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Strategy training and remedial techniques : information processing approach Sutherland, Patricia Margaret 1984

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STRATEGY TRAINING AND REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES: DEFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH by PATRICIA MARGARET SUTHERLAND B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1 9 7 9 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTLAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Special Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1984 0Patricia Margaret Sutherland, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date / ^ W . /ftp/ DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT P r e s en t l y , a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f c h i l d r e n who a r e l a b e l l e d " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " , l a c k m o t i v a t i o n and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e as a r e s u l t o f school f a i l u r e (Das, 1979)* F r e q u e n t l y , the mass o f methods, m a t e r i a l s , and programs which a r e a v a i l a b l e t o the educato r , f a i l t o f u l f i l l the expectat ions o f those i n v o l v e d . The c e n t r a l theme o f the p resent study i s t ha t t r a i n i n g i n the a rea o f c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s has the p o t e n t i a l t o overcome some o f the problems these c h i l d r e n have. Rather than f o cu s on t e a c h i n g s k i l l s o r r e v i e w i n g content , as has .been done i n the p a s t , t r a i n i n g c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s focuses on l e a r n i n g and l e a r n i n g how t o p roces s i n f o r m a t i o n . The purpose o f the p resent study was to i n v e s t i g a t e s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g and r emed i a l techn iques and academic performance w i t h i n an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o ce s s i n g frameword f o r a group of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . A s imu l taneous - succes s i ve t h e o -r e t i c a l paradigm based on the r e s ea r ch f i n d i n g o f Jarman and h i s a s s o -c i a t e s was chosen f o r the s tudy. Research programs used can improve l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Krywaniuk, 1974). S u b j e c t ' s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g program were the 7 boys and 4 g i r l s i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s tudents l o c a t e d i n a c e n t r a l B.C. s choo l d i s t r i c t e lementary s c h o o l . S tudents were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o two equa l g roups : one group r e ce i ved a d d i -t i o n a l r ead ing i n s t r u c t i o n , a second group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e m e d i a l program, aimed a t improv ing l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The s ub jec t s i n v o l v e d i n the s t r a t egy t r a i n i n g program performed a s e r i e s o f t a s k s f o r 20 - 30 i i i minutes once a day on a d a i l y b a s i s f o r the 21 weeks o f the s tudy. The rema in ing students r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n from the r e g u l a r r ead i ng program f o r the same amount o f t ime each day. The re sea rch des ign was a t i m e - s e r i e s de s i g n , made up o f f o u r phases. The f i r s t phase i n vo l ved the c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s e l i n e d a t a , d u r i n g the second phase the treatment program was i n t r o d u c e d , f o r the t h i r d phase the t reatment program was withdrawn and d u r i n g the f i n a l phase the t reatment program was a ga i n r e i n s t a t e d . In t h i s way the e f f e c t s o f the t reatment program was compared t w i c e t o a no- t reatment p e r i o d . Data was c o l l e c t e d once a week on each s tudent s word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s du r ing , the study. Data c o l l e c t e d f o r each i n d i v i d u a l s tudent was graphed f o r v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s performed on the r e s u l t s . Appar -en t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the group which r e c e i v e d the a d d i -t i o n a l r e ad i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and the group which r e c e i v e d the t reatment program. Fo r the group r e c e i v i n g t he t reatment program the re was a p l a t e a u between the t reatment phases and a g r e a t e r o v e r a l l improvement i n word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s from the i n i t i a l b a s e l i n e phase t o the f i n a l t reatment phase. R e s u l t s were d i s cu s sed i n terms o f the f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s and s imu l taneous - succes s i ve model o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o ce s s i n g . The r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n i n t h a t t he re was no l a t i t u d e f o r f o r s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . Some o f the s ub j e c t s d i d not r ep re sen t t r u e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n because t h e i r performance was i n f l u e n c e d by o the r f a c t o r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f these f i n d i n g s f o r f u t u r e r e s ea r ch i n the a rea o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s were drawn. i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In the e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s s tudy and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s I was a s s i s t e d by many peop le . I thank a l l those who c o n t r i b u t e d f o r t h e i r support and gu idance. I am e s p e c i a l l y i ndebted to the committee members: my major a d v i s o r , Dr. Peggy Koopman, Dr . Ron Jarman and Dr. B r i a n C l a r k e . T h e i r expe r t and d e t a i l e d comments and suggest ions c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably t o the t h e s i s . I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge Brenda C u l l e n f o r he r t y p i n g and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the t reatment program, J im Bottoms f o r p r e p a r i n g the graphs, and the s choo l board o f f i c i a l s and Len Fowles, p r i n c i p a l f o r t h e i r support o f the s tudy . The l o v e and encouragement I have r e c e i v e d from my p a r e n t s , Verna and M e r l i n Kaschma, my s i s t e r , S h i r l e y J o o r i s i t y and from my son, S c o t t , i s e a s i l y acknowledged bu t my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r con s tan t support f a r exceeds these words o f thanks . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ; CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 7 A p e r s p e c t i v e • 7 Re la ted Research 9 Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s 12 S tud ie s I n v o l v i n g Remediat ion l6 A p p l i c a t i o n o f t he Simultaneous Succes s i ve Model 17 Evidence f o r S imultaneous and Succes s i ve Model 18 Summary 24 3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 26 Hypothes i s 28 R a t i o n a l e o f t h e Hypothes i s 28 ; 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES . . ; 30 Sub jec t s 30 S e l e c t i o n o f T e s t s 31 The Measur ing Ins t ruments 33 T e s t i n g P rocedure s . . . . . . 37 Exper imenta l Des i gn 38 The I n t e r v e n t i o n Program 40 5 RESULTS 48 Summary o f R e s u l t s 73 6 CONCLUSIONS 78 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . 78 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t he Study 80. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Fu tu re Research . . . . . . . . . . 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 v i L IST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 1 - C o n t r o l Group l\Q H C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S u b j e c t 2 - C o n t r o l Group 51 I I I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 3 - C o n t r o l Group 53 IV C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S u b j e c t k - C o n t r o l Group 55 V C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 5 - C o n t r o l Group . 57 VI C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 6 - C o n t r o l Group 59 VI I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases Sub jec t 1 - Expe r imenta l Group 6 l V I I I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S u b j e c t 2 - Expe r imen ta l Group 63 IX: C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 3 - Expe r imenta l Group 65 XX C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t k - Expe r imenta l Group 67. XI C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S u b j e c t 5 - Expe r imenta l Group 69 X I I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases S ub jec t 6 - Expe r imenta l Group 71 X I I I C Sco res 77 XIV Z Sco re s ; 77 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Some t y p i c a l " c l a p p i n g " p a t t e r n s *f3 2 A S imple M a t r i x 3 Component mat r i ce s . . . 45" 4 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Sub jec t 1 50 5 Data f o r s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Sub jec t 2 52 6 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Sub jec t 3 ' 5^ 7 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Subject 4 56 8 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Sub jec t 5 58 9 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n Sub jec t 6 60 10 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t rea tment program, Sub jec t 1 . . . 62 11 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t reatment program Sub jec t 2 64 12 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g t reatment program Sub jec t 3 66 13 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g t rea tment program Sub jec t 4 68 14 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t rea tment program Sub jec t 5 . . 70 15 Data f o r s ub j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t reatment program Sub jec t 6 . . . . . . 72 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the a rea o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s and d e f i n i t i o n s based on v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s a re used t o d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n who demonstrate d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l e a r n i n g i n the r e g u l a r c la s s room s e t t i n g . Th i s has l e d t o con fu s i on i n under s tand ing the problems which these c h i l -dren have. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d e f i n i t i o n s and the l e v e l may have no bea r i n g on the a c t u a l problem a c h i l d has , but can i n f l u e n c e the course o f r e m e d i -a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f the l a c k o f any c e n t r a l f o cu s , r e s e a r c h e r s que s t i on the meaning and u s e f u l ne s s o f even u s i n g the term " l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s " ( e . g . Leong, 1982; Das, K i r b y & Jarman, 1979)* Leong conc ludes from a rev iew o f work i n the a rea t h a t " f o r r e sea r ch and s c h o l a r l y purposes i t behooves the r e s e a r c h e r to d e f i n e e x a c t l y the group under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and to s t a t e c l e a r l y the f a c t o r s cons ide red i n the s e l e c t i o n o f exper imen-t a l s u b j e c t s " , (p.6). Leong suggests t h a t i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e . t o e x p l i c a t e the concept o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n the d i f f e r e n t academic a r ea s . The re f o r e , t t h i s p resent study w i l l f o cu s on one academic a r e a , r e a d i n g , i n o rde r to o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o the s p e c i f i c problems o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n and t o demonstrate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a remed ia l program aimed a t i m -prov ing the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g problems these c h i l d r e n have. One a spec t o f pa s t r e m e d i a l programs which l i m i t s t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i s t h e i r f o cu s on a b i l i t i e s . T h i s approach v iews the c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h l e a r n i n g as be i n g a r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f a b i l i t y i n one o r more a rea s 2 of i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . W i t h i n t h i s framework, t e s t i n g procedures assess the l e v e l o f a b i l i t y the c h i l d can o b t a i n on a t e s t so t h a t t r e a t -ment focuses on the measured a b i l i t i e s . Fo r example, a t reatment program may be implemented t o improve a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o memorize, pe r ce i v e o r use language. These programs have had l i m i t e d success . A t t i m e s , c l a s -s i f y i n g c h i l d r e n i n s choo l s i n terms o f a b i l i t y has ob s t ruc ted r a t h e r than he lped t h e i r c o g n i t i v e development (Das, 1979). The a b i l i t i e s a p -proach i s l i m i t i n g because the d i f f i c u l t i e s the c h i l d has may be the r e s u l t o f t he way i n which he l e a r n s . He i s unable to choose an app ro -p r i a t e p l a n o f a c t i o n based on the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n o the r words s e l e c t the a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y . A second f a c t o r o f p rev i ou s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i t was l i m i t e d i n i t s a b i l i t y t o suggest r emed i a l measures. Much o f the r e s ea r ch i n the pas t has been conducted e i t h e r w i thou t any b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e o r w i t h a s t r i c t adherence t o an outdated one. Th i s has a f f e c t e d both assessment of l e a r n i n g problems and r emed ia l programs. There i s a need f o r a theo-r e t i c a l model t o gu ide the s e l e c t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f measurement i n s t rument s used f o r assessment purposes. Adopt ing a b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e p rov ide s a frame upon which the r e s u l t s o f a s ses s -ment can be i n t e r p r e t e d and may suggest necessary m o d i f i c a t i o n s f o r e x i s t i n g r e m e d i a l programs. C l e a r l y t h e n , the adop t i on o f a s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n i s . necessary f o r - the e s tab l i shment o f e f f e c t i v e r emed i a l programs. For the t h e o r e t i c a l model t o be o f v a l u e i t must p re sen t a c l e a r - c u t method 3 o f measuring c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , w i t h emper i ca l support f o r the f a c t o r s measured. An i n f o rma t i on p r o c e s s i n g approach to l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s can be de r i ved from a gene ra l c o g n i t i v e model. The advantage o f such an approach i s t ha t c o g n i t i v e p roces se s can be r e l a t e d t o observed behav i o r s . T h i s a l l o w s the r e sea r che r t o make i n f e r e n c e s about t he s t r a t e g i e s which the i n d i v i d u a l employs t o pe r fo rm a t a s k . Research i n the a rea o f i n f o r -mation p roces s i ng can suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f whatever b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n -proces s ing model i s adopted and these changes can add t o our under s tand ing o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and hence the a p p r o p r i a t e r emed i a l measures. The present s tudy adopt s a s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to c o g n i t i v e p roces se s . As a r e s u l t o f the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g o f Das, K i r b y and Jannan (1979), L u r i a ' s (1966a, 1966b) f o r m u l a t i o n s o f s i m u l -taneous and succe s s i ve p r oce s se s have been extended and made o p e r a t i o n a l . Th i s p rov ides a framework by which t o v iew, eva l ua te and suggest ways t o encourage the use o f s imu l taneous and succe s s i ve s t r a t e g i e s of l e a r n i n g . Rather than focus on a b i l i t i e s , t r a i n i n g w i t h i n the s imultaneous and success ive model o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o ce s s i n g focuses on l e a r n i n g and s pe -c i f i c a l l y how t o a p p r o p r i a t e l y use s t r a t e g i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p roce s s i ng . The s imu l taneous - succes s i ve model o f i n f o r m a t i o n p roces ses i s based on a c l e a r - c u t way o f measur ing the se processes w i t h empe r i c a l support f o r the f a c t o r s measured. Research u s i n g t a sk a n a l y s i s con f i rms the d i s -t i n c t i o n s among proces ses a s p resented by the model. To c l a r i f y , K i r b y and Das (1978) summarize t he d i s t i n c t i o n between 4 the two processes of simultaneous and successive synthesis: Simultaneous processing can be characterised as involving the syn-thesis of separate elements into groups that generally have spatial overtones, with a l l portions of the synthesis being surveyable or accessible without dependence on their position within the synthesis. This type of processing i s required for instance, in the formation of any holistic gestalt, or in the discovery of the relationships among two or more objects. Successive processing, on the other hand, involves the integration of separate elements into groups whose essential nature is temporal. Portions of this synthesis are accessible only in the temporal order of the series-each element is dependent on the preceding elements. Successive processing is necessary for the formation or production of any ordered series of events, (p. 59) Simultaneous synthesis i s the processing of information for which the parts are mutually surveyable and accessible. On the other hand, successive synthesis refers to processing information with only limited acquisition to individual elements. Basically simultaneous processing i s required in tasks involving the multiple coordination of information which takes place during direct perception, retention of traces of previous experiences and the perfor-mance of complex intellectual operations. Whereas, successive processing is found in tasks that incorporate the sequencing of separate events into a series. Successive synthesis i s associated with the motor and auditory sphere. Simultaneous synthesis involves more of the visual and kinetic sphere, which is responsible for the orientation of the body in space. The model assumes that the simultaneous and successive modes of processing information are both accessible to the individual. The in-dividual selects a method of processing depending on the demands of the task and the individual's planning ability. 