UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Perceptions of the role of the learning assistance teacher 1990

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1990_A8 C84.pdf
UBC_1990_A8 C84.pdf [ 5.06MB ]
UBC_1990_A8 C84.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0054361.json
JSON-LD: 1.0054361+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0054361.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0054361+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0054361+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0054361+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0054361.ris

Full Text

PERCEPTIONS OF THE ROLE OF THE LEARNING ASSISTANCE TEACHER by Janet I r i s C u l l i s B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology and S p e c i a l Educat i on) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA) A p r i l 1990 © Janet I r i s C u l l i s , 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D E - 6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T A r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r ( L A T ) , t h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r , t h e S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l a n d t h e D i s t r i c t S t a f f o f t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T i s e x a m i n e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e e m p l o y i n g a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . The s t u d y e x p l o r e d , d e s c r i b e d a n d a t t e m p t e d t o c o m p a r e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e k e y o b s e r v e r s i n o n e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y m e t h o d . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e s e n t t o k e y o b s e r v e r s t o o b t a i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l . The i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t e d t w o l e v e l s o f d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e - w i t h i n s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a n d d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . The w i t h i n s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l . The d a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d d e s c r i p t i v e l y , a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s b e t w e e n t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s was t a k e n , t h e i n t e r - g r o u p c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s was e x a m i n e d , a n d t h e r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g o f r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e f o u r g r o u p s was e x a m i n e d . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e s p e c u l a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1 . The c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e a o f t h e L A T r o l e i s s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m . 2 . The o u t - o f - s c h o o l a n d w i t h i n - s c h o o l g r o u p s h a v e d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s . 3 . The w i t h i n - s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l h a v e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s w h i c h may be d u e t o t h e l e v e l o f i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a n d / o r w r i t t e n d i s t r i c t p o l i c y a n d s c h o o l o b j e c t i v e s a n d g o a l s f o r t h e L A T . 4 . The i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d L A T may h a v e l e d t o a n i n c r e a s i n g c o m m o n a l i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e L A T r o l e . 5 . T h i s d i s t r i c t r a t e s c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g much h i g h e r t h a n D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) r e s e a r c h . T h i s may be d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d t o s e r v i c e c h i l d r e n w i t h m i l d h a n d i c a p s w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . T h i s d i s t r i c t i s m o v i n g t o w a r d t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o s e e t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e m a t c h e s t h e a c t u a l r o l e , w h a t t h e d e s i r e d o r p r e f e r r e d r o l e o f t h e L A T i s f o r t h e s e k e y o b s e r v e r s , a n d w h a t v a l u e t h e r o l e h a s o n l e a r n e r o u t c o m e s . P o s s i b l e p i l o t s t u d i e s o f o t h e r w a y s t o m e e t s t u d e n t s n e e d s a r e s u g g e s t e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i Chapter 1: PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND In t r o d u c t i o n 1 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e of LAT's i n B r i t i s h 1 Columbia Personal Background Experience 6 Summary 12 11: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Focus of Education P o l i c y 14 Resource Room Programs 15 Roles of the Learning Assistance Teacher 16 The Role of the Learning Assistance Teachers i n B.C. 18 I. D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n 22 11. Assessment 2 4 I I I . Co-operative Planning 25 I n i t i a l Problems with the LAT Role 27 R e s t r u c t u r i n g Regular and S p e c i a l Education 31 Role A n a l y s i s 34 Summary 36 I I I : THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem 38 Research Questions 38 Research Hypotheses 39 Major B e n e f i t s 40 Basic Assumptions 41 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 41 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 42 Summary 4 4 IV: METHODOLOGY \ i x i v i i i i v I n t r o d u c t i o n 46 S i t e a n d P a r t i c i p a n t s 47 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 49 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 51 D a t a A n a l y s i s 53 D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a 53 H y p o t h e s i s 1 54 H y p o t h e s i s 2 55 H y p o t h e s i s 3 55 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (ANOVA) 56 S u p p l e m e n t a r y A n a l y s i s I n t e r g r o u p C o r r e l a t i o n s 57 R a n k i n g o f F o u r G r o u p s 57 Summary o f M e t h o d s a n d P r o c e d u r e s 57 V : A N A L Y S I S AND R E S U L T S I n t r o d u c t i o n 59 S a m p l e 59 i . L A T ' s 60 i i . C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s 61 i i i . P r i n c i p a l s 61 i v . D i s t r i c t S t a f f 61 v . D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a 62 M e a s u r e s 63 H y p o t h e s e s F i n d i n g s 66 H I 66 H2 71 S u p p l e m e n t a r y F i n d i n g s i . I n t e r - g r o u p C o r r e l a t i o n 72 i i . R a n k O r d e r A n a l y s i s 77 I n t e g r a t i o n o f R e s u l t s 84 Summary o f R e s u l t s 89 V I : D I S C U S S I O N OF R E S E A R C H F I N D I N G S I n t r o d u c t i o n 92 The R o l e o f t h e L A T 93 P r i n c i p a l , C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r , L A T a n d D i s t r i c t S t a f f C o n g r u e n c e o n t h e R o l e o f t h e L A T 95 L A T , P r i n c i p a l , C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r a n d D i s t r i c t S t a f f C o n g r u e n c e o n t h e A s s e s s m e n t , I n s t r u c t i o n a n d C o n s u l t a t i o n R o l e s o f t h e L A T 101 S u p p l e m e n t a r y F i n d i n g s 104 i ) . S a m p l e 104 i i ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , D i s t r i c t S t a f f a n d ,v L A T ' s P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e R o l e o f t h e L A T 106 i i i ) . R a n k O r d e r A n a l y s i s 108 L A T P r o g r a m ' 111 L i m i t a t i o n s 112 I m p l i c a t i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 113 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 117 Summary 119 R E F E R E N C E S 1 2 1 - 1 2 6 A P P E N D I X A 127 A P P E N D I X B 130 A P P E N D I X C 131 A P P E N D I X D 132 A P P E N D I X E 133 A P P E N D I X F 134 v i L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E 1 : T A B L E 2 : T A B L E 3 : T A B L E 4 : T A B L E 5 : T A B L E 6 : T A B L E 7 : T A B L E 8 : T A B L E 9 : T A B L E 1 0 : T A B L E 11 T A B L E 12 T A B L E 13 R e s p o n s e r a t e a n d means o n t h r e e m e a s u r e s a c r o s s r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s 63 E x p e r i e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n f o r f o u r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s 63 I n t e i r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n d e x a c r o s s f o u r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s o n e i g h t e e n i t e m s , f o r t w o s t u d i e s 65 I t e m R a t i n g o f M e a n s a n d ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) F o r F o u r R e s p o n s e G r o u p s 69 Summary o f L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n a n d C a t e g o r y f o r E i g h t e e n I t e m s 70 M e a n s , ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) a n d A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s A c r o s s G r o u p s a n d S u b - a r e a s 72 M e a n I t e m R a t i n g F o r F o u r R e s p o n s e G r o u p s 74 M a t r i x o f I n t e r - g r o u p C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( P e a r s o n r ) f o r t h e M e a n s o f E i g h t e e n I t e m s . 75 G r a p h : M e a n R e s p o n s e b y R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p s 79 R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p s R a n k i n g o f t h e I t e m s A c c o r d i n g t o I m p o r t a n c e P l a c e d b y E a c h G r o u p 80 I t e m s R a n k e d A c c o r d i n g t o I m p o r t a n c e b y E a c h G r o u p 81 Summary o f A v e r a g e R a n k i n g o f L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n s F r o m M o s t I m p o r t a n t t o L e a s t I m p o r t a n t a n d O v e r a l l M e a n s f o r T h r e e R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p s ( C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , P r i n c i p a l s a n d L A T ' s ) 8 6 - 8 7 C o m b i n e d R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p ( C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , P r i n c i p a l s a n d L A T ' s ) C o m p a r e d t o D i s t r i c t S t a f f f o r R a n k i n g o f I t e m s a n d C a t e g o r i e s . 88 v u ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I must thank e s p e c i a l l y Dr. David Kendall for h i s guidance and support i n the pre p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r h i s e x p e r t i s e and help with the methodology which was a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l as was h i s encouragement which was always generously given; and Dr.Randy Cranston whose i n s p i r a t i o n gave me the i n i t i a l impetus for t h i s t h e s i s . v i i i DEDICATION This study i s dedicated: To my husband, Frank, who encouraged me to be a r i s k t a k e r , who t r i e d to provide me with the time • | needed to w r i t e and study and who gave me l o v i n g i support, To my c h i l d r e n , T r i s h a , Ian, and J e s s i c a , who never flagged i n t h e i r f a i t h that I could complete my task but who wondered how much longer i t would take, To my parents, Harry and F r a n c i s , whose motto j "what d i d you l e a r n from t h a t " encouraged me to become i a l i f e long l e a r n e r . ',4x CHAPTER I PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND ! I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s i s a s t u d y o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f i t h e E l e m e n t a r y L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t w i l l f o c u s on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s ( L A T ) , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s , a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f o f t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T . H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o f L A T s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s ( L A C s ) w e r e i n s t i t u t e d i n some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n 1 9 7 1 a n d e a r l i e r , a n d g a i n e d i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , t h e L A T r o l e h a d j u s t e m e r g e d f r o m t h e f i e l d o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . I t was a t t h a t t i m e d e f i n e d a s p r o v i d i n g " r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o s t u d e n t s , o n a w i t h d r a w a l b a s i s , a s a n y p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t , b u t d i d n o t c a r r y f u l l - t i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n y t h i n g w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a s p e c i a l c l a s s " ( S c h w a r t z , 1 9 7 9 , p 5 ) . I t f e l l u n d e r t h e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n r u b r i c a n d e m e r g e d i n 1 9 7 2 / 3 a s p a r t o f a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n g r a n t s t r u c t u r e a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l when P a g e 1 t w o p r o g r a m s w e r e c o m b i n e d f o r g r a n t a p p r o v a l p u r p o s e s ' ( S c h w a r t z ) . P r i o r t o t h i s t i m e t h e e m p h a s i s h a d b e e n o n t h e g r o u p i n g o f c h i l d r e n a c c o r d i n g t o " r i g i d l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s o f h a n d i c a p s , a n d t h e i r s e g r e g a t i o n f r o m t h e r e g u l a r s t r e a m o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g I n t o ' s p e c i a l ' c l a s s e s w i t h ' s p e c i a l ' t e a c h e r s , s o m e t i m e s i n ' s p e c i a l ' s c h o o l s " ( S c h w a r t z p . 6 ) . P r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h o s e c a t e g o r i c a l p r o g r a m s . L i t t l e p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n who w e r e a b l e t o r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e o r d i n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m b u t n e e d e d a d d i t i o n a l h e l p . When t h e " C o n t i n u u m o f S e r v i c e s " m o d e l w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d b y t h e C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n i n 1 9 7 1 became t h e d e s i r a b l e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n t h e n t h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r o r r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a s s / h e i s k n o w n o u t s i d e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a became t h e p r e f e r r e d m e t h o d o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e l o w e r l e v e l o f c h i l d r e n o n t h e c o n t i n u u m o f s e r v i c e s m o d e l . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e t e n d e n c y was t o k e e p " s l o w l e a r n i n g c h i l d r e n more i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f e d u c a t i o n , w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s s e r v i n g a s d i a g n o s t i c , c l i n i c a l , r e m e d i a l , r e s o u r c e r o o m , i t i n e r a n t a n d / o r t e a m t e a c h e r s , c o n s u l t a n t s , a n d d e v e l o p e r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g " ( S c h w a r t z , p . 7 ) . S c h w a r t z P a g e 2 concluded that "Learning Assistance i s a s e r v i c e without a c u r r i c u l u m i n the form of a c e n t r a l l y mandated set of procedures, content or method" ( p . l ) as there were no formal p o l i c y statements or d i r e c t i v e s i n place from e i t h e r the M i n i s t r y or most school d i s t r i c t s . Since that time, the M i n i s t r y has published g u i d e l i n e s (1985), as have many l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s and Armitage (1984) has published an a r t i c l e on how to evaluate the Resource Room programs; but the question remains as to whether there i s consensus among the key observers of t h e i r perception of the r o l e of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher. As s t a t e d by Schwartz "teachers might f i n d themselves i n the uncomfortable s i t u a t i o n of t r y i n g to meet c o n f l i c t i n g expectations held for them at school and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s " (p.18). The LAC model has been a v i s i b l e , popular trend i n B.C.. I t has been at the core of mainstreaming e f f o r t s and i s the most commonly u t i l i z e d d e l i v e r y system for m i l d l y handicapped l e a r n e r s . The r o l e of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher includes both d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n and i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e s i n the form of c o n s u l t a t i o n . Education of e x c e p t i o n a l students no longer f a l l s w i t h i n the e x c l u s i v e domain of s p e c i a l educators; the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e concept accepts a Page 3 p a r t n e r s h i p between reg u l a r and s p e c i a l educators. As s t a t e d by Schwartz (1979) the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e of the present S p e c i a l Education program i s i n t e g r a t i o n rather than segregation for the more s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d as w e l l i as those c h i l d r e n with r e l a t i v e l y mild l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . Most classroom teachers and p r i n c i p a l s have or w i l l have contact with students r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s from a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher (LAT) as LAC students spend most of t h e i r day i n the r e g u l a r i iclassroom, attending the LAC for a maximum of one hour per day ( M i n i s t r y of Education 1985). Thus, the r o l e of the LAT i s dependent upon his/her s u c c e s s f u l working r e l a t i o n s h i p with f e l l o w teachers, p r i n c i p a l s , parents, students, and d i s t r i c t c o n s u l t a t i v e s t a f f . D'Alonzo and Weisman (1978) s t a t e d , however, that "the inadequate r e l a t i o n s h i p between reg u l a r and s p e c i a l education s t a f f appeared to be a c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r r i n g theme." The LAT i s viewed as a supporting colleague who can a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g for the growth of each student. I t i s imperative, t h e r e f o r e , because of the pervasiveness of the LAC approach to s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y throughout B.C., to evaluate the v a r i a b l e s that i n f l u e n c e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Page 4 Schwartz (1979) found that "the term 'Learning A s s i s t a n c e 1 was not i n common usage outside B r i t i s h Columbia education," and that there are few published a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g with Learning Assistance w i t h i n B.C. When Armitage (1984), a B.C. researcher, published a paper on Learning Assistance programs, i t was r e f e r r e d to as a resource room program. Armitage (1979) s t a t e d that at f i r s t , due to the r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d i n f l u x of these c e n t r e s , s e v e r a l problems surfaced with regard to the t r a i n i n g or e x p e r t i s e of the LAT's, t h e i r r o l e or d u t i e s as understood by the s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (of the LAT,) the s e t t i n g and resources a v a i l a b l e to the LAT, the c l i e n t e l e of the LAT, and how and when the c l i e n t e l e should be s e r v i c e d . As a r e s u l t , a set of g u i d e l i n e s was e s t a b l i s h e d and these were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d i n 1985. Meetings are s t i l l being held with regard to the r o l e of the LAT and the LAT c l i e n t e l e . In May 1987 Richmond School D i s t r i c t held an i n s e r v i c e meeting for LATs regarding c o n s u l t a t i o n and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . I t was st r e s s e d that the LATs c l i e n t e l e are regul a r classroom teachers. Teachers have u s u a l l y perceived t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as being the c h i l d r e n with which they work. This s h i f t for LATs appeared to Page 5 a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g s t u d e n t s a n d p e r c e i v i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s a s b e i n g a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r l e a r n i n g s t y l e s a n d t h e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s e x i s t e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . P e r s o n a l B a c k g r o u n d E x p e r i e n c e H a v i n g t a u g h t f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s i n b o t h A l b e r t a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r became a L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r ( L A T ) i n 1 9 7 6 . The b a s i s f o r t h e a s s i g n m e n t was c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e a n d a r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c o u r s e A t t h a t t i m e , m o s t s c h o o l s i n t h e d i s t r i c t s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o n c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e s c h o o l l e v e l ( S c h w a r t z 1 9 7 9 ) w i t h m o s t s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e a d i n g a n d m a t h e m a t i c s . S c h w a r t z ( p . 2 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t " s t u d e n t s w i t h l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e a l s o r e p o r t e d t o be r e c e i v i n g L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e . " A t y p i c a l L A T m i g h t t h u s h a v e a w i d e r a n g e o f d e m a n d s . T e a c h i n g s p a r e s w e r e n o t p r e v a l e n t s o c o n s u l t a t i v e p l a n n i n g was d o n e o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r s c h o o l h o u r s o r t e n d e d t o be i g n o r e d . S c h w a r t r e p o r t e d t h a t L A T s f e l t t h e i r g r e a t e s t n e e d f o r P a g e 6 a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and upgrading was i n the area of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s . Due to the need f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n t h i s f i e l d , t h i s researcher began f u r t h e r courses i n S p e c i a l Education i n 1978. Gradually the m i n i s t r y and school d i s t r i c t developed a p o l i c y f o r LATs"and the r o l e changed from hel p i n g a l l slow l e a r n e r s to hel p i n g those students who were perceived to be f u n c t i o n i n g below t h e i r expected l e v e l . The students s t i l l came to the Learning i Assistance Centre (LAC) aind were put on reading programs such as D i s t a r . A few came for Mathematics and were put on programs such as Simple L a t t i c e Approach to Mathematics (S.L.A.M.). Seldom were students seen f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s ; i n S o c i a l Studies or Science and concern was not placed on s t r a t e g i e s and t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s back to the classroom. L i t t l e emphasis was placed on observing the c h i l d i n his/her i classroom environment to a c c u r a t e l y assess what the c h i l d ' s problems were. I n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s were j u s t beginning to be t a l k e d about i n schools. By the e i g h t i e s , i n d i v i d u a l teaching and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s (Lawrence, 1982), teaching for t r a n s f e r , teaching and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Joyce & Weil, 1986), cooperative l e a r n i n g (Johnson & Johnson, 1987), Page 7 one-to-one i n t e r a c t i o n between the LAT and the reg u l a r teacher ( B r a v i , 1 9 8 6 and Jenkins & Mayhall, 1 9 7 6 ) , one-to-one i n t e r a c t i o n with a student (Jenkins & Mayhall, 1 9 7 6 ) , and the LAT observing and working w i t h i n the reg u l a r classroom (Huefner, 1 9 8 8 ) were t o p i c s of concern i n the edu c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . A f t e r the M i n i s t r y published i t s 1 9 8 5 g u i d e l i n e s , the LATs r o l e o f f i c i a l l y involved assessment, d i r e c t teaching and c o n s u l t a t i o n . The assessment was to invo l v e observation i n the reg u l a r c l a s s s e t t i n g as w e l l as c r i t e r i o n referenced t e s t i n g . D i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n was encouraged w i t h i n the reg u l a r educational s e t t i n g whenever p o s s i b l e although, as stat e d by Speece and Mandell ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t h i s f or some teachers was very s t r e s s f u l and t h r e a t e n i n g . As w e l l , the LAT was encouraged to set aside time for teacher c o n s u l t a t i o n . A l o i a ( 1 9 8 3 , c i t e d i n Idol-Maestas & R i t t e r [ 1 9 8 5 ] ) found that teacher confidence f l u c t u a t e s depending upon the demands of the task and -thus Idol-Maestas and R i t t e r s t a t e d that teacher educators must consider whether some teachers avoid c o n s u l t a t i o n because of lack of p r e p a r a t i o n . Many LATs and classroom teachers saw c o n s u l t a t i o n as very valuable but ran i n t o d i f f i c u l t y scheduling i t Page 8 at a time when the classroom teacher was a l s o f r e e . The use of the teacher's spare for c o n s u l t a t i o n with LATs and others i s a contentious issue with the B.C. Teachers Union' at t h i s time. Time seemed to be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r as w e l l as the number of r o l e expectations and the amount of time a l l o t e d for a LAT w i t h i n each s c h o o l . These were among the concerns i n the m i d - e i g h t i e s . Having completed an undergraduate year i n S p e c i a l Education i n 1984, t h i s researcher began a master's degree i n S p e c i a l Education. Through course work a q u a l i t a t i v e paper for SPED 526 on "Concerns of the LAT" was prepared i n 1987. The LATs interviewed for the SPED 526 paper s t a t e d that they had found themselves t a k i n g on more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as t h e i r job d e s c r i p t i o n was not t i g h t l y defined and that the v a r i a b l e of time was an i n t e g r a l part of a l l t h e i r concerns. Lack of adequate time a f f e c t e d a l l of the f o l l o w i n g : communication among a l l involved teachers r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the program, p r o v i d i n g support i n ba s i c s k i l l s and cooperative planning needed by the intermediate students, sharing and c o n s u l t i n g among teachers, c o o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and hel p i n g parents. The LATs Page 9 a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e y c a r r i e d a h e a v y b u r d e n when i t came t o c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s and y e t t h e y d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e . They f e l t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s were n o t d o i n g a good j o b i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and t h a t t h i s was f u r t h e r e r o d e d by t h e d i s t r i c t s p l a c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n LAC p o s i t i o n s who had n o t been p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d and d i d n o t meet t h e g u i d e l i n e s a s o u t l i n e d by t h e M i n i s t r y . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r a l s o f o u n d t h a t s u f f i c i e n t t i m e i' was n o t g i v e n t o t h e LAT t o work a s a c o n s u l t a n t , i I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I d o l - M a e s t a s and R i t t e r (1985) and S p e e c e and M a n d e l l (1980) came t o s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s a s w e l l . The i m p l i c a t i o n s I d o l - M a e s t a s and R i t t e r h i g h l i g h t e d were t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s n e e d e d t o e n s u r e ; t h a t t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s be g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o work a s c o n s u l t a n t s , t h a t d i r e c t i o n and a d v i c e be s o u g h t f r o m h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l and t h a t i a d m i n i s t r a t o r s become aware o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o c o n s u l t a t i o n s u c h as t h e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n o f t h o s e who a r e n o t i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n m o d e l s , t h a t new g r a d u a t e s were u n c o m f o r t a b l e d o i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n w h i l e l a c k i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s need work on some i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l s , t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s may f a i l t o p r o m o t e t h e i r p r o g r a m and t h a t Page 10 there may be a lack o£ a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support and time to c o n s u l t . Speece and Mandell (1980) s t a t e d that there was the need for teachers to be cognizant of each other's r o l e s and needs, the need to evaluate p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e programs, the need for higher education to look at program p r i o r i t i e s and program scope i n order to develop c o n s u l t a t i o n s k i l l s and the need for a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n schools to e s t a b l i s h and maintain an atmosphere which encourages i n t e r a c t i o n among teachers. Dugoff, Ives and Shotel (1985) found that common views of the resource room f u n c t i o n were not achieved through an i n c i d e n t a l approach, and thus they recommended that a l l r e g u l a r educators be required to have a course i n s p e c i a l education and r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . In view of the statements by the LATs i n the SPED 526 q u a l i t a t i v e study, there was a l s o a need for everyone to be informed as to the time c o n s t r a i n t s of the LAT r o l e , and the number of func t i o n s a LAT has time for i n a day, week or year. Perhaps i t was not that the r o l e was not understood by those most involved with the LAT but that everyone, i n c l u d i n g the LAT, expected a l l f u n c t i o n s of the r o l e to be performed at Page 11 I i i a l l t i m e s a n d t h e r e j u s t was n o t a d e q u a t e t i m e o r L A T p e r s o n n e l t o meet t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . Summary L i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d o n e o n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f b o t h s p e c i a l a n d r e g u l a r e d u c a t o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r r o l e . R e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d o n n o t o n l y t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f how t h e r o l e i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d b u t a l s o o n how t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s f e e l t h e r o l e s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d , a n d o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c a d e m i c , p e r s o n a l , a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s . A s l o n g a g o a s 1 9 7 9 , A r m i t a g e s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t n e e d f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a l l a s p e c t s o f r e s o u r c e r o o m / l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e s t u d i e s m u s t i s o l a t e a n d l o o k a t s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m . A s y e t t h e s e s t u d i e s h a v e n o t b e e n d o n e i n B . C . . D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e d t h a t a r o l e h a s many d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s , s u c h a s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r r o l e s , t h e m a i n a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r o l e a n d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h P a g e 12 enhance the p o s i t i o n of the LAT, the r o l e must be understood as a composite of the r o l e as expected, as perceived, as a c t u a l l y performed and as accepted or l i k e d . Role a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s information from i n d i v i d u a l s whose perceptions of the r o l e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t how the r o l e i s described. Experts i n the f i e l d of s p e c i a l education, resource room teachers, regular classroom teachers, p r i n c i p a l s , students, parents and others have t h e i r own concepts of the r o l e . This i s a study of the perception of the r o l e of the Learning A s s i s t a n c e Teacher i n an urban school d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. Learning Assistance Teachers were found i n a l l of the elementary schools i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . The perceptions of the Learning Assistance Teachers (LAT), the classroom teachers, the p r i n c i p a l s , and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f of the r o l e of the LAT are the focus of t h i s study. Other s t u d i e s may wish to include the perceptions of the students r e c e i v i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and those not r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e plus the perceptions of the parents. Page 13 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Focus of Education P o l i c y Fleming (19 80) s t a t e d that the gr e a t e s t and most c h a l l e n g i n g act that can be c a r r i e d on by a teacher i s to take charge of a c l a s s of l e a r n e r s . A l l other s e r v i c e s must respond to the perceived needs of that teacher as defined by that p r o f e s s i o n a l , and must be designated support. In ge n e r a l , the focus of S p e c i a l Education p o l i c y has s h i f t e d from a medical model of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (L.D.) where the focus was on the handicaps, disadvantages, and weaknesses of the i n d i v i d u a l s to a c o l l a b o r a t i v e , coordinated d e l i v e r y system, to enable a l l students to r e c e i v e appropriate education (winzer, 1989). School f a i l u r e according to Gelzh e i z e r (1987) i s " t r a n s f e r r e d from d i s a b i l i t y to a s o c i a l process" and "the focus of remediation i s s h i f t e d from a c h i l d alone to a c h i l d i n context" (p.149). According to Winzer, at the root of the tran s f o r m a t i o n from segregated to i n t e g r a t e d educational placement were e m p i r i c a l data on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s p e c i a l c l a s s e s and knowledge and experience r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n with l e a r n i n g and Page 14 b e h a v i o u r a l p r o b l e m s . I n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y a s s i s t t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s t u d e n t s , we must u n d e r s t a n d •how t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r g e d i w i t h a s s i s t i n g i n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f m i l d t o m o d e r a t e l e a r n i n g h a n d i c a p s . R e s o u r c e Room P r o g r a m s R e s o u r c e room p r o g r a m s a r e t h e most w i d e l y u s e d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e , b u t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e s o u r c e room model i s o p e r a t e d ( F r i e n d & M c N u t t , 1 9 8 4 ) . The model u n d e r s t u d y h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d t h e r e s o u r c e room ( F r i e n d & M c N u t t ) , b u t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (B.C.) i t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e (LAC) ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . A r m i t a g e ( 1 9 7 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e name " R e s o u r c e Room" w o u l d more a d e q u a t e l y i n d i c a t e t h e v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e n e e d s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e LAC, i t was n o t b e i n g u s e d a s i t was i n most o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e r e a r e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t e r m s , b u t i n t h i s p a p e r t h e t e r m s w i l l be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . R e s o u r c e rooms s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g a s t h e y a r e an e x c e l l e n t a l t e r n a t i v e t o p e r m a n e n t , i s o l a t e d and s t i g m a t i z i n g s p e c i a l c l a s s p l a c e m e n t Page 15 (McLoughlin & Kass, 1978). Bak, Cooper, Dobroth and S i p e r s t e i n (1987) s t a t e that c h i l d r e n saw resource room t a r g e t s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more capable than s p e c i a l c l a s s t a r g e t s . They f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e that the absence of formal l a b e l s d i d not prevent regular classroom c h i l d r e n from forming negative expectations based on experiences. Thus edu c a t i o n a l placements alone can act as de f a c t o l a b e l s . In B.C., the LAC i s used to serve students with mild l e a r n i n g problems, ( M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s 1985) but, as F r i e n d and McNutt (1984) noted, LACs can be used to serve students with mild-to-moderate handicaps. These authors f u r t h e r s t a t e that most d e s c r i p t i o n s f a i l to d e l i n e a t e the resource room s e r v i c e s or the resource room teacher r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They suggest that there i s a need to disc o v e r how l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s i n t e r p r e t and use the p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s furnished by the State Department of Education. Roles of the Learning Assistance Teacher (LAT) The consultant r o l e of a LAT. as o u t l i n e d by Bravi (1986) can be of three types. There i s the expert, the extra-pair-of-hands and the c o l l a b o r a t i v e r o l e . He st a t e d that the c o l l a b o r a t i v e r o l e was more d i f f i c u l t Page 16 to assume so that often the resource teacher chooses to be an expert or an ex t r a - p a i r - o f - h a n d s . These l a t t e r two r o l e s have severe l i m i t a t i o n s whereas the c o n s u l t a n t / c o l l a b o r a t i v e r o l e was what B r a v i i n d i c a t e d was needed. D'Alonzo and Wiseman (1978) found that resource teachers were not performing the r o l e s that were most needed. They s t a t e d that resource teachers see cooperative planning and i n t e r f a c e with r e g u l a r education personnel as a problem, and yet the foundation of mainstreaming was based on the premise of cooperative e f f o r t (D'Alonzo & Wiseman, 1978; McLoughlin & K e l l y , 1982). Issues must be reanalyzed and resolved so as not to jeopardize mainstreaming and for the good of a l l . Perceptions of the r o l e of the LAT as an expert have been fo s t e r e d at the expense of the r e g u l a r c l a s s teacher (Armitage, 1979). Often the classroom teachers f e e l they do not have the s k i l l s to deal with the student who has been l a b e l e d handicapped. These views have to be understood i n order to plan i n s e r v i c e and f o s t e r r o l e expectations which w i l l best meet the needs of the classroom teacher and student. Discussions of r o l e perceptions may f o s t e r a greater degree of mutual understanding and a c t u a l i z a t i o n of the teacher-partner concept (Dugoff, Ives & S h o t e l , 1985). Page 17 M c L o u g h l i n a n d K a s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e r e was a n e e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e t e a c h e r c o m p e t e n c i e s n e c e s s a r y t o s e r v e i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . The R o l e o f t h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s I n B . C . Who i s t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r ? I n B . C . " T h e M i n i s t r y e n c o u r a g e s b u t d o e s n o t r e q u i r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o h i r e o r a p p o i n t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s who h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : a . A B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n D e g r e e b . U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n f i v e o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1 . i n t r o d u c t i o n t o e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 2 . d i a g n o s i s a n d r e m e d i a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i 1 i t i e s 3 . t e a c h i n g t h e s l o w e r l e a r n e r 4 . c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t / p s y c h o l o g y o f a d o l e s c e n c e 5 . b e h a v i o r a l m a n a g e m e n t / p r e c i s i o n t e a c h i n g 6 . r e m e d i a l m a t h e m a t i c s 7 . r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g 8 . l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t 9 . c o u n s e l l i n g a n d / o r e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y 1 0 . a s s e s s m e n t - t e s t i n g 1 1 . p s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g / m a s t e r y l e a r n i n g c . Two s u c c e s s f u l y e a r s o f r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . D i s t r i c t s s h o u l d p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e i n s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e u p g r a d i n g o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s ' c o m p e t e n c i e s " . ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n 1985 p . 1 3 . 5 - 1 3 . 6 ) . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t " a t y p i c a l L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r i n N o v e m b e r P a g e 18 1978 was a woman i n h e r l a t e t h i r t i e s w i t h a B . E d , d e g r e e ! a n d t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . She h a d a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e t y p i c a l r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , a n d j u s t o v e r t h r e e y e a r s more e x p e r e n c e . M o r e o f h e r L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e c o l l e a g u e s h a d M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s a n d f e w e r h a d no d e g r e e s t h a n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s " ( p . 4 3 ) . E v a n s ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e d t h a t f e w r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . I n D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r h a d f e w e r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g t h a n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . I n E v a n s ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t u d y t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r was t h e l e a s t e x p e r i e n c e d a n d 85% h e l d s t a n d a r d t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l s . I f r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s h a d a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e o r h i g h e r , t h e y w e r e more l i k e l y t o s e r v e a s c o n s u l t a n t s t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( E v a n s , 1 9 8 0 ) . P o s s i b l y a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l c r e d i b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n a s a c o n s u l t a n t ( E v a n s ) . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t t y p e o f r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was b y c a t e g o r y o f e x c e p t i o n a l i t y ( F r i e n d & M c N u t t , 1 9 8 4 ) a n d y e t M a r s t o n ( 1 9 8 7 ) n o t e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n d i d n o t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e s t u d e n t t y p e when d e a l i n g w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d ( L D ) a n d P a g e 19 e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d (EMR). A r m i t a g e ( 1 9 7 9 ) n o t e d t h a t i n B . C . t h e L A C s a r e n o n c a t e g o r i c a l a n d t h u s a t t h a t t i m e r e s e a r c h o n t h e L A C s i n B . C . a n d t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e n o n c o m p a r a b l e . I n B . C . , a c c o r d i n g t o S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e r e a r e no w i d e l y a c c e p t e d s p e c i f i c m i n i m a l t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e c r i t e r i a f o r L A T s , a n d i n f a c t t h e M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t s h o ' u l d , b u t n o t m u s t , be s o u g h t . S c h w a r t z ' s d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r u r b a n a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i c t s t e n d e d t o be m o r e d e m a n d i n g i n t e r m s o f s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s a n d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n t h a n s m a l l e r a r e a s w h i c h a r e i n a l e s s f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l . " H i s t o r i c a l l y , t e a c h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l i s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n i n s h o r t , s u p p l y i n many p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d i t i s n o t o n l y i n L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t h a t one f i n d s t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t r e l e v a n t s p e c i a l i s t t r a i n i n g " ( S c h w a r t z , p . 3 6 ) . The R i c h m o n d L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e H a n d b o o k ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t " t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s t u d e n t r e m a i n s w i t h t h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r " ( p . 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e S c h o o l B a s e d Team m u s t s u p p o r t t h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r a n d i t s members s h o u l d p l a n f o r t h e r e f e r r e d s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i v e l y . . I t i s o f v i t a l P a g e 20 importance that the program e s t a b l i s h e d for the student be designed j o i n t l y by the Classroom Teacher and Learning Assistance Teacher with guidance from other members of the School Based Team where I a p p r o p r i a t e " ( p . 5 ) . They acknowledge though that " t h i s i d e a l has not yet been r e a l i s e d i n Richmond. While each school must have a School Based Team meeting to r e f e r a student to a s p e c i a l placement w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , there i s at present, no u n i t y among schools i n t h e i r use of a School Based Team model to monitor students r e f e r r e d to the Learning Assistance Program" (p.5). The Richmond Handbook a l s o s t a t e d that the LAT "should e s t a b l i s h a s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y model which r e f l e c t s the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the s c h o o l , the s t a f f , and the students" (p.5) keeping the M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s i n mind and that d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n may be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e i n the r e g u l a r classroom or i n co-teaching. Schwartz (1979) found i n that some educators viewed the concept of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e as e x c e l l e n t but that i t was not f u l l y provided due to the r e s t r i c t i o n s of time and s t a f f i n g . He a l s o found that the job was i n e v i t a b l y seen as greater than the time a l l o c a t e d and paid f o r . This was not a c r i t i c i s m of the teacher but the time element. This researcher found the same problem regarding time i n a q u a l i t a t i v e study ( C u l l i s , 1987). Page 21 V i c e n t e ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t a t e d t h a t " e a c h t e a c h e r , p r i n c i p a l , c o o r d i n a t o r , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p a r e n t s e e s t h e LAT i n a s e p a r a t e l i g h t " ( p . 2 0 ) . She c i t e s P e r k i n s ' ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t u d i e s i n T e r r a c e , S m i t h e r s and i K i t i m a t w h i c h f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were s i t u a t i o n s i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l where t h e LAT and p r i n c i p a l d i d n o t have t h e same p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e LA P r o g r a m . M c L o u g h l i n and K e l l y ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s c r i b e how u n c l e a r r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , a j i d l a c k o f a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s ( i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g , c o n s u l t i n g and o b s e r v i n g ) c a n r e s u l t i n r o l e c o n f l i c t s . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s , when a s k e d t o r a n k t h e m a j o r t a s k s o f LATs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t , a s s i g n e d f i r s t r a n k t o d i r e c t s e r v i c e . The M i n i s t r y i G u i d e l i n e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) e n c o u r a g e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e s and s c h o o l b a s e d teams t o m o n i t o r r e f e r r a l s and s t a t e d t h a t t h e " L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s " ( p . 1 3 . 2 ) n a m e l y , a s s e s s m e n t , d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . I . - D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n The g u i d e l i n e s f o r d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n do n o t s t a t e w h e t h e r t h e y want c a t e g o r i c a l o r n o n c a t e g o r i c a l g r o u p i n g , d a i l y o r l e s s - t h a n - d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n , 1 - t o - l Page 22 vs. small group i n s t r u c t i o n , r e s i d e n t or i t i n e r a n t teachers. Jenkins and Mayhall (1976) st a t e d that there was c o n f l i c t i n g evidence on whether resource teacher programs were any more e f f e c t i v e than the a l t e r n a t i v e of r e g u l a r or s p e c i a l c l a s s placement. They discussed the idea that the i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s might stem from a v a r i e t y of experimental programs being evaluated. Findings i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t e d most from 1 - t o - l i n s t r u c t i o n , a t u t o r i a l approach, d i r e c t s e r v i c e and d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n . Noncategorical programs have been recommended by Marston (1987) as he found there was no data to support the notion that s p e c i f i c teaching methods are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e for educable mentally retarded (EMR), em o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d (ED), and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d (LD) students. I f d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n is- s u p e r i o r , one may wish to maximize the d e l i v e r y of d a i l y s e r v i c e and thus reconsider i t i n e r a n t s e r v i c e s or, i f using i t i n e r a n t s , consider a block system or a system of aides (Mayhall &. Jenkins, 1977). There has been a s h i f t away from the l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s p e c i f i c types of students to l e a r n i n g how best to assess and i n s t r u c t those who experience d i f f i c u l t i e s (Otto, 1986). I t i s t h e r e f o r e Page 2 3 important to know what teachers are doing and what concerns they have. TI. Assessment Vicente (1977) s t a t e d that the f i r s t LAT t r a i n i n g programs emphasized t e s t i n g s k i l l s as many LATs atte n d i n g i n - s e r v i c e had no formal t r a i n i n g i n assessment procedures. Gradually assessment became a large p o r t i o n of the program. LATs were expected to have evolved a system for observing students and c o l l e c t i n g observations from teachers and parents and r e c o r d i n g these f i n d i n g s . The B.C. M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s (1985) c a r e f u l l y o u t l i n e d the general c a t e g o r i e s of what to t e s t for and set the d i a g n o s t i c teaching model as inherent i n the assessment component. Algozzine and Ysseldyke (1986) recommended that the emphasis should be on the continuous monitoring of p u p i l performance and the use of standardized t e s t s should be de-emphasized. They f u r t h e r recommended that students should be evaluated on i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t tasks that can be administered repeatedly. Richmond's LAT Handbook (1984) s t r e s s e d that t e s t i n g i s only one part of the t o t a l assessment program. I t i s conducted to support Page 24 o n - g o i n g d i a g n o s i s and t e a c h i n g and must be a c c o m p a n i e d by o b s e r v a t i o n . I I I . C o - o p e r a t i v e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a t i o n s h o u l d be usjed t o make r e g u l a r i c l a s s r o o m s more c o n s t r u c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s ( A l g o z z i n e & Y s s e l d y k e , 1986). M e c h a n i c s a r e n e e d e d t o e n s u r e t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r s b e t w e e n t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r and r e f e r r i n g t e a c h e r ( B r o w n , K i r a l y & M c K i n n o n , 1979). D ' A l o n z o !and Wiseman (1978) f o u n d t h a t r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s f e l t j t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and d i a l o g u e w i t h r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l were most n e e d e d b u t t h e y were a p r o b l e m t o i m p l e m e n t . I s s u e s must be r e a n a l y z e d and r e s o l v e d f o r t h e good o f a l l ( D ' A l o n z o & W i s e m a n ) . The c o n s u l t a t i v e a c t i v i t y d o e s n o t have p a r i t y w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ' s o t h e r r o l e s i ( E v a n s , 1980). C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t more t i m e s h o u l d be a l l o t e d t o c o n s u l t a t i o n , b u t t h a t d o e s n o t mean e q u a l t ime ( E v a n s ) . I n B.C. c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s a component o f t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r ' s (LAT) r o l e . The M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s (1985) e x p l a i n e d i t s i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s and t h e u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m . How much t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t on t h i s Page 25 f u n c t i o n and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e for mainstreaming i s no longer d e l i n e a t e d . I t i s up to the i n d i v i d u a l teacher to designate the time'to spend on t h i s . How s i g n i f i c a n t others perceive t h i s , and the amount of i experience the resource teacher has (Evans, 19 81) w i l l t h e r f o r e p a r t l y determine how much importance i s placed on co-operative planning. Vicente ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t a t e d that the c o n s u l t a t i v e area created problems for the LATs as they had l e s s t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area and, because they of t e n d i d not have formal t r a i n i n g , the LATs lacked confidence i n t h e i r own experiences and a b i l i t y . Vicente f u r t h e r s t a t e d that teachers are becoming more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g problems and thus more students are being i n d i c a t e d f o r s e r v i c e and yet the LAT does not have s u f f i c i e n t time to provide d i r e c t s e r v i c e for a l l students i n need. Co-operative planning would be an a l t e r n a t e way to s e r v i c e students. Time i s a c r u c i a l issue i n co-operative planning ( G i c k l i n g , Murphy & M a l l o r y , 1 9 7 9 ) . How to make time fo r the r e g u l a r and resource teacher to plan together when teachers do not l i k e using before or a f t e r school time i s a concern ( G i c k l i n g , Murphy, M a l l o r y ) . Both reg u l a r teachers and resource teachers were found to have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r d i r e c t s e r v i c e s on a 1 - t o - l Page 2 6 4 b a s i s w i t h the r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r p r o v i d i n g l i m i t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n ( G i c k l i n g , Murphy, M a l l o r y ) . Teacher e d u c a t o r s must c o n s i d e r whether some t e a c h e