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The personality of Apollinaire as revealed in his poetry 1896-1912 Brown, Alexander William 1989

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THE  PERSONALITY OF APOLLINAIRE  AS REVEALED IN HIS POETRY 1896-1912 by ALEXANDER WILLIAM BROWN B.A. U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  Canada, 1983  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS  OF THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS In  t h e Department of French  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  thesis  the required standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August  (c)  as c o n f o r m i n g  COLUMBIA  198 9  A l e x a n d e r W i l l i a m Brown, 1989  9f  In  presenting  degree freely  this  at the  in  partial  fulfilment  University of  British  Columbia,  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  Department  of  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  the  requirements  I agree  I further  purposes  representatives.  financial gain  permission.  of  that  agree  may  be  It  is  shall not  that  the  Library  an  advanced  shall make it  permission for  granted  by  understood be  for  the that  allowed without  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  i i  ABSTRACT  This  thesis  personality  by r e f e r e n c e  restricted poetic the  output  analysis  the  research  thesis  methodology  the  was  of the thesis  first  inspired  when t h e a s p e c t s of  analysis,  order his  The d a t e  This  (Chapters  or at least a given  which  sets  life  forth The  of the  cannot be  i n his life  obtained into  which had a  wrote.  2 t o 9) to write  i s an a n a l y s i s  of  during the  the year that  Apollinaire  poem was a n i m p o r t a n t  were b e i n g  sought  factor  i n the process  o f any changes t h a t  relationships.  found  analysis.  t h e poems h a v e b e e n a r r a n g e d  as an a i d t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  changes  Apollinaire  of personality  consequently  personality  w h i c h was  chapter has been d i v i d e d  was i n s p i r e d  to write  the entire  information  t o major  on t h e p o e t r y  period.  thesis.  i n this  and d i s c u s s e s  covering  the poetry.  poems w h i c h t h e p o e t  selected  i t s inclusion i n  i n an o v e r - l o n g  has been combined  background  reading  bulk  extensive,  the content.  corresponding  The  1896 t o 1912. A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  as s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l  i s a biography  effect  span i s  of the analysis  I t provides  special  The t i m e  which  poet.  sections  only.  i s made u p o f a n I n t r o d u c t i o n  chapter  merely  as w e l l  information  first  by  years  1 9 1 2 was q u i t e  after  of Apollinaire's  to h i s poetry  would have r e s u l t e d  scattered The  an o v e r v i e w  to the productive  Recent in  provides  i n date  would  affect  iii  Many f a c e t s  of the poet's p e r s o n a l i t y  have been s u m m a r i s e d , i n t h e f i n a l into  four  The  1.  Philosophical  2.  Personality  3.  Outward way o f l i f e  4.  L i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  process  "Conclusion",  attitudes  as s u c h  o f summarization  ranked the f o l l o w i n g  sive  chapter e n t i t l e d  state;  includes  the fact that  references  observations.  as m a j o r p e r s o n a l i t y  the b i p o l a r psychosis  formerly  back t o t h e  The t h e s i s h a s  factors.  Self-centred-  known a s t h e m a n i c - d e p r e s -  h i s i n s p i r a t i o n worked b e s t  when he  attempted t o e x o r c i s e  h i s m i s e r y by w r i t i n g p o e t r y ; t h e  d e p e n d e n c e on a n c i e n t  myth a n d t h e p a s t  inspiration; historical  as s o u r c e s o f  the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of abstract  figures  Subordinate  as a c t o r s  facets  new forms o f p o e t r y ;  fascination attraction  include:  willingness  the dabbling  with the inventions  capacity  t o experiment  with  eye f o r d e t a i l ; t h e  o f t h e modern w o r l d ; t h e as s o u r c e s o f  f o r m y s t i f i c a t i o n ; t h e use o f  works t o f l e s h o u t c u r r e n t  p r o d u c e a humorous l i n e  and u s e o f  i n the Occult; the  o f t h e elements and t h e u n i v e r s e  imagery; t h e i n f i n i t e  concepts  i n h i s poetry.  preoccupation with death; the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  earlier  These  main d i v i s i o n s :  poems w h i c h g e n e r a t e d t h e l i s t e d  ness;  were u n c o v e r e d .  production;  and t h e a b i l i t y t o  e v e n when i n t h e d e p t h s o f d e s p a i r .  iv Inter-personal friendships; latent  relationships  a strong  were  sexuality that  bye-product Baedeker's A number  items  of the research:  repressed;  a  guide provided  information  o f p a i n t i n g s were  Virgin  overtures,  blue  engraving  o f Woodstock Palace  "Palais".  The  provided  sport  an e x p l a n a t i o n  investigation  on t h e " f i l l e s  de  leurs  filles"  t o be t h e h e l l e b o r e  The  examination  exegesis  which uses  Sultan  of  "The  works.  An  the windrose,  "Rose des v e n t s " .  Crocus  or Christmas  about A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c h a r a c t e r  period  The  "Rose sans  botanlight  epines"  rose.  poems h a s p r o v i d e d  and a s m a l l  o f t h e poems h a s r e s u l t e d a l s o .  A  threw a d d i t i o n a l  mystery.  of individual  Repin's  i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem  f o r the phrase  o f t h e Autumn  i n Germany.  famous p a i n t i n g ,  and p i n k  of Ballooning  of  icon,  replying tothe  helped  a  the early paintings i n  Madox Brown's  Picasso's  edition  travel  of Czestochowa  Turkey's  of England",  on r a i l  researched:  o f the Zaporozhne Cossacks Ford  t o p e r s o n a l i t y were  f o r e x a m p l e a 1902  painting  proved  often  not connected d i r e c t l y  C o l o g n e museums, t h e B l a c k  ical  was  Steadfast  cruelty often controlled.  Several  last  identified:  information  contribution to the  V  CONTENTS Page '  INTRODUCTION Chapter I.  1 ..12  B I O G R A P H I C A L NOTES ON A P O L L I N A I R E Childhood and adolescence The e a r l y y e a r s i n P a r i s Germany, t h e R h i n e l a n d a n d A n n i e P l a y d e n Entry into t h eworld o f Arts and Letters New D i r e c t i o n s The y e a r s o f h a p p i n e s s a n d s t r e s s Literary experimentation during 1912-1914 A p o l l i n a i r e on a c t i v e s e r v i c e The f i n a l y e a r s  II. III. IV. V.  A P O L L I N A I R E ' S ADOLESCENT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY THE E A R L Y Y E A R S I N P A R I S  POETRY  1896-1899  51  POEMS 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 1  55  1899-1901  69  GERMANY, THE R H I N E L A N D AND A N N I E P L A Y D E N 1 9 0 1 - 1 9 0 2 . . . . . 7 4  VI.  ENTRY  INTO THE WORLD OF A R T S AND L E T T E R S  1.1902-1903.10 6  VII.  ENTRY  INTO THE WORLD OF A R T S AND L E T T E R S  11.1904-1907.126  VIII. IX.  I . 1908-1909  146  THE. Y E A R S OF H A P P I N E S S AND S T R E S S I I . 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 2  178  THE Y E A R S OF H A P P I N E S S AND S T R E S S  CONCLUSION  '  209 231  BIBLIOGRAPHY I N D E X OF POEMS A N A L Y S E D  (Arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y )  278  I N D E X OF POEMS A N A L Y S E D  (Arranged by date  282  o f composition)  vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I  owe  Baudouin entire  a  special  manuscript,  University  wish  Special Other  print;  Durry  1989  to  indebted  and t o  express  t h e people  Michel  and Marcel  Columbia, suggestions  Ruth  White  Dominique read t h e  and constant  of  Bouygues the  me t o s t u d y F r e n c h  i nthe first  my  the  gratitude  departments  to  from  my  f o r their  Philippe  Staff  Inter-Library  Loan  system.  f o rh i s painstaking word  processor  invaluable  Renaud,  same  place.  Library  o f t h e U.B.C l i b r a r y  go t o T e d P o w e l l  scholars  Decaudin,  who  t o P r o f e s s o r Claude  Professor  i n converting the data French  to Professor  i n the Circulation,  acknowledgements  t o four  articles:  also  Collections  contribution  wife  am  f o r encouraging  particularly and  I  of British  f o rh i s i l l u m i n a t i n g  h i s assistance  I  of gratitude  of the University  encouragement. for  debt  Madame  books  into and  Marie-Jeanne  Adema.  Finally  I would  like  t o express  my l o v e a n d a d m i r a t i o n t o my  Phyllis  whose p a t i e n c e h a s a t l a s t  borne  fruit.  A.W.B.  1  INTRODUCTION  This  thesis  Apollinaire's adolescence The because shown  Ca11i  until  most in  himself,  of  a  the  very  poems nature  be  1)  cited  narrative. years  up  is a  only The to  the The  will  of  his  full  the  portrait  poems  for three  date;  of  from  reasons;  his  de  Alcools  thirdly,  o f poems  from  at  least  and  because  1913  Coligny-Chatillon in a thesis  had  Apollinaire,  the  and  firstly  personality  secondly,  between  poetry;  result  a  onwards,  alone!)  and  double  the  one. is  made  relatively the  poet's second an  that  Louise  biography  thirty-eight. consist  of  of  a  Apollinaire's  division  would  in  chosen  l a r g e number  to  presentation  study  of  by  1912  l e n g t h of the present  (Chapter  been  poetry  present  1912.  aspects  (seventy-five  The  of  of  the  to a  has  collections  varied  by  t h e end  his  grammes  their  attempt  cut-off  chose  discussion  an  personality  1912  up  is  up  brief  of  part  analysis  of  extend  untimely  death  in  first  part  i n w h i c h poems  beyond the  the  the  maintaining  (Chapters of  parts,  biography  interest will  two  1918  2 - 9  poems,  the  first at and  paying  flow  will of  thirty-two the  age  of  Conclusion) particular  2 attention  to  discovered In  i n those  of  during The  the preparation  sheer  to  number  1912  interests  have  bibliography, of this  analyst;  thesis,  been  be  hence  left  of the fact  that  a  out  of  works  has been  be  this  con-  provided.  creates  few m i n o r  can  T h e n o v e l l a T,e p o e t e  b e made.  only  the present  poetry,  occasional  a  daunting  poems  composed  analysis  i n the  title  fictional  opposes  i t svery  biography;  such  observations  supplement  the  made  references  l e poete  will  i n regard  to his  fiction  r e s s u s c i t e , whose t o the category  o n l y ' be  mentioned  to the poetical  without  to  a n d i t s s e q u e l Lfi.  b r e v i t y , belong  works  biography,  analysis i s confined  assassin^  du b r i g a d i e r masque c ' e s t - a - d i r e  force  covering  o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poems  Apollinaire's  long  may  o f economy.  In view  cas  that  poems.  f o r any would-be  prior  Apollinaire's personality  a d d i t i o n , an e x t e n s i v e  sulted  task  aspects  disturbing  to  rein-  works  the  of  or to  flow  of  narrative. The vary,  length  and  biography demands  the  of the divisions correlation  sections of  the  will  i n that  appearance  of  discussion  of  concerned  with  corresponding  a  a  work  between  be  presented.  biography  t h e moment  i n  established, There  reading  this  thesis  of inspiration.  b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n may  Apollinaire's  poetic  i s  the  output  parts  chapters  i s normally  before  the. poetry,  o f t h e two  the poetry  not always  material  correlation  i n each  a  On  i s divisible  with  i n the  while  the  i s  more  least,  the other  be q u i t e  to the  difficulty  public at  and t h e  owing  concerned  will  hand t h e  short. into  eight  broad  3 time  frames:  assorted  of  and  Mme  geographically frames  much v a r i e t y 1908  of  Milhau;  divisible  the  poet  stormy  life  collection,  and  works  such  1918  comprises  study, of  The  then  these  work,  works by p e r i o d s  mainly  have  complex  as t h e y  passages.  of the  x  next  Alcools'  o f 1914 t o  the  love  poems  Jacqueline. o f the study Durry's  have been  of  Renaud's  personality to  light  such on  2  aspects of aspects  explanation  of the interest  i t i s considered that some  grouping useful.  such  o f exegesis and In view  several  three-volume  found very  unrelated  throw  The  experimental  period  and  and P h i l i p p e  matters  often  reflect  years.  Apollinaire's  poems  i n the field  generated,  including,  three  of Marie-Jeanne  poetry several  t h e sometimes  worth  and t h e a r t o f p o e t r y ,  the course of research for-the  uncovered,  passages  connection  year new  are the result  volume  the pivotal  was  between  and h i s w i f e  Leroy Breunig's early  Apollinaire's  of  first  there  1  war  i n the  "Montmartre"  1909 t o 1912 which  of  shows  to 1907,  though  t o paper;  C a l l i g r a m m e s . The f i n a l  frames  1903  of  the publication  appearance  t o Lou, Madeleine time  Rhineland  t o dwindle,  during  Apollinaire's  Apollinaire's  were  the  the  period  the  period,  1 9 1 4 saw  as t h e e a r l y  During  lean  1 9 0 1 , which  by-  1 9 0 1 t o 1 9 0 2 , when  from  i n  distinguished  t h e "Paris-London" and  o f t h e poet  1913 t o  from  sources.  were  and s c u l p t u r e  the  1898  period  realised  poems o f t h e " A u t e u i l "  These  1899 t o  production tended  i n painting  addressed  from  the  into  the  period  to  i n w h a t e v e r was c o m m i t t e d  when  influences  1886  the Rhenish  Apollinaire  De  when  from  the period  influences;  Playden  service  time  period  juvenilia;  symbolist Annie  the  items  such are  Apollinaire's  4 thought  processes,  An  attempt  h i serudition,  to describe  made b y G u y M i c h a u d ,  3  hoc  hoc"  ergo  propter  morphology, have  since As  I  has  Frances  Bernard Veck, that  Part  life  Shattuck,  attracted  Roger  interesting  of  of  works  Apollinaire  who  came  references written 16th  left  t o Madeleine  that  cover  Apollinaire's  in  painting,  that  and  short  The B a n q u e t  i t provides  brew  sculpture,  Roger  Years i s  capsule  about  f o r further  fiction.  be  biographies  The  reader  t h e poet  so  one  i s  Letters,'  period  interesting  and dance  was  4  those  1915 a n d t h e a  diary,  Adema  heavy.  but  mentions  volume  of  5  period  fermenting  those  notably  the  discovery,  of  biographical  t o be  of h i s l i f e .  of scientific  and h i s  virtually  and memoirs  was e x c e p t i o n a l l y an  i s  details.  considered  periods  during  and  Denis Bordat and  contemporaries.  seventeen-month  lived  short  h i m , a n d on t h e v a r i o u s  correspondence  The heady  Davies,  recollections  1916, might  this  Apollinaire history.  facial  historians:  Pages between t h e 1 6 t h o f A p r i l  extremely  during  literary  autobiography,  with  i n h i s poetry  Apollinaire's  o f books  paper no  contact  o f September  these  theories  "post  a r e t h e names o f a f e w o f t h e m  because  the souvenirs,  into  many  Shattuck's  Apollinaire's  a t t h e end o f t h i s  on  of  on  Margaret  t o .the bibliography  dependent  and  was  graphology. and astrology  and Georges Vergnes  particularly  referred  on a  of the thesis:  Steegmuller,  come t o m i n d .  several  appear t o be b a s e d  approach  constitution,  of Apollinaire  discredited.  regards  passionate  the personality  but h i s views  physical been  and i n t e r e s t s .  new in'the  i n  French  directions minds o f  5 writers  a n d A p o l l i n a i r e was i n t h e t h i c k  many o f t h e b r i g h t Of  young men a n d women as t h e i r  illegitimate  birth  uage o f S h a k e s p e a r e , who l i k e d tress  t o spend  whose n a t i v e despising,  of  poetry;  and charming  with  h i s friends,  which  fellow",  with  6  h i s mis-  formed  in a  which w i l l The  this  be d e v e l o p e d  second p a r t  o f , a n d sometimes  much a t t r a c t e d by them. He c o u l d be  which  combination  came  resulted  Rhineland  i s symptomatic mild  form  poems t h a t o f these  provide  bipolar  discussion  of  t h e poet  d i d not include  f i t i n t o t h e above t i m e contained  inhis  of the  AT c o o l s .  a n d t h e poems o f t h e  i n Alcools  frames w i l l  i n the anthologies,  as w e l l be  as  included.  mainly  post-  the selection  g u i d e d by what t h e i n d i v i d u a l work o r c o l l e c t i o n  These  periods  an a n a l y t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n  humous, p r e p a r e d by h i s f r i e n d s a n d a d m i r e r s ,  about t h e p o e t ' s  o f h i s best  i n Chapter 5 ) .  will  were  i n disastrous  of clinical  (a d e t a i l e d  from A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a d o l e s c e n c e  which  surface  j o y o u s moments a l t e r n a t e d w i t h  poems w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e saw f i t t o i n c l u d e  Poems d a t i n g  to the  t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r much  aspect  relatively  scared  t o b o t h men a n d women, b u t he h a d an  strange  i t a l s o meant t h a t  disorder  Although  i n h i s nature  This  depression;  Most  A p o l l i n a i r e was, i n t h e l a n g -  he was more F r e n c h t h a n many p e o p l e  was F r a n c e .  cruelty  experiences,  other  leader.  amended, a "whoreson g o o d  h i s evenings  women, he was v e r y  occasionally.  many  slightly  a foreigner,  land  attentive  element  of  himself,  r e g a r d e d by  and o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h t h e l a d i e s o f t h e n i g h t . Technically  very  of things,  o f poems  being  reveals  personality.  aspects  of personality  will  be  summarised  i n the  6 concluding to  state  chapter  that  influence  on  of t h i s  they his  are  review  composition changes much  were  a  was be  would been it  create  and  to  writing  even  approach  of  reviewing  thematic but  the  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s an  over-long  intended  the  point  a  whose  man  whole  gamut  i n chronological order  publication,  purely  befits  on -the  to  The  as  at t h i s  of  immense.  committal  f o l l o w e d by is  varied,  attempted  possible alternative  development  and  It is sufficient  made p r i o r  easier  publication.  will  or  many  contemporaries  post-symbolist poetry The  thesis.  i f  approach  complexity  dissertation.  R.H.  Stamelman,  M-J.  that  important  themes  than  works been  of  trying  time,  the  date  of  considered to  and  theme by  will  D.  be  the  theme,  route  Berry. the  as  trace  This p a r t i c u l a r  Durry  major  taking by  has  c h a r a c t e r over  first  subsequent  rather the  of  has  However  subject  of  comment. In and  examining  publication  stances  beyond  work by  the  of  poet's  the  the  two  date,  the  the  editor  choices, latter  poet's of  the  finances  starting  inspired stimulus. if  the  reflect  to On  might write  in  the  other  p o e m was the  cause  heat  hand,  of  the  to of  the  date  mind  or  the  for  the  state  first  example,  a poem t h a t or  works he  will  faithfully  was  amatory  composition,  added t o , more  case,  of prose  intellectual  of  truncated poet's  dates  lay aside some  of  Apollinaire's  activities,  completion  poet  subsequently  state  and  date  circum-  acceptance  in  non-poetic  the  the  publication;  being,  art reviews,  which  other  (these  writing  several  as  or  other  composition  such  review  precarious);  first  i s i n f l u e n c e d by  control,  always  etc.,  namely  even  tend at  to the  7 moment h e f i r s t t h o u g h t s may  s e t pen t o paper,  have  Dating  Apollinaire  start  a  given  manuscripts from  work.  which  poetry  work,  often  et  century  b u t was  arises  varying  to  Calligrammes.  cases,  only;  thus  on  9  has  Francis  was  inspired to  h i s stockpile of  to lift i t was  a whole  stanza  suitable f o rthe  dates  used  been  also  have  such  as  Le  difficulty  been  confined  Alcools  to publication  paper.  Leroy  but h i s pioneering o f subsequent tried  or  7  Unfortunately,  when one i s s e e k i n g to  with  Dossier  possible.  s e t pen  has  of the  i n the notes t o the  i s confined  used  the turn  the chronology  Decaudin's  relevant  i n point i s  further  efforts  provided  final  poem.  attempted  wherever  first  Apollinaire's  case  from  1912. A  collection  i n the light  Carmody  revisions. A  but their  information  also  with  t h e c r e a t i v e a c t and t h e  until  and i n M i c h e l  poet  dealing  additions to the basic  i t i s not always the  that  which  The i n f o r m a t i o n  8  somewhat o u t d a t e d  problem  femme"  specific  such  which  chronology  multiple  has been  1 0  some  after  o f success  Oeuvres p o e t i q u e s d'Alcools  between  A p o l l i n a r i a n s have  a  into  work  i n  not published  degrees  mainly  felt  delay  frequent  Prominent  i f he  o f when he  delved  the said  involved  l a vieille  from  he  s i n c e , f o r t h e most  working on.  i s the long  "Merlin  difficult  indication  predated  problem  publication,  no  Frequently  he was a c t u a l l y Another  i s extremely  gave  the earlier  one  subsequent  wrought.  t h e poems  part,  and t h e changes t h a t  to  tackle  dates  the date Breunig's  effort  research.  i n  i s now  1 1  the  b u t he h a s p r e f e r r e d t o s t r e s s p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s  foregoing and t h e  8 final to  drafts  arrive  stimulus  -  at  the  which  The  Durry  has  every Neu  poem  nearly  have  exact  provided  simmer  a  was  documented  a  man  who  soon  consequently provide  as t h e event, time  accurate  of  (which  time  Brasier",  close.  Apollinaire's painting Where  i s some  a given  Billy,  to  doubt,  to  Honnef  of  has  the  journeys  identify  the  and  with  a  to  rough  available,  first  with  that  moved h i m ;  date  of  one  poem  "Cortege",  "Le  the dates  are  consideration i s schools  of poetry,  a f e a t u r e o f "La B e l l e  appropriate  poem  creation  -on m o r e t h a n  the various  furnish  i n a  when  to  into  and  assumed  "Vendemiaire"), taken  nearly  and  or inspiration  case  Rhine  t o Krayerhof  h i s poetic  regard  varied.  down t h e  been  1 2  first  and  i f mentioned  working  factor  relationships  Apollinaire's Andre  was  and s c u l p t u r e t h a t were  there  analysing  Another  journey  location,  i n  i s probably  "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " ,  reasonably  and  information  at  dating  form.  s i n c e he p r e f e r r e d t o make  year  When A p o l l i n a i r e  a  and  allowed  thought,  composition.  emotional  year  the biographers  It  attempts  the  a r e many  possible  by  information.  not  poem,  from  to  the  o f the year  f o r any l e n g t h o f time as  each  which  i n i t s original  determine  Moves  Seasons  further  work  i t was  location.  been  related  Apollinaire's  since  dates.  Apollinaire  draft  clues  approach,  i n describing  i n Europe.  with  Gliick  to  opposite  succeeded  many  closely  the poetic  used  shown  made  the present  most  triggered  as  Apollinaire provided  date  criteria  composition, Mme  rather than  comments  Epoque".  a r e made  when  poem. contemporaries, name  a  few,  and  Andre  Salmon,  younger  ones  Andre such  Rouveyre, as  Andre  9 Breton  have  personality one  must  and  mental  the  with  much  them,  f o r evidence  information  but  i t i s surely  as t o what  thesis,  how  then,  his  i s an  poetry  certain  events  attempt  and  compilation  between of  h i s ' teen-age  ^Alcools'.  to  t o how  the  poet's  i n h i s poetry  entered  into  t o draw  a portrait  try  affected  connexion between such events  produced  as  his  that  physical  make-up.  through  possible,  us  affected  look  ' This person  left  to  establish,  h i s mental  and t h e p o e t r y years  of the  and  condition,  where and  that  Apollinaire  the  successful  10  NOTES:  Philippe  1  Renaud.  d'Homme, 1 9 6 9 )  3 vols.  (Paris: Leroy  v  Durry,  la  C. B r e u n i g .  vols.  (1952):  of Apollinaire's  907-923.  G u y . "Comme u n g u e t t e u r m e l a n c o l i q u e - e s s a i s u r  Lecture  d'Apollinaire".  d'Apollinaire  Revue d e s l e t t r e s  modernes. 276-  7-34.  Gallimard, Pierre-Marcel  Vies  1968)  "The c h r o n o l o g y  Michaud,  (Paris:  Les  1964.)  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  5  Apollinaire:'Alcools'  Renaud,  (1971) : 4  L'Age  Philippe  personnalite  279  Guillaume  S.E.D.E.S.,  A l r o n l s' " PMT.A 6 7 . 7  3  d ' A p o l l i n a n r e (Lausanne:  83.  Marie-Jeanne  2  Lecture  INTRODUCTION  Tendre  comme l e s o u v e n i r  r  1950). Adema, G u i l l a u m e  Perpendiculaires,.  (Paris:  Apollinaire  Editions  f  Collection  de l a T a b l e  Ronde,  267. 6  William  7  Marie (Paris:  Shakespeare,  Jeanne Durry, S.E.D.E.S.,  H a m l e t , V . 1. Guillaume 1964).  Apollinaire  X  A1cools',  3  11 8  Anne Hyde G r e e t ,  Calligrammes 9  de  t r a n s . Guillaume  (Berkeley:  Guillaume  l a Pleiade,  Univ.  Apollinaire, (Paris:  Apollinaire  o f C a l i f o r n i a P.  1980.)  Oeuvres p o e t i q u e s .  Gallimard,  1956). H e r e a f t e r  Bibliotheque referred  t o as  "O.P." 1 0  Minard, 1 1  x  Michel Droz.,  T.e D o s s i e r  d'Alcools  (Paris,  Geneve:  1960.)  LeRoy C. B r e u n i g ,  Alcools.'" 1 2  Decaudin,  PMTiA  67  "The c h r o n o l o g y  of Apollinaire's  ( 1 9 5 2 ) : 907-923.  F r a n c i s Carmody, The E v o l u t i o n o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  1901-1914.  (Berkeley: Univ.  o f C a l i f o r n i a P.,  1963.)  Poetics  12  CHAPTER 1  BIOGRAPHICAL on  1.  Childhood  took  h i s real  father  since  Grisons  to a  forsook  h i s paternal  barely  family  of school  Angelique  was  of ancient  Kostrowitzky Flugi  fair  from  h i s mother,  d'Aspermont,  lineage  responsiblities  who  while  assessment  born  i n the  i n  Sicily,  settled  h i s bastard  of Francesco  child would  was be  a  playboy. Kostrowicki  of the ancient  i n the the service  title an  Francesco  Alexandrine  a member  1880-1899  h i s surname  age. A  turn-of-the-century  Michael,  Apollinaire  and adolescence  Apollinaire  NOTES  o f "Cameriere  was  but petty  o f t h e Pope  as  a  the  Polish  daughter  of  nobility,  who  chamberlain  d'onore d i capa e spada",  and J u l i a  with  the  Floriani,  Italian. She  leave  was  a  her school  wilful  and  obstreperous  girl  who  i n 1874 when s h e was 1 6 . The s t u f f y  was  asked  to  atmosphere  13  of  the Vatican court  age  and t h e d u l l  predisposed Angelique Apollinaire  last his  days poem  odical trip  prospect  o f an a r r a n g e d  t o r u n away w i t h t h e d a s h i n g  summed u p t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s 1880  o f August  "Le L a r r o n " ,  i n t h e well-known  first  which  1903  p u b l i s h e d i n August  La Plume, b u t d a t i n g p r o b a b l y  Francesco.  of his birth, lines  marri-  i n the  appear i n  i nthe peri-  t o the period before h i s  t o the Rhineland: Maraudeur e t r a n g e r m a l h a b i l e e t malade Ton  pere  The p o e t  f u t un s p h i n x  was a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s  mystery  concerning  delayed  acknowledging  when  h e was g i v e n  Apollinaris  Bologna, debts  point  o f Wilhelm  and Angelique  u n t i l Francesco  Francesco's  brother  Albert  stayed  Albert,  born  H i s mother  Alexander  had decided  i n 1884  extravagant  Niccolo,  i n 1882,  even  o f November  Vladimir  on i n I t a l y ,  disappeared  responsiblities  andt h e  t o add  surname.  who  of  whose  mainly  life  stepped  Wilhelm father's  i n Rome  t o escape  had taken  a n d w a s k n o w n a s Dom R o m a r i n o ,  educational  brother  t h e names  1  birth  him as h e r son u n t i l t h e second  i n c u r r e d by t h e couple's  Benedictine the  of h i s father.  "de" t o h e r f r e n c h i f i e d  Francesco  of  the identity  nuit.  of h i s foreign  de K o s t r o w i t z k y , s i n c e h i s m o t h e r  the p r e f i x  and  e t t a mere une  style.  a load At this  h i s vows  as a  i n and took  and  h i s  identity  on  younger  was  also  mysterious. What Wilhelm detailed  were  the traits  of character  that  were  b y h i s f a t h e r ? Adema p r o v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g  passed  on t o  based  on h i s  research. De  l a lignee  paternelle  o u l e s hommes d ' e g l i s e , l e s  14 hommes d ' e p e e , a  chaque g e n e r a t i o n ,  trete Mme  e t l e sens  allowed  live  pecuniary  Romarino  child,  school  imbued  t h e boys  since  she hankered  religious  have  Wilhelm  been was  a  deep  When W i l h e l m  sense  later  environment  h i m as he grew  up  move  she loved  to  w h i c h o f t e n h a d some  young  men  were  i n  Wilhelm's  time  forefront  cheerful  who  were  about  of h i s bro-  Although  h i s childhood  early  at  influence  Apollinaire years  i n this influence  i n 1897 t o p r e p a r e  by young  Toussaint  developed  a strong  literary  activity  of  and  gregarious  h i s pockets  discourse  on  a l l sorts  retention  o f w h a t e v e r he r e a d student  mythology  of religion.  of  was  through  learned  i n  with  topics,  a voracious the  reader  Arthurian  a. f e l l o w  Both bent  their won  these and  lycee.  him  many  and w r i t i n g s . books  since  were a b s o l u t e l y  Luca,  life.  disposition  stuffed  for his  literary  t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f h i s poems  with  young  guardian  by him s t e a d f a s t l y i n l a t e r  had by t h i s the  proud  f a t h e r s i n Monaco whose  moved t o N i c e  stood  ancient  2  older.  student,  The  This  were t o have a deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l  he was b e f r i e n d e d  who  a  on i n l i f e ,  baccalaureat  walked  her, took  after:  liaisons  Flugi.  one o f t h e b r i g h t e s t s t u d e n t s  r u n by t h e M a r i a n i s t  him with  friends  abandoned  were p u t t o s c h o o l .  i n transitory  must  became an a g n o s t i c  on  l'opinit-  advantage t o h e r .  Dom  the  Francesco  the l i f e  gamble and t o i n d u l g e  retrouvent  i ltenait l a courtoisie,  after  i n Monaco where her to  f o n c t i o n n a i r e s , se  s i v i f de l ' h o n n e u r du g e n e r a l  de K o s t r o w i t z k y ,  residence  ther's  l e s hauts  and  He  could  h i s powers  of  phenomenal. of everything  legends  to  from  symbolist  15 verse. from  His  early  hand  to  irretrievably  literary  hand lost  Guillaume  among  to  also  been  Luca,  who  wrote  preserved, has  His of  set  with a view  in  up 1899  the  she  younger  than  foursome finally  her  reached  Another  books. the  and  sheets  most  which  Works  passed  have  forced to  blank  been  shown  this  Aix-les  by  time  of t h e i r  leave  in  a  some  Nice  3  list  of  Monaco  presence,  the  Bains,  in of  in  Toussaint  reminiscences.  Jules Weil,  to  verse  written  Principality  area  lover  of  at  the  the  and  interest  included  current  first  had  so  eleven  that years  municipality.  thence  to  The  Lyons  and  Paris.  point  ditional  on  from  the  Riviera  well  as  i s that  Wilhelm's  the  was  were  at  loose  regular  i n h i s book  to purging  her,  went  to  seven  demi-monde,  and  in  exercise  name  ladies  on  students  poetry  thanks  provided  mother's  the  were  posterity.  plentifully-illustrated have  efforts  doing  was  the well  hastened  general  support at  by  drying  of  Dom  Romarino  was  h i s own  departure  s c h o o l , and  his up  failure of  in this  his  con-  respect,  family's  as  financial  resources. Moreover and  they  the  Belgian  they  decided  nominally to  rich  try their  health  resort,  in  village Count",  two the of  boys  lodged  company  of  Guillaume,  made h i m  the  Jules  luck  in  s o o n became p e r s o n a e non The  Spa  the  at  order  gratae  at  a pension  their  "Uncle  known  as  cynosure  of  had  a  the  gaming  to  recoup  there  too.  problem  tables in their  the  The  handsome village  presence young-  maidens  Spa,  fortunes;  in Stavelot, a village Jules".  the  financial  in  near the  "Russian  during  his  stay  there,  addressed gone t o  and  a  poem  bed  Ardennes  he  soon  in  Wilhelm  acrostic loved  countryside and  youth.  It  was  of  Mediterranean.  the  poets  gloominess,  all  any  hot  reverse  was  received  not  and  At  this  point  passed  on  famous  Prince  Wilhelm of was  to  food,  his  prone he  tancy  were  Wilhelm  came  had  brutality,  sudden into  had  a l l  and  the  night, and  he  had  i t s general  the  sensitive  coloured  landscape  Wallonie"  evidences  provided  the  poetic  of  i n t r o s p e c t i o n always  and  d i d not  the  most  Guillaume  their  occur  salient  fol-  when he  fact  in  was  almost  and  mother  to  his  brother  Albert  decamp w i t h o u t  paying  where they  were t o  live  with  surroundings. should  His  traits for  a  streak  traits  which  a  of  with,  of  It  was  but  the  his  probably  Michael  was  from  traits was  him  the that  sensuality, his his  which  mother tended  v i c t i m s of  enormous  possessiveness  were  It  from  attitude  by  hereditary  grandfather  consuming  life.  over  the  companion.  of  changes  won  examine  maternal  contact  invariably  at  brightly  in Paris,  one  appetite  to  those  from  the  whom  villagers  affect  de  to  work.  R a d z i w i l l ' s boon  inherited  to  of h i s thoughts  before  Wilhelm.  the  "Fagnes  periods  best  squalid  Maria  period.  i s perhaps  long  of  walks  fail  the  poem  this  t o meet h e r  i n somewhat  not  in his courtship  instructions  b i l l  After  for long  from  The  the  p u r s u i t . This  It  her  however,  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  their  go  could  different 4  form.  i n t r o s p e c t i v e nature  inspiration;  in  so  enamoured  i t s g h o s t l y d a r k woods,  feelings during  The  lowed  to  with  harshness  the  became  with  derived  love  that to  this  personal  upset inconscharm.  some e l e m e n t s from  his  he  5  of  mother  also. During notebooks for  this and  course  many  their  thoughts  the  words  sound which  carefully  alone.  preserved  hermetique riches, fetes,  alors  mariage,  sortir lieu  de  reves,  what was  a  hard  merely  ture .  que  maths e t  ingenieur,  j e me  suis  from  lay  a means t o  the  ahead an  end  comme t a n t  l e gatisme  une  o c c u p e de  - that  Stavelot  final  de  Centrale, position des  any  that  famille,  qu'une s u c c e s s i o n  vers,  litt6rature,  foregoing that  witness  d'autres.  de  J'eus mieux  j'ai fait  and  in  his  mysterieux,  fils  1'avenir  d'essayer  travailler,  nature;  written  present-t-il  d'avoir  for  Apollinaire.  riche  moi...  in  attractive  depository  probably  dans  avec  a  recorded  simply  analytical  les autres,  voient  tandis  obvious life  que  noces,  b u c h e r mes  se  or  were  Jacqueline pas  Apollinaire used  self  was  avenir  ne de  a  that by  seldom books  of  suis-je  P o u r q u o i mon  It •i s  These  one  ne  reading,  were  mostly  from  Pourquoi  his  that  were  quotation  of  l'heure  fait de  au  j ' a i eu merde,  Apollinaire  other  de  lycee  tacher  assuree.  gainful  o f m a k i n g h i s mark  de  de  d'en  Non  au  des merde.  6  realised employment in  litera-  18 2.  The  early  Once job  as  by  the  him,  years  in Paris  a ghost name  and  seemed  i n Paris  Wilhelm  writer  of  police,  thus  penury,  the  to  another  work,  genarally  recorded A found once  However  by  while  the  and  resulted  more  Stavelot  case  Paris  with and  of  libraries  either  Apollinaire  was  and  more  in Paris  poet's  France. mostly Larron"  early  from  in draft and  by  form  "Merlin  et  one  of  sleazy  set  n o t h i n g but  i n no on  was  wrongdoing  out  by  set  and  extreme  of.furnished  daily  rebuffs.  and  the  looking  for  This period  was  the  the  rare  He  then  in  elementary  the  earliest femme".  payment.  So  attended  various  circles  where  i n h a v i n g a few  a were  a  the  in literary  quite  was  However  a magazine t i t l e d had  shares  level.  frequenting  instrumental  time  la vieille  or  s t o c k s and  street.  t o move  was  which  selling  salary  passed  this  of  mistress  characterised  Wilhelm  works a c c e p t e d by  Apollinaire  writers  innkeeper, arraigned the  innocence  were  started  Seve b e f r i e n d e d him  writer  deserted  ghost  young  a  stayed.  interested  and  story had  his  found  "Hotels".  was  stenography  pay  Esnard's  pleaded  young  meeting  to  soon  kind.  in  i n "La P o r t e "  Apollinaire  the  remember  job i n a stockbrokers o f f i c e  school  Jean  to  verbose  K o s t r o w i t z k y s moved  rooms  he  inspiration  skillfully  days  f o r work;  whose  i n having the  early  look  for a serial  in  alerted  who  succeeded The  him  to  so much a l i n e  deficient.  good enough t o pay  Kostrowitzkys  had  capability  similarly  The  at  Esnard,  whose  1899-1901  La  supply  of  Grande of  poems  "L'Ermite",  "Le  19 Apollinaire friend  from  amused  by  was  the  often  Stock  the  a c c o m p a n i e d on h i s n o c t u r n a l w a l k s b y  Exchange,  former's  his  overcome  h i s misery  first  recognize Apollinaire's  to A  chance  Silva,  the  works  during  Molinas  sentiment  the  in  the  pleasant  evenings  brilliant  however of  she  was  beautiful and by  Apollinaire's  poetic  very  effusion,  and  was  found  ballroom  one  to  of  the  at  dancing  various  much  episode  to  them  on  he  blossom as  they  L i n d a M o l i n a , aged  evidence  of  this  one  was  a  jealous  extraordinarily  stilted  this  This  sym-  and  many to  the  was  the  man. 16,  h i m s e l f somewhat drawn to reciprocate.  of  history.  listened young  and  side  lacked  out  Da  Jewish  the  i n French  home;  extraordinary  attachments,  for  readiness  h i g h - s t r u n g mother.  means i n c l i n e d  romantic  greatly  Ferdinand Molina  very  much  with  sister  Wilhelm no  was  his  was  of  Wilhelm  spent  his  encompassed  he  discourse of t h i s  Ferdinand's daughter  of  encouraged were  had  unfortunate  company  was  merit.  and  feel  who  h i m s e l f . Rene  teacher  reading  made W i l h e l m  family  eldest  Jewish  very  and  in a brasserie  Kabbala  that  pathetic  often  a  Wilhelm's  including  Dreyfus The  of  Nicosia,  puns  laughing at  acquaintance  son  deportment.  by  wit,  Rene  a  Like  to  her,  so  many  notable for a streak  in  his  nature. There when  the  postcards  f o l l o w e d some  Molinas mostly  left  for  in a poetic  their  holidays,  vein,. "Les  correspondence  i t comprised  several  D i e t s d'amour a L i n d a " .  20 3. Germany, the Rhineland and Annie Playden 1901-1902  Mme N i c o s i a , who so enjoyed the company o f her son's  friend,  was anxious t o h e l p him; t o t h i s end she i n t r o d u c e d him t o Mme de Milhau,  the mother  former  to play  engagement little  of G a b r i e l l e ,  the piano.  o f Wilhelm  girl.  departure  This  was b e i n g  The r e s u l t  of t h i s  resulted  de Milhau,  taught  was t h e  o f French  f o r the  i n a year's c o n t r a c t  and t h e  her daughter  and Mme  de Milhau's  mother f o r the Rhineland where the Milhaus had s e v e r a l Included  i n the group  was a p r e t t y  by t h e  meeting  as a p a r t - t i m e t u t o r  i n turn  o f Mme  who  English  girl  estates.  o f very  strict  u p b r i n g i n g , Annie Playden, who had been h i r e d t o t e a c h G a b r i e l l e E n g l i s h and t o be a l a d i e s ' maid. There between Italian,  could  not have  the e b u l l i e n t and  the  been  a  greater  and hot-blooded  daughter  of  a  contrast  son o f a  deeply  than . t h a t  Slav  religious  and an  landscape  gardener who had nicknamed h i m s e l f "the Archbishop o f Canterbury" on  account  o f h i s very  strong  committment  England. T h e i r romance was,to say the l e a s t , have  caused  Mme  de Milhau  some  a l l o w i n g Wilhelm t o have s e v e r a l to  good  account  by t o u r i n g  t o the Church turbulent,  anxiety. This  was  leaves o f absence,  a l l over  Central  of  and must  resolved  by  which he put  Europe  collecting  m a t e r i a l f o r commentaries which he sent t o P a r i s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , and d e l v i n g  i n t o the f o l k l o r e  o f each o f t h e p l a c e s he v i s i t e d ,  e.g. Bonn, Prague, Vienna, Cologne and Dresden. The Milhau f a m i l y had t h r e e r e s i d e n c e s i n t h e Rhineland. The late  summer  and e a r l y  autumn  was  spent  i n Honnef,  from  which  place  Apollinaire  made  autumn  and  winter  was  Rhine.  The  family  met  Milhau's the  aunt,  Rhine,  February time  for  European  de in  the  estate  second  Day.  visit  Tuesday  to  Gliick,  Krayerhof, which  Shrove  late  The  Cologne.  situated  o f Anna was  a  von  short  Apollinaire to  Cologne,  carnival,  year the  of  have  break-up  of  away  and  from  inspiration  probably arrived  and  The  east  the  F i s e n n e , Mme  de  distance  left  then  late of  west  of  Gliick  in  arrived  in  Neu  where  relations  he  proceeded  this  "La  However Annie  Chanson  poem i s p a r t l y  Guillaume  proceeded  back  from  f o r the  with  and  in  on  his  du  in  to  series to  await  before Apollinaire Mal-Aime",  a collage  the  in  Rhine  by  late  May.  August  1902  out.  1901  "Rhenanes" had  down  ran  August  one  forgathered  Honnef  his contract  France  much m e r i t .  heights of  that  and  Annie  stayed there u n t i l  provided which  March,  Bacharach  Apollinaire  fact  i n Neu  Milhau, Gabrielle,  from  poetic  at  visit  tour.  Mme  boat  first  spent  A l l Souls  for his  f o r the  Munich  at  his  o f poems, a l l the  definite  rose  to  the  notwithstanding the  o f some e a r l i e r  works.  22 4. E n t r y  into  Back the  the world  i n Paris,  inconvenience  on  h i s brother  of arts  Wilhelm  with  who  j o b , which  to  periodicals  La  Revue b l a n c h e ,  either  in  central  the  of  Europe.  paid  I t was  t o cover  by  period  friends living  dependent  bank  clerk.  based that  case  were  of  poetry,  on h i s e x p e r i e n c e s he  began  using the  K o s t r o w i t z k y . L'European  a trial. i n a  poems  A l b a n i a,  submissions  essays time  a  This  visit,  evidently  poem,  "1904"  which  sent on an  evidences  of Apollinaire.  were p u b l i s h e d i n 1903, f o l l o w e d i n  the Rhenish  poems  and t h e other  after  poems  their  inspired  protracted  by t h e  poet's  i n Europe.  Slowly  poems  of  of gestation,  travels  of these  food and d r i n k so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the bulk  and  submitting material  i n the  o f de  resulted  Some o f t h e e a r l y 1904  as a  years  at this  instead  basis,  l o v e o f good  previous  o r documentary  Apollinaire  expense  worked  him from  and La Plume. Most  t o Strasbourg  and being  a s I/Europeen, L e M e r c u r e d e . F r a n c e ,  "Automne",  surname him  such  of cash  W e i l , t h e y o u n g man m a n a g e d t o f i n d  d i d not prevent  the product  notably  h i s mother  fortunately  Thanks t o h i s " u n c l e " J u l e s similar  1902-1907  was f a c e d w i t h a s h o r t a g e  of living  Albert,  and l e t t e r s  but surely  Apollinaire  and acquaintances. i n t h e same a p a r t m e n t  b u t he  looking In journal,  was  soon  fora suitor those  He  began  had a b r i e f house.  abandoned  by  This  affair  his circle with  resulted  the pragmatic  of  an  Yvonne  i n five  -little  girl,  likely  who w a s b e t t e r o f f .  days under t h e sponsorship  aspiring  t o expand  poets  met  i n a cellar  o f La Plume, to recite  a  and  literary criticize  their  works  lasting Alfred the  before  Jarry,  The  a l l of  impending  i n a new  Guillaume  tract busy  Le  G u i d e du  His  Playdens  persuaded  the  the  and  as  Mal-Aime"  to  on  also  unpublished  new  some  Fort  and  pathways  in  little  periodicals  to  pet i t s  time  1904  her  The  poem  summer  of  to  branch  with  bank  in  which  to  see  was  out  and  his  that  the  lines  "Hyde P a r k "  de  culled  was  "La  scared in  from by  the  final  Chanson  Landor  inspired  in  Annie  of h i s clutches. This  "L'Emigrant  some  beloved  poems,  The  London  for a position  finest  he  financial  visit  such  apply  a  capitalistes.  off to  to  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s earlier  The  e d i t o r s h i p of  des  took  daughter  to get  two  attempt  s p e c t a c u l a r c o l l a p s e , and  occasion  including  poems.  that  Paul  F e s t i n d'F.sope  the  May  this  their  alluded to  latter  explore  editor-in-chief.  in  on  i n order  brought  there  Salmon,  various  involved in a  again  conduct  States  to  short-lived  editor nevertheless  Playden.  du  the  Rentier,, moniteur  1903  rupture  of  simultaneously  November  United  Andre  was  c o n t r i b u t e d r e s u l t e d i n an  w o r k e d was  young  with  It  creativity.  Apollinaire  h i s hand  forged  failures  venture,  Apollinaire  audience.  whom w e r e t r y i n g  literary  which A p o l l i n a i r e  turned  invited  f r i e n d s h i p s were  forest of  out  an  Road", earlier  the  1903  visit. During Vesinet, reached by  a by  suburb train  artists.  walked the  the  beside  Seine  in  the  the  loop  from the  Gare  St  met  the  Apollinaire the  which  1904  he  river. visited  "La at  of  Kostrowitzkys  the  Seine  Lazare;  northwest  i t was  painter  time  provided  of  a place  Derain  Grenouillere", a this  lived  the  Le  Paris, favoured  there,  little  in  as  he  island  in  inspiration  24 for  a poem o f t h e  same n a m e .  Apollinaire the  station  Picasso to  be  who  bound  friends,  in a  on  studio.  frequent  i n one  of  introduced  of  them.  poet  began  I t was  the  to  the  him  that  to was  In  Max to  order  frequent  focus  English  these  friendship that  each  the  to  i t was  in turn  influence  his  and  liked  he  style was  Jacob:  the  three  a  visit  Montmartre  near  introduced  exercise to  pubs  were  considerable  his  new-found  where P i c a s s o  f o r many v i s i t o r s  to  from  had  a l l walks  of  life.  lack  In  1904  there  of  love  interest,  way  into  and  La  was  revue  decisions of  in  the  winter  "Salome",  During Belgium the  and  Gery  de  Paul  "Les  P a r i s et  four  "Vesinet" once  Pieret,  in  and  the  Champagne.  poems,  "Mai"  were  ostensibly to  La  I t was et  of  find  to  their Plume,  thanks  Prose, de  that Landor  published.  Apollinaire  company  doubt  found  "L'Emigrant  made  trips  a  ne'er-do-weel  new  outlets for  to by his  prose. de  Gonzague F r i c k ,  a  former  school  friend,  i n g e t t i n g some m o r e e a r l y w o r k s p u b l i s h e d  journal with Neo-Symbolist  a  feature  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  Mercure  appeared;  no  T,' I m m o r a l i s t e .  e d i t o r of Vers  period  a  the  de  major  Cloches"  due  p r e - e x i s t i n g works  Fort, the  1905/6,  Holland,  of  Louis mental  this  and  name  poetry  of  single  j o u r n a l s s u c h as  litteraire  the  major p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y  but  some l i t e r a r y  to  Road",  no  he  Pourrissant"  de  France  on  w h i c h he  production  the  completed the  tendencies.  subject  first  published  Prose  at t h i s  i n the  i n La  instruPhalange,  works tended t o time;  of Anatole  v e r s i o n of  was  an  article  France's  in  "Thais"  "L'Enchanteur  F e s t i n d'Esope  be  between  25 March of  and August  1904, and began  c r i t i c i s m and encouragement Apollinaire,  life  style,  needing  temporarily  his first  of the plastic  money  the creation  Exploits  ri'un  deserted  editing  poetry  who  round  Apollinaire have  Utrillo,  become  one  between  a  poet  two  inseparable. Le  period  Gertrude  of  attachment  no  A Closerie and in  at this  des  he  time  Marie  their  continued,  Pierre  engineered  was  of a  Laurencin  painting  of  literary  became  writers.  o f a r t i s t s and  writers  MacOrlan,  discreetly  watering  the  by P a u l  Fort,  involved  became  engine  s a muse". of  a  of The  romantic  genius.  was w i d e n i n g the  works  and he of h i s  and Rousseau.  near  of Apollinaire's t h e Luxembourg  was  was  more  likely  a  La  gardens  with a clientele of writers.  i n what  and  attachments.  et  his poetic  place  i n Montparnasse  father,  Guillaume,  et  promoting  Picasso  encounter  was t o b e t h e s u b j e c t  "Le p o e t e over;  an-  Creole  and  r e p u t a t i o n as an a r t c r i t i c  Lilas  and i n t h e  bistros  h a d no r o m a n t i c  relationship  and o f h i s f r i e n d s ,  p r e s i d e d over 1907  Picasso  was o n c e m o r e t o m o t i v a t e  favorite  verges  Stein,  the daughter  inaction  opportunity  mistress  girl,  Rousseau's  Apollinaire's lost  occasions  them,  poetic  literary  Vlaminck, e t c .  