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The relationship of four dimensions of career orientation to the vocational maturity of grade twelve… Richardt, Joan Marie 1979

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOUR DIMENSIONS OF CAREER ORIENTATION TO THE VOCATIONAL MATURITY OF GRADE TWELVE GIRLS by JOAN MARIE RICHARDT B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October , 1979 (c) Joan Mar ie R i c h a r d t , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f Counselling Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e October 10, 1979 ABSTRACT This research was a desc r i p t i v e exploratory study which examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n and the vocational maturity of grade twelve g i r l s . Vocational maturity was measured using the Career Development Inventory (CDI) developed by D. E. Super and D. J. Forrest (1972). The four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n were: career salience, work ro l e involvement, educational a s p i r a t i o n , and occupational r o l e innovation. These dimensions were measured using questions and instruments drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e . The study was conducted with one hundred and ei g h t y ^ f i v e grade . twelve g i r l s drawn from e x i s t i n g classes i n three senior high schools on the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. School d i s t r i c t superin-tendents chose the schools to be used and l o c a l school a u t h o r i t i e s chose the classes. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e indicated that t r a d i t i o n a l theories of vocational development are not adequate to explain the career develop-ment of women. These theories are based on male career patterns and choices and do not take i n t o account the other l i f e r o l e choices women make regarding marriage and motherhood, choices which can profoundly a f f e c t t h e i r career development. ... Instruments measuring vocational maturity have been developed i n the past ten years and are used i n high school settings to a s s i s t with counselling and career guidance programs. Because they are based on t r a d i t i o n a l theories of vocational development, these instruments can-not be applied to women i n the same way as they are applied to men. The l i t e r a t u r e indicated that i f indeed a vocational maturity i n s t r u -ment i s used with women or g i r l s , an accompanying measure assessing career o r i e n t a t i o n should be given as w e l l . i i I t was hypothesized that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spearman r) between vocational maturity and the four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n defined for the study. The r e s u l t s showed that educational a s p i r a t i o n and occupational role innovation were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to vocational maturity. Work ro l e involvement and vocational maturity were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related as w e l l . However, because of some d i f f i c u l -t i e s encountered using the instrument assessing work role involvement, this r e l a t i o n s h i p was interpreted cautiously. Career salience was found not to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to vocational maturity, i n d i c a t i n g that perhaps because most g i r l s expected to work i n the future, t h e i r plans regarding marriage and family had no r e l a t i o n to t h e i r vocational maturity. Most of the grade twelve g i r l s i n this study were oriented to work and a n t i c i p a t e d a dual—role l i f e plan combining marriage, family and career. As w e l l , they generally considered both work and family involve-ment to be very important i n t h e i r l i v e s . Most subjects chose t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and aspired to com-p l e t i n g a two-year t e c h n i c a l or career program at the college l e v e l . Almost a l l g i r l s had some p r a c t i c a l work experience and almost h a l f had mothers who worked outside the home. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have implications for counsellors and career guidance programs at the high school l e v e l . G i r l s ' educational and occupational choices can be meaningfully considered i n the context of t h e i r vocational maturity. Counsellors can a s s i s t i n breaking down the sex stereotyping of occupations by providing encouragement to explore a wide var i e t y of occupational and educational opportunities. This type of exploration could enhance students' planning and decision-making s k i l l s for both occupational and l i f e roles and could work to i i i increase general l e v e l s of vocational maturity as w e l l . Since most g i r l s chose dual-role l i f e plans, the importance of considering the consequences of such a choice becomes apparent e s p e c i a l l y i n a l i f e planning context. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Nature of the Problem 4 Purpose of the Study 5 Implications of the Study 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Overview of the Study 9 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 Career Development Theory 10 Developmental Self-concept Theory - D. E. Super 11 Anne Roe's Personality Theory 14 Holland's Career Typology Theory 15 A Conceptual Framework for Occupational Choice 16 Current Trends: Toward L i f e Career Development 17 Toward a Theory of Occupational Choice for Women 19 Career Orientation 24 Career Salience 25 Occupational Role Innovation 27 Educational A s p i r a t i o n 30 Work Role Involvement 31 Vocational Maturity 33 Vocational Maturity and Women 37 Hypotheses 39 v CHAPTER PAGE I I I METHODOLOGY 42 Research Design 42 Sample 42 The Subjects 42 The Schools 43 The D i s t r i c t s 44 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Due to Sampling Procedures 44 T e s t i n g Instruments 45 Career Development Inventory 45 Role Involvement Sca le - Work 47 Career S a l i e n c e Measure 49 E d u c a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n Measure 50 Occupa t iona l Role Innova t ion 50 Genera l In format ion 51 C o l l e c t i o n of Data 51 P i l o t Study 51 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Ques t ionna i re 52 S c o r i n g and Coding 52 Data A n a l y s i s 53 IV RESULTS.OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 56 C o r r e l a t i o n of Career O r i e n t a t i o n V a r i a b l e s w i t h V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y 56 V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y and Career S a l i e n c e 56 V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y and Work Role Involvement 59 Pos t Hoc A n a l y s i s o f RIS-W Resu l t s 61 V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y and E d u c a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n 63 v i \ CHAPTER PAGE IV Vocational Maturity and Occupational Role Innovation 65 Relationships Among Career Orientation Variables 65 General Information 67 Mother's Occupation 67 Career and Marriage Importance 67 Work Experience 67 Post Hoc Analysis of Career Orientation Variables 70 Data Transformations 70 Results of Post Hoc Analysis 72 V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 76 Summary and Discussion of Results 76 Hypothesis 1 76 Hypothesis 2 77 Hypothesis 3 79 Hypothesis 4 81 Implications of the Study 82 Suggestions f o r Further Research 85 REFERENCES 87 APPENDIX A. Role Involvement Scale-Work 96 APPENDIX B. L i f e , Educational, and Occupational Plans 99 APPENDIX C. Career Development Inventory Scales A and B 100 APPENDIX D. General Information 106 APPENDIX E. Sample of Le t t e r of Request Sent to School D i s t r i c t Superintendents 107 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Description PAGE 1. Spearman Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Vocational Maturity and Four Dimensions of Career Orientation 58 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Career Salience Choices 58 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects' Descriptions of Judy's Occu-pation According to Degree of Occupational Role Innova-tio n 62 4 Comparison of Subjects' Work Role Involvement Scores According to How They Described Judy's Occupation 62 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of. Subjects According to Educational A s p i r a t i o n 64 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects' Occupational Choices Accord-ing to Degree of Occupational Role Innovation 64 7 Cor r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s (Spearman r) Between Occupa-t i o n a l Role Innovation and Scales A and B of the CDI 66 8 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r Career Orientation V a r i -ables (Spearman r Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s ) 66 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Occupa-t i o n