 1 1 5 . 2 6 1 0 . 9 1 . 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 6 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 4 K 5 1 . 9 4 5 0 . 7 2 3 2 . 7 8 4 . 2 8 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 7 2 1 1 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 1 . 9 4 0 . 2 2 1 5 K 6 6 . 1 5 6 3 . 3 1 4 1 . 8 6 2 . 8 9 0 . 0 0 1 4 . 5 1 6 . 1 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 M e d i a n 5 3 . 6 4 5 0 . 7 2 4 1 . 8 6 2 . 8 9 0 . 0 0 4 . 6 1 2 . 7 8 0 . 0 0 0 . 6 7 0 . 2 2 % < 2 0 % 1 4 . 2 9 1 4 . 2 9 1 4 . 2 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 7 1 . 4 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 P 3 4 . 3 9 3 2 . 5 6 9 . 0 6 6 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 1 1 . 9 4 6 . 3 9 2 . 0 6 1 . 2 2 1 . 2 2 7 P 5 0 . 6 9 5 0 . 4 7 2 9 . 1 5 4 . 5 5 0 . 0 0 5 . 8 3 5 . 1 1 2 . 7 8 3 . 1 6 2 . 7 8 9 P 5 0 . 4 4 4 6 . 7 7 3 3 . 4 8 0 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 7 8 0 . 7 8 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 I I P 3 3 . 5 6 3 4 . 8 3 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 7 2 1 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 3 P 5 4 . 3 3 5 4 . 1 1 6 5 . 8 9 3 . 2 8 0 . 0 0 9 . 1 1 7 . 3 3 0 . 7 2 1 . 7 8 0 . 0 0 1 4 P 3 4 . 2 6 3 3 . 9 3 2 7 . 5 3 1 . 8 4 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 7 5 1 . 5 0 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 4 1 5 P 4 6 . 6 7 3 9 . 7 2 3 9 . 3 3 1 . 7 8 0 . 0 0 6 . 8 3 3 . 1 7 1 . 0 6 1 . 3 9 1 . 0 6 M e d i a n 4 6 . 6 7 3 9 . 7 2 2 9 . 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 6 . 8 3 3 . 1 7 0 . 7 8 1 . 2 2 0 . 4 4 % < 2 0 % 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 8 . 5 7 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 7 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 189 durations of ND ranging from 0.00% to 6.83% of the observation time. How-ever, the categories (upper) Face 1, (lower) Face 2, and Head are a l l above the acceptable l i m i t , with median durations of ND ranging from 29.15% to 53.64% of the observation time. Only one observation, 13K, was within the l i m i t of acceptable e f f i c i e n c y . O v e r a l l , i n these three categories there was an estimated 40% loss of data. The cause of most of t h i s loss of data i n these categories was the momentary turning away from the camera of a subject's face or the covering of part of i t by hands or objects while playing. These b a r r i e r s to macro-scopic analysis of f a c i a l and head patterns are often not r e a d i l y apparent i n a r e a l time review of the videotape data or i n l i v e observation because the observer's w h o l i s t i c p r o j e c t i v e perception tends to f i l l i n any small information gaps. Some loss of data was also a t t r i b u t a b l e to the t e c h n i c a l problems of momentarily poor camera focus as the subject moved about/ interference with the v i s u a l s i g n a l as a r e s u l t of dubbing, and poor indoor l i g h t i n g i n natural s e t t i n g s . In a l l these s i t u a t i o n s , an information los s i n s u f f i c i -ent to prevent the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of gross movement was frequently enough to make i t impossible to i d e n t i f y subtle changes i n f a c i a l expression. Two points to consider i n evaluation of t h i s i n e f f i c i e n c y i n data c o l l e c t i o n are, f i r s t , that, apart from technical problems, i t i s probably no d i f f e r e n t from the unreported i n e f f i c i e n c i e s of other observation methods; and second, that, despite the loss of data, r e l i a b i l i t y of coding these Elements of Behavior was adequate and a great many findings were obtained from the 60% of data that were - av a i l a b l e . Comprehensiveness. The code UN was recorded when coders were con-fronted with behavior i n the data for which no d e f i n i t i o n i n the c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n system of Elements of Behavior was appropriate. A d d i t i o n a l l y , 190 coders noted s i t u a t i o n s i n which, although a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be applied, i t d i d not seem wholly s e n s i t i v e to the change i n behavior the coder wished to record. (The coding procedure used was to record each change i n a l l eleven categories of behavior. See Chapter I I I , p. 47.) These lacks of comprehensiveness i n the coding system are discussed i n t h i s section. Supplementary Codes. There i s a dif f e r e n c e between the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l items to define a d d i t i o n a l Elements of Behavior i n the re p e r t o i r e of the subject and the need for supplementary codes to provide a complete record of a l l the data seen, although there may be some overlap i n these two types of items. Examples of supplementary codes used i n the Method, which are not Elements of Behavior, are: "Disequilibrium", i n the category of Gross patterns, the behavior seen when a subject r i g h t s himself a f t e r a loss of balance; "Dependent Posture", also i n Gross patterns, the behavior seen when a subject i s being c a r r i e d around; and "Support" i n Manipulations and Gestures, when a hand or arm i s used i n postural support. Presumed examples from the codes taken from McGrew are: "Move Upper" limb, "Move Lower" limb, " F a l l " and "Physical Contact" (McGrew, 1972). (See Appendix I for complete d e f i n i t i o n s . ) The following needs f o r a d d i t i o n a l supplementary codes were suggested by coders for the categories of Elements of Environment: 1. a way of coding two or more objects as simultaneous s t i m u l i , a. when each hand i s holding one of two combined objects (need to show the combination) b. when looking at two objects c. when hearing two sounds d. when taking two objects with one hand e. when touching or supporting s e l f with an object held i n the hand 191 f. when l y i n g or s i t t i n g on something but also touching f l o o r or chair etc. (The procedure used for b, c, and d was to create a code number for the combined objects. In the other s i t u a t i o n s part of the data had to be omitted.) 2. a way to show proximal contact of an object or person on the subject's face, head or body. (This might be solved by adding columns for head and body to the Element of Environment categories l i k e the present category for the limbs.) In the categories of Elements of Behavior, the following needs for a d d i t i o n a l supplementary codes beyond those l i s t e d i n Appendix I, were suggested by coders: 1. a code c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Manipulations and Gestures that would record touching an object or person continuously i n r e s t i n g contact. (The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "Touch" i s momentary.) Very frequently "Automanipu-l a t i o n " or "Support" are seen i n "unmotivated" touching, but there i s no code f o r other continuous contact of the hands with an object or person. Brannigan and Humphries' "Single" defines the gesture (Brannigan and Humphries, 1972). 2. a code c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Manipulations and Gestures for release of an object which i s not thrown, dropped or put down—"ungrasped" describes i t . An Element of Behavior for "Give" would f u l f i l l much of t h i s need, and may be a sound addition to the infant ethogram i n view of recent analyses of case (Edwards, 1973) and the present observations of the donor-beneficiary f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n . 3. a separate code for opening the mouth to receive objects that i s not the Mouth Open described by McGrew as a response to "strange peers . . . 192 novel s i t u a t i o n . . . [and] when s t a r t l e d and when breathing heavily a f t e r exertion" (p. 46). Possibly McGrew's mouth opening to receive a d d i t i o n a l a i r should be placed i n the new category which may be typed as a supplementary code (see p. 190). 4. a code to use for the r e s t i n g p o s i t i o n of the mouth which may or may not have the l i p s closed as required by McGrew's Normal Face. The "Basic Mouth" of Brannigan and Humphries (1972) would f u l f i l l t h i s need. 5. a procedure to i d e n t i f y any code resumed a f t e r a very short hiatus due to t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , so that the resumption may be distinguished from a new instance of the behavior. Often these supplementary codes are a r t i f a c t s of the coding system, required only because of the p a r t i c u l a r • d i v i s i o n of behavior into categor-ies f o r coding which was chosen. The supplementary codes tend to be used as place holders, and as such prevent the use of Elements of Behavior which might overinterpret the behavior observed. While supplementary codes have a necessary use as i n t e r s t i t i a l t i s -sue i n the recorded corpus, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r f e e l s that they should be marked i n coding and analysis as d i f f e r e n t from the Elements of Behavior that are being i d e n t i f i e d i n et h o l o g i c a l research as the r e p e r t o i r e of the human in f a n t . This marking could be'done i n the f i r s t of the three column spaces assigned to each category. The procedure suggested i s to p r e f i x each Element of Behavior code entered i n the Log with an "X", and to leave the supplemental codes unmarked. If t h i s were done for Elements of Behav-i o r only when the behavior begins and not when i t resumes a f t e r the sort of te c h n i c a l hiatus described above, the need discussed above would also be met. The present computer programs would discriminate the marked and un-marked codes and give findings f o r each separately. Thus, the data coded i n 193 the supplementary codes would not be l o s t , and i f subsequent findings sug-gested that they were s a l i e n t to an Element of Behavior, they could be r e t r i e v e d and re-analyzed. A d d i t i o n a l Elements of Behavior. The continuous development of the human ethogram by refinement, addition and d e l e t i o n of items has been described: As i s usual with observational work, the observer continuously r e f i n e s the data and t h e i r recording, and we are convinced that a great deal of further refinement i s s t i l l p ossible, and w i l l i n fa c t be required even during further q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and further experimentation. (Tinbergen and Tinbergen, 1972, p. 13) It w i l l be remembered that McGrew's catalogue consists of 111 morphologically d i s t i n c t items. The catalogue was constructed on the assumption that every i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t element of behavior was equally important. . . . I t . c l e a r l y would be unwise to assume that items of behavior with a low frequency of occurrence are unim-portant. (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p. 37) The following needs for a d d i t i o n a l Elements of Behavior or expan-sions of McGrew's d e f i n i t i o n s of present Elements, as l i s t e d i n Appendix I, were suggested by coders. In the category of upper face behaviors, Face 1, are needed: 1. a code to ind i c a t e r a i s i n g the eyebrows for more than the 1/6 second of Eyebrow Flash and without the increased distance between upper and lower l i d s of Wide Eyes. In slow motion both infants were sometimes seen to r a i s e the brows while a c t u a l l y lowering the l i d s , an expression seen i n adults from which the viewer i n f e r s d i s b e l i e f or cynicism. 2. a code to i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between a " l i s t e n i n g look" and a "seeing look." The f i r s t i s the somewhat abstracted open eyed gaze, with the eyes usually directed to one side, of the l i s t e n e r ; the other The f a c t that McGrew's catalogue had considerably increased by the time i t was used i n t h i s study i s , i t s e l f , a demonstration of the need for a d d i t i o n a l elements of behavior. 194 i s the ordinary "looking at" gaze i n which the eyes are directed to the topi c object. A d e s c r i p t i v e d i f f e r e n c e was not defined by the coders, but may involve "cocking the head" i n some minimal way. This d i f f e r -ence was seen i n one subject between 12 and 13 months and may well occur very much e a r l i e r with the Piagetian Stage 2 and 3 coordination of v i s i o n and hearing. 3. an infant variant of the d e f i n i t i o n of Pucker Face which does not neces-s a r i l y include forehead and nose wrinkles, which hardly show on infant faces, although the remaining configuration of brows raised at inner end, mouth open, eyes p a r t i a l l y closed and "screwed up" appearance are present. In the category of lower face behaviors, Face 2, the following: 1. use of Grant's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Purse. The l i p s are pressed together, then pushed out i n the centre. This i s s i m i l a r i n appearance to 'Twist Mouth' without the f i n a l twist. The i n d i c a t i o n s are that i t i s again an ambivalent response. (Grant, 1969, p. 52) (Twist Mouth was added to the categories used early i n the study.) 2. an infant variant of the d e f i n i t i o n of Cry, without v i s i b l e tears. (See d e f i n i t i o n i n Appendix I.) In the category of Vocalizations: 1. a d i f f e r e n t code for phonating v o c a l i z a t i o n s and those which may use part of the vocal apparatus, but not for phonation, such as gustatory l i p smackings and audible burps, or those i n which phonation i s a c c i -dental during strenuous exertions, l i k e grunts. In the category of Manipulations: 1. broadening of McGrew's d e f i n i t i o n f o r Beat Object to include blows with l a t e r a l and underarm d i r e c t i o n s as well as the "overarm blow." (See d e f i n i t i o n s i n Appendix I.) 195 2. broadening of McGrew's d e f i n i t i o n s for " L i f t " and "Lower" to include l a t e r a l transport of objects; or the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a new supple-mentary code d e f i n i t i o n with three aspects, transport up, transport down and transport l a t e r a l . (See d e f i n i t i o n s i n Appendix I.) In the category of Leg and Posture patterns: 1. a code to report toe movements, such as the "clenching" sometimes seen when the hand grasps an object, or i n a f f e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s such as excited a n t i c i p a t i o n , or rage. 2. a variant of McGrew's " L i e " (Appendix I) i n which the body i s prone, but the chest i s o f f the ground and the arms are extended i n support. This involves head balance and advanced co n t r o l of the torso. 3. a new code f o r stationary but ac t i v e prone behavior i n which head, arms and legs are i n motion, often l i f t e d from the surface on which the infant i s l y i n g , and the torso may r o l l from side to side or rock from chest to abdomen. This behavior was seen antecedent to creeping. 4. a new code f or stationary behavior i n which the body i s supported on hands and forearms and knees (crawl posture), often accompanied by f l e x i o n of the hips which produces a rocking movement. This behavior was seen antecedent to crawling. 