who  of  he  a s h i s Les  works o f e a r l i e r  world  In fact  Douanier  such  o f a crowd  young  friend,  of prose;  as h i s secondary  i n t h e Montmartre  famous,  h i s expanded  i n favour  at the centre  of these  slim  The  of the erotic  soirees  Modigliani,  On  his  of  works  field  arts.  J u a n a n d L e s onze m i l i e  and a n n o t a t i o n  The with  of erotic  j e n n e Don  i n the  i n 1906 t o m a i n t a i n  b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n w h a t was t o c o n t i n u e activity,  efforts  Here  publicity  stunt Max at  than  an  Daireaux the  former's  the  after  matter  a l l an  of  - because  "Apollinaris". and  affair  he  honour  a  duel  to  t o o k umbrage a t t h e  insistence C o o l e r heads, was  -  settled  a f f a i r i n which  on  drinking  only  the  seconds  by  their  h o n o u r was  which  he  challenged  latter's  poking  "his" mineral  named by  deciding  each, that  involved.  7  fun  water  prevailed  i t was  not  27 5.  New  directions  Early  i n the  ence than t h a t on  the  fresh was  1908  often  Apollinaire tried  provided  subject ideas  year,  of  and  by  the  style  called  La  poets,  appealed as  reach  Phalange. T h i s  new  upon  to  a  "La  to  an  time  a  larger  as  Phalange  a lecturer  nouvelle",  enthusiastic  "conferencier"  audi-  in  his  audience.  the  years  He that  followed. In  February  ordinary being Bias  a  La  d r e a m poem i n v e r s e prelude  published  to  new  publication  i n yet  now  Brasier"  ground,  for  another  the  n a n d F l e u r e t , who  was  ale.  same t i m e he  T,es  h e a d e d up ialised also  matt-res de  the  published  riotous t h o s e who  at  event  that  same  the  another  living  by  he  happy  was  h i s pen to  involved,  erotica  in  des  Curieux  Pyree")  and  with  his  forces  with  Fer  project  an  Brothers  who  to  Bestiaire  of  Nation  annotating  catered  Le  the  and  lengthy  Briffaut  made o f  "Le  Bibliotheque  which  as  Fiancailles".  join  the  forward  ended w i t h  alone  in a  extra-  journal, G i l  name o f  "Les  busy p r e f a c i n g  a  an  spec  which  was  year.  banquet  provides  of  f  1' amour f o r t h e  Picasso's  made u p  Pan  M e n t i o n m u s t be  celebrated  November  was  1908  "annus m i r a b i l i s "  review,  of  Bibliotheque  clientele.  The in  holdings  May  Adema p u t s  i t s original  similarly  the  the  In  8  this  erotic  cataloguing  thology,  and  " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , an  prose that  (by  A p o l l i n a i r e was  predilection  At  and  Surrealism.  "Le  which broke  By  Phalange p u b l i s h e d  a  for  Le  Douanier  studio.  Andre  good  insight  group to  Rousseau  Salmon's into  the  took  account  place  of  characters  which A p o l l i n a i r e belonged.  9  this of  28 6. T h e y e a r s  of happiness  January Lalanne" which the  Eugene M o n t f o r t ,  Apollinaire of having  commentary.  The  him pretend  t o be a l a d y  mysterious victims  authoress  of  displeasure Paul  to  this when  Leautaud,  the  board  were  Mal-Aime"  since  was  to various  and  moving  to  apply  and July  read 13  which  had  much  t o o busy  ones),  Apollinaire.  The  later  to  show  he  could get.  f r i e n d s , was o n  i n May  o f "La  i n a  drawer,  languishing office.  1 0  friends  poems p u b l i s h e d ,  here, (for  c o n t r i b u t i n g commentaries  1909 o f h i s n o v e l l a  period  solidly  t o poetry;  was n o t e n t i r e l y  ("Poeme  example criti-  f o rthe publi-  L'Enchanteur  pourrissant  though  poetic  Laurencin, inspiration  l a c k i n g , he f o u n d t i m e t o w r i t e  a poem a t t h e w e d d i n g o f h i s g o o d 1909  and  there  arranging  from Montmartre t o A u t e u i l t o be near M a r i e himself  their  remark by A p o l l i n a i r e  meeting  and reviews,  that the  publication  been  the  announcing  a l l the help  i n immediate  However  that  of Apollinaire's literary  newspapers  i n November  over that  were  getting h i s earlier  some o f t h e R h i n e l a n d  cation  hoax  and  and admitting  Guillaume  1907, i n t h e p u b l i s h e r ' s  everywhere,  cisms  fact  conceived  of poetry  lively.  officer  A p o l l i n a i r e needed  resulted  Apollinaire and  writer  came, w i t h M o n t f o r t  i n  elaborate  his articles,  quite  cavalry  was  of  o f Le M e r c u r e de F r a n c e : a c h a n c e  du  probably  a  another  his friend  Chanson  with  "Louise  t h e e d i t o r o f Les Marges t o some  articles  had eloped  of the year-long  contributed  denouement o f t h e hoax f i n a l l y Louise  1909-1912  1909 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g  caper.  idea  and s t r e s s  l u au m a r i a g e  d'Andre  f r i e n d Andre.Salmon Salmon")  on  and t o work  29 on  "1909", The  Le  "Saltimbanques"  next  Restiaire  and  on  i n volume  scrapped  Phalange. this  1910,  year,  a  few  was d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e p u b l i c a t i o n  form. that  Apollinaire  project  had  h a d t o move  o v e r f l o w i n g i t s banks.  him  byline  over  from  poetry  Andre  reached  prose  Salmon  a n d some  ised  a s Kan-ds-Vie)  tent  win  P.-V.  publisher Goncourt  review fast  Billy  vicissitudes The  Dufy  worked  hard  failure.  on a c c o u n t of this  1/ I n t r a n s i g e a n t ,  i n La  1908  of the event where  Seine earned  he  "La V i e a r t i s t i q u e " .  took  No  new  of L'Heresiarque  preliminary  work  i n connection  Alcools that  et Cie,  (originally  h i s friends  with  advert-  sometimes  an  Stock  invitation. put Apollinaire  with L Heresiarque  & Cie, but the failure t o  /  and l a s t  ballot  o f t h e book  friends stood  was a g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t .  by Andre  f o r the rest  by  his  i n the running f o r  Billy  resulted  of Apollinaire's  bohemian  friend  through  A  i n their life.  The  a l lthe  the future  held i n store  f o r him.  S p r i n g o f 1911  saw t h e s t a r t  o f t h e "La V i e anecdotique"  commentary this  Raoul  His reportage  him so busy  The  becoming  i n  poems  he seemed i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g p u n c t u a l , t o t h e e x -  i t on t h e t h i r d  staid  kept  a l l about  favourable  again  collection  of forgetting  the p r i x  appeared  i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1911  was t o b e h i s f a m o u s  that  a d o z e n new  of  of publication.  what  complained  once  t h e column  the stage  works,  wrote  was a p u b l i s h i n g  i n the prestigious  Publication other  first  however,  river a  Apollinaire  and h i s i l l u s t r a t o r  - which,  Apollinaire  and "Crepuscule".  i n t h e Mercure  activity  until  de F r a n c e .  h i s untimely  Apollinaire  death.  By  now  continued with Apollinaire  had  30 acquired  a  literary  certain circles.  counterbalanced small  coterie The  to  ation pery  a  admiration  mixture  of  of  pique  i n  artistic  and  friends  was  his and  jealousy  among  a  detractors. supported  some e x t e n t  him i n a l l t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s that  Apollinaire's notoriety  of h i s never-ending slope  almost  underline on  with  of  former  The  particularly  were  follow. To  his  notoriety,  o f fame wilful  attempts  and fortune, powers  t h i s aspect  T/ T n t r a n s i g e a n t  was  due t o a  t o get a foothold  both  as a  of mystifying  critic  friend  combin-  on t h e  slip-  and poet,  and  and f o e a l i k e .  To  a n a s s e s s m e n t made b y o n e o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s  i n April  of the previous  year  i s quoted  i n  part: ..., v o u s n e p o u r r i e z raffinee  concevoir  combien complexe e t  e s t l'ame que c o n t i e n t  ce personnage  d'aspect  hollandais. Erudit  et parlant  poete  ayant  d'art  e t se p l a i s a n t  Apollinaire vin  vieux,  restent, C'est  ecrit  aime l'art  tous  des v e r s  lesdialectes libres  a 1'effort  en l ' a i r ,  un sage a l a m a n i e r e  entre  critique  Independants,  1'erudition  i n - c e r t a i n et l e s propos  solide, l e  savants q u i  deux  verites.  d'Esope.  On l e s o u p c o n n e d ' u n l e g e r  The  charmants,  des p i r e s  l e beau s u b t i l ,  avec une p a t t e  mystification...  italiens,  penchant pour l a  I I e s t s i complexe e t s i a r t i s t e .  wayward Gery P i e r e t ,  t h e former  G u i d e du r e n t i e r a n d t h e p o e t ' s  collaborator  t r a v e l l i n g companion  1 1  on t h e i n 1 9 0 4 , was  31 a  compulsive  appealed  to  brazenly  used  of  thief.  After  his friend  This theft  that  same  August  innocent  In  letter  Lisa, 1911,  focussed  Apollinaire,  September  i n America  and  as a r e p o s i t o r y  shelter for a  from t h e Louvre  he and  statue  museum.  coincided with the mysterious disappearance of the t h e Mona  anonymous  apartment  f o r food  he h a d s t o l e n  famous p a i n t i n g , place.  self-imposed exile  Apollinaire  the poet's  a woman's h e a d  a  7 t h on  a  i n French the  the  who  was  charge  "La Joconde",  return  attention locked  of  of of  up  the  from t h e  head  and  the police  i n t h e Sante  an  on  the  prison  on  complicity  i n the theft  of the  round  after  of the  painting. His utmost  real stress,  12th:  was  "A  Sante"  La  the  only  with  1912  was  a  release  period  September  year that the  i s distinguished  which  o f mind  but also  week on  of the following  s i x poems,  give  by  by t h e  a heartrending  - which  was b r o u g h t  the realisation  o f him, and t h a t  he  had i n fact  on  that lost  o f some o f h i s h a p p i e s t d a y s . provided  the  inspiration  t h e contemporaneous  "Cors  of  "Le  Pont  de c h a s s e " c o n t a i n s  Mirabeau" echos  of  poems. was a g a i n a b u s y  and h i s other f r i e n d s  vehicle  This  the imprisonment,  loss  the prison  This  of  Laurencin had t i r e d  This  Billy  January  of h i s depressed state  by  and,  his provisional  quashed.  series  companion  which  obtained  finally  description  Marie  rallied  b u t i t was n o t u n t i l  charge  not  friends  for Apollinaire's the best  possible  year  f o rApollinaire.  f o u n d i n g Les talents cure  as an  Soirees editor  I t started de and  with  Paris as a contributor.  f o r h i s depression. This  review  32 saw  the first  "Marie"  i n October,  exorcism  Soirees  de c h a s s e " December.  Jura  served  There  also  i s evidence  the Picabias  mountains, with  and  further  contributions  quite  a b i t t o say about  the  company o f t h e D e l a u n a y s , living  painting,  being  addition,  Francis  double  last  poem  were  rite  and  of  "Cors  and "Zone" i n  was  drafted  on h o l i d a y  later  and  affection.  "Le V o y a g e u r "  upon  just  that  i n  i n the  year  Picabia of  part  modern who  west  a  painting  of  theorist  h i s wife  while  poem  1912  -  was  now  thus, albeit  he  he  the  type  was i n  could of  not  Marie  subject  Buffet of  breaks  which  two y e a r s  b u t he  of  dates by  later:  were  painting.  them a t t h e i r  preferred  were  simultaneism; i n  Gabrielle  enjoyable  "Montparnasse"  since  when  of  abstract  Paris  -  on  some w e e k - e n d s w i t h  of  i n  i t s memories  inventor  more  of Paris  described h i s feelings  review  p u t h i m up  account  and  a  his  i n the•preceding paragraph  self-styled  i n the short This  to  quite  used t o spend  Garches,  period.  on  was  the  proponents  mentioned  listed  i n Auteuil Delaunay  Apollinaire  of  i n November,  this  worked  had  in  published  and A p o l l i n a i r e  b y t h e poems  Laurencin.  sort  of Marie Laurencin's  that  dominated  active  a  i n February  the Delaunays.  Apollinaire's  face  as  upon t h e l o s s  de P a r i s  Mirabeau"  i n September, "Vendemiaire"  when  staying  o f "Le Pont  which  consequent  Les  June,  publication  place  which  are  from  this  t h e poet  who  33 Montparnasse on  d'ores et deja  (y) t r o u v e m a i n t e n a n t  remplace  les vrais  Montmartre....  artistes  habilles  a  1'americaine.... Que  voila  1'usage  un p a y s externe,  terrasses... These poet  to  curious exercise taken  artist  h i s more poem in  while  Dalize.  new  "Les  a g r e a b l e ou t o u t pays  de  le ciel  plein  est  a i r  pour et  des  1 2  friends  usual,  at  least  fenetres"  simultaneism: having a drink  were  was a  instrumental  i n restoring  outwardly, extrovert  written  at the Delaunays.  "poeme-conversation" based  with  self.  his friends  Andre  Billy  It  on and  the The was  notes Rene  34 7.  Literary  The  first  apartment for in  the the  at  of  202  of  who  notable  the on  The  should  subtitle of  the  book  only  a  few  pages  Apollinaire)  have  now  after  Gleizes,  Marie  Duchamp. The mentions and  throwing  as  by  those  fact  had  to  collectors; Juan  at  the  title,  as  with the  p a i n t e r s such Archipenko  but  only  review light  pourquoi qu'il  in  and  period to  end  of  s i n c e more  than  painting,  with  in  part  to  whose works  are  Picabia  Dufy,  Brancusi  in  1912.  Metzinger, and  Marcel  s c u l p t o r Duchamp-Villon as  art  meditations  Braque,  Leger,  book  Derain,  Van  as b e l o n g i n g  i s the  Apollinaire's  d a n s c e t t e s o r t e de v i e n t de  this  and  Dongen to  the  passing.  of the on  artist  him.  (thanks  Picasso,  Gris,  his  cubistes,  who  result  Independants  d i s c u s s i o n of  names  h i s home  devoted  des  worked the  attic  m u l t i f a r i o u s "isms"  Salon  peintre.q  a  to  In  of  themselves  been  to  also deals  i t does a  peinture  have  t o be  s i n c e become c e l e b r a t e d a r t i s t s  Raynal's  C'est  to  the  move d i d n o t  of the  of the  o f Les  devoted  persuasion,  Maurice  This  -Apollinaire  chasing  into  w h i c h was  him  presented  devoted  several other  s c u l p t o r s such  "Cubist"  that  opening  Laurencin,  book  settling  i n Montmartre..  and  really  is  poet  bound  which A p o l l i n a i r e  half  sought  that  publication  esthetigues,  1914  of h i s l i f e .  energy  with the  -  Saint-Germain  remain  surface  1912  the  his terrier-like  Coincident was  ties  the  to the  rose  the  for  that  saw  s i x years  to  and  during  year  Boulevard  chose  criticism  January  the  remaining loss  friends was  experimentation  publier,  on  most p e n e t r a t i n g ,  character; poeme s u r sent  tout  la d'abord  35 que  sa nature  principalement  commenter et En  d'expliquer  general,  les vrais  ressentent  1913 tion and to  la percoit,  was  a  busy  experimentation.  April  respectively,  taken  publication up  France,  lished  comprennent  of  ne  comprend pas  notable  "Arbre" are  in  of  the  Curieux",  Briffaut  and  futuriste",  putting  in  June,  Futurists,  to  commentaries brothers  together with  who  were  de  investiga-  such  as  such  as  addition  Le  was  Mercure  books being  their  pub-  "Bibliotheque  manifesto  friend  In  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s . time  f o r the in  also  of  period.  reviews  the  his  sorte  l a peinture,  amount  this  April,  Paris-Journal,  i n preparing  by  Italian  and  mais  "Liens", p u b l i s h e d i n March  typical  Alcools  de  1 3  f o r the  and  rien,  Apollinaire,  w i t h h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o newspapers  T/Tntransigeant de  ne  1 ' £prouve .  year,  and  the  poetes  mystique,  l u i defendait  l a p e i n t u r e meme.  tout. Aussi Guillaume  sensualiste mais  poetique  "L'Antitradition  Marinetti  tasting  des  the  and  the  heady  other  wine  of  simultaneism. Apollinaire Georges "ism"  that  lified and  Duhamel  by  the  described  met the  dabbled  Unanimism  the  Dramatism  with  the  poet's  of  light  of  of  Jacques  Jules  light in  Romains  Barzun but  a s p i r a t i o n s was  b r i g h t c o l o u r s and  i t thus:  the  "Orphism",  Fenetres".  only  exemp-  of Delaunay's E i f f e l  "Les  and  Tower  Apollinaire  1 4  s i m u l t a n e i t y des  simultanes des  the  and  leit-motiv  La  in  et par  couleurs  selon  couleurs par  toutes leur  des  contrastes  l e s mesures  (impaires)  expression  dans  leur  issues  mouvement  representatif, en  peinture.  La  lumiere  elle  only those  tendency  to  short  who  i t a  had  espoused  who  ing  feelings  the  multiple  were few  got  his  changes  total  lack  quite  as  later  back  many  had  elle  notre a  pour  artistic  result  reviewing  critics  style  and  punctuation  in  who  his  of  movement  of  A l c o o l s by  were  Georges express-  bewildered not  collection;  former  nous,  alienating  true  versification, the  vers  sensibilite.  given the  construire  glisse  is particularly  when  v i t u p e r a t i v e as  realite  procede,  support  i t . This  of pace, of  to  time  own  of  un  communiquee p a r  Apollinaire's drop  l a seule  n ' e s t pas  nous e s t  Duhamel,  the  voila  by  to  the  mention  however,  friend.  Witness  none these  extracts: Rien  ne  fait  brocanteur  que  brocanteur, une  C'est  mais dont  tient  a peine  apergoit  tient du  parce  m a r c h a n d meme.  variete  on  ce  recueil qu'il  foule d'objets  valeur, du  davantage penser  a  s i , par  le regard du  dans  les trous  Juif  du  gout.  1 5  la  etourdissante  n a i f du  objets. miteuse,  marchand,  l'Americain  d u facchino. . . . A u s s i , les plus  de  l'industrie  d'une c h a s u b l e  l e v a n t i n , de et  de  1'assemblage des  ironique et  impudemment l e s r e g i e s  mesure et  le produit  de  taudis  c e r t a i n s ont  ...Une t r u c u l e n t e e t d'art,  de  venu e c h o u e r dans ce  aucun n'est  gentillhomme polonais  t - i l  est  boutique d i s boutique  h e t e r o c l i t e s dont  lieu  la fois  des  a une  qui  du  Sud,  brave-  a c c o m m o d a n t e s de  la  37 Such challenge  opprobrium  was  Duhamel  a  once a g a i n The  experiment  year,  major  more u s u a l of  challenging  who,  an  these  poems  complexity  of  of  next  "Ideogrammes "Ondes"  Most "II  of  not  a  job  December de  rest..  by  "Lundi  1913.  rue  Earlier  Saint-Merry".  until  to  intervention  to  in  contemporary  period  fact  an  dating and  and  of p o e t i c  from  attempts  to  and  mainly  with  the  April  The other  1918  creativity  (in  in i t s  of  his  major  i n the  i n D e a u v i l l e at  eke the  out  what  of  form  and  1914.  of  the  Chagall in  the  These  Paris. Apollinaire into  collection  summer o f  was  are  Apollinaire  incorporated  w r i t t e n i n the  December  to  of  be  War  in poetic  Chirico  early part  summer t h a t . y e a r  until  effort  to  render  S o i r e e s de  second  were p u b l i s h e d have been  the  the  "poemes-conversations",  i n f l u e n c e on  creating  later  before  Delaunay,  i n Les  was  lyriques",  just  range  strong  i n 1913  that  from  were a  activity  must  published In  laid  followed  published  friends  1912,  portion  these  Pleut"  ological  not  the  was  Musicien  also  his  poems were p u b l i s h e d  or  "Le  is  to  m a t t e r was  nuees"  interesting  Cendrars,  part  The  de  due  wanted  collection) .  efforts  with  later  the  Fenetres"  i t was  i n simultaneism,  painting  only  who  format.  Most  essays  "Les  Collines"  Calligramities Thus ended  that  created  though  for Apollinaire,  I t was  fantome  poet  "Les  poems,  of  "Un  the  poem  prewar the  and  much  duel.  of Andre B i l l y  Christine" that  to  too  1914.  spring.  called  the  C a l l i g r amines. The  ideogram  It is a  gloriously  first  sunny;  meteori t  was  managed t o  get  1916. a  height  living  Apollinaire  of that  r e s o r t ' s season, w r i t i n g  38  a  series  but of  this July  auto" in  de  society  notes.  activity  was  31  The  which  the  result  of  1914.  marked the  broader  cut  He  last end  of of  Pages,  the  the an  and  general  pre-war  era,  one:  experiences  Coligny, Madeleine  a c c o m p a n i e d by  s h o r t by  historical  f r o m h i s war  was  both  was  "La  in a poetic  Kolb.  order petite  sense  inspiration  his relationships  Jacqueline  Rouveyre,  mobilisation  poems  henceforth  and  Andre  with  and  would Louise  39 8. A p o l l i n a i r e  The grammes  very  on a c t i v e  service  names  the  collection  of  remaining  indicate  "Etendards",  "Obus c o u l e u r de  lune",  his  beloved  owing  France.  to h i s having  that  he  owed  recruiting  no  as  patriot  was  happy  A  enlisted In action  what  to  another  no  time  tiff  office  and  resulted  she  rejoin  in  could  left  This  of  de  those his  his  Lou  for a  countries.  the  days  at  the  end  was  of  A was  frustrated  and l o d g i n g i n N i c e The  friend  to a  flighty and  court to her.  where  to  he  the  was  o f e x p l a n a t i o n , he  or  insisted  official  immediately  t o r e p o r t t o Nimes.  enough to  memorable day  national,  particulars  so  reporting  join  d e s c r i b e d as' f r a n t i c this  for  Coligny-Chatillon,  strenuous  immediately  after  tirs",  fight  but  i n September  mayoralty  way  played i n  a Russian  of board  early  and t o l d  t o Lou, by  Calli-  "Lueurs des  he  unofficially,  i n paying  imprudent.  weeks  three  t h e War  mother,  down  Louise  i n the Nice  letter  c a n o n l y be Two  leave  lost  as b e i n g  challenge  either  an o f f e r  lady,  i n the A r t i l l e r y a  best  Polish  taken  i n t r o d u c e d him  young  slight  recruiting  a  to  operating  the  s i n c e he h a d s t o r e d h i s few b e l o n g i n g s .  snobbish  Apollinaire  how  technically  of  had  t o accept  Siegler-Pascal  and  born  which  i t was  from a f r i e n d , M.  been  was  s t i l l  allegiance  office  closed,  was  to  "etoilee".  thought  He  part  "Case d'armons",  "La t e t e  one  subtitles  the important  the poet's, l i f e ;  Apollinaire's  1914-1916  described his  f o r her t o accept h i s him  f o r nine  days  of  went  on  lovemaking. period Apollinaire  two  and  January.  this  was  Apart  followed from  a  by  brief  meeting  on  the  encounter saw  three  of her,  twelve  2 9th years  but  He  period had  written By  since  the  nothing  to  that  belonged  he  there, love all  he  f o r Lou  chance  by  from  sent  her  took the  a  cadre  with  a  secret  from  meant  more  Louise. spring  the  of  1916 with  which  active  ever  another found  less  in a  six  best  than, month  that  he  brought  on  return  service  as  the  in  could He was  dug  up  her  and  His felt  k e e p up  his  on  a  his  way  address  and with  one  to  extent  the  which of  1915. solid  and  physical  this  state  of  acute  Paris infantry  probably  attraction  his  an  training  a half,  of  to  fact  h i s romance  effect  a  was  remembered  he  purely  traumatic  despite  him.  pursued  f a r more the  there  when  He  i n August  was  felt  a year he  that  r e m i n i s c e n c e . He  beginning of  which  than  h i s permanent  further  he  a gunner p r i v a t e .  with  train  almost  and  the  chance  have  No  candidates  into  January.  was  lasted  Guillaume  must  the  i n Nimes,  officer  i n the  friendship  Nevertheless  combined excused  to  he  realised  t o w h o e v e r he  becoming engaged t o Madeleine Madeleine's  on  of  in early  Lou  last  flowed f o r  were  t o t h e F r o n t as  girl  which  the  Apollinaire  correspondence  postcard. This  Pages  by  shape o f d e l v i n g  into  but  shorter  hopeless a c t i v i t y .  staying  began t o w r i t e  entering  was  poems  Apollinaire  straight  s e e i n g Lou  Madeleine kept  a  and  even  began.  by  to  this  himself claimed  March  gained  meeting  back  composed  went  a l o n e and  spirits  he  be  and  were  of  an  unfaithful  in this  t h e war  end  letters was  Apollinaire  and  in Paris,  of  she  1915  relief  poems  which  later  knew  some p s y c h o l o g i c a l five  March  a stream  months.  seventy  of  (since  wound  in  of the  depression, he  officer)  had  been  together  41 with had  t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s h e now the effect  many  been e d i t e d by Adema  April  poet's  t o June  office  of  d'armons" ditty  the  to  from was  copies  raison d'etre  who  Apollinaire  poet  fraternity,  not  knew  printed  i n  the  Among Favier,  de  was  machine  also  the  found  Coligny  of a  again  letter  of  a  to  and t h e absence  artistic  world  remaining  matters.  with the publishing o f t h e poems i n  He  i s not  at the front  militated  nature.  for his  most  to h i s friends.  Madeleine,  personal  of military  of sending  This  alluded  t o her, but t h e econ-  early  mostly  1918.  Only  provided  f  was  then  h e n e e d e d t o make u p t h e c o l l e c t i o n , April  "Case  sailor's  P o £ m e s A T,ou  sent  poems  the step  i n the  collection  m a t e r i a l nearby  which treat  period  o r gun c a r r i a g e .  five  i t i n an  of  the  s e t o f p o e m s . Some o f t h e s e  of seventy  collection  until  shortages  publication  rest  s o he t o o k  the copies  wartime  this  seems t o h a v e b e e n o u t o f t o u c h  C a l l i grammes  recover  of  Louise  i n this  inscribed  group,  during  duplicating  title  made.  the soldier  poems i n t h i s  the  were  the  poems  l o c a t e d on t h e l i m b e r  "Reconnaissance"  received  a  have  reading.  the artilleryman's equivalent  f o r nine  Guillaume  The  The  of the anthology  earlier.  twenty-one  Madeleine.  t o Madeleine  interesting  p r i n t e d on  battery.  box which  omical  of  with  a n d t h e poems  and provide  1 6  1915 was  stems  form p a r t  letters  output  his  twenty-five  h i s o l d friendships,  of cooling o f fh i s relationship  Apollinaire's  The  had t o renew  which  surprising o f s o many  against  a  able  to was  since men  he  more  normal  Louise  Faure-  procedure. the recipients  of  "Case  d'armons"  a n e w s p a p e r w o m a n whom h e h a d f i r s t  was  met i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 1 2 .  42 She  was  able  In  her  quotes  at  to provide book  a means o f  Souvenirs  l e n g t h from  snr  letters  Case d'armons e s t j'espere "Et  n o m b r e de  trace...  bien,  was  apres  que  the  elements  literary  who  The editors easier.  and a  i n the  of  system -  among  above  this  his he  quotation.  would  was  faced  important of  what  whom,  extract,  Madeleine  t h a t he  in  one  task  of  anthologists  such and  be  the  qui  sait  best  number  and  as  Apollinaire  read  the  be  put  the  Marie "Celle  Adema  post-  and  their  in  of  place  described  Apollinaire  Marcel  by  possibility  should  addition to can  Pages,  Coligny-Chatillon.  Decaudin  des  veut  techniques  with  could  de  Michel  pas a  les a  First,  probably  innovative  Louise  like  ai  i l y en  qui  a  choses.  works  i t was  Faure-Favier,  was  his  Secondly,  executors  mentioned Louise  of  les  from  account  death,  j e n'en  m e i l l e u r s poemes e t  un  ces  je les publie. Et,  that  early  seuls, car  et  amis;  garder  que  mindful  his  d o n e de  avec  a Dupont,  l a guerre,  very  merit.  amies et  s i celle  arise  intrinsic  les prie  possedent  deviennent  on  a mes  et  point paru  que  matters  both  volume t y p o g r a p h i c  les lirez  Two  erity  en  ceux envoyes a Rouveyre,  m a i s mes  b o n s v o u s ne  him:  p e i n t r e " q u i n'a  y e n t r e r o n t . Je  poemes q u i ' i l s  she  1 7  curiosite bibliographique,  a u t r e s poemes e n v o y e s  certain  ce  une  Laurencin.  Apollinaire,  r e c e i v e d from  aussi je suis  mes  Billy  Guillaume  qu'elle paraitra  moi  tous  contacting Marie  was  as  three  men  Laurencin, qui  les  himself thus  a"  and made  The  "Lueurs  exemplifies five  poems copying  in  Spain  particular the  t h eprocess were  for  des t i r s "  t o Marie  h e r German  20th  just  1 9 1 5 t o Mme  Laurencin,  .husband.  i n the following  next  two  Faure-Favier  t o both  living  called  The f o u r t h  this  poem i n  Madeleine  and  t o Madeleine. poems  were  sent  to  t h e two  Madeleine  while therest  o f t h e poems i n t h e s e c t i o n  Madeleine  o n l y . The l a s t  poem  1915  The f i r s t  who w a s now  Apollinaire  month  collection  mentioned.  s e t "Le m e d a i l l o n t o u j o u r s ferme".  and the l a s t  The  on August  and despatch  s e t was s e n t  Louise  of distribution  a l l sent  with  o f t h e r . a l ligrarnrnes  section  "Ocean de t e r r e "  and d e d i c a t e d t o t h ep a i n t e r  Louises  were sent t o  was d a t e d  G i o r g i o de C h i r i c o .  and  December  44  9. The  f i n a l years 1916-1918  "Souvenirs"  and  " L ' a v e n i r " were the  the poet t o Madeleine. all  the  In f a c t he was  dated A p r i l  later.  The  end  12th  of  and  this  request was  by  made i n a q u i t e  a very peremptory telegram  romance was  help being s t r u c k by the e v a s i v e tone  in sight.  virtually  recovered  from  the  One  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  l e t t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y one dated August 26th 1916, he had  poems sent  other ones on the p r e t e x t of wanting them f o r i n c l u s i o n  letter  weeks  war  t o demand t h e i r r e t u r n and  i n a c o l l e c t i o n to be p u b l i s h e d . The curt  last  series  18  two  cannot  remaining  by which time  of o p e r a t i o n s on h i s  skull. Ne v i e n s pas s u r t o u t , ca me  d o n n e r a i t t r o p d'emotion.  Ne m'ecris pas des l e t t r e s t r i s t e s s u r t o u t non p l u s ca me  terrifie.  Envoie-moi mes  notes... ma bague cachet en or..  Although the p e r i o d of convalescence by  h i s pre-War  prisingly him.  tude  not  seen  f o r him  summer of planned spent  to  was  c o u r t t o the  the p r e t t y  l a d i e s who  red head,  he  fires,  was  able t o t e l l  "La  jolie  the  f o r t n i g h t l a t e r on May  kind  2nd.  19  visits  Not  came t o  survisit  Her  real  solici-  so t h a t by the end of the  Louise F a u r e - F a v i e r t h a t  rousse".  days i n the v i l l a g e with  long,  J a c q u e l i n e Kolb, whom  s i n c e a b r i e f meeting i n 1914.  marry  1918  fairly  t o a c c e l e r a t e h i s cure.  sparked the l a t e n t  1917  a few  April  tended  he began to pay  Among those  he had  in  friends  was  The  poet  of Barbizon  Louise,  and  and  his  south-east they  were  he  fiancee of P a r i s  married  a  45  five  Major  works of p o e t r y  short  sad  separately, between the  tete  "Tristesse  "La  Victoire"  1918.  These  and  s e c t i o n of  as  like  Andre Breton  the  fields  a  1916 His  of music  he  was  able  to  think  of  Paris  about  letter  discovered  the to by  ...  the  Laurent Adema,  2 0  In  the  more  others,  and  "La  towards  the  men  others  a  leader  of  letters  ^aspirants'  distinguished  "Sur C'est  jusqu'ici  allowed  end  and into  of  the a  July like.  sort  of  the  leisure  to  be  headed.  In  1916  and  November  thus: de  bStir  a constitue le  l e q u e l ne  des  Paris  the  should  s i vous voulez  monument a u d a c i e u x p o u r  antiques."  at  had  in  himself  un  nouveaux.  qui  he  h i s work  serait ce  even  written  expressed  s o l i d e de  hospital in  meantime  base  vers  jolie  i n the  reputation of being  that  la  des  and  G u e r r e made h i m  i n which  esthetique  materiaux  "La  included  salons,, matinees  de  Tailhade he  finally  sadness,  collection.  among  so  various  society.  Mon  the  Italian  his Croix  direction  with  bridge  period.  liberty,  attend  b a n d a g e d head and  and,  drama.  at of  the  of  P i e r r e A l b e r t - B i r o t , young  and  convalescence  and  more  P h i l i p p e Soupault,  c e r t a i n amount  darling  a  and  and  were  sort  permeated  Calligrammes  this  a  poems w e r e  turned  years  impendere amori;  1917  which.comprised,  P i e r r e Reverdy  His for  during  of  quickly regained  Avant-garde  such  the  three  Vitam  also  three  interests  fiction  Apollinaire  in  last  last  etoile"(1916),  complex  etoilee"  the  d'une  Jacqueline,  Apollinaire's  of  booklet  and  of  theatre  i n the  the  Madeleine  very  Rousse"  pieces  during  pensers  sur gout  manquent p o i n t nouveaux  les  faisons  c e l a meme e t r e m o d e r n e ,  mais  s ' e f f o r c e r d'etre digne de ce q u ' o n t ' f a i t l e s a n c i e n s . C'est  j e c r o i s ce qu'a r e a l i s e Shakespeare...  In December 1916 the poet's many f r i e n d s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s Le Poete a s s a s s i n e c a l l e d f o r a s p e c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n i n t h e form o f a r i o t o u s luncheon, featured  - after  delicacies  h i m s e l f - such  1'Heresiarque".  Pierre the  due m o d i f i c a t i o n by A p o l l i n a i r e  as "Meditations e s t h e t i q u e s en s a l a d e " and " A r e t i n de  chapon a  to  the menu f o r which  Reverdy,  the d i r e c t o r  propagation  Montparnasse  of  the  o f t h e new p e r i o d i c a l  arts  and a p p r o p r i a t e l y  in  entitled  both  devoted  Montmartre  "Nord-Sud"  as  a  and link  between the two c e n t r e s , had t h i s t o say about A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h e opening  number dated March 1917:  21  , Naguere, l e s jeunes poetes  a l l e r e n t trouver Verlaine  pour l e t i r e r de l ' o b s c u r i t e . Quoi d'etonnant que nous ayons juge l e moment venu de nous grouper  autour de  Guillaume  aujourd'hui  il  A p o l l i n a i r e ? P l u s que quiconque  a t r a c e des routes neuves, ouvert de nouveaux  horizons. II a d r o i t a toute notre ferveur, a toute notre  admiration.  A p o l l i n a i r e had long n u r t u r e d a d e s i r e t o put on a p l a y . An invitation  t o w r i t e programme  c r e a t i o n o f Cocteau, led  notes  f o r the. b a l l e t  "Parade", a  Massine, E r i k S a t i e and P i c a s s o , i n May 1917  him t o present Les Mamelles de T i r e s i a s i n the f o l l o w i n g  month, i n which  11  surrealism"", a word he c o i n e d and f i r s t  the p r e f a c e t o the p l a y was g i v e n f u l l theatre  and the cinema  used i n  p l a y . The i n t e r e s t  seemed t o d i s p l a c e p o e t r y  i n the  at l e a s t p a r -  47 tially, ysis  but A p o l l i n a i r e  o f t h e new  lecture  which  trends  the  two y e a r s  of,1917  military  status  was  May  to  the Colonial  desk, into  not  i n  April  1918  He  was  inactivity  the  influenza  end  with  letters  was the  who  to  fall  had  a  thereby  expressed  because  censor.  to  Apollinaire's  o u t o f t h e Army  These  involved  and  later  sedentary  long  activities  and  jobs  hours  at h i s  had t o be  crammed  took  preparation  exacted  at  overweight t h e same 1918  to  the i n  his  two  a Who's Who  version  result  of  days  virulent  strain  fall  of On  over  many,  of  after  mourners  the  of  of died  apartment at  Armistice  and b r i g h t e s t  and  November  t h e man  so  A  1918.  assured,  list  of the best  post-  the condition  the  was  weak.  outside h i s garret  The  the  Apollinaire's  of victory.  charm  of  physically  Wilhelm  populace  a  time  the fruits  Guillaume!"  as  on  aggravated  Europe  Kaiser  place  - the final  i t s toll  h i s succumbing  the Paris  like  the  exercised  "Conspuez (which  -  grossly  of  screaming  reads  year,  ideas  invalided  forpublication  not t o taste  with  signed)  l e s poetes",  t o t h e War M i n i s t r y  but  and  devastated  peacefully  funeral  first  i n January  which  Apollinaire  was  h i s creative  collection  o f pneumonia i n  the  noteworthy  as a P r e s s  activity  constitution. operative  et  anal-  time.  this  printed  9th,  also  onerous,  meant t h a t  "Calligrammes"  led  was  Ministry  h i s spare  of  c l a r i f i e d . • He  particularly  which  nouveau  critical  i n N o v e m b e r o f t h e same  1 1 t h 1917 a n d s e c o n d e d  All  bout  "L'esprit  h i s major  earlier.  spring  on  to entitle  crystallization  The  were  as  he d e l i v e r e d  representing Tailhade  chose  men  the was and  48 women years  i n every that  field  followed  of  arts  the Great  and War  letters  of  i n the  1914-1918.  2 2  revolutionary  NOTES: CHAPTER 1  Guillaume Apollinaire,  1  Balland  A.Toussaint  Luca,  ami d'enfance, 4  Ronde,  •  (Paris:  Apollinaire:  Le mal-aime  (Paris  1952) 1 1 . 3  d'un  vol.3  1966) 98.  M a r c e l Adema, G u i l l a u m e  2  Plon,  & Lecat,  Oeuvres completes  Guillaume  Apollinaire:  (Monaco: E d i t i o n s  M a r c e l Adema, G u i l l a u m e  du Rocher  Apollinaire,  La  Table  1968) 41-49. Adema, G u i l l a u m e  6  J.R.Lawler,  7  Adema, G u i l l a u m e  Apollinaire,  117/119.  8  Adema, G u i l l a u m e  Apollinaire,  136.  Andre  1956)  1954).  (Paris:  5  9  Souvenirs  Apollinaire:  Mercure  Salmon,  de F r a n c e ,  Souvenirs  Le mal-aime, (fevrier  S a n s F i n , 2,  11.  1, 1 9 5 5 ) :  (Paris:  Gallimard,  48-59. 1 0  Apollinaire,  1 1  Adema, G u i l l a u m e  1 2  Paris-Journal  Guillaume  Apollinaire  Oeuvres p o e t i q u e s , Apollinaire,  1035-7.  183.  J u n e 23 1 9 1 4 ; q u o t e d 233.  35.  b y Adema i n  Montjoie,  1 3  January/February  & J.-CI.  Chevalier joint  Hermann,  1965)  mard,  1960)  e d s . P e i n t r e s  Apollinaire,  Chroniques  Cubistes  (Paris:  d'Art  (Paris:  Galli-  268.  1 5  Georges Duhamel, M e r c u r e  1 6  Apollinaire,  1 7  Louise  naire,  L.C.Breunig  136.  Guillaume  1 4  1914; q u o t e d b y  (Paris:  Tendre  Faure-Favier, Bernard  (16 J u n e  1913): 800.  r.nmme l e s o u v e n i r . Souvenirs  Grasset,  Tendre  de F r a n c e  1945)  s u r Guillaume 127.  1 8  Apollinaire,  comme l e s o u v e n i r .  1 9  Faure-Favier,  2 0  Adema,  Guillaume  Apollinaire.  293.  2 1  Adema,  Guillaume  Apollinaire.  300.  2 2  Faure-Favier,  183-197.  208-209.  350.  Apolli-  51  CHAPTER  A P O L L I N A I R E ' S ADOLESCENT  The p o e t r y  the religious  fathers.  The V i r g i n  lines  from  fervour  Mary  described  was  this  Rene Vous  instilled inevitably  period  e t avec  adolescence  strongly  i n him by t h e M a r i a n i s t invoked  i n his life  i n h i s prayers. i n the following  n'aimez  "AURORE D ' H I V E R " poem  Apollinaire's pre-occupied emblematic  l e .plus  ancien  de t e s c a m a r a d e s  Dalize rien  Vous p r i e z t o u t e  as  1896-1899  "Zone": Tu e s t r e s p i e u x  This  POETRY,  written during Apollinaire's  reflects  Apollinaire  2  tant  que l e s pompes de  l a n u i t dans  1'Eglise  l a c h a p e l l e du c o l l e g e .  (0.P.,710-1896) provides  persona with  with  death  of i t .  early  evidence  i t s image  from  of  the darker  of,astill-born  an e a r l y  side  S u n . He  age a n d c o n s i d e r e d  of was  winter  52 " T R I P T Y Q U E DE L'HOMME" This  series  (O.P.,711),  of  "La  "L'Orgueilleux", reading.  The  mythology  which  whether to  poems  Maison  Arthurian  just  Paris  Apollinaire  question  that  the  formed  will  tailor  to  depth  of  of  to suit  and  the  boy's  the fabric  his  managed  ("Zone")  to obtain  i . e . b e f o r e he f i r s t  the Bibliotheque  of  inspiration;  or i npoetry  Apollinaire  on t h e R i v i e r a ,  access  deserves  How  Poltrons"  (O.P.,712)  part  (L'Enchanteur p o u r r i s s a n t )  had  "Les  cristal"  reflect  two examples.  and  comprise  de  legends  these books w h i l e s t i l l to  which  (O.P.,712)  i n prose  give  (1896)  Mazarine,  went i s a  some r e s e a r c h .  "MORT DE P A N " ( O . P . , 7 0 7 - 1 8 9 7 ) After when  they  glorious  r e v i e w i n g t h e o l d pagan hear  the pious  paean o f p r a i s e Cependant Vesus 'II  'Pan!  "LES  character, i l l poet  qu'une v o i x  pauvre  work  enfin  shows  meted  was a n a r d e n t  codes o f conduct,  whose  hymns,  are  t h e poet  shaken  sings  a  King:  a u monde  e t son regne  a Bethleem;  gods  confus: commence;  s o n royaume e s t immense: e t l e s d i e u x ne s o n t  plus!'  (O.P.,715-1897)  a disposition  treatment  crie  l e Grand Pan e s t mort  DOUKHOBORS" This  christian  t o t h e Newborn  va naitre  nait  world  yet  another  t o espouse  out t o these  side causes.  pacifist  D r e y f u s a r d . He l a t e r established  of  the  young  poet's  He w a s s h o c k e d Russian  revolted  tenets and rules  by t h e  peasants.  against  of poetic  The  accepted form.  He  had  little  use  tendencies  f o r ancient  were t o r e s u l t  T r a d i t i o n Manifesto  "MARDI GRAS" The remain  shibboleths  and  his  iconoclastic  i n the future publication  and h i s g e n e r a l a v a n t - g a r d i s t  of the Anti-  attitude.  (0.P. , 708-1898)  bright  as p a r t  Mediterranean  colours  of the poet's  likened  subconscious  t o jewels  were t o  f o r the rest  of h i s  life.  "LECTURE"  (Q.P.,714-1898)  "Lecture" although plume,  i t s content ^Guillaume  Apollinaire of  bears  the would  signature indicate  Macabre',  would  appear  seem  been  a b l a c k - c l a d monk and a m y s t e r i o u s  poem  reflects  religious  t h e young  fervour,  man's  sexual  to  haunted  Apollinaire',  be  other  more  nom de  in  line.  by a m o r b i d  dream  woman c l o t h e d i n s i l k .  makeup  longing  Guillaume  that the poet's  would  t o have  x  a t t h e time,  and an a b h o r r e n t  a  blend  fear  The of  of the  female sex. The at  r e l i g i o u s t h r e a d a l s o runs through  the  close  "L'Ermite"  of  the  in particular  "FAGNES DE WALLONIE" PIEDS BLESSES This poet's nature,  pair  walks  century,  two o f t h e m a j o r poems  "L'Ermite"  h a s an a f f i n i t y  (0.P.,370-1899)  with  and  "Le  Larron".  "Lecture."  a n d "ELEGIE DU VOYAGEUR  AUX  (0.P.,337-1899) o f poems have in  and b o t h  the  much  Ardennes,  i n common, b o t h both  indicate  show t h a t t h e i m p e c u n i o u s  an  deal  with the  interest  young man's  in  shoes a r e  sadly with  i n need  of  repairs.  The  the self-mocking tendency  symbolism  has  of Apollinaire's  yet  to  later  be  tainted  poems.  55  CHAPTER 3  THE TURN OF THE CENTURY POEMS  The  winter  of 1899 was  very  were d r a f t e d , namely "L'Ermite,  1899-1901  productive,  three  major poems  " M e r l i n et l a v i e i l l e  femme", and  "Le L a r r o n " . Work was a l s o done on T / E n c h a n t e u r p n n r r i s s a n t . There i s i s a r e l i g i o u s theme t h a t runs through the works of this  period,  enter  into  but a disenchantment them.  There  i s also  and l o s s an  of f a i t h  understandable  begins  to  feeling  of  l o n e l i n e s s t h a t seems t o pervade the t h r e e major poems.  "L'ERMITE"  (O.P.,100-1899)  T h i s poem i s a v a r i a t i o n Anatole France The  poet  and F l a u b e r t ' s "La T e n t a t i o n de S a i n t  to  Antoine".  sees h i m s e l f as a r e l i g i o u s man h e l d i n t h r a l l  l u s t . His f i r s t and  on the " T h a i s " theme made famous by  amatory experiences  by  i n S t a v e l o t were f r u s t r a t i n g ,  i t was but a short step f o r him t o look down on women, i f not despise  them as being  the embodiment  of h i s s e l f - l o a t h i n g ,  a  r e s u l t of h i s i n a b i l i t y t o reach the h e i g h t s o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i ence. The poem i n d i c a t e s i n the s i x t h stanza t h a t the poet  might  56 have  assuaged  his  young person.  libido  even  faites  veille  As-tu  sue  Crucifie Car  du  like  the  Rimbaud's  misery  first  "Le  to  The  espere  century  poems;  twelfth  stanza  have been  had  many to  jour  a  help  je  lonely him:  m'enamoure.  at  he  that  he  himself,  even  example  words we  r e f e r r i n g to his  tentations de  lune  nie  come u p  with  from  je  clame vainement  however  the  was  his  a  nose  readings  de  with  the  word to  m a l g r e moi et  turning  off  plea  the  in  words.  the  saints  of  pathetic  on  admission  another  Et  in  le  started  find  the  own  j e marche et  "Lilith"  roses  1'hematidrose.  gift  for  S'ouvrir  je  remembered  rare  of  lauriers  Gethsemani  could  priceless  Et  permeated with  vain  of  speaks  basis  en  use  By  les  ivre."  the  Tentations  word  Moi  a punning play  allotted.  Apollinaire  sous  follows  T r o p de  for  as  Lord  qu'un  non  best  girl  bateau  laugh  poet's  nuits  reponds Dis  little  quotation  The  the  sang C h r i s t dans  j ' a i trop  Apollinaire his  manner  to  seigneur  trente  Poor A p o l l i n a i r e , the  of  same  blasphemes: J'ai  bleed  the  Young A p o l l i n a i r e p r a y s  Seigneur and  in  turn-of-the-  "aemeres"  whom  no  saint's  wordiness tempts me  in  the days  him:  caressent  logomachies.  temptation: fuis et  6 nuit  je vois  Lilith de  ulule  grands  yeux  tragiquement.... theme  had  "Lecture",^  religion,  already the  sexual  been  used  on  boyhood  poem  which  f r u s t r a t i o n and  an  fear.  almost is  word  likewise  57 "La a  Maison  de c r i s t a l " ,  reference to L i l i t h ,  mysterious  dark  A vivid of  prior  besides  repeated almost noirs  e t se meurt  of Apollinaire's  to reinforce  a  first  s q u e l e t t e s de d o i g t s  Ont  egare  ma  one. A  sum  weariness, state of  lines ones  j ' a i connu" up,  dormi were  come  reves au  borrowing  from  plenieres l e s sapins  poupins s o l  taken  from  des  sapinieres.  "Fagnes  de W a l l o n i e "  the "Stavelot"  despite  rapture,  i t s  and  themes  untitled  of  blasphemy,  o f m i n d o f t h e somewhat c o n f u s e d  Mme  similar  poem  (0.P.p.521).  t h e poem  religious  terminant  r o u t e e t mes  j ' a i  and f i n a l  coeur  To  vert.  p r o p e n s i t y t o use p o r t i o n s  current  Les  t h e two m i d d l e  "0 mon  l'espoir  shows up i n t h e s t a n z a :  Souvent  while  of the  verbatim i n "L'Ermite":  Mes k i l o m e t r e s l o n g s Mes t r i s t e s s e s  the  including  f e a t u r e d t h e s y m b o l i s t imagery  l e sb o i s sont  example  works  procedure  also  forest,  La n u i t  a l r e a d y mentioned,  disenchantment,  illustrates  y o u n g man who  the  i n t h e words  Durry, i s : ...tourmente et  dont  de c o n c u p i s c e n c e s  l e sprieres  et l e scris  malgre  les mortifications  n'ont p o i n t r e n c o n t r e  Dieu.  " M E R L I N ET L A V I E I L L E In ancient seer  "Merlin Celtic  et l a v i e i l l e legends,  and magician,  virtuous  woman,  FEMME"  but  born  (0.P.,88-1899) femme" A p o l l i n a i r e  particularly  those  o f the unholy  subsequently  inspired  by  concerning Merlin the  union  redeemed  was  by  of  a  devil  baptism  and  into  a  the  58 Christian of  faith.  a l l things  being  past,  everywhere  outward  a  blend  wellspring  seer's  gift  o f prophecy,  a t t h e same  time  and a c a p a c i t y  of ancient  o f another  La  Unlike  Despite  t o change h i s  i s t h e very  period  religion  full  false  ofh i s  ceased  t o be  sense  that  akin  lentement  i s spelt  J.C.Chevalier  and  t o a magician's  partially.  seems  t o flow  processes gift with  Durry,  image. more  evenly  cloth  tends  t o hold  f o r mystification a capital  Miss  Richard  dark  are not  do n o t s h y away  a powerful  a send-up o f t h a t  o f Mme  poets  o f i t s n a r r a t i v e form, t h e  Apollinaire's  t o t h e work  menstruel.  French  provide  t h e poem  surl e ciel  sanglante  o f m o r a l i t y ; they  and thought  Symbolism  picture of the  comme u n  counterparts  p o s s i b l y on account  reader.  play.  Renaud,  s'etalait  quisaignait  British  the fact  ordinary  an a r r e s t i n g  e s t ma m e r e 6 l u m i e r e  o f t h e images  Thanks  only  of  of Merlin:  d e s c r i p t i o n s i f they  "L'Ermite",  mystery  before  provide  d e g r e e t h a t M. R e n a u d d e t e c t s  M.  at this  n u a g e s c o u l a i e n t comme u n f l u x  by a  from c l i n i c a l  obscurity  maternel  their  constrained  lines  ce j o u r - l a  lumiere  Les  given  inspiration  day i n t h e l i f e  soleil  Ventre  the  a capability  and C h r i s t i a n i t y  were t o pass  poem's o p e n i n g  Le  than  a memory  force.  The start  legend  of Apollinaire's  and s e v e r a l years  a major  t o be b l e s s e d w i t h  form.  This  life  M e r l i n was s u p p o s e d  X  S' t o such  movement.  Davies,  Stamelman has been  i s a  1  Scott  Bates,  the veil lifted,  up  of  though  59 Mme since  Durry  has  has  taught  he  return  she  of the  This  and  the  deviendra  mon  lines  Lorsque The  second  in  must be  narrow  "couverts  arts.  persona,  born  the  go.  hands  immortalize Je  the  outlive  him.  draws  equal,  enchantments; In  in  stressing  the  his early novella  attention to  ceux q u i  Apollinaire  i t i s at the  d e s i r ne  the  on  opening  of  le soir  Mme  Durry  the  makes  of  cross  union  alone,  M e r l i n takes  m'eterniserai goes  poet's  muse,  and  The  2  the  with  to  his  the  road  the  echo of  the  alter  sous  h i s son,  the  ego,  of  is  placed  which  and  a  new  where  the  religion,  modernity  in  Apollinaire's  illegitimate  connection  South with  East  to  Viviane,  on  future  like  the  but  him,  road  satanic certain  the  to  beings, death he  at will  poetry:  l'aubepine  f u r t h e r by  at  poetry  son,  Morgane,  of  poem  i s also a place  freeways  to  the  point  hidebound  himself with his gift  Bates  an  at  s'entrelacant.  