a l Role Innovation of Mother's Occupation 68 10 Comparison of Subjects' CDI Scores According to Mother's Work Role 68 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Career Importance 69 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Marriage Importance 69 o 13 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s (r ) Between Marriage/Career Importance and Career Salience 71 14 Subjects' Work Experience 71 15 Cross Tabulations Comparing Educational A s p i r a t i o n and Career Salience 73 16 Cross Tabulations Comparing Occupational Role Innova-tio n and Career Salience 74 17 Cross Tabulations Comparing Occupational Role Innovation and Educational A s p i r a t i o n 75 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Description PAGE 1 Frequency Polygon for Summed Scores of the Career Development Inventory, Scales A + B 57 2 Frequency Polygon for Scores of the Role Involvement Scale - Work Role Cue 60 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my thanks and appreciation to those people who as s i s t e d me with this research project and i n the completion of this manuscript. To Dr. B i l l Borgen for h i s encouragement and guidance, and for being so consistently a v a i l a b l e f or consultation. To Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f and Dr. Richard Young for t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and advice. To those administrators, counsellors and teachers from School D i s t r i c t s 37 and 38 who so f r e e l y gave t h e i r cooperation and a s s i s -tance i n conducting this research with t h e i r students. x Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY In 1967, 35 percent of a l l women i n Canada were work ing or l o o k i n g fo r work; by 1977, tha t f i g u r e had i nc rea sed to 46 pe rcen t , w i t h women c o n s t i t u t i n g 38 percent of a l l workers (Labour Canada, 1977). Popu la r b e l i e f s t i l l d i c t a t e s tha t a woman w i l l marry at an e a r l y age and s tay at home to r a i s e her f a m i l y . However, du r ing t h e i r prime c h i l d - r a i s i n g years (25 - 34) almost 50 percent of women w i l l work ou t s ide the home even though they marry. As w e l l , the labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n ra te inc reases to over 50 percent fo r mar r i ed women who are between 35 and 44 years ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1978b). As i n c r e a s i n g numbers of women work ou t s i de the home, more i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g focussed on t h e i r changing r o l e s and on the p l ace of work i n t h e i r l i v e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , career development theory has been u s e f u l i n under-s t and ing and i n t e r p r e t i n g male o c c u p a t i o n a l development. However, a t -tempts to f i t male-based t h e o r e t i c a l models to female career development are fraught w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . Osipow (1973) has p o i n t e d out the i n -adequacies of present t heo r i e s and cons t ruc t s i n unders tanding the female career development p roces s . Present t heo r i e s of career development do not take i n t o account the r e a l i t y i n our s o c i e t y that involvement i n the work force has been only one o f a v a r i e t y o f l i f e choices a v a i l a b l e f o r women ( A n g r i s t , 1972) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t has been assumed tha t men are more n a t u r a l l y en-dowed to assume a work r o l e than are women and that they, by v i r t u e of t h e i r sex , must be the f ami ly bread w inne r s . As w e l l , the t r a d i t i o n a l 1 2 c u l t u r a l view of women has been that t h e i r place i s i n the home, and that they are n a t u r a l l y more suited than are men to engage i n homemaking and nurturing r o l e s . With the impact of the Women's Li b e r a t i o n Movement and accompany-ing s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l changes, these sex-role stereotypes are being questioned, and al t e r n a t i v e modes of l i v i n g and r e l a t i n g are being explored by both women and men. The workplace has been irrevocably af-fected by these changes. More women, both married and s i n g l e , are working outside the home for longer periods of time than ever before. As w e l l , women incr e a s i n g l y are working f o r reasons other than f i n a n c i a l need. Young women today are free to choose from a d i v e r s i t y and range of ro l e options that were generally unavailable even i n the previous generation. While they are encouraged by changing s o c i e t a l attitudes to f u l f i l l themselves and use t h e i r talents i n work outside the home, most young women s t i l l wish to marry and pursue homemaking and parenting roles at some time i n t h e i r l i v e s . This study explores some of these aspects of female career develops ment, s p e c i f i c a l l y the re l a t i o n s h i p of career o r i e n t a t i o n to the voca-t i o n a l maturity of senior high school g i r l s . A discussion of each of these concepts follows. Career Orientation As Osipow (1973) stated, career versus marriage o r i e n t a t i o n i n women i s an important variable to be studied i n connection with female career development. Richardson (1972) emphasized that before female career choices can be meaningfully investigated, one must f i r s t consider women's o r i e n t a t i o n to work outside the home with i n the context of t h e i r l i f e r o l e choices. 3 The few theo r i e s tha t have emerged i n the l i t e r a t u r e which s p e c i f i -c a l l y desc r ibe the career development of women a l l focus on v a r i a b l e s which r e l a t e to l i f e choices concerning marriage and p a r e n t i n g r o l e s (Fa lk & Cosby, 1974; Psa thas , 1968; R i s c h and Beymer, 1967). Career pa t t e rns of men have been def ined only i n terms of t h e i r work a c t i v i t i e s (Super, 1957); female work p a t t e r n s , however, have been desc r ibed i n terms of t r a d i t i o n a l homemaking a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as work a c t i v i t i e s (Mulvey, 1963; Osipow, 1973; Super, 1957). The concept of career o r i e n t a t i o n has emerged i n the l i t e r a t u r e on female career development i n an attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e how women i n c o r -pora te career and homemaking r o l e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . Richardson (1974a) b road ly def ined career o r i e n t a t i o n as the ex ten t to which women are com-m i t t e d to and are i n v o l v e d i n the work r o l e . The cons t ruc t p rov ides one means of examining the p r i o r i t i e s women p l a c e on an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e at a p a r t i c u l a r ; ? p o i n t i n t ime; i t focusses on the r e a l i t y that women do have the choice of whether or not to work ou t s ide the home, and tha t they have choices about the k i n d of work they w i l l do (R icha rdson , 1974b). V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y As more women p a r t i c i p a t e i n the workp lace , g i r l s and young women i n elementary and secondary schools are b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y encouraged to engage i n meaningful o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n . I n t h i s s e t t i n g , the v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y of these s tuden t s , or t h e i r readiness f o r making o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , becomes an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The cons t ruc t of v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y has a r i s e n from career deve lop-ment theo ry , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the work o f Donald Super (1957) , and i s r e l a t e d to how e f f e c t i v e l y (maturely) i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h v o c a t i o n a l l y r e l evan t tasks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r stages of v o c a t i o n a l develop-ment. 4 These vocational l i f e stages as defined by Super (1957) are growth ( b i r t h to ages 14-15), exploration (15-24),.establishment (24-44), mainten-ance (45-64), and decline (65- ). The exploration stage, i s concerned with l e v e l s of vocational development of adolescents and young adults, and most of the theory and research i n v o l v i n g vocational maturity concerns t h i s population. Several instruments have been developed to measure vocational maturity and are used with increasing frequency with both g i r l s and boys to evalu-ate programs i n career guidance and education, to develop school c u r r i c u l a , to determine effectiveness of vocational counselling, and to i d e n t i f y s p e c i a l needs groups (Hilton, 1974; Jordaan, 1974). Nature of the