5. a varia n t of McGrew's "Stand Up" i n which, while the infant i s support-ing himself i n standing p o s i t i o n , the knees are flexed and extended i n rapid succession with a bouncing motion. This behavior was seen antecedent to walking. No measurement was made of the amount of data affected by the sup-plementary codes and a d d i t i o n a l Elements of Behavior for which changes are recommended i n t h i s section. Probably i t averaged le s s than 5% i n any one observation. In summary, the e f f i c i e n c y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of data 196 used i n the f i e l d t r i a l was adequate, and although le s s than optimal amounts of data for head and face behaviors were recorded, useful findings about the behavior seen i n these categories were obtained. Toward an Ethogram The purpose of the f i e l d t r i a l was not to gather e t h o l o g i c a l i n f o r -mation to add to the l i t e r a t u r e of the human infant ethogram (Blurton Jones, 1972b); however, the substantial amount of e t h o l o g i c a l data accumu-la t e d i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l study of the two inf a n t s which constituted the f i e l d t r i a l does have some findings to contribute. Although based on an N of two, some generality of the findings can be supported i n terms of t h e i r face v a l i d i t y i n comparison with the findings of other i n v e s t i g a t o r s . In addition, some findings suggest future investigations which may prove prof-i t a b l e i n enlarging knowledge of how the r e p e r t o i r e of human non-verbal communication develops. Comparison of L i s t s . Each e t h o l o g i c a l investigator works to v a l i -date the l i s t of behaviors i n the ethogram of the species under study through "researches which are c h i e f l y observational. The l i s t s used i n developing the human ethogram vary i n complexity and focus depending on the i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The basis for the primary coding i n t h i s study was McGrew's (1972) l i s t , a compilation b u i l t i n part on the work of Grant with adults (1969), which defines the behaviors of nursery school c h i l d r e n . To the 126 items selected from McGrew, 14 were added either as supplementary codes or tentative a d d i t i o n a l Elements of Behavior required by the younger age of the two subjects. (See Appendix I for the proven-ance of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used.) Further needs f or both types of items were given i n an e a r l i e r section of t h i s discussion. 197 Of the 126 items chosen from McGrew's l i s t as possibly applicable to i n f a n t s , a l l but 25 were found i n the data of t h i s study. These omissions f a l l into two groups: those t y p i c a l behaviors which were absent from the data but known to occur at other times, and other behaviors which may or may not be t y p i c a l i n the r e p e r t o i r e of the two subjects either i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y or as representatives of c h i l d r e n of that age group. T y p i c a l behaviors not seen were: Red Face, Sneeze, Yawn, D i g i t Suck, Snatch and Wave. Behaviors not seen which may or may not be t y p i c a l were: Face Thrust, Grind Teeth, Beckon, Dip, Hand Cover, Hold Hands, Hand on Back, Punch, Repel, Scoop, T i c k l e , Smooth, Play Crouch, F l i n c h , Wrestle, Stretch and Chase. The general category, Move, which i s l i k e l y a supplementary code type, was not used also. Another e t h o l o g i c a l l i s t i s that used by Brannigan and Humphries (1972) for the non-verbal communication of human beings without regard to age. This l i s t r e f i n e s some of the Elements used by McGrew and Grant so that, f or instance, Smile i s divided into ten types as against McGrew's three. Of the 136 non-verbal communication behaviors l i s t e d by Brannigan and Humphries (1972), 42 were seen i n the data of t h i s study, f i v e of which were not among those included i n McGrew's l i s t . I t i s the impression of the coders i n the present study that many of the behaviors c l a s s i f i e d could have been appropriately assigned the r e f i n e d d e f i n i t i o n s of Brannigan and Humphries had that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system been used. At the l e v e l of refinement used by McGrew (1972), c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the data seen i n the present study supports the view that the non-verbal communication r e p e r t o i r e of 8-15 month old infants covers almost the e n t i r e gamut of the adult r e p e r t o i r e (Blurton Jones, 1972b). At the l e v e l of refinement of Brannigan and Humphries (1972) t h i s remains an open question 198 which could be resolved by a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i n e r d e f i n i t i o n s to the data. The c a p a b i l i t y f o r r e p e t i t i o n and slow motion or stop frame analysis of the Method makes t h i s a p r a c t i c a l recommendation for further development of the human infant ethogram. The pertinence of t h i s non-verbal communication r e p e r t o i r e to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech has been pointed out by Bloom: There have been no studies of the development of k i n e s i c movements i n r e l a t i o n to the development of speech. An important issue that remains to be resolved i s how children's developing gestures r e l a t e to the systematic and conventional system of gestures and "body language" used by adults. . . . But, further, one would l i k e to know how the c h i l d ' s movements augment h i s speech, and whether the i n t e r a c t i o n between expressive movements and speech r e l a t e to the c h i l d ' s perception of combined gestural and auditory cues from adults. (Bloom, 1974, p. 291) Summary This chapter and the previous one have presented findings from the f i e l d t r i a l used to t e s t the Method of observation and analysis designed for the study of infant behavior relevant to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. Investigation of research questions'relating to the phylogeny of Communic-ation Functions and the ontogeny of Operations of Reference posed i n Chap-ter IV has demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the Method for the gathering and analysis of data. Discussion of these strengths and weak-nesses i n Chapters V and VI has led to a number of recommendations for modifications to the Method to improve the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of i t s fin d i n g s . E t h o l o g i c a l findings i n c i d e n t a l to the research questions also demonstrated the c a p a b i l i t y of the Method as an observational t o o l . The next and f i n a l chapter presents the conclusions of the author i n a speculative discussion of the p o t e n t i a l usefulness of the Method. CHAPTER VII OVERVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE METHOD When the work described i n the previous chapters i s considered as a methodological response to the needs of p r e l i n g u i s t i c research, two main purposes are seen to have guided the development of the Method. The f i r s t i s a variant^ of experimental p r a c t i c e i n which, "the goal of methodology i s to rule out those p l a u s i b l e r i v a l hypotheses which make comparisons ambiguous and te n t a t i v e " (Webb et a l , 1966, p. 5). In the f i e l d of p r e l i n g u i s t i c s , which i s more frequently d e s c r i p t i v e than experimental, u n r e l i a b i l i t y i n data c o l l e c t i o n or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and questionable representativeness of subjects appear to be the main points of v u l n e r a b i l i t y . Thus, the p o t e n t i a l usefulness of the Method can be gauged by how well i t obviates these p l a u s i b l e r i v a l hypotheses to account for findings to which speech a c q u i s i t i o n research i s p e c u l i a r l y vulnerable. The second purpose i s the i n t e g r a t i v e one: to e f f e c t a means of synthesis or of discovering informative in t e r a c t i o n s of the varied t h e o r e t i c a l approaches concerned with p r e l i n g u i s t i c s . The procedures for secondary coding and multiple analysis of data were designed with t h i s i n mind. How well the Method achieves t h i s objective can be gauged by ^The f i e l d t r i a l may be seen as an example of what Campbell and Stanley term "quasi-experimental" research (1963, p. 34) despite the fac t that i t d i f f e r s from t h e i r time ser i e s experiment (p. 37) i n that an experimental condition i s not introduced into the series of observa-tions. The f i e l d t r i a l corresponds i n design to the category of simple observation studies described by Webb et a l i n which "the investigator does not intervene i n the production of the material" (p. 115): i . e . i t i s d e f i n i t i v e l y d e s c r i p t i v e rather than experimental. 199 200 consideration of the examples of i t s use which the f i e l d t r i a l and Appendix VII provide. Evidence concerning the achievement of each of these methodol-o g i c a l purposes i s reviewed i n t h i s f i n a l chapter. The t h i r d theme examined i n t h i s chapter i s the workability of the Method as an i n v e s t i g a t i v e t o o l . The answer to t h i s question comes from the experience of the investigator as a user of the Method. I t r e f l e c t s the i n s i g h t s , experiences and questions engendered by immersion for more than a year i n analysis of infant pre-speech behavior. The following discussion of strengths and l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method begins with an evaluation based on the personal experience of the investigator before continuing to an examination of the effectiveness of the procedures of the Method and an exploration of the implications of the Method for research design. The short concluding section l i s t s a wide-ranging sample of research questions to which the Method could appropriately be applied. Description and discussion of these possible applications i s not elaborated because the f i e l d t r i a l and Appendix VII have already provided lengthy studies of applied methodology. Strengths The investigator found the Method to be both s u i t a b l e and congenial for developmental study, useful f or c o l l e c t i n g and analyzing data relevant to speech a c q u i s i t i o n hypotheses, and demanding of i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e i n making inferences from observations of raw data. S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Developmental Study The user of the Method, who, l i k e the i n v e s t i g a t o r , chooses the e t h o l o g i c a l approach to developmental study, p a r t i c i p a t e s v i c a r i o u s l y , and 201 thus does not i n t e r f e r e i n the processes of the i n t e r f a c e between the developing infant and his world. The e f f e c t on the user of t h i s p a r t i c -i p a t i o n i s heightened awareness of and respect for the coping i n d i v i d u a l i n f a n t . Out of t h i s comes the delight of developmental discovery as the infant's r e p e r t o i r e of behaviors appears i n sequence, grows and elaborates. T e l e v i s i o n technology enables the user to share h i s d i r e c t experience and insig h t s with parents, other professionals and students. As more informa-t i o n accumulates about the development of a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , the Method holds promise as a c l i n i c a l t o o l also. P a r t i c i p a t i o n . The e t h o l o g i c a l procedures of the Method provide an extensive range of variables i n the primary coding and allow the user to make a choice between a d e s c r i p t i v e or an experimental approach to the study of behavior. This investigator chose a d e s c r i p t i v e approach because i t permits observation of the l i f e experiences of the subject as these are represented on videotape. This seems a more congenial r o l e than that of the experimenter for two reasons: f i r s t i t requires a minimum of manipu-l a t i o n of the subject or h i s environment; and, second, lends i t s e l f to " i n depth" rather than t r a n s i t o r y observed experience with subjects i n a r e l i -able manner that eliminates the methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s i n previous research described i n Chapter I. That the approach to knowledge through unstructured observation does not preclude s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y i s one point of the discussion i n the l a t e r sections of t h i s chapter on rigorous observational inferences (pp. 210-213) and research design (pp. 215-216). Discovery. A f t e r a long session of repeated r e a l time and slow motion viewing of a subject's behavior on videotape, the user doing the coding procedure a r r i v e s at a t i g h t - k n i t d e s c r i p t i v e web i n which the movements seen i n each area of the subject's body are almost a l l accounted 202 for as parts of observable sequences, and nearly every environmental stim-ulus has been associated with an observed response. At t h i s point, a strong impression i s f e l t that no behavior i n the raw data i s "meaningless" or "random"—every tiny movement or r e o r i e n t a t i o n seems to be a contributing part of some goal-directed act. The subject's action may be as inconsid-erable as an automatic adjustment of posture, or as important as a conscious act to meet a perceived need, but no behavior i s superfluous, a l l are integrated. For the user, the organism-in-environment i s an experienced concept, the outlines of which are captured on the videotape log. So much does each observed behavior seem to occur l o g i c a l l y that 2 unexplained movements send the coder back searching for clues: why does the infant, seen i n slow motion, glance at the observer for two-sixths of a s e c o n d ? — r e a l time, with i t s i n t e l l i g i b l e sound track, reveals that his mother has spoken to the observer; why does the infant, seen i n slow motion, s l i g h t l y l i f t and then lower his hand i n m i d - a i r ? — i n r e a l time he i s seen to be imitating h i s mother who r a t t l e s some blocks i n a t i n before him; and so on. In neither case would the subject's f l e e t i n g behavior l i k e l y have been perceived by the coder i f the analysis had not been done i n slow motion. In such a context of responsiveness, movements by a subject that are not accounted for as integrated behaviors cannot be dismissed as "acciden-t a l " . The l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method i n providing t o t a l l y comprehensive data or data at either microscopic or group action l e v e l s precludes the analysis of actions observable i n those realms. On the other hand, the data may be there on the tape, but the coder not know what pattern to look 2 The author does not wish to imply that such questions may not be t r i v i a l or that the answers suggested by analysis of videotape data are causally d e f i n i t i v e when unsupported by broader research. In the research design used, the techniques of the Method merely acquaint the investigator with possible research q u e s t i o n s — f u r t h e r observational study or experiment would be necessary to sort out the important ones and define them as testable hypotheses. 203 f o r — a s h i s ignorance of speaking conventions or of i m i t a t i o n would have prevented h i s understanding of the two foregoing examples. The secondary coding process i s the means the Method provides for applying pattern recognition to the raw data. This i s the procedure for learning to perceive new meanings i n the f l u x of observed everyday behavior. Taking the botanizing approach, not' making value judgements, but remarking s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , continuously t e s t i n g pattern d e f i n i t i o n s f o r f i t , the i n v e s t i g a t o r can not only v a l i d a t e or cast doubt upon t h e o r e t i c a l explanations of behavior, but he can also become aware of new fa c t s which hint at unexplained systems of behavior i n the r e p e r t o i r e of the normal inf a n t . An example of unexplained behavior v i s i b l e i n every observation of each subject was a very short (1/6 to 3/6 second) b l i n k which occurred frequently j u s t p r i o r to r e o r i e n t i n g the head. This was so regular that coders viewing slow motion data learned to expect a r e o r i e n t a t i o n d i r e c t l y a subject's eyelids began to f a l l , even though no obvious environmental stimulus was apparent to cause the subject to r e d i r e c t h i s att e n t i o n . The behavior did not appear to increase or diminish over the s i x month observation period, although one of the subjects was a more consistent b l i n k e r than the other. Circumstances surrounding t h i s phenomenon, as seen i n the data, did not suggest that the bli n k s were r e f l e x actions, neither did they i n d i c a t e a c l a s s i c a l l y conditioned o r i g i n f o r the b l i n k s , unless the conditioned stimulus was not observable. Other speculations l i n k the behavior to a stage of neural maturation or to s o c i a l learning, i n accord with B i r d -whistell's(1971) observation that b l i n k i n g may be associated with anxiety and also be a form of phatic communication. 