5 The simultaneous-successive synthesis model of cognitive abilities provides a valuable alternative view to the study of abilities conducted in the past. Underlying assumptions of the abilities approach limit i t s useful-ness. One of the assumptions is that intelligence is a measure of ca-pacity when, in fact, the scores of individual on an intelligence test merely give a sample of his current level of functioning; the second assumption is that intellectual ability is fixed or unchangeable; the third is the prediction of aptitude when predictor test results corre-late with criterion tests, only an indication that an individual has maintained a relative position to a population over time. An abilities approach treats abilities as fixed and immutable properties of the mind. The theory of simultaneous and successive synthesis emphasizes the form of cognitive representation used in task performance. The type of information processed and the amount of information transformation vary with each form of synthesis. Differences in performance can be attrib-uted to a variety of processes. Therefore, the theory which can suggest the processes underlying cognitive abilities has more strength and validity than an abilities approach. A quote from Das, Kirby and Jarman (1975) clarifies: We may liken ability to the basic structure responsible for inte-gration; . i t admits of a variety of processes which depend on this structure. The end product, final performance on a task, cannot be understood by analyzing the ability, (p. 101) There is a place for "abilities" within the model. We can s t i l l have a variety of processes within the confines of the ability. 6 F i n a l l y , c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s o f u s i n g l a r g e popu l a t i on s has r e s u l t e d i n l i m i t e d schoo l -based r e s e a r c h . I t i s necessary t o conduct re search i n p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g s t o e s t a b l i s h the c r e d i b i l i t y o f a p p l i e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( K r a t o c h w i l l , 1977)* S i n g l e s ub jec t r e s ea r ch s t r a t e g i e s deserve i n c rea sed emphasis, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a rea o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s where each c h i l d i s unique i n h i s background, f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l and capa-b i l i t i e s . F o r these reasons t he method s e l e c t ed was the s i n g l e - c a s e re sea rch d e s i g n . Th i s d e s i g n was con s ide red a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e s t i n g the e f f e c t s o f the r e m e d i a l program aimed a t improv ing l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r a group o f c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . Us ing e lementary s choo l c h i l d r e n , d e s c r i b e d as be i n g l e a r n i n g d i s -ab led by a c e n t r a l B.C. School D i s t r i c t , the p resent s tudy focuses on the e f f i c i e n c y o f a t r a i n i n g program t h a t encouraged the use o f nonaca-demic s t r a t e g i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The p o t e n t i a l of t h i s a p -proach has a l r e a d y been demonstrated i n s t u d i e s conducted by Kaufman (1978) and Krywaniuk (1974). To make the t a s k more manageable, the focus o f the p resent s tudy i s one p a r t i c u l a r a spec t o f s choo l l e a r n i n g : t h a t i s the a rea o f r e a d i n g and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . P r o f i c i e n t r eade r s may use the v a r i o u s word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h -n iques i n combinat ions complementary and supplementary t o each o t h e r . However, c h i l d r e n w i t h r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s must r e l y more on the a n a l -y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l words i n t o t h e i r component s u b - u n i t s . F o r t h i s r e a -son the study o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i s c r i t i c a l t o under s tand ing the problems o f r e a d i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . 7 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A Perspective The importance of learning to read is obvious. Learning to read is a complex task that has been the topic of research for many disciplines ranging from philosophy, psycholinguisties to information systems analysis. However, there is l i t t l e consensus among scholars with respect to a complete description of the reading process. Chall (I967) in a review of the literature on reading, recommends greatly improved research and states that too much has been undertaken in the area of reading to prove that one ill-defined method is better than another ill-defined method. Efforts directed towards describing the reading process can be divided into two classes: information processing models and models that emphasize analysis by synthesis (Gibson & Levin, 1975). The analysis by synthesis approach to reading views reading as a process of hypothesis formation, that i s , directed data sampling followed by confirmation or disconfirmation of the "guess". A contrasting theory of reading is information processing analysis. Generally, an information processing approach to reading assumes that any cognitive task can be analyzed into stages that proceed in a fixed order from sensory input to output or response. An extensive account of the reading process as "analysis by synthesis" i s proposed by Kenneth Goodman (1967) and other theorists 8 who view read ing as a " g ue s s i n g game". B r i e f l y , Goodman v iews r e a d i n g as a guess and check process and , u s i n g t h i s theory , he has d i r e c t e d a r e sea rch program on read ing e r r o r s , o r "m i s cues " as he r e f e r s t o them. C r i t i c i s m o f Goodman's gues s i ng game theo r y i s i t ' s i n a b i l i t y - t o answer ques t i on s r e l a t e d t o the b a s i s , n a tu re and check ing o f p r e d i c t i o n s made by the reader and what a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n the reader t a ke s i f the guesses a re wrong. Th i s c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e s i n most cases , to a l l o the r a n a l y s i s -b y - s yn the s i s t h e o r i e s . Th i s approach to r ead i n g can be cons ide red too imprec i se t o account f o r a l l k i n f l s o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . Recen t l y , a l t e r n a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s t o r ead i n g r e sea r ch have f o l l o w e d an i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g approach i n an e f f o r t t o p re sen t a more complete theory o f r e a d i n g which would a c coun t f o r the many f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o the read ing p roces s . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g approach a l l o w s f o r a g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the complex b e h a v i o r s t h a t a re t y p i c a l o f r e a d i n g (Hansen, 1974). Because t h i s approach s p e c i f i e s the mental p roces ses t h a t determine s p e c i f i c i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s the f l o w o f i n f o r -mation through t h i s system can be i d e n t i f i e d by a s e r i e s o f s t e p s . There i s an emphasis on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f incoming i n f o r m a t i o n and on the t r an s fo rmat i on s necessary f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e t r i e v a l o f these events by the i n d i v i d u a l . Research i n the a rea o f i n f o r m a t i o n p roce s s i ng con f i rms the u s e f u l -ness o f t h i s approach t o p r o v i d e an under s tand ing o f r e a d i n g , and suggest app r op r i a t e r emed i a l measures f o r t he c h i l d w i t h r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , ( A rne t t and D i L o e l o , 1979). 9 An example o f an i n f o r m a t i o n p roce s s i ng app roach . i s proposed by L u r i a (1966a, 1966b) based on h i s ob se rva t i on s o f d i f f e r e n t t ypes o f t c o r t i c a l l e s i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t on behav i o r . He d i v i d e s the b r a i n i n t o three main b l o c k s . The th ree main b l o c k s correspond t o f u n c t i o n a l systems: the f i r s t b l o c k t o the f u n c t i o n a l system a r o u s a l , the second b lock to the f u n c t i o n a l system cod ing and the t h i r d t o the f u n c t i o n a l system p l a n n i n g . The second b l o c k i s the most r e l e v a n t here f o r i t conta ins a group o f a n a l y z e r s which work t o ge the r t o s yn the s i z e i npu t i n t o two d i f f e r e n t fo rms , s imultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e . Based on the assumpt ions o f L u r i a ' s work, Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1975) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the u se f u l ne s s o f the s imu l t aneous - succe s s i ve i n f o rmat i on p r o c e s s i n g approach. They have demonstrated the p o t e n t i a l o f t h i s approach t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r under s tand ing and u l t i m a t e l y remed iat ing r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s (Cummins and Das, 1977)* Hence fo r th , t h i s work w i l l f o c u s on the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s imu l taneous and succe s s i ve p r o ce s s i n g , language and r e a d i n g , and the p o t e n t i a l o f t h e model t o p rov i de a b a s i s f o r a r e m e d i a l program aimed a t imp rov i ng an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Language and The Reading P roces s There i s some r e s e a r c h i n the a rea o f language which i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the unde r s t and i ng o f the r e a d i n g p roces s . To the ex ten t t h a t r e a d i n g i s a v e r b a l p r o c e s s , under s tand ing r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s must come from s t u d y i n g t he r o l e o f v e r b a l p r o ce s s i n g a s a key component o f read ing and a source o f r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s (Leong, 1982). 10 C o g n i t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s t r a t e g y d e f i c i t s i n the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d a re p r e s e n t l y be ing s t ud i ed by W i i g (1983). W i i g ' s language t h e o r i e s a re based on B r u n e r ' s (1973) t ypes o f hypo the s i s t e s t i n g . The main premise o f W i i g ' s language r emed i a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i s language exper ience . W i i g (1976) emphasizes the a s s i g n i n g o f meaning t o heard phonemic, morphemic and l i n g u i s t i c s y n t he s i s o f phonemes a t a l l l e v e l s o f p r o ce s s i n g . How-e v e r , no account o f the a c t u a l u n d e r l y i n g p roces ses i n v o l v e d a re p re sented . In another study Leong and Haines (1978) s t u d i e d beg inn ing readers a b i l i t y t o ana l y se words and sentences . C h i l d r e n i n grades 1, 2 and 3 were examined f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o segment s y l l a b l e s i n t o phonemes and words i n t o s y l l a b l e s , and use concepts o f p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and understand sentence s t r u c t u r e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t awareness o f p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f sounds i n words c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o r ead i n g performance. The r e l e vance o f s t udy i n g language to p r ov i de an unders tand ing o f the process o f r e a d i n g i s supported by r e s e a r c h . Vogel (1975) s tud ied o r a l language d e f i c i t s accompanying d y s l e x i a . The major f i n d i n g was t h a t d y s l e x i c c h i l d r e n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r t o good reader s i n s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n the a r e a o f l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f v e r b a l and w r i t t e n output o f good and poor reader s p rov ided ev idence o f h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n . s y n t a c t i c a l competence and r ead i n g a b i l i t y (eg. Dawkins, 1975; A l l i n g t o n & St range, 1977; Bryan, 1978; G ibson & L e v i n , 1975; Weaver & Henry, 1978). D e f i c i t s i n v e r b a l f u n c t i o n i n g have a l s o been s t ud i ed by Johnson 11 and Myklebust (1967)* T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , out o f a group o f d y s l e x i c c h i l d r e n , l e s s than h a l f were expe r i enc i ng r e a d i n g problems r e s u l t i n g from v i s u a l p r oce s s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . F o r the m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s were r e l a t e d t o v e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g d e f i c i t s . Language d i s o r d e r s recogn i zed by Johnson and Myklebust a s a f f e c t i n g read ing comprehension were based on s y n t a c t i c problems. A b a s i c p r i n -c i p l e o f Johnson-Myklebust r e m e d i a l work i s t h a t i n p u t t a k e s precedence over output ; t h a t i s , the c h i l d must l e a r n to comprehend b e f o r e he reads . These r e c e n t developments i n the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g l i t e r a t u r e demonstrate the importance o f unde r s tand ing a l l a spec t s o f v e r b e l l a n -guage i n o rde r t o p rov i de a framework f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p roces s o f read ing . Two s t u d i e s demonstrated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g , language and succe s s i ve - s imu l t aneou s p r o ce s s i n g . Leong and Sheh (1982) concluded t h a t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a f f e c t s r e a d i n g through i t s r e l a -t i o n s h i p t o language awareness. I n t h i s s tudy, language awareness was de f ined as the under s tand ing o f language r u l e s , a m b i g u i t i e s and i n c o n -g r u i t i e s . Reading was d e f i n e d a s word r e c o g n i t i o n . The r e s u l t s were f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e d i n a f o l l o w up s t udy . The r e sea r che r s conc luded tha t language awareness i s a menta l a c t i v i t y which i n t e r a c t s w i t h and depends upon o t h e r c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . I t i n t u r n can mod i f y these same c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . On the b a s i s o f L u r i a ' s c l i n i c a l r e s ea r