Problem The concept of vocational maturity was developed from the Career Pattern Study (Super & Overstreet, 1960), a major l o n g i t u d i n a l study of male career development. Considering how d i f f e r e n t the l i f e stages and roles of women often are from those of men, one may question i f vocational maturity measures have the same meaning for both g i r l s and boys. I t would appear that d i f f e r e n t psychological, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l factors operate for men than f o r women i n terms of vocational development and occupational choice. Vocational maturity scores by themselves do not r e f l e c t these underlying differences. Career development theory assumes that the l e v e l of vocational maturity of an i n d i v i d u a l i n the exploration stage of vocational develop-ment i s a useful predictor of success for making appropriate and r e a l i s -t i c occupational choices. However, the vocational l i f e stages and coping behaviors i m p l i c i t i n the concept of vocational maturity are relevant p r i m a r i l y to the occupational world. Richardson (1974b) pointed out that since the female career process involves role development i n the occupa-5 t i o n a l world and role development i n the more t r a d i t i o n a l homemaking world, "vocational maturity i s c l e a r l y l i m i t e d i n i t s present formulation to only one aspect of female career development" (p. 137). She con-tended that a model of vocational maturity and career development that would f i t women would need to integrate the more t r a d i t i o n a l aspects of the adult female r o l e - the options of marriage and motherhood. F i n a l l y , she suggested that vocational maturity instruments be used only i n conjunction with a separate measure of sex-role attitudes or career o r i e n t a t i o n . This would provide a means of lo c a t i n g the salience of occupational role development within the l i f e space of an i n d i v i d u a l woman's career development (p. 140). Purpose of the Study Increasingly i n career education and counselling, occupational choice i s no longer being viewed i n i s o l a t i o n of other c r i t i c a l l i f e -s t y l e choices. I t i s rather seen as an i n t e g r a l part of a planning pro-cess based on an understanding of possible l i f e roles and on the stages of adult development. Even though female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour force i s esca l a t i n g , most women are s t i l l involved i n low-status, low-paying occupations -35 percent i n c l e r i c a l occupations; 18 percent i n service occupations; 10 percent i n sales ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 19 78a). Many women who delay t h e i r work role u n t i l t h e i r c h i l d r e n are i n school or have l e f t home experience anxiety and depression when they attempt to enter the labour force (Brooks, 1976). More women than ever before are heading s i n g l e -parent f a m i l i e s as divorce s t a t i s t i c s climb, and they face s p e c i a l pro-blems as workers ( A s l i n , 1976). As women enter middle, age, severe 6 anxiety and stress often r e s u l t from the "empty-nest syndrome" when the demands of motherhood cease or diminish (Powell, 1977). At this stage, when t h e i r roles are i n t r a n s i t i o n , many women turn to working outside the home, some of them for the f i r s t time. The r e a l i t i e s for women who work or contemplate work are often harsh, and they underline the importance of adequate occupational and general future planning and preparation for young women. Whatever roles they choose, i t i s e s s e n t i a l for them to plan for an occupation i n a n t i -c i p a t i o n of t h e i r years of work outside the home i f they are to avoid some of the present d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by women i n the workplace. Through meaningful planning and informed decision-making, young women w i l l be bet t e r able to achieve the greatest possible s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t from a l l t h e i r role choices. Vocational maturity r e f l e c t s the effectiveness of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s vocational coping behavior and i s an important construct i n measuring the vocational development of both g i r l s and boys. However, underlying f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y those that operate for women, are not r e f l e c t e d by vocational maturity scores. As c i t e d above, Richardson (1974b) re-commended that the vocational maturity of women be examined i n con-junction with sex-role attitudes or career o r i e n t a t i o n . This study focusses on four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n : career salience, occupational role innovation, work r o l e involvement and educational a s p i r -ation. The purpose of the study i s to explore the re l a t i o n s h i p between these dimensions and the vocational maturity of grade twelve g i r l s . A secondary purpose i s to examine the relationships among several of the career o r i e n t a t i o n dimensions. 7 Implications of the Study This study i s both d e s c r i p t i v e and exploratory. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed that very l i t t l e research has been done exploring the r e l a t i o n s h i p of career o r i e n t a t i o n and vocational maturity. As w e l l , most of the studies researching female career development i n general have used a college-age population; i n comparison, l i t t l e work has been done exploring the career development of high school g i r l s . The present research has implications for vocational counselling of young women and for the development of career education programs i n high school s e t t i n g s . Several studies have emphasized the need f o r career counselling of women with i n a l i f e - p l a n n i n g context, taking i n t o consideration the developmental stages involved. Young women need to be made aware of the vari e t y of l i f e r o l e choices a v a i l a b l e to them and be given assistance i n understanding the implications of the choices they make (Astin & Myint, 1971; Disabatino, 1976; O l i v e r , 1975). Both career o r i e n t a t i o n and vocational maturity are e s s e n t i a l components of female career development. By examining how these two factors r e l a t e , progress can be made i n counselling and career education towards a s s i s t i n g young women to plan r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r and achieve genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n from a l l the l i f e roles they choose. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Career Orientation This i s a multi-dimensional concept r e f e r r i n g to the extent to which women are committed to and are involved i n the work ro l e i n com-bina t i o n with or exclusive of homemaking a c t i v i t i e s . For the present study, four s p e c i f i c dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n have been iden-t i f i e d : career salience, occupational role innovation, educational 8 as p i r a t i o n and work ro l e involvement. Career Salience Career salience refers to the extent to which a woman combines or wishes to combine a work r o l e with marriage and parenting r o l e s . In the present study,, career salience w i l l be operationally defined i n terms of measuring the extent of work i n the anticipated l i f e plans of subjects. Occupational Role Innovation This concept ref e r s to the anticipated occupational choice of sub-j e c t s and i s operationally defined i n terms of the percentage of women working i n a given occupation. Any occupation which has fewer than 30 percent women workers i s defined as an innovative choice. Two other categories of occupational choice f a l l under this d e f i n i t i o n : moderate occupational role choice (occupations with 30 to 50 percent women) and t r a d i t i o n a l occupational r o l e choice (occupations with more than 50 percent female workers). Other researchers have used s i m i l a r de-signations ( B u r l i n , 1976; Tangri, 1971). Role A role i s defined as a patterned sequence of learned actions or deeds performed by persons occupying c e r t a i n positions i n society (Sarbin, 1968). Behaviors and a c t i v i t i e s associated with roles are both expected and en-couraged. Work Role Involvement: This concept refers to the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s are psycho-l o g i c a l l y engaged i n and attached to a c t i v i t i e s associated with the work role (Richardson & Alpert, 1978). Work role involvement w i l l be mea-sured by the Role Involvement Scale, work ro l e cue. Vocational Maturity Vocational maturity refers to the effectiveness with which i n d i v i d u a l s 9 cope with vocationally relevant tasks that are associated with c e r t a i n stages of