h i s head h e l d high,  Morgane's  Scott  himself  poitrine  i s that  crossroads  lanes  M e r l i n , • owing  of  asks  l e s couples  poeme-carrefour".  taken,  his  s'entre'aiment?  same t i m e  g o n f l e ma  I t i s here that Merlin's  m u s t m a k e h i s way  not  "un  twisting  creative  may  and  Merlin's  "L'Ermite":  d'ossements",  Rome w h e r e  she  question  je vois  point  crossroads,  direction old  spells  coeur parmi  of h i s p o e t i c career;  Aucun pauvre  a  poem,  i s s u r e l y the  voyeuristic  at  a l l his  is  former:  Que  start  Morgane  b e t w e e n L' F.nchanteur p o u r r i s s a n t ,  same t h e m e ,  line  her  that  i s h i s memory w h i c h w i l l  similarity the  explained  stating  en that  fleurs. Morgane has  his revolutionary prophetic  become vision,  60 thereby It blood  e n a b l i n g him  to  matters  whether  not  or merely  The for  and  Apollinaire.  The  He  up  must  at  such  This  as  and  fils  i s on  roads  the  has  even  make w r i t i n g poetry  or  stockbroker.  rose  deeper  of  the  his his  and  is  life's  pursue  some  other  i f he  stood  I t i s as  points  navigation  and  of p r e - c h r i s t i a n The  the rose  subject with  attraction An Bates's  has in  the  book  thorns  a wreath  challenge devoted  striving beautiful  i n the provides  has  two to  is on  further  complicated  winds;  compass no  an  the  been  rose  by  pages  of  totally  by  Durry with with  some  Richard  sort  flower  Henry  close print  two-dimensional  dimensional  of  being  of Many  connection as  by  example  complete  up  the  to  4  taken  a half  rose  real  perhaps.  different.  Glossary a  and  a  identify  three  i s altogether  entry  being there  lack of  symbol,  exegetic  S t a m e l m a n who  as  although  the  even  direction.  some f a r - f e t c h e d , h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d , f i r s t  cardinal  work,  capacity for bewildering his readers.  rose  a  or  explanations,  the  as  prose,  infinite  identifies  meaning  career  Apollinaire's  who  and  immortel.  threshold of  imagery  flesh  o m b r e d'homme  an  activity  of  always:  une  leading i n every  thprnless  3  creature  ouvrage  on  literary  multi-directional  of  to  or  a  soit  the  concentrate  a banker  saw  ou  roads  whether  of  is  art.  f o l l o w him  mon  cross  poet  to  a l l thought  a doorway  that  the  decide  whether  occupation  son  l a fange  s e r a b i e n mon of  i f so,  give  m o n t e de  concept  writer.  the  a shadow t h a t w i l l  Qu'il II  c r e a t e h i s works of  whose  to  compass magnetic  5  Reference  forming  scatological  part  definition  of  Scott of  the  Rose  des  unlikely have  vents, that  been  It lost the  so  of  the  the  i s conceivable  the sport  y o u n g men  at  dimensional.  this  stage  despite  female  form  some  if  divine.  knowledge  any k i n d  eminent  on t h e i r  flying  machines  of prevailing  winds,  making  i s t o be  of prevailing  given  place  were  kept.  simplest  information  takes  say,  f o r each  with  flight image  A stanza  direction  much  simpler  This foetidus), genus  leads  where  which Rosa  have  since the  winds  Hence  over  i ti s  time  description  a t any of  such  on w h i c h t h e l e n g t h o f i n days  Apollinaire's  i tlisteth"  with  per  year,  fascination to  connect  t h e normal  roads.  c a n be  arrived  at i f the  second  thus:  fleur...sinon  one  may  depend on a  so i t i s not unreasonable  explanation  ...sans epine  i t i s  of balloonists,  attempted.  graphic  studied.  "blowing  o f t h e poem i s r e a d  Balloons  o f the wind  of a t r a v e l l e r at a cross  ...nulle  the  being  known,  o f the wind  hesitation  The  the' frequency  i s well  case  h a d y e t t o compete f o r  t h e shape o f a wind rose  indicates  anatomy,  Apollinarians  on t h e p a r t  statistics  arrow  any  would  t o o much on t h e c o m p a s s . A t t h e t u r n o f  that  the  In  i n  o f b a l l o o n i n g was a t i t s h e i g h t ,  o f passage  i t i s  6  conceivable  an  interest  attentions of the thrill-seeking public.  secure  However  of h i s career,  his  connection.  that  t h e i r way b y r e l y i n g  daring  three  blunt,  to establish  century  the  time  Apollinaire,  been  particularly difficult  this  l a rose  n'a f l e u r i  directly  t o the Christmas  grows p r o l i f i c a l l y  and c e r t a i n l y  l'hiver.  i n France,  h a s no t h o r n s .  Rose, (Helleborus i t i s not part  Unlike  of  the rose, i t s  62 smell  i s unpleasant,  whose s m e l l ,  i n the  a characteristic spring,  The  combination  from  the  past,  and  revolutionary .in  Apollinaire's his  tragic  death.  He  little  time  his  tion  his  to  that  with  art  take  even  as  he  to  be  learned  a l l that  is  exciting  at  stayed  the with  the  thereby  had  young  felt  used  the  of  set  a  a  very him  core  right  very  real  that  he  man,  he  had  to  pen-name  stressing  with  evidence forcibly  the  their of  belle  of  up  to  fear  of  do.  had It  "Guillaume  his  navels  but  will  a be  Macabre"  morbid  preoccupa-  out  the  their of  I t i s not  ground  and  fro)  (he  wrote  an  a  before  kind of  his  of h i s subsequent within  character traits future.  which  A partial  of  i n Dance  or  in  a  for  the  him.  works cannot  list  to the  therefore that  preface  early  would  more  preface  time  as  suns  the  wherein  future poetic  this  after  (his poetic  exciting  surprising  dancing  rules  correlation  i n the  to  was  painting  interest  ventre",  epoque"  as  modern  du  Ballet,  serves  of  lifelong  "danse  seduces M e r l i n by poem  a  the  Terpsichore.  the  cause  had  crude  a d i s c e r n i n g reader  struck  more  up  moving  "La  brief  has  which  what  poems,  world  a g i n g Morgane  the  achieve  whether,  pleasure  In  are  Apollinaire  sense,  taking  form  "Parade").  and  life  Apollinaire  sophisticated  poet  one  death.  lessons  force of  future,  Picasso, Apollinaire  followers  true  hawthorn  death.  Besides  an  the  motive  the  short  earliest  meeting  love, the  seemed t o  recalled  i s believed to portend  memory,  philosophy,  with the  death.  During  for  and  of  i t shares  manifest  would be:  activity  help  poem,  the  nor  being with  themselves an  interest  63 in  medieval  in  a dramatic  would the of  legend,  situation,  a radical  depths  o f memory,  the growing  lack  the interest  This young  pleasure-loving  French  t o be  belonged  young  driven  committing  accepted  outlook  as  sound  he h a d t h e g i f t on  aviation,  death,  and t h e  detail.  man,  who  a  group,  first  i s a  poet  love-child  pleure next  i n this  befriended  real  case  i le s t barbare  reflects  created  of the part  like  and t h e u s u a l  skills,  sense, the  i n these  ces  que t u es en e t bon  to  actual  lines:  fruits exil  pardonnez-lui. he sees  who, a c c o r d i n g  o f t h e anatomy  who  malhabile  on h i s p a r e n t a g e :  Aphrodite  a family  the Molinas,  description of  malheureux  of  Apollinaire.  so a p t l y d e s c r i b e d  t u as faim  of a  members  t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  very  lonely  on t h e shore  I t was i n f a c t ,  v o l e u r que ne d e m a n d a i s - t u  Mais puisque  of a  where he knows no one b u t  of experience  i n both  of Apollinaire,  II  o f chance  and l i t e r a r y .  devoid  crime,  the situation  by t h e n o t o r i o u s l y i n s u l a r  social  Jews,  Voleur  begotten  such  i.e. Paris,  Maraudeur etranger  a  poetry  the willingness to  i n describing anatomical  by t h e v a g a r i e s  by hunger,  desperation  The  traditional  the morbid  describes  to a minority  were P o r t u g u e s e  and  poem  city-state,-  s o c i e t y both  The  t h e humour even  (0.P.,91-1899)  interesting  like  that  awareness t h a t  o f modern developments  foreigner cast  would  change,  i n dance,  o f any s i g n o f h e s i t a n c y  LARRON"  that  the realisation  t o undergo  awareness  "LE  f o rmystification,  have  prophecy,  the  a capacity  o f Uranus  himself  t o legend,  that  was  as was  cruelly  64 r e m o v e d by was  the  Chronos;  product  identity  of  remained Issu  Ton The  or  believes,  his  by  mother's  a  reversal  dalliance  l'ecume des  pere  fut  stranger  un  m e r s comme  sphinx  arouses  et  the  gentler  sex  sexuality. degree the  and  then  of  is  presented  proceeds  His  to  indirect  uncertainty  choir  who  an  whose  and  a  female  capacity  suis  is seized  a  to  of  member  love-token,  upon by in  earnestness  of  captivate  the  by  the  regarding  his  Chretien,"  wavering  lack  nuit.  veiled questions  "Je  the  of  amulet,  him  reply,  underline  ventres  Et One proof  plus  need  that,  Apollinaire  Madeleine  had:  the  Cross  and  n o u s ne fifteen  "un  signe  and  with  faith  indicates  a  the  commentators  in  his  belief  in his  in  the  protestation  in his  l'aseite.  croirait years  into  and  that  for  des  serpents  evidence  symbolised  unwillingness  to  by  recits.  the  de  desire  further  tes  Louise  obscene"  his  as  nier  with  f u r t i v e ardeur  poem e n d s Christian  seuls  relations  Lou  Cette The  peer  his  adored with  pourront  a u c u n de  only  in  relations  the  partner  he  faith: Les  in  ask  which  Immaculate Conception of  that  Aphrodite.  interest  - A p o l l i n a i r e never doubted h i s  who  a  t a mere une  society  lady  with  roles,  a riddle.  de  -  of  future  of the  his  his  actual  sexual  relations  with  s'entre-aiment weakening  palms,  reinforce  have  Coligny-Chatillon,  similar  qui  to  his  the  belief  burden  faith  at  of the  65 court  of  about  k i n g Abgar V  his  capacity  Plagued  by  stanzas  27  doubt, to  les  Que  femmes l a n u i t  lieu  du  sees  the  The  by  his  only his  a  situation  too  women.  questions  in  in  fact  in  sunny "Le  they  to  faix.  ahead  life  happiness  of  him;  and  of  him he  will  he  has  lost  consist  of  shadow  the  fact  a of  that  him:  le deuil  de  ta  his  his  ever-present faith  but  to  a l l he  desires,  chair  errer credule  Tu  de  que  et  roux  l e signe  him.  i s her  avec ton de  is  misfortune,  support gets  he  He  ombre  la croix  dogged  and  appeals  lament  themselves i n .  signe  as  the  underlines  est  Tanagre  d'Edesse.  accompany  indulge  Va-t-en n'as  de  funebre  whole  taures.  d'Orphee coq  lying  tendre  des  humaine....  religious  find  du  much a p a r t  et  est  for help  vieux  larron"  very  shadow, of  his  d'Orphee  d'etre  l a cour  shadow t o  opportunity  mother  et  his  sombre e l l e  semblance  d'un  only  between  perennial  Italian  i s doubt  influence  three  l e s jupes  future  s h a d o w was  no  foie  vivre a  L'ombre e q u i v o q u e  find  et  bleak  choir  Apollinaire's  can  There  to  l e s jupes  a  sun  alternance  He  and  feignant  roseau t r i s t e  n'alla-t-il  of  Et  Edessa.  himself  et  l a voix  Au  alone" w i t h  7  asks  l a voix  p i e r r e p r i s e au  poet  despair.  to  poetry  Apollinaire  La  warmth  rapid  write  n'avait-il  Que  the  to  n'avait-il  Et  wanders  journeying  29.  Que  The  by  for  has to the  66 Ouir "Le inner his  ta voix ligure  Larron"  feelings latent  is  en  important  concerning  sexuality  nenie  6 maman  an  expression  as  his  acceptance  and  his  of  into  growing  Apollinaire's  Parisian  society,  ambivalence  towards  religion. Mme Eve on  Durry  i n the the  from  has  tree  of  doing  so  life  religions  provide  magnet o f  iously  "Le  precious  Thief  fruit,  couples  to  between  "Thais"  Scott  the  as  thief  influenced Molina the  the  as by  s t o r y of  extent  earth  Larron"  and  works  of  "L'Ermite", Flaubert  is identified  guests  at  and  T e n t a t i o n de  on  "La the  admirers; the  on  other  Anti-christ.  sort  of  the  poet  h i s d i s c u s s i o n s on his research Wandering by  Scott  Jew  and  he  and and  was  in  the  does  Heaven.  other  has  growing prevented  religion  Anatole  and  Pagan  hand,  and  sad.  steals the  to  prevFor  Thais,  a  interlaced similarities  acknowledge in  Apollinaire  other  8  France.  traces  brings  reading  and  Antoine".  refuses and  not  e s t a b l i s h e d the  likens  religious  Bates.  i s much n e a r e r  but  diminished  Saint  hand,  fruit  like  separately, to the  banquet,  a  Marc Poupon  Art  w i t h P a p h n u c e who  of  suggested  of the  only  o n l y makes him  testament  the  but  e a r t h l y happiness,  her  f a m i l y and  in  Apollinaire,  Christian  from  Bates a  to partake  happiness  on  that  in his percipient analysis,  mentioned  example the  Larron"  for  point  austere  being  Christianity  F.J.Carmody, between  of  the  as  valid  wished  and  because  Paradise  link  the  Garden of Eden,  recognize  the  made  the  notion  undoubtedly  t o p i c s with the  but  of was  Jewish  of various versions legends,  "Le  of  not  to  the  summation  to  his  1 0  the  mark  i n the  67 article,  when he s t a t e s :  1 1  "Le  Larron"  probleme de The  pose  majeur  l'enfance:  fact  that  he  sans  d'Apollinaire depuis q u ' i l  l'enigme was  a  contributed  to h i s renunciation  never  h i s admiration  lost  propelled  by  moved l a t e r  an  inner  on i n l i f e .  l e r e s o u d r e de f a c o n d e f i n i t i v e  power  of  a perdu  l e  l a f o i  de s a d e s t i n e e . bastard  and  virtually  o f t h e Church Christ  who  i n t h e same  way  as  seemed a s he  penniless  such,  but  i n his felt  he  view  himself  68  NOTES: CHAPTER 3  P h i l i p p e Renaud,  1  d'Homme, 1 9 6 9 )  (Paris:  Scott  Publishers  Bates,  4  Marie-Jeanne  5  Richard  Carolina,  Scott  7  Margaret  v . l  214-219  Durry,  Bates,  A p o l l i n a i r e (New  1,  York:  Twayne  220  Stamelman, (Chapel  The  Drama o f S e l f  Hill:  University of  i n Guillaume North  167.  Davies, 1964)  8  Marie-Jeanne  9  Francis  Apollinaire  Carmody,  1,  Bates,  1 1  Marc Poupon, mndernes.  and  London:  The  223 evolution  University of California  Scott  (Edinburgh  53.  Durry,  1 0  ftre.g  Apollinaire Alcools.  84-86.  and Boyd,  (Berkeley:  L'Age  71.  'Alcools'  1976)  Guillaume  Guillaume  Howard  6  Oliver  1964)  I n c , 1967)  Apol1inaire's  1 p  Durry,  S.E.D.E.S.,  3  (Lausanne:  52.  Marie-Jeanne  2  L e c t u r e d' A p o l 1 i n a i r e  of Apol1inaire's  Press,  1963)  poetics  13-16.  34-35. "'Le L a r r o n ' ,  166-169  (1967)  essai 35-51.  d'exegese", Revue  des  69  CHAPTER  THE  "LA  EARLY YEARS I N P A R I S  1899-1901  PORTE"(0.P.,87-1901) This  short  entirely trilogy from the  the an  work  Parisian whose  i n the  actual  date  fact  is  i s probably  as  opposed  i n s p i r a t i o n may  walks  available  woods n e a r of  that  time The  on  a  i t i s heavily  that Apollinaire door  half  f r u i t l e s s search  the  many so  to  mother:  his  or  desperately  Qu'est-ce D'etre  have  que  been  of  -  origin  Ermite  paper  dated  suggests  i f in a  demeaning  sneer  work. upon  temporary  must  have  j o b . As  in  peut  f a i r e 6 ma  me  cet employe pour q u i  "Le  seul  that  in  part  surrounds  rough  1906,  i t i s probably  is  -Larron  least  the- e a r l i e s t  searching for  Apollinaire  cela  whose  derived at  over,  content  as  for a  poem  Merlin  since  worked  from  first  the  scrap  was  opened,  frustrations  looked  to  composition  contained  the  S t a v e l o t . Much c o n t r o v e r s y  e a r l i e r v e r s i o n since the  the  a  4  draft  despite a copy  i t dates  of  from  1  his return work,  symbolizes  experienced  Larron"  he  from  as  cries  maman  rien n'existe.  he out  Humble que The son  poor  Albert  sentencing in  fact  young  got him  to  and  her  hunter he  or  of penury the  to  deal  with  these  do  to  1906  can  the  might  doors  namely  have the  that  was  rest  que  only  her  the  her  akin  of  his  younger  to  a  life  judge  which  is  death.  j'avais be  vaille.  favoured  his untimely  Apollinaire  mon  peche  travaille  mercurial  best  disposition  equipment  knew t h i s ,  6 ma  recourse  h i s memories of of  always  for the  until  qui  for  witness  a  job  the  line  transcript:  only  Porte"  not  do  t ' a i pris  brightness "La  labour  worker.  Apollinaire's  suis rien  reply  sexuality, hardly  i n the Je  curt  refers to  steady  deleted  a  j e t ' a i donne ce  she  strong  ne  whose m o t h e r  hard  had  Enfant gift  man  only  w h a t he  The  je suis qui  was  turn  from the  words  now  dark  darkened  shadow despite  swimming t h e r e i n .  affinities  "Hotels" key  to  a Mediterranean  exotic fish have  mere.  and  with  two  other  "Montparnasse"  "sourit  poems  that  (O.P.,353)  but  terriblement".  "HOTELS"(O.P.,147-1901) This  is  yet  catalogue  of  unsavory  has  very  contained known his (The  much in  since  another  his  letter  dated  boyhood  f e l l o w workers  which  characters  i n common w i t h a  quotation  poem  doing  i s taken  a  living  graphic  July  years,  1902  James  copy work as  is  difficult in  his  lowly  to  a  Onimus,  friend 2  complete  date,  his  whom  wherein  with  the  doss-house  d e s c r i p t i o n of  in a publicity  printed,  to  agency the  plight he  he in  had lists 1900.  errors  of  71 spelling  and  grammar c o m m i t t e d by  ...des r e p r i s des  de  justices,  s'engager pour  mele a c e t t e p l e b e 1'etablissement sentir  In  these  nature.  the  to  stinger  multiple at  the  a place  Arcturus  This  des as  very  the  "lune  well  known,  loved  villages  and  the from  de  Je  sans  faim  ...  le  v o i s ceux  sous, qui  le pouvoir  et  l a patronne  de  p a p i e r d ' A r m e n i e p o u r ne  which as  The  poet  was  star  one  has  similar  me  pas  miel"  the  winds  can  food;  so  orchards  blow  of  same  i t i s not  and  of  a  aware t h a t the  case  tail  of  a  in of  bee's  i t fulfils  and,  as  astronomical  the  a  Pole  hemisphere,  direction.  honey  may  have been  E n g l i s h word  t h a t he  the  the  "honeymoon"  Apollinaire,  surprising  greedily absorbing  rays  scorpion.  bees  meaning.  lover i t s  appearance  i n every  the  as  prolong  this  f o r the  moon a n d  translation the  in  northern  between the  with  must  published  that  probably  appendage of  target  of  bright  a l l the  flower  first  star-gazer  so  reappears,  center  a  star  vents"  a  were  a  same t a i l  direct  into  as  locate this  connection  of  m e u r t de  revealed  sting.  from which the  The result  Bear.  role  de  b r u l a n t du  is  a bee's  "rose  l e Transvaal  alexandrines  or p o s s i b l y the  The  Star  sees  properly  Great  mines d'or.  sans  (0.P.,137-1901)  rhyming  like  avocats  odeur.  Apollinaire  He  penetrate order  leur  LUNE"  "Lunaire",  d'anciens  a v e n t u r i e r s r e t o u r des  veulent  " C L A I R DE  Apollinaire.)  as  is  describes  luminous  manna  heaven. The  poem i s a f a i r  example of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  fascination  with  72 word-association the  same t i m e  further  "LES  o r , t o u s e h i s own t e r m ,  almost  i n this  direction  30th  i s convenient  to  flowed Linda  July  from  the  poet  and  vindictiveness  proof  himself  that  lines  from  was t o a s s e r t Moi Et  circumspect slightest poet  and  brings  nipple being her  pour  of this  of eroticism,  i n t h e "grudge" images  i n the night,  poem such  evident.  eyes!  the  tell  us v e r y  His  April  inspiration  the Molina  family  little  and about  poems o f l o v e  o f a h a t . They amply t o do t h i s ,  supply witness  which  he  i n the future: pour  l e s reines  l e s sirenes. group  i s that Apollinaire  of the love  f o r fear  poems,  of offending  they  was v e r y avoid the  Linda.  However  " A d i e u x " ( 0 . P . p.332) l i f t e d  t h e ban  as a w i s h t o s u c k  t h e moon, t h e o n l y  and h i s s u c c e s s o r s as t h e lady's  whip-wielding sadists,  her  s o much  from  l a z e z a y a n t e " (O.P .p. 3.27)  des l a i s  the content  r e a c h i n g an u g l y  about  at t h e drop  more f o r c i b l y  feature  forth  with  written  since  knew h e h a d t h e c a p a c i t y  qui sais  about  hint  the  almost  goes  predecessors.  h e was a b l e t o p r o d u c e  " J e v i s un s o i r even  title  In general they  des chansons  A curious  this  relations  except that  t h e poet  a l l t h e poems  under  Apollinaire's 3  The p o e t  and i s a t  (0.P.,318-336,-1901)  t o group  3 r d 1901  i n particular.  on S y m b o l i s m .  than h i s 'f i n - d e - s i e c l e '  D I C T S D'AMOUR A L I N D A " It  the  a skit  "logomachie",  not t o mention  o l d age w i t h  a  disenchantment  suitors,  as  the probability  of  slack  belly  i s  complete  and crows and  feet  a l l  too  73  NOTES: CHAPTER 4  1  Michel  Geneve: Droz, 2  Les  Decaudin, 1963)  "Les l e t t r e s  Le. d o s s i e r  d' A l c o o l s ,  (Paris:  Minard;  142-143. a un ami d ' e n f a n c e ,  Lett.res F r a n c a i s s s  (13 Dec 1 9 5 1 ) :  de G u i l l a u m e 4.  Apollinaire"  74  CHAPTER  GERMANY, THE R H I N E L A N D AND  The  t w e l v e months s t a r t i n g  many  ways;  tour  of  Apollinaire  Central  fell  Europe  i f not always  poems.  entire  The  Rhineland history  i s into  narrative observer with to  the  or  and those  output  personal  i n love,  saw form  was  and  to  divide  divisions,  where  with  this those  or  a  grand  provided the twenty  either  by  by  the  nine the  customs,  o f Germany. great  efflorescence  poems  which  merely  documentary Self.  felt  of at least  side  t h e poet  these  h e made  influenced  country  references t o the poet's  publication  he  1901-1902  1901 were r e m a r k a b l e i n  of the western part  descriptive  Apollinaire  y  main  a s P e r s o n a l poems  for  what  surrounding  convenient two  i n August  the final  poetic  and mythology  It poetry  by  ANNIE PLAYDEN  hopelessly  and  inspiration  5  as a  elements  The l a t t e r  will  are  of  largely  recorder or are  combined  be  referred  hereafter.  rejected  some o f h i s R h e n i s h p o e m s a s  i n Alcools  or too descriptive,  because  he  they appeared  a a n d T,e G u e t t e u r m £ l a n c o l i que  thought  they  posthumously  anthologies.  The  unsuitable were  too  i n t h e XL  subtitle  "Rhenanes" appeared i n AlCQQls and Le G u s t t e u r melancolique i n r e s p e c t of some of the poems as a group heading but o t h e r s though o b v i o u s l y of Rhenish or German i n s p i r a t i o n stood on t h e i r  own.  The n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e poems In  some  elements  of  are  the  more  Rhenish in  evidence  consequently  they  can  discussion.  They  have  Apollinaire's  exceptionally  for  German  and  be  Hebrew  poems  narrative-descriptive  than  dealt in  the  with  common  the as  personal  a  group  abundant  in  evidence  speech  patterns  despite  h i s own  that  of  i t would  interest  lack  of  noteworthy.  Scenery - per se - or a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty d i d not i n the same way  this  acute powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n ; h i s ear  f l u e n c y i n these languages i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  him  ones,  an o r d i n a r y  interest tourist;  A p o l l i n a i r e looked beyond,  t o the very s o u l of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f  the  t o the a n c i e n t  countries  their  daily  he  visited,  activities;  to  the  myths t h a t  Rheinlieder,  songs  influenced passed  g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n , t o r e l i g i o n which a f f e c t e d t h e i r lives  and  grafted with for  noted  how  some  on t o p r e h i s t o r i c  wanderers him  Wandering  as  of  rites.  of a l l kinds.  did  the  their  old,  religious  Apollinaire  Gypsies had  old  story  of  observances identified  a special Isaac  from daily were  himself  fascination  Laquedem,  the  Jew.  "PLONGEON" (0.P.,539-1901) The Rhine r i v e r i s d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s poem which has has undertones of sadness  - "vapeurs p l e i n s  de mouchoirs"  -  76 and  narcissism -  "LA  SYNAGOGUE" The  now  of  Psalms  o l d rogues,  river,  the  Rhineland  in their  personified, se  as  they  they  precedera".  i t  language  dates  are  from  chanted  were c u r s i n g each o t h e r  walked  i s smiling  disputent et  poems,  original  a moment b e f o r e , generally  lis  ombre t e  f  The  non-believers  d'acier ton  (0.P. 113-1901)  earliest  September. two  "Dans l ' e a u  beside  at t h e i r  crient  des  the  Rhine;  by and the  antics:  choses qu'on ose  a  peine  traduire Le  vieux Rhin pour  "La  when he  was  V E N T NOCTURNE"  and  "CREPUSCULE" Despite  together  is  with  Honnef,  are  elves,  sirens  these  three  poem o f t h e  profound  during  visitor  the  with the  (0.P.,121-1901),  fact  that  situated  the  and  which in  knowledge  relatively  Molina  "LES  The  s a m e name  first  se  detourne  of  Hebraic  short  period  family.  SAPINS"  (0.P.,121-1901)  from  written  the  lore,  populated  the  the  magical  "Crepuscule"  (O.P.,64-1907).  in  world is  in  Rhine,  beside  learned  with  were  written  riverine  1901  two  distance was  magicians  fascination poems.  the  some  third  a l l steeped  Apollinaire's  et  (0.P.,537-1901).  the  which  face ruisselante  the  acquired  frequent  "LE  Gliick  reflects  customs a  sa  sourire.  Synagogue"  religion.and  souleve  the  Neu  they,  river  at  with  nixes,  healing  arts.  reappears  distinct  from  in the  77 "SCHINDERHANNES" These snippets  (0.P.117-1901)  two  poems  of  Christine".  This  Apollinaire's almost  t o do  somewhat  not  themes,  irreverent  model  Richartz  poet's  up  are  they as  are thus  "Lundi  fine  Rue  examples  personalities,  are living  used  breathing  one  of can  persons.  a n d " L A V I E R G E ' A L A F L E U R D'HARICOT  as  of  with  from h i s schoolboy  Jesus  i s flanked  allusion  painted by  DE  these  religion  has  already  further evidence infatuation  with  i n a  central  arm a n d a  about  1380  by  on t h e  s t i l l  i n the  be  seen  Apollinaire  who  i n October  o f t h e poet religion.  was h i s  o f 1901.  reverence  subjects. been  could  the painter,  the blonde  of acceptable  religious  shrine the  h i s namesake, with  first  St. Catherine  Guillaume  1  the blonde Annie the lack  roadside  on h e r r i g h t  I t may  to  i n love  two w o r k s . The  concerns  I t was  i n Cologne.  of being  underline  two poems p r o v i d e  the Infant hand.  i n a  second  on t h e r i g h t .  Museum  treatment  disenchantment  The  the Virgin  a s he was w i t h  must  represented  left  the punning  suspected  just One  conjuring  manner.  i n her  Wilhelm;  resist  whom h e  poems  such  a r e dominant i n these  Christ  and S t . Barbara  Wallraf  Rhenish  the characters  with  blossom  left  i n  i n a triptych with  Meister  o f t h e poem,  has  (0.P.,538-1901)  Religious  figure  of  (0.P.123-1901)  Apollinaire  poemes-conversations  pair  genius  i n that  t o form p a r t  (0.P., 536-1901)  COLOGNE"  bean  later  feel that  "PASSION"  has  are similar  of conversation  forerunners  a n d " L E S FEMMES"  i n the  Apollinaire's  noted,  and  distancing  these  himself  78 "MARIZIBILL" The  name  interesting pitiful until  (O.P.,77-1901) i s  poem  the  pimp's  the  girl's  corruption  describes  existence  late  a  of  i n three  "Marie-Sybille",  almost  staccato  o f a p r o s t i t u t e condemned  quintils  t o walk  eye misses  coarse  he s t a n k  expressionless  and t h e f a c t face  that  and t h e l a c k  of  the  the streets  at night. Apollinaire's perceptive r e d face  this  nothing,  of  any  garlic,  future f o r  her. The  poem  dates  from A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f i r s t  visit  t o Cologne i n  October 1901.  "LES  BACS" The  here,  (O.P.,540-1902)  mournful  I t i s notable  like  "passer"  contrasted thoughts.  "LE  ending 1902)  and "vont  frame  that  cables  time  of  religious  glory. strung  Tuesday  man  i s  use o f r e p e t i t i o n which  beliefs  featured  o f key words  are set i n a  and  profane  sharply  words  and  i s a h i g h l i g h t o f "La Synagogue".  at  not care The  fact  between  the  (February  Apollinaire  when t h e w i n d s  ferry-boat  (0.P.,542-1902)  at the majesty  could  Rhine  et viennent"  i s present  on Shrove  gazes  greater  lute  reader  God  a  T h e same c o n t r a s t  . This  he  of  f o r a cunning  DOME DE COLOGNE" The  As  life  o f f on an  of this  less  famous  regarding  that  there  the wires  week-end  11th i n that  starts  the towers  make  riotous  makes  are  particular  year  irreligious  b u i l d i n g , he  those  Carnival  who  labour  modern  the edifice  -  note. asserts  for his  communication an  v i b r a t e . The summer  enormous stillness  79 of  t h e towers  their  rest,  likened  i s compared  while  the dusting  German  Marizibill  dialect  with  snow  reappears  h e r "man"  h e r and t h e poet  once  normally  be o v e r l o o k e d  in  b a r r e l s , o l droues  rifle  during  again  a  admitting  perpetuation  of their  song  that  affords  further evidence  already  been  i n h e r Low  Other  details  revellers that  Apollinaire  would  flowers  peccadillos,  on Rosenmontag  womanhood.  characteristics  their  stuck  worried  to celebrate the  was h a u n t e d  by t h e  d i s t i n g u i s h women f r o m men, t h i s  this  aspect  of h i scharacter,  i n t h e comments  on  i s  of birds.  f a r away. records  taking  the winter  by a l e s s observant v i s i t o r ,  o f f e r i n g s o f roses  noted  singing  never  women m a k i n g  sexual  of  of storks  t o t h e a n g e l s p l u c k i n g t h e downy f e a t h e r s  Meanwhile  join  to the immobility  "Merlin  et  poem  which has l a  vieille  femme". Cologne the  poet  at  their  like  notes that shrine.  The  crosses  t h e head  The p o e t  A  Apollinarian The  with final  the relics  o f t h e Three  even  brings  bestrides  the  himself tufted  and t h e b e l l  ropes  into  and  rosebushes  so t h a t  joke  thus  with  the  as h i s b r i d l e s .  travellers ends  the picture,  clouds  an i n v o c a t i o n t o t h e V i r g i n  punning  Magi  o f t h e C a r n i v a l makes h i s c o n f e s s i o n  as harness  poem e n d s w i t h  highways  rosaries.  the  t o house  Phoebus-Apollo,he  cathedral  the  i s said  Mary t o p l a n t can say  t h e poem,  a  their  typical  trick.  p o e m may b e s a i d t o l a c k  less a witty piece  intrinsic  of journalistic  merit  reporting.  b u t i t i s none  80 "ROLAND S E C K "  (0.P.,351-1902)  Rolandseck and  the island  Middle  o f Nonnenwerth.  Ages.  This  Charlemagne's the  the  from the  i s  site  the  poem  his  t o cowardly  A t t h e same t i m e  stories  of  The  personality,  a r e compared  shadows. mythic  the  across the river  I t i s steeped  Crusader-Knight.  poet's  automobiles  of  i s a place situated  from  Honnef  i n the lore castle  shows  of  another  interest  i n  of the Roland,  facet  modernity;  k n i g h t s on h o r s e b a c k  t h e poet  h a s dreamy  set i n the Siebengebirge  of  fleeing  reflections  mountains  just  on  east  Honnef.  " L E S V I L L E S SONT P L E I N E S " The the  title  i s part  impressions  left  travelled  through  absences  from  the  on w h i c h  Apollinaire  and  "Un s o i r  the  line  mind  o f a poem  of  cities  household.  the  that  young  records  poet  as  he  o f Germany on one o f h i s I t  i s important  taken t o provide material  i n  that  f o r t w o m a j o r poems  worked d u r i n g 1908.  poems  of these  Spring.  i n  Milhau  o f i t were  Most  of the first  the industrial  portions  The p e r s o n a l  (0.P.,567-1902)  fall  "La Blanche  d'ete"  into  two b r o a d  neige"  originated  with  s e a s o n a l g r o u p i n g s , Autumn  i s the only "Mille  "Winter"  regrets"  poem  while  i n t h e summer o f  1902.  "LES  COLCHIQUES" This  work  (0.P.,60-1901)  presents  some d i f f i c u l t y  as r e g a r d s  dating.  Iti s  81 dated  1902, and Leroy  between  January  Breunig  and August  has p l a c e d  1902  for this  common or garden name f o r Colchicum autumn spent 1901  hence  for  by A p o l l i n a i r e  September  i t as b e i n g w r i t t e n reason.  i s Autumn Crocus and the only  i n the Rhineland  1901 would  However the  was the autumn o f  seem t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e date  the moment o f i n s p i r a t i o n even i f the poem was not completed  u n t i l some time i n 1902. The  poem  i s distinguished  by the evidence  i t displays of  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s broad e r u d i t i o n . The Colchicum p l a n t belongs t o the melanthiodeae purple  tribe  flowers.  2  o f the l i l y  Colchicine  botanic  i s secreted  family,  i t has p a l e -  i n the bulb,  i t is a  powerful drug, a s p e c i f i c cure f o r gout, but dangerous when taken by  mammals  intestinal  i n large irritant,  artificially involves  doses.  induce  Besides  colchicine  polyploidy  multiplication  of  being  is  used  i n other  chromosomes.  c o n j e c t u r e whether A p o l l i n a i r e  a  violent  by  plants. 3  gastro-  botanists This  It i s a  procedure  matter f o r  was aware o f t h i s aspect o f p l a n t  b i o l o g y which was known t o p l a n t breeders b e f o r e the F i r s t War.  The colchicum  prominent  plant  to  i s a hermaphrodite  World  but i t has q u i t e  o v a r i e s , so the l i n e s : lis  cueillent  l e s c o l c h i q u e s q u i sont comme des meres  F i l l e s de l e u r f i l l e s e t sont c o u l e u r de t e s p a u p i e r e s . which have f a s c i n a t e d A p o l l i n a r i a n s example o f the poet's tendency indication  of h i s p a r t i a l  albeit esoteric  f o r years as b e i n g a t y p i c a l  t o c l o a k h i s knowledge, may be an  understanding  o f what  are s c i e n t i f i c  facts.  Georges Legros  has d e a l t with the many t h e o r i e s surrounding  82 this  strange  right his  mother-daughter  t r a c k when  he s e e k s  observation  flowering. mother,  that  The  like  mind  which i l l i c i t  poet, his  with  identical  after  that  year  after  year,  like  a n d Anne  to relate  t o what  he  with  Annie.  techniques  with  such  digested  realised  would  facts be an  4  have  surrounding  been  C l a n c i e r , b u t i t seems  career,  t h e young poet h a d  partially  t o e x p l a i n away t h e m y s t e r i e s  by  unreasonable  o n e was j u s t  a heavy  made  weight  this  poem  Francoise t o load  at the beginning  a of  of psycho-analytical  5  Guillaume, infatuated Milhau.  year  o f only  who a t t h e a g e o f t w e n t y  baggage.  with  Annie's  seductive  eyes  surprising  that  therein, same  a  psycho-critical  poetic  f o r example i n  the following  mass  relationship  Dininman  are  appear  one h a s t h e i m p r e s s i o n  attempted  Attempts using  the leaves  on t h e  daughter.  stuffed  he  and i s probably  a botanical explanation,  flowers  On t h e w h o l e his  relationship  on  Annie Playden, brother ringed  Honnef,  became  completely  t h e E n g l i s h governess  of Gabrielle  was p e r h a p s with  Apollinaire  the first  purple  t o comment  shadows,  immediately  so  i t i s not  sensed t h e danger flowers  on h e r  lurking  which had t h e  chracteristics.  ...tes  yeux  Violatres Et  difficult  at  i n comparing them t o t h e p o i s o n o u s  colour  Anne  arrival  sont  comme c e t t e  comme l e u r  cerne  ma v i e p o u r t e s y e u x  Hyde  Greet  "filles  de  has leur  tied  fleur-la  e t comme c e t a u t o m n e  lentement  s'empoisonne.  i n t h e word  filles"  "cerne"  relationship.  with  She shows  the that  83 the  related  image  which t r a n s l a t e s who  into  are daughters  time  even  Autumn affected  "eye-ring"  of their  (as u n d e r s t o o d  repeat,  in  of the circle,  love  repeats.  daughters.  on  a  flowers, in  suis  truly  soumis  by t h e mothers on  t o say  that  the generations  i n t h e same  a year  they  6 ma  way  as i t  l a t e r he was t o a d m i t  children  the other  flutter  saison  volte-face  o f school  e a c h one l i k e  l'Automne  mentale. the poet's  reverie  out t o gather  the pretty  and so s i m i l a r i n c o l o r a t i o n  i n the breeze  to  i s  the eyelids  and  of the  of h i s attentions.  This poetic  very  short  experiment,  differently lifetime certain a  our poet  au C h e f du S i g n e de  Apollinarian  by a group  t h e way  object  goes  i s circular,  predecessors,  Mon a u t o m n e e t e r n e l l e  disturbed  also  "cerne",  (0.P.p.125): Je  In  She  t h e word  6  i t s hold  h i s symbolist  by  i s suggested  i n t h i s context)  retains  "Signe"  announced  i n  poem  should  Apollinaire  the  two  a n d one g e t s  be  regarded  tried  versions  splitting  that  the impression  and a lover's  that  detailed  view  i s not l i k e l y  attempting personality  analysis  p l a i n t i v e song.  o f t h e work  t o throw  t o address  much  the problem  i n particular.  were  from light  up  the  published  too, that  o f w h a t h e was t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e ,  pastoral  i n the nature  he was  of a verses  i n his not  quite  s o we h a v e a m i x t u r e o f I t would  seem  therefore  a s t r u c t u r a l i s t point on t h i s  poem,  of  i f one i s  of interpreting Apolllinaire's  84 "AUTOMNE"(O.P./104-1901) At fact  first  reading  seems  one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  melancholy  and  the  Apollinaire  and  Anne.  in  cycle, there  h i s heart  the  most  season that poem  its  inevitable  attempts  examples,  victim As  from  the  autumn they  try  I t i s infused  grey  i t was  composed  of foreboding  ever  sings  figures  a parallel  and  surely  early  in  only  to experience.  of winter's  are  would  with  of love  as i f t h e p o e t  his infatuation  h e was  Apollinaire's i n Neu  the knew  lead  Autumn  to  i s the  death-like stillness  between h i s ardent  i s a note  o f a murder t h a t the  dusk,  o f sadness  and  love  took  place their  acquire  their  crimson  stars  shed  and  passes  love  evocative  as i n t h e f i r s t  tears  as  two  approaches  and  commemorating t h e  three  centuries  lies  bleeding;  hue, t h e mountains they  light  just  turn up  are heard  before. as  purple  the  pale  f a r away  as  campfire.  with, a l l i t s cars  t o make o u t t h e v i l l a g e s Apollinaire's  nearly  October,  sadly  of wandering gypsies  s i n g i n g by t h e i r  i n late  as t h e n i g h t  a w a l l plaque,  dies,  the  t o Honnef  and Cologne;  light  sky and a group  train  return  Gliick  lovers contemplate  start A  poems.  It i s i n  7  time  there  gooseberries in  that  t o draw  end.  spending  two  i s a note  pastoral.  (O.P.,534-1901)  Dates  the  Although  grief  simple  The p e a s a n t  shadowy  i s the precursor  the  after  a  most p e r s o n a l  two  of hearts  personal  "ELEGIE"  be  i n t h e form o f t h e m i s t .  infidelity  Rhenane  to  l i t up  as  the sad  lovers  s l e e p i n g i n the dusk. powers  are given  full  play  and  many  85 of  his favourite  of  incantation  Apollinaire deepest  themes i n  this  i n this  meanings  a r e brought poem  romantic  t o Annie  forward. There  and  i t i s  setting,  whose  i s an  easy  trying  knowledge  to  to  element  visualise  explain i t s  o f French  was  very  into  any  limited.  "RHENANE D'AUTOMNE" Like  "Le  chronology Souls village  a  were  The  elements,  with  crowing,  clouds  overhead  nanny-goat  folk  high  o f both  mortal of  on t h a t  t h e cemetery  willows crowd  final  c o u n t r y home  destination particular which  becomes  braying  of  i n the  o f Mme  de  family  choice  i n  day; Annie and  had a l l t h e elements  Apollinarian, a  i s  full  farmyard  and c h i l d r e n  a n d women's, v e i l s  remembrance,  a  cemetery  to A l l  fluttering  of  complete  playing;  ragged  a r e compared  to  beards!  Weeping  appear  the  typically  asses  The  verse  a t K r a y e r h o f ; t h e whole  i n the party  poem,  surprising  2nd) .  t o t h e gloomy  custom  neatly  i n the third  November  i t was  German  i t fits  i s made  von Fisenne,  included  picnic.  cocks  on  there,  with  Cologne",  was c l o s e  Anna  staying  Guillaume of  ( i tf a l l s  aunt,  accordance  de  reference  of Eich,  Milhau's were  Dome  since  Day,  (0.P.,119-1901)  once more, though remains.  amputated  and  rosemary,  the  t h e garden-cemetery, and low degree this  time  somewhat The s i g h t  hands,  who  uncomfortable  t h e hands o f dead  like  flower  there.  resting  place  leaves reminds  of  Gypsies  r e f u g e e s who h a v e  loved  of  t h e assortment  are buried  as s t a t e l e s s  of fallen  funeral  found  for their  t h e t h e poet  ones and t h e hands o f  86  his  own  place  which  active this of  loved  o n e whom h e  horrifies  participant  poem  and  reminder,  with  Apollinaire that  Mary  a  i s amusing joke  person  Virgin  t o note  A  poem,  pastoraleroticism. period  but  the  courtship  of Annie  poem  to  was  Apollinaire rebuffed. his  give  began  poet  friend  of  with  prophecy  love being  poisoned  a  The  poem  that  Guillaume  the observation as  some  depict her. permitted  about  Fragonard with  to  a  "Rhenane  appeared  to realise  The  poem  a  them.  himself to  of h i s childhood  the " A l l Saints"  Playden. way  prayers  underfoot,  of trivia,  Apollinaire  overlaid  Contemporary  when  that  each  years,  A l l Souls  M.  Day t o a  prefix.  (0.P.,347-1901)  reminiscent  scene,  reminder  note  at  voiced  trodden  and  careful  was n o t a s d a r k - s k i n n e d  by d e d i c a t i n g t h i s  w h o s e name c o n t a i n s  becomes an  and tapers  softly  o f Czestochowa,  good  takes  for roasting  storehouse  this  him p e r s o n a l l y ,  candles with  t o leave  always  observer  are  season  conceivably  "DANS L E J A R D I N D'ANNA"  almost  surprising  on h i s v e r y  Toussaint-Luca,  keen  lighting  the  she t r i e s  affects  Chestnuts  really  e.g. t h e B l a c k  It  This  was a v e r i t a b l e  the Virgin  icons,  play  a  of  sight  a i r trembles  flames.  perhaps,  a  of  the very  flickering  closes  whenever  customs  so t h a t  as  her. Apollinaire  i s no e x c e p t i o n .  the ancient  grave  restrains  to  or  Francois  touch  of  be  making  headway  courteous  a  violent  more  i n t h e New  contained came t o  thinly  Year  that  tone  he  8  a  i n his of  approach  i n "Les Colchiques" pass.  veiled  d'Automne" i t r e f l e c t s  The e x t r e m e l y much  Boucher  was  this when being  concerning  87 Apollinaire he  writes  hints  of breaking  lasciviously court  reflect  the dual  season Breunig was  written  redheaded  t h e back  servant  o f t h e poem.  theme i s a r e f l e c t i o n identified  attached on  himself  importance  paper  filched  1902,  M.  s e t down  Honnef and s t r u g g l e d corrected  The final date the  poem's  lines  a  this  h i s feelings later  version  paying to  t o introduce on t h e s h e e t  that  a  hotel  i n Munich  could  well  i n a  love  for a L.C.  and  manuscript where  he  been  an  have  I t i s probable  rough  draft  a more p e r s o n a l of hotel  that  while note  notepaper  i n i n a  that  he  later. generally  from  of the final summer  or  appear  Decaudin  to the fact  from  however  with.  a t a r e v i s i o n o f a p r e - e x i s t i n g poem.  much  that  of the poet's  attempt  "borrowed"  while  Actions  i n March  heavily  when  o f a peasant  girl,  stayed  Apollinaire  of h i s nature  (0.P.,146-1901)  he  have  across  side  n a t u r e o f t h e German s u i t o r i n t h e poem.  autumnal that  a  t o t h e Anna  "AUTOMNE M A L A D E " The  h i s cane  kissing  serious  a t t h e more c r u e l  "Un  mournful  soir  draft  d'ete"  tone  and t h e borrowing  are further  and o f t h e poet's  o f 1902 when he  realised that  of the  indications of the  state  h i s love  o f mind  during  f o r Annie  was  doomed. Despite secret  h i s tendency  towards  m y s t i f i c a t i o n t h e poet  makes no  of h i s infatuation i n the following straightforward Automne malade e t  Pauvre automne  adore  lines:  88 meurs en b l a n c h e u r e t en  Et  "LA  was  Things  with Annie The  were  plucking  the  midi  just  pun,  a  with  falling  like  experience just  like  painful always  Bon  goose  Dieu  the  word  like  as  to  For  plume  in  his  will  Gliick,  from  the  relation-ship  He who  wishes  the  The  surface, have has  that  little  had  side  with  likened  M i l h a u , one  girl's  tutor.  busily to  in  death  i t s sense the  end  of  of  in his  i n h i s arms  an  arms  f o r the  re-appear.  this a  charming fairy  have  knows so M.  i n the  of the poet's nature,  i t to might  the  Apollinarian  lady-love  i s allowed to dealt  an  signified  t h e goose  cruel  fall  with  shadow o f  of  duty  his  Apollinaire de  The  form  double  i s clutching  Cranston think  he  slowly  oies".  death  rewarded  of the o l d saying  i n the  doing  be  forms,  the angel-cook  feathers  ses  Apollinaire  of Gabrielle the  a t Neu  i s p r e s e n t e d i n two  a reminder  repetition  commentators  would  benefit  God  whose  "tombe"  love.  below  Mechtild  role  i n metaphor,  process of plucking.  poem,  the  "Le  t h e cook  Three  rumeurs.  staying  satisfactorily  snow f l a k e s ,  tomb. of  just  was  i n a s k y - b l u e u n i f o r m who  with  the  and  Apollinaire  moving  Christmas  pall  tes  m e d a l w h e n Summer o c c u r s a n d  of France  casts  j'aime  time.  angel-officer  ground  while  poem i s r i c h  sunny  que  n e a r B e n n e r s c h e i d , some 10 m i l e s i n l a n d  at the  a golden  6 saison  (0.P.,82-1901)  written  Milhau v i l l a  Rhine.  the  j'aime  BLANCHE N E I G E " This  the  que  richesse  little  story,  one  made  i t up  for  little  about  his  Decaudin  traces  a  89 relationship this  does  Mario the  of  "LA  as  this  inserted  in i t  exemplified  of  death  the in  play  in  persons, scene  main  and  The  1 0  and  put  any  forward does  the  in Paris  works,  his  the  1902  in  the  this  poem  upon  his  but above.  not  whole,  clarify the  grim  return  inspiration  and  as  from child-  is delightfully  Another t y p i c a l l y  as  both  a  of  the  meticulous  words dead  his to  fact in  and  as poem  obsession  show up  and  in  one  observer  of  cemetery  Playden,  the  death  temps".  i n the  Annie  despite of  du  worth  i n the. f i n a l  reporter  mortuary  features  objects  companions  "Couleur  was  in  deliberately  spiritual  reflects that  being  he  ascension  trait  gifts  the  of  columbarium  as  Alcools;  vividly  s u r p r i s i n g economy of  of  a  usual,  version  play  which  poem a b o u t  than  poetic  company  nature  of  his  exceptional  customs  this  longer  resurrection, a  last  a  that  poem  bourgeois  treatment  On  9  preclude  between  visited  with  one  1903  December  unfortunately  section  when he  April  the  in  (0.P.,66-1902)  "Zone"  poet's  scene  to  somewhat  midway by  his very The  well  situation  considered  the  "Vendemiaire". with  London  composition.  seem  MORTS"  piece  including  to  poem i n d i c a t e s .  Apollinaire a  of  poet's  would  M A I S O N DES  Munich,  f i t as  date  the  Rhineland  to  visit  detailed analysis  the  of  poet's  seem  Richter's  realities  like  the  not  issue  the  to  are  in  Munich  given  full  descriptions that  j u s t two their  he  of  sets  the  verses.  The  live  mourner  underlined.  Apollinarian characteristic,  shadows,appears  when t h e  resurrected  this  time  corpses  his  notice  90  their  shadows  lover-poet glaciers  see  finds refuge  on  any  Durry  perspicacity:  has  que  separation est  elle  multiple lines.  the  love  The bird  gift  of  peu  que  i n the  purity  the  and  no  feelings with  fait  of  longer  is  exceptional  de  finale,  a  profonds  de  deja  la  mais melancolie  soient guettes  par  1'amour e n t r e  les  l u i et Annie,  plus.  a disparu  que  la vie,  s o r t e que  1'amour e n t r e  sarcasme  sommes e t  eprouver toute  plus  l u i n'etaient  ou  nous  revenaient  eternelle,  next  Toute  comme  trace  dans  ...  poem  Outwardly  break-up of  a  of  i n the simple  his  ce  et  chronological order of  the  sadness  affair,  i t  has  yielded  traits  in  references  t o hope s u r g i n g  mystification  so  are well  mere  twelve  puis  l'Esperance.  mangy  i t s  thus:  puits sortit  becoming  that  narration  love  Apollinarian  l u i dimes adieu  oblique  blue  the  love  poet's  of p o e t i c puns appears  Nous De  Similarly  (0.P.,99-1902)  examples  A  lives.  is fortified  s'ils  condamne,  et  adopted.  