ch Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1979) p r e d i c t t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s ucce s s i v e p r o c e s s -i ng on l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s which r e q u i r e e i t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l 12 linear structure of the input or syntactically mature expressive speech. Simultaneous processing is involved in linguistic tasks which require the grasping of quasi-spatial conceptual relationships, (p. 177)* / Research based on the simultaneous and successive processing model suggests how linguistic functioning varies between different racial groups and between children at different developmental levels (Cummins and Das, 1977)• Reading competence for the low-achiever may be related to i n i t i a l deficits in successive processing which retard the develop-ment of the basic understanding of the conceptual-linguistic operations. Reading Disabilities "Reading disability", "reading retardation", "dyslexia" and "specific reading disability" are a l l terms frequently used to describe the child who is having difficulty with the acquisition of reading skills despite normal or above normal intelligence. The difference among the terms lies in the underlying conceptual framework. For the purpose of this study, "reading disability" will refer to a serious discrepancy (two years below grade level) between reading ability and reading poten-t i a l . Inferior performance of a reading deficit group has been demonstrated to be related not to poorer intelligence but rather, the difficulty lies in the strategies that need to be chosen when a child is faced with an unfamiliar task (Das, Leong and Williams, 1978) Kirby and Das (1977) have given evidence for usefulness of the simul-taneous-successive model by providing a framework for studying reading 13 d i s a b i l i t i e s . I n a s tudy comparing the scores o f 99 grade 4 c h i l d r e n on subtests o f t he Gates M c G i n i t i e Reading Test and s imultaneous and success ive f a c t o r s c o r e s , the c h i l d r e n who scored h i g h e r on t a s k s i n v o l v i n g s imul taneous and succe s s i ve p roce s s i n g had a h i g h e r l e v e l o f read ing competence than c h i l d r e n who had lower scores on t a s k s i n v o l v i n g both modes o f p r o c e s s i n g . These r e s u l t s can be cons idered i n d i c a t i o n s o f the importance o f both s imultaneous and succes s i ve s y n t h e s i s i n the read ing p roces s . These s t u d i e s suggest t h a t s ucce s s i ve p roce s s i ng i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the read ing competence o f poor r e a d e r s ; whereas s imultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i s r e l a t e d to a g r e a t e r e x ten t i n the r e a d i n g performance o f normal and above average r e a d e r s . Of cour se , r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s can be the r e s u l t of one or a comb inat ion o f problems. I t has been demonstrated t h a t problems i n language f u n c t i o n i n g a re a s s o c i a t e d to r ead i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . W i th in the framework o f the s imu l taneous - succes s i ve model language problems may be the r e s u l t o f a d e f i c i t i n succes s i ve p r o c e s s i n g . To the extent t h a t r e a d i n g i s a v e r b a l p roce s s , the under s tand ing r e a d i n g and read ing d i f f i c u l t i e s must come from s tudy i ng the r o l e o f v e r b a l process ing a s a key component o f r e a d i n g and a source o f r e a d i n g d i f f i -c u l t i e s (Leong, 1982). The re fo re , r e s e a r c h concern ing r e a d i n g p e r f o r -mance, c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and semantic o r c o n c e p t u a l - l i n g u i s t i c process ing has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p r ov i de an unders tand ing o f r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and t o suggest r emed ia l t echn ique s . 14 Word A n a l y s i s S k i l l s Among r e a d i n g t h e o r i e s there i s a gene ra l agreement t h a t r ead i ng i n v o l v e s two b a s i c p roces se s , word a n a l y s i s and comprehension. Word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i n v o l v e s the a b i l i t y t o d e r i v e the p r onounc i a t i on and/or meaning o f a word through phon i c s , s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o r c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s ( E k w a l l , I976). Word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s depend on grapheme-phoneme correspondence r u l e s . Comprehension can be con s i de red t o occur when we comprehend the i n t e n t i o n o f t he w r i t e r and succeed i n r e l a t i n g h i s message to the l a r g e r con tex t o f our own system o f knowledge (Gibson & L e v i n , 1975)* Word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s a re a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r r ead i n g comprehension. The educa t i o na l measures have been r e sea r ched . Spache (1976) d e s c r i b e s two approaches t o teach ing word a n a l y s i s : a n a l y t i c , i n which l e t t e r sounds a r e taught as i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f words, and s y n t h e t i c , i n which the i s o l a t e d l e t t e r sounds a re s t r e s s e d and taught . A c r i t i c a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n i n g t o use grapheme-phoneme correspondence r u l e s i s an awareness on the p a r t o f the l e a r n e r o f the segmentat ion o f language i n t o words, s y l l a b l e s , the phonemes and an a b i l i t y t o handle these language u n i t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r graphemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The r e t r i e v a l o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s must become au tomat i c . A d d i t i o n a l word r e c o g n i t i o n s t u d i e s (eg. Mar & K a m i l , 1978) suggest t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between good and poor r eade r s i s the a b i l i t y t o decode q u i c k l y and a u t o m a t i c a l l y . However, the problem w i t h much o f the r e -search conducted i n the pa s t i s t h a t i t has not p r o v i ded i n f o r m a t i o n 15 on how word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s and comprehension s k i l l s a re a c q u i r e d , t h a t i s , how the reader deve lops the u n d e r l y i n g processes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f these s k i l l s . Another problem w i t h l i n g u i s t i c models o f r ead i ng , i s t h a t competence w i t h p r i n t e d language i s not t aken i n t o account. L i n g u i s t i c models o f r e a d i n g do no t take i n t o account competence w i t h p r i n t e d language. P r i n t i s a system f o r r ep re sen t i n g language, one which i s r e l a t e d t o but not dependent upon search f o r i t s s t r u c t u r e , t he re fo re a model must suggest f a c t o r s t o account f o r the a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h p r i n t e d language ( E h r i , Ba r ron and Feldman, 1978). Obv i ou s l y , a l l r ead ing i n v o l v e s w r i t t e n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e . There fo re , a model o f read ing must suggest f a c t o r s t o account f o r the a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h p r i n t e d language ( E h r i , Bar ron and Feldman, 1978). A study by Leong and Sheh (1982) u ses m u l t i v a r i a t e techn iques t o de s c r i be the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s imu l taneous - succes s i ve p r o c e s s i n g , language awareness ( de f i ned as unde r s t and ing o f language r u l e s , amb i -g u i t i e s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s ) and r e a d i n g ( de f i ned as word r e c o g n i t i o n ) . Elementary s choo l c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on measures o f s imu l t aneou s -success i ve p r o ce s s i n g , language awareness and a word r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . Re su l t s supported the hypo the s i s t h a t those c h i l d r e n who a r e h i g h on both the s imultaneous and s ucce s s i v e d imens ions a l s o perform b e t t e r on language awareness t a s k s and on r e a d i n g . Th i s study i n d i c a t e s the p o t e n t i a l o f the s imu l t aneou s - succe s s i ve model t o p rov ide i n s i g h t s i n the a rea o f language and word r e c o g n i t i o n . 16 In the r e a d i n g p roces s , succe s s i ve p roce s s i n g may be impor tant f o r the mastery o f word a t t a c k s k i l l s , whereas s imultaneous p roce s s i n g may be r e l a t e d t o the mastery o f comprehension s k i l l s . Seve ra l s t u d i e s support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s (Das, Cummins, K i r b y & Jarman, 1979;'Cummins & Mulcahy, 1979? Cummins & Das, 1977; K i r b y & Das, 1977; Das, K i r b y & Jarman, 1975). The r e s ea r ch i n t h i s a rea has a l s o suggested r e m e d i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . S tud ies I n v o l v i n g Remediat ion The importance o f f o c u s i n g on d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g as opposed t o observed weaknesses i n a b i l i t i e s i n the a u d i t o r y and/or v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l a rea s ( E k w a l l , 1976) has been the t o p i c o f r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e . F o r example, Keeney, Cannizzo and F l a v e l l (1967) conducted a b r i e f t r a i n i n g program aimed a t i n duc i n g nonrehearser s to r ehea r s e . Subgroups o f " r e h e a r s e r " and " non rehea r se r s " were i d e n t i f i e d by means o f d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s spontaneous semi -ove r t v e r b a l i z a t i o n s . The r e s ea r che r s concluded t h a t the c h i l d ' s mediated behav io r was due t o h i s f a i l u r e t o produce the a p p r o p r i a t e med iator r a t h e r than an i n a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e i t e f f e c t i v e l y . Maki and Schu le r (1980) found t h a t r e c a l l f o r words i n c r e a s e d w i t h what they c o n s i d e r deeper l e v e l s o f p r o c e s s i n g and w i t h l o n g e r r e h e a r s a l i n t e r v a l s . Rehear sa l s t r a t e g i e s have been f u r t h e r re sea rched by B a r c l a y (1979), B rod ie & P r y t u l a k (1975), Denny (1975)« A l though the r e sea r ch i n t h i s a r ea i s i m p r e s s i v e , i t s s i g n i f -i cance i s l i m i t e d because r e h e a r s a l i s mere ly a p r oduc t i on s t r a t e g y Das, K i r b y & Jarman (1979)• 17 Research i n the a r e a o f memory and r e c a l l appears to have more d i r e c t re levance t o l e a r n i n g and r emed i a l measures. In a study des igned t o examine the r e t e n t i o n o f an i t em over t ime Norman (1966), concluded t h a t r a t e of p r e s e n t a t i o n , l e n g t h o f a l i s t , type o f i t em and moda l i t y o f p re sen ta t i on p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t the i n i t i a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f i tems f o r r e c a l l . Deese and Kaufman (1957) s t ud i ed the s e r i a l e f f e c t s i n r e c a l l o f unorganized and s e q u e n t i a l o rgan i zed v e r b a l m a t e r i a l . The main c o n -c l u s i o n of t h i s s tudy was t h a t s u b j e c t s r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f v e r b a l behav io r t o conform t o the s t r u c t u r e o f o r d i n a r y language. A p p l i c a t i o n o f the S imu l taneous -Succes s i ve Model Das, K i r b y & Jarman (1979) d i s c u s s ed t h r e e p o s s i b l e approaches t o remed ia t i on , w i t h i n the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g framework. The f i r s t approach i s t o de s i g n a r e m e d i a l program which would e n -courage the development o f improved p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t i e s . Success o f the remed ia l program depends on the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f p roce s s i ng s k i l l s . T r a i n i n g should i n v o l v e s c h o o l - r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s approach t o r e m e d i a t i o n i s the l a c k o f measure o f the muta-b i l i t y o f the p roces ses and no s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r educators a b i l i t i e s . Another approach t o r e m e d i a t i o n i s t o d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n a l programs which encourage the use o f t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t a c t p r oce s s i n g s t r eng th s . A t the same t ime, the program p r o v i d e s t o o l s t o h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l cope w i t h h i s l e s s e f f i c i e n t mode o f p r o c e s s i n g . These t o o l s cou ld be i n the form of books, t e a c h e r prepared m a t e r i a l s and teache r guidance i n the use o f more e f f i c i e n t forms o f p r o c e s s i n g . There a r e no programs 18 based on t h i s approach a v a i l a b l e t o teachers a t t h i s t i m e . A t h i r d r emed i a l t echn ique i n v o l v e s the t e a c h i n g o f s t r a t e g i e s . S t r a t e g i e s can be d e f i n e d a s ways o f s e l e c t i n g , s t o r i n g , man i pu l a t i n g , managing, and p roduc ing i n f o r m a t i o n which occur a t a l l l e v e l s o f behav io r (Das, K i r b y & Jarman 1979). Research (eg. E s t e s , 1975; F l a v e l l , 1979) has suggested t h a t young c h i l d r e n do r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e mon i t o r i n g o f t h e i r own memory, comprehension and other c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s . W i t h i n t h i s r e m e d i a l approach i t i s assumed t h a t what e f f e c t s a c h i l d ' s performance i s no t a p r o c e s s i n g d i f f i c u l t y , but a problem i n s e l e c t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s . S t r a tegy t r a i n i n g i s aimed a t encouraging the use o f o p t i m a l p roces se s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The p re sen t study adopts the t h i r d remed ia l t echn ique t o i n v e s -t i g a t e the e f f e c t s o f s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g and r emed i a l techn iques on academic performance. Evidence f o r S imultaneous and Success ive S t r a t e g i e s Educa t i o na l r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g s t r a tegy t r a i n i n g and r emed i a l techn iques , a s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s imu l taneous - succe s s i ve model, i s l i m i t e d t o two s t u d i e s ; Krywaniuk (1974) and Kaufman (1978). These s t u d i e s conf i rmed the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t reatment program emphasiz ing the use o f a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s . However, the e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s type o f program i s h i nde red by the p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n used i n one o f the s t u d i e s , the t ype o f r e sea r ch d e s i g n , t he l a c k o f a s s e s s -ment t o c on f i rm changes i n academic performance co r re spond ing t o the r emed i a l program and the assessment measures u sed . 19 The s t u d i e s a r e s i m i l i a r i n t h e i r emphasis on v e r b a l i z a t i o n a l though Krywaniuk uses v e r b a l i z a t i o n t o a l e s s e r ex ten t than Kaufman. T r a i n i n g t a s k s i n both aim a t improv ing the use o f succe s s i ve s t r a t e g i e s . V e r b a l i z a t i o n took the f o l l o w i n g form i n each o f the s t u d i e s . As the c h i l d performed t a s k s , he was encouraged t o v e r b a l i z e the s t r a t e g i e s he used. A t the end o f t he s e s s i o n the c h i l d summarized h i s s t r a t e g i e s . Each t r a i n i n g s e s s i on began w i t h t h e exper imenter q u e s t i o n i n g the c h i l d t o r e c a l l s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s used i n the p rev i ou s s e s s i on s . K rywan iuk ' s Study: The s u b j e c t s were Canadian n a t i v e Cree c h i l d r e n i n grades 3 and 4 i n a Reserve s c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d f o r the study were i n the l owes t t h i r d o f the c l a s s a c c o r d i n g t o t eache r r a t i n g . The c h i l d r e n were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o two g roups , 20 s tudent s i n each: one r e ce i v ed 14 t o 15 hours o f t r a i n i n g , the o t h e r r e c e i v e d min imal t r a i n i n g . There were comparable means (84.55 a n < i 83.95) o n i n t e l l i g e n c e measures. Both groups r e c e i v e d t h r e e t e s t measures from the s imu l taneous - succes s i ve b a t t e r y Das (1973) and the S c h o n e l l ' s Word Recogn i t i on T e s t . The s e l e c t e d t a s k s encouraged s ucce s s i v e p r o ce s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . They d i d not r e f l e c t competence i n any academic a r ea and were easy t o u se . The i n t e r v e n t i o n program was made up o f the f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : Sequence S t o r y Board, Pa rque t r y Des i gns , S e r i a l R e c a l l , Coding M a t r i x and S e r i a l i z a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n and p o s t e s t i n g complete r e c o r d s were a v a i l -a b l e f o r 15 c h i l d r e n i n the expe r imen ta l group and 20 i n the c o n t r o l 20 group. The groups were ad ju s ted f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s by a covar iance t echn i que . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s showed s i g n i f i c a n t ga i n s on the S c h o n e l l , S e r i a l Lea rn ing and V i s u a l Short Term Memory t e s t s f o r the group r e c e i v i n g maximum amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Improvement i n these t a s k s may be taken as an i ndex o f success f o r the t r a i n i n g o f success i ve s t r a t e g i e s . The main c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the s tudy i s t h a t the i n t e r -v e n t i o n program was s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g the s u b j e c t t o app l y e i t h e r s ucce s s i ve o r s imultaneous s t r a t e g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y . The f i r s t shortcoming o f the study conducted by Krywaniuk was the p a r t i c u l a r popu l a t i on from which the s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d . The sub-j e c t s were n a t i v e Cree c h i l d r e n . More r e c e n t l y Das s t ud i ed Cree Ind ians l i v i n g on a r e se r ve near Edmonton found t h a t not o n l y i s the gene ra l l e v e l o f r e a d i n g low, but n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f the c h i l d r e n i n grade 3 were r ead i n g a t grade 1 l e v e l s . These c h i l d r e n were found t o be of average a b i l i t y i n " n o n v e r b a l " i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s but were c l e a r l y back-ward i n E n g l i s h . The reason f o r the v a r i a t i o n between wh i te Canadian c h i l d r e n and these Canadian n a t i v e c h i l d r e n was t h a t language was not b e i n g used t o the same ex ten t as i n wh i te Canadian c u l t u r e s . I t was argued t h a t Canadian n a t i v e c h i l d r e n do no t use s u c c e s s i v e processes as much as wh i te c h i l d r e n do i n t h e i r o r d i n a r y env i ronment, and t h a t i t i s t h e r e f o r e , not t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode o f c od i ng . The s tudy suggests t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e p re fe rence f o r c o g n i t i v e p roces se s . The l i m i t a t i o n o f the study i s t h a t the r e s u l t s connot be g e n e r a l i z e d beyond the p o p u l a t i o n used. Fo r the purpose o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , a random 21 s e l e c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l groups would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n cou ld be cons idered another shortcoming o f Krywaniuk*s s t udy . The 40 s tudents s e l e c t e d f o r the study were c o n s i d -ered by teache r s t o be i n the lowest t h i r d o f t he c l a s s based on academic achievement. These s tudent s were obv i ou s l y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h l e a r n i n g . A more a p p r o p r i a t e r e sea rch de s i g n would be one t h a t l o o k s a t each c h i l d a s an i n d i v i d u a l . S i ng l e s u b j e c t r e s e a r c h de s i gn o f f e r s the oppor tun i t y t o c o l l e c t d a t a on each c h i l d i n d i v i d u a l l y . S i n g l e - c a s e re search f o l l o w s a t ime s e r i e s des i gn which r e s u l t s i n a p r e c i s e a s s e s s -ment o f behav i o r changes and the f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o these changes. A t h i r d shor tcoming o f the Kxywaniuk s tudy was t h a t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model o f s imu l taneous - succe s s i ve p roces ses t o the c lass room s e t t i n g was not c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f whether o r not r emed ia l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r e s s i n g a p roce s s i ng s t r a t e g y w i l l h e l p academic l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and f a c i l i t a t e academic ach ievement. To c l a r i f y t h i s p r o b -lem, Kaufman conducted a study f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r r emed i a l program t o the one Krywaniuk based on the s imu l taneous - succe s s i ve model o f c o g n i t i v e processes . Kaufman's Study: The s u b j e c t s i n Kaufman 's study (1979) were 68 grade 4 c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o th ree groups on the b a s i s o f t h e i r p e r f o r -mance on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tes t (MAT). The above average group was exc luded f rom the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. The rema in ing 68 c h i l d r e n were r ank o rdered and c a tego r i z ed i n t o 34 average and 34 below 22 average c h i l d r e n . Each o f these groups were a ga i n d i v i d e d so t h a t s e ven -teen c h i l d r e n were randomly a s s i gned to e i t h e r an i n t e r v e n t i o n o r n o -i n t e r v e n t i o n group. The i n t e r v e n t i o n group r e c e i v e d 10 hours o f i n d i -v i d u a l t r a i n i n g f o r a 17 week p e r i o d on the f o l l o w i n g t a s k s ! People P u z z l e s , P i c t u r e S to ry Arrangement, M a t r i x Numbers, M a t r i x L e t t e r s , M a t r i x P i c t u r e s , P i c t u r e (Number) Arrangement, S e r i a l R e c a l l o f P i c t u r e s , F ree R e c a l l o f P i c t u r e s , F o l l o w - t h e - A r r o w s and F i l m S t r i p s . None o f the t r a i n i n g t a s k s was p u r e l y s u c c e s s i v e . V e r b a l i z a t i o n was encouraged. A l l groups were a d m i n i s t e r e d f i v e t e s t s from the s imu l taneous -success i ve b a t t e r y and the S c h o n e l l Reading t e s t s be f o re and a f t e r the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. R e s u l t s were compared i n a three-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n ce . The i n t e r v e n t i o n program appeared t o e f f e c t performance on a l l the succes s i ve and a l l bu t one o f the s imultaneous t a s k s . We can assume tha t the exper imenta l group l e a r n e d where and when t o use succes s i ve s t r a t e g i e s and a t the same t ime when a s imultaneous p roce s s i n g s t r a t e g y may be more a p p r o p r i a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Kaufman found t h a t i n -t e r v e n t i o n which s t r e s s e d the use o f succe s s i ve s t r a t e g i e s d i d not improve scores on the MAT "Word Knowledge" and "Read ing " s u b t e s t s . Th i s can be exp la ined by examining t he con ten t o f these t e s t s . Word Knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l l y a measure o f a c h i l d ' s comprehension o f word meaning, perhaps more r e l a t e d t o s imul taneous p r o c e s s i n g . Scores on the S chone l l Graded Word L i s t , MAT "Read ing Compos i te " , "Mathematics Compos i te " , "Math Computation" and "Math Concept s " s ub te s t s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h success ive f a c t o r s c o r e s . These r e s u l t s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o conc lude 23 t h a t r e a d i n g s k i l l s , a s measured by the S c h o n e l l Graded Word L i s t , improved a s a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. Tasks used i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n program appeared p r i m a r i l y t o have t r a i n e d succe s s i ve s t r a t e g i e s . De sp i t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s i n Kaufman's s tudy, a s w e l l . F i r s t , the t e s t o f r e a d i n g performance used was a graded word l i s t . Educators know t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o word r e c o g n i t i o n . F o r example, s tudy and compre-hens ion s k i l l s a r e important r e a d i n g t o o l s . A graded word l i s t measures on l y a v e r y l i m i t e d a rea o f r e a d i n g per formance, thus making i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e from the r e s u l t s o f t h i s one t e s t t o t he o v e r a l l r ead i ng performance f o r any c h i l d . A more a p p r o p r i a t e method o f measur ing the e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s on r e a d i n g performance would be t o break t h e t a s k up i n t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g performance. In a d d i t i o n s , v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s would have i n c r ea sed had the r e sea r che r compared t e a c h i n g i n an academic a r e a w i t h s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g . I n the t i m e - s e r i e s de s i gn used i n the p re sen t s tudy each student was a s ses sed a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s on a weekly b a s i s . The exper imenta l t reatment was admin i s te red d u r i n g two o f t h e f o u r phases o f t he s tudy. Of the r ema in i ng two phases one phase i n v o l v e d the c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s e l i n e d a t a ; the o t h e r i n vo l v ed the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a when the expe r imenta l program was no t i n p r o g r e s s . T h e t i m e - s e r i e s de s i g n i s p a r t i c u l a r y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f i e l d r e sea r ch where the expe r imen ta l t reatment i s a n a t u r a l l y , o c c u r r i n g event , such a s a t e a c h i n g method (Borg & G a l l 1979)* 24 Fo r these reasons i t was regarded as an app rop r i a t e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y f o r the p re sen t s tudy. Another d i f f e r e n c e between the p resent study and the p r e v i o u s two s t u d i e s by Kaufman and Krywaniuk i s the assessment p rocedure s . Only one a rea o f academic f u n c t i o n i n g (eg . wo rd -ana l y s i s s k i l l s ) i s as sessed a p p r o p r i a t e l y . I n t h i s way t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g program can be conf i rmed by a n a l y z i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t e s t s r e s u l t s d u r i n g t he f o u r phases o f t he s tudy. Word a n a l y s i s assessment f o l l owed a comb ina t i on o f t he most r e l i a b l e measures o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s a v a i l a b l e t o the r e s e a r c h e r . That these measures p r o v i ded an accu ra te assessment o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i s conf i rmed i n Chapte r 4 . Summary E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has l o n g been concerned w i t h r e m e d i a l programs f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g problems w i t h l e a r n i n g . However, d e s p i t e the p rod igous amount o f r e s e a r c h , educators a r e l e f t w i t h o u t any c l e a r - c u t r e m e d i a l programs because r e s ea r ch i n t h e - a r e a has s u f f e r e d from methodo l og i ca l and t h e o r e t i c a l shortcomings. A common approach t o d e a l i n g w i t h c o g n i t i v e incompetence i s t o assess the c h i l d ' s " a b i l i t i e s " . A c h i l d i s then a s s i gned a s co re which i s cons idered t o r e p r e s e n t h i s l e v e l a s a p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r . T h i s p r o -cedure has h i nde r ed r a t h e r than encouraged the c o g n i t i v e development o f many s t uden t s . Educato r s o f t e n r e a l i z e the problem but do n o t have any a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. These problems can a lmos t a lways be re la ted, t o a c e n t r a l need f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l model t o gu ide t he s e l e c t i o n , 25 validation and interpretation of assessment devices used in research. Educators are left without a theory by which to interpret research results and to make program modifications based on those results. This lack of a basic theoretical rationale has led to the random selection of tasks for special programs and unfortunately, has resulted in remedial measures which are not successful in helping the child with learning problems. A simultaneous-successive model of information processing has been adopted for this present study. This approach offers an effective and theoretical method of selecting and validating aspects of cognitive functioning. Recent literature on reading disabil it ies has suggested a re la-tionship between successive processing and reading. Das (1979) summarizes the rationale as follows: Successive processing is cr i t i ca l for the acquisition of reading; especially for children who have difficulty as beginners in reading. Successive processing i s coding.of disparate stimuli in a temporal array, imposing an order or sequence. There is evidence to believe that successive processing is basic to language acquisition, and through the experience of language, successive processing develops further - the relationship is a dialectical one. (p.83) In the reading process then, successive processing may be important for the mastery of i n i t i a l decoding sk i l l s . Training in successive ski l l s may be an appropriate remedial measure to improve word analysis ski l l s . 26 CHAPTER 3 Statement of the Problem Despite the amount of literature describing cognitive strategies and their development, we know l i t t l e about whether or not these strategies can be taught (Gibson & Levin 1979)* However, there are a few studies which indicate that cognitive strategies can be taught and used spontaneously in appropriate situations. The low-achieving child appears to have two major difficulties: he does not organize his material because he may not realize the necessity to so so, and he does not use whatever verbal-successive ski l ls he possesses in solving a problem. If a child with learning problems is to be trained in strategies for improving his academic performance, the two important aspects of remediation are the verbalization by the instructor to guide the child in solving a task and feedback, (Das, Kirby & Jarman 1979)* Research within the framework of the simultaneous-successive model of cognitive processes (Krywaniuk 1974; Kaufman 1978) has demonstrated the usefulness of this model in helping to develop effective techniques for structuring task information to increase successful performance. The present study is similar to the two previous studies of Kaufman and Krywaniuk; however, in several respects there are important differ-ences. The .fundamental theoretical position of the present study is based on a model of cognitive processes, that i s , the simultaneous-27 success ive model. The t a s k s s e l e c t ed f o r the t reatment program i n the present study a r e i d e n t i c a l to the t a s k s deve loped by Krywaniuk and confirmed by him a s hav i ng the a b i l i t y t o improve succe s s i ve p r o ce s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The p r e s e n t study emphasizes v e r b a l i z a t i o n t o encourage the app rop r i a t e s e l e c t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e same way as Kaufman d i d i n h i s s tudy. The p resent s tudy overcomes the l i m i t a t i o n o f both the Kaufman and Krywaniuk s t u d i e s and p rev i ou s r e sea r ch i n t he a r ea o f r e m e d i a t i o n . F i r s t , a t i m e - s e r i e s d e s i g n was s e l e c t e d f o r the s i n g l e - c a s e r e s e a r c h . In o rder t o r u l e out a l t e r n a t e exp l ana t i on s o f the s h i f t i n the t ime s e r i e s da ta e h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o two equa l s i z e d g roups . One group r e c e i v e d the s t r a tegy t r a i n i n g program, the o the r r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s . The t e a c h i n g o f these s k i l l s f o l l o w e d the r e g u l a r r e a d i n g program fo rmat . The purpose o f t he p resent study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g , w i t h i n a s imu l t aneou s - succe s s i ve p r o ce s s i n g model framework, and performance i n r e a d i n g f o r a group o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . Research suggests t h a t among groups which might be expected t o e xpe r i ence d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a d i n g , s u c c e s s i v e p r o ce s s i n g i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g performance,.