204 To c l a r i f y the pos s i b l e r o l e of b l i n k i n g i n non-verbal communication, some questions a r i s i n g from t h i s observation which could be examined using the Method are: what are the b l i n k i n g behaviors of babies from b i r t h to eight months; at what age are the patterns of s o c i a l l y learned b l i n k i n g f i r s t observable; and, do adults b l i n k before they reorient t h e i r heads. Shared Understanding.' Developmental studies, whether d e s c r i p t i v e or experimental, have a pec u l i a r need to be understood by laymen since t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n the home, the classroom and the community. The ready reproduceability of videotape data as used i n the Method makes i t a good v e h i c l e for sharing and teaching developmental knowledge and for creating p o s i t i v e attitudes toward the c a p a b i l i t i e s and the needs of infants and ch i l d r e n . Following i s an example of the use of the Method to help com-municate developmental information to parents. A colleague using the Method to inve s t i g a t e the communication s k i l l s of young deaf non-speaking c h i l d r e n made an appointment with one c h i l d ' s parents at the end of the study to "review the communication achievements" recorded on the videotape. "Sorry, but she's not communicating yet," said the mother, who was spending much time d a i l y teaching the two-and-a-half year old subject to pay at t e n t i o n to the l i p movements of speech, "but we'd l i k e to see the tapes." Together, the parents and the young woman who had made the study watched the f i r s t tape l i k e a home movie. As they appeared on the viewer, the non-verbal communication achievements of the c h i l d were pointed out, and when necessary the tape was run again i n slow motion to show the parents what to look f o r : the pecu l i a r movement of the c h i l d ' s f i n g e r s which was a motor representation of using the l i g h t switch when she saw her mother 205 going toward the lamp to play the "off-on" game; the high frequency of glances toward the mother by the c h i l d as she played to keep i n touch as normal c h i l d r e n do through the auditory channel; the im i t a t i o n of others' gestures and movements which could have been confirmed and become signals or signs f o r common use; the l e f t hand held out while the r i g h t "drew" a c i r c l e on i t to in d i c a t e wanting a cookie, etc. Watching, the father sa i d , "But she must have been doing t h i s a l l the time!" During the second tape both parents began studying the c h i l d ' s behavior i n her s i l e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s with others; and they started to d i s -cuss the meaning of her gestures and expressions as possible non-verbal communication by a competent i n d i v i d u a l who had something to say. C l i n i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n. Communication such as that described above i s t y p i c a l of the present l i m i t e d scope of the c l i n c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the Method. For instance i n a l i m i t e d version, i t i s being used to assess the communication repertoires of a group of cerebral p a l s i e d residents about to receive t r a i n i n g i n a system of v i s u a l manual symbols, and of several other non-speaking c h i l d r e n at the r e s i d e n t i a l school f o r retarded where the investi g a t o r i s employed. This use brings to f r u i t i o n the e f f o r t to devise a workable approach to the analysis of videotaped behavior which was part of the impetus behind t h i s methodological d i s s e r t a t i o n . P o t e n t i a l use of the Method f or c l i n i c a l research i s great. L i t t l e has been published about the behavioral repertoires of developing a t y p i c a l i n f a n t s , and nothing comprehensive about t h e i r communication behaviors has been found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . P a r a l l e l studies are needed of normal, b l i n d , deaf-blind, deaf and developmentally delayed i n f a n t s . As has happened so often i n other areas of behavioral study, v a r i a t i o n s from the normal i n the 206 repertoires of the a t y p i c a l w i l l l i k e l y provide i n s i g h t s into mechanisms hidden by the swift and complex development of the normal. This section has dealt with both workability and p o t e n t i a l use of the Method i n terms of how well i t meets some informal desiderata for developmental study such as the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y to new patterns of information, f a c i l i t a t i o n of communication and p o t e n t i a l for c l i n i c a l research. In the remaining two sections of t h i s discussion of strengths of the Method the investigator's conclusions about i t s poten-t i a l f o r research are based on how w e l l i t meets the more formal desiderata for achieving the methodological objectives of the study established i n Chapter I I . Discussion deals f i r s t with the capacity of the Method for multiple analyses of data and then with i t s a b i l i t y to control for r i v a l hypotheses about the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of observational data. .Usefulness for C o l l e c t i o n arid Analysis of Pre-speech Data The p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive studies discussed i n the opening chapter to i l l u s t r a t e the need for a new Method that would supply more comprehensive and d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e data resources were a l l concerned with b u i l d i n g and t e s t i n g hypotheses about various aspects of the a c q u i s i -t i o n of speech. However, the usefulness of the Method to meet the needs of such studies was not d i r e c t l y examined i n discussion of the findings of the f i e l d t r i a l i n Chapters V and VI. In returning to the o r i g i n a l con-cern for an e f f e c t i v e Method to a s s i s t speech a c q u i s i t i o n studies t h i s s e ction evaluates the functions of the Method as applied i n the f i e l d t r i a l . The demonstrated strengths of the Method were, f i r s t , that i t did provide comprehensive data, s p e c i f i a b l e item by item, about non-verbal behavior and environmental context; second, that i t f a c i l i t a t e d reexamin-207 ation of raw data i n depth i n the l i g h t of new findings; t h i r d , that i t allowed the investigator to pursue inquiry by "tuning up" the c r i t e r i a of the analysis used on coded data without the necessity of beginning again with new data; and fourth, that i t permitted the investigator to apply more than one type of analysis simultaneously to i d e n t i c a l data. C o l l e c t i o n of Comprehensive Available Data. The weaknesses of unstructured observation pointed out by Webb _et aT (1966) are of l i t t l e detriment i n using the Method for exploratory p r e l i n g u i s t i c study. Data recording errors due to human s e l e c t i v i t y , omissions and d i s t o r t i o n s are obviated by using t e l e v i s i o n instrumentation. The videotape recorder does for non-verbal and environmental data what the audio recorder did for verbal and vocal data. Both the problem of a "high dross rate" of i r r e l -evant data (Webb et a l , 1966, p. 141) and the problem of d i s t o r t i o n of data by the response set of the subject toward the process of being observed are minimized by the assumption made for the f i e l d t r i a l (as for eth o l o g i c a l research) that a l l behavior i s relevant (whether or not i t seems communi-cation-related or directed toward the v i s i b l e observer and instrumentation). The problem that does e x i s t i s that i t i s impossible to examine a l l behavior and so findings must be made from sample data. These findings, of course, are vulnerable to r i v a l hypotheses. For example, the incidence or absence of c e r t a i n behaviors may be at t r i b u t e d to sample bias, either within the subject's r e p e r t o i r e or as compared to the population of i n t e r e s t . A discussion of controls for t h i s problem i s presented i n a subsequent section on l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method (p. 215). S p e c i f i a b i l i t y i s a v i r t u e often absent i n comprehensive unstructured data. I t i s not enough to have a " f u l l " sound and v i s u a l record: i f i n d i v i d u a l items i n i t are not made dis c r e t e and s p e c i f i a b l e nothing but i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c analysis i s possible. The time frame and primary coding by which i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c data items i s obtained are necessary not only for computer an a l y s i s , but also f or precise d e s c r i p t i o n of short episodes of raw data whenever examination of these i s necessary. Some of the useful purposes served by making a v a i l a b l e to the invest i g a t o r exact data sequences and items out of the complex r e p e t i t i v e running record are mentioned i n t h i s section on strengths of the Method. Reexamination of Raw Data. Whenever raw data for a study i s an a r t i f a c t , such as a c h i l d ' s drawing or a'written arithmetic computation, rather than an abstraction made by the in v e s t i g a t o r , such as a number standing for a measurement or a pre-determined c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which summa-ri z e s a range of observed v a l u e s — i n other words, whenever open coding i s employed—the in v e s t i g a t o r retains the option of returning to the raw data for more information or to apply a fresh a n a l y s i s . The videotape and computer f i l e s of primary coded data of the Method are, i n e f f e c t , a dynamic a r t i f a c t which provides t h i s opportunity for i t s users. The section i n Chapter VI on "Operations of Reference and the Object Concept" (p. 174 et seq.) contains two i l l u s t r a t i o n s of how the Method f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s return from the abstract l e v e l of mathematical analysis of data ( i n t h i s case the contingent occurrence of Piagetian Stages given Operations of Reference) to the more concrete l e v e l of anal-y s i s of raw data (where the invest i g a t o r can reexperience most of the sights and sounds of the o r i g i n a l observation) i n order d i r e c t l y to test the v a l i d i t y of h i s findings or to c l a r i f y confusing r e s u l t s . In the f i r s t i l l u s t r a t i o n (p. 175 et seq.) a review of 24 seconds of raw data, i d e n t i f i e d by time s i g n a l and primary coding, c l a r i f i e s the inves t i g a t o r ' s understanding of four instances of the use of the 209 manipulation and gesture Hold Out and Point by the infant which were contradictory to the assumptions of the p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l analysis used f o r coding. In the second i l l u s t r a t i o n , s i m i l a r l y s p e c i f i e d , (p. 180 et seq.) a 19 second sequence,illustrates the face v a l i d i t y of the r e l a -tionship between Piagetian Stage and Operations of Reference suggested by a weak s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t (Table VI 20, p. 173). Reanalysis of O r i g i n a l Data. The open coding feature of the Method (p.,27) also allows a recoding of the o r i g i n a l data, either at a primary or a secondary l e v e l , when findings suggest better approaches f o r i t s anal-y s i s . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n making a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the same data are minimal because the videotape record provides so much information about context and non-verbal communication. Most important, when a new study i s made of the same data, the research design problems of comparability between studies are e n t i r e l y avoided. An example of reanalysis of a s p e c i f i e d sequence of the o r i g i n a l data i s given i n Appendix VII (pp. 280-286) which i s a mini-study t r y i n g out the a p p l i c a t i o n of a Piagetian analysis of signs to c l a r i f y the under-standing of reference i n pre-speech behavior. M u l t i p l e Analysis of Data. A l l of the examples given above demonstrate the usefulness of multiple coding analyses of data. To make av a i l a b l e simultaneous analyses,from several t h e o r e t i c a l positions,of the i d e n t i c a l item of behavior i s to provide an invest i g a t o r with opportunities for achieving the f i n e discriminations and synthetic i n s i g h t s necessary f o r t e s t i n g and developing complex constructs such as those required to under-stand the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. 210 R i g o r o u s n e s s i n t h e Use o f O b s e r v a t i o n a l I n f e r e n c e R i v a l h y p o t h e s e s t o a c c o u n t f o r f i n d i n g s w i n by d e f a u l t i f t h e f o u n d a t i o n a s s u m p t i o n o f r e l i a b i l i t y c annot be s u p p o r t e d ; b u t t h e use of i n f e r e n c e , n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d o b s e r v e d p r e - s p e e c h b e h a v i o r , i s n o t o r i o u s l y v u l n e r a b l e t o u n r e l i a b i l i t y . The d e m o n s t r a t i o n f i e l d t r i a l of t h e Method d i d n o t a c h i e v e a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t (see Ch a p t e r V ) , b u t i t d i d p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e d u c i n g t h e u n r e l i a b l e e f f e c t s o f i n f e r e n c e . I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n t o show how t h e Method, by i t s d e s i g n , b r o u g h t t h e s o u r c e s o f low r e l i a b i l i t y under s c r u t i n y and s e t up s a f e g u a r d s t o impose r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r on t h e use o f i n f e r e n c e by c o d e r s c a t e g o r i z i n g raw o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a . The use o f i n f e r e n c e by a co d e r c l a s s i f y i n g human b e h a v i o r cannot be a v o i d e d . Even were a computer t o be used t o i d e n t i f y and c a t e g o r i z e 3 b e h a v i o r a l d a t a , i n f e r e n c e s would s t r u c t u r e i t s programs. What can be done i s t o a s s i s t t h e co d e r toward o b j e c t i v i t y and a c c u r a c y by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i v e raw d a t a , r e l i a b l e and comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c l a s s i -f y i n g o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r , awareness o f unconscous b i a s , and f e e d b a c k t o improve h i s c o n s i s t e n c y . The Method p r o v i d e s s t r a t e g i e s t o promote a l l 4 f o u r a i d s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e use of i n f e r e n c e . I n f o r m a t i v e Raw D a t a . I n t h e Method t h i s means a t e l e v i s i o n s i g n a l t h a t i s p r o p e r l y l i g h t e d , on t a r g e t , i n f o c u s , w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e and comprehensive enough t o p r o v i d e c o n t e x t u a l c u e s . These a r e b a s i c t e c h n i c a l v i r t u e s and th e y a r e r e i n f o r c e d by t h e t e l e v i s i o n c a p a c i t y f o r r e p e t i t i o n , 3 The a t t e m p t i n t h i s s t u d y t o code O p e r a t i o n s o f R e f e r e n c e by com-p u t e r produced v e r y r e l i a b l e f i n d i n g s w h i c h were i n v a l i d because a l l t h e r u l e s f o r making v a l i d i n f e r e n c e s a r e not y e t known and so c o u l d n o t be e n t e r e d i n t o t h e computer program. 