surrounding  du  i l eprouve et  Apollinaire's  been  he  the  sourit  1'Elevation  has  past  fatal  past,  l e s morts  d'ironie  Is  his  les sentiments.les  • etres  TZIGANE"  the  their  1 1  surtout  Si  from  summed u p  seraient  la  them  one.  Apollinaire  "LA  in  o f memory a n d  dependent Mme  and  typical  from a w e l l or t o  examples  described  by  of  Andre  the  Apollinaire's Billy  in  his  91 prefatory  essay  to  an  anthology  mystifier...c'est risque  et  de  humaine et orientation fondee de  which  reading hedge  leans  Gossiaux  well  l a part  de  hasard,  renferme toute d a n s une  de  certaine  nouveaute  de  entreprise  succes...une doctrine  seems t o lovers  palms  in  and  heavily  on and  influence  in that  surface.  He  mesure  son  esthetique,  l e t e n a i t en  were'thrown  the  faint  essay  1 3  the  well  refers  to  the  of  of  etat  dejection  fortune-teller's  hope t h a t  out  that  palmistry  the  well  image.  night  other  Ioannis.  has  hand  from e v i l  of  used  points  one  those  she  by  the  i t protects  depths  shared  wherein the on  by  ray  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  her  calling; has  a  1614  evil  beneficial  manifestations  Ganivetus'  a  Palmistry  a generally has  to  on  text,  the  "Amicus  differentias":  degres  "tenebreux",  rapprocher  les  l e s choses  "puits"  est  l'on  sur  sans  hesiter  n£fastes: i l s  l a i d e s . Mais  comme n e u t r e  influence  peut  poeme s o n t  sombres et  considere  heureuse  desquels  " n u i t s " du  rendent  une  i n d i c a t e the  trait  astrology  medicorum cbntinens Les  a  his  felicitous  connotation  son  le principe  prophecies,  much more  que  determine  et  doomed  their  her  Pol-P.  the  the  of  avec  1 2  disponibilite...  Although into  sur  jouer  mystere  qui  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poems.  ou  l e degre  benefigue:  les activites  que  l'on  de  i l a vient  d'entreprendre. The perched reference  blue on  bird the  to  one  image  evoked  by  fortune-teller's of  the  fairy  the  sight  shoulder  tales  from  of  is the  a  moulting  most  pen  of  bird  probably La  a  comtesse  92 D'Aulnoy love  dating  i n the  charmant, turned  fairy  the  into  take  has  his  been  analysis the  tale  often  reader  into  by  the  loving  to  the  unknown, more  unavoidable out  by  the  ideal  love  ear  to  a  the  of which  latter's  in  her  ultimate  satisfaction  his  matters of  poems of  Breunig,  the  the  him  show,  l o v e . Had Goffin  on  never  which  a  the  1 5  that  lovers'  i s the must  eternal  be  on  trodden  their  presentiment well  way  that  is  of  the  aware,  as  hands. image  the  of  blue  carnal love,  bird  entreaties.  There  m e n t i o n e d by with  and  was  f o r the the  turns is  a  Guillaume,  him  always  disowns  to  a  deaf  hint  name, was  desired. After  Wolf,  of  situation  he  been  lengthy  otherworldly  separated,  allowed  Apollinaire i t not  She  only,  shows  a pair  never so  i n her  i s only too  relationship  but  and  is  poet  of t h e i r  never  or  Roi  tracks,  means  She  1 4  same t h a t  damnation,  there  bear,  physical  egged  of  or  beggar-like  probably  of  Le  Florine,  his  incarnation of  i s the  e x e m p l i f i e d by  poem t h a t A n n i e ,  tease  which  because  prancing  poem.  reading  the  cover  Durry  i t s interpretation.  squeezing  as  simple  salvation  one  the  clumsy  being  complex  pure  Soussio.  indirect  Mme  of  princess  fairy  by  by  united together  alarming  The  as  the  evil  symbol  instead of  desire to  well  a  journey  to  end,  very  and  couple,  the  The  bird  of  confidence  of  gypsy  the  this  his  light  occurrence  on  ugly  Apollinaire's  extraordinarily  traveller  an  by  of  this  century.  lover  to  destiny  borne  become  frustrated  of  reveals the  the  has  aspect  strangeness,  all  seventeenth  brought  everyday  hands  the  a wounded b l u e b i r d  Another to  from  in  a b i t of she  most  experience all,  deadly  as  so  the many  serious  in  r i g o r o u s d e t e c t i v e work  secret  of  the  love  affair  93 might  have  been  Apollinaire Tzigane"  folk,  poet.  The  It  i n the  written  gypsy  include  poet,  this  has  almost  Pere  life  up  the entire  t h e poem  dans  1'allusion  cachee,  about  Annie,  which  secret  prendre  so  un des s e c r e t s  sujet  r e t u r n e d t o Honnef  i n May  the river  Rhine,  t h e growing  The o r d e r  on t h e l o c a t i o n  i n that  et l a volatiliser.  that  i t s banks were  conte. was  i t s mists  that  and i t s  during  f a r as  a s one p r o c e e d s possible  m o n t h o f May.  this  h i s love f o r  of presentation of the first  as  once  seemed t o emanate  composed  realisation  of the village  duplicating  down t h e r i v e r  un  ses d e t a i l s  l e mot d u  of the folk-lore  reflecting  travel  avec  1902, A p o l l i n a i r e  each  thereby  a l a vie  Plus precisement,  donner  month,  Rhine,  to  1 6  en a l l u s i o n  r a c o n t e r sans  poems o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e  based  applied  non p l u s de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e  1'anecdote,  Five  is  c a n be  Mme  allusion,  L'autre:  hopeless.  t o Honnef.  de s o n a r t de c o n t e u r e n p o e s i e . L ' u n :  under t h e i n f l u e n c e  was  i n ATcools.  en  crags.  Annie  not to  l a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n du r e e l  tangibles,  from  to the  images  nets, presque  pervasively  group  with  en  colores,  Having again  pour  care  "La  des images v i s u e l l e s  m a i s de l a p o e s i e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . double  took  o n t h e way b a c k  a u monde e x t e r i e u r  j e sens  of interest  of Apollinaire:  l a transposition  affectives,  source  with  and  e n i g m a t i c poem d e a l i n g  i n words  output  and  i n Paris;  i n t h e "Rhenanes"  i n Munich  poetic  i n America  cemetery  a constant  poem  originated  Playden  another  secretive  revelatory  Dans  Annie  Lachaise  was  always  summed  de  with  o f f as j u s t  whose  probably  Durry  buried  four  down t h e  Apollinaire's  94  LA  LORELEY" In  (0.P.,115-1902)  this  the  simultaneous the  myth  presence  that  pronounced. There  a  is  a  in this  blonde  tells  previously  i n the  similarly  prone  beautiful  but  the  to  Commencing  like  more. of  She  the  poet's  her  him  that,  fable  poet  poems,  and  the  allegory,  himself,  get  by  is  most  men  to  allusion  turning Brentano's  the  to  bishop  despite  "Les  personal  response  the  jewels.  disaster,  like  siren  her  her  As  to  somewhat  during  herself,  Colchiques",  a f f e c t e d by  them  i n the  the  she she a  trial  eyes  are  pointed  out  Annie's  eyes  Loreley  she  is  of  fire,  he  gives  experience  are  and  this but  leave  sees him falls  i t s flames,  were a  by look  sixth  Apollinaire  she  wants  accident him. It  even  the  to  identifies one  see  i n a boat down  The is  the  becomes  her  distant land,  approaching  striking.  verses,  transmutation  for a  at  that  gaze.  stanza,  during  to  characteristics  burning  sixth  better  of  fifth  i s breaking  i s about  the  nature  Loreley's  heart  but  her  of  by  shining  sorceress,  Annie,  to  to  not  so  with  the  rock  own  1902  siren.  by  believes  attempting  the  in  put  flickering  i s scorched  with  who,  lead  was  prominence  that  of  undercurrent  comments on  fatal  particularly  who,  and  to  Apollinaire  aware  and  poem. I t s t a r t s  questions  flames  himself  personages  them,  maiden  sorceress,  bishop  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s May  the  continual  consuming  full  of  surrounds  a  inquisitorial as  of  1 7  Annie Playden into  first  lover  just  once  at the  foot  cliff  while  parallels  with  the  interesting  that  the  95 notion  of  suicide  philosophy, death  but  he  is  The  evoked the  by  out  aware  suicide  first  first  the  "Die  was  Apollinaire's  of  the  totally  story  sieben"  boatman.  A  of the  own  presence  lacking  but  seven  Jungfrauen  of  in his  was  and  nature  of  fire  capable  of  r e l e a s i n g - enormous  of  Oberwesel"  environment  quick  the  maidens  auf  supernatural  verse. Apollinaire  flickering  at  to  t a k e s up  passing  the  special  bears  continually  Bacharach  a  from  passive  poem,  near  sung  this  (0.P.,111-1902)  second  village  and  make-up.  " N U I T RHENANE"  as  almost  a predisposition  psychological  a  i s absent  to  i s  perceive  bubbles  in  wine,  amounts  of  energy. In  the  second  transformed shed and  the  very  earthly  the  the  presence  Summer a n d so  stanza,  girls  that  the  passive  an  i n favour of the  who  i s has  attentions  frauleins.  nature  of the  supernatural  green  haired  star-shine  i t becomes  listener-bystander  imperious participant  of mystery  of blond  become  the golden  the  into  the mercurial  third  blond  Rhine  abruptly  enveloping cloak  However in  stanza  poet  takes water  in  colour  over  once  once  sprites  of the night  light  changes  more  who  i s reflected  like  again  sing  and of  i n the  i t s intoxicating  wine. The an the  boatman's  other-worldly sound  awareness  of that  song  sound  impending something  i s no  longer a  compared death, tragic  by  so  simple ballad  the  that  poet the  i s about  to  to  reader  a  but  becomes  death  rattle,  i s jolted  happen.  1 8  into  The  last  stanza  that  the  has  a  us  aware  as  sudden as a b u r s t o f l a u g h t e r . The  elegiac inmost  death  tremendous  poem. None t h e feelings  with  pangs,  less  such  "MAI"  caused  by  Apollinaire  his breaking  Italian  makes  heart  are  s i m p l e n a r r a t i v e becomes  o n l y an A p o l l i n a i r e  a wistful  a t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t i n an  impact,  could reveal  comical a l l u s i o n . "Commedia d e l  He  is  an his  like  arte".  (0.P.,112-1902) In  this  village  third  poem  i t was  the  beautiful  of Leutesdorf across the r i v e r  and  Andernach which  and  description  inspired  reach  peak;  gypsy  whose  pink  caravan,  wild vines,  the  love  f o r Annie  poet's  was the  not  to  inspiration.  congeal poem  by  will  a  detail  in  his  end  like  poetry memory,  with  the  is i t is  on t h e of  the  life  landscape  as  cherry  they  which  this  the  blossom  wither,  the  churches,  the  poem  has  months and  has  the  and  the  hope  the  the  greatest  shown  when  become  astern of by  the  banks.  earlier  characterised of  fallen  freshness  romance,  one  i s missed,  ivy covered  analysis  reflect  of the  darken  and  the o s i e r s  filled  memory,  Apollinaire's  The  and  flowering orchards  petals  attaches  will  ruined castles  Stamelman  that  the  the  the reeds  Richard  fallen  colour  the  h i s powers, o f o b s e r v a t i o n  w e e p i n g w i l l o w s , t h e o r c h a r d s i n bloom, t h e petals,  near  from the K r a y e r h o f e s t a t e s  the poet,  their  riverside  fixed  in  river-boat.  importance sources  he  of  his  1 9  motif  of  permanently  the the  Apollinaire,  backward  looking  o b j e c t viewed, it  is  a  form  glance  i s used of  which  seems  i n more t h a n  identification  to one  with  97 Orpheus.  2 0  The  personal  diffidently,  touch  i s introduced  Apollinaire  was  always  very  s h y when  discreetly,  almost  d e s c r i b i n g h i s own  relationships: Vous e t e s Qui The pink  blossoms  tense. any view  done a f a i t  poet's  eyelids.  love  The d i r e c t  "Mille  f o r Annie  o f May  lady's  The  farewell,  form  The  from  musicality  "May"  comparing t h e  at  ones  i s expressed  i n the  past that  impossible i n  de M i l h a u ' s  continuing  the beginning  first  to her  realised  h a d become  a n d Mme  a  very  i n "Les Cloches"  and  i n the magnificent  de L a n d o r  poem  Apollinaire,'s  reminds  of  "La Chanson du  Road".  In t h i s  Oberpleis  near Bennerscheid  case,  tragedy  ever  the mystifier,  into  a  love  by  love-lorn  has use  a of  rollicking,  the bell-tower  hides  maiden,  the village  i n almost  behind ashamed  gossips  who  a  cloak  of being will  the Bells  of the village  every by  The  of St  church  of  country-side.  line.  Apollinaire,  transmuting  caught  spread  rhythm  quatrains.  rhyme,  dominates t h e l o c a l  lurks  martial  octosyllabic  one o f t h e o l d n u r s e r y  Clements.  However,  by  (0.P.p.114-1902)  fourth  arising  shape  on, A p o l l i n a i r e  i s therefore  given  riverains.  and t h e darkened  relationship  poem  and "L'Emigrant  CLOCHES"  i s given  rebuffs  s'eloigne  l e s saules  t o Annie  r e g r e t s " , a n d much l a t e r  Mal-Aime"  l a barque  dragged  of h i s loving  o f t h e young  prolonged  pleurer  reference  As t h e month  renewal  mais  to her finger-nails  discouragement.  "LES  s i jolies  himself  i n the act of  the juicy  story  on  98 the  morrow.  An  concerned.  A  typically notion  entire  foreboding  sudden  of  verse of  manner,  dying  of  grief  almost  sonorous  sound o f t h e l a s t  after  being  giving  girlish,  long  i s devoted  and  c o m i c manner  they  have  been  listing  abandoned rise  to  shame  with  two  to  read,  of  voiced  t h e word  syllables  villagers  i s introduced  tears  i s  the  grief in  but  a  "peut-etre";  example  of  a  the  typically  seems t o h a n g  another  in  yet the  i n the a i r the  poet's  musicality. Upon  r e t u r n t o Honnef  enforced  leisure  August.  This  until  would  none  been  "May"  must  with  spent  until  have  Mme  in  poems d i s c u s s e d  o f w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d  "LE  had a p e r i o d  de M i l h a u  putting  ran out i n  the  finishing  so f a r and e a r l i e r  his return to  of  ones  Paris.  PRINTEMPS"(O.P.,560-1902) The  fifth  references  to  composition The  poem the  poems  the  much  Landor Road" A  and  The  first  eight  seems  fruitless,  establish  to  tenth  the  poems.  i t s probable  word  moreover  date,  Blue  stanzas  i s , almost  Two  date  of  "Les  Bird  hark  featured  back  f o r word,  provided  to  "Mai",  a stanza  material  Fiancailles",  in  "La and  i n "Le  for  three  "L'Emigrant  de  Brasier".  division  quatrains they  May  of previous  1902.  poem  later  noticeable  of  and  stanza  "Le  of  a pastiche  refers  eighth  Cologne". of  month  stanza  twenty-third  D6me d e  i s partly  i n the year  first  Tzigane", the  h i s contract  have  touches to the four  Apollinaire  deal wander  i s present with this  in  maidens way  this  whose  and t h a t ,  long  poem;  pursuit words  of  the love  synonymous  with  losing  vallon  The  sudden  a  deluded  women. A n o t h e r the  becomes  invocation  form  by  false a  joyous  of  persist  this  side.  poet  the  himself i n ;  scene  fourteenth  the calm  land  and  a m o n g whom o n e  quatrain  the shore,  have  a  sea.  Even  to  feast  of lovers  loved the  orphic  i n a  stanza  i n the sea are ready  must  to  lovers.  promises, who  seem  must  who  include  fickle  young  vision.  the daylight  despite the poet's  r e t u r n s and sorrows,  with  the an  i s a poem s i m i l a r  -  presto  tempestoso,  t h e m e r c u r i a l temperament  i n a given  state  to a sonata i n  o f mind,  Scherzo.  of i t sauthor particularly  a  Its who sad  length of time.  mood  called  Bipolar  lost  on  Andante  never  as  with  upon  "Le P r i n t e m p s "  could  Rapid  finds  "le  L,ady.  Allegretto,  f o r any  and  abandoned  again,  changes r e f l e c t  formerly  until  breaks  seventeenth  t o Our  "eperdues",  typical  Apollinaire  with these  as the sharks  rapid  one,  that  are  example o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  I n many w a y s the  storm  i n c a r n a t e as  world  way  on t h e c o r p s e s ,  With  source"  "egare",  stanzas describe the peaceful local  i s affected  been  god  l a  situation  Apollinarian  themselves have  five  shattering  sun  "errer",  h i m s e l f so r e a d i l y  next  typically  abound,  "ternir  the aimless  identifies  the  way  decevant",  reflect he  one's  changes  are  a  well  Manic-Depressive  disorder.  disease  known  the  of  p s y c h o s i s a n d i s now  There i s documented  through  symptom  X  evidence  chromosome  what  referred  was to  of transmission  i . e . on  the  female  2 1  Poets criteria  i t s h o u l d be  noted  f o r manic-depressive  are described often or  bipolar  as  disorders;  fitting  the  Meyer  and  100 Osborne  list  Hopkins  among  disorders is  more  Byron,  Apollinaire motive  the  fits  genetic  the  "UN  four  three  i n the  the  young  the in  entry the  tricks  taken  "Les  that the  h i s beloved;  who  the  final that  authors  . In  the  case and  after  1902.  what  Bootzin  up  also  with  of been  and' Annie  indicate  their  disposition.  direct  provenance  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s stay Bacs  the p r i m i t i v e  that  consideration. Apollinaire's  a changeable  owe  du  bemoan  ended poet's he  their  wistfulness permits of  into  and  which of  same  and  Rhin"  in  have  the been  this  2 3  to  the  Rhineland; dealt  with  chapter.  (0.P.,533-1902) motif,  of  girls  trade-mark  and  reflecting  loss  p r e c i p i t a t e d by  effort  areas  sub-clinical  poetry  bipolar  sporadic  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s break  temper  poems  2 2  Manley  that  i n other  n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n of  train  poem t h e r e b y  be  Gerard  i s more l i k e  some o f h i s b e s t  be  months  SOIR D'ETE" The  of  must  than  w e l l have been  can  and  disruption.  d e s c r i p t i o n . The  "Rolandseck"  already  i n poetry  and  theorize  frenetic  i n poetry  Events".  a terrible  remaining two,  "Exit  factors  Of  that  emotional  disorders  their  mother had  fact  d i s o r d e r may  call  into  severe  Poe,  psychologists  inherent  force behind  Bipolar Acocella  in  the  Shelley,  productive  imagery  found  These  from  effectively  thought  the  others.  arise  because the  Coleridge,  godmother  line,  fortune  who  "Automne  continuing  again bad  Malade",  identifies  luck.  itself  a  This  cannot  resist  has  played  on  him.  venting  on  himself  this  account with  the  time A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  touch  i s p l a g u e d by  he  sadness  begins  of a  wry  humour  headache his  spleen  and at  with yet, the  The train,  f o u r - s y l l a b l e meter seems to d u p l i c a t e the rumble of the i t i s probable  consisted  of  that  four-wheeled  railway cars  trains  since  the  on  local  runs  contemporary  still  Baedeker  guide mentions a speed r e s t r i c t i o n of 25 m i l e s per hour. The more modern  eight  surcharge!  wheeled  bogie  Corridor  trains  e n t a i l e d paying  a  24  "MILLE REGRETS" (0.P.,535-1902) Rheinbreitbach, now  a  few  visited  by  the  lonely  written  in  e a r l y August.  As  miles poet, he  up  the  i s the sits  in  Rhine  from  setting an  inn  for  Honnef,  this  listening  phonograph r e c o r d of a f o u r - p a r t song warbled by c a s t r a t i s i n g e r s who  c o u l d never have known the  poem to  a  Italian  r e a l meaning of l i f e ,  he  watches a wedding p a r t y come across the Rhine from the v i l l a g e  of  Oberwinter. The  b r i d e was  blonde l i k e t h e i r c i g a r s i n the  smoke-  f i l l e d room and A p o l l i n a i r e t e l l s h i s d r i n k i n g companion t h a t h i s former l a d y - l o v e was  blonde a l s o , her eyes so s o f t  and  sweet.  wishes t h a t the b r i d e c o u l d become as drunk as a f i d d l e r munches the sandwiches as i f they were holy bread. He  as  He she  i s reminded  t h a t the r e i g n of love i s about to begin but the c l o s e n e s s  of the  air  he  i n the  prattled  room  long  i s too  much f o r him  enough about  love  as  he  and  he  feels  staggers  that  home,  has  mistaking  the f i r t r e e s f o r dear o l d women. A p o l l i n a i r e shows us a glimpse of h i m s e l f as the  bon-vivant,  t h a t so many of h i s f r i e n d s have d e s c r i b e d , as he r e a d i e s  himself  to make h i s l i v i n g i n P a r i s , where he would be r e l a t i v e l y  f r e e of  amatory entanglements' f o r the next f i v e years. A p o l l i n a i r e  never  102 returned  to the Rhineland,  would have been  t h e memories  t o o much f o r h i m .  evoked  by  a return  visit  103  NOTES: CHAPTER  1  Karl  Travellers  Baedeker, Handbook  The  Rhine  14th ed.  5  from R o t t e r d a m t o  (Leipzig:  Karl  Constance  Baedeker  Publ.  1900)  40. 2  "Colchicum,"  3  Christopher Grey-Wilson Bulbs,  4  des  Encyclopaedia Britannica, and  (Toronto: W i l l i a m  Georges Legros,  "'Sens'  Brian  Collins  et  1944  ed.  Mathews.  "Colchicum,"  Sons & Co.  1981)  'source' A propos  ' C o l c h i q u e s ' . " e a r n e r s d' a n a l y s e t e x t u e l l e  16  des  in  56-57.  vers  (1974):  10-11  109-  123. 5  F r a n c o i s e Dininman,  "Toujours  a propos  E t u d e s a u t o u r d' ' A l n o n l s ' .. A n n e S r a b i a n d e France Inc.,  Hilgar 1985)  eds.  (Birmingham,  de  6  (1972):  and  Marie-  Publications  Univ.  psycho-critique  Revue des  de  lettres  21.  Anne Hyde G r e e t , t r a n s .  (Berkeley:  Summa  "Ebauche d'une e t u d e  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . "  modernes 3 2 7 - 3 3 0 .  Fabry  'Colchiques'" i n  25-40.  Anne C l a n c i e r , l'oeuvre  Alabama:  des  of C a l i f o r n i a  X  A1cools' P.  1965)  Guillaume 223  Apollinaire  104 Marie-Jeanne  7  (Paris:  S.E.D.E.S.,1964) Richard  8  Durry,  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , Alcools,  146.  Howard Stamelman,  Apollinaire s  "Alcools"  7  2  The Drama o f S e l f  (Chapel H i l l :  Univ.  -in G u i l l a u m e  o f North  Carolina,  1976) 68. Mechtild  9  de  Cranston,  "A l a d e c o u v e r t e  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . " French Michel  Decaudin,  Review  "'La Blanche  de 'La B l a n c h e  39  neige'  (1966): 693.  n e i g e ' , " Revue d e s l e t t r e s  modernes 104-107 (1964): 125-129. Mario  Richter,  "'La Blanche  Etudes  autour d''Alcools',  Hilgar  e d s . (Birmingham,  Anne  Neige'  d'Apollinaire." i n  S r a b i a n de Fabry  Alabama:  and Marie-France  Summa P u b l i c a t i o n s  Inc.,  1985)  41-50. 1 0  Scott  Publishers  No.8  Bates,  Inc,  (New Y o r k :  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  1 2  Andre B i l l y ,  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  (Paris: Editions  3, 122-3.  Pierre  Seghers  Pol-P.Gossiaux, "Clef  Apollinaire."  Les L e t t r e s  de l a 'Tzigane'  Romanes. Louvain  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  1 5  L.C.Breunig,  " A p o l l i n a i r e e t Annie  1" a v r i l Robert  d'aujourd'hui  33  de G u i l l a u m e (1979): 305.  3, 15-30. Playden," Mercure  de  1952: 638-652. Goffin,  chat q u i peche, Ernest  Pontes  1947) 18-19.  1 4  France  Twayne  1967) 26.  1 1  1 3  du  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  en p o e s i e ,  (Bruxelles:  A l'enseigne  1948) 128-139.  Wolf,  M e r c u r e de F r a n c e  Entrer  "Le s e j o u r  (15 j u i n  d'Apollinaire  1938): 615-623.  en  Rhenanie,"  105 1 6  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  3,  29-30.  1 7  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  128.  1 8  R i c h a r d Howard Stamelman,  Apollinaire's 1976)  "Alcools"  (Chapel H i l l :  Univ.  Self  of  i n Gui .1 laume  North C a r o l i n a P.  56-61. 1 9  R . H . Stamelman,  2 0  Philippe  d'Homme) 2 1  Renaud,  2 2  Disorders,  & Co.  1988)  Robert  (Lausanne:  No.  Behaviour  (Boston:  3 of  L'Age  Karl  Handbook  1988)  Disorders" Allyn  238  Baedeker,  for  xv-xvi.  in  Directions i n Psychiatry  i n Case  & Bacon  Inc.,  (New Y o r k & L o n d o n :  Travellers  Studies  W.W.  1988)  "The  i n Abnormal  124.  and J o a n R o s s A c o c e l l a ,  i n Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y :  Random H o u s e ,  B i p o l a r or U n i p o l a r ? "  29-37.  Richard R.Bootzin  Disorders"  "Depression:  G . Meyer and Yvonne Hardaway O s b o r n e ,  (or Mood)  2 4  d'Apol " 1 i n a i re  F r e d e r i c F l a c h M.D. ed.  Affective  2 3  Lecture  Ralph A. O ' C o n n e l l ,  Monograph S e r i e s , Norton  69-78.  106.  Affective  1900)  The Drama o f  "The Mood  Current perspectives  (New  York:  & 245. The R h i n e 14th  ed.  from R o t t e r d a m t o (Leipzig:  Karl  Constance  Baedeker  -  Publ.  106  CHAPTER 6  ENTRY INTO THE  WORLD OF ARTS AND  Apollinaire's  separation  LETTERS, PART  from  Annie  weighed h e a v i l y on h i s mind from August 1902 she  left  Europe f o r good. No  his  new  contacts  with  the  I, 1902-1903  Playden  must  have  u n t i l May  1904,  when  amount of hard work at the bank literary  fraternity  could  erase  memory of the p r e t t y E n g l i s h g i r l . Many poems r e f l e c t the he  felt  polar  at t h i s  disorder  time and  i n some cases the  referred  to  in  the  incidence  analysis  of  "Le  nor the  anguish  of the b i Printemps"  e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper.  "LA CLEF"  (O.P.,557-1902)  T h i s i s a poem i n the M a e t e r l i n c k i a n v e i n , i t i s of i n t e r e s t chiefly was  because  dipped  Apollinaire  i t borrows  into has  for tried  from  "L'Adieu the  "Rhenane d'Automne" and and  device  "La of  wandering maiden - the poet's a l t e r ego whose eyes course,  are  formerly  forever  closed;  shining  Dame".  role  j e w e l - l i k e and  this  reversal  - searching  a reference  In  like  poem  with  f o r her  to Annie's  seductive  i n turn  the lover  eyes,  of  those  of  107 Loreley. Apollinaire that  affected  was  slow  h i s earlier  inclusion  o f "La C l e f "  to  i . e . t o date  Paris,  " L A DAME"  i s  lugubrious  mood  Et  carried the  above  among  appear  created  after  to  justify  h i s return  search  sense  of this  o f f the poem  very  titled  "Le  meurtris.  love,  the role  t h e dead  reversal  body  being  o f "veuve", and  The mood c h a n g e s e n t i r e l y  of the l i t t l e  mouse, t h e d o w n - t r o d d e n  with  symbol  y o u n g man.  greatest  (0.P.,46-1903)  of Apollinaire's  much  commentary.  have  each devoted  have  been  "Les  Sept Epees" has generated  written.  attempts  In t h i s  shake  i f one c o n s i d e r s  f o ra living.  " L A CHANSON DU M A L - A I M E  Apollinaire  to  version  veuve, aux p i e d s  makes  of t h e unlucky  attempt  thus:  the wry i n t r o d u c t i o n  of  would  influence  i ti n l a t e 1902.  away a s h i s l o s t  footsore  author's  this  t h e poems  a l l an  je suis  poem  The  poetry;  of the first  which ended  The  o f f the symbolist  (0.P.,127-1903)  This  Retour"  t o shake  Mme  Claude  an e n t i r e  analysis  of  Piron  work  a n d numerous  essays  the section  o f t h e poem  titled  no l e s s  the veil  than  t e n essays  of mystification  1  i n their  with  which  it.  i ti s proposed t o b e g i n  repeated  the subject  and Maurice  to this  In particular  has shrouded  Apollinaire's  Morhange-Begue  book  to strip  poems h a s b e e n  attempts  t o render  with  the, chronology  t h e poem  into the  108 final  version  analysis  a s we  section  know i t . T h i s  by  section.  review  the  summary  of the conclusions  will  psychological  be  presented.  It  i s probable  late  i n 1903  November  just  1903, Et  this  Michel  Decaudin  was s p r e a d rested years and  over  of  several  before  paste"  the  four  which  i s as  Morhange-Begue. First  12.  finally  a  have  visit  taken  shape  t o London i n  1903.  and  that  the  research  composition  o f Le M e r c u r e de F r a n c e  done  sense  by  o f t h e poem  t h e poem  f o r more t h a n two  Apollinaire's pro-pensity o f the phrase  stanzas  are distinguished which follows  form and  are  i s very  by  part  divided  to "cut much i n  by  three  d i f f e r e n t •typography of  i s based  the on  poem  from  proper.  the analysis  section consisting of fourteen into  Narration  8-11.  and  of  The Mme  3  divided 1-7.  may  I t i s unlikely that  fifty-nine  sections  arrangment  work  b e made t o  epigraph:  the fact  years.  will  poem.  poem's  interludes  outline  romance en  i t was p u b l i s h e d .  in this  the  by a d e t a i l e d  as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e a n a l y s i s  imperfect  in the present-day  The  (a)  the  cette  confirms  2  rough  explains  in t h e drawer  evidence  the  use  an attempt  of  reached  a  be f o l l o w e d  Apollinaire's first  je chantais  Apollinaire's  Thirdly  aspects  that  after  will  13. A r e f r a i n ,  thematically  stanzas: o f an event  that  occurred  R e f l e c t i o n s and commentaries  Rejection  stanzas  of the poet's  lost  t o be repeated  i n the past.  thereon  love  later  i n t h e poem.  109 14. (b)  An e v o c a t i o n  First  Second 18  of stanzas  section of s i xstanzas  A second  divided into  t h e death  refrain  verses:  of love.  e x p l a i n i n g the poet's  vocation.  21-23. E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e theme o f f i d e l i t y (d)  Second  interlude,  comprising (e)  a diatribe  stanzas  two  against  infidelity,  stanzas  thematically divided  subsections:  27-32 R e g r e t f u l remembrance p r e c e d e d by a of  the first  33-41 (f)  refrain  Dealing  with  Third interlude,  (g)  a separate  Fourth  repetition  ( s t a n z a 13)  t h e theme o f madness a n d  stanzas  symbolising painful rates  i n love.  24-26.  Third section of fifteen into  14 a n d  15 t o 1 7 .  and 20. Concerning  19.  happiness.  i n t e r l u d e a m p l i f y i n g t h e theme o f s t a n z a  consisting (c)  of past  42-48,  memory  death.  devoted t o t h e seven  and death,  swords  each o f which  stanza.  section of eleven  stanzas,  Nos.49-59,  subdivided  thus: 49.  Repetition of stanza  50-54 Once a g a i n madness,  13.  r e v e r t i n g t o t h e themes o f death  and i n t r o d u c i n g t h e concept  55-58. A sudden change t o an upbeat, which poet 59. time  leads  into  the realisation  i n the final A repeat with  of destiny. almost manic  mood  o f h i s d e s t i n y as a  stanza.  o f t h e second r e f r a i n  a telling  and  effect.  (stanza  19), this  110 The four  seven  sections  principal  groups  dealt  which  mood t o  w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e was  already  been drawn  The  first  i n the  group  with  so  f a r can  a l t e r n a t i n g changes  subject  and  to  on  the  Remembrance,  (b)  Elaboration  (c)  Rejection  of  (d)  The  refrain,  The  second group  (e)  Remembrance, v e r s e  (f)  The  first  interlude dwelling  (g)  The  death  of  (h)  The  lack  (i)  The  theme o f  lines (j)  The  of  of  stanzas  "Le  (a)  first  the  which  in  attention  has  Printemps". following  themes:  1-7.  subject  love  so  of  remembrance,  fondly  stanza  stanzas  remembered,  8-11.  stanza  12.  13.  contains: 14.  love,  stanzas  poetry's  on  18  the  and  stanzas  remembrance. 20.  regenerative  fidelity  stanza  second  into  the  remarks  the  structured  underline  i s composed of  of  be  power,  21-25  and  stanza  19.  the  first  lines  of  three  26.  r e j e c t i o n of  love,  last  two  stanza  26. The  third  group deals  (k)  Remembrance, t h i s  (1)  The  consequences  nance between and  a  stanza (m)  state  of  fond  unpleasant.  such love,  of  depression  of  the  result thereof,  the  time  remembrance namely a manic high, leading  to  rapid  stanzas  mental  30  alterand  32,  collapse,  31.  Development a  with:  Seven  theme o f stanzas  madness l e a d i n g  33-48.  to  These s t a n z a s  Swords i n t e r l u d e w h i c h t i e s  i n death  death  as  include . and  remembrance. (n)  A final  (o)  The f i r s t  The  final  rejection  rejection  repeated,  departs  from  The theme o f l y r i c a l  o f memory  and  examination  of which  a  striking.  In  remembrance,  as a l y r i c a l  three each  which  acts  as a k i n d i n  a  a r e changes  groups case  leads  stanza  there a  t o what  i n effect i s  c a n be d e s c r i b e d  really  as lamentoso'.  t h e f o u r t h g r o u p t h e mood c h a n g e s q u i t e a b r u p t l y as a l l e g r e t t o .  the  discussion  of  structural  recognition of the interesting i n h i s short  essay  into  The p o e t h a s b e e n  This  aspects  a  of  shadow. the  poem  analysis put forward  " L e Roman d u M a l - a i m e " ,  4  by  w h e r e i n he '  Apollinaire as: ...artiste  draws  i s  "movement" b u t t h e  that had followed him l i k e  describes  a n d one o f  similarity  o f key w i t h i n each  initial  developmental  of rejection  The  59. evidence  i s an  to exorcise the devil  Breunig  atmosphere  provides  into  o f "coda",  symphony.  what w o u l d be m u s i c a l l y r e n d e r e d  requires  50-54.  creator with the  refrain.,  i s f o l l o w e d by a statement  mood o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e  Within  i n t h e sunny  o f t h e second  of the f i r s t  movement  There  o f the poet  similarity,-  two r e f r a i n s to  creativity  stanzas  55-58.  repetition  considerable  overall  stanzas  The r e s u r g e n c e  passage,  and  t h e t h e themes  (q)  statement  L.  49.  T h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l on d e s t i n y a n d d e a t h ,  An  able  stanza  48.  (p)  final  akin  love, stanza  to include:  (r)  the  refrain  group  of P a r i s ,  of  of past  conscient  e t maitre-macon  a t t e n t i o n t o the nested  loop-like  accompli, characteristics  of  112 the  poem;  London  scene,  Parisian and  five  five  at the beginning  verses  ambiance. Next  faithful  verse  verses  wives  description afflicted  with  the  emotional  pendulum  palace of  and  the  In  are i n turn  may  be  seven  Ulysses  occupied  the frequent  mentioned  i n the foregoing  unaware  that  h i s love  could  consumed  Apollinaire recreated  him  during  poet  with  happy  kings  by t h e  four  kings  who  o f the swinging  i n the of  the  bright  "Sept  with  t h e poem  "Aubade"  Epees".  the castle,  way  i n t h e M e r c u r e de F r a n c e  version four  publication of  Paul  published  years before  was  one  The  devoid  i n  love  hints  i n  that  i n which  been  of several  of the  fire  Playden. i s  know  being an  i t must  was  but well  Guillaume's  would  with  was  provides  version  assistance  dedicating  we  1 s t 1909  Alcools.  he  h i s love  and thereby  o f May  have  1903,  f o r Annie  Leautaud's  affair  which  examined.  t h e ashes  sometime a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l  1913 h i s l o v e  Mal-Aime"  from  i n t h e form  published  acknowledgement  that,  Laurencin  created  1913  be f u r t h e r  reveals  have been  the  will  h i s hopeless  i n h i s mystifying  that  of  o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s temperament,  be r e b o r n  i n t h e shape o f M a r i e  indication  du  deal  examples  stanzas  remarks,  the  By  summery  of the Bavarian  traced  oscillations  epigraph  delayed  a cheerful  by a l u n a t i c k i n g .  the  first  autumnal  counterbalanced  i s contrasted  In  before  a gloomy  t h e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e poem  follows,  that  verses  insanity. Further  sad  of the wise  a chatelaine,  four  of the i l l fortune  were  interlude  a t t h e end feature  within,  which  describe  i n  pointless  graceful  getting  the  i f he  had  t h e poem.  Marie ready  was o v e r made  and "La Chanson  poems  that  could  be  113 included  without  The his  introduction  love  is  historical rightly  the of  wanderings getting  in  his  acknowledges lout  drowned  as  the  as  the  repeated out  poet's  collection. personification  references  the  poem.  states  through  his  shameful  they  personify  experienced, who  of  to  Anne  mind  are  of  other  Greet  has  repeatedly  personification  in  this  c u r e d by  the  history,  his  touch  of  is  in the  the  and  for  Middle  red  are  of  him;  he  street-  he  really  brick  houses  Egyptian the  way  the  that  his  Red  host  Sea,  was  i f his  untrue.  Apollinaire love  of  a  seeks  to  he  had  that  dreadful  tubercular  neck  drunken  glands,  formerly  c a l l e d the  Ages, t h a t  i t could  a  King's only  be  hand.  keynote  draws a t t e n t i o n t o  Ulysses  on  Royal  love  image  Scrofula, the  of  false  ugly  that  wave o f  walls  the  tawdry  protests  stanzas  of the  fact  the  of  rejected  Pharaoh's  only  fifth  operated  belief  Narrative Apollinaire  the  as  He  being  himself  some  had  the  wave upon  between  known  for  who  and  as  and  been  girl  stanzas,  reminds  looking  way  creating  otherwise the  same  rottenness  by  seven poet  action  A n n i e was  fourth  had  from  the  f o r the  marched  the  the  slums  on  the  that  the  his .motivation.  calls in  the  disease  London back  him  of  past,  own  protestations In  things  and  smother  evil,  the  three  personifies  Annie  harlot  the  exorcised  first  remembrance  to  Phoenix  Alcools  5  In  loved  i n the  through  that  and  the of  personages  indicated  manner.  of  typical  externalised  wise  f u r t h e r changes  of  two  Dushmanta  who  of  the  next  the  fortunate  were  blessed  two  stanzas,  personages with  of  faithful  114 spouses. Apollinaire when  false  make  him  given  personal  climb  recognizes fully  brings  pendulum  himself  long  that  ago  regrets  brackish  The n o t i o n  Hell  i s part  surrounds  discussed  would  to  have  and s a d remembrance.  f o r t h e heavens  heart.  men  combined  souls,  sea from  of forgetfulness  event  an  bright  to  when  dawn t o  open  up  and  and f o r t h e E a s t e r  Sun  of a descent  into  o f the. O r p h i c  h i s poetic persona.  that  took place  t h e "Sept  the  Epees"  and a  mold  This  that  concept  interlude i s  that  h e now  o f 1902. T h i s  stanza  when he p a n t s  departure  as  since  the Milky  Way,  whiteness  of  t h e poet  have  their  realises  he  lost  a  clue  provides  f o r the United  a metaphor  i s a  indicates  the option capacity  Apollinaire, after  Guillaume  States  i n June 1904.  invoking  lovers  that  stanza  favourite  a s c r i b a b l e t o women, s e e m s p a r t i c u l a r l y  point  receipt  twelfth  the love  of affection,  Apollinaire's  suppose  t o renounce  refrain  frustrated  i n  i n s p i r e d by Annie's  object  this  swings  a s t h e summer  i t was  The  the  lucky  happy  kisses.  prays  from  o f these  i n particular  they,  i s paved with  poet  back  he t h o u g h t  with. The  at  hell  The  be more  dealt  as  f o r Annie's  warm h i s h a r d - f r o z e n  will  Even  a i m l e s s l y on a l e a d e n  Apollinaire  an  wretched.  him i n a•cradle  perilous  as  and Annie  so  twilight.  swallow to  generally  love  feel  drifts  sad  us t h a t  up e v e r y t h i n g His  He  then t e l l s  once  nebulae  that  of seeking  for loving. again  other  epithet well  t h e dead other  woman of  placed  souls  of  targets f o r  I t i s reasonable  had Marie  than  for a  Laurencin  o u r own M i l k y Way.  to  i n mind Picasso  115 introduced The  Guillaume to Marie  last  stanza of t h i s  Apollinaire's pleasant  bipolar  Au This  note  that  early  the  draft,  song  poet  which  since  "Aubade"  the  to  remind  to  love  mere  jour  us  have  shortening not  only  abrupt  brought  should  were  the  on  of  which to  heathen  the  he  their Sultan  bridge  mood;  reflective  one  with  i s ,also  which linked  of mythology  away;  the  recreates time  actions  asserts  of  the  first  last  line  of  to his  of Turkey.  The  are  to  stanzas  of  by  familiar. 18  i n s t a n z a 16 and  swings  and  i s  once  since  linked  again  The  20  enough  religion  despair.  space,  poet's of  vocation  mere  would  faithful in  we  in  swing  there i s  a i s an  Paris.  despair  i s as  principles  mood  also  the  e v e n t h o s e who  Venus  pendulum  the  but  that  the  depths  to  pense.  gods  by  the  i t i s interesting  a l l the  explains  entertain  Out love  upbeat  move f r o m t h e R h i n e l a n d t o 19  natural  and  by  to  1902:  Mars  and  regulated  in  of  passed  arc  Stanza grief  that  a  j ' a itant  interlude  mention  day  back  6  f a v o u r o f t h e more p o e t i c The  swings  l'annee.  abandoned  ce  he  of  virile  provides  read:  as  evidence  bien-aimee  maintains the  Depuis In  joie  moment d ' a m o u r d e  which  provides further  April  1'amour a v o i x  spring  interlude  section  of that  c h a n t e ma  Chante  1907.  mind-state  recollection J'ai  in  destroy  the  as e v e r  of  the  i t i s he  who  him.  Poet  resisting theme  mortals,  transcends  is uplifted just  the  fidelity  as t h e  overtures runs  so  by  his  Cossacks of  the  strongly  116 in  Apollinaire's  terms  even The  what  i f he  should  many  be  about  story had  from  any  this  of  ideal  The  in  of  the  unwound  by  Apollinaire's  the  "bridge" and  no  to  scribble to  of  the  end  mood  of  turned  r e f r a i n as  the  separate  at  work as  the to  poet  was  that  reaction  thinks  to  which  Chanson"  thus  the  Guillaume  draft,  "La  bound  "Cossack" of  an  he  as  providing  a an  disparate  whole.  which  one  as  heard  integrating a  his  copied  form  have  Apollinaire's  in  to  that. A p o l l i n a i r e  may  fidelity;  faithfulness  reply  Repin  evidence  i t  skill  organised  lactee  6  soeur  ...des c o r p s b l a n c s Nageurs morts Ton However and  stanzas  include  virtues  of  a  scribe  stanzas  interlude  revulsion, of  his  new  as  21  to once  introduced found  love  sings. Voie  eyes  time.  he  so.  the  in miniature  there  poet's  thread  painter  that  strongest  i n doing  in  surprising  is  the  telling  Turkey  possible  this  the  of  not  at  order  a tightly  strong  became  Marie  was  Cossacks  appeared  i t is  i t in  good t a s t e  Russian  even  since  friends  later,  assert  Sultan  the  also  mother  example  again  is  work  into  by  so  illustrating  elements  by  i t , i t  to  bounds of  the  and  silverware  powerful  means  to  artists  his  has  showing the  created  Russian  unearthed  23  and  to  he  breaches the  written  other  ornament knew  that  famous p a i n t i n g ,  initiatives, by  mind  cours the  to  another  d'amoureuses  suivrons  vers  d'ahan  d'autres  spiteful  almost  lumineuse  mood w i t h  sadistic bipolar  nebuleuses.  kisses swing  i t s references gives  as  way  to  after  a  harlot's  just  three  Apollinaire wishfully  thinks  117 that  Annie  her  his  might  lovely  expression,  the  haven  mood  Burghers  length  o f hope  of Calais  of h i s grave that,  definition, filling  shadow  each  to  evoke a smile Sept  tried  them  a  even  i s  to explain  some  as  dependent  the  her  on  swings  sunny  interlude  evidence  once again  to  occurs  the  when  Sun  for  accelerates, 38  the he i t s  barely  and  39  of this  are  section  Swords  of  has puzzled  learned  t h e seven  stanzas  years  7  Follet later  thorough-going  8  When d i d A p o l l i n a i r e w r i t e t h i s  of the poet's  exegesists  These  i s dealt  with.  ability  since  Lawler  i n 1954 b y a s c r i b i n g t o  tried and  to  finally  analysis  has  thirty  down-play  this  Marie-Louise succeeded years.  i n  9  i n t e r l u d e , w h a t was h e t r y i n g  are the temporal-spatial poem?  attributes  circumstances.  t h e a c c u m u l a t e d wisdom o f n e a r l y  each verse  measures  callipygean  presenting  before  now  himself  o f t h e Seven  i n  complex  who  two s t a n z a s  Lentengre  and what  fulfilment  stanzas  t o t h e enormous  sexuality,  twelve  of  a volte-face  i n t h e most d i r e  Epees"  pervasive  enormously  favourite  a t t h e hands o f t h e  h i s shadow  of the final  of h i s heart  a woman o f D a m a s c u s ,  achieve  his  calls  a l l e v i a t e d by t h e r i d i c u l o u s comparison o f  of  to  h e now  as he compares  c e r t a i n death  again  the puzzling  and i s only  first  thoughts  personifies  stanzas  fulness  aspect  and,  i t simpossiblity  awaiting  by t h e gloom  melancholy  and  b u t once  the  which' introduce  "Les  him happy,  h i s dove  t h e r a p i d i t y o f t h e mood  two  succeeded  rest,  morbid  Apollinaire  realises  the  of  A p o l l i n a i r e with  English.  t o h i m a n d make  h i s rose.  This fills  return  questions  parameters should  be  of  this  addressed  118 There  i s  recollection one  started  It  has  to write  the  exorcise  t h e memory girl  stages  theories  keystone  devout  put  implicitly,  43  Death  Again  Stanza emasculated  44 A n  and degraded  Stanza beautiful  45  sirens  a reminder Stanza  indirect  The  as a f i n a l  46 A  further  family.  following  "destin  "argent";  "Elle  theme  a  i s  t u e " and  i s introduced  t o t h e messenger  god  being  female. to  the  of h i s resolve,  of i t s capacity to  the  pretty  "Vulcain","gibeline".  subjected  test  Anglican  to  but murderous.  by a c h e a t i n g i s  attempt  f o r the  "neige",  the cheating  reference  poet-  later  1 0  explicitly,  s h o w i n g up t h e s w o r d a s b e a u t i f u l  the  i s foreshadowed,  purity,  poem  considering earlier  Gossiaux.  of h i s love  i s described  "Carabosse";  had  after  entire  an  thematically  exercise,  mourut";  the  Mal-Aime".  after  b u t xenophobe  forward  1905 b e f o r e  du  represents  Guillaume  Louis,Lawler and death  of  and  encourages  at least  inserted  with the capacity t o cheat,  Stanza  the  the  interlude  of the exorcism  "Vulcain  contrasted  a  which  o f t h e "Chanson  the love  has  42. The  sanglant",  as  into  of Follet,  Stanza  by  born  of  remembrance  quintils,  i t was  This  of  waited u n t i l  portion  that  written.  Morhange-Begue  seven  o f seven  called  evidence  were  Mme  this  been  passages  English  group  leitmotiv  that Apollinaire  rightly  despite  definite  i n this  to believe  he  a  songs  of  the  t h e sword  serves  of love  and o f  k i l l .  reminder  of death  both  person. Stanza  often  47 A f i n a l  reminder  c l o a k e d by outward  glory  that death  and disappointment  and success. A l l t h i s  are  must be p u t  119 behind  o n e a s a new d a y d a w n s a n d t h e p o e t  onward march t h r o u g h Stanza been the  extent  never  knew  love  again h i s  i s now q u i t e d e a d a n d t h e p o e t h a s  of the bedevilled love,  that  once  life.  48 H i s f o r m e r  cleansed  begins  he  i s now  the particular  able  that  had possessed  to state  manifestation  him, t o  unequivocally  of love  that  that  was  he  called  Annie. Fernand Desonay's d o c t o r a l student, has of  advanced  quite  the f i r s t  colourful rainbow.  independently,  quintil  has changed  This  gives  place  and confidence.  sensual  pleasure  sweet  cypress  trees  seventh  poet  descent cool  widely enters  into  winds  forth  a  Pleasant  state  of  love  of falsehood,  of  that  1 1  light  a b r i g h t and  by t h e c o l o u r s  of the  of docile  i n the f i f t h  dreams  according  which  sub-  to the sixth  have  which both  b y Mme this  much  t h e poet  stanza  and  i n common,  d'autres  to a  time  a  of and  nebuleuses".  Apollinaire  often  identified  the  state  objectively  another  that  are  i s a t t h e same  about  and  loves  Morhange-Begue.  i n writing  mythology,  of the  s t a t e s a r e tempered by t h e  propel  "vers  and  stanza i s  of past  t h e whole experience  on a f r e s h adventure,  heroes  remains  renderings  he c a n c o n s i d e r  noted  into  t o a mood  t h e theme p u t f o r w a r d  o f remembrance,  Faltenin",  the pale  i s p e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e s a d images  a t dawn  Renaud  Romanos,  The theme o f t h e f o u r t h i s v o l u p t u o u s  differing  a hell  Philippe  the  i n the third  and t h e tomb.  repeats  calm wherein set  love  shattered  These the  that  i n the second  of which a l l that  memory;  inevitably the  theory  m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f j o y as evidenced  mission  a  a  Maria-Luiza  descent  poem,  " L u l de  himself into  the  with very  120 lowest over  levels  of  his  t i m e t o t h e most a n c i e n t Marie-Louise  similarity and  personality  even  lays  between the  the  whole  f o r the  myth:  Lentengre  more  mythology.  precisely  sequence  sung  songs  of  to  by  of  one  f o r the  descent  1 2  points the  who  the  Seven  knew  sirens,  out  Swords  how  and  the  to  the  sing  Orpheus  1 3  Et  c ' e s t 1'image q u i , a l ' i n s t a r  Orphee, vers est  a c c o m p l i t sa descente  l a mort, poete.  pour  Lentengre's Burgos  1 4  ,  from  representation  Stanza is  The  le sait,  these  seven  penetrating  enfers,  sa  plongee  v a i n q u e u r p a r c e gu' i 1 immortalite.  enchante leur  les  sirenes  emprise.  quintils review  arise of  from  i t  by  Mme Jean  reading.  death defeat of  and  de  archetypal  of  Vulcan  fire  and  is  an  virility  allegoric  by  the  female  creativity.  moment  of orgasm  i s the  v e r y moment w h e n  the  "killed".  