(Cummins & Das 1977) • More vers", ga in s i n t e s t s c o re s measur ing the use o f s u c c e s s i v e p r o ce s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o l l owed an i n t e r v e n t i o n program (Krywaniuk, 1974$ Kaufman, 1978). These r e s u l t s fo rm the b a s i s f o r the p re sen t s t udy . 28 Hypothes is For a c l a s s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , performance on t e s t s of word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s w i l l show g r e a t e r improvement f o r a group p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i n t e r v e n t i o n program aimed a t improv ing t h e a p p r o -p r i a t e use o f s ucce s s i ve p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s than f o r a group r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Ra t i ona l e o f t h e Hypothes i s Conc l u s i on s drawn from K r ywan i u k ' s study suggest t h a t performance on t e s t s o f s u cce s s i v e p r o ce s s i n g shows g r e a t e r improvement f o r a group o f c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d a maximum o f t reatment i n the use o f s t r a t e g i e s than f o r a minimum t reatment group. Low a c h i e v i n g s tudent s were found to have poor s u c ce s s i v e p r o ce s s i n g s k i l l s which were a l s o p o o r l y d i f f e r -en t i a t ed from t h e i r s imul taneous p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . H i gh a c h i e v i n g students were shown t o have good s ucce s s i v e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were r e l a * t i v e l y independent o f s imultaneous s t r a t e g i e s . These c h i l d r e n c ou l d - t he re fo re use the s t r a t e g i e s which they had more a p p r o p r i a t e l y . R e s u l t s o f the p re sen t s tudy can be exp la i ned w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the s imu l t aneou s - succe s s i ve approach t o i n f o rma t i on p r o c e s s i n g . Much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d i s i n a temporal ( s u c c e s s i v e ) o rder . Some o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a t e r used i n a s imul taneous f a s h i o n . Reading r e q u i r e s s ucce s s i ve scann ing even though the m a t e r i a l b e i n g read i s of a s imu l taneous n a t u r e . I f c h i l d r e n w i t h r ead i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s have i n i t i a l d e f i c i t s i n s ucce s s i ve p r o c e s s i n g t h a t d e l a y the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of c o n c e p t u a l - l i n g u i s t i c ope r a t i o n s f rom more e lementary forms o f 2 9 sequential linguistic processing, we can then expect that simultaneous and successive processing will relate differently to the reading perfor-mance of children with reading problems than to the performance of successful readers. The child with reading difficulties cannot function effectively i f his skills remain at a low level. Krywaniuk and Kaufman have shown that the appropriate use of successive skills which are deficient can be , , taught by the application of an appropriate remedial program. This study will attempt to confirm that successive processing is related to reading performance, (and further that a remedial program aimed at improving the appropriate use of successive strategies will improve reading perfor-mance) specifically decoding skills in children with reading problems. 30 CHAPTER 4 Exper imenta l Procedures Sub jec t s The sample s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s tudy was the twe lve members o f a s p e c i a l c l a s s i n a c e n t r a l B.C. s choo l d i s t r i c t . W i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , s p e c i a l programs f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s a re designed t o p r o v i d e a f a i r l y s ho r t , i n t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d educa t i o na l program f o r c h i l d r e n who have i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and need more a t t e n t i o n t han can be p rov ided f o r them i n the Lea rn i ng A s s i s t ance Program a t t h e s c h o o l . Enrolment i n the c l a s s e s i s l i m i t e d , and i n a d d i t i o n t h e t e a c h e r i s p rov ided w i t h a p a r t - t i m e a i d e . Assessment and program suppor t i s p rov ided by a d i s t r i c t c o u n s e l l o r when f e a s i b l e . S t u d e n t s - r e q u i r i n g extended i n d i v i d u a l support remain on t he program f o r two t o t h r e e y e a r s . R e f e r r a l s t o these programs a re d i r e c t e d t o t h e . S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s o f f i c e s . The D i s t r i c t Sc reen ing Committee rev iews r e f e r r a l s and c o n s i d e r s placement. The J u n i o r S p e c i a l A t t e n t i o n c l a s s i n v o l v e d i n the s tudy f o l l o w s a program des i gned f o r average o r above average a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , 9 year s o r ove r , who a r e a t l e a s t two t o t h r ee yea r s beh ind i n r e a d i n g achievement. Mathematics and o t h e r c u r r i c u l a r a rea s a re a l s o p rov ided f o r . When f e a s i b l e , t h e s t uden t i s i n v o l v e d i n an i n t e g r a t i o n program i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c r i t e r i a f o r e n t r y a s d e s c r i b e d i n the S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s Handbook f o l l o w s : 31 C r i t e r i a f o r E n t r y - G e n e r a l l y speak ing the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a w i l l determine a p p r o p r i a t e p lacements : 1. C h r o n o l o g i c a l age 10 y e a r s o r ove r . 2. A t l e a s t two t o t h r e e yea r s beh ind i n r ead ing achievement. 3» Average o r above average a b i l i t y . 4. No extreme s o c i a l - emot iona l behav i o r problems. A d i s t r i c t c o u n s e l l o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the educa t i ona l assessment o f r e f e r r a l s b e f o r e en t r y i n t o the c l a s s . Extended assessment as r e q u i r e d i n c l ude s m e d i c a l , v i s i o n , speech, h e a r i n g and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The average age o f t h e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s tudents i n v o l v e d i n the study on Janua ry 1, 1983» was 9 y e a r s 11 months. The range was from 9 years 2 months t o 12 yea r s 3 months. The p r o p o r t i o n o f males t o females was 7 t o 5« The s c h o o l where the s tudy was conducted i s w e l l - e q u i p p e d . I t p rov ides e d u c a t i o n f o r 3^0 s tudent s from k i nde r ga r t en through grades one t o seven. I n a d d i t i o n , an assessment c e n t r e and s p e c i a l c l a s s a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e s choo l p r o v i d i n g f o r the needs o f s tudents r e q u i r i n g shor t term i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. S p e c i a l c l a s s s tudents e i t h e r walk o r a re bused, ( o f the 12 s t uden t s 5 a r e bused) . S e l e c t i o n o f T e s t s Reading i s a complex b e h a v i o r c ompr i s i n g o f numerous s k i l l s . Reading s u b t e s t s , f o r example, a s s e s s o r a l r e a d i n g sheets , comprehension s k i l l s , wo rd - a t t a c k s k i l l s , s tudy s k i l l s and r a t e o f r e a d i n g . Fo r the purpose o f t h i s s tudy a v a r i e t y o f s ub te s t s and r e a d i n g 32 tests were used to assess word and analysis skills "because different authors approach the task of assessing word analysis skills differently. Materials which assess skills in word analysis vary considerably, for example tests which assess sk i l l s in associating letters with sound are of the form that the child must identify the word. The words are not basic sight words, and the child must rely on word analysis skills to read the words. The Durell Analysis of Reading Difficulty and the Roswell-Chall illustrate this method. The Roswell-Chall also contains consonants, vowels, and consonant clusters which the child must identify. The word attack subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test assesses ability to use phonic and structural analysis s k i l l s in the identification of non-sense words. The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test measures blending by presenting alternative beginning, middle and ending sounds from which the child i s required to produce a word. The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test also assesses syllabication ability and the use of prefixes, root words and blends. In summary, using test items from four different tests of word analysis skills assessment of the following skills was possible: Recognition of words in isolation; Identification of root words; Skill in separating words into syllables; Skill in synthesizing or blending words; Skill in distinguishing beginning sounds; Skill in distinguishing ending sounds; Skill in distinguishing vowel and consonant sounds. 33 These t e s t s are widely used i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r school d i s t r i c t and scores from these measures are considered to represent as accurately as possible a c h i l d s ' a b i l i t y to apply word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . The Measuring Instruments The major t e s t i n g instruments used i n t h i s study i s a s t r a t i f i e d sample of 80 items taken from a pool of items which make up four t e s t s of word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . Each s t r a t i f i e d sample contained one quarter of the t o t a l number of t e s t items from each t e s t or subtest selected f o r use i n t h i s study. By administering a d i f f e r e n t sample of questions f o r each t e s t i n g session the e f f e c t of p r a c t i c e was eliminated. A - D u r r e l l Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y The D u r r e l l Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y provides an exce l l e n t opportunity f o r an experienced reading teacher to observe d i f f i c u l t i e s i n word re c o g n i t i o n and o r a l reading. The c h e c k l i s t of er r o r s i s the best a v a i l a b l e Robinson (1953)* Check l i s t s and t e s t s i t u a t i o n s are provided f o r three l e v e l s of reading: 1. Non-reader; 2. Primary grade reading l e v e l ; 3* Intermediate grade reading l e v e l . The subtest "Word Recognition and Word A n a l y s i s " was used f o r t h i s study. Materials provided are word cards and tachistoscope, a l i s t f o r 34 grade one, and another f o r grades 2 to 6. Both word l i s t s were used f o r the s tudy t o cove r the wide range o f s t uden t s ' a b i l i t y . Separate norms and check l i s t s a re a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s . From the t o t a l o f 40 i t ems f o r grade 1, and 5° i tems f o r g rades 2 - 6 a v a i l a b l e , a s t r a t i f i e d sample o f 23 words was gathered randomly f o r each t e s t s i t u a t i o n . The s u b t e s t , Word A n a l y s i s , p rov ide s a raw s co re which can be c o n -v e r t e d t o grade s co re s . There i s no r epo r t ed da ta on the na tu re o f the p o p u l a t i o n on which the D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s o f Reading D i f f i c u l t y was s t anda rd i zed o r ev idence o f v a l i d i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y i n the t e s t manual. B - R o s w e l l - C h a l l D i a gno s t i c Reading Te s t o f Word A n a l y s i s S k i l l s T h i s i s a t e s t of word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . These s k i l l s a re presented i n the o rde r i n which they a r e u s u a l l y taught : s i n g l e consonants , consonant comb ina t i on s , s h o r t vowel s , r u l e o f s i l e n t e , vowel combinat ions and s y l l a b i c a t i o n . "The major v a l ue o f t h i s t e s t i s t o p o i n t out c h i l -d r e n ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs i n word a n a l y s i s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f age, grade p lacement, o r s i l e n t r e a d i n g l e v e l " (Manual o f I n s t r u c t i o n s , p . l ) . I t was des igned f o r c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g a t app rox imate l y 2nd t o 6th grade l e v e l . Two e q u i v a l e n t forms o f t h e - t e s t a r e a v a i l a b l e . - - — R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y d a t a a re a v a i l a b l e . C o r r e l a t i o n between the t o t a l s c o re s o f Forms 1 and 2 was found t o be .98 f o r a sample of 52 c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g r emed i a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , (average r e a d i n g 35 l e v e l of 4.3). F o r the same s u b j e c t s , sub te s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were r epo r ted t o range from .78 t o .99« R e l i a b i l i t y appears adequate ( C h a l l 1958). Normative data a re not g i v e n . The t e s t i s s i m i l a r t o i n f o r m a l i n v e n t o r i e s o f word r e c o g n i t i o n s k i l l s used by many educato r s . A s t r a t i f i e d sample o f 50 i t ems from a t o t a l o f 198 i tems from both forms I and I I were adm in i s t e r ed a t each t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . C - S tanford D i agno s t i c Read ing T e s t The S tan fo rd D i a g n o s t i c Read ing Te s t (SDRT) measures s p e c i f i c r ead ing s k i l l s i n f o u r domains: decod ing , vocabu la r y , comprehension and r a t e . There a r e f o u r o v e r l a p p i n g l e v e l s o f the t e s t , w i t h two p a r -a l l e l forms (A and B) a t each l e v e l . The SDRT was s t a n d a r i z e d and i s r e l i a b l e enough t o be used i n p i n p o i n t i n g s p e c i f i c domains o f r e a d i n g i n which p u p i l s demonstrate s k i l l development s t r eng th s and weaknesses, ( S a l v i a & Ys se ldyke 1981). C r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e . C o r r e l a t i o n s range from • 6 l and .98 on the Red and Green l e v e l s which a re a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s f o r the p u p i l s o f t h i s s tudy . Two t ypes o f r e l i a b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n a re a v a i l a b l e f o r SDRT: r e l i a b i l i t y o f raw s co re s , ( i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s exceed .90, a l t e r n a t e f o r m r e l i k b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .75 t o .94) and r e l i a b i l i t y o f P rog re s s I n d i c a t o r s ( t a b l e s p rov ided i n the Manual). 36 The s k i l l domain "Decod ing " c on t a i n s two s u b t e s t s : Phonet ic A n a l y s i s and S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s . Phone t i c a n a l y s i s i s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sounds and l e t t e r " , (Manual f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g and I n t e r p r e t i n g , p.23). The Phone t i c A n a l y s i s s ub te s t assesses the students* a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y l e t t e r - s o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s ub te s t i s i nc luded i n a l l f o u r l e v e l s . The S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s subtes t i s i n c l uded i n the Green, Brown, and B lue l e v e l s . Items as sess s k i l l i n the use of s y l l a b l e s , p r e f i x e s , r o o t words and b l end s . Red l e v e l , Test J: P a r t 1 and 2 y i e l d two s c o r e s , a vowel s co re and a consonant s co re . A s t r a t i f i e d sample o f one q u a r t e r o f the t e s t i tems f o r each l e v e l was used f o r each t e s t i n g d a t e . D - Woodcock Reading Mastery The Woodcock Reading Mastery Tes t s a r e a b a t t e r y o f f i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y admin i s te red t e s t s used t o a s se s s s k i l l development i n r ead i n g w i t h s t u -dents i n k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade 12. Two forms o f t he t e s t a re a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r changeab le a t any l e v e l . The Word A t t a c k s ub te s t c o n t a i n s 50 i t ems which measure a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y nonsense words through a p p l i c a t i o n o f phonic and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . Items a r e a r ranged i n o r de r o f d i f f i c u l t y . A t the l ower end:of the t e s t the nonsense words a r e s imp le consonant-vowel o r consonant-vowel-consonant comb inat ions : m u l t i s y l l a b i c words a re presented a t the upper end o f t h e t e s t . Represented w i t h i n the s e t o f nonsense words are most consonant and vowel sounds, common p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s , and f r e q u e n t l y appea r i ng i r r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g o f vowels and consonants. 