vocational development. For the proposed study, vocational maturity i s operationally defined i n terms of the Planning Orientation and Resources for Exploration Scales of the Career Development Inventory developed by Donald Super and David Forrest (1972). Overview of the Study Chapter I has presented the background of the problem and the purpose of this study. Chapter II contains a l i t e r a t u r e review of the following areas: career development theories - i n general and as they r e l a t e to women, career o r i e n t a t i o n and vocational maturity. The chapter concludes with the research hypotheses r e s u l t i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e review. The methodology employed i n the study i s described i n Chapter I I I , inc l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the research design, instruments used, sample, data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The thesis concludes with a presentation of the r e s u l t s and a d i s -cussion of t h e i r implications; suggestions for further research are given. Chapter II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Career Development Theory History From i t s early beginnings i n the 20th century u n t i l shortly a f t e r 1950, vocational psychology was mainly concerned with the study of occu-pations. Using this approach, c a l l e d t r a i t - a n d - f a c t o r , an occupation was studied by examining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people engaged i n i t . I t was thought that an i n d i v i d u a l could chose the " r i g h t " occupation for himself by matching s e l f data and occupational data (Parsons, 1909). In the early 1950's a new approach to vocational psychology was developed p r i m a r i l y from the work of Donald Super (1953) and E l i Ginzberg (1951). Their work was the basis of a career model of vocational develop-ment which viewed the vocational choice and adjustment of an i n d i v i d u a l i n a developmental context. Career was defined as "the sequence of occu-pations, jobs and positions occupied during the course of a person's working l i f e " (Super, 1969, p. 3). This developmental concept widened the horizons of vocational psychology enormously. I t included an i n -dividual's choices and experience before and a f t e r working l i f e and took into account psychological and s o c i a l factors which might a f f e c t voca-t i o n a l choice. The early work of Super and Ginzberg set the stage for i n t e n s i f i e d research i n theories of vocational development. Other "developmentalists" emerged such as Crites (1961), Tiedeman (1963), and Gribbons and Lohnes (1968). Diverse t h e o r e t i c a l approaches were explored, drawing from be-h a v i o r a l science concepts such as personality and s o c i a l organization. 10 11 As Osipow (1975) pointed out, regardless of the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i -entation, a l l approaches seem to imply that there i s something system-a t i c about people's careers and t h e i r development. However, one must r e a l i z e that generally these concepts and theories were designed to understand the career development of a middle c l a s s , probably white, American male. Thus ap p l i c a t i o n of the concepts, l e t alone the derived data, to such groups as women i s c l e a r l y problematical (p. 3). In order to explore the problems of applying the t r a d i t i o n a l theories of vocational development to women's career choices, some of these major t h e o r e t i c a l approaches should be described. Four t h e o r e t i c a l positions are presented that are considered by writers i n the f i e l d (Crawford, 1978; Osipow, 1975; Vetter, 1978) to be relevant to female career develop-ment. These are the theories of Donald Super, John Holland, Anne Roe, and Peter Blau, R.J. Gustad, H. Parnes, and R. Wilcock. Developmental Self-Concept Theory: Donald Super Donald Super i s considered to be a leading proponent of the develop-mental approach i n vocational psychology (Pietrofesa & Splete, 1975). His f i r s t formal t h e o r e t i c a l statement appeared i n 1953 prompted by the work of E l i Ginzberg (1951) who emphasized the need f o r the development of a comprehensive theory of vocational choice. Super's l a t e r work (1957, 1963)'refined and elaborated on h i s o r i g i n a l statement. Four major themes a r i s e i n Super's theory: t r a n s l a t i n g s e l f -concept into vocational self-concept, vocational l i f e stages, vocational maturity, and career patterns. S e l f Concept. Super proposed that an i n d i v i d u a l attempts to imple-ment his self-concept by choosing to enter the occupation he sees as 12 most l i k e l y to permit him s e l f expression. As w e l l , he suggested that the vocational behaviors an i n d i v i d u a l exhibits are a function of h i s p a r t i c u l a r stage of l i f e development. Vocational behavior can be b e t t e r understood by looking at the t o t a l context of the person's l i f e c y cle. L i f e Stages. The work of Charlotte Beuhler (1933) greatly i n -fluenced Super's theory. As a developmental psychologist, she proposed that i n d i v i d u a l s passed through d i s t i n c t stages as they matured. Super redefined these and c a l l e d them vocational l i f e stages (1957). The stages are: growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance and decline. In the growth stage ( b i r t h - age 14), Super saw the self-concept developing through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with key figures i n the family and school. As w e l l , i n t e r e s t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s become more important with increasing s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . •The exploration stage (15-^24) i s characterized by the i n d i v i d u a l assessing h i s needs, i n t e r e s t s , capacities and values, making tentative choices which are t r i e d out i n fantasy, discussion or part-time work. He takes tentative steps to e s t a b l i s h himself i n the world of work, f i n d -ing a beginning job and t r y i n g i t out. A s u i t a b l e work f i e l d i s found i n the establishment stage (24-44), and the i n d i v i d u a l has a desire to earn a permanent place i n the occupa-tio n of h i s choice. There may be some job change, some s h i f t i n g within the occupation, but a person may e s t a b l i s h himself without a t r i a l period. In the maintenance stage (45-65) the i n d i v i d u a l builds a place i n the world of work, and i n decline (65+.), work a c t i v i t y changes and ceases as p h y s i c a l or mental powers cease or decline. Career Patterns. Super's notion of career patterns was based on hi s concept of vocational l i f e stages. He determined that the career behavior of people follows patterns which are regular and predictable. 13 These patterns are the r e s u l t of many psychological, p h y s i c a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l factors which make up an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . He contended that an understanding of career patterns helps i n the p r e d i c t i o n of future behavior. Super defined four career patterns f o r men: 1. Stable - a career chosen early i n l i f e and maintained perman-ently . 2. Conventional - a serie s of jobs, one of which leads to a stable job. 3. Unstable - a series of jobs leading to temporary s t a b i l i t y which i s soon disrupted. 4. Mul t i p l e t r i a l - a seri e s of stable entry jobs, that i s , the same type of work, but with d i f f e r e n t employers. Although h i s vocational l i f e stages are not relevant to the career development of women ( L e v i t t , 1972), Super did define some career pat-terns f o r women based on h i s assumption that women's role as childbearer makes her the keystone of the home and therefore gives homemaking a cen-t r a l place i n her career (Super, 1957). These patterns are: 1. Stable homemaking - marriage a f t e r education completed and no experience outside the home. 2. Conventional - work i n a t r a d i t i o n a l occupation f o r a short period a f t e r school completed and then marriage and f u l l - t i m e home-making. 3. Stable working - f u l l - t i m e permanent career chosen a f t e r com-p l e t i n g education (single "career women"). 4. Double-track - combination of marriage and work. 5. Interrupted - work, then marriage and homemaking, then re-entry i n -to the labour force. 14 6. Unstable - r e f l e c t i o n of i r r e g u l a r economic pressures; marriage and then i n and out of the labour force. 