4 These p r e s e n t some s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e and p r e -cedent used by t h e l a w , w h i c h must a l s o depend on i n f e r e n c e . 211 slow motion and s t i l l frame viewing, and by the v i s u a l time s i g n a l that logs every 1/6 second of data so none may be l o s t . The f i n d i n g measuring loss of information, which was coded "ND" for "no data" (Table VI 23, p. 188), can-not be evaluated because other observational methods tend to ignore t h i s v a r i a b l e and comparable measurements are not a v a i l a b l e . The amount of "ND" i n the f i e l d t r i a l probably did not have a major e f f e c t on the analysis (see p. 189). Re l i a b l e and Comprehensive D e f i n i t i o n s . The primary and secondary coding d e f i n i t i o n s used i n the Method vary i n t h e i r degree of v u l n e r a b i l i t y to u n r e l i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the primary were found to be more r e l i a b l e than the secondary. D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Elements of Behavior, because of t h e i r development through e t h o l o g i c a l research, are given i n operational terms and require l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (A few suggestions by the coders to increase the comprehensiveness of the catalogue of behaviors, and thereby decrease the need for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are given on pages 190-196.) A rough assessment of the r e l i a b i l i t y of selected d e f i n i t i o n s i s given i n Table V 7, p. 98. R e l i a b i l i t y of the coding d e f i n i t i o n s for Elements of Envi-ronment was not measured, but, because each code s p e c i f i e s only one envi-ronmental stimulus, which i s "defined" by i t s time and place of f i r s t occurrence, r e l i a b i l i t y and comprehensiveness are i m p l i c i t i n t h i s catalogue of d e f i n i t i o n s . The coder has only to rerun the c i t e d section of video-tape to see and hear the referent for each code. Secondary coding d e f i n i t i o n s used i n the Method require more sub-j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n because not enough i s yet known about communicative and cognitive functions to i d e n t i f y and define them operationally. The resultant d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e l i a b i l i t y were measured (pp. 104 & 106) and the focus f or improvement discussed i n the l a s t section (p. 107) was charted. 212 The Method d i f f e r s from other observational tools which also measure the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e between two codings of a run of data because i t provides the coder with the opportunity to pinpoint and review i n d i v i d u a l coding decisions by reference to the o r i g i n a l data. This p r e c i s i o n supports e f f i c i e n t modification of imprecise coding d e f i n i t i o n s . Controlled Coding Bias. Bias inherent i n the p r i v i l e g e d information of a coder f a m i l i a r with the subject i s r e a d i l y acknowledged (p. 81), but the bias which inheres i n the coder's "membership i n a l i n g u i s t i c community" (Richards, 1974, p. 92) i s l a r g e l y unconscious. A l l unaware, the coder, because of h i s habits of thought, has a tendency to overinterpretation, that i s , to the a t t r i b u t i o n to the subject of thoughts, intentions or meanings which he does not possess, but which, as projections of the coder's way of looking at things, appear p l a u s i b l e , or indeed i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e . Parsimonious i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the given evidence and awareness of ways of viewing the world which are a l t e r n a t i v e to the p r a c t i c e of the observer can prevent overinterpretation of data. The use of the response d i s p o s i t i o n engendered i n the observer as the basis for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the functions of communication (p. 65) was one parsimonious device used i n t h i s study. It seemed to have the e f f e c t of l i m i t i n g coders' inferences of reference i n communication behaviors having expressive and conative functions. Piaget's advice that objects are not permanent or constant i n the infant's perception of the world u n t i l the end of the sensori-motor period was another counsel of parsimony which prevented a s c r i p t i o n of adult mean-ings to the infant's verbal and non-verbal r e l a t i o n s with objects. A s i m i l a r usage can be seen i n current p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c research such as that of Bloom who ascribes only tentative representation to the substantive words her subject used before achieving Object Constancy (Bloom 1973, p. 80). 213 Regulated Coding Consistency. Assistance to e f f e c t i v e learning of the coding task i s the fourth strategy the Method provides to ensure r e l i -a b i l i t y of i n f e r e n t i a l data. This i s accomplished at the raw data l e v e l i n two ways; f i r s t , by allowing coders to learn on model tapes and to p r a c t i s e against standard i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the coding d e f i n i t i o n s ; and second, by providing a means of i d e n t i f y i n g the exact data sequences for which the coder i s giving non-standard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . At both primary and secondary coding l e v e l s the r e l i a b i l i t y program, REL, provides measure-ments of both duration and incidence of coding agreement for each coding d e f i n i t i o n used (pp. 83-86). In t h i s way feedback to coders can be pro-vided at the l e v e l of d i r e c t experience and i n s t a t i s t i c a l terms to a s s i s t the i n i t i a l learning process and for q u a l i t y checks and adjustments during ongoing research. This concludes discussion of the user-investigator's view of the important strengths of the Method. The following section describes the l i m i t a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n i t s nature as an observational t o o l by c i t i n g examples from the f i e l d t r i a l and a t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i v e research a p p l i c a -t i o n . Limitations The l i t e r a t u r e of p r e l i n g u i s t i c s described i n Chapters I and IV i s the record of a f i e l d of study characterized by p r o v i s i o n a l exploratory hypotheses rather than deductive theory. Current issues are c h i e f l y p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive and t h e i r concern i s to conceptualize those human developmental processes which produce speech. Although "theories do not consist e n t i r e l y of conceptual schemes or typologies but must contain lawlike propositions that i n t e r r e l a t e the concepts or v a r i a b l e s two or more 214 at a time" (Blalock, 1969, p. 2), i t has been the assumption of the i n v e s t i -gator i n undertaking t h i s work that the study of the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech i s not yet at the stage where i t permits rigorous experimental confirmation. Rather, conceptualizations i n t h i s f i e l d must be grounded i n empirical data [and] i t would be highly mis-leading to suggest that theories are f i r s t a r r i v e d at by deductive process and then tested. The actual process i s much more f l u i d than t h i s and undoubtedly always involves an inductive e f f o r t . (Blalock, 1969, p. 8) Accordingly, the Method created to meet such needs has been designed to help i n the "inductive e f f o r t " . I t provides maximum a v a i l a b i l i t y of data for "botanizing" and lends i t s e l f to designs used for d e s c r i p t i v e research (although the Method could be used to gather data i n an experimental design i f the extensive range of v a r i a b l e s i t provides were needed for analysis.) The following discussion of l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method i s r e s t r i c t e d to i t s performance of the functions for which i t was designed. Here i t was found to be vulnerable to coding error and sampling bias unless correc-t i v e measures are taken i n the research design. In addition i t s procedures are time-consuming, exacting and r e l a t i v e l y expensive both i n cost of equip-ment and expenditure of time. V u l n e r a b i l i t y to Coding Error and Sampling Bias The f i e l d t r i a l i l l u s t r a t e d some of the inherent l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method. One such, already discussed i n the l a s t section, was i t s v u l e r -a b i l i t y to u n r e l i a b i l i t y through coding error. Another was i t s r e l i a n c e , for p r a c t i c a l reasons, upon sampling,, with consequent v u l n e r a b i l i t y to imbalance i n representing the t o t a l population accurately. To avoid samp-l i n g bias i t has been suggested that: 215 There are many natural s o c i a l settings i n which the research person can introduce something l i k e experimental design into h i s scheduling of data c o l l e c t i o n procedures (e.g., the when and to whom of measurement), even though he lacks the f u l l c o n t r o l over the scheduling of experimental s t i m u l i (the when and to whom of exposure and the a b i l i t y to randomize exposures) which makes a true experiment possible. (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 34) In order to meet the need for d e f i n i t i v e studies of normal pre-speech behavior i n humans mentioned i n the f i r s t s e c tion of t h i s chapter, a we l l - c o n t r o l l e d research design would require, i n i n d i v i d u a l subjects, randomized observations covering v a r i a b l e s of time, a c t i v i t y , place, com-panions, etc. without assumptions that some would be less productive than o t h e r s . I t would also require obtaining a s u f f i c i e n t amount of data on each subject to permit s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . For example, i t i s l i k e l y that the small amount of c e r t a i n kinds of data i n each observation c o n t r i -buted to the lack of homogeneity of variance which prevented pooling data from the two subjects i n the f i e l d t r i a l . Deciding which i n d i v i d u a l s to observe as representative of the popu-l a t i o n would require random s e l e c t i o n of subjects according to such v a r i -ables as sex, c u l t u r a l family pattern and socio-economic l e v e l as we l l as age. Longitudinal records of such selected subjects would permit stronger developmental inferences than would a completely c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample. Once again, the assumption of independent normally d i s t r i b u t e d observations must be met. Random assignment of coders to data would also help to con-: t r o l f o r independence of the observations. Because lack of independence between observations within each c h i l d could not be assumed i n the f i e l d t r i a l , t ests of s i g n i f i c a n c e of the findings were not made. A study with ^Consider Weir's (1962) f r u i t f u l recordings of the bed-time mono-logues of her subject. 216 enough subjects to permit independent contrasts would overcome t h i s d i f -f i c u l t y . The research design described above as an example of proper use of the Method i n de s c r i p t i v e research i s an improved version of the design used i n the f i e l d t r i a l (p. 58) and, as such, i s very s i m i l a r to the time series design of Campbell and Stanley (1963, p. 37). It controls w e l l f o r a l l the sources of i n v a l i d i t y suggested by these authors (p. 40 et seq.) except r e a c t i v i t y of the subjects to being observed. This possible source of i n v a l i d i t y i s also strongly suggested by Webb (1966). In order to assess whether findings would be systematically af f e c t e d by presence of the videotape recorder i n the hands of the observer, i t would be advisable to conduct a preliminary study comparing data obtained from a hidden video source with that obtained i n a serie s of observations of the same subjects using the Method as described i n th i s study. This would not only expose any reactive e f f e c t , but would also i n d i c a t e whether that e f f e c t might change with habituation. In addition to the t h e o r e t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s j u s t discussed, the Method has some p r a c t i c a l drawbacks which may l i m i t i t s use. Time-consuming The very considerable length of time required f o r coding the data, which takes about h a l f a day per minute f o r a trained coder, imposes p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s on the uses of the Method. Time-limited a p p l i c a t i o n s , such as b r i e f c l i n i c a l assessments, are out of the question. Short-term research projects or those with a s i n g l e focus would f i n d i t uneconomic to invest so much time i n data analysis, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f paid s t a f f were involved. 217 Exacting The exacting nature of the task of learning to perceive and discrim-inate hundreds of primary coding variables and unlimited numbers of second-ary coding variables i s complementary to the laboriousness of coding. It r e s t r i c t s the coding of data by the Method to those who are patient, painstaking and per s i s t e n t . Expensive In addition to the cost of labor, the cost of t e c h n i c a l equipment, tapes and computer time puts the use of the Method beyond the f i n a n c i a l reach of most investigators pursuing private research. A technological improvement which could go far to r e l i e v e the labor-iousness of the coding process and lessen the chance of c l e r i c a l error would be the introduction of a procedure for coding d i r e c t l y into the computer at a terminal rather than performing the p e n c i l and paper task of creating a VTR Log by hand which then has to be keypunched and v e r i f i e d . Correc-tions of coding and reexamination of primary coding would be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d by d i r e c t computer access. Raw data for v i s u a l scanning independently of the terminal could s t i l l be provided, i f required, by printouts i n the form of a log. Conclusion Despite the aforementioned l i m i t a t i o n s , use of the Method i n the f i e l d t r i a l and Appendix VII did provide findings which suggest that the provision of p l e n t i f u l appropriate data i n r e a d i l y analyzable form could increase the p r o d u c t i v i t i y of speech a c q u i s i t i o n research. The most e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of the Method i n t h i s f i e l d of study 218 would be to use i t for simultaneous m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y research. For instance, a group of researchers with varied i n t e r e s t s i n the same class of subject could f i e l d a well-designed comprehensive observational study to set up a tape l i b r a r y and coded data bank i n computer at j o i n t expense as a mutual resource. This would be an e x c i t i n g enterprise. Once the time-consuming, exacting and expensive process of creating a r e l i a b l e data bank was accomplished, the process of devising and running computer analyses to test research questions would be far more rapid than a seri e s of separate studies. Instead of having to r e l a t e to one another's work through the slow channels of p u b l i c a t i o n and presentation, sharing would be i m p l i c i t i n the design of the project. The troublesome r i v a l hypothesis that differences i n findings were due to differences i n subject populations would also be e n t i r e l y avoided. Examples of areas of research s u i t a b l e f or such an enterprise that have been mentioned i n the text or implied by discussion are: comparative studies of b l i n k i n g behavior; a l t e r n a t i o n or simultaneous a c t i v i t y of sender and receiver i n communication; the developmental task of learning non-verbal communication; the o r i g i n of reference i n pre-speech behavior; c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of gestures associated with operations of reference at pre-speech and speaking l e v e l s ; c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies of speech a c q u i s i t i o n ; and the l o n g i t u d i n a l development of communication and speech behaviors i n normal and a t y p i c a l i n f a n t s . In short, the l i m i t a t i o n s of the Method would be at t h e i r least i f i t were used, not as a substitute for current si n g l e study i n v e s t i g a t i v e approaches, but as a means of gaining access to the new dimension of group research. 