37 The f i v e s u b t e s t s a r e l e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , word a t t a c k , word comprehension, and passage comprehension. Three est imated grade s co re s a r e a v a i l a b l e . R e l i a b i l i t y d a t a a re p rov i ded but i t i s l i m i t e d ; o n l y s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r forms A and B f o r seconrl-grade and seventh-grade p o p u l a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t he Wood-cock manual bu t c o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g s i n ce the p r e t e s t s a re no t i d e n t i c a l w i t h the f i n a l f o rms . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s a r e adequate. Ev idence f o r the v a l i d i t y o f the t e s t i s s pa r ce . The Word A t t a c k Te s t measures the s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y nonsense words th rough t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f phon ic and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s s k i l l s , (Manual f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . Te s t i n g P rocedures Approva l f o r conduc t i n g the s tudy was ob ta i ned from the s choo l d i s t r i c t and the p r i n c i p a l o f t he s choo l i n which the s p e c i a l c l a s s was l o c a t e d . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , pa ren t consent forms and i n f o r m a t i o n sheets were sent t o the pa ren t s o f each c h i l d i n the s p e c i a l c l a s s . Te s t i n g was begun the f i r s t week o f Feb rua r y , 1983 and was cont inued on a weekly b a s i s f o r t he d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t udy . Dur ing t he 21 weeks o f the study t he group o f t e s t i tems was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r o r teacher a i d e t o a l l s tudent s i n the s p e c i a l c l a s s t a k i n g p a r t i n the study. These measures o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s no t on l y ensured t h a t the r e q u i r e d da t a would be a v a i l a b l e on the s tudent s who were s ub -j e c t s f o r t he s t udy ; b u t i t a l s o p rov ided a measure which cou l d be used t o eva luate each s t u d e n t ' s word a n a l y s i s a b i l i t y . The t e s t i n g was thus cons idered a s p a r t o f t h e s choo l program. 38 Individual testing sessions lasted approximately 10 minutes each and were conducted i n a quiet corner of the classroom usually by the teacher aide. A l l scoring was double checked by the investigator or teacher aide after testing had been completed. The children were tested i n an essentially randomized order on an individual basis. There was no fixed time set aside i n the school day for testing. The tester selected the students when they appeared to have completed assignments or were not attending to some seat work. Responses were always verbal and when required, the child would point to the correct response. Directions for administration of each of the tests were followed to ensure that tests were administered i n the same way to each student. It should be noted that for each testing session tests were given in a fixed order. Care was taken to ensure that the testing times were not too long. Experimental Design To test the hypothesis, a single case time-series experimental design was used. The number of children involved i n the study could be considered smaller than i s optimal for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. However, factors support the sample size as being appropriate. The single case experimental design i s appropriate for learning disabled children who are unique i n their background, functional levels and capabilities. Also, the individual i s of the greatest importance i n studying behavior change, therefore the single-case methodology i s appropriate, (Hersen & 39 Barlow, 1976). An ABAB d e s i g n was implemented t o examine the e f f e c t s o f the t r e a t -ment program. S imp ly , the A phase i s the b a s e l i n e c o n d i t i o n when no treatment program i s be i n g conducted. In t h i s phase d i r e c t measurement of word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s was recorded once a week be fo re t reatment was implemented. In t h i s way we had da t a on the p re sen t l e v e l o f the s t uden t ' s a b i l i t y t o use word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s and i t was p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t what t he f u t u r e l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g would be i f no t reatment program was implemented. The B phase - i s the t reatment program. In the B phase the independent v a r i a b l e , s ucce s s i ve p r o ce s s i n g was i n t roduced. Cont inuous assessment p rov ided the s e v e r a l ob se r va t i on s over time needed t o make a comparison o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s be f o re and a f t e r treatment. Care was taken t o change on l y one v a r i a b l e , - t h e s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y t o use s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y . The a f f e c t s o f the treatment "program a r e man i f e s t i f performance improves d u r i n g both o f the B phases. The t h i r d and f o u r t h phases o f the de s i g n p rov ided more c e r t a i n t y about t he r o l e o f s ucce s s i ve p r o ce s s i n g i n a f f e c t i n g word a t t a ck s k i l l s . The ABAB d e s i g n p rov ided a comparison o f phases and an i n d i c a t i o n of performance a l t e r e d by i n t e r v e n t i o n . The premise was t h a t i f a c h i l d ' s word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s change when a program aimed a t improv ing the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use s u c ce s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s i n t r oduced and s t a b i l i z e a f t e r the i n t e r v e n t i o n i s withdrawn and a ga i n improve when the program i s r e i n s t a t e d , the p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t he i n t e r v e n t i o n 4 0 i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r change. The program was a d m i n i s t e r e d d a i l y on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s f o r 6 weeks f o r each o f the B phases, t o 6 members o f the c l a s s o f 12 l e a r n i n g d i s ab l ed s tudent s . The 6 c h i l d r e n represented each o f the f o u r a b i l i t y groups w i t h i n the c l a s s r oom. S t r a t i f i e d sampl ing assured t h a t each group i s r ep re sen ted . S tudent s f rom each o f the a b i l i t y groups were randomly s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t reatment program. Those s tudents not i n vo l v ed i n the t rea tment program r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n from the r e g u l a r r e a d i n g program (Keytext Reading Program). In t h i s way, a l l s tudents r e c e i v e d some a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The I n t e r v e n t i o n Program A s e r i e s of t a s k s , the d e s c r i p t i o n o f which f o l l o w s , was used on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . In g e n e r a l , t he c h i l d r e n were guided i n approach ing the t a s k s a t hand and encouraged t o v e r b a l i z e the use o f s u c c e s s i v e p roce s s i ng . The method o f t r a i n i n g was cons idered more impor tan t than the a c t u a l content o f t h e t a s k s used f o r t r a i n i n g , (Kaufman & Kaufman 1979) because v e r b a l i z a t i o n - can i n d i c a t e no t on l y the s t r a t e g y b e i n g used but can a l s o r e g u l a t e subsequent a c t i o n s . Dur ing each s e s s i o n the c h i l d was encouraged t o v e r b a l i z e the s t r a t e g i e s and g i v e a v e r b a l summary. A t the beg inn ing o f each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n the c h i l d was asked through d i r e c t que s t i on i ng t o rev iew the s t r a t e g i e s i n t r oduced i n p r e v i ou s s e s s i o n s . The t a s k s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n program were s e l e c t e d acco rd ing t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o s u c c e s s i v e t a s k s . They a r e no t c o m p l i -cated t o produce o r use and a r e e a s i l y adaptab le f o r use i n the c l a s s room. A l s o , they do not r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o any academic a rea o f s choo l l e a r n i n g . kl It i s realized that i t i s nearly impossible to devise training tasks that are exclusively successive} however, the tasks involved successive pro-cessing as much as possible. Sequence Story Boards Instructors Ac t i v i ty K i t : Let ' s Learn Sequence contains separate stories, each having 6 removable pictures that could be arranged to t e l l a story. Generally, the procedure was simply to place the pictures in a random order in front of the ch i ld and instruct him to arrange them so they would t e l l a "good" story. When th is was completed, the chi ld was to t e l l the story, picture by picture, paying attention to the detai ls in each picture. As he told the story, the inconsistencies in his arrangement were pointed out, and he was given time to correct them. If the chi ld was having d i f f i c u l t y , the minimum amount of necessary help was given. For instance, he might be asked to point out the f i r s t picture in the story, and i f he could not do so af ter a reasonable time, i t was shown to him. I f i t was obvious the chi ld was having considerable d i f f i cu l t y , the pictures were grouped into three p i les , one for each row, with the correct pictures for that row in each pole, but in rand on order. The purpose of th i s procedure was to give the chi ld practice i n ordering data into sequential forms by paying attention to v isual deta i l s . Included in this was the necessity for the chi ld to attempt at least some verbalization. The task was expected to augment verbal mediation in ser ia l izat ion. 42 S e r i a l R e c a l l Th i s i n t e r v e n t i o n ta sk had two p a r t s . I n the f i r s t , 12 common ob--j e c t s were l a i d on the t a b l e and the c h i l d was i n s t r u c t e d to name them. Any name the c h i l d gave was accepted . These were then p laced i n a box, and the c h i l d was asked t o r e c a l l as many a s he c o u l d . I f he d i d not remember a l l 12 , t he omi t ted ob j e c t s were a l l p l a c e d on the t a b l e , and the c h i l d s t ud i ed them once more. He was a g a i n asked t o r e c a l l them. Th i s procedure was repeated u n t i l he c ou l d r e c a l l a l l 12 o b j e c t s . I n the second p a r t , 12 d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s were used from a commerc ia l l y a v a i l a b l e k i t c a l l e d I n s t r u c t o r A c t i v i t y K i t : The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Game. As be fo re , they were l a i d on the t a b l e f o r the c h i l d t o name, but now he was asked to put them i n t o p i l e s t h a t were " t h e same" i n some way. I f he d i d not under s tand , some guidance was g i v e n . U s u a l l y the o b j e c t s were grouped acco rd i ng t o c o l o r , m a t e r i a l , shape o r f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . Th i s was done t o encourage the c h i l d t o use g roup ing s t r a t e g i e s i n r e c a l l . The ta sk then con t i nued as i n the f i r s t p a r t . Short - term memory i s thought t o be one o f t h e pr imary a b i l i t i e s needed f o r i n t e l l i g e n t thought and r e a s o n i n g , (Jensen I969) and f o r t h i s reason r e ce i ved a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f a t t e n t i o n i n the r emed ia l program. Th i s ta sk should improve scores on the WISC D i g i t Span and the o the r measures o f s h o r t - t e r m memory. Coding In t h i s t a s k t he c h i l d f i r s t underwent a s m a l l t r a i n i n g s e r i e s o f hand and knee " c l a p s " i n which he f o l l o w e d the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s movements. 43 Th i s was done t o f a m i l i a r i z e the c h i l d w i t h the t a s k and i n t r oduce the two necessary movements: c l a p p i n g the hands toge the r and s l a p p i n g both hands on the knees. The movements were done i n a rhythmic f a s h i o n , u s i n g pa t t e r n s s i m i l a r t o those i n t h e CMC t e s t . When the c h i l d was a b l e t o copy the i n s t r u c t o r ' s movements, he was i n t roduced t o the cards on which these movements were coded by d o t s and squares: a d o t f o r a hand c l a p and a square f o r a " knee c l a p " . The s e r i e s began w i t h s imple pa t t e r n s and proceeded t o more comp l i c a ted ones. Some p a t t e r n s a re shown below: F i g . 1. Some t y p i c a l " c l a p p i n g " p a t t e r n s . I f he d i d i t i n c o r r e c t l y , he was asked t o do i t a g a i n , up t o a maximum of t h ree t r i a l s . He then proceeded t o a new c a r d . When the s e r i e s was complete, the ca rd s were i n v e r t e d , hav i ng the e f f e c t o f r e v e r s i n g each c a r d . The purpose o f t h i s t a s k was t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , i t p rov ided p r a c t i c e i n v i s u a l - a u d i t o r y ( k i n e s t h e t i c ) c ross -modal cod ing . Second, i t encour -aged the use o f symbo l i c med i a t i on and rhythm which a r e thought t o c o n s t i t u t e p roces ses nece s sa r y i n r e a d i n g . Th i s i n t e r v e n t i o n dev i c e was (a) • • • • (d) 0 9 • # @ 4 4 aimed primarily at the CMC test hut, as rhythm i s important to many processes, i t may have more general implications. Matrix Serialization This training series had two parts, d i f f e r i n g mainly in d i f f i c u l t y , and presented on different occasions. Task I. The i n i t i a l six training series were constructed i n a way that they would establish a consistent pattern. I n i t i a l l y , a simple matrix was devised (Figure 5)• n 2 3 4 5 Fig. 2 . A simple matrix This matrix was broken down into i t s fiv e component parts, each part being presented singly on a separate page as i n Figure 6. Fig. 3 * Component matrices 45 Each mat r i x was presented s e p a r a t e l y i n the order shown and the c h i l d was expected t o read the numbers out l oud as they appeared. When a l l f i v e m a t r i c e s were shown, he was expected t o repeat the e n t i r e s e r i e s o f numbers. I f he f a i l e d t o do so , he was shown the complete mat r i x ( F i g u re 5) and then asked to read i t and then r e c a l l i t . The l a t t e r p a r t o f the procedure was repeated a maximum o f t h ree t ime s . When he c ou l d r epea t i t c o r r e c t l y , he was asked t o w r i t e i t down. Task I I . The second ta sk was s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t except t h a t i t was more d i f f i c u l t and was p resented d u r i n g a d i f f e r e n t t ime i n the r emed ia l program. I t c on s i s t ed o f 12 d i f f e r e n t ma t r i ce s which were r ead ; repeated and w r i t t e n down. I t was observed d u r i n g i n i t i a l t e s t i n g t h a t the c h i l d r e n d i d not have c o n s i s t e n t s e a r c h / r e c a l l p a t t e r n s . Consequent ly, they made many mi s takes i n s e r i a l p o s i t i o n r e c a l l . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s was one o f the reasons these c h i l d r e n were hav i ng d i f f i c u l t y r e ad i n g and comprehending v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Con s i s t en t v i s u a l s t r a t e g i e s a re r e q u i r e d by many p e r c e p t u a l t a s k s . A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and D i g i t Span The a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e p a r t s admin i s te red c o n s e c u t i v e l y i n one day and con ta i ned a l l o f the d i f f e r e n t words used i n the S e r i a l L ea rn i n g t e s t . The f i r s t t a s k s e r i e s used the words cow, pen, few, day, book, b a r , w a l l , ho t and key . The words were read one a t a t ime and the requi rement was a s imp le r e p e t i t i o n . I f a mis take was made, the word was r epea ted . 