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The personality of Apollinaire as revealed in his poetry 1896-1912 Brown, Alexander William 1989

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THE PERSONALITY OF APOLLINAIRE AS REVEALED IN HIS POETRY 1896-1912 by ALEXANDER WILLIAM BROWN B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of French We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 198 9 (c) Alexander W i l l i a m Brown, 1989 9f In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y by r e f e r e n c e t o h i s p o e t r y o n l y . The t i m e s p a n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e y e a r s 1 8 9 6 t o 1 9 1 2 . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t i c o u t p u t a f t e r 1 9 1 2 was q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r - l o n g t h e s i s . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h as w e l l as s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l w h i c h was f o u n d i n s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n c o m b i n e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The t h e s i s i s made up o f an I n t r o d u c t i o n w h i c h s e t s f o r t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e a n a l y s i s a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n t e n t . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i s a b i o g r a p h y c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e l i f e o f t h e p o e t . I t p r o v i d e s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d by m e r e l y r e a d i n g t h e p o e t r y . T h i s c h a p t e r h a s b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o m a j o r c h a n g e s i n h i s l i f e w h i c h h a d a s p e c i a l e f f e c t on t h e p o e t r y A p o l l i n a i r e w r o t e . The b u l k o f t h e t h e s i s ( C h a p t e r s 2 t o 9) i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e poems w h i c h t h e p o e t was i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e d u r i n g t h e s e l e c t e d p e r i o d . The d a t e o r a t l e a s t t h e y e a r t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e was f i r s t i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e a g i v e n poem was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r when t h e a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y were b e i n g s o u g h t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e poems h a v e b e e n a r r a n g e d i n d a t e o r d e r as an a i d t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f any c h a n g e s t h a t w o u l d a f f e c t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . i i i Many f a c e t s of the poet's p e r s o n a l i t y were uncovered. These have been summarised,in the f i n a l chapter e n t i t l e d "Conclusion", i n t o four main d i v i s i o n s : 1. P h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e s 2. P e r s o n a l i t y as such 3. Outward way of l i f e 4 . L i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The process of summarization i n c l u d e s r e f e r e n c e s back t o the poems which generated the l i s t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . The t h e s i s has ranked the f o l l o w i n g as major p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . S e l f - c e n t r e d -ness; the b i p o l a r p s y c h o s i s formerly known as the manic-depres-s i v e s t a t e ; the f a c t t h a t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n worked best when he attempted to e x o r c i s e h i s misery by w r i t i n g poetry; the dependence on an c i e n t myth and the past as sources o f i n s p i r a t i o n ; the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a b s t r a c t concepts and use of h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s as a c t o r s i n h i s po e t r y . Subordinate f a c e t s i n c l u d e : w i l l i n g n e s s to experiment with new forms of poetry; the d a b b l i n g i n the O c c u l t ; the pr e o c c u p a t i o n with death; the e x t r a o r d i n a r y eye f o r d e t a i l ; the f a s c i n a t i o n with the i n v e n t i o n s of the modern world; the a t t r a c t i o n of the elements and the u n i v e r s e as sources of imagery; the i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r m y s t i f i c a t i o n ; the use of e a r l i e r works t o f l e s h out c u r r e n t p r o d u c t i o n ; and the a b i l i t y to produce a humorous l i n e even when i n the depths of d e s p a i r . i v I n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were i d e n t i f i e d : S t e a d f a s t f r i e n d s h i p s ; a s t r o n g s e x u a l i t y t h a t was o f t e n r e p r e s s e d ; a l a t e n t c r u e l t y o f t e n c o n t r o l l e d . S e v e r a l i t e m s n o t c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y t o p e r s o n a l i t y w e re a b y e - p r o d u c t o f t h e r e s e a r c h : f o r e x a m p l e a 1902 e d i t i o n o f B a e d e k e r ' s g u i d e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on r a i l t r a v e l i n Germany. A number o f p a i n t i n g s were r e s e a r c h e d : t h e e a r l y p a i n t i n g s i n C o l o g n e museums, t h e B l a c k V i r g i n o f C z e s t o c h o w a i c o n , R e p i n ' s p a i n t i n g o f t h e Z a p o r o z h n e C o s s a c k s r e p l y i n g t o t h e S u l t a n o f T u r k e y ' s o v e r t u r e s , F o r d Madox Brown's famous p a i n t i n g , "The l a s t o f E n g l a n d " , P i c a s s o ' s b l u e a n d p i n k p e r i o d w o r k s . An e n g r a v i n g o f W o o d s t o c k P a l a c e h e l p e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem " P a l a i s " . The s p o r t o f B a l l o o n i n g w h i c h u s e s t h e w i n d r o s e , p r o v i d e d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p h r a s e "Rose d e s v e n t s " . A b o t a n -i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Autumn C r o c u s t h r e w a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on t h e " f i l l e s de l e u r s f i l l e s " m y s t e r y . The "Rose s a n s e p i n e s " p r o v e d t o be t h e h e l l e b o r e o r C h r i s t m a s r o s e . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l poems has p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c h a r a c t e r a n d a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e x e g e s i s o f t h e poems h a s r e s u l t e d a l s o . V CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ' 1 C h a p t e r I . BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON AP O L L I N A I R E . . 1 2 C h i l d h o o d a n d a d o l e s c e n c e The e a r l y y e a r s i n P a r i s Germany, t h e R h i n e l a n d a n d A n n i e P l a y d e n E n t r y i n t o t h e w o r l d o f A r t s a n d L e t t e r s New D i r e c t i o n s The y e a r s o f h a p p i n e s s a n d s t r e s s L i t e r a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 1 4 A p o l l i n a i r e on a c t i v e s e r v i c e The f i n a l y e a r s I I . APOLLINAIRE'S ADOLESCENT POETRY 1 8 9 6 - 1 8 9 9 5 1 I I I . THE TURN OF THE CENTURY POEMS 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 1 5 5 I V . THE EARLY YEARS I N PARIS 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 1 6 9 V. GERMANY, THE RHINELAND AND ANNIE PLAYDEN 1 9 0 1 - 1 9 0 2 . . . . . 7 4 V I . ENTRY INTO THE WORLD OF ARTS AND LETTERS 1 . 1 9 0 2 - 1 9 0 3 . 1 0 6 V I I . ENTRY INTO THE WORLD OF ARTS AND LETTERS 1 1 . 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 0 7 . 1 2 6 V I I I . THE YEARS OF HAPPINESS AND STRESS I . 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 0 9 1 4 6 I X . THE. YEARS OF HAPPINESS AND STRESS I I . 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 2 1 7 8 CONCLUSION ' 2 0 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 3 1 INDEX OF POEMS ANALYSED ( A r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y ) 2 7 8 INDEX OF POEMS ANALYSED ( A r r a n g e d b y d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n ) 2 8 2 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe a s p e c i a l d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r D o m i n i q u e B a u d o u i n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , who r e a d t h e e n t i r e m a n u s c r i p t , f o r h i s i l l u m i n a t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a n d c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r C l a u d e B o u y g u e s f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e a n d t o P r o f e s s o r R u t h W h i t e o f t h e same U n i v e r s i t y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me t o s t u d y F r e n c h i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e L i b r a r y S t a f f p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p e o p l e i n t h e C i r c u l a t i o n , I n t e r - L i b r a r y L o a n a n d S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e U.B.C l i b r a r y s y s t e m . O t h e r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s go t o Ted P o w e l l f o r h i s p a i n s t a k i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n i n c o n v e r t i n g t h e d a t a f r o m my w o r d p r o c e s s o r i n t o p r i n t ; t o f o u r F r e n c h s c h o l a r s f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s : M i c h e l D e c a u d i n , P h i l i p p e Renaud, Madame M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y a n d M a r c e l Adema. F i n a l l y I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my l o v e a n d a d m i r a t i o n t o my w i f e P h y l l i s whose p a t i e n c e h a s a t l a s t b o r n e f r u i t . 1989 A.W.B. 1 INTRODUCTION This t h e s i s i s an attempt to present a f u l l p o r t r a i t of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y by a study of the poems from h i s adolescence u n t i l the end of 1912. The 1912 c u t - o f f has been chosen f o r t h r e e reasons; f i r s t l y because most of the aspects of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y had shown up i n h i s p o e t r y by t h a t date; secondly, A p o l l i n a i r e , h i m s e l f , chose a 1912 d i v i s i o n between the A l c o o l s and C a 1 1 i grammes c o l l e c t i o n s of h i s poetry; and t h i r d l y , because a d i s c u s s i o n of the very l a r g e number of poems from 1913 onwards, ( s e v e n t y - f i v e poems to Louise de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n alone!) and t h e i r v a r i e d nature would r e s u l t i n a t h e s i s at l e a s t double the l e n g t h of the present one. The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s made up of two p a r t s , the f i r s t p a r t (Chapter 1) i s a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f biography i n which poems w i l l be c i t e d only i n the i n t e r e s t of m a i n t a i n i n g the flow of n a r r a t i v e . The biography w i l l extend beyond the f i r s t t h i r t y - t w o years up to the poet's untimely death i n 1918 at the age of t h i r t y - e i g h t . The second p a r t (Chapters 2 - 9 and Conclusion) w i l l c o n s i s t of an a n a l y s i s of the poems, paying p a r t i c u l a r 2 a t t e n t i o n t o a s p e c t s o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t may be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h o s e poems. I n a d d i t i o n , an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , c o v e r i n g w o r k s c o n -s u l t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d . The s h e e r number o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poems c r e a t e s a d a u n t i n g t a s k f o r any w o u l d - b e a n a l y s t ; h e n c e a few m i n o r poems composed p r i o r t o 1912 h a v e b e e n be l e f t o u t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f economy. I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s i s c o n f i n e d t o A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t r y , o n l y o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s f i c t i o n c a n be made. The n o v e l l a T,e p o e t e a s s a s s i n ^ a n d i t s s e q u e l Lfi. c a s du b r i g a d i e r masque c ' e s t - a - d i r e l e p o e t e r e s s u s c i t e , whose l o n g t i t l e o p p o s e s i t s v e r y b r e v i t y , b e l o n g t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f f i c t i o n a l b i o g r a p h y ; s u c h w o r k s w i l l o n l y ' be m e n t i o n e d t o r e i n -f o r c e o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n r e g a r d t o t h e p o e t i c a l w o r k s o r t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e b i o g r a p h y , w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e f l o w o f n a r r a t i v e . The l e n g t h o f t h e d i v i s i o n s i n e a c h o f t h e two p a r t s w i l l v a r y , a n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o e t r y c h a p t e r s a n d t h e b i o g r a p h y s e c t i o n s w i l l n o t a l w a y s be e s t a b l i s h e d , o w i n g t o t h e demands o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e i s a d i f f i c u l t y i n c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h a t a b i o g r a p h y i s n o r m a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a work b e f o r e t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c w h i l e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e . p o e t r y , i n t h i s t h e s i s a t l e a s t , i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e moment o f i n s p i r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n may be q u i t e s h o r t . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t i c o u t p u t i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o e i g h t b r o a d 3 t i m e f r a m e s : t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 8 8 6 t o 1 8 9 8 d i s t i n g u i s h e d by-a s s o r t e d j u v e n i l i a ; t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 8 9 9 t o 1 9 0 1 , w h i c h shows s y m b o l i s t i n f l u e n c e s ; t h e R h e n i s h p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 0 1 t o 1 9 0 2 , when A n n i e P l a y d e n a n d A p o l l i n a i r e were i n t h e R h i n e l a n d i n t h e s e r v i c e o f Mme De M i l h a u ; t h e l e a n p e r i o d o f 1 9 0 3 t o 1 9 0 7 , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v i s i b l e i n t o t h e " P a r i s - L o n d o n " a n d " M o n t m a r t r e " t i m e f r a m e s when p r o d u c t i o n t e n d e d t o d w i n d l e , t h o u g h t h e r e was much v a r i e t y i n w h a t e v e r was c o m m i t t e d t o p a p e r ; t h e p i v o t a l y e a r o f 1 9 0 8 when t h e p o e t r e a l i s e d t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n new i n f l u e n c e s i n p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e a n d t h e a r t o f p o e t r y , t h e n t h e poems o f t h e " A u t e u i l " p e r i o d , 1 9 0 9 t o 1 9 1 2 1 w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e s t o r m y l i f e o f t h e p o e t d u r i n g t h e s e t h r e e y e a r s . The n e x t p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 1 3 t o 1 9 1 4 saw t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e x A l c o o l s ' c o l l e c t i o n , a n d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k s s u c h as t h e e a r l y C a l l i g r a m m e s . The f i n a l p e r i o d o f 1 9 1 4 t o 1 9 1 8 c o m p r i s e s A p o l l i n a i r e ' s war poems a n d t h e l o v e poems a d d r e s s e d t o L o u , M a d e l e i n e a n d h i s w i f e J a c q u e l i n e . T h e s e t i m e f r a m e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y o f s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . The f i r s t v o l u m e o f M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y ' s t h r e e - v o l u m e s t u d y , L e r o y B r e u n i g ' s e a r l y work, a n d P h i l i p p e R enaud's g r o u p i n g o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s w o r k s b y p e r i o d s h a v e b e e n f o u n d v e r y u s e f u l . 2 D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f r e s e a r c h f o r - t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a s p e c t s o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t r y s e v e r a l m a t t e r s u n r e l a t e d t o s u c h a s p e c t s were u n c o v e r e d , m a i n l y i n t h e f i e l d o f e x e g e s i s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s o m e t i m e s c o m p l e x p a s s a g e s . I n v i e w o f t h e i n t e r e s t s u c h p a s s a g e s h a v e g e n e r a t e d , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s u c h i t e m s a r e w o r t h i n c l u d i n g , as t h e y o f t e n t h r o w some l i g h t on A p o l l i n a i r e ' s 4 t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , h i s e r u d i t i o n , a n d i n t e r e s t s . An a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f A p o l l i n a i r e was made by Guy M i c h a u d , 3 b u t h i s v i e w s a p p e a r t o be b a s e d on a " p o s t h o c e r g o p r o p t e r h o c " a p p r o a c h a nd on t h e o r i e s o f f a c i a l m o r p h o l o g y , p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , g r a p h o l o g y . a n d a s t r o l o g y t h a t h a v e s i n c e b e e n d i s c r e d i t e d . As r e g a r d s P a r t I o f t h e t h e s i s : A p o l l i n a i r e ' s s h o r t a n d p a s s i o n a t e l i f e h a s a t t r a c t e d many l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s : R o g e r S h a t t u c k , F r a n c e s S t e e g m u l l e r , M a r g a r e t D a v i e s , D e n i s B o r d a t a n d B e r n a r d V e c k , a n d G e o r g e s V e r g n e s a r e t h e names o f a few o f them t h a t come t o m i n d . R o g e r S h a t t u c k ' s The B a n q u e t Y e a r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s c a p s u l e b i o g r a p h i e s o f s e v e r a l o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o . t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f b o o k s a b o u t t h e p o e t a n d h i s w o r k s a t t h e e n d o f t h i s p a p e r f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . A p o l l i n a i r e l e f t no a u t o b i o g r a p h y , so one i s v i r t u a l l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e s o u v e n i r s , r e c o l l e c t i o n s a n d memoirs o f t h o s e who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h h i m , a n d on t h e v a r i o u s b i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s i n h i s p o e t r y a n d f i c t i o n . L e t t e r s , ' n o t a b l y t h o s e w r i t t e n t o M a d e l e i n e P a g e s b e t w e e n t h e 1 6 t h o f A p r i l 1915 a n d t h e 1 6 t h o f S e p t e m b e r 1916, m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d i a r y , b u t t h e s e c o v e r e x t r e m e l y s h o r t p e r i o d s o f h i s l i f e . 4 Adema m e n t i o n s t h a t d u r i n g t h i s s e v e n t e e n - m o n t h p e r i o d t h e v o l u m e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was e x c e p t i o n a l l y h e a v y . 5 A p o l l i n a i r e l i v e d d u r i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r i o d i n F r e n c h h i s t o r y . The h e a d y b r e w o f s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y , new d i r e c t i o n s i n p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , a n d d a n c e was f e r m e n t i n g i n ' t h e m i n d s o f 5 w r i t e r s and A p o l l i n a i r e was i n the t h i c k o f t h i n g s , regarded by many of the b r i g h t young men and women as t h e i r l e a d e r . Of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h h i m s e l f , A p o l l i n a i r e was, i n the l a n g -uage of Shakespeare, s l i g h t l y amended, a "whoreson good f e l l o w " , 6 who l i k e d t o spend h i s evenings with h i s f r i e n d s , with h i s mis-t r e s s and o c c a s i o n a l l y with the l a d i e s of the n i g h t . T e c h n i c a l l y a f o r e i g n e r , he was more French than many people whose n a t i v e l a n d was France. Although s c a r e d of, and sometimes d e s p i s i n g , women, he was very much a t t r a c t e d by them. He c o u l d be very a t t e n t i v e and charming t o both men and women, but he had an element of c r u e l t y i n h i s nature which came to the s u r f a c e o c c a s i o n a l l y . T h i s strange combination r e s u l t e d i n d i s a s t r o u s experiences, which formed the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r much of h i s best p o e t r y ; i t a l s o meant t h a t joyous moments a l t e r n a t e d with p e r i o d s of d e p r e s s i o n ; t h i s aspect i s symptomatic o f c l i n i c a l b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r i n a r e l a t i v e l y m i l d form (a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f which w i l l be developed i n Chapter 5 ) . The second p a r t w i l l p r o v i d e an a n a l y t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the many poems which A p o l l i n a i r e saw f i t t o i n c l u d e i n h i s AT c o o l s . Poems d a t i n g from A p o l l i n a i r e ' s adolescence and the poems of the Rhineland which the poet d i d not i n c l u d e i n A l c o o l s as w e l l as other poems th a t f i t i n t o the above time frames w i l l be i n c l u d e d . Most of these were c o n t a i n e d i n the a n t h o l o g i e s , mainly p o s t -humous, prepared by h i s f r i e n d s and admirers, the s e l e c t i o n being guided by what the i n d i v i d u a l work or c o l l e c t i o n of poems r e v e a l s about the poet's p e r s o n a l i t y . These aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be summarised i n the 6 c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t a t t h i s p o i n t t o s t a t e t h a t t h e y a r e many a n d v a r i e d , as b e f i t s a man whose i n f l u e n c e on h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a n d on -the t h e w h o l e gamut o f p o s t - s y m b o l i s t p o e t r y was immense. The r e v i e w w i l l be a t t e m p t e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n o r c o m m i t t a l t o w r i t i n g e v e n i f s u b s e q u e n t m a j o r c h a n g e s were made p r i o r t o p u b l i c a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t a k i n g t h e much e a s i e r a p p r o a c h o f r e v i e w i n g t h e w o r k s by d a t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The p u r e l y t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a s a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t r y i n g t o t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c h a r a c t e r o v e r t i m e , theme by theme, w o u l d c r e a t e an o v e r - l o n g d i s s e r t a t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e h a s b e e n f o l l o w e d by R.H. S tamelman, M-J. D u r r y a n d D. B e r r y . However i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t i m p o r t a n t themes w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f comment. I n e x a m i n i n g t h e two c h o i c e s , n a m e l y f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n d a t e a n d p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e , t h e l a t t e r i s i n f l u e n c e d by s e v e r a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s b e y o n d t h e p o e t ' s c o n t r o l , s u c h as a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e work by t h e e d i t o r o f t h e r e v i e w o r o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n ; t h e s t a t e o f t h e p o e t ' s f i n a n c e s ( t h e s e b e i n g , i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c a s e , a l w a y s p r e c a r i o u s ) ; o t h e r n o n - p o e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , w r i t i n g a r t r e v i e w s , s t a r t i n g a n d c o m p l e t i o n d a t e s o f p r o s e w o r k s e t c . , w h i c h m i g h t c a u s e t h e p o e t t o l a y a s i d e a poem t h a t he was i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e i n t h e h e a t o f some i n t e l l e c t u a l o r a m a t o r y s t i m u l u s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e d a t e o f f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n , e v e n i f t h e poem was s u b s e q u e n t l y t r u n c a t e d o r a d d e d t o , w i l l t e n d t o r e f l e c t t h e s t a t e o f t h e p o e t ' s m i n d more f a i t h f u l l y a t t h e 7 moment he f i r s t s e t p e n t o p a p e r , a n d t h e c h a n g e s t h a t s u b s e q u e n t t h o u g h t s may h a v e w r o u g h t . D a t i n g t h e poems i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t s i n c e , f o r t h e most p a r t , A p o l l i n a i r e g a v e no i n d i c a t i o n o f when he was i n s p i r e d t o s t a r t a g i v e n w o r k . F r e q u e n t l y he d e l v e d i n t o h i s s t o c k p i l e o f m a n u s c r i p t s w h i c h p r e d a t e d t h e s a i d work t o l i f t a w h o l e s t a n z a f r o m t h e e a r l i e r work, i f he f e l t t h a t i t was s u i t a b l e f o r t h e one he was a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g o n. A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t r y i s t h e l o n g d e l a y b e t w e e n t h e c r e a t i v e a c t a n d t h e f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n , o f t e n a f t e r m u l t i p l e r e v i s i o n s . A c a s e i n p o i n t i s " M e r l i n e t l a v i e i l l e femme" w h i c h d a t e s f r o m t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y b u t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1912. A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s f r o m f r e q u e n t a d d i t i o n s t o t h e b a s i c poem. P r o m i n e n t A p o l l i n a r i a n s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t h e c h r o n o l o g y w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s b u t t h e i r e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o a s p e c i f i c c o l l e c t i o n s u c h as A l c o o l s 7 o r C a l l i g r a m m e s . 8 The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n t h e n o t e s t o t h e O e u v r e s p o e t i q u e s 9 a n d i n M i c h e l D e c a u d i n ' s Le D o s s i e r d ' A l c o o l s 1 0 h a s b e e n u s e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n some c a s e s , s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s o n l y ; t h u s i t i s n o t a l w a y s r e l e v a n t when one i s s e e k i n g t h e d a t e on w h i c h t h e p o e t f i r s t s e t p e n t o p a p e r . L e r o y B r e u n i g ' s c h r o n o l o g y h a s a l s o b e e n u s e d b u t h i s p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t i s now somewhat o u t d a t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h . 1 1 F r a n c i s Carmody a l s o h a s t r i e d t o t a c k l e t h e f o r e g o i n g p r o b l e m b u t he h a s p r e f e r r e d t o s t r e s s p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s a n d t h e 8 f i n a l d r a f t s - r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t a p p r o a c h , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o a r r i v e a t t h e d a t e most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e m o t i o n a l s t i m u l u s w h i c h t r i g g e r e d t h e p o e t i c work i n i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m . 1 2 The c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e y e a r o f f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n , as shown o p p o s i t e e a c h poem, a r e many a n d v a r i e d . Mme D u r r y h a s s u c c e e d e d i n d e s c r i b i n g a n d d a t i n g t h e j o u r n e y s A p o l l i n a i r e made i n E u r o p e . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s j o u r n e y down t h e R h i n e p r o v i d e d many c l u e s s i n c e i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y n e a r l y e v e r y poem w i t h a l o c a t i o n . Moves f r o m H o n n e f t o K r a y e r h o f a n d Neu G l i i c k h a v e b e e n d o c u m e n t e d b y t h e b i o g r a p h e r s a n d f u r n i s h n e a r l y e x a c t d a t e s . S e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r i f m e n t i o n e d i n a poem p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I t h a s b e e n assumed t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e was n o t a man who a l l o w e d h i s p o e t i c c r e a t i o n t o simmer f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e s i n c e he p r e f e r r e d t o make a r o u g h d r a f t as s o o n as t h e e v e n t , t h o u g h t , o r i n s p i r a t i o n moved h i m ; c o n s e q u e n t l y t i m e o f y e a r a n d l o c a t i o n , when a v a i l a b l e , p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o f i r s t d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . When A p o l l i n a i r e was w o r k i n g -on more t h a n one poem a t a t i m e ( w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y t h e c a s e w i t h " C o r t e g e " , "Le B r a s i e r " , " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " , a n d " V e n d e m i a i r e " ) , t h e d a t e s a r e r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f p o e t r y , p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e t h a t were a f e a t u r e o f " L a B e l l e E p o q u e " . Where t h e r e i s some d o u b t , a p p r o p r i a t e comments a r e made when a n a l y s i n g a g i v e n poem. A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , A n d r e S a l m o n , A n d r e R o u v e y r e , A n d r e B i l l y , t o name a few, a n d y o u n g e r ones s u c h as A n d r e 9 B r e t o n h a v e l e f t u s w i t h much i n f o r m a t i o n as t o how t h e p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a f f e c t e d them, b u t i t i s s u r e l y i n h i s p o e t r y t h a t one must l o o k f o r e v i d e n c e as t o what e n t e r e d i n t o h i s p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l make-up. ' T h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , i s an a t t e m p t t o draw a p o r t r a i t o f t h e p e r s o n t h r o u g h h i s p o e t r y a n d t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h , where p o s s i b l e , how c e r t a i n e v e n t s a f f e c t e d h i s m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n , a n d t h e c o n n e x i o n b e t w e e n s u c h e v e n t s a n d t h e p o e t r y t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e p r o d u c e d b e t w e e n h i s ' t e e n - a g e y e a r s a n d t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p i l a t i o n o f ^ A l c o o l s ' . 10 NOTES: INTRODUCTION 1 P h i l i p p e R e naud. L e c t u r e d ' A p o l l i n a n r e ( L a u s a n n e : L'Age d'Homme, 1969) 83. 2 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e : ' A l c o o l s ' 3 v o l s . ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S., 1964.) L e r o y C. B r e u n i g . "The c h r o n o l o g y o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s v A l r o n l s' " PMT.A 67. 7 ( 1 9 5 2 ) : 9 0 7 -923. P h i l i p p e Renaud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e 3 M i c h a u d , Guy. "Comme un g u e t t e u r m e l a n c o l i q u e - e s s a i s u r l a p e r s o n n a l i t e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e " . Revue d e s l e t t r e s m o d e r n e s . 2 7 6 -279 (1971) : 7-34. 4 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , T e n d r e comme l e s o u v e n i r r ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 5 0 ) . 5 P i e r r e - M a r c e l Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e f C o l l e c t i o n L e s V i e s P e r p e n d i c u l a i r e s , . ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de l a T a b l e Ronde, 1968) 267. 6 W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , H a m l e t , V. 1. 7 M a r i e J e a n n e D u r r y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e X A 1 c o o l s ' , 3 v o l s . ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S., 1 9 6 4 ) . 11 8 Anne Hyde Greet, t r a n s . Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e  Calligrammes (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P. 1980.) 9 Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , Oeuvres p o e t i q u e s . B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a P l e i a d e , ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956). H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as "O.P." 1 0 M i c h e l Decaudin, T.e D o s s i e r d ' A l c o o l s ( P a r i s , Geneve: Minard, Droz., 1960.) 1 1 LeRoy C. Breunig, "The chronology of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s x A l c o o l s . ' " PMTiA 67 (1952): 907-923. 1 2 F r a n c i s Carmody, The E v o l u t i o n of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s P o e t i c s 1901-1914. (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P., 1963.) 12 CHAPTER 1 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES on A p o l l i n a i r e 1. C h i l d h o o d a n d a d o l e s c e n c e 1880-1899 A p o l l i n a i r e t o o k h i s surname K o s t r o w i t z k y f r o m h i s m o t h e r , s i n c e h i s r e a l f a t h e r F r a n c e s c o F l u g i d ' A s p e r m o n t , b o r n i n t h e G r i s o n s t o a f a m i l y o f a n c i e n t l i n e a g e who s e t t l e d i n S i c i l y , f o r s o o k h i s p a t e r n a l r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s w h i l e h i s b a s t a r d c h i l d was b a r e l y o f s c h o o l a g e . A f a i r a s s e s s m e n t o f F r a n c e s c o w o u l d be a t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y p l a y b o y . A n g e l i q u e A l e x a n d r i n e K o s t r o w i c k i was t h e d a u g h t e r o f M i c h a e l , a member o f t h e a n c i e n t b u t p e t t y P o l i s h n o b i l i t y , who was i n t h e t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Pope as a c h a m b e r l a i n w i t h t h e t i t l e o f " C a m e r i e r e d ' o n o r e d i c a p a e s p a d a " , a n d J u l i a F l o r i a n i , an I t a l i a n . She was a w i l f u l a n d o b s t r e p e r o u s g i r l who was a s k e d t o l e a v e h e r s c h o o l i n 1874 when s h e was 16. The s t u f f y a t m o s p h e r e 13 o f t h e V a t i c a n c o u r t a n d t h e d u l l p r o s p e c t o f an a r r a n g e d m a r r i -age p r e d i s p o s e d A n g e l i q u e t o r u n away w i t h t h e d a s h i n g F r a n c e s c o . A p o l l i n a i r e summed up t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s b i r t h , i n t h e l a s t d a y s o f A u g u s t 1880 i n t h e w e l l - k n o w n l i n e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n h i s poem "Le L a r r o n " , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n A u g u s t 1903 i n t h e p e r i -o d i c a l L a P l u m e , b u t d a t i n g p r o b a b l y t o t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e h i s t r i p t o t h e R h i n e l a n d : M a r a u d e u r e t r a n g e r m a l h a b i l e e t m a l a d e Ton p e r e f u t un s p h i n x e t t a mere une n u i t . 1 The p o e t was a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s o f h i s f o r e i g n b i r t h a n d t h e m y s t e r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i d e n t i t y o f h i s f a t h e r . H i s m o t h e r e v e n d e l a y e d a c k n o w l e d g i n g h i m as h e r s o n u n t i l t h e s e c o n d o f November when he was g i v e n t h e names o f W i l h e l m A l b e r t V l a d i m i r A l e x a n d e r A p o l l i n a r i s de K o s t r o w i t z k y , s i n c e h i s m o t h e r h a d d e c i d e d t o a d d t h e p r e f i x "de" t o h e r f r e n c h i f i e d s u r n a m e . F r a n c e s c o a n d A n g e l i q u e s t a y e d on i n I t a l y , m a i n l y i n Rome a n d B o l o g n a , u n t i l F r a n c e s c o d i s a p p e a r e d i n 1884 t o e s c a p e a l o a d o f d e b t s i n c u r r e d b y t h e c o u p l e ' s e x t r a v a g a n t l i f e s t y l e . A t t h i s p o i n t F r a n c e s c o ' s b r o t h e r N i c c o l o , who h a d t a k e n h i s vows as a B e n e d i c t i n e a n d was known as Dom R o m a r i n o , s t e p p e d i n a n d t o o k on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s o f W i l h e l m a n d h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r A l b e r t , b o r n i n 1882, whose f a t h e r ' s i d e n t i t y was a l s o m y s t e r i o u s . What were t h e t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t w e re p a s s e d on t o W i l h e l m b y h i s f a t h e r ? Adema p r o v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s e d on h i s d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h . De l a l i g n e e p a t e r n e l l e ou l e s hommes d ' e g l i s e , l e s 14 hommes d'epee, l e s h a u t s f o n c t i o n n a i r e s , s e r e t r o u v e n t a c h a q u e g e n e r a t i o n , i l t e n a i t l a c o u r t o i s i e , l ' o p i n i t -t r e t e e t l e s e n s s i v i f de l ' h o n n e u r du g e n e r a l F l u g i . 2 Mme de K o s t r o w i t z k y , a f t e r F r a n c e s c o a b a n d o n e d h e r , t o o k up r e s i d e n c e i n Monaco where t h e b o y s were p u t t o s c h o o l . T h i s move a l l o w e d h e r t o l i v e t h e l i f e s h e h a n k e r e d a f t e r : s h e l o v e d t o g a m b l e a n d t o i n d u l g e i n t r a n s i t o r y l i a i s o n s w h i c h o f t e n h a d some p e c u n i a r y a d v a n t a g e t o h e r . Dom R o m a r i n o must h a v e b e e n a p r o u d g u a r d i a n o f h i s b r o -t h e r ' s c h i l d , s i n c e W i l h e l m was one o f t h e b r i g h t e s t s t u d e n t s a t t h e s c h o o l r u n by t h e M a r i a n i s t f a t h e r s i n Monaco whose i n f l u e n c e i m b u e d h i m w i t h a deep s e n s e o f r e l i g i o n . A l t h o u g h A p o l l i n a i r e became an a g n o s t i c l a t e r on i n l i f e , h i s c h i l d h o o d y e a r s i n t h i s r e l i g i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t were t o h a v e a deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e on h i m as he gr e w o l d e r . When W i l h e l m moved t o N i c e e a r l y i n 1897 t o p r e p a r e f o r h i s b a c c a l a u r e a t he was b e f r i e n d e d b y y o u n g T o u s s a i n t L u c a , a. f e l l o w s t u d e n t , who s t o o d by h i m s t e a d f a s t l y i n l a t e r l i f e . B o t h t h e s e y o u n g men h a d by t h i s t i m e d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g l i t e r a r y b e n t a n d were i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n t h e i r l y c e e . W i l h e l m ' s c h e e r f u l a n d g r e g a r i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n won h i m many f r i e n d s who were t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f h i s poems a n d w r i t i n g s . He w a l k e d a b o u t w i t h h i s p o c k e t s s t u f f e d w i t h b o o k s a n d c o u l d d i s c o u r s e on a l l s o r t s o f l e a r n e d t o p i c s , s i n c e h i s p o w e r s o f r e t e n t i o n o f w h a t e v e r he r e a d were a b s o l u t e l y p h e n o m e n a l . The y o u n g s t u d e n t was a v o r a c i o u s r e a d e r o f e v e r y t h i n g f r o m a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g y t h r o u g h t h e A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d s t o s y m b o l i s t 15 v e r s e . H i s e a r l y l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s were on l o o s e s h e e t s p a s s e d f r o m h a n d t o h a n d among t h e s t u d e n t s a n d most h a v e b e e n i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t t o p o s t e r i t y . G u i l l a u m e a l s o w r o t e p o e t r y i n r e g u l a r a n d b l a n k v e r s e i n p l e n t i f u l l y - i l l u s t r a t e d e x e r c i s e b o o k s . Works w r i t t e n i n N i c e h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d , t h a n k s t o t h e i n t e r e s t shown by T o u s s a i n t L u c a , who h a s p r o v i d e d s e v e n i n h i s b o o k o f r e m i n i s c e n c e s . 3 H i s m o t h e r ' s name was i n c l u d e d a t t h i s t i m e i n a l i s t o f l a d i e s o f t h e demi-monde, w h i c h t h e P r i n c i p a l i t y o f Monaco h a d s e t up w i t h a v i e w t o p u r g i n g t h e a r e a o f t h e i r p r e s e n c e , s o t h a t i n 1899 she a n d h e r c u r r e n t l o v e r J u l e s W e i l , some e l e v e n y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n h e r , were f o r c e d t o l e a v e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The f o u r s o m e went a t f i r s t t o A i x - l e s B a i n s , t h e n c e t o L y o n s a n d f i n a l l y r e a c h e d P a r i s . A n o t h e r p o i n t i s t h a t t h e s u p p o r t o f Dom R o m a r i n o was c o n -d i t i o n a l on W i l h e l m ' s d o i n g w e l l a t s c h o o l , a n d h i s own d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e R i v i e r a was h a s t e n e d b y h i s f a i l u r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , as w e l l a s t h e g e n e r a l d r y i n g up o f h i s f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . M o r e o v e r t h e n o m i n a l l y r i c h J u l e s h a d a f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m a n d t h e y d e c i d e d t o t r y t h e i r l u c k a t t h e g a m i n g t a b l e s i n Spa, t h e B e l g i a n h e a l t h r e s o r t , i n o r d e r t o r e c o u p t h e i r f o r t u n e s ; t h e y s o o n became p e r s o n a e non g r a t a e t h e r e t o o . The two b o y s l o d g e d a t a p e n s i o n i n S t a v e l o t , a v i l l a g e n e a r Spa i n t h e company o f t h e i r " U n c l e J u l e s " . The p r e s e n c e i n t h e v i l l a g e o f G u i l l a u m e , known as t h e handsome young- " R u s s i a n C o u n t " , made h i m t h e c y n o s u r e o f t h e v i l l a g e m a i d e n s d u r i n g h i s s t a y t h e r e , a n d he s o o n became e n a m o u r e d o f M a r i a t o whom he a d d r e s s e d a poem i n a c r o s t i c f o r m . A f t e r t h e v i l l a g e r s h a d a l l gone t o b e d W i l h e l m l o v e d t o go f o r l o n g w a l k s a t n i g h t , a n d t h e A r d e n n e s c o u n t r y s i d e w i t h i t s g h o s t l y d a r k woods, a n d i t s g e n e r a l h a r s h n e s s a n d g l o o m i n e s s , c o u l d n o t f a i l t o a f f e c t t h e s e n s i t i v e y o u t h . I t was so d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d l a n d s c a p e o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . 4 The poem "F a g n e s de W a l l o n i e " e v i d e n c e s t h e p o e t s f e e l i n g s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The i n t r o s p e c t i v e n a t u r e o f h i s t h o u g h t s p r o v i d e d t h e p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e p e r i o d s o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n a l w a y s f o l -l o w e d any r e v e r s e i n h i s c o u r t s h i p a n d d i d n o t o c c u r when he was i n h o t p u r s u i t . T h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e most s a l i e n t f a c t i n a l m o s t a l l o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b e s t w o r k . I t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e G u i l l a u m e a n d h i s b r o t h e r A l b e r t r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r t o decamp w i t h o u t p a y i n g t h e i r b i l l a n d t o meet h e r i n P a r i s , w h ere t h e y were t o l i v e w i t h h e r i n somewhat s q u a l i d s u r r o u n d i n g s . A t t h i s p o i n t one s h o u l d e x a m i n e t h e h e r e d i t a r y t r a i t s p a s s e d on t o W i l h e l m . H i s m a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r M i c h a e l was t h e famous P r i n c e R a d z i w i l l ' s b o o n c o m p a n i o n . I t was f r o m h i m t h a t W i l h e l m i n h e r i t e d t h e t r a i t s o f a c o n s u m i n g s e n s u a l i t y , h i s l o v e o f f o o d , h i s a p p e t i t e f o r l i f e . I t was f r o m h i s m o t h e r t h a t he was p r o n e t o s u d d e n c h a n g e s o f a t t i t u d e w h i c h t e n d e d t o u p s e t t h o s e he came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h , b u t t h e v i c t i m s o f t h i s i n c o n s -t a n c y w e re i n v a r i a b l y won o v e r b y h i s enormous p e r s o n a l c h a r m . 5 W i l h e l m h a d h a d a s t r e a k o f p o s s e s s i v e n e s s w i t h some e l e m e n t s o f b r u t a l i t y , t r a i t s w h i c h were p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m h i s m o t h e r a l s o . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f h i s r e a d i n g , A p o l l i n a i r e r e c o r d e d i n n o t e b o o k s many w o r d s t h a t w e re s e l d o m u s e d o r s i m p l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r t h e i r s o u n d a l o n e . T h e s e b o o k s were a d e p o s i t o r y f o r h i s t h o u g h t s w h i c h were m o s t l y o f a s e l f a n a l y t i c a l n a t u r e ; w i t n e s s t h i s q u o t a t i o n f r o m one t h a t was p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n i n S t a v e l o t a n d c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e d by J a c q u e l i n e A p o l l i n a i r e . P o u r q u o i ne s u i s - j e p a s r i c h e comme t a n t d ' a u t r e s . P o u r q u o i mon a v e n i r se p r e s e n t - t - i l m y s t e r i e u x , h e r m e t i q u e a l o r s que l e s a u t r e s , f i l s de f a m i l l e , r i c h e s , ne v o i e n t d a n s 1 ' a v e n i r qu'une s u c c e s s i o n de f e t e s , de n o c e s , a v e c l e g a t i s m e f i n a l de l ' h e u r e de m a r i a g e , t a n d i s que m o i . . . J ' e u s m i e u x f a i t au l y c e e de b u c h e r mes maths e t d ' e s s a y e r C e n t r a l e , de t a c h e r d'en s o r t i r i n g e n i e u r , d ' a v o i r une p o s i t i o n a s s u r e e . Non au l i e u de t r a v a i l l e r , j ' a i f a i t d e s v e r s , j ' a i eu d e s r e v e s , j e me s u i s o c c u p e de l i t t 6 r a t u r e , merde, m e r d e . 6 I t • i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e r e a l i s e d what a h a r d l i f e l a y a h e a d a n d t h a t any o t h e r g a i n f u l e mployment was m e r e l y a means t o an e n d - t h a t o f m a k i n g h i s mark i n l i t e r a -t u r e . 18 2. The e a r l y y e a r s i n P a r i s 1899-1901 Once i n P a r i s W i l h e l m h a d t o l o o k f o r w o r k ; he s o o n f o u n d a j o b as a g h o s t w r i t e r a t so much a l i n e f o r a s e r i a l s t o r y w r i t e r b y t h e name o f E s n a r d , whose v e r b o s e i n s p i r a t i o n h a d d e s e r t e d h i m , a n d whose c a p a b i l i t y t o remember t o p a y h i s g h o s t w r i t e r s seemed s i m i l a r l y d e f i c i e n t . However E s n a r d ' s y o u n g m i s t r e s s was g o o d e n o u g h t o p a y h i m i n k i n d . The p o l i c e , a l e r t e d b y t h e S t a v e l o t i n n k e e p e r , a r r a i g n e d t h e K o s t r o w i t z k y s who s k i l l f u l l y p l e a d e d i n n o c e n c e o f w r o n g d o i n g a n d t h u s s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g t h e c a s e s t a y e d . The e a r l y d a y s i n P a r i s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y e x t r e m e p e n u r y , t h e K o s t r o w i t z k y s moved f r o m one s l e a z y s e t o f . f u r n i s h e d rooms t o a n o t h e r w h i l e y o u n g W i l h e l m s e t o u t d a i l y l o o k i n g f o r work, g e n a r a l l y m e e t i n g w i t h n o t h i n g b u t r e b u f f s . T h i s p e r i o d was r e c o r d e d i n " L a P o r t e " a n d " H o t e l s " . A j o b i n a s t o c k b r o k e r s o f f i c e s e l l i n g s t o c k s a n d s h a r e s was f o u n d a n d r e s u l t e d e i t h e r i n no s a l a r y o r t h e r a r e p a y m e n t . So o n c e more A p o l l i n a i r e was on t h e s t r e e t . He t h e n a t t e n d e d a s c h o o l o f s t e n o g r a p h y a n d p a s s e d t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l . However A p o l l i n a i r e was more i n t e r e s t e d i n f r e q u e n t i n g t h e v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s i n P a r i s a n d s t a r t e d t o move i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s w h ere J e a n Seve b e f r i e n d e d h i m a n d was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g a few o f t h e p o e t ' s e a r l y w o r k s a c c e p t e d b y a m a g a z i n e t i t l e d L a G r a n d e  F r a n c e . A p o l l i n a i r e b y t h i s t i m e h a d q u i t e a s u p p l y o f poems m o s t l y i n d r a f t f o r m o f w h i c h t h e e a r l i e s t w e r e " L ' E r m i t e " , "Le L a r r o n " a n d " M e r l i n e t l a v i e i l l e femme". 19 A p o l l i n a i r e was o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d on h i s n o c t u r n a l w a l k s b y a f r i e n d f r o m t h e S t o c k E x c h a n g e , Rene N i c o s i a , who was g r e a t l y amused by t h e f o r m e r ' s w i t , h i s p u n s a n d h i s r e a d i n e s s t o o v e r c o m e h i s m i s e r y by l a u g h i n g a t h i m s e l f . Rene was one o f t h e f i r s t t o r e c o g n i z e A p o l l i n a i r e ' s m e r i t . A c h a n c e a c q u a i n t a n c e i n a b r a s s e r i e was F e r d i n a n d M o l i n a Da S i l v a , t h e s o n o f a J e w i s h t e a c h e r o f b a l l r o o m d a n c i n g a n d d e p o r t m e n t . W i l h e l m ' s r e a d i n g h a d e n c o m p a s s e d v a r i o u s J e w i s h w o r k s i n c l u d i n g t h e K a b b a l a a n d he was v e r y much on t h e s i d e o f D r e y f u s d u r i n g t h a t v e r y u n f o r t u n a t e e p i s o d e i n F r e n c h h i s t o r y . The M o l i n a s made W i l h e l m f e e l v e r y much a t home; he l a c k e d t h i s s e n t i m e n t i n t h e company o f h i s h i g h - s t r u n g m o t h e r . T h i s sym-p a t h e t i c f a m i l y e n c o u r a g e d W i l h e l m t o b l o s s o m o u t a n d many p l e a s a n t e v e n i n g s were s p e n t w i t h them as t h e y l i s t e n e d t o t h e o f t e n b r i l l i a n t d i s c o u r s e o f t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y y o u n g man. F e r d i n a n d ' s b e a u t i f u l s i s t e r L i n d a M o l i n a , a g e d 16, was t h e e l d e s t d a u g h t e r a n d W i l h e l m f o u n d h i m s e l f somewhat d r a w n t o h e r , h o w e v e r she was by no means i n c l i n e d t o r e c i p r o c a t e . L i k e so many o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r o m a n t i c a t t a c h m e n t s , t h i s one was n o t a b l e f o r a p o e t i c e f f u s i o n , a n d f o r e v i d e n c e o f a j e a l o u s s t r e a k i n h i s n a t u r e . T h e r e f o l l o w e d some e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t i l t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e when t h e M o l i n a s l e f t f o r t h e i r h o l i d a y s , i t c o m p r i s e d s e v e r a l p o s t c a r d s m o s t l y i n a p o e t i c v e i n , . " L e s D i e t s d'amour a L i n d a " . 