Stanza theories  the  of water 43.  the  The  of  on  o n e ' s own  42.  Stanza  principles  comments  poete  sa propre  l e s Argonautes  article,  and  affronter  du  aux  i l revient  comme o n  delivrer  Additional  d'ou  pour  .Orphee a y a n t ,  male  even  dream-like  and  analogous  figures  "Chanson",  queens  was  44.  The  i s surely  "devenu  complementary  42.  Apollinaire  i s offering  the  watery  image  the  manuscript  blue  nain"  version  of  to the  h i s now  femininity. featured  image  which idea  flaccid The  i n the  has  led to  many  expressed i n stanza  emblem o f v i r i l i t y  1909  version  review  as  Cr£ation  well  to as  mention  121 that  the said  this  i s surely  Annie,  a  direct  of the strict  Stanza lurking their  by Lentengre 45.  behind doom,  assassine"  decided  i n t h e 1913 f i n a l  draft.  i s  the  relevant,  to  use f o r  t o c l o a k any line  had  of castration i s  have  i n  finding  who a r e l u r i n g of  which  malheur  should  h a d no  trying  The theme  correct  choice  and "Nuit rhenane" du  always  who  o f anger,  that the antipapesse  the seductive sirens  L'image  i n a moment  i n her analysis.  Lentengre  however  t o the "Antipapesse";  Anglican  Apollinaire,  reference t o Annie,  overstressed  on a n a p k i n  r e f e r e n c e , made  or Catholics.  be e r a s e d  while  rude  t h e daughter  foreigners  to  emblem i s o f f e r e d  l a  to  "Le  Poete  illustrate:  perversite  been, broadened  danger  t h e oarsmen t o  references,  she used  l i e a  the  feminine,  t o i n c l u d e "La Lore-  ley". Stanza the  cypress  pointed  tree,  shape  symbolizing remain  46. The f u n e r e a l i m a g e s o f t h e d i s t a f f , linked  as they  a r e metamorphosed  t h e a c t Of p o e t i c  i n t h e background  Stanzas  47  and  have  Morhange-Begue  a n d b u t Mme  whole  by a repeated  sequence  following  words la  as noted  into  been  Lentengre  mais  flame  of  by  Mme  summed u p t h e myth  i nt h e  1 5  renversee  a un comportement mythique, fois  and pain  covered  has admirably  a i m e n ' a [...] p a s t r a i t  deux  torch  passage.  adequately  Burgos.  general  the  sadness  reference t o the Orphic  by Jean  d'Orphee p e r d a n t  t h e same  however  dream-like  r e n o n c i a t i o n a 1'amour,  d'etre  the  creation,-  of this  48  a r e by having  t h e sword and  en  impossibility  a un comportement semblable  Eurydice, parce  a  reel  celui  que l e r e e l  122 ne  doit  etre  qu'une ombre p o u r que  l e poete puisse  le  chanter. Two  commentaries  1'inspiration "'Les  Sept  on  "Les  religieuse  epees'  une  des  Sept  epees"  'Sept e p e e s ' " by  alchimie  been  this  analysis,  the reader i s referred them.  the  reader might  same v e i n .  This  his  poetic  function  now  familiar  51  t o 54,  Our the  Piron  of  pessimistic misery,  II,  which  whom  Saint  by  the  John's  starry  again,  and  spheres  bridge-note  experienced  t o Antoine Fongaro's  interlude  provided  i s fixed  the  the  on  two  Prince Day,  and  of  highly  a relatively  reminds  leads  into  likens  mad  Regent  when t h e  the  "explication"  form.  to  kings  of  Bavaria  remembers, glow-worms  of  to  dance  chance.  personalizing  madness,  similar  month  o f midsummer  of  to  of  his that  Ludwig June  shine  to This  of  particularly  i n the  of  1 7  have  demons  the  first  pendulum.  i m p e n e t r a b l e , we by  us  i n the  there begins the  following  i n summarised  upbeat  continue  i n v e r s e 50,  the  played  poet  the  sur  Dininman,  f o r the purpose  t h e poem p r o p e r t o  presented here  destiny  music  once  has  Delbreil  Francoise  useless  the case; A p o l l i n a i r e  and  Daniel  downward s w i n g o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Maurice verses  of this  expect  i s not  being  "Remarques  1 6  With the conclusion note  as  v e r b e " by  purposely  review of  ignored  du  have  critical  namely  on  i n the  night.  The  poet  w h i c h has  i s now  afflicted  describing  t h e dead  is  to  enough  at him king  encourage  the  nadir  of  throughout t h i s gazing him  to  the manic-depressive state l o n g poem b u t t h e  passage  face upturned t o the changing sky do  likewise,  he  gazes  upon  the  123 glorious and  comes  fingers offers  he  sunshine  abruptly  to  must t a k e  up  his masterpiece  The new  June  a  his poetic to his  Les  complaintes  Des  hymnes d ' e s c l a v e romance du  Et  des  day  des  lais de  lyre  pour  mes  and  noisy  Paris,  his  aching  despite  once a g a i n  and  sing  as  he  les reines  annees  aux  murenes  mal-aime  chansons pour i s over,  dawns.  that  gay  bien-aimee.  qui sais  La  his beloved  realisation  Moi  nightmare  bright  bathing  the  les  sirenes.  poet  can  f a c e up  to  reality  as  a  124  NOTES: CHAPTER 6  Claude Morhange-Begue,  1  La Chanson du Mal-Aime  ri' Apol l i n a i r e e s s a i d' analyse s t r u c t u r a l e et s t y l i s t i q u e . " B i b l i o t h e q u e des l e t t r e s modernes", Minard,  1970). Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  Maurice Pir.on. 2  18 ( P a r i s : L e t t r e s Modernes,  La Chanson du Mal-Aime. ed.  ( P a r i s : A.G. N i z e t ,  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  1987).  "Ebauches pour L a Chanson du x  Mal-Aime'," ed. M i c h e l Decaudin. C r e a t i on 13 (1978): 7-52. M i c h e l Decaudin, "Les M a n u s c r i t s de L a Chanson du x  Mal-Aime'," One  vln-vA?  9 (1984): 3-22.  M i c h e l Decaudin, T,e D o s s i e r d ' A l c o o l s ' P a r i s : Minard,  (Geneve: Droz,  1960).  3  Claude  Morhange-Begue,  227-231.  4  Leroy C. Breunig, "Le Roman du Mal-Aim£ "- La Table Ronde f  57  (1952): 5  117-123.  Anne Hyde Greet,  trans. Alcools: Guillaume  (Berkeley: Univ. o f C a l i f o r n i a P., 1965) 6  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  Aime' , " 18.  Apollinaire  215.  "Ebauches pour l a 'Chanson du Mal-  125 7  3  James L a w l e r , " L e s s e p t e p e e s , "  (1954): 8  'Les  9  Follet,  Epees',"  "Images e t t h e m e s d e 1'amour m a l h e u r e u x  Europe  451-452  (1966):  M a r i e - L o u i s e L e n t e n g r e , " 'Les  onirique."  Rives  10-13.  Lionel  Sept  T.e F l a n e u r d e s D e u x  Ouaderni  d i filologia  Sept  dans  206-239. epees'  romanza...di  ou l a p a r e n t h e s e  Bologna  2  (1981):  113-175.  'Les  1 0  Claude Morhange-Begue,  1 1  Fernand  Sept 1 2  Desonay,  epees'".  Philippe  d'Homme, 1 9 6 9 )  160-190.  "Nouvel  essai  Margi n a l e s . j u i n  Renaud,  1969:  1 4  Jean Burgos,  R e v . o f 'Tes Sept  des L e t t r e s  1 5  Jean Burgos, 216.  1 6  A n t o i n e Fongaro,  "Pour  Mnriernes  "'Les  l'exegese d'Alcools'," 1 7  (Lausanne:  L'Age  200.  M a r i e - L o u i s e Lentengre, 168.  ROTUP  des strophes  79-82.  Lecture d'Apol1inaire  1 3  oni r i q u e .  d'interpretation  Guillaume Apollinaire,  £p£es' 682-687  sept epees'  Studi  Francesi  ou l a p a r e n t h A s e (1983):  212-217.  mysti-alchimi-fiees" i n 39 ( 1 9 8 5 ) :  Ed. Maurice Piron,-  335-337.  122-128.  126  CHAPTER 7  ENTRY INTO THE"WORLD OF A R T S AND  "L'ADIEU" • May  took had  have  possibly  enclosing  a  been  one  sprig  of  Et The stanzas creating  to express  "CLOTILDE",  1904-1907  poems w h i c h  que  sent  written  to  on  t o Annie the  he hopes  i n November,  Annie  in  America,  walks he as  i n  they  probably being  a  t o see her i n heaven: terre  je t'attends. Apollinaire  i n the e a r l i e r  beautiful  and  found  the early  "SIGNE",  or  just  the  "La C l e f " ,  right  thereby  quintils.  (0.P.p.125-1905)  o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i s shadow from  of  h e r o f Autumn w h i c h  i n London  his feelings  (0.P.p.73-1904)  date  letter  f o r remembrance  practical  o f h i s most  Apollinaire's  not  reminds when  a  verrons plus sur  souviens-toi  eminently  one  was  and adds t h a t  Nous ne nous  of  heather  described to Annie, season  part  that  together, Guillaume  mournful  Part II  (0.P.,85-1904) well  England,  LETTERS,  i s evident  symbolist part  i n these  of the  period  127 under  review.  It  Apollinaire, The poet's  poem  departure  on  possibly  have  been  Rhineland  other  LANDOR ROAD  This  poem  the  to  the  that  This  be  true,  by  Decaudin  may  presented  considered,  published  i t was  but,  Landor Road"  has  composition Vers et  in  by  shadow. started before  i t  is  the  impossible  closely  linked  dogs h i s every like  of  not  to  signs  step  of  a  to  his  like  his  spring  long  love.  attracted as  "La  important  was  i f the  the  Chanson f o r the  the  1855  Ford. Madox Brown's time  and  again  of  France.  December  actual  draft  du  interest  of  Mal-Aime"  and  light  i t throws  work,  Chanson  du  of  the  "La  The of  review  on  since  1905-February  postcards,  masterwork is  "L'Emigrant  de  time  1906  prints  was  of  i t was  Last  1  "Creation"  painting i s located "The  twice  Mal-Aime".  Chanson" t h a t  probable  1905  has  latter  further proof,  famous work on  this  i n the  v e r s i o n of  year  on  "La  article  e a r l y i n the i n the  after  absence  M e r c u r e de  the  comments  early  in his  i n the  Prose  Although  his  composed  antedates  i n Le  reproduced  used  (0.P.,105-1905)  same e x t e n t  Renaud,  insisted  England,  word  personality.  Philippe  in  of her  leaves,  It i s nevertheless  poet's  i s more  experience  " L ' E M I G R A N T DE  "Palais".  hand,  dead  d u p l i c a t e h i s own  Apollinarians  since  the  directly.  the  major  that  w e l l as  recollection  while  i n mind as  the  the  love. His  shadow;  gone,  for  borne  mean g h o s t  may  i t with Annie  "Signe", former  be  "Ombre" c a n  first  identify  own  should  published  issue. in  Birmingham,  of England" and  etchings.  was It  128 shows  a  Atlantic away and  group  of  vessel  and gazing  from  England.  realised  Annie.  emigrants  sadly  Apollinaire  i t s relevance  The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s Sur  l e pont Et  Les  vents  Et  on  the  deck  at t h e shore must  to  have  h i s own  describe  du v a i s s e a u  a  trans-  as t h e s h i p  sailed  been  of  familiar  situation  with i t  and  that  of  t h e scene:  i lposa  sa valise  s'assit de 1'Ocean e n s o u f f l a n t l e u r s  Laissaient Des  sitting  dans  emigrants d'autres  s e s c h e v e u x de l o n g s  tendaient  vers  en p l e u r a n t  baisers  l e port  s'etaient  menaces mouilles  l e u r s mains  lasses  agenouilles (O.P.,106)  The  poem,  it  i s t h e poet  do  with  of  h i s role  leaving ability  a  at f i r s t himself  situation  reading, who  where  as Annie's  f o r America;  would  i s emigrating, Apollinaire  t h e poem  R e n a u d h a s summed u p t h e u n d e r l y i n g serait  d'imaginer  faire  que 1 ' e m i g r a n t  quelque Apollinaire rather would  than free  une r u p t u r e  avec  t h e poem h a s t o  not t h e poet  example  who i s  of Apollinaire's  of h i spoetic motif  that  o f t h e abandonment  role.  o f t h e poem  d i r e a u poeme c e q u ' i l  femme q u i 1'a a b a n d o n n e . plutSt  dreams  i s an  facets  the impression  i n fact  lover. I t i s the role,  t o p e r s o n i f y t h e many  Ce  leave  Philippe  thus:  2  ne d i t p a s que  s'en v a r e j o i n d r e en Amerique l a Le depart  qu'il  l'homme q u ' i l  reve  est bien  a v a i t e t e pendant  temps. dreams  of  t h e wide p r a i r i e s him from  far-off  fields'  o f America;  the hidebound  of  poetic  of a fresh  activity  start  constraints of the present  which and  129 provide on by  a period  r e c o v e r y from  h i s hopeless love However  the  of  reefs  continue  the  of  t o haunt  entails  destiny him  and  suffering  brought  passage  through  f o r Annie.  departure  his  the pain  and  as he  a  the  seeks  difficult  rocky  memories  freedom  to live  of  the  i n a new  past  era  of  peace. Apollinaire's against  infinite  a gloomy backdrop  of headless t a i l o r ' s worn  out  smart  trappings  Albanian  the  Whitechapel  Jewish  tailors  The  humorous  disorder  the  and  like  upbeat  surfaces  style.  o f London  i n exchange  i n Oakley  haberdashers,  t o shed  Apollinaire  which  Crescent  the  the  for  a  stayed with  was.occupied  hence  mockery  introduction  his desire  to Annie,  Spirobeg  the  of  close  to  largely  by  somewhat  droll  inspiration.  "La  Chanson  note on  and in  a  the  in this  du  Mal-Aime",  sad  downbeat  discussion  work  alternates  also.  of  one.  between  The  bipolar  Apollinaire's  Hope and  melancholy  "Le share  stage. Another  "Cut  and  works,  mood  stanza  and  of  as  often style  lifted  composed Linda  feature  Paste" process  earlier in  district  commented  Printemps"  Trank  for his  poem,  latest  a flash  h e r e by  personify  his servitude  i n the  friend  underpinnings  a  of  to create  is illustrated  d u m m i e s who  set of clothes  his  capacity  Molina,  of  with  result  excellent  word of  (O.P., 3 3 2 ) ;  poem  i s Apollinaire's  composition involving  between  almost a  this  them. for  the the  effect An  word  from  break-up passage  of was  also  the from  the  difference  the  following  i s  "Adieux" his  of  borrowings  despite  example  use  a  1901  poem  infatuation  with  contained i n  an  130 early  S t a v e l o t poem  pleines  which  d ' a m o u r e t de Intercalees  began  douleur"  with  the  line  (O.P.,567):  "Les  villes  3  dans l ' a n c ' e t a i e n t l e s j o u r n e e s  Les  vendredis  Des  blancs  sanglants et  et tout n o i r s  Q u a n d l a femme d u  diable  sont  lents  veuves  d'enterrements  vaincus  des  cieux qui  a b a t t u son  pleuvent  amant. (O.P.106)  The Les  stanza  yeux  de  Printemps"  beginning  squales"  is  with an  "Gonfle-toi  exact  (O.P.p.560) w h i c h  i s i n v o k e d by  The stanza toy  le violet  Le  naufrage  De  voir  stanzas  show  boats  a  dot  des  solaire  mourir  un  the  horizon  and  and  are  a  storm  nuit  0  stanza at  Mer!  in  sea:  "Le  4  dechire  impetueuses  princesses  which  complex  a  vert s'est  d i e u q u i dut  i n "L'Emigrant  much more  mers  aux  la  duplicate of  M a i s t o u t a coup 1 ' h o r i z o n Montrant  vers  heureuses  les  adorer.  l e a d up  to the  mature  "Gonfle-toi"  inspiration.  described thus  in a  Distant beautiful  vision: Un  tout petit  Couvrit  II  The stubborn is out  to  bouquet  1'Ocean d'une immense  aurait  voulu  ce b o u q u e t  Jouer  dans d'autres  only  way  weaver  drown  to' sea  in a  the  girls  them  flottant  at  who sea  symbolic  are like  floraison.  tous  tapestry  compared t o the  gesture  Doges of  l'aventure  comme l a  mers parmi  endless  a  of  gloire les  of lice  dauphins.  memory can  be  o l d Venice  marriage  and  woven  by  terminated who  waded  conceivably  to  rid  themselves II  a  parasites.  se m a r i a  Aux The  of  cris  note  doge.  d'une s i r e n e  "Gonfle-toi"  serious  come u n  as t h e  moderne sans  s t a n z a ends  epoux.  "L'Emigrant  Des  loved,  emigrant  ont  le bruit  Apollinaire, he  l'aube  c a d a v r e s de  Parmi  theme  to  g u e t t e de  jours des  always  liked  Landor  Road"  on  sharks l i e i n wait: ...  Jusqu'a  de  loin  ronges  flots  les  par  avidement les  himself  is particularly  etoiles  et l e s derniers  conscious of being a  identify  yeux  foreigner  with  noticeable  serments.  such  in a  land  people.  The  i n "Zone",  perhaps  the  most p e r s o n a l o f h i s poems. Mme  Durry  following present  terminated her  observation  analysis: ... de  which  sont a l a f o i s  assis  l a avec  ment de ant,  Is far.  It  devenu c h a i r  l a neuve d e f r o q u e  Apollinaire,  SOIR"  provides a  on  "L'Emigrant"  suitable  with  the  epilogue to  the  5  le voici  qui  "UN  comments  qu'on  deracine,  du b a t e a u ,  l e voyageur  l u i a soldee, pour  Annie partant  - eternel ses  et sang pour  passager  a du  celui  jamais vers reel  e t de  des  l e s malheureux  en  l'Amerique l'irreel,  reves d'evasion, d'exotisme, - et tous  vetu  son  denue-  embarques  signes d'adieu, pleurant  et  fais  priant.  (0.P.,125-1905)  much more probably  complex  than  dates  from  the  other four  1905  and  poems d i s c u s s e d  reveals  a  degree  so of  132 hesitancy has  as  to  shown t h a t  as  a  teasing  an  honest  Christ.  the  to  mocking The  The  begs  take  a  and  instead admirer poem  his  chance of  who,  ends  tinsel  finally  with  was  governess  directly  obvious  love,  being  led  an  as  him.  Anne  Hyde  Greet  a n g e l o r Madonna, on,  instead  a conqueror  of  then  of  i n the  being  image  of  has  love-light  i f i t does by  deserves of  the  some to  triumph  not  work  other  in  her  out  in  false  and  hang. and  rebirth  as  i f in  love.  i s the  product  of the  happy  or  "manic"  affliction. slow to he  connected  shake  l o v e d so with the  o f f the pervasive influence much b u t  loss  he  the  next  p o e m was  of the  underwent.  (O.P.,65-1905) p u b l i s h e d as attempt  e v e n more  "Fanny"  to hide  can  knowledge.  only  error, be  i n Les  S o i r e e s de  Paris  i t s connection with Annie  fundamental  geographical  Alabama,  who  astray  paean  A p o l l i n a i r e p i c t u r e s her  The  to  clothes  even  Judas, a  poem u n d o u b t e d l y  English  Was  on  like  in his bipolar  "ANNIE"  was  meant  inamorata,  of the v i c t o r y  Apollinaire  last  w i t h her  lover,  poet  celebration  the  really  e n t e r s t h e poem as  wench  naked  end,  swing  Annie  Annie  6  The eyes,  what  than  as  her  own  to  "Low  Mobile a  rare  Church" in  gap  an  Playden.  a member o f a C h r i s t i a n  placing  ascribed  in  Texas,  sect  that  Anglican  one.  instead  of  i n his encyclopedic  133 "PALAIS"  (0.P.,61-1905)  This  eleven  although  stanza  i n a more t e n u o u s  Chanson  du Mal-Aime".  creates  a  Henry  major  work  Burgos,  Poupon, like  the  presence  end  t o h i s love  slower  du  nightmarish  first,  of the later  a  1 - 3 ,  t h e second  the king  buffoonery  palace  "Du  'Palais'  Decaudin,  Durry,  brought  on by t h e t r a u m a t i c which  characterized  i t i s replaced  state  to a  by  jarring  a  and  part,  palace  and l a s t ,  heartsick  disgust  into  pilgrimage  stanzas  4 - 6 ,  three  parts; the  toward  t h e depth  i s a descent  from  t o a c a r i c a t u r e o f t h e unworthy  and h i s m i s t r e s s ,  the third to  divisible  the alter  stanzas as  7  -  egos  of  Apollinaire  11, i s a  i t describes  slide  from  the repulsive  meal.  The persona  Clifford.  "Annie"' poems, i n d i c a t e s  contemplative  i s a symbolist  dream o f t h e b e a u t i f u l  Annie;  King  7  i s not present,  poem i s a d r e a m s e q u e n c e  t h e dream;  dinner  Rouveyre.  The r a p i d o s c i l l a t i o n  from  of  vision.  stanzas  hosts, and  s o many  t h e poet  h a s drawn on t h e work o f  Chevalier,  and  Mal-Aime"  progression  The  Caxton,  of the bipolar psychosis  Chanson  Rosamund  i s Lionel Follet's which  and "La  i n t h e shape  mistress  Renaud,  affair.  poems  of Apollinaire  of himself  of exegesis  Austin  the Rhineland  poems  as t h e k i n g ' s  Butor,  "Palais",  the  than  i n other  personified version  Meschonnic,  of  way  Rosemonde a l ' u n i v e r s p o e t i q u e "  Bates,  "La  As  I I and o f Annie The  de  poem b e l o n g s t o t h e " A n n i e " c y c l e ,  dreamy t h o u g h t s , t h e r e v e r i e s a r e metamorphosed i n t o t h e of Apollinaire  o f h i s dreams,  himself succumbing  as  he  approaches  to the erotic  the  images  beautiful of  roses,  134 naked  kings  phalluses.  and  His  excitement  quasi-religious diamond  stigmata  but  little  in  the  Blenheim by  irregularly the  red  palace  judging palace  the  of  there  was  only  maze t h a t  on a  This wounds,  first  bare  garden  or  Eleanor  the  part  note  eating  made  from  sun.  of  the  of  shows up  i n the  of  the  Paschal  Follet  has  correctly  nature  of  a  shows  unlikely  way  The  through  contained. of  death  and  vibrant  love.  The  wine  and  of  symbolic  the  nearby.  palace  once  some  reflecting  her  imagery  draught  both  maze  now  drawing  by  i t is  thread  the his  bitter  Lamb,  so  rooms t h e  of  panes  is  8  explained  hill  to  with  1718.  etching  matter  had  of  be  a  had  windows  what  same a  that  passing  about  window  The  knoll  suffused  glazed  engraving  glass  of  i n imagination few  of  small  images  of  easily  state  create  site  of Aquitaine  is  a  the  can  for  to  very  destroyed  r a b b i t warren  emblematic  religious  setting  the  would have been the  was  into  with  p i e r c i n g the  exercise were  the  distorting  the  situated  that  Eros himself  This  they  synonymous  drifts  s i t u a t e d on  itself  and  he  c a s t l e windows  from  stigmata,  shaped  rays  the  Woodstock,  Palace,  for  of  with  as  i n h i s t o r y . There  of  The  cypresses  increases  C h r i s t ' s hands.  basis  Westall. As  panes  of  Palace  shaped  reminiscence  shaped  the  distaff  Cypriot of  Christ's  Last  Supper. L. in  the  parody  an  in i t , only Le  The adulterer  soleil  abrupt  incantation  signs  of the  m i r o i r des  beginning  cavorting  pointed  with  of his  and  out  that  that  impending roses  the  mistress  there  first is  break-up:  s'est  second  this  no  part  is  sign  of  9  brise.  part  f e a t u r i n g the  Rosamund  on  h i s bony  kingknees  135 is  amusing  i n that  of  h e r age  Apollinaire  and t h e i n e v i t a b l e  month. A l t h o u g h t h e beauty there  i s no q u e s t i o n ,  round  and r a t h e r  the  refers  comparison  Apollinaire  cannot  eyes  The p o e t ' s  East  that  t o those  r i d himself  her sisters  endowed t h a n h e r s e l f ; is  t h e poet  who  the 31st of the  i s a matter  of a cruel,  a r e even  that  they  shows  marauding,  were  up i n Hun.  f o r and gets h e r strange  more  a r e on t h e i r  beautiful  a process o f thought  has t h e v i s i o n  of record,  o f h i s memory o f h e r p h y s i c a l  she a w a i t s h e r thoughts, which  where  on  disillusion  c h a r m s a s h e a s k s h e r who s h e i s w a i t i n g reply  r e a c h i n g t h e May  from h e r photograph,  prominent.  o f h e r eyes  end thereof  of Annie's  judging  t o Annie  and  way t o t h e physically  transference,  of the callipygean  since i t  attributes i n  question. The varied  poet  i s now  recollections  as  feast  where  forms  and and a "danse In  he  i s served  the last  unanswerable  t o behead  evening up  macabre"  questions  Should  tation  the Holy  as  t h e poet  he r e g a r d Love  thus  and he  proceeds  his  to the of  i n h i s brain.  asks  introduces  himself the  as i n s p i r a t i o n  Should  kill-off  i n the ghastliest  i s performed  he  Spirit?  falls,  and  h i s memories  two c o u p l e t s  Pentecost. of  invited  the poet  two  image  almost of  the  o r as a m a n i f e s -  be  a  lover  or  an  apostle?  "LA  FUITE"  (O.P.,  655-1905)  and  i t s variant  "L'ENFANT  D'OR"  681-1905).  Mention of  (O.P.,  s h o u l d b e made  the similarities  o f t h e s e two sonnets  t o "L'Emigrant  de L a n d o r  i fonly  Road".  because  The p o e t i s  136 identified carrying It would  with  the  his lover is  "once away t o  impossible  appear  to  and  former"  a certain  to  pin  preclude  a  who  watches  the  ship  shipwreck.  date  their  king  to  them  belonging  but  to  their  the  content  turn  of  the  century.  "ROSEMONDE"  (0.P.,107-1905)  Apollinaire Holland  is  known  the  to  in  1904,  same  had  p r e v i o u s l y read  have  year  taken  that  he  a  short  met  Andre  holiday Derain,  in the  painter. He of  Rosemonde  The an  three  wherein  quintils  she  which  a b o r t i v e p u r s u i t of  Apollinaire loss  of  recalled  Annie,  a  the  was  reputed  m a k e up girl  when  Gery  The  have  i n Amsterdam,  Apollinaire  when h i s p a r t n e r  to  "Rosemonde"  writing  particularly Pieret.  continental version of  "Zone".  was  not  in this  dedication to  Derain  hailed relate  a  the  story  from the  Italy.  story  circumstance  Despite above  the  the  women,  escapade  was  gives  indication  an  which  mourning  chasing  of  notorious of  the  date.  "SALOME"  (O.P.,86-1905)  Published of the  the  poems t o be  It the  at  rigorous  of  is  a  the  the  i t was  than  has  year  tried  to  the of  "Annie"  quality  in  last 1906.  penetrate  subjecting himself  s o many o f t h e  devil-may-care  probably  unproductive  Apollinaire  rather of  year;  before  because  Annie  self-analysis  There  of  written  i s noteworthy  character  end  to  the  poems. this  work,  a  137 lighthearted underlying jester  approach  cruelty  t o make  typical, Baptist's  own  announces  the loss  when  staff.  than  allowing  John  symbolises  tragic  there.  the Baptist's  especially  succeeded  a  i s still  John  have  to  The  final  t h e end  of  comes  Annie  as  as  Annie's  of the dancer  appear  history  b y h i s memory.  h i s role  king's  the  would  t o past  the  bauble i s  decoration  Apollinaire  t o be t o r t u r e d  yet  h i s fool's  indignity  at last i n relegating himself  into  t o Salome's  of her garter.  and  invitation to the  head  compared  The  situation,  to  rather  The d e a t h o f  lover  i n this  poem.  "CREPUSCULE" These  two  Publication Marie  (0.P., 64-1905)  was  editor  Multiple these  two  emanated  deferred  Laurencin  executive  of  poems  and  until  Louis  with  from  Dumur  were  which  a  single  February  a t work  probably  occurred  presentation  of  Colloquium  origins  1909 w i t h  during  Dininman  the  Pictorial,  draft.  dedications  to  Dumur  an  was  the the composition i n 1905, b u t  enumerated  "Crepuscule"  o f 1982 o f w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g  1.  preliminary  France.  was n o t o n e o f t h e m . F r a n g o i s e on  (0.P., 90-1905)  respectively.  Le M e r c u r e de  influences works,  a n d "SALTIMBANQUES"  certainly Picasso  at  several the  are important.  Annie i nher  Stavelot 1 0  and j u s t p o s s i b l y  Marie  Laurencin. 2. and  The m a s t e r s to a lesser  of Symbolist extent,  poetry,  Mallarme,  definitely  Baudelaire,  Verlaine,  Nerval and  Rimbaud. 3.  The t h e a t r e ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y " L a Commedia d e l l ' A r t e " o f  138 Italy.  Apollinaire  subject  i n preparation  4. T h e s e c r e t and The  which  salvation would the  make  him "Thrice  first  likenesses  others  as  have  May  15 1 9 0 5 i s s u e  man  regards  like  part  This  derived  Tarot  arcana man.  from  one  which  the  "Pink"  that  was  shows  the  Harlequin  version  saw  and  and  several works  reviewed  and t h e f r u i t  at  i nthe  trees i n  recognizable. the overriding  influences  and A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n t e r e s t  Picasso  t h e nude b a t h e r ,  life  were t h e  i n the occult.  of the harlequin,  and t h e l a r g e r than  the original  reflect  the  as  the plain,  of  about  probably  o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f 33  word p i c t u r e s o f t h e nude w i f e  were  a c t which  and e a r l y  t h e one  first  seek  Harlequin  Apollinaire  Picasso  to  i n "Saltimbanques".  P a r i s which A p o l l i n a i r e  "Crepuscule"  the child  An  poetic  of wandering  i n h i s "Blue"  family,  the  tried  the successful  t o produce  Olivier,  are easily  describe  described  circus  o f L a Plume:  as a whole  nursing  hanging  over,  formed  free-masonry  h i m as he  inspiration.  the  Serrurier•in  "Saltimbanques"  exhibition  of  to  condemned t o a l i f e  the f a t jester.  Galeries  The  Great",  Fernande  the  As  with  by P i c a s s o  of  would  carried  paintings  painted  Apollinaire  serves  and dancers  version  subsequently  list  the i n i t i a l  itallen.  the Tarot.  tumblers  provided  alchemy,  act of w r i t i n g poetry.  instead of being  Several  the  partial  on t h e  f o r h i s b o o k T.e Th£fitre  gnosticism,  importantly  Apollinaire  t h e poor  period  rites,  i n the creative  poem,  like  most  foregoing  baggage  had s t a r t e d h i s research  harlequin  paintings  t h e unhooked  the o l d himself  but the major star,  and t h e  139 Mme of  Durry  poems  to  publicly output  has  the  there  simplicity  so  of  and star  His  wanted, its  on  unhooked thereby  the  god's  and  scribe to  which, Breunig,  power  the  night  the  FALTENIN" one  judging gave  to  his  and  own  the poet.  jester,  the  the  sad 1 1  poet's  mark.  R.  to  the the  of  change  his  audience with ability  sky,  Mercury,  making  summing up  a l l the  to  god  of  form  his  and  magical  manipulate  i t do  what  the  ever  he  of w r i t i n g poetry  in  Stamelman i s the  roles.  It  wrote:  only  1 2  actor  in  assumes  speaks  many  b e c a u s e he  knew  faces  Thoth  was  i s w h a t he  the  inventor  aspired to  of  that  writing  be.  (0.P.,97-1907) of  from him  protege  Hermes T r i s m e g i s t o s  gods which  one  century  w e a r s many c o s t u m e s ,  equivalent  on  pair  Apollinaire's personality  Apollinaire's self  diverse  invoked  Egyptian  is  has  this  never  poets  nearer  c r e a t i v e act  In h i s  guises,  and  of  bedazzles  drama where i t p l a y s  Apollinaire  This  the  Harlequin,  voices  DE  a  forms.  different  much  a l l as  particularly  from  many d i f f e r e n t  is  a  of  was  pallor  as  above has  other  nineteenth  Apollinaire  d u p l i c a t i n g the  Like  "LUL  great  aspect  stage  tricks,  similarity  the  this  charlatans, entry  a  the  Harlequin  analysed  creative he  as  of  wanness,  saw  Harlequin,  and  influences  the of  Picasso  has  well.  roles.  is  the  Verlaine. Apollinaire  the  himself  Stamelman  thieves  of  typical  Although  very  works  acknowledge but  vision  drawn a t t e n t i o n t o  far  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most the  manuscript  more  trouble  puzzling  version than  the  poems, and  published many  poems  by  one L.C.  wherein  140 the  engine  of inspiration  published  at  combination  the  with,  awareness  that  a  metamorphosis  with  these  a  slide  therefrom  into  is  his  into  of attainment  will  sea, despite  universe  n o t be  flight  as t h a t  bare  t o make  a  attempt  create  a  to  and  i n the s i m u l t a n e i s t genre.  The  and t h e Phoebus-Apollo  added,  fabric  of  o f t h e poem. the  the sirens.  against  A  climb  h i s true  the siren  sailor's  and spars  To  Orpheus-like  w h e r e i n he c a n f i n d  a s y e t . The  sun  s i r e n s wooing t h e  namely  grotto  masts  and t h e  himself  a s p a r k l i n g new w o r l d  poet's  drowning,  i s  a  1 3  are the basic  the watery  of h i s ships  Laurencin,  f r i e n d s as t h e winged  element  was  Apollinaire  i f he w i s h e d  i s an  as a s a i l o r  gestures  drive  t h e Sun a n d t h e p o e t  poems  w r i t t e n and  prostitutes  ground  field.  poem,  creative  t o Marie  "La m e r v e i l l e " as h i s s h i e l d  home p o r t The  the  o f t h e poet  not capable  greening  new  of a sailor,  spatial  with  the  Faltenin"  of the great  rude  slippery  break  " L u l de  and t h e p r o s t i t u t e  sailor  self,  1907  i n the poetic  image  a precursor  image  of  In this  h i s attachment  he s h o u l d  sense  simultaneous is  before  impression  In  end  Annie.  o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e many  consorted  lasting  very  was  wish  and a safe  wiles  f o rthe return to  fulfilled.  t o t h e sun meets  of Icarus  t h e same  fate,  death  o r o f t h e Sun as i t s i n k s d a i l y  h i s knowledge  of  his capability  to  by into  create  a  of poetry: Car  J.C. poem, t h i s  c'est  Chevalier wish  moi s e u l e  (0) n u i t q u i t ' e t o i l e .  described,  i n h i s detailed  f o rtransformation  ... a u d e b u t  l e poete  into  analysis  an o r p h i c  ne t r o u v e  un e s s a i  ideal  of the  thus:  1 4  d'existence  141 que  devant  larron, vif  l e cercle  ermite  des spectateurs  ou M e r l i n ,  de p e r c e p t i o n  il's'enferme  q u i devient 1907 e s t  de l ' e p o q u e  cree;  moment p a r a l l e l e a c e t h i v e r construit  donner u n i t e  sorte  modele h i s t o r i q u e ,  Apollinaire His  knowledge  Sun  God  The of  as  qu'elle  n'est plus  Pour  well  informed  Archer  un  A p o l l i n a i r e se decouvre  un modele du p a s s e .  i s a despairing  depression,  manic-depressive, of  d'Avignon.  s i l ' o n ose l e d i r e ;  the multiple  an  lequel  about  much  Orphee.  Greco-Roman  myths.  of Apollo  as t h e  incarnations  provided  C'est  material  for  this  work.  poem  acute  very  about  and  interesting  du moins: was  et qui  a ce personnage q u i a r e t o u r n e l a  commerce, m a i s une l u t t e ,  ecrivons  pendant  cercle  Mais l e  c e l u i q u i se f a i t  ses Demoiselles  communication en  un  dans ce  un l a b y r i n t h e .  poete  Picasso  qui 1'accueillent:  there  state  lament but d e s p i t e  a l l the evidence  i s no  of  which  indication  appears  t o have  the  worked  bipolar,  i t s way o u t  h i s system. Coupled  lack feels  with  of creative compelled  absence normally  of  a  this  depression,  activity, to  resort  loyal  woman  a r i s i n g from  i s a recurrence  sunny d i s p o s i t i o n a r e  The  than  i s a temptation  i s necessary,  two-fold  when he  practices  i n the  attacks  on h i s  voiced:  ... e t j e l ' a v o u e / L e m e u r t r e There  self-conceived  of the disgust  to h i s auto-erotic friend.  a  t o read  into  d e mon  double  orgueil.  t h i s poem more  p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e p a r t  o f some  eroticism  commentators  such The  as Bates, most  examined to  that himself  l a y bare  Fongaro,  Louis,  need  said  be  and, t o a i s that  as c l i n i c a l l y  h i s problems,  toward m y s t i f i c a t i o n  full  1 5  he  extent,  Apollinaire  a s h e k n e w how  although play.  lesser  gave  Renaud.  i n this  a n d was  poem  not a f r a i d  h i s innate  tendency  143  NOTES: CHAPTER  1  Philippe  d'Homme 1969)  Renaud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e  Philippe  3  Marie-Jeanne  4  1960)  3  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  (Paris:  38.  Decaudin,  L e D o s s i e r d' ' A l c o o l s ' . (Geneve:  Marie-Jeanne  6  Anne Hyde G r e e t , t r a n s .  Droz,  Follet,  Stuart  Jean herbier,  'Alcools',  "Du P a l a i s  i n L e c t u r e de P a l a i s  A p o l 1 i n a i r e N° 6  Publishers,  39.  U. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,  Lionel  poetique."  Durry,  3,  5  7  ft  Durry,  171.  (Berkeley:  rt .q  L'Age  63.  Renaud,  1964)  Michel  (Lausanne:  63 & 65.  2  S.E.D.E.S.,  7  (Paris: Minard  1965)  Guillaume 264.  de Rosemonde d'Apollinaire 1972)  a  l'univers  Archives Guillaume  15-102.  B a t e s , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , New Y o r k :  1967.  Twayne  60-62.  Burgos,  "Sur l a thematique  d'Apollinaire,  b e s t i a i r e . " i nGuillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  Iflttrps  Apollinaire  mndernes  217-222,  (1969) :  145-146.  8,  lapidaire,  L a Revue  144 Michel Repertoire  Butor,  TTT  (Paris:  Austin d'origine  "Monument de Minuit,  rien  1968)  Caxton, " A p o l l i n a i r e  revelee"  Les L e t t r e s  pour  Apollinaire"  284.  et l'avalon  nouvelles  f  des  sept.-  avales.  Article  o c t . 1969:  131-  145. Jean-Claude Europe  451-452 Michel  Chevalier,  (1966):  "Apollinaire  56-76.  Decaudin,  109-112.  M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 2, Henri d'ombres". Marc  451-452  Poupon,  d'Apollinaire, (Paris:  Archives  Poupon,  Apollinaire,  (1966):  illumine  au  milieu  141-169.  "Dans l e P a l a i s  M i n a r d 1972) Marc  27-48.  Meschonnic, " A p o l l i n a i r e  Europe  et l e calembour."  Guillaume  d'Anna" L e c t u r e  Apollinaire  n°  de  Palais  6  7-14. "'Le  Larron'  6., L a R e v u e  des  essai  d'exegese".  l e t t r e s modernes  i n Guillaume  166-169  (1967) :  35-51. Philippe Andre Seuil, 8  Royal  Renaud,  67-69.  R o u v e y r e , Amour e t p o e s i e  1955)  d'Apol1inaire  (Paris:  Le  183-191.  Patrick. Palaces  Montague-Smith  and Hugh  Castles  and  Homes  Lionel  "Du  'Palais'  Montgomery-Massingberd,  (London: C o u n t r y L i f e  Books,  1981)  149. 9  Follet,  poetique"  i n Lecture  Apollinaire  n° 6  de  (Paris:  de Rosemonde a  'Palais'  d'Apollinaire,.  Minard,  1972)  33-34.  l'univers  Archives  Guillaume  145 Francoise Dininman, "Naissance  1 0  tours  de M e r c u r e "  de  'Crepuscule'  i n Que v 1 o - v £ ? 2 n d s e r i e s ,  1 1  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  1 2  R i c h a r d Howard  2, 6 0 - 6 1 &  Stamelman,  Apn 1 1 i nai r e ' ,q ' A i r n n l s '  6 & 7  ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 1-30.  67-68.  The drama  (Chapel H i l l :  ou l e s  of self  U. o f N o r t h  i n Guillaume  Carolina,  1976)  103-118. Leroy  1 3  C. B r e u n i g ,  Ttevuft d p s S c i e n c e s  Humaines,  Jean-Claude  1 4  d'analyse  "Le m a n u s c r i t 84  Chevalier,  des f o r m e s p o e t i q u e s  (1956): 'Alcools'  de  ' L u l de  Faltenin,"  401-412. d'Apol1inaire.  (Paris: Lettres  Modernes,  essai Minard,  1970) 1 6 9 . Scott Bates,  1 5  Rives  6  (1955): Antoine  RP  V 1 1 p  Fongaro,  des L e t t r e s  des  2  (1954):  Deux R i v e s ' 3 Philippe  Le Flaneur  des D e u x  7-9. "Apollinaire, Gautier et l e s sirenes,"  Modernes  Rene L o u i s , Rives,  " S u r ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' , "  183-188  (1968):  " ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' . "  9-11 a n d " E n c o r e (1954):  7-9.  Renaud,  495-502.  64-81.  Le F l a n e u r  des Deux  ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' . "  Le  Flaneur  146  CHAPTER  THE  In in  Y E A R S OF  1908  h i s own  H A P P I N E S S AND  ...rien Je  ne  qui  poetry Marie an  the  de et  l ' e r r e u r , de tout  a notre  qu'un l y r i s m e neuf e t  and  i t s  poetic  humaniste  cousin  "Le  F a l t e n i n " . Henceforth,  were  a  to  during  revert  love  that  "Le  after  to  and  after  doomed.  between  the  Brasier", the  Alcools  Calligrammes  this  traditional  was  love  new  thinking,  forms  The  and  collection.  credo,  with  under  the in  experimentation  and  the  the  despite  poems,  "Vendemiaire",  published,  are  affair  when  "Marie"  set,  fois.  even  his  outright  Laurencin was  la  Apollinaire's poetic  i n f l u e n c e d by  introducing  experimentation poems i n t h e  w o u l d be  sandwiched  "Onirocritique", Fiancailles"  composed  a  Brasier"  " L u i de  of  was  image.  f o r e s h a d o w e d by was  time  1'imagination.  in  inclination  sense,  at  change  Laurencin  stimulus  poetry  major  that  this  l a faussete,  nous ressemble  cherche  "Onirocritique" of  of  1908-1909  1  . . . t r i o m p h e de  w h i c h was  STRESS, PART I ,  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s conception words:  emblematic  8  with  a of  "Les  continuing  exemplified  by  the  147 In it  1908 b l a n k  verse  was s t i l l  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  was f a v o u r e d b y t h e N e o - S y m b o l i s t s  Jean  Royere,  poetry more  editor  critic.  Even  innovative,  Royere's  o f La Phalange though  the leadership of  where A p o l l i n a i r e  served as  h i s own p o e t r y w a s b e c o m i n g  Apollinaire  theories,  under  innovative,  b u t he  had  was  valued  i n t h e huge  result  of h i s extraordinary  a  degree  disinclined  storehouse  o f legend  capacity  of  more a n d  affinity  to give  and myth  t o absorb  up  with  what  that  he  was t h e  h i s widespread  reading.  "ONIROCRITIQUE"  (O.P.,371-1908)  Apollinaire's "Dream  Criticism"  cataclysm: prophecy The where  one  poet's  Merlin-like  animals  influenced  by  hands,  have  were  observed  throats  whole,  of singing  of  whose  aged k i n g s whose  their  juices  wanders  Remy  apple  this  gift  fold,  of was  i n Epilogues i s a  farrago sheep  s t i g m a t a e on  o f o t h e r monkeys v i o l a t i n g  graves,  o f humans i n  t o o t h e r men, o f t h e c r o w n s  f a v o u r s were p r e f e r r e d of love.  world  pair  o f tanned  of scarlet  h i m s e l f a hundred  for  His vision  The poem  a  2  dead  and a  Gourmont  of flocks  trees,  gave b i r t h  experience i n the arts  about  as  after  annihilation.  eternities  de  Bates  uncanny  t o be c o u p l i n g .  flammes,  of skull-shaped pearls,  wine-press  poet's  o f t h e sexes.  belching  of t h e enchanter m u l t i p l y i n g a  of  Stuart  o f t h e World  of nuclear  different  the writings  by  view  the  figure  the relationship  monkey's  swallowed  whether  the possibility  dissimilar  of  translated  i s an A p o c a l y p t i c  a n d women  concerning  poem  wonders  foresaw  men  prose  b y women o n a c c o u n t o f  148 This of  surreal  automatic  trying and  writing  t o develop.  fantasies. appear  Fire  i n the  elements  i n  importance  "LE  that  with  "Le  Merlin  alter  mantle  "A",  and  t o l e t h i s fancy  roam  i n t h e same  preoccupation  minor  despite  role the  Cranston's  "B"  which of  of varying  Fiancailles",  shapes.  i n 1908,  compared case  to  made  analysis  do  these  for  of this  the  poem.  3  As b e f i t s  preoccupation  the  attributes  famous  of  cosmic  and t h e demonic  ability  and  parts,  Each  powers  identification.  which  will  i s  wizard's  referred into  using  stanzas  feature  be  4  divided  numbered  The  "B" a n d "C"  of the  "Vendemiaire".  part  individually  while  of  assumption  "Cortege"  "C".  are  the  supernatural  This  figuratively  i n  blank  arabic "A"  are  verse  in  length.  i s  i n fact  identifies himself  of three  and  quintils,  poem  the  i n "Zone",  f o r ease  octosyllabic  total  prone  and s i m u l t a n e i t y  i s composed  sections/stanzas  paper.  a  assumes  ubiquity  occurs  as  The  were  the  verges r e c o r d e d h i s s e x u a l  Apollinaire  namely  h i s forms  poem  sections  play  i n Mechtild  magician,  The  numerals  was  the poet's  Brasier",.  and. t h u s  also  1920s  of  (0.P.,108-1908)  identification,  to  but  kind  committal t o writing  and flames, poem  to the  Surrealists  L e s Onze m i l l e  "Le B r a s i e r "  medieval  however be a s c r i b e d  the  Apollinaire  of fire  BRASIER" In  of  cannot  t h i s poem i s a d e l i b e r a t e  way a s h i s e r o t i c  to  picture  virtually early  drafts  i t s name with  contemporaneous were w r i t t e n  "Le B r a s i e r "  fire  which  with  "Les  o n t h e same  reflects  sheet  Apollinaire's  i s characteristic  of the  149 poems  1908.  of  destruction entire the  but  stellar  whole  easily  He also  as  company  into  abandonment their poems  of  surrender  analysis  acquired In farewell animal  lines  were  of  The  i n  i n the past  like  world  with  past a  have  h a d much  Apollinaire's the  present Stanza  was  t o do  his  A2,  and  have  been  religion  of parents  who  line  experiments  and  and  from other  h i s abject  a  this.  mainly  as  new  t o apply well.  cosmic  of erotic  invested of Marie  stanza  i n simultaneity short  competence  i s a  the  urging,  anticipation  on t r e e b r a n c h e s ,  The  i n five  the  live  i s introduced,  i s a  to think  and t h e  that  5  element  there  structural  hypothesis  fulfilled  The p r e s e n c e  i s , i n a sense,  separated  describes  knowledge  inclined  with  Apollinaire's  cycle  an i n t e r e s t i n g  resurgence  powers.  reflect  and heads  lengthy  i s over,  and t h e future A3  A l  of the ability  stanza,  oracular  of the  flame.  tempered by t h e r u s t l i n g o f l e a v e s Apollinaire  t o be b o r n  o f the "Annie"  t o the present  virility,  which  of  o f t h e Godhead  i f that  fifth  represent  indication  to things  element  religion  o f c u t hands  vintage.  o f t h e dead  the next  agent  could  stanza  a feature  Frohlicher  a r e an  an  Apollinaire  f o r candidates  o f t h e poem h a s a d v a n c e d  heads  hands  which  as  the vital  manifestation  In fact  t o t h e power o f t h e  Peter  the  a  only  faith.  four  earlier  purifier,  as  o f t h e images  bodies  not  the Zoroastrian  w e r e members o f t h a t first  fire  of angels.  i t s requirement  The  a  universe,  accepted  revoked  regarded  an only  a phenomenon the  vegetable  Laurencin fine  i n combining  must  example  of  the past,  lines.  a recapitulation  or  reinforcement  150  o f A l a n d A 2 . The r h e t o r i c a l  questions  they  the  merely  yesteryear  have  recreated  loved  on  i n the past  while  may t h e w o r l d  assume once The  the than  next  brightly  since  within  be  Apollinaire's,  i s  i t i n a poem  part  recollection symbols  not only h i m . No  t o i t . The  flame  o f t h e women h e merely  t o bleed  like  with  does  longer  served  Seine  the role  of poetry role  the setting  hang  together  folk  giving  being  song: tree  part  and  o f Amphion  who  t h e t h e stones h i m t h e means  as an a r c h i t e c t  differs  from  i t surround i s t h e poet  o f words.  the first  by t h e t h e flame  has l i b e r a t e d  as  thee"  o f Thebes by charming  absorbed  o f t h e sunny  on t h e weeping w i l l o w  Assuming  o f t h e poem  sent t o  love. I t i s symbolic of  of the river  h i sGod-given  of  will  of the old Cornish  go w e l l  t h e power  i s now t o t a l l y  one,  images  again  soul  and Guillaume  (heart?)  Paris.  he sees  second  poet  o f Marie  thinks  the walls of the city h i s lyre,  of  used  lasting  One i s r e m i n d e d  of h i s beloved  built  even  The b e h e a d e d  h a n g my h a r p  Apollinaire  favourite  c a n be a l l o w e d  hearts  religion  furnace.  h i swar-time a  and  a n d o f t h e women w h o s e b o d i e s  the twin  And  parcel  d'Azur.  to h i slibido,  " I ' l l  to  a  a n d remembrance,  t h e lemon t r e e .  with  image,  love  t h e poet's  rekindled fiery  A4. A p o l l i n a i r e  on t h e Cote  relief  fickle  and that  de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n ,  boyhood  suns  tree  t o stanza  permanence  a  disappeared  lemon,  central  that  i n t h e newly  The  Louise  indicate  do n o t r e q u i r e an a n s w e r ,  i n that  i n more  senses  him but i t burns committing  him from  h i s past  outworn expe-  riences. In  B l t h e poet  compares  himself  to the the strong-willed  151 martyrs  who  suffered appalling tortures for their  particular,  Saint  after  undergoing  limbs  starting  been of  the  with  subject which  underplay  further  by  shining  on  shielded  the  role  i t by  work the  and  the  present  the  mail  routes  part  water,  he  his  mind  his  hands,  in  the  to  so  a  like  second  the  remind  a  of  Poet  hails  change the life glide  their  that  sees  i t as  the he  furnace.  a punning  same  a  means  time  as  his have  the  Marianist never  one  goes the  Sun  has  by  of  yet... key. of  invoking  by  each  fate  in  even light to  be  bantering  in this  the  of  world  undulating of  The  alchemy  has  his  life  the  other the  to  reduce  the  he  tempers  and  singing. been  at  returns  to  on  appointed  their yard.  The  is a  watery  cooling effect  tools after  of  of  feature i f  over-heated  c o l d water  necks  image  the  the  and  transitory  scrap  to  is  'Castor  incapable  reference  p l u n g e s ^them i n t o  a  progeny  him  renewal  by  of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f a v o u r i t e s , that with  to  that  the  much  accursed  is  ends  of  knowledge  things  stanza  reminder  there  meet  that  A.D.  his  poet,  hyperbole,  in  of b i r d s .  flames  who  of  away  seems  of  The  scheme  great  and  they  as  is  immortal  one  at  complex  be  steamers  until  a  the  and  impermanent  leit-motiv, this  Memory,  serpentine  five  poetic  wings  starts  degenerate  line  the  in  the  likely  At  in  hacking  teaching  One  century  Saints,  schooldays.  countenance  reputed  the  in his  of  swans  of  acquired  invocation  of  histories  fifth  Apollinaire  6  the  Apollinaire  The  progressive  beyond  his  his  a  i n the  far  asserting,  to  Persia died  extremities.  the  went  he  from  Pollux.  of  intercission,  fascinated with  fathers to  James  beliefs.  state  his  of of  trade,  heating  them  . 152 The image, This  third  driven  of  as  course  vessels Poet  stanza  or  has  was  The the  that  flames  third  part  rough  starry gibly  vault  the  of  across the  store  for  actors  on  the  unable  to by  same m a g i c a l erudition A  part  leaders  of  magical  image the  on  the  The  flock  t o men and  who an  during gifts.  the  a  finally  are  too  Apollinaire There the  Poet  likens  the  i t  events.  Zamir  (still  the  Temple  who  of  them;  of a  the  intan-  of  in  divine  not  only  the  latter  the  being life  i s  empyrean  i n the  evidence  of  the  Jerusalem. hidden  Centaur  - men  devoid  doubt  i t has  theatre of  in  of the  devious  tamed by  one  be  from  be,  more  concept  image  of  flaming  kind  i n the  stunning prophecy by  to  The  snake  have been  to  difficulty  descends  audience,  pyre  Beasts  the  Apollinaire  element  will  funeral  life.  that  wonders what  fellow-men  - and  motor-  scared  future  the  built  of  much  i s an  He  of  steamer boilers.  