46 The second p a r t was s t r u c t u r e d t o encourage the use o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n memory. The words b i g , l o n g , g r e a t , t a l l , f a t , w ide, huge, h i g h , l a r ge were r e a d one a t a t ime and the c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o t h i n k o f a word (o r o b j e c t ) t h a t cou l d be d e s c r i b e d by the s t imu lu s word. When the l i s t was comp le ted , i t was read a ga i n one word a t a t ime and the c h i l d was asked t o r e p e a t the word (o r o b j e c t ) he o r i g i n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Th i s was done a maximum o f two t ime s . The t h i r d p a r t c o n s i s t e d of t he words from the a c o u s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r s e c t i on o f t h e t e s t : man, mad, mat, c a t , cab, cap, can, pan, map, t a p . These words were read one a t a t ime and the c h i l d was asked t o w r i t e the word down and t hen t o draw a p i c t u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the word. I f the c h i l d d i d not w r i t e t h e word c o r r e c t l y , i t was r epea ted . I f the e r r o r p e r s i s t e d , h i s mistake was c o r r e c t e d and he was g i v en some h e l p by example. The purpose o f t h i s t a s k was t o encourage the use of v i s u a l symbolism i n aud i t o r y t a s k s . I n g e n e r a l , the purpose o f these ta sk s was t o p re sen t a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r use i n s e r i a l memory. The d i g i t span t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f s e r i e s o f random numbers from th ree to e i gh t d i g i t s i n l e n g t h . The d i g i t s were read i n such a way a s t o group them i n i t i a l l y i n t o groups o f t h r e e . The c h i l d then repeated them, u s u a l l y adopt ing t h e g r oup i n g s t r a t e g y . As he progressed through each s e r i e s , grouping was f aded out i n the s t imu l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n . The c h i l d g e n e r a l l y r e t a i ned h i s g r o u p i n g s t r a t e g y . I f he d i d no t , the n o t i o n o f g roup ing was r e i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s proceeded from s e r i e s o f t h r ee numbers t o as many 47 as the child could remember. The task was continued until the grouping strategy was firmly established. This grouping strategy was intended to improve auditory discrimination and short-term memory as measured by the WISC Digit Span and Serial Learning Test. The purpose of this task was to introduce a grouping strategy into memory. These tasks were a l l done individually or with a small group of 2 or 3 children. In general, the children were encouraged to use verbal mediation and were encouraged to verbalize their thinking. At a l l times the researcher attempted to encourage the use of appropriate strategies and to lead the learning tasks in such a way as to point out how these strategies were used in the solution of the problem. 48 CHAPTER 5 R e s u l t s A n a l y s i s o f Data The e v a l u a t i o n o f da ta was through v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n i s c r i t i c a l i n s i n g l e - c a s e expe r imenta l r e sea rch . A major purpose o f cont inuous measurement over t ime i s t o a l l o w the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o see changes i n the data as a f u n c t i o n o f s t a b l e pa t te rn s o f performance w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , ( K a z d i n , 1 9 8 2 ) . V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t he d a t a from measurements o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i s d i s p l a y e d g r a p h i c a l l y on a l i n e graph. In t h i s way the da ta can be e a s i l y e v a l u a t e d . B a s i c a l l y , the da ta on the dependent measure, word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s a r e p l o t t e d on the o rd i na te o r v e r t i c a l a x i s and the data a re p l o t t e d over t ime , r ep re sen ted by the a b s c i s s a o r h o r i z o n t a l a x i a . The l i n e graph a l l o w s f o r t he easy examinat ion o f changes i n means, l e v e l s and t r end s a c r o s s phases and the r a p i d i t y o f changes i n performance when expe r imenta l c o n d i t i o n s change. Re su l t s C h i l d r e n were t e s t e d u s i n g measures o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s on a weekly b a s i s d u r i n g each o f t h e f o u r phases o f the s tudy. Re su l t s o f the word a n a l y s i s t e s t i n g f o r the group r e c e i v i n g e x t r a read ing i n s t r u c t i o n and the group r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f o l l o w s : Con t ro l Group 49 Subject 1, (Age: 10 yrs. 4 mos., male). Scores on the most recent aptitude test were, WISC-R: Verbal 84, Performance 108, F u l l scale 94. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis revealed the following relationships. Table 1 Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases *1 B„ 1.20 1.78 .49 .51* *p< .05 5 0 Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r ead ing i n s t r u c t i o n - Sub ject 1 S 7 0 6 0 5 0 * » 0 3 0 2 0 Bl A2 B2 SESSIONS F i g . 4. Extraneous f a c t o r s which may have a f f e c t e d performance f o r t h i s c h i l d was h i s be ing taken o f f med ica t i on d u r i n g the phase. The a n t i -e p i l e p t i c med ica t i on appeared t o " s l o w down" t h i s s tudent g e n e r a l l y . H i s work h a b i t s improved when the med ica t ion was withdrawn which happened d u r i n g the course o f the s tudy . 51 Subject 2, (Age 11 yrs. 9 mos., female). Scores on the most recent aptitude tests were, WISC-R: Verbal 76, Performance 98, Full scale indicates Average and lower end of range. Statistical analysis revealed the following relationships: Table II Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases V 1.76 2.96* .36 1.07 *P < . 0 5 5 2 Data for subjects receiving extra reading instruction - Subject 2 3 H §3 7 0 1 6 0 5 0 *i0 3 0 2 0 1 0 *2 SESSIONS Fig. 5 -Extraneous factors which may have affected performance for this child in a positive way was that for the last two phases the family was receiving counselling and i t was observed that within the classroom the student's performance improved. 5 3 Subject 3 i (Age: 1 2 yrs. 9 mos., female). Scores on the most recent aptitude tests were, WISC-R: Verbal 7 4 , Performance 88, Full Scale 80. Sta t i s t i c a l analysis revealed the following relationships: Table III Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases B, B. - . 2 0 2 . 4 5 * • 5 8 2 . 0 2 * * P<; . 0 5 5 ^ Data f o r s ub jec t s r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n - Subject 3 7 0 6 0 5 0 40 3 0 2 0 H E H 1 0 C O Bl A 2 B 2 F i g . 6. SESSIONS Th i s p a r t i c u l a r student had e x c e l l e n t work h a b i t s , she had the a b i l i t y t o app l y h e r s e l f t o any t a s k g i v e n h e r . She cou ld be cons idered a slow l e a r n e r , not a l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d . Her ga in s i n t e s t scores r e f l e c t t h i s . 55 Subject 4, (Age: 10 yrs. 0 mos., female). Scores on the most recent aptitude tests were Slosson IQ 101, WISC-R 8 l . Statistical analysis revealed the following relationships: Table IV Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases B, B„ 1.66 1.39 2.12* .82 *v< .05 SESSIONS Fig. 7-57 Subject 5? (Age: 11 yrs. 0 mos., male). Scores on the most recent aptitude tests were Slosson 93• Statistical analysis revealed the following relationships: Table V Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases •-1.30 .82 Note for this student testing on measures of word analysis skills was not completed as an integration program was in progress during the last phases of the study. 5 3 59 Subject 6, (Age: 11 yrs. 0 mos., male). Scores on the most recent aptitude test were Canadian Cognitive 87 IQ, Peabody Picture Vocabulary IQ 104. Statistical analysis revealed the following relationships: Table VI Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases *1 *2 1.61 .16 Note that for this student testing on measures of word analysis skills was not completed as an integration program was in progress during the last phases of the study. SESSIONS Fig. 9 6l The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were d e r i v e d f o r the exper imenta l group. Exper imenta l Group: Sub jec t 1, (Age: 10 y r s . 8 mos., ma l e ) . The most r e c e n t a p t i t u d e t e s t y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g s co re , WISC-R: Ve rba l 98, Performance 95, F u l l S ca l e 96. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Tab le V I I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases B, B„ *1 2.31* 1.75* 1.99* 1.52 * p < .05 The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n found f o r A^B^, A^B 2 and A 2 B ^ supported the h ypo the s i s . 62 The data on this particular student were considered to he an accurate representation of the affects of the treatment program. 6 3 Subject 2 , (Age: 1 1 y r s . 3 mos., ma le ) . The most r e cen t a p t i t u d e t e s t y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g s c o r e s , WISC-R: Ve rba l 78, Performance 9 2 , F u l l S ca le 84. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Tab le V I I I C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases " 1 2 . 1 8 * 2 . 8 7 * 2 . 7 7 * 2 . 7 0 * * P < . 0 5 The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n found f o r A . ^ , A^Bg, A 2 B ] L and A 2 B 2 supported the hypo the s i s . The d a t a on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent were cons idered to be an a c cu ra te r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the a f f e c t s o f t he t reatment program. SESSIONS Fig. 11 65 Subject 3 . (Age: 9 y r s . 8 mos., f ema le ) . The most r e c e n t a p t i t u d e t e s t y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g s c o r e , WISC-R: Verba l 8 0 , Performance 7 5 , F u l l Sca le 7 1 • S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e vea l ed the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i b n s h i p s : Tab le IX C o r r e l a t i o n of Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases *1 - . 0 6 1 . 6 7 - 1 . 2 0 2 . 4 3 * * p < . 0 5 The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n found f o r A^Bg supported the hypo the s i s . The da ta c o l l e c t e d on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent was a f f e c t e d by extraneous f a c t o r s . Th i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent s u f f e r s from f requen t f a m i l y upset s which a f f e c t he r academic performance, o v e r a l l . SESSIONS Fig. 12 67 Subject 4, (Age: 11 y r s . 1 mos., f e m a l e ) . The most r e cen t a p t i t u d e t e s t y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g s co re , ITPA: 2 - 2-| yea r s de l a y i n a l l a rea s o f language. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Table X C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases 1.63 2.63* -.66 •77 * p <J . 0 5 The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n found f o r A - j ^ s u p p o s e d the hypo the s i s . Th i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent has emot iona l problems which a f f e c t performance. The da ta c o l l e c t e d on t h i s s tudent a re no t con s i de red t o a c c u r a t e l y r ep re sen t the a f f e c t s o f the t reatment program. 68 Data for subjects receiving treatment program - Subject k 7 0 0 SESSIONS Fig. 13 69 Sub jec t 5» (Ages 11 y r s . 11 mos., ma le ) . The most r e c e n t a p t i t u d e t e s t y i e l d s the f o l l o w i n g s co re s , WISC-R: Ve rba l 106, Performance 105, F u l l s c a l e IO5. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Table XI C o r r e l a t i o n o f Word A n a l y s i s Scores Between Phases *1 *2 B, 2.27* 2.87* .49 1.65* * p < .05 The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n found f o r A-^ B-^, A^B 2 and b-^S^ supported the h y p o t h e s i s . The da t a c o l l e c t e d on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent was con s ide red t o be an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t he a f f e c t s o f the t reatment program. 71 Subject 6 , (Age: 10 yrs. 11 mos., male). The most recent aptitude testing for this child yielded the following scores, WISC-R: F u l l Scale 9 6 . S t a t i s t i c a l analysis reveals the following relationships: Table XII Correlation of Word Analysis Scores Between Phases n l B. -.20 1.91* • 78 .14 *p< . 0 5 The significant positive correlation found for A^B2 supported the hypothesis. This particular student i s immature and appears to have severe emotional problems which affect performance. His parents have recently separated. 73 From the discussion of the results and extraneous factors which may have affected student performance i t i s clear that some students may not have been appropriate subjects. For example, subjects 1, 2 and 5 presented a more clear representation of the effects of the treatment program. They could be considered model students because no severe psychological encumbrances affected their performance. It was interesting to note that during administration of the auditory discrimination task many children found i t difficult to think of words for objects that could be described by the adjectives presented. These particular children seemingly understood the words but could not apply the concept. Admittedly, the process is the reverse of the usual order of the adjective-noun; however, i t seemed unusually diff icult for these children. Summary of Combined Groups Statistical analysis for the control group revealed the following overall pattern of results: the data show a steady increase in word analysis ski l l s . Although the experimental design for the present study was single case research i t is important to observe the trends in the combined groups. Tables XIII and XIV demonstrate the overall patterns and gains for the group receiving treatment. It was hypothesized that performance on tests of word analysis ski l ls would show greater improvement for the group of subjects receiving a treatment program aimed at improving the appropriate use of successive 7 4 proces s i ng s t r a t e g i e s . V a r i a b i l i t y i n the data c o l l e c t e d f o r each phase o f the study i s eva luated r e l a t i v e t o changes i n s l ope from one phase o f the experiment t o another . The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s found (Table X I I I and XIV) support t he h ypo the s i s . A n a l y s i s o f t he da ta r e v e a l s the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the da t a c o l l e c t e d on the exper imenta l group r e v e a l e d d i f f e r -ent pa t te rn s from the da ta c o l l e c t e d on the c o n t r o l group. A n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d f o r the c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c rea se i n word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s between b a s e l i n e scores and the scores c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t phase i n v o l v i n g e x t r a r ead i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Fo r s ub jec t 4 the re was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s co re s o f word a n a l y s i s t e s t s between the f i r s t t reatment phase and the second no- t reatment phase. Between the two t reatment phases Ag and B^ t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n scores f o r s ub jec t J. A n a l y s i s o f s co re s o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e f o r s u b j e c t s 2 and 3 between the f i r s t b a s e l i n e phase.and the f i n a l t reatment phase. Fo r the exper imenta l group the a n a l y s i s o f da ta c o l l e c t e d f o r f i r s t b a s e l i n e scores and the f i r s t t r e a t -ment phase i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r ea s e f o r s u b j e c t 1 , 2 and 5 . A n a l y s i s o f the da t a c o l l e c t e d f o r s u b j e c t 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c rea se between the f i r s t t rea tment phase and the second no- t reatment phase. Between the two t rea tment phases and the re i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r ea se i n s co re s f o r 2 and 3 » A n a l y s i s o f scores o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e f o r s ub jec t s 2 , 4 and 5 between the f i r s t b a s e l i n e phase and the f i n a l t reatment phase. 