20 3. Germany, the Rhineland and Annie Playden 1901-1902 Mme Nicosia, who so enjoyed the company of her son's friend, was anxious to help him; to t h i s end she introduced him to Mme de Milhau, the mother of Gabrielle, who was being taught by the former to play the piano. The result of t h i s meeting was the engagement of Wilhelm as a part-time tutor of French for the l i t t l e g i r l . This i n turn resulted i n a year's contract and the departure of Mme de Milhau, her daughter and Mme de Milhau's mother for the Rhineland where the Milhaus had several estates. Included i n the group was a pretty English g i r l of very s t r i c t upbringing, Annie Playden, who had been hired to teach Gabrielle English and to be a ladies' maid. There could not have been a greater contrast than . that between the ebul l i e n t and hot-blooded son of a Slav and an It a l i a n , and the daughter of a deeply r e l i g i o u s landscape gardener who had nicknamed himself "the Archbishop of Canterbury" on account of his very strong committment to the Church of England. Their romance was,to say the least, turbulent, and must have caused Mme de Milhau some anxiety. This was resolved by allowing Wilhelm to have several leaves of absence, which he put to good account by touring a l l over Central Europe c o l l e c t i n g material for commentaries which he sent to Paris for publication, and delving into the f o l k l o r e of each of the places he v i s i t e d , e.g. Bonn, Prague, Vienna, Cologne and Dresden. The Milhau family had three residences in the Rhineland. The late summer and early autumn was spent i n Honnef, from which p l a c e A p o l l i n a i r e made h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o C o l o g n e . The l a t e autumn a n d w i n t e r was s p e n t i n Neu G l i i c k , s i t u a t e d e a s t o f t h e R h i n e . The f a m i l y met a t t h e e s t a t e o f Anna v o n F i s e n n e , Mme de M i l h a u ' s a u n t , a t K r a y e r h o f , w h i c h was a s h o r t d i s t a n c e w e s t o f t h e R h i n e , f o r A l l S o u l s Day. A p o l l i n a i r e l e f t Neu G l i i c k i n F e b r u a r y f o r h i s s e c o n d v i s i t t o C o l o g n e , w here he a r r i v e d i n t i m e f o r t h e S h r o v e T u e s d a y c a r n i v a l , a n d t h e n p r o c e e d e d on h i s E u r o p e a n t o u r . Mme de M i l h a u , G a b r i e l l e , A n n i e a n d G u i l l a u m e f o r g a t h e r e d i n M u n i c h i n l a t e M a r c h , a n d p r o b a b l y p r o c e e d e d down t h e R h i n e by b o a t f r o m B a c h a r a c h a n d a r r i v e d b a c k i n H o n n e f i n l a t e May. A p o l l i n a i r e s t a y e d t h e r e u n t i l h i s c o n t r a c t r a n o u t . The y e a r away f r o m F r a n c e f r o m A u g u s t 1901 t o A u g u s t 1902 p r o v i d e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e " R h e n a n e s " s e r i e s o f poems, a l l o f w h i c h h a v e much m e r i t . However one h a d t o a w a i t t h e d e f i n i t e b r e a k - u p o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h A n n i e b e f o r e A p o l l i n a i r e r o s e t o t h e p o e t i c h e i g h t s o f " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s poem i s p a r t l y a c o l l a g e o f some e a r l i e r w o r k s . 22 4. E n t r y i n t o t h e w o r l d o f a r t s a n d l e t t e r s 1902-1907 B a c k i n P a r i s , W i l h e l m was f a c e d w i t h a s h o r t a g e o f c a s h a n d t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f l i v i n g w i t h h i s m o t h e r a n d b e i n g d e p e n d e n t on h i s b r o t h e r A l b e r t , who f o r t u n a t e l y w o r k e d a s a bank c l e r k . T h a n k s t o h i s " u n c l e " J u l e s W e i l , t h e y o u n g man managed t o f i n d a s i m i l a r j o b , w h i c h d i d n o t p r e v e n t h i m f r o m s u b m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l t o p e r i o d i c a l s s u c h as I/Europeen, L e M e r c u r e d e . F r a n c e , A l b a n i a, L a Revue b l a n c h e , a n d L a P l u m e . M o s t o f t h e s e s u b m i s s i o n s were e i t h e r t h e p r o d u c t o f p r e v i o u s y e a r s i n t h e c a s e o f p o e t r y , n o t a b l y "Automne", o r d o c u m e n t a r y e s s a y s b a s e d on h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e n t r a l E u r o p e . I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t he b e g a n u s i n g t h e surname A p o l l i n a i r e i n s t e a d o f de K o s t r o w i t z k y . L ' E u r o p e a n s e n t h i m t o S t r a s b o u r g t o c o v e r a t r i a l . T h i s v i s i t , e v i d e n t l y on an e x p e n s e p a i d b a s i s , r e s u l t e d i n a poem, "1904" w h i c h e v i d e n c e s t h e l o v e o f g o o d f o o d a n d d r i n k s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f A p o l l i n a i r e . Some o f t h e e a r l y poems were p u b l i s h e d i n 1903, f o l l o w e d i n 1904 b y t h e b u l k o f t h e R h e n i s h poems a f t e r t h e i r p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f g e s t a t i o n , a n d t h e o t h e r poems i n s p i r e d b y t h e p o e t ' s t r a v e l s i n E u r o p e . S l o w l y b u t s u r e l y A p o l l i n a i r e b e g a n t o e x p a n d h i s c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s . He h a d a b r i e f a f f a i r w i t h an Yvonne l i v i n g i n t h e same a p a r t m e n t h o u s e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n f i v e - l i t t l e poems b u t he was s o o n a b a n d o n e d b y t h e p r a g m a t i c g i r l , l i k e l y l o o k i n g f o r a s u i t o r who was b e t t e r o f f . I n t h o s e d a y s u n d e r t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f L a P l u m e , a l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l , a s p i r i n g p o e t s met i n a c e l l a r t o r e c i t e a n d c r i t i c i z e t h e i r w o r k s b e f o r e an i n v i t e d a u d i e n c e . I t was t h e r e t h a t some l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w e re f o r g e d w i t h A n d r e S a l m o n , P a u l F o r t a n d A l f r e d J a r r y , a l l o f whom were t r y i n g t o e x p l o r e new p a t h w a y s i n t h e f o r e s t o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i v i t y . The i m p e n d i n g f a i l u r e s o f t h e v a r i o u s l i t t l e p e r i o d i c a l s t o w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e c o n t r i b u t e d r e s u l t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o b r a n c h o u t i n a new v e n t u r e , t h e s h o r t - l i v e d F e s t i n d'F.sope w i t h G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e as e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f . The b a n k i n w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e w o r k e d was i n v o l v e d i n a s p e c t a c u l a r c o l l a p s e , a n d he t u r n e d h i s h a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f a f i n a n c i a l t r a c t Le G u i d e du R e n t i e r , , m o n i t e u r d e s p e t i t s c a p i t a l i s t e s . The b u s y y o u n g e d i t o r n e v e r t h e l e s s t o o k t i m e o f f t o v i s i t L o n d o n i n November 1903 a n d a g a i n i n May 1904 t o s e e h i s b e l o v e d A n n i e P l a y d e n . H i s c o n d u c t on t h i s o c c a s i o n was s u c h t h a t t h e s c a r e d P l a y d e n s p e r s u a d e d t h e i r d a u g h t e r t o a p p l y f o r a p o s i t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n o r d e r t o g e t h e r o u t o f h i s c l u t c h e s . T h i s f i n a l r u p t u r e b r o u g h t on two o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f i n e s t poems, " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r a n d " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r Road", t h e l a t t e r a l s o i n c l u d i n g some l i n e s c u l l e d f r o m e a r l i e r u n p u b l i s h e d poems. The poem "Hyde P a r k " was i n s p i r e d by t h e 1903 v i s i t . D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1904 t h e K o s t r o w i t z k y s l i v e d i n L e V e s i n e t , a s u b u r b i n t h e l o o p o f t h e S e i n e n o r t h w e s t o f P a r i s , r e a c h e d by t r a i n f r o m t h e G a r e S t L a z a r e ; i t was a p l a c e f a v o u r e d by a r t i s t s . A p o l l i n a i r e met t h e p a i n t e r D e r a i n t h e r e , as he w a l k e d b e s i d e t h e r i v e r . " L a G r e n o u i l l e r e " , a l i t t l e i s l a n d i n t h e S e i n e w h i c h he v i s i t e d a t t h i s t i m e p r o v i d e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n 24 f o r a poem o f t h e same name. A p o l l i n a i r e l i k e d t o f r e q u e n t t h e E n g l i s h s t y l e p u b s n e a r t h e s t a t i o n a n d i t was i n one o f t h e s e t h a t he was i n t r o d u c e d t o P i c a s s o who i n t u r n i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o Max J a c o b : t h e t h r e e w e re t o be b o u n d i n a f r i e n d s h i p t h a t was t o e x e r c i s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on e a c h o f them. I n o r d e r t o v i s i t h i s n e w - f o u n d f r i e n d s , t h e p o e t b e g a n t o f r e q u e n t M o n t m a r t r e where P i c a s s o h a d h i s s t u d i o . I t was t h e f o c u s f o r many v i s i t o r s f r o m a l l w a l k s o f l i f e . I n 1904 t h e r e was no m a j o r p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y due no d o u b t t o l a c k o f l o v e i n t e r e s t , b u t s i n g l e p r e - e x i s t i n g w o r k s f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o some l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s s u c h a s T,' I m m o r a l i s t e . L a P l u m e , an d L a revue l i t t e r a i r e de P a r i s et de Champagne. I t was t h a n k s t o t h e d e c i s i o n s o f P a u l F o r t , t h e e d i t o r o f V e r s et P r o s e , t h a t i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1905/6 , f o u r m a j o r poems, " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r Road", " S a l o m e " , " L e s C l o c h e s " a n d " M a i " w e re p u b l i s h e d . D u r i n g t h i s " V e s i n e t " p e r i o d A p o l l i n a i r e made t r i p s t o B e l g i u m a n d H o l l a n d , o n c e i n t h e company o f a n e ' e r - d o - w e e l b y t h e name o f G e r y P i e r e t , o s t e n s i b l y t o f i n d new o u t l e t s f o r h i s p o e t r y a n d p r o s e . L o u i s de G o nzague F r i c k , a f o r m e r s c h o o l f r i e n d , was i n s t r u -m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g some more e a r l y w o r k s p u b l i s h e d i n La Phalange, a j o u r n a l w i t h N e o - S y m b o l i s t t e n d e n c i e s . P r o s e w o r k s t e n d e d t o be a f e a t u r e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o d u c t i o n a t t h i s t i m e ; an a r t i c l e i n t h e M e r c u r e de F r a n c e on t h e s u b j e c t o f A n a t o l e F r a n c e ' s " T h a i s " a p p e a r e d ; he c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f " L ' E n c h a n t e u r P o u r r i s s a n t " w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d i n t h e F e s t i n d'Esope b e t w e e n 25 M a r c h a n d A u g u s t 1904, a n d b e g a n h i s f i r s t e f f o r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f c r i t i c i s m a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e p l a s t i c a r t s . A p o l l i n a i r e , n e e d i n g money i n 1906 t o m a i n t a i n h i s e x p a n d e d l i f e s t y l e , t e m p o r a r i l y d e s e r t e d p o e t r y i n f a v o u r o f p r o s e ; he became i n v o l v e d i n what was t o c o n t i n u e a s h i s s e c o n d a r y l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y , t h e c r e a t i o n o f e r o t i c w o r k s s u c h as h i s Les E x p l o i t s ri'un jenne Don Juan a n d Les onze m i l i e v e r g e s a n d i n t h e e d i t i n g a n d a n n o t a t i o n o f t h e e r o t i c w o r k s o f e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . The r o u n d o f s o i r e e s i n t h e M o n t m a r t r e b i s t r o s c o n t i n u e d , w i t h A p o l l i n a i r e a t t h e c e n t r e o f a c r o w d o f a r t i s t s a n d w r i t e r s who h a v e become w o r l d famous, G e r t r u d e S t e i n , P i e r r e M a c O r l a n , U t r i l l o , M o d i g l i a n i , V l a m i n c k , e t c . On one o f t h e s e o c c a s i o n s P i c a s s o e n g i n e e r e d an- e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n a s l i m y o u n g g i r l , t h e d a u g h t e r o f a C r e o l e f a t h e r , a n d h i s p o e t f r i e n d , who a t t h i s t i m e h a d no r o m a n t i c a t t a c h m e n t s . The two o f them, M a r i e L a u r e n c i n a n d G u i l l a u m e , became i n s e p a r a b l e . I n f a c t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was t o be t h e s u b j e c t o f Le D o u a n i e r R o u s s e a u ' s p a i n t i n g "Le p o e t e e t e t s a muse". The p e r i o d o f p o e t i c i n a c t i o n was o v e r ; t h e e n g i n e o f a r o m a n t i c a t t a c h m e n t was o n c e more t o m o t i v a t e h i s p o e t i c g e n i u s . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e p u t a t i o n as an a r t c r i t i c was w i d e n i n g a n d he l o s t no o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i s c r e e t l y p r o m o t i n g t h e w o r k s o f h i s m i s t r e s s a n d o f h i s f r i e n d s , P i c a s s o a n d R o u s s e a u . A f a v o r i t e l i t e r a r y w a t e r i n g p l a c e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s was L a C l o s e r i e d e s L i l a s i n M o n t p a r n a s s e n e a r t h e L u x e m b o u r g g a r d e n s a n d p r e s i d e d o v e r b y P a u l F o r t , w i t h a c l i e n t e l e o f w r i t e r s . H e r e i n 1907 he became i n v o l v e d i n what was more l i k e l y a p u b l i c i t y s t u n t t h a n an a f f a i r o f h o n o u r - a d u e l t o w h i c h he c h a l l e n g e d Max D a i r e a u x - b e c a u s e he t o o k umbrage a t t h e l a t t e r ' s p o k i n g f u n a t t h e f o r m e r ' s i n s i s t e n c e on d r i n k i n g o n l y " h i s " m i n e r a l w a t e r " A p o l l i n a r i s " . C o o l e r h e a d s , t h e s e c o n d s named by e a c h , p r e v a i l e d a n d t h e m a t t e r was s e t t l e d b y t h e i r d e c i d i n g t h a t i t was n o t a f t e r a l l an a f f a i r i n w h i c h h o n o u r was i n v o l v e d . 7 27 5. New d i r e c t i o n s 1908 E a r l y i n t h e y e a r , A p o l l i n a i r e t r i e d t o r e a c h a l a r g e r a u d i -e n c e t h a n t h a t p r o v i d e d by La Phalange. T h i s t i m e as a l e c t u r e r on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e new p o e t s , " L a P h a l a n g e n o u v e l l e " , h i s f r e s h i d e a s a n d s t y l e a p p e a l e d t o an e n t h u s i a s t i c a u d i e n c e . He was o f t e n c a l l e d upon as a " c o n f e r e n c i e r " i n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d . In F e b r u a r y La Phalange p u b l i s h e d " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , an e x t r a -o r d i n a r y dream poem i n v e r s e a n d p r o s e t h a t Adema p u t s f o r w a r d as b e i n g a p r e l u d e t o S u r r e a l i s m . 8 I n May 1908 a n o t h e r j o u r n a l , G i l  B i a s p u b l i s h e d "Le B r a s i e r " (by i t s o r i g i n a l name o f "Le P y r e e " ) w h i c h b r o k e new g r o u n d , a n d t h i s "annus m i r a b i l i s " e n d e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n y e t a n o t h e r r e v i e w , Pan f o f " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " . By now A p o l l i n a i r e was l i v i n g b y h i s p e n a l o n e a n d w i t h h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h e e r o t i c he was h a p p y t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h F e r n a n d F l e u r e t , who was s i m i l a r l y i n v o l v e d , i n a l e n g t h y p r o j e c t o f c a t a l o g u i n g t h e h o l d i n g s o f e r o t i c a i n t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . A t t h e same t i m e he was b u s y p r e f a c i n g a n d a n n o t a t i n g an an t h o l o g y , T,es matt-res de 1' amour f o r t h e B r i f f a u t B r o t h e r s who h e a d e d up t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e d e s C u r i e u x w h i c h c a t e r e d t o a s p e c i a l i s e d c l i e n t e l e . M e n t i o n must be made o f Le B e s t i a i r e w h i c h was a l s o p u b l i s h e d t h a t same y e a r . The c e l e b r a t e d b a n q u e t f o r L e D o u a n i e r R o u s s e a u t o o k p l a c e i n November a t P i c a s s o ' s s t u d i o . A n d r e S a l m o n ' s a c c o u n t o f t h i s r i o t o u s e v e n t p r o v i d e s a g o o d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h o s e who made up t h e g r o u p t o w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e b e l o n g e d . 9 28 6. The y e a r s o f h a p p i n e s s a n d s t r e s s 1909-1912 J a n u a r y 1909 m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r - l o n g " L o u i s e L a l a n n e " c a p e r . Eugene M o n t f o r t , t h e e d i t o r o f L e s M a r g e s t o w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e c o n t r i b u t e d some o f h i s a r t i c l e s , c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g h i m p r e t e n d t o be a l a d y w r i t e r o f p o e t r y a n d commentary. The a r t i c l e s were q u i t e l i v e l y . However t h e denouement o f t h e h o a x f i n a l l y came, w i t h M o n t f o r t a n n o u n c i n g t h a t L o u i s e h a d e l o p e d w i t h a c a v a l r y o f f i c e r a n d a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e m y s t e r i o u s a u t h o r e s s was i n f a c t G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . The v i c t i m s o f t h i s e l a b o r a t e h o a x were l a t e r t o show t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e when A p o l l i n a i r e n e e d e d a l l t h e h e l p he c o u l d g e t . P a u l L e a u t a u d , a n o t h e r o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s l i t e r a r y f r i e n d s , was on t h e b o a r d o f Le Mercure de France: a c h a n c e r e m a r k b y A p o l l i n a i r e t o h i s f r i e n d r e s u l t e d i n i m m e d i a t e p u b l i c a t i o n i n May o f " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " w h i c h h a d b e e n l a n g u i s h i n g i n a d r a w e r , p r o b a b l y s i n c e 1907, i n t h e p u b l i s h e r ' s o f f i c e . 1 0 A p o l l i n a i r e was much t o o b u s y m e e t i n g f r i e n d s h e r e , t h e r e a n d e v e r y w h e r e , g e t t i n g h i s e a r l i e r poems p u b l i s h e d , ( f o r e x a m p l e some o f t h e R h i n e l a n d o n e s ) , c o n t r i b u t i n g c o m m e n t a r i e s a n d c r i t i -c i s m s t o v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r s a n d r e v i e w s , a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e p u b l i -c a t i o n i n November 1909 o f h i s n o v e l l a L ' E n c h a n t e u r p o u r r i s s a n t a n d m o v i n g f r o m M o n t m a r t r e t o A u t e u i l t o be n e a r M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , t o a p p l y h i m s e l f s o l i d l y t o p o e t r y ; t h o u g h p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n o v e r t h a t p e r i o d was n o t e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g , he f o u n d t i m e t o w r i t e a n d r e a d a poem a t t h e w e d d i n g o f h i s g o o d f r i e n d A n d r e . S a l m o n on J u l y 13 1909 ("Poeme l u au m a r i a g e d ' A n d r e Salmon") a n d t o work 29 on "1909", " S a l t i m b a n q u e s " a n d " C r e p u s c u l e " . The n e x t y e a r , 1910, was d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Le R e s t i a i r e i n v o l u m e f o r m . A p o l l i n a i r e w r o t e a d o z e n new poems a n d s c r a p p e d a few t h a t h a d f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n 1908 i n L a P h a l a n g e . A p o l l i n a i r e a n d h i s i l l u s t r a t o r R a o u l D u f y w o r k e d h a r d on t h i s p r o j e c t - w h i c h , h o w e v e r , was a p u b l i s h i n g f a i l u r e . A p o l l i n a i r e h a d t o move o n c e a g a i n on a c c o u n t o f t h e S e i n e r i v e r o v e r f l o w i n g i t s b a n k s . H i s r e p o r t a g e o f t h i s e v e n t e a r n e d h i m a b y l i n e i n t h e p r e s t i g i o u s 1/ I n t r a n s i g e a n t , where he t o o k o v e r f r o m A n d r e S a l m o n t h e c o l u m n " L a V i e a r t i s t i q u e " . No new p o e t r y r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . P u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1911 o f L ' H e r e s i a r q u e e t C i e , o t h e r p r o s e w o r k s , a n d some p r e l i m i n a r y work i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h what was t o be h i s famous c o l l e c t i o n A l c o o l s ( o r i g i n a l l y a d v e r t -i s e d a s Kan-ds-Vie) k e p t h i m so b u s y t h a t h i s f r i e n d s s o m e t i m e s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t he seemed i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g p u n c t u a l , t o t h e e x -t e n t o f f o r g e t t i n g a l l a b o u t an i n v i t a t i o n . The p u b l i s h e r P.-V. S t o c k p u t A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h e r u n n i n g f o r t h e p r i x G o n c o u r t w i t h L / H e r e s i a r q u e & C i e , b u t t h e f a i l u r e t o w i n i t on t h e t h i r d a n d l a s t b a l l o t was a g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . A f a v o u r a b l e r e v i e w o f t h e book b y A n d r e B i l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r b e c o m i n g f a s t f r i e n d s f o r t h e r e s t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s l i f e . The s t a i d B i l l y s t o o d b y h i s b o h e m i a n f r i e n d t h r o u g h a l l t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s t h e f u t u r e h e l d i n s t o r e f o r h i m . The S p r i n g o f 1911 saw t h e s t a r t o f t h e " L a V i e a n e c d o t i q u e " c ommentary i n t h e M e r c u r e de F r a n c e . A p o l l i n a i r e c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h i s a c t i v i t y u n t i l h i s u n t i m e l y d e a t h . By now A p o l l i n a i r e h a d 30 a c q u i r e d a c e r t a i n n o t o r i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a r t i s t i c a n d l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s . The a d m i r a t i o n o f h i s f r i e n d s was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d w i t h a m i x t u r e o f p i q u e a n d j e a l o u s y among a s m a l l c o t e r i e o f d e t r a c t o r s . The f o r m e r s u p p o r t e d h i m i n a l l t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s t h a t w e r e t o f o l l o w . To some e x t e n t A p o l l i n a i r e ' s n o t o r i e t y was due t o a c o m b i n -a t i o n o f h i s n e v e r - e n d i n g a t t e m p t s t o g e t a f o o t h o l d on t h e s l i p -p e r y s l o p e o f fame a n d f o r t u n e , b o t h as a c r i t i c a n d p o e t , a n d h i s a l m o s t w i l f u l p o w e r s o f m y s t i f y i n g f r i e n d a n d f o e a l i k e . To u n d e r l i n e t h i s a s p e c t an a s s e s s m e n t made by one o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s on T/ Tntransigeant i n A p r i l o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r i s q u o t e d i n p a r t : ..., v o u s ne p o u r r i e z c o n c e v o i r c o m b i e n c o m p l e x e e t r a f f i n e e e s t l'ame que c o n t i e n t c e p e r s o n n a g e d ' a s p e c t h o l l a n d a i s . E r u d i t e t p a r l a n t t o u s l e s d i a l e c t e s i t a l i e n s , p o e t e a y a n t e c r i t d es v e r s l i b r e s c h a r m a n t s , c r i t i q u e d ' a r t e t s e p l a i s a n t a 1 ' e f f o r t d e s p i r e s I n d e p e n d a n t s , A p o l l i n a i r e aime l e b e a u s u b t i l , 1 ' e r u d i t i o n s o l i d e , l e v i n v i e u x , l ' a r t i n - c e r t a i n e t l e s p r o p o s s a v a n t s q u i r e s t e n t , a v e c une p a t t e en l ' a i r , e n t r e d e u x v e r i t e s . C ' e s t un s a g e a l a m a n i e r e d ' E s o p e . On l e s o u p c o n n e d'un l e g e r p e n c h a n t p o u r l a m y s t i f i c a t i o n . . . I I e s t s i c o m p l e x e e t s i a r t i s t e . 1 1 The wayward G e r y P i e r e t , t h e f o r m e r c o l l a b o r a t o r on t h e G u i d e du r e n t i e r a n d t h e p o e t ' s t r a v e l l i n g c o m p a n i o n i n 1904, was 31 a c o m p u l s i v e t h i e f . A f t e r a s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e i n A m e r i c a he a p p e a l e d t o h i s f r i e n d A p o l l i n a i r e f o r f o o d a n d s h e l t e r a n d b r a z e n l y u s e d t h e p o e t ' s a p a r t m e n t a s a r e p o s i t o r y f o r a s t a t u e o f a woman's h e a d t h a t he h a d s t o l e n f r o m t h e L o u v r e museum. T h i s t h e f t c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e m y s t e r i o u s d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e famous p a i n t i n g , t h e Mona L i s a , i n F r e n c h " L a J o c o n d e " , f r o m t h e same p l a c e . I n A u g u s t 1911, t h e r e t u r n o f t h e h e a d a n d an anonymous l e t t e r f o c u s s e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e on t h e i n n o c e n t A p o l l i n a i r e , who was l o c k e d up i n t h e S a n t e p r i s o n on S e p t e m b e r 7 t h on a c h a r g e o f c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e t h e f t o f t h e p a i n t i n g . H i s r e a l f r i e n d s r a l l i e d r o u n d a nd, a f t e r a week o f t h e u t m o s t s t r e s s , o b t a i n e d h i s p r o v i s i o n a l r e l e a s e on S e p t e m b e r 1 2 t h : b u t i t was n o t u n t i l J a n u a r y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h a t t h e c h a r g e was f i n a l l y q u a s h e d . T h i s p e r i o d i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e "A L a S a n t e " s e r i e s o f s i x poems, w h i c h g i v e a h e a r t r e n d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s d e p r e s s e d s t a t e o f m i n d - w h i c h was b r o u g h t on n o t o n l y b y t h e i m p r i s o n m e n t , b u t a l s o b y t h e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t M a r i e L a u r e n c i n h a d t i r e d o f h i m , a n d t h a t he h a d i n f a c t l o s t t h e c o m p a n i o n o f some o f h i s h a p p i e s t d a y s . T h i s l o s s p r o v i d e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f "Le P o n t M i r a b e a u " w h i c h w i t h t h e c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s " C o r s de c h a s s e " c o n t a i n s e c h o s o f t h e p r i s o n poems. 1912 was a g a i n a b u s y y e a r f o r A p o l l i n a i r e . I t s t a r t e d w i t h B i l l y a n d h i s o t h e r f r i e n d s f o u n d i n g Les S o i r e e s de Par i s a s a v e h i c l e f o r A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t a l e n t s as an e d i t o r a n d c o n t r i b u t o r . T h i s was t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e c u r e f o r h i s d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s r e v i e w 32 saw t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f "Le P o n t M i r a b e a u " i n F e b r u a r y a n d " M a r i e " i n O c t o b e r , w h i c h s e r v e d as a s o r t o f d o u b l e r i t e o f e x o r c i s m c o n s e q u e n t upon t h e l o s s o f M a r i e L a u r e n c i n ' s a f f e c t i o n . L e s S o i r e e s de P a r i s a l s o p u b l i s h e d "Le V o y a g e u r " a n d " C o r s de c h a s s e " i n S e p t e m b e r , " V e n d e m i a i r e " i n November, a n d "Zone" i n December. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s l a s t poem was d r a f t e d i n J u n e , when t h e P i c a b i a s a n d A p o l l i n a i r e were on h o l i d a y i n t h e J u r a m o u n t a i n s , a n d f u r t h e r w o r k e d upon l a t e r t h a t y e a r w h i l e s t a y i n g w i t h t h e D e l a u n a y s . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o h i s r e v i e w i n 1912 were d o m i n a t e d b y t h e poems l i s t e d i n t h e • p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h b u t he h a d q u i t e a b i t t o s a y a b o u t modern p a i n t i n g - s i n c e he was i n t h e company o f t h e D e l a u n a y s , who p u t h i m up when he c o u l d n o t f a c e l i v i n g i n A u t e u i l on a c c o u n t o f i t s m e m o r i e s o f M a r i e L a u r e n c i n . D e l a u n a y was q u i t e a t h e o r i s t on t h e s u b j e c t o f p a i n t i n g , b e i n g t h e s e l f - s t y l e d i n v e n t o r o f s i m u l t a n e i s m ; i n a d d i t i o n , F r a n c i s P i c a b i a a n d h i s w i f e G a b r i e l l e B u f f e t were a c t i v e p r o p o n e n t s o f a more a b s t r a c t t y p e o f p a i n t i n g . A p o l l i n a i r e u s e d t o s p e n d some week-ends w i t h t h e m a t t h e i r p l a c e i n G a r c h e s , j u s t w e s t o f P a r i s - e n j o y a b l e b r e a k s w h i c h a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s h o r t poem " M o n t p a r n a s s e " w h i c h d a t e s f r o m t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s p a r t o f P a r i s was now p r e f e r r e d b y t h e p o e t who d e s c r i b e d h i s f e e l i n g s t h u s , a l b e i t two y e a r s l a t e r : 33 M o n t p a r n a s s e d ' o r e s e t d e j a r e m p l a c e M o n t m a r t r e . . . . on (y) t r o u v e m a i n t e n a n t l e s v r a i s a r t i s t e s h a b i l l e s a 1 ' a m e r i c a i n e . . . . Que v o i l a un p a y s a g r e a b l e ou t o u t l e c i e l e s t p o u r 1'usage e x t e r n e , p a y s de p l e i n a i r e t d e s t e r r a s s e s . . . 1 2 T h e s e new a r t i s t f r i e n d s w e r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e s t o r i n g t h e p o e t t o h i s more u s u a l , a t l e a s t o u t w a r d l y , e x t r o v e r t s e l f . The c u r i o u s poem " L e s f e n e t r e s " was w r i t t e n a t t h e D e l a u n a y s . I t was e x e r c i s e i n s i m u l t a n e i s m : a " p o e m e - c o n v e r s a t i o n " b a s e d on n o t e s t a k e n w h i l e h a v i n g a d r i n k w i t h h i s f r i e n d s A n d r e B i l l y a n d Rene D a l i z e . 34 7. L i t e r a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g 1912 - 1914 The f i r s t o f t h e y e a r saw t h e p o e t s e t t l i n g i n t o t h e a t t i c a p a r t m e n t a t 202 B o u l e v a r d S a i n t - G e r m a i n w h i c h was t o be h i s home f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x y e a r s o f h i s l i f e . T h i s move d i d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e l o s s o f t h e t i e s t h a t b o u n d h i m t o t h o s e o f h i s a r t i s t f r i e n d s who c h o s e t o r e m a i n i n M o n t m a r t r e . . I n f a c t t h i s p e r i o d was n o t a b l e f o r t h e e n e r g y t h a t - A p o l l i n a i r e d e v o t e d t o a r t c r i t i c i s m a n d h i s t e r r i e r - l i k e c h a s i n g o f t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s " i s m s " t h a t r o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e a n d p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o h i m . C o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e S a l o n d e s I n d e p e n d a n t s i n J a n u a r y was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Les peintre.q c u b i s t e s , m e d i t a t i o n s  e s t h e t i g u e s , on w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e h a d w o r k e d a t t h e e n d o f 1912. The s u b t i t l e s h o u l d r e a l l y h a v e b e e n t h e t i t l e , s i n c e more t h a n h a l f o f t h e b o ok i s d e v o t e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f p a i n t i n g , w i t h o n l y a few pages d e v o t e d t o names who ( t h a n k s i n p a r t t o A p o l l i n a i r e ) h a v e s i n c e become c e l e b r a t e d a r t i s t s whose w o r k s a r e now s o u g h t a f t e r b y c o l l e c t o r s ; P i c a s s o , B r a q u e , M e t z i n g e r , G l e i z e s , M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , J u a n G r i s , L e g e r , P i c a b i a a n d M a r c e l Duchamp. The b o o k a l s o d e a l s w i t h t h e s c u l p t o r D u c h a m p - V i l l o n a n d m e n t i o n s s e v e r a l o t h e r p a i n t e r s s u c h as D u f y , D e r a i n , Van Dongen an d s c u l p t o r s s u c h a s A r c h i p e n k o a n d B r a n c u s i as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e " C u b i s t " p e r s u a s i o n , b u t o n l y i n p a s s i n g . M a u r i c e R a y n a l ' s r e v i e w o f t h e b o ok i s t h e most p e n e t r a t i n g , t h r o w i n g as i t d o e s a l i g h t on A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c h a r a c t e r ; C ' e s t p o u r q u o i d a n s c e t t e s o r t e de poeme s u r l a p e i n t u r e q u ' i l v i e n t de p u b l i e r , on s e n t t o u t d ' a b o r d 35 que s a n a t u r e p r i n c i p a l e m e n t p o e t i q u e l u i d e f e n d a i t de commenter e t d ' e x p l i q u e r l a p e i n t u r e meme. En g e n e r a l , l e s v r a i s p o e t e s ne c o m p r e n n e n t r i e n , m a i s r e s s e n t e n t t o u t . A u s s i G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , s o r t e de s e n s u a l i s t e m y s t i q u e , ne c o m p r e n d p a s l a p e i n t u r e , m a i s l a p e r c o i t , 1 ' £prouve . 1 3 1913 was a b u s y y e a r , n o t a b l e f o r t h e amount o f i n v e s t i g a -t i o n a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . " A r b r e " a n d " L i e n s " , p u b l i s h e d i n M a r c h a n d A p r i l r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e t y p i c a l o f t h i s p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f A l c o o l s i n A p r i l , A p o l l i n a i r e ' s . t i m e was t a k e n up w i t h h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o n e w s p a p e r s s u c h as T / T n t r a n s i g e a n t a n d P a r i s - J o u r n a l , t o r e v i e w s s u c h as Le M e r c u r e de F r a n c e , i n p r e p a r i n g c o m m e n t a r i e s f o r t h e b o o k s b e i n g p u b -l i s h e d b y t h e B r i f f a u t b r o t h e r s i n t h e i r " B i b l i o t h e q u e d e s C u r i e u x " , a n d p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r t h e m a n i f e s t o " L ' A n t i t r a d i t i o n f u t u r i s t e " , i n J u n e , w i t h h i s f r i e n d M a r i n e t t i a n d t h e o t h e r I t a l i a n F u t u r i s t s , who were a l s o t a s t i n g t h e h e a d y w i n e o f s i m u l t a n e i s m . A p o l l i n a i r e d a b b l e d i n t h e U n a n i m i s m o f J u l e s R o m a i n s a n d G e o r g e s Duhamel a n d t h e D r a m a t i s m o f J a c q u e s B a r z u n b u t t h e o n l y " i s m " t h a t met w i t h t h e p o e t ' s a s p i r a t i o n s was " O r p h i s m " , exemp-l i f i e d by t h e b r i g h t c o l o u r s a n d l i g h t o f D e l a u n a y ' s E i f f e l Tower an d t h e l e i t - m o t i v o f l i g h t i n " L e s F e n e t r e s " . A p o l l i n a i r e d e s c r i b e d i t t h u s : 1 4 L a s i m u l t a n e i t y d e s c o u l e u r s p a r d e s c o n t r a s t e s s i m u l t a n e s e t p a r t o u t e s l e s m e s u r e s ( i m p a i r e s ) i s s u e s d e s c o u l e u r s s e l o n l e u r e x p r e s s i o n d a n s l e u r mouvement r e p r e s e n t a t i f , v o i l a l a s e u l e r e a l i t e p o u r c o n s t r u i r e en p e i n t u r e . L a l u m i e r e n ' e s t p a s un p r o c e d e , e l l e g l i s s e v e r s n o u s , e l l e n o u s e s t communiquee p a r n o t r e s e n s i b i l i t e . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t e n d e n c y t o s u p p o r t a g i v e n a r t i s t i c movement o n l y t o d r o p i t a s h o r t t i m e l a t e r h a d t h e r e s u l t o f a l i e n a t i n g t h o s e who h a d e s p o u s e d i t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f G e o r g e s Duhamel, who g o t h i s own b a c k when r e v i e w i n g A l c o o l s by e x p r e s s -i n g t h e f e e l i n g s o f many c r i t i c s who were b e w i l d e r e d b y t h e m u l t i p l e c h a n g e s o f p a c e , s t y l e a n d v e r s i f i c a t i o n , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e t o t a l l a c k o f p u n c t u a t i o n i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , none were q u i t e as v i t u p e r a t i v e as h i s f o r m e r f r i e n d . W i t n e s s t h e s e few e x t r a c t s : R i e n ne f a i t d a v a n t a g e p e n s e r a une b o u t i q u e de b r o c a n t e u r que c e r e c u e i l d e s v e r s . . . j e d i s b o u t i q u e de b r o c a n t e u r , p a r c e q u ' i l e s t v e n u e c h o u e r d a n s c e t a u d i s une f o u l e d ' o b j e t s h e t e r o c l i t e s d o n t c e r t a i n s o n t de l a v a l e u r , m a i s d o n t a u c u n n ' e s t l e p r o d u i t de l ' i n d u s t r i e du m a r c h a n d meme. ...Une t r u c u l e n t e e t e t o u r d i s s a n t e v a r i e t e t i e n t l i e u d ' a r t , d a n s 1 ' a s s e m b l a g e de s o b j e t s . C ' e s t a p e i n e s i , p a r l e s t r o u s d'une c h a s u b l e m i t e u s e , on a p e r g o i t l e r e g a r d i r o n i q u e e t n a i f du m a r c h a n d , q u i t i e n t a l a f o i s du J u i f l e v a n t i n , de l ' A m e r i c a i n du Sud, du g e n t i l l h o m m e p o l o n a i s e t du facchino. . . . A u s s i , b r a v e -t - i l impudemment l e s r e g i e s l e s p l u s accommodantes de l a m e s u r e e t du g o u t . 1 5 37 S u c h o p p r o b r i u m was t o o much f o r A p o l l i n a i r e , who w a n t e d t o c h a l l e n g e Duhamel t o a d u e l . I t was o n l y due t o t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o n c e a g a i n o f A n d r e B i l l y t h a t t h e m a t t e r was l a i d t o r e s t . . The e x p e r i m e n t o f " L e s F e n e t r e s " was f o l l o w e d by " L u n d i r u e C h r i s t i n e " a n d "Un f a n t o m e de n u e e s " i n December 1913. E a r l i e r t h a t y e a r , t h e p o e t c r e a t e d "Le M u s i c i e n de S a i n t - M e r r y " . The m a j o r poem " L e s C o l l i n e s " i s a l s o c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e o t h e r p r e w a r poems, t h o u g h i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l A p r i l 1918 ( i n t h e C a l l i g r a m i t i e s c o l l e c t i o n ) . Thus e n d e d an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r i o d o f p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y i n i t s more u s u a l f o r m a t . M o s t o f t h e s e poems d a t i n g f r o m j u s t b e f o r e t h e War a r e o f c h a l l e n g i n g c o m p l e x i t y a n d r a n g e f r o m " p o e m e s - c o n v e r s a t i o n s " , e s s a y s i n s i m u l t a n e i s m , a n d a t t e m p t s t o r e n d e r i n p o e t i c f o r m t h e p a i n t i n g e f f o r t s o f h i s f r i e n d s D e l a u n a y , C h i r i c o a n d C h a g a l l who, w i t h C e n d r a r s , were a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h e l a t e r p a r t o f 1912, i n 1913 a n d t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1914. T h e s e poems were p u b l i s h e d m a i n l y i n Les S o i r e e s de P a r i s . The n e x t a c t i v i t y was c r e a t i n g o f what A p o l l i n a i r e c a l l e d "Ideogrammes l y r i q u e s " , l a t e r t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f i r s t o r "Ondes" p o r t i o n o f h i s s e c o n d m a j o r c o l l e c t i o n C a l l i g r amines. M o s t o f t h e s e w e re p u b l i s h e d i n t h e summer o f 1914. The i d e o g r a m " I I P l e u t " must h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n i n t h e s p r i n g . I t i s a m e t e o r -o l o g i c a l f a c t t h a t summer t h a t . y e a r was g l o r i o u s l y s u n n y ; i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l December 1916. I n an e f f o r t t o e k e o u t a l i v i n g A p o l l i n a i r e managed t o g e t a j o b i n D e a u v i l l e a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h a t r e s o r t ' s s e a s o n , w r i t i n g 3 8 a s e r i e s o f s o c i e t y n o t e s . He was a c c o m p a n i e d by A n d r e R o u v e y r e , b u t t h i s a c t i v i t y was c u t s h o r t b y t h e g e n e r a l m o b i l i s a t i o n o r d e r o f J u l y 31 1914. The l a s t o f t h e p r e - w a r poems was " L a p e t i t e a u t o " w h i c h m a r k e d t h e e n d o f an e r a , b o t h i n a p o e t i c s e n s e a n d i n t h e b r o a d e r h i s t o r i c a l o ne: h e n c e f o r t h i n s p i r a t i o n w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m h i s war e x p e r i e n c e s a n d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h L o u i s e de C o l i g n y , M a d e l e i n e P a g e s , a n d J a c q u e l i n e K o l b . 39 8. A p o l l i n a i r e on a c t i v e s e r v i c e 1914-1916 The v e r y names o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s u b t i t l e s t o t h e C a l l i - grammes c o l l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r t t h e War p l a y e d i n t h e p o e t ' s , l i f e ; " E t e n d a r d s " , "Case d'armons", " L u e u r s d e s t i r s " , "Obus c o u l e u r de l u n e " , " L a t e t e " e t o i l e e " . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s one t h o u g h t was how b e s t he c o u l d f i g h t f o r h i s b e l o v e d F r a n c e . He was s t i l l t e c h n i c a l l y a R u s s i a n n a t i o n a l , o w i n g t o h i s h a v i n g b e e n b o r n o f a P o l i s h m o t h e r , b u t i n s i s t e d t h a t he owed no a l l e g i a n c e t o e i t h e r o f t h o s e c o u n t r i e s . A r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e w h i c h h a d t a k e n down h i s p a r t i c u l a r s was c l o s e d , as i t was o p e r a t i n g u n o f f i c i a l l y , s o t h e f r u s t r a t e d p a t r i o t was h a p p y t o a c c e p t an o f f e r o f b o a r d a n d l o d g i n g i n N i c e f r o m a f r i e n d , s i n c e he h a d s t o r e d h i s few b e l o n g i n g s . The f r i e n d M. S i e g l e r - P a s c a l i n t r o d u c e d h i m e a r l y i n S e p t e m b e r t o a f l i g h t y a n d s n o b b i s h y o u n g l a d y , L o u i s e de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n , a n d A p o l l i n a i r e l o s t no t i m e i n p a y i n g s t r e n u o u s c o u r t t o h e r . A s l i g h t t i f f r e s u l t e d i n h i s r e p o r t i n g t o t h e o f f i c i a l r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e i n t h e N i c e m a y o r a l t y where he was i m m e d i a t e l y e n l i s t e d i n t h e A r t i l l e r y a n d t o l d t o r e p o r t t o N i m e s . I n a l e t t e r t o L o u , by way o f e x p l a n a t i o n , he d e s c r i b e d h i s a c t i o n a s b e i n g i m p r u d e n t . T h i s was e n o u g h f o r h e r t o a c c e p t h i s c h a l l e n g e a n d she l e f t i m m e d i a t e l y t o j o i n h i m f o r n i n e d a y s o f what c a n o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as' f r a n t i c l o v e m a k i n g . Two weeks a f t e r t h i s m e m o r a b l e p e r i o d A p o l l i n a i r e went on l e a v e t o r e j o i n L o u f o r a day o r two a n d t h i s was f o l l o w e d b y a n o t h e r t h r e e d a y s a t t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y . A p a r t f r o m a b r i e f m e e t i n g on t h e 2 9 t h o f M a r c h 1915 a n d an e v e n s h o r t e r c h a n c e e n c o u n t e r t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r i n P a r i s , t h i s was t h e l a s t he e v e r saw o f h e r , b u t a s t r e a m o f l e t t e r s a n d poems f l o w e d f o r a n o t h e r t w e l v e m o n t h s . He knew she was u n f a i t h f u l b u t he must h a v e f o u n d some p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l i e f i n t h i s h o p e l e s s a c t i v i t y . No l e s s t h a n , s e v e n t y f i v e poems were composed b y A p o l l i n a i r e i n a s i x month p e r i o d w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e h i m s e l f c l a i m e d were t h e b e s t t h a t he h a d w r i t t e n s i n c e t h e war b e g a n . By t h e e n d o f M a r c h A p o l l i n a i r e r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o be g a i n e d by s t a y i n g on i n N i m e s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he b e l o n g e d t o a c a d r e o f o f f i c e r c a n d i d a t e s i n t r a i n i n g t h e r e , and he went s t r a i g h t t o t h e F r o n t a s a g u n n e r p r i v a t e . H i s l o v e f o r L o u t o o k t h e s h a p e o f d e l v i n g i n t o r e m i n i s c e n c e . He f e l t a l l a l o n e a n d b e g a n t o w r i t e t o w h o e v e r he f e l t c o u l d k e e p up h i s s p i r i t s b y e n t e r i n g i n t o c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h h i m . He remembered a c h a n c e m e e t i n g w i t h a g i r l i n t h e t r a i n when he was on h i s way b a c k f r o m s e e i n g L o u i n e a r l y J a n u a r y . He dug up h e r a d d r e s s a n d s e n t h e r a p o s t c a r d . T h i s was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s romance w i t h M a d e l e i n e P a g e s w h i c h l a s t e d a l m o s t a y e a r a n d a h a l f , one w h i c h he k e p t s e c r e t f r o m L o u a n d w h i c h he p u r s u e d t o t h e e x t e n t o f b e c o m i n g e n g a g e d t o M a d e l e i n e i n A u g u s t 1915. M a d e l e i n e ' s f r i e n d s h i p was f a r more s o l i d a n d t h i s p r o b a b l y meant more t o G u i l l a u m e t h a n t h e p u r e l y p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n o f L o u i s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t o f h i s wound i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1916 w h i c h b r o u g h t on a s t a t e o f a c u t e d e p r e s s i o n , c o m b i n e d w i t h h i s p e r m a n e n t r e t u r n t o P a r i s ( s i n c e he h a d b e e n e x c u s e d f u r t h e r a c t i v e s e r v i c e as an i n f a n t r y o f f i c e r ) t o g e t h e r 41 w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s he now h a d t o renew h i s o l d f r i e n d s h i p s , h a d t h e e f f e c t o f c o o l i n g o f f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a d e l e i n e . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s many l e t t e r s a n d t h e poems t o M a d e l e i n e h a v e b e e n e d i t e d by Adema 1 6 a n d p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g . The p o e t ' s o u t p u t o f t w e n t y - o n e poems d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d A p r i l t o J u n e 1915 was p r i n t e d on a d u p l i c a t i n g m a c h i n e i n t h e o f f i c e o f h i s b a t t e r y . The t i t l e o f t h i s c o l l e c t i o n "Case d'armons" s t e m s f r o m t h e a r t i l l e r y m a n ' s e q u i v a l e n t o f a s a i l o r ' s d i t t y b o x w h i c h was l o c a t e d on t h e l i m b e r o r gun c a r r i a g e . O n l y t w e n t y - f i v e c o p i e s were made. L o u i s e de C o l i g n y a g a i n p r o v i d e d t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r n i n e i n t h i s s e t o f poems. Some o f t h e s e f o r m p a r t o f t h e a n t h o l o g y o f s e v e n t y f i v e Po£mes A T,ouf a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r . " R e c o n n a i s s a n c e " was a l s o s e n t t o h e r , b u t t h e e c o n -o m i c a l G u i l l a u m e i n s c r i b e d i t i n an e a r l y l e t t e r t o M a d e l e i n e , who r e c e i v e d t h e r e s t o f t h e poems o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e . A p o l l i n a i r e t h e s o l d i e r f o u n d m a t e r i a l n e a r b y f o r h i s r e m a i n i n g poems i n t h i s g r o u p , w h i c h t r e a t m o s t l y o f m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s . The p o e t seems t o h a v e b e e n o u t o f t o u c h w i t h t h e p u b l i s h i n g f r a t e r n i t y , s o he t o o k t h e s t e p o f s e n d i n g most o f t h e poems i n t h e C a l l i grammes c o l l e c t i o n t o h i s f r i e n d s . He was t h e n a b l e t o r e c o v e r t h e c o p i e s he n e e d e d t o make up t h e c o l l e c t i o n , w h i c h was n o t p r i n t e d u n t i l A p r i l 1918. T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e w a r t i m e s h o r t a g e s a n d t h e a b s e n c e a t t h e f r o n t o f s o many men he knew i n t h e a r t i s t i c w o r l d m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t a more n o r m a l p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . Among t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f "Case d'armons" was L o u i s e F a u r e -F a v i e r , a newspaperwoman whom he h a d f i r s t met i n S e p t e m b e r 1912. 