219 SUMMARY In t h i s f i n a l chapter of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , evaluation of the Method was made i n terms of i t s o r i g i n a l purpose to provide a useful means f o r in v e s t i g a t i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of speech. The investigator's p o s i t i v e opinion of i t s usefulness rests on i t s demonstrated a b i l i t y to produce an informative research product i n the f i e l d t r i a l and Appendix VII and on i t s capacity f o r i n t e r n a l feedback as a r e s u l t of the design features of a time frame and multiple coding of data. 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A v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e a u t h o r : 4 4 3 0 4 O l d O r c h a r d R o a d R . R . # 1 , S a r d i s , B . C . , V O X 1 Y 0 . W r i g h t , H . F . O b s e r v a t i o n a l c h i l d s t u d y . I n P . H . M u s s e n ( E d . ) , H a n d b o o k  o f r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s i n c h i l d s t u d y . N e w Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 6 0 . 225 APPENDIX I De f i n i t i o n s of Elements of Behavior Negative Codes: ND Data Not Available - Data not c l e a r l y seen or heard by T.V. reproduction w i l l be coded "ND" i n the appropriate column — e.g. dropped toy. N0 If no a c t i v i t y i s presented f o r a c e l l . UN U n c l a s s i f i a b l e - Data not c l a s s i f i a b l e by the d e f i n i t i o n s given w i l l be coded "UN" in.the appropriate column. I. F a c i a l Patterns: "...behavior patterns involving the structure of the face." BK Blink -"Rapid successive lowering and r a i s i n g of the ey e l i d s ; s i n g l y or i n short repeated s e r i e s usually fewer than f i v e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 42). B.T Bared Teeth - "Lips are ret r a c t e d : teeth are v i s i b l e and usually clenched; mouth corners are usually down: lower l i p may have a squared appearance." (McGrew, 1972, p. 38). CS Chew Lips - "One or both l i p s may be r o l l e d into the mouth and the teeth pressed against them. E i t h e r the teeth or l i p s or both may move i n opposition to each other, or the expression may be s t a t i c . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 53). DF Red Face - "Reddening of the f a c i a l s k i n . " usually on the cheeks and forehead. (McGrew, 1972, p. 49). EC Eyes Closed - "Eyelids brought together more than momentarily (as compared with b l i n k ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 43). EF Eyebrow Flash - "Rapid r a i s i n g of the eyebrows which remain 2 2 6 e l e v a t e d f o r o n e s i x t h o f a s e c o n d , f o l l o w e d b y r a p i d l o w e r i n g t o t h e n o r m a l p o s i t i o n ; s i n g l y o r i n s h o r t s e r i e s . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 3 ) . L i p s F i r m - L i p s p r e s s e d t o g e t h e r , n o f r o w n . L o w F r o w n - " E y e b r o w s l o w e r e d a n d b r o u g h t c l o s e t o g e t h e r , u s u a l l y w i t h o n l y a s m a l l a m o u n t o f v e r t i c a l f u r r o w i n g ; m o u t h i s n o r m a l o r t h e l i p s m a y b e c o m p r e s s e d i n t o a s t r a i g h t l i n e . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 5 ) . M o u t h O p e n - " L i p s a r e s e p a r a t e d . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 5 ) . N a r r o w E y e s - " E y e l i d s a r e b r o u g h t c l o s e r t o g e t h e r t h a n n o r m a l . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 6 ) . G r i n F a c e - " L i p s a r e s p r e a d w i d e a n d t h e m o u t h c o r n e r s a r e r e t r a c t e d ; b o t h r o w s o f t e e t h a r e v i s i b l e a n d u s u a l l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r ; . . . f l e e t i n g . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 4 ) . N o r m a l F a c e - " L i p s a r e u s u a l l y t o g e t h e r a n d r e l a x e d ; b r o w a n d c h e e k s a r e s m o o t h a n d u n w r i n k l e d ; e y e b r o w s a n d e y e l i d s a r e i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n ; g e n e r a l m u s c l e t o n e i s r e l a x e d . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 6 ) . N o s e W r i n k l e - " T h e s k i n o f t h e n o s e i s m o v e d u p w a r d , p r o d u c i n g w r i n k l i n g a c r o s s t h e b r i d g e o f t h e n o s e ; t h e n o s t r i l s a r e f l a r e d . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 7 ) . P u c k e r F a c e - " F o r e h e a d i s w r i n k l e d b o t h v e r t i c a l l y a n d h o r i z o n t a l l y ; b r o w s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r a n d t h e i n n e r e n d s r a i s e d ; t h e n o s e i s w r i n k l e d ; t h e e y e s a r e c l o s e d o r p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d ; m o u t h i s o f t e n o p e n . T h e f a c e i n g e n e r a l l o o k s ' s c r e w e d u p ' . " ( M c G r e w , 1 9 7 2 , p . 4 9 ) . 227 PF Play Face - "The mouth i s open wide and the mouth corners are turned up; the teeth are covered by the l i p s or only p a r t l y v i s i b l e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 47). PT Pout - "The lower l i p or both l i p s protrude forward, with the former c u r l i n g down; the mouth i s opened s l i g h t l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 48). TM Twist mouth - "the l i p s are pressed together, pushed out i n the centre, then twisted to one side....In a preliminary analysis t h i s element was shown to i n d i c a t e an ambivalent s i t u a t i o n between approach and avoidance." (Grant, 1969, p. 529.) 14K5 0125. WE Wide Eyes - "Eyebrows are raised and held, producing an arched appearance; forehead i s h o r i z o n t a l l y wrinkled; the distance between upper and lower eyelids i s increased." (McGrew, 1972, p. 51). ZL Smile - "Mouth i s p a r t i a l l y opened and the mouth corners turned up; the eyes are p a r t i a l l y closed; the teeth are covered by the l i p s or only p a r t i a l l y v i s i b l e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 50). II.. Head Patterns: "...behavior patterns involving structure of the head and neck. 1 BI Bi t e - "Upper and lower rows of teeth are brought r a p i d l y and f o r c e f u l l y together, usually with the l i p s r e t r a c t e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 52). BW Blow - " A i r i s expelled from the mouth through the pursed l i p s ; cheeks are puffed." (McGrew, 1972, p. 53). 228 Chew Food or Objects — Movement of teeth or gums against objects or food by repeated opening and c l o s i n g lower jaw. Chin Iri - "The neck i s flexed, moving the head forward on the a t l a s vertabra, so that the chin i s moved toward the chest, and the face i s kept approximately v e r t i c a l . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 54). Cough - " A i r i s expelled suddenly and n o i s i l y through the g l o t t i s . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 210). Cry - "Tears are secreted accompanied by loud v o c a l i z a t i o n s and reddening of the face." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 210). Duck - "Head i s moved downward and foreward at the atla n t o -o c c i p i t a l j o i n t , often repeatedly." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, page 210). Face Thrust - "The head i s moved r a p i d l y forward so that the face i s v e r t i c a l and the chin 'juts' up and out." (McGrew, 1972, p. 54). Grind Teeth - "The teeth, p a r t i c u l a r l y the molars (side-to-side) and i n c i s o r s (backward-and-forward) are drawn across each other i n f o r c e f u l opposition." (McGrew, 1972, p. 56). Heavy Breathing - The breath i s inhaled and exhaled audibly and repeatedly; mouth open or closed. Head Nod - "The head i s moved forward and backward on the condyles r e s t i n g on the a t l a s vertebra, r e s u l t i n g i n the face moving down and up. The down-up sequence may be exhibited once or repeated." (McGrew, 1972, p. 57). 229 Head Shake - "The head i s rotated upon the axis vertebra, always at l e a s t once to one side and then immediately back again i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n , but often t h i s i s repeated several times. The arc covered varies from 180° to an almost imperceptable sideways head f l i c k . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 58). Head T i l t - "Head i s moved sideways to an angle of approximately 45° so that the ear i s c l o s e r to the shoulder." (McGrew, 1972, p. 59). Kiss - "The s l i g h t l y protruded l i p s are brought into contact with another person's body surface or an object by moving the head forward (and often leaning forward)." (McGrew, 1972, p. 59). L i c k -"The extended tongue i s drawn across the surface of a body part or an object, leaving a t r a i l of s a l i v a . Movements may be s i n g l e or repeated, and they may range from b r i e f motions using only the tongue's t i p to f u l l lapping." (McGrew, 1972, p. -61). Mouth - "The moving l i p s and gums contact an external object or body part. A small object being mouthed i s often held i n the hand, but a large object, for example, pram handle, may be mouthed d i r e c t l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 63). Rooting and Sucking - Head pushing and/or sucking i n response to touch near or i n the mouth. Spit - " S a l i v a i s propelled from the p a r t i a l l y closed mouth by explosively exhaling. A v a r i a n t , accompanied by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 'raspberry sound' involves prolonging the 230 exhalation while allowing the l i p s to v i b r a t e , thus producing a spray of s a l i v a . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 63). SW Swallow - " P e r i s t a l t i c contractions of the esophagous produce movements of the overlying neck muscles." (McGrew, 1972, p. 64). SZ Sneeze - " A i r i s exhaled from the nose and mouth with sudden involuntary explosive action." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 210). T0 Tongue Out - "The tongue protrudes between the l i p s , t h i s may range from only the t i p v i s i b l e between l i p s pressed together to maximal extension with the l i p s drawn back and separated. The tongue may point h o r i z o n t a l l y or be curved up or down over the l i p s . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 64). YN Yawn - "Mouth i s open wide, often exposing both rows of teeth, followed by a slow, high-volume i n h a l a t i o n and exhalation." Orientation Patterns: ... these items were part of McGrew's Head Patterns, but have been separated into an a d d i t i o n a l sequence for greater c l a r i t y i n coding the data onto the VTR Log. GF Gaze Fixate - "The eyes are oriented to the eyes of another i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s usually r e s u l t s i n prolonged (more than 3 seconds) eye contact (mutual s t a r i n g v i s - a - v i s ) . The head i s usually s l i g h t l y lowered and forward, and the face i s approximately perpendicular to the l i n e of regard (which i s usually h o r i z o n t a l ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 55) ... (may be interrupted by blinks.) 231 GL Glance - "A rapid head movement which oriented the face i s followed by another head movement within 3 seconds r e o r i e n t i n g the face." (McGrew, 1972, p. 56). L0 Look - "The head i s moved, r e - o r i e n t i n g the face, and t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s maintained for at least 3 seconds." (McGrew, 1972, p. 62). (...turn i s used i f torso i s re-oriented.) IV. Vocal Patterns: ...these items were part of McGrew's Head Patterns, but have been separated into an a d d i t i o n a l sequence for greater c l a r i t y i n coding the data onto the VTR Log. UW U n i n t e l l i g i b l e V0 Vocalize - " A i r moving through the larynx produces sound which i s modified by the buccal anatomy before being emitted through the mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p. 66). LA Laugh - "The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound i s produced by a s e r i e s of short, r a p i d l y repeated, spasmodic, expiratory movements through the open mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p. 60). WD Verbalize-one word WS Verbalize-two words or more V. Manipulation: Behavior patterns re "What objects are manipulated and how; t h i s includes moving object with the hands or the f e e t . " (Hutt, 1970, p. 34). VI. Gestures: ...bodily movements which do not bring the c h i l d into contact with selected parts of the environment." (Hutt, 1970, p. 34). AM Automanipulate (finger and fumble) - Fingering i s "the use of the f i n g e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y thumb and f o r e f i n g e r , to manipulate part of one's body." Fumbling i s " s i m i l a r move-232 ments directed to a small object or to a l i m i t e d aspect of a large object. The movements are s l i g h t , r e p e t i t i v e , sometimes stereotyped, and appear to function only s u p e r f i c i a l l y ; that, i s , automanipulative scratching appears not to r e l i e v e i t c h i n g , picking appears not to remove objects." (McGrew, 1972, p. 69). BE Beat - "An overarm blow with the palm or palm side of the l i g h t l y clenched f i s t ; the arm i s sharply bent at the elbow 1 and raised to.a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n then brought down with great force on the opponent, h i t t i n g any part of him that gets i n the way." (McGrew, 1972, p. 70). BN Beckon - "From a p o s i t i o n i n which the arm i s held approximately v e r t i c a l l y i n front of the body, the arm i s flexed at the wrist and elbow, moving i t toward the body, palm preceding and fingers together. I t may be repeated two or three times i n a bout." (McGrew, 1972, p. 72). B0 Beat—Object - "An overarm blow with an object held i n the hand." (McGrew, 1972, p. 70-71). C0 Combine - Objects held i n each hand are brought together. CP Clap Hands - "The arms are held i n front of the body, between waist and shoulder l e v e l , and brought r a p i d l y and f o r c e f u l l y together. The repeated movement produces a . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound." (McGrew, 1972, p. 72). DP Dip - "To lower an object into a f l u i d quickly and than, r a i s e i t quickly by arm extension and f l e x i o n . " (McGrew, i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211). 233 Drop - "By hand and fin g e r extension (with small objects) and arm extension (with larger objects) an object i s released without imparting force to i t ; i t s movement i s s o l e l y a consequence of gr a v i t y . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 73). D i g i t Suck - "The l i p s are closed around a d i g i t which i s inserted into the mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p. 73). Beat-Incomplete - "An overarm 'blow' with palm side of the l i g h t l y clenched f i s t ; the arm i s sharply bent at the elbow and raised to a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n then brought down with great force without making contact or rai s e d only without making contact." (McGrew, 1972, p. 72). F i s t - "The fingers of the hand are maximally flexed and the thumb may be in s i d e our outside the clenched f i n g e r s . Often the arm i s extended v e r t i c a l l y downward, sometimes r i g i d l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 74). Forearm Raise - "The forearm i s raised to a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n over i n front of the head; the elbow i s p a r t i a l l y flexed at approximately 90°." (McGrew, 1972, p. 75). Forearm Sweep - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y or obliquely (hand down) between waist and shoulder l e v e l , away from the body. The forearm precedes and the hand i s open when contact occurs with another person (or ob j e c t ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 75). Grasp - "To take hold of an object by hand and fin g e r f l e x i o n without picking i t up." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211), or to maintain hold a f t e r pick-up or t r a n s f e r . 234 HC Hand Cover - "Open, p a r t i a l l y flexed hand moves to the head, where the bunched fingers and palm are held close to or i n contact with the eyes, ears, nose, and/or mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p. 76). HH Hold Hands - "Two persons grasp each other's hand, palm to palm, usually while facing the same d i r e c t i o n , holding ins i d e hands." (McGrew, 1972, p. 77). HK Hand on Back - "The open palm i s placed on another c h i l d ' s back, usually at the bottom of the shoulder blades. The actor stands or walks at the reactor's s i d e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 77). H0 Hold Out - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y forward, fingers p a r t i a l l y extended and together, and usually clasping an object with the palm side up." (McGrew, 1972, p. 78), or with larger object, an approximation of t h i s . KN Knock - "The knuckles of the f i r s t are brought sharply into contact with the object or person by forward extension of the forearm at the elbow. The movement occurs i n short bouts of repeated rapping, and a sharp, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c noise r e s u l t s . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 780. LI L i f t - "To r a i s e an object by elbow f l e x i o n only." (McGrew, i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). LR Lower - "To lower an object by elbow extension only." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). MU Move Upper Limb - "Miscellaneous movement of the arm." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). 235 Manipulate - "To move the hands i n continuous f l e x i o n and extension while i n contact with an object." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211). ...with some e f f e c t on the object (see AM Automanipulate) Pat - "The forearm i s r a p i d l y and repeatedly flexed and extended so that the hard i s moved v e r t i c a l l y , palmar side down within a s i x - i n c h radius. The wrist f l e x i o n s and extensions r e s u l t i n l i g h t contacts onto the surface of an object or another person." (McGrew, 1972, p. 79)—may have object i n handv. Put Down - To move an object to a l o c a t i o n below shoulder l e v e l usually with a s i n g l e continuous arm or arm and trunk extension downward. Punch - "The arm i s moved r a p i d l y from an approximately h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n at the side, forward approximately 180° (or u n t i l contact) i n a side arm motion. The arm i s held p a r t i a l l y flexed; the f i s t i s t i g h t l y clenched; and the knuckle side of the hand precedes." (McGrew, 1972, p. 81). Pinch - "The thumb and index fi n g e r are forceably opposed with an object or part of another's body i n between." (McGrew, 1972, p. 79). Pick - "To probe an object with the fingers or with a pointed instrument using alternate f l e x i o n and extension." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211). 236 PL P u l l - "The arms are flexed toward the body, usually the chest, thus drawing an object or person toward the body or v i c a versa." (McGrew, 1972, p. 80), one arm or both. P0 Point - "The arm i s f u l l y extended, usually h o r i z o n t a l l y , and oriented to a stimulus, with palm inward and v e r t i c a l , or downward and h o r i z o n t a l . The index finger i s extended and the other d i g i t s p a r t i a l l y flexed, but les s commonly the en t i r e hand may be extended. The favoured hand i s usually used, and an object, f o r example a s t i c k , may function as a 'pointer'." (McGrew, 1972, p. 80). PR Pour - "To t i p an object with s l i g h t arm movements and usually with wrist r o t a t i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 213). PS Push - "The arms are extended forward, usually i n p a r a l l e l and h o r i z o n t a l , with the wrists flexed and the v e r t i c a l preceding. Force i s generally applied to an object or ' person." (McGrew, 1972, p. 82), one armor both. PU Pick Up - "To l i f t an object by arm extension alone or by arm and trunk extension immediately a f t e r grasping i t , i n a continuous motion." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, pp. 213-214). RB Rub - "To move the arm with pressure over an object, usually by rapid a l t e r n a t i o n of elbow extension and f l e x i o n , but often a s i n g l e , f l i c k i n g motion." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 213). RE Reach - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y , up, down and sideways, fingers p a r t i a l l y extended and separated with the 1( 237 palmar side usually down. It i s often directed to an object or person and followed by grasping and picking up. An incomplete reaching i n t e n t i o n movement, i n which the arm i s held p a r t i a l l y flexed with grasping hand (palm v e r t i c a l ) oriented toward the object or person also occurs." (McGrew, 1972, p. 83). RM Remove - "To move the arm out of a container by elbow f l e x i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). R0 R o l l (object) - "To move an object by arm extension (usually) by turning i t over, often repeatedly and around i t s main axis."- (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, pp. 211-213). RP Repel - "The arms are spasmodically extended away from and i n front of the body, not n e c e s s a r i l y h o r i z o n t a l l y , hands open and palm f i r s t . The movements are usually r a p i d l y repeated and accompanied by negative expletives." (McGrew, 1972, p. 83). SC Scratch - "The f i n g e r n a i l s are raked across the surface, usually another c h i l d ' s . s k i n ; the fingers are locked i n p a r t i a l f l e x i o n and usually separated." (McGrew, 1972, p. 84). SH Shake - "The arms are flexed and extended i n rapid a l t e r -nation while the hands grasp another person. Or the forearm moves, r a p i d l y up and down or back and f o r t h while holding a small object." (McGrew, 1972, p. 84), or without a small object. 238 Scoop - "To move the arm (hand leading) down, h o r i z o n t a l l y , and up again i n a small U-shaped motion; during the hor i z o n t a l part the hand i s immersed i n the loose material." (McGrew, i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). Snatch - "After grasping a small object, the arm i s suddenly flexed, thereby p u l l i n g the object away from another i n d i v i d u a l and toward the actor's body or above the head." (McGrew, 1972, p. 85). Squeeze - "To apply force to an object by f l e x i n g the fingers around i t . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211). Support - Hand, or arm used as postural support. Touch - "To move the arm l i g h t l y and momentarily into contact with an object by a rapid extension and f l e x i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 213). T i c k l e - "The separated fingers are, moved i n a repeated, rapid wiggling motion against another person's body surface.". (McGrew, 1972, p. 86). Transfer - "To move an object from one hand to another." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). Twist - "To move an object by alternated abduction of the shoulder and w r i s t . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). Throw - "The forearm i s extended forward, and with palm down, above shoulder height l e v e l and usually overhead, imparting force to a released object. Or the forearm i s extended forward, hand with palm up below shoulder l e v e l (and usually below the waist), imparting force to a 239 released object." (McGrew, 1972, p. 85). WV Wave - "The arm i s held away from and i n front of the body, forearm approximately v e r t i c a l and palm forward, and i s moved repeatedly from side to s i d e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 87). Or the hand i s moved up and down by extension and f l e x i o n of the w r i s t . ZH Smooth - "To move an object, usually the palmar side of the hand, l i g h t l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y along the surface of the material, by elbow f l e x i o n or extension." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). ZM Spe c i a l i z e d Manipulation - "To manipulate an object i n a manner appropriately unique to that object, i . e . as defined by that object's function, e.g., s c i s s o r s , p l i e r s . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 211). The attempt at s p e c i a l manipulation need not be completely successful. VII. Posture and Leg Patterns: ... behavior patterns which involve l eg movements and s t a t i c body p o s i t i o n or movements which change the body's p o s i t i o n . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 72). CH Crouch - "The knees are flexed so that the trunk and head are lowered from a standing posture and/or the back i s flexed with the same r e s u l t s from a s i t t i n g posture. In extreme crouching, the chest and upper legs are brought together so that the head approaches the knees. The arms 240 may be flexed around the trunk or i n extreme cases, flexed over and around the head and neck. The neck may be flexed with the face h o r i z o n t a l and down. Crouching may also be combined with locomotion." (McGrew, .1972, p.'88). IM Immobile - "Gross movement of the trunk, limbs, and head ceased for at least three seconds. Often the gaze i s f i x e d . The fingers may continue to move, often i n auto-manipulation, but the movements are restrained and inconspicuous. Immobility may occur i n any posture but most commonly while standing or s i t t i n g . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 89). KI Kick-Incomplete - " . . . p a r t i a l l eg extension without completing the movement or without making physical contact. The halted foot i s re-flexed to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n or moved backwards and lowered to the ground." (McGrew, 1972, p. 90). KK Kick - "To extend one leg suddenly, usually making f o r c e f u l contact between an object and the toe while the other leg remains on the substrate." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). Or while s i t t i n g or l y i n g , one or both legs r a p i d l y extending and f l e x i n g usually making contact with the f l o o r . KL Kneel - "The trunk i s lowered and t i l t e d forward by hip and knee f l e x i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n i t s r e s t i n g on the knees (one or both) and feet (both). A f t e r assuming the posture, the trunk may be upright or maximally flexed at the hips with the head v e r t i c a l and facing forward or h o r i z o n t a l and facing down." (McGrew, 1972, p. 91). LD L i e Down - "The legs are f u l l y flexed at the knees, then the arms are extended toward the ground and the trunk i s t i l t e d sideways; from the r e s u l t i n g seated p o s i t i o n the trunk i s further t i l t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a sideways r e c l i n i n g posture with the main body axis h o r i z o n t a l to the ground. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the legs are f u l l y flexed, then the trunk i s t i l t e d forward into a kneeling p o s i t i o n , then the trunk and arms are extended further forward into a prone r e c l i n i n g posture. From a seated p o s i t i o n , the trunk i s extended either sideways (preceded by extended arms), or back-wards (not so preceded)." (McGrew,. 1972, p. 91). LY L i e - "To maintain a h o r i z o n t a l posture e i t h e r prone, supine, or on the side." ML Move Lower Limb - "Miscellaneous movements of the l e g . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 212). PC Play Crouch - "A s p e c i a l i z e d version of crouch e x i s t s : Head and trunk are erect, the legs are s l i g h t l y flexed, the.feet are wider apart then shoulders-width, the arms are p a r t i a l l y flexed and held out from the trunk, the shoulders may be hunched." (McGrew, 1972, p. 92). RL R o l l (Self) - Revolution of the body from side to side or prone to supine; or v i c e versa. SA Stamp - "The leg i s r a p i d l y extended, f o r c e f u l l y moving the foot down and usually v e r t i c a l l y , sole f i r s t , onto an object; the other leg remains as a body support. This 242 follows an i n i t i a l l e g f l e x i n g at the knee which v e r t i c a l l y r a i s e s the foot." (McGrew, 1972, p. 94). SI S i t - "The trunk i s lowered by hip and knee f l e x i o n ; the r e s u l t i s that the body rests p r i m a r i l y on the buttocks. While seated the legs may be extended h o r i z o n t a l l y , p a r t i a l l y flexed with only the feet on the ground, or dangled. The neck i s held extended with the head upright. S i t t i n g may be maintained during locomotion, for example, when the buttocks are scooted along the ground." Or, s t a r t i n g from a l y i n g p o s i t i o n , the trunk i s raised to achieve the same p o s i t i o n . Or "a posture combining s i t t i n g and crouching" i s achieved. (McGrew, 1972, p. 93). (Incomplete s i t t i n g a ction i s coded "crouch".) ST Stand Up - The trunk i s raised by extension of the hips, knees, and back; the r e s u l t i n g posture i s upright with both feet supporting the body's weight, about a shoulders width apart. The arms usually hang free . VIII. Gross; ...behavior patterns which include simultaneous trunk, limb, and head movements." (McGrew, 1972, p. 95). DE Dependent Posture - Child's posture i s adjusted by or he i s picked up or c a r r i e d by another person. This item i s  not an element of behavior, but i s t e c h n i c a l l y necessary i n order to maintain continuity i n coding. DQ Disequilibrium - "Various r i g h t i n g movements following los s of balance." 243 F a l l - "The body suddenly and v i o l e n t l y moves down from an upright p o s i t i o n to a h o r i z o n t a l one, usually onto the ground. During f a l l i n g , the body usually twists and the limbs f l a i l without pattern, but usually landing on the buttocks or hands and knees. The hands often move ahead or i n front of the head when f a l l i n g forward. Involuntary or voluntary f a l l s occur and the l a t t e r sometimes consists of a c t i v e l y 'throwing' the body toward another i n d i v i d u a l . 1 (McGrew, 1972, p. 97). Physical Contact - "This category includes amorphous, unstereotyped, unstructured t a c t i l e contact between people It ranges from f i n g e r - t i p touching to standing surrounded by j o s t l i n g peers i n a l i n e . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 101). F l i n c h - "The shoulders are flexed, the face moves p a r t i a l l y down and back, the arms are flexed toward the shoulders, the trunk leans away." (McGrew, 1972, p. 97). Hug - "The arms are moved h o r i z o n t a l l y forward from a widespread p o s i t i o n toward each other and around an object, thereby e n c i r c l i n g i t . During the movement the arms are p a r t i a l l y flexed, and the hands and fingers are extended. ...hugging may be directed toward inanimate objects or toward people." (McGrew, 1972, p. 98). Lean Backward - "The trunk i s extended at the hips so that the head and shoulders move backward. I t r e s u l t s i n the trunk being moved from a flexed forward p o s i t i o n to upright or to a maximal f l e x i o n with the trunk t i l t i n g "^244 backward. I t i s usually oriented away from another person." (McGrew, 1972, p. 100). LE Lean - "To apply force to an object by s h i f t i n g the body weight against i t and moving the limb and trunk j o i n t s i n coordination." (McGrew, i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). LW Lean Forward - "The upright trunk i s flexed at the hips so that the head and shoulders are moved forward. I t i s usually directed toward another i n d i v i d u a l . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 100). MV Move - "To move the limbs and trunk i n an amorphous, unstructured manner." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214). RK Rock - "The trunk i s moved backward and forward (hip extension and flexion) or sideways (hip adduction and abduction) with r e p e t i t i v e , rhythmic movement. The trunk i s approximately upright i n s i t t i n g or standing posture." (McGrew, 1972, p. 102). SG Shrug - "The shoulders are quickly flexed and extended i n rapid succession. The body i s upright and often i n locomotion. The pattern i s incorporated into f l i n c h i n g . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 103). TL Turn L e f t - "See TR for Turn Right." TR Turn Right - "The trunk i s p a r t i a l l y rotated, usually i n a .single, continuous motion. When seated, the c h i l d ' s shoulders are rotated although the buttocks may remain unmoved. While standing, the c h i l d ' s , shoulder's, .and buttocks, and (usually)feet are rotated." (McGrew, 1972, 245 p. 104). (Look i s used i f only the neck i s turned). WR Wrestle - "The behavior pattern i s d i f f i c u l t to define because of i t ' s complex combination of motor patterns and extreme v a r i a b i l i t y . In general, wrestling i s gross body movement by two or more ch i l d r e n while grappled i n phys i c a l contact." (McGrew, 1972, p. 105). ZS Stretch - "The trunk, limbs, and head are maximally extended, ei t h e r i n i s o l a t i o n or combinations. The r e s u l t i n g postures may be prolonged and appear d i s t o r t e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 104). IX. Locomotion; "Locomotion consists of gross body movements p r o p e l l i n g the body from point to point i n space." (McGrew, 1972, p. 106). BS Back, Back Step - "The body moves bi p e d a l l y backward at a moderate rate, a l t e r n a t i n g legs during each s t r i d e , so that one foot i s placed f i r m l y on the ground before l i f t i n g the other. The trunk may be upright or t i l t e d backward. Back step i s one unit of back." (McGrew, 1972, p. 106). CB Climb - "The forelimbs are a l t e r n a t e l y extended and flexed, r e s u l t i n g i n approximately v e r t i c a l gross body movement on an object or surface. The legs usually push while the arms p u l l , but i n descending, the arms may also push against the surface." (McGrew, 1972, p. 88). GE Chase - "The c h i l d runs with sudden d i r e c t i o n changes and veering, frequent speed changes, arms f l a i l i n g , quick head-orienting movements. I t i s always directed to another, and the reactor usually f l e e s simultaneously from 246 the chaser. The trunk usually t i l t s forward." (McGrew, 1972, p. 107). CL Crawl - "The body moves quadrupedally, usually forward, with the v e n t r a l surface o f f the ground. Various combinations of the limbs may touch the ground; palms forearms knees and toes, soles." (McGrew, 1972, p. 108). CR Creep - The body moves forward, backwards, or i n r o t a t i o n with the stomach i n contact with the ground, propelled by the limbs. FE Flee - "The c h i l d runs with sudden d i r e c t i o n changes, veering, frequent speed changes, arms f l a i l i n g , quick glances over the shoulders. I t i s usually oriented to others, often occurring simultaneously with another's chasing. The trunk i s usually t i l t e d forward." (McGrew, 1972, p. 108). MI Miscellaneous Locomotion - "This category includes extremely uncommon or a t y p i c a l locomotory behavior patterns, f o r example, locomotion which need not involve any muscular movement ( s l i d i n g down an i n c l i n e d plane)." (McGrew, 1972, p. 110). RN Run - "The body moves r a p i d l y forward, a l t e r n a t i n g legs during each s t r i d e , so that both f e e t are momentarily o f f the ground during each s t r i d e . The trunk i s upright or t i l t e d forward. Running movements may occur ... without \ 247 locomotion..." (McGrew, 1972, p. 111). S i d l e , S i d l e Step - "The body moves l a t e r a l l y at a moderate rate by a l t e r n a t i n g l e g movements, two per s t r i d e . One foot i s placed f i r m l y to the side before l i f t i n g the other foot to be placed nearer i t . The trunk i s upright or t i l t e d to the side. S i d l e step i s one unit of S i d l e . The leg i s moved l a t e r a l l y once, placed onto the ground, and part of the body weight i s s h i f t e d onto i t . " (McGrew, 1972, p. 111). Step L e f t - "A step i s one unit of walk. The leg i s moved forward once, placed on the ground, and part of the body weight i s s h i f t e d onto i t . The other leg may be brought forward and placed beside the other." (McGrew, 1972, p. 112). Step Right - "See SL for Step L e f t . " Walk - "The body moves b i p e d a l l y forward at a moderate rate, a l t e r n a t i n g legs during each s t r i d e so that one foot i s placed f i r m l y on the ground before the other leaves the ground. The trunk i s upright, and the arms swing forward and backward i n unison with the opposite legs." (McGrew, 1972, p. 112). Shuffle - "While the trunk i s upright, the feet are moved r e p e t i t i v e l y i n various patterns; together and apart again, from heel to toe and back, from i n s i d e to outside edge of the foot, p i v o t i n g on heel or toe, onto tiptoes and down again. No locomotion occurs and no function i s apparent, 248 for example, other simultaneous behavior appears unaffected whether feet are together or apart." (McGrew, 1972, pp. 92-93) . 249 APPENDIX II De f i n i t i o n s of Communication Functions RF R e f e r e n t i a l . (environment)" CN Conative (receiver) EX Expressive (sender) ME Metalingual (code) -behavior which functions to denote objects and actions i n the environment—e.g. "That's a book", 2 + 2 = 4 ; or pointing, searching f o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r context. The object or action " r e f e r r e d " to must be present i n the observation. -behavior which functions to d i r e c t or persuade the r e c e i v e r — e . g . "Gimme", "No parking"; or reaching f o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts. -behavior which functions to i d e n t i f y or express f e e l i n g s of the sender—e.g. "Ouch!", "I'm hungry"; teeth bared, smile, i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts. Changes i n intonation and stress of v o c a l i z a t i o n are in d i c a t o r s as well as are some Elements of Behavior. -behavior which functions to improve the shared understanding of the code used—e.g. i m i t a t i o n of a model, requests f o r d e f i n i t i o n , p r a c t i c e of pronunciation or gesture. The p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the message con t r o l l e d by each Communication Function and the abbreviated l e t t e r codes used i n analysis are given at the l e f t . 250 PW P o e t i c : -behavior focussed on the message f o r i t s own (message form) sake, which functions to modify the a f f e c t of sender or r e c e i v e r — e . g . a l l i t e r a t i o n , resonance, rhythmic sequences of voice or body movement or actions, r i t u a l , ceremony. PJ Phatic -behavior which functions to maintain contact between the sender and the r e c e i v e r — e . g . "Um", "Hello" or waving, i n a p a r t i c u l a r context. The "receiver" must appear i n the observation. (channel) Coders sought to l i m i t inferences about the "meaning" of the communication by c l a s s i f y i n g i t i n terms of t h e i r experienced dispo-s i t i o n to act i n response to the videotaped behavior of the subjects. A d d i t i o n a l guidelines are l i s t e d with the d e f i n i t i o n s . 251 APPENDIX I I I Functional D e f i n i t i o n s of Piagetian Stages Approx. Piaget Theory Object Concept^ Age Stage Theoretical Description Observations Use of Reflexes Functional A s s i m i l a t i o n Development of Motor Schemas: Sucking to suck Rooting to root Swallowing to swallow Looking to look Summary: No search for Object Examples: 1. Recognition of sensory pictures ( e s p e c i a l l y sucking percept schema) 2. Infant sucks everything (generalized assimilation) except when hungry, then discriminates nipple (recognitory assimilation) 1Decarie 1965, pp. 28-63 2 The stages are given the abbreviated l e t t e r codes used i n coding 252 Approx. Play Communication Age Stage (Interaction with objects) (Interaction with people) Observed Observations Observed Response I n i t i a t i o n s 0-1 01 Summary: Reflex Summary: Reflex mo. A c t i v i t y A c t i v i t y Examples: Example: Grasps objects placed i n S t a r t l e (mass hand. reaction) "Con-Sucks when l i p s or hands tageous c r y i n g " are touched. Taken from Developmental Assessment M. Mackie, P. Woodward (1973) unpublished 253 Approx. Age Piaget Theory Object Concept Observations Stage Theoretical Description 1 - 02 F i r s t habits are primary Summary: No Search f or 4% c i r c u l a r reactions - Object mos. imitate s e l f . Beginning of accommoda- Example: t i o n E x e r c i s i n g reflexes A n t i c i p a t o r y behavior including chance objects into action Infant continues to look schema. i n d i r e c t i o n where person has disappeared, The hand does what but makes no ac t i v e the eye sees - search, with eyes or any beginning of v i s u a l other mode, for the a s s i m i l a t i o n vanished percept. .(P. "the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l Pseudo or mutual search i s ... only an i m i t a t i o n : extension or r e p e t i t i o n a. i n infants of the most recent acts r e p e r t o i r e of accommodation.") b. infant has j u s t done i t or i s j u s t doing i t c. infant can see i t on own body achieved at end of period 2 5 4 A p p r o x . P l a y A g e S t a g e ( I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o b j e c t s ) O b s e r v a t i o n s C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e o p l e )  O b s e r v e d O b s e r v e d R e s p o n s e I n i t i a t i o n s 1 - 4 % 0 2 S u m m a r y : E l a b o r a t i o n a n d m o s . g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f r e f l e x e s . L o o k i n g t o s e e . A c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d b y b o d y n e e d s . P s e u d o - i m i t a t i o n ( o b s e r v e r i m i t a t e s c h i l d , t a k i n g p a r t i n p r i m a r y c i r c u l a r r e a c -t i o n ) — b a b b l i n g . O b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n m a s s a c t i o n . D e s i r e t o r e p e a t s a m e e v e n t . E x a m p l e s : G l a n c e s a t r a t t l e . R e g a r d s h a n d b r i e f l y . " R e c o g n i z e s " b o t t l e . F o l l o w s m o v i n g p e r s o n w i t h e y e s . S t o p s c r y i n g t o l o o k . R e d i s c o v e r s o b j e c t s t h a t h a v e e s c a p e d s i g h t . W a t c h e s o b j e c t s s l o w l y m o v e d a t a d i s t a n c e . E x p l o r e s f a c e o f o n e l e a n i n g o v e r h i m — p r e f e r s f a c e t o m a s k . R u b s e y e s w i t h f i s t . E y e s f o l l o w h a n d m o v e -m e n t . P u t s i n t o m o u t h o b j e c t s d i s c o v e r e d . L o o k s a t r a t t l e o p e n i n g m o u t h . P r o t r u s i o n o f t o n g u e — s e e k i n g t o s u c k . L i f t s h e a d s l i g h t l y w h e n p r o n e . P s e u d o - i m i t a t i o n m o v e -m e n t s m u s t b e v i s i b l e t o h i m . S u m m a r y : A c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o b o d y n e e d s . G l o b a l d i f f e r e n t i -a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s T u r n s h e a d t o v o i c e . B r i e f v i s u a l s e a r c h f o r s o u n d s o u r c e . D i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s t o i n t o n a t i o n — f r i e n d l y v s . a n g r y . S h o w s d e f i n i t e d i s -p l e a s u r e a s n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e . I m i t a t e s o r r e s p o n d s t o s m i l i n g p e r s o n w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s m i l e , V o c a l i z a t i o n i n -c r e a s e d b y v o c a l s t i m u l a t i o n — v o c a l c o n t a g i o n — n o t t r u e i m i t a t i o n . B e g i n s t o r e s p o n d t o " P e e k - a - B o o " ( b e g i n s t o a n t i c -i p a t e s i t u a t i o n s ) . G i v e s s m i l e o f r e c o g n i t i o n . E x a m p l e s : C o o s , c h u c k l e s , g r u n t s , g r o w l s , s q u e a l s . C r i e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p a i n f r o m h u n g e r . V o c a l i m i t a t i o n s o f s e l f ( b a b b l i n g ) . V o c a l i m i t a t i o n o f o t h e r i f o t h e r i m i t a t e s i n f a n t a t t h e m o m e n t h e i s b a b b l i n g i n m u t u a l i m i t a t i o n . M u t u a l o r p s e u d o -i m i t a t i o n a t e n d o f p e r i o d . ^ M o r e h e a d a n d M o r e h e a d , 1 9 7 3 , p . 1 6 0 . 255 Approx. Age Piaget Theory Stage , Theoretical Description Object Concept Observations 4^ -8 or 03 9 mos. 3 - 4 mos. A3 4 - 9 mos. Coordination of v i s i o n and prehension -secondary c i r c u l a r  reactions Incorporation of new objects into e x i s t -ing schemas. A c t i v i t i e s and "procedures" to "make i n t e r e s t i n g spectacles l a s t . " Imitation of s e l f : sounds and movements i n h i s own r e p e r t o i r e and pseudo i m i t a t i o n are t y p i c a l . True i m i t a t i o n of actions of others-sporadoc i m i t a t i o n achieved by end of period. Single modality search f o r absent object. Summary: Beginning of Permanence extending the movement of accommodation. By end of period the c h i l d no longer seeks an object only where he has recently seen i t , but hunts for i t i n a new place -accommodation of schemas. Examples: 1. V i s u a l accommodation  to rapid movements. Infant begins to look for object f a l l e n from h i s v i s u a l f i e l d : a. f i r s t , i f he sees i t s t a r t to f a l l , or i t i s slowed or a concurrent sound i s made, when he w i l l glance b r i e f l y . b. second, i f i t i s bulky, the v i s u a l cue alone w i l l s u f f i c e to e l i c i t a short search. c. t h i r d , he learns to look on the f l o o r f or everything that i s dropped, large or small, cued by v i s i o n alone. 2. Interrupted Prehension-The infant begins to search f o r objects f a l l e n from h i s hands i f they : f a l l while he i s touching, removing or grasping them (not i f they f a l l very abruptly a f t e r being held fo r some time) by lowering h i s arm and grasping without v i s u a l guidance. (If an object f a l l s onto h i s cheek, chin or abdomen, he has no d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g i t . ) 256 Approx. Piaget Theory Object Concept Age Stage .. Theoretical Description Observations 6-9 mos. B3 Use of " s i g n a l s " 3. Deferred C i r c u l a r Reaction The infant busy doing something, i s interrupted but soon, abruptly and on h i s own i n i t i a t -i v e , returns to former a c t i v i t y (accommodation extended to r e -capture i n t e r e s t i n g percepts. 