re-iteration and  comet.  of wise  1940s  introduction  the  also  mail  furnace.  introduces the  amazingly  in their  sees  purely erotic  a l l through  roles  Europe  as  his  course  of Apollinaire)  from  "A".  orders  way  and  the  he a  flames  who  this.  and  but  sacrifice  Sphinx  distinct  he  is  given  like  the  the  s t a n z a s . As  Marie  stage,  influence the  fiery  ambition  and  i n which  built  of the have  more,  renewal,  those  final  masquerade  There  from  heavens  him  roaring  of  confirms  his  once  days b e f o r e  must  draft  permeates  the  a process  himself  i n the  in,  propulsion.  undergone  purified  a r e by  i n the  atomic  disassociates  and  they  brings  will  wisdom  featured i n follow  humanity remarkable  will  their give  reversal  of the N a z i regime  undoubtedly  as  had  in  Merlin's  153 Finally  the  should  be  common  herd.  "Le  if  necessary  Brasier"  powers. the  It  most sucn  was  poem, 1909,  There  1906,  threw  away  Apollinaire  words  the  divided 23  a  lines!  by  the  the  Poet  flames  poetic  found  to  asks  rise  at the  and  why  i t  above  peak  devices  anywhere  and  the  of  his  some  provides  of  proof  s e n s i t i v i t y and  erudition.  important  of  was  and  19  to  18,  mainly  last  line  three  main  facets  poet  is  on  the  However 73  -  slightly  65,  there  66  i n nature;  sections,  is  the  years  Fiancailles"  less  important,  first  conceived;  verse the  a  for  the  first  in  is  i s i n the The of  second  which,  self using a l l i n the  his  paper never  Unanimist  date  Romains  key  first  of  strong  The  lumiere". the  piece  shown. 1909.  8  i s composed o f t h r e e •  73.  "celui-la"  searching  a  Apollinaire  of Jules  the -Apollinarian and  of  justifies  i n blank and  back  because  which  "l'unique  of  "Les  t o w h e n t h e - p o e m was  poem i n f r o n t  19  Brasier",  only  understandable  " t u " , "Guillaume", The  "Le  poems  "Onirocritique".  written  metaphysical  the into  as  page.  work w r i t t e n -  being,  "1909" and  r e c i t e d the  1  four  more poems,  is  lines  the  others  blank  illustrates  "moi",  of  be  of  Two  this  lines  of  to  i s one  draft  to  mystical  best  i s some d o u b t  dated  parts,  the  namely  original  This  as  example of A p o l l i n a i r e  images  "Vendemiaire".  flavour  devoured  needed of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  were produced  the  returns  (O.P.,74-1908)  This  and  theme  be  i s an  telling  and  to  contains  "CORTEGE"  1908  "doubt"  proper  largely last part  lines "je",  space  two is  19  -  "me",  of  four  identity  and  154 knowledge is  of  himself.  a procession  third,  lines  creatures In poet  of  48  the  is  the  sensory  —  of the  In  65,  part  final  that  must  from the  colourless world  joined  to  make  of  made u p  collages.  is  detail.  The  nests bird  can  level, point can  i s that  the  Inverse  is  different early  hence as  an  can  can  on  need  by  the  be  It  upside  down,  one  the  poem,  lines  the  self  66  -  73,  knowledge.  as  he  an  not has  each  away  they  have  immediately followed  part  16000  in  greater  refer  astronauts as  for a  towards  is a  calls  made, t h i s  clear  he  had  humming sea  important  earth  the  below  beautiful  confirmation. flight the  metaphysical  that  which  to  that  above  a i r . The the  often  bird  feet  a c l e a r day,  the  was  a mythical  i n the  only  He  turns  whose work  even  flight  Apollinaire  and  i f  explained  seeming  hallucinations  poem b u t  with  mate  heights, one  the  have a r i s e n because the  flight.  outlook; of  may  do  there  and  in this  with  have t o  upward  turned  draft  deal  47  9  painters  heights,  taken  a  of  to  great  brightly, Earth  for  Apollinaire  school  some b i r d s  flight  brightness,  that  this  lines  from great  quite  visualised  very  because  of  In  -  in  poem,  present.  23  perceptions  shining past  elements  a i r , a myth t h a t  f l y to  shine  the  appropriate five  the  quest  the  lines  dreams,  comprehensive  Cubist  first  and  pictures  the  now  i n the  to  of  a  whole.  techniques  It  look  of  his  many d i s p a r a t e  comprehensible  of  in  and  of  and  realises  been  parade  imagination.  rewarded  are  impressions  a  finally  There  section  poet's  third  he  second  for in  a  towards  ground  is  world,  one  a line  tentatively  totally in  an  titled  155 "Brumaire" before final  version;  revealing being  a  too  settling as  usual  much,  a  Richard  The  sky  an  made h i s  i t in  the  fear  of  him  of  abiding  f r i e n d s accuse  him  to  of  bright  s t a r s of third  very  important  tail  "ce  left  behind,  feu  past,  the  other,  first  part,  image oblong"  of  an  whose  causes  the  vision;  this  Like death.  "unique  Descendant Jardins  -  11,  self  the  in  connects  has  other  the  h i s past  des  of  a  built  planing in  brightness i n the  comet  to  i s composed  will  The  first  in the  which  form  of  the  brings  the  the  the  lines  trailing as  the  shield of  two  being  poet's  from  "Le  a  fiery  earth  elements, one  when t h e  works  one,  of  Brasier"  goes, oblong  art  rouant plus  ou  pense  h a u t que  tous  la  lumiere  les cieux  will  describe  lumiere": hauteurs  is  i t s eyes.  f u r t h e r back  come i n t o  sun,  two,  increases  bird  luminous  the  the  flying  mythical  brightness  sun. his  Apollinaire  struggles, chained,  brightness  that  after  and  6  The  earth  free  upward  future,  on  the  a development  the  live  lines  world.  persona  self  more  a  to  flies  becomes  becomes  created  bound  that  fire  that  in-sight,  night.  celestial  the  neologism  this  inner  stanza,  and  vision  a  other  the  different  self,  terrestrial  his  this  the  newly  one  the  see  called  realite.  1 0  this  The  allows  this  to  darkness,  This  of.  however,  above.  The  to  stanza  self  duality  misty  that  suppressing  had  d'une n o u v e l l e  inward  next  poet's  the  trait  oiseau  would have approved  in  and  Apollinaire  Stamelman has  that•looks  the  "Cortege"  mystifier: Nouvel  one  on  mobiles  156 L'avenir The  second  identity of  hearing,  dog  part  other smell,  brings  Cologne,  with  than  en t r a v e r s a n t  with  himself  occupies  t o mind  t h e poet  his ability  A catalogue  lines  the third  three  section  questioning  the five  line  identities  senses  of sight,  o f examples o f t h i s  of this  surrounding  passage part  h i s own  the  25 t o 4 7 ; t h e s m e l l  t h e h i s t o r y and myth  i n a whimsical  l e s cieux.  to perceive  through  t a s t e , and touch.  perception  In  starts  i n contrast  people  sensory  masque f l a m b e  i n this  of a  small  the city  of  section.  Apollinaire  re-introduces  himself:  In  Un  jour  Je  me  lines  sequence, held  50  he  was b u i l t The  the  concluding  re-affirms forward effort  he b e g i n s  that  into will  create  part  and  which thus  i n an  oniric  t o him, a  rose  i n i t , the people a l l the while  that  66 t o 7 3 , empty  contrasts  world  of  the  i n a l l i t s glory.  The  poet  will  carry  grant  him  h i s works  ofa r t  immortality.  The  the effect.  i s an e x e r c i s e  shows  that  A p o l l i n a i r e was  t h e most  brightness  and  shining  poem  from  lines  shapeless  o f the past  future  dwells  viennes.  factors.  o f t h e poem,  This  theme  important  realising  contributory  i t i s the past  the  the enumeration,  and t h i n g s  colourless, that  i l e s t temps que t u  o u t t o . The p o e t  up o f s u c h  with  moi-meme  t h e sea and a l l that  t o reach  lifeless,  present  Guillaume  t o 65  i n t h e hand,  wanted  to  disais  o f the personages  he  It  j e m'attendais  minor  i n metaphysics capable  occurence.  i s a brilliant  o n e . He  of  and  self-analysis.  developing  The c o n c e p t  of  a  poetic  flying.down  seemed t o be aware t h a t t h e  157 world  he  lived  distinguish  i n , was  between  an  t h e man  upside-down  and t h e poet  that  the past  "LES  F I A N C A I L L E S " ( P . 0 . , 128-1908) This  shares  has c o n t r i b u t e d t o both  work  i s ,  i t s origin  i n effect,  with  a  " L u i de F a l t e n i n "  i n that  of  the act of poetic  creativity.  1908  was  a  Laurencin  was  favorable  but  one s h o u l d  formal a  when  aspects  Apollinaire's  of  Marie's  mother  poems  and  rewards  with  l o v e r s were  Marie  concerned  poem a n y i n d i c a t i o n  was v e r y  much  and  resemblance  relationship  this  realising  nine  t h e pangs  as f a r as t h e two  to  of h i s personality.  collection  into  tries  a l l the while  i t describes  not t r yt o read  betrothal since  He  "Le B r a s i e r " , i t h a s a f a m i l y  to  year  one.  of a  against  such  move. The  "Blue"  work and  the  their  attitude  to Picasso were  to their  majority  detect  Les  of  work  h i s pre-war  change  Cubistes,  was  favoured  his  ideas  by  time.  "Le  poems;  Meditations  the author  w i t h much d i f f i c u l t y  Apollinaire;  "Cortege"  with  Apollinaire  was  as r e v e a l e d  with  f o l l o w e d by  the was  and  groundquick  to  t o a r t a n d commented o f essays  esth£tiques; t h e s e c o n d a r y himself  change  Apollinaire  i n his collection  who  of the  a striking  Brasier",  Picasso  d'Avighon".  on P i c a s s o  by  " L u i de F a l t e n i n "  i n h i s f r i e n d ' s approach  i ti n his article  Peintres  with  paintings  admired  at this  Fiancailles",  "Les Demoiselles  this  much  whose  and t h e p a i n t e r underwent  s e r i e s o f poems b e g i n n i n g  breaking  on  period  t h e poet  "Onirocritique", the  dedicated  "Rose"  however both in  was  trying  to  Les title  formulate  i n the following  lines  158 which  recalled  t h e problems  Hommes c r e e s jour pour que Leroy  they  experienced.  a 1'image de D i e u ,  admirer  leur  C.  Breunig  has drawn  between t h e two f r i e n d s [...]  dans  i l s se reposeront  ouvrage.  d ' i m p e r f e c t i o n , que de  1 1  Mais  que de  fatigues,  grossieretes!  attention  to the foregoing  i n observing that:  sa meilleure poesie  1'inquietude  terrible  dont  link  1 2  Apollinaire partageait  avec P i c a s s o e t l e s m e i l l e u r s c u b i s t e s 1 ' e s p r i t et  un  heroique  cette peinture est  impregnee. The fication when t h e y I  nine  poems h a v e b e e n n u m b e r e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e  with  Roman  numerals  a n d t h e comments  are relative  t o t h e poem  In the f i r s t  of the nine  a  fond  look  his  earlier  the  year  villages  have  been  poetry,  itself. poems t h e p o e t  the illusory  recalls  the blue  compared t o t h e b l u e Colchiques"  the  takes  found  suited  blue  of the distant  of Annie  o f t h e autumn c r o c u s harks  t h a t were  back t o "La Tzigane".  that the first  three  h i s mood p e r f e c t l y ,  I t i s not surprising  Apollinaire  images which Although  tend  stanzas  o f "Le  s o he c o p i e d them o u t  to find  h a d a somewhat l i m i t e d to re-occur  once  i n "Les  with minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o provide t h e s t a r t "Fiancailles".  of  love which c h a r a c t e r i s e d  eyelids  and t h e blue b i r d  Apollinaire  since  inset  a t t h e s y m b o l i s t themes and i n s p i r a t i o n s  i n t h e Rhineland>  Printemps"  i n identi-  of  him doing  this  stock of poetic  i n h i s poetry.  t h e mood c h a n g e s c o m p l e t e l y  i n t h e second  poem  159 one should guard a g a i n s t i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s as a s i g n o f t h e b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r t h a t a f f l i c t e d the poet between 1902 and 1905.  T h i s poem and t h e remaining seven poems form a  p r o g r e s s i o n which has c h a l l e n g e d t h e e x e g e t i c s k i l l s o f Scott Bates, Anne Hyde Greet and Leroy B r e u n i g . T h e i r work has been found t o be o f great a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o l l o w i n g analysis. II  1 3  Symbolizes  the death o f love, a s l e e p - l i k e t r a n c e and  an awakening t o f i n d t h a t women are no longer s a i n t l y . L i n e s 13 and 14 were c u l l e d , with minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s from a poem o f 1902, "Les V i l l e s sont p l e i n e s " , i n which A p o l l i n a i r e described l i f e  i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s he  v i s i t e d i n Germany and the e f f e c t they had on him. The statement first  that h i s f r i e n d s are d i s d a i n f u l i n t h e  l i n e o f t h i s poem reminds one o f Max Jacob's  frequent comment change h i s s t y l e :  regarding A p o l l i n a i r e ' s e f f o r t s to "Encore t r o p s y m b o l i s t e ! "  The u n d e r l y i n g themes are a d e s i r e t o sweep away the dusty r e l i c s o f symbolism and t h e remembrance o f t h e p e r s o n a l anguish he had experienced a f t e r the break-up with Ill  Annie.  14  The poet i s s t r u c k dumb (one i s reminded o f t h e t o t a l l y unproductive year o f 190 6)  and t h e poet f a c e s t h e end o f  the world. IV  The mood changes t o reminiscence and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the Present i n the shape o f the p r e t t y and w i t t y mulatto g i r l who of course i s Marie L a u r e n c i n .  160 V  The  spark  s u c h an  i s fanned  extent  into a  that  the  can  assert  quite  Je  medite  divinement  Et  je  Mais Se  souris  flame  poet  etres  que  s i l e temps v e n a i t  m u l t i p l i a i t . en  powers  and  that:  je n'ai  ou  i n s p i r a t i o n to  assumes G o d - l i k e  confidently  des  of p o e t i c  pas  crees  1'ombre e n f i n  solide  realisant l a diversite formelle  de  mon  amour J'admirerais The  poet  clean  Laurencin,  VI  The he  ne  as  he  r e s t s , asks can  Breunig.  be  his  taste  i n the  of  the  created  by  monstrous  images not  is a  with  joyous  old  one  slate  love,  of  Marie  ode  the  senses  was  and  to  referred to  make t h e  desire  his mistress  of  this of  part, the  i s now  about t o  l e a s t of taste  of  which  Leroy  noted an  of  by oblique demons-  puns.  o l d worn filled  i s the  of  h i s new  out  with one  laurel.  in celebration  C.  connection  thereby  the  as  et by  by  use  be  and,  love's  poetic  for laurel  abandonment o f  the  o f poem V  "1'esprit heroique  line  his  uniquement.  bodily  that  symbolism  identified  but  excitement  h i s mastery  of  This  the  and  last  trappings  has  wiped the  has  j'aime  surname o f  once again  void  now  five  terrible"  reference  The  r i e n et  related to  and  has  sings:  how  Petrarch,  he  he  Apollinaire tried  between the  trating  that  i s overcome by  1'inquietude  VII  and  sais plus  poet  ardour  ouvrage.  acknowledges that  symbolism  Je  mon  found  new he  161 love,  t h e poet  wants t o share h i s happiness w i t h  happens t o pass by. There this  part,  Lines in VIII  a catalogue  "Le  i n slightly  reference  de F a l t e n i n "  with  h i m a s he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f as t h e i r  The  last  and  preserve  t h e poet  ships  two l i n e s  Apollinaire  were b o r r o w e d  the spring-like was a f i r m  The l a s t poem i s v e r y difficulty this  that  time.  abstract  quintain.  from  "Le  Printemps"  theme o f t h a t  poem. born  i n t h e t h i r d m o n t h o f Summer.  obscure  and r e f l e c t s  experienced fire  t h e extreme  i n writing  fortheir  partly  favoured  poetry  particularly  at the stake  the Knights  by A p o l l i n a i r e ,  i n an Templar  religious f o r one),  he  and f o r e t e l l s h i s  a t 40. towards  of the Middle  extinction Ages t i l t i n g  Perhaps t h e poet  i s steeped  last  happy  over t h e horizon.  with  urges would only The  t h e now  as a m a r t y r p u r i f i e d by f i r e  onward rush  knight  of  now a l l i s w e l l  He c o m p a r e s h i m s e l f  (Gnosticism,  own d e a t h  with  He w a s o b s e s s e d w i t h  sense.  sees h i m s e l f  which  form  mariners  believer i n astrology being  Apollinaire  who w e r e b u r n e d beliefs  stresses that  disappear  under t h e s i g n o f Virgo  a  different  to the unfortunate  "Lui  His  happening a t once.  Printemps".  I n an i n d i r e c t  at  of simultaneity to  of everything  4 and 5 a r e t o be found  sailors  IX  i s a ring  whoever  quatrain  with  realised  sexual  with  to that of  h i s lance  i n this  connotation  lead him into celebrates  i s similar  at the  passage  that  h i s sexual  misery.  t h e demise  of uncertainty,  162 henceforth him  and  forth To  sum  weapon  the  immediate  that  the  in  to the As  the brave  Apollinaire,  in his poetic  way  present. a h e a d may  driving  regards  Apollinaire  will  recognize their  like  up,  new  the poet  that  poem  in  changes  i n the  drafts,  Leroy  [...]  o n c e we  accept  old.  even  provide the and  writing from C.  author  the  the  other  evidenced  poems  and  the  to  say:  this  as  i t i s perhaps  w i t h him  entire  AU  poetic  the  night before  and  put  wedding;  he  read  in-law's  home.  blank  verse, a  from  a  rough  the  date the  July  13  wedding  190 9- a n d  i t during the  wedding  feast  Apollinaire  probably  to the  still  in  this  Apollinaire to  draft,  of  battle was  one in  (P.0.,83-1909)  touches  dear  1 6  life.  finishing  form  repeated  d e f i n i t e l y t h e most d e c i s i v e  M A R I A G E D'ANDRE SALMON"  poem b e a r s the  and  the  without  we  of r e l i v i n g  by  a means  which  intense,  gives  difficulties  f o r the  t h e most  for  realises  i f he  manifold  Fiancailles'  have the p r i v i l e g e  joy  man,  death,  i t , as  a t work,  him  a  inspiration.  B r e u n i g had  'Les  goes  i n forging  brought  Apollinaire,  i n misery,  he  on  1 5  succeeded  has  acting  e x i s t e n c e as  i n a l l the poetry of A p o l l i n a i r e ,  his  poem  the  which  forces  equal  of  the  has  borrowings  approaching  because  the poet,  itself,  series  The  of  result  complex  "POEME L U  Templars  However  experienced of  simultaneous  armoury  forces the  embrace a l l t h e  read  i t on  the  at  i s acceptable worked  the  way  Andre's  poem,  to  "Belle  existence,  shows  at the  mother-  written  symbolists of the which  away  in  Epoque", that  the  163 second part  of this  Andre time,  Salmon  both  loved  Montmartre and  artists,  had a one  Dalize  of Paris  f o rthe Left  had  Marie  National  He  on  a  o f Maud  poem  only  festive  poets  who  celebrants  who  decorated  by  first  dancing  t h e g r o u p went Dalize  on  Elephant;  a  the world  recalling  the  taking  because  a  apt!  poodle's  1 8  the  t o prove  art,  not the  Bastille,  honour,  a  wry  friend  statement  Andre  was  that  nor  nor those  d i d n o t k n o w how t o b e n e f i t  with  the poet's  with  intended  with  wedding  fair-ground  their  of  Rene  on a  how v e r y  with  The  the  i n the streets.  lion  a series of negations  ends  English  married  honour.  f o rrides  can renew  part  Marie-  A p o l l i n a i r e and  time  because they  an  getting  had a great  imitate the principle of liberty  who w e r e s a c r i f i c e d The  Holiday  of  starts with  a Mile  advantage o f t h e f e s t i v i t y  maid  a n d A p o l l i n a i r e on a t i n y  and t h e prospect  Robbe,  was  giraffe,  Bank.  h a d met  the witnesses,  Laurencin  relates that Marie  The  life.  t h e home  i n the  of the c o t e r i e of poets  j o b a t L' I n t r a n s i g e n t ,  among  some t e n i n a l l ,  carousel,  those  the north  at  f o r some  and cafes-chantant  at the Paris-Journal.  and  while  Andre  that  the bars  many  steady  1 7  of Apollinaire's  he, l i k e  the French  before,  face  friend  i n P a r i s . They d e c i d e d t o t a k e  surrounding  group,  a  difficulty.  before  Blazy-Escarpette  dancer,  day  been  frequenting  left  a better  Jeanne  had  district,  Andre of  w o r k g a v e h i m much  Paris  getting  from was  married  that day. It cafe  i s generally  "Le D e p a r t "  penniless  poets  that who  agreed was  that  i t was  wretched,  frequented  not the cellar  the epithet  the place  applied  t o hear  each  of the to the other's  164 works. which for  Apollinaire he  was  i n t r o d u c e s on  the  two  friends  shroud.  The  sudden  tension  and  them  fond  and  explanation  their  patron  God  of poets  techniques  and  skills.  Andre  their  negations  part  part  with  the  of  d i e each  in  this  of  Durry  the  time  they  a  broke  the  crying  into  has  regard  now  second  shared  concludes  notable  be  a  plausible glance  disappear  search  part  the  with  the  for  relate  same  and  novel  the  many  thoughts  and  child-like  made .known b e c a u s e  and  rights  the  and  between  the  Guillaume's  latter  in stature that  they  that,  most  to  the  poets,  friend  to  words  such can  like  stars  Andre  off  with  that  they  introducing  are  the  admission  "my  friend  an  and  Salmon  make  Light, the  be  take  an  is  the  and  that  planets  married.  to  the  the  and Timothy  two  eyes  are  laugh poetry,  universe.  because Love,  filled  form  the  and  born  break  of  affirmation.  unashamedly  to rejoice  the  series  extent that their  weep  that  a  statements  importantly, they,  invocation  has,  distant  difference  conjunction  the  poem e n d s w i t h an fire  again • starts  essential  of  stars,•  uproariously  once  with  of  of  instead  with  9  stanzas  last  full  The  except  covered  wine-glasses  laugh  object  must  s e c r e t s must  have grown  the  1  the  Guillaume  The  poets  have  cleared  coffin  l o t . Marie-Jeanne  making  and  because" most  a  wine-glasses  married."  The  The  of  remaining  experiences.  "not  broken  long table,  the  to  of  f o r " l e d e r n i e r r e g a r d d'Orphee", t h e backward  effect  getting  of  friends  the  that  of the  shattering  the  times  image  glasses, resembling  has  The  the  account  forced the  bemoaning  of  the  solid insists Mathews  God space that has  165 drawn that  a t t e n t i o n t o the combination  o f a s s e r t i o n and s e n s a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s e s so much o f ' A l c o o l s ' and i s present  lines:  i n the  2 0  L'amour q u i emplit a i n s i que l a lumiere Tout One lines  l e s o l i d e espace e n t r e l e s e t o i l e s e t l e s p l a n e t e s  cannot  of  help  blank  Shakespearian  being  verse  struck  in  this  with  the m u s i c a l i t y o f the  poem,  they  have  an  almost  quality.  "1909" (P.O.,138-1909) The  identity  Apollinaire comprising  of  devoted this  was probably  the  laughing  twenty-two  poem i n blank  lady  of  verse  the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  of  the  will  lines  remain a mystery. She  o f the year  t o the f a s h i o n s  o f the " D i r e c t o i r e "  noted,  a welcome  from  deformed women's bodies, u n t i l  t o whom  twenty-nine  return  change  fashion  the t i g h t l y  1909, i n which a period  corseted  was  first  styles  that  then.  L i n e s 7 t o 11 were borrowed from a t h r e e q u i n t i l poem about low  life  the  dress  i n Paris t i t l e d i s related  " L ' A n g u i l l e " while  to a similar  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f  one i n "0 France,  France  p a t r i e " w r i t t e n by A p o l l i n a i r e under the guise o f Louise The  last  Apollinaire  seven  was  working c l a s s  lines  at a  recollect  loose  prostitutes.  the years  end and probably  He came t o r e a l i s e  machinery and t h e new i n v e n t i o n s t o everyday he  gave v o i c e  to, i n this  and l a t e r  ma  Lalanne.  1905 t o 1906 when meeting  up  with  t h e importance o f  life,  poems. There  something t h a t i s perhaps a  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e economic t r u i s m t h a t luxury goods are o f t e n the  166 product  of  people  "VENDEMIAIRE"  working under  (0 . P . , 14 9-190  "Vendemiaire" entitled Jules in  was  "L'Annee  Romains.  the  intended  ubiquity.  of  composition  probable  year  possible  alternatives.  since  Apollinaire  before  1908  .  Three second  not  were  "Brumaire", became  Republican  be  part  written  Romains, Marcel as  on  any  for  epic  the  a  poem  instance  short  this  1909  an  at  of  time  group  Decaudin  Unanimist paid  of  only  advocated  established  after  consideration  connection  attention  the of  confirms  to  the  this  Unanimists  2 1  sections  was  untitled,  had  The  a  interested  by  and  as  to  A p o l l i n a i r e was led  conditions.  9)  republicaine"  Unanimists  simultaneity  squalid  written later  "Zone".  calendar  and  for  inclusion  renamed  in  "Cortege",  the  epic,  and  Vendemiaire  was  the  first  corresponds  to  September,  the  month the  the  third, of  the  vintage  month. Apollinaire 30th July a  1915,  confession  traumatic Lisa  and  about  about h i s  of  It was  a  is  letter  written  that  "Vendemiaire", line  a  "Zone". small  twentieth  in  love  connection  a l l  also  his  former  preferences of  he  to  just p r i o r to  his  experience  indicated  a  in  his  with  Laurencin,  the  theft  w o r k s he  'Alcools' "Le  Pages  engagement t o  Marie  among t h e  the  liked  f r i e n d Madeleine  Voyageur"  and  made  about of  had  poems,  her,  dated  the  the Mona  written.  He  he  preferred  hardly  remembered  2 2  wonder century  that  Guillaume  Rabelais  and  no  liked  "Vendemiaire";  stranger  to  he  drunkenness.  167 P a t r i c k Truhn i n h i s essay on the poem d e s c r i b e s him v i v i d l y :  2 3  ...: n o c t u r n a l f l a n e u r , p r i v i l e g e d r e c o r d e r o f an i l l u s t r i o u s past and a tumultuous p r e s e n t , prophet o f an apocalyptic The same  poem,  length  general  the end-piece  as "Zone",  theme  redolent  future.  i s one  of despair.  of 'Alcools'  the opening o f hope,  i s approximately the  work o f the anthology, the  as opposed  In common  with  t o "Zone"  the poems  which i s  of t h i s  period  (1908-1909) such as "Les F i a n c a i l l e s ,  "Cortege" and "Le B r a s i e r " ,  "Vendemiaire"  form  i s noteworthy  i n that  takes  second  place to  content; i n f a c t the use of A l e x a n d r i n e s i n the poem i s dependent on whether the poet chose t o c r e a t e s p e c i a l e f f e c t s . the  poem i s however i n blank v e r s e . The poem i s d i v i s i b l e  are  responses  of  into  various  these  are B r i t a n n y  North  of France  (59-65), S i c i l y Lines  the  dangerous  the  subject  reason  (39-49),  to  the  poet's  Lyons  the i n d u s t r i a l  (50-58),  cities  the towns  in  alexandrines  of  o f the Provence  113-135. serve  as  an  l i n e s 77-93, a l s o i n a l e x a n d r i n e s , were i n s p i r e d by Straits matter  sections  o f Messina  rather  that  divide  Sicily  from  has n o t h i n g at a l l - t o do with wine of t h i s  interlude  o f the poem l i n e s  s o r t s o f items that  on the poet  regions  he shares with h i s b e l o v e d P a r i s ;  23-38),  written  f o r the i n s e r t i o n  remaining  and  seven o f which  (66-76), Rome (94-112) and Koblenz  1-21,  introduction,  (lines  several sections,  cities  i n v i t a t i o n t o s l a k e the t h i r s t  all  The bulk o f  than  Italy, and the  i s u n c l e a r . Of the  136-166 are a catalogue o f  i n t e r e s t e d A p o l l i n a i r e and were showered on P a r i s  as was the case  i n the seven  168 sections the at  referred to  poet-flaneur  stanzas  and  place  composition  his that  night  first  permeate was  Laurencin.  and  of  There  invitation  Apollinaire after  his  Paris  and  had death,  Brittany, for  wine  legend.  by  the  two  of  puns  in  with  the  second  his  raisin;  rugged  beauty  i f the to  and  go  of out  own  that  37.  and  he  and  to he  Paris,  is  a  date  in  number  republican section:  be  he  grapes,  forms the  poet,  forgotten  personalises thirst.  hardly  Apollinaire  raison  by  in  the  i t s ancient  et  living  to  immense  provided  of  noted  region  and  "Merlin  another  wine  Apollinaire  might  and  instead  no  and  The  remember  i n c l u s i o n of  has  time  near  specific,  throat  Double  of  be  in this  they  contains  detail  wanted  more  that  more  1-21)  thirst  reduced  asked fear  paragraphs  A p o l l i n a i r e was  heart  Brittany,  the  country  offer  at  section,  from  stories  35  as  more  i t offers  justifies  line  lights  three.  because  is  morbid  the  last  being  second,  so  return  two  greater  imperatives  her  old  time  "L'Enchanteur pourrissant"  double a  the  reader  hailed  Apollinaire the  1909  the  production, Merlin  affected for  in  the  the  (lines  introduce  September  almost  provides  section  the  were  are  in  and  advent  the an  first  revolutionary  the  as  preceding  in  kingdoms  assassinations  the  poem  at A  Seine  progressively  the  suburb  the  in  three  probably  European  first  of  167-174 r e f l e c t  out.  provide  the  government.  banks  a n a l y s i s . The  Auteuil  Marie  Lines  outlined  which  in  that  the  long  further  six  themes  the  sections  deserve  in  to  dawn a f t e r a The  earlier.  the  noted  myth  and  was  so  inspiration  la vieille  femme".  Brittany  by  means  of  sounds  the  same  as  i t has  region  tradition  that  produces  and no  169 wine  to  line  speak  industrial  Paris  wealth  of  "holy"  makes  impregnating  the  -  all  the  that It  poet's  time  over  of  statement  Marquis  to  the  city  martyrdom now  of  boyhood offering  turn  the  contrary  in  the at the  Saint  linked  the  Eucharist.  the  religious  the  succession  Pothin  at  the  to  of  the  of  that  mes  have t o  city  of  of  heresies  levres  the  of  was  and  the  that  first  and  had  P a r i s avec  the of  to  but  by  the  is  such a d i v i s i v e  l a Sa6ne  Henri,  executed  in  and  Trajan's Lyons  rivers  and  is the  Apollinaire's the  idea  of  celebration  of  s t i l l  remains  take-  Carnot  bishop  section  les divines  l e RhQne e t  gifts.  Thou  Sadi  Rhone  this  thus  youth,  per-  her  Fourvieres.  agnostic,  his  which  rather  of  de  prompted  In  and  but  massacred,  of  Sa6ne  city.  sorrow,  President  basilica the  bring  Jacques  city's  Hera  - Paris  drink,  to  and  later  associate  and their  instead,  ego  a  offer.  Lyons  rebellion  sacrifice  experiences of  alter  window  Apollinaire,  Desaltere-toi Que  his  of  reminiscence is  his  the  confluence  child  poet  assassination  site  the  offered  a  but  machinery  impregnated  necessarily  north  smoke f r o m  are  past  the  viniculture  the  Ixion  and  to  rattling  above w i t h  Protestants-,  and  the  of  of  to  products  h i s t o r y of  by  of  the  their  that  i s , not  and  Cinq-Mars  Richelieu,  situated  what t h e  after  the  way  immediately  devoted  from  clouds  Their  i t i s the  de  the  area  land  goods,  Centaurs.  present  the  little  same  thirst  the  of  the  i s now  This  image  in  i t clear that  sonified  Forum  have  manufactured  chimneys  fathered  the  the  cities  similarly  factories  by  despite  20. The  of  of  affected  by  fascinated  by  effect.  paroles murmurent  170 Toujours Divise  l e meme c u l t e  i c iles saints  Heureuse p l u i e Philippe 8  lines poet's the  own  Renaud 58,  and  when p l a c e d  weight ever the In  of  Host the  hence  the  her  gift  linked  relates  i n the  event  since  the  Sicily,  a  being  how,  as  a  college chapel. boy  felt  "ivres  they  also  are  region up  many  64  drunk  words  as  the  with  in the  delivered  seed  of  strains  has  had  into into  the  respects  may  to  little  schoolboy,  Line  oiseaux"  to  poetry  2 4  dipped  in  of  autonomous,  broken  sang  douleur.  heavenly  Poet.  the  was  before  "Zone",  night  of  considered  that  Dukedom  i s broken  tiedes 6  completely  tribute  pleuvoir le  instance  hands of the  poem  be  once  fait  renaissant  repetition  first  i n the  Apollinaire  in.  the  the  may  the  since  et  birds  Provence,  sa mort  6 gouttes  notes  in  glory  drunken  de  he  well  orphaned  without  a  with  troubled  under  pay  to  pieces  Paris  just  sacrificial to  as  wine.  "Vendemiaire",  used be  the  to  an  pray  echo  father  a l l  of  to  this  confide  2 5  experienced troubled hissed and  waters  like  woeful  of  the  in  indeed  picture even  of  have  even a  recently  the  crows  of  Messina  The  island  i t s wine  special formed, to  and  1908,  December  Straits  misfortunes,  does  cause  earthquake  a  a many-headed snake.  present  Marsala  that  an  'country  hence must  escape . to  have  always  heaved  of blood  sunnier  earth,  paints  threatening  the  and  i t s past  and  Apollinaire  hungry,  past,  the  groans under  reeks  taste!  bloody  a  clouds  shores  of  Africa. The  interlude  inspired  by  the  narrow  straits,  between  the  171 Scylla  and Charybdis  could  w e l l have been  disturbing The lifted like  doom  and  temporarily man,  turbulence,  for  lost  their  the  quasi  further  poet's  natural  of  lines  Rome  gods as  revels  lead  men  t h e way  to their  i stypically  verse  most  where  of  place  Paris.  the metropolis  across  doom,  sets  a welcome  fact  i tquite as  that that  apart  well  reached and i t  break  from  seemed the  and  as  the  appear t o  Apollinarian  names  The  effectively  to  entire  achieves  providing  a  o f Rome.  t o Rome m u s t  P a r i s i s lauded  the only  t o a l l o w a god-  a s t h e many v i c t i m s  noble  of the arts,  be r e a d  as b e i n g  city,  i n c l u d i n g t h e god o f poetry,  invocation  b e e n made  i n respect  allow  favour  from  t o t h e response  but also  to  have  i n the context  not only  the only  place  and a worthy and a  site  t h e most f i t  successor  for to  f o r Dionysian  and mysteries.  The  must  recital  appears  sufficiently  luring  c r o s s i n g o f Orpheus  beautiful the  objective  123-125  Sicily  the interlude provides  and f u r t h e r  bridge  The  to  covered  Orpheus,  i s i n Alexandrine  without  that  of attraction  geographical  a n d 93  imagery.  birds,  that  92  o f t h e poem a n d i t s d i o n y s i a n  s u n . The i m a g e r y  be a d m i t t e d  the  probably  whirlpools therein,  for lines  the straits,  powers  must  passage  gloom over  and t h e powerful out except  flow  the siren  the setting  drift  left  t h e onward  young  have  reefs  outdated  of love  material  i s the only  of a city thoughts  other  than  instance Paris.  and forms o f poetry  and t h e i l l i m i t a b l e  of poetry.  up t h e theme  "0 Rome"  The s t a n z a  heavens which  comprising  o f t h e E u c h a r i s t b u t t h e image  lines  where  i t has  The a n c i e n t  city  t o be spurned i n will 98  b e t h e new  t o 103  picks  o f C h r i s t ' s death  and  rebirth of  i s linked  plants  through  t o a p e r s o n a l i z e d Rome who  through  t h e agency  mission  to create  devoted  to a description  once t h e c a p i t a l return all  t h e phenomenon o f t h e d e a t h  of a  immortal  poetry.  Most  t o t h e poet  o f the next  of the deteriorating  the city's  the animals,  the sacramental  personalized Paris  of the world.  to drink  gives  The g h o s t s  year  and t h e lambs,  wine  with  a  stanza i s  democracy  of cruel  two thousand  t h e wolves  and r e b i r t h  that  emperors  o l d wine  and  the eagles  was will kill  and t h e  doves. The  name  Koblenz  "confluentes",  and t h e c i t y  meet,  t h e Rhine  wines  produced  about  wine,  wines  are  their A  a n d he  the  blood  the  fine  of  bath wine  Napoleonic troubled  growing  areas  and b a t t l e ;  wars.  The  of twice seems  yearly an  f o r the was  that  straight  War  with  the best  the French of  German ripening  exported.  human  blood  was  Koblenz seized  presages  fought  the city  those  the  i n many o f  t o o had i t s share  events  during the would  have  i n the city.  known t o t h e F r e n c h  a u c t i o n s o f t h e wine afterthought;  French  o u t o f R e v e l a t i o n 14:20  I which  of France.  rivers  knowledgeable  the correct  are largely  word  excellent  f u s s y about  remembrance  an a n c i e n t c i t y ,  two g r e a t  counterparts.  flowing  was W o r l d  famous  Latin  German  t h e s l e e p o f t h e maidens  Trier  mention  that  where  i n stating  which  taken  the wine-press  occupation  site  f o r t h e wines  the  Apollinaire  their  are particularly  prophetic vision  both  valleys.  to  from  i s situated  i s correct  superior  grapes  describing  derived  and t h e M o s e l l e , i n their  viticulturists of  i s  however  as Treves,  from this  i s the  the Moselle. I t s short  passage  173 provides  a bridge  unanimist the  terms.  notes  follows:  t o twenty-one Anne  Hyde  accompanying  consists  death  iron  by f a i t h  and f i r e forms,  'Alcools'  rages  i n  i s  as  t h e wine  "Vendemiaire" multiple  verses  religion  h a s s o many  o f Holy  through  that  i n  Lines  In addition  161-174  thus  a travelogue and economic  f o r t h e poem,  i t displays  i s an u n d y i n g  things available  we c a n f i n d  he  masterpieces.  geographic  there  drunk  so t h a t  and t h e v a r i o u s h e r e s i e s  t h e ages,  has  but h i s t h i r s t  aspects: i ti s partly  Writ  he  he h a s  to continue  o f prophecy.  o f a l l t h e good  while.  t o passages  a poet,  e n d t o one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  and evidence  a s do t h e  t o express h i s  o f t h e wine  reserves the right  and h i s g i f t  knowledge  i ni t s  (11.152 a n d  announces  references to the history,  worth  of love  nature  [...].  o f t h e p l a c e s he h a s s e l e c t e d  profound  over  and 1 5 4 ) ; [...].  recognizes the flavour  a fitting  conquest  (11.146-150)  t h e world has t o o f f e r  on a n d he  of the  o f man's conquest  proclaimed i n a b i l i t y  forceful  a l l that  use h i s magic  life  flavours  (1.142),  (11.155 a n d 156) i s c o m p a r a b l e  i n  a l l i n . He  make  passage  Human t h o u g h t ,  (11.151  experienced  affected  ofhis  (11.144-145).  and o f p o e t r y  poet  features  (1.143),  153)  The  Paris,  of  (1.142),  (11.151-152),  "Fiancailles"  a  o f wine i n  of this  things  human games o f w a r  vision  with  of a l l living  over  Apollinaire's  provide  translation  1.146) a n d t h e f u t u r e  various  can  her  analysis  past  by  still  Greet's  of description  2 6  [Wine]  it  lines  i n it,  that  love of  there  that  evidence of  174 Apollinaire's he  will,  one  amazing day,  gift  create  of prophecy  poetry.that  and  will  be  an  abiding immortal.  faith  that  175  NOTES: CHAPTER 8  1  Marcel Adema and  Poetigues 1051  & 2  :.Bibliotheque  de  A p o l l i n a i r e Oeuvres  l a Pleiade,  Gallimard,  1956)  1117. Stuart  Publishers 3  (Paris  M i c h e l Decaudin eds.,  Bates, Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  Inc,  Mechtild  York: Twayne'  27.  Cranston, " S o r t i r d'Orkenise, r e l e c t i o n s s u r  'Onirocritique', Apollinaire,  1967)  (New  x  Le  Brasier'  et  8., La Revue des  *Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' , " Gui11aume  l e t t r e s modernes .166-169  (1967): 53-73. 4  R i c h a r d Henry Stamelman, The  Apol1inaire's 1976)  x  Alcools'  drama of s e l f i n Guillaume  (Chapel H i l l :  Univ of North C a r o l i n a  P.,  79. 5  Peter F r o h l i c h e r ,  x  Le  Brasier'  d'Apol1inaire  semiotique, A r c h i v e s Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e n° 7 modernes, 1983) 6  7  (Paris:  15.  Dictionnaire  Le B r a s i e r  lecture  de  Tr^voux qtd.  d'Apol1inaire  i n Peter  51.  Marie-Jeanne Durry, 3,  162-168.  Frohlicher,  Lettres  176 Marie-Jeanne  8  (Paris:  Durry,  S.E.D.E.S., 1964) R.H.  9  Stamelman,  1 0  R.H.  1 1  Guillaume  Hermann,  1965.)  Apollinaire.  42.  C. B r e u n i g , A p o l l i n a i r e  (1962) : .21.  trans.,  Alcools  C. B r e u n i g ,  Apollinaire  266-278.  "Apollinaire's  Literature,  Guillaume  Nedlands 3  'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' , " (1965)  : 1-32.  Susan Harro'w, " ' L e s F i a n c a i l l e s ' c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n  amour," 805-811  Guillaume (1987):  Apollinaire.  Leroy  Breunig,  1 5  Leroy  C. B r e u n i g ,  1 5  M i c h e l Decaudin,  Apol 1 i n a i r e ,  8. La Revue des l e t t r e s modernes  A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s '  "Complements  sans  G a l l i m a r d , 1956)  Marie-Jeanne  2 0  T i m o t h y Mathews,  M a n c h e s t e r P,  a un' d o s s i e r , "  1, T,a Revue des l e t t r e s modernes  1 9  1987)  Durry,  3,  69-70  29.  Gui 1 laume (1962):  f i n , deuxieme epoque  57-8.  (1908-  140-141. 184.  Reading  Apollinaire  (Manchester:  129.  M i c h e l Decaudin,  28.  A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s '  A n d r e Salmon, S o u v e n i r s (Paris:  d'un  125.  1 5  2 1  69-70  87-94.  o f C a l i f o r n i a P.)  i n French  1 4  1920)  (Paris:  e t Le C u b i s m e . " C-ui 11 aume  1. La Revue des l e t t r e s modernes  (Berkeley: Univ.  Essays  Te^ P e i n t r e s  66.  Anne Hyde G r e e t ,  Leroy  213.  Apollinaire,  Scott Bates.  1 3  2  40 - 53.  Stamelman,  Leroy  1 2  1 8  R i i i l l a n m f l Apol 1 i n a i T-P 'Alr.nnl.s'  Le D o s s i e r d' ' A l r n o l s '  U of  177  2 2  G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , T e n d r e r.omme l e s o u v e n i r  Gallimard, 2 3  1952) 7 0 .  J.Patrick  revelation  (Paris  Truhn,  "The wave o f w i n e :  i nApollinaire's  'Vendemiaire',"  revolution and Romanic Review,  (1981): 40. 2 4  L'Age  Philippe d'Homme,  2 5  Philippe  2 6  Anne  Renaud,  Lecture  1969) 138.  Hyde  Renaud, 138. Greet, 285.  d'Apollinaire  (Lausanne :  72  :  178  CHAPTER  THE Y E A R S OF H A P P I N E S S  " L E VOYAGEUR" Le it  is  passages  of  a  being that  his  past be  the of  have  precursor  i t has very  t h e poet  experiences  found  like  usually this  the  and i n l i n e  when t h e o w n e r  48 a s k s  educated  commentary. with  o f t h e theme  poems b u t guesses  I t has t h e  the  important  o f modernity  that  poem. i s a traveller  or spatial  the very leafs  a dreamland  personal  than  of  those  a n d t h e o t h e r m a j o r poems o f he d e s c r i b e s a r e d e v o i d  arrangement,  random  photographic  o f an album  through  are f a r less  helter-skelter  i n family  only  "Zone"  p e r i o d . The v a r i o u s s c e n e s  found  relatives.  of  "Le B r a s i e r "  sequential temporal  just  provoked  little  but these  i n "Zone",  1907-1912  I I , 1910-1912  most b e a u t i f u l  of Apollinarian  a feature of the latter Apollinaire  to  that  i n the field  difference  PART  (0.P.,78-1910)  experts  marks  STRESS,  V o y a g e u r i s one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  contains  from  AND  9  i n fact  assortment  of  albums; A p o l l i n a i r e  they  pictures realises  q u e s t i o n t h a t i s so o f t e n through  i t with  are  asked  h i s friends  or  Qui However the  some  journeys  crossings  Apollinaire he  done r e c o n n a i s - t u . . .  was  compared  Laurencin beauty  of  the  identified.  English  struck  to  was  c a n be  Channel  The to  by t h e l o n e l i n e s s  his situation threatened;  now  ever  first  meet  o f which  Annie  of a ship  that  he  would  opposite  Honnef  on t h e R h i n e  to Paris  i n August  leisurely  one a n d l e f t  quite  i m p r e s s i o n on  was  a  who  must  painful  have  would  other  during  the years were  impressions graphic  was  flower-like  stations The  and t r i p s third  more s i g h t s Rhine  of night that  We  was  a  Apollinaire from h i s  stop  on t h e  s o was L u x e m b u r g cities  to. Holland-  Apollinaire's reflected  where  .of t h e N o r t h o f  approached  expanding  trip  Paris  and  and  Belgium  and environmental ability i n  to  his  store  subsequent  and day o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e s m e l t e r s  appear  i n lines  19  i n "Vendemiaire",  can hear  the train  journey described s a w a n d now  Bacharach  was  Remagen  1 9 0 2 . The  distraction  (Trier)  visits  are  warning b e l l s  t h e poet  from  the  account. use  journey from  as t h e t r a i n  Industry  t h e passage area.  Treves  some  The I n d u s t r i a l  as  future  furnaces  industrial  The  for  no  descriptions  blast  example  such  of  find  noticed  when  an  i n "Vendemiaire";  a drink.  have been  the railway  to  Annie.  a mention  journeys  concerns  trying  about  d e c i d e d t o have  France  have been  been  thoughts  way a n d e a r n e d  and  Marie  i n the curving wavelets. second  on  with  saw  The  he  Playden.  a t sea which  h i s romance  observant,  are  i n line  as  20.  concerning i t roars  A  similar the  same  through the  18 a n d 2 4 .  i n t h e poem remembers  t o Honnef  and  i s made u p o f  as though  i s particularly  i n a  s t i l l dream.  beautiful  and  180 the  poet  banks to  and  the  the  could the  Low  river  as  that  the  abundance  Countries  Voyageur" a train  countryside  but  Apollinaire this  evening long  like  train  stands  facades and  slide The  Various the  poem  "pasted" of use  on  this  The  We  to  by  9,  17,  in line of poem  commemorative imperfect to  "se  the  47  of  from device,  tense, the  to  sights  The  still,  of  one,  glimpse  market.  of  We  morning  out a  notice or  late  armed  with  following  each  review  order  towns w i t h  alcoholic  as  the  pale  grey  madwomen  slip  window.  and  evident are  48.  maintains  The  the  earlier  his  Voyageur". throughout  reference  are  to  the  recollection.  lines  instead  narrative  sailors,  "Le  mood o f  source  rely  in  scattered  alexandrines,  they  while  images  warriors  in  one  illusion  i s a common  bridges  souvenir"  f o r the two  to  see  i s very  an  by,  bearded  our  regular  space.  early  marching  30,  the  fleeting  observe  past  of  standing  slowly  countenances  verb  5,  a  a t t e n t i o n . We  way  references  creating marvellous  i t s way  remembrance  of the  is  catch  soldiers  ugly  reference  in  We  quatrains  of the  swiftly  lances.  their  this  moving  shape  of  album  into  in  the  ashen  of  poet's  visits  sea.  elongated  the  (lines  four  on  seemingly  tenses  photographic The  phenomenon. rolling  theme  the  riding  succeeded  platoons  on  is  towns are  take  like  in  through  one  i t s precipitous  trees. Apollinaire's  reflected the  with  s h i p moves s w i f t l y  sharp-pointed  other  evergreen  into  shadows,  sun,  impressed  evocative  has  dray  whose  of  be  is extraordinarily  and  common  butcher's trees  or  to  are  compartment  the  of  fail  disappearing  "Le sees  not  31  to  almost on  a  46,  devoid  judicious  effect.  f r i e n d s and  the  dusky  181 women i s m o s t p u z z l i n g . and  his  brother  examined, striped cut  a  ring  under-shirt  source  Apollinaire's  not  at  the  two  be  best.  poet's.  sailors  although a  the  The  The  to  light  had  high  forth at  their  so  joy  24.  notes  are  very line  continue followed  1,  barred Gospel  when t h e on an  in  one  by  hair  is  Several the  hypotheses  are  possession,  A p o l l i n a i r e saw  the  English  state  intended  of  in  to  the  Channel,  overboard  re-appears  the  the  the  seems  mind.  line  It  52  to is  after  supplement  ensure  periods  of of  way  to  that  as  Saint  they  had  the  the  i t  Heaven  was  enough  came a t m i d n i g h t .  other  of  side of  ups the  the  the  to  Matthew  bridegroom  explanation  full  gateway t o  same  door,  he  of the  (XXV.3) lamp-oil The  poet  would  human c o n d i t i o n  find  that  he  1  2 A p o l l i n a i r e recognizes be  the  was  mother's  that  poet's  above  photograph  falling  according  incomprehensible.  to  carefully  plaits.  These  crossing  feels that  enough t o  and  been  Albert  above.  the  hopes t h a t ,  found  old  in his  the  in line  is  way  happiness  will  younger  line  smart  love,  In  the  reflecting  fate  virgins in  were not  was  while  of  Albert's  of  inspiration.  younger . s a i l o r  creativity  foolish who  the  poet,  this  ferry of  thought  set  that  has  however  evidence  photograph  following  commentary  poetic  the  sad  made  picture  distinguishable  i s f a r more p r o b a b l e  image  that  meeting his  The  It  on  morbid  curious  been  no  the  suits  Guillaume,  with  have  of  sailor  faintly  by  suggestions  dubious,  in  is  worn  straight  of  reproduction  Guillaume  dark  quite  The  and  that downs:  deepest  his  life  moments  depression.  