7. Mult i p l e t r i a l - seri e s of unrelated unstable jobs. Besides defining vocational l i f e stages and career patterns, Super also introduced the concept of vocational maturity to career development theory. Since vocational maturity i s c e n t r a l to the present study, i t s development and measurement are described separately l a t e r on i n this chapter. Anne Roe's Personality Theory Super's self-concept theory introduced the importance of consider-ing p e r sonality i n occupational choice. Anne Roe (1956, 1957) was the f i r s t t h e o r i s t who viewed personality as a primary determinant. The t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings of her work came from her i n t e r e s t i n sociology, anthropology and psychology. She was c h i e f l y concerned with the e f f e c t s of early childhood experience on the development of personality and on occupational choice. Depending on early parental attitudes and how com-p l e t e l y early needs are s a t i s f i e d , Roe postulated that an i n d i v i d u a l moves towards persons or towards "non-persons" (1957), both i n person-a l i t y and i n occupational choice. She held that the degree of person-o r i e n t a t i o n i n l a t e r l i f e i s generally p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the amount of love and attention received from parents i n early childhood. Based on her theory, Roe (1957) developed an occupational c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n system which predicted that people with p a r t i c u l a r early home environments would gravitate towards p a r t i c u l a r occupational environ-ments; f or example, people i n service occupations tend to be oriented towards people and probably come from a home which was characterized by a loving, overprotective environment. 15 Roe 's work generated cons ide rab le r e sea rch , most o f which i n d i c a t e s tha t her theory as o r i g i n a l l y proposed i s not an adequate r ep resen ta -t i o n of c r u c i a l features of v o c a t i o n a l development (Osipow, 1973). De-s p i t e these r e s u l t s , Roe 's c o n t r i b u t i o n s are cons idered v a l u a b l e because she was the f i r s t t h e o r i s t to s t r e s s the importance of c o n s i d e r i n g e a r l y expe r i ence , p e r s o n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l needs i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . As w i t h the o ther major t h e o r i s t s i n t h i s f i e l d , Roe d i d not con-s i d e r the d i f f e r ences between male and female v o c a t i o n a l development. Her theory of p e r s o n a l i t y does not address the d i f f e r e n t i a l s e x - r o l e development of boys and g i r l s . Examining the i m p l i c a t i o n s of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g shou ld be an e s s e n t i a l element o f any p e r s o n a l i t y theory of o c c u p a t i o n a l development i f i t i s to apply to women (Psathas , 1968). H o l l a n d ' s Career Typology Theory - P e r s o n a l i t y and Environment John H o l l a n d (1959, 1966) developed a theory of career choice which extended Super ' s and Roe 's work and added a n o v e l approach as w e l l . L i k e Super, he viewed career choice as an ex t ens ion of p e r s o n a l i t y and be -l i e v e d tha t an i n d i v i d u a l attempts to implement broad b e h a v i o r a l s t y l e s i n the context of the w o r l d of work. L i k e Roe, he developed a c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n system fo r occupa t ions . The n o v e l element of H o l l a n d ' s work i s h i s n o t i o n tha t people p r o j e c t t h e i r views of themselves and the w o r l d of work on to o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s . He def ined s i x o c c u p a t i o n a l environments which he assumed i n c l u d e d a l l the major k inds of American work environments (1959). As w e l l , he used these s i x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to desc r ibe s i x modal p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a -t i o n s or p e r s o n a l i t y types . These s i x o c c u p a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l i t y types a re : R e a l i s t i c , I n v e s t i g a t i v e , A r t i s t i c , S o c i a l , E n t e r p r i s i n g , and C o n v e n t i o n a l . H o l l a n d main ta ined tha t people tend to choose o c c u p a t i o n a l environments that match t h e i r pe r sona l o r i e n t a t i o n s . 16 Although he believed that "in:our culture most persons can be cate-gorized as one of s i x types" (1966, p. 9), the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of h i s theory to female career development i s questionable. He admitted this d i f f i c u l t y himself: Unfortunately most of our empirical knowledge about personality and vocational behavior has been obtained i n studies of men. Consequently, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to construct a theory of person-a l i t y that applies equally to men and women. The present theory i s no exception. I t i s based c h i e f l y on studies of men and i s pro-bably less useful for understanding the behavior of women. A s p e c i a l but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d theory for women i s desirable, but at this point I have none to o f f e r (1966, p. 13). A Conceptual Framework' for Occupational Choice Holland's theory of vocational development stresses the importance of considering work environments i n the choice process. Blau and his colleagues (1956) further elaborated on the importance of occupational conditions. The view of occupational choice presented by Blau et a l . was the r e s u l t of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o l l a b o r a t i o n from the f i e l d s of psych-ology, sociology and economics. The authors stressed that t h e i r pre-sentation was not a theory, but rather a conceptual scheme for system-a t i c research which could be the basis for a theory of occupational choice. They emphasized the importance of s o c i a l structure and how i t influences occupational choice. S o c i a l structure a f f e c t s choice i n two respects: (1) the matrix of s o c i a l experiences which channel the per-s o n a l i t y development of p o t e n t i a l workers, and (2) the conditions of '17 occupational opportunity which l i m i t the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r choices; fo r example, economic conditions, employment p o l i c i e s , and wage structure. Occupational choice of an i n d i v i d u a l depends on the compromise he can reach between the kinds of jobs he prefers and those he fe e l s he i s able to get; that i s , a compromise between preferences or values and r e a l i s -t i c expectations. The processes of choice (psychological factors) and s e l e c t i o n (socioeconomic factors) are given equal importance. Although Blau et a l . did not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention women i n t h e i r formulation, they did provide a comprehensive outline which could be used i n any study of occupational s e l e c t i o n (Psathas, 1971). Current Trends: Toward L i f e Career Development Recently, a new trend i n career development has emerged which adds another dimension to t r a d i t i o n a l theories. In the 1950's the introduction of a developmental approach to career choice was considered to be a major breakthrough. There i s grow-ing concensus among career the o r i s t s that i t i s now time to go beyond the work-oriented b a r r i e r that i s inherent i n some current d e f i n i t i o n s of career development and focus on a l l aspects of people's l i v e s , that i s , on l i f e career development. Work rol e s , work settings and work-related events are important i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s , but they should not be seen i n i s o l a t i o n from other important l i f e r o l e s , settings and events. . . Work-related concerns need to be placed i n the context of the t o t a l time span of human development so that they can be bet t e r understood (Gysbers & Moore, 1975, p. 648). This concept of " l i f e career development" can be defined as s e l f -development over the l i f e span of an i n d i v i d u a l through an in t e g r a t i o n 18 of the r o l e s , settings and events of h i s or her l i f e . Although t h i s new trend does not present a new t h e o r e t i c a l model, i t does challenge career and guidance counsellors to focus on t o t a l l i f e development i n t h e i r work. What becomes important i s a s s i s t i n g c l i e n t s to know and understand t h e i r own current and future roles and s e t t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t i n g to family, education, work and l e i s u r e ( M i t c h e l l , 1975; Gysbers & Moore, 1975). Another important dimension of this recent approach i s the changing nature of work i n our society.