4. Reconstruction of an i n v i s - i b l e whole from a v i s i b l e  f r a c t i o n -coordination of schemas of v i s i o n and grasp. The infant w i l l a c t i v e l y hunt for a mostly hidden object i f a s i g n i f i c a n t part remains i n view. 5. Removal of obstacles prevent- ing perception, infant p u l l s blanket o f f head while playing "peek-a-boo" ( t h i s i s a "removal of the obstacle i n r e l a t i o n ^ t o the subject and not i n r e l a t i o n to the object") (Piaget 1937, p. 36) 257 Approx. Play Communication Age Stage (Interaction with objects) (Interactions with people) Observed Observations Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s 4^ -8 or 03 9 mos. Summary: Generalized as-s i m i l a t i o n and accommo-dation r e l a t i n g objects i n the environment to a c t i o n s — s t i m u l a t e d by environment. Investigates objects, practices movements, looks to act using same modality. Grabs what he sees, defined by mouth-ing. Examples: Shakes r a t t l e to hear i t . I n i t i a t e s approach to people, toys, s e l f i n mirror. Imitates some f a c i a l expressions of adults. Has a favourite blanket. H i t s objects held before him. Rubs an object against a surface. Increases motor capac-i t i e s : a. r o l l s from side to side b. achieves head balance c. s i t t i n g emerges d. creeping emerges Modifies global actions as a r e s u l t of e f f e c t s , e. g., s t r i k e s an object hanging and graduates movements as a function of the r e s u l t produced. Understands " s i g n a l s " i . e . , has b r i e f expecta-t i o n of what w i l l follow c e r t a i n sounds or move-ments . Imitation s t i l l pseudo. Summary: Takes part i n immediate trans-actions . Examples: Understands "no no." Smiles at s e l f i n mirror. Laughs aloud. Extends arms to mother when she extends hers to him (i m i t a t i v e gesture). Employs intonation i n imitating, sounds. Takes object held near hand. Turns head to a voice and h i s own name. "Recognition" of kinship names. Responds to "peek-a-boo". Imitates s o c i a l expressions of adults and gross actions. Imitates sounds i f other person imitates him immediately a f t e r he has v o c a l i z e d — pseudo or mutual i m i t a t i o n . True or sporadic i m i t a t i o n (when infant imitates sounds which he himself has not produced) appears at end of t h i s stage. Summary: Takes part i n immedi-ate trans-actions. Examples: Approaches people, toys, s e l f ( i n the mi r r o r ) . Transmits conscious d i s p l e a -sure. Babbles i n more than two sounds with proper intonation. " C a l l s " to mother i n next room cued by recent departure or current sounds, etc. 258 Approx. Piaget Theory Object Concept Age Stage Theoretical Description Observations 8,9, 04 Coordination of secondary to schemas and t h e i r a p p l i c a -11,12 t i o n to new s i t u a t i o n s , mos. ( T r a n s i t i o n a l stage between secondary and t e r t i a r y schemas.) 8 or 9 A4 Pre-representation begins mos. as cues replace objects and events: index. R i t u a l i z a t i o n begins e.g., attacking a b a r r i e r as an end, neglecting the goal beyond the b a r r i e r . Search f o r f a m i l i a r items to include i n f a m i l i a r structures (accommodation) Familiar means applied to new s i t u a t i o n s ( a s s i m i l a -tion) 13 B4 F i r s t true (sporadic) mos. i m i t a t i o n , but only of own reper t o i r e i s t y p i c a l . The beginning of separa-t i o n of a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation f a c i l i t a t e s more adaptation of schemas. The i m i t a t i o n of novel behavior introduces i t to re p e r t o i r e . This can only be done through index which i s part of the old schema s i m i l a r to the new. Imitation of novel behavior i s achieved by the end of the period. Summary: Active Search f o r vanished object but without accounting f o r sequences of v i s i b l e displacements. Examples: 1. Location of object a f t e r  v i s i b l e displacement ( v i s u a l  cues only) when prehension i s  interrupted object i s hidden while i n f a n t watches. 2. Location of object a f t e r  one v i s i b l e displacement  without the a i d of i n t e r -rupted prehension but infant perseverates on the f i r s t hiding place even when the second hiding place i s demon-strated. 3. Location of object a f t e r  two v i s i b l e displacements but infant returns to f i r s t s o l u t i o n i f the second obstacle presents d i f f i c u l t i e s . 259 Approx. Play Communication Age Stage (Interaction with objects) (Interaction with people) Observed Observations Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s 8-9 04 Summary: Accommodation mos. of schemas - sight of to hand and object together 11-12 produces grasp - the hand mos. grasps what the eye observes. E f o r t made to obtain ends beyond reach. Becoming objective -actions upon distant objects and reversals of actio n . Interest i s s h i f t e d from action to gross e f f e c t s of action - "inapprop-r i a t e " use of complic-ated toy. Goal directed seeking more p e r s i s t e n t . Examples: Infant sets aside a bar-r i e r to obtain something. Infant interested i n pouring a c t i v i t i e s with sand and water (studying the t r a j e c t o r y ) . Infant acts upon one object by means of another. Infant seeks to see what he hears and hear what he sees. Infant pinches. Preference f o r some objects beloved "trans-i t i o n a l object". Summary: Beginning of receptive "understanding" by demonstrated assoc-i a t i o n s of sound and referent. S k i l l s increase through i m i t a t i o n ( t y p i c a l behavior). Set o f f by signals which are f a m i l i a r parts of actions which e l i c i t sim-i l a r actions from infant's a v a i l a b l e r e p e r t o i r e -auditory monitors. Examples: Imitates not only adult speech inton-ation, but also the beginning of imita-t i o n of rhythm and a r t i c u l a t i o n (may have a few words). Finds, points to or gives a few f a m i l -i a r toys or objects on request. Plays "pat-a-cake". Waves "bye-bye". Babbles when point-ing to p i c t u r e s . Parodies, nursery rhymes and songs -generalized sounds and gestures. Sounds form a l i n k between the model and the c h i l d ' s i m i t a t i o n of the sound (needs audi-tory cue) . Some actions "stand f o r " others, e.g., door opening = Summary: Beginning of purpose-f u l message sending. Examples: "Coughs" .. and c l i c k s tongue. Pinches, i n t e n t i o n a l action. Kisses. Hugs. 'Expression' includes actions, not ju s t crying etc. k~ 260 Communication (Interaction with people) Observed Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s someone coming -index. By end of period i s able to use index (indices) (parts of schema which stand for schema) as bridge to a s s i m i l a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n of new actions. Approx. Play Age Stage (Interaction with objects) Observations 261 Approx. Piaget Theory Object Concept Age Stage Theoretical Description Observations 11-12 05 D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of concepts to 18 which are action schemas mos. through " t e r t i a r y " c i r c u l a r r eactions. Summary: Chi l d takes into account the sequence of v i s i b l e displacements but disregards the sequence of i n v i s i b l e displacements. 11-12 mos. A5 B5 16-18 mos. Discovery of new means. (Accommodation and coordin-ati o n of schemas). Intentional v a r i a t i o n of action to study r e s u l t s to sensori-motor concepts -v a r i a t i o n of action as ac t i o n and object as_ object - i n t e r e s t i n novelty. Deferred i m i t a t i o n by end of period Examples: Active search with sequence of v i s i b l e displacements 1. Location of object with  two v i s i b l e displacements infant finds toy i n second (or third) demonstrated hiding place. 2. Location of object with  one v i s i b l e and one i n v i s - i b l e displacement only by t r i a l and e r r o r . Active search without taking into account the sequence of i n v i s i b l e displacements. 3. Location of object with  one v i s i b l e and one i n v i s - i b l e displacement i n f a n t immediately finds toy a f t e r one i n v i s i b l e displacement. 262 Approx. Play Communication Age Stage (Interaction with objects) (Interaction with people)  Observed Observations Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s 12-18 05 Summary: Experimentation mos. to discover new properties i n objects and events. Operates on environment. Examples: Finding out about objects: L e t t i n g go. Throwing. R o l l i n g . Retrieving. Varying positions of objects. F l o a t i n g . Pouring. E f f o r t to grasp, perform other operations etc. "Appropriate" play with simplest toys. Likes p u l l i n g p u l l - t o y s . Makes marks with crayons on paper or table. P a r t i a l l y feeds s e l f . Enjoys play i n the sand. Summary: "Represen-t a t i o n " r e l i a b l e but s t i l l t i e d to and part of the immedi-ate s i t u a t i o n . Examples: Names common v i s i b l e objects on request. "Recognizes" p i c -tures i n book - pats them. Responds to gestures "come". Responds by pointing etc. to "Where" i s the...? for common objects and people v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e . Points to body parts on request. Likes being read to. More systematic and exact i m i t a t i o n exploring action of model. Part of the action schema coincident with model becomes index which l i n k s s i g n i f i e r ( c h i l d ' s action) and s i g n i -f i e d (adult action) must be simultane-ously present thus presenting i n a c t u a l i t y the shared properties which are to be reproduced. Summary: Great increase i n i n i t i a t e d communication. Examples: Employs purposeful gestures to indicate wants. Jargon phrases with inten-t i o n a l pat-terns . Indicates wants with a few words. Gets help of others through purposeful actions. Indicates 'joke' by shared laugh or playface to other person a f t e r action has taken place. Performs ' transgres-sions' and then looks to see e f f e c t on adults. Teases. 263 Approx. Piaget Theory Object Concept Age Stage Theoretical Description Observations 18-24 mos. 06 A6 B6 F i r s t i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of schemas and s o l u t i o n of some problems by deduction. Beginning of true  representation. Personal symbols seen i n : a. Symbolic Play b. Deferred Imitation c. Internalized i m i t a t i o n (Images) Cause i s symbolized by observing e f f e c t and v i c e versa. Beginning of memory of the past and true a n t i c i p a t i o n of the future. Summary: Representation of i n v i s i b l e d i s p l a c e -ments—object permanence. Examples: 1. Location of object  with alternate s i n g l e  v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e  displacements. 2. Location of object  with one v i s i b l e and  three i n v i s i b l e super-imposed displacements -e.g., toy to be found i s under a handker-chief which i s under a hat which i s under a blanket. 3. Location of object  with one v i s i b l e and  two or three  sequential i n v i s i b l e  displacements. 264 Approx. Play Communications Age Stage (Interaction with objects) (Interaction with people) Observed Observations Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s 18-24 06 Summary: Imitates complex mos. new models without extens-ive t r i a l and error. Imitates non-human and non-1iving beings. Imitates absent objects and people a f t e r a time  i n t e r v a l - deferred im i t a t i o n . Imitation and play "fuse". Examples: Can b r i e f l y take r o l e i n playing house, cowboys, etc. B r i e f l y able to be " i t " i n tag. Begins to enjoy "hide-and-seek". Summary: True rep- Summary: resentational imagery achieved for objects and actions already experienced by end of period. Examples: Responds to ques-tions by pointing or doing. Follows simple commands. Responds to speech by speech. Representation of actions before they are undertaken demonstrating symbol use. Beginning of o r i g i n a l message -new combin-ations. Examples: Communi-cates needs having to do with memor-ies of past and future a n t i c i p a t i o n s . Says "bye-bye" and "night-night". Free naming and asking. 265 APPENDIX IV Operational D e f i n i t i o n s (Object Concept) of  Piagetian Stages 01 Stage 1 Use of Reflexes A c t i v i t y Unit consists of one Element of Behavior repeated without modification 02 Stage 2 Primary C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y Unit consists of a r e p e t i t i o n of the Element "look" paired with another Element of Behavior, when both are inf e r r e d to be a response to one Element of Environment (object or person) A3 Stage 3A Secondary C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y Unit, or series of A c t i v i t y Units, consists of a r e p e t i t i o n of the element "look" paired with another Element of Behavior, when both are i n f e r r e d to be a response to a s e r i e s of two or more d i f f e r e n t Elements of Environment (objects or persons or d i f f e r e n t aspects of one object or person); or consists of the Element "look"paired with a series of two or more Elements of Behavior when a l l are i n f e r r e d to be a response to one Elements of Environment (object or person) B3 Stage 3B Interrupted Secondary C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y Unit as for Stage 3, but with the b r i e f interrup-t i o n of another Element, often "glance" A4 Stage 4A Coordination of Secondary Schemas A c t i v i t y Unit consists of the Element "look" paired with a purposeful sequence or coordinate functioning of more than two or three other Elements of Behavior to obtain an e f f e c t on one Element of Environment (object or person); or a series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of the Element "look" paired with another Element of Behavior to obtain an e f f e c t on a serie s of not more than three d i f f e r e n t Elements of Environment (objects or persons or d i f f e r e n t aspects of objects or persons) B4 Stage 4B Active Search for Vanished Object A c t i v i t y Unit consists of the Element "look" paired with a series of Elements of Behavior, each associated with a d i f f e r e n t Element of Environment, for the purpose of d i s -covering a hidden object. A5 Stage 5A T e r t i a r y C i r c u l a r Reactions A series of A c t i v i t y Units i n which more than three Elements of Behavior and/or more than three Elements of Environment (objects or persons or aspects of objects or persons) are i n t e n t i o n a l l y paired i n various ways to achieve new e f f e c t s and discover new properties. 266 B5 Stage 5B Discovery of Vanished Object A f t e r I n v i s i b l e Displacement A c t i v i t y Unit or series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of the Element "look" paired with a serie s of Elements of Behavior, each associated with a d i f f e r e n t Element of Environment (object) which serves to discover a hidden object a f t e r one i n v i s i b l e displacement. A6 Stage 6A Beginning of True Representation A c t i v i t y Unit or series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of a ser i e s of more than three Elements of Behavior performed i n i m i t a t i o n of a new model without extensive t r i a l and error. B6 Stage 6B Representation of I n v i s i b l e Displacements A c t i v i t y Unit or series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of the Element "look" paired with a series of more than three Elements of Behavior, each associated with a d i f f e r e n t Element of Environment (object), which serve to discover an object hidden by two or three sequential i n v i s i b l e displacements. 267 APPENDIX V D e f i n i t i o n s of Piagetian Configurations IN Imitation - r e p e t i t i o n by the infant of an action he has ju s t seen or a sound he has j u s t heard. This i s recorded only when the model occurs i n the observation. DI Deferred Imitation - "Imitation that occurs for the f i r s t time i n the absence of the model to which i t corresponds." (Piaget, 1967, p. 90) This i s recorded only when m