has of  been  and  ineffable  There  is  an  182 unspoken  realization  triggered of  his  which  by  his  that  loss  relationship separated  frequency  in  the  same  bipolar  of  Annie  has  with  Marie  Laurencin.  from  Boeotia  Euboea  which  the  fast  flared  psychosis  up  again  The  was  moving  was  the  end  with  strait  of  notorious  tidal  that  Euripus for  currents  the  changed  direction. Lines menacing future  3  4.  clouds  of  here as  his  i s , in lines  Luxemburgian  villagers  cards  under  example  incidents  in his life.  flashback  to  forgotten  him.  Bennerscheid Annie  line ocean  18  persona,  faced  ship  with  under  an  the  uncertain  16,  a  their  The  "toi"  de  was  gaze  unusual  of  Christ  detailed  memory  in line he  17  of  her  the  property,  Rhineland  pets  until  two  as  they  ascending. of  i s i n the  suspects  jealous  Milhau's  leave the  v i g n e t t e of the  somewhat  with Annie,  Mme  charming  benevolent  Apollinaire  of the  the  word  sense  of of  reveal the with  i t s strong  takes  a  such  having  of  i t is  a  already  schoolmaster  and  A  minor  nature  in  presumed  a month o r two  of  of  that station  feelings  in  4 and  after  "orphelinat" in  of a ship i n the middle  railway  sense  than  leave  in line  abandonment  inner  deeper meaning i n French poet  "orphelin" loneliness  surroundings  to  to  with  describe the  impersonal  "Orphelin"  11  departure.  use  and  The  p e r s o n a l i z e s the  Apollinaire's  year  d i d not  to  intended  the  of  near  Guillaume's The  poet  own  the  beautiful  that  the  loneliness.  There  played  &  of  being  the  one is a  feels  of in  clever  disconsolate  b e r e f t has  a  the the  touch, poet.  somewhat  English. the  countryside  as  the  train  183 approaches before  t h e suburbs  him;  landscapes It guess  his  i s  that  relations  i n August  into  adjective, of  this  to  identify  that  and of  just  h i s uncertain  the  doleful  the right  the bird  reference  her  Apollinaire past  31 s t r i k e s  the  with  Rhineland  recollection  i n line  i s hard  of Paris  i s to  occurred  Annie just  lies  procession  note  i n line  future  of  of foreboding. 34.  and  An  the  before  educated worsening  he  left  the  1902.  was  prone  s a d memories  word  i s used  dead  souls.  with  "glances" implied.  particular  The  t o metamorphose  construction  "mourants" There  a r e many  elsewhere  of the  here  other  as  an  instances  i n Apollinaire s  poetic  7  works. Line  44  from which As the  Loreley  regards  poem,  falling  lines  a  fire  t h e theme than  enormous  importance  fail  to incorporate  into  both The  earlier  49  of  i n this  Or  of the rocky height  played  fire poem.  a  large  t h e most  beautiful  i n  part  the  of  o f a bee, an i n s e c t form  of  as  cleanser  a  Fire  death  and  some  aspect  i n  "Le  Brasier"  and rejuvenator  the phoenix  of "feu"  life  sacred to Apollo,  wish.  i n s o much o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  myth  much  are of  p o e t r y , f e w poems  a word  that  translates  and flame.  discontinuity  spun t h r o u g h  and 50, perhaps  i s a  i n this  fire  descriptive  plunged t o her death.  thus the sight  into  develops  certainly  premonitions  Apollinaire;  further  i s almost  of this  poem  has  already  been  commentary b u t t h e r e i s a t h r e a d t h a t  i t as shown b y t h e l a t e un peu d ' a t t e n t i o n  Mme  suffit  Marie-Jeanne  pour  y faire  hinted  at  Apollinaire Durry:  2  percevoir:  184 une  c o n t i n u i t e l o g i q u e ; une c o n t i n u i t e de l ' e t r e  le  meme a t r a v e r s l e s " j e " , l e s " m o i " ,  sont  que l e s personnages  continuite  de l a f i g u r a t i o n  sera pas d i f f i c i l e du  langage  acteurs  ordre  inverse. Elle  a  n icelui  porte  "voyage  reel"  the  journey  disorder  Porte" as  from  additional  there  that  plagued  when  Doors  Keen  fermee que jamais  leur  fait  l e s deux v e r s du  n i l e voyage  a autre  chose qu'a  homme n e p a r v i e n d r a  into  several  i sevidence  thevisit  lines  that  t o be e i t h e r  t h e Channel  t o Amsterdam and  Apollinaire's  when  by  The. " v o y a g e  of morbidity  Apollinaire  seem  established,  t h e Rhineland.  he was d e s p e r a t e l y  i n "Le Voyageur"  a  pas a r t i f i c i e l l e :  t h e Rhine,  insights  felt,  affairs.  a  l e s memes r e p r i s e n  n'aboutissent  has. b e e n  down  i s a s a d one, t h e r e poet  du reve  et fort  ouvrir.  t h e trips-  return  n'est  toujours  se faire  crossings,  love  1 ' e n c a d r e m e n t d u poeme e n t r e  e t l e s deux de l a f i n , q u i sont  d e s deux  d'un grand  I I y a meme u n e c o n s t r u c t i o n t o u t  debut  reel  au l e i t m o t i v du  comme c e l u i  a e t ec e l l e  i l ne  une c o n t i n u i t e  i n t e r m i t t e n t s , imprevus,  l a ou 1'image i n i t i a l e  cette  the  de mots,  matelots,  du  poem  i n t e r i e u r ; une  l e sparentes;  due a d e s r e p e t i t i o n s  ostensible,  provided  de m o n t r e r  a des sortes des r e f r a i n s  bateau.  l e s" t u " q u i ne  due a d e s images dont  souvenir,  place  The  du d i a l o g u e  toujours  de r e v e " h a s  p e r s o n a l i t y . The  i n d i c a t e how l o n e l y and o f t h eb i p o l a r  he was f r u s t r a t e d sneering  looking  i n h i s  a t him as i n  f o r work  o r slammed  "La shut  when a l l h e s o u g h t was l o v e .  observation  o f everyday  things  has been  converted  into  185 beautiful  poetic  "A L A S A N T E "  imagery.  (O.P.,140-1911)  Apollinaire Mona L i s a  painting  Sante  prison  shock  that  as  an  It  with  One  poor  poet  and  The f a c t  and committed  to the  was  after  worsened, illness  this  event  two causes  that  first  he  his relationship  manifested  now  contributed  " Q u i a p u me  brought  was  photographed,  the cruellest  s a y was  these  f o r himself and  h e was  newspaper  perhaps  that  a name  columnist that  and t h e very  G u i l l a u m e , a l l he c o u l d  mental  of the  under-estimate t h e tremendous  newspaper  the photograph  was n o t l o n g  i n the theft  e x p e r i e n c e d , h e h a d made  t o a gendarme,  published  complicity  cannot  a s a common c r i m i n a l .  Laurencin the  i n Paris.  t h e poet  handcuffed  all;  charged  from t h e Louvre, manacled  established  branded  to,  was  on a  itself  blow  of  faire ca". with  Marie  recurrence of when  he  lost  Annie Playden. As  usual  reverted  to  the poet, the  regular  continued  t o use l i n e s  instance,  t h e s e c o n d poem  in  i t s first  Ambriere  lines  i n a note-book  p r o s e work The Apollinaire the  three  fourth  " L a Femme  poem:  faced  prosody  from  with  of  earlier  the works  an  exactly  similar  containing  emotional  crisis,  Rhineland  poems,  but  or rough  drafts.  For  i n t h e "A l a S a n t e "  assise".  imprisonment regaining  when  series  wording  a rough d r a f t  incorporates  found by  Francis  of Apollinaire's  3  resulted,  his faith  at  least  i n religion,  temporarily,  i n  witness the lines i n  186 Que d e v i e n d r a i - j e 6 D i e u Toi Prends  en p i t i e  Le The  bruit  "Ambriere"  definitive his  q u i me  q u i connais  with  mes  yeux  d e ma  sans  chaise  d r a f t s which  others,  douleur  l ' a s donnee l a r m e s ma  Apollinaire  illustrate  pSleur  enchainee.  'Alcools' v e r s i o n because  secrets  ma  suppressed  from t h e  o f an u n w i l l i n g n e s s  t o share  the return  to religion  quite  forcibly: Et  je viens  de d i r e un r o s a i r e  A v e c mes d o i g t s p o u r 0 Vierge  sainte  chapelet  ecoutez-les  E c o u t e z mes p a u v r e s p r i e r e s .  In of  Vierge  plus  Vierge  q u i m'avez  1916, when  and  Apollinaire probable cell  a  with  wound  expecting  protege. another  to an  he  thought  mental  h i s right onset  seriously considered  that  of  crisis  temple,  arising  while  paralysis  i n  i n the  h i s arm,  r e t r e a t i n g t o a monastery.  of doing  likewise while  out  I ti s  sitting  i nh i s  i n prison. Yet  consists graphic of  faced  his suffering  trenches,  douce que l e ' s u c r e  another  borrowing  of  lines  five  which  describe murderer;  five  stanza  reads the  culled  poem  "Je s u i s  horror  i t reflects  appears  of  from  i n  living  verse  i n prison,  Apollinaire"  i n a  the influence  fifth  the third  written while Guillaume  the  cell  once  of Francois  poem' a  very  the first  line  and  of  which  goes  occupied Villon,  on t o by  a  and i s  187 another  i t e m u n e a r t h e d by  This series. can  fifth  In  other and  of  from the  w o r d s he  from  "Le  Pont Les  As  I t i s not  for himself  Mirabeau". jours  easy  s'en  vont  i s now  in  the t h i r d verse of the  The Souris,  "A  Dance line  that  of  Sante"  peu  a peu  the poet  du  inspiration  on  an  i n the present  time that  has  i n the  famous  line  a sixth  line  as  passed  the  deleted  draft:  was  cleverly  stated  in  "La  t h e t e m p o r a l theme  with:  ronde  poet  his efforts  the  In  temps,  varies  often  feet  loss.  ma v i e .  jeunes  defy  the  anthology:  annees 6  quoted,  their  he  meures.  of time  0 mes  just  which  filles. to  Apollinaire,  described to write  c e i l i n g above  the  dancing  p o e t r y and  h i s head  apart  the  i n the  from  sunbeams measured  second  "A  l a  musicality  of  poem.  Anne these  t u ne  adieu chantante  seemed t o  tread  que  Adieu  was  over  but  the  imagination,  of l i v i n g  remains  "Villonesque"  journees,souris  l a Sante"  weep  Apollinaire  "Bestiaire"  rongez  to  his  from  in  j e demeure  passage  a poem i n t h e  Vous  the  avant  of the  Belles  of  the poet  t o u n d e r s t a n d why  theme  In  and  of view  one  5  It  Guillaume  use  he  important  a point  by  hours  4  most  simultaneous role  being a survivor.  irretrievably.  off,  current the  the  t a k e s up  far  has  Ambriere.  i s perhaps  i t Apollinaire  consider  distancing  poem  Francis  Hyde  s i x short  Greet poems  has and  drawn their  attention intense  to  the  assonance.  6  Once  again  188 the  poet  has  beautiful  shown  poetry  that  when  PONT M I R A B E A U " From  poem,  Les line a  a structural  i n the f a l l  Soirees  going  prompted  a  poem  de  Gayette  same,  to  construction  which does  he  was  expert  gave  a  stanza  s'en e s t ,  t o decide  where  after  first  i n the first  these  f o r models  medieval  very  of  were  separated  This  format  resemblance  of  Grand  was  by was  which has  Apollinaire  but  movement  the and  Apollinaire  7  i t i s doubtful  t o a work  of a reprint  a  copy  The  to Francois  Testament"  "Chanson  structurally  rhythm,  refrain  Villon:  contains  of  the  the line  8  t o i n c l u d e t h e poem i n A l c o o l s ' he x  t o put i t and s e t t l e d At  which  convincing.  glance  strong  "Zone".  one,  issue of  the celebrated  literature  a passing  decided  this  R o q u e s h a s made a c a s e f o r  score  are not  "Le  on  the prosody  the  e t j e demeure".  When A p o l l i n a i r e  immediately  on  on  more t h a n  bear  twenty-third  had  rhyme,  a v a i l a b l e t o him i n t h e form  however  "Alle  look  i n which  grammatical  whether  The  of  four d e c a s y l l a b i c t e r c e t s each  i n the t w e l f t h century,  et Oriour"  an  whether  a r e two v e r s i o n s  i n any l a n g u a g e .  h i s poem. M a r i o  h i s arguments  quite  there  a t t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century,  but  was  pressures  of heptasyllabic couplets.  constructed  composed  standpoint  i n a feminine  researchers  might have  extraordinarily  o r freedom.  comprised  refrain  out of s t y l e  of  stressful  o f 1911 and p u b l i s h e d  ended  non-rhyming  by  melodious  de P a r i s ,  o f which  capable  (0.P./45-1911)  one o f t h e most  written  i s  afflicted  caused by t h e l o s s o f l o v e  "LE  he  the  same  time  f o r t h e second he  suppressed  slot the  189 punctuation  and  the  line  second  followed  by  one  Apollinaire said  to  pause  be at  of of  broke  the  tercet  up  the Of  of  that  they each  Ni  temps  passe.  The  The  makes t h e s e  first  establishing loves the  that  joy  step  whether  the  that  poet  reason  follow  the  degree  of  The  and  music  onward  flow  comprehension imagery  river's  bridge  feels  that is for  i s , are  directed  left  The  third  the  poet-hero  repeated him  and  stanza  twice. yet  to  he  the  under  the  to  what  and  reader's  has  lost  his  The  absence  i s s h a k e n by  of  s' e n  to  the  the  whether  barrier  even the  in  river, i t is  punctuation  in  is  a  between voice  to  the  process  some  second  stanza,  while  bridge,  the  to  feeling  difficulty  or  and  i n the  made b y  seems  are  L'amour  down  remove t h e  i f  of  a  noticeable.  flow  eye  for  connection  has  lack  be  1 0  i s further developed  streams beneath the are  lost.  amours,  one  even  could  fourth  remember,  force the  which  doing  and  that  to  so  third  e v e n more  The  9  by  call  rhyming  not  four , feet  expression  since  music,  is  flows  glances  to  of  breaking  that  nos  a  loves  pain.  of  current  the  of  rather  and  Et  phrases  follows  line  by  lines,  deep  thus:  the  would  always  a  complex  i t is  poem  pattern  first,  absence  is  a  short  i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s determination  sweet  the  stanza  the  short  two;  rhyming  four  line  the  creating quatrains;  accentuate  ending  lines  the  each,  words  other  in  regular  the  y^,  m u s i c a l i t y of  s i x , thereby  end  in  the  the  monotonous.  noteworthy in  improved  the  the  love  imagination.  love.  wave  of  l o v e r s ' arms b u t  indicate  of  the  The  love  that  phrase  pangs of  just the  what heart  1 1  acceptance  seems  glances  to  of  "love  the slips  prolong  useless  the  hope.  fact by" day  190 The  final  stanza  days  and  weeks  roll  that  he  cannot  "Le poet's that the  sprites cannot  on  up  continues it.  the  Dr.  a  years  expressed  this  due  l i k e , an  Bears  a l l i t s sons  Dies  at  lives is  loves, on  will  not  love  is  nor  love The  and  the  a  did  tragic he  have  The  shows sea,  i t , the  ships  and  beings  time  efforts  following  lines  the  water  human  feeble  "Le  the  the  sirens  unlike  how  streams,  i t is like  'wrote  a  which  to  arrest  nearly  Pont  two  Mirabeau"  stream,  dream  the  river  realise as  poem  by.  day.  hope t h a t  will  in  realises  days gone  Water  the  fact  a l l his  the  f l y forgotten,  It  a  i n hope,  permanent  opening  to  he  the  1 2  as  acknowledges  down  and  as  away;  f l y forgotten,  take  river  beckoning  man's  ever-rolling  They  the  poet  the  respect  Apollinaire perfectly:  will  lived  poetry.  composed  Time,  course,  former  who  the  water.  the  of  of  other  on  in this  regardless  theme  any  forever  in his  before  Apollinaire in  place  Watts  regain  than  r e f l e c t i v e pools,  flow  Isaac  nor  fishes that  permanently,  to  hundred  more  loneliness  changeless  love  float  i t , the  the  the  his  seem t o  a l l had dry  like  Mirabeau"  images  rivers,  on  restore  Pont  sailed  confirms  a  that  the  memories, and  one  thence day  his  he  ambition  stream  of  time/  particularly  of  to  but  the  will to  find write  sea, a  his he  love  that  poetry  that  dream.  fact  that  the  trait  Apollinaire of  stability  never that  had  an  enduring  w o u l d make  such  possible. poem  laments  the  passing  of  love,  as  i t flows  away  down  191 the  river  of time  with  that  "Le Pont  Mirabeau  said  "MARIE"  when  tended t o revert familiar.  This  t h e imagery.  i s Apollinaire's  by  "Cors  chasse"  de  relationship  acceptance  "Water  I t could  be  Music".  reflect  with  her. Rather  i s , i n "Marie",  water  and  a  of  Pont  time,  the  poems  self  t h e poet  so  he was  which  were  "Marie"  and  deterioration  i n their  of  emotion,  which  Mirabeau",  t o show  continuation of  the  than  situation  t h e passage  violent  the progressive  seem  t h e unhappy  There  of  "Le  of  of poetry with  true  which  three  stress  forms  Laurencin,  these  of  the  to the regular  Marie  poems,  under  i s particularly  inspired  verse  providing  (P.O.,81-1911)  Apollinaire,  his  water  centred  of free  composition was  faced  t h e theme  noticeable  of  an  with. flowing  i n "Le  Pont  Mirabeau". Even though he  d i d admit  that he  i n a letter  o f a l l t h e poems  thought The  which it  Apollinaire's  melancholy  t o Madeleine  commemorating  Pages  " M a r i e " was t h e m o s t h a r r o w i n g o f  poem  i s made  Apollinaire  was  up  of octosyllabic  very  much  a t home,  the staccato  rhythm  of  melody.  When t h e p o e t  wished  to stress  alexandrine,  lovely  second  The rhyming  an example  all.  1  30th  1915  3  quintils, h e was  peasant  of this  July  i s t o be  form  with  a b l e t o move i n  dance  h i s own  a  to  an  feelings found  elegiac he  used  i n the very  verse.  musicality long  a  dated  low key,  h i s heart-rending partings,  from  the  was r e l a t i v e l y  drawn  of this  poem  o u t sounds  such  i s striking, as p e i n e  i t i s a c h i e v e d by  - semaine,  sais-je  -  192 n'ai-je, these  moutonne  sounds  -  automne.  which  seem  to  and  judicious repetition  hang  i n the  a i r after  of  they  some  have  of  been  uttered. Apollinaire quintil  by  Walloon  peasant  skipping early the  has  matching  romance  The  dance  with  book  his  mood  perfectly  a  The scene poet  than  voice  The close  the  a  of  raging  painting. into  fallen  once a g a i n  to  Just  as  window  the  ever-changing  the in  loves  his misfortune.  of but  doubt  past  He  about  in  touch.  of  steal  future  His a  the  f a r away. describes  Rhineland,  even  an  become  dance  and  that  but  i t suited  i t has  lively  the  Marie.  alexandrine  from  in  Laurencin's  personal  music  his  bedroom,  blood,  the  into  of  in Stavelot,  and  the  Maclotte,  Marie  poet's  was  flesh  bedroom  her  the  particularly  his  quintil  departure to  the  the  of  remembered  by  refer  first  sound  of  barely heard  of  tapping  the  the  "Maclotte",  dancer  he  also reaches  about  the  w r i t t e n the  time  of  element  due  the  in  Apollinaire  in  had  creature  element  an  he  a  quintil from  stanza  lends  a  on  of  tap,  use.  hung  from  turned  sings  last  curl  leaves, used  has  an  introducing  to  effect  rhythm  tap,  Dubois,  that  and  in  visible  rather to  longer  third  sadly  liked  which  dating  face  verse  the  second  remembered  note  first  with  the  of  old  i s no  clever  remembered  Maria  in  one  Apollinaire  a  s t a t e of mind brought  masks  paintings  shadow,  the  rope t h a t Marie  confused  love  achieved  as  his  a  the  heart,  permits  himself  loves;  thereby  time. one  describes  Mulatto  on  the  ground,  to  describe  Marie's  ancestry. a  The  f a v o u r i t e of  hair image  which of  had  autumn  Apollinaire's,  his erstwhile lover's  hands.  a  is  193 The the  ever-flowing  poet's  river  continuing  that  will  never  d r y up i s compared t o  h e a r t b r e a k , ,as h e w o n d e r s  i f i twill  ever  end. We voice in  are indeed  reading this  fortunate small  This "Zone",  t o hear  Apollinaire's  gem o f a p o e m , h e made a r e c o r d i n g  of i t  (O.P.,148-1912)  short was  poem  preceded  consists  o f two  reflects  the poet's  battle  of  bellicose previous geyser  or  manner  A  which  with  and what  The  little  raindrop.  Moi  "Marie".  and a  mood  i s reflective  gem  had once  Davies as  poem  and b e a u t i f u l  r e a d i n g might  poem  be seen  induce  last was  verse. I t  again  lost  i n  rather  than  compared  his  from  a  i n a very  gushing  thorough  a capsule version  style. one  of  lines  form  built.  beginning which  des l a i s  This  calls  Mal-Aime": pour  1 5  t o assume  from t h e f o l l o w i n g  "La Chanson du  qui sais  I t  h e r e x p e r i e n c e a s a p o e t e s s i n h e r own  i n a clear  the  before  1 4  measure  of  has  changing  i s i n large  as b e f i t s  two-line  he  follows  as w i l l  from  and  this  poem's m a j e s t i c  known l i n e s  Mirabeau"  that  Margaret  and t h e e x q u i s i t e  understanding  last  has s t u d i e d  first  rest  the  quintils  poet's  this  series,  Durry  i s written  the  Pont  "Le  The  t o one s h i n i n g  poem's t i t l e  by  self-pitying.  poems  rapid  "Marie"  realisation  love.  essay, which  right,  i n the  octosyllabic  Marie-Jeanne  her  able  May o f 1 9 1 4 .  "CORS DE C H A S S E "  the  t o be  l e s reines  that  t h e frame i s an  work  the on  incorrect  comments. t o mind  the well-  194 is of  on  an  anecdotal  maudlin  plane.  sentiment  protagonist  wears  The  and  a  s t o r y i s not  bombast,  mask  which  i t is  of  i s nothing  a  love.  in i t that  The  action  a  permits  d i s o r d e r o f w o r d s o r a t t i t u d e s . The there  a mere d r a m a t i c p l a y tragedy  of  no  s t o r y has  this  first  which  sad  story  stanza  is  another  lost  association Anne,  of  a girl  love,  ideas,  of  the  to  of  that  of  his  a means o f  the  issue  "Cors  de  of  Les  Chasse"  opium  addiction  about  the  contributor makes  his  to way  Apollinaire e v e r more The  of  the  static,  The horns as is  the  L'Tntransigeant  both  will  can  and  journals.  the of  the  The  flow  two  essays  had 1912,  the  stage  any  event before  subject  and  as  dreaming  memories  this  of  pictures  Apollinaire  continues  Anne,  1802.  month  articles  motion  of  on  by  in  In  the  further after  i n London  depression.  but  thinks  a  smoking opium at  May  sheltering  whose  now  contemplate  ephemeral return  memories first  wind bears  quite  April  by looked  appeared  end  was  De  a  Quincey  a l l the  while.  that  he  will  turn  to  past,  he  disassociates  frequently.  from  w h i c h he  and in  had  was  alone  that  published,  sings  poet  himself  Paris  was  to  was  combatting his da  and  Q u i n c e y who  Apollinaire tried  Soirees  drug  Playden,  s t r e e t s , when he  i s probable as  Annie  T h o m a s De  It  life  wit  no  fatality,  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s q u i c k s i l v e r m i n d s t a r t s t h e t r a i n o f m e m o r y . He of  the  gesticulation,  a tyrannical  w o u l d weaken t h e  in  in  full  superb.  as  can  things often now  to as  be  away.  One  can  own  better need  The  isolate  to  the  becoome more imagery  feel  his  memories  to  be.  compared  clarion calls them  his  the  of  sound  and these  of  more last  reverberations  hunting  attenuated two of  lines the  195 huntsman's of  the  call  a  stylistic  recurring  second ->  line  changing  this  Baudelaire,  by  horn  as  - tyran  of the bright  and  copper  Verlaine  by  of  " c u t " from  and  by  de  Jules  into  the  link  was  not  by  "Cygne" and  this  and  had  d i d not  of  chasse",  exclusive "Le  Cor",  to by even  b i t of doggerel that  Apollinaire  even  draft  Laforgue. A p o l l i n a i r e  remembrance  i s  distinguishes  in his  son  — the  "passe"  de  by the  revant  early  "Cors  h i s s c h o o l - d a y s , "Un between  an  that  Vigny  from  reflecting  rhyme  otherwise undistinguished during  ->  " c h a s t e " and  theme  Alfred  i t moves  themselves  of  together  indifferent  "pasted"  horn  i s knit  i t as  ->  words  regularity  used  established  Baudelaire's  hear  assonance  hunting  written  However  the  the  i t was  i t i n an  was  de  cor"  (O.P.p.  the  sound  of  only  one  record the  the  model,  sound  dying  wind. Ainsi Un  The similar  dans  combination ones  of  o u mon  different  i s emblematic  object,  the horn,  one  almost  can  l a foret  esprit  v i e u x S o u v e n i r sonne au p l e i n  remembrance,  flows  sight  t h e poem  7 h a v i n g been  Mal-Aime"  The  555).  the  the  can  the  curious  disturbing  probably  we  with  6 and  du  Apollinaire,  in  by  of view  sound,  The  lines  poem.  used  point  vent,  mood.  Chanson  thereby  "on"  ->  to the  "La  dazzled  to the very l a s t :  souvent  due  be  horn.  From the  and  from i t .  lends which  feel, 1  6  of modernity;  i t s lack i n turn  i f not  objects  the  of  souffle instead thus  the  substance  displays horn  s'exile  the  itself,  to  former then  du of  cor. connecting  insubstantial, the  tangible  i n a way  that  the music  that  196 It by  i s a tenet  multiple suggestion,  "dont" is  of Symbolist  i n the last  memory, t h e n  sound that  hence  line  Thomas  of  wandering  lost  ground  throughout  the  Apollinaire  was  neither  horn  poetic poem very  within  one's  The  on  aware  he  This  aware  a man  mosaics, together. The  joining  life  able  sound  were  as  a  modern  pieces  that  t h a t has been  t o move  of  the  1 7  a  surprising  were  not  belies  being  poet.  possessed  literary  a thread  that  Apollinaire  and  was  discontinuity,  like  made  a  the  non-connection  with  was  a  sounds  was t o c o n v e r t  of diversity he  theme  love-lorn  the thread.  poet,  a  that  logical  t o weave  tyrants  by  i n a l l o f us i n t o of  memory  from  the  t h e human  the world  memories.  poem's  irreparably  and t o speak  present,  engender The  I f i t  a  maker  f o r each  of  other  1 8  still  still  that  jump  and  H i s achievement  a  aware  i s mute.  inspiration  that  he b r e a k s  was  t h e word  of a  i s replaced  break  theme  was n o t w i t h i n u s , i n f a c t  he  image  d i d not wish  of the times,  t h e agency  t h e sudden  inherent  was  by  musical  the  well  poet  self;  m o d e r n man  does  a t t h e e n d o f t h e poem  and  discontinuity  discontinuity.  by  the past.  unity nor continuity.  psychological  should act  o r t h e memory?  a memory t h a t  t h e immobile  of the hunting of  produced  i s evidenced  through  bass  arises,  t o t h e sound  on t h e w i n d ,  de Q u i n c e y ,  irruption  t h e image  we h a v e t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y i m a g e o f t h e t u m u l t u o u s  Discontinuity to  that  the question  refer  of our recollections i s nearly  poetry  final  lost,  i s thanks  t o us and even of  emptiness  t o memory  i f no m o t i o n  and  nullity  or  would  1 9  lines  evoke  memories  that  encompass  the  197 world an  and t h e i n n e r  instant  the  to  the  poem  "ZONE"  i s somewhat speed  The p o e t  i n "Le Pont  as one draws  "e" o f t h e word  breath f o r  "chasse" and hears  2 0  discontinuous but this with  however  Mirabeau"  which finds  images  are  i s largely created  due  i n the  time t o contemplate the past.  the musicality  attracts  attention.  (O.P.,39-1912)  There rightly  of the horn.  lightning  p o e t ' s mind. As  of the self,  on t h e u n p r o n o u n c e d  dying notes The  forest  as  a r e many a  facets  "poeme-promenade".  occurrence  of the bipolar  of  In  Annie.  Laurencin.  to this  this  It i s a  "poeme  de  I t has been  I t provides  mental  instance  poem.  problem  i t was  evidence  brought  the  of a re-  on by t h e  break  f i n d'amour"  described  up  like  with  those  of  loss Marie 1903-  1904. The very as and the  poet's  self  noticeable,  the self  seen  the other projection  example:  Et  lines:  Richard from  from of  Stamelman  the  with  has c o r r e c t l y  two p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  outside;  theme,  identified  "tu" this  inside  the self  the fragmentation process  involves  self  on  to  one f r o m  " j e " and  an  exterior  object  for  2 1  C'est  A  i s the principal  un t a b l e a u  quelquefois  further  example  pendu dans un sombre musee  t u v a s l e r e g a r d e r de p r e s of  the  "je"/"tu"  alternance  i s i n the  198 Tu  as f a i t  Avant Tu  de d o u l o u r e u x  de t ' a p e r c e v o i r  e t de j o y e u x  voyages  du mensonge e t de  l'age  a s s o u f f e r t de 1'amour a v i n g t e t a t r e n t e a n s  J'ai Tu  vecu  comme u n f o u e t j ' a i p e r d u mon  n'oses plus je  regarder  voudrais  Sur  t e s mains  temps  e t a tous  moments  sangloter  t o i sur celle  que j'aime  sur tout  ce q u i t ' a  epouvante. The  " j e " - " t u " combination  is  identifiable  is  an i n n o v a t i o n  telling  effect.  There  poet had  any g i v e n  plumbs  a  gradual  t h e very  with  just  after  The  loss  of  bottom. urge  the physical  Marie  from  complicity  and  the  i n the poet's  pronoun  life.  I t s use  a n d he h a s u s e d  poet  into  o f t h e poem i n t o  joyous  mood  Apollinaire  t o consort aspects  when  with  of love,  and i s very  arrested o f t h e Mona sexual  while  and d e s p a i r i n g  the terrible  h i s being  i n the theft  a  sinking  t h e "Annie" p e r i o d  resulting  spurred  separation  1-70 r e f l e c t  an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  generous  neither  i t with  2 2  lines  indicate  period  peculiar to Apollinaire  i sa striking  sequences, lines  with  i s simultaneous,  on  an  Lisa  remaining until  this  who was  the  i n love  were  more  noticeable  i n 1912 a l s o . h i s self  unproven  that  esteem  charge  i n t h e year  adventures  separate  rejected  women  to  the note  evident  blow  two  of  before,  were  readily  available. Unlike searching Grail,  the  early  long  poems  which  f o r an e l u s i v e a n d u n a t t a i n a b l e  "Zone"  h a s no d e f i n i t e  featured  object,  target. Apollinaire  the  a sort  poet  o f Holy  i n the subject  199 poem  and  i n "Le  Voyageur"  pseudo-allegorical which with  was  a  the  to  term  of Symbolism,  images  was  fascinated  of the  Bioscope  twenty-five years  use  of  the  mirror  flash-backs, image  projector tried  Brehatine",  even  for  before A  Richard lines  the  Stamelman  The  and  reached poem's  War,  of  first  despair.  theme,  favoured  tower  affected  epoque",  by  5  aspect  of  poet's  death,  carriages  line  Line the  techniques,  run  the  name  several  will  be  2  of  poets  the  Apollinaire's  so  film  Billy "La i t i s  industry  tricks  lines  of  Z o n e was  commented  on  further  reflect  of  the  done when  by the  that  what  a  mournful  of  o l d and  the  modern,  the  Eiffel  painters  during  "La  belle  friend for  coachwork  Robert  detail  was  the motor c a r .  Even  pastoral  Delaunay.  that ten  based  the  is  blend  and  of  follows  curious  personality.  automobile preceded  eye  the  1917  Sandberg,  of  motion,  Andre in  the  the  a  writers  the  as  through  and  with  the  analysis.  seems t o  is  2 3  period  such  film  script,  some  a  accelerated  the  i n touch  of  of  accord  after  i n F r e n c h ) , had  film  noted  d i d not  which,  Apollinaire  and  Apollinaire's  reflects  that  Cinema  a  mold  S.I. L o c k e r b i e ,  o f t h e break-away modern w o r l d and  many  including  Line  this  was  i n the present  a celebration  chant  by  the- p o e t  Great  to  the  portray.  close-ups,  writing  producer  that  the  several  forwards.  at  to  (Biographe  ability  cinematic analysis  are  be  a  the  from  a form which  chose  shots,  and  hands  possible  trade.  and  away  i n v e n t e d by  by  develop  long  backwards  their  quite  to  break  and  t h e modern w o r l d A p o l l i n a i r e  crude  to  poems,  feature  Apollinaire  of  wished  on  is  an  years the  endearing after  the  horse-drawn  200 The  obscurity  of the references  lines  6-9 h a s b e e n  quest  f o r t h e superhuman,  the  desire  bless  Pope  has  stared  of  albeit  faith  owing  and  again  he  praises  has a  something  slogans  wish  be seen  about  them,  "Walk- Over"  shoes  (0.P.p.733),  that  belongs  poetry  Apollinaire's Paris, jangle  the  northern  delight  portion  as he g a z e s  The sweet  of the throngs  boyhood,  an  affected.  25 t o 4 1 .  wrote  so t h e poet  city  the  often a  A  explains  further  things  gleams  i n lines  discontinous  elements  continuous together.  of  around him.  i n the sunlight  fills  and  area i n him  with  posters. remembers  his bitter-  fade-out,fade-in  thread  which  example  i n the industrial  and  have  commercial  cinematic  H o w e v e r t h e o n w a r d m a r c h o f t h e poem a s a w h o l e I t i s this  lost  the  as t h e poet of  be  t o p a r t i c i p a t e and s i n g  i n the street  example  to  Now  of every-day  swiftly  of  having  and i n catalogues  a t t h e shop s i g n s  changes  technique.  himself  of the 17th Arrondissement  mood  needs  he has undergone.  paperbacks.  Apollinaire's beloved  the  and t h e  i n the streets, unlike prose  and cheap  sharp perception  d i d see f i t t o  windows,  A p o l l i n a i r e even  c a n be found  t o the press  glass  i n lines  on p o s t e r s  h i s latest  i n 1911  bring  experiences  child-like  with the  the changing  cannot  poetic  11-14  to  i n the stained  o f C h r i s t , as w i l l  Advertising  a i r race  slowly,  t o the woeful  with  conservative,  Apollinaire  at by t h e Saints  his  a die-hard  modern i n  i n itself,  t h e same l i m i t s  t h e Paris-Rome  However  2 4  t o pass  being  Stamelman, he l i n k s t h e  a r e l i g i o u s search  X,  responded,  Christians.  for  Pius  the winner  Church  i l l u m i n a t e d by R i c h a r d  o f m o d e r n man  inventions.  to religion  that  The d a r k e n e d  binds chapel,  the  i snot  multiple  l i t only  by  201 the  flickering  the  statue  little  present that  of  boys  beautiful  amethyst-coloured a  are  praying  made  occurred  in  Symbolist  since  image  the  at  after  day,  the  it  also,  the the  child  with  in  "C'est"  who  holds  the  had  seen  flying  again  birds in  and  museum  the  but  reunion  reminiscent  of  a i r on  modern  the  47  the  the  of  the  brief  of  the day  space  of  for  litany  strict  a  religious  surprise to  an  and  as  aeroplane  poet  of  equipped  and  a  present  cross  an  Christ  himself  resist  of  when  aviator  the  reader  world.  where  poet  sun  heavens  type  height,  occasional  the  sky  to  being  glory  Christ  Cologne  cannot  in line in  a  like  they  the  by  f o r i t s imagery,  element  attained  episodes  setting  the  the  in  for  the  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s ear  compares  remind in  up  surrealist  the  into  remarkable of  returns  ascending  b l a t a n t pun The  birds  the  only  when  nothing  flaming  evidence  into  poet  earth-bound,  such m i r a c l e s the  the  through  devils,  the  loses  The  truant  such  a n t i c i p a t e s the  brought  record  relief  i t passes through the  identification  world  two  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most  remembering  foreshortened  is a  illuminates  feet  obtained  passage  i s not  when  by  which  whose of  and  poem.  as  are  unexpectedly  with  the  Sun  39  there  final  the  at  one  colour  provides  recite but  sought  week-end  to  the  him;  surely  This  of  the  31,  33  environment,  parachutes  past.  passage  line  would  sky  is  light  hair  distraught  end  the  The  Lines  Once  red  amethyst  very  night.  melody.  the  him  i s likened to  of  with  images. A p o l l i n a i r e  world  Christ  Christ  vigil  with can  mischievous  comparison to  Christ Himself  he  gazes  flying  at  above  old  painting  he  was  depicted  as  wings. take  The no  lowly  part  comments s u c h Simon then,  in as  Magus. the  humans,  202 the  prophets,  flying  held  t h e gods  and t h e philosophers  no t e r r o r s ,  including  the mysterious  dangerous  straits,  host  to the latest This  personal  the  depression  triggered wishes  hell  from  their  and f a n c i f u l  interlude  his solitary  cycle  Lines  of a  loved gone  o f t h e winged  suddenly  and t h e slow  affliction  that  Apollinaire i n  that  passage  could  he  has  learned  to  which  of hell  a t h i m s e l f as i fi n a m i r r o r . I t i s worth n o t i n g  The to  passage  poet's  him that they  difference misogyny. other cure  from  i s i n .the  thoughts  love.  dreams  The V i r g i n .  blood,  has a  The  2 5  special  eiderdown  i s a faded  are  orange  never  t o women  men. M e n s t r u a t i o n  h i m s i n c e he s u f f e r s  called  now t u r n  while  i n general,  wideawake blood  that  red, continuously  they  drowns  and t h e  him cannot  identified  forApollinaire,  a r e always  seated  and i n c u r a b l e  r e d and f o r him, t h e rays  or pink,  a deep  of h i s Marie  from t h e shameful  significance  i t seems  owing t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l  seems t o p r o v o k e  The s a c r e d  colour  that  person.  a r e so o f t e n unreachable  The p o e t  Marie,  second  But,  t h e flames  as  entire  i s  at h i s  even  the  a  laugh  misfortunes he l o o k s  i f the laughter crackles like  world  he  enter  h i m as t h e u n f e e l i n g b e l l o w i n g buses pass h i m by. and  cruel  seems t o b e  strangling  i s Apollinaire  the  he  into  and  poet  from  so  as t h e  descent  one. I n a poignant by  the world  monastery  the  escape  ends  7 1 t o 80 d e p i c t  of the bipolar  i n days thus  walk  f o r whom  and t h e s i r e n s from t h e  ranks.  to join  begins.  lived  China  a l l over  flier  by t h e l o s s  he  ones  from  t h e welcome  continues  his  the birds  has as i t s purpose  pleasant  poet-hero  then  of the past  a  disease with  treasured  o f t h e s e t t i n g sun  blood-red.  203 The the  tension built  d a r k mood l i f t s  of  a boating  Riviera;  poet,  a  greek  he  word  seeing  h i s own  saddens heart  king him  Son  the  the  darker  swimming  meaning  display  almost  o f a rose,  side  beside  was  at  St  t o death.  creeps  he p a i d  Gouda some y e a r s  He  quarter  backward  agate  a  also stone  live  Everything  through  his life Rome,  experiments The despair  names  i s a fair  experience 89 t o 112  example  alternance  continues  between  when t h e p o e t  short  commit. A p o l l i n a i r e  despair  the  personal  note.  of Apollinaire's  that  record  made  up  sums up i n s i x l i n e s  t h e poem is a of  has mix  self  lived  remembers t h a t  September when he was a r r e s t e d a n d j a i l e d  point,  and  The  early  i n s i m u l t a n e i t y as a p p l i e d t o p o e t r y .  rapid  flashbacks  recalls  he was a b l e t o  strictly  of place  awry,  Amsterdam  feeling  recital  i n the  and  with  a  which  h a s hands t h a t go b a c k w a r d s ,  where a t l e a s t  on  image o f  h a s gone  i n investing lines  and  recalls  beetle  has succeeded  pathos  for  i n Prague  some c a l m . A p o l l i n a i r e much  which t h e  rendering  he  church  notices  their  t h e S a v i o u r . The  Scared,  Vitus's  on t h e  with  the f i s h  coded  t o M a r s e i l l e s , Koblenz,  before,  remembrance  also  with  a  Saviour".  h i s favourite flower.  as he h i m s e l f visits  fish,  o f God,  even t h e c l o c k i n t h e Jewish just  t h e joyous  likeness i n a heavily veined  on  now e a s e s up as  h i s f r i e n d s o f t h e o l d days  octopus  ichthus,  Christ,  dead  lines  the early Christians, i d e n t i f i e d  "Jesus  a  with  remembers  frightful  like  nine  f o r . a few moments w i t h  expedition  but  sighting  up i n t h e l a s t  largely of  darkest  frightful  week i n  f o r a crime  he d i d n o t  (115-120) t h e s e r i e s o f  consisted  sadness  deprecation,  j o y and  and  o f up  to  joy overlaid  shame,  this with  disenchantment,  204 disillusion, cannot  even  m a n a c l e s he the  terror,  loss  look had  at  Jewish, him  bound  contrasted sexuality most  attractive  Apollinaire's  homeland in  a  foreign  lovers  chapped has was  to  hands stand  aware  addition early  in  he  a  draft  Lazare,  the  of  the  of h i s misery  over  as  he  and  they  describes  were  mostly  T h e i r blood red eiderdown  were  their  of  they  had  hair.  Yet  attention family  to  the  t o wear t o another  keepsake,  reality  i t s  i s  devoid  cover  of  their  indication  of  old quilt  i s  The  a reminder  vicissitudes  of  by  colour  Jewesses  detail.  against the  The  reminds  many y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y  immigrants;  pallor  wigs  is a  filthy  only  must  have  an  the  bar  i t s warmth  had  moves  them  of the  meaning the  is of  on  since  of  their  of  living  is tied  in  as  to  he  a  drinks  half  late  a  empty  hour,  are  they  too  and  their  singles  out  one  whose  rough  slang  cracked  "Annee  ebb  this  customers.  "gerce"  for  at  w o r r i e s . He  attract  word  intended  and  for  indication  i t s regular  i t s lowest  occupants,  sorry  outside to  that to  St  i s approaching  feels  are  him  poet  meaning.  whose'  prostitutes, former  Gare  g i v e n t o him  land.  life  coffee  restaurant  takes  stout bulwark  poet's  of  of  feature,  i t s symbolic The  cup  a  account  The  2 6  remind  now  consumptive  a covering,it and  they  weeps on  too  painstaking  chilly  with  they  account  since  disgust.  spirit  the  red coverlet  with the  self  loved Marie.  in  when  on  more t h a n  he  f o r the Americas.  mother  and  wrists  generous  emigrants  o f h i s own  his  his  of his dearly  poor  pity  t o wear and  Apollinaire's the  self  life  of  Doubtless for  a  a whore  Apollinaire  prostitute  chapped  republicaine"  who  skin.  In  in the  collection,  which  was t h e p r e c u r s o r  corresponded Apollinaire editor  to  was w i s e  of his  of  with  of  depressed sought  a  for  The  often  personal  a farewell  pornographic which  that  was a n  draughts  which  excellent  him t o cover  mulatto  Antilles, must  t o crave  crawls  home  by  tracks  departure  girl  who w a s  Ferdine, t h e  have  sexual  suited h i s  stimulation.  o f brandy,  a s i t becomes s e v e r e d  come  while  exegesists  closest  i nhis  excellent  La  poesie  de n o t r e  egare  dans  l'aurait avoir regard  for  l an u i t  that  well  He  known  s i e c l e est  l e jugement  aussi  l'oeil  de D i e u .  meme  e s t nocturne  g o d s who  days.  Farewell,  Sun s t r e a k s  the  sky  Philippe  Renaud h a s  own n e e d t o  2 7  nee de l av o i x  d ' u n homme  du f i l d'Ariane q u i On p e u t  necessaire d'autrui;  La quete et  by a l i e n  Apollinaire's  summation:  une i d e n t i t e i l est  including  horizon.  o f t h i s poem,  et prive  dear,  happier  from the  ramene a l a l u m i e r e .  et  held  t h e dawning  t o expressing  "Zone"  he  surrounded  t o hope  blood  the several  that  t o sleep  h i m a chance sighs  a l l  t h e poet  write  details  use.  o f the  novel  farewell,  probably  allowed  for public  girl  seemed  abandoned  y e t give  Of  t h epoet  which  misery.  poet,  red  sordid  to the lovely  i ntheburning  Christianity, might  which  and t o another  mood  relief  panacea  f a r more  14 6 a n d 1 4 7 s i g n a l t h e d a w n i n c o m p a r i n g t h e  Laurencin  heroine  a s we k n o w i t , t h e l i n e s  enough t o d e l e t e ,  were too  t h e night  Marie  -143 h a d  own w o r k s  w h i c h he f e l t Lines  135  o f "Zone"  supposer que pour d'accepter l e  peut-etre  d'Apollinaire  solitaire;  c'est  y  faut-il  par l u i -  une e t r e i n t e  206 sans a  f i n ou  i lest  l u i seul  tous  labyrinthe  assez  naturellement,  l o n g ' and  childhood man.  faith  but  part.  important  poem  this  towards  bothersome being  others  made  him  expunge  Despite  his  person.  He  laugh  company  at  modernist  still  but  admirer  has of  used  cinematic techniques  when  r e q u i r e d and  every  day  life  observations. f o r s a k e n man  The  finally and  the an  he  created  overall  slowly takes  he  "Tu"  of  le  la  with the  aspects loss  but  was  makes a  gift  inordinate  as had  and  a of  fear  very  poetic  eye  private  omens.  from one  draft.  bad  of  progress  f o r a l l the  i s a gloomy  about  able  scientific  images  that  being  flash-backs to provide an  is a  squeamishness  preliminary  heart  a  since  of  bones  certain  the at  no  his as  There  evidence  of  of  for Christ  centred.  and  priceless  picture the  is self  from  mechanical such  et  respect  Apollinaire  lines  nature  retains  himself,  and  prostitutes  graphic  outgoing  and  of  situe,  i s noticeable particularly  "Je"  disorder.  se  e n t r e Rimbaud et  loaded  by  II est  labyrinthe  fabuleux  i s evidence  other poetry  between  bipolar  i n the  There  l'ange.  drame du  drame  is  i s balanced  so much o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s alternance  Ce  a mi-chemin  d'autre  personality.  Generosity  complex  lui-meme.  du  d'une p a r t , l a m y t h o l o g i e  psychanalyse  Apollinaire's  l'homme e t  l e s personnages  et i e  surrealisme  This  a l a fois  as  r o a d b a c k t o h i s home.  A he  emphasis  minutiae  his  to  of  detailed  a lonely  and  NOTES: C H A P T E R 9  1  (Paris:  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  S.E.D.E.S., Marie-Jeanne  3  Francis Ambriere, de F r a n c e  4  Francis  5  Philippe  X  A1cools',  3  1964) 148.  2  Mercure  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  Durry,  3,  "Quatre  15 f e v r i e r  Ambriere, Renaud,  149-150. ebauches  d ' A p o l l i n a i r e , " Le.  1934: 185.  185-187. L e c t u r e d ' A p o l 1 i n a i r e (Lausanne:  L'Age  d'Homme 1 9 6 9 ) 1 0 9 . 6  Anne Hyde G r e e t ,  (Berkeley: 7  Mario  chansons",  in  Univ.  trans.  of California  Roques,  v  Alcools', P.  "Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  8  Anne Hyde G r e e t ,  214.  9  Anne Hyde G r e e t ,  214.  1 0  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  3, 2 1 9 .  1 1  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2, 1 7 0 .  1 2  Dr. I s a a c Watts (1719)  (1674-1748),  verse  5.  Apollinaire  1965) 2 7 9 .  L a Revue d e s Deux Mondes,  ages p a s t "  Guillaume  et l e s v i e i l l e s  15 J a n v i e r  1948: 320.  Hymn 3 7 9 , "0 G o d , o u r h e l p  208 Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ,  1 3  (Paris: 1 4  1964)  Gallimard,  1952)  Margaret Davies,  T e n d r e comme l e s o u v e n i r  70. Apol1i nai re  (Edinburgh: O l i v e r  and  Boyd,  192. 15  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  156-169.  16  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  160.  17  Marie-Jeanne Durry,  2,  160-161.  18  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  167  19  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  161.  20  Marie-Jeanne  Durry,  2,  161.  21  Richard  Apol1inaire's 1976)  169.  Drama o f s e l f  S t a m e l m a n , The 'Alcools'  &  (Chapel H i l l :  Univ.  i n Guillaume of North  Carolina  P.,  50-51. 2 2  Philippe  2 3  S.I. Lockerbie,  Apollinaire,  2,  Renaud,  La Revue  Stamelman,  164. "'Alcools' des  2 4  R.H.  2 5  Marie-Jeanne Durry,  2 6  R.H.  2 7  Philippe  Stamelman, Renaud,  lettres  135. 1,  156. 164.  et l e Symbolisme,"  292.  modernes  85-89  Guillaume (1963):  7.  209  CONCLUSION  The  various  been uncovered grouped 1.  into  aspects  as  four  result  Apollinaire's  of  The  Death,  Occult;  analysis  of  his  that  poems h a v e  have been  and  Personality  the as  Bipolar  Fear  of  the  Death,  Premonitions  of  Unknown.  such  Disorder;  Reversal;  attitudes.  Religion;  Dreams, Memory, and  3.  the  personality  main d i v i s i o n s :  General p h i l o s o p h i c a l Myth;  2.  a  of  The  Past;  Loneliness;  Melancholy;  Personification; P a r t i c i p a t i o n ; Role  Shadows.  Outward Way  of  Life  (a)  Attitude  the  Stellar  Universe,  (b)  Attitude  towards  Sexuality;  toward the  the  The  Joys  of  (d)  Powers of  (e)  Love of  the  Sun  others:  Women; A n n i e  (c)  Physical  Table.  the  Cruelty;  Playden.  observation.  Paris.  and  World:  Fire,  Water,  Moon. Mystification;  210 4.  Literary  and a r r . i s t i n  Erudition; Puns;  r.harantsrisrirs.  The Dance a n d t h e T h e a t r e ;  t h e method o f a s s e m b l i n g  identification  with  Music;  Literary  a poem; t h e P o e t ' s  Mythological  Role;  and H i s t o r i c a l  Figures. Each  o f t h e four  which w i l l Each of  divisions  be f o l l o w e d  subdivision  will  introductory  i nturn  by t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s  feature  short  remarks  s e to u t above.  sentences  dealing  a twentieth  century  with  each  PHTLOSOPHTCAT, A T T I T U D E S  Apollinaire with  was, i n a sense,  the difference  generation  to  that  he sang,  generation  but  stemmed  from  h i s preoccupation  believed  that  t h e ancient  his  person.  own  He  h i s progress  belief  d i d not explain  seemed t o s e n s e mark  intensely with  there  was  which  matters.  an unseen he l i v e d  time  from  He  were r e i n c a r n a t e d i n  the pain  he h a d b u t l i t t l e  down  songs  metaphysical  world  or alleviate  handed  personal  o f thepast  i n t h e modern  that  and  hand  in.  which  Religious  he e x p e r i e n c e d .  i n which  He  t o make h i s  Myth  Apollinaire  was  the Biblical,  t h e mad k i n g s  Aime.  that  not the lays  troubador  i n t h e world. Legend  vast:  heroes  felt  guided  of  contain  t h e aspects.  