- Warnath (1975) contended that t r a d i t i o n a l vocational theories no longer apply to the r e a l world. These theories assume that a person with adequate motivation, information and guidance can s a t i s f y occupational goals that allow him or her to express personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or implement self-concept. The problem i s that given current s o c i a l and economic conditions, every job i s not i n t r i n s i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g or capable of engaging the human q u a l i t i e s of an i n d i v i d u a l . With increased automation, reduced work week, part-time work and pressure toward early retirement, i t can no longer be assumed that jobs are able to serve as the major source of personal f u l f i l l m e n t . In a society where the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l are subordinated to the goals of the organiza-tion and where jobs are designed to meet the needs of production and pro-f i t , the popular concept of work as being i n t r i n s i c a l l y meaningful has become a myth. Warnath suggested that counsellors consider a t h e o r e t i c a l framework that i s broader than current vocational development models, one that i s based on general human effectiveness and that does not require a f u l -f i l l i n g job as i t s core concept. 19 Toward a Theory of Occupational Choice f o r Women The work described above of some of the major streams i n career development theory focusses on developmental, psychological, s o c i o l o g i -c a l and economic fa c t o r s . Certainly some aspects of a l l these theories do apply to women, but none of them (except perhaps for Super's female career patterns) addresses the r e a l i t y that the career development of women i s e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that of men. The current questioning of the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of vocational theory to women and the new trends emerging i n career and l i f e s t y l e counselling are encouraging signs. This new or i e n t a t i o n appears to be much more amenable to incorporating a model that includes women. But the present r e a l i t y i s that as yet no comprehensive t h e o r e t i c a l framework ex i s t s for female career development. As Osipow (1973) pointed out, enough s u b s t a n t i a l differences e x i s t (between men and women i n t h e i r career development) to warrant attempts to develop d i s t i n c t theories for each sex, at le a s t u n t i l such time as true sexual equality of career opportunity exists and the re s u l t s have permeated society at a l l l e v e l s (p. 258). Several attempts have been made to work towards such a theory for female career development.: George Psathas (1968) described some factors which i n h i s view work i n s p e c i a l ways for women: An understanding of the factors which influence entry of women in t o occupational roles must begin with the re l a t i o n s h i p between sex role and occupational r o l e . . . Maternity and childbearing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as b i o l o g i c a l l y established- and"socially defined have tremendous e f f e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g male and female career patterns (p. 255). 20 Psathas maintained that consideration of a woman's early family environment i s c r u c i a l to understanding her career choices; for example, attitudes of the family to sex ro l e and educational and t r a i n i n g options a v a i l a b l e to her. He pointed to the importance of such factors as family finances ( a b i l i t y and desire to educate female c h i l d r e n ) , s o c i a l c l a s s , education and occupation of parents ( e s p e c i a l l y the mother), b i r t h order, number, spacing and sex of children i n the family, the presence or absence of male s i b l i n g s , t h e i r proximity i n age and t h e i r b i r t h order i n r e l a t i o n to the g i r l . Influences of marriage and childbearing have profound e f f e c t s on female career development as w e l l . Important factors to consider i n -clude a g i r l ' s i n t e n t i o n to marry, time of marriage i n her l i f e , reasons for marrying, husband's economic status and h i s attitude to h i s wife's working, the decision to have children - at what age and at what stage i n the marriage, how many chi l d r e n and th e i r spacing. Motivational factors are considered to be c r u c i a l as well;' for example, an important consideration i s a woman's general desire for a career i n the labour force as opposed to a career i n the home. In c a l l i n g attention to these numerous factors, Psathas was broad-ening the concept of occupational choice to include the " s e t t i n g " within which these choices operate f o r women. He was i n agreement with Blau et a l . (1956) who noted that occupational choice should not be con-ceived of as occurring at one point i n time, even i f i t i s defined as a l i m i t e d time i n t e r v a l rather than as an instant. "A serie s of successive choice periods must be analyzed to show how e a r l i e r decisions l i m i t or extent the range of future choices" (p. 535). Psathas concluded that an evaluation of various t h e o r e t i c a l approaches 21 and the elaboration of factors operating for women suggest that the factors i n f l u e n c i n g occupational choice are more subtle and dynamic than those encompassed by the r a t i o n a l i s t i c and reward frames of reference. Occupational choice i s not exc l u s i v e l y or even necessa r i l y a r a t i o n a l , decision-making process. Developmental approaches are somewhat more applicable to women, but such theories focus on the psychological act of choosing and di v e r t attention from the s o c i a l and economic factors which condition such choices. "Individuals do not choose i n a vacuum . . . (and) the settings i n which women's choices are made seem to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y neglected" (p. 268). Risch and Beymer's (1967) work also focussed on the importance of how sex roles and f a m i l i a l settings influence occupational choice. In t h e i r conception, a woman has t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed an "expressive" role i n the family, providing nurturant care and acceptance of her child r e n . The husband/father generally assumes the "instrumental" r o l e . He i s usually concerned with the more adaptive functions; for example, s e t t i n g standards for children i n the family and l i n k i n g the family with other s o c i a l systems. These roles are learned through a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process within the family, with ch i l d r e n usually i d e n t i f y i n g with the like-sexed par-ent. G i r l s w i l l tend to i d e n t i f y with mothers and translate this i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n to t h e i r occupational choice. I f mother i s performing an ex-pressive r o l e , then daughter w i l l choose an expressive occupation such as education, nursing or s e c r e t a r i a l work. Conversely, daughters with more "instrumental" mothers w i l l tend to choose instrumental occupations such as science or engineering. These hypotheses were tested i n a l i m i t e d scale with inconclusive r e s u l t s . However, the authors concluded that t h e i r study did suggest 22 "that there may be some basis for a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a -tionship between present s o c i a l systems and the vocational choice of women" (p. 91). Donald Zytowski's (1968) approach appears to be much more s p e c i f i c and l i m i t i n g than that of e i t h e r Psathas or Risch and Beymer. He main-tained that "woman's role has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y organized around the nurturance of children and the support of the e f f o r t s of the family's breadwinner" (p. 661). He presented nine postulates as being important to female career development: 1. The modal l i f e role for women i s described as that of home-maker. 2. The nature of woman's role i s not s t a t i c . I t w i l l ultimately bear no d i s t i n c t i o n from that of men. 3. The l i f e r o l e of women i s orderly and developmental, and may be divided i n t o sequences according to the pre-eminent tasks i n each. 4. Vocational and homemaker p a r t i c i p a t i o n are l a r g e l y mutually exclusive. Vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n constitutes a departure from the homemaker r o l e . 5. Three aspects of vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n are s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h patterns of vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n : age or ages of entry; span of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; and degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 6. The degree of vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n represented by a given occupation i s defined as the proportion of men to the t o t a l number of workers employed i n the performance of that job. 7. Women's vocational patterns may be distinguished i n terms of three l e v e l s derived from the combination of entry age(s), span and degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , forming an o r d i n a l scale. 