r s a v o i d c o n s u l t a t i o n because t h e y have not been p r e p a r e d i n t h i s a r e a ( I d o l - M a e s t a s & R i t t e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . A l a c k of i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , or the a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p and e x e c u t e i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s ( I . E . P . ' s ) i n c o - o p e r a t i o n may be major problems f a c e d by the r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ( M c L o u g h l i n tk Kass, 1 9 7 8 ) . U n c l e a r r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s or l a c k of adequate time f o r c e r t a i n v i t a l f u n c t i o n s such as i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g , c o n s u l t i n g and o b s e r v i n g a r e i n d i c a t i v e of r o l e c o n f l i c t a c c o r d i n g to M c L o u g h l i n & K e l l y ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n i t i a l Problems w i t h the LAT Role In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e were r o l e c o n f l i c t s , i n a c c u r a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s , power s t r u g g l e s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r o a d b l o c k s and competency c r i s e s w i t h the advent of t h i s new d e l i v e r y system ( M c L o u g h l i n & K e l l y , 1 9 8 2 ) . G r a d u a l l y , s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y e x p e c t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d . In B.C. the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) g u i d e l i n e s o u t l i n e d the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e program as be i n g d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o a s c h o o l and i t s s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h the t h r e e a r e a s of assessment, d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . The M i n i s t r y Page 2 7 G u i d e l i n e s s t r e s s e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n ; t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d t r y t o e v a l u a t e t h e : e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s ; t h a t t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f t h e t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s ! o f a s s e s s m e n t , d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n ; t h a t a s p a c e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h s c h o o l f o r a L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e C e n t e r a n d t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d h i r e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s w j i t h a c e r t a i n s e t o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e i u s e o f t h e w o r d ' s h o u l d ' l e a v e s t h e a c t u a l p r o g r a m s 1 o p e n t o e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d n e e d s . M c L o u g h l i n a n d K e l l y ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s c r i b e d how u n c l e a r r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , a n d l a c k o f a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r ' c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s ( i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g , c o n s u l t i n g a n d o b s e r v i n g ) r e s u l t e d i n r o l e c o n f l i c t s . One o f t h e m o s t common f a i l i n g s i n r e s o u r c e r o o m p r o g r a m s was s t a f f i n g t h e m w i t h t e a c h e r s who k n e w l i t t l e more a b o u t t e a c h i n g , m a t e r i a l s o r a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a n t h o s e t h e y s e r v e d t o a d v i s e ( M c L o u g h l i n & K a s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l a c k o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p a n d e x e c u t e i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s ( I . E . P . ) i n c o o p e r a t i o n P a g e 28 w e r e m a j o r p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " L A T s t e n d e d t o be s l i g h t l y b e t t e r e d u c a t e d t h a n t h e i ' r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m c o l l e a g u e s , i n t h a t more o f t h e m h a d M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s a n d f e w e r h a d no d e g r e e " ( p . 2 5 ) . The M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T i s t o s e r v e i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e a n d a d v i s o r y r o l e t o r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . S c h w a r t z s t a t e d t h a t " e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s a r e more c r e d i b l e i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e r o l e t h a n a r e t h o s e w h o s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d t o a d v a n c e d u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e w o r k , no m a t t e r h o w . r e l e v a n t t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s o f t h o s e c o u r s e s " (p.26). I f t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s ' n e e d s w e r e n o t b e i n g met b y t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r , i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a f e e l i n g o f f r u s t r a t i o n a n d s e n s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n e p t n e s s w o u l d be e v o k e d b y t h e c o n c e p t o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g ( S p e e c e & M a n d e l l , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n a d d i t i o n S p e e c e & M a n d e l l s t a t e d t h a t d i r e c t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w e r e n o t p r o v i d e d t o o v e r 85% o f r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s m i g h t n o t v i e w i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s a s p a r t o f t h e i r d u t i e s o r s k i l l s ( S p e e c e & M a n d e l l ) o r , i f t h e y d o , t h e y a r e r e l u c t a n t t o be P a g e 29 4 a c t i v e l y involved i n t h i s . Without a concomitant change i n the c h i l d ' s o r i g i n a l f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n - the regul a r classroom, resource room programs hold l i t t l e success for mainstreaming students (Speece & Mandell, 1980; M i n i s t r y of Education, 1985). I t i s important to know the perceptions of the key observers i n cooperative planning so that problems can be a l l e v i a t e d i n t h i s area. Resource room teachers, classroom teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s need to be cognizant of each other's r o l e s , needs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and they must e s t a b l i s h and maintain an atmosphere which f a c i l i t a t e s i n t e r a c t i o n (Speece & Mandell, 1980). Schwartz speculated that the d i f f e r e n c e s he found i n the rank order of s k i l l areas i n terms of perceived needs for a d d i t i o n a l LA teacher t r a i n i n g might be the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t perceptions of what Learning Assistance i s and should be, and of the areas which should be emphasized i n the p r o v i s i o n of Learning Assistance s e r v i c e s . Reynolds, Wang, and Walberg (1987) s t a t e d that unless major s t r u c t u r a l changes were made i n s p e c i a l and r e g u l a r education, the f i e l d of s p e c i a l education was destined to become more of a problem and l e s s of a s o l u t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g education for m i l d l y handicapped Page 30 c h i l d r e n who have s p e c i a l needs. They f u r t h e r noted that c h i l d r e n were not carved by nature i n t o various c a t e g o r i e s now used i n schools, and that problems center on p a r t i t i o n i n g m i l d l y and moderately handicapped students i n t o c a t e g o r i e s which lack evidence of v a l i d i t y . R e s t r u c t u r i n g Regular and S p e c i a l Education Keogh (1988) c i t e d that there was a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with regular and s p e c i a l education and that i t was time for a change i n the process of education. She noted that i n order for change to be s u c c e s s f u l there must be a) a s t a b l e , reasonable and coherent f e d e r a l p o l i c y of support for research and e v a l u a t i o n , b) a need for m u l t i p l e designs and models, c) a study of programs and o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l s and d) an adoption of an a t t i t u d e that questions. Further i m p l i c a t i o n s for s u c c e s s f u l implementation as c i t e d by Huefner (1988) were 1 . p o l i c y c h o i c e s , 2 . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n c e n t i v e s and 3.teacher t r a i n i n g . The r e g u l a r education i n i t i a t i v e was t r i g g e r e d by a speech by Madeleine W i l l (1986, c i t e d i n Reynolds, Wang & Walberg [1987]). I t was based on the premise that current s p e c i a l education had s e v e r a l flaws such Page 31 a s a ) many c h i l d r e n w i t h p r o b l e m s w e r e n o t e l i g i b l e f o r s p e c i a l i e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s , b) s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s w e r e s t i g m a t i z e d , c ) s t r e s s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was o n s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s r a t h e r t h a n p r e v e n t i o n a n d d ) s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t l e a d t o c o o p e r a t i v e s c h o o l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( L e r n e r 1 9 8 8 ) . The i n i t i a t i v e s u g g e s t e d r e m e d i e s f o r t h e s e f l a w s . L e r n e r r a i s e d some q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how t h e new s y s t e m w o u l d a f f e c t l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . Due t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a n d t h e f a c t t h a t r e g u l a r e d u c a t o r s w e r e a b s e n t i n t h e r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s , L e r n e r s t a t e d t h a t i t was t o o e a r l y t o a b a n d o n t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m a n d s e r v i c e s . She f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t c h a n g e s h o u l d n o t o c c u r u n t i l t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g n e e d s w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . M a r t i n ( 1 9 8 7 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h a n g e m u s t be c a u t i o u s a n d e v o l u t i o n a r y . He f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t t h e r e n e e d e d t o be more r e s e a r c h o n t h e q u e s t i o n , " T o w h a t e x t e n t d o t r e a t m e n t s w o r k , f o r w h i c h c h i l d r e n a n d u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s " ( p . 1 5 ) . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h a t was m o s t n e e d e d was m a s s i v e f u n d i n g b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t o r e s e a r c h a n d t h e s t u d y o f c o n d i t i o n s P a g e 32 t h a t b r i n g d e s i r e d c h a n g e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . A l g o z z i n e a n d Y s s e l d y k e ( 1 9 8 6 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e n e c e s s i t y t o r e t h i n k o u r s y s t e m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d t o make a l l e d u c a t i o n more s p e c i a l . T h e y f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o k e e p p r e v e n t i o n i n t h e p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e we m u s t , t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n , make r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s more c o n s t r u c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s L i l l y ( 1 9 8 7 ) a n d W a n g , V a u g h a n , a n d D y t m a n ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e d a n e e d f o r t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s t o a c c o m m o d a t e d i v e r s e n e e d s . I f h e a d w a y i s t o be made i n t h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e n t h e r o l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f s p e c i a l i z e d s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r m u s t be r e d e f i n e d ( W a n g , V a u g h a n & D y t m a n 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e y a l s o n o t e d t h e s y s t e m a t i c p r o v i s i o n o f s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t a s a k e y I n g r e d i e n t o f s u c c e s s f u l c h a n g e . L i l l y s t a t e d t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s m u s t i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e t h e m s e l v e s a s members o f t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o m m u n i t y . T h u s , k n o w l e d g e i s n e e d e d a b o u t how L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s ( L A T ) , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r k e y o b s e r v e r s p e r c e i v e t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( s e c o n d h a n d r e p o r t i n g ) p r e d o m i n a t e l y s a w L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e a s a P a g e 33 r e i n f o r c e m e n t and supplement t o the programs o t h e r w i s e b e i n g o f f e r e d i n c l a s s r o o m s . Through a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s o c i a l f a c t o r s on the p r a c t i c e of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and upon e x p e r i e n c e a t the s c h o o l l e v e l i n p a r t i c u l a r , t e a c h e r s w i l l be en a b l e d t o e x e r t g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over e v e n t s and be l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by them (White & Calhoun, 1 9 8 7 ) . R o l e A n a l y s i s Speece and M a n d e l l ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e d t h a t when d e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an i n t e g r a t e d program, i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the r e g u l a r and r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s be g i v e n e q u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e the r e s o u r c e room concept i m p l i e d a t r i a g o n a l communication p r o c e s s among r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s , r e s o u r c e room t e a c h e r s and the handicapped c h i l d r e n . There are s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the r e s o u r c e room program. The p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r i n c i p a l and d i s t r i c t s t a f f were mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e by M c L o u g h l i n and Kass ( 1 9 7 8 ) , D'Alonzo and Wiseman ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Dugoff, Ives and S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) , and Evans ( 1 9 8 1 ) , but t h e r e seemed t o be l i t t l e w r i t t e n about the p e r c e p t i o n s of the p a r e n t s and the c h i l d r e n . Page 34 M c L o u g h l i n a n d K a s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t r o l e a n a l y s i s o f a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r mu'st be i n v e s t i g a t e d a s a n i n t e g r a l e l e m e n t o f a s o c i o c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g , t h e s c h o o l . The r o l e , t h e y f e l t , d e f i n e d i t s e l f b y v i r t u e o f i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r r o l e s , i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f s p e c i a l a n d r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d b y p e o p l e . One o f t h e w a y s t h e y s u g g e s t e d f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e i t e a c h e r was u n d e r t h e c o n s t r u c t o f r o l e a n a l y s i s a n d t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . The r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r may be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f : j 1 . a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who e x p e c t c e r t a i n a c t s t o be p e r f o r m e d 2 . t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r who h a s h i s / h e r own i d e a o f t h e r o l e | 3 . t h e r o l e a s i t i s a c c e p t e d b y t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r 4 . t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who r e q u e s t c e r t a i n a c t s t o be p e r f o r m e d A n a s p e c t o f r o l e a n a l y s i s i s t o m e a s u r e w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k t h e r o l e a c t u a l l y i s a n d w h a t t h e y t h i n k i t s h o u l d b e . The r o l e c a n t h e n be c o n s i d e r e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s s u c h a s t h e s t u d e n t s , P a g e 35 the parents, the classroom teachers, the p r i n c i p a l s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f and the resource room teachers. This should help i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l problems i n the r o l e of the resource teacher. S u c c e s s f u l resource room programs r e q u i r e c l e a r and p u b l i c d e l i n e a t i o n of r o l e s ( H a r r i s & Mahar, 1975). D i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between d i f f e r e n t kinds of resource teachers and thus there was a need to know the f u n c t i o n a l aspects of a resource teacher's r o l e ( H a r r i s & Mahar). Most l i t e r a t u r e on resource room programs r e f e r to programs outside B r i t i s h Columbia. "Learning Assistance i s the B r i t i s h Columbia m a n i f e s t a t i o n of what the Standards for Educators of E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n i n Canada model r e f e r s to as the 'Resource Room' concept,"(Schwartz, 1979, p.7). Summary Whether or not we b e l i e v e that education r e q u i r e s a d r a s t i c r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , there i s a need for c l a r i t y i n the d e f i n i t i o n of the resource room program and resource room teachers (D'Alonzo & Wiseman, 1978; Dugoff, Ives, S h o t e l , 1985; Evans 1981; F r i e n d & McNutt, 1984; H a r r i s & Mahar 1975; Jenkins & Mayhall 1976; McLoughlin & K e l l y 1982), for increased communication between resource teachers and r e f e r r i n g Page 36 I I teachers (Brown, K i r a l y & McKinnon, 1979; D'Alonzo & Wiseman, 1978; Dugoff, Ives & S h o t e l , 1985; Evans, 1980, 1981; Speece &. Mandell 1980 ) , and for p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s to inform parents, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s about the goals and fu n c t i o n s of resource programs ( H a r r i s & Mahar, 1975; Speece & Mandell 1980 ) . As Armitage (1984) st a t e d "the Resource Room (RR) teacher's r o l e i s defined as a combination of the perceptions of the p r i n c i p a l , the s t a f f , and the RR teacher p e r s o n a l l y . Although these perceptions may overlap to some extent, a close examination of them w i l l u s u a l l y d i s c l o s e some t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t assumptions on everyone's p a r t . Support for the RR program i s weakened by misunderstandings" (p.19). LATs, re g u l a r teachers, p r i n c i p a l s and d i s t r i c t s t a f f need to be cognizant of each others' r o l e s and needs. The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the LATs, classroom teacher's, p r i n c i p a l ' s and d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s p erception of the r o l e of the LAT. Page 37 CHAPTER I I I THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The purpose of the present study was to explore w i t h i n the l o c a l d i s t r i c t s e t t i n g the r o l e of the Learning A s s i s t a n c e teacher as perceived by some of the key observers. In t h i s study, these are the Learning A s s i s t a n c e Teacher (LAT), the classroom teacher, the p r i n c i p a l , and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f person. The LAT i s a s u p p l i e r of s e r v i c e s and t h e r e f o r e accountable to students, parents and s t a f f members. In order to maintain an e f f e c t i v e and c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , understanding of the key observers' perceptions of the r o l e i s e s s e n t i a l f or a harmonious working r e l a t i o n s h i p based on understanding. Research Questions 1. What are the perceptions of the Learning Assistance Teachers, Classroom Teachers, P r i n c i p a l s and D i s t r i c t S t a f f of the r o l e of the LAT as rated on the "LAT Role Function Survey" designed by Dugoff, Ives and Shotel (1985) - (Appendix A)? Page 38 2. How do the LATs, teachers and p r i n c i p a l s rate the degree of emphasis they place upon c e r t a i n r o l e f u n c t i o n s i n performing t h e i r job (as determined by the "LAT Role Function Survey?" 3. To what extent do the r a t i n g s by the key observers and the LATs agree? Research Hypotheses With regard to the research questions s t a t e d above, the f o l l o w i n g research hypotheses are formulated. Hypothesis 1: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e between the r a t i n g s of the d i s t r i c t s t a f f , the LATs, the classroom teachers and the p r i n c i p a l s on various r o l e f u n c t i o n s at the .05 l e v e l as measured by the " r o l e f u n c t i o n survey". Hypothesis 2: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e between the r a t i n g s of the d i s t r i c t s t a f f , the LATs, the classroom teachers and the p r i n c i p a l s on the three c a t e g o r i e s of assessment, i n s t r u c t i o n , and c o n s u l t a t i o n for the LAT r o l e at the .05 l e v e l as measured by the " r o l e f u n c t i o n survey". Hypothesis 3: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Pearson product-moment c o e f f i c i e n t s of Page 39 c o r r e l a t i o n obtained for the inter-group c o r r e l a t i o n s of the means. Malor B e n e f i t s The resource room program, the resource room teacher, the handicapped student, the classroom teacher, the p r i n c i p a l and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f might a l l b e n e f i t from t h i s research. I t may provide guides to a l t e r the e x i s t i n g program as needed and i t should enable the key observers: A. to discover i f p r i n c i p a l s , resource teachers and others c o n s c i o u s l y disagree about what the r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are as w e l l as which a c t i v i t i e s are considered most important. Misunderstandings and d i f f e r e n c e s i n opinion can r e s u l t i n lack of support to perform the r o l e a c t i v i t i e s . B. to understand the d i f f e r e n t r o l e perceptions which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of the r o l e of the resource teacher and the resource room program. C. to a s s i s t the resource room teachers and regular teachers to be cognizant of each others r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Page 40 D . t o be a w a r e o f t h e v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . E . t o p e r m i t s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o a d d r e s s d i s c r e p a n t p e r c e p t i o n s ( D u g o f f , I v e s , S h o t e l , 1 9 8 5 ) . B a s i c A s s u m p t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l i e t h e s t u d y : 1 . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r m s o f a d i s c r e t e s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n L A T a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . 2 . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t L A T s p e r f o r m c o n s u l t a t i v e , a s s e s s m e n t a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 1 . The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y w i t h i n one u r b a n s c h o o l s y s t e m . 2 . I t i s l i m i t e d t o t h e s e l f - r e p o r t m e t h o d o l o g y o f a l l a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . 3 . I t i s l i m i t e d t o a l l L A T s , p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n (K) t h r o u g h g r a d e 7 who P a g e 41 e n r o l l o r s h a r e a c l a s s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e I n t h i s s t u d y . 4 . I t may o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r s i m i l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e t e r m s l i s t e d b e l o w h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : ( i ) d e g r e e o f e m p h a s i s : t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t a c c o r d i n g t o e a c h o f t h e L A T r o l e f u n c t i o n s : 1 s u p p l e m e n t a r y , 2 h e l p f u l , 3 i m p o r t a n t , 4 i n d i s p e n s a b l e . ( i i ) d i s t r i c t s t a f f : s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t a f f who a r e i t i n e r e n t t o t h e s c h o o l a n d a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e L A T p r o g r a m . The p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o u n s e l l o r s a n d s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e c l i n i c i a n s a r e d i s t r i c t s t a f f . I t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t e a c h e r s o f S p e c i a l C l a s s e s s u c h a s t h e D i a g n o s t i c P r e s c r i p t i v e C e n t r e , L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y t e a c h e r s a n d S p e c i a l C l a s s t e a c h e r s . ( i i i ) c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s : a l l e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s who e n r o l l e d o r s h a r e d a c l a s s a n d a l l v i c e p r i n c i p a l s . P a g e 42 ( i v ) k e y o b s e r v e r s : i n t h i s s t u d y t h e y a r e t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f . ( v ) " T h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r ( L A T ) R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y " : t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d f o r r a t i n g L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r r o l e f u n c t i o n s a s d e v e l o p e d b y D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) . ( S e e A p p e n d i x A . ) ( v i ) " p l u g - i n " m o d e l : The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e L A T i s t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m ( D u g o f f , I v e s & S h o t e l ) . ( v i i ) p o s i t i o n : t h e t e r m u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f k e y o b s e r v e r s . ( v i i i ) p r i n c i p a l s : a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h i n e a c h s c h o o l . ( i x ) " p u l l - o u t " m o d e l : t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e L A T i s t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e L A C ( D u g o f f , I v e s & S h o t e l ) . ( x ) r e s o u r c e r o o m o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e ( L A C ) : a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t i s t h e b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m a n d t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . ( x i ) r o l e : a n o r g a n i z e d p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s ( T h o m p s o n , 1 9 6 0 ) . P a g e 4 3 ( x i i ) r o l e f u n c t i o n : " a d i s c r e t e s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s " ( D u g o f f , 1984 p . 1 1 ) b e t w e e n i l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . ( x i i i ) t e a m t e a c h i n g m o d e l : t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b l i l i t y o f p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s a n d o n g o i n g a s s e s s m e n t . Summary The L A T s r o l e d e p e n d s on s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f . G r a h a m , H u d s o n , B u r d g & C a r p e n t e r ( 1 9 8 0 , c i t e d i n E v a n s [ 1 9 8 1 ] ) who s t a t e d t h a t " t h e s u c c e s s o f a n y m a i n s t r e a m i n g e f f o r t i s s u b j e c t t o t h e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d ( p . 