GENERAL  of  will  Early  "L'Ermite"  fascinated  t h e Hindu,  of Bavaria  C h r i s t i a n myth and "Merlin  with  myth,  h i s knowledge  t h e Greco-Roman,  a l l figure  and Arthurian et l avieille  and t h e s t o r i e s  i n "La Chanson Legend femme."  was  du  Mal-  a r e t h e sources The l o r e  of the  211 Rhineland fairy  i s a  stories  feature  o f many  attracted  o f h i s poems  h i sattention,  o f 1901-1902.  "The B l u e  Bird"  Even  i n"La  Tzigane" He  read  accounts. only  deeply,  He w r o t e  16 y e a r s The  based  was b o r n  i n astrology  "La Tzigane".  oracular  powers.  "Crepuscule"  prophecy,  Brasier"  under  the sign  and palmistry,  The T a r o t  sunlit  The  this  biblical  i s very  apparent  e t l av i e i l l e  the rites  Virgin lives  this. Mary,  trees had  f o r him and  i n "Onirocritique",  as t h e j e l l y f i s h  gift "Le  swimming i n  wall-plaque  i n Prague;  i n "Zone".  religion  fathers  i n Nice  and gave  young  instilled  Guillaume  church,  was a p a r t i c u l a r  of the Saints,  i n "Le B r a s i e r "  was s u p p l e m e n t e d  b y much  Apollinaire  drew  a  fair  a very  "L'Ermite  emphasis  i n "A L a S a n t e "  the Molinas.  that  were endowed w i t h a  on an agate  of the Catholic There  firmly  femme".  apparent  training by  occur  towards  knowledge  He  "Les F i a n g a i l l e s "  fascination  that poets  sea or h i s likeness  Marianist  witness  had a special  had a b e l i e f  two examples  prove  he was  this.  and "Merlin  Attitude  to  earliest  when  of Virgo.  he i n d i c a t e d  He w a s s c a r e d o f b a d o m e n s s u c h  these  the  on A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d  I n "Le B r a s i e r "  shows  Apollinaire  a  into  Occult  believed  of  a poem  delving  o f age!  Apollinaire  and  sometimes  amount  full  and "Lecture"  and "Le P r i n t e m p s " This  i n f o r m a t i o n on J e w i s h on t h i s  exposure  on t h e c u l t  a n d "Zone".  of  of  the  and t h e Christian theology  i n "La Synagogue". I n  212 addition The  Apollinaire  delved into  misfortunes t h e poet  faith  soon  religious This  after  he  fathers,  had theresult  underwent  had passed  Cologne"  and  "La Vierge  Religious  faith  Mary  invoked  accept as  Christ  d i dreturn  with  of the  matters often  of this  l a fleur  La Sante".  quite  i n " L e DQme  d'haricot  when d i s a s t e r  premonitions o f death,  h i m from  vieille  de  de  Cologne".  occurred and t h e V i r g i n  Apollinaire  real  fear  his early  days  ("Aurore  right  would  d i dnot  really  respect for him  be f o r g o t t e n .  poem  Neige"  He e q u a t e d  i n "La Chanson du Mal-Aime"  had  almost  premonitions  death.  a s much a s d e a t h , t h i s  PERSONALITY  This  AS  division  words  and beyond. once  the loss  The  des  he h a d d i e d h i s  o f love  f o rprophecy  poet  et l a  I n h i s poem  with  and s a d memories  gift  remained  ("La M a i s o n  a n d "Le Voyageur".  t h e poet's  of  trait  and "Merlin  year,  that  and "Palais",  i t i s evident that  other  the fear  o f t h e unknown  which  d'hiver",  the Rhineland  he e x p r e s s e d  "La Blanche  souls  during  o f death  u p t o 1 9 1 1 ("A L a S a n t e " )  "Vendemiaire" work  and t h e fear  had a  femme"),  Morts")  THE  t h e wing  a s t h e Son o f God b u t h a d enormous  Apollinaire  he  under  a man. Death,  in  i n "A  him t o q u e s t i o nh i s  religious  c a n see examples a  heresies.  i n " L ' E r m i t e " and "Le L a r r o n " .  of his treating  one  of several  caused from  as i si n d i c a t e d  irreverently,  was  t h ehistory  feared  death  with  dead  In this  last  meant  that  the  unknown  shows up i n " L a T z i g a n e " .  SUCH  i s concerned  the conscious  with  and  more  personal matters. In  subconscious  aspects  of the  Apollinarian  Self.  the  inner  forces  had  a  and  morbid  dreams.  of  death.  He  abstract  He  form  He  a  his  given  the  living  "Cortege "Merlin  and  artistic  la  legacy  Sometimes, strenuous  of  past  poet,  drew  Landor Road"  and  femme", past  forget.  "Palais"  are  some  heavily  and  on  of  in  past  of  his  "Les  of  the  out  of  an  active  when  events  "Cortege"  for  too  an  He  in this  writing  for  "Mai",  and  on  the  inspiration.  painful  Fiancailles",  noteworthy  of  poetry.  chasse";  was  form  shadows.  dreams  de  events  a show  became  past  "Cors  as  i t was  a personality and  he  disordered  outward  knew were o n l y  recollection  memory o f to  of  that  personality  further  motion  had  him  an  the  create  w h a t he  on  on  recognize  realised He  for  under  take  the  the  when t h e efforts  to  even  of  vieille  disorder.  loneliness,  went  "Palais";  et  he  example,  mental  narrative  the  for  to  Dreams, memory, and Apollinaire,  seemed t o  poem o r  He  symbols  Apollinaire  melancholy  prone  conception. in  of  dreaded  was  in  participant created  d r o v e him,  mild  hid  nonchalance.  some c a s e s  that  recurring  protagonist  In  he  made  "L'Emigrant  de  respect.  T.onel i n e s s For  someone  surprising logical into is  how  not  this.  i t  "Le  friend's  female  Voyageur"  as  evident  persisted  society.  surprising,  particularly  out-going  strongly  make-up;  literary  as  this  long  Loneliness since  he  friends, showed  company a f f e c t e d  Apollinaire  after  during  had  few  "L'Ermite" that  him  trait he  the  in  had early  friends is  loneliness  very  is  was,  strongly.  a  good  after  i t  his  been  psychoaccepted  years, i n at  is  that  Paris time,  indication the  loss  of  of a  214 Melancholy L i k e . many to  derive  a  slightly  degree  Autumn  depressed  called  the  appears  Even  dear  Andre  rectangular  Pont  As  in  had  when  made  dreams,  he  table  coffin.  as  the  a  a  river's  seemed sadness.  i s so  in  a  aptly  "Automne".  was  i n verse, the up  of  what  as  he . c o n j u r e s  like  out  clear  aparticularly  celebrating,  Salmon  by  this  morbid  upset,  persistent  subject  to  young  wedding  morbid  man. of h i s  image  For  of  a  Apollinaire,  continual  flow  in  "Le  would  be  Disorder  early  o f ups  subject is  t o have  inspiration followed  he  Apollinaire  Mirabeau". Bipolar  full  i t was  Winter",  cloth-covered was  individuals  p l e a s u r e and  when  ("Lecture"). friend  psychotic  since  of  thoughts  melancholy  of  him  "Dead  Apollinaire morbid  Morbidity  and  as  and  1899  Apollinaire  downs.  I n "Le  to the very r e a l  evidence that love  but  relatively The romance contained  this  realised  Larron"  he  that  foresaw that  d i s e a s e known as B i p o l a r  problem  diminished  arose every  when  life  would  Disorder.  t i m e he  amatory  he  affairs  was  be  There  frustrated  were  running  smoothly.  first with  major Annie.  i n the  onset A  o c c u r r e d i n 1902/3  clinical  analysis  of  "Le  description Printemps".  Apollinaire  inherited  the  d i s e a s e from  The  problem  persisted  and  became more  in  the  Rhineland,  Apollinaire  worked  "L'Emigrant  de  as i t out  Landor  is  evident  the  of  this  end  of  his  state  i s  I t i s probable  h i s mother.  ("La  aggravated during in  of h i s system  Road",  at  "Nuit by  Porte".) the  Rhenane",  writing  poems  "La C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " ,  that  year until  such  as  wherein  he  215 acknowledged it,  "Un  poetry  Soir", seemed  disease/ A  that  he h a d t h e d i s e a s e ,  a n d . " L u l de to lift  second  attack  Laurencin  was  brought  of misery  on  by  h e d i d n o t name  The a c t o f w r i t i n g  similar t o that  a n d t h e symptoms  Voyageur",  Faltenin".  t h e weight  i t was a p r o c e s s  even though  that  brought  of exorcising  the  rupture  a r e t o be found  such  on t h e a  devil.  with  Marie  i n "A l a S a n t e " ,  "Le  a n d "Zone"  Personification Whereas t h e term the  personality  here  show  of the person  i s the creating  Chanson  du M a l - A i m e "  the evil  sluttish, becomes brought given  poet  a group  into that  to a  summoning  the girls  fallen  Apollinaire  was  love  of chattering  sometimes  listening  moves  boatman's  t h e scene  street-wise  reborn. women  I n "La lout to  harbouring  false love.  used  and a  The P h o e n i x  Apollinaire  has  i n " L e s Femmes" a n d  robber i n "Schinderhannes".  who  moved  t h e poet  song  i n "Nuit  reversal  This  term  i n a country  i s used  h i s role  Rhenane"  are the subject  of  he  t o h i spersonal  t o record  that  instances  as  a  After  insists  t h e song.  g r a v e y a r d i n "Rhenane  become t h e hands o f l o v e r s  Role  from  of a participant i n the action.  i n a n d r e l a t e s what he sees  leaves  a quality.  a  o f a murderous  recorder-narrator  he  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n as  has created  of  acquiring  as a p a r t i c i p a n t  Apollinaire  recording  that  t o t h e poet  t o represent  o l d woman t o r e p r e s e n t  us a p i c t u r e The  t h e poet  personification  to life  described,  of a person  thoughts  drunken the  role reversal applies  on  After  d'Automne" experience,  have passed on.  where  t h e poet  has  216 taken of  on  a  the  a  role  poem. poet,  England  In  allows  the  in  for  trying  her  poem.  a  with  his  girl,  the  butt act  identifies  has  love  safe  the  ("La  ("La  of  village  love  himself  with  ("Les  Clifford.  beautiful  sorceress  "Loreley"  with  Apollinaire concept  of  the  corpses  see  their  a  wandering  fleur  because  Cloches"). II He  of  poet  here  In  transmutes  way  and  who  is  describes  and  there  becomes a  a  in  sailor  painter  in  d'haricot");  and  she  caught  had  been  "Palais"  England  Clef"  poet  Faltenin");  la  gossips  this  the  Apollinaire  a  "La  searching  The  reversal individual  and  course  de  the  from  and  the  Annie  himself  poet  with into  whose l o v e r i s l e a v i n g h e r  to  a  his the  go  to  country. Obsession  of  of  ("Lui  Henry  of  i t is  i s not  l o v e r . Role  romance.  is  Vierge  Rosamund  far  who  r e t u r n home  the  is  reading  Road"  departure  Printemps"  Dame");  mistress  a  i t  casual  Landor  personality  missing  model  of  the  Annie's  "Le  gone,  from a de  l o v e l o r n young g i r l s  footsore  for  as  In  widow  for  the  role  a  love  in  his  the  search  "1/Emigrant  acquire  that  apparent  i s l e a v i n g and  from  to  one  as  rediscover  as  longing  who  the  love  the  such  describes  to  himself  Annie,  poet  Apollinaire  than  poem  rather  described  that  a  not  but  other  lost  "Signe".  love  shadows  created  some  shadow.  In  past  lives  follows the  of "La in  poet  his  best  Maison their  des  imagery morts"  shadows.  w h e r e v e r he  in  goes  The like  using  the  resurrected recollection a  shadow  in  217 OUTS TDK  INFLUENCES  ON  THE  POET'S  WAY  OF  T.TFF.  Gaston B a c h e l a r d has drawn a t t e n t i o n and  Water  sensitive  and  1  their  as A p o l l i n a i r e ,  Apollinaire, contemplation extent  of  Sun  had with  provides  It i s a pity  a  friendly  the long-lasting  made  Mal-Aime" exegesists A to  store  he  used  by  and  to  a  immensity  much  of  lesser  the  Starry  i n i t , that  caught  o f say t h e "Sept continue  facet  books  of the relationship  a n d women t h a t  that  women  forcryptic would  i s no  have  Epees"  that  traceable  a s he  really  i fnot always  trust-  the negative  of  i s  o f t h e man  and t r u s t i n g ,  aspects  and  his  such  as  ambivalent  i n h i s works. crosswords had  started  been  of the  a  bewildered evidence  t o ask t h e poet  master  by  Apollinaire's  at a l l that  any o f  f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n  of the  interlude  i n "La Chanson  t o t a x some o f t h e b r i g h t e s t  du  o f t h e many  works.  of Apollinaire's  and l a t e r recover note  inspired  was  detected  men  were -t r u l y  of Apollinaire's  major  he  and y e t t h e r e  which  as  days,  a r e so e v i d e n t  taste  lifetime,  any e f f o r t  complexities  he  denigration  His contemporaries  them  the  poet  affected.  picture  therefore  of Annie Playden  mystification,  that  false  treatment  art.  i t was  the recital  sexuality,  Apollinaire's  earliest  A  t o be  i n particular  that  cruelty,  in  subconscious.  not f a i l  h i s fellow  He c o u l d b e v e r y  If  the  forcibly.  appear  h i s poetry  worthy.  his  However  most  would  Apollinaire  was.  the  on  could  a n d t h e movement  attention It  to  from  t h e Moon.  Universe, his  effect  t o t h e phenomena o f F i r e  minor  personality  little  details.  w h e n h e was a y o u n g man,  was  his ability  I t i s known  b u t he p r o b a b l y  that gave  218 up  using  them i n h i s l a t e  which enrich h i spoetry Finally Paris, the  like  dozen  Fire.  with  internal  transforming this  a n d was  especially  he  feel  saw  power able  of  flickering As little work  Brasier" the  during rightly  Systems by  analogy  animals;  are  i t s sparks  phallic  to purgation.  himself  and  i t i s analogous t o t h e  i t s flickering  i t s flames  t o express  a major  i t he  as  role  a  are  movement i s  symbols; i t s  Apollinaire  2  accordingly  light,  further  to  have  eyes  knew  i n h i s poetry,  been  he r e g a r d e d  "Le  imagery, Brasier"  tongues  i n "La L o r e l e y " .  the  i n "Nuit  than  In  the flickering  because  water,  i n Apollinaire's  purifier.  admired  wine  regards  tools  have been  i s linked  warmblooded  i s analogous  on t h e s u b j e c t ,  seemed  Frye  the units of life,  came o u t o f a s o r c e r e s s ' s glass  so b r i g h t l y  which  of experience,  as  vitality;  plays  Fiancailles"  a  love f o r  i n "Le B r a s i e r " .  Fire it,  we  to  h i s readers.  shone  and t h e S t e l l a r  aspects  t o seeds,  analogous  that  o f t h e new c e n t u r y  t o Northrop  other  heat  analogous  the city  the Solar  according  identity  t o entrance  Epoque".  Water,  Fire  and y e t t h e m u l t i p l e v i g n e t t e s  f o r e i g n e r s he h a d an a b i d i n g  lumiere", years  named " L a B e l l e  continue  s o many  "La v i l l e  first  twenties  presence  of  He  adored  and  "Les  flames  that  saw f l a m e s  bubbles  gave  i n  i t a  Rhenane".  Apollinaire  Gaston  would  Bachelard  appear  overlooked water  by  the  as a tempering  had passed  t o have  gone  a  d i d i n h i sphilosophical  s i n c e h e h a s come u p w i t h  of h i s trade,  of  he  two concepts  latter. agent,  through  First, after  that  i n "Le  h i s hands,  the furnace.  Second  219 in  "Le  Pont  Mirabeau"  permanence o f water The  poetry  water  has  that  with  with  later  note  appear  de  Lune".  refrain  the  and l i k e n e d  i tt o time.  examples  the  by  than t h e male;  finally  images  Fiancailles",  such  as  provided  i t s identification  and "Zone".  rich  t h e bees  o f t h e German w i n t e r  "Poeme  1908 a l s o when  the  l u au m a r i a g e used  a stellar  aspects  apart  from  i n imagery.  had t h e i r  analogy  Moon  i n "Elegie".  d'Andre  noted  The  i n "Clair  subject  3  are dealt  Other  inspiration  i s exceptionally  after  i t s musicality.  Sun have have been  much  of  reflective  Phoebus A p o l l o  "Palais"  and  features  I t s  c o n c l u d i n g remarks.  of the Setting  especially  self-aggrandizement  with  du Mal-Aime",  written  other  Bachelard; sound,  Universe  star-shine  of  transmit  have  i n "La Chanson  o f poems  stellar  down a r i v e r ,  i n these  to  Stellar  fading  breed  nature  to  o f poems  not  The  unchanging  noted  the redness  the analysis  "Clair  the  rather  noted  Sun a n d i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i n a  does  been  i t s capacity  particularly in  countless  t h e female The  flowing  have  qualities,  he  fair  was  de  Lune"  The  new  share  of  love,  Salmon".  The  "Les  The n o t e  i n " L u l de  of  Faltenin".  Cruelty There cruel Annie; and  rude  evidence  i f he  i n "La Chanson  personified  woman; The  and  i s ample  Annie's  idyllic  description  wished.  scene  He  du Mal-Aime"  her false eyes  that  love  are likened  Apollinaire was  very  he c a l l e d  i n t h e shape t o those  i n "Dans l e j a r d i n  of the act of breaking a  be  disillusioned  quite with  h e r an " A n t i p a p e s s e of a  o f a Hun  d'Anna" cane  could  was  across  sluttish old i n  "Palais".  disturbed t h e back  by  a  of a  220 p e a s a n t . A goose When  i s plucked while  Apollinaire  realised  still  that  Linda  alive  i n "Automne  Molina  malade"  was n o t about  to  r e s p o n d t o h i s o v e r t u r e s he wanted h e rt o be b e a t e n by s a d i s t s . M y s t i f i cat i o n The  prime  Apollinaire himself. give  More  often  than  away  about  secretive  Chanson  poet  i n "Merlin  o f shyness  be v e r y  often  a  of a  urge  Brasier"  his  was  and  However  hinted  "Zone"  "La Tzigane",  proves  that t h e  There  was a n  and imagery,  attitude,  t h e r e was  i fthe situation  d'amour a L i n d a " .  this.  even  However  t o gain  with  Louise  even  a n d "Zone"  mystification.  Examples  details  i n t h e company o f make  this  clear.  out o f the  closet.  importance  were  restraint  during h i s  and  often  o f squeamishness,  of this  He  "Le L a r r o n " and  Coligny-Chatillon  h i s own p e r s o n a l  a t o u t o f h i s sense  are brought greater  the surface.  women,  h e was o f t e n  "1909",  de  a s b e i n g o v e r - s e x e d . The  i fbeneath  t o captivate  normally considered taboo  relationships  only  there  "Rosemonde",  aspect  Pages.  femme",  He w a s  s h o w s u p i n " M a i " . F o r o n e who  circumspect Diets  t o t h e poet  he d i d n o t w i s h t o  o f h i s own w o r k .  i n description  capacity  prove  prostitutes.  This  editor  c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d  was a l w a y s  doubted  Subjects  apparent  labelled  Drives  Apollinaire  never  et l a vieille  him which  f o r i t , as i n "Les  Sexual  erotic  about  have  or h i srelationships.  and "Cortege".  forthright  display  and c r i t i c s  was q u i t e  himself  du Mal-Aime",  could  called  friends  n o t i t was b e c a u s e  was a v e r y p a i n s t a k i n g  element  "Le  why  as an a r c h - m y s t i f i e r  t o o much  quite "La  reason  self  Madeleine  omitted or loathing,  a r et o be found i n  221 "L'Ermite", sexual  "Lecture",  connotations  quintain,  seemed  about  menstruation  There  was  Mal-Aime" or  have  centred  He  writers  where  that  was s o m e t h i n g showed  this  i n "Zone".  sex which  women.  they  dreadful  c a n be  after h i s  I n "La Chanson du  were  out t o cheat  him  roles He  or personality are involved  i s s u r e l y one o f t h e most i s t h e poem  centred  around  selfAnnie  o f Salome.  was  company. loved  particularly  "Mille  fond  Regrets"  t o frequent  i s a  with  Salmon"  Apollinaire  had acute  that  to  powers  distinguish  food,  charming cafes  where  any o r d i n a r y person  wine  artists  of and  strokes i n  "Vendemiaire".  of observation, details  good  indication  unerring brush  and  and a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l  glance  o f good  the l i t t l e  met, a n d p a i n t s t h e scene  impressions  the difference  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  Observation  quick  with  o f t h e female  An e x c e p t i o n  "Poeme l u a u m a r i a g e d ' A n d r e  a  the  of the t a b l e .  Apollinaire  this.  as  as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t  Apollinaire.  of poets.  good  fear  he  he d i d n o t t r u s t  o f t h e poems  The j o y s  such  found  him.  identified  under t h e guise  and  blood,  he d i s p l a y e d a b e l i e f  t o do w i t h  there  and "L'Ermite".  with Annie,  Annie  objects  preoccupied  In h i sb e l i e f  subconscious  even emasculate  Most  t o be  and female  i n "Lecture"  experience  inanimate  Apollinaire  i n "Les F i a n c a i l l e s " .  b e t w e e n men a n d women.  detected  i n  Faltenin.  t o women  Apollinaire  a  L u i de  even  mentioned  Attitude  and  and  would miss.  h e was a b l e i n  record  and  store  "Le Voyageur" i s  222 particularly  rich  i n this  fashions  i n "1909"  Although  scenery  create  in  imagery  i n t h e poem  Apollinaire  advertisements; Christ  riding  aeroplane.  that  full  large  working  to life  i n a  word  noted  everything  picture  A visit that  to  the  playing  cards  i n wall-poster  i n Cologne wings  about  i n Cologne.  detail.  scenery  i n "Le Voyageur". I n  by  as d e s c r i b e d  i n "Zone".  h e was a b l e t o  contained  supported  time  of interesting  stanzas,  the  cross  i n ladies  coachwork  The c u s t o m e r s  the poetry  her beat  changes  Apollinaire  relating  are brought  detected  at Carnival  resulted  i n  as i n "Mai".  Apollinaire  city  i n automobile  he r e l a t e d an o l d p a i n t i n g a  "Marizibill"  He n o t i c e d  p e r se d i d not a f f e c t  an i n n i n Luxemburg  "Zone":  is  and changes  beautiful  protagonist  respect.  The  depicting  to  a  modern  the prostitute street  i n " L e Dome  de  scene i n Cologne"  t o a columbarium .in Munich  told  everything  i n just  two  i n "La Maison des morts".  Love o f P a r i s Apollinaire during  that  h i s beloved  " L a B e l l e E p o q u e " was t h e c e n t r e  praises  i n "La Chanson  the  city  and  describing  flaneur  well  des  according  LTTERARY  du Mal-Aime"  and never  tired  everything  deux  rives",  Paris,  especially  o f the world.  He s a n g i t s  and "Vendemiaire".  of walking  that  took  over  h i s fancy.  the stroller  along  every  He  mile  knew of  He w a s t r u l y the river  i t  "Le  that,  t o " L e B r a s i e r " , was s t a p l e d t o t h e t o w n .  AND  This poet  thought  and  ARTTSTTC  division  CHARACTERISTICS.  deals  with  h i s relationships  A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own t e c h n i q u e s with  others  involved  i n  as a  artistic  223 endeavours. Apollinaire lines new  and  even  one.  that  The  had  If  Apollinaire  poets,  he  every  and  kept  reason  modern  into  disparate  a  draft  cohesiveness  Only  a  poet  which  to  draw  number  made  up  of the  of  had  could  images  of  a  who on  of  a  work  had  a  could  do  a  to  astounding  and  developments,  O c c u l t and  that  was  just  d i s c o u r s e on  second  any  of  hand  who  in  the  his  own  bookstalls  s u b j e c t and  contemporaries  about  available  considerable library  frequented the  among  available  scientific  world of the  human k n o w l e d g e He  of  for i t in his  history,  i t as he  grasp  superb.  poetry  as  of  the  of  Many  well  this  enlivening  as  the  French  archaic  of  was  Language  words  neologisms  knowledge  effect  this  was  lacked  a  this  have  of  his  his  found own  frequent  heightening the  both  ancient  their  way  into  A  bye-  creation. use  of  musicality  puns as  and  which  well  as  his poetry.  Apollinaire this  from  splicing  poems  a l l the  scratch.  the  past  jealousy  poet's  had  older  of  ability.  was  product  to  art  Apollinaire.  h i s time.  for  The  of  S e i n e . He  remarkable  often  of  the  images  than  movements,  adding  along the  his  grasp  of  of  lacked  manifestation  libraries  had  from  as  more  of from  poem  stock  successfully  artistic  stanzas  written  small  encyclopedic of  master  resulting  as  other  a  whole  been  relatively this  was  dominant  as  trait  his  inspiration  was  unique.  a  poet  cannot  proceeded  was be  from  almost over  invariably  emphasised.  divine  sources  He and  self-centred, asserted that  this  that gift  224 In to  h i s role  the ancient  those  as a poet gods  who d o m i n a t e d Apollinaire  who  Apollinaire  symbolised  the  and  This used  to  poems,  enjoyed  describe  currently  Music  system  was;  note  and t h e Dance  artcritics  familiar  Apollinaire's  "cut",  from  efficient. end  term,  and  composing  distance  and music  as w e l l  as  a n d was r e g a r d e d  by  of h i s time.  Paste  technical  the  poetry  heavens.  many a s one o f t h e f o r e m o s t Cut  saw h i m s e l f a s a s u c c e s s o r  continual  the insertion  "the paste."  Apollinaire's i t certainly  The b u l k  t o a l l newspapermen,  under t h e headings  into  a  I t would  times  to  appears  of these  borrowing  find  o f "from"  prior he  impossible at  been  have  and  that  o u t what  t o have  borrowings  from  work  be  has been  this  his filing  extraordinarily  been  "to".  was  grouped  i n one  4  Erudition Apollinaire's him  was q u i t e  ("Les  t o read  Lexicography  L'Homme");  and  Russian Ballet. dancers  going  introduction Morgane  dance  trivia  were  Astronomy  Arthurian (Rhenane  interested  Legend  Botany,  ("Clair  de  ("Triptyque  d'Automne").  and t h e T h e a t r e  Russian  Apollinaire  ("Annie");  ("L'Ermite");  and R e l i g i o u s  The Dance The  a n d remember what  p r o d i g i o u s : among t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d  C o l c h i q u e s " ) ; Geography,  Lune"); de  capacity  artist Serge  Diaghilef  They b o t h through  Larionov  made  watching  a  seem t o be a b s o r b e d their  paces.  f o r the ballet  "Parade".  provocatively  i n "Merlin  some  sketches  rehearsal  of the  as they watched t h e  Apollinaire He  of  also  wrote  an  made  t h e Sun a n d  et l a vieille  femme". T h e  225  passage  of time  theatre,  was l i k e n e d t o a r o u n d d a n c e  particularly  attention.  "La  "Cr6puscule"  Commedia  and  del  i n "A L a S a n t e " . Arte"  "Saltimbanques"  The  commanded  are  his  indicative  of  this. Ear  f o r Music  Whenever hum  a  A p o l l i n a i r e s a t down  little  tune,  this  provided  with  s o much o f h i s p o e t r y .  poem  was  is  even  convincing  the  measured  Sante" his  poetry,  seems  important  proof  of this.  i n t o music.  example  than  The p o e t  was  t h a t - one  that  of long  syllable  after  o r "ene" sounds  would  associates  "Le P o n t  i n the cell  fond  he  the musicality  coherence.  of the final  i n the a i r long  the "aine"  a poem  A p o l l i n a i r e succeeded  of a prisoner,  t h e sound  t o hang  t h e beat  He b e l i e v e d  more  tread  t o "compose"  i n  above  Mirabeau" converting  his,  drawn-out i n many  i t has  been  i n "Marie"  of a  a t "La  sounds i n  o f h i s poems uttered,  for  o r "La Chanson  du  Mal-Aime". A propensity Apollinaire a  kind  are  of leaven  :Rosaire  Laurencin Le  -  t o create loved  t o create  Toussaint  Roseraie  ("Le  - Toussaint-Luca  Apollinaire  believed  this  forcibly  God-like  powers. As e a r l y that  phrases,  Dome Raison  de -  they  served  images.  Cologne"); Raisin  as  Examples  Laurier  ("Vendemiaire");  ("Rhenane d ' A u t o m n e " ) .  the Poet.  asserted  insisted  punning  t o l i g h t e n t h e sometimes morbid  ("Les F i a n g a i l l e s " ) ;  Apollinaire,  he  puns  that  he  He b e l i e v e d ,  existed  to  i n "Fiancailles,  as 1901, i n "Les D i e t s  he h a d t h e a b i l i t y  write  to sing  poetry that  d'amour a  lays  and  he h a d Linda"  f o r queens.  In  226 considering  h i s role  inspiration  should  Although established La  Sante"  forms  Apollinaire  his he  o f prosody  created  the night.  identified believed  that  he  different  roles,  his heart  as  an i n c a r n a t i o n  and  has  imagery  involving  across  a n d "A  with  Mercury,  could  assume  t h e Sun  t h e clouds i n  t h e god various  returning  of  charlatans,  disguises  Trismegistus  who  he  and  play  o r a clown,  even  I n " L e Dome d e C o l o g n e  o f Hermes  again  and "Saltimbanques"  be a J e s t e r , H a r l e q u i n  was b r e a k i n g .  connection  I n " L u l de F a l t e n i n "  i n "Crepuscule"  he saw h i m s e l f  invented  writing,  was t h e s c r i b e t o t h e Gods. Whenever  he d e s c e n d e d  described  graphically  into  h i s own p e r s o n a l  i n "Lul  de  and t h e agonising  climb  poetry  was  identified  Orpheus,  lose  "Marie"  i t s direct  of riding  Orpheus  his  reverted t o  of antiquity  i n " L e D6me d e C o l o g n e " .  he c o u l d  if  he always  o f h i s name w i t h  Apollinaire  himself  Spirit.  when f a c i n g a c r i s i s ,  t h e gods  was p r o u d  complex  whether h i s  tendency.  with  chariot  i n "Palais"  t o experiment  t h e S u n G o d . He d r e a m s  golden  after  himself  or t h e Holy  he was w i l l i n g  indicate this  Apollo,  asked  be l o v e  Identification  to  he  so  t h e god o f music.  avocation  o f poet  h i s loves.  backwards  It  musical  i s now  Faltenin",  t o Earth. himself  I n "Le Printemps,  as an i n c a r n a t i o n  Like  as t h e boat  back  Orpheus,  hell,  which  he  he t h o u g h t  of  Apollinaire very  easily  whose with  he saw h i m s e l f i n  o f t h e g o d , doomed t o  t h e poet,  i n  "Mai",  glances  c a r r y i n g h i m g o e s down t h e R h i n e .  appropriate  to  attempt  to unite  the  manifold  227 elements  of  mentioned  at the beginning  fourth roads  Apollinaire's  appear that  to lead  Merlin  difficulty  the  three  arterial  The  dominant from  poetry; as  love back  abstract  aspects  divisions  poet  second and  t h e same  cross  o f 1899 s t o o d a t .  side  roads  that  join  Apollinaire's  that  has  been  and  undertaken  of Bipolar Disorder  and A p o l l i n a i r e ' s  on a n c i e n t  of  personality  myth  :  writing  and t h e past,  Self  from h i s  extraordinary  inspiration;  historical  are  arising  by  which  ability h i s best  generally,  the personification  figures  into  the  of  modern  i n h i s poetry.  with  death;  detail;  facets  a r e : w i l l i n g n e s s t o experiment  the dabbling  the  as  mystification; and  humorous l i n e Finally those  like-minded  a  erudition;  i n his later  him; the a t t r a c t i o n  projects;  i n the Occult;  extraordinary  the fascination  t h e s k y above  with  four  a cross-roads,  are multiple  of  of poetic  concepts  of poetry;  for  from  the  the first,  after, e x o r c i s i n g h i s misery  source  forms  of  chapter,  as t h e young  there  affairs  Subordinate  around  Of  highways.  t h e dependence  the best  actors  i s that  the incidence  unfortunate bounce  outward  the analysis  centredness;  to  of this  incarnate  The  emerge  personality.  poetry  last  but  not  least  e v e n when i n t h e d e p t h s there  are the aspects  he came friends;  into  contact  h i s strong  his  eye f o r  t h e modern  to flesh  ability  world  and water  the infinite  works  new  pre-occupation sharp  of fire  o f imagery;  the use o f e a r l i e r  the with  o f t h e elements  source  the  with  to  and  capacity  out current produce  a  of despair.  of Apollinaire's relationships  with.  Steadfast  sexuality  friendships with  w h i c h was o f t e n  cloaked  228 out most  of a  sense  o f modesty;  changes  that  as  complexity beauty  on  of  an  cruelty,  to read  much,  the  artistic  controlled  will  f o rthe  give  moved  one: t h e m e r c u r i a l i n and out o f  movements of  the  contrasted  lyrics  will  pleasure  h i s wonderful  France.  complex  leader  of h i s poetry  of h i s other  nevertheless  a  o c c u r r i n g a s he  unelected  o f some  and music  prepared very  p e r s o n a l i t y was  kept  influences  position  but  latent  part. Apollinaire's  the  a  gift  to  of  his  love;  time;  his  avant-garde; with  continue  the  ineffable  to puzzle  a l l persons  to the country  he  the  some  who loved  are so  229  NOTES:  1  C M  Gaston  Ross  CONCLUSION  B a c h e l a r d , The P s y c h o a n a l y s i s  (Boston: Beacon  Gaston  Press,  B a c h e l a r d , L'Eau  n£. F i r e ,  trans.  Alan  1964) . e t l e s Reves,  (Paris:  Jose  Corti,  1942). 2  Gaston  Northrop  Frye,  preface,  The  B a c h e l a r d , (Boston: Beacon  Psychoanalysis  Press,  1964)  3  Gaston  B a c h e l a r d , T/ e t l e s R e v e s .  4  Detail  of transfers  between  From  of. F i r e ,  by  v i .  poems. Ha  L e Dome d e C o l o g n e  Le  Le  Les  Printemps  Printemps Fiangailles  L'Emigrant Le Diets  d'Amour  Brasier  La Chanson du Mal-Aime  Rhenane d'Automne  La  La  L'Adieu  Clef  La Adieux "Les  ville  sont  de Landor Rd.  pleines"  Clef  Dame  L'Emigrant  de Landor Rd.  L'Emigrant  de L a n d o r Rd.  L'Anguille  1909  "0 France,France ma p a t r i e "  1909  La Femme a s s i s e  (notebook)  A La Sante  "Je s u i s Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e " A La Sante Un s o i r d'ete  Automne Malade  231  BIBLIOGRAPHY  INTRODUCTION  The  bibliography  linaire' s study,  totally  or  output,  books  articles  been  own  by  devoted  consulted  admittedly prepared  appeared carnets last  books  authors  to Apollinaire. b u t many  somewhat  o f them  the direction  bibliographiques  de  The  topics  The 1  1 977-1  to the  Apollinaire,  items either  have  a l l  redundant  major  bibliography  and p e r i o d i c updates C.  issues  whose p a r a m e t e r s a r e  last  have  Hoy i n t h e s e r i e s " L e s  des l e t t r e s 1977-1981.  M a r c e l A d e m a , Gui 1 1aume A p o l l i n a i r e P e t e r C. H o y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e 981) ( P a r i s : Lettres-.Modernes Minard,  f  2  with  found  thesis,  of Peter  the period  relevant  Apol-  of periodicals with  been  Revue  sections:  individual  have  i n 1968  La  five  specifically  i n this  Adema  one a v a i l a b l e c o v e r s  1  general  circumscribed.  by Marcel  into  and a l i s t i n g  forinclusion  under  on  dealing  i n periodicals,  unsuitable  was  i s subdivided  modernes" t h e  2  349-371. (oeuvres 1985)  e_L  critique  232  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  B I B L I O G R A P H Y OF THE AUTHOR.  Apollinaire, Vitam  Guillaume.  A3 c o o l s  impendere a m o r i .  s u i v i de Le B e s t i a i r e  Collection  poesie.  e t de  Paris:  G a l l i m a r d , 1972. Alcools: Lefevre.  c h o i x de poemes. N o t i c e s e t n o t e s Nouveaux  classiques  Larousse.  p a r Roger  Paris:  Larousse,  1972. A3, c o o l s. Greet.  Fwd. W a r r e n Ramsey.  Berkeley: Univ.  Alcools.  Introduction  Lecherbonnier.  Trans.  & notes  Anne  Hyde  o f C a l i f . Press, 1965. e t commentaires p a r Bernard  Intertextes  - Les oeuvres.  Paris:  Fernand  Nathan, 1983. Alcools. Oxford:  E d . A.E. P i l k i n g t o n .  Basil  Anecdotiques. Paris:  Blackwell's French  Texts.  B l a c k w e l l 1970. Introduction  G a l l i m a r d , 1955.  e t notes  par Marcel  Adema.  233 Calliarammes: JL9_L£L. P r e f a c e Gallimard,  P o e m e s de  la p a i x  et  de  Butor.  Collection  Michel  Poems o f P e a c e  Anne Hyde G r e e t .  La  Berkeley: Chanson  Piron.  du  Paris:  Les  of  de  Nizet,  son  de  Femme a s s i s e .  Le  Flaneur  des  pittoresques.  de  Lettres Paris:  Paris:  M913-1916).  Trans.  Lockerbie,  Press,  1980.  commentee p a r  et  sa  Decaudin.  m£re.  Maurice  Presentee  Paris:  par  Jose C o r t i ,  notes par  Preface  et  notes par  1964. suivi Texte  poesie.  de  Les  etabli  L.-C.  Breunig.  Michel  Decaudin  rives  Paris:  suivi  de  idees.  melancolique  suivi  m a m e l l e s de et preface  par  Michel  1948. Contemporains  Paris: de  TirCsias  Gallimard,1972.  Gallimard,  Collection  Poemes  Decaudin.  Collection  Preface  n o t e s de  Gallimard,  1975.  retrouv£s.  poesie.  Paris:  1980.  a Lou.  Gallimard,  1987.  ..  Paris:  deux  Michel  Gallimard,  S.I.  frere  temps.  La  Notice  poesie.  1960.  Collection  Guetteur  and  I n t r o d u c t i o n et  amoureux.  Gallimard,  Decaudin.  Le  (IQIV  1987.  avec  Gallimard,  r.ouleur  War  Calif.  L'Enchanteur pourrissant et  and  Mal-Aime. E d i t i o n  d'art.  Diables  Paris:  Greet,  Boudar et M i c h e l  Chroniques Paris:  A.H. Univ.  Correspondance Gilbert  la guerre  1966.  Callicrrammes:  eds.  de  1969.  et  Michel  Decaudin.  234  Les  Mamelles  With  Denise  Orch. Te  Duval  a sa m a r r a i n e  4.  etablie Paris:  completes sous  Andre  Oeuvres Marcel  poetiques.  de  Peintres  Paris:  Texte  Michel  Selected  Shattuck.  Decaudin. 1966.  et annote Preface  Vol.  3.  4 vols. par  D'Andre  Billy.  1965.  Paris: Gallimard,  cubistes: Meditations  esthetiques.  L.C.Breunig  Geneve  & J . - CI.  Chevalier.  1965.  precede  de  I I y a.  C o l l e c t i o n poesie.  Preface  Michel  Paris: Gallimard,  E d i t i o n presentee,  Decaudin.  de  1969.  etablie et  C o l l e c t i o n poesie.  Paris:  1979. Poems.  Poetry,  Selected  Decaudin.  Edition  1950.  par Michel  Gallimard,  n.d.  1966.  Lecat,  etabli  1954.  esth£tiques.  Po£te a s s a s s i n e .  annotee  Paris  Cluytens.  completes...  Michel  & Jacques  e t n o t e s de  Poemes a Lou  Press  35090,  Meditations  Hermann,  Decaudin.  & Lecat,  l a Pleiade.  Cailler,  Presentation  Poulenc.  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e .  cubistes:  peintres  10.043,  ADES,  l a d i r e c t i o n de  Adema a n d  Pierre  de  Balland  Bibliotheque  Le  Francis  G i r a u d e a u . Cond. Andre  i n Oeuvres  Paris: Balland  Oeuvres  Les  Jean  Mirahsan.nisqiiPS  Lettres  Les  and  M u s i c by  o f the P a r i s Opera-Comique. Angel,  Pont  Vol.  Tir^sias.  de  Trans. O l i v e r Bernard.  London:  1986.  writings of Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . New  Anvil  York:  James L a u g h l i n ,  1948.  Trans.  Roger  235 Snides par  f  pnemes i n e d i t s  Gilbert  Boudar,  de  Guillaume  Pierre  Caizergues  Presentation  et notes par Pierre  Bibliotheque  artistique  Textes Textes Zone.  litteraires Trans.  avec  Caizergues.  une  Publies Decaudin.  Fontfroide:  1985.  Introduction par Marcel  de M a d e l e i n e P a g e s . inedits:  et Michel  & litteraire,  T e n d r e comme l e s o u v e n i r . Preface  Apollinaire.  Paris:  Gallimard,  introduction  francais.  Samuel B e c k e t t .  de  Dublin:  1962.  Jeanine  Geneve: D r o z ,  Adema.  Moulin.  1952.  Dolmen P r e s s ,  1972.  236  BIBLIOGRAPHY  2.  GENERAL WORKS CONSULTED  Bachelard,  Gaston.  La P o e t i a u e de  France,  The by  de  Frye. R.,  Disorders."  Boston:  and  Andre.  Abnormal  Manifestes  Paris:  Decaudin, M i c h e l . Slatkine, Delaunay,  La  Trans.  A l a n C.M.Ross.  Beacon P r e s s ,  1942.  1988.  du  "The  De  and  Rimbaud au  Seghers,  des  Mood  current perspectives. 245.  Surrealisme.  Pierre crise  238  S.E.V.P.E.N.,  Qu  r.ubi sme  Paris:  Pauvert,  Surrealisme:  Mythes,Reves et M y s t ^ r e s .  1962.  Panorama  1964.  valeurs symbolistes.  Geneve:  a I art abstrait,  Paris:  7  1957.  T,e Chamanisme.  Preface  1964.  1981.  Robert.  Mircea.  Corti,  Paris: Presses U n i v e r s a t a i r e s  Psychology:  Georges-Emmanuel.  c r i t igue.  Paris:  J o a n Ross A c o c e l l a .  Y o r k : Random House,  Clancier,  Eliade,  la Rpysris..  Psychoanalysis•of Fire.  Bootzin,Richard  Breton,  I R S Reves.  1960.  Northrop  New  L'Eau e t  Paris:  Payot,  1951.  Paris:  Gallimard,  1957.  237 Golding, New Guthrie,  John.  Cubism: a h i s t n r y anH an a n a l y s i s 1 907-1 91 4 .  York: George Wittenborn W.K.C.  Inc.,  1959.  Orpheus and Greek R e l i g i o n .  2nd ed.  London:  Methuen, 1952. Hodges,  William  F.  Principles Ekstrand  "Psychopathology."  and M e a n i n g s .  eds.  Lyle  Hinsdale,  i n P s y c h o l o g y : Tts J r . a n d B r u c e R.  E. Bourne  Illinois:  The D r y d e n P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 .  366-368 . Marinetti, Meyer,  F.T.  Le F u t u r i s m e .  R o b e r t G., a n d Y v o n n e  (or  Mood) D i s o r d e r s . "  Boston: A l l y n O'Connell,  Affective Series Picabia,  Salmon,  i nPsychiatry 1988.  Monograph  29-37.  M. S a n o u i l l e t .  "Etoiles  Receuil  Librairie  Andre.  re-ed.  or Unipolar?"  v o l . 1.  Paris:  to Surrealism.  trans.  Unknown.  Owen, 1 9 6 1 .  Jean-Pierre.  Paris:  Norton,  From B a u d e l a i r e  Peter  A Breton:  Behaviour.  vague, 1960.  Raymond, M a r c e l .  Richard,  i n Abnormal  Bipolar  Directions  3. New Y o r k : W.W.  Le T e r r a i n  "The A f f e c t i v e  I n c . , 1988. 124.  "Depression:  391.  Osborne.  Case S t u d i e s  Disorders.  Francis.  London:  Hardaway  and Bacon  R a l p h A.  L a u s a n n e : L ' A g e d'Homme, 1 9 8 0 .  chez A p o l l i n a i r e . "  d'essais:  Hommages -a M a r c e l  Jose C o r t i ,  Souvenirs  sans  1967,pp.  fin.  De R o n s a r d Raymond.  223-234.  3 vols.  Paris:  Gallimard,  1955. Sanouillet, 19.65.  Michel.  Dada A P a r i s .  Paris:  Jean-Jacques Pauvert,  238 Francis  Picabia  er. 3 9 1 .  v o l . 2.  Paris: Eric  Losfeld,  1966. Tomkins,  Calvin.  Virginia:  The  world  Time-Life  of Marcel  Books,  1977.  Dnchamp.  Alexandria,  239  BIBLIOGRAPHY  3.  WORKS ON  APOLLINAIRE  Adema, P i e r r e - M a r c e l . et  commentee p a r  Bibliotheque  John.  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Barrere,  Detroit:  Jean-Bertrand.  Societe  Theory.  Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y  L e R e g a r d d'Orphee ou  Hugo - B a u d e l a i r e  d'Enseignement  Scott.  l'art  and  About  Press,  42-53.  poetique:  Bates,  from PAPA t o "TF.T. QUEL" ; T e x t  Mary A n n Caws.  1974.  of Apollinaire."  "'Alcools':  paradigm  Anne S r a b i a n de F a b r y Alabama:  - Apollinaire.  Paris  s u p e r i e u r e , 1 9 7 7 . 9-45 a n d 1 8 7 - 2 5 3 .  m a s c u l i n moderne."  Birmingham,  - Rimbaud  l'Echanae  phallique  Etudes autour  e t messianique  de  d''Alcools'.  and Marie-France H i l g a r eds. Summa P u b l i c a t i o n s  Inc., 1985.  131-142. .•  Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e .  Twayne's W o r l d  Authors  s e r . 14.  New Y o r k : T w a y n e P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 7 . Berry,  David Chapman.  Apollinaire:  The c r e a t i v e  A study  vision  of imagination.  of Guillaume Saratoga,  Calif:  Anma L i b r i , 1 9 8 2 . Billy,  Andre.  Avec A p o l ! i n a i r e .  souvenirs  inedits.  Paris: La  P a l a t i n e , 1966. Apollinaire.  Poetes  d'aujourd'hui  8.  Paris:  Pierre  Seghers, 1947. Bohn, W i l l a r d . evolution Bonenfant,  Apollinaire  e t l'homme s a n s v i s a g e  d'un m o t i f moderne.  Joseph.  France Inc.,  Hilgar 1985.  eds. 77-84  dans  'Alcools'."  Anne S r a b i a n de F a b r y  Birmingham,  et  Rome: B u l z o n i , 1 9 8 4 .  "La metaphore du s o l e i l  E t u d e s a u t o u r d' ' A l c o o l s .  creation  Alabama:  Summa  and MariePublications  Bordat,  Denis  and  B e r n a r d Veck.  Apollinaire.  Paris:  Hachette,  1983. Bowra,  CM..  The  "Order  Creative  and  adventure  Experiment.  New  i n Guillaume York:  Grove  Apollinaire." Press,  1948.  61-93. Breton,  Andre.  " L a g u e r r e de  Apollinaire Paris: Breunig,  a Jacques  Gallimard,  L e R o y C.  Vache."  1969.  46.  New  Ann  Caws.  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Decaudin,  et interpretation  10 A p o l l i n a i r e  du Colloque  1970)  e t l ap e i n t u r e , A c t e s  Que V l o - v e ? ,  Colloque  Decaudin,  (Paris,  ed.Michel  8  Apollinaire,  9 Lecture  5  sur Apollinaire  Stavelot  1975,  ed.Michel  ed.Michel  , 7  Apollinaire  La  du Colloque  inventeur des langages,  1970,  Stavelot  Que  Actes  A 1M i n i v e r s des mythes, Actes  Apollinaire,  6 Apollinaire  La  de S t a v e l o t  (Stavelot,1967)  5 Du M o n d e e u r o p e e n de  du C o l l o g u e  & 2,  l'oeuvre  de S t a v e l o t 1984,  17,  805-811  1-24,  (1987)  (1982-1987)  modernes. l e cubisme  2 Cinquantenaire  e t 1 ' e s p r i t nouveau,  d ' ' A l c o o l s ' , 85-89  (1963)  69-70  (1962)  277 3 Apollinaire 4  et l e ssurealistes,  'Les M a m e l l e s de T i r e s i a s ' ,  X  104-107  (1964)  L'Heresiarque  et Cie',  (1965) 5 Echos  de S t a v e l o t ,  6 Images d'un d e s t i n , 7 1918-1968, 8 Colloque 9 Autour  183-188  146-149  (1966)  166-169  (1967)  (1968)  de V a r s o v i e ,  217-222  de- 1 ' i n s p i r a t i o n  (1969)  allemande e t du Lied,249-253  (1970) 10 M e t h o d e s  e t approches c r i t i q u e s ,  1, 2 7 6 - 2 7 9  (1971)  11 M e t h o d e s  e t Approches c r i t i q u e s ,  2, 3 2 7 - 3 3 0  (1972)  12 A p o l l i n a i r e  et l a guerre,  1, 3 8 0 - 3 8 4  (1973)  .13 A p o l l i n a i r e  et l a guerre,  2, 4 5 0 - 4 5 5  (1976)  14 R e c o u r s a u x s o u r c e s ,  1, 5 3 0 - 5 3 6  (1978)  15 R e c o u r s a u x s o u r c e s ,  2, 5 7 6 - 5 8 1  (1980)  16  x  L a Chanson  du mal-aime'  encore e t toujours,  677-681  (1983) 17 E x p e r i e n c e  et imagination  d'Apollinaire, La  Tahle  ronHe.  57  Revue des S c i e n c e s  805-811  de 1'amour dans  (1987)  (1952) humaines,  84  (1956)  1'oeuvre  123-126  278  I N D E X OF POEMS A N A L Y S E D  (Arranged  alphabetically)  YrMoDy  Page  090700  1909  165  110900  A La Sante  185  040000  Adieu  126  050000  Annie  960000  Aurore  011000  Automne  84  011000  Automne malade  87  020802  Bacs  78  011200  Blanche  080000  Brasier  031100  Chanson du Mal-Aime  010000  Clair  021100  Clef  020500  Cloches  040000  Clotilde  010900  Colchiques  (1') -  132  d' H i v e r  .  (les) neige  (la)  88  ( l e ) . .-  de l u n e (la)  51  148 (la)  107 71 106  (les)  97 126  (les)  80  279 120200  Cors  080000  Cortege  010900  Crepuscule  76  050000  Crepuscule  137  021100  Dame  107  010900  Dans l e j a r d i n  010000  D i e t s d'amour a L i n d a  970000  Doukhobors  020200  Dome d e C o l o g n e  011000  Elegie  990000  Elegie  050200  Emigrant  990000  Ermite  (1')  55  990000  Fagnes de W a l l o n i e  53  011200  Femmes  77  080000  Fiancailles  050000  Fuite  010000  H6tels  990000  Larron  980000  Lecture  020500  Loreley  071105  L u l de F a l t e n i n  020500  Mai  020400  Maison  980000  Mardi  111000  Marie  011000  Marizibill  de c h a s s e  193 153  (la) d'/Anna  86 (les)  72  (les)  52 (le)  •  78 .84 .  du voyageur  aux p i e d s b l e s s e s  de Landor Road  (1')  (les) (les)  53 127  157  (la) / Enfant  d ' o r (1')  135 70  (le)  63 53  (la)  94 139 96  des morts Gras  (la)  89 53 191 ..78  280 990000  Merlin et l a vieille  femme  57  020800  Mille  970000  Mort  de Pan  52  020500  Nuit  Rhenane  95  080000  Onirocritique  147  050000  Palais  133  011000  Passion  77  010900  Plongeon  75  111000  Pont  010000  Porte  090713  Poeme l u a u m a r i a g e  020500  Printemps  011100  Rhenane d'automne  85  020500  Rolandseck  80  050000  Rosemonde  051200  Salome  136-  050000.  Saltimbanques  137  011000  Sapins  011000  Schinderhannes  77  010928  Synagogue  (la)  76  960000  Triptyque  d e 1'Homme  52  020400  Tzigane  050000  Un s o i r  020600  Un s o i r  090900  Vendemiaire  010900  Vent  011000  Vierge  regrets  Mirabeau  101  (le)  188  (la)  69 d'Andre  Salmon  162  (le)  98  .....136  (les)  76  (la)  90 131  d'Ete  nocturne  100 166 (le)  a l af l e u r  d ' h a r i c o t de Cologne  76 (la)  77  281 020400  V i l l e s sont p l e i n e s  100000  Voyageur  120700  Zone  (le)  (les)  80 178 197  282  I N D E X OF POEMS A N A L Y S E D  (Arranged  by date  of  composition)  YrMoDy  Page  960000  Aurore  960000  Triptyque  970000  Doukhobors  970000  Mort  980000  Lecture  53  980000  Mardi  53  990000  Ermite  990000  Fagnes de W a l l o n i e . . . .  990000  Larron  (le)  990000  Merlin  et l avieille  990000  Elegie  du voyageur  010000  Clair  010000  D i e t s d'amour a L i n d a  010000  Hotels  010000  Porte  010900  Colchiques  d'Hiver  51  d e 1'Homme  52  (les)  52  de P a n  52  Gras (1')  55 53 63 femme  aux p i e d s  ....57 blesses  53  de l u n e  71 (les)  72 70  (la)  '. (les)  69 80  283  010900  Crepuscule  010900  Dans  010900  Plongeon  010900  Vent  010928  Synagogue  011000  Automne malade  011000  Automne  011000  Marizibill  78  011000  Passion  77  011000  Sapins  011000  -  76  l e jardin  d'Anna  86 75  nocturne  (le)  76  (la)  76  87 .....84  (les)  76  Schinderhannes  77  011000  Vierge  a l a fleur  d'haricot  011000  Elegie  011100  Rhenane d'automne  011200  Blanche neige  011200  Femmes  020200  D6me d e C o l o g n e  020400  Maison  020400  Tzigane  020400  Villes  020500  Cloches  (les)  020500  Loreley  (la)  020500  Mai  020500  Nuit  020500  Printemps  020500  Rolandseck  020600  Un s o i r  de C o l o g n e  (la)  77  84  -  85  (la)  88  (les)  des morts  77  (le)  78  (la)  89  (la)  sont pleines  90  (les)  80 -  97 94 96  Rhenane (le)  d'Ete  95 98 80 100  284 020800  M i l l e regrets  101  020802  Bacs  (les)  021100  Clef  (la)  106  021100  Dame  (la)  107  031100  Chanson du Mal-Aime  040000  Adieu  040000  Clotilde  126  050000  Annie  132  050000  Crepuscule  137  050000  Fuite  050000  Palais  133  050000  Rosemonde  136  050000  Saltimbanques  137  050000  Un s o i r  050200  Emigrant  051200  Salome  136  071105  L u i de F a l t e n i n  139  080000  Brasier  148  080000  Cortege  080000  Fiangailles  080000  Onirocritique  147  090700  1909  165  090713  Poeme l u a u m a r i a g e  090900  Vendemiaire  166  100000  Voyageur  178  110900  A L a Sante  185  111000  Marie  191  78  (1')  (la)  107  •  126  (la) / Enfant d'or  (1')  135  de Landor  Road  (1')  (le)  131 .  127  153 (les)  (le)  157  d'Andre  Salmon  162  285 111000  Pont  Mirabeau  120200  Cors  de c h a s s e  120700  Zone  (le)  188 193 197  


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