75 Ana l y s i s r e v e a l s a p l a t e a u w i t h i n the no- t reatment phases A^ and and an i nc rea se i n s co re s f o r the t reatment phases f o r the exper imenta l group. Th is t r e n d would i n d i c a t e t h a t the t reatment program account s f o r ga ins i n s c o r e s o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s . Th i s t rend i s no t a s obvious f o r the c o n t r o l group. V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f the graphs o f t he r e s u l t s and the g r e a t e r o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s i n s co re s f o r the t reatment group support t he h ypo the s i s o f the p resent s tudy . D i scuss ion The s t r e n g t h o f t he ev idence from the p re sen t study i s based on the a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e sample cases and the a t t r i b u t e s o f the t r ea tmen t . F i r s t , there i s a wide range o f a t t r i b u t e s a c r o s s the 12 sample ca se s . We can i d e n t i f y common a t t r i b u t e s between the sample and o the r l e a r n i n g d i s ab l ed c h i l d r e n . F o r example, s u b j e c t s 1 and 2 were cons ide red t o be more t y p i c a l o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n t h a t t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o b -lems were not a r e s u l t o f severe emot iona l problems and home up se t s . Ana l y s i s o f t he d a t a c o l l e c t e d from the p re sen t study l e d t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : a) the hypo the s i zed outcome o f the t rea tment , i . e . t o improve the use o f appropr ia te s t r a t e g i e s , occur red on a subset o f s tudents r e c e i v i n g treatment and whose problems were no t r e l a t e d t o emot iona l problems and f a m i l y upset s . b) the t reatment program may have been more e f f e c t i v e had i t cont inued f o r a longer p e r i o d o f t i m e . C h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g problems o f t e n 76 require treatment over an extended period of time to improve their learning behavior. In this particular study i t would not be realistic to expect regression within the phase in which the treatment program is with-drawn. Instead, we would expect more of a plateau in the data. The reason being that the treatment is aimed at producing an effect on a behavior, that is a learning strategy. It is not expected that once learned the change in behavior would no longer exist i f the treatment program were withdrawn. Therefore, i t is more realistic to expect a plateau in the data for the B^ phase and not a return to baseline. This would be the case in any behavioral orientated experiment involving remedial programs. 77 TABLE X I I I C Scores C o n t r o l Group Expe r imenta l Group S 2 S 3 s 4 S 6 S l S 2 S 3 4 S 6 .25 .50 -.46 -.34 -.50 .25 .02 .16 -.21 .07 .25 .41 •35 .52 -.06 .49 •38 .47 .68 .64 -.02 .48 .67 -.06 •13 .09 .15 ,55 .21 .04 .52 .72 -.31 -.17 .13 .20 .13 .28 •53 .21 .40 •70 .64 .20 .43 .04 .52 .81 .72 .41 • 31 • 85 .49 • 78 .85 .36 TABLE XIV Z Scores C o n t r o l Group Expe r imenta l Group s l S 2 s 3 s 4 s 5 s 6 S l S 2 S 3 S 4 S 5 S 6 .71 1.41 -1.31 -.97 -1.41 .71 .06 .44 -.60 .20 .71 1.15 * * 1.20 I.76" -.20 1.66 1.30 1.6l *2 .3 l *2 . l8 " -.06 *1.63 *2.27 -.20 .49 .36 .58 *2.12 .82 .16 "1.99*2.77-1.20 -.66 .49 .78 .51 1.07 *2.02 .82 1.52 *2.70 " *2.43 .77 * i .65 .14 * i . 78^*2.96 " *z. 45 ' 1.39 %J5 *2.87 *1.67 *2.63 *2 187 * i . 9 l * p < .05 78 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS D i s cus s i on The purpose 6t3 the p resent study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l of a s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g program aimed a t improv ing the use o f succe s s i ve process ing s t r a t e g i e s t o improve word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s f o r a c l a s s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . The aim was t o l e a r n more about the process o f read ing th rough l e a r n i n g more about the u n d e r l y i n g processes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r ead ing a b i l i t y . The p re sen t s tudy adopts the s imu l taneous - succe s s i ve model o f i n fo rmat ion p r oce s se s . Research (Das, I98O) i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g d i s ab l ed c h i l d r e n have d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the d i f f e r e n c i a l use o f succes s i ve and s imultaneouB s t r a t e g i e s . Fo r t h i s group of c h i l d r e n succe s s i ve p roce s s i ng s k i l l s a re a l s o p o o r l y d i f e r e n -t i a t e d from t h e i r s imultaneous p roce s s i ng s t r a t e g i e s (Krywaniuk, 1974). As a r e s u l t , s u c c e s s i v e s t r a t e g i e s a re o f t e n used i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y . Reading r e q u i r e s s ucce s s i ve p roce s s i n g o f the m a t e r i a l presented even though the concept be ing read i s o f a s imultaneous n a t u r e . Success ive process ing i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r c h i l d r e n who have d i f f i c u l t y i n r ead i ng . Succe s s i ve p roce s s i n g i s c o d i n g ' o f d i s p a r a t e s t i m u l i i n a temporal a r r a y , impos ing an order o r sequence. A c h i l d w i t h poor succes s i ve process ing s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be unable t o i n t e g r a t e i n p u t i n t o i t s s e q u e n t i a l o rder . Th i s e f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o decode words e a s i l y . 79 Thus, the t rea tment program s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s tudy was one t ha t encouraged the a p p r o p r i a t e use o f succe s s i ve p roce s s i ng s t r a t e g i e s . The ta sk s d i d not r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o any academic a rea o f s choo l l e a r n i n g . 12 s t uden t s , a l l members o f a c l a s s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l -dren, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s tudy . Students were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: one group r e c e i v e d the t reatment program, the o the r group r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l read ing i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the same amount o f t ime each day. S i n g l e s u b j e c t research s t r a t e g i e s was s e l e c t e d as the a p p r o p r i a t e method o f s t udy . Performance on t e s t s o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s was eva luated on an i n d i v i d u a l ba s i s f o r each s u b j e c t o f the study every week f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the study. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was conducted on the r e s u l t s f o r each o f t he f ou r phases. Data f o r each s tudent was a l s o d i s p l a y e d on a g raph f o r v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f s co re s f o r the t reatment and no- t reatment group were recorded on a t a b l e so t h a t the two groups cou ld be compared. Fo r the m a j o r i t y o f s tudent s i n the t rea tment group scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r a t t he . 0 5 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t s tudent s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the t reatment program performed b e t t e r on t e s t s o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s than d i d the no - t rea tment group r e c e i v i n g e x t r a read ing i n s t r u c t i o n . These f i n d i n g s l e n t support to the r e s e a r c h hypo the s i s of t h i s s tudy . I t was h ypo the s i zed t h a t f o r a c l a s s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , performance on t e s t s o f word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s would show g r e a t e r improvement f o r the t rea tment group than f o r the group r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g 80 i n s t r u c t i o n . An a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s o f the t e s t s supported t h i s hypothes i s . Re su l t s o f t h i s s tudy a r e congruent w i t h the Kaufman ( l ° 7 8 ) and Krywaniuk (197^) s tudy where in a t reatment program aimed a t improv ing the use o f succes s i ve p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s was s u c c e s s f u l . Success ive p r o c e s s i n g i s c r i t i c a l f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e a d i n g ; e s p e c i a l l y f o r word a n a l y s i s where the ta sk demands r e q u i r e the student t o process i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c s e r i a l o rde r f o r c o r r e c t comp le t i on . The u se f u l ne s s o f a s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g approach has been cha l l enged by i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Mann ( 1 9 7 9 ) que s t i on s the premise t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o g n i t i v e p r o ce s s i n g l e a d s t o an improvement i n academic l e a r n i n g . How-ever , Terrier ( 1 9 7 6 ) s t a t e s t h a t the concept o f c o g n i t i v e p roce s s i n g i s a cornerstone o f the f i e l d o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . The p re sen t study conf i rms the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s approach t o p r ov i de a framework f o r remed ia l t e a c h i n g . Based on the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study a r emed i a l program aimed a t encouraging the use o f s u c c e s s i v e p roce s s i ng s t r a t e g i e s can improve r ead i ng s k i l l s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study Th i s s tudy i s des i gned w i t h some v a r i a t i o n s t o r e p l i c a t e K rywan iuk ' s ( 1 9 7 4 ) s tudy, the main d i f f e r e n c e be i ng t h a t t he s u b j e c t s a re l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h an n a t i v e c h i l d r e n . K r ywan i uk ' s s tudy d i d not prov ide i n f o r m a t i o n on t he p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t he r emed i a l program aimed a t encourag ing t h e use o f succes s i ve p r o c e s s i n g on academic areas 81 of t he c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g . The p re sen t s tudy i n v e s t i g a t e s t h i s i s s ue by measuring r e a d i n g performance, s p e c i f i c a l l y word a n a l y s i s , which i s taught a t the same t ime as a r e g u l a r r e a d i n g program. A l i m i t a t i o n o f the study i s t h a t t he re was no l a t i t u d e i n the s e l e c t i p n o f s t uden t s . The s u b j e c t s a r e s tudents i n a c l a s s f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . Of t h e o r i g i n a l c l a s s o f t h i r t e e n s tudent s , twelve were i n v o l v e d i n the s tudy . One c h i l d was not s e l e c t e d because o f h i s severe emot iona l problems. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he re was no c o n t r o l f o r o the r extraneous c i r cumstances which may have a f f e c t e d the performance o f the rema in ing s u b j e c t s . W i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s , a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n a l s o have l e s s severe s o c i a l and emot iona l problems which i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t performance. In a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s tudy, f a c t o r s which may have i n f l u e n c e d each s u b j e c t s ' performance aite p re sented , (see chapter 5 ) F a c t o r s which have the p o t e n t i a l t o j eopa rd i z e the v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s tudy r e l a t e t o i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . Campbell and S t an l e y ( 1 9 6 3 ) summarize the d i s t i n c t i o n between b o t h . I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s the b a s i c minimum w i t h o u t which any experiment i s u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e : D id i n f a c t the exper imenta l t r ea tment s make a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s s p e c i f i c exper imenta l i n s t ance ? E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y asks the q u e s t i o n o f g e n e r a l -i z a b i l i t y : To what p o p u l a t i o n s , s e t t i n g s , t reatment v a r i a b l e s , and measurement v a r i a b l e s can t h i s e f f e c t be gene ra l i z ed ? ( p . 5 ) -Two extraneous v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s tudy a r e : matu ra t i on and t e s t i n g . Ma tu ra t i on r e f e r s t o processes w i t h i n 82 the respondents o p e r a t i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f the passage o f t i m e . T e s t i n g r e f e r s t o the e f f e c t s t h a t t a k i n g a t e s t w i l l have on the s co re s o f a second t e s t i n g . However, matura t i on and t e s t i n g a re c o n t r o l l e d i n t h a t they would a f f e c t the expe r imenta l and c o n t r o l groups e q u a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , f o r the most p a r t the i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t was not aware o f which s tudents were r e c e i v i n g the t reatment program and which s tudent s were r e c e i v i n g t he a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . A l s o , r andomi za t i on of placement o f s tuden t s i n e i t h e r the c o n t r o l o r exper imenta l group helped t o v a l i d a t e the r e s u l t s . The f o u r phase s i n g l e r e s e a r c h de s i gn r u l e s out a l l t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . The f o u r phase de s i gn d e a l s w i t h i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. F i r s t , the A^BjAgBg des i gn has the p o t e n t i a l to i n d i c a t e r e l i a b l e c o n t r o l o f the dependent v a r i a b l e by the independent v a r i a b l e . B r i e f l y , A^ i n v o l v e s measurement o f the dependent v a r i a b l e (word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s ) over t ime , B^, a p p l i c a t i o n o f the independent v a r i a b l e ( t rea tment program), and w i thdrawa l o f t rea tment and r e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t he expe r imenta l v a r i a b l e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f the exper imenta l v a r i a b l e i s assumed e s t a b l i s h e d i f behav io r changes upon a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e expe r imen ta l v a r i a b l e . Each s u c c e s s f u l r e p l i c a t i o n o f the exper iment i n c r e a s e s the r e l i a b i l i t y . With r e ga rd t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the program f o r l e a r n i n g d i s -ab led c h i l d r e n t h e r e a r e f a c t o r s t o be con s i de red . The program cou l d be used s u c c e s s f u l l y on t he p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d w i t h l e a r n i n g problems t h a t a re p r i m a r i l y t he r e s u l t o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . However, some students have unique a t t r i b u t e s which may be r e l e v a n t . These f a c t o r s w i l l have 83 t o be con s i de red b e f o r e the program can be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y . In t he se ways f a c t o r s j e o p a r d i z i n g e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y w i l l be accounted f o r . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h S e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h e . a r e a o f s t r a t e g y d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r ead i n g problems and the r emed i a t i on and t r a i n i n g o f these s t r a t e g i e s stem from t h i s s t udy . I t has been suggested t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s d i f f e r i n the manner i n which they process i n f o r m a t i o n . Th i s v a r i a t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s should be r e sea r ched f u r t h e r t o c on f i rm which s t r a t e g i e s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g prob lems. Th i s cou ld be a ch i e ved th rough an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t s used t o a s s e s s the c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t he i n d i v i d u a l and h i s r e a d i n g p r o f i l e . In t h i s way we cou ld i d e n t i f y r e a d i n g s k i l l s a t a more s p e c i f i c l e v e l ( e . g . vocabu l a r y , i n f e r e n c i n g , comprehension) which a re i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t p r o ce s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T r a n s f e r i s a key i ^ sue i n s t u d i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . We have not p r o v i d e d d a t a on the degree o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o o t he r a spec t s o f the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r i n s c h o o l . I t would be b e n e f i c i a l t o determine what o t he r academic and perhaps even s o c i a l a r e a s were i n f l u e n c e d by a r emed ia l program aimed a t improv ing the use o f a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e s t a b i l i t y o f the e f f e c t s o f r e m e d i a t i o n and t r a i n -i n g over t i m e i s a l s o r e l e v a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b o t h immediate and l o n g term e f f e c t s on a c h i l d ' s behav i o r f o l l o w i n g a t r ea tment program i s needed. 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aaron, J.E. Roswell-Chall diagnostic reading test of word analysis skills. In O.K. Buros (Ed.), The Sixth Mental Measurements  Yearbook. Highland Park, New Jersey: Gryphon, 1965. Aaronson, D. Temporal course of perception in an immediate recall task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, I968, 7_6, No. 1, 129-140. Adams, M.J. Models of word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 1979, 11, 133-176. Anzai, Y. and Simon H. 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