6 0 0 ) . " M c L o u g h l i n a n d K a s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d t h e L A T r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o i n v o l v e a h i g h - c o n t a c t r o l e a n d t h u s d i f f e r e n c e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e a n d o p i n i o n c a n d e v e l o p . T h i s s t u d y i s m e a n t t o a s s i s t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o i m p r o v e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r o l e o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . T h r o u g h f o s t e r i n g a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e o f t h e L A T , a P a g e 4 4 m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l be a c h i e v e d . R o l e c l a r i f i c a t i o n c l e a r s t h e way f o r s t r o n g s t a f f r e l a t i o n s . The b e h a v i o r o f L A T s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a s p e r c e i v e d b y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f a s w e l l a s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a r e n t s a n d s t u d e n t s . W i t h k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s p e r c e i v e d r o l e , t h e L A T may be more e f f e c t i v e i n r a n k i n g p r o b l e m s a n d c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s ( D ' A l o n z o & W i s e m a n , 1 9 7 8 ) . R o l e c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e . W h e t h e r t h e r e i s c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e o f t h e L A T n e e d s t o be k n o w n . P a g e 45 CHAPTER I V METHODOLOGY I n t r o d u c t i o n The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o s e e i f p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T was d i f f e r e n t a c r o s s p o s i t i o n s . P o s i t i o n was t h e t e r m u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f k e y o b s e r v e r s ' ( L A T , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) r o l e s a n d t h u s p o s i t i o n was t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a n d p e r c e p t i o n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h i s r e s e a r c h s o u g h t t o make c o m p a r i s o n s among t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L A T , t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s , a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f , r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T i n a s u b u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e m p h a s i s b y t h e L A T a g r e e d w i t h ( 1 ) t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h i s / h e r b e h a v i o r b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l w o r k i n g i n t h e same s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a n d ( 2 ) t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e L A T s v a r i o u s r o l e f u n c t i o n s a s d e f i n e d b y d i s t r i c t s t a f f . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o f i n d o u t " w h a t i s " ( B o r g & G a l l , P a g e 46 1983,p.354). Therefore, the type of research design was best described as d e s c r i p t i v e . A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was made of the perceptions i of the key observers of the r o l e of the LAT. L o c a l . surveys have often been used for the purpose of i n t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n and improvement and, to study r e l a t i o n s h i p s and comparisons between groups (Borg & G a l l , 1983). This chapter focuses on the methodological and procedural steps i n the data c o l l e c t i o n process. S i t e and P a r t i c i p a n t s The s i t e f o r the study was the elementary schools i n a suburban B r i t i s h Columbian school d i s t r i c t . The i n i t i a l , defined population of subjects involved a l l ! elementary teachers who e n r o l l e d or shared a c l a s s , a l l ! LATs and p r i n c i p a l s and a l s o a l l d i s t r i c t s t a f f involved with the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e program. Research subject subgroups explored were gender, age, experience, formal education and school s i z e . The r o l e of the LAT i s a f f e c t e d by the myriad of people with whom the LAT i n t e r a c t s (Dugoff, Ives., S h o t e l , 1985) and a l s o the perceptions of the key observers who can form a t t i t u d e s not on the basis of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n but on the Page 47 basis of placement (Bak, Cooper, Dobroth & S i p e r s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ) . In t h i s school d i s t r i c t , there were 29 elementary schools and 4 annexes. There were 35 LATs, 29 p r i n c i p a l s , and 412 classroom teachers who e n r o l l e d or shared a c l a s s . Of the d i s t r i c t s t a f f 27 were involved with the LAT program. A l e t t e r was sent to the Supervisor of Curriculum requesting permission to conduct research i n the school d i s t r i c t (Appendix B). F o l l o w i n g a formal review and approval of the research proposal by the School D i s t r i c t (Appendix C) and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C.) Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee f o r Research and Other Studies I n v o l v i n g Human Subjects, a l e t t e r (Appendix D) was sent to the p r i n c i p a l of each of the elementary schools by the School D i s t r i c t ' s D i r e c t o r of S p e c i a l Programs requesting t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The researcher f u r t h e r sent a l e t t e r to educators ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f , classroom teachers and LATs) o u t l i n i n g the purpose of the study and s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e (Appendix E ) , and a follow-up thank you l e t t e r (Appendix F ) . According to the school system p o l i c y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n by each school and i n d i v i d u a l i n Page 48 r e s e a r c h i s v o l u n t a r y . i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n t a c t e d e a c h p r i n c i p a l b y t e l e p h o n e a n d a s k e d f o r t h e s c h o o l ' s c o o p e r a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t , 27 o u t o f t h e 29 s c h o o l s a n d a l l o f t h e a n n e x e s a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . Of t h e t w o s c h o o l s who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e , one s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n t o o much s t r e s s o n t h e s t a f f d u e t o a r e c e n t s t a f f d e a t h a n d t h e o t h e r p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t w i s h t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . A l s o one o f t h e a n n e x e s s e n t t h e i r r e s u l t s t o t h e s c h o o l b o a r d , b u t t h e s e c o u l d n o t be l o c a t e d . The s a m p l e f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e 29 L A T s , 23 p r i n c i p a l s , 155 c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , a n d 10 d i s t r i c t s t a f f . M a n y t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t t h e y w e r e t i r e d o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a s t h i s h a d b e e n t h e i r t h i r d i n l e s s t h a n t h r e e w e e k s . The r e s e a r c h e r was u n a w a r e o f t h i s when t h e s u r v e y was d i s t r i b u t e d . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n F r o m a s e a r c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d b y D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) , The L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y was f o u n d t o be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e y h a d i m p r o v e d t h e i r s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t t h r o u g h f e e d b a c k a n d d i s c u s s i o n w i t h P a g e 49 r e s o u r c e r o o m a n d r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a n d i t was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d b y t h e m a f t e r i p i l o t t e s t i n g . The i t e m s w e r e r a n d o m l y p l a c e d t h r o u g h p u t t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t a n d r e l a t e d t o t h e i t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f a s s e s s m e n t , i n s t r u c t i o n a n d l c o n s u l t a t i o n . D u g o f f ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e i t e m s r e l a t e d t o t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e n o t c l u s t e r e d b u t r a n d o m l y p l a c e d a n d l e s s e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on a s s e s s m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e d e s i r e t o s t r e s s i t e m s ! r e l a t e d t o L A T a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . i P e r m i s s i o n t o u s e t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t , w h i c h h a d b e e n i f i e l d t e s t e d a n d r e f i n e d t o a l i s t o f 18 b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e m e n t s , was o b t a i n e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r , . a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e same i n s t r u m e n t t o a l l s u b j e c t s i n t h e s a m p l e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s d i d D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S b o t e l , . B o r g a n d G a l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) s u g g e s t e d s e a r c h i n g t h e 1 l i t e r a t u r e , d e v e l o p i n g y o u r own s c a l e o r u s i n g a L i k e r t s c a l e when m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s . The i n s t r u m e n t c h o s e n h a d 18 b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h w e r e r a t e d o n a 4 - p o i n t s c a l e s p e c i f y i n g t h e d e g r e e o f e m p h a s i s ( 1 - s u p p l e m e n t a r y , 2 - h e l p f u l , 3 - i m p o r t a n t , 4 - i n d i s p e n s a b l e ) . G l a s s & H o p k i n s ( 1 9 8 4 ) w o u l d c o n s i d e r t h i s a n i n t e r v a l s c a l e , a s t h e n u m b e r s P a g e 50 d e s c r i b e t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e p o i n t s . The a s s i g n i n g o f t h e n u m b e r s was d o n e s o t h a t e q u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n u m b e r s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o e q u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e m p h a s i s . T h i s i s a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . F o r t h e L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n , S u r v e y , D u g o f f ( 1 9 8 4 ) c a l c u l a t e d a n i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n d e x u s i n g t h e K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n f o r m u l a ( K R - 2 0 ) o n t h e 18 i t e m s c a l e f o r t h e 3 r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l s : r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t o t a l s c o r e o n t h e s c a l e h a d a n a d e q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h a t s t u d y . The v a l u e s f o r K R - 2 0 f o r t h e 18 i t e m s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s 0 . 7 8 3 , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 0 . 8 7 6 , a n d p r i n c i p a l s 0 . 8 2 9 . Da,ta C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s A m e t h o d o f s y s t e m a t i c d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t o s u r v e y t h e s u b j e c t s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d . A l l s c h o o l s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f w e r e s e n t a l e t t e r b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f S p e c i a l P r o g r a m s f r o m t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , s t a t i n g t h a t a r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l h a d b e e n a p p r o v e d a n d r e q u e s t i n g t h e m t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P a g e 51 I n A p r i l 1 9 8 8 , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l o n g w i t h a l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l was s e n t t o a l l L A T s , a l l e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s who e n r o l l e d o r s h a r e d a c l a s s , a l l p r i n c i p a l s a n d a l l d i s t r i c t s t a f f i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e L A T p r o g r a m . So a s t o be n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g t o t h e L A T p r o g r a m a s i t e x i s t s i n e a c h s c h o o l , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n o n y m o u s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was h a n d d e l i v e r e d i n A p r i l a n d c o l l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r i n M a y . A t i m e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h e f o r m . I n t h i s w a y , " t i m e - b o u n d a s s o c i a t i o n " ( B o r g & G a l l 1 9 8 3 , p . 4 0 8 ) i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d w h i c h i s a f e a t u r e o f a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s u r v e y ( B o r g & G a l l ) . A l l s u b j e c t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t i n a s s i m i l a r a way a s p o s s i b l e . A l l s c h o o l s w e r e s e n t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s w e r e r e q u e s t e d t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e m t o a l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s . D i s t r i c t s t a f f r e c e i v e d t h e i r s f r o m t h e D i r e c t o r o f S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s . D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) o n l y i n c l u d e d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who w e r e r e c e i v i n g r e a d i n g s u p p o r t f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s . T h i s s t u d y s u r v e y e d a l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a s t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e L A T c h a n g e f r o m y e a r t o y e a r a n d d u r i n g t h e y e a r ; t h e r e f o r e , a l l t e a c h e r s " p e r c e p t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o d e f i n e t h e L A T s r o l e . P a g e 52 A f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r a l o n g w i t h f u r t h e r c o p i e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e s e n t t o a l l s c h o o l s one week a f t e r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a d b e e n r e q u e s t e d , a p p e a l i n g t o t h e i r d e s i r e t o h e l p a c o l l e a g u e . D a t a A n a l y s i s T h i s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , w h i l e i t c a n n o t e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a n y d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y , was u s e d t o e x p l o r e a v a r i e t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( B o r g & ! G a l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l l t h e n ' s w e r e n o t e q u a l ; t h e r e f o r e , i t I was n o t a b a l a n c e d d e s i g n . The d a t a w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o s e v e r a l a n a l y s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s b e i n g t e s t e d . D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a ! D e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u e s t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y f o r m a n d i t was q u a n t i f i a b l e . The r e s e a r c h e r met w i t h t h e D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - P e r s o n n e l o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n F e b r u a r y 1989 t o o b t a i n d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e mean a g e , e x p e r i e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e L A T s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f . T h i s w o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e P a g e 53 w h e t h e r t h e s a m p l e was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 1 I The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t mean p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L A T r o l e , a s m e a s u r e d b y The L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y , a r e t h e same f o r a l l 4 g r o u p s ( p r i n c i p a l , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , L A T a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e L A T s , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' , t h e p r i n c i p a l s ' a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f s ' r a t i n g s o f r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s e i g h t e e n i t e m s w e r e a n a l y z e d w i t h one way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ( A N O V A ) . The d e g r e e o f r i s k o f a T y p e 1 e r r o r was s e t a t . 0 5 . R e p e a t e d a n a l y s e s u s i n g t h e same s u b j e c t s o r u s i n g t h e same d a t a , s u b d i v i d e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l p h a e q u a l t o . 0 5 . L a c k o f i n d e p e n d e n c e r e s u l t s i n a s h i f t i n g a l p h a . The 18 i t e m s o n t h e L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y w e r e g i v e n a l l t o g e t h e r a n d t h u s t h e y a r e n o t t o t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t w h i c h r e s u l t s i n a s h i f t i n g a l p h a . One c a n c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h i s t r e n d b y u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s t h o s e s u g g e s t e d b y B o n f e r r o n i ( a s c i t e d i n G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1 9 8 4 ) . P a g e 54 Hypothesis 2 The n u l l hypothesis i s that mean perceptions of the three c a t e g o r i e s (assessment, i n s t r u c t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n ) of the LAT r o l e , as measured by The LAT Role Function Survey, are the same for a l l 4 p o s i t i o n s ( p r i n c i p a l , classroom teacher, LAT and d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . The second a n a l y s i s was conducted to measure the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the LATs, the classroom teachers', the p r i n c i p a l s ' and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s r a t i n g s of r o l e f u n c t i o n s for the combined item c a t e g o r i e s of i n s t r u c t i o n (#1,3,5,10,11,13,17), c o n s u l t a t i o n (#2,4,7,14,15,16,18) and assessment (#6,8,9,12). The 4 group d i f f e r e n c e s across the 3 c a t e g o r i e s were analyzed with one way analyses of variance (ANOVA). The degree of r i s k of a type 1 e r r o r was set at .05. Hypothesis 3 The n u l l hypothesis i s that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Pearson product-moment c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained for the inter-group c o r r e l a t i o n s of the means. The t h i r d a n a l y s i s was conducted to measure the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the LATs', the classroom teachers', the p r i n c i p a l s ' and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s mean scores. A Pearson r was obtained for the inter-group Page 55 c o r r e l a t i o n s . A comparison was made between a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s using chi-square to determine whether a l l samples came from the same p o p u l a t i o n . A n a l y s i s of. v a r i a n c e ( M Q V A ) : The question to be answered by ANOVA was whether the samples a l l came from the same pop u l a t i o n with the same mean or i f at l e a s t one of the samples came from a population with a d i f f e r e n t mean. If the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d , then there was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n among the means. I f the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d at l e a s t 1 s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t among means was i n d i c a t e d . This c o n t r a s t was explored through the m u l t i p l e comparison (MC) technique i n v o l v i n g the Tukey t e s t . Thus i f the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d , a search for which d i f f e r e n c e ( s ) i n means was s i g n i f i c a n t was i n order through m u l t i p l e comparison (MC) techniques. The Scheffe i s a very f l e x i b l e post hoc MC method but a l s o very c o n s e r v a t i v e . According to Glass and Hopkins (1984) "For a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s the Tukey or Newman-Keuls methods are more s e n s i t i v e " (p.383). The Tukey i s the t e s t favored by t h i s researcher. MC t e s t s r e v e a l which means are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t and thus which groups have Page 56 d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f c e r t a i n r o l e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e L A T . S u p p l e m e n t a r y A n a l y s e s I n t e r - g r o u p C o r r e l a t i o n The t h i r d a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e i n t e r - g r o u p c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s o n t h e e i g h t e e n i t e m s . P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d b a s e d o n g r o u p a v e r a g e s f o r e a c h o f t h e e i g h t e e n i t e m s . ; R a n k i n g f o r F o u r G r o u p s The f o u r t h a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s ( p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , L A T s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) on t h e 18 i t e m s . F o r e a c h g r o u p t h e means o f t h e e i g h t e e n i t e m s w e r e u s e d i n t h e r a n k i n g . I Summary o f M e t h o d s a n d P r o c e d u r e s T h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 8 . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e a s e a r c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e was c o n d u c t e d , a s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t was l o c a t e d a n d p e r m i s s i o n o b t a i n e d f o r i t s u s e , p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o b t a i n i n g d a t a a n d a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a . P a g e 57 The l e t t e r s a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a n d c o l l e c t e d i n A p r i l a n d M a y o f 1 9 8 8 . A l l d a t a w e r e c o d e d , a n d r e a d i e d f o r c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g a n d a n a l y s i s i n F e b r u a r y o f 1 9 8 9 . A l l a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a w e r e p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s f o r S P S S - X R e l e a s e ( S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) . P a g e 58 CHAPTER V ANALYSIS AND RESULTS I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose of t h i s study was to see i f perception of the r o l e of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher i s d i f f e r e n t across p o s i t i o n s held by key observers. To examine the perceptions of elementary l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers, classroom teachers, p r i n c i p a l s and d i s t r i c t s t a f f working i n the same school d i s t r i c t as to the degree of emphasis placed on various r o l e f u n c t i o n s by the LAT as s/he performs on the job, a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e for an 18 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used. The study i n v e s t i g a t e d the extent to which the sample p o s i t i o n means represented populations with the same means. The study a l s o examined the r e l a t i v e importance of the various LAT r o l e f u n c t i o n s as seen by the key observers. This chapter r e p o r t s the f i n d i n g s derived from the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the data. Sample: Questionnaires were sent to 29 p r i n c i p a l s , 35 LATs and 412 classroom teachers i n 29 schools and 4 annexes. They were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d at the school board o f f i c e to 27 d i s t r i c t s t a f f personnel. From the 29 elementary Page 59 s c h o o l a n d 4 a n n e x e s i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , 27 s c h o o l s a n d 3 a n n e x e s p a r t i c i p a t e d . A s t h e a n n e x e s s h a r e d t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d L A T o f t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l , d a t a h a s b e e n g r o u p e d f o r e a c h a n n e x w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l . Of t h e 35 L A T s 29 r e s p o n d e d , f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 82.86%. : Of t h e 29 p r i n c i p a l s , 23 r e s p o n d e d f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 7 9 . 3 1 % . Of t h e 412 t e a c h e r s , 155 r e s p o n d e d f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 3 7 . 6 2 % . Of t h e 27 d i s t r i c t s t a f f 10 r e s p o n d e d f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 3 7 . 0 4 % ( T a b l e 1 ) . \ ( i ) L A T s : I n t h e L A T s a m p l e o f 29 t e a c h e r s , 1 ( 3 . 4 % ) h a d no r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e 28 ( 9 6 . 5 % ) h a d t a u g h t i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . T e n ( 3 4 . 4 8 % ) o f t h e L A T s w o r k e d p a r t - t i m e i n t h e s c h o o l s w h i l e 19 ( 6 5 . 5 2 % ) w o r k e d f u l l - t i m e . T h e y h a d t a u g h t a mean o f 14.2 y e a r s a n d t h e y h a d a n a v e r a g e a g e o f 37. j9 3.1% h a d a m i n i m u m o f a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e . The m a j o r i t y , 7 2 . 4 1 % , h a d a b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e w h i l e 2 0 . 6 9 % h a d a m a s t e r s a n d 6.9% d i d n o t h a v e a d e g r e e . The a g e , t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e s 1 & 2 . P a g e 60 ( i i ) Classroom teachers: The r e g u l a r classroom teacher sample c o n s i s t e d of 155 teachers who had taught a mean of 1 2 . 4 years and had a mean age of 3 5 . The m a j o r i t y ( 9 4 . 1 9 % ) of the teachers had a minimum of an undergraduate degree. Twenty-seven ( 1 7 . 4 2 % ) had a masters degree. Of these 27 with a masters degree, 10 ( 3 7 . 0 4 % ) were Vice P r i n c i p a l s (VP) and 17 ( 6 2 . 9 6 % ) were r e g u l a r classroom teachers. T h i r t e e n VP's who e n r o l l e d or shared a c l a s s responded to the survey and they were grouped with the classroom teachers. This school d i s t r i c t considered VP's to be a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t r a i n i n g with a part-time teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ( i i i ) P r i n c i p a l s : The p r i n c i p a l ' s sample c o n s i s t e d of 23 p r i n c i p a l s who had taught or who had been i n a school s e t t i n g a mean of 2 2 . 7 years and were an average age of 4 3 . The ma j o r i t y , 18 ( 7 8 . 2 6 % ) , had a masters degree while 4 ( 1 7 . 3 9 % ) had a bachelors degree. One p r i n c i p a l ( 4 . 3 5 % ) f a i l e d to supply data f o r the educ a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . ( i v ) D i s t r i c t S t a f f : The d i s t r i c t s t a f f sample c o n s i s t e d of 10 i n d i v i d u a l s who had taught an average of 8 . 3 years and Page 61 h a d a mean a g e o f 3 8 . The d a t a o n t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r d i s t r i c t s t a f f h a s t o be r e g a r d e d c a u t i o u s l y a s 8 o u t o f t h e 10 o n l y f i l l e d i n t h e l a s t b l a n k o r t o t a l n u m b e r o f y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e p a i d a t t h i s l e v e l b u t h a v e n e v e r t a u g h t i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t e a c h e r s o f S p e c i a l C l a s s e s s u c h a s t h e D i a g n o s t i c P r e s c r i p t i v e C e n t r e , L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y ( L D ) t e a c h e r s a n d S p e c i a l C l a s s t e a c h e r s . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o u n s e l l o r s a n d s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e c l i n i c i a n s a l l o f whom h a v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e L A T a n d p r o v i d e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . ( v ) D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a The r e s e a r c h e r met w i t h t h e D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - P e r s o n n e l , o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , i n F e b r u a r y 1989 t o o b t a i n d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e mean a g e , e x p e r i e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e L A T s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f . The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r f i r s t u n i o n t e a c h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s a t t h e t i m e s o t h e r e p o r t i n g was d e f e r r e d on t h i s f o r a m o n t h . I n A p r i l , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was t o l d t o c o n t a c t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s C o m p t r o l l e r , a s a c o n t a c t p e r s o n f o r t h e d a t a . U p o n c o n t a c t , i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r s w e r e n o t s e t up t o o b t a i n P a g e 62 t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and thus i t would take too long and be too expensive an undertaking. The researcher thus does not have data to compare the respondents with the t o t a l sample. i Table 1: Response ra t e and means across respondent groups Group Response Rate(%) Age(Yrs) Experience(Yrs) P r i n c i p a l s 79.3 43 23 Classroom Teachers 37.6 35 12 LATs 82.9 37 14 D i s t r i c t S t a f f 37.0 37 8 Table 2: Education for four respondent groups: Group BA Level (%) MA Level (%) No Response (%) or Below BA P r i n c i p a l s 17.4 78.3 4.4 Classroom Teachers 76.8 17.4 5.8 LATs 72.4 20.7 6.9 D i s t r i c t S t a f f 20.0 80.0 0 Measures Dugoff, Ives and Shotel (1985) c a l c u l a t e d an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y index using the Kuder-Richardson Page 63 f o r m u l a ( K R - 2 0 ) o n t h e 18 i t e m s c a l e f o r t h e 3 r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l s : r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t o t a l s c o r e o n t h e s c a l e h a d a n a d e q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h a t s t u d y . The v a l u e s f o r K R - 2 0 f o r t h e 18 i t e m s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s 0 . 7 8 3 , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 0 . 8 7 6 , a n d p r i n c i p a l s 0 . 8 2 9 . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r u s e d L e r t a p s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C o n t r o l C a r d s t o c a l c u l a t e a n i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n d e x ( H o y t ' s ) . T h i s i s a m e t h o d t o p r o v i d e a n e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i t e m s . B o r g a n d G a l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e d t h a t H o y t ' s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e p r o d u c e d t h e same r e s u l t s a s K R - 2 0 . The v a l u e s f o r t h e H o y t e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e 18 i t e m s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s 0 . 6 5 , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 0 . 8 6 , p r i n c i p a l s 0 . 6 9 a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f 0 . 7 4 . See t a b l e 3 . B o r g a n d G a l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e d t h a t r e l i a b l i t y " m a y be d e f i n e d a s t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o r s t a b i l i t y o f t h e m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e o v e r t i m e ( p . 2 8 1 ) . " K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n a n d H o y t ' s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e P r o c e d u r e w e r e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f P a g e 6 4 i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y which can be determined from a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a survey. According to Borg and G a l l lower t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s are acceptable for group research and the l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y i s determined l a r g e l y by the nature of the research, the s i z e of the samples and the expected d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups. For Objective P e r s o n a l i t y Measures (n=35) low r e l i a b i l i t y would be .46, median r e l i a b i l i t y would be .85 and high r e l i a b i l i t y would be .97. Table 3: I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y index across four respondent groups on eighteen items, f o r two st u d i e s (Dugoff: KR-20 and present research: H o y t 1 s ) . Groups Dugoff n KR-20 Present Research n Hoyt 1s LATs 22 Classroom Teachers 34 P r i n c i p a l s 22 D i s t r i c t S t a f f 0 . 78 0 . 88 0 .83 29 155 23 10 0 .65 0 . 86 0 . 69 0 .74 Using Hoyt's A n a l y s i s of Variance Procedure, t h i s researcher obtained lower c o e f f i c i e n t s of con s i s t e n c y for a l l respondent groups than d i d Dugoff. Classroom Page 65 t e a c h e r s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .88 f o r K R - 2 0 a n d .86 f o r H o y t ' s w e r e v e r y c l o s e . D u g o f f ' s r e s u l t s a r e v e r y c l o s e t o t h e m e d i a n r a n g e ( .85) o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r O b j e c t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y ( B o r g & G a l l , 1983) w h i l e t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d u s i n g H o y t f a l l b e t w e e n t h e m e d i a n o f .85 a n d t h e l o w r a n g e o f .46 a n d a r e c l o s e r t o t h e m e d i a n t h a n t h e l o w r a n g e . H y p o t h e s e s F i n d i n g s : H i : M e a n s c o r e s f o r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L A T r o l e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y , a r e t h e same f o r a l l 4 g r o u p s ( p r i n c i p a l , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , L A T a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . A one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was c o n d u c t e d o n t h e means o f e a c h i t e m . T a b l e 4 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s . T a b l e 5 s u m m a r i z e s t h e L A T r o l e f u n c t i o n f o r e a c h i t e m - a s w e l l a s l i s t i n g t h e i t e m ' s c a t e g o r y . S i g n i f i c a n c e a t a l p h a .05 was f o u n d f o r i t e m s 1, 2, 4, 6, a n d 14. M u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e s r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r : #1 d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n g r o u p 2 P a g e 66 ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) a n d g r o u p 4 ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . #2 f o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n g r o u p 4 ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) a n d a l l o t h e r g r o u p s ( p r i n c i p a l s , L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) . #4 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n g r o u p 2 ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) a n d g r o u p 4 ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . . #6 o b s e r v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s among g r o u p s . T h u s t h e ANOVA m u s t s h o w a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g r o u p s e f f e c t o f w h i c h t h i s p a p e r was n o t c o n c e r n e d . #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s among g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , i t m u s t be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g r o u p s e f f e c t a s w e l l . The B o n f e r r o n i t e c h n i q u e ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1 9 8 4 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t r e p e a t e d a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e same s u b j e c t s o r u s i n g t h e . s a m e d a t a , s u b d i v i d e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l p h a = . 0 5 . A l p h a , i n f a c t , c h a n g e s b e c a u s e t h e v a r i o u s a n a l y s e s a r e n o t i n d e p e n d e n t . A l p h a = . 0 5 d i v i d e d b y t h e 18 i t e m s b e c o m e s P a g e 6 7 . 0 0 3 . U s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e s i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d f o r i t e m s 2 a n d 4 . When n ' s a r e n o t e q u a l , t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a s s u m p t i o n i s more c r i t i c a l f o r t h e F - t e s t ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1 9 8 4 ) . The B a r t l e t t - B o x F f o u n d h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e h a d b e e n v i o l a t e d f o r i t e m s 1 , 2 , 4 , a n d 1 4 . T h u s t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d c a u t i o u s l y . I t e m #6 d i d n o t v i o l a t e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e . U s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i t e c h n i q u e , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n g r o u p 4 ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) a n d a l l o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s ( p r i n c i p a l s , L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) f o r i t e m #2, a n d b e t w e e n g r o u p 4 ( d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) a n d g r o u p 2 ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) f o r i t e m #4. T h u s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . B e c a u s e i t e m 2 a n d 4 v i o l a t e d t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e , t h i s r e s u l t m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d c a u t i o u s l y . P a g e 68 T a b l e 4 : M e a n s , ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) a n d A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s I tern P r i n c - C l a s s - L A T s i p a l s t e a c h e r 1 . 3 . 3 9 3 . 2 3 3 . 45 . 6 6 ) : ( . 7 7 ) ( . 5 7 ) 2 . 1 . 6 7 : 1 . 7 5 1 . 4 3 . 5 8 ) ( . 8 7 ) ( . 5 7 ) 3 . 2 . 55 2 . 27 2 . 0 3 . 8 6 ) ( 1 . 0 3 ) ( . 8 7 ) 4 . 3 . 0 4 2 . 71 3 . 1 4 . . 7 1 ) ( 1 , 0 3 ) ( . 5 2 ) 5 . 2 . 0 5 1 . 6 9 1 . 7 9 k . 7 9 ) ( . 8 8 ) ( . 9 8 ) 6 . 2 . 8 3 2 . 55 2 . 9 3 ( . 9 4 ) ( 1 . 0 1 ) ( . 9 2 ) 7 . 3 . 7 0 3 . 30 3 . 38 ( . 56 ) ( . 68 ) ( . 56 ) 8 . 3 . 22 3 . 1 6 3 . 14 ( - 8 0 ) ( . 89 ) ( . 89 ) 9 . 3 . 39 3 . 23 3 . 45 ! . 7 2 ) ( . 89 ) ( . 63 ) 10 . 1 . 9 1 1 . 8 5 1 . 89 ( . 81) ( . 9 1 ) ( . 83 ) 1 1 . 2 . 9 1 2 . 69 2 . 9 7 ( . 79 ) ( . 87 ) ( 1 . 0 9 ) 12 . 1 . 6 2 1 . 56 1 . 39 ( . 6 7 ) ( . 7 6 ) ( . 63 ) 13 . 3 . 32 3 . 19 3 . 3 4 ( . 89 ) ( . 8 4 ) ( . 90 ) 14 . 3 . 57 3 . 20 3 . 59 C . 5 9 ) ( . 8 6 ) ( . 5 0 ) 1 5 . 2 . 8 7 2 . 53 2 . 58 ( . 9 7 ) ( . 9 5 ) ( . 8 1 ) 16 . 2 . 9 6 2 . 89 3 . 0 3 ( . 8 8 ) ( . 99 ) ( . 9 1 ) 17 . 2 . 50 2 . 29 2 . 54 (1 -.01) ( 1 . 0 0 ) ( . 9 6 ) 18 . 1 . 9 1 1 . 9 0 1 . 82 ( . 7 3 ) ( . 9 3 ) ( . 7 7 ) F o r F o u r R e s p o n s e G r o u p s . D i s t r i c t F - F - S t a f f R a t i o P r o b , 3 . 9 0 3 . 39 . 019 0 . 3 2 ) 2 . 6 0 5 . 41 . 0013 . 52) 2 . 40 1 . 17 . 3222 . 9 7 ) 3 . 6 7 4 . 69 . 0034 . 7 1 ) 2 . 1 0 1 . 62 . 1 8 6 6 . 7 4 ) 3 . 30 3 . 04 . 0 3 0 1 . 8 2 ) 3 . 30 2 . 46 . 0 6 4 1 . 67 ) 2 . 9 0 33 . 8069 . 5 7 ) 3 . 20 75 . 5261 1 . 0 3 ) 2 . 30 84 . 4710 . 6 7 ) 2 . 70 1 . 10 . 3 4 9 4 . 8 2 ) 1 . 20 1 . 25 . 2 9 4 1 . 4 2 ) 3 . 10 . 45 . 7 1 6 2 . 57 ) 3 . 4 0 3 . 00 . 0 3 1 7 . 7 0 ) 3 . 1 0 1 . 88 . 1 3 3 7 . 9 9 ) 3 . 50 1 . 34 . 2 6 2 6 . 71) 2 . 50 78 . 5040 . 53 ) 2 . 2 0 45 . 7 1 7 5 . 9 2 ) P a g e 69 T a b l e 5 : Summary o f L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n a n d C a t e g o r y f o r e i g h t e e n i t e m s . I t e m # L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n C a t e g o r y 1 . D e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y I n s t r u c t i o n 3 . S m a l l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n I n s t r u c t i o n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m 5 . Team t e a c h i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n 1 0 . P e e r t u t o r i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 1 1 . C o o r d i n a t e m a t e r i a l s I n s t r u c t i o n 1 3 . S m a l l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e " I n s t r u c t i o n L A C 1 7 . S u p p l e m e n t a r y p r e - p o s t t e s t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 2 . F o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n 4 . P r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s 7 . C o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s 1 4 . C o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 1 5 . A i d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s 1 6 . H e l p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o s t e r p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e 1 8 . P r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n 6 . O b s e r v e s t u d e n t i n r e g u l a r A s s e s s m e n t c l a s s r o o m 8 . A d m i n i s t e r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s A s s e s s m e n t 9 . P r o f i l e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s A s s e s s m e n t 1 2 . I n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r A s s e s s m e n t a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s P a g e 70 H 2 : M e a n s c o r e s f o r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( a s s e s s m e n t , i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n ) o f t h e L A T r o l e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n S u r v e y , a r e t h e same f o r a l l 4 p o s i t i o n s ( p r i n c i p a l , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , L A T , a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) . A one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was c o n d u c t e d o n t h e means o f e a c h c a t e g o r y . T a b l e 6 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s . S i g n i f i c a n c e ( . 0 5 ) was f o u n d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n . A m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n (MC) t e s t ( T u k e y ) r e v e a l e d no t w o g r o u p s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o n i n s t r u c t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , i t m u s t be t h e r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n g r o u p s e f f e c t . On c o n s u l t a t i o n t h e MC t e s t ( T u k e y ) r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f . T h u s t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . P a g e 71 Table 6 : Means, (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) and A n a l y s i s of Variance Results Across Groups and Sub-areas. Sub-area Pr i n c - Class. LATs D i s t r i c t F- pals Teachers S t a f f Prob. Assessment 10 . 9 1 3 0 10 . 1 3 5 5 10 . 7 5 8 6 10 . 6 0 0 0 . 3 2 5 3 (2 . 0 4 3 0 ) (2 . 5 3 3 1 ) (1 . 8 4 5 0 ) (1 . 8 3 7 6 ) I n s t r u c t ion 18 . 0 8 7 0 16 . 6 2 5 8 17 . 8 6 2 1 19 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 3 4 1 (3 . 2 4 6 2 ) (3 . 7 4 8 8 ) (2 . 6 6 8 9 ) (2 . 4 4 9 5 ) C o n s u l t a t i o n 19 . 5652 17 . 7032 18 . 5 8 6 2 21 . 4 0 0 0 . 0 1 8 2 (2 . 8 4 1 7 ) (4 . 7 0 4 5 ) (2 . 8600 ) (3 . 0 6 2 3 ) As can be seen from Table 6 , d i s t r i c t s t a f f ranked c o n s u l t a t i o n much higher than a l l other groups. In descending order by rank were the p r i n c i p a l s then the LATs and f i n a l l y the classroom teachers. I n s t r u c t i o n was a l s o rated highest by d i s t r i c t s t a f f and then p r i n c i p a l s , LATs and classroom teachers. Assessment, on the other hand, was rated highest by p r i n c i p a l s then LATs, d i s t r i c t s t a f f and classroom teachers. Supplementary Findings ( i ) Inter-group C o r r e l a t i o n Using a s t a t i s t i c a l method to determine the closeness of agreement between a l l respondent groups, Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained for Page 72 g r o u p means ( T a b l e 7 a n d 8 ) . The P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n ( r ) i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t s u m m a r i z e s t h e m a g n i t u d e a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t w o v a r i a b l e s , a n d t h e s t r e n g t h a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . I t i s u s e d t o o b t a i n k n o w l e d g e a b o u t a i l a r g e r c l a s s o f p e r s o n s f r o m a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f t h e same e l e m e n t ( s ) . I t c a n be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a l l d i f f e r e n c e s I n r ' s a r e d u e t o s a m p l i n g e r r o r . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e P e a r s o n r ' s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r F i s h e r ' s Z - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a r e e m p l o y e d . A s c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 8 a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b t a i n e d among t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s ( r = 0 . 9 7 9 7 ) . The n e x t h i g h e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e b e t w e e n t h e L A T s a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s ( r = 0 . 9 7 3 7 ) a n d t h e L A T s a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( r = 0 . 9 7 0 4 ) . The s m a l l e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e f o u n d among t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e o t h e r t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . The v a l u e s f o r t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e o t h e r t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : t h e p r i n c i p a l s r = 0 . 6 3 8 3 , t h e L A T s r = 0 . 7 8 2 4 a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r = 0 . 7 5 8 5 . P a g e 73 T a b l e 7 : M e a n I t e m R a t i n g F o r F o u r R e s p o n s e G r o u p s I tern P r i n c i p a l s C l a s s r o o m L A T s T e a c h e r 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 11 12 13 14 1 5 , 16 17 18 3 . 39 1 . 67 2 . 55 3 . 04 2 . 05 2 . 8 3 3 . 70 3 . 22 3 . 39 1 . 9 1 2 . 9 1 1 . 6 2 3 . 32 3 . 57 2 . 87 2 . 9 6 2 . 50 1 . 9 1 3 . 23 1 . 7 5 2 . 27 2 . 71 1 . 69 2 . 5 5 3 . 30 3 . 1 6 3 . 2 3 1 . 8 5 2 . 69 1 . 56 3 . 1 9 3 . 20 2 . 53 2 . 89 2 . 29 1 . 9 0 3 . 45 1 . 4 3 2 . 03 3 . 14 1 . 7 9 2 . 9 3 3 . 38 3 . 14 3 . 4 5 1 . 89 2 . 9 7 1 . 39 3 . 3 4 3 . 59 2 . 5 8 3 . 0 3 2 . 54 1 . 8 2 D i s t r i c t S t a f f 3 . 9 0 2 . 6 0 2 . 40 3 . 67 2 . 1 0 3 . 30 3 . 30 2 . 9 0 3 . 2 0 2 . 30 2 . 7 0 1 . 20 3 . 1 0 3 . 4 0 3 . 1 0 3 . 50 2 . 50 2 . 20 P a g e 74 T a b l e 8 : M a t r i x of. I n t e r - g r o u p C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( P e a r s o n r ) f o r t h e M e a n s o f E i g h t e e n I t e m s G r o u p P r i n c i p a l s C l a s s r o o m L A T s D i s t r i c t T e a c h e r s S t a f f P r i n c i p a l s 1.0000 0 . 9 7 9 7 0 . 9 7 3 7 0 . 6 3 8 3 C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s 0 . 9 7 9 7 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 0 4 0 . 7 5 8 5 L A T s 0 . 9 7 3 7 0 . 9 7 0 4 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 7824 D i s t r i c t S t a f f 0 . 6 3 8 3 0 . 7 5 8 5 0 . 7 8 2 4 1 . 0 0 0 0 F i s h e r ' s Z - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w e r e u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e ! 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r e a c h P e a r s o n r . The t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f I t h e l o w e r a n d u p p e r Z - l i m i t s w e r e t h e n c h a n g e d b a c k t o c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f d i s t r i c t s t a f f , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s i a n d p r i n c i p a l s w ere ' a s f o l l o w s : I - f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ( r = . 7 5 9 ) b e t w e e n . 9 0 5 a n d . 4 5 3 , - f o r L A T s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ( r = . 7 8 2 4 ) b e t w e e n . 9 1 4 a n d . 4 9 2 , - f o r d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d p r i n c i p a l s ( r = . 6 3 8 3 ) b e t w e e n . 8 5 2 a n d . 2 4 6 , - f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s ( r = . 9 7 0 4 ) b e t w e e n . 9 8 9 a n d . 9 2 , P a g e 75 - f o r p r i n c i p a l s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( r = . 9 8 ) b e t w e e n . 9 9 a n d . 9 4 5 , - f o r p r i n c i p a l s a n d L A T s ( r = . 9 7 3 ) b e t w e e n . 9 7 5 a n d . 9 3 2 . A s c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , t h e i n t e r v a l s i n v o l v i n g t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f e x t e n d s f r o m I a p p r o x i m a t e l y : 1 . 9 0 5 t o . 4 5 3 . 9 1 4 t o . 4 9 2 . 8 5 2 t o . 2 4 6 . T h e s e d o n o t o v e r l a p w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s w h i c h d o n o t i n v o l v e d i s t r i c t s t a f f : . 9 8 9 t o . 9 2 .99 t o . 9 4 5 . 9 7 5 t o . 9 3 2 . I n f a c t , t h e s e i n t e r v a l s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f c a n be s a i d t o come f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n was made b e t w e e n a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s t o t e s t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r ' s a r e d u e t o s a m p l i n g e r r o r . U s i n g t h e e q u a t i o n P( •» f ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s 1 9 8 4 , p . 3 0 9 ) , i t was f o u n d t h a t w i t h a c h i - s q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v = J - l (5 ) d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m P a g e 76 t h e o b s e r v e d c h i - s q u a r e was 3 6 . 7 6 a n d t h e a c t u a l c h i - s q u a r e was 1 1 . 0 7 . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n be r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . A l l c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s w e r e t o t a l l y p o s i t i v e . H e n c e , a l l a r e p o s i t i v e l y ( d i r e c t i o n ) r e l a t e d , some more s o t h a n o t h e r s ( m a g n i t u d e ) . A s c a n be o b s e r v e d f r o m t a b l e 8 t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e L A T s a r e a l l c l o s e w h e r e a s t h e r ' s b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d a l l o t h e r g r o u p s a r e much l o w e r . I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e l i e s b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d a l l o t h e r g r o u p s . ( i i ) R a n k O r d e r A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d r e l a t e t o v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e d e g r e e a n d n a t u r e o f d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f k e y o b s e r v e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d b y L A T s u p o n v a r i o u s r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e b a s i s f o r t h e b r o a d e r g a u g e d a s s e s s m e n t i s t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f r o l e f u n c t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d b y e a c h s u r v e y e d p a r t y . The r e s u l t s d e r i v e d b y g r a p h i n g t h e mean r e s p o n s e b y g r o u p s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9 w i t h t h e P a g e 77 r a n k e d mean i t e m r a t i n g s o f e a c h s a m p l e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 10 a n d 1 1 . The g r a p h o f T a b l e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . I t e m 12 i s c l e a r l y t h e l o w e s t v a l u e d i t e m r a t e d b e l o w 1 . 7 5 b y a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . i P a g e 78 Tahlft 9: Graph: Mean Responses by Four Respondent Groups. Page 79 T a b l e 1 0 : R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p s ' R a n k i n g o f t h e E i g h t e e n I t e m s A c c o r d i n g t o I m p o r t a n c e C l a s s r o o m D i s t r i c t Rank P r i n c i p a l s T e a c h e r s L A T s S t a f f F i r s t 7 7 14 1 S e c o n d 14 1 4 T h i r d 9 16 1/ 9 F o u r t h 14 7 14 F i f t h 13 13 13 6 , 7 S i x t h 8 8 8 S e v e n t h 4 16 4 9 E i g h t h 16 4 16 13 15 N i n t h 11 11 11 T e n t h 15 6 6 8 E l e v e n t h 6 15 15 11 T w e l f t h 3 17 17 2 T h i r t e e n t h 17 3 3 17 F o u r t e e n t h 5 18 10 3 F i f t e e n t h 18 10 18 10 S i x t e e n t h 10 2 5 18 S e v e n t e e n t h 2 5 2 5 E i g h t e e n t h 12 12 12 12 P a g e 80 T a b l e 1 1 : I t e m s R a n k e d A c c o r d i n g t o I m p o r t a n c e b y E a c h I tern 1 . G r o u p P r i n c i p a l s 3 r d " C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s 2 n d " L A T s 2 n d " D i s t r S t a f f 1 s t " 2 . 1 7 t h 1 6 t h 1 7 t h 1 2 t h * 3 . 1 2 t h 1 3 t h 1 3 t h 1 4 t h 4 . 7 t h 8 t h 7 t h 2 n d * " 5 . 1 4 t h 1 7 t h 1 6 t h 1 7 t h 6 . 1 1 t h 1 0 t h 1 0 t h 5 t h * " 7 . 1 s t * " 1 s t * " 4 t h " 5 t h " 8 . 6 t h 6 t h 6 t h 1 0 t h * 9 . 3 r d " 3 r d " 2 n d " 7 t h * 10 . 1 6 t h 1 5 t h 1 4 t h 1 5 t h 1 1 . 9 t h 9 t h 9 t h 1 1 t h 12 . 1 8 t h 1 8 t h 1 8 t h 1 8 t h 1 3 . 5 t h " 5 t h " 5 t h " 8 t h 14 . 2 n d " 4 t h " 1 s t " 4 t h " 1 5 . 1 0 t h 1 1 t h 1 1 t h 8 t h 16 . 8 t h 7 t h 8 t h 3 r d * " 1 7 . 1 3 t h 1 2 t h 1 2 t h 1 3 t h 18 . 1 5 t h 1 4 t h 1 5 t h 1 6 t h * i n d i c a t e s r a n k i n g t h a t i s ' d i f f e r e n t ' t h a n t h e o t h e r s f o r t h a t r o w . A g a i n t h i s s i n g l e s o u t t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f . " r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t f i v e i t e m s ( r a n k o r d e r ) . P a g e 81 A s c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e s 10 a n d 1 1 , t h e r e i s r e m a r k a b l e a g r e e m e n t among L A T s , p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f i n r e s p e c t t o r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d b y L A T s o n v a r i o u s r o l e f u n c t i o n s . P r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s r a n k e d t h e same 13 i t e m s i n a s i m i l a r way a l t h o u g h n o t i n i d e n t i c a l o r d e r . The t o p 5 r a n k e d i t e m s a r e a s f o l l o w s : #7 c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) #1 d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #9 p r o f i l e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s ( a s s e s s m e n t ) #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) . #13 s m a l l i g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) The h i g h e s t r a n k e d i t e m was i n t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n c a t e g o r y . P r i n c i p a l s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r a n k e d #7 i c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s h i g h e s t w h i l e L A T s r a n k e d i t f o u r t h a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f r a n k e d i t f i f t h . The L A T s r a n k e d #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h i g h e s t . B o t h #7 a n d #14 a r e c o n s u l t a t i o n i t e m s . O u t o f t h e t o p 4 i t e m s s e l e c t e d b y t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f r a n k e d 2 i n t h e i r t o p 4 . T h e i r h i g h e s t i t e m was n o t one o f c o n s u l t a t i o n b u t one o f P a g e 82 i n s t r u c t i o n (#1 : d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ) . T h e y a l s o i n c l u d e d #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n t h e t o p f o u r b u t t h e y i n c l u d e d t w o o t h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n i t e m s a s s e c o n d a n d t h i r d h i g h e s t - #4 p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s a n d #16 h e l p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o s t e r p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s . P r i n c i p a l s , L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r a n k e d #16 i n t h e s e v e n t h o r e i g h t h r a n g e . T h e r e i s a s t r i k i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n a l l g r o u p s f o r t h e f u n c t i o n s l e a s t e m p h a s i z e d . A l l g r o u p s p l a c e d #12 i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s - a s s e s s m e n t a s t h e l o w e s t i t e m . I n t h e l o w e s t g r o u p o f 5 i t e m s , p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s i n c l u d e d t h e same i t e m s a l t h o u g h n o t i n i d e n t i c a l o r d e r : #2 f o r m a l i n - s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) #5 t e a m t e a c h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #10 p e e r t u t o r i n g ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #12 i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ( a s s e s s m e n t ) . P a g e 83 #18 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) D i s t r i c t s t a f f r a n k e d f o u r (#5,10,12,18) o u t o f t h e 5 d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s l o w e s t . T h e y r a n k e d #2 t w e l f t h . D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l (1985) a l s o f o u n d f o u r o f t h e s e i t e m s (#5, 10, 12 a n d 18) t o be r a n k e d l o w e s t . I n t e g r a t i o n o f R e s u l t s The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , t h e P e a r s o n r ' s , a n d t h e r a n k i n g s c o l l e c t i v e l y s u g g e s t g r e a t s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s o n how t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T . V i c e n t e (1977) s t a t e d t h a t " e a c h t e a c h e r , p r i n c i p a l c o o r d i n a t o r , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d p a r e n t s e e s t h e L A T i n a s e p a r a t e l i g h t " ( p .20). She a l s o s i g h t e d P e r k i n s s t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n w h i c h he f o u n d s i t u a t i o n s i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l w h e r e t h e L A T a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l d i d n o t h a v e t h e same p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L A p r o g r a m . I n t h i s s t u d y , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e L A T s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f h o l d s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f a p p e a r t o be t h e m o s t d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e P a g e 84 o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s a s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e a n a l y s i s o£ v a r i a n c e , t h e P e a r s o n r ' s , a n d t h e r a n k i n g s . T a b l e 12 d i s p l a y s t h e i t e m s f r o m m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o l e a s t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a v e r a g e means o r r a n k s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f h a v e n o t b e e n a d d e d t o t h e a v e r a g e a s t h e y a r e t h e m o s t d i s p a r a t e o f t h e g r o u p s . T a b l e 13 c o m p a r e s t h e a v e r a g e r a n k f o r t h e t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s o f p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s t o t h a t o f t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f . I P a g e 85 T a b l e 1 2 : Summary o f A v e r a g e R a n k i n g o f L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n s f r o m M o s t I m p o r t a n t t o L e a s t I m p o r t a n t a n d O v e r a l l M e a n s f o r T h r e e R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p s ( C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , P r i n c i p a l s , a n d L A T s ) R a n k ( A v . ) F i r s t S e c o n d T h i r d F o u r t h F i f t h S i x t h S e v e n t h E i g h t h N i n t h T e n t h O v e r a l l Mean I t e m # L A T R o l e F u n c t i o n 3 . 