23 8. Women's preference for a pattern of vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an i n t e r n a l event and i s accounted for by motivational factors. 9. The pattern of vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s determined j o i n t l y by preference (representing motivation) and by external - s i t u a t i o n a l and environmental - and i n t e r n a l , such as a b i l i t y , factors. Zytowski's postulates appear to be organized 1around the assumption that most women choose to be wives and mothers. Women who choose to work and remain s i n g l e or who work, marry, and remain c h i l d l e s s seem to represent a departure from h i s model. In f a c t , the l i f e stages he delineated are based s o l e l y on a wife/mother role f o r women: Pre-school, School, Young wife, Childbearing, Pre-school children, Children i n school, Children marry, Empty nest, Widowhood. Despite these apparent shortcomings, Zytowski's model does c a l l attention to the profound implications of role choice on the career development of women. William Falk and Arthur Cosby (1974) took a s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective i n t h e i r approach to female career development viewing, occupational choice as a status attainment process. They outlined some s p e c i a l problems that are unique fo females and which i n t h e i r view could t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n a developmental process d i f f e r e n t from that of men: 1. The female i s s o c i a l i z e d p r i m a r i l y by another female, usually her mother, who may hold t r a d i t i o n a l views of what constitutes appro-p r i a t e educational and occupational a s p i r a t i o n . 2. Society tends to sex-type occupations i n such a manner that pressures e x i s t to express femininity i n the choice of certain occupa-tions which are r e s t r i c t e d both i n range and status as compared to the options open to males. 3. During adolescent years, the female experiences a serious a t t i -t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t between the notion of success defined i n terms of educational and occupational attainment on one hand, and marriage and motherhood on the other. 4. Influence for attainment from others i n c l u d i n g parents, teachers, peers, husband and possibly husband's employer tends to encourage mar-riage-motherhood roles at the expense of further educational and occupa-t i o n a l achievements. Besides presenting these four broad "axioms," Falk and Cosby l i s t e d some c r i t i c a l contingencies which they believed might a f f e c t occupa-t i o n a l choice. These contingencies are very s i m i l a r to those that Psathas (1968) mentioned and include m a r i t a l , f e r t i l i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l plans, mother's and father's education and occupation, projected occupa-t i o n a l persona ( t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ) , a n t i c i p a t e d husband's expectations for h i s spouse, i n t e r n a l motivation, and presence of d i s -criminatory laws, rules and h i r i n g guidelines. Career Orientation I t i s apparent from the preceding review of the work of researchers and t h e o r i s t s that male and female career development d i f f e r s and that s p e c i a l factors operate for women. I t appears that the c r i t i c a l deter-mining factors i n occupational choice f o r a woman are the b i o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y defined roles she performs as wife and mother. The concept of career o r i e n t a t i o n has emerged i n the l i t e r a t u r e on career develop-ment to describe how women incorporate career and homemaking roles i n th e i r l i v e s . As a complex and multi-dimensional concept, career o r i e n t a -ti o n has been defined i n numerous ways. Richardson (1976) has pointed out that, for research, p r e c i s e , operationally defined terms d i r e c t l y related to the phenomena under i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be used rather than the broad ap p e l l a t i o n of career o r i e n t a t i o n . 25 Although many dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , several s p e c i f i c areas appear to emerge continually. Two of the most important seem to be career salience (career-, home-making-, or dual-role choice) and t r a d i t i o n a l ! t y or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l i t y of occupational choice which i s also c a l l e d occupational r o l e innovation. Educational a s p i r a t i o n has also been used by researchers to assess aspects of career o r i e n t a t i o n . Since educational decisions are c r u c i a l to the vocational development of high school students, educational a s p i r a -ti o n i s deemed to be an important dimension of career o r i e n t a t i o n for the present research. Another dimension defined for this study i s work r o l e involvement or the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s are psychologically attached to a work r o l e . A review of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to each of these four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n i s presented below. Career Salience Numerous studies have used the concept of career salience to ex-plore occupational and role choices of women. Career salience can be defined as the extent to which women give the work role a high p r i o r i t y i n t h e i r adult l i v e s , i n place of or i n addition to involvement i n t r a d i -t i o n a l family roles (Richardson, 1976). In studying l i f e role decisions of educated women, Edwards (1969) c l a s s i f i e d her subjects according to three l i f e plans - career-oriented, marriage-oriented, and compromise or dual-role. Almquist and Angrist (1970) pointed out that since most women do plan to work at some point i n t h e i r l i v e s , what becomes important i s determining how s i g n i f i c a n t work i s as part of the woman's adult l i f e and how t r a d i t i o n a l or uncon-26 ventional for a woman i s the type of work pursued. In her research on women's work aspirations during college, Angrist (1972) studied her subjects' aspirations to incorporate work into t h e i r l i v e s . She used a questionnaire measuring adult role preferences that focussed on career, marriage and parenting r o l e choices. In assessing career and work o r i e n t a -ti o n of college women, Richardson (1974) developed a career salience question measuring the extent of work i n l i f e plans. She used a "desire to work" measure i n a 1976 study comparing the vocational maturity and career o r i e n t a t i o n of college women. Matthews and Tiedeman (1964) con-cluded that attitudes toward career and marriage influence present l i f e -s t y l e and an t i c i p a t e d l i f e plans of adolescent g i r l s and young women i n d i f f e r e n t ways at d i f f e r e n t stages of development. These studies appear to i l l u s t r a t e that consideration of the home-making/ career dichotomy that exists i n female career planning and choice has been an e s s e n t i a l element i n researching career' development. Dual Role Imperative. The l i t e r a t u r e concerning career salience appears to r e f l e c t a s h i f t towards dual or multiple l i f e r ole choices. In 1958 Empey found that i n her sample of high school seniors 80 percent of young women preferred marriage over a career. Both Angrist (1972) and Mintz and Patterson (1969) found that a majority of college women studied indicated a genuine i n t e r e s t i n a career, although they did • not see i t as a major goal and generally considered marriage to be more important. Simpson and Simpson (1971) suggested that college women expect to combine work and family i n t e r e s t at l e a s t during certain l i f e stages, but wish to increase working a c t i v i t i e s as children grow older and are at home l e s s . Rand and M i l l e r (1972) surveyed high school and college women and found that the majority of g i r l s opted for l i f e plans that combined a career, marriage and motherhood, choosing to work most of the time. They suggested that a new c u l t u r a l imperative of marriage plus career i s emerging and replacing the homemaking only t r a d i t i o n . They concluded that as c u l t u r a l biases against married women relax, young women are becoming more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r attitudes and desires concerning t h e i r l i f e r o l e s . Since the present study focusses on anticipated l i f e plans of adolescent g i r l s , t his trend towards dual-role choice has r e l e -vance for this research. Occupational Role Innovation Another common dimension associated with female career