42 She was a b l e t o p r o v i d e a means o f c o n t a c t i n g M a r i e L a u r e n c i n . I n h e r b o ok S o u v e n i r s s n r G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 1 7 s h e q u o t e s a t l e n g t h f r o m l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d f r o m h i m : C a s e d'armons e s t une c u r i o s i t e b i b l i o g r a p h i q u e , j ' e s p e r e q u ' e l l e p a r a i t r a e n v o l u m e t y p o g r a p h i c e t a v e c " E t moi a u s s i j e s u i s p e i n t r e " q u i n'a p o i n t p a r u e t t o u s mes a u t r e s poemes e n v o y e s a mes a m i e s e t a m i s ; un c e r t a i n nombre de c e u x e n v o y e s a R o u v e y r e , a D u p o n t , a B i l l y y e n t r e r o n t . J e l e s p r i e done de g a r d e r c e s poemes q u i ' i l s p o s s e d e n t s e u l s , c a r j e n'en a i p a s t r a c e . . . m a i s mes m e i l l e u r s poemes e t i l y e n a d e s b o n s v o u s ne l e s l i r e z que s i c e l l e q u i l e s a v e u t b i e n , a p r e s l a g u e r r e , que j e l e s p u b l i e . E t , q u i s a i t c e que d e v i e n n e n t l e s c h o s e s . Two m a t t e r s a r i s e f r o m t h i s q u o t a t i o n . F i r s t , A p o l l i n a i r e was v e r y m i n d f u l t h a t h i s w o r k s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be r e a d by p o s t -e r i t y b o t h on a c c o u n t o f h i s i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e i r i n t r i n s i c m e r i t . S e c o n d l y , he was f a c e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s e a r l y d e a t h , a n d i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t he s h o u l d p u t i n p l a c e t h e e l e m e n t s o f a s y s t e m o f what c o u l d b e s t b e d e s c r i b e d a s l i t e r a r y e x e c u t o r s - among whom, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t h r e e men m e n t i o n e d i n t h e a b o v e e x t r a c t , one c a n number M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , L o u i s e F a u r e - F a v i e r , M a d e l e i n e P a g e s , and t h e " C e l l e q u i l e s a" who was L o u i s e de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n . The t a s k o f a n t h o l o g i s t s s u c h as A p o l l i n a i r e h i m s e l f a n d e d i t o r s l i k e M i c h e l D e c a u d i n a n d M a r c e l Adema was t h u s made e a s i e r . The " L u e u r s d e s t i r s " s e c t i o n o f t h e r .a l ligrarnrnes c o l l e c t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n j u s t m e n t i o n e d . The f i r s t f i v e poems were a l l s e n t on A u g u s t 2 0 t h 1915 t o Mme F a u r e - F a v i e r f o r c o p y i n g a n d d e s p a t c h t o M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , who was now l i v i n g i n S p a i n w i t h h e r German . h u s b a n d . A p o l l i n a i r e c a l l e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t "Le m e d a i l l o n t o u j o u r s f e r m e " . The f o u r t h poem i n t h e s e t was s e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g month t o b o t h M a d e l e i n e a n d L o u i s e a n d t h e l a s t t o M a d e l e i n e . The n e x t two poems were s e n t t o t h e two L o u i s e s a n d M a d e l e i n e w h i l e t h e r e s t o f t h e poems i n t h e s e c t i o n w e r e s e n t t o M a d e l e i n e o n l y . The l a s t poem "Ocean de t e r r e " was d a t e d December 1915 a n d d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p a i n t e r G i o r g i o de C h i r i c o . 44 9. The f i n a l years 1916-1918 "Souvenirs" and "L'avenir" were the l a s t war poems sent by the poet to Madeleine. In fact he was to demand t h e i r return and a l l the other ones on the pretext of wanting them for incl u s i o n in a c o l l e c t i o n to be published. The request was made in a quite curt l e t t e r dated A p r i l 12th and a very peremptory telegram two weeks l a t e r . The end of t h i s romance was i n sight. One cannot help being struck by the evasive tone of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s remaining l e t t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y one dated August 26th 1916, 1 8 by which time he had v i r t u a l l y recovered from the series of operations on his s k u l l . Ne viens pas surtout, ca me donnerait trop d'emotion. Ne m'ecris pas des l e t t r e s t r i s t e s surtout non plus ca me t e r r i f i e . Envoie-moi mes notes... ma bague cachet en or.. Although the period of convalescence was f a i r l y long, v i s i t s by his pre-War friends tended to accelerate his cure. Not sur-p r i s i n g l y he began to pay court to the ladies who came to v i s i t him. Among those was the pretty red head, Jacqueline Kolb, whom he had not seen since a b r i e f meeting i n 1914. Her re a l s o l i c i -tude for him sparked the latent f i r e s , so that by the end of the summer of 1917 he was able to t e l l Louise Faure-Favier that he planned to marry "La j o l i e rousse". The poet and his fiancee spent a few days i n the v i l l a g e of Barbizon south-east of Paris in A p r i l 1918 with the kind Louise, and they were married a fortnight l a t e r on May 2nd. 1 9 4 5 M a j o r w o r k s o f p o e t r y d u r i n g t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s w e re t h e f i v e s h o r t s a d p i e c e s i n t h e b o o k l e t V i t a m i m p e n d e r e a m o r i ; a n d , s e p a r a t e l y , " T r i s t e s s e d'une e t o i l e " ( 1 9 1 6 ) , a s o r t o f b r i d g e b e t w e e n M a d e l e i n e a n d J a c q u e l i n e , a l s o p e r m e a t e d w i t h s a d n e s s , t h e v e r y c o m p l e x " L a V i c t o i r e " o f 1917 a n d f i n a l l y " L a j o l i e R o u s s e " o f 1918. T h e s e l a s t t h r e e poems were i n c l u d e d i n t h e " L a t e t e e t o i l e e " s e c t i o n o f t h e Calligrammes c o l l e c t i o n . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n t e r e s t s t u r n e d more a n d more t o w a r d s t h e t h e a t r e a n d f i c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A p o l l i n a i r e q u i c k l y r e g a i n e d t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g a l e a d e r o f t h e A v a n t - g a r d e w h i c h . c o m p r i s e d , among o t h e r s , men o f l e t t e r s s u c h as P i e r r e R e v e r d y a n d P i e r r e A l b e r t - B i r o t , y o u n g ^ a s p i r a n t s ' l i k e A n d r e B r e t o n a n d P h i l i p p e S o u p a u l t , a n d o t h e r s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e f i e l d s o f m u s i c a n d drama. H i s c o n v a l e s c e n c e a t t h e I t a l i a n h o s p i t a l i n P a r i s a l l o w e d f o r a c e r t a i n amount o f l i b e r t y , so t h a t e v e n a t t h e e n d o f J u l y 1916 he was a b l e t o a t t e n d v a r i o u s s a l o n s , , m a t i n e e s a n d t h e l i k e . H i s b a n d a g e d h e a d a n d h i s C r o i x de G u e r r e made h i m i n t o a s o r t o f d a r l i n g o f P a r i s s o c i e t y . I n t h e m eantime he h a d t h e l e i s u r e t o t h i n k a b o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h h i s work s h o u l d be h e a d e d . I n a l e t t e r t o L a u r e n t T a i l h a d e w r i t t e n i n November 1916 a n d d i s c o v e r e d by A dema, 2 0 he e x p r e s s e d h i m s e l f t h u s : ... Mon e s t h e t i q u e s e r a i t s i v o u s v o u l e z de b S t i r s u r l a b a s e s o l i d e de c e q u i j u s q u ' i c i a c o n s t i t u e l e g o u t un monument a u d a c i e u x p o u r l e q u e l ne manquent p o i n t l e s m a t e r i a u x n o u v e a u x . " S u r d e s p e n s e r s n o u v e a u x f a i s o n s d e s v e r s a n t i q u e s . " C ' e s t c e l a meme e t r e moderne, m a i s s'efforcer d'etre digne de ce qu'ont'fait les anciens. C'est je crois ce qu'a r e a l i s e Shakespeare... In December 1916 the poet's many friends decided that the publication of his Le Poete assassine c a l l e d for a special celebration i n the form of a riotous luncheon, the menu for which featured - after due modification by A p o l l i n a i r e himself - such d e l i c a c i e s as "Meditations esthetiques en salade" and "Aretin de chapon a 1'Heresiarque". Pierre Reverdy, the direct o r of the new p e r i o d i c a l devoted to the propagation of the arts in both Montmartre and Montparnasse and appropriately e n t i t l e d "Nord-Sud" as a l i n k between the two centres, had t h i s to say about A p o l l i n a i r e i n the opening number dated March 1917: 2 1 , Naguere, les jeunes poetes a l l e r e n t trouver Verlaine pour le t i r e r de l'obscurite. Quoi d'etonnant que nous ayons juge le moment venu de nous grouper autour de Guillaume Apo l l i n a i r e ? Plus que quiconque aujourd'hui i l a trace des routes neuves, ouvert de nouveaux horizons. II a droi t a toute notre ferveur, a toute notre admiration. A p o l l i n a i r e had long nurtured a desire to put on a play. An i n v i t a t i o n to write programme notes for the. b a l l e t "Parade", a creation of Cocteau, Massine, Erik Satie and Picasso, i n May 1917 led him to present Les Mamelles de Ti r e s i a s in the following month, i n which 11 surrealism"", a word he coined and f i r s t used i n the preface to the play was given f u l l play. The interest i n the theatre and the cinema seemed to displace poetry at least par-47 t i a l l y , b u t A p o l l i n a i r e c h o s e t o e n t i t l e h i s m a j o r c r i t i c a l a n a l -y s i s o f t h e new t r e n d s as " L ' e s p r i t n o u v e a u e t l e s p o e t e s " , a l e c t u r e w h i c h he d e l i v e r e d i n November o f t h e same y e a r , t h e r e b y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d t o T a i l h a d e two y e a r s e a r l i e r . The s p r i n g o f , 1 9 1 7 was a l s o n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e A p o l l i n a i r e ' s m i l i t a r y s t a t u s was c l a r i f i e d . • He was i n v a l i d e d o u t o f t h e Army on May 1 1 t h 1917 a n d s e c o n d e d f i r s t t o t h e War M i n i s t r y a n d l a t e r t o t h e C o l o n i a l M i n i s t r y as a P r e s s c e n s o r . T h e s e s e d e n t a r y j o b s w e r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y o n e r o u s , b u t i n v o l v e d l o n g h o u r s a t h i s d e s k , w h i c h meant t h a t h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s h a d t o be crammed i n t o h i s s p a r e t i m e . A l l t h i s a c t i v i t y a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e " C a l l i g r a m m e s " c o l l e c t i o n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n - t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n was p r i n t e d i n A p r i l 1918 - e x a c t e d i t s t o l l on A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n . He was g r o s s l y o v e r w e i g h t a s a r e s u l t o f p o s t -o p e r a t i v e i n a c t i v i t y a n d a t t h e same t i m e p h y s i c a l l y weak. A b o u t o f p n e u m o n i a i n J a n u a r y 1918 a g g r a v a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n a n d l e d i n t h e e n d t o h i s s u c c u m b i n g t o t h e v i r u l e n t s t r a i n o f i n f l u e n z a w h i c h d e v a s t a t e d E u r o p e i n t h e f a l l o f 1918. A p o l l i n a i r e was n o t t o t a s t e t h e f r u i t s o f v i c t o r y . On November 9 t h , w i t h t h e f a l l o f K a i s e r W i l h e l m a s s u r e d , t h e man o f l e t t e r s who h a d e x e r c i s e d h i s c h a r m o v e r s o many, d i e d p e a c e f u l l y w i t h t h e P a r i s p o p u l a c e o u t s i d e h i s g a r r e t a p a r t m e n t s c r e a m i n g " C o n s p u e z G u i l l a u m e ! " The l i s t o f m o u r n e r s a t t h e f u n e r a l ( w h i c h t o o k p l a c e two d a y s a f t e r t h e A r m i s t i c e was s i g n e d ) r e a d s l i k e a Who's Who o f t h e b e s t a n d b r i g h t e s t men a n d 48 women i n e v e r y f i e l d o f a r t s a n d l e t t e r s i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e G r e a t War o f 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 1 8 . 2 2 NOTES: CHAPTER 1 1 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , O e u v r e s c o m p l e t e s v o l . 3 ( P a r i s : B a l l a n d & L e c a t , 1966) 98. 2 M a r c e l Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e : L e m a l - a i m e ( P a r i s P l o n , 1952) 11. 3 A . T o u s s a i n t L u c a , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e : S o u v e n i r s d'un ami d ' e n f a n c e , (Monaco: E d i t i o n s du R o c h e r 1 9 5 4 ) . 4 M a r c e l Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , ( P a r i s : L a T a b l e Ronde, 1968) 41-49. 5 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e : Le m a l - a i m e , 11. 6 J . R . L a w l e r , M e r c u r e de F r a n c e , ( f e v r i e r 1, 1 9 5 5 ) : 35. 7 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 1 1 7 /119. 8 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 136. • 9 A n d r e S a l m o n , S o u v e n i r s Sans F i n , 2, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) 4 8 - 5 9 . 1 0 A p o l l i n a i r e , O e u v r e s p o e t i q u e s , 1035-7. 1 1 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 183. 1 2 P a r i s - J o u r n a l J u n e 23 1914; q u o t e d b y Adema i n G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e 2 3 3 . 1 3 M o n t j o i e , J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1914; q u o t e d b y L . C . B r e u n i g & J . - C I . C h e v a l i e r j o i n t e d s . T.es P e i n t r e s C u b i s t e s ( P a r i s : Hermann, 1965) 136. 1 4 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , C h r o n i q u e s d ' A r t ( P a r i s : G a l l i -mard, 1960) 268. 1 5 G e o r g e s Duhamel, M e r c u r e de F r a n c e (16 J u n e 1913): 800. 1 6 A p o l l i n a i r e , T e n d r e r.nmme l e s o u v e n i r . 1 7 L o u i s e F a u r e - F a v i e r , S o u v e n i r s s u r G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i -n a i r e , ( P a r i s : B e r n a r d G r a s s e t , 1945) 127. 1 8 A p o l l i n a i r e , T e n d r e comme l e s o u v e n i r . 350. 1 9 F a u r e - F a v i e r , 183-197. 2 0 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . 293. 2 1 Adema, G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . 300. 2 2 F a u r e - F a v i e r , 208-209. 51 CHAPTER 2 APOL L I N A I R E ' S ADOLESCENT POETRY, 1896-1899 The p o e t r y w r i t t e n d u r i n g A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a d o l e s c e n c e s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t s t h e r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r i n s t i l l e d i n h i m by t h e M a r i a n i s t f a t h e r s . The V i r g i n M a r y was i n e v i t a b l y i n v o k e d i n h i s p r a y e r s . A p o l l i n a i r e d e s c r i b e d t h i s p e r i o d i n h i s l i f e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s f r o m "Zone": Tu e s t r e s p i e u x e t a v e c l e . p l u s a n c i e n de t e s c a m a r a d e s Rene D a l i z e V o u s n ' a i m e z r i e n t a n t que l e s pompes de 1 ' E g l i s e V o u s p r i e z t o u t e l a n u i t d a n s l a c h a p e l l e du c o l l e g e . "AURORE D'HIVER" (0.P.,710-1896) T h i s poem p r o v i d e s e a r l y e v i d e n c e o f t h e d a r k e r s i d e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a w i t h i t s image o f , a s t i l l - b o r n Sun. He was p r e - o c c u p i e d w i t h d e a t h f r o m an e a r l y age a n d c o n s i d e r e d w i n t e r as e m b l e m a t i c o f i t . 52 "TRIPTYQUE DE L'HOMME" (1896) T h i s s e r i e s o f poems w h i c h c o m p r i s e " L e s P o l t r o n s " ( O . P . , 7 1 1 ) , " L a M a i s o n de c r i s t a l " (O.P.,712) a n d " L ' O r g u e i l l e u x " , (O.P.,712) r e f l e c t t h e d e p t h o f t h e b o y ' s r e a d i n g . The A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d s f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e f a b r i c o f m y t h o l o g y w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e w i l l t a i l o r t o s u i t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n ; w h e t h e r i n p r o s e (L'Enchanteur p o u r r i s s a n t ) o r i n p o e t r y ("Zone") t o g i v e j u s t two e x a m p l e s . How A p o l l i n a i r e managed t o o b t a i n t h e s e b o o k s w h i l e s t i l l on t h e R i v i e r a , i . e . b e f o r e he f i r s t went t o P a r i s a n d h a d a c c e s s t o t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e M a z a r i n e , i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t d e s e r v e s some r e s e a r c h . "MORT DE PAN" (O.P.,707 - 1897) A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e o l d p a g a n w o r l d whose gods a r e s h a k e n when t h e y h e a r t h e p i o u s c h r i s t i a n hymns, t h e p o e t s i n g s a g l o r i o u s p a e a n o f p r a i s e t o t h e Newborn K i n g : C e p e n d a n t qu'une v o i x c r i e au monde c o n f u s : V e s u s v a n a i t r e e n f i n e t s o n r e g n e commence; ' I I n a i t p a u v r e a B e t h l e e m ; s o n royaume e s t immense: 'Pan! l e G r a n d P a n e s t m o r t e t l e s d i e u x ne s o n t p l u s ! ' "LES DOUKHOBORS" (O.P.,715-1897) T h i s work shows y e t a n o t h e r s i d e o f t h e y o u n g p o e t ' s c h a r a c t e r , a d i s p o s i t i o n t o e s p o u s e c a u s e s . He was s h o c k e d b y t h e i l l t r e a t m e n t m e t e d o u t t o t h e s e p a c i f i s t R u s s i a n p e a s a n t s . The p o e t was an a r d e n t D r e y f u s a r d . He l a t e r r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t a c c e p t e d c o d e s o f c o n d u c t , e s t a b l i s h e d t e n e t s a n d r u l e s o f p o e t i c f o r m . He had l i t t l e use f o r a n c i e n t s h i b b o l e t h s and h i s i c o n o c l a s t i c t e n d e n c i e s were to r e s u l t i n the f u t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the A n t i -T r a d i t i o n Manifesto and h i s g e n e r a l a v a n t - g a r d i s t a t t i t u d e . "MARDI GRAS" (0.P. , 708-1898) The b r i g h t Mediterranean c o l o u r s l i k e n e d t o jewels were t o remain as p a r t of the poet's subconscious f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e . "LECTURE" (Q.P.,714-1898) "Le c t u r e " bears the s i g n a t u r e xGuillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ' , although i t s content would i n d i c a t e t h a t the poet's other nom de plume, ^Guillaume Macabre', would seem to be more i n l i n e . A p o l l i n a i r e would appear t o have been haunted by a morbid dream of a b l a c k - c l a d monk and a mysterious woman c l o t h e d i n s i l k . The poem r e f l e c t s the young man's makeup at the time, a b l e n d o f r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r , sexual l o n g i n g and an abhorrent f e a r of the female sex. The r e l i g i o u s t h r e a d a l s o runs through two of the major poems at the c l o s e of the century, "L'Ermite" and "Le L a r r o n " . "L'Ermite" i n p a r t i c u l a r has an a f f i n i t y with " L e c t u r e . " "FAGNES DE WALLONIE" (0.P.,370-1899) and "ELEGIE DU VOYAGEUR AUX PIEDS BLESSES (0.P.,337-1899) This p a i r of poems have much i n common, both d e a l with the poet's walks i n the Ardennes, both i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n nature, and both show t h a t the impecunious young man's shoes are s a d l y i n n e e d o f r e p a i r s . The s y m b o l i s m h a s y e t t o be t a i n t e d w i t h t h e s e l f - m o c k i n g t e n d e n c y o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s l a t e r poems. 55 CHAPTER 3 THE TURN OF THE CENTURY POEMS 1899-1901 The winter of 1899 was very productive, three major poems were drafted, namely "L'Ermite, "Merlin et l a v i e i l l e femme", and "Le Larron". Work was also done on T/Enchanteur p n n r r i s s a n t . There i s i s a r e l i g i o u s theme that runs through the works of th i s period, but a disenchantment and loss of f a i t h begins to enter into them. There i s also an understandable f e e l i n g of loneliness that seems to pervade the three major poems. "L'ERMITE" (O.P.,100-1899) This poem i s a va r i a t i o n on the "Thais" theme made famous by Anatole France and Flaubert's "La Tentation de Saint Antoine". The poet sees himself as a r e l i g i o u s man held i n t h r a l l by l u s t . His f i r s t amatory experiences i n Stavelot were f r u s t r a t i n g , and i t was but a short step for him to look down on women, i f not to despise them as being the embodiment of his se l f - l o a t h i n g , a result of his i n a b i l i t y to reach the heights of r e l i g i o u s experi-ence. The poem indicates in the si x t h stanza that the poet might 56 h a v e a s s u a g e d h i s l i b i d o i n t h e same manner as many a l o n e l y y o u n g p e r s o n . Young A p o l l i n a i r e p r a y s t o t h e L o r d t o h e l p h i m : S e i g n e u r f a i t e s s e i g n e u r qu'un j o u r j e m'enamoure. a n d e v e n b l a s p h e m e s : J ' a i v e i l l e t r e n t e n u i t s s o u s l e s l a u r i e r s r o s e s A s - t u s u e du s a n g C h r i s t d a n s G e t h s e m a n i C r u c i f i e r e p o n d s D i s non M o i j e l e n i e C a r j ' a i t r o p e s p e r e en v a i n 1 ' h e m a t i d r o s e . P o o r A p o l l i n a i r e , t h e b e s t he c o u l d come up w i t h was a n o s e b l e e d l i k e t h e l i t t l e g i r l t h a t he remembered f r o m h i s r e a d i n g s o f R i m b aud's "Le b a t e a u i v r e . " A p o l l i n a i r e h a d t h e p r i c e l e s s g i f t h o w e v e r o f t u r n i n g o f f h i s m i s e r y t o l a u g h a t h i m s e l f , e v e n t h e p a t h e t i c p l e a i n t h e f i r s t q u o t a t i o n f o l l o w s a p u n n i n g p l a y on w o r d s . The p o e t ' s u s e o f r a r e w o r d s s t a r t e d w i t h t h e t u r n - o f - t h e -c e n t u r y poems; f o r e x a m p l e we f i n d t h e w o r d " a e m e r e s " i n t h e t w e l f t h s t a n z a r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s a i n t s t o whom no s a i n t ' s d a y s h a v e b e e n a l l o t t e d . By h i s own a d m i s s i o n w o r d i n e s s t e m p t s h i m : T r o p de t e n t a t i o n s m a l g r e moi me c a r e s s e n t T e n t a t i o n s de l u n e e t de l o g o m a c h i e s . A p o l l i n a i r e s p e a k s o f a n o t h e r t e m p t a t i o n : E t j e m a r c h e e t j e f u i s 6 n u i t L i l i t h u l u l e E t c l a m e v a i n e m e n t e t j e v o i s de g r a n d s y e u x S ' o u v r i r t r a g i q u e m e n t . . . . The " L i l i t h " theme h a d a l r e a d y b e e n u s e d on an a l m o s t w o r d f o r w o r d b a s i s i n " L e c t u r e " , ^ t h e b o y h o o d poem w h i c h i s l i k e w i s e p e r m e a t e d w i t h r e l i g i o n , s e x u a l f r u s t r a t i o n a n d f e a r . 57 " L a M a i s o n de c r i s t a l " , a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , b e s i d e s i n c l u d i n g a r e f e r e n c e t o L i l i t h , a l s o f e a t u r e d t h e s y m b o l i s t i m a g e r y o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s d a r k f o r e s t , r e p e a t e d a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n " L ' E r m i t e " : L a n u i t l e s b o i s s o n t n o i r s e t s e m e u r t l ' e s p o i r v e r t . A v i v i d e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o p e n s i t y t o u s e p o r t i o n s o f p r i o r w o r k s t o r e i n f o r c e a c u r r e n t one. A s i m i l a r b o r r o w i n g p r o c e d u r e shows up i n t h e s t a n z a : Mes k i l o m e t r e s l o n g s Mes t r i s t e s s e s p l e n i e r e s L e s s q u e l e t t e s de d o i g t s t e r m i n a n t l e s s a p i n s Ont e g a r e ma r o u t e e t mes r e v e s p o u p i n s S o u v e n t j ' a i d o r m i au s o l d e s s a p i n i e r e s . t h e f i r s t a n d f i n a l l i n e s were t a k e n f r o m " F a g n e s de W a l l o n i e " w h i l e t h e two m i d d l e ones come f r o m t h e " S t a v e l o t " u n t i t l e d poem "0 mon c o e u r j ' a i c o n n u " ( 0 . P . p . 5 2 1 ) . To sum up, t h e poem d e s p i t e i t s themes o f d i s e n c h a n t m e n t , w e a r i n e s s , r e l i g i o u s r a p t u r e , a n d b l a s p h e m y , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t a t e o f m i n d o f t h e somewhat c o n f u s e d y o u n g man who i n t h e w o r d s o f Mme D u r r y , i s : . . . t o u r m e n t e de c o n c u p i s c e n c e s m a l g r e l e s m o r t i f i c a t i o n s e t d o n t l e s p r i e r e s e t l e s c r i s n ' o n t p o i n t r e n c o n t r e D i e u . "MERLIN ET LA V I E I L L E FEMME" (0.P.,88-1899) I n " M e r l i n e t l a v i e i l l e femme" A p o l l i n a i r e was i n s p i r e d b y a n c i e n t C e l t i c l e g e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g M e r l i n t h e s e e r a n d m a g i c i a n , b o r n o f t h e u n h o l y u n i o n o f a d e v i l a n d a v i r t u o u s woman, b u t s u b s e q u e n t l y r edeemed b y b a p t i s m i n t o t h e 58 C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . M e r l i n was s u p p o s e d t o be b l e s s e d w i t h a memory o f a l l t h i n g s p a s t , a s e e r ' s g i f t o f p r o p h e c y , a c a p a b i l i t y o f b e i n g e v e r y w h e r e a t t h e same t i m e a n d a c a p a c i t y t o c h a n g e h i s o u t w a r d f o r m . T h i s b l e n d o f a n c i e n t l e g e n d a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y i s t h e v e r y w e l l s p r i n g o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n s p i r a t i o n a t t h i s p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e a n d s e v e r a l y e a r s w e re t o p a s s b e f o r e r e l i g i o n c e a s e d t o be a m a j o r f o r c e . The poem's o p e n i n g l i n e s p r o v i d e an a r r e s t i n g p i c t u r e o f t h e s t a r t o f a n o t h e r d ay i n t h e l i f e o f M e r l i n : L e s o l e i l c e j o u r - l a s ' e t a l a i t comme un V e n t r e m a t e r n e l q u i s a i g n a i t l e n t e m e n t s u r l e c i e l L a l u m i e r e e s t ma mere 6 l u m i e r e s a n g l a n t e L e s n u a g e s c o u l a i e n t comme un f l u x m e n s t r u e l . U n l i k e t h e i r B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s F r e n c h p o e t s a r e n o t c o n s t r a i n e d b y a f a l s e s e n s e o f m o r a l i t y ; t h e y do n o t s h y away f r o m c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s i f t h e y p r o v i d e a p o w e r f u l i m a g e . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e poem seems t o f l o w more e v e n l y t h a n " L ' E r m i t e " , p o s s i b l y on a c c o u n t o f i t s n a r r a t i v e f o r m , t h e o b s c u r i t y o f t h e i m a g e s a n d t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s t e n d s t o h o l d up t h e o r d i n a r y r e a d e r . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s g i f t f o r m y s t i f i c a t i o n i s g i v e n f u l l p l a y . S y m b o l i s m i s s p e l t w i t h a c a p i t a l X S ' t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t M. R e n a u d d e t e c t s a s e n d - u p o f t h a t movement. 1 T h a n k s t o t h e work o f Mme D u r r y , M i s s D a v i e s , S c o t t B a t e s , M. Renaud, J . C . C h e v a l i e r a n d R i c h a r d S t amelman t h e v e i l o f m y s t e r y a k i n t o a m a g i c i a n ' s d a r k c l o t h h a s b e e n l i f t e d , t h o u g h o n l y p a r t i a l l y . 59 Mme D u r r y h a s e x p l a i n e d t h a t M o rgane i s M e r l i n ' s e q u a l , s i n c e he h a s t a u g h t h e r a l l h i s s p e l l s a n d e n c h a n t m e n t s ; i n r e t u r n s h e i s h i s memory w h i c h w i l l o u t l i v e h i m . I n s t r e s s i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n L' F.nchanteur p o u r r i s s a n t , h i s e a r l y n o v e l l a on t h e same theme, a n d t h e poem, sh e d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e o p e n i n g l i n e o f t h e f o r m e r : Que d e v i e n d r a mon c o e u r p a r m i c e u x q u i s ' e n t r e ' a i m e n t ? T h i s i s s u r e l y t h e q u e s t i o n A p o l l i n a i r e a s k s h i m s e l f a t t h e s t a r t o f h i s p o e t i c c a r e e r ; i t i s a t t h e same t i m e an e c h o o f t h e v o y e u r i s t i c l i n e s i n " L ' E r m i t e " : A u c u n p a u v r e d e s i r ne g o n f l e ma p o i t r i n e L o r s q u e j e v o i s l e s o i r l e s c o u p l e s s ' e n t r e l a c a n t . The s e c o n d p o i n t Mme D u r r y makes i s t h a t t h e poem i s p l a c e d a t a c r o s s r o a d s , "un p o e m e - c a r r e f o u r " . 2 The p o i n t a t w h i c h a new d i r e c t i o n must be t a k e n , t h e c r o s s r o a d s i s a l s o a p l a c e w here t h e o l d n a r r o w t w i s t i n g l a n e s o f h i d e b o u n d p o e t r y a n d r e l i g i o n , " c o u v e r t s d ' o s s e m e n t s " , c r o s s t h e f r e e w a y s o f m o d e r n i t y i n t h e c r e a t i v e a r t s . I t i s h e r e t h a t M e r l i n ' s s o n , A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f u t u r e p e r s o n a , b o r n o f h i s u n i o n w i t h M o r g a n e , i l l e g i t i m a t e l i k e h i m , must make h i s way a l o n e , h i s h e a d h e l d h i g h , S o u t h on t h e r o a d t o Rome where M e r l i n , • o w i n g t o h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s a t a n i c b e i n g s , may n o t go. M e r l i n t a k e s t h e r o a d t o t h e E a s t t o c e r t a i n d e a t h a t t h e h a n d s o f M o r g a n e ' s a l t e r ego, V i v i a n e , b u t he w i l l i m m o r t a l i z e h i m s e l f w i t h h i s g i f t o f p o e t r y : J e m ' e t e r n i s e r a i s o u s l ' a u b e p i n e e n f l e u r s . S c o t t B a t e s g o e s f u r t h e r b y s t a t i n g t h a t M o rgane h a s become t h e p o e t ' s muse, a n d h i s s o n , h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n , 60 t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g h i m t o c r e a t e h i s w o r k s o f a r t . 3 I t m a t t e r s n o t w h e t h e r t h e s o n i s a c r e a t u r e o f f l e s h a n d b l o o d o r m e r e l y a shadow t h a t w i l l f o l l o w h i m a l w a y s : Q u ' i l monte de l a f a n g e ou s o i t une ombre d'homme I I s e r a b i e n mon f i l s mon o u v r a g e i m m o r t e l . The c o n c e p t o f t h e c r o s s r o a d s h a s an e v e n d e e p e r m e a n i n g f o r A p o l l i n a i r e . The p o e t i s on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f h i s c a r e e r as a w r i t e r . He must d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o make w r i t i n g h i s l i f e ' s w ork, a n d i f s o , w h e t h e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on p o e t r y o r p r o s e , o r e v e n t o g i v e up a l l t h o u g h t o f l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y a n d p u r s u e some o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s u c h a s a b a n k e r o r s t o c k b r o k e r . I t i s as i f he s t o o d a t a d o o r w a y a n d saw r o a d s l e a d i n g i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n . T h i s m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n a l i m a g e r y i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h a t o f t h e t h p r n l e s s r o s e o f t h e w i n d s ; an e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r b e w i l d e r i n g h i s r e a d e r s . Many e x p l a n a t i o n s , some f a r - f e t c h e d , h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d , f i r s t b y D u r r y who i d e n t i f i e s t h e r o s e as b e i n g a compass r o s e c o m p l e t e w i t h c a r d i n a l p o i n t s a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no r e a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a v i g a t i o n a n d t h e l a c k o f t h o r n s on t h e r o s e as b e i n g some s o r t o f p r e - c h r i s t i a n s y m b o l , a w r e a t h p e r h a p s . 4 The e x e g e t i c c h a l l e n g e h a s b e e n t a k e n up by R i c h a r d H e n r y S t a m e l m a n who h a s d e v o t e d two a n d a h a l f p a g e s o f c l o s e p r i n t t o t h e s u b j e c t i n s t r i v i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l compass r o s e w i t h t h e b e a u t i f u l t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l f l o w e r whose m a g n e t i c a t t r a c t i o n i s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t . 5 An e n t r y i n t h e G l o s s a r y o f R e f e r e n c e f o r m i n g p a r t o f S c o t t B a t e s ' s b o ok p r o v i d e s a t o t a l l y s c a t o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Rose d e s v e n t s , t h i s t i m e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l . However i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e , a t t h i s s t a g e o f h i s c a r e e r , w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e e n s o b l u n t , d e s p i t e h i s i n t e r e s t i n anatomy, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h e f e m a l e f o r m d i v i n e . I n any c a s e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n n e c t i o n . 6 I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some e m i n e n t A p o l l i n a r i a n s may h a v e l o s t t h e i r way by r e l y i n g t o o much on t h e c o m p a s s . A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e s p o r t o f b a l l o o n i n g was a t i t s h e i g h t , s i n c e t h e d a r i n g y o u n g men on t h e i r f l y i n g m a c h i n e s h a d y e t t o compete f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n s o f t h e t h r i l l - s e e k i n g p u b l i c . B a l l o o n s d e p e n d on a s e c u r e k n o w l e d g e o f p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s , on t h e p a r t o f b a l l o o n i s t s , i f a ny k i n d o f p a s s a g e m a k i n g i s t o be a t t e m p t e d . Hence i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t s t a t i s t i c s o f p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s o v e r t i m e a t any g i v e n p l a c e were k e p t . The s i m p l e s t g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e s t h e s h a p e o f a w i n d r o s e on w h i c h t h e l e n g t h o f an a r r o w i n d i c a t e s t h e ' f r e q u e n c y o f t h e w i n d i n d a y s p e r y e a r , s a y , f o r e a c h d i r e c t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h f l i g h t i s w e l l known, s o i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n n e c t t h e image o f t h e w i n d " b l o w i n g w here i t l i s t e t h " w i t h t h e n o r m a l h e s i t a t i o n o f a t r a v e l l e r a t a c r o s s r o a d s . A much s i m p l e r e x p l a n a t i o n c a n be a r r i v e d a t i f t h e s e c o n d s t a n z a o f t h e poem i s r e a d t h u s : . . . n u l l e f l e u r . . . s i n o n l a r o s e . . . s a n s e p i n e n'a f l e u r i l ' h i v e r . T h i s l e a d s one d i r e c t l y t o t h e C h r i s t m a s R o s e , ( H e l l e b o r u s f o e t i d u s ) , w h i c h g r o w s p r o l i f i c a l l y i n F r a n c e , i t i s n o t p a r t o f t h e g e n u s R o s a a n d c e r t a i n l y h a s no t h o r n s . U n l i k e t h e r o s e , i t s 62 s m e l l i s u n p l e a s a n t , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t s h a r e s w i t h t h e h a w t h o r n whose s m e l l , i n t h e s p r i n g , i s b e l i e v e d t o p o r t e n d d e a t h . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f memory, t h e t r u e l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n e d f r o m t h e p a s t , a n d l o v e , t h e m o t i v e f o r c e o f a l l t h a t i s e x c i t i n g a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y . i n t h e f u t u r e , a r e a t t h e v e r y c o r e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y , one w h i c h s t a y e d w i t h h i m r i g h t up t o h i s t r a g i c d e a t h . D u r i n g h i s s h o r t l i f e A p o l l i n a i r e h a d a v e r y r e a l f e a r o f d e a t h . He seemed t o s e n s e , e v e n as y o u n g man, t h a t he h a d b u t a l i t t l e t i m e t o a c h i e v e what he f e l t he h a d t o do. I t w i l l b e r e c a l l e d t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e u s e d t h e pen-name " G u i l l a u m e M a c a b r e " f o r h i s e a r l i e s t poems, t h e r e b y s t r e s s i n g h i s m o r b i d p r e o c c u p a -t i o n w i t h d e a t h . B e s i d e s t a k i n g up t h e t h e c a u s e o f modern p a i n t i n g a f t e r m e e t i n g P i c a s s o , A p o l l i n a i r e h a d a l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t i n Dance a s an a r t f o r m w h e t h e r , a c r u d e " d a n s e du v e n t r e " , ( h i s p o e t i c s u n s t a k e p l e a s u r e m o v i n g t h e i r n a v e l s t o a n d f r o ) o r i n t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d w o r l d o f t h e B a l l e t , (he w r o t e a p r e f a c e t o " P a r a d e " ) . " L a b e l l e e p o q u e " was an e x c i t i n g t i m e f o r t h e f o l l o w e r s o f T e r p s i c h o r e . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e a g i n g M o rgane s e d u c e s M e r l i n b y d a n c i n g b e f o r e h i m . I n b r i e f t h e poem s e r v e s a s a k i n d o f p r e f a c e w h e r e i n t h e p o e t h a s s e t o u t t h e g r o u n d r u l e s o f h i s f u t u r e p o e t i c a c t i v i t y a n d a d i s c e r n i n g r e a d e r o f h i s s u b s e q u e n t w o r k s c a n n o t h e l p b e i n g s t r u c k w i t h t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s e a r l y poem, n o r w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e o f c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s w h i c h w o u l d m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s more f o r c i b l y i n t h e f u t u r e . A p a r t i a l l i s t w o u l d b e : an i n t e r e s t 63 i n m e d i e v a l l e g e n d , a c a p a c i t y f o r m y s t i f i c a t i o n , t h e humour e v e n i n a d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t r y w o u l d h a v e t o u n d e r g o a r a d i c a l c h a n g e , t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o s o u n d t h e d e p t h s o f memory, t h e g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s t h a t he h a d t h e g i f t o f p r o p h e c y , t h e i n t e r e s t i n d a n c e , t h e m o r b i d o u t l o o k on d e a t h , t h e a w a r e n e s s o f modern d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as a v i a t i o n , a n d t h e l a c k o f any s i g n o f h e s i t a n c y i n d e s c r i b i n g a n a t o m i c a l d e t a i l . "LE LARRON" (0.P.,91-1899) T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g poem d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n o f a l o n e l y y o u n g f o r e i g n e r c a s t b y t h e v a g a r i e s o f c h a n c e on t h e s h o r e o f a p l e a s u r e - l o v i n g c i t y - s t a t e , - i . e . P a r i s , w h ere he knows no one b u t w o u l d l i k e t o be a c c e p t e d b y t h e n o t o r i o u s l y i n s u l a r members o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y b o t h s o c i a l a n d l i t e r a r y . I t was i n f a c t , a f a m i l y t h a t b e l o n g e d t o a m i n o r i t y g r o u p , i n t h i s c a s e t h e M o l i n a s , who were P o r t u g u e s e J e w s , who f i r s t b e f r i e n d e d A p o l l i n a i r e . The y o u n g man, d e v o i d o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e u s u a l s k i l l s , a n d d r i v e n b y h u n g e r , i n b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l s e n s e , t o c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m e , i s a v e r y r e a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l d e s p e r a t i o n o f A p o l l i n a i r e , so a p t l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e l i n e s : M a r a u d e u r e t r a n g e r m a l h e u r e u x m a l h a b i l e V o l e u r v o l e u r que ne d e m a n d a i s - t u c e s f r u i t s M a i s p u i s q u e t u a s f a i m que t u e s e n e x i l I I p l e u r e i l e s t b a r b a r e e t b o n p a r d o n n e z - l u i . The p o e t n e x t r e f l e c t s on h i s p a r e n t a g e : he s e e s h i m s e l f as a l o v e - c h i l d c r e a t e d l i k e A p h r o d i t e who, a c c o r d i n g t o l e g e n d , was b e g o t t e n o f t h e p a r t o f t h e anatomy o f U r a n u s t h a t was c r u e l l y 64 r e m o v e d by C h r o n o s ; o r b e l i e v e s , by a r e v e r s a l o f r o l e s , t h a t he was t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s m o t h e r ' s d a l l i a n c e w i t h a p a r t n e r whose i d e n t i t y r e m a i n e d a r i d d l e . I s s u de l ' ecume d e s mers comme A p h r o d i t e . Ton p e r e f u t un s p h i n x e t t a mere une n u i t . The s t r a n g e r a r o u s e s t h e i n t e r e s t o f a f e m a l e member o f s o c i e t y - A p o l l i n a i r e n e v e r d o u b t e d h i s c a p a c i t y t o c a p t i v a t e t h e g e n t l e r s e x - a n d i s p r e s e n t e d an a m u l e t , a l o v e - t o k e n , by t h e l a d y who t h e n p r o c e e d s t o a s k h i m v e i l e d q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g h i s s e x u a l i t y . H i s i n d i r e c t r e p l y , " J e s u i s Chretien," i n d i c a t e s a d e g r e e o f u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h i s s e i z e d u p o n by t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s i n t h e c h o i r who u n d e r l i n e t h e w a v e r i n g i n h i s b e l i e f i n t h e I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n a n d l a c k o f e a r n e s t n e s s i n h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n o f f a i t h : L e s v e n t r e s p o u r r o n t s e u l s n i e r l ' a s e i t e . E t p l u s a u c u n de n o u s ne c r o i r a i t t e s r e c i t s . One n e e d o n l y p e e r f i f t e e n y e a r s i n t o t h e f u t u r e t o h a v e p r o o f t h a t , i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h L o u i s e de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n , A p o l l i n a i r e a d o r e d "un s i g n e o b s c e n e " a n d t h a t h i s a c t u a l s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h L o u a n d h i s d e s i r e f o r s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s w i t h M a d e l e i n e h a d : C e t t e f u r t i v e a r d e u r d e s s e r p e n t s q u i s ' e n t r e - a i m e n t The poem e n d s w i t h f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f h i s w e a k e n i n g b e l i e f i n t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h a s s y m b o l i s e d by t h e p a l m s , t h e b u r d e n o f t h e C r o s s a n d i n h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e i n f o r c e h i s f a i t h a t t h e 65 c o u r t o f k i n g A b g a r V b y j o u r n e y i n g t o E d e s s a . T h e r e i s d o u b t t o o a b o u t h i s c a p a c i t y t o w r i t e p o e t r y a n d t o i n f l u e n c e women. P l a g u e d by d o u b t , A p o l l i n a i r e a s k s h i m s e l f t h r e e q u e s t i o n s i n s t a n z a s 27 t o 29. Que n ' a v a i t - i l l a v o i x e t l e s j u p e s d'Orphee E t l e s femmes l a n u i t f e i g n a n t d ' e t r e d e s t a u r e s . Que n ' a v a i t - i l l a v o i x e t l e s j u p e s d'Orphee L a p i e r r e p r i s e au f o i e d'un v i e u x c o q de T a n a g r e Au l i e u du r o s e a u t r i s t e e t du f u n e b r e f a i x . Que n ' a l l a - t - i l v i v r e a l a c o u r d ' E d e s s e . The p o e t s e e s a b l e a k f u t u r e l y i n g a h e a d o f h i m as he w a n d e r s a l o n e " w i t h o n l y h i s shadow t o accompany h i m ; he h a s l o s t t h e warmth o f t h e s u n i n f a c t h i s w h o l e l i f e w i l l c o n s i s t o f a r a p i d a l t e r n a n c e b e t w e e n s u n n y h a p p i n e s s a n d t h e shadow o f d e s p a i r . 7 The c h o i r i n "Le l a r r o n " u n d e r l i n e s t h e f a c t t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e ' s shadow was v e r y much a p a r t o f h i m : L'ombre e q u i v o q u e e t t e n d r e e s t l e d e u i l de t a c h a i r E t sombre e l l e e s t h u m a i n e . . . . He c a n f i n d no o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d u l g e h i s d e s i r e s , he i s d o g g e d by h i s p e r e n n i a l shadow, h i s e v e r - p r e s e n t m i s f o r t u n e , a n d h a s o n l y a s e m b l a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h t o s u p p o r t h i m . He a p p e a l s t o h i s I t a l i a n m o t h e r f o r h e l p b u t a l l he g e t s i s h e r l a m e n t f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n t h e y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n . V a - t - e n e r r e r c r e d u l e e t r o u x a v e c t o n ombre Tu n'as de s i g n e que l e s i g n e de l a c r o i x 66 O u i r t a v o i x l i g u r e en n e n i e 6 maman "Le L a r r o n " i s i m p o r t a n t a s an e x p r e s s i o n o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n n e r f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g h i s a c c e p t a n c e i n t o P a r i s i a n s o c i e t y , h i s l a t e n t s e x u a l i t y a n d h i s g r o w i n g a m b i v a l e n c e t o w a r d s r e l i g i o n . Mme D u r r y h a s made t h e v a l i d p o i n t t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e , l i k e E v e i n t h e G a r d e n o f E d e n , w i s h e d t o p a r t a k e o f t h e f r u i t g r o w i n g on t h e t r e e o f l i f e a n d o f h a p p i n e s s i n A r t b u t was p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g s o b e c a u s e t h e a u s t e r e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e P a r a d i s e as b e i n g on e a r t h b u t o n l y i n H e a v e n . P a g a n r e l i g i o n s p r o v i d e f o r e a r t h l y h a p p i n e s s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n d t h e magnet o f C h r i s t i a n i t y o n l y makes h i m d i m i n i s h e d a n d s a d . 8 F . J . C a r m o d y , i n h i s p e r c i p i e n t a n a l y s i s , h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e l i n k b e t w e e n "Le L a r r o n " a n d " L ' E r m i t e " , s e p a r a t e l y , t o t h e p r e v -i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d w o r k s o f F l a u b e r t a n d A n a t o l e F r a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e t h e T h i e f i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h P a p h n u c e who s t e a l s T h a i s , a p r e c i o u s f r u i t , f r o m h e r a d m i r e r s ; he l i k e n s t h e i n t e r l a c e d c o u p l e s t o t h e g u e s t s a t t h e b a n q u e t , a n d t r a c e s s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n " T h a i s " a n d " L a T e n t a t i o n de S a i n t A n t o i n e " . S c o t t B a t e s on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e f u s e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e "Le L a r r o n " as a t e s t a m e n t o f t h e p o e t a n d b r i n g s i n t h e n o t i o n o f t h e t h i e f as a s o r t o f A n t i - c h r i s t . A p o l l i n a i r e u n d o u b t e d l y was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s d i s c u s s i o n s on r e l i g i o u s t o p i c s w i t h t h e J e w i s h M o l i n a f a m i l y a n d h i s r e s e a r c h a n d r e a d i n g o f v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t o r y o f t h e W a n d e r i n g Jew a n d o t h e r l e g e n d s , b u t n o t t o t h e e x t e n t s u g g e s t e d by S c o t t B a t e s . 1 0 M a r c P o u p o n i s much n e a r e r t h e mark i n t h e s u m m a t i o n t o h i s 67 a r t i c l e , 1 1 when he s t a t e s : "Le L a r r o n " p o s e s a n s l e r e s o u d r e de f a c o n d e f i n i t i v e l e p r o b l e m e m a j e u r d ' A p o l l i n a i r e d e p u i s q u ' i l a p e r d u l a f o i de l ' e n f a n c e : l ' e n i g m e de s a d e s t i n e e . The f a c t t h a t he was a b a s t a r d a n d v i r t u a l l y p e n n i l e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h a s s u c h , b u t he n e v e r l o s t h i s a d m i r a t i o n o f C h r i s t who seemed i n h i s v i e w p r o p e l l e d b y an i n n e r power i n t h e same way a s he f e l t h i m s e l f moved l a t e r on i n l i f e . 68 NOTES: CHAPTER 3 1 P h i l i p p e R enaud, L e c t u r e d' A p o l 1 i n a i r e ( L a u s a n n e : L'Age d'Homme, 1969) 52. 2 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e A l c o o l s . v . l ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S., 1964) 214-219 3 S c o t t B a t e s , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e (New Y o r k : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s I n c , 1967) 7 1 . 4 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 1, 220 5 R i c h a r d Howard S t a m e l m a n , The Drama o f S e l f i n G u i l l a u m e A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s ' A l c o o l s ' ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1976) 84-86. 6 S c o t t B a t e s , 167. 7 M a r g a r e t D a v i e s , A p o l l i n a i r e ( E d i n b u r g h a n d L o n d o n : O l i v e r a n d B o y d , 1964) 53. 8 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 1, 223 9 F r a n c i s Carmody, The e v o l u t i o n o f A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s p o e t i c s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1963) 13-16. 1 0 S c o t t B a t e s , 3 4 - 3 5 . 1 1 M a r c P o u p o n , "'Le L a r r o n ' , e s s a i d ' e x e g e s e " , Revue d e s  1 p f t r e . g m n d e r n e s . 166-169 (1967) 3 5 - 5 1 . 69 CHAPTER 4 THE EARLY YEARS I N PARIS 1899-1901 "LA PORTE"(0.P.,87-1901) T h i s s h o r t work i s p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t poem whose o r i g i n i s e n t i r e l y P a r i s i a n a s o p p o s e d t o t h e M e r l i n - E r m i t e - L a r r o n t r i l o g y whose i n s p i r a t i o n may h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t f r o m w a l k s i n t h e woods n e a r S t a v e l o t . Much c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d s t h e a c t u a l d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n s i n c e the- e a r l i e s t r o u g h d r a f t a v a i l a b l e i s c o n t a i n e d on a s c r a p o f p a p e r d a t e d 1906, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s h e a v i l y w o r k e d o v e r , i t i s p r o b a b l y a c o p y o f an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s i n c e t h e c o n t e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t d a t e s f r o m t h e t i m e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e was s e a r c h i n g f o r w o r k . 