3 6 7 . C o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s 3 . 3 0 1 4 . C o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 3 . 2 8 1 . D e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y 3 . 2 8 9 . P r o f i l e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s 3 . 2 3 1 3 . S m a l l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e L A C 3 . 1 6 8 . A d m i n i s t e r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s 2 . 9 2 1 6 . H e l p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o s t e r p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e 2 . 8 1 4 . P r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s 2 . 7 5 1 1 . C o o r d i n a t e m a t e r i a l s 2 . 6 3 6 . O b s e r v e s t u d e n t i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m P a g e 86 E l e v e n t h 2 . 5 7 15 T w e l f t h 2 . 3 5 17 T h i r t e e n t h 2 . 2 7 3 F o u r t e e n t h 1 . 8 9 18 F i f t e e n t h 1 . 8 6 10 S i x t e e n t h 1 . 7 4 5, S e v e n t e e n t h 1 . 7 0 2 E i g h t e e n t h 1 . 5 4 12 A i d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s S u p p l e m e n t a r y p r e - p o s t t e s t i n g S m a l l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m P r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n P e e r t u t o r i n g Team t e a c h i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m F o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n I n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s P a g e 87 T a b l e 1 3 : C o m b i n e d R e s p o n d e n t G r o u p ( C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , P r i n c i p a l s a n d L A T s ) C o m p a r e d t o D i s t r i c t S t a f f f o r R a n k i n g o f I t e m s a n d C a t e g o r i e s . R a n k I t e m # C o m b i n e d C a t e g o r y R e s p o n d e n t s I t e m # D i s t r i c t C a t e g o r y S t a f f F i r s t 7 C o n s u l t a t i o n 1 I n s t r u c t i o n S e c o n d 14 C o n s u l t a t i o n . 4 C o n s u l t a t i o n T h i r d 1 I n s t r u c t i o n 16 C o n s u l t a t i o n F o u r t h 9 A s s e s s m e n t 14 C o n s u l t a t i o n F i f t h 13 I n s t r u c t i o n 6 , 7 A s s e s s m e n t / S i x t h 8 A s s e s s m e n t C o n s u l t a t i o n S e v e n t h 16 C o n s u l t a t i o n 9 A s s e s s m e n t E i g h t h 4 C o n s u l t a t i o n 1 3 , 1 5 I n s t r u c t i o n / N i n t h 11 I n s t r u c t i o n C o n s u l t a t i o n T e n t h 6 A s s e s s m e n t 8 A s s e s s m e n t E l e v e n t h 15 C o n s u l t a t i o n 11 i n s t r u c t i o n T w e l f t h 17 I n s t r u c t i o n 2 C o n s u l t a t i o n T h i r t e e n t h 3 I n s t r u c t i o n 17 I n s t r u c t i o n F o u r t e e n t h 18 C o n s u l t a t i o n 3 I n s t r u c t i o n F i f t e e n t h 10 I n s t r u c t i o n 10 I n s t r u c t i o n S i x t e e n t h 5 I n s t r u c t i o n 18 C o n s u l t a t i o n S e v e n t e e n t h 2 C o n s u l t a t i o n 5 i n s t r u c t i o n E i g h t e e n t h 12 A s s e s s m e n t 12 A s s e s s m e n t P a g e 88 s u m m a r y o f R e s u l t s The f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n d i r e c t l y e x p l o r e w i t h i n t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t s e t t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e p r o g r a m t h r o u g h a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e b e h a v i o r a s p e r c e i v e d b y k e y o b s e r v e r s . P e r c e p t i o n o f how a r o l e i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d i s a v a r i a b l e t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e some s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e r o l e e m p h a s i s b y t h e L A T a n d t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e o t h e r t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s o n r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s . F o r t w o i t e m s , ' d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ' a n d ' p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s ' , t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f p e r c e i v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e m p h a s i s t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . F o r a n o t h e r i t e m , ' f o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ' , d i s t r i c t s t a f f p e r c e i v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e m p h a s i s t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t a l p h a o f . 0 0 3 w e r e f o u n d o n l y f o r P a g e 89 ' f o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ' (#2) a n d ' p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s ' ( # 4 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e f o r #2 was b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d a l l o t h e r g r o u p s a n d f o r #4 i t was b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o f o u n d b e t w e e n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f o n t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n c a t e g o r y . A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n a l l g r o u p s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was more a g r e e m e n t [ b e t w e e n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s a n d a l s o b e t w e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l s a n d t h e L A T s . The l o w e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e L A T s , a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s . R a n k o r d e r i n g o f r o l e f u n c t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e mean r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d b y e a c h s u r v e y e d g r o u p r e v e a l e d s t r i k i n g a g r e e m e n t s among L A T s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e f u n c t i o n s m o s t e m p h a s i z e d b y L A T s . The same f o u r i t e m s w e r e r a n k e d h i g h e s t b y e a c h g r o u p : ' c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s ' , ' c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' , ' d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ' a n d ' p r o f i l e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s ' . D i s t r i c t s t a f f i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r t o p - f o u r P a g e 90 • d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ' , ' p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s ' ( r a n k e d s e v e n t h o r e i g h t h b y t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s ) , ' h e l p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o s t e r p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s ' ( r a n k e d s e v e n t h o r e i g h t h b y t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s ) a n d ' c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' . The same f i v e i t e m s w e r e r a n k e d l o w e s t b y e a c h g r o u p : i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , f o r m a l i n - s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t e a m t e a c h i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m , p e e r t u t o r i n g a n d p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . A l l r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s r a n k e d i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s l o w e s t . D i s t r i c t s t a f f d i d n o t i n c l u d e i n t h e i r l o w e s t f i v e ' f o r m a l i n - s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s * i n s t e a d t h e y f e l t s m a l l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m was o f l o w e r p r i o r i t y . P a g e 91 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS Introduct ion This study was i n i t i a t e d to i d e n t i f y the perceptions of the key observers concerning the perceived r o l e of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher (LAT). I t was assumed that a l l LATs were performing t h e i r job according to the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education g u i d e l i n e s and that the emphasis the LATs each placed on various r o l e f u n c t i o n s was determined by the LATs perception of his/ h e r own school s i t u a t i o n and the school d i s t r i c t ' s g u i d e l i n e s . Within the M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s there i s room for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The question was, do the LATs, the p r i n c i p a l s , the classroom teachers and the d i s t r i c t s t a f f have the same perceptions of the r o l e ? Without the same per c e p t i o n s , u n r e a l i s t i c expectations and disappointments may r e s u l t . As s t a t e d by McLoughlin and Kass (1978), resource room teachers, or LATs as they are c a l l e d i n B.C., assume a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or s p e c i a l education s e r v i c e s ; t h e r e f o r e , the r o l e must be s t u d i e d to understand s u c c e s s f u l and unsuccessful procedures. Page 92 T h e r e w e r e many c i t i n g s i n j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s s t a t i n g a n e e d f o r c l a r i t y i n d e f i n i t i o n o f r e s o u r c e r o o m p r o g r a m s a n d t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r r o l e , f o r i n c r e a s e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d r e f e r r i n g t e a c h e r s a n d f o r b e t t e r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i t o i n f o r m p e o p l e a b o u t t h e g o a l s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m p r o g r a m . W i t h E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own L A T g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f m u s t be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s o r , a s S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) s t a t e d , t h e L A T s " m i g h t f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n o f t r y i n g t o m e e t c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s a t s c h o o l a n d d i s t r i c t l e v e l s " ( p . 1 8 ) . The c o n s t r u c t s o f r o l e a n a l y s i s a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m a r e a s . R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s M c L o u g h l i n a n d K e l l y ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r r o l e was u n c l e a r a n d l a c k e d a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r c e r t a i n v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s ( i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g , c o n s u l t i n g , a n d o b s e r v i n g o f s t u d e n t s ) . S y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m m o d e l was s u g g e s t e d b y B r o w n , K i r a l y a n d M c K i n n o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) a s b e i n g t i m e l y a n d c r u c i a l . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e i s s u e o f L A T o r L A C e f f e c t i v e n e s s h a d n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d ; t h e r e s t i l l d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o P a g e 9 3 be r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . B e c a u s e t h e L A T r o l e i n c l u d e s a s s e s s m e n t , i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n , t h e s e r o l e s a s w e l l may n e e d b e t t e r r o l e d e f i n i t o n a n d r e f i n e m e n t ( L l o y d , C r o w l e y , K o h l e r & S t r a i n , 1988), A c c o r d i n g t o F r i e n d a n d M c N u t t (1984) e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c o n s u l t i n g t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d s u c h a t r e m e n d o u s r a n g e o f t a s k s t h a t t h e y c a n n o t be m a n a g e d b y one p r o f e s s i o n a l . Now t h a t B . C . h a s M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h S c h w a r t z (1979) r e c o m m e n d e d , i s t h e r e c o n s e n s u s w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t a s t o t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T o r i s t h e r e a d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n t h e t w o l e v e l s i n a d i s t r i c t ( b o a r d o f f i c e a n d s c h o o l ) ? T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , L A T s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e L A T r o l e a g r e e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n . T h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I , The R o l e o f t h e L A T M c L o u g h l i n a n d K a s s (1978) s t a t e d t h a t we n e e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r u n d e r t h e c o n s t r u c t o f r o l e a n a l y s i s a n d t h e k i n d s o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s t h e r o l e P a g e 94 of the LAT defined i t s e l f through the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with other r o l e s , the p o s i t i o n i n the t o t a l context and the perceptions held by people. We then must decide i f the perceptions are the same or d i f f e r e n t (Evans 1981). Role theory i s the r o l e a n a l y s i s of what others think the r o l e i s and what they think i t should be. P r i n c i p a l , Classroom Teacher, LAT and D i s t r i c t S t a f f Congruence on the Role of the LAT This study examined the p r i n c i p a l s ' , classroom teachers', LATs, and d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s perceptions of the r o l e of the LAT. One way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the group r a t i n g s of the degree of emphasis placed on various r o l e f u n c t i o n s by the LAT. S i g n i f i c a n c e was found for two items using the Bonferroni technique (alpha of .003) but homogeneity of variance was v i o l a t e d on these ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' items. The d i s t r i c t s t a f f rated item #2 formal i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s higher than any other respondent group. The r a t i n g s ranged i n descending order from the classroom teacher to the p r i n c i p a l and then to the LATs. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the d i s t r i c t s t a f f and a l l other respondent Page 95 g r o u p s . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f a l s o r a t e d #4 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s h i g h e r t h a n a n y o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p . The r a t i n g s f o r t h i s i t e m r a n g e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r f r o m t h e L A T s t o t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d t h e n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o r i t e m #4. U s i n g a n a l p h a o f . 0 5 , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d on 5 i t e m s , a n d h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e was v i o l a t e d o n 4 o f t h e s e i t e m s . W h i l e c a u t i o n h a s t o be u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e y a r e w o r t h l o o k i n g a t . On 4 o f t h e f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s d i s t r i c t s t a f f r a t i n g s w e r e h i g h e r t h a n a l l o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . H o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e was v i o l a t e d f o r a l l 3 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' i t e m s : #2 f o r m a l i n - s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . #4 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s D i s t r i c t s t a f f w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m a l l o t h e r g r o u p s f o r #2 f o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . P a g e 96 T h e y f e l t f o r m a l i n s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w o u l d be h e l p f u l w h e r e a s a l l o t h e r g r o u p s f e l t t h i s w o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t a l . D i s t r i c t s t a f f a l s o f e l t t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t a n d c l o s e t o i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s , | w h e r e a s c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f e l t ! i t w o u l d be no more t h a n h e l p f u l . T h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s , o r t h e l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n o f a d e q u a t e t i m e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t . E v a n s ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h a t i f | : r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s h a v e a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e o r g r e a t e r i ! t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o s e r v e a s c o n s u l t a n t s . O n l y i 2 0 . 6 9 % o f t h e L A T s , s u r v e y e d h a d a m a s t e r s d e g r e e , w h i l e 1 7 . 4 2 % o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d h a d a m a s t e r s d e g r e e . M c L o u g h l i n a n d K a s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d t h a t o f t e n | s c h o o l s w e r e s t a f f e d w i t h r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s who k n e w ! l i t t l e more t h a n t h o s e t h e y w i s h e d t o a d v i s e . ! F o r #4 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a n d m a t e r i a l s d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s h i g h e r r a t i n g o f t h i s i t e m was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when c o m p a r e d t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . D i s t r i c t s t a f f w e r e i t i n e r a n t a n d t h u s d i d n o t e n r o l e a c l a s s a n d m i g h t n o t r e a l i z e t h e p r o b l e m s i n a s c h o o l o f p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r m e e t i n g t h i s c o o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . T i m e i s n e e d e d f o r P a g e 97 b o t h t h e L A T a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h i s v e r y h e l p f u l , L A T s r a t e d i t i m p o r t a n t a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f r a t e d t h i s ' h i g h i m p o r t a n t ' . F o r t h e o t h e r c o n s u l t a t i v e i t e m , #14 c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e s f o u n d no 2 g r o u p s a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . A c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a s o f t e n b e e n c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s v e r y i m p o r t a n t b u t a l s o v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n d u e t o many r e s t r a i n t s s u c h a s t i m e . L A T s r a t e d t h i s a s o c c u r r i n g a t a h i g h e r r a t e t h a n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . T h i s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e F r i e n d a n d M c N u t t ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t u d y w h i c h f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s on i n c l u d i n g r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s . The l i t e r a t u r e c i t e s t h a t d u r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . a n i n t e n s e p r o b l e m d e v e l o p s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( D u g o f f , I v e s & S h o t e l , 1 9 8 5 ) . D ' A l o n z o a n d W i s e m a n ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r m a i n s t r e a m i n g a n d y e t a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t P a g e 98 i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m a r e a . T h i s p r o b l e m may be a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k o f a d e q u a t e t a m e ( M c L o u g h l i n & K e l l y , 1 9 8 2 ) o r t o a l a c k o f n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e ( M c L o u g h l i n & K a s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t c o u l d a l s o be a c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m . The L A T may c o n s u l t w i t h many c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f h i s / h e r a l l o t t e d t i m e . The i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r may o n l y p e r c e i v e t h e a s s i s t a n c e s / h e g e t s a n d t h u s may f a i l t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e o r r e a l i z e t h e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e t h e L A T s p e n t c o n s u l t i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . The o n l y f u n c t i o n i n v o l v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f o r w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d was #1 d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y . On m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e s s i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d f o r d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . D i s t r i c t s t a f f r a t e d #1, d e v e l o p i n g o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y , much h i g h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . T h i s a g a i n w o u l d c o n c u r w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s t h i s i s a n i d e a l g o a l b u t t h e r e may be a l a c k o f a d e q u a t e t i m e ( M c L o u g h l i n & K e l l y 1 9 8 2 ) w h i c h w o u l d a f f e c t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , L A T s a n d p r i n c i p a l s more t h a n d i s t r i c t s t a f f . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h i s o f l o w i m p o r t a n c e , b u t d i s t r i c t s t a f f h a d i t b o r d e r i n g o n i n d i s p e n s a b l e . D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l P a g e 99 ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e t h a t e x p e r t s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e i d e a l r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e i e m p h a s i s ! t h e y p u t on t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) d i d n o t f i n d i n h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e L A T m i g h t be i n t h e i s i t u a t i o n o f t r y i n j g t o meet c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s I b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d d i s t r i c t a n d y e t i n t h i s s t u d y m o s t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r t o be b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d i n - s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . The a s s e s s m e n t i t e m #6 o b s e r v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s i s s i g n i f i c a n t b u t t h e m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e s f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e t w o g r o u p s i t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h i s f u n c t i o n was r a t e d h i g h e s t b y d i s t r i c t s t a f f , t h e n L A T s , f o l l o w e d b y p r i n c i p a l s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . L l o y d , C r o w l e y , K o h l e r a n d S t r a i n ( 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t " f u r t h e r w o r k i s n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f I n t e r v e n t i o n s r e c o m m e n d e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n ( p . 4 7 ) " . A c c o r d i n g t o V i c e n t e ( 1 9 7 7 ) t h e f i r s t L A T p r o g r a m s e m p h a s i z e d t e s t i n g s k i l l s a n d t h e n d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s . She f o u n d t h a t t h e n e w e r s e r v i c e c o n s u l t a t i o n c r e a t e d more p r o b l e m s . W h i l e t h e s c h o o l s a n d t e a c h e r s w e r e b e c o m i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g p r o b l e m s a n d t h u s r e f e r r i n g more s t u d e n t s , P a g e 100 t h e L A T s , V i c e n t e f o u n d , had l e s s t r a i n i n g and l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s p u t t h e LATs i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f n o t h a v i n g e nough t i m e t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t s e r v i c e s f o r a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n n e e d . The LATs t h u s i n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r w h i c h t h e y d i d n o t f e e l c o m p e t e n t . V i c e n t e f e l t t h a t t h e L ATs n e e d e d t o i n f o r m a l l p e o p l e i n v o l v e d a b o u t t h e LA p r o g r a m t o o b t a i n s u p p o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t f o r a p o s i t i v e r o l e f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y LAT. I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s and d i s t r i c t s t a f f g e n e r a l l y a g r e e upon t h e r o l e o f t h e LAT w i t h r e g a r d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a nd a s s e s s m e n t . The p r o b l e m a r e a a p p e a r s t o be i n c o n s u l t a t i o n where t h e o u t - o f - s c h o o l g r o u p o r D i s t r i c t S t a f f d i f f e r w i t h a l l o t h e r i n - s c h o o l r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . LAT, P r i n c i p a l . C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r and D i s t r i c t S t a f f C o n g r u e n c e on t h e A s s e s s m e n t , I n s t r u c t i o n and C o n s u l t a t i o n R o l e s o f t h e LAT T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e p r i n c i p a l s ' , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' , L A T s ' and d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e LAT f o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f A s s e s s m e n t , I n s t r u c t i o n , a nd C o n s u l t a t i o n . A one way ANOVA was e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e Page 101 . 