o r i e n t a t i o n i s the kind of occupational choices women make. Labour force s t a t i s t i c s r e f l e c t the fa c t that i n our so c i e t y , occupations are sex-typed. In 1978 over one-third (34.7 percent) of a l l working women were concentrated i n c l e r i c a l occupations; and 18.0 percent,'in service occupations. In short, over one-half of the female working force were i n c l e r i c a l and service jobs ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1978a). In pro f e s s i o n a l or semi-pro-f e s s i o n a l occupations, women tend to become teachers, nurses, s o c i a l workers, d i e t i c i a n s and l i b r a r i a n s (Pearson, 1979). I t appears that these t r a d i t i o n a l l y female jobs are often extensions of women's s o c i a l mandate of nurturer and helpmate to others and are chosen because they compliment wife and mother roles and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As Falk and Cosby (1964) pointed out, when sex-role related behaviors are associated with p a r t i c u l a r occupations, sex-typing becomes self-perpetuating and sets up .soc i e t a l expectations about what kind of work i s appropriate for women to do. Much research has been generated exploring the t r a d i t i o n a l and non - t r a d i t i o n a l occupational choices that women make. 28 Schlossberg and Goodman (1972) determined that occupational sex stereotyping occurs early i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of children. They found that children i n kindergarten and s i x t h graders f e l t that f i x i n g cars or t e l e v i s i o n sets or designing buildings was not appropriate work for women; however, they approved of work as a waitress, nurse or l i b r a r i a n . In contrast, they imposed no such l i m i t a t i o n s on men. Richardson (19 74a) found that college women could be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r career or work oriented. Career-oriented women were found to be highly career motivated and perceived the career role as primary i n t h e i r adult l i v e s ; t h e i r aspirations included higher l e v e l and less t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. Work-oriented women tended to choose tradi^-t t i o n a l l y feminine occupations and placed.a high value on both the career r o l e and marriage-family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e i r futures. Tangri (1972) studied the occupational choices of 200 senior college women, i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupa-t i o n a l choices and background, pe r s o n a l i t y , and college experience. She c l a s s i f i e d women as Role Innovators (those i n occupations with fewer than 30 percent women i n them), Moderates (those i n occupations with 30 to 50 percent women), and T r a d i t i o n a l s (those i n occupations with more than 50 percent women). She found that Role Innovators were more autonomous, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and motivated by i n t e r n a l l y imposed demands to perform to capacity. They also tended to express greater commitment to t h e i r vocations than did T r a d i t i o n a l s . Using the same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system as Tangri, B u r l i n (1976) studied the r e a l and i d e a l occupational choices of adolescent females. He found that innovative choices were made more often as an i d e a l a s p i r a -t i o n than as a r e a l a s p i r a t i o n , and t r a d i t i o n a l occupations were chosen less often as an i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n than as a r e a l a s p i r a t i o n . This r e s u l t 29 could suggest that young women are aware of a broad range of occupa-tions , but personal and s o c i a l forces appear to l i m i t t h e i r b e l i e f that i n r e a l l i f e these occupations could a c t u a l l y be pursued. Gable,Thompson and Glanstein (1976) examined locus of con t r o l , vocational maturity, and occupational choice of college women. They found that i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d women had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher vocational maturity than externally c o n t r o l l e d women. No differences were found i n vocational maturity between those making t y p i c a l or a t y p i c a l vocational choices. A t y p i c a l i t y of occupational choice has also been compared to career salience. Almquist and Angrist (1970) found i n t h e i r study of college women that those who were highly career s a l i e n t tended to choose "mas-cu l i n e " occupations. Vetter and Lewis (1964) and Parker (1966) found that marriage-oriented or dual-role women chose t r a d i t i o n a l l y , female occupa-tions which would serve as int e r i m or stop-gap jobs preceding marriage. Mintz and Patterson (1969) i n t h e i r study of career and. marriage a t t i -tudes of college women concluded that women who chose feminine occupations had more feminine a t t i t u d e s , or more favorable a t t i t u d e s towards marriage and family than those who selected a male-dominated occupation. Richardson (1976) found that college women who were more homemaking oriented chose more t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. I t appears from these studies that t r a d i t i o n a l or no n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupational choice i n women i s i n d i c a t i v e of some of the psychological and s o c i o l o g i c a l factors that operate i n the career development of women. Educational A s p i r a t i o n In addition to considering career salience and t r a d i t i o n a l i t y of occupation, l e v e l of educational attainment or as p i r a t i o n appears to be another e s s e n t i a l element i n f l u e n c i n g the occupational choice of women. 30 Research r e l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n to career s a l i e n c e seems to be i n c o n c l u s i v e . In M i n t z and P a t t e r s o n ' s (1969) s tudy , c o l l e g e women a s p i r i n g toward a b a c h e l o r ' s degree only were more s t r o n g l y o r i -ented toward marriage and f ami ly than those a s p i r i n g to a mas te r ' s degree or a doc to ra t e . Richardson (1972, 1976) found no r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n of c o l l e g e women and t h e i r d e s i r e to combine a work r o l e w i t h marriage and f ami ly r o l e s . E d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n does however appear to be r e l a t e d to occu-p a t i o n a l r o l e i n n o v a t i o n . Both Richardson (1976) and G a s k e l l (1978) found tha t women and g i r l s who had h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s a l s o tended to choose n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s . However^ Richardson concluded from the same study tha t e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was un re l a t ed to s u b j e c t s ' readiness f o r making job c h o i c e s , tha t i s , to t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . A s t i n (1968) concluded tha t c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n h i g h s c h o o l appeared to be r e l a t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s . G i r l s i n grade twelve who a n t i c i p a t e d s c i e n t i f i c or t each ing careers were more l i k e l y , to ' . report tha t they had r e c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g r ega rd ing c o l l e g e p lans i n grade n i n e . On the o ther hand, g i r l s who had r e c e i v e d job c o u n s e l l i n g i n grade n i n e , compared w i t h g i r l s who had n o t , were more l i k e l y to p l a n careers i n o f f i c e work or to want i n the t w e l f t h grade to become house-w i v e s . This r e s u l t cou ld suggest that an e a r l y o r i e n t a t i o n toward educa-t i o n r a the r than work i s p r e d i c t i v e o f career p lans tha t r equ i r e a c o l l e g e educa t i on . G a s k e l l (1978) s t u d i e d h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s as w e l l and found tha t g i r l s a s p i r i n g to c o l l e g e were more l i k e l y to have modern or l i b e r a l s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s than g i r l s not a s p i r i n g to c o l l e g e . 31 Work Role Involvement - A Further Measure of Career Orientation The three dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n described above have been w e l l researched. Role involvement i s a concept that has emerged recently i n s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Although i t appears not to have been d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to career o r i e n t a t i o n i n previous studies, i t w i l l be considered as a fourth dimension of career o r i e n t a t i o n for the pre-sent research. A ration a l e for th i s approach i s given below. Role involvement can be defined as the