1 The d o o r h a l f o p e n e d , as i f i n a s n e e r upon h i s r e t u r n f r o m a f r u i t l e s s s e a r c h o r f r o m d e m e a n i n g t e m p o r a r y w o rk, s y m b o l i z e s t h e many f r u s t r a t i o n s A p o l l i n a i r e must h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d as he l o o k e d so d e s p e r a t e l y f o r a j o b . As i n "Le L a r r o n " he c r i e s o u t t o h i s m o t h e r : Q u ' e s t - c e que c e l a p e u t me f a i r e 6 ma maman D ' e t r e c e t e m p l o y e p o u r q u i s e u l r i e n n ' e x i s t e . Humble que j e s u i s q u i ne s u i s r i e n q u i v a i l l e . The p o o r y o u n g man whose m o t h e r a l w a y s f a v o u r e d h e r y o u n g e r s o n A l b e r t g o t o n l y a c u r t r e p l y t h a t was a k i n t o a j u d g e s e n t e n c i n g h i m t o h a r d l a b o u r f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e w h i c h i s i n f a c t what he h a d t o do u n t i l h i s u n t i m e l y d e a t h . E n f a n t j e t ' a i donne c e que j ' a v a i s t r a v a i l l e The g i f t s h e r e f e r s t o c a n o n l y be h e r m e r c u r i a l d i s p o s i t i o n a n d h e r s t r o n g s e x u a l i t y , h a r d l y t h e b e s t e q u i p m e n t f o r a j o b h u n t e r o r s t e a d y w o r k e r . A p o l l i n a i r e knew t h i s , w i t n e s s t h e l i n e he d e l e t e d i n t h e 1906 t r a n s c r i p t : J e t ' a i p r i s mon p e c h e 6 ma mere. A p o l l i n a i r e ' s o n l y r e c o u r s e was t o t u r n f r o m t h e d a r k shadow o f p e n u r y t o h i s m e m o r i e s o f a M e d i t e r r a n e a n now d a r k e n e d d e s p i t e t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e e x o t i c f i s h swimming t h e r e i n . " L a P o r t e " m i g h t h a v e a f f i n i t i e s w i t h two o t h e r poems t h a t d e a l w i t h d o o r s n a m e l y " H o t e l s " a n d " M o n t p a r n a s s e " (O.P.,353) b u t t h e s e do n o t h a v e t h e k e y w o r d s " s o u r i t t e r r i b l e m e n t " . "HOTELS"(O.P.,147-1901) T h i s i s y e t a n o t h e r poem w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e , t h e c a t a l o g u e o f u n s a v o r y c h a r a c t e r s l i v i n g i n h i s l o w l y d o s s - h o u s e h a s v e r y much i n common w i t h a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s p l i g h t c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 1902 t o a f r i e n d whom he h a d known s i n c e h i s b o y h o o d y e a r s , James O n i m u s , 2 w h e r e i n he l i s t s h i s f e l l o w w o r k e r s d o i n g c o p y work i n a p u b l i c i t y a g e n c y i n 1900. (The q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n a s p r i n t e d , c o m p l e t e w i t h t h e e r r o r s o f 71 s p e l l i n g a n d grammar c o m m i t t e d b y A p o l l i n a i r e . ) ...des r e p r i s de j u s t i c e s , d ' a n c i e n s a v o c a t s s a n s l e s o u s , d e s a v e n t u r i e r s r e t o u r d e s m i n e s d ' o r . J e v o i s c e u x q u i v e u l e n t s ' e n g a g e r p o u r l e T r a n s v a a l s a n s l e p o u v o i r e t me m e l e a c e t t e p l e b e de m e u r t de f a i m ... l a p a t r o n n e de 1 ' e t a b l i s s e m e n t b r u l a n t du p a p i e r d ' A r m e n i e p o u r ne p a s s e n t i r l e u r o d e u r . "CLAIR DE LUNE" (0.P.,137-1901) I n t h e s e r h y m i n g a l e x a n d r i n e s w h i c h were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d as " L u n a i r e " , A p o l l i n a i r e i s r e v e a l e d as a s t a r - g a z e r a n d l o v e r o f n a t u r e . He s e e s A r c t u r u s as a s t a r s o b r i g h t t h a t i t s r a y s p e n e t r a t e l i k e a b e e ' s s t i n g . The p o e t was p r o b a b l y a ware t h a t i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y l o c a t e t h i s s t a r one must p r o l o n g t h e t a i l o f t h e G r e a t B e a r . T h i s same t a i l h a s a l l t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a b e e ' s s t i n g e r o r p o s s i b l y t h e s i m i l a r a p p e n d a g e o f a s c o r p i o n . The " r o s e d e s v e n t s " r e a p p e a r s , i n t h i s c a s e i t f u l f i l s a m u l t i p l e r o l e a s a f l o w e r t a r g e t f o r t h e b e e s a n d , a s t h e P o l e S t a r a t t h e v e r y c e n t e r o f t h e n o r t h e r n a s t r o n o m i c a l h e m i s p h e r e , a p l a c e f r o m w h i c h t h e w i n d s c a n b l o w i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n . The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e moon an d h o n e y may h a v e b e e n t h e r e s u l t o f t h e d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h w o r d "honeymoon" i n t o " l u n e de m i e l " w i t h t h e same m e a n i n g . A p o l l i n a i r e , as i s w e l l known, l o v e d f o o d ; so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he d e s c r i b e s t h e v i l l a g e s a n d o r c h a r d s g r e e d i l y a b s o r b i n g t h e l u m i n o u s manna f r o m h e a v e n . The poem i s a f a i r e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h 72 w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n o r , t o use h i s own t e r m , " l o g o m a c h i e " , a n d i s a t t h e same t i m e a l m o s t a s k i t on S y m b o l i s m . The p o e t g o e s s o much f u r t h e r i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n t h a n h i s ' f i n - d e - s i e c l e ' p r e d e c e s s o r s . "LES DICTS D'AMOUR A LINDA" (0.P.,318-336,-1901) I t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o g r o u p a l l t h e poems w r i t t e n f r o m A p r i l 3 0 t h t o J u l y 3 r d 1901 u n d e r t h i s t i t l e s i n c e t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f l o w e d f r o m A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e M o l i n a f a m i l y a n d L i n d a i n p a r t i c u l a r . 3 I n g e n e r a l t h e y t e l l u s v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t t h e p o e t h i m s e l f e x c e p t t h a t he was a b l e t o p r o d u c e poems o f l o v e a n d v i n d i c t i v e n e s s a l m o s t a t t h e d r o p o f a h a t . They a m p l y s u p p l y p r o o f t h a t t h e p o e t knew he h a d t h e c a p a c i t y t o do t h i s , w i t n e s s t h e l i n e s f r o m " J e v i s un s o i r l a z e z a y a n t e " (O.P .p. 3.27) w h i c h he was t o a s s e r t e v e n more f o r c i b l y i n t h e f u t u r e : M o i q u i s a i s des l a i s p o u r l e s r e i n e s E t d e s c h a n s o n s p o u r l e s s i r e n e s . A c u r i o u s f e a t u r e o f t h i s g r o u p i s t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e was v e r y c i r c u m s p e c t a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l o v e poems, t h e y a v o i d t h e s l i g h t e s t h i n t o f e r o t i c i s m , f o r f e a r o f o f f e n d i n g L i n d a . However t h e p o e t i n t h e " g r u d g e " poem " A d i e u x " ( 0 . P . p.332) l i f t e d t h e b a n an d b r i n g s f o r t h i m a g e s s u c h as a w i s h t o s u c k t h e moon, t h e o n l y n i p p l e i n t h e n i g h t , a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s a s t h e l a d y ' s s u i t o r s , a s b e i n g w h i p - w i e l d i n g s a d i s t s , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f h e r r e a c h i n g an u g l y o l d age w i t h a s l a c k b e l l y a n d c r o w s f e e t a b o u t h e r e y e s ! H i s d i s e n c h a n t m e n t i s c o m p l e t e a n d a l l t o o e v i d e n t . 73 NOTES: CHAPTER 4 1 M i c h e l D e c a u d i n , Le. d o s s i e r d' A l c o o l s , ( P a r i s : M i n a r d ; G e n e v e : D r o z , 1963) 1 4 2 - 1 4 3 . 2 " L e s l e t t r e s a un ami d ' e n f a n c e , de G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e " L e s L e t t . r e s F r a n c a i s s s (13 Dec 1 9 5 1 ) : 4. 74 CHAPTER 5 GERMANY, THE RHINELAND AND ANNIE PLAYDEN 1901-1902 The t w e l v e months s t a r t i n g i n A u g u s t 1901 were r e m a r k a b l e i n many ways; A p o l l i n a i r e f e l l h o p e l e s s l y i n l o v e , he made a g r a n d t o u r o f C e n t r a l E u r o p e a n d what he saw a n d f e l t p r o v i d e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n i f n o t a l w a y s t h e f i n a l f o r m o f a t l e a s t t w e n t y n i n e poems. The e n t i r e p o e t i c o u t p u t was i n f l u e n c e d e i t h e r b y t h e R h i n e l a n d b y t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e o r b y t h e c u s t o m s , h i s t o r y a n d m y t h o l o g y o f t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f Germany. I t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o d i v i d e t h i s g r e a t e f f l o r e s c e n c e o f p o e t r y i n t o two m a i n d i v i s i o n s , t h o s e poems w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y n a r r a t i v e or d e s c r i p t i v e w i t h t h e p o e t m e r e l y as a r e c o r d e r o r o b s e r v e r a n d t h o s e where t h e s e d o c u m e n t a r y e l e m e n t s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e p o e t ' s S e l f . The l a t t e r w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as P e r s o n a l poems h e r e a f t e r . A p o l l i n a i r e r e j e c t e d some o f h i s R h e n i s h poems a s u n s u i t a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n A l c o o l s b e c a u s e he t h o u g h t t h e y were t o o p e r s o n a l o r t o o d e s c r i p t i v e , t h e y a p p e a r e d p o s t h u m o u s l y i n t h e XL y a a n d T,e Guetteur m£lancol i que a n t h o l o g i e s . The s u b t i t l e "Rhenanes" appeared i n AlCQQls and Le G u s t t e u r melancolique i n respect of some of the poems as a group heading but others though obviously of Rhenish or German i n s p i r a t i o n stood on t h e i r own. The narrative-descriptive poems In some of the Rhenish poems the narrative-descriptive elements are more i n evidence than the personal ones, consequently they can be dealt with as a group i n t h i s discussion. They have i n common abundant evidence of A p o l l i n a i r e ' s exceptionally acute powers of observation; his ear for German and Hebrew speech patterns despite his own lack of fluency i n these languages i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy. Scenery - per se - or a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty did not inter e s t him i n the same way that i t would interest an ordinary t o u r i s t ; A p o l l i n a i r e looked beyond, to the very soul of the inhabitants of the countries he v i s i t e d , to the ancient myths that influenced t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ; to the Rheinlieder, songs passed from generation to generation, to r e l i g i o n which affected t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s and noted how some of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s observances were grafted on to p r e h i s t o r i c r i t e s . A p o l l i n a i r e i d e n t i f i e d himself with wanderers of a l l kinds. Gypsies had a special fascination for him as did the old, old story of Isaac Laquedem, the Wandering Jew. "PLONGEON" (0.P.,539-1901) The Rhine r i v e r i s d i r e c t l y referred to i n t h i s poem which has has undertones of sadness - "vapeurs pleins de mouchoirs" -76 a n d n a r c i s s i s m - "Dans l ' e a u d ' a c i e r t o n ombre t e p r e c e d e r a " . "LA SYNAGOGUE" ( 0 . P . f 1 1 3 - 1 9 0 1 ) The e a r l i e s t o f t h e R h i n e l a n d poems, i t d a t e s f r o m S e p t e m b e r . The P s a l m s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l l a n g u a g e a r e c h a n t e d by two o l d r o g u e s , a moment b e f o r e , t h e y were c u r s i n g e a c h o t h e r a n d n o n - b e l i e v e r s g e n e r a l l y as t h e y w a l k e d b e s i d e t h e R h i n e ; t h e r i v e r , now p e r s o n i f i e d , i s s m i l i n g a t t h e i r a n t i c s : l i s s e d i s p u t e n t e t c r i e n t d e s c h o s e s q u ' o n o s e a p e i n e t r a d u i r e Le v i e u x R h i n s o u l e v e s a f a c e r u i s s e l a n t e e t s e d e t o u r n e p o u r s o u r i r e . " L a S y n a g o g u e " r e f l e c t s t h e p r o f o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f H e b r a i c r e l i g i o n . a n d c u s t o m s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d when he was a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r w i t h t h e M o l i n a f a m i l y . "LE VENT NOCTURNE" ( 0 . P . , 1 2 1 - 1 9 0 1 ) , "LES SAPINS" (0.P.,121-1901) a n d "CREPUSCULE" ( 0 . P . , 5 3 7 - 1 9 0 1 ) . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f i r s t two were w r i t t e n i n Neu G l i i c k w h i c h i s s i t u a t e d some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e R h i n e , t h e y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t h i r d w h i c h was w r i t t e n b e s i d e t h e r i v e r a t H o n n e f , a r e a l l s t e e p e d i n r i v e r i n e l o r e , p o p u l a t e d w i t h n i x e s , e l v e s , s i r e n s a n d m a g i c i a n s l e a r n e d i n t h e h e a l i n g a r t s . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e m a g i c a l w o r l d r e a p p e a r s i n t h e s e t h r e e poems. The 1901 " C r e p u s c u l e " i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e poem o f t h e same name ( O . P . , 6 4 - 1 9 0 7 ) . 77 "SCHINDERHANNES" (0.P.117-1901) a n d "LES FEMMES" (0.P.123-1901) T h e s e two poems a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e h a s u s e d s n i p p e t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t o f o r m p a r t o f t h e poem, t h e y a r e t h u s f o r e r u n n e r s o f l a t e r p o e m e s - c o n v e r s a t i o n s s u c h a s " L u n d i Rue C h r i s t i n e " . T h i s p a i r o f R h e n i s h poems a r e f i n e e x a m p l e s o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s g e n i u s i n c o n j u r i n g up p e r s o n a l i t i e s , one c a n a l m o s t f e e l t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e l i v i n g b r e a t h i n g p e r s o n s . "PASSION" ( 0 . P . , 536-1901) a n d "LA VIERGE' A LA FLEUR D'HARICOT DE COLOGNE" (0.P.,538-1901) R e l i g i o u s t h e m e s , a r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e s e two w o r k s . The f i r s t h a s t o do w i t h C h r i s t a s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a r o a d s i d e s h r i n e i n a somewhat i r r e v e r e n t manner. The s e c o n d c o n c e r n s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n a t r i p t y c h w i t h t h e I n f a n t J e s u s on h e r r i g h t arm a n d a b e a n b l o s s o m i n h e r l e f t h a n d . I t was p a i n t e d a b o u t 1380 b y M e i s t e r W i l h e l m ; t h e V i r g i n i s f l a n k e d b y S t . C a t h e r i n e on t h e l e f t a n d S t . B a r b a r a on t h e r i g h t . I t may s t i l l be s e e n i n t h e W a l l r a f R i c h a r t z Museum i n C o l o g n e . 1 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e c o u l d n o t r e s i s t t h e p u n n i n g a l l u s i o n t o h i s namesake, t h e p a i n t e r , whom he s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g i n l o v e w i t h t h e b l o n d e who was h i s m o d e l j u s t as he was w i t h t h e b l o n d e A n n i e i n O c t o b e r o f 1 9 0 1 . One must u n d e r l i n e t h e l a c k o f a c c e p t a b l e r e v e r e n c e i n t h e p o e t ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h r e l i g i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d , a n d t h e s e two poems p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e p o e t d i s t a n c i n g h i m s e l f f r o m h i s s c h o o l b o y i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h r e l i g i o n . 78 " M A R I Z I B I L L " (O.P.,77-1901) The name i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f " M a r i e - S y b i l l e " , t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g poem d e s c r i b e s i n t h r e e a l m o s t s t a c c a t o q u i n t i l s t h e p i t i f u l e x i s t e n c e o f a p r o s t i t u t e condemned t o w a l k t h e s t r e e t s u n t i l l a t e a t n i g h t . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r c e p t i v e e y e m i s s e s n o t h i n g , t h e p i m p ' s c o a r s e r e d f a c e a n d t h e f a c t t h a t he s t a n k o f g a r l i c , t h e g i r l ' s e x p r e s s i o n l e s s f a c e a n d t h e l a c k o f any f u t u r e f o r h e r . The poem d a t e s f r o m A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f i r s t v i s i t t o C o l o g n e i n O c t o b e r 1 9 0 1 . "LES BACS" (O.P.,540-1902) The m o u r n f u l l i f e o f a R h i n e f e r r y - b o a t man i s f e a t u r e d h e r e , I t i s n o t a b l e f o r a c u n n i n g u s e o f r e p e t i t i o n o f k e y w o r d s l i k e " p a s s e r " a n d " v o n t e t v i e n n e n t " w h i c h a r e s e t i n a s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t e d f r a m e o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a n d p r o f a n e w o r d s a n d t h o u g h t s . The same c o n t r a s t i s a h i g h l i g h t o f " L a S y n a g o g u e " . "LE DOME DE COLOGNE" (0.P.,542-1902) The r e a d e r i s p r e s e n t a t t h e r i o t o u s w e ek-end C a r n i v a l e n d i n g on S h r o v e T u e s d a y ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 t h i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r y e a r -1902) . T h i s t i m e A p o l l i n a i r e s t a r t s o f f on an i r r e l i g i o u s n o t e . As he g a z e s a t t h e m a j e s t y o f t h i s famous b u i l d i n g , he a s s e r t s t h a t God c o u l d n o t c a r e l e s s r e g a r d i n g t h o s e who l a b o u r f o r h i s g r e a t e r g l o r y . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e modern c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a b l e s s t r u n g b e t w e e n t h e t o w e r s makes t h e e d i f i c e an enormous l u t e when t h e w i n d s make t h e w i r e s v i b r a t e . The summer s t i l l n e s s 79 o f t h e t o w e r s i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e i m m o b i l i t y o f s t o r k s t a k i n g t h e i r r e s t , w h i l e t h e d u s t i n g o f snow d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r i s l i k e n e d t o t h e a n g e l s p l u c k i n g t h e downy f e a t h e r s o f b i r d s . M e a n w h i l e M a r i z i b i l l r e a p p e a r s s i n g i n g a s o n g i n h e r Low German d i a l e c t w i t h h e r "man" n e v e r f a r away. O t h e r r e v e l l e r s j o i n h e r a n d t h e p o e t o n c e a g a i n r e c o r d s d e t a i l s t h a t w o u l d n o r m a l l y be o v e r l o o k e d b y a l e s s o b s e r v a n t v i s i t o r , f l o w e r s s t u c k i n r i f l e b a r r e l s , o l d r o u e s a d m i t t i n g t h e i r p e c c a d i l l o s , w o r r i e d women m a k i n g o f f e r i n g s o f r o s e s on R o s e n m o n t a g t o c e l e b r a t e t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e i r womanhood. A p o l l i n a i r e was h a u n t e d b y t h e s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h women f r o m men, t h i s poem a f f o r d s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d i n t h e comments on " M e r l i n e t l a v i e i l l e femme". C o l o g n e i s s a i d t o h o u s e t h e r e l i c s o f t h e T h r e e M a g i a n d t h e p o e t n o t e s t h a t t h e h e a d o f t h e C a r n i v a l makes h i s c o n f e s s i o n a t t h e i r s h r i n e . The p o e t e v e n b r i n g s h i m s e l f i n t o t h e p i c t u r e , l i k e P h o e b u s - A p o l l o , h e b e s t r i d e s t h e t u f t e d c l o u d s w i t h t h e c a t h e d r a l c r o s s e s as h a r n e s s a n d t h e b e l l r o p e s as h i s b r i d l e s . The poem e n d s w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n t o t h e V i r g i n Mary t o p l a n t t h e h i g h w a y s w i t h r o s e b u s h e s so t h a t t r a v e l l e r s c a n s a y t h e i r r o s a r i e s . A f i n a l p u n n i n g j o k e t h u s e n d s t h e poem, a t y p i c a l A p o l l i n a r i a n t r i c k . The poem may be s a i d t o l a c k i n t r i n s i c m e r i t b u t i t i s none t h e l e s s a w i t t y p i e c e o f j o u r n a l i s t i c r e p o r t i n g . 80 "ROLAND SECK" (0.P.,351-1902) R o l a n d s e c k i s a p l a c e s i t u a t e d a c r o s s t h e r i v e r f r o m H o n n e f a n d t h e i s l a n d o f N o n n e n w e r t h . I t i s s t e e p e d i n t h e l o r e o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . T h i s i s t h e s i t e o f t h e c a s t l e o f R o l a n d , C h a r l e m a g n e ' s C r u s a d e r - K n i g h t . The poem shows a n o t h e r f a c e t o f t h e t h e p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s i n t e r e s t i n m o d e r n i t y ; a u t o m o b i l e s a r e c o m p a r e d t o c o w a r d l y k n i g h t s on h o r s e b a c k f l e e i n g f r o m shadows. A t t h e same t i m e t h e p o e t h a s dreamy r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e m y t h i c s t o r i e s s e t i n t h e S i e b e n g e b i r g e m o u n t a i n s j u s t e a s t o f H o n n e f . "LES V I L L E S SONT P L E I N E S " (0.P.,567-1902) The t i t l e i s p a r t o f t h e f i r s t l i n e o f a poem t h a t r e c o r d s t h e i m p r e s s i o n s l e f t i n t h e m i n d o f t h e y o u n g p o e t as he t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s o f Germany on one o f h i s a b s e n c e s f r o m t h e M i l h a u h o u s e h o l d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t p o r t i o n s o f i t were t a k e n t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r two m a j o r poems on w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e w o r k e d d u r i n g 1908. The p e r s o n a l poems M o s t o f t h e s e f a l l i n t o two b r o a d s e a s o n a l g r o u p i n g s , Autumn an d S p r i n g . " L a B l a n c h e n e i g e " i s t h e o n l y " W i n t e r " poem w h i l e "Un s o i r d ' e t e " o r i g i n a t e d w i t h " M i l l e r e g r e t s " i n t h e summer o f 1902. "LES COLCHIQUES" (0.P.,60-1901) T h i s work p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y as r e g a r d s d a t i n g . I t i s 81 dated 1902, and Leroy Breunig has placed i t as being written between January and August 1902 for t h i s reason. However the common or garden name for Colchicum i s Autumn Crocus and the only autumn spent by A p o l l i n a i r e in the Rhineland was the autumn of 1901 hence September 1901 would seem to be an appropriate date for the moment of i n s p i r a t i o n even i f the poem was not completed u n t i l some time i n 1902. The poem i s distinguished by the evidence i t displays of Apo l l i n a i r e ' s broad erudition. The Colchicum plant belongs to the melanthiodeae t r i b e of the l i l y botanic family, i t has pale-purple flowers. 2 Colchicine i s secreted i n the bulb, i t i s a powerful drug, a s p e c i f i c cure for gout, but dangerous when taken by mammals in large doses. Besides being a violent gastro-i n t e s t i n a l i r r i t a n t , colchicine i s used by botanists to a r t i f i c i a l l y induce polyploidy in other plants. This procedure involves m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of chromosomes.3 It i s a matter for conjecture whether A p o l l i n a i r e was aware of t h i s aspect of plant biology which was known to plant breeders before the F i r s t World War. The colchicum plant i s a hermaphrodite but i t has quite prominent ovaries, so the l i n e s : l i s c u e i l l e n t les colchiques qui sont comme des meres F i l l e s de leur f i l l e s et sont couleur de tes paupieres. which have fascinated Apollinarians for years as being a t y p i c a l example of the poet's tendency to cloak his knowledge, may be an indi c a t i o n of his p a r t i a l understanding of what are s c i e n t i f i c a l b e i t esoteric facts. Georges Legros has dealt with the many theories surrounding 82 t h i s s t r a n g e m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d i s p r o b a b l y on t h e r i g h t t r a c k when he s e e k s a b o t a n i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e l e a v e s a p p e a r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a f t e r f l o w e r i n g . The f l o w e r s a r e i d e n t i c a l y e a r a f t e r y e a r , l i k e m o t h e r , l i k e d a u g h t e r . On t h e w h o l e one h a s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y o u n g p o e t h a d h i s m i n d s t u f f e d w i t h a mass o f o n l y p a r t i a l l y d i g e s t e d f a c t s w h i c h he a t t e m p t e d t o r e l a t e t o what he r e a l i s e d w o u l d be an i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A n n i e . 4 A t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n away t h e m y s t e r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s poem u s i n g p s y c h o - c r i t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n made b y F r a n c o i s e D i n i n m a n a n d Anne C l a n c i e r , b u t i t seems u n r e a s o n a b l e t o l o a d a p o e t , who a t t h e age o f t w e n t y one was j u s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s p o e t i c c a r e e r , w i t h s u c h a h e a v y w e i g h t o f p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c a l b a g g a g e . 5 G u i l l a u m e , on a r r i v a l a t H o n n e f , became c o m p l e t e l y i n f a t u a t e d w i t h A n n i e P l a y d e n , t h e E n g l i s h g o v e r n e s s o f G a b r i e l l e M i l h a u . A n n i e ' s b r o t h e r was p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t t o comment on h e r s e d u c t i v e e y e s r i n g e d w i t h p u r p l e s h adows, so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e i m m e d i a t e l y s e n s e d t h e d a n g e r l u r k i n g t h e r e i n , i n c o m p a r i n g them t o t h e p o i s o n o u s f l o w e r s w h i c h h a d t h e same c o l o u r c h r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . t e s y e u x s o n t comme c e t t e f l e u r - l a V i o l a t r e s comme l e u r c e r n e e t comme c e t automne E t ma v i e p o u r t e s y e u x l e n t e m e n t s ' e m p o i s o n n e . Anne Hyde G r e e t h a s t i e d i n t h e w o r d " c e r n e " w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t " f i l l e s de l e u r f i l l e s " r e l a t i o n s h i p . She shows t h a t 83 t h e r e l a t e d image o f t h e c i r c l e , a n n o u n c e d b y t h e w o r d " c e r n e " , w h i c h t r a n s l a t e s i n t o " e y e - r i n g " i s s u g g e s t e d a l s o b y t h e m o t h e r s who a r e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r s . She g o e s on t o s a y t h a t t i m e (as u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s c o n t e x t ) i s c i r c u l a r , t h e g e n e r a t i o n s r e p e a t , e v e n l o v e r e p e a t s . 6 Autumn r e t a i n s i t s h o l d on o u r p o e t i n t h e same way as i t a f f e c t e d h i s s y m b o l i s t p r e d e c e s s o r s , a y e a r l a t e r he was t o a d m i t i n " S i g n e " ( 0 . P . p . 1 2 5 ) : J e s u i s s o u m i s au C h e f du S i g n e de l ' A u t o m n e Mon automne e t e r n e l l e 6 ma s a i s o n m e n t a l e . I n a t r u l y A p o l l i n a r i a n v o l t e - f a c e t h e p o e t ' s r e v e r i e i s d i s t u r b e d b y a g r o u p o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o u t t o g a t h e r t h e p r e t t y f l o w e r s , e a c h one l i k e t h e o t h e r a n d so s i m i l a r i n c o l o r a t i o n a n d i n t h e way t h e y f l u t t e r i n t h e b r e e z e t o t h e e y e l i d s o f t h e o b j e c t o f h i s a t t e n t i o n s . T h i s v e r y s h o r t poem s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d i n t h e n a t u r e o f a p o e t i c e x p e r i m e n t , A p o l l i n a i r e t r i e d s p l i t t i n g up t h e v e r s e s d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e two v e r s i o n s t h a t w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n h i s l i f e t i m e a n d one g e t s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t o o , t h a t he was n o t q u i t e c e r t a i n o f what he was t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e , so we h a v e a m i x t u r e o f a p a s t o r a l a n d a l o v e r ' s p l a i n t i v e s o n g . I t w o u l d seem t h e r e f o r e t h a t d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e work f r o m a s t r u c t u r a l i s t p o i n t o f v i e w i s n o t l i k e l y t o t h r o w much l i g h t on t h i s poem, i f one i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t i n g A p o l l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r . 84 "AUTOMNE"(O.P./104-1901) A t f i r s t r e a d i n g seems t o be a s i m p l e p a s t o r a l . I t i s i n f a c t one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most p e r s o n a l poems. I t i s i n f u s e d w i t h m e l a n c h o l y i n t h e f o r m o f t h e m i s t . The p e a s a n t s i n g s o f l o v e a n d i n f i d e l i t y a n d t h e two shadowy g r e y f i g u r e s a r e s u r e l y A p o l l i n a i r e a n d Anne. A l t h o u g h i t was composed e a r l y i n t h e Rhenane c y c l e , t h e r e i s a n o t e o f f o r e b o d i n g as i f t h e p o e t knew i n h i s h e a r t o f h e a r t s t h a t h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w o u l d o n l y l e a d t o t h e most p e r s o n a l g r i e f he was e v e r t o e x p e r i e n c e . Autumn i s t h e s e a s o n t h a t i s t h e p r e c u r s o r o f w i n t e r ' s d e a t h - l i k e s t i l l n e s s a n d t h e poem a t t e m p t s t o d r a w a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n h i s a r d e n t l o v e a n d i t s i n e v i t a b l e e n d . 7 " E L E G I E " (O.P.,534-1901) D a t e s f r o m A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e t u r n t o H o n n e f i n l a t e O c t o b e r , a f t e r s p e n d i n g t i m e i n Neu G l i i c k a n d C o l o g n e ; as i n t h e f i r s t two e x a m p l e s , t h e r e i s a n o t e o f s a d n e s s as t h e n i g h t a p p r o a c h e s a n d t h e two l o v e r s c o n t e m p l a t e a w a l l p l a q u e , s a d l y c o m m e m o r a t i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a m u r d e r t h a t t o o k p l a c e n e a r l y t h r e e c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . A s t h e l i g h t d i e s , t h e i r l o v e l i e s b l e e d i n g ; j u s t a s g o o s e b e r r i e s a c q u i r e t h e i r c r i m s o n h ue, t h e m o u n t a i n s t u r n p u r p l e i n t h e d u s k , t h e s t a r s s h e d t e a r s a s t h e y l i g h t up t h e p a l e autumn s k y a n d a g r o u p o f w a n d e r i n g g y p s i e s a r e h e a r d f a r away a s t h e y s t a r t s i n g i n g b y t h e i r c a m p f i r e . A t r a i n p a s s e s w i t h , a l l i t s c a r s l i t up a s t h e s a d l o v e r s t r y t o make o u t t h e v i l l a g e s s l e e p i n g i n t h e d u s k . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s e v o c a t i v e p o w e r s a r e g i v e n f u l l p l a y a n d many 85 o f h i s f a v o u r i t e t hemes a r e b r o u g h t f o r w a r d . T h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f i n c a n t a t i o n i n t h i s poem a n d i t i s e a s y t o v i s u a l i s e A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h i s r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g , t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n i t s d e e p e s t m e a n i n g s t o A n n i e whose k n o w l e d g e o f F r e n c h was v e r y l i m i t e d . "RHENANE D'AUTOMNE" (0.P.,119-1901) L i k e "Le Dome de C o l o g n e " , i t f i t s n e a t l y i n t o a ny c h r o n o l o g y s i n c e r e f e r e n c e i s made i n t h e t h i r d v e r s e t o A l l S o u l s Day, ( i t f a l l s on November 2nd) . The c e m e t e r y i n t h e v i l l a g e o f E i c h , was c l o s e t o t h e g l o o m y c o u n t r y home o f Mme de M i l h a u ' s a u n t , Anna v o n F i s e n n e , a t K r a y e r h o f ; t h e w h o l e f a m i l y w ere s t a y i n g t h e r e , i t was t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f c h o i c e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h German c u s t o m on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d a y ; A n n i e a n d G u i l l a u m e were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p a r t y w h i c h h a d a l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f a p i c n i c . The poem, t y p i c a l l y A p o l l i n a r i a n , i s f u l l o f s u r p r i s i n g e l e m e n t s , t h e c e m e t e r y becomes a f a r m y a r d c o m p l e t e w i t h c o c k s c r o w i n g , a s s e s b r a y i n g a n d c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g ; r a g g e d c l o u d s o v e r h e a d a n d women's, v e i l s f l u t t e r i n g a r e c o m p a r e d t o n a n n y - g o a t b e a r d s ! W e e p i n g w i l l o w s a n d r o s e m a r y , t h e f u n e r a l f l o w e r o f remembrance, c r o w d t h e g a r d e n - c e m e t e r y , l i k e t h e a s s o r t m e n t o f f o l k o f b o t h h i g h a n d l o w d e g r e e who a r e b u r i e d t h e r e . G y p s i e s a p p e a r o n c e more, t h i s t i m e a s s t a t e l e s s r e f u g e e s who h a v e f o u n d a f i n a l t h o u g h somewhat u n c o m f o r t a b l e r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r t h e i r m o r t a l r e m a i n s . The s i g h t o f f a l l e n l e a v e s r e m i n d s t h e t h e p o e t o f a m p u t a t e d h a n d s , t h e h a n d s o f d e a d l o v e d o n e s a n d t h e h a n d s o f 8 6 h i s own l o v e d one whom he r e s t r a i n s as she t r i e s t o l e a v e t h i s p l a c e w h i c h h o r r i f i e s h e r . A p o l l i n a i r e a l m o s t a l w a y s becomes an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t w h e n e v e r a s i g h t a f f e c t s h i m p e r s o n a l l y , a n d t h i s poem i s no e x c e p t i o n . T h i s k e e n o b s e r v e r t a k e s c a r e f u l n o t e o f t h e a n c i e n t c u s t o m s o f l i g h t i n g c a n d l e s a n d t a p e r s a t e a c h g r a v e so t h a t t h e v e r y a i r t r e m b l e s w i t h s o f t l y v o i c e d p r a y e r s a n d f l i c k e r i n g f l a m e s . C h e s t n u t s a r e t r o d d e n u n d e r f o o t , a r e m i n d e r , p e r h a p s , o f t h e s e a s o n f o r r o a s t i n g them. The poem c l o s e s w i t h a r e a l l y s u r p r i s i n g r e m i n d e r t h a t G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e was a v e r i t a b l e s t o r e h o u s e o f t r i v i a , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e V i r g i n M a r y c o n c e i v a b l y was n o t as d a r k - s k i n n e d as some i c o n s , e .g. t h e B l a c k V i r g i n o f C z e s t o c h o w a , d e p i c t h e r . I t i s a m u s i n g t o n o t e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e p e r m i t t e d h i m s e l f t o p l a y a j o k e on h i s v e r y g o o d f r i e n d o f h i s c h i l d h o o d y e a r s , M. T o u s s a i n t - L u c a , b y d e d i c a t i n g t h i s poem a b o u t A l l S o u l s Day t o a p e r s o n whose name c o n t a i n s t h e " A l l S a i n t s " p r e f i x . "DANS LE JARDIN D'ANNA" (0.P.,347-1901) A poem, r e m i n i s c e n t o f a F r a g o n a r d o r F r a n c o i s B o u c h e r p a s t o r a l - s c e n e , b u t o v e r l a i d w i t h a t o u c h o f t h i n l y v e i l e d e r o t i c i s m . C o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h "Rhenane d'Automne" i t r e f l e c t s a p e r i o d when t h e p o e t a p p e a r e d t o be m a k i n g headway i n h i s c o u r t s h i p o f A n n i e P l a y d e n . The e x t r e m e l y c o u r t e o u s t o n e o f t h i s poem was t o g i v e way t o a much more v i o l e n t a p p r o a c h when A p o l l i n a i r e b e g a n t o r e a l i s e i n t h e New Y e a r t h a t he was b e i n g r e b u f f e d . The p r o p h e c y c o n t a i n e d i n " L e s C o l c h i q u e s " c o n c e r n i n g h i s l o v e b e i n g p o i s o n e d came t o p a s s . 8 87 A p o l l i n a i r e h i n t s a t t h e more c r u e l s i d e o f h i s n a t u r e when he w r i t e s o f b r e a k i n g h i s c a n e a c r o s s t h e b a c k o f a p e a s a n t o r l a s c i v i o u s l y k i s s i n g a r e d h e a d e d s e r v a n t g i r l , w h i l e p a y i n g s e r i o u s c o u r t t o t h e Anna o f t h e poem. A c t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r t o r e f l e c t t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f t h e German s u i t o r i n t h e poem. "AUTOMNE MALADE" (0.P.,146-1901) The a u t u m n a l theme i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s l o v e f o r a s e a s o n t h a t he i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h . M. D e c a u d i n a n d L . C . B r e u n i g h a v e a t t a c h e d i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a m a n u s c r i p t was w r i t t e n on p a p e r f i l c h e d f r o m a h o t e l i n M u n i c h w here he s t a y e d i n M a r c h 1902, h o w e v e r t h i s c o u l d w e l l h a v e b e e n an a t t e m p t a t a r e v i s i o n o f a p r e - e x i s t i n g poem. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e s e t down h i s f e e l i n g s i n a r o u g h d r a f t w h i l e i n H o n n e f and s t r u g g l e d l a t e r t o i n t r o d u c e a more p e r s o n a l n o t e i n a h e a v i l y c o r r e c t e d v e r s i o n on t h e s h e e t o f h o t e l n o t e p a p e r t h a t he " b o r r o w e d " much l a t e r . The poem's g e n e r a l l y m o u r n f u l t o n e a n d t h e b o r r o w i n g o f t h e f i n a l l i n e s f r o m "Un s o i r d ' e t e " a r e f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e d a t e o f t h e f i n a l d r a f t a n d o f t h e p o e t ' s s t a t e o f m i n d d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1902 when he r e a l i s e d t h a t h i s l o v e f o r A n n i e was doomed. D e s p i t e h i s t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s m y s t i f i c a t i o n t h e p o e t makes no s e c r e t o f h i s i n f a t u a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l i n e s : Automne m a l a d e e t a d o r e P a u v r e automne 88 meurs en b l a n c h e u r e t e n r i c h e s s e E t que j ' a i m e 6 s a i s o n que j ' a i m e t e s r u m e u r s . "LA BLANCHE NEIGE" (0.P.,82-1901) T h i s was w r i t t e n w h i l e A p o l l i n a i r e was s t a y i n g a t Neu G l i i c k , t h e M i l h a u v i l l a n e a r B e n n e r s c h e i d , some 10 m i l e s i n l a n d f r o m t h e R h i n e . T h i n g s w e re m o v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n h i s r e l a t i o n - s h i p w i t h A n n i e a t t h e t i m e . The poem i s r i c h i n m e t a p h o r , God i s p r e s e n t e d i n two f o r m s , t h e a n g e l - o f f i c e r i n a s k y - b l u e u n i f o r m who w i l l be r e w a r d e d w i t h a g o l d e n s u n n y m e d a l when Summer o c c u r s a n d t h e a n g e l - c o o k b u s i l y p l u c k i n g t h e C h r i s t m a s g o o s e whose f e a t h e r s s l o w l y f a l l t o t h e g r o u n d j u s t l i k e snow f l a k e s , a r e m i n d e r o f t h e o l d s a y i n g i n t h e m i d i o f F r a n c e "Le Bon D i e u p l u m e s e s o i e s " . The shadow o f d e a t h c a s t s a p a l l w i t h t h e r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f an A p o l l i n a r i a n p u n , w i t h t h e w o r d "tombe" d o i n g d o u b l e d u t y i n i t s s e n s e o f f a l l i n g a n d tomb. F o r A p o l l i n a i r e d e a t h s i g n i f i e d t h e e n d o f an e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e . He w i s h e s he h a d h i s l a d y - l o v e i n h i s arms j u s t l i k e t h e c o o k who i s c l u t c h i n g t h e g o o s e i n h i s arms f o r t h e p a i n f u l p r o c e s s o f p l u c k i n g . The c r u e l s i d e o f t h e p o e t ' s n a t u r e , a l w a y s j u s t b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e , i s a l l o w e d t o r e - a p p e a r . T h r e e c o m m e n t a t o r s h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h i s c h a r m i n g l i t t l e poem, M e c h t i l d C r a n s t o n h a s l i k e n e d i t t o a f a i r y s t o r y , one w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e m i g h t h a v e made i t up f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f G a b r i e l l e de M i l h a u , one knows so l i t t l e a b o u t h i s r o l e as t h e l i t t l e g i r l ' s t u t o r . M. D e c a u d i n t r a c e s a 89 r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p o e t ' s v i s i t t o L o n d o n i n December 1903 b u t t h i s d o e s n o t seem t o f i t a s w e l l t h e one p u t f o r w a r d a b o v e . M a r i o R i c h t e r ' s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y d o e s n o t c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e o f t h e d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . 9 On t h e w h o l e , t h e g r i m r e a l i t i e s o f t h e p o e t ' s s i t u a t i o n i n P a r i s u p o n h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e R h i n e l a n d w o u l d seem t o p r e c l u d e any i n s p i r a t i o n as c h i l d -l i k e as t h i s poem i n d i c a t e s . "LA MAISON DES MORTS" (0.P.,66-1902) A p o l l i n a i r e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s poem a b o u t a c o l u m b a r i u m i n M u n i c h , a p i e c e somewhat l o n g e r t h a n u s u a l , as b e i n g w o r t h i n c l u d i n g i n t h e m a i n s e c t i o n o f A l c o o l s ; he d e l i b e r a t e l y i n s e r t e d i t midway b e t w e e n h i s v e r s i o n o f s p i r i t u a l d e a t h a s e x e m p l i f i e d by "Zone" a n d h i s p o e t i c a s c e n s i o n i n the. f i n a l poem " V e n d e m i a i r e " . 1 0 The poem v i v i d l y r e f l e c t s h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h d e a t h a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n , a t r a i t t h a t was t o show up i n one o f h i s v e r y l a s t w o r k s , t h e p l a y " C o u l e u r du t e m p s " . The p o e t ' s e x c e p t i o n a l g i f t s as a r e p o r t e r a n d o b s e r v e r o f t h e s c e n e when he v i s i t e d t h e m o r t u a r y i n t h e c e m e t e r y i n M u n i c h i n A p r i l 1902 i n t h e company o f A n n i e P l a y d e n , a r e g i v e n f u l l p l a y i n t h i s poem w h i c h f e a t u r e s m e t i c u l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p e r s o n s , c u s t o m s a n d o b j e c t s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he s e t s t h e s c e n e w i t h a s u r p r i s i n g economy o f w o r d s i n j u s t two v e r s e s . The b o u r g e o i s n a t u r e o f b o t h t h e d e a d a n d t h e i r l i v e m o u r n e r c o m p a n i o n s i s d e l i g h t f u l l y u n d e r l i n e d . A n o t h e r t y p i c a l l y A p o l l i n a r i a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h i s t i m e h i s t r e a t m e n t o f s h a d o w s , a p p e a r s when t h e r e s u r r e c t e d c o r p s e s n o t i c e 9 0 t h e i r shadows a n d s e e i n them t h e i r p a s t l i v e s . S i m i l a r l y t h e l o v e r - p o e t f i n d s r e f u g e f r o m h i s f a t a l l o v e i n t h e p u r i t y o f t h e g l a c i e r s o f memory a n d t h e p a s t , he i s f o r t i f i e d a n d no l o n g e r i s d e p e n d e n t on any one. Mme D u r r y h a s summed up t h e p o e t ' s f e e l i n g s w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l p e r s p i c a c i t y : 1 1 A p o l l i n a i r e s o u r i t du p e u que n o us sommes e t que s e r a i e n t l e s m o r t s s ' i l s r e v e n a i e n t a l a v i e , m a i s s u r t o u t i l e p r o u v e e t f a i t e p r o u v e r t o u t e l a m e l a n c o l i e que l e s s e n t i m e n t s . l e s p l u s p r o f o n d s s o i e n t g u e t t e s p a r l a s e p a r a t i o n e t e r n e l l e , de s o r t e que 1'amour e n t r e l e s • e t r e s e s t condamne, 1'amour e n t r e l u i e t A n n i e , comme S i e l l e e t l u i n ' e t a i e n t d e j a p l u s . T o u t e t r a c e d ' i r o n i e ou de s a r c a s m e a d i s p a r u d a n s 1 ' E l e v a t i o n f i n a l e , ... "LA TZIGANE" (0.P.,99-1902) I s A p o l l i n a i r e ' s n e x t poem i n t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r t h a t h a s b e e n a d o p t e d . O u t w a r d l y a s i m p l e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e s a d n e s s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e b r e a k - u p o f h i s l o v e a f f a i r , i t h a s y i e l d e d m u l t i p l e e x a m p l e s o f A p o l l i n a r i a n t r a i t s i n i t s mere t w e l v e l i n e s . A l o v e o f p o e t i c p u n s a p p e a r s t h u s : Nous l u i d i m e s a d i e u e t p u i s De c e p u i t s s o r t i t l ' E s p e r a n c e . The o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e s t o hope s u r g i n g f r o m a w e l l o r t o t h e b l u e b i r d b e c o m i n g mangy a r e t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s g i f t o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n so w e l l d e s c r i b e d by A n d r e B i l l y i n h i s 91 p r e f a t o r y e s s a y t o an a n t h o l o g y o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e m s . 1 2 m y s t i f i e r . . . c ' e s t j o u e r a v e c l a p a r t de h a s a r d , de r i s q u e e t de m y s t e r e que r e n f e r m e t o u t e e n t r e p r i s e h u m a i n e e t q u i d e t e r m i n e d a n s une c e r t a i n e m e s u r e s o n o r i e n t a t i o n e t s o n s u c c e s . . . u n e d o c t r i n e e s t h e t i q u e , f o n d e e s u r l e p r i n c i p e de n o u v e a u t e l e t e n a i t en e t a t de d i s p o n i b i l i t e . . . A l t h o u g h t h e w e l l seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e p t h s o f d e j e c t i o n i n t o w h i c h t h e doomed l o v e r s w e r e ' t h r o w n by t h e f o r t u n e - t e l l e r ' s r e a d i n g o f t h e i r p a l m s a n d t h e f a i n t r a y o f hope t h a t she u s e d t o h e dge h e r p r o p h e c i e s , a t r a i t s h a r e d b y t h o s e o f h e r c a l l i n g ; P o l - P . G o s s i a u x i n h i s e s s a y 1 3 p o i n t s o u t t h a t p a l m i s t r y h a s a much more f e l i c i t o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e w e l l i m a g e . P a l m i s t r y l e a n s h e a v i l y on a s t r o l o g y w h e r e i n t h e n i g h t h a s a g e n e r a l l y e v i l c o n n o t a t i o n a n d t h e w e l l on t h e o t h e r h a n d h a s a b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h a t i t p r o t e c t s one f r o m e v i l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s on t h e s u r f a c e . He r e f e r s t o I o a n n i s . G a n i v e t u s ' 1614 t e x t , " A m i c u s m e d i c o r u m c b n t i n e n s d i f f e r e n t i a s " : L e s d e g r e s " t e n e b r e u x " , d e s q u e l s l ' o n p e u t s a n s h e s i t e r r a p p r o c h e r l e s " n u i t s " du poeme s o n t n£fastes: i l s r e n d e n t l e s c h o s e s s o m b r e s e t l a i d e s . M a i s l e d e g r e de " p u i t s " e s t c o n s i d e r e comme n e u t r e ou b e n e f i g u e : i l a une h e u r e u s e i n f l u e n c e s u r l e s a c t i v i t e s que l ' o n v i e n t d ' e n t r e p r e n d r e . The b l u e b i r d image e v o k e d by t h e s i g h t o f a m o u l t i n g b i r d p e r c h e d on t h e f o r t u n e - t e l l e r ' s s h o u l d e r i s most p r o b a b l y a r e f e r e n c e t o one o f t h e f a i r y t a l e s f r o m t h e p e n o f L a c o m t e s s e 92 D ' A u l n o y d a t i n g f r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s y m b o l o f p u r e l o v e i n t h e f a i r y t a l e h a s become an u g l y b i r d i n s t e a d o f L e R o i c h a r m a n t , t h e o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d l o v e r o f t h e p r i n c e s s F l o r i n e , t u r n e d i n t o a wounded b l u e b i r d b y t h e e v i l f a i r y S o u s s i o . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s d e s i r e t o c o v e r h i s t r a c k s , t o t a k e h i s r e a d e r i n t o h i s c o n f i d e n c e by i n d i r e c t means o n l y , h a s b e e n b r o u g h t t o l i g h t v e r y w e l l by Mme D u r r y i n h e r l e n g t h y a n a l y s i s o f t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o m p l e x poem. 1 4 She shows t h a t t h e e v e r y d a y o c c u r r e n c e o f a s i m p l e r e a d i n g o f a p a i r o f l o v e r s ' h a n d s r e v e a l s t h e g y p s y as b e i n g t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f o t h e r w o r l d l y s t r a n g e n e s s , d e s t i n y a n d i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . She i s t h e e t e r n a l t r a v e l l e r on t h e j o u r n e y w h i c h i s t h e same t h a t must be t r o d d e n by t h e l o v i n g c o u p l e , u n i t e d t o g e t h e r o r s e p a r a t e d , on t h e i r way t o t h e unknown, t o s a l v a t i o n o r d a m n a t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s a l l t h e more a l a r m i n g b e c a u s e t h e r e i s t h e p r e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e u n a v o i d a b l e e n d , one o f w h i c h t h e p o e t i s o n l y t o o w e l l a w a r e , a s b o r n e o u t by t h e s q u e e z i n g o f t h e i r h a n d s . The c l u m s y p r a n c i n g b e a r , t h e image o f c a r n a l l o v e , d i s o w n s t h e i d e a l l o v e as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e b l u e b i r d a n d t u r n s a d e a f e a r t o t h e l a t t e r ' s b e g g a r - l i k e e n t r e a t i e s . T h e r e i s a h i n t i n t h i s poem t h a t A n n i e , n e v e r n e v e r m e n t i o n e d b y name, was a b i t o f a t e a s e i n h e r p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h G u i l l a u m e , s h e most p r o b a b l y e g g e d h i m on b u t n e v e r a l l o w e d h i m t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e u l t i m a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h he so d e s i r e d . A f t e r a l l , as so many o f h i s poems show, A p o l l i n a i r e was a l w a y s d e a d l y s e r i o u s i n m a t t e r s o f l o v e . Had i t n o t b e e n f o r t h e r i g o r o u s d e t e c t i v e work o f B r e u n i g , G o f f i n a n d W o l f , 1 5 t h e s e c r e t o f t h e l o v e a f f a i r 93 m i g h t h a v e b e e n b u r i e d w i t h A n n i e P l a y d e n i n A m e r i c a a n d w i t h A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h e P e r e L a c h a i s e c e m e t e r y i n P a r i s ; a n d " L a T z i g a n e " w r i t t e n o f f as j u s t a n o t h e r e n i g m a t i c poem d e a l i n g w i t h g y p s y f o l k , whose l i f e was a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e p o e t . The p o e t , a l w a y s s e c r e t i v e a b o u t A n n i e , t o o k c a r e n o t t o i n c l u d e t h i s r e v e l a t o r y poem i n t h e " R h e n a n e s " g r o u p i n A T c o o l s . I t p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d i n M u n i c h on t h e way b a c k t o H o n n e f . Mme D u r r y h a s summed up t h e poem i n words w h i c h c a n be a p p l i e d t o a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e p o e t i c o u t p u t o f A p o l l i n a i r e : 1 6 Dans l a t r a n s p o s i t i o n d e s i m a g e s v i s u e l l e s en i m a g e s a f f e c t i v e s , d a n s l a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n du r e e l en a l l u s i o n , de 1 ' a l l u s i o n au monde e x t e r i e u r e n a l l u s i o n a l a v i e c a c h e e , j e s e n s un d e s s e c r e t s non p l u s de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e m a i s de l a p o e s i e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . P l u s p r e c i s e m e n t , un d o u b l e s e c r e t de s o n a r t de c o n t e u r e n p o e s i e . L ' u n : p r e n d r e p o u r s u j e t 1 ' a n e c d o t e , a v e c s e s d e t a i l s c o l o r e s , n e t s , p r e s q u e t a n g i b l e s , e t l a v o l a t i l i s e r . L ' a u t r e : r a c o n t e r s a n s d o n n e r l e mot du c o n t e . H a v i n g r e t u r n e d t o H o n n e f i n May 1902, A p o l l i n a i r e was o n c e a g a i n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f o l k - l o r e t h a t seemed t o emanate so p e r v a s i v e l y f r o m t h e r i v e r R h i n e , i t s b a n k s i t s m i s t s a n d i t s c r a g s . F i v e poems o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e were composed d u r i n g t h i s month, e a c h r e f l e c t i n g t h e g r o w i n g r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t h i s l o v e f o r A n n i e was h o p e l e s s . The o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t f o u r i s b a s e d on t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e a s one p r o c e e d s down t h e R h i n e , t h e r e b y d u p l i c a t i n g as f a r as p o s s i b l e A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t r a v e l down t h e r i v e r i n t h a t month o f May. 94 LA LORELEY" (0.P.,115-1902) I n t h i s t h e f i r s t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s May 1902 poems, t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n a g e s o f f a b l e a n d a l l e g o r y , t h e m y t h t h a t s u r r o u n d s them, a n d t h e p o e t h i m s e l f , i s most p r o n o u n c e d . 1 7 T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l u n d e r c u r r e n t o f p e r s o n a l a l l u s i o n t o A n n i e P l a y d e n i n t h i s poem. I t s t a r t s b y t u r n i n g B r e n t a n o ' s s i r e n i n t o a b l o n d e m a i d e n who, i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e somewhat i n q u i s i t o r i a l q u e s t i o n s p u t t o h e r by t h e b i s h o p d u r i n g h e r t r i a l a s a s o r c e r e s s , t e l l s h i m t h a t , d e s p i t e h e r s e l f , h e r e y e s a r e c o n s u m i n g f l a m e s a n d n o t s h i n i n g j e w e l s . A s p o i n t e d o u t p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e comments on " L e s C o l c h i q u e s " , A n n i e ' s e y e s w e r e s i m i l a r l y p r o n e t o l e a d men t o d i s a s t e r , l i k e L o r e l e y she i s a b e a u t i f u l b u t f a t a l s i r e n . A p o l l i n a i r e was so a f f e c t e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f i r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f l i c k e r i n g n a t u r e o f i t s f l a m e s , t h a t he g i v e s f u l l p r o m i n e n c e t o them i n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h v e r s e s , e v e n t h e b i s h o p i s s c o r c h e d by L o r e l e y ' s b u r n i n g g a z e . Commencing w i t h t h e s i x t h s t a n z a , A p o l l i n a i r e i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e s o r c e r e s s , d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s m u t a t i o n one becomes aware t h a t h e r h e a r t i s b r e a k i n g b u t s h e w a n t s t o s e e h e r l o v e r who, l i k e A n n i e , i s a b o u t t o l e a v e f o r a d i s t a n t l a n d , j u s t o n c e more. She b e l i e v e s s h e s e e s h i m a p p r o a c h i n g i n a b o a t a t t h e f o o t o f t h e r o c k b u t she f a l l s b y a c c i d e n t down t h e c l i f f w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t a b e t t e r l o o k a t h i m . The p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e p o e t ' s own e x p e r i e n c e a r e s t r i k i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e 95 n o t i o n o f s u i c i d e i s a b s e n t a n d t h i s b e a r s o u t A p o l l i n a i r e ' s own p h i l o s o p h y , he i s a l m o s t c o n t i n u a l l y a ware o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e a t h b u t a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o s u i c i d e was t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up. "NUIT RHENANE" (0.P.,111-1902) The s e c o n d poem, t a k e s up t h e s t o r y o f t h e s e v e n m a i d e n s o f a v i l l a g e n e a r B a c h a r a c h " D i e s i e b e n " J u n g f r a u e n a u f O b e r w e s e l " as s u n g by a p a s s i n g b o a t m a n . A s u p e r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s e v o k e d f r o m t h e f i r s t v e r s e . A p o l l i n a i r e was q u i c k t o p e r c e i v e t h e s p e c i a l f l i c k e r i n g n a t u r e o f f i r e a n d t h e b u b b l e s i n w i n e , p a s s i v e a t f i r s t b u t c a p a b l e o f r e l e a s i n g - enormous amounts o f e n e r g y . I n t h e s e c o n d s t a n z a t h e p a s s i v e l i s t e n e r - b y s t a n d e r i s t r a n s f o r m e d v e r y a b r u p t l y i n t o an i m p e r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t who h a s s h e d t h e e n v e l o p i n g c l o a k o f m y s t e r y i n f a v o u r o f t h e a t t e n t i o n s a n d e a r t h l y p r e s e n c e o f b l o n d f r a u l e i n s . H owever t h e m e r c u r i a l n a t u r e o f t h e p o e t c h a n g e s o n c e a g a i n i n t h e t h i r d s t a n z a , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l t a k e s o v e r o n c e more a n d t h e b l o n d g i r l s become g r e e n h a i r e d w a t e r s p r i t e s who s i n g o f Summer and t h e g o l d e n s t a r - s h i n e o f t h e n i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e R h i n e so t h a t i t becomes l i g h t i n c o l o u r l i k e i t s i n t o x i c a t i n g w i n e . The b o a t m a n ' s s o n g i s no l o n g e r a s i m p l e b a l l a d b u t becomes an o t h e r - w o r l d l y s o u n d c o m p a r e d by t h e p o e t t o a d e a t h r a t t l e , t h e s o u n d o f i m p e n d i n g d e a t h , s o t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s j o l t e d i n t o a w a r e n e s s t h a t s o m e t h i n g t r a g i c i s a b o u t t o h a p p e n . 1 8 The l a s t stanza has a tremendous impact, A p o l l i n a i r e makes us aware t h a t the death pangs, caused by h i s b r e a k i n g heart are as sudden as a b u r s t of l a u g h t e r . The simple n a r r a t i v e becomes an e l e g i a c poem. None the l e s s only an A p o l l i n a i r e c o u l d r e v e a l h i s inmost f e e l i n g s with such a w i s t f u l comical a l l u s i o n . He i s l i k e a t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t i n an I t a l i a n "Commedia d e l a r t e " . "MAI" (0.P.,112-1902) In t h i s t h i r d poem i t was the b e a u t i f u l r i v e r s i d e near the v i l l a g e of L e u t e s d o r f across the r i v e r from the Krayerhof e s t a t e s and Andernach which i n s p i r e d the poet, h i s powers, of o b s e r v a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n reach t h e i r peak; not a d e t a i l i s missed, the weeping willows, the orchards i n bloom, the f a l l e n c h e r r y blossom p e t a l s , whose pink c o l o u r w i l l w i l l darken as they wither, the gypsy caravan, the r u i n e d c a s t l e s and i v y covered churches, the w i l d v i n e s , the reeds and the o s i e r s on the banks. R i c h a r d Stamelman i n h i s a n a l y s i s of t h i s poem has shown th a t the f l o w e r i n g orchards r e f l e c t the e a r l i e r months when the lo v e f o r Annie was f i l l e d with l i f e f r e shness and hope and the f a l l e n p e t a l s the end of the romance, which has become f i x e d i n the poet's memory, l i k e the landscape a s t e r n of the r i v e r - b o a t . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the importance he attaches t o memory, i t i s one of the g r e a t e s t sources of h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . 1 9 The m o t i f of the backward l o o k i n g glance which seems to congeal permanently the o b j e c t viewed, i s used i n more than one poem by A p o l l i n a i r e , i t i s a form of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with 97 O r p h e u s . 2 0 The p e r s o n a l t o u c h i s i n t r o d u c e d v e r y d i s c r e e t l y , a l m o s t d i f f i d e n t l y , A p o l l i n a i r e was a l w a y s s h y when d e s c r i b i n g h i s own r e l a t i o n s h i p s : V o u s e t e s s i j o l i e s m a i s l a b a r q u e s ' e l o i g n e Q u i done a f a i t p l e u r e r l e s s a u l e s r i v e r a i n s . The p o e t ' s l o v e f o r A n n i e i s g i v e n s h a p e by c o m p a r i n g t h e p i n k b l o s s o m s t o h e r f i n g e r - n a i l s a n d t h e d a r k e n e d o n e s t o h e r e y e l i d s . The d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o A n n i e i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p a s t t e n s e . As t h e month o f May d r a g g e d on, A p o l l i n a i r e r e a l i s e d t h a t any r e n e w a l o f h i s l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p h a d become i m p o s s i b l e i n v i e w o f t h e y o u n g l a d y ' s r e b u f f s a n d Mme de M i l h a u ' s c o n t i n u i n g d i s c o u r a g e m e n t . The poem i s t h e r e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a v e r y p r o l o n g e d f a r e w e l l , g i v e n f o r m a t f i r s t i n " L e s C l o c h e s " a n d " M i l l e r e g r e t s " , a n d much l a t e r i n t h e m a g n i f i c e n t " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " a n d " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r Road". "LES CLOCHES" (0.P.p.114-1902) The f o u r t h "May" poem h a s a r o l l i c k i n g , m a r t i a l r h y t h m a r i s i n g f r o m A p o l l i n a i r e , ' s u s e o f o c t o s y l l a b i c q u a t r a i n s . The m u s i c a l i t y r e m i n d s one o f t h e o l d n u r s e r y rhyme, t h e B e l l s o f S t C l e m e n t s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e b e l l - t o w e r o f t h e v i l l a g e c h u r c h o f O b e r p l e i s n e a r B e n n e r s c h e i d d o m i n a t e s t h e l o c a l c o u n t r y - s i d e . However, t r a g e d y l u r k s i n a l m o s t e v e r y l i n e . A p o l l i n a i r e , e v e r t h e m y s t i f i e r , h i d e s b e h i n d a c l o a k b y t r a n s m u t i n g h i m s e l f i n t o a l o v e - l o r n m a i d e n , ashamed o f b e i n g c a u g h t i n t h e a c t o f l o v e b y t h e v i l l a g e g o s s i p s who w i l l s p r e a d t h e j u i c y s t o r y on 98 t h e morrow. An e n t i r e v e r s e i s d e v o t e d t o l i s t i n g t h e v i l l a g e r s c o n c e r n e d . A f o r e b o d i n g o f b e i n g a b a n d o n e d i s i n t r o d u c e d i n a t y p i c a l l y s u d d e n manner, g i v i n g r i s e t o t e a r s o f g r i e f b u t t h e n o t i o n o f d y i n g o f g r i e f a n d shame i s v o i c e d i n a t y p i c a l l y g i r l i s h , a l m o s t c o m i c manner w i t h t h e w o r d " p e u t - e t r e " ; y e t t h e s o n o r o u s s o u n d o f t h e l a s t two s y l l a b l e s seems t o h a n g i n t h e a i r l o n g a f t e r t h e y h a v e b e e n r e a d , a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e p o e t ' s m u s i c a l i t y . Upon r e t u r n t o H o n n e f A p o l l i n a i r e must h a v e h a d a p e r i o d o f e n f o r c e d l e i s u r e u n t i l h i s c o n t r a c t w i t h Mme de M i l h a u r a n o u t i n A u g u s t . T h i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n s p e n t i n p u t t i n g t h e f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s t o t h e f o u r "May" poems d i s c u s s e d s o f a r a n d e a r l i e r o n e s none o f w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d u n t i l h i s r e t u r n t o P a r i s . "LE PRINTEMPS"(O.P.,560-1902) The f i f t h poem i s p a r t l y a p a s t i c h e o f p r e v i o u s poems. Two r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e month o f May e s t a b l i s h i t s p r o b a b l e d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n i n t h e y e a r o f 1902. The f i r s t s t a n z a r e f e r s t o t h e B l u e B i r d f e a t u r e d i n " L a T z i g a n e " , t h e e i g h t h a n d t e n t h s t a n z a s h a r k b a c k t o " M a i " , a n d t h e t w e n t y - t h i r d s t a n z a i s , a l m o s t w o r d f o r word, a s t a n z a i n "Le D6me de C o l o g n e " . The poem m o r e o v e r p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r t h r e e poems o f much l a t e r d a t e , " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " , " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r R o a d " a n d "Le B r a s i e r " . A n o t i c e a b l e d i v i s i o n i s p r e s e n t i n t h i s l o n g poem; t h e f i r s t e i g h t q u a t r a i n s d e a l w i t h m a i d e n s whose p u r s u i t o f l o v e seems f r u i t l e s s , t h e y w a n der t h i s way a n d t h a t , w o r d s synonymous w i t h l o s i n g o n e ' s way a b o u n d , " e r r e r " , " e g a r e " , " e p e r d u e s " , " l e v a l l o n d e c e v a n t " , " t e r n i r l a s o u r c e " a r e t y p i c a l a n d seem t o r e f l e c t t h e a i m l e s s s i t u a t i o n t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e f i n d s h i m s e l f i n ; he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f so r e a d i l y w i t h t h e s e l o s t l o v e r s . The n e x t f i v e s t a n z a s d e s c r i b e t h e p e a c e f u l l o c a l s c e n e i n a t y p i c a l l y A p o l l i n a r i a n way u n t i l w i t h t h e f o u r t e e n t h s t a n z a a s u d d e n s h a t t e r i n g s t o r m b r e a k s upon t h e c a l m l a n d a n d s e a . E v e n t h e s u n i s a f f e c t e d a s t h e s h a r k s i n t h e s e a a r e r e a d y t o f e a s t t h e m s e l v e s on t h e c o r p s e s , a b a n d o n e d on t h e s h o r e , o f l o v e r s who h a v e b e e n d e l u d e d b y f a l s e p r o m i s e s , among whom one must i n c l u d e a g o d i n c a r n a t e as a p o e t who must h a v e l o v e d t h e f i c k l e y o u n g women. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s o r p h i c v i s i o n . W i t h t h e s e v e n t e e n t h q u a t r a i n t h e d a y l i g h t r e t u r n s a n d t h e w o r l d becomes j o y o u s a g a i n , d e s p i t e t h e p o e t ' s s o r r o w s , w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n t o Our L,ady. I n many ways "Le P r i n t e m p s " i s a poem s i m i l a r t o a s o n a t a i n t h e f o r m A l l e g r e t t o , A n d a n t e - p r e s t o t e m p e s t o s o , S c h e r z o . I t s r a p i d c h a n g e s r e f l e c t t h e m e r c u r i a l t e m p e r a m e n t o f i t s a u t h o r who c o u l d n e v e r p e r s i s t i n a g i v e n s t a t e o f m i n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s a d one, f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e . R a p i d mood c h a n g e s a r e a w e l l known symptom o f what was f o r m e r l y c a l l e d M a n i c - D e p r e s s i v e p s y c h o s i s a n d i s now r e f e r r e d t o as B i p o l a r d i s o r d e r . T h e r e i s d o c u m e n t e d e v i d e n c e o f t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h i s d i s e a s e t h r o u g h t h e X chromosome i . e . on t h e f e m a l e s i d e . 2 1 P o e t s i t s h o u l d be n o t e d a r e d e s c r i b e d o f t e n as f i t t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a f o r m a n i c - d e p r e s s i v e o r b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r s ; M e y e r a n d 100 O s b o r n e l i s t B y r o n , C o l e r i d g e , S h e l l e y , P o e , a n d G e r a r d M a n l e y H o p k i n s among o t h e r s . T h e s e p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h e o r i z e t h a t b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r s a r i s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t f r e n e t i c a n d s p o r a d i c e f f o r t i s more e f f e c t i v e l y p r o d u c t i v e i n p o e t r y t h a n i n o t h e r a r e a s a n d b e c a u s e t h e i m a g e r y i n h e r e n t i n p o e t r y i s more l i k e t h e p r i m i t i v e t h o u g h t f o u n d i n s e v e r e e m o t i o n a l d i s r u p t i o n . 2 2 . I n t h e c a s e o f A p o l l i n a i r e t h e d i s o r d e r may w e l l h a v e b e e n s u b - c l i n i c a l a n d b e e n t h e m o t i v e f o r c e b e h i n d some o f h i s b e s t p o e t r y a f t e r 1902. B i p o l a r d i s o r d e r s c a n be p r e c i p i t a t e d by what B o o t z i n and' A c o c e l l a c a l l " E x i t E v e n t s " . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b r e a k up w i t h A n n i e f i t s i n t o t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n . The same a u t h o r s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t g e n e t i c f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s m o t h e r h a d a t e r r i b l e t e m p e r a n d a c h a n g e a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n . 2 3 Of t h e f o u r poems w h i c h owe t h e i r d i r e c t p r o v e n a n c e t o t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e months o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s s t a y i n t h e R h i n e l a n d ; two, " R o l a n d s e c k " a n d " L e s B a c s du R h i n " h a v e b e e n d e a l t w i t h a l r e a d y i n t h e n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . "UN SOIR D'ETE" (0.P.,533-1902) The t r a i n m o t i f , t h a t e n d e d "Automne M a l a d e " , b e g i n s t h i s poem t h e r e b y r e f l e c t i n g t h e p o e t ' s c o n t i n u i n g s a d n e s s on a c c o u n t o f t h e l o s s o f h i s b e l o v e d ; he a g a i n i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e y o u n g g i r l s who bemoan t h e i r b a d l u c k . T h i s t i m e A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t r a d e - m a r k w i s t f u l n e s s p e r m i t s i t s e l f a t o u c h o f wry humour w i t h t h e e n t r y o f t h e g o d m o t h e r who i s p l a g u e d b y a h e a d a c h e a n d y e t , i n t h e f i n a l l i n e , he c a n n o t r e s i s t v e n t i n g h i s s p l e e n a t t h e t r i c k s t h a t f o r t u n e h a s p l a y e d on h i m . The f o u r - s y l l a b l e meter seems to duplicate the rumble of the t r a i n , i t i s probable that railway t r a i n s on l o c a l runs s t i l l consisted of four-wheeled cars since the contemporary Baedeker guide mentions a speed r e s t r i c t i o n of 25 miles per hour. The more modern eight wheeled bogie Corridor t r a i n s e n t a i l e d paying a surcharge! 2 4 "MILLE REGRETS" (0.P.,535-1902) Rheinbreitbach, a few miles up the Rhine from Honnef, v i s i t e d by the now lonely poet, i s the s e t t i n g for t h i s poem written i n early August. As he s i t s i n an inn l i s t e n i n g to a phonograph record of a four-part song warbled by c a s t r a t i I t a l i a n singers who could never have known the re a l meaning of l i f e , he watches a wedding party come across the Rhine from the v i l l a g e of Oberwinter. The bride was blonde l i k e t h e i r cigars i n the smoke-f i l l e d room and A p o l l i n a i r e t e l l s his drinking companion that his former lady-love was blonde also, her eyes so soft and sweet. He wishes that the bride could become as drunk as a f i d d l e r as she munches the sandwiches as i f they were holy bread. He i s reminded that the reign of love i s about to begin but the closeness of the a i r i n the room i s too much for him and he feels that he has p r a t t l e d long enough about love as he staggers home, mistaking the f i r trees for dear old women. Ap o l l i n a i r e shows us a glimpse of himself as the bon-vivant, that so many of his friends have described, as he readies himself to make his l i v i n g in Paris, where he would be r e l a t i v e l y free of amatory entanglements' for the next f i v e years. A p o l l i n a i r e never 102 r e t u r n e d t o t h e R h i n e l a n d , t h e m e m o r i e s e v o k e d b y a r e t u r n v i s i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o o much f o r h i m . 103 NOTES: CHAPTER 5 1 K a r l B a e d e k e r , The R h i n e from Rotterdam t o Constance T r a v e l l e r s Handbook 1 4 t h e d . ( L e i p z i g : K a r l B a e d e k e r P u b l . 1900) 40. 2 " C o l c h i c u m , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1944 e d . 3 C h r i s t o p h e r G r e y - W i l s o n a n d B r i a n Mathews. " C o l c h i c u m , " i n B u l b s , ( T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m C o l l i n s Sons & Co. 1981) 5 6 - 57. 4 G e o r g e s L e g r o s , " ' S e n s ' e t ' s o u r c e ' A p r o p o s d e s v e r s 10-11 d e s ' C o l c h i q u e s ' . " earners d' analyse t e x t u e l l e 16 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 109-123. 5 F r a n c o i s e D i n i n m a n , " T o u j o u r s a p r o p o s d e s ' C o l c h i q u e s ' " i n Etudes autour d' 'Alnonls' .. Anne S r a b i a n de F a b r y a n d M a r i e -F r a n c e H i l g a r e d s . ( B i r m i n g h a m , A l a b a m a : Summa P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , 1985) 2 5 - 4 0 . Anne C l a n c i e r , " E bauche d'une e t u d e p s y c h o - c r i t i q u e de l ' o e u v r e de G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . " Revue d e s l e t t r e s  modernes 327-330 ( 1 9 7 2 ) : 2 1 . . 6 Anne Hyde G r e e t , t r a n s . X A 1 c o o l s ' Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a P. 1965) 223 104 7 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , A l c o o l s , 2 ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S.,1964) 146. 8 R i c h a r d Howard St a m e l m a n , The Drama of S e l f -in Guillaume  A p o l l i n a i r e 7 s " A l c o o l s " ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v . o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1976) 68. 9 M e c h t i l d C r a n s t o n , "A l a d e c o u v e r t e de 'La B l a n c h e n e i g e ' de G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . " F r e n c h R e v i e w 39 (1966): 693. M i c h e l D e c a u d i n , " ' L a B l a n c h e n e i g e ' , " Revue d e s l e t t r e s modernes 104-107 (1964): 125-129. M a r i o R i c h t e r , " ' L a B l a n c h e N e i g e ' d ' A p o l l i n a i r e . " i n E t u d e s a u t o u r d ' ' A l c o o l s ' , Anne S r a b i a n de F a b r y a n d M a r i e - F r a n c e H i l g a r e d s . ( B i r m i n g h a m , A l a b a m a : Summa P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , 1985) 41-50. 1 0 S c o t t B a t e s , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e (New Y o r k : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s I n c , 1967) 26. 1 1 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 3, 122-3. 1 2 A n d r e B i l l y , Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , P o n t e s d'aujourd'hui  No.8 ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s P i e r r e S e g h e r s 1947) 18-19. 1 3 P o l - P . G o s s i a u x , " C l e f de l a ' T z i g a n e ' de G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e . " Les L e t t r e s Romanes. Louvain 33 (1979): 305. 1 4 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 3, 15-30. 1 5 L . C . B r e u n i g , " A p o l l i n a i r e e t A n n i e P l a y d e n , " M e r c u r e de  F r a n c e 1" a v r i l 1952: 638-652. R o b e r t G o f f i n , E n t r e r en poesie, ( B r u x e l l e s : A l ' e n s e i g n e du c h a t q u i p e c h e , 1948) 128-139. E r n e s t W o l f , "Le s e j o u r d ' A p o l l i n a i r e en R h e n a n i e , " Mercure de F r a n c e (15 j u i n 1938): 615-623. 105 1 6 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 3, 29-30 . 1 7 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 2, 128. 1 8 R i c h a r d Howard Stamelman, The Drama o f S e l f i n Gui .1 laume A p o l l i n a i r e ' s " A l c o o l s " (Chapel H i l l : U n i v . o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P . 1976) 56-61. 1 9 R . H . Stamelman, 69-78. 2 0 P h i l i p p e Renaud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l "1 i n a i re (Lausanne: L ' A g e d'Homme) 106. 2 1 R a l p h A . O ' C o n n e l l , " D e p r e s s i o n : B i p o l a r or U n i p o l a r ? " i n A f f e c t i v e D i s o r d e r s , No. 3 o f Directions i n Psychiatry Monograph S e r i e s , F r e d e r i c F l a c h M . D . e d . (New York & London: W.W. Norton & Co . 1988) 29-37. 2 2 Robert G. Meyer and Yvonne Hardaway Osborne, "The A f f e c t i v e (or Mood) D i s o r d e r s " i n Case S t u d i e s i n Abnormal  B e h a v i o u r (Boston: A l l y n & Bacon I n c . , 1988) 124. 2 3 R i c h a r d R . B o o t z i n and Joan Ross A c o c e l l a , "The Mood D i s o r d e r s " i n Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y : C u r r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s (New Y o r k : Random House, 1988) 238 & 245. 2 4 K a r l Baedeker , The Rhine from Rotterdam to Constance -Handbook f o r T r a v e l l e r s 14th ed . ( L e i p z i g : K a r l Baedeker P u b l . 1900) x v - x v i . 106 CHAPTER 6 ENTRY INTO THE WORLD OF ARTS AND LETTERS, PART I, 1902-1903 Ap o l l i n a i r e ' s separation from Annie Playden must have weighed heavily on his mind from August 1902 u n t i l May 1904, when she l e f t Europe for good. No amount of hard work at the bank nor his new contacts with the l i t e r a r y f r a t e r n i t y could erase the memory of the pretty English g i r l . Many poems r e f l e c t the anguish he f e l t at t h i s time and i n some cases the incidence of the b i -polar disorder referred to i n the analysis of "Le Printemps" e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper. "LA CLEF" (O.P.,557-1902) This i s a poem in the Maeterlinckian vein, i t i s of interest c h i e f l y because i t borrows from "Rhenane d'Automne" and i n turn was dipped into for "L'Adieu and "La Dame". In t h i s poem Ap o l l i n a i r e has t r i e d the device of role reversal with the wandering maiden - the poet's a l t e r ego - searching for her lover whose eyes are forever closed; a reference to Annie's eyes, of course, formerly shining jewel-like and seductive l i k e those of 107 L o r e l e y . A p o l l i n a i r e was s l o w t o s h a k e o f f t h e s y m b o l i s t i n f l u e n c e t h a t a f f e c t e d h i s e a r l i e r p o e t r y ; t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o j u s t i f y i n c l u s i o n o f " L a C l e f " among t h e poems c r e a t e d a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o P a r i s , i . e . t o d a t e i t i n l a t e 1902. "LA DAME" (0.P.,127-1903) T h i s i s a b o v e a l l an a t t e m p t t o s h a k e o f f t h e v e r y l u g u b r i o u s mood o f t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h i s poem t i t l e d "Le R e t o u r " w h i c h e n d e d t h u s : E t j e s u i s v e u v e , aux p i e d s m e u r t r i s . The poem makes s e n s e i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e d e a d b o d y b e i n g c a r r i e d away as h i s l o s t l o v e , t h e r o l e r e v e r s a l o f " v e u v e " , a n d t h e f o o t s o r e s e a r c h f o r a l i v i n g . The mood c h a n g e s e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e wry i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l i t t l e mouse, t h e d o w n - t r o d d e n s y m b o l o f t h e u n l u c k y y o u n g man. "LA CHANSON DU MAL-AIME (0.P.,46-1903) The g r e a t e s t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s poems h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f much commentary. Mme C l a u d e M o r h a n g e - B e g u e a n d M a u r i c e P i r o n 1 h a v e e a c h d e v o t e d an e n t i r e b o ok t o t h i s work a n d numerous e s s a y s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem t i t l e d " L e s S e p t E p e e s " h a s g e n e r a t e d no l e s s t h a n t e n e s s a y s i n t h e i r a u t h o r ' s a t t e m p t s t o s t r i p t h e v e i l o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e h a s s h r o u d e d i t . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s i t i s p r o p o s e d t o b e g i n w i t h t h e , c h r o n o l o g y o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s t o r e n d e r t h e poem i n t o t h e 108 f i n a l v e r s i o n as we know i t . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d b y a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n b y s e c t i o n . T h i r d l y an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o r e v i e w t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e work a n d f i n a l l y a summary o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a r o u g h o u t l i n e may h a v e t a k e n s h a p e l a t e i n 1903 j u s t a f t e r A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f i r s t v i s i t t o L o n d o n i n November 1903, t h i s e x p l a i n s t h e e p i g r a p h : E t j e c h a n t a i s c e t t e romance en 1903. A p o l l i n a i r e ' s u s e o f t h e i m p e r f e c t a n d t h e r e s e a r c h done b y M i c h e l D e c a u d i n 2 c o n f i r m s t h e f a c t t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e poem was s p r e a d o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e poem r e s t e d i n t h e d r a w e r o f Le Mercure de France f o r more t h a n two y e a r s b e f o r e i t was p u b l i s h e d . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o - p e n s i t y t o " c u t a n d p a s t e " i n t h e p r e s e n t - d a y s e n s e o f t h e p h r a s e i s v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e i n t h i s poem. The poem's f i f t y - n i n e s t a n z a s a r e d i v i d e d b y t h r e e i n t e r l u d e s w h i c h a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y d i f f e r e n t • t y p o g r a p h y f r o m t h e f o u r s e c t i o n s w h i c h f o r m p a r t o f t h e poem p r o p e r . The a r r a n g m e n t i s a s f o l l o w s a n d i s b a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s o f Mme M o r h a n g e - B e g u e . 3 (a) F i r s t s e c t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r t e e n s t a n z a s t h e m a t i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o s t a n z a s : 1-7. N a r r a t i o n o f an e v e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e p a s t . 8-11. R e f l e c t i o n s a n d c o m m e n t a r i e s t h e r e o n 12. R e j e c t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s l o s t l o v e 13. A r e f r a i n , t o be r e p e a t e d l a t e r i n t h e poem. 109 14. An e v o c a t i o n o f p a s t h a p p i n e s s . (b) F i r s t i n t e r l u d e a m p l i f y i n g t h e theme o f s t a n z a 14 a n d c o n s i s t i n g o f s t a n z a s 15 t o 17. (c) S e c o n d s e c t i o n o f s i x s t a n z a s d i v i d e d i n t o v e r s e s : 18 a n d 20. C o n c e r n i n g t h e d e a t h o f l o v e . 19. A s e c o n d r e f r a i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e p o e t ' s v o c a t i o n . 2 1 - 2 3 . E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e theme o f f i d e l i t y i n l o v e . (d) S e c o n d i n t e r l u d e , a d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t i n f i d e l i t y , c o m p r i s i n g s t a n z a s 2 4-26. (e) T h i r d s e c t i o n o f f i f t e e n s t a n z a s t h e m a t i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b s e c t i o n s : 27-32 R e g r e t f u l remembrance p r e c e d e d b y a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t r e f r a i n ( s t a n z a 13) 33-41 D e a l i n g w i t h t h e theme o f madness a n d d e a t h . ( f ) T h i r d i n t e r l u d e , s t a n z a s 42-48, d e v o t e d t o t h e s e v e n s w o r d s s y m b o l i s i n g p a i n f u l memory a n d d e a t h , e a c h o f w h i c h r a t e s a s e p a r a t e s t a n z a . (g) F o u r t h s e c t i o n o f e l e v e n s t a n z a s , N o s . 4 9 - 5 9 , s u b d i v i d e d t h u s : 49. R e p e t i t i o n o f s t a n z a 13. 50-54 Once a g a i n r e v e r t i n g t o t h e themes o f d e a t h a n d madness, a n d i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f d e s t i n y . 5 5 - 5 8 . A s u d d e n c h a n g e t o an u p b e a t , a l m o s t m a n i c mood w h i c h l e a d s i n t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f h i s d e s t i n y a s a p o e t i n t h e f i n a l s t a n z a . 59. A r e p e a t o f t h e s e c o n d r e f r a i n ( s t a n z a 1 9 ) , t h i s t i m e w i t h a t e l l i n g e f f e c t . 110 The s e v e n s e c t i o n s d e a l t w i t h so f a r c a n be s t r u c t u r e d i n t o f o u r p r i n c i p a l g r o u p s w h i c h u n d e r l i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c h a n g e s i n mood t o w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e was s u b j e c t a n d t o w h i c h a t t e n t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d r a w n i n t h e r e m a r k s on "Le P r i n t e m p s " . The f i r s t g r o u p i s composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t h e m e s : (a) Remembrance, s t a n z a s 1-7. (b) E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t o f remembrance, s t a n z a s 8-11. (c) R e j e c t i o n o f t h e l o v e s o f o n d l y remembered, s t a n z a 12. (d) The f i r s t r e f r a i n , s t a n z a 13. The s e c o n d g r o u p c o n t a i n s : (e) Remembrance, v e r s e 14. ( f ) The f i r s t i n t e r l u d e d w e l l i n g on t h e r e membrance. (g) The d e a t h o f l o v e , s t a n z a s 18 a n d 20. (h) The l a c k o f p o e t r y ' s r e g e n e r a t i v e p o wer, s t a n z a 19. ( i ) The theme o f f i d e l i t y s t a n z a s 21-25 a n d t h e f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s o f s t a n z a 26. ( j ) The s e c o n d r e j e c t i o n o f l o v e , l a s t two l i n e s o f s t a n z a 26. The t h i r d g r o u p d e a l s w i t h : (k) Remembrance, t h i s t i m e u n p l e a s a n t . (1) The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h remembrance n a m e l y r a p i d a l t e r -n a n c e b e t w e e n f o n d l o v e , a m a n i c h i g h , s t a n z a s 30 a n d 32, a n d a s t a t e o f d e p r e s s i o n l e a d i n g t o m e n t a l c o l l a p s e , s t a n z a 3 1 . (m) D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e theme o f madness l e a d i n g t o d e a t h as a r e s u l t t h e r e o f , s t a n z a s 3 3 - 48. T h e s e s t a n z a s i n c l u d e . t h e S e v e n Swords i n t e r l u d e w h i c h t i e s i n d e a t h a n d remembrance. (n) A f i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f p a s t l o v e , s t a n z a 48. (o) The f i r s t r e f r a i n r e p e a t e d , s t a n z a 49. The f i n a l g r o u p d e p a r t s f r o m t h e t h e themes o f memory a n d r e j e c t i o n t o i n c l u d e : (p) T h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l on d e s t i n y a n d d e a t h , s t a n z a s 50-54. (q) The theme o f l y r i c a l c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e s u n n y a t m o s p h e r e o f P a r i s , s t a n z a s 55-58. ( r ) The r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e p o e t a s a l y r i c a l c r e a t o r w i t h t h e f i n a l r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d r e f r a i n . , s t a n z a 59. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e g r o u p s p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y , - I n e a c h c a s e t h e r e i s an i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t o f remembrance, w h i c h l e a d s i n t o a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a s s a g e , w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a s t a t e m e n t o f r e j e c t i o n a n d one o f t h e two r e f r a i n s a c t s as a k i n d o f " c o d a " , t o what i n e f f e c t i s a k i n t o a movement i n a symphony. The s i m i l a r i t y i s r e a l l y s t r i k i n g . T h e r e a r e c h a n g e s o f k e y w i t h i n e a c h "movement" b u t t h e o v e r a l l mood o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a n be d e s c r i b e d as lamentoso'. W i t h i n t h e f o u r t h g r o u p t h e mood c h a n g e s q u i t e a b r u p t l y i n t o what w o u l d be m u s i c a l l y r e n d e r e d as a l l e g r e t t o . The p o e t h a s b e e n a b l e t o e x o r c i s e t h e d e v i l t h a t h a d f o l l o w e d h i m l i k e a shadow. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e poem r e q u i r e s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s p u t f o r w a r d b y L. B r e u n i g i n h i s s h o r t e s s a y "Le Roman du M a l - a i m e " , 4 w h e r e i n he ' d e s c r i b e s A p o l l i n a i r e a s : . . . a r t i s t e c o n s c i e n t e t m a i t r e - m a c o n a c c o m p l i , a n d d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n e s t e d l o o p - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 112 t h e poem; f i v e v e r s e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g d e s c r i b e a g l o o m y a u t u m n a l L o n d o n s c e n e , f i v e v e r s e s a t t h e e n d f e a t u r e a c h e e r f u l summery P a r i s i a n a m b i a n c e . N e x t w i t h i n , f o u r v e r s e s d e a l w i t h h a p p y k i n g s a n d f a i t h f u l w i v e s w h i c h a r e i n t u r n c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by t h e f o u r v e r s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i l l f o r t u n e o f t h e B a v a r i a n k i n g s who were a f f l i c t e d w i t h i n s a n i t y . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e s w i n g i n g o f t h e e m o t i o n a l p e n d u l u m may be t r a c e d i n t h e b r i g h t "Aubade" i n t e r l u d e a n d t h e s a d s e v e n s t a n z a s o f t h e " S e p t E p e e s " . The p a l a c e o f t h e w i s e U l y s s e s i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c a s t l e , d e v o i d o f a c h a t e l a i n e , o c c u p i e d b y a l u n a t i c k i n g . I n t h e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e poem w h i c h f o l l o w s , t h e f r e q u e n t o s c i l l a t i o n s o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t e m p e r a m e n t , m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g r e m a r k s , w i l l be f u r t h e r e x a m i n e d . I n t h e e p i g r a p h t h e p o e t r e v e a l s t h a t , i n 1903, he was unaware t h a t h i s l o v e c o u l d be r e b o r n f r o m t h e a s h e s o f t h e f i r e t h a t consumed h i m d u r i n g h i s h o p e l e s s l o v e f o r A n n i e P l a y d e n . A p o l l i n a i r e i n h i s m y s t i f y i n g way h i n t s t h a t h i s l o v e i s b e i n g r e c r e a t e d i n t h e s h a p e o f M a r i e L a u r e n c i n a n d t h e r e b y p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e poem i n t h e f o r m i n w h i c h we know i t must h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d s o m e t i m e a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e M e r c u r e de F r a n c e o f May 1 s t 1909 b u t w e l l b e f o r e t h e 1913 p u b l i c a t i o n i n A l c o o l s . G u i l l a u m e ' s g r a c e f u l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f P a u l L e a u t a u d ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n g e t t i n g t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n p u b l i s h e d w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o i n t l e s s i f he h a d d e l a y e d f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e d e d i c a t i n g t h e poem. By 1913 h i s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h M a r i e was o v e r a n d " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " was one o f s e v e r a l r e a d y made poems t h a t c o u l d be 113 i n c l u d e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h e A l c o o l s c o l l e c t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e P h o e n i x as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f h i s l o v e i s t y p i c a l o f t h e r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem. Anne G r e e t h a s r i g h t l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p o e t ' s s t a t e s o f m i n d a r e r e p e a t e d l y e x t e r n a l i s e d a n d e x o r c i s e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s m a n n e r . 5 I n t h e f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e s e v e n s t a n z a s , b e i n g t h e remembrance o f t h i n g s p a s t , t h e p o e t r e m i n d s h i m s e l f o f h i s w a n d e r i n g s i n t h e L o n d o n s l u m s l o o k i n g f o r some t a w d r y way o f g e t t i n g h i s own b a c k on t h e g i r l who h a d r e j e c t e d h i m ; he a c k n o w l e d g e s h i s s h a m e f u l a c t i o n a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t r e e t -w i s e l o u t p e r s o n i f i e s h i s . m o t i v a t i o n . He p r o t e s t s t h a t he r e a l l y l o v e d A n n i e a n d c a l l s f o r t h e wave upon wave o f r e d b r i c k h o u s e s t o s m o t h e r h i m i n t h e same way as P h a r a o h ' s E g y p t i a n h o s t was d r o w n e d as t h e y m a r c h e d b e t w e e n t h e w a l l s o f t h e R e d S e a , i f h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s t h a t A n n i e was h i s o n l y l o v e a r e u n t r u e . I n t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h s t a n z a s A p o l l i n a i r e s e e k s t o p e r s o n i f y t h e r o t t e n n e s s o f t h e f a l s e l o v e t h a t he h a d e x p e r i e n c e d , by c r e a t i n g t h e u g l y image o f a d r e a d f u l d r u n k e n h a r l o t who h a d b e e n o p e r a t e d on f o r t u b e r c u l a r n e c k g l a n d s , a d i s e a s e o t h e r w i s e known as S c r o f u l a , f o r m e r l y c a l l e d t h e K i n g ' s e v i l , f r o m t h e b e l i e f i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, t h a t i t c o u l d o n l y be c u r e d by t h e t o u c h o f t h e R o y a l h a n d . N a r r a t i v e i s t h e k e y n o t e o f t h e n e x t two s t a n z a s , A p o l l i n a i r e d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o two o f t h e f o r t u n a t e p e r s o n a g e s o f h i s t o r y , U l y s s e s a n d Dushmanta who were b l e s s e d w i t h f a i t h f u l 114 s p o u s e s . A p o l l i n a i r e t h e n t e l l s u s t h a t he t h o u g h t o f t h e s e h a p p y men when f a l s e l o v e g e n e r a l l y a n d A n n i e i n p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n e d t o make h i m f e e l s o w r e t c h e d . E v e n t h e y , l u c k y s o u l s , w o u l d h a v e g i v e n up e v e r y t h i n g f o r A n n i e ' s k i s s e s . H i s p e r s o n a l h e l l i s p a v e d w i t h r e g r e t s a n d s a d remembrance. He d r i f t s a i m l e s s l y on a l e a d e n b r a c k i s h s e a f r o m b r i g h t dawn t o s a d t w i l i g h t . The p o e t p r a y s f o r t h e h e a v e n s t o open up a n d s w a l l o w h i m i n a • c r a d l e o f f o r g e t f u l n e s s a n d f o r t h e E a s t e r Sun t o warm h i s h a r d - f r o z e n h e a r t . The n o t i o n o f a d e s c e n t i n t o a n d a p e r i l o u s c l i m b b a c k f r o m H e l l i s p a r t o f the. O r p h i c m o l d t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e r e c o g n i z e s s u r r o u n d s h i s p o e t i c p e r s o n a . T h i s c o n c e p t w i l l be more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d when t h e " S e p t E p e e s " i n t e r l u d e i s d e a l t w i t h . The p e n d u l u m s w i n g s i n t h e t w e l f t h s t a n z a a s G u i l l a u m e b r i n g s h i m s e l f t o r e n o u n c e t h e l o v e t h a t he now r e a l i s e s he l o s t as l o n g ago as t h e summer o f 1902. T h i s s t a n z a p r o v i d e s a c l u e t h a t i t was i n s p i r e d b y A n n i e ' s d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s an e v e n t t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n J u n e 1904. The r e f r a i n i n v o k i n g t h e M i l k y Way, a m e t a p h o r f o r a woman as an o b j e c t o f a f f e c t i o n , w h i t e n e s s i s a f a v o u r i t e e p i t h e t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a s c r i b a b l e t o women, seems p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l p l a c e d a t t h i s p o i n t s i n c e t h e p o e t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d e a d s o u l s o f f r u s t r a t e d l o v e r s h a v e t h e o p t i o n o f s e e k i n g o t h e r t a r g e t s f o r t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r l o v i n g . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e , o n c e a g a i n h a d M a r i e L a u r e n c i n i n m i n d when he p a n t s a f t e r n e b u l a e o t h e r t h a n o u r own M i l k y Way. P i c a s s o 115 i n t r o d u c e d G u i l l a u m e t o M a r i e i n 1907. The l a s t s t a n z a o f t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b i p o l a r m i n d - s t a t e as he s w i n g s b a c k t o t h e p l e a s a n t r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h a t A p r i l d ay i n 1902: J ' a i c h a n t e ma j o i e b i e n - a i m e e C h a n t e 1'amour a v o i x v i r i l e Au moment d'amour de l ' a n n e e . T h i s s p r i n g s o n g p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l b r i d g e t o t h e f i r s t i n t e r l u d e w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h e u p b e a t mood; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e p o e t a b a n d o n e d t h e r e f l e c t i v e l a s t l i n e o f h i s e a r l y d r a f t , w h i c h r e a d : 6 D e p u i s c e j o u r j ' a i t a n t p e n s e . I n f a v o u r o f t h e more p o e t i c one w i t h w h i c h we a r e f a m i l i a r . The "Aubade" i n t e r l u d e i s , a l s o l i n k e d t o s t a n z a s 18 a n d 20 s i n c e t h e mere m e n t i o n o f M a r s a n d V e n u s i n s t a n z a 16 i s e n o u g h t o r e m i n d us t h a t a l l t h e gods o f m y t h o l o g y a n d r e l i g i o n l i n k e d t o l o v e h a v e p a s s e d away; t h e p e n d u l u m s w i n g s o n c e a g a i n i n a s h o r t e n i n g a r c a n d r e c r e a t e s t h e mood o f d e s p a i r . The s w i n g i s n o t o n l y r e g u l a t e d b y t i m e b u t a l s o b y s p a c e , s i n c e t h e r e i s an a b r u p t move f r o m t h e R h i n e l a n d t o P a r i s . S t a n z a 19 e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e p o e t ' s v o c a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s t h e g r i e f b r o u g h t on by t h e a c t i o n s o f mere m o r t a l s , i t i s he who s h o u l d e n t e r t a i n e v e n t h o s e who w o u l d d e s t r o y h i m . Out o f t h e d e p t h s o f d e s p a i r t h e P o e t i s u p l i f t e d b y h i s l o v e w h i c h he a s s e r t s i s as f a i t h f u l as e v e r j u s t a s t h e C o s s a c k s were t o t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s i n r e s i s t i n g t h e o v e r t u r e s o f t h e h e a t h e n S u l t a n o f T u r k e y . The theme o f f i d e l i t y r u n s s o s t r o n g l y 116 i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s m i n d t h a t he h a s t o a s s e r t i t i n t h e s t r o n g e s t t e r m s e v e n i f he b r e a c h e s t h e b o u n d s o f g o o d t a s t e i n d o i n g s o . The famous p a i n t i n g , s h o w i n g t h e C o s s a c k s t e l l i n g t h e s c r i b e what s h o u l d be w r i t t e n t o t h e S u l t a n o f T u r k e y i n r e p l y t o h i s i n i t i a t i v e s , a n d c r e a t e d by t h e R u s s i a n p a i n t e r R e p i n was c o p i e d b y many o t h e r a r t i s t s a n d e v e n a p p e a r e d i n m i n i a t u r e f o r m as an o r n a m e n t t o s i l v e r w a r e s o i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t . A p o l l i n a i r e knew a b o u t i t , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t he may h a v e h e a r d t h e s t o r y f r o m h i s m o t h e r s i n c e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t G u i l l a u m e h a d any R u s s i a n f r i e n d s a t t h i s t i m e . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h i s p o w e r f u l work was t o s c r i b b l e a s e p a r a t e d r a f t , w h i c h he u n e a r t h e d l a t e r , i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e i t i n " L a C h a n s o n " as a means o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e v i r t u e s o f f i d e l i t y ; t h u s p r o v i d i n g an i d e a l e x a m p l e o f t h e p o e t ' s s k i l l a t i n t e g r a t i n g d i s p a r a t e e l e m e n t s i n t o a t i g h t l y o r g a n i s e d work as a w h o l e . The s t r o n g t h r e a d o f f a i t h f u l n e s s w h i c h b o u n d s t a n z a s 21 t o 23 became unwound by t h e e n d o f t h e " C o s s a c k " i n t e r l u d e as o n c e a g a i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s mood t u r n e d t o one o f r e v u l s i o n , i n t r o d u c e d by t h e " b r i d g e " r e f r a i n a s t h e p o e t t h i n k s o f h i s new f o u n d l o v e M a r i e a n d s i n g s . V o i e l a c t e e 6 s o e u r l u m i n e u s e ...des c o r p s b l a n c s d ' a m o u r e u s e s N a g e u r s m o r t s s u i v r o n s d'ahan Ton c o u r s v e r s d ' a u t r e s n e b u l e u s e s . However t h e s p i t e f u l mood w i t h i t s r e f e r e n c e s t o a h a r l o t ' s e y e s and a l m o s t s a d i s t i c k i s s e s g i v e s way a f t e r j u s t t h r e e s t a n z a s t o a n o t h e r b i p o l a r s w i n g as A p o l l i n a i r e w i s h f u l l y t h i n k s 117 t h a t A n n i e m i g h t r e t u r n t o h i m a n d make h i m h a p p y , he now c a l l s h e r h i s l o v e l y h a v e n o f r e s t , h i s d o v e and, h i s f a v o u r i t e e x p r e s s i o n , h i s r o s e . T h i s mood o f hope a n d i t s i m p o s s i b l i t y o f f u l f i l m e n t now f i l l s A p o l l i n a i r e w i t h m o r b i d t h o u g h t s a s he c o m p a r e s h i m s e l f t o t h e B u r g h e r s o f C a l a i s a w a i t i n g c e r t a i n d e a t h a t t h e h a n d s o f t h e E n g l i s h . A p o l l i n a i r e p e r s o n i f i e s h i s shadow who m e a s u r e s t h e l e n g t h o f h i s g r a v e b u t o n c e a g a i n a v o l t e - f a c e o c c u r s when he r e a l i s e s t h a t , t h e shadow i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e Sun f o r i t s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e r a p i d i t y o f t h e mood s w i n g s a c c e l e r a t e s , b a r e l y f i l l i n g two s t a n z a s e a c h a s t h e s u n n y s t a n z a s 38 a n d 39 a r e s u c c e e d e d by t h e g l o o m o f t h e f i n a l two s t a n z a s o f t h i s s e c t i o n w h i c h ' i n t r o d u c e t h e p u z z l i n g i n t e r l u d e o f t h e S e v e n Swords o f m e l a n c h o l y a n d i s o n l y a l l e v i a t e d b y t h e r i d i c u l o u s c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f u l n e s s o f h i s h e a r t t o t h e enormous c a l l i p y g e a n a t t r i b u t e s o f a woman o f Damascus, e v i d e n c e o n c e a g a i n o f t h e p o e t ' s a b i l i t y t o e v o k e a s m i l e e v e n i n t h e most d i r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " L e s S e p t E p e e s " h a s p u z z l e d l e a r n e d e x e g e s i s t s s i n c e L a w l e r f i r s t t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t h e s e v e n s t a n z a s i n 1954 by a s c r i b i n g t o them a p e r v a s i v e s e x u a l i t y , 7 F o l l e t t r i e d t o d o w n - p l a y t h i s a s p e c t some t w e l v e y e a r s l a t e r 8 a n d f i n a l l y M a r i e - L o u i s e L e n t e n g r e i n h e r t h o r o u g h - g o i n g a n a l y s i s h a s s u c c e e d e d i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e a c c u m u l a t e d w isdom o f n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s . 9 When d i d A p o l l i n a i r e w r i t e t h i s i n t e r l u d e , what was he t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e a n d what a r e t h e t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h i s e n o r m o u s l y c o m p l e x poem? T h e s e q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d b e f o r e e a c h v e r s e i s d e a l t w i t h . 118 T h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e l e i t m o t i v o f remembrance a n d r e c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s g r o u p o f s e v e n q u i n t i l s , w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s one t o b e l i e v e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e w a i t e d u n t i l a t l e a s t 1905 b e f o r e he s t a r t e d t o w r i t e t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e "Ch a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " . I t h a s r i g h t l y b e e n c a l l e d t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h e e n t i r e poem d e s p i t e t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t i t was i n s e r t e d a f t e r t h e l a t e r p a s s a g e s were w r i t t e n . T h i s i n t e r l u d e r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o e x o r c i s e t h e memory o f t h e l o v e G u i l l a u m e h a d f o r t h e p r e t t y E n g l i s h g i r l b o r n i n t o a d e v o u t b u t x e n o p h o b e A n g l i c a n f a m i l y . Mme M o r h a n g e - B e g u e h a s p u t f o r w a r d t h e m a t i c a l l y t h e f o l l o w i n g s e v e n s t a g e s o f t h e e x o r c i s m e x e r c i s e , a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g e a r l i e r t h e o r i e s o f F o l l e t , L o u i s , L a w l e r a n d G o s s i a u x . 1 0 S t a n z a 42. The d e a t h o f h i s l o v e i s f o r e s h a d o w e d , " d e s t i n s a n g l a n t " , " V u l c a i n m o u r u t " ; p u r i t y , " n e i g e " , " a r g e n t " ; i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o c h e a t , " V u l c a i n " , " g i b e l i n e " . S t a n z a 43 D e a t h i s d e s c r i b e d e x p l i c i t l y , " E l l e a t u e " a n d i m p l i c i t l y , " C a r a b o s s e " ; A g a i n t h e c h e a t i n g theme i s i n t r o d u c e d by s h o w i n g up t h e s w o r d a s b e a u t i f u l b u t m u r d e r o u s . S t a n z a 44 An i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m e s s e n g e r g o d b e i n g e m a s c u l a t e d a n d d e g r a d e d b y a c h e a t i n g f e m a l e . S t a n z a 45 The poet- i s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s o n g s o f t h e b e a u t i f u l s i r e n s as a f i n a l t e s t o f h i s r e s o l v e , t h e s w o r d s e r v e s as a r e m i n d e r o f i t s c a p a c i t y t o k i l l . S t a n z a 4 6 A f u r t h e r r e m i n d e r o f d e a t h b o t h o f l o v e a n d o f t h e p e r s o n . S t a n z a 47 A f i n a l r e m i n d e r t h a t d e a t h a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t a r e o f t e n c l o a k e d b y o u t w a r d g l o r y a n d s u c c e s s . A l l t h i s must be p u t 119 b e h i n d one as a new day dawns and t h e p o e t b e g i n s o n c e a g a i n h i s on w a r d m a r c h t h r o u g h l i f e . S t a n z a 48 H i s f o r m e r l o v e i s now q u i t e d e a d a n d t h e p o e t h a s b e e n c l e a n s e d o f t h e b e d e v i l l e d l o v e , t h a t h a d p o s s e s s e d h i m , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he i s now a b l e t o s t a t e u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t he n e v e r knew t h e p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f l o v e t h a t was c a l l e d A n n i e . F e r n a n d D e s o n a y ' s d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t , M a r i a - L u i z a R o m a n o s , 1 1 h a s a d v a n c e d q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a t h e o r y t h a t t h e p a l e l i g h t o f t h e f i r s t q u i n t i l h a s c h a n g e d i n t h e s e c o n d i n t o a b r i g h t a n d c o l o u r f u l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f j o y a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e r a i n b o w . T h i s g i v e s p l a c e i n t h e t h i r d t o a mood o f d o c i l e s u b -m i s s i o n a n d c o n f i d e n c e . The theme o f t h e f o u r t h i s v o l u p t u o u s a n d s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e o f w h i c h a l l t h a t r e m a i n s i n t h e f i f t h s t a n z a i s a s w e e t memory; l o v e i s p e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e s a d i m a g e s o f t h e c y p r e s s t r e e s a n d t h e tomb. P l e a s a n t dreams o f p a s t l o v e s a r e i n e v i t a b l y s h a t t e r e d a t dawn a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i x t h s t a n z a a n d t h e s e v e n t h r e p e a t s t h e theme p u t f o r w a r d b y Mme M o r h a n g e - B e g u e . T h e s e w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g r e n d e r i n g s h a v e t h i s much i n common, t h e p o e t e n t e r s a s t a t e o f l o v e w h i c h i s a t t h e same t i m e a d e s c e n t i n t o a h e l l o f f a l s e h o o d , b o t h s t a t e s a r e t e m p e r e d b y t h e c o o l w i n d s o f remembrance, w h i c h p r o p e l t h e p o e t t o a s t a t e o f c a l m w h e r e i n he c a n c o n s i d e r t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e o b j e c t i v e l y a n d s e t f o r t h on a f r e s h a d v e n t u r e , " v e r s d ' a u t r e s n e b u l e u s e s " . P h i l i p p e R e n a u d i n w r i t i n g a b o u t a n o t h e r poem, " L u l de F a l t e n i n " , n o t e d t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e h e r o e s o f m y t h o l o g y , a n d t h a t t h e d e s c e n t i n t o t h e v e r y 120 l o w e s t l e v e l s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y was a n a l o g o u s t o t h e d e s c e n t o v e r t i m e t o t h e most a n c i e n t f i g u r e s o f m y t h o l o g y . 1 2 M a r i e - L o u i s e L e n t e n g r e e v e n more p r e c i s e l y p o i n t s o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e d r e a m - l i k e s e q u e n c e o f t h e S e v e n Swords a n d e v e n t h e w h o l e " C h a n s o n " , s u n g by one who knew how t o s i n g l a y s f o r t h e q u e e n s a n d s o n g s f o r t h e s i r e n s , a n d t h e O r p h e u s m y t h : 1 3 E t c ' e s t 1'image q u i , a l ' i n s t a r du p o e t e a r c h e t y p a l O r p h e e , a c c o m p l i t s a d e s c e n t e aux e n f e r s , s a p l o n g e e v e r s l a m o r t , d'ou i l r e v i e n t v a i n q u e u r p a r c e gu' i 1  e s t p o e t e . p o u r a f f r o n t e r s a p r o p r e i m m o r t a l i t e . .Orphee a y a n t , comme on l e s a i t , e n c h a n t e l e s s i r e n e s p o u r d e l i v r e r l e s A r g o n a u t e s de l e u r e m p r i s e . A d d i t i o n a l comments on t h e s e s e v e n q u i n t i l s a r i s e f r o m Mme L e n t e n g r e ' s a r t i c l e , t h e p e n e t r a t i n g r e v i e w o f i t by J e a n B u r g o s 1 4 , and f r o m o n e ' s own r e a d i n g . S t a n z a 4 2 . The d e a t h o f V u l c a n i s an a l l e g o r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e f e a t o f f i r e a n d v i r i l i t y b y t h e f e m a l e p r i n c i p l e s o f w a t e r a n d c r e a t i v i t y . S t a n z a 4 3 . The moment o f o r g a s m i s t h e v e r y moment when t h e m a l e i s " k i l l e d " . S t a n z a 4 4 . The " d e v e n u n a i n " image w h i c h h a s l e d t o many t h e o r i e s i s s u r e l y c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e i d e a e x p r e s s e d i n s t a n z a 42. A p o l l i n a i r e i s o f f e r i n g h i s now f l a c c i d emblem o f v i r i l i t y t o t h e w a t e r y b l u e image o f f e m i n i n i t y . The 1909 v e r s i o n as w e l l a s t h e m a n u s c r i p t v e r s i o n f e a t u r e d i n t h e r e v i e w Cr£ation m e n t i o n 121 t h a t t h e s a i d emblem i s o f f e r e d on a n a p k i n t o t h e " A n t i p a p e s s e " ; t h i s i s s u r e l y a r u d e r e f e r e n c e , made i n a moment o f a n g e r , t o A n n i e , t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e s t r i c t A n g l i c a n who h a d no u s e f o r f o r e i g n e r s o r C a t h o l i c s . A p o l l i n a i r e , a l w a y s t r y i n g t o c l o a k any d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o A n n i e , d e c i d e d t h a t t h e a n t i p a p e s s e l i n e h a d t o be e r a s e d i n t h e 1913 f i n a l d r a f t . The theme o f c a s t r a t i o n i s o v e r s t r e s s e d b y L e n t e n g r e i n h e r a n a l y s i s . S t a n z a 45. L e n t e n g r e i s c o r r e c t i n f i n d i n g t h e d a n g e r l u r k i n g b e h i n d t h e s e d u c t i v e s i r e n s who a r e l u r i n g t h e o a r s m e n t o t h e i r doom, h o w e v e r t h e c h o i c e o f r e f e r e n c e s , "Le P o e t e a s s a s s i n e " a n d " N u i t r h e n a n e " w h i c h s he u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e : L ' i m a g e du m a l h e u r l i e a l a p e r v e r s i t e f e m i n i n e , w h i l e r e l e v a n t , s h o u l d h a v e b e e n , b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e " L a L o r e -l e y " . S t a n z a 46. The f u n e r e a l i m a g e s o f t h e d i s t a f f , t h e s w o r d a n d t h e c y p r e s s t r e e , l i n k e d as t h e y a r e by h a v i n g t h e same g e n e r a l p o i n t e d s h a p e a r e m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o t h e f l a m e o f t h e t o r c h s y m b o l i z i n g t h e a c t Of p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , - h o w e v e r s a d n e s s a n d p a i n r e m a i n i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s d r e a m - l i k e p a s s a g e . S t a n z a s 47 a n d 48 ha v e b e e n a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d b y Mme Mo r h a n g e - B e g u e a n d b u t Mme L e n t e n g r e h a s a d m i r a b l y summed up t h e w h o l e s e q u e n c e b y a r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e O r p h i c m y t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s as n o t e d b y J e a n B u r g o s . 1 5 l a r e n o n c i a t i o n a 1'amour, r e n v e r s e e en i m p o s s i b i l i t y d ' e t r e aime n'a [...] p a s t r a i t a un c o m p o r t e m e n t r e e l m a i s a un c o m p o r t e m e n t m y t h i q u e , s e m b l a b l e a c e l u i d 'Orphee p e r d a n t deux f o i s E u r y d i c e , p a r c e que l e r e e l 122 ne d o i t e t r e qu'une ombre p o u r que l e p o e t e p u i s s e l e c h a n t e r . Two c o m m e n t a r i e s on " L e s S e p t e p e e s " n a m e l y "Remarques s u r 1 ' i n s p i r a t i o n r e l i g i e u s e d e s 'Sept e p e e s ' " by D a n i e l D e l b r e i l a n d " ' L e s S e p t e p e e s ' une a l c h i m i e du v e r b e " by F r a n c o i s e D i n i n m a n , h a v e p u r p o s e l y b e e n i g n o r e d as b e i n g u s e l e s s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o A n t o i n e F o n g a r o ' s h i g h l y c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e m . 1 6 W i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i n t e r l u d e on a r e l a t i v e l y u p b e a t n o t e t h e r e a d e r m i g h t e x p e c t t h e poem p r o p e r t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e same v e i n . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e ; A p o l l i n a i r e r e m i n d s us f i r s t o f h i s p o e t i c f u n c t i o n a n d o n c e a g a i n , i n v e r s e 50, t h e r e b e g i n s t h e now f a m i l i a r downward s w i n g o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e n d u l u m . M a u r i c e P i r o n h a s p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g " e x p l i c a t i o n " o f v e r s e s 51 t o 54, p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n s u m m a r i s e d f o r m . 1 7 Our d e s t i n y i s f i x e d a n d i m p e n e t r a b l e , we h a v e t o d a n c e t o t h e m u s i c o f t h e s p h e r e s p l a y e d b y t h e demons o f c h a n c e . T h i s p e s s i m i s t i c b r i d g e - n o t e l e a d s i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l i z i n g o f h i s m i s e r y , w h i c h t h e p o e t l i k e n s t o madness, s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e two mad k i n g s o f B a v a r i a p a r t i c u l a r l y L u d w i g I I , whom t h e P r i n c e R e g e n t remembers, i n t h e month o f J u n e on S a i n t J o h n ' s Day, when t h e glow-worms o f midsummer s h i n e i n t h e s t a r r y n i g h t . The p o e t i s now a t t h e n a d i r o f t h e m a n i c - d e p r e s s i v e s t a t e w h i c h h a s a f f l i c t e d h i m t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l o n g poem b u t t h e p a s s a g e d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e a d k i n g g a z i n g f a c e u p t u r n e d t o t h e c h a n g i n g s k y i s e n o u g h t o e n c o u r a g e h i m t o do l i k e w i s e , he g a z e s upon t h e 123 g l o r i o u s J u n e s u n s h i n e b a t h i n g h i s b e l o v e d gay a n d n o i s y P a r i s , a n d comes a b r u p t l y t o a r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t d e s p i t e h i s a c h i n g f i n g e r s he must t a k e up h i s p o e t i c l y r e o n c e a g a i n a n d s i n g a s he o f f e r s h i s m a s t e r p i e c e t o h i s b i e n - a i m e e . M o i q u i s a i s d e s l a i s p o u r l e s r e i n e s L e s c o m p l a i n t e s de mes a n n e e s Des hymnes d ' e s c l a v e aux m urenes L a romance du m a l - a i m e E t d e s c h a n s o n s p o u r l e s s i r e n e s . The n i g h t m a r e i s o v e r , t h e p o e t c a n f a c e up t o r e a l i t y a s a new b r i g h t day dawns. 124 NOTES: CHAPTER 6 1 Claude Morhange-Begue, La Chanson du Mal-Aime ri' Apol l i n a i r e essai d' analyse structurale et s t y l i s t i q u e . "Bibliotheque des l e t t r e s modernes", 18 (Paris: Lettres Modernes, Minard, 1970). Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , La Chanson du Mal-Aime. ed. Maurice Pir.on. (Paris: A.G. Nizet, 1987). 2 Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , "Ebauches pour xLa Chanson du Mal-Aime'," ed. Michel Decaudin. Creati on 13 (1978): 7-52. Michel Decaudin, "Les Manuscrits de xLa Chanson du Mal-Aime'," One vln-vA? 9 (1984): 3-22. Michel Decaudin, T,e Dossier d'Alcools' (Geneve: Droz, Paris: Minard, 1960). 3 Claude Morhange-Begue, 227-231. 4 Leroy C. Breunig, "Le Roman du Mal-Aim£ f"- La Table Ronde 57 (1952): 117-123. 5 Anne Hyde Greet, trans. Alcools: Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P., 1965) 215. 6 Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , "Ebauches pour l a 'Chanson du Mal-Aime' , " 18. 125 7 James L a w l e r , " L e s s e p t e p e e s , " T.e F l a n e u r des Deux R i v e s 3 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 10-13. 8 L i o n e l F o l l e t , "Images e t themes de 1'amour m a l h e u r e u x d a n s 'Les S e p t E p e e s ' , " E u r o p e 451-452 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 2 0 6 - 2 3 9 . 9 M a r i e - L o u i s e L e n t e n g r e , " 'Les S e p t e p e e s ' ou l a p a r e n t h e s e o n i r i q u e . " O u a d e r n i d i f i l o l o g i a r o m a n z a . . . d i B o l o g n a 2 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 1 13-175. 1 0 C l a u d e M o r h a n g e - B e g u e , 160-190. 1 1 F e r n a n d D e s o n a y , " N o u v e l e s s a i d ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e s s t r o p h e s 'Les S e p t e p e e s ' " . Margi n a l e s . j u i n 1969: 7 9 - 8 2 . 1 2 P h i l i p p e Renaud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l 1 i n a i r e ( L a u s a n n e : L'Age d'Homme, 1969) 200. 1 3 M a r i e - L o u i s e L e n t e n g r e , 168. 1 4 J e a n B u r g o s , Rev. o f 'Tes Sept £ p £ e s ' ou l a p a r e n t h A s e oni r i q u e . R O T U P des L e t t r e s Mnriernes 682-687 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 2 1 2 - 2 1 7 . 1 5 J e a n B u r g o s , 216. 1 6 A n t o i n e F o n g a r o , " ' L e s s e p t e p e e s ' m y s t i - a l c h i m i - f i e e s " i n " P o u r l ' e x e g e s e d ' A l c o o l s ' , " S t u d i F r a n c e s i 39 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 3 3 5 - 3 3 7 . 1 7 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , E d . M a u r i c e P i r o n , - 1 2 2-128. 126 CHAPTER 7 ENTRY INTO THE"WORLD OF ARTS AND LETTERS, P a r t I I 1904-1907 "L'ADIEU" (0.P.,85-1904) • May w e l l h a v e b e e n p a r t o f a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o A n n i e i n E n g l a n d , p o s s i b l y one t h a t was n o t s e n t on t o A n n i e i n A m e r i c a , e n c l o s i n g a s p r i g o f h e a t h e r f o r remembrance o f t h e w a l k s t h e y t o o k t o g e t h e r , G u i l l a u m e r e m i n d s h e r o f Autumn w h i c h he p r o b a b l y h a d d e s c r i b e d t o A n n i e , when i n L o n d o n i n November, as b e i n g a m o u r n f u l s e a s o n a n d adds t h a t he h o p e s t o s e e h e r i n h e a v e n : Nous ne nous v e r r o n s p l u s s u r t e r r e E t s o u v i e n s - t o i que j e t ' a t t e n d s . The e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l A p o l l i n a i r e f o u n d j u s t t h e r i g h t s t a n z a s t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s i n t h e e a r l i e r " L a C l e f " , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g one o f h i s most b e a u t i f u l q u i n t i l s . "CLOTILDE", (0.P.p.73-1904) a n d "SIGNE", (0.P.p.125-1905) A p o l l i n a i r e ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i s shadow i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s e poems w h i c h d a t e f r o m t h e e a r l y o r s y m b o l i s t p a r t o f t h e p e r i o d 127 u n d e r r e v i e w . I t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t t h e w o r d u s e d by A p o l l i n a i r e , "Ombre" c a n mean g h o s t a s w e l l as shadow. The f i r s t poem may p o s s i b l y h a v e b e e n s t a r t e d b e f o r e t h e p o e t ' s d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e R h i n e l a n d s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y i t w i t h A n n i e d i r e c t l y . " S i g n e " , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s more c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o h i s f o r m e r l o v e . H i s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r d o g s h i s e v e r y s t e p l i k e h i s own shadow; w h i l e t h e d e a d l e a v e s , l i k e s i g n s o f a s p r i n g l o n g g o ne, d u p l i c a t e h i s own e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e . "L'EMIGRANT DE LANDOR ROAD (0.P.,105-1905) T h i s m a j o r poem h a s n o t a t t r a c t e d t h e i n t e r e s t o f A p o l l i n a r i a n s t o t h e same e x t e n t as " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " a n d " P a l a i s " . I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e l i g h t i t t h r o w s on t h e p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . P h i l i p p e Renaud, i n h i s comments on t h i s work, h a s t w i c e i n s i s t e d t h a t i t was composed a f t e r " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " . 1 T h i s may be t r u e , i f t h e e a r l y d r a f t o f t h e l a t t e r m a s t e r w o r k p r e s e n t e d by D e c a u d i n i n h i s a r t i c l e i n t h e r e v i e w " C r e a t i o n " i s c o n s i d e r e d , b u t , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f f u r t h e r p r o o f , " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r R o a d " a n t e d a t e s t h e v e r s i o n o f " L a C h a n s o n " t h a t was p u b l i s h e d i n Le Mercure de F r a n c e . The p r o b a b l e t i m e o f c o m p o s i t i o n was e a r l y i n t h e y e a r o f 1905 s i n c e i t was p u b l i s h e d i n Vers et Prose i n t h e December 1 9 0 5 - F e b r u a r y 1906 i s s u e . A l t h o u g h t h e a c t u a l 1855 p a i n t i n g i s l o c a t e d i n B i r m i n g h a m , E n g l a n d , F o r d . Madox Brown's famous work "The L a s t o f E n g l a n d " was r e p r o d u c e d t i m e a n d a g a i n on p o s t c a r d s , p r i n t s a n d e t c h i n g s . I t 128 shows a g r o u p o f e m i g r a n t s s i t t i n g on t h e d e c k o f a t r a n s -A t l a n t i c v e s s e l a n d g a z i n g s a d l y a t t h e s h o r e as t h e s h i p s a i l e d away f r o m E n g l a n d . A p o l l i n a i r e must h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r w i t h i t a n d r e a l i s e d i t s r e l e v a n c e t o h i s own s i t u a t i o n a n d t h a t o f A n n i e . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s d e s c r i b e t h e s c e n e : S u r l e p o n t du v a i s s e a u i l p o s a s a v a l i s e E t s ' a s s i t L e s v e n t s de 1'Ocean e n s o u f f l a n t l e u r s menaces L a i s s a i e n t d a n s s e s c h e v e u x de l o n g s b a i s e r s m o u i l l e s Des e m i g r a n t s t e n d a i e n t v e r s l e p o r t l e u r s m a i n s l a s s e s E t d ' a u t r e s e n p l e u r a n t s ' e t a i e n t a g e n o u i l l e s (O.P.,106) The poem, a t f i r s t r e a d i n g , w o u l d l e a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t i s t h e p o e t h i m s e l f who i s e m i g r a t i n g , i n f a c t t h e poem h a s t o do w i t h a s i t u a t i o n where A p o l l i n a i r e dreams o f t h e abandonment o f h i s r o l e as A n n i e ' s l o v e r . I t i s t h e r o l e , n o t t h e p o e t who i s l e a v i n g f o r A m e r i c a ; t h e poem i s an e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r s o n i f y t h e many f a c e t s o f h i s p o e t i c r o l e . P h i l i p p e R e n a u d h a s summed up t h e u n d e r l y i n g m o t i f o f t h e poem t h u s : 2 Ce s e r a i t f a i r e d i r e au poeme c e q u ' i l ne d i t p a s que d ' i m a g i n e r que 1 ' e m i g r a n t s ' e n v a r e j o i n d r e en A m e r i q u e l a femme q u i 1'a a b a n d o n n e . Le d e p a r t q u ' i l r e v e e s t b i e n p l u t S t une r u p t u r e a v e c l'homme q u ' i l a v a i t e t e p e n d a n t q u e l q u e t e m p s . A p o l l i n a i r e dreams o f f a r - o f f f i e l d s ' o f p o e t i c a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n t h e w i d e p r a i r i e s o f A m e r i c a ; o f a f r e s h s t a r t w h i c h w o u l d f r e e h i m f r o m t h e h i d e b o u n d c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t a n d 129 p r o v i d e a p e r i o d o f r e c o v e r y f r o m t h e p a i n a n d s u f f e r i n g b r o u g h t on by h i s h o p e l e s s l o v e f o r A n n i e . However t h e d e p a r t u r e e n t a i l s a d i f f i c u l t p a s s a g e t h r o u g h t h e r e e f s o f h i s d e s t i n y a n d t h e r o c k y m e m o r i e s o f t h e p a s t c o n t i n u e t o h a u n t h i m as he s e e k s f r e e d o m t o l i v e i n a new e r a o f p e a c e . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y t o c r e a t e a f l a s h o f m o c k e r y a g a i n s t a g l o o m y b a c k d r o p i s i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h e a d l e s s t a i l o r ' s dummies who p e r s o n i f y h i s d e s i r e t o s h e d t h e w o r n o u t t r a p p i n g s o f h i s s e r v i t u d e t o A n n i e , i n e x c h a n g e f o r a s m a r t s e t o f c l o t h e s i n t h e l a t e s t s t y l e . A p o l l i n a i r e s t a y e d w i t h h i s A l b a n i a n f r i e n d T r a n k S p i r o b e g i n O a k l e y C r e s c e n t c l o s e t o t h e W h i t e c h a p e l d i s t r i c t o f L o n d o n w h i c h w a s . o c c u p i e d l a r g e l y b y J e w i s h t a i l o r s a n d h a b e r d a s h e r s , h e n c e t h e somewhat d r o l l u n d e r p i n n i n g s f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . The poem, l i k e " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " , a l t e r n a t e s b e t w e e n a humorous u p b e a t n o t e a n d a s a d downbeat one. The b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r commented on i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s "Le P r i n t e m p s " s u r f a c e s i n t h i s w ork a l s o . Hope a n d m e l a n c h o l y s h a r e t h e s t a g e . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h i s poem i s A p o l l i n a i r e ' s u s e o f t h e "Cut a n d P a s t e " p r o c e s s o f c o m p o s i t i o n i n v o l v i n g b o r r o w i n g s f r o m e a r l i e r w o r k s , o f t e n w i t h e x c e l l e n t e f f e c t d e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n mood a n d s t y l e b e t w e e n them. An e x a m p l e i s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a l i f t e d a l m o s t w o r d f o r w o r d f r o m " A d i e u x " a 1901 poem composed a s a r e s u l t o f t h e b r e a k - u p o f h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h L i n d a M o l i n a , (O.P., 3 3 2 ) ; t h e p a s s a g e was a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n an 130 e a r l y S t a v e l o t poem w h i c h b e g a n w i t h t h e l i n e " L e s v i l l e s s o n t p l e i n e s d'amour e t de d o u l e u r " ( O . P . , 5 6 7 ) : 3 I n t e r c a l e e s dans l ' a n c ' e t a i e n t l e s j o u r n e e s v e u v e s L e s v e n d r e d i s s a n g l a n t s e t l e n t s d ' e n t e r r e m e n t s Des b l a n c s e t t o u t n o i r s v a i n c u s d e s c i e u x q u i p l e u v e n t Quand l a femme du d i a b l e a b a t t u s o n amant. (O.P.106) The s t a n z a b e g i n n i n g w i t h " G o n f l e - t o i v e r s l a n u i t 0 Mer! L e s y e u x de s q u a l e s " i s an e x a c t d u p l i c a t e o f a s t a n z a i n "Le P r i n t e m p s " (O.P.p.560) w h i c h i s i n v o k e d by a s t o r m a t s e a : 4 M a i s t o u t a coup 1 ' h o r i z o n v e r t s ' e s t d e c h i r e M o n t r a n t l e v i o l e t des mers i m p e t u e u s e s Le n a u f r a g e s o l a i r e aux p r i n c e s s e s h e u r e u s e s De v o i r m o u r i r un d i e u q u i d u t l e s a d o r e r . The s t a n z a s i n " L ' E m i g r a n t w h i c h l e a d up t o t h e " G o n f l e - t o i " s t a n z a show a much more c o m p l e x and m a t u r e i n s p i r a t i o n . D i s t a n t t o y b o a t s d o t t h e h o r i z o n a n d a r e d e s c r i b e d t h u s i n a b e a u t i f u l v i s i o n : Un t o u t p e t i t b o u q u e t f l o t t a n t a l ' a v e n t u r e C o u v r i t 1'Ocean d'une immense f l o r a i s o n . I I a u r a i t v o u l u ce b o u q u e t comme l a g l o i r e J o u e r d a n s d ' a u t r e s mers p a r m i t o u s l e s d a u p h i n s . The o n l y way t h e e n d l e s s t a p e s t r y o f memory woven b y s t u b b o r n w e a v e r g i r l s who a r e c o m p a r e d t o l i c e c a n be t e r m i n a t e d i s t o drown them a t s e a l i k e t h e Doges o f o l d V e n i c e who waded o u t t o ' s e a i n a s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e o f m a r r i a g e a n d c o n c e i v a b l y t o r i d t h e m s e l v e s o f p a r a s i t e s . I I s e m a r i a come un d oge. Aux c r i s d'une s i r e n e moderne s a n s e p o u x . The " G o n f l e - t o i " s t a n z a e n d s " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r R o a d " on a s e r i o u s n o t e as t h e s h a r k s l i e i n w a i t : ... l e s y e u x J u s q u ' a l ' a u b e o n t g u e t t e de l o i n a v i d e m e n t Des c a d a v r e s de j o u r s r o n g e s p a r l e s e t o i l e s P a r m i l e b r u i t d e s f l o t s e t l e s d e r n i e r s s e r m e n t s . A p o l l i n a i r e , a l w a y s c o n s c i o u s o f b e i n g a f o r e i g n e r i n a l a n d he l o v e d , l i k e d t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h s u c h p e o p l e . The e m i g r a n t theme i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n "Zone", p e r h a p s t h e most p e r s o n a l o f h i s poems. Mme D u r r y t e r m i n a t e d h e r comments on " L ' E m i g r a n t " w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e e p i l o g u e t o t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s : 5 ... l e v o i c i d e v e n u c h a i r e t s a n g p o u r l e v o y a g e u r v e t u de l a n e u v e d e f r o q u e qu'on l u i a s o l d e e , p o u r c e l u i e n q u i s o n t a l a f o i s A n n i e p a r t a n t a j a m a i s v e r s l ' A m e r i q u e A p o l l i n a i r e , - e t e r n e l p a s s a g e r du r e e l e t de l ' i r r e e l , a s s i s l a a v e c s e s r e v e s d ' e v a s i o n , d ' e x o t i s m e , s o n d e n u e -ment de d e r a c i n e , - e t t o u s l e s m a l h e u r e u x embarques f a i s a n t , du b a t e a u , d e s s i g n e s d ' a d i e u , p l e u r a n t e t p r i a n t . "UN SOIR" (0.P.,125-1905) I s much more c o m p l e x t h a n t h e o t h e r f o u r poems d i s c u s s e d s o f a r . I t p r o b a b l y d a t e s f r o m 1905 a n d r e v e a l s a d e g r e e o f 132 h e s i t a n c y as t o what A n n i e r e a l l y meant t o h i m . Anne Hyde G r e e t h a s shown t h a t A n n i e e n t e r s t h e poem as an a n g e l o r Madonna, t h e n as a t e a s i n g wench w i t h h e r t i n s e l c l o t h e s on, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g an h o n e s t n a k e d l o v e r , a n d f i n a l l y a s a c o n q u e r o r i n t h e image o f C h r i s t . 6 The p o e t b e g s h i s i n a m o r a t a , who h a s t h e l o v e - l i g h t i n h e r e y e s , t o t a k e a c h a n c e on l o v e , e v e n i f i t d o e s n o t work o u t i n t h e e n d , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g l e d a s t r a y b y some o t h e r f a l s e a n d m o c k i n g a d m i r e r who, l i k e J u d a s , d e s e r v e s t o h a n g . The poem ends w i t h a p a e a n o f t r i u m p h a n d r e b i r t h a s i f i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e v i c t o r y o f l o v e . The poem u n d o u b t e d l y i s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e h a p p y o r " m a n i c " s w i n g i n h i s b i p o l a r a f f l i c t i o n . A p o l l i n a i r e was s l o w t o s h a k e o f f t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E n g l i s h g o v e r n e s s he l o v e d s o much b u t t h e n e x t poem was t h e l a s t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l o s s he u n d e r w e n t . "ANNIE" (O.P.,65-1905) Was p u b l i s h e d as " F a n n y " i n L e s S o i r e e s de P a r i s i n an o b v i o u s a t t e m p t t o h i d e i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A n n i e P l a y d e n . A p o l l i n a i r e p i c t u r e s h e r as a member o f a C h r i s t i a n s e c t t h a t was e v e n more f u n d a m e n t a l t h a n h e r own "Low C h u r c h " A n g l i c a n one. The g e o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r , p l a c i n g M o b i l e i n T e x a s , i n s t e a d o f A l a b a m a , c a n o n l y be a s c r i b e d t o a r a r e gap i n h i s e n c y c l o p e d i c k n o w l e d g e . 133 " P A L A I S " (0.P.,61-1905) T h i s e l e v e n s t a n z a poem b e l o n g s t o t h e " A n n i e " c y c l e , a l t h o u g h i n a more t e n u o u s way t h a n t h e R h i n e l a n d poems a n d " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " . As i n o t h e r poems o f A p o l l i n a i r e t h e p o e t c r e a t e s a p e r s o n i f i e d v e r s i o n o f h i m s e l f i n t h e s h a p e o f K i n g H e n r y I I a n d o f A n n i e as t h e k i n g ' s m i s t r e s s Rosamund C l i f f o r d . The m a j o r work o f e x e g e s i s i s L i o n e l F o l l e t ' s "Du ' P a l a i s ' de Rosemonde a l ' u n i v e r s p o e t i q u e " w h i c h h a s drawn on t h e work o f B a t e s , B u r g o s , B u t o r , A u s t i n C a x t o n , C h e v a l i e r , D e c a u d i n , D u r r y , M e s c h o n n i c , Poupon, Renaud, a n d R o u v e y r e . 7 " P a l a i s " , l i k e so many o f t h e l a t e r " A n n i e " ' poems, i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e b i p o l a r p s y c h o s i s b r o u g h t on by t h e t r a u m a t i c e n d t o h i s l o v e a f f a i r . The r a p i d o s c i l l a t i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d " L a C h a n s o n du M a l - A i m e " i s n o t p r e s e n t , i t i s r e p l a c e d b y a s l o w e r p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m a c o n t e m p l a t i v e s t a t e t o a j a r r i n g a n d n i g h t m a r i s h v i s i o n . The poem i s a dream s e q u e n c e d i v i s i b l e i n t o t h r e e p a r t s ; t h e f i r s t , s t a n z a s 1 - 3 , i s a s y m b o l i s t p i l g r i m a g e t o w a r d t h e d e p t h o f t h e dream; t h e s e c o n d p a r t , s t a n z a s 4 - 6 , i s a d e s c e n t f r o m t h e dream o f t h e b e a u t i f u l p a l a c e t o a c a r i c a t u r e o f t h e u n w o r t h y h o s t s , t h e k i n g a n d h i s m i s t r e s s , t h e a l t e r e g o s o f A p o l l i n a i r e a n d A n n i e ; t h e t h i r d a n d l a s t , s t a n z a s 7 - 11, i s a s l i d e f r o m b u f f o o n e r y t o h e a r t s i c k d i s g u s t as i t d e s c r i b e s t h e r e p u l s i v e d i n n e r m e a l . The dreamy t h o u g h t s , t h e r e v e r i e s a r e m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o t h e p e r s o n a o f A p o l l i n a i r e h i m s e l f as he a p p r o a c h e s t h e b e a u t i f u l p a l a c e o f h i s drea m s , s u c c u m b i n g t o t h e e r o t i c i m a g e s o f r o s e s , 134 n a k e d k i n g s a n d d i s t a f f s h a p e d c y p r e s s e s synonymous w i t h p h a l l u s e s . H i s e x c i t e m e n t i n c r e a s e s as he d r i f t s i n t o a s t a t e o f q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s r e m i n i s c e n c e w i t h E r o s h i m s e l f p i e r c i n g t h e s m a l l d i a m o n d s h a p e d p a n e s o f t h e c a s t l e windows t o c r e a t e i m a g e s o f t h e s t i g m a t a o f C h r i s t ' s h a n d s . T h i s e x e r c i s e i n i m a g i n a t i o n h a d b u t l i t t l e b a s i s i n h i s t o r y . T h e r e were v e r y few g l a z e d windows i n t h e P a l a c e o f W o o d s t o c k , s i t u a t e d on t h e s i t e o f what i s now B l e n h e i m P a l a c e , j u d g i n g f r o m t h e e n g r a v i n g made f r o m a d r a w i n g by W e s t a l l . The p a l a c e i t s e l f was d e s t r o y e d a b o u t 1 7 1 8 . 8 As f o r t h e s t i g m a t a , t h e y c a n e a s i l y be e x p l a i n e d by some i r r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d a n d d i s t o r t i n g g l a s s window p a n e s r e f l e c t i n g t h e r e d r a y s o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n . The same e t c h i n g shows t h e p a l a c e s i t u a t e d on t h e b a r e k n o l l o f a h i l l s o i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e was a g a r d e n o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r a maze n e a r b y . The o n l y maze t h a t E l e a n o r o f A q u i t a i n e h a d t o t h r e a d h e r way t h r o u g h w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e r a b b i t w a r r e n o f rooms t h e p a l a c e c o n t a i n e d . T h i s f i r s t p a r t i s s u f f u s e d w i t h t h e i m a g e r y o f d e a t h a n d wounds, e m b l e m a t i c o f t h e p a s s i n g o f h i s o n c e v i b r a n t l o v e . The r e l i g i o u s n o t e shows up i n t h e b i t t e r d r a u g h t o f C y p r i o t w i n e a n d t h e e a t i n g o f t h e P a s c h a l Lamb, b o t h s y m b o l i c o f C h r i s t ' s L a s t S u p p e r . L. F o l l e t h a s c o r r e c t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s f i r s t p a r t i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f an i n c a n t a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n o f p a r o d y i n i t , o n l y s i g n s o f t h e i m p e n d i n g b r e a k - u p : 9 L e s o l e i l m i r o i r d e s r o s e s s ' e s t b r i s e . The a b r u p t b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d p a r t f e a t u r i n g t h e k i n g -a d u l t e r e r c a v o r t i n g w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s Rosamund on h i s bony k n e e s 135 i s a m u s i n g i n t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e r e f e r s t o A n n i e r e a c h i n g t h e May o f h e r age a n d t h e i n e v i t a b l e e n d t h e r e o f on t h e 3 1 s t o f t h e month. A l t h o u g h t h e b e a u t y o f A n n i e ' s e y e s i s a m a t t e r o f r e c o r d , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n , j u d g i n g f r o m h e r p h o t o g r a p h , t h a t t h e y were r o u n d a n d r a t h e r p r o m i n e n t . The p o e t ' s d i s i l l u s i o n shows up i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f h e r e y e s t o t h o s e o f a c r u e l , m a r a u d i n g , Hun. A p o l l i n a i r e c a n n o t r i d h i m s e l f o f h i s memory o f h e r p h y s i c a l c h a r m s as he a s k s h e r who s h e i s w a i t i n g f o r a n d g e t s h e r s t r a n g e r e p l y t h a t s h e a w a i t s h e r t h o u g h t s , w h i c h a r e on t h e i r way t o t h e E a s t where h e r s i s t e r s a r e e v e n more b e a u t i f u l a n d p h y s i c a l l y endowed t h a n h e r s e l f ; a p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t t r a n s f e r e n c e , s i n c e i t i s t h e p o e t who h a s t h e v i s i o n o f t h e c a l l i p y g e a n a t t r i b u t e s i n q u e s t i o n . The p o e t i s now i n v i t e d t o b e h e a d a n d t h u s k i l l - o f f h i s v a r i e d r e c o l l e c t i o n s as e v e n i n g f a l l s , a n d he p r o c e e d s t o t h e f e a s t where he i s s e r v e d up h i s m e m o r i e s i n t h e g h a s t l i e s t o f f o r m s a n d a n d a " d a n s e m a c a b r e " i s p e r f o r m e d i n h i s b r a i n . I n t h e l a s t two c o u p l e t s t h e p o e t a s k s h i m s e l f two a l m o s t u n a n s w e r a b l e q u e s t i o n s as he i n t r o d u c e s t h e image o f t h e P e n t e c o s t . S h o u l d he r e g a r d L o v e a s i n s p i r a t i o n o r as a m a n i f e s -t a t i o n o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t ? S h o u l d t h e p o e t be a l o v e r o r an a p o s t l e ? "LA F U I T E " (O.P., 655-1905) a n d i t s v a r i a n t "L'ENFANT D'OR" (O.P., 681-1905). M e n t i o n s h o u l d be made o f t h e s e two s o n n e t s i f o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o " L ' E m i g r a n t de L a n d o r R o a d " . The p o e t i s 136 i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e "once a n d f o r m e r " k i n g who w a t c h e s t h e s h i p c a r r y i n g h i s l o v e r away t o a c e r t a i n s h i p w r e c k . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p i n a d a t e t o them b u t t h e i r c o n t e n t w o u l d a p p e a r t o p r e c l u d e t h e i r b e l o n g i n g t o t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . "ROSEMONDE" (0.P.,107-1905) A p o l l i n a i r e i s known t o h a v e t a k e n a s h o r t h o l i d a y i n H o l l a n d i n 1904, t h e same y e a r t h a t he met A n d r e D e r a i n , t h e p a i n t e r . He h a d p r e v i o u s l y r e a d t h e c o n t i n e n t a l v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f Rosemonde w h e r e i n she was r e p u t e d t o h a v e h a i l e d f r o m I t a l y . The t h r e e q u i n t i l s w h i c h make up "Rosemonde" r e l a t e t h e s t o r y o f an a b o r t i v e p u r s u i t o f a g i r l i n A msterdam, a c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e r e c a l l e d when w r i t i n g "Zone". D e s p i t e m o u r n i n g t h e l o s s o f A n n i e , A p o l l i n a i r e was n o t a b o v e c h a s i n g women, p a r t i c u l a r l y when h i s p a r t n e r i n t h i s e s c a p a d e was t h e n o t o r i o u s G e r y P i e r e t . The d e d i c a t i o n t o D e r a i n g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d a t e . "SALOME" (O.P.,86-1905) P u b l i s h e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r ; i t was p r o b a b l y t h e l a s t o f t h e poems t o be w r i t t e n b e f o r e t h e u n p r o d u c t i v e y e a r o f 1906. I t i s n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e A p o l l i n a i r e h a s t r i e d t o p e n e t r a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f A n n i e r a t h e r t h a n s u b j e c t i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e r i g o r o u s s e l f - a n a l y s i s o f so many o f t h e " A n n i e " poems. T h e r e i s a d e v i l - m a y - c a r e q u a l i t y i n t h i s work, a 137 l i g h t h e a r t e d a p p r o a c h t o a t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n , a n d y e t t h e u n d e r l y i n g c r u e l t y i s s t i l l t h e r e . The i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e k i n g ' s j e s t e r t o make J o h n t h e B a p t i s t ' s h e a d i n t o h i s f o o l ' s b a u b l e i s t y p i c a l , e s p e c i a l l y when c o m p a r e d t o S a l o m e ' s d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e B a p t i s t ' s own s t a f f . The f i n a l i n d i g n i t y comes a s t h e d a n c e r a n n o u n c e s t h e l o s s o f h e r g a r t e r . A p o l l i n a i r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o h a v e s u c c e e d e d a t l a s t i n r e l e g a t i n g A n n i e t o p a s t h i s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f t o be t o r t u r e d b y h i s memory. The d e a t h o f J o h n s y m b o l i s e s t h e e n d o f h i s r o l e as A n n i e ' s l o v e r i n t h i s poem. "CREPUSCULE" (0.P., 64-1905) a n d "SALTIMBANQUES" ( 0 . P . , 90-1905) T h e s e two poems e m a n a t e d f r o m a s i n g l e p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t . P u b l i c a t i o n was d e f e r r e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y 1909 w i t h d e d i c a t i o n s t o M a r i e L a u r e n c i n a n d L o u i s Dumur r e s p e c t i v e l y . Dumur was an e x e c u t i v e e d i t o r w i t h Le M e r c u r e de F r a n c e . M u l t i p l e i n f l u e n c e s were a t work d u r i n g t h e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e two w o r k s , w h i c h p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n 1905, b u t A n n i e was n o t one o f them. F r a n g o i s e D i n i n m a n e n u m e r a t e d s e v e r a l i n h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e o r i g i n s o f " C r e p u s c u l e " a t t h e S t a v e l o t C o l l o q u i u m o f 1982 o f w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e i m p o r t a n t . 1 0 1. P i c t o r i a l , c e r t a i n l y P i c a s s o a n d j u s t p o s s i b l y M a r i e L a u r e n c i n . 2. The m a s t e r s o f S y m b o l i s t p o e t r y , d e f i n i t e l y V e r l a i n e , a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , M a l l a r m e , B a u d e l a i r e , N e r v a l a n d R i m b a u d . 3. The t h e a t r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y " L a Commedia d e l l ' A r t e " o f 138 I t a l y . A p o l l i n a i r e h a d s t a r t e d h i s r e s e a r c h on t h e s u b j e c t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s b o o k T.e Th£fitre i t a l l e n . 4. The s e c r e t r i t e s , g n o s t i c i s m , a l c h e m y , f r e e - m a s o n r y a n d most i m p o r t a n t l y t h e T a r o t . The f o r e g o i n g p a r t i a l l i s t s e r v e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e p o e t i c b a g g a g e w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e c a r r i e d w i t h h i m as he t r i e d t o s e e k s a l v a t i o n i n t h e c r e a t i v e a c t o f w r i t i n g p o e t r y . An a c t w h i c h w o u l d make h i m " T h r i c e G r e a t " , l i k e t h e s u c c e s s f u l H a r l e q u i n o f t h e poem, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g condemned t o a l i f e o f w a n d e r i n g a b o u t l i k e t h e p o o r t u m b l e r s a n d d a n c e r s d e s c r i b e d i n " S a l t i m b a n q u e s " . S e v e r a l p a i n t i n g s by P i c a s s o i n h i s " B l u e " a n d e a r l y " P i n k " p e r i o d p r o v i d e d t h e i n i t i a l i n s p i r a t i o n . A p o l l i n a i r e p r o b a b l y saw t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e c i r c u s f a m i l y , t h e one t h a t was s u b s e q u e n t l y p a i n t e d o v e r , t o p r o d u c e t h e one w h i c h shows t h e l i k e n e s s e s o f F e r n a n d e O l i v i e r , P i c a s s o a s t h e H a r l e q u i n a n d A p o l l i n a i r e as t h e f a t j e s t e r . T h i s f i r s t v e r s i o n a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s w o u l d h a v e f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f 33 w o r k s a t t h e G a l e r i e s S e r r u r i e r • i n P a r i s w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e May 15 1905 i s s u e o f L a P l u m e : t h e p l a i n , a n d t h e f r u i t t r e e s i n " S a l t i m b a n q u e s " a r e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . A s r e g a r d s " C r e p u s c u l e " t h e o v e r r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e s w e re t h e e x h i b i t i o n as a w h o l e a n d A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e o c c u l t . The w o r d p i c t u r e s o f t h e nude w i f e o f t h e h a r l e q u i n , t h e o l d man n u r s i n g t h e c h i l d a n d t h e l a r g e r t h a n l i f e h a r l e q u i n h i m s e l f w ere d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l P i c a s s o p a i n t i n g s b u t t h e m a j o r T a r o t a r c a n a r e f l e c t t h e nude b a t h e r , t h e u n h o o k e d s t a r , a n d t h e h a n g i n g man. 139 Mme D u r r y h a s d rawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s p a i r o f poems t o t h e w o r k s o f V e r l a i n e . A p o l l i n a i r e was n e v e r one t o p u b l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f o t h e r p o e t s on h i s own o u t p u t b u t t h e r e i s t h e w a n n e s s , t h e p a l l o r a n d t h e s a d s i m p l i c i t y s o t y p i c a l o f t h e g r e a t n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t . 1 1 A l t h o u g h P i c a s s o saw A p o l l i n a i r e as a j e s t e r , t h e p o e t ' s v i s i o n o f h i m s e l f as H a r l e q u i n i s much n e a r e r t h e mark. R. S t a melman h a s a n a l y s e d t h i s a s p e c t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y v e r y w e l l . H a r l e q u i n , a b o v e a l l as a p r o t e g e o f M e r c u r y , g o d o f t h i e v e s a n d c h a r l a t a n s , h a s t h e p o w e r t o c h a n g e h i s f o r m a n d r o l e s . H i s e n t r y on s t a g e b e d a z z l e s t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h h i s m a g i c a l a n d c r e a t i v e t r i c k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e s t a r he u n h o o k e d f r o m t h e n i g h t s k y , m a k i n g i t do what e v e r he w a n t e d , t h e r e b y d u p l i c a t i n g t h e c r e a t i v e a c t o f w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n i t s many d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . I n h i s summing up Stamelman w r o t e : 1 2 L i k e H a r l e q u i n , A p o l l i n a i r e ' s s e l f i s t h e o n l y a c t o r i n a drama where i t p l a y s a l l t h e r o l e s . I t assumes d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s , w e a r s many c o s t u m e s , s p e a k s many v o i c e s a n d h a s d i v e r s e f a c e s A p o l l i n a i r e i n v o k e d Hermes T r i s m e g i s t o s b e c a u s e he knew t h a t t h e g o d ' s E g y p t i a n e q u i v a l e n t T h o t h was t h e i n v e n t o r o f w r i t i n g a n d s c r i b e t o t h e gods w h i c h i s what he a s p i r e d t o b e . "LUL DE F A L T E N I N " (0.P.,97-1907) T h i s i s one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most p u z z l i n g poems, a n d one w h i c h , j u d g i n g f r o m t h e m a n u s c r i p t v e r s i o n p u b l i s h e d b y L.C. B r e u n i g , g a v e h i m f a r more t r o u b l e t h a n t h e many poems w h e r e i n 140 t h e e n g i n e o f i n s p i r a t i o n was A n n i e . I n t h i s poem, w r i t t e n a n d p u b l i s h e d a t t h e v e r y e n d o f 1907 t h e c r e a t i v e d r i v e was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e many p r o s t i t u t e s A p o l l i n a i r e c o n s o r t e d w i t h , b e f o r e h i s a t t a c h m e n t t o M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , a n d t h e a w a r e n e s s t h a t he s h o u l d b r e a k new g r o u n d i f he w i s h e d t o make a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e p o e t i c f i e l d . 1 3 I n a s e n s e " L u l de F a l t e n i n " i s an a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a s i m u l t a n e o u s image o f a s a i l o r , t h e Sun a n d t h e p o e t h i m s e l f a n d i s a p r e c u r s o r o f t h e g r e a t poems i n t h e s i m u l t a n e i s t g e n r e . The m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f t h e p o e t as a s a i l o r a n d t h e P h o e b u s - A p o l l o s u n image a n d t h e p r o s t i t u t e f r i e n d s as t h e w i n g e d s i r e n s w o o i n g t h e s a i l o r w i t h r u d e g e s t u r e s a r e t h e b a s i c f a b r i c o f t h e poem. To t h e s e a s p a t i a l e l e m e n t i s a d d e d , n a m e l y t h e O r p h e u s - l i k e s l i p p e r y s l i d e i n t o t h e w a t e r y g r o t t o o f t h e s i r e n s . A c l i m b t h e r e f r o m i n t o a s p a r k l i n g new w o r l d w h e r e i n he c a n f i n d h i s t r u e s e l f , w i t h " L a m e r v e i l l e " as h i s s h i e l d a g a i n s t t h e s i r e n w i l e s i s n o t c a p a b l e o f a t t a i n m e n t as y e t . The s a i l o r ' s w i s h f o r t h e g r e e n i n g o f h i s s h i p s b a r e m a s t s a n d s p a r s a n d a s a f e r e t u r n t o h i s home p o r t w i l l n o t be f u l f i l l e d . The p o e t ' s f l i g h t t o t h e s u n mee t s t h e same f a t e , d e a t h b y d r o w n i n g , as t h a t o f I c a r u s o r o f t h e Sun a s i t s i n k s d a i l y i n t o t h e s e a , d e s p i t e h i s k n o w l e d g e o f h i s c a p a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a u n i v e r s e o f p o e t r y : C a r c ' e s t m o i s e u l e (0) n u i t q u i t ' e t o i l e . J.C. C h e v a l i e r d e s c r i b e d , i n h i s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem, t h i s w i s h f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o an o r p h i c i d e a l t h u s : 1 4 ... au d e b u t l e p o e t e ne t r o u v e un e s s a i d ' e x i s t e n c e 141 que d e v a n t l e c e r c l e d e s s p e c t a t e u r s q u i 1 ' a c c u e i l l e n t : l a r r o n , e r m i t e ou M e r l i n , i l ' s ' e n f e r m e d a n s c e c e r c l e v i f de p e r c e p t i o n q u i d e v i e n t un l a b y r i n t h e . M a i s l e p o e t e de l ' e p o q u e 1907 e s t c e l u i q u i s e f a i t e t q u i c r e e ; moment p a r a l l e l e a c e t h i v e r p e n d a n t l e q u e l P i c a s s o c o n s t r u i t s e s D e m o i s e l l e s d ' A v i g n o n . P o u r d o n n e r u n i t e a c e p e r s o n n a g e q u i a r e t o u r n e l a c o m m u n i c a t i o n en s o r t e q u ' e l l e n ' e s t p l u s un commerce, m a i s une l u t t e , A p o l l i n a i r e s e d e c o u v r e un m o d e l e h i s t o r i q u e , s i l ' o n o s e l e d i r e ; e c r i v o n s du m o i n s : un m o d e l e du p a s s e . C ' e s t O r p h e e . A p o l l i n a i r e was v e r y w e l l i n f o r m e d a b o u t Greco-Roman m y t h s . H i s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e m u l t i p l e i n c a r n a t i o n s o f A p o l l o a s t h e Sun God a n d as an A r c h e r p r o v i d e d much m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g w o r k . The poem i s a d e s p a i r i n g l a m e n t b u t d e s p i t e a l l t h e e v i d e n c e o f a c u t e d e p r e s s i o n , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e b i p o l a r , m a n i c - d e p r e s s i v e , s t a t e w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e w o r k e d i t s way o u t o f h i s s y s t e m . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s d e p r e s s i o n , a r i s i n g f r o m a s e l f - c o n c e i v e d l a c k o f c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , i s a r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e d i s g u s t when he f e e l s c o m p e l l e d t o r e s o r t t o h i s a u t o - e r o t i c p r a c t i c e s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a l o y a l woman f r i e n d . The t w o - f o l d a t t a c k s on h i s n o r m a l l y s u n n y d i s p o s i t i o n a r e v o i c e d : ... e t j e l ' a v o u e / L e m e u r t r e de mon d o u b l e o r g u e i l . T h e r e i s a t e m p t a t i o n t o r e a d i n t o t h i s poem more e r o t i c i s m t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e p a r t o f some c o m m e n t a t o r s s u c h as B a t e s , F o n g a r o , L o u i s , a n d, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , R e naud. The most t h a t n e e d be s a i d i s t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e i n t h i s poem e x a m i n e d h i m s e l f as c l i n i c a l l y a s he knew how a n d was n o t a f r a i d t o l a y b a r e h i s p r o b l e m s , a l t h o u g h he g a v e h i s i n n a t e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d m y s t i f i c a t i o n f u l l p l a y . 1 5 143 NOTES: CHAPTER 7 1 P h i l i p p e R e naud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e ( L a u s a n n e : L'Age d'Homme 1969) 63 & 65. 2 P h i l i p p e R e naud, 63. 3 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 3 ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S., 1964) 38. 4 M i c h e l D e c a u d i n , Le D o s s i e r d' ' A l c o o l s ' . (Geneve: D r o z , 1960) 171. 5 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 3, 39. 6 Anne Hyde G r e e t , t r a n s . ' A l c o o l s ' , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e ( B e r k e l e y : U . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1965) 264. 7 L i o n e l F o l l e t , "Du P a l a i s de Rosemonde a l ' u n i v e r s p o e t i q u e . " i n L e c t u r e de P a l a i s d ' A p o l l i n a i r e A r c h i v e s G u i l l a u m e A p o l 1 i n a i r e N° 6 ( P a r i s : M i n a r d 1972) 15-102. S t u a r t B a t e s , G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , New Y o r k : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1967. 60-62. J e a n B u r g o s , " S u r l a t h e m a t i q u e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e , l a p i d a i r e , h e r b i e r , b e s t i a i r e . " i n G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 8, L a Revue rtft.q I f l t t rps mndernes 217-222, (1969) : 145-146. 144 M i c h e l B u t o r , "Monument de r i e n p o u r A p o l l i n a i r e " R e p e r t o i r e TTT ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1968) 284. A u s t i n C a x t o n , " A p o l l i n a i r e e t l ' a v a l o n d e s a v a l e s . A r t i c l e d ' o r i g i n e r e v e l e e " L e s L e t t r e s n o u v e l l e s f s e p t . - o c t . 1969: 1 3 1 -145. J e a n - C l a u d e C h e v a l i e r , " A p o l l i n a i r e e t l e c a l e m b o u r . " E u r o p e 451-452 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 56-76. M i c h e l D e c a u d i n , 109-112. M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 2, 27-48. H e n r i M e s c h o n n i c , " A p o l l i n a i r e i l l u m i n e au m i l i e u d 'ombres". E u r o p e 451-452 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 141-169. M a r c P o u p o n , "Dans l e P a l a i s d'Anna" L e c t u r e de P a l a i s d ' A p o l l i n a i r e , A r c h i v e s G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e n° 6 ( P a r i s : M i n a r d 1972) 7-14. M a r c P o u p o n , "'Le L a r r o n ' e s s a i d ' e x e g e s e " . i n G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , 6., L a Revue d e s l e t t r e s m o d e r n e s 166-169 (1967) : 3 5 - 5 1 . P h i l i p p e Renaud, 67-69. A n d r e R o u v e y r e , Amour e t p o e s i e d ' A p o l 1 i n a i r e ( P a r i s : L e S e u i l , 1955) 1 8 3 - 1 9 1 . 8 P a t r i c k . M o n t a g u e - S m i t h a n d Hugh M o n t g o m e r y - M a s s i n g b e r d , R o y a l P a l a c e s C a s t l e s and Homes ( L o n d o n : C o u n t r y L i f e B o o k s , 1981) 149. 9 F o l l e t , L i o n e l "Du ' P a l a i s ' de Rosemonde a l ' u n i v e r s p o e t i q u e " i n L e c t u r e de ' P a l a i s ' d ' A p o l l i n a i r e , . A r c h i v e s G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e n° 6 ( P a r i s : M i n a r d , 1972) 33-34. 145 1 0 F r a n c o i s e D i n i n m a n , " N a i s s a n c e de ' C r e p u s c u l e ' ou l e s t o u r s de M e r c u r e " i n Que v1o-v£? 2nd s e r i e s , 6 & 7 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 1-30. 1 1 M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y , 2, 60-61 & 67-68. 1 2 R i c h a r d Howard S t a m e l m a n , The drama of s e l f i n Guillaume Apn 1 1 i nai re' ,q ' A i r n n l s ' ( C h a p e l H i l l : U. o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1976) 103-118. 1 3 L e r o y C. B r e u n i g , "Le m a n u s c r i t de ' L u l de F a l t e n i n , " Ttevuft dps Sciences Humaines, 84 ( 1 9 5 6 ) : 4 0 1 - 4 1 2 . 1 4 J e a n - C l a u d e C h e v a l i e r , ' A l c o o l s ' d ' A p o l 1 i n a i r e . e s s a i d'analyse des formes poetiques ( P a r i s : L e t t r e s M o d e r n e s , M i n a r d , 1970) 169. 1 5 S c o t t B a t e s , " S u r ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' , " Le F l a n e u r des Deux  Rives 6 ( 1 9 5 5 ) : 7-9. A n t o i n e F o n g a r o , " A p o l l i n a i r e , G a u t i e r e t l e s s i r e n e s , " R P V 1 1 p des L e t t r e s Modernes 183-188 ( 1 9 6 8 ) : 6 4 - 8 1 . Rene L o u i s , " ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' . " Le Fla n e u r des Deux Rives, 2 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 9-11 a n d " E n c o r e ' L u l de F a l t e n i n ' . " Le F l a n e u r  des Deux Rives' 3 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 7-9. P h i l i p p e Renaud, 4 9 5 - 5 0 2 . 146 CHAPTER 8 THE YEARS OF HAPPINESS AND STRESS, PART I , 1908-1909 I n 1908 A p o l l i n a i r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o e t r y a t t h e t i m e was i n h i s own w o r d s : 1 . . . t r i o m p h e de l a f a u s s e t e , de l ' e r r e u r , de 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n . . . . r i e n q u i n o u s r e s s e m b l e e t t o u t a n o t r e i m a g e . J e ne c h e r c h e qu'un l y r i s m e n e u f e t h u m a n i s t e a l a f o i s . " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " a n d i t s p o e t i c c o u s i n "Le B r a s i e r " a r e e m b l e m a t i c o f t h i s m a j o r c h a n g e i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t i c c r e d o , w h i c h was f o r e s h a d o w e d by " L u i de F a l t e n i n " . H e n c e f o r t h , e v e n t h e p o e t r y t h a t was composed d u r i n g a n d a f t e r h i s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h M a r i e L a u r e n c i n w o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s new t h i n k i n g , d e s p i t e an i n c l i n a t i o n t o r e v e r t t o t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s when u n d e r t h e s t i m u l u s o f a l o v e t h a t was doomed. The " M a r i e " poems, i n a s e n s e , were s a n d w i c h e d b e t w e e n t h e o u t r i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , "Le B r a s i e r " , a n d " V e n d e m i a i r e " , w i t h " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " i n t r o d u c i n g t h e L a u r e n c i n s e t , a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a f t e r A l c o o l s was p u b l i s h e d , e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e poems i n t h e C a l l i g r a m m e s c o l l e c t i o n . 147 I n 1908 b l a n k v e r s e was s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n n o v a t i v e , i t was f a v o u r e d b y t h e N e o - S y m b o l i s t s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f J e a n R o y e r e , e d i t o r o f L a P h a l a n g e where A p o l l i n a i r e s e r v e d a s p o e t r y c r i t i c . E v e n t h o u g h h i s own p o e t r y was b e c o m i n g more a n d more i n n o v a t i v e , A p o l l i n a i r e h a d a d e g r e e o f a f f i n i t y w i t h R o y e r e ' s t h e o r i e s , b u t he was d i s i n c l i n e d t o g i v e up what he v a l u e d i n t h e huge s t o r e h o u s e o f l e g e n d a n d m y t h t h a t was t h e r e s u l t o f h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t y t o a b s o r b h i s w i d e s p r e a d r e a d i n g . "ONIROCRITIQUE" (O.P.,371-1908) A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o s e poem t r a n s l a t e d b y S t u a r t B a t e s a s "Dream C r i t i c i s m " i s an A p o c a l y p t i c v i e w o f t h e W o r l d a f t e r a c a t a c l y s m : one w o n d e r s w h e t h e r t h e p o e t ' s u n c a n n y g i f t f o r p r o p h e c y f o r e s a w t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n . 2 The p o e t ' s M e r l i n - l i k e f i g u r e w a n d e r s a b o u t t h i s d e a d w o r l d where men a n d women h a v e d i f f e r e n t e t e r n i t i e s a n d a p a i r o f d i s s i m i l a r a n i m a l s were o b s e r v e d t o be c o u p l i n g . H i s v i s i o n was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e w r i t i n g s o f Remy de Gourmont i n E p i l o g u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e x e s . The poem i s a f a r r a g o o f monkey's t h r o a t s b e l c h i n g f l a m m e s , o f f l o c k s o f t a n n e d s h e e p s w a l l o w e d w h o l e , o f s i n g i n g a p p l e t r e e s , o f s c a r l e t s t i g m a t a e on h a n d s , o f s k u l l - s h a p e d p e a r l s , o f o t h e r monkeys v i o l a t i n g g r a v e s , o f t h e e n c h a n t e r m u l t i p l y i n g h i m s e l f a h u n d r e d f o l d , o f humans i n a w i n e - p r e s s whose j u i c e s g a v e b i r t h t o o t h e r men, o f t h e c r o w n s o f a g e d k i n g s whose f a v o u r s were p r e f e r r e d b y women on a c c o u n t o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a r t s o f l o v e . 148 T h i s s u r r e a l p i c t u r e c a n n o t h o w e v e r be a s c r i b e d t o t h e k i n d o f a u t o m a t i c w r i t i n g t h a t t h e S u r r e a l i s t s o f t h e 1920s were t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p . A p o l l i n a i r e was p r o n e t o l e t h i s f a n c y roam a n d t h i s poem i s a d e l i b e r a t e c o m m i t t a l t o w r i t i n g i n t h e same way a s h i s e r o t i c Les Onze m i l l e verges r e c o r d e d h i s s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s . F i r e a n d f l a m e s , t h e p o e t ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n 1908, do a p p e a r i n t h e poem b u t p l a y a m i n o r r o l e c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n "Le B r a s i e r " , . d e s p i t e t h e c a s e made f o r the i m p o r t a n c e o f f i r e i n M e c h t i l d C r a n s t o n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s poem. 3 "LE BRASIER" (0.P.,108-1908) I n "Le B r a s i e r " A p o l l i n a i r e i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f f i g u r a t i v e l y w i t h M e r l i n and. t h u s assumes t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e famous m e d i e v a l m a g i c i a n , n a m e l y t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s of cosmic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , u b i q u i t y a n d s i m u l t a n e i t y a n d t h e d e m o n i c a b i l i t y t o a l t e r h i s f o r m s a n d s h a p e s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e w i z a r d ' s m a n t l e a l s o o c c u r s i n "Zone", " C o r t e g e " a n d " V e n d e m i a i r e " . 4 The poem i s composed o f t h r e e p a r t s , w h i c h w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as "A", "B" a n d "C". E a c h p a r t i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s / s t a n z a s w h i c h a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y n u m b e r e d u s i n g a r a b i c n u m e r a l s f o r e a s e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The s t a n z a s i n "A" a r e o c t o s y l l a b i c q u i n t i l s , w h i l e "B" a n d "C" f e a t u r e b l a n k v e r s e i n s e c t i o n s o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h . The poem i s v i r t u a l l y c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " , i n f a c t e a r l y d r a f t s were w r i t t e n on t h e same s h e e t o f p a p e r . As b e f i t s i t s name "Le B r a s i e r " r e f l e c t s A p o l l i n a i r e ' s t o t a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h f i r e w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e 149 poems o f 1908. He r e g a r d e d f i r e n o t o n l y as an a g e n t o f d e s t r u c t i o n b u t a l s o as a p u r i f i e r , t h e v i t a l e l e m e n t o f t h e e n t i r e s t e l l a r u n i v e r s e , as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e Godhead a n d t h e w h o l e company o f a n g e l s . I n f a c t A p o l l i n a i r e c o u l d h a v e b e e n e a s i l y a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e Z o r o a s t r i a n r e l i g i o n i f t h a t r e l i g i o n r e v o k e d i t s r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c a n d i d a t e s t o be b o r n o f p a r e n t s who were members o f t h a t f a i t h . The f i r s t f o u r l i n e s o f s t a n z a A l r e f l e c t A p o l l i n a i r e ' s abandonment o f t h e i m a g e s o f c u t h a n d s a n d h e a d s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r b o d i e s w h i c h were a f e a t u r e o f t h e " A n n i e " c y c l e a n d o t h e r poems o f e a r l i e r v i n t a g e . The f i f t h l i n e d e s c r i b e s h i s a b j e c t s u r r e n d e r t o t h e power o f t h e f l a m e . P e t e r F r o h l i c h e r i n h i s l e n g t h y a n d m a i n l y s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem h a s a d v a n c e d an i n t e r e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e h e a d s o f t h e d e a d r e p r e s e n t k n o w l e d g e f u l f i l l e d a n d t h e l i v e h a n d s a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y t o a p p l y t h e c o m p e t e n c e a c q u i r e d i n t h e p a s t t o t h e p r e s e n t a s w e l l . 5 I n t h e n e x t s t a n z a , A2, a new e l e m e n t i s i n t r o d u c e d , t h e f a r e w e l l t o t h i n g s p a s t i s o v e r , t h e r e i s a c o s m i c u r g i n g , an a n i m a l l i k e v i r i l i t y , a r e s u r g e n c e o f e r o t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n o n l y t e m p e r e d by t h e r u s t l i n g o f l e a v e s on t r e e b r a n c h e s , a phenomenon w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e was i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k i n v e s t e d t h e v e g e t a b l e w o r l d w i t h o r a c u l a r p o w e r s . The p r e s e n c e o f M a r i e L a u r e n c i n must h a v e h a d much t o do w i t h t h i s . The s t a n z a i s a f i n e e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s e x p e r i m e n t s i n s i m u l t a n e i t y i n c o m b i n i n g t h e p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e f u t u r e i n f i v e s h o r t l i n e s . S t a n z a A3 i s , i n a s e n s e , a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t 1 5 0 o f A l a n d A2. The r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s do n o t r e q u i r e an a n s w e r , t h e y m e r e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f i c k l e l o v e a n d r e l i g i o n o f y e s t e r y e a r h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d a n d t h a t t h e p o e t ' s s o u l w i l l be r e c r e a t e d i n t h e n e w l y r e k i n d l e d f i e r y f u r n a c e . The lemon, t r e e i m a g e , a f a v o u r i t e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s , i s c e n t r a l t o s t a n z a A4. A p o l l i n a i r e e v e n u s e d i t i n a poem s e n t t o L o u i s e de C o l i g n y - C h a t i l l o n , h i s w a r - t i m e l o v e . I t i s s y m b o l i c o f p e r m a n e n c e a n d remembrance, a l a s t i n g r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s u n n y b o y h o o d on t h e C o t e d ' A z u r . The b e h e a d e d s y m b o l s o f t h e women he l o v e d i n t h e p a s t a n d o f t h e women whose b o d i e s m e r e l y s e r v e d a s a r e l i e f t o h i s l i b i d o , c a n be a l l o w e d t o b l e e d l i k e t h e s e t t i n g s u n s w h i l e t h e t w i n h e a r t s o f M a r i e a n d G u i l l a u m e h a n g t o g e t h e r on t h e lemon t r e e . One i s r e m i n d e d o f t h e o l d C o r n i s h f o l k s o n g : " I ' l l h a n g my h a r p ( h e a r t ? ) on t h e w e e p i n g w i l l o w t r e e A n d may t h e w o r l d go w e l l w i t h t h e e " A p o l l i n a i r e n e x t t h i n k s o f t h e r i v e r S e i n e b e i n g p a r t a n d p a r c e l o f h i s b e l o v e d P a r i s . A s s u m i n g t h e r o l e o f Am p h i o n who b u i l t t h e w a l l s o f t h e c i t y o f T h e b e s by c h a r m i n g t h e t h e s t o n e s w i t h h i s l y r e , he s e e s t h e powe r o f p o e t r y g i v i n g h i m t h e means t o assume o n c e a g a i n h i s G o d - g i v e n r o l e a s an a r c h i t e c t o f w o r d s . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e poem d i f f e r s f r o m t h e f i r s t i n t h a t t h e p o e t i s now t o t a l l y a b s o r b e d b y t h e t h e f l a m e i n more s e n s e s t h a n one, s i n c e n o t o n l y d o e s i t s u r r o u n d h i m b u t i t b u r n s b r i g h t l y w i t h i n h i m . No l o n g e r i s t h e p o e t c o m m i t t i n g o u t w o r n i m a g e s t o i t . The f l a m e h a s l i b e r a t e d h i m f r o m h i s p a s t e x p e -r i e n c e s . I n B l t h e p o e t c o m p a r e s h i m s e l f t o t h e t h e s t r o n g - w i l l e d 151 m a r t y r s who s u f f e r e d a p p a l l i n g t o r t u r e s f o r t h e i r b e l i e f s . One i n p a r t i c u l a r , S a i n t James o f P e r s i a d i e d i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y A.D. a f t e r u n d e r g o i n g i n t e r c i s s i o n , a p r o g r e s s i v e h a c k i n g away o f h i s l i m b s s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e e x t r e m i t i e s . 6 A p o l l i n a i r e seems t o h a v e b e e n f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r i e s o f t h e S a i n t s , h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t went f a r b e y o n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e M a r i a n i s t f a t h e r s w h i c h he a c q u i r e d i n h i s s c h o o l d a y s . The p o e t , n e v e r one t o u n d e r p l a y h i s r o l e i n t h e p o e t i c scheme o f t h i n g s g o e s e v e n f u r t h e r by a s s e r t i n g , i n a c o m p l e x h y p e r b o l e , t h a t t h e l i g h t s h i n i n g on h i s c o u n t e n a n c e i s s o g r e a t t h a t t h e Sun h a s t o be s h i e l d e d f r o m i t by t h e w i n g s o f b i r d s . A p o l l i n a i r e s t a r t s t h e s e c o n d s t a n z a by a b a n t e r i n g i n v o c a t i o n o f Memory, a n d a r e m i n d e r t h a t much i n t h i s w o r l d i s l i k e l y t o d e g e n e r a t e l i k e t h e a c c u r s e d p r o g e n y o f ' C a s t o r a n d P o l l u x . The s e r p e n t i n e f l a m e s r e m i n d h i m o f t h e u n d u l a t i n g n e c k s o f swans r e p u t e d t o be i m m o r t a l a n d y e t . . . i n c a p a b l e o f s i n g i n g . A t l i n e f i v e t h e r e i s a c h a n g e o f k e y . The a l c h e m y h a s b e e n a t work a n d t h e P o e t h a i l s t h e r e n e w a l o f h i s l i f e a n d r e t u r n s t o t h e p r e s e n t i m p e r m a n e n t l i f e b y i n v o k i n g t h e t r a n s i t o r y image o f t h e m a i l s t e a m e r s who g l i d e by e a c h o t h e r on t h e i r a p p o i n t e d r o u t e s u n t i l t h e y meet t h e i r f a t e i n t h e s c r a p y a r d . The w a t e r y l e i t - m o t i v , one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f a v o u r i t e s , t h a t i s a f e a t u r e i f t h i s p a r t e n d s w i t h a p u n n i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o o l i n g e f f e c t o f w a t e r , he s e e s i t as a means t o r e d u c e t h e o v e r - h e a t e d s t a t e o f h i s m i n d a t t h e same t i m e as he t e m p e r s t h e t o o l s o f h i s t r a d e , h i s h a n d s , as he p l u n g e s ^them i n t o c o l d w a t e r a f t e r h e a t i n g them i n t h e f u r n a c e . . 152 The t h i r d s t a n z a b r i n g s i n , o n c e more, t h e m a i l s t e a m e r i m a g e , d r i v e n a s t h e y a r e b y t h e r o a r i n g f l a m e s i n t h e i r b o i l e r s . T h i s o f c o u r s e was i n t h e d a y s b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m o t o r -v e s s e l s o r a t o m i c p r o p u l s i o n . T h e r e i s a r e - i t e r a t i o n t h a t t h e P o e t h a s u n d e r g o n e a p r o c e s s o f r e n e w a l , a n d f i n a l l y A p o l l i n a i r e d i s a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f f r o m t h o s e who a r e t o o s c a r e d t o be p u r i f i e d i n t h e f l a m e s o f t h e f i e r y f u r n a c e . The t h i r d p a r t must h a v e g i v e n A p o l l i n a i r e much d i f f i c u l t y a n d t h e r o u g h d r a f t c o n f i r m s t h i s . T h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f d o u b t t h a t p e r m e a t e s t h e f i n a l s t a n z a s . A s t h e P o e t d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e s t a r r y v a u l t o f h i s a m b i t i o n he s e e s t h e f u t u r e f l a m i n g i n t a n -g i b l y a c r o s s t h e h e a v e n s l i k e a c o met. He w o n d e r s what i t h a s i n s t o r e f o r h i m a n d M a r i e a n d l i k e n s i t t o k i n d o f d i v i n e m a s q u e r a d e i n w h i c h he a n d h i s f e l l o w - m e n w i l l b e , n o t o n l y t h e a c t o r s on t h e s t a g e , b u t a l s o t h e a u d i e n c e , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g u n a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . The t h e a t r e o f l i f e i s b u i l t by t h e s a c r i f i c e on t h e f u n e r a l p y r e i n t h e e m p y r e a n i n t h e same m a g i c a l way a s t h e s n a k e Z a m i r ( s t i l l more e v i d e n c e o f t h e e r u d i t i o n o f A p o l l i n a i r e ) b u i l t t h e Temple i n J e r u s a l e m . A S p h i n x image i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f h i d d e n w i s d o m as d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p u r e l y e r o t i c image o f t h e C e n t a u r f e a t u r e d i n p a r t "A". The f l o c k o f w i s e - a n d d e v i o u s - men w i l l f o l l o w t h e i r l e a d e r s a l l t h r o u g h l i f e . B e a s t s d e v o i d o f h u m a n i t y w i l l g i v e o r d e r s t o men who h a v e b e e n t a m e d by them; a r e m a r k a b l e r e v e r s a l o f r o l e s a n d an a m a z i n g l y s t u n n i n g p r o p h e c y o f t h e N a z i r e g i m e i n E u r o p e d u r i n g t h e 1940s by one who u n d o u b t e d l y h a d M e r l i n ' s m a g i c a l g i f t s . 153 F i n a l l y t h e " d o u b t " theme r e t u r n s a s t h e P o e t a s k s why i t s h o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o be d e v o u r e d by f l a m e s t o r i s e a b o v e t h e common h e r d . "Le B r a s i e r " i s an e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e a t t h e p e a k o f h i s p o w e r s . I t c o n t a i n s t h e b e s t o f t h e p o e t i c d e v i c e s a n d some o f t h e most t e l l i n g i m a g e s t o be f o u n d a n y w h e r e a n d p r o v i d e s p r o o f i f s u c n was n e e d e d o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s s e n s i t i v i t y a n d e r u d i t i o n . "CORTEGE" (O.P.,74-1908) T h i s poem, i s one o f t h e f o u r i m p o r t a n t poems o f t h e y e a r s 1908 a n d 1909, t h e o t h e r s b e i n g , "Le B r a s i e r " , " L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " a n d " V e n d e m i a i r e " . Two more poems, o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t , were p r o d u c e d n a m e l y "1909" a n d " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " . T h e r e i s some d o u b t as t o when t h e - p o e m was f i r s t c o n c e i v e d ; t h e o r i g i n a l d r a f t was w r i t t e n on t h e b a c k o f a p i e c e o f p a p e r d a t e d 1906, t h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e b e c a u s e A p o l l i n a i r e n e v e r t h r e w away a b l a n k p a g e . However t h e r e i s a s t r o n g U n a n i m i s t f l a v o u r t o l i n e s 19 t o 73 w h i c h j u s t i f i e s t h e d a t e shown. A p o l l i n a i r e r e c i t e d t h e poem i n f r o n t o f J u l e s R o m a i n s i n 1 9 0 9 . 8 T h i s work w r i t t e n m a i n l y i n b l a n k v e r s e i s composed o f t h r e e • p a r t s , l i n e s 1 - 18, 19 - 65, a n d 66 - 73. The f i r s t i s l a r g e l y m y s t i c a l a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l i n n a t u r e ; t h e k e y i s i n t h e l a s t two w o r d s o f t h e l a s t l i n e " l ' u n i q u e l u m i e r e " . The s e c o n d p a r t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a i n s e c t i o n s , t h e f i r s t o f w h i c h , l i n e s 19 -23 i l l u s t r a t e s f a c e t s o f t h e - A p o l l i n a r i a n s e l f u s i n g " j e " , "me", " m o i " , " t u " , " G u i l l a u m e " , a n d " c e l u i - l a " a l l i n t h e s p a c e o f f o u r l i n e s ! The p o e t i s s e a r c h i n g f o r h i s p r o p e r i d e n t i t y a n d 154 k n o w l e d g e o f h i m s e l f . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n l i n e s 23 - 47 t h e r e i s a p r o c e s s i o n o f s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s a n d i n t h e t h i r d , l i n e s 48 — 65, a p a r a d e o f d r e a m s , h a l l u c i n a t i o n s a n d c r e a t u r e s o f t h e p o e t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . I n t h e t h i r d a n d f i n a l p a r t o f t h e poem, l i n e s 66 - 73, t h e p o e t i s f i n a l l y r e w a r d e d i n h i s q u e s t f o r s e l f k n o w l e d g e . He r e a l i s e s t h a t he must l o o k t o t h e s h i n i n g p a s t a s he t u r n s away f r o m t h e c o l o u r l e s s w o r l d o f t h e p r e s e n t . 9 T h e r e a r e many d i s p a r a t e e l e m e n t s i n t h i s poem b u t t h e y h a v e b e e n j o i n e d t o make a c o m p r e h e n s i v e i f n o t an i m m e d i a t e l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e w h o l e . I n t h i s A p o l l i n a i r e h a s f o l l o w e d t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e C u b i s t s c h o o l o f p a i n t e r s whose work was o f t e n made up o f c o l l a g e s . I t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l w i t h e a c h p a r t i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The f i r s t f i v e l i n e s h a v e t o do w i t h a m y t h i c a l b i r d t h a t n e s t s i n t h e a i r , a m y t h t h a t may h a v e a r i s e n b e c a u s e t h e humming b i r d c a n f l y t o v e r y g r e a t h e i g h t s , e v e n 16000 f e e t a b o v e s e a l e v e l , a n d b e c a u s e some b i r d s c a n mate i n t h e a i r . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t f r o m g r e a t h e i g h t s , on a c l e a r d a y , t h e e a r t h b e l o w c a n s h i n e q u i t e b r i g h t l y , one n e e d o n l y r e f e r t o t h e b e a u t i f u l p i c t u r e s o f t h e E a r t h t a k e n by t h e a s t r o n a u t s f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n . I n v e r s e f l i g h t c a n be e x p l a i n e d as a f l i g h t t o w a r d s b r i g h t n e s s , h e n c e a s e e m i n g f l i g h t t o w a r d s t h e g r o u n d i s v i s u a l i s e d as an u p w a r d f l i g h t . I t i s a m e t a p h y s i c a l w o r l d , one t h a t i s t u r n e d u p s i d e down, one t h a t c a l l s f o r a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k ; A p o l l i n a i r e made, t h i s c l e a r i n a l i n e i n an e a r l y d r a f t o f t h e poem, w h i c h he h a d t e n t a t i v e l y t i t l e d 155 " B r u m a i r e " b e f o r e s e t t l i n g on " C o r t e g e " a n d s u p p r e s s i n g i t i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n ; as u s u a l A p o l l i n a i r e h a d an a b i d i n g f e a r o f r e v e a l i n g t o o much, a t r a i t t h a t made h i s f r i e n d s a c c u s e h i m o f b e i n g a m y s t i f i e r : N o u v e l o i s e a u d'une n o u v e l l e r e a l i t e . R i c h a r d Stamelman h a s c a l l e d t h i s d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n i n - s i g h t , one t h a t • l o o k s i n w a r d t o t h e s e l f , a n e o l o g i s m t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e w o u l d h a v e a p p r o v e d o f . 1 0 The n e x t s t a n z a o f t h i s f i r s t p a r t , l i n e s 6 - 11, c o n n e c t s t h e p o e t ' s s e l f t o t h i s n e w l y c r e a t e d w o r l d . The s e l f h a s a b u i l t i n d u a l i t y h o w e v e r , one b o u n d t o t h e e a r t h t h e o t h e r p l a n i n g i n t h e s k y a b o v e . The t e r r e s t r i a l p e r s o n a s t r u g g l e s , c h a i n e d , i n t h e m i s t y d a r k n e s s , t h e o t h e r f l i e s f r e e i n t h e b r i g h t n e s s w h i c h a l l o w s h i m t o s e e h i s i n n e r s e l f a n d h i s p a s t i n t h e f o r m o f t h e b r i g h t s t a r s o f t h e n i g h t . The t h i r d s t a n z a , a d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i r s t t w o , b r i n g s t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t image o f an u p w a r d f l y i n g comet t r a i l i n g a f i e r y t a i l "ce f e u o b l o n g " whose b r i g h t n e s s i n c r e a s e s as t h e e a r t h i s l e f t b e h i n d , a n d c a u s e s t h e m y t h i c a l b i r d t o s h i e l d i t s e y e s . T h i s c e l e s t i a l b r i g h t n e s s i s composed o f two e l e m e n t s , one, t h e p a s t , t h a t becomes more l u m i n o u s t h e f u r t h e r b a c k one g o e s , t h e o t h e r , t h e f u t u r e , t h a t w i l l come i n t o b e i n g when t h e o b l o n g f i r e becomes a s u n . L i k e t h e s u n , t h e p o e t ' s w o r k s o f a r t w i l l l i v e on a f t e r h i s d e a t h . The l i n e s f r o m "Le B r a s i e r " d e s c r i b e t h i s v i s i o n ; t h i s " u n i q u e l u m i e r e " : D e s c e n d a n t de s h a u t e u r s ou p e n s e l a l u m i e r e J a r d i n s r o u a n t p l u s h a u t que t o u s l e s c i e u x m o b i l e s 156 L ' a v e n i r masque f l a m b e en t r a v e r s a n t l e s c i e u x . The s e c o n d p a r t s t a r t s w i t h t h e p o e t q u e s t i o n i n g h i s own i d e n t i t y i n c o n t r a s t w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e t h e i d e n t i t i e s o f p e o p l e o t h e r t h a n h i m s e l f t h r o u g h t h e f i v e s e n s e s o f s i g h t , h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e , a n d t o u c h . A c a t a l o g u e o f e x a m p l e s o f t h i s s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n o c c u p i e s l i n e s 25 t o 47; t h e s m e l l o f a s m a l l dog b r i n g s t o m i n d t h e h i s t o r y a n d myt h s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c i t y o f C o l o g n e , i n a w h i m s i c a l t h r e e l i n e p a s s a g e i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a r t A p o l l i n a i r e r e - i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f : Un j o u r j e m ' a t t e n d a i s moi-meme J e me d i s a i s G u i l l a u m e i l e s t temps que t u v i e n n e s . I n l i n e s 50 t o 65 he b e g i n s t h e e n u m e r a t i o n , i n an o n i r i c s e q u e n c e , o f t h e p e r s o n a g e s a n d t h i n g s i m p o r t a n t t o h i m , a r o s e h e l d i n t h e h a n d , t h e s e a a n d a l l t h a t d w e l l s i n i t , t h e p e o p l e he w a n t e d t o r e a c h o u t t o . The p o e t r e a l i s i n g a l l t h e w h i l e t h a t he was b u i l t up o f s u c h c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s . The c o n c l u d i n g p a r t o f t h e poem, l i n e s 66 t o 73, c o n t r a s t s t h e l i f e l e s s , c o l o u r l e s s , s h a p e l e s s a n d empty w o r l d o f t h e p r e s e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e p a s t s h i n i n g i n a l l i t s g l o r y . The p o e t r e - a f f i r m s t h a t i t i s t h e p a s t w h i c h w i l l c a r r y h i s w o r k s o f a r t f o r w a r d i n t o t h e f u t u r e a n d t h u s g r a n t h i m i m m o r t a l i t y . The e f f o r t w i l l c r e a t e t h e e f f e c t . T h i s poem i s an e x e r c i s e i n m e t a p h y s i c s a n d s e l f - a n a l y s i s . I t shows t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e was c a p a b l e o f d e v e l o p i n g a p o e t i c theme f r o m t h e most m i n o r o c c u r e n c e . The c o n c e p t o f f l y i n g . d o w n t o b r i g h t n e s s i s a b r i l l i a n t o n e . He seemed t o be aware t h a t t h e 157 w o r l d he l i v e d i n , was an u p s i d e - d o w n o ne. He t r i e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e man a n d t h e p o e t a l l t h e w h i l e r e a l i s i n g t h a t t h e p a s t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o b o t h a s p e c t s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . "LES F I A N C A I L L E S " ( P . 0 . , 128-1908) T h i s work i s , i n e f f e c t , a c o l l e c t i o n o f n i n e poems a n d s h a r e s i t s o r i g i n w i t h "Le B r a s i e r " , i t h a s a f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e t o " L u i de F a l t e n i n " i n t h a t i t d e s c r i b e s t h e p a n g s a n d r e w a r d s o f t h e a c t o f p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y . 1908 was a y e a r when A p o l l i n a i r e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r i e L a u r e n c i n was f a v o r a b l e as f a r a s t h e two l o v e r s were c o n c e r n e d b u t one s h o u l d n o t t r y t o r e a d i n t o t h i s poem any i n d i c a t i o n o f a f o r m a l b e t r o t h a l s i n c e M a r i e ' s m o t h e r was v e r y much a g a i n s t s u c h a move. The work was d e d i c a t e d t o P i c a s s o whose p a i n t i n g s o f t h e " B l u e " a n d " R o s e " p e r i o d were much a d m i r e d b y A p o l l i n a i r e ; h o w e v e r b o t h t h e p o e t a n d t h e p a i n t e r u n d e r w e n t a s t r i k i n g c h a n g e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o t h e i r work a t t h i s t i m e . A p o l l i n a i r e w i t h t h e s e r i e s o f poems b e g i n n i n g w i t h " L u i de F a l t e n i n " f o l l o w e d b y " O n i r o c r i t i q u e " , L e s F i a n c a i l l e s " , "Le B r a s i e r " , " C o r t e g e " a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s p r e - w a r poems; P i c a s s o w i t h t h e g r o u n d -b r e a k i n g " L e s D e m o i s e l l e s d ' A v i g h o n " . A p o l l i n a i r e was q u i c k t o d e t e c t t h i s c h a n g e i n h i s f r i e n d ' s a p p r o a c h t o a r t a n d commented on i t i n h i s a r t i c l e on P i c a s s o i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s L e s P e i n t r e s C u b i s t e s , M e d i t a t i o n s esth£tiques; t h e s e c o n d a r y t i t l e was f a v o u r e d b y t h e a u t h o r who h i m s e l f was t r y i n g t o f o r m u l a t e h i s i d e a s w i t h much d i f f i c u l t y as r e v e a l e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s 158 w h i c h r e c a l l e d t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d . 1 1 Hommes c r e e s a 1'image de D i e u , i l s s e r e p o s e r o n t un j o u r p o u r a d m i r e r l e u r o u v r a g e . M a i s que de f a t i g u e s , que d ' i m p e r f e c t i o n , que de g r o s s i e r e t e s ! L e r o y C. B r e u n i g h a s d r a w n a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f o r e g o i n g l i n k b e t w e e n t h e two f r i e n d s i n o b s e r v i n g t h a t : 1 2 [...] dan s s a m e i l l e u r e p o e s i e A p o l l i n a i r e p a r t a g e a i t a v e c P i c a s s o e t l e s m e i l l e u r s c u b i s t e s 1 ' e s p r i t h e r o i q u e e t 1 ' i n q u i e t u d e t e r r i b l e d o n t c e t t e p e i n t u r e e s t i m p r e g n e e . The n i n e poems h a v e b e e n n u m b e r e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n w i t h Roman n u m e r a l s a n d t h e comments h a v e b e e n i n s e t when t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e t o t h e poem i t s e l f . I I n t h e f i r s t o f t h e n i n e poems t h e p o e t t a k e s a f o n d l o o k a t t h e s y m b o l i s t t h e mes a n d i n s p i r a t i o n s o f h i s e a r l i e r p o e t r y , t h e i l l u s o r y l o v e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e y e a r i n t h e R h i n e l a n d > t h e b l u e o f t h e d i s t a n t v i l l a g e s r e c a l l s t h e b l u e e y e l i d s o f A n n i e t h a t were o n c e c o m p a r e d t o t h e b l u e o f t h e autumn c r o c u s i n " L e s C o l c h i q u e s " a n d t h e b l u e b i r d h a r k s b a c k t o " L a T z i g a n e " . A p o l l i n a i r e f o u n d t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a n z a s o f "Le P r i n t e m p s " s u i t e d h i s mood p e r f e c t l y , s o he c o p i e d t h e m o u t w i t h m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e t h e s t a r t o f " F i a n c a i l l e s " . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d h i m d o i n g t h i s s i n c e A p o l l i n a i r e h a d a somewhat l i m i t e d s t o c k o f p o e t i c i m a g e s w h i c h t e n d t o r e - o c c u r i n h i s p o e t r y . A l t h o u g h t h e mood c h a n g e s c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e s e c o n d poem 159 one should guard against i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s as a sign of the bipolar disorder that a f f l i c t e d the poet between 1902 and 1905. This poem and the remaining seven poems form a progression which has challenged the exegetic s k i l l s of Scott Bates, Anne Hyde Greet and Leroy Breunig. Their work has been found to be of great assistance i n the following a n a l y s i s . 1 3 II Symbolizes the death of love, a sle e p - l i k e trance and an awakening to fin d that women are no longer s a i n t l y . Lines 13 and 14 were culled, with minor modifications from a poem of 1902, "Les V i l l e s sont p l e i n e s " , i n which A p o l l i n a i r e described l i f e i n the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s he v i s i t e d i n Germany and the eff e c t they had on him. The statement that his friends are d i s d a i n f u l i n the f i r s t l i n e of t h i s poem reminds one of Max Jacob's frequent comment regarding A p o l l i n a i r e ' s e f f o r t s to change his s t y l e : "Encore trop symboliste!" The underlying themes are a desire to sweep away the dusty r e l i c s of symbolism and the remembrance of the personal anguish he had experienced aft e r the break-up with Annie. 1 4 I l l The poet i s struck dumb (one i s reminded of the t o t a l l y unproductive year of 190 6) and the poet faces the end of the world. IV The mood changes to reminiscence and the recognition of the Present in the shape of the pretty and witty mulatto g i r l who of course i s Marie Laurencin. 160 V The s p a r k i s f a n n e d i n t o a f l a m e o f p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e p o e t assumes G o d - l i k e p o w e r s a n d c a n a s s e r t q u i t e c o n f i d e n t l y t h a t : J e m e d i t e d i v i n e m e n t E t j e s o u r i s d e s e t r e s que j e n ' a i p a s c r e e s M a i s s i l e temps v e n a i t ou 1'ombre e n f i n s o l i d e Se m u l t i p l i a i t . en r e a l i s a n t l a d i v e r s i t e f o r m e l l e de mon amour J ' a d m i r e r a i s mon o u v r a g e . The p o e t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t he h a s w i p e d t h e o l d s l a t e o f s y m b o l i s m c l e a n a n d t h a t he now h a s b u t one l o v e , M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , as he s i n g s : J e ne s a i s p l u s r i e n e t j ' a i m e u n i q u e m e n t . V I The p o e t i s o v e r c o m e by t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f poem V and, a s he r e s t s , a s k s how h i s f i v e b o d i l y s e n s e s a n d l o v e ' s a r d o u r c a n be r e l a t e d t o " 1 ' e s p r i t h e r o i q u e e t 1 ' i n q u i e t u d e t e r r i b l e " t h a t was r e f e r r e d t o by L e r o y C. B r e u n i g . A p o l l i n a i r e t r i e d t o make t h e p o e t i c c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t a s t e o f a n d d e s i r e f o r l a u r e l n o t e d by P e t r a r c h , a n d t h e surname o f h i s m i s t r e s s by an o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e i n t h e l a s t l i n e o f t h i s p a r t , t h e r e b y demons-t r a t i n g o n c e a g a i n h i s m a s t e r y o f t h e u s e o f p u n s . The v o i d c r e a t e d by h i s abandonment o f t h e o l d w o r n o u t t r a p p i n g s o f s y m b o l i s m i s now a b o u t t o be f i l l e d w i t h new m o n s t r o u s i m a g e s n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h i s t h e one he h a s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e t a s t e o f l a u r e l . V I I T h i s i s a j o y o u s ode i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f h i s new f o u n d 161 l o v e , t h e p o e t w a n t s t o s h a r e h i s h a p p i n e s s w i t h w h o e v e r h a p p e n s t o p a s s b y . T h e r e i s a r i n g o f s i m u l t a n e i t y t o t h i s p a r t , a c a t a l o g u e o f e v e r y t h i n g h a p p e n i n g a t o n c e . L i n e s 4 a n d 5 a r e t o be f o u n d i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m i n "Le P r i n t e m p s " . V I I I I n an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e m a r i n e r s o f " L u i de F a l t e n i n " t h e p o e t s t r e s s e s t h a t now a l l i s w e l l w i t h h i m a s he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e now h a p p y s a i l o r s as t h e i r s h i p s d i s a p p e a r o v e r t h e h o r i z o n . The l a s t two l i n e s were b o r r o w e d f r o m "Le P r i n t e m p s " a n d p r e s e r v e t h e s p r i n g - l i k e theme o f t h a t poem. A p o l l i n a i r e was a f i r m b e l i e v e r i n a s t r o l o g y b e i n g b o r n u n d e r t h e s i g n o f V i r g o i n t h e t h i r d month o f Summer. I X The l a s t poem i s v e r y o b s c u r e a n d r e f l e c t s t h e e x t r e m e d i f f i c u l t y t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e e x p e r i e n c e d i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y a t t h i s t i m e . He was o b s e s s e d w i t h f i r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an a b s t r a c t s e n s e . He c o m p a r e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e K n i g h t s T e m p l a r who were b u r n e d a t t h e s t a k e p a r t l y f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s ( G n o s t i c i s m , f a v o u r e d b y A p o l l i n a i r e , f o r o n e ) , he s e e s h i m s e l f as a m a r t y r p u r i f i e d b y f i r e a n d f o r e t e l l s h i s own d e a t h a t 40. H i s o n w a r d r u s h t o w a r d s e x t i n c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a k n i g h t o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s t i l t i n g w i t h h i s l a n c e a t t h e q u i n t a i n . P e r h a p s t h e p o e t r e a l i s e d i n t h i s p a s s a g e w h i c h i s s t e e p e d w i t h s e x u a l c o n n o t a t i o n t h a t h i s s e x u a l u r g e s w o u l d o n l y l e a d h i m i n t o m i s e r y . The l a s t q u a t r a i n c e l e b r a t e s t h e d e m i s e o f u n c e r t a i n t y , 162 h e n c e f o r t h t h e p o e t w i l l e m b r a c e a l l t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g on h i m a n d r e c o g n i z e t h e i r s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e a s he g o e s f o r t h l i k e t h e b r a v e T e m p l a r s o f o l d . 1 5 To sum up, A p o l l i n a i r e , t h e p o e t , h a s s u c c e e d e d i n f o r g i n g a new weapon i n h i s p o e t i c a r m o u r y w h i c h h a s b r o u g h t h i m j o y f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e p r e s e n t . However A p o l l i n a i r e , t h e man, r e a l i s e s t h a t t h e way a h e a d may r e s u l t i n m i s e r y , e v e n d e a t h , i f he g i v e s i n t o t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e i n s p i r a t i o n . As r e g a r d s t h e poem i t s e l f , a n d t h e m a n i f o l d d i f f i c u l t i e s A p o l l i n a i r e e x p e r i e n c e d i n w r i t i n g i t , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e c o m p l e x s e r i e s o f b o r r o w i n g s f r o m o t h e r poems a n d t h e r e p e a t e d c h a n g e s i n t h e d r a f t s , L e r o y C. B r e u n i g h a d t h i s t o s a y : 1 6 [...] o n c e we a c c e p t 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' as a means o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e a u t h o r a t work, i t i s p e r h a p s w i t h o u t e q u a l i n a l l t h e p o e t r y o f A p o l l i n a i r e , f o r t h e b a t t l e w h i c h we h a v e t h e p r i v i l e g e o f r e l i v i n g w i t h h i m was one o f t h e most i n t e n s e , a n d d e f i n i t e l y t h e most d e c i s i v e i n h i s e n t i r e p o e t i c l i f e . "POEME LU AU MARIAGE D'ANDRE SALMON" (P.0.,83-1909) The poem b e a r s t h e d a t e J u l y 13 190 9- a n d t h i s i s a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e w e d d i n g A p o l l i n a i r e w o r k e d away a t t h e poem a n d p u t t h e f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s t o i t on t h e way t o t h e w e d d i n g ; he r e a d i t d u r i n g t h e w e d d i n g f e a s t a t A n d r e ' s m o t h e r -i n - l a w ' s home. A p o l l i n a i r e p r o b a b l y r e a d t h e poem, w r i t t e n i n b l a n k v e r s e , a f o r m d e a r t o t h e s y m b o l i s t s o f t h e " B e l l e E p oque", f r o m a r o u g h d r a f t , s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h shows t h a t t h e 163 s e c o n d p a r t o f t h i s work g a v e h i m much d i f f i c u l t y . 1 7 A n d r e S a l m o n h a d b e e n a f r i e n d o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s f o r some t i m e , b o t h l o v e d f r e q u e n t i n g t h e b a r s a n d c a f e s - c h a n t a n t i n t h e M o n t m a r t r e d i s t r i c t , b e f o r e he, l i k e many o f t h e c o t e r i e o f p o e t s a n d a r t i s t s , l e f t t h e n o r t h o f P a r i s f o r t h e L e f t Bank. A n d r e h a d a s t e a d y j o b a t L' I n t r a n s i g e n t , a n d t h e p r o s p e c t o f a b e t t e r one a t t h e P a r i s - J o u r n a l . He h a d met a M i l e M a r i e -J e a n n e B l a z y - E s c a r p e t t e a t t h e home o f Maud Robbe, an E n g l i s h d a n c e r , i n P a r i s . They d e c i d e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e f e s t i v i t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e F r e n c h N a t i o n a l H o l i d a y b y g e t t i n g m a r r i e d t h e day b e f o r e , a n d h a d among t h e w i t n e s s e s , A p o l l i n a i r e a n d Rene D a l i z e w h i l e M a r i e L a u r e n c i n was m a i d o f h o n o u r . The w e d d i n g g r o u p , some t e n i n a l l , h a d a g r e a t t i m e d a n c i n g i n t h e s t r e e t s . A n d r e r e l a t e s t h a t t h e g r o u p went f o r r i d e s on a f a i r - g r o u n d c a r o u s e l , M a r i e on a g i r a f f e , D a l i z e on a l i o n w i t h a p o o d l e ' s f a c e a n d A p o l l i n a i r e on a t i n y E l e p h a n t ; how v e r y a p t ! 1 8 The poem s t a r t s w i t h a s e r i e s o f n e g a t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v e t h a t o n l y p o e t s who c a n renew t h e w o r l d w i t h t h e i r a r t , n o t t h e f e s t i v e c e l e b r a n t s r e c a l l i n g t h e t a k i n g o f t h e B a s t i l l e , n o r t h o s e who i m i t a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l i b e r t y w i t h h o n o u r , n o r t h o s e who were s a c r i f i c e d b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t know how t o b e n e f i t f r o m l i f e . The f i r s t p a r t e n d s w i t h a wry s t a t e m e n t t h a t P a r i s was d e c o r a t e d b e c a u s e t h e p o e t ' s f r i e n d A n d r e was g e t t i n g m a r r i e d t h a t d a y . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t i t was n o t t h e c e l l a r o f t h e c a f e "Le D e p a r t " t h a t was w r e t c h e d , t h e e p i t h e t a p p l i e d t o t h e p e n n i l e s s p o e t s who f r e q u e n t e d t h e p l a c e t o h e a r e a c h o t h e r ' s 164 w o r k s . A p o l l i n a i r e was f o n d o f t h e image o f b r o k e n w i n e - g l a s s e s w h i c h he i n t r o d u c e s on a c c o u n t o f t h e l o n g t a b l e , c l e a r e d e x c e p t f o r t h e two f r i e n d s g l a s s e s , r e s e m b l i n g a c o f f i n c o v e r e d w i t h a s h r o u d . The s u d d e n s h a t t e r i n g o f t h e w i n e - g l a s s e s b r o k e t h e t e n s i o n a n d f o r c e d t h e f r i e n d s t o l a u g h i n s t e a d o f c r y i n g i n t o t hem a n d b e m o a n i n g t h e i r l o t . M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y h a s a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r " l e d e r n i e r r e g a r d d ' O r p h e e " , t h e b a c k w a r d g l a n c e h a s t h e e f f e c t o f m a k i n g t h e o b j e c t o f t h e r e g a r d d i s a p p e a r a n d t h e p a t r o n God o f p o e t s must d i e e a c h t i m e t h e y s e a r c h f o r n o v e l t e c h n i q u e s a n d s k i l l s . 1 9 The r e m a i n i n g s t a n z a s i n t h i s s e c o n d p a r t r e l a t e t h e many t i m e s A n d r e a n d G u i l l a u m e s h a r e d t h e same t h o u g h t s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s . The p a r t c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e c h i l d - l i k e a d m i s s i o n t h a t t h e i r s e c r e t s must now be made .known b e c a u s e "my f r i e n d i s g e t t i n g m a r r i e d . " The l a s t p a r t o n c e a g a i n • s t a r t s o f f w i t h a s e r i e s o f n e g a t i o n s w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e t h a t t h e y t a k e t h e f o r m " n o t b e c a u s e " w i t h t h e c o n j u n c t i o n i n t r o d u c i n g an a f f i r m a t i o n . The most n o t a b l e o f t h e l a t t e r a r e t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t t h e two p o e t s h a v e grown i n s t a t u r e t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e i r e y e s a r e f u l l o f s t a r s , • t h a t t h e y c a n weep u n a s h a m e d l y a n d l a u g h u p r o a r i o u s l y a n d t h a t , most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y , b o r n t o p o e t r y , h a v e t h e r i g h t s t o t h e w o r d s t h a t make a n d b r e a k t h e u n i v e r s e . The poem e n d s w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n t o r e j o i c e b e c a u s e L o v e , t h e God o f f i r e a n d p o e t s , h a s , l i k e t h e L i g h t , f i l l e d t h e s o l i d s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n t s t a r s a n d t h e p l a n e t s a n d i n s i s t s t h a t G u i l l a u m e ' s f r i e n d A n d r e Salmon be m a r r i e d . T i m o t h y Mathews h a s 165 drawn attention to the combination of assertion and sensation that characterises so much of 'Alcools' and i s present i n the l i n e s : 2 0 L'amour qui emplit a i n s i que l a lumiere Tout le solide espace entre les e t o i l e s et les planetes One cannot help being struck with the musicality of the lin e s of blank verse i n t h i s poem, they have an almost Shakespearian q u a l i t y . "1909" (P.O.,138-1909) The i d e n t i t y of the laughing lady of fashion to whom Ap o l l i n a i r e devoted twenty-two of the twenty-nine l i n e s comprising t h i s poem i n blank verse w i l l remain a mystery. She was probably the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the year 1909, i n which a return to the fashions of the "Directoire" period was f i r s t noted, a welcome change from the t i g h t l y corseted styles that deformed women's bodies, u n t i l then. Lines 7 to 11 were borrowed from a three q u i n t i l poem about low l i f e i n Paris t i t l e d "L'Anguille" while the description of the dress i s related to a similar one i n "0 France, France ma pa t r i e " written by A p o l l i n a i r e under the guise of Louise Lalanne. The l a s t seven lines r e c o l l e c t the years 1905 to 1906 when Ap o l l i n a i r e was at a loose end and probably meeting up with working class p r o s t i t u t e s . He came to r e a l i s e the importance of machinery and the new inventions to everyday l i f e , something that he gave voice to, i n t h i s and l a t e r poems. There i s perhaps a reference to the economic truism that luxury goods are often the 166 p r o d u c t o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g u n d e r s q u a l i d c o n d i t i o n s . "VENDEMIAIRE" (0 . P . , 14 9-190 9) " V e n d e m i a i r e " was i n t e n d e d a s a p a r t o f an e p i c poem e n t i t l e d "L'Annee r e p u b l i c a i n e " t o be w r i t t e n a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f J u l e s R o m a i n s . A p o l l i n a i r e was i n t e r e s t e d f o r a s h o r t t i m e o n l y i n t h e U n a n i m i s t s l e d by R o m a i n s , t h i s g r o u p a d v o c a t e d s i m u l t a n e i t y a n d u b i q u i t y . M a r c e l D e c a u d i n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r o b a b l e y e a r o f c o m p o s i t i o n as on 1909 a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . The U n a n i m i s t c o n n e c t i o n c o n f i r m s t h i s s i n c e A p o l l i n a i r e h a d n o t p a i d any a t t e n t i o n t o t h e U n a n i m i s t s b e f o r e 1908 . 2 1 T h r e e s e c t i o n s were w r i t t e n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e e p i c , t h e s e c o n d was " B r u m a i r e " , l a t e r r e n amed " C o r t e g e " , a n d t h e t h i r d , u n t i t l e d , became "Zone". V e n d e m i a i r e was t h e f i r s t m onth o f t h e R e p u b l i c a n c a l e n d a r a n d c o r r e s p o n d s t o S e p t e m b e r , t h e v i n t a g e month. A p o l l i n a i r e i n a l e t t e r t o h i s f r i e n d M a d e l e i n e P a g e s d a t e d 3 0 t h J u l y 1915, w r i t t e n j u s t p r i o r t o h i s engagement t o h e r , made a c o n f e s s i o n a b o u t h i s f o r m e r l o v e M a r i e L a u r e n c i n , a b o u t t h e t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t h e f t o f t h e Mona L i s a a n d a b o u t h i s p r e f e r e n c e s among t h e w o r k s he h a d w r i t t e n . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f a l l t h e ' A l c o o l s ' poems, he p r e f e r r e d " V e n d e m i a i r e " , he a l s o l i k e d "Le V o y a g e u r " a n d h a r d l y remembered a l i n e o f " Z o n e " . 2 2 I t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t G u i l l a u m e l i k e d " V e n d e m i a i r e " ; he was a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y R a b e l a i s a n d no s t r a n g e r t o d r u n k e n n e s s . 167 Patrick Truhn in his essay on the poem describes him v i v i d l y : 2 3 ...: nocturnal flaneur, p r i v i l e g e d recorder of an i l l u s t r i o u s past and a tumultuous present, prophet of an apocalyptic future. The poem, the end-piece of 'Alcools' i s approximately the same length as "Zone", the opening work of the anthology, the general theme i s one of hope, as opposed to "Zone" which i s redolent of despair. In common with the poems of t h i s period (1908-1909) such as "Les F i a n c a i l l e s , "Cortege" and "Le Brasier", "Vendemiaire" i s noteworthy i n that form takes second place to content; in fact the use of Alexandrines i n the poem i s dependent on whether the poet chose to create special e f f e c t s . The bulk of the poem i s however in blank verse. The poem i s d i v i s i b l e into several sections, seven of which are responses of various c i t i e s and regions to the poet's i n v i t a t i o n to slake the t h i r s t he shares with his beloved Paris; these are Britanny (lines 23-38), the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s of the North of France (39-49), Lyons (50-58), the towns of Provence (59-65), S i c i l y (66-76), Rome (94-112) and Koblenz 113-135. Lines 1-21, written i n alexandrines serve as an introduction, l i n e s 77-93, also i n alexandrines, were inspired by the dangerous S t r a i t s of Messina that divide S i c i l y from Italy, the subject matter has nothing at a l l - to do with wine and the reason for the inse r t i o n of t h i s interlude i s unclear. Of the remaining sections of the poem li n e s 136-166 are a catalogue of a l l sorts of items that interested A p o l l i n a i r e and were showered on the poet rather than on Paris as was the case i n the seven 168 s e c t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r . L i n e s 167-174 r e f l e c t t h e r e t u r n o f t h e p o e t - f l a n e u r t o t h e b a n k s o f t h e S e i n e as t h e l i g h t s go o u t a t dawn a f t e r a l o n g n i g h t o u t . The s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g two p a r a g r a p h s d e s e r v e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n ( l i n e s 1-21) c o n t a i n s s i x s t a n z a s w h i c h p r o v i d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r d e t a i l o f t i m e a n d p l a c e i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e a n d i n t r o d u c e t h e t h i r s t a n d w i n e t h e mes t h a t p e r m e a t e t h e poem i n t h e l a s t t h r e e . The d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n was p r o b a b l y S e p t e m b e r 1909 a s A p o l l i n a i r e was l i v i n g i n t h e A u t e u i l s u b u r b a t t h e t i m e b e c a u s e he w a n t e d t o be n e a r h i s M a r i e L a u r e n c i n . A r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t h e a r t A p o l l i n a i r e n o t e d t h a t E u r o p e a n k i n g d o m s were b e i n g r e d u c e d i n number b y a s s a s s i n a t i o n s a n d t h e a d v e n t o f more a n d more r e p u b l i c a n f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h e r e a r e two i m p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n : i n t h e f i r s t i n v i t a t i o n t h e r e a d e r i s a s k e d t o remember t h e p o e t , A p o l l i n a i r e h a d an a l m o s t m o r b i d f e a r t h a t he m i g h t be f o r g o t t e n a f t e r h i s d e a t h , i n t h e s e c o n d , more s p e c i f i c , he p e r s o n a l i s e s P a r i s a n d p r o v i d e s h e r w i t h h i s own t h r o a t a n d immense t h i r s t . B r i t t a n y , i n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n , i s a r e g i o n h a r d l y n o t e d f o r w i n e p r o d u c t i o n , so i t o f f e r s i n s t e a d i t s a n c i e n t m y t h a n d l e g e n d . M e r l i n h a i l e d f r o m B r i t t a n y , a n d A p o l l i n a i r e was s o a f f e c t e d by t h e o l d s t o r i e s t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r " L ' E n c h a n t e u r p o u r r i s s a n t " a n d " M e r l i n e t l a v i e i l l e femme". A p o l l i n a i r e j u s t i f i e s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f B r i t t a n y by means o f t h e p u n s i n l i n e 35 a n d 37. D o u b l e r a i s o n s o u n d s t h e same as d o u b l e r a i s i n ; i f t h e c o u n t r y h a s no g r a p e s , i t h a s t r a d i t i o n a n d a r u g g e d b e a u t y t o o f f e r P a r i s , a n o t h e r r e g i o n t h a t p r o d u c e s no 169 w i n e t o s p e a k o f d e s p i t e t h e p o e t ' s s t a t e m e n t t o t h e c o n t r a r y i n l i n e 20. The i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s o f t h e a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n o r t h o f P a r i s s i m i l a r l y h a v e l i t t l e l a n d d e v o t e d t o v i n i c u l t u r e b u t a w e a l t h o f m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s , f r o m t h e i r r a t t l i n g m a c h i n e r y a n d f a c t o r i e s i m p r e g n a t i n g t h e c l o u d s a b o v e w i t h t h e smoke f r o m t h e i r " h o l y " c h i m n e y s i n t h e same way t h a t I x i o n i m p r e g n a t e d H e r a a n d f a t h e r e d t h e C e n t a u r s . T h e i r p r o d u c t s a r e o f f e r e d i n s t e a d , w h i c h makes i t c l e a r t h a t what t h e p o e t a n d h i s a l t e r ego - P a r i s p e r -s o n i f i e d - t h i r s t a f t e r i s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a d r i n k , b u t r a t h e r a l l t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e p a s t h a v e t o o f f e r . I t i s now t h e t u r n o f t h e c i t y o f L y o n s t o b r i n g h e r g i f t s . T h i s t i m e i t i s t h e h i s t o r y o f r e b e l l i o n a n d s o r r o w , o f t h e t a k e -o v e r o f t h e c i t y by t h e P r o t e s t a n t s - , l a t e r m a s s a c r e d , o f H e n r i , M a r q u i s de C i n q - M a r s a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e J a c q u e s de Thou e x e c u t e d by R i c h e l i e u , o f t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t S a d i C a r n o t a n d t h e m a r t y r d o m o f S a i n t P o t h i n t h e c i t y ' s f i r s t b i s h o p i n T r a j a n ' s F orum now t h e s i t e o f t h e b a s i l i c a o f F o u r v i e r e s . L y o n s i s s i t u a t e d a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e Sa6ne a n d Rhone r i v e r s a n d t h e image o f t h e c h i l d a t t h e window was p r o m p t e d by A p o l l i n a i r e ' s b o y h o o d r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h a t c i t y . I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e i d e a o f o f f e r i n g i s l i n k e d t o s a c r i f i c e a n d t h u s t o t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e E u c h a r i s t . A p o l l i n a i r e , t h e a g n o s t i c , i s s t i l l a f f e c t e d by t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s o f h i s y o u t h , b u t r e m a i n s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f h e r e s i e s t h a t h a d s u c h a d i v i s i v e e f f e c t . D e s a l t e r e - t o i P a r i s a v e c l e s d i v i n e s p a r o l e s Que mes l e v r e s l e RhQne e t l a Sa6ne murmurent 170 T o u j o u r s l e meme c u l t e de s a m o r t r e n a i s s a n t D i v i s e i c i l e s s a i n t s e t f a i t p l e u v o i r l e s a n g H e u r e u s e p l u i e 6 g o u t t e s t i e d e s 6 d o u l e u r . P h i l i p p e R e n a u d n o t e s t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f " i v r e s o i s e a u x " i n l i n e s 8 a n d 58, i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h e y a r e d r u n k w i t h t h e p o e t ' s own g l o r y h e n c e t h e g i f t o f h e a v e n l y w o r d s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e d r u n k e n b i r d s may be c o n s i d e r e d a l s o a s t h e s e e d o f p o e t r y when p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e P o e t . 2 4 P r o v e n c e , o n c e c o m p l e t e l y a u t o nomous, s t r a i n s u n d e r t h e w e i g h t o f t h e t r i b u t e t h a t t h e r e g i o n h a s h a d t o p a y t o P a r i s e v e r s i n c e h e r Dukedom was b r o k e n up i n t o l i t t l e p i e c e s j u s t a s t h e H o s t i s b r o k e n b e f o r e b e i n g d i p p e d i n t o t h e s a c r i f i c i a l w i n e . I n t h e poem "Zone", l i n k e d i n many r e s p e c t s t o " V e n d e m i a i r e " , A p o l l i n a i r e r e l a t e s how, a s a s c h o o l b o y , he u s e d t o p r a y a l l n i g h t i n t h e c o l l e g e c h a p e l . L i n e 64 may w e l l be an e c h o o f t h i s e v e n t s i n c e t h e boy f e l t o r p h a n e d w i t h o u t a f a t h e r t o c o n f i d e i n . 2 5 S i c i l y , a ' c o u n t r y w i t h a t r o u b l e d a n d b l o o d y p a s t , e x p e r i e n c e d an e a r t h q u a k e i n December 1908, h e n c e t h e a l w a y s t r o u b l e d w a t e r s o f t h e S t r a i t s o f M e s s i n a must h a v e h e a v e d a n d h i s s e d l i k e a many-headed s n a k e . The i s l a n d g r o a n s u n d e r i t s p a s t a n d p r e s e n t m i s f o r t u n e s , e v e n i t s w i n e r e e k s o f b l o o d a n d e a r t h , M a r s a l a d o e s i n d e e d h a v e a s p e c i a l t a s t e ! A p o l l i n a i r e p a i n t s a w o e f u l p i c t u r e o f r e c e n t l y f o r m e d , h u n g r y , t h r e a t e n i n g c l o u d s t h a t c a u s e e v e n t h e c r o w s t o e s c a p e . t o t h e s u n n i e r s h o r e s o f A f r i c a . The i n t e r l u d e i n s p i r e d b y t h e n a r r o w s t r a i t s , b e t w e e n t h e 171 S c y l l a a n d C h a r y b d i s r e e f s a n d t h e p o w e r f u l w h i r l p o o l s t h e r e i n , c o u l d w e l l h a v e b e e n l e f t o u t e x c e p t f o r l i n e s 92 a n d 93 w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e o n w a r d f l o w o f t h e poem a n d i t s d i o n y s i a n i m a g e r y . The doom a n d g l o o m t h a t c o v e r e d S i c i l y a p p e a r s t o h a v e l i f t e d t e m p o r a r i l y o v e r t h e s t r a i t s , s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w a g o d -l i k e y o u n g man, p r o b a b l y O r p h e u s , t o l e a d t h e way a c r o s s t h e t u r b u l e n c e , t h e s i r e n b i r d s , l u r i n g men t o t h e i r doom, a p p e a r t o h a v e l o s t t h e i r p o w e r s o f a t t r a c t i o n a s t h e many v i c t i m s r e a c h e d f o r t h e s e t t i n g s u n . The i m a g e r y i s t y p i c a l l y A p o l l i n a r i a n a n d i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r l u d e p r o v i d e s a welcome b r e a k f r o m t h e q u a s i g e o g r a p h i c a l r e c i t a l o f p l a c e names t h a t seemed t o d r i f t f u r t h e r a n d f u r t h e r f r o m P a r i s . The f a c t t h a t t h e e n t i r e p a s s a g e i s i n A l e x a n d r i n e v e r s e s e t s i t q u i t e a p a r t a n d a c h i e v e s t h e p o e t ' s o b j e c t i v e most e f f e c t i v e l y as w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g a n a t u r a l b r i d g e t o t h e r e s p o n s e o f Rome. The c r o s s i n g o f O r p h e u s t o Rome must be r e a d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l i n e s 123-125 where P a r i s i s l a u d e d as b e i n g n o t o n l y t h e most b e a u t i f u l b u t a l s o t h e o n l y n o b l e c i t y , t h e o n l y p l a c e f i t f o r t h e gods i n c l u d i n g t h e g o d o f p o e t r y , a n d a w o r t h y s u c c e s s o r t o Rome as t h e m e t r o p o l i s o f t h e a r t s , a n d a s i t e f o r D i o n y s i a n r e v e l s a n d m y s t e r i e s . The i n v o c a t i o n "0 Rome" i s t h e o n l y i n s t a n c e where i t h a s b e e n made i n r e s p e c t o f a c i t y o t h e r t h a n P a r i s . The a n c i e n t c i t y must a l l o w o u t d a t e d t h o u g h t s a n d f o r m s o f p o e t r y t o be s p u r n e d i n f a v o u r o f l o v e a n d t h e i l l i m i t a b l e h e a v e n s w h i c h w i l l b e t h e new m a t e r i a l o f p o e t r y . The s t a n z a c o m p r i s i n g l i n e s 98 t o 103 p i c k s up t h e theme o f t h e E u c h a r i s t b u t t h e image o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h i s l i n k e d t h r o u g h t h e phenomenon o f t h e d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h o f p l a n t s t o a p e r s o n a l i z e d Rome who g i v e s t h e s a c r a m e n t a l w i n e t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a p e r s o n a l i z e d P a r i s t o t h e p o e t w i t h a m i s s i o n t o c r e a t e i m m o r t a l p o e t r y . M o s t o f t h e n e x t s t a n z a i s d e v o t e d t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g d e m o c r a c y t h a t was o n c e t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e w o r l d . The g h o s t s o f c r u e l e m p e r o r s w i l l r e t u r n t o d r i n k t h e c i t y ' s two t h o u s a n d y e a r o l d w i n e a n d k i l l a l l t h e a n i m a l s , t h e w o l v e s a n d t h e l a m b s , t h e e a g l e s a n d t h e d o v e s . The name K o b l e n z i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e L a t i n w o r d " c o n f l u e n t e s " , a n d t h e c i t y i s s i t u a t e d where two g r e a t r i v e r s meet, t h e R h i n e a n d t h e M o s e l l e , b o t h famous f o r t h e e x c e l l e n t w i n e s p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r v a l l e y s . A p o l l i n a i r e was k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t w i n e , a n d he i s c o r r e c t i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e b e s t F r e n c h w i n e s a r e s u p e r i o r t o t h e i r German c o u n t e r p a r t s . German v i t i c u l t u r i s t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y f u s s y a b o u t t h e c o r r e c t r i p e n i n g o f t h e i r g r a p e s f o r t h e w i n e s w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y e x p o r t e d . A p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n t a k e n s t r a i g h t o u t o f R e v e l a t i o n 14:20 d e s c r i b i n g t h e w i n e - p r e s s f l o w i n g w i t h human b l o o d p r e s a g e s t h e t h e b l o o d b a t h t h a t was W o r l d War I w h i c h was f o u g h t i n many o f t h e f i n e w i n e g r o w i n g a r e a s o f F r a n c e . K o b l e n z t o o h a d i t s s h a r e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d b a t t l e ; t h e F r e n c h s e i z e d t h e c i t y d u r i n g t h e N a p o l e o n i c w a r s . The remembrance o f t h o s e e v e n t s w o u l d h a v e t r o u b l e d t h e s l e e p o f t h e m a i d e n s i n t h e c i t y . T r i e r an a n c i e n t c i t y , known t o t h e F r e n c h a s T r e v e s , i s t h e s i t e o f t w i c e y e a r l y a u c t i o n s o f t h e w i n e f r o m t h e M o s e l l e . I t s m e n t i o n seems an a f t e r t h o u g h t ; h o w e v e r t h i s s h o r t p a s s a g e 173 p r o v i d e s a b r i d g e t o t w e n t y - o n e l i n e s o f d e s c r i p t i o n o f w i n e i n u n a n i m i s t t e r m s . Anne Hyde G r e e t ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s p a s s a g e i n t h e n o t e s a c c o m p a n y i n g h e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f ' A l c o o l s ' i s a s f o l l o w s : 2 6 [Wine] c o n s i s t s o f a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s ( 1 . 1 4 2 ) , o f t h e p a s t 1.146) a n d t h e f u t u r e ( 1 . 1 4 2 ) , o f man's c o n q u e s t o v e r d e a t h by f a i t h ( 1 . 1 4 3 ) , o f h i s c o n q u e s t o v e r n a t u r e by i r o n a n d f i r e ( 1 1 . 1 4 4 - 1 4 5 ) . Human t h o u g h t , i n i t s v a r i o u s f o r m s , f l a v o u r s t h e w i n e (11.146-150) a s do t h e human games o f war ( 1 1 . 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 ) , o f l o v e (11.152 a n d 153) a n d o f p o e t r y (11.151 a nd 1 5 4 ) ; [ . . . ] . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o c l a i m e d i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i s v i s i o n (11.155 a nd 156) i s c o m p a r a b l e t o p a s s a g e s i n " F i a n c a i l l e s " [ . . . ] . The p o e t i n f o r c e f u l v e r s e s a n n o u n c e s t h a t he h a s e x p e r i e n c e d a l l t h a t t h e w o r l d h a s t o o f f e r a p o e t , he h a s d r u n k i t a l l i n . He r e c o g n i z e s t h e f l a v o u r o f t h e w i n e b u t h i s t h i r s t s t i l l r a g e s on a n d he r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e s o t h a t he c a n u s e h i s m a g i c a n d h i s g i f t o f p r o p h e c y . L i n e s 161-174 t h u s p r o v i d e a f i t t i n g e n d t o one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s m a s t e r p i e c e s . " V e n d e m i a i r e " h a s so many a s p e c t s : i t i s p a r t l y a t r a v e l o g u e w i t h m u l t i p l e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h i c a n d e c o n o m i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a c e s he h a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e poem, i t d i s p l a y s a p r o f o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f H o l y W r i t a n d t h e v a r i o u s h e r e s i e s t h a t a f f e c t e d r e l i g i o n t h r o u g h t h e a g e s , t h e r e i s an u n d y i n g l o v e o f P a r i s , a n d e v i d e n c e o f a l l t h e g o o d t h i n g s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e t h a t make l i f e w o r t h w h i l e . I n a d d i t i o n we c a n f i n d i n i t , e v i d e n c e o f 174 A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a m a z i n g g i f t o f p r o p h e c y a n d an a b i d i n g f a i t h t h a t he w i l l , one d a y , c r e a t e p o e t r y . t h a t w i l l be i m m o r t a l . 175 NOTES: CHAPTER 8 1 Marcel Adema and Michel Decaudin eds., A p o l l i n a i r e Oeuvres  Poetigues (Paris :.Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, Gallimard, 1956) 1051 & 1117. 2 Stuart Bates, Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e (New York: Twayne' Publishers Inc, 1967) 27. 3 Mechtild Cranston, " S o r t i r d'Orkenise, relections s u r 'Onirocritique', xLe Brasier' et *Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' , " Gui11aume A p o l l i n a i r e , 8., La Revue des l e t t r e s modernes .166-169 (1967): 53-73. 4 Richard Henry Stamelman, The drama of s e l f in Guillaume Apol1inaire's xAlcools' (Chapel H i l l : Univ of North Carolina P., 1976) 79. 5 Peter Frohlicher, xLe Brasier' d'Apol1inaire lecture semiotique, Archives Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e n° 7 (Paris: Lettres modernes, 1983) 15. 6 Dictionnaire de Tr^voux qtd. i n Peter Frohlicher, Le Brasier d'Apol1inaire 51. 7 Marie-Jeanne Durry, 3, 162-168. 176 8 Marie-Jeanne Durry, Riiillanmfl Apol 1 i n a i T-P 'Alr.nnl.s' 2 ( P a r i s : S.E.D.E.S., 1964) 213. 9 R.H. Stamelman, 40 - 53. 1 0 R.H. Stamelman, 42. 1 1 Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , Te^ P e i n t r e s nubisr.es ( P a r i s : Hermann, 1965.) 66. 1 2 Leroy C. Breunig, A p o l l i n a i r e et Le Cubisme." C-ui 11 aume A p o l l i n a i r e . 1. La Revue des l e t t r e s modernes 69-70 (1962) : .21. 1 3 S c o t t Bates. 87-94. Anne Hyde Greet, t r a n s . , A l c o o l s Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P.) 266-278. Leroy C. Breunig, " A p o l l i n a i r e ' s 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' , " Essays i n French L i t e r a t u r e , Nedlands 3 (1965) : 1-32. 1 4 Susan Harro'w, "'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n d'un amour," Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e . 8. La Revue des l e t t r e s modernes 805-811 (1987): 125. 1 5 Leroy Breunig, A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' 28. 1 5 Leroy C. Breunig, A p o l 1 i n a i r e ' s 'Les F i a n c a i l l e s ' 29. 1 5 M i c h e l Decaudin, "Complements a un' d o s s i e r , " Gui 1 laume Apol 1 i n a i r e , 1, T,a Revue des l e t t r e s modernes 69-70 (1962): 57-8. 1 8 Andre Salmon, Souvenirs sans f i n , deuxieme epoque (1908-1920) ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) 140-141. 1 9 Marie-Jeanne Durry, 3, 184. 2 0 Timothy Mathews, Reading A p o l l i n a i r e (Manchester: U of Manchester P, 1987) 129. 2 1 M i c h e l Decaudin, Le Do s s i e r d' ' A l r n o l s ' 177 2 2 G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e , T e n d r e r.omme l e s o u v e n i r ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1952) 7 0 . 2 3 J . P a t r i c k T r u h n , "The wave o f w i n e : r e v o l u t i o n a n d r e v e l a t i o n i n A p o l l i n a i r e ' s ' V e n d e m i a i r e ' , " R o m a n i c Review, 72 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 40. 2 4 P h i l i p p e Renaud, L e c t u r e d ' A p o l l i n a i r e ( L a u s a n n e : L'Age d'Homme, 1969) 138. 2 5 P h i l i p p e Renaud, 138. 2 6 Anne Hyde G r e e t , 2 8 5. 178 CHAPTER 9 THE YEARS OF HAPPINESS AND STRESS, PART I I , 1910-1912 "LE VOYAGEUR" (0.P.,78-1910) Le V o y a g e u r i s one o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s most b e a u t i f u l poems b u t i t c o n t a i n s p a s s a g e s t h a t h a v e p r o v o k e d o n l y e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s f r o m e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f A p o l l i n a r i a n c ommentary. I t h a s t h e marks o f b e i n g a p r e c u r s o r o f "Zone" w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i t h a s v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e theme o f m o d e r n i t y t h a t i s a f e a t u r e o f t h e l a t t e r poem. A p o l l i n a i r e t h e p o e t i s a t r a v e l l e r t h r o u g h a d r e a m l a n d o f h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s b u t t h e s e a r e f a r l e s s p e r s o n a l t h a n t h o s e t o be f o u n d i n "Zone", "Le B r a s i e r " a n d t h e o t h e r m a j o r poems o f t h e 1907-1912 p e r i o d . The v a r i o u s s c e n e s he d e s c r i b e s a r e d e v o i d o f s e q u e n t i a l t e m p o r a l o r s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t , i n f a c t t h e y a r e j u s t l i k e t h e h e l t e r - s k e l t e r random a s s o r t m e n t o f p i c t u r e s u s u a l l y f o u n d i n f a m i l y p h o t o g r a p h i c a l b u m s ; A p o l l i n a i r e r e a l i s e s t h i s a n d i n l i n e 48 a s k s t h e v e r y q u e s t i o n t h a t i s s o o f t e n a s k e d when t h e owner o f an a l b u m l e a f s t h r o u g h i t w i t h h i s f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s . Q u i done r e c o n n a i s - t u . . . However some j o u r n e y s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t o f w h i c h a r e t h e c r o s s i n g s o f t h e E n g l i s h C h a n n e l t o meet A n n i e P l a y d e n . A p o l l i n a i r e was s t r u c k b y t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f a s h i p a t s e a w h i c h he c o m p a r e d t o h i s s i t u a t i o n now t h a t h i s romance w i t h M a r i e L a u r e n c i n was t h r e a t e n e d ; e v e r o b s e r v a n t , he saw f l o w e r - l i k e b e a u t y i n t h e c u r v i n g w a v e l e t s . The s e c o n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e r a i l w a y j o u r n e y f r o m Remagen o p p o s i t e H o n n e f on t h e R h i n e t o P a r i s i n A u g u s t 1902. The t r i p was a l e i s u r e l y one a n d l e f t q u i t e an i m p r e s s i o n on A p o l l i n a i r e who must h a v e b e e n t r y i n g t o f i n d some d i s t r a c t i o n f r o m h i s p a i n f u l t h o u g h t s a b o u t A n n i e . T r e v e s ( T r i e r ) was a s t o p on t h e way a n d e a r n e d a m e n t i o n i n " V e n d e m i a i r e " ; so was L u x e m b u r g where he d e c i d e d t o h a v e a d r i n k . The I n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s .of t h e N o r t h o f F r a n c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n n o t i c e d as t h e t r a i n a p p r o a c h e d P a r i s a n d on o t h e r j o u r n e y s s u c h as t h e v i s i t s t o . H o l l a n d - a n d B e l g i u m d u r i n g t h e y e a r s when I n d u s t r y was e x p a n d i n g a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s were o f no a c c o u n t . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s a b i l i t y t o s t o r e i m p r e s s i o n s f o r f u t u r e u s e a r e r e f l e c t e d i n h i s s u b s e q u e n t g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n i g h t a n d day o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e s m e l t e r s a n d b l a s t f u r n a c e s t h a t a p p e a r i n l i n e s 19 a n d 20. A s i m i l a r e x a m p l e was t h e p a s s a g e i n " V e n d e m i a i r e " , c o n c e r n i n g t h e same i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . We c a n h e a r t h e t r a i n a s i t r o a r s t h r o u g h t h e s t a t i o n s a n d t r i p s w a r n i n g b e l l s i n l i n e 18 a n d 24. The t h i r d j o u r n e y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e poem i s made up o f s t i l l more s i g h t s t h e p o e t saw a n d now remembers a s t h o u g h i n a dream. The R h i n e f r o m B a c h a r a c h t o H o n n e f i s p a r t i c u l a r l y b e a u t i f u l a n d 180 t h e p o e t c o u l d n o t f a i l t o be i m p r e s s e d w i t h i t s p r e c i p i t o u s b a n k s and t h e a b u n d a n c e o f e v e r g r e e n t r e e s . A p o l l i n a i r e ' s v i s i t s t o t h e Low C o u n t r i e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p o e t ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e r i v e r d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o t h e s e a . "Le V o y a g e u r " i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y e v o c a t i v e o f t h e s i g h t s one s e e s a s a t r a i n o r s h i p moves s w i f t l y t h r o u g h s p a c e . The i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e c o m p a r t m e n t one i s r i d i n g i n i s s t a n d i n g s t i l l , w h i l e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a n d t o w n s a r e m o v i n g s w i f t l y b y , i s a common one, b u t A p o l l i n a i r e h a s s u c c e e d e d i n c r e a t i n g m a r v e l l o u s i m a g e s o u t o f t h i s common phenomenon. We c a t c h a f l e e t i n g g l i m p s e o f a b u t c h e r ' s d r a y r o l l i n g on i t s way s l o w l y t o m a r k e t . We n o t i c e t r e e s whose shadows, e l o n g a t e d by t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g o r l a t e e v e n i n g s u n , t a k e on t h e s h a p e o f b e a r d e d w a r r i o r s a rmed w i t h l o n g s h a r p - p o i n t e d l a n c e s . We o b s e r v e b r i d g e s f o l l o w i n g e a c h o t h e r l i k e p l a t o o n s o f s o l d i e r s m a r c h i n g i n r e v i e w o r d e r as t h e t r a i n s t a n d s s e e m i n g l y t o a t t e n t i o n . We s e e t o w n s w i t h p a l e g r e y f a c a d e s l i k e t h e a s h e n c o u n t e n a n c e s o f a l c o h o l i c madwomen s l i p a n d s l i d e on t h e i r u g l y way p a s t o u r window. The theme o f remembrance i s v e r y e v i d e n t i n "Le V o y a g e u r " . V a r i o u s t e n s e s o f t h e v e r b " s e s o u v e n i r " a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem ( l i n e s 5, 9, 17, 30, a n d 48. The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c a l b u m i n l i n e 47 m a i n t a i n s t h e mood o f r e c o l l e c t i o n . The f o u r q u a t r a i n s o f r e g u l a r a l e x a n d r i n e s , l i n e s 31 t o 4 6 , " p a s t e d " i n t o t h i s poem f r o m an e a r l i e r s o u r c e a r e a l m o s t d e v o i d o f t h i s c o m m e m o r a t i v e d e v i c e , t h e y r e l y i n s t e a d on a j u d i c i o u s u s e o f t h e i m p e r f e c t t e n s e , f o r t h e n a r r a t i v e e f f e c t . The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e two s a i l o r s , h i s f r i e n d s a n d t h e d u s k y 181 women i s most p u z z l i n g . The r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p i c t u r e o f A l b e r t a n d h i s b r o t h e r G u i l l a u m e i n s a i l o r s u i t s h a s b e e n c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e d , a d a r k r i n g i s f a i n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a b o v e t h e s t r i p e d u n d e r - s h i r t worn by G u i l l a u m e , h o w e v e r A l b e r t ' s h a i r i s c u t q u i t e s t r a i g h t w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f p l a i t s . S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n made t h a t t h i s o l d p h o t o g r a p h was t h e s o u r c e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s i n s p i r a t i o n . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e d u b i o u s , a t b e s t . The p h o t o g r a p h was i n h i s m o t h e r ' s p o s s e s s i o n , n o t t h e p o e t ' s . I t i s f a r more p r o b a b l e t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e saw t h e two s a i l o r s on t h e f e r r y w h i l e c r o s s i n g t h e E n g l i s h C h a n n e l , a l t h o u g h t h e image o f t h e y o u n g e r one f a l l i n g o v e r b o a r d seems t o be a m o r b i d t h o u g h t r e f l e c t i n g t h e p o e t ' s s t a t e o f m i n d . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t t h e y o u n g e r . s a i l o r r e - a p p e a r s i n l i n e 52 a f t e r m e e t i n g h i s s a d f a t e i n l i n e 24. The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e c ommentary s e t f o r t h a b o v e . The p o e t , a t l i n e 1, f e e l s t h a t t h e g a t e w a y t o t h e H e aven o f p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y i s b a r r e d i n t h e same way as i t was t o t h e f o o l i s h v i r g i n s i n t h e G o s p e l a c c o r d i n g t o S a i n t M a t t h e w (XXV.3) who were n o t s m a r t e n o u g h t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y h a d e n o u g h l a m p - o i l t o l i g h t t h e i r way when t h e b r i d e g r o o m came a t m i d n i g h t . The p o e t h a d h i g h h o p e s t h a t , on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e d o o r , he w o u l d f i n d l o v e , h a p p i n e s s a n d an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n t h a t he f o u n d so v e r y i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . 1 I n l i n e 2 A p o l l i n a i r e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t h i s l i f e h a s b e e n a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be f u l l o f ups and downs: moments o f i n e f f a b l e j o y f o l l o w e d by p e r i o d s o f t h e d e e p e s t d e p r e s s i o n . T h e r e i s an 182 u n s p o k e n r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e same b i p o l a r p s y c h o s i s t h a t was t r i g g e r e d b y h i s l o s s o f A n n i e h a s f l a r e d up a g a i n w i t h t h e e n d o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r i e L a u r e n c i n . The s t r a i t o f E u r i p u s w h i c h s e p a r a t e d E u b o e a f r o m B o e o t i a was n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y i n w h i c h t h e f a s t m o v i n g t i d a l c u r r e n t s c h a n g e d d i r e c t i o n . L i n e s 3 & 4. h e r e t h e p o e t p e r s o n a l i z e s t h e s h i p u n d e r t h e m e n a c i n g c l o u d s as h i s own p e r s o n a , f a c e d w i t h an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s . T h e r e i s , i n l i n e s 11 t o 16, a c h a r m i n g v i g n e t t e o f t h e two L u x e m b u r g i a n v i l l a g e r s w i t h t h e i r somewhat u n u s u a l p e t s as t h e y p l a y e d c a r d s u n d e r t h e b e n e v o l e n t g a z e o f C h r i s t a s c e n d i n g . A b e a u t i f u l e x a m p l e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s d e t a i l e d memory o f s u c h m i n o r i n c i d e n t s i n h i s l i f e . The " t o i " i n l i n e 17 i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f a f l a s h b a c k t o t h e y e a r w i t h A n n i e , he s u s p e c t s h e r h a v i n g a l r e a d y f o r g o t t e n h i m . A p o l l i n a i r e was j e a l o u s o f t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r i n B e n n e r s c h e i d n e a r Mme de M i l h a u ' s p r o p e r t y , a n d i t i s p r e s u m e d t h a t A n n i e d i d n o t l e a v e t h e R h i n e l a n d u n t i l a month o r two a f t e r G u i l l a u m e ' s d e p a r t u r e . The u s e o f t h e w o r d " o r p h e l i n " i n l i n e 4 a n d " o r p h e l i n a t " i n l i n e 18 t o d e s c r i b e t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f a s h i p i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e o c e a n a n d t h e s e n s e o f abandonment t h a t one f e e l s i n t h e i m p e r s o n a l s u r r o u n d i n g s o f a r a i l w a y s t a t i o n i s a c l e v e r t o u c h , i n t e n d e d t o r e v e a l t h e i n n e r f e e l i n g s o f t h e d i s c o n s o l a t e p o e t . " O r p h e l i n " w i t h i t s s t r o n g s e n s e o f b e i n g b e r e f t h a s a somewhat d e e p e r m e a n i n g i n F r e n c h t h a n i n E n g l i s h . The p o e t t a k e s l e a v e o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a s t h e t r a i n 183 a p p r o a c h e s t h e s u b u r b s o f P a r i s a n d h i s u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e l i e s b e f o r e h i m ; h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d o l e f u l p r o c e s s i o n o f l a n d s c a p e s i n l i n e 31 s t r i k e s j u s t t h e r i g h t n o t e o f f o r e b o d i n g . I t i s h a r d t o i d e n t i f y t h e b i r d i n l i n e 34. An e d u c a t e d g u e s s i s t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o A n n i e a n d t h e w o r s e n i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r t h a t o c c u r r e d j u s t b e f o r e he l e f t t h e R h i n e l a n d i n A u g u s t 1902. A p o l l i n a i r e was p r o n e t o m e t a m o r p h o s e s a d m e m o r i e s o f t h e p a s t i n t o d e a d s o u l s . The w o r d " m o u r a n t s " i s u s e d h e r e as an a d j e c t i v e , w i t h " g l a n c e s " i m p l i e d . T h e r e a r e many o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n e l s e w h e r e i n A p o l l i n a i r e 7 s p o e t i c w o r k s . L i n e 44 i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e r o c k y h e i g h t f r o m w h i c h L o r e l e y p l u n g e d t o h e r d e a t h . As r e g a r d s l i n e s 49 a n d 50, p e r h a p s t h e most b e a u t i f u l i n t h e poem, p r e m o n i t i o n s p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t i n t h e l i f e o f A p o l l i n a i r e ; t h u s t h e s i g h t o f a b e e , an i n s e c t s a c r e d t o A p o l l o , f a l l i n g i n t o a f i r e i s a f o r m o f d e a t h w i s h . "Le B r a s i e r " d e v e l o p s t h e theme o f f i r e as a c l e a n s e r a n d r e j u v e n a t o r much f u r t h e r t h a n i n t h i s poem. F i r e a n d t h e p h o e n i x m y t h a r e o f enormous i m p o r t a n c e i n so much o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p o e t r y , few poems f a i l t o i n c o r p o r a t e some a s p e c t o f " f e u " a w o r d t h a t t r a n s l a t e s i n t o b o t h f i r e a n d f l a m e . The d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f t h i s poem h a s a l r e a d y b e e n h i n t e d a t e a r l i e r i n t h i s commentary b u t t h e r e i s a t h r e a d t h a t A p o l l i n a i r e s p u n t h r o u g h i t as shown b y t h e l a t e Mme M a r i e - J e a n n e D u r r y : 2 Or un p e u d ' a t t e n t i o n s u f f i t p o u r y f a i r e p e r c e v o i r : 184 une c o n t i n u i t e l o g i q u e ; une c o n t i n u i t e de l ' e t r e t o u j o u r s l e meme a t r a v e r s l e s " j e " , l e s " m o i " , l e s " t u " q u i ne s o n t que l e s p e r s o n n a g e s du d i a l o g u e i n t e r i e u r ; une c o n t i n u i t e de l a f i g u r a t i o n due a d e s i m a g e s d o n t i l ne s e r a p a s d i f f i c i l e de m o n t r e r l e s p a r e n t e s ; une c o n t i n u i t e du l a n g a g e due a d e s r e p e t i t i o n s de m o t s , au l e i t m o t i v d u s o u v e n i r , a d e s s o r t e s d e s r e f r a i n s comme c e l u i d e s deu x m a t e l o t s , a c t e u r s i n t e r m i t t e n t s , i m p r e v u s , e t f o r t a l e u r p l a c e l a ou 1'image i n i t i a l e a e t e c e l l e d'un g r a n d b a t e a u . I I y a meme une c o n s t r u c t i o n t o u t a f a i t o s t e n s i b l e , 1 ' e n c a d r e m e n t du poeme e n t r e l e s de u x v e r s du d e b u t e t l e s d e u x de l a f i n , q u i s o n t l e s memes r e p r i s e n o r d r e i n v e r s e . E l l e n ' e s t p a s a r t i f i c i e l l e : n i l e v o y a g e du r e e l n i c e l u i du r e v e n ' a b o u t i s s e n t a a u t r e c h o s e q u ' a c e t t e p o r t e t o u j o u r s f e r m e e que j a m a i s homme ne p a r v i e n d r a a s e f a i r e o u v r i r . The " v o y a g e r e e l " has. b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , by t h e C h a n n e l c r o s s i n g s , t h e t r i p s - down t h e R h i n e , t h e v i s i t t o A m s t e r d a m a n d t h e r e t u r n j o u r n e y f r o m t h e R h i n e l a n d . The. " v o y a g e de r e v e " h a s p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s i n t o A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . The poem i s a s a d one, t h e r e s e v e r a l l i n e s t h a t i n d i c a t e how l o n e l y t h e p o e t f e l t , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f m o r b i d i t y a n d o f t h e b i p o l a r d i s o r d e r t h a t p l a g u e d A p o l l i n a i r e when he was f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s l o v e a f f a i r s . D o o r s seem t o be e i t h e r s n e e r i n g a t h i m a s i n " L a P o r t e " when he was d e s p e r a t e l y l o o k i n g f o r work o r slammed s h u t as i n "Le V o y a g e u r " when a l l he s o u g h t was l o v e . Keen o b s e r v a t i o n o f e v e r y d a y t h i n g s h a s b e e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o 185 b e a u t i f u l p o e t i c i m a g e r y . "A LA SANTE" (O.P.,140-1911) A p o l l i n a i r e was c h a r g e d w i t h c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e t h e f t o f t h e Mona L i s a p a i n t i n g f r o m t h e L o u v r e , m a n a c l e d a n d c o m m i t t e d t o t h e S a n t e p r i s o n i n P a r i s . One c a n n o t u n d e r - e s t i m a t e t h e t r e m e n d o u s s h o c k t h a t t h e p o e t e x p e r i e n c e d , he h a d made a name f o r h i m s e l f a s an e s t a b l i s h e d p o e t a n d n e w s p a p e r c o l u m n i s t a n d was now b r a n d e d as a common c r i m i n a l . The f a c t t h a t he was p h o t o g r a p h e d , h a n d c u f f e d t o a gendarme, a n d t h e v e r y n e w s p a p e r he c o n t r i b u t e d t o , p u b l i s h e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h was p e r h a p s t h e c r u e l l e s t b l o w o f a l l ; p o o r G u i l l a u m e , a l l he c o u l d s a y was " Q u i a pu me f a i r e c a " . I t was n o t l o n g a f t e r t h i s e v e n t t h a t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r i e L a u r e n c i n w o r s e n e d , t h e s e two c a u s e s b r o u g h t on a r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e m e n t a l i l l n e s s t h a t f i r s t m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f when he l o s t A n n i e P l a y d e n . As u s u a l t h e p o e t , when f a c e d w i t h an e m o t i o n a l c r i s i s , r e v e r t e d t o t h e r e g u l a r p r o s o d y o f t h e R h i n e l a n d poems, b u t c o n t i n u e d t o u s e l i n e s f r o m e a r l i e r w o r k s o r r o u g h d r a f t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s e c o n d poem i n t h e "A l a S a n t e " s e r i e s i n c o r p o r a t e s i n i t s f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s e x a c t l y s i m i l a r w o r d i n g f o u n d by F r a n c i s A m b r i e r e i n a n o t e - b o o k c o n t a i n i n g a r o u g h d r a f t o f A p o l l i n a i r e ' s p r o s e work " L a Femme a s s i s e " . 3 The i m p r i s o n m e n t r e s u l t e d , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , i n A p o l l i n a i r e r e g a i n i n g h i s f a i t h i n r e l i g i o n , w i t n e s s t h e l i n e s i n t h e f o u r t h poem: 186 Que d e v i e n d r a i - j e 6 D i e u q u i c o n n a i s ma d o u l e u r T o i q u i me l ' a s donnee P r e n d s en p i t i e mes y e u x s a n s l a r m e s ma p S l e u r L e b r u i t de ma c h a i s e e n c h a i n e e . The " A m b r i e r e " d r a f t s w h i c h A p o l l i n a i r e s u p p r e s s e d f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i v e ' A l c o o l s ' v e r s i o n b e c a u s e o f an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s h a r e h i s s e c r e t s w i t h o t h e r s , i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e t u r n t o r e l i g i o n q u i t e f o r c i b l y : E t j e v i e n s de d i r e un r o s a i r e A v e c mes d o i g t s p o u r c h a p e l e t 0 V i e r g e s a i n t e e c o u t e z - l e s E c o u t e z mes p a u v r e s p r i e r e s . V i e r g e p l u s d o u c e que l e ' s u c r e V i e r g e q u i m'avez p r o t e g e . I n 1916, when f a c e d w i t h a n o t h e r m e n t a l c r i s i s a r i s i n g o u t o f h i s s u f f e r i n g a wound t o h i s r i g h t t e m p l e , w h i l e i n t h e t r e n c h e s , a n d e x p e c t i n g an o n s e t o f p a r a l y s i s i n h i s arm, A p o l l i n a i r e s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d r e t r e a t i n g t o a m o n a s t e r y . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t he t h o u g h t o f d o i n g l i k e w i s e w h i l e s i t t i n g i n h i s c e l l i n p r i s o n . Y e t a n o t h e r b o r r o w i n g a p p e a r s i n t h e f i f t h poem' w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f f i v e l i n e s c u l l e d f r o m t h e t h i r d v e r s e o f a v e r y g r a p h i c f i v e s t a n z a poem w r i t t e n w h i l e i n p r i s o n , t h e f i r s t l i n e o f w h i c h r e a d s " J e s u i s G u i l l a u m e A p o l l i n a i r e " a n d g o e s on t o d e s c r i b e t h e h o r r o r o f l i v i n g i n a c e l l o n c e o c c u p i e d b y a m u r d e r e r ; i t r e f l e c t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f F r a n c o i s V i l l o n , a n d i s 187 a n o t h e r i t e m u n e a r t h e d by F r a n c i s A m b r i e r e . 4 T h i s f i f t h poem i s p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t one i n t h e s e r i e s . I n i t A p o l l i n a i r e t a k e s up a p o i n t o f v i e w f r o m w h i c h he c a n c o n s i d e r f r o m f a r o f f , by u s e o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e d i s t a n c i n g o f t h e c u r r e n t h o u r s a n d t o weep o v e r t h e i r l o s s . I n o t h e r w ords he h a s t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s r o l e o f l i v i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t a n d b e i n g a s u r v i v o r . I t i s n o t t h e p o e t b u t t i m e t h a t h a s p a s s e d i r r e t r i e v a b l y . As f o r h i m s e l f he r e m a i n s as i n t h e famous l i n e f r o m "Le P o n t M i r a b e a u " . 5 L e s j o u r s s ' e n v o n t j e demeure I t i s now e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d why A p o l l i n a i r e d e l e t e d a s i x t h l i n e i n t h e t h i r d v e r s e o f t h e " V i l l o n e s q u e " d r a f t : G u i l l a u m e a v a n t que t u ne m e u r e s . The theme o f t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e was c l e v e r l y s t a t e d i n " L a S o u r i s , a poem i n t h e " B e s t i a i r e " a n t h o l o g y : B e l l e s j o u r n e e s , s o u r i s du t e m p s , Vous r o n g e z p e u a p e u ma v i e . I n "A l a S a n t e " t h e p o e t v a r i e s t h e t e m p o r a l theme w i t h : A d i e u a d i e u c h a n t a n t e r o n d e 0 mes a n n e e s 6 j e u n e s f i l l e s . D ance was o f t e n an i n s p i r a t i o n t o A p o l l i n a i r e , a p a r t f r o m t h e l i n e j u s t q u o t e d , t h e p o e t d e s c r i b e d t h e d a n c i n g sunbeams t h a t seemed t o d e f y h i s e f f o r t s t o w r i t e p o e t r y a n d t h e m e a s u r e d t r e a d o f f e e t on t h e c e i l i n g a b o v e h i s h e a d i n t h e s e c o n d "A l a S a n t e " poem. Anne Hyde G r e e t h a s drawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m u s i c a l i t y o f t h e s e