0 5 l e v e l b e t w e e n e a c h g r o u p s r a t i n g s o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n . A m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n (MC) t e s t ( T u k e y ) d i d n o t i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n a n y t w o g r o u p s f o r I n s t r u c t i o n . T h u s i t m u s t be a c o m b i n e d g r o u p e f f e c t w h i c h t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t i n v e s t i g a t e . F o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , MC t e c h n i q u e ( T u k e y ) i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f . D i s t r i c t s t a f f h a d t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g f o r t h e s e i t e m s w h i l e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d t h e l o w e s t . The o r d e r i s i n t e r e s t i n g . D i s t r i c t s t a f f w e r e h i g h e s t , t h e n p r i n c i p a l s , t h e n L A T s a n d f i n a l l y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . The d i s t r i c t s t a f f a r e more i n a n a d v i s o r y r o l e a n d t h u s more l i k e t h e e x p e r t s i n D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y who h a v e m o r e o f a n i d e a l i z e d v i e w t h a n c a n r e a l i s t i c a l l y be e x p e c t e d t o be p e r f o r m e d . T h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e e x p e r t s b e l i e v e d t h e L A T s h o u l d p l a c e m o r e e m p h a s i s o n a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l i t e m s t h a t l e a d t o a c o h e s i v e u n i f i e d p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . D ' A l o n z o a n d W i s e m a n ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g a n d i n t e r f a c e w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l i s b a s i c f o r m a i n s t r e a m i n g P a g e 102 b u t t h a t i t was a p r o b l e m a n d n o t p e r f o r m e d . L l o y d , C r o w l e y , K o h l e r a n d S t r a i n ( 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d t o " e s t a b l i s h t h e p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t e n h a n c e t h e t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e s " ( p . 4 7 ) . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f a r e l i k e i t w o l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t s e t t i n g . One i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f , who p e r c e i v e a h i g h l e v e l o f L A T f u n c t i o n i n g , w h e r e a s t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r p e r c e i v e s t h e f u n c t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y o f c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g a t a l o w e r l e v e l . A t t i m e s t h ! i s may c a u s e t h e L A T t o f e e l c a u g h t i n a r o l e c o n f l i c i t . T h i s i s i a l s o t r u e f o r I n s t r u c t i o n . W h e r e a s f o r a s s e s s m e n t , p r i n c i p a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e h i g h e s t , t h e n L A T s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s w e r e l o w e s t f o r a l l I t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c o n c u r s w i t h F r i e n d a n d ' M c N u t t ' s i ( 1 9 8 4 ) f i n d i n g s . j C r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s h e r e a r e : 1 . To w h a t e x t e n t d o e s t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e m a t c h t h e a c t u a l r o l e ? 2 . What i s t h e d e s i r e d r o l e o r t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i n g t h e n e e d s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n ? P a g e 103 3 . To w h a t e x t e n t d o e s t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e m a t c h t h e d e s i r e d r o l e ? I d o l a n d W e s t ( 1 9 8 7 ) f o u n d 5 m a j o r f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r i n h i b i t c o n s u l t a t i o n : i 1 . t i m e t o c o n s u l t 2 . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , i 3 . t e a c h e r a t t i t u d i n a l r e s i s t a n c e 4 . p r o m o t i o n o f c o n s u l t a t i o n 5 . c o n s u l t a n t s k i l l s M o r e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e e d e d t o f i n d o u t w h i c h o f t h e s e may be f a c t o r s h e r e . S u p p l e m e n t a r y F i n d i n g s i ) . S a m p l e The d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . F r o m t h e d a t a o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s u r v e y , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d a mean a g e o f 35 w h i l e L A T s h a d a mean a g e o f 3 7 . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d t a u g h t a n a v e r a g e o f 12 y e a r s w h i l e L A T s h a d t a u g h t a n a v e r a g e o f 14 y e a r s . N i n e t y - f o u r p o i n t one n i n e p e r c e n t o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d a m i n i m u m o f a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e c o m p a r e d t o 9 3 . 1 % o f L A T s . S e v e n t e e n p o i n t f o u r t w o p e r c e n t o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s P a g e 104 a n d 2 0 . 6 9 % o f L A T s h a d a m a s t e r s d e g r e e . A l l t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d g o o d i n - s e r v i c i n g a n d a r e t h u s w e l l v e r s e d i n t h e l a t e s t t r e n d s a n d s t r a t e g i e s . T h e y a r e a l s o i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s a n d i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d t h u s e x p e r i e n c i n g a l l t h e f r u s t r a t i o n a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s t h a t r e q u i r e a l o t o f c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n s t a f f m e m b e r s . I t i s s a f e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o f L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t h a s i n c r e a s e d s i n c e S c h w a r t z ' s s t u d y o f 1 9 7 9 . A t t h a t t i m e 21% o f t h e L A T s a n d 28% o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d no d e g r e e w h i l e o n l y 6 .9% o f L A T s a n d 5 . 8 1 % o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y h a v e no d e g r e e . A l s o t h e n u m b e r o f L A T s i n 1979 h a v i n g a m a s t e r s d e g r e e was o n l y 14% a s c o m p a r e d t o 2 0 . 6 9 % i n t h i s s t u d y . 1 7 . 4 2 % o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y h a v e a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e c o m p a r e d t o 6% i n S c h w a r t z ' s s t u d y . The L A T s e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h i s s t u d y a l s o d i f f e r f r o m D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) a n d E v a n ' s ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e i r r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d f e w e r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d i n E v a n s ' s t u d y 85% h e l d o n l y s t a n d a r d t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e L A T s P a g e 105 w e r e more e x p e r i e n c e d a n d h a d a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g a n d r a t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n h i g h e r t h a n t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s i n E v a n s 1 s t u d y . T h i s w o u l d c o n c u r w i t h E v a n s ' r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h s h e f o u n d t h a t , w i t h a m a s t e r s d e g r e e , t h e L A T was f o u n d t o d o more c o n s u l t a t i v e w o r k . i i ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P r i n c i p a l s , C - l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s . D i s t r i c t S t a f f a n d L A T s P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e R o l e o f t h e L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r . P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n was u s e d t o o b s e r v e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was b e t w e e n p r i n c i p a l s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s . P r i n c i p a l s h a d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f 0 . 9 7 9 7 w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f 0 . 9 7 3 7 w i t h L A T s . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d L A T s h a d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f 0 . 9 7 0 4 . P r i n c i p a l s a r e i n a n i d e a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l t o a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e t h e r o l e o f t h e L A T a n d t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h t h e r o l e a s i t i s p e r f o r m e d t h e r e . E v a n s ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d p r i n c i p a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s w e r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r f o r p l a n n i n g , d i a g n o s i s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m P a g e 106 teacher and the LAT and the classroom teacher. As i n d i c a t e d by mimeographs such as the 1988 paper s e t t i n g out the r o l e of the Learning Assistance at Manoah Steves School, schools are now s e t t i n g goals and o b j e c t i v e s for programs that they have i n the s c h o o l . This may be a s s i s t i n g i n a greater i n t e r n a l understanding of the r o l e of the LAT. Vicente (1977) advocated p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s to keep a l l people involved informed about the LA program. She f e l t that i t would r e s u l t i n greater support and evolvement of a p o s i t i v e r o l e for LATs w i t h i n an elementary s c h o o l . This would appear to be true for t h i s school d i s t r i c t . Through the Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n , i t was found that the inter-group c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was lowest and s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t between the d i s t r i c t s t a f f and a l l other respondent groups. The r e l a t i o n s h i p was as f o l l o w s : for P r i n c i p a l s 0.6383, i for classroom teachers 0.7585 and for LATs 0.7824. D i s t r i c t s t a f f who might be considered more l i k e experts and who are i t i n e r a n t to the school may not see the problems with time c o n s t r a i n t s , the e x p e r t i s e of the LAT vs the Classroom teacher, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support or the problem of one i n d i v i d u a l t r y i n g to supply a l l of these s e r v i c e s . Page 107 i i i ) . Rank Order A n a l y s i s When we look at the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the r o l e f u n c t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the rank ordering there i s strong agreement e s p e c i a l l y among the LATs f classroom teachers and p r i n c i p a l s . They ranked the same four functions highest (not i n i d e n t i c a l o r d e r ) : #1 develop o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #7 c o n s u l t with parents ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) #9 p r o f i l e students' a b i l i t i e s (assessment) #14 cooperative r e l a t i o n s h i p with classroom teachers ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) . Dugoff, Ives and Shotel ( 1 9 8 5 ) found s t r i k i n g agreement a l s o among resource room teachers, classroom teachers and p r i n c i p a l s concerning the r o l e f u n c t i o n s most emphasized, but i n t h e i r top three items .only one was the same as the f i n d i n g s here. Their top three were: #8 Administer standardized t e s t s #3 Small group i n s t r u c t i o n i n the resource room #7 Consult with parents I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that i n t h i s surveyed school d i s t r i c t #8 administer standardized t e s t s was ranked s i x t h by p r i n c i p a l s , classroom teachers and LATs while #3 small group i n s t r u c t i o n i n the resource room was ranked t w e l f t h or t h i r t e e n t h . This i s a long way from being Page 108 i n t h e t o p t h r e e o f D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s s t u d y . I s t h i s a s i g n t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g s e r v i c e d more i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m a n d t h e n e e d f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d a j o i n t p l a n o f s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s a n d n e e d s i s o f m o r e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n t h e n e e d f o r L A T s t o w o r k i n t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m w i t h t h e s e c h i l d r e n ? Once a g a i n , t h i s may be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s move t o w a r d s t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n a n d a l s o t h e r e s u l t o f t h e r e s e a r c h w h i c h s t r e s s e s t h e n e e d f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s a n d l e a r n i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e e m p h a s i s i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . The d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t o n t h e a d m i n i s t e r e d s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t a s t o t h e f u n c t i o n s l e a s t e m p h a s i z e d i s a l s o i m p r e s s i v e . F i v e f u n c t i o n s w e r e r a n k e d l o w e s t ( n o t i d e n t i c a l o r d e r ) : #2 f o r m a l i n - s e r v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) #5 t e a m t e a c h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #10 p e e r t u t o r i n g ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) #12 i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ( a s s e s s m e n t ) . #18 p r o v i d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n ( c o n s u l t a t i o n ) P a g e 109 T h e s e c o n c u r w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l who f o u n d t h e i r l o w e s t 4 w e r e i n t h e a b o v e 5 l e a s t e m p h a s i z e d g r o u p ( # 1 2 , 5 , 1 0 , 1 8 ) . M a n y o f t h e s e i t e m s i n v o l v e t h e L A T i n a n e x p e r t r o l e w h i c h B r a v i ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t a t e d h a s t h e n e g a t i v e o u t c o m e s o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f c l i e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A s E v a n s ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d t h i s i s n o t a r o l e t h a t L A T s t o o k u n l e s s t h e y h a d a m a s t e r s d e g r e e . M o s t L A T s w o u l d h a v e t o f e e l t h a t t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r w a n t e d t h i s a s s i s t a n c e a n d t h a t t h e y h a d more e x p e r t i s e i n t h i s a r e a t h a n t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r . A s t h e r e h a s b e e n a move t o w a r d u s i n g c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s , t h e r e w i l l n o t be a g r e a t n e e d o n t h e p a r t o f t h e . c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o s e e k k n o w l e d g e a b o u t a d m i n i s t e r i n g a n d u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . T h e r e i s a l s o a r e l u c t a n c e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d t h e L A T t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n t e a m t e a c h i n g . T i m e t o p l a n f o r j t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y a m a j o r c o n c e r n . The L A T may h a v e 10 o r more t e a c h e r s t o p l a n w i t h a n d y e t s t i l l h a v e h i s / h e r r e g u l a r w o r k t o c a r r y o u t s u c h a s o r g a n i z i n g t h e s c h o o l b a s e d m e e t i n g s , t e s t i n g , I . E . P . ' s , c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . P a g e 110 L A T P r o g r a m The g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e a l l o w f l e x i b i l i t y i n c h o o s i n g how t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o g r a m . The t h r e e a r e a s s p e c i f i e d a r e a s s e s s m e n t , d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n . On t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e L A T s w e r e g i v e n c h o i c e s f o r t h e t y p e o f p r o g r a m t h e y e m p l o y i n t h e i r s c h o o l . The c h o i c e s w e r e p u l l - o u t , p l u g - i n , t e a m t e a c h a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n . The L A T s r e s p o n d e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 o r 6 .9% d i d n o t r e s p o n d 15 o r 5 1 . 7 2 % c h e c k e d o n l y p u l l - o u t 1 o r 3 . 4 5 % c h e c k e d o n l y p l u g - i n 0 o r o% c h e c k e d o n l y t e a m t e a c h 1 o r 3 . 4 5 % c h e c k e d o n l y c o n s u l t a t i o n 10 o r 3 4 . 4 8 % c h e c k e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e c h o i c e s O u t o f t h e 10 p e o p l e who c h e c k e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a p p r o a c h e s , t h e b r e a k d o w n was a s f o l l o w s : 9 c h e c k e d p u l l - o u t , 4 c h e c k e d p l u g - i n , 6 c h e c k e d t e a m t e a c h a n d 7 c h e c k e d c o n s u l t a t i o n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l * s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y i n w h i c h t h e y f o u n d t h a t 100% i n d i c a t e d a p u l l - o u t m o d e l . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a x i m i z i n g t h e t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s t o t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r . T h i s c a n o n l y be s u c c e s s f u l i f P a g e 111 t h e L A T k n o w s t h e p r o g r a m b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s t h i s d i s t r i c t h a s p l a c e d o n t h e L A T p e r f o r m i n g p a r t o f h i s / h e r r o l e w i t h i n t h e ' r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m i s b e i n g f u l f i l l e d . R e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o s e e i f t h o s e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s , w h a t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s a r e o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e m o d e l a n d w h a t t h e y d e s i r e t h e L A T r o l e t o b e . R e s e a r c h i s a l s o n e e d e d t o s e e w h a t b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s t h i s t e a m t e a c h i n g o r c o n s u l t a t i v e a p p r o a c h h a s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d t o s e e i f t h e y h a v e g a i n e d t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s t o e n a b l e t h e m t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . L i m i t a t i o n s C a r e m u s t be t a k e n i n g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s . T h i s s t u d y was d o n e i n one u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a n d a s s u c h i s n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o a l l d i s t r i c t s . O t h e r a r e a s may w i s h t o a s s e s s t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s a n d a l s o t h e d e s i r e d r o l e . A s h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e h a s b e e n v i o l a t e d f o r s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s i n t h e A N O V A s , c a r e m u s t a l s o be t a k e n b y s i m i l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s when r e a d i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s . P a g e 112 Trnpl l c a t tons and Recommend*11 o r i s As s t a t e d by Dugoff, Ives and Shotel ( 1 9 8 5 ) the key for the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers to managing t h e i r m u l t i f a c e t e d i n t e r a c t i v e r o l e i s communication and c o l l a b o r a t i o n . When p r o f e s s i o n a l s working together r e a l i z e they hold d i f f e r e n t views, such knowledge provides a basis for r e s o l v i n g any r e a l c o n f l i c t s . This study revealed that the d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s concepts of the Learning Assistance Teacher's r o l e d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the other key observer samples. They v i s u a l i z e d the LAT working very c l o s e l y with the classroom teachers to develop o b j e c t i v e s j o i n t l y , and to provide classroom teachers with s t r a t e g i e s and m a t e r i a l s . D i s t r i c t s t a f f perceived c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g . t o a greater extent than school personnel. This school d i s t r i c t i s moving towards a model of t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r o l e f or t h e i r 1 s t a f f . This has important i m p l i c a t i o n s for the r o l e of the LATs and the classroom teachers. C e r t a i n l y the f i n d i n g s on the que s t i o n n a i r e show that 3 4 . 4 8 % of the LATs are involved i n a combined approach of p l u g - i n , p u l l - o u t , team teaching and c o n s u l t a t i o n . This i s a d e f i n i t e trend change from the f i n d i n g s reported i n Page 1 1 3 D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y . R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a m t e a c h i n g a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y i f m a i n s t r e a m i n g i s t o s u c c e e d , a n d more o f a move i n t h e s e a r e a s i s n e e d e d . I n o r d e r f o r t h i s t o s u c c e e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e a c h e r s t o s e e s u c c e s s f r o m t h i s a p p r o a c h a n d f o r t h e i r n e e d s t o be m e t . D i s t r i c t S t a f f n e e d t o be c o g n i z a n t o f how t h e L A T s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e t h e r o l e a n d t h e y n e e d t o do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r o b l e m s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g f u r t h e r c h a n g e . T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e o f t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s o f t h i s s t u d y a n d t h o s e o f t h e D u g o f f , I v e s a n d S h o t e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d o u t t h e d e s i r e d r o l e o f t h e L A T a s s e e n b y t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s . The d e s i r e d r o l e i s g o i n g t o r e f l e c t c h a n g e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d p r a c t i c e s . I f f o r e x a m p l e , a s c h o o l s y s t e m i s m o v i n g t o w a r d s a l e s s s t r i c t l y ' g r a d e d ' m o d e l , one i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p e r m i t g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s , t h i s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l t h e p l a y e r s i n t h e f i e l d , e v e n t h o s e who r e s i s t o r d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s y s t e m i s m o v i n g . C e r t a i n l y i f P a g e 114 t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s a l s o m o v i n g i n t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e m o d e l t o h a v i n g t h e t e a c h e r s a s t h e L A T s c l i e n t e l e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d o u t w h a t t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r c l i e n t e l e a r e . I t h a s t o be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t b o t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t a n d t h e c l i e n t h a v e e x p e r t i s e , t h o u g h i t m i g h t be i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . I t c a n n o t be a s s u m e d b y t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e e d s o f t h e i n - s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a s t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f a n d t h i s g r o u p h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I f we i g n o r e t h e t e a c h e r e x p e r t i s e e x p e c t t h e m t o s a y , " Y o u t e a c h i t ! " ( B r a v i , 1 9 8 6 , p . 6 ) I n s e r v i c e n e e d s t o f o c u s o n g i v i n g L A T s s p e c i f i c s k i l l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s f o r w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . I t a l s o i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e L A T s t o move i n t o t h e t e a m t e a c h i n g r o l e a n d t o o f f e r t o t e a c h more c l a s s e s f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . I n t h i s way t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s c o u l d o b s e r v e t h e i r own s t u d e n t s . T h i s m i g h t be a n i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g t o d o a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r a n d s e v e r a l t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . C e r t a i n l y i f t e a c h e r s h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d t o o b s e r v e s t u d e n t s a c c u r a t e l y a n d r e c o r d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , t h e s e r e c o r d s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a u s e f u l b a s i s f o r w o r k i n g w i t h t h e L A T t o s e t up m o d i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r a m s P a g e 115 w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . S u c h a p r o c e d u r e may be s e e n b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a s a h i g h l y v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s a p p r o a c h w o u l d t a k e t h e p r e s s u r e o f f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d w o u l d a l s o r e a s s u r e t h e m t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t b e i n g e v a l u a t e d when c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . I n t h i s way t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' p o s i t i o n a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e e n h a n c e d a n d t h e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s o f t h e L A T a r e u s e d e f f i c i e n t l y i n a c o l l e g i a l a n d c o n s u l t a n t r o l e . I n s e r v i c e i n o b s e r v a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , p r e - r e f e r r a l t e c h n i q u e s a n d L A T - c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y h e r e . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i l l n e e d t o p r o v i d e t i m e f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o o c c u r a n d t h u s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . C e r t a i n l y r e c e n t a d d e d r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d c h a n g e s t o t h e L A T r o l e e m p h a s i s may l e a d t o r o l e o v e r l o a d . C o n f l i c t i n g p r i o r i t i e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s may a l s o l e a d t o t e n s i o n a n d s t r e s s . T h i s h a s t o be r e c o g n i z e d a n d e v a l u a t e d t o s e e i f t h e r o l e h a s t o o many d e m a n d s t o be r e a s o n a b l y p e r f o r m e d . T h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s w o r k i n g t o w a r d s t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n a n d t h u s i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t be r e d u c e d . The L A T s r o l e i s a f f e c t e d b y t h e k e y o b s e r v e r s w i t h whom s / h e i n t e r a c t s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , P a g e 116 t h e p r i n c i p a l , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , L A T s a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f n e e d t o d i s c u s s t h e i r d i s c r e p a n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f e a c h o t h e r s r o l e s . I t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t d i s t r i c t s t a f f a l s o be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s a s t h e y h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a n d t h e y n e e d t o be c o g n i z a n t o f o t h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e o n p o s s i b l e p i l o t s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h e L A T p r o g r a m i s t h a t o n l y c h i l d r e n w i t h o b v i o u s l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s go t o t h e L A C . T h i s h a s a n i n f l u e n c e on how t h e s e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s . I f t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f a t t e n d i n g a s p e c i a l s e t t i n g f o r p a r t o f t h e d a y o r b e i n g t a u g h t b y a " s p e c i a l " t e a c h e r i s s t i g m a t i z i n g , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . I n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s more e x p e r i e n c e d a n d h a s a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g t h a n S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d i n h i s s t u d y . T h e r e h a s a l s o b e e n a s h i f t t o m a i n s t r e a m i n g s t u d e n t s , t o more e n p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on a s s e s s m e n t u s i n g c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s a n d c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d t o a P a g e 117 l e s s s t r i c t l y g r a d e d m o d e l t o p e r m i t g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s . I n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e t h i s t r e n d , a c a d r e o f t e a c h e r s w o u l d be a s s e m b l e d who w o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y w h e r e t h e a c t u a l c l a s s s i z e was r e d u c e d t o 12 t o 15 s t u d e n t s . T h e r e w o u l d n o t be a n L A T i n t h e s c h o o l , b u t a l l t e a c h e r s w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n w e e k l y t e a m m e e t i n g s . T h e s e m e e t i n g s w o u l d be h e l d d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s ( a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l h o u r s ) a n d t h e f o c u s w o u l d be o n b r a i n s t o r m i n g p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s , e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s a n d t h e w a y s c h i l d r e n l e a r n . The f o c u s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d a l s o be o n t h e s e t o p i c s , a n d p r e - r e f e r r a l . I n e a c h c l a s s r o o m t h e r e w o u l d be s e v e r a l c o m p u t e r s a n d many p r o g r a m s f o r a l l l e v e l s o f i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . A n o t h e r p i l o t s t u d y w o u l d i n v o l v e a n e n t i r e s c h o o l . The L A T w o u l d w o r k w i t h a l l l e v e l s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s ( e n r i c h e d , g i f t e d , a v e r a g e a n d m i l d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s ) a n d p r e p a r e d c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s , t a u g h t l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a n d m o d i f i e d e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s . A l o n g w i t h t h e t e a c h e r l i b r a r i a n , t h e L A T w o u l d g a t h e r m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m o r t h e l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e c e n t r e . The L A T w o u l d become p a r t o f t h e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e a n d P a g e 118 h o p e f u l l y h a v e a n a r e a o r r o o m w i t h a c c e s s i n t o t h i s a r e a . T h i s r e s o u r c e a r e a w o u l d t h e n h o u s e m a t e r i a l s f o r c o m p u t e r a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a n d w o u l d be a c c e s s e d b y a l l s t u d e n t s . A t t h e same t i m e t h e L A T w o u l d w o r k w i t h a c l a s s o r a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s t o t e a c h t h e m a l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y , g i v e o n e - t o - o n e i n s t r u c t i o n w h e r e n e e d e d a n d a l s o be a v a i l a b l e , a s w o u l d t h e l i b r a r i a n , t o t e a m t e a c h w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . I n t h i s way t h e L A T w o u l d m a i n t a i n a c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , w o u l d be a b l e t o meet t h e n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f a b i l i t i e s a n d be a b l e t o meet on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s w i t h t h o s e s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e t h i s . T h i s w o u l d be a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l a p p r o a c h a n d c e r t a i n l y w o u l d be a n a t t e m p t t o make a l l e d u c a t i o n more s p e c i a l a s s u g g e s t e d b y A l g o z z i n e a n d Y s s e l d y k e ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The s t u d e n t s w o u l d n o t be t h o s e w i t h s e v e r e l e a r n i n g , e m o t i o n a l o r b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . T h e s e s t u d e n t s may n e e d a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t t i n g , s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s a n d much more o n e - t o - o n e i n s t r u c t i o n t o meet t h e i r n e e d s t o be e n a b l e d t o p r o p e r l y f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s s e t t i n g . The p i l o t p r o g r a m s w o u l d n e e d t o be e v a l u a t e d on l e a r n i n g g a i n s , s o c i a l s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t , P a g e 119 s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s and independent l e a r n i n g s k i l l s . There would need to be q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e research. The q u a n t i t a t i v e research would give an o v e r a l l understanding for the p i l o t s t u d i e s and the q u a l i t a t i v e research would give the underlying reasons for occurances, thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Summary Much research needs to be done to understand what i s most e f f e c t i v e for students and what works i n the school environment. C e r t a i n l y t h i s study shows that i n t h i s lower mainland d i s t r i c t the communication l i n e s are open with regard to the r o l e of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher. Now, there i s a need to understand what the d e s i r e d r o l e i s for the LAT, what v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e program e f f e c t i v e n e s s and how best to meet the needs of the students and the teachers i n our changing educational environment. The systematic e v a l u a t i o n c a l l e d for by Brown, K i r a l y and McKinnon (1979) i s s t i l l l a c k i n g . We need l o c a l l y r e l e v a n t research rather than basing our p o l i c i e s on current b e l i e f (Reynolds, Wang & Walberg, 1987; Schwartz 1979). Page 120 R E F E R E N C E S A l g o z z i n e , B . & Y s s e l d y k e , J . E . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The f u t u r e o f •- t h e LD f i e l d : s c r e e n i n g a n d d i a g n o s i s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 19 ( 7 ) , 3 9 4 - 3 9 8 . A r m i t a g e , D . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E v a l u a t i n g r e s o u r c e r o o m p r o g r a m s a n d t e a c h e r s . The C a n a d i a n S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 4 ( 6 ) , 1 9 - 2 1 . A r m i t a g e , D . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T o w a r d t h e , d e v e l o p m e n t o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B . C . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 ( 2 ) , 9 1 - 1 3 1 . B a k , J . J . , C o o p e r , E . M . , D o b r o t h , K . M . & S i p e r s t e i n , G . N . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . S p e c i a l c l a s s p l a c e m e n t s a s l a b e l s : e f f e c t s o n c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d l e a r n i n g h a n d i c p p e d p e e r s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 54 ( 2 ) , 1 5 1 - 1 5 5 . B o r g , W . R . & G a l l , M . C . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h - A n I n t r o d u c t i o n . New Y o r k : L o n g m a n . B r a v i , G . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . S u p p o r t P e r s o n n e l a s C o n s u l t a n t s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , A p r i l . B r a v i , G . & Freeze, R . C o n s u l t a t i v e / C o l l a b o r a t i v e R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r M o d e l . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a . B r o w n , L . F . , K i r a l y , J . & M c K i n n o n , A . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e s o u r c e r o o m s : some a s p e c t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s t o p o n d e r . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 12 ( 8 ) , 5 6 - 5 8 . C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S t a n d a r d s f o r e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a ( S E E C C ) r e p o r t . T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n P a g e 121 C u l l i s , J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C o n c e r n s o f t h e L A t e a c h e r . U n p u b l i s h e d m a j o r p a p e r . D e p a r t m e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n SPED 5 2 6 , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D ' A l o n z o , B . J . & W i s e m a n , D . E . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A c t u a l a n d d e s i r e d r o l e s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s . 11 ( 6 ) , 6 3 - 7 0 . D u g o f f , S . K . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S t a f f P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r . D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , The G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y . D u g o f f , S . K . , I v e s , R . K . & S h o t e l , J . R . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . P u b l i c s c h o o l a n d u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n & S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 2 ) , 7 5 - 8 2 . E v a n s , S . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P e r c e p t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s a n d r e s o u r c e r o o m t e a c h e r s o f t h e a c t u a l a n d d e s i r e d r o l e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 14 ( 1 0 ) , 6 0 0 - 6 0 3 . E v a n s , S . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The c o n s u l t a n t r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 46 ( 5 ) , 4 0 2 - 4 0 3 . F l e m i n g , F . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The L A T l i m b o i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B . C . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 ( 2 ) , 1 2 3 - 1 2 6 . F r i e n d , M . & M c N u t t , G . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R e s o u r c e r o o m p r o g r a m s : Where a r e we now? E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 51 ( 2 ) , 1 5 0 - 1 5 5 . G e l z h e i s e r , L . M . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . R e d u c i n g t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d : a q u e s t i o n o f p r a c t i c e , p h i l o s o p h y o r p o l i c y . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 54 ( 2 ) , 1 4 5 - 1 5 0 . G e n i s h i , L . C . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . O b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . I n B . S p o d e k ( E d . ) H a n d b o o k o f R e s e a r c h i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s . G i c k l i n g , E . E . , M u r p h y , L . C . & M a l l o r y , D . W . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T e a c h e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e s f o r r e s o u r c e s e r v i c e s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 4 5 , 4 4 2 - 4 4 9 . P a g e 122 G l a s s , G . V . & H o p k i n s , K . D . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s i n e d u c a t i o n a n d p s y c h o l o g y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f , New J e r s e y . P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . H a r r i s , W . J . & M a h a r , C . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . P r o b l e m s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g r e s o u r c e p r o g r a m s i n r u r a l s c h o o l s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 4 2 , 9 5 - 9 9 . H u e f n e r , D . S . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The c o n s u l l t i n g t e a c h e r m o d e l : r i s k s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 5 4 ( 5 ) , 4 0 3 - 4 1 4 . I d o l - M a e s t a s , L . & R i t t e r , S . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f r e s o u r c e / c o n s u l t i n g t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n a n d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 3 ) , 1 2 1 - 1 3 1 . I d o l , L . & W e s t , J . F . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C o n s u l t a t i o n i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( P a r t 1 1 ) : t r a i n i n g a n d p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 2 0 ( 8 ) , p . 4 7 4 - 4 9 4 . J e n k i n s , J . R . & M a y h a l l , W . F . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r p r o g r a m . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 4 3 , 2 1 - 2 9 . J o h n s o n , D . W . & J o h n s o n , R . T . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . M a i n s t r e a m i n g a n d c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . 5 2 ( 6 ) , 5 5 3 - 5 6 1 . J o h n s o n , R . T . , J o h n s o n , D . W . & H o l u b e c , E . J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . S t r u c t u r i n g C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g : L e s s o n P l a n s f o r T e a c h e r s . I n t e r a c t i o n B o o k C o . , E d i n a , M N . J o y c e , G . & W e i l , M . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . M o d e l s o f T e a c h i n g . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . K e o g h , B . K . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . I m p r o v i n g s e r v i c e s f o r p r o b l e m l e a r n e r s : r e t h i n k i n g a n d r e s t r u c t u r i n g . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 2 1 ( 1 ) , 1 9 - 2 2 . K i r k , R . E . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t i s t i c s . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a . B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g C o . L a w r e n c e , G . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P e o p l e T y p e s a n d T i g e r S t r i p e s : A P r a c t i c a l G u i d e t o L e a r n i n g S t y l e s . G a i n e s v i l l e , F A : C . A . P . T . P a g e 123 L e r n e r , J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e : some u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s F o c u s , 3 ( 1 ) , 3 - 7 . L i l l y , M . S . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . L a c k o f f o c u s o n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e o n e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 53 ( 4 ) , 3 2 5 - 3 2 6 . L l o y d , J . W . , C r o w l e y , E . P . , K o h l e r , F . W . & S t r a i n , P . S . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . R e d e f i n i n g t h e a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h a g e n d a : c o o p o e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , p r e r e f e r r a l , t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d p e e r - m e d i a t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i 1 i t i e s , 2 1 ( 1 ) , 4 3 - 5 2 . M c L o u g h l i n , J . A . & K a s s , C . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . R e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s : t h e i r r o l e . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 1 , 5 6 - 6 1 . M c L o u g h l i n , J . A . & K e l l y , D . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I s s u e s f a c i n g t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 5 , 5 8 - 6 4 . M a r s t o n , J . D . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . D o e s c a t e g o r i c a l t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n b e n e f i t t h e m i l d l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d ? E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 53 ( 5 ) , 4 2 3 - 4 3 1 . M a r t i n , E . W . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . D e v e l o p i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g " r e g u l a r " o r " s p e c i a l " e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s F o c u s , 3 ( 1 ) , 1 1 - 1 6 . M a y h a l l , W . F . & J e n k i n s , J . R . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S c h e d u l i n g d a i l y o r l e s s - t h a n - d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s o u r c e p r o g r a m s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1 0 ( 3 ) 3 8 - 4 2 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S p e c i a l P r o g r a m s - A M a n u a l o f P o l i c i e s , P r o c e d u r e s a n d G u i d e l i n e s . V i c t o r i a : D i v i s i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . O t t o , W. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Y s s e l d y k e & A l g o z z i n e - T h o s e t w o g u y s a r e f r i e n d s o f m i n e . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 2 9 ( 6 ) , 1 - 4 . R e y n o l d s , M . C . & B i r c h , J . W . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e a c h i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n a l l A m e r i c a ' s s c h o o l s , r e v i s e d . R e s t o n , V i r g i n i a : The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . P a g e 124 R e y n o l d s , M . C . , W a n g , M . C . & W a l b e r g , H . J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The n e c e s s a r y r e s t r u c t u r i n g of. s p e c i a l a n d r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 53 ( 5 ) , 3 9 1 - 3 9 8 . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 2 2 ( V e r n o n ) ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 2 2 . ! P o l i c y a n d P r o c e d u r e s B o o k , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 2 2 ( V e r n o n ) , 3 . 1 . 0 - 3 . 1 . 3 . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 3 8 ( R i c h m o n d ) . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s ' H a n d b o o k . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 38 ( R i c h m o n d ) , M a y , 1 - 4 5 . S c h w a r t z , A . M . ( P r i n c i p a l R e s e a r c h e r ) ( 1 9 7 9 ) . L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : I t s F o r m s , I t s F u n c t i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p e e c e , D . L . & M a n d e l l , C M . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . R e s o u r c e r o o m s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s f o r r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 3 , 4 9 - 5 3 . ] T h o m p s o n , V i c t o r , A . ( 1 9 6 1 ) . M o d e r n o r g a n i z a t i o n : A g e n e r a l t h e o r y . New Y o r k : K n o p f V i c e n t e , A . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The r o l e o f e l e m e n t a r y l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r a n d p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . B . C . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 W a n g , M . C . , V a u g h a n , E . D . & D y t m a n , J . A . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S t a f f D e v e l o p m e n t : A k e y i n g r e d i e n t o f e f f e c t i v e m a i n s t r e a m i n g . T e a c h i n g E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , W i n t e r ! , 1 1 2 - 1 2 1 . • ; W e s t , J . F . !& I d o l , L . ( 1987 ) . S c h o o l c o n s u l t a t i o n ( P a r t 1 ) : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e o r y , m o d e l s , a n d r e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 2 0 ( 7 ) , p . 3 8 8 - 4 0 8 . W h i t e , R . & C a l h o u n , M . L . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . F r o m r e f e r r a l t o p l a c e m e n t : t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 53 ( 5 ) , 4 6 0 - 4 6 8 . W i n z e r , M'." ( 1 9 8 9 ) . C l o s i n g t h e g a p . T o r o n t o : C o p p C l a r k P i t m a n . P a g e 125 W i n z e r , M . , R o g o w , S . & D a v i d , C . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l C a n a d a I n c . . P a g e 126 APPgNHTY a Cue'suionnaire "Perceptions of the Sale of the Leamirq Assistance Teacher" Please complete the following: Sine of School: 100-200 200-200 300-400 400-500 500+ Age: 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-45 H. 5* Csrrent Position: _Leamisg SssZsvmce Teacher Classroom teacher Principal __JS.cs Principal District Star* Other (specif-:) Busier of gears teaching a regular class ________ Busher of Tears' teaching la a LAC _________ Basher of gears teaching i a present school __________ Total nusher of gears teaching experience • (ir.cliide this gear) Fall tise Part tise (this sear) Educational Decree: B.3£. , B.A. , S.Sd. > M.A. , Other ' Basher of Special Education courses taknn at Universitu ___________________________ Bother of Sir1—nod Zz-Serrice courses related to teaching children with Seecial needs ______________________________________________ List courses- xost helpful ________________________________ List isservics courses sou nculd Like to sea offered If LataAssistance Teacher: Prisarg Service Oaliverg Hodei (Chech one) Pull out • Pluq i a Teas teaching Consultative ___ Total nusher of students is caseload » Pr-jra— + Lutarsediate Learning Assistance Teacher Sole Tunction Survea El&aentarg school Learning Assistance Teachers (LAT) develop and execute individual educational programs for children with mild to moderate learning problems in cooperation with regular classroom teachers. The following is a list of LAT role functions compiled from a review of the literature and interviews and discussions with special education personnel. This questionnaire asks you to descrihe sour peroepsions of the LAT's activities with respect to these functions. There are no'oorrect" answers for these items. Some items could he 'right" for some situatioas and "vrong* for others. Thus, this surveg does not avaiuaea effectiveness hut only seeks to ob- tain a descripticn of LAT activities. nirsstizns: Please descrihe the degree of emphasis placed on each of the fallowing rale functions Sy zhe LAT hg assigning a numerical rating from 1—t on the line next to each item. Use the fal- lowing scale: —TTLZKB—yXJ tad l i dona oiuf aftac at&ar acxlTltiaa ata acs—aetlaaad. and 1 la dam it caeeeceaa panic* and ia dona ia aaca aa poaalbla. Eroi37~SABL3 and la ianm oefoeo ail aeaet aetlTitlae Savalao nW«rei—«» far tacit c a i l d j o i n t l y v i t a claaatooa taaeaaca* vatxiao taqaeaec ta l a p l — • •ane taaaa ao-acelTva« a UKa f a — u l i»-aa—1— peeeantaelana eoncarnlnq taa naada ot baadieacpad eeaaanea* da—anaecacina tscanioaea ta i o a l T l d a a i i i e lnaexaeelon and l— i * o r a t a n — l o t auaqaaaac. • aixees aaall aroeo •»< Individual lnatsaeeloa . v l _ t n rnadial/acadrnia eaoaaala l a tarn ca—liar claaatooa. • Infaca taaeaaca ot aaeaclala and atxaeaolea M c n u r f to a«ae iadiTidoal neaaa la caadlnq» aata* apalllaa* hanovcltlnq and veittaa exptaa* n a n . aoopirsrm iellov—a p aacaclala ta taa claaatooa caacaata. — T i u taaen la taa rvaalar elaaaa .tacaaelTa eo a l c a w zaaaacea aamcaa, aa aa al— a OBaacira teadane la S a t-aolat aiaaatoe— and ) i u < t auditorial liuaraaclon t e n claaacooa taseaec roaaedind itadent'a pacfaraanea ta plaa 'a racacrad aeadaac'a iadlvldaal adacaelenal . • pceecaau a Csnaalt v i t a «acanea a* atsdanta larrad ta c«— pace caa caaolta ot i i » i n « n t . pcoacanlna v and on-^alna pcaacvaa ta dav«io9 eoa«unlcaclon aooae tba twam ot taa s a i l d . a Adatnlacvr acandacdlavd taaca* eeaalla ln<oc_t- tlon ca<facdlnq acadane'a praaana and paae pac* . tocaanca to dacarauia If aendans la Ilandleappad i ~ _ ;lan a Handtcaopad aeadane'a Indlvtdaal •daeaeional aroacao. a Oer*laa a pco<ll« ot t a « aeadane'a a b l l l t l a a * n««<is tnd laacntna aerla aa a baa&a Car p r o q r a H t n a # lncocii&na cna elaaaraea eaaenac ot «atad Me ' 3 ^erttnae.la jnd n«da. a Sae aa a paae tveoelna and/at Talsneaar — oaeaa taae can aa aaad l a taa caqalar elaaacaaa. Coardtnaea lnaecaeelenal aaearlala aaad l a — a caaaatea ptoa-aa vi t a taa aaeacl&la aaad ST taa taonlat slaaaeooa taacaat. • Taaea elaaaroaa taaciar hov ta adalnlataa and na« IndlTldaal dlaqnaacld taaea* a alraes aaall araaa and IndlTldaal lnatractloa v i t a a ceMdiai/aeadaala —oaaaia l a — a t r - aoarea toes. • Dovolop a eaooaraelv* calaeiananls vi t a elaav too- taaeaaca tatoaqa tooelnalT aeaadaiad aaae- lnaa talatad to aeaaane acoacaaa and a t e a r s a plannlna, pcavtdlnq ln~ae Ineo patane e a n a a r - tnetf* aradaa an capace earda and caeantlan daola&ana. a snata a eaaetllae ot aeftat tatatral data to aid elaaaraaa taaeaaca In ldaneifTina maanea aoa quall£7 lo* ipaciax aaacaeAan a a t T l c a a , a Wot* vita elaaatoevi taaeaaca to !"1»,*"f?.f!|£1J anaaraeana kla iccanqena and naada and aaralgp a poalelva ateltada tovacda laacnind. a rrovlda inDpl—ianticT lnaecneelan to atadanea ay pcaeaaeainq laaaano peloe to elaaacaaa lnaecae- tlon and/ac paae-iaaenlnd laaaona to "noanea attae taa aeudane .laa cacalr.o lnaetoetion in tba elaaaaaona a Ftovida eaaolac «iaeaelon aea« v i t a pcocaaaion- al boaaa and lntoraaelon aboae t a « e " " , " " " r 1 " " tlea and laacnino aaada at handlcap~d ' " " J " " aa aa l n » r u ' . u n an t t a n o a . iaqlaxacion and lltlqaelan* Page 127 A P P E N D I X ft DLHSCTIONS TC3. FOUR GROUPS- OF KSSP0:WS3TS Learning Assistance Teachers- ~:' '.- Elementarp School Learning- Assistance Teachers develop and execute Indiv- idual educational programs for children with mild to moderate learning handicaps in cooperation, with regular classrcca teachers: The fallowing' Is a l i s t of Learning Assistance Teachersr role functions compiled from a review of the l i t - erature and interviews and discussions- with special education personnel. This questionnaire asks pou to describe pour activities with respect to these func— . tlons. • Chers are no "correct" answers for these items. Same items could he "right" for some situations' and "wrong* for others: Thus, this 'survep does not evaluate gcur effectiveness- hut onlp seeks to obtain a description, of pour activities. Directions: Please .describe the degree of emphasis pou place on each of the following role functions In performing pour job bp assigning a numerical rating 1 to 4 on the line nest to each item. Classroom Teacners and Prmcioals Elementarp school Learning Assistance Teachers develop and execute indivi- dual educational programs for children with mild to moderate learning- handicaps in cooperation with regular classroom teachers. The\ following Is a l i s t of Learn- ing Assistance Teachers1' role functions compiled from a review of the literature and interviews and discussions with special education personnel. This question- naire asks ecu to describe the activities of the Learning Assistance Teacher In pour school with respect to these functions. There are no "correct" answers for these items. "Seme items could be "right" for some situations and "wrong" for others. Thus, this survep dees not evaluate the effectiveness of the Learning Assistance teacher In pour building but anlp seeks to obtain a description of his/her activities. Directions: Please describe the degree of emphasis the resource room teacher in -pcur-^chool -places cn each of the -following.role functions in performing his/her 'job bp- assigning- a numerical rating'fr^m "1 "to '4 ~cn the line nest to each item. District Staff Elementarp school Learning Assistance Teachers develop and execute indivi- dual educational programs for children with mild to moderate learning- handicaps in cooperation with regular classroom teachers. The following is a l i s t of Learning Assistance Teachers' role functions compiled from a review of the l i t - erature and Interviews and discussions with special education personnel. This questionnaire asks peu as an expert in the field of snecial education to describe pour conceptual view of the role of the elementarp Learning- Assistance teacher. Directions: Please describe the degree of emphasis the "ideal" resource room or Learning Assiszance teacher should place on each of the following rale functions in performing his/her jab bp assigning a numerical rating form'1 to 4 an the line nest to each item. P a g e 128 APPENDIX D . M E M O R A N D U M T o Support. .Services. Staff 1983-04-25 Date .- From j£SSSS3SS& Subject Director of Special Programs Re: Questionnaire - Perceptions of the Role of the Learning ! Assistance Teacher The D is t r i c t Management Committee recently approved a research proposal presented by Janet C u i l i s , a U.B.C. graduate student, with regards to the role of Learning Assistance teachers. Your assistance is requested to complete the questionnaire and return i t to me on or before May 2, 1988. Thank you for your assistance in this matter. i Director of Special Programs RC:vb Att . ce. -"Janet Cull is Page 132

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Japan 3 0
China 2 0
France 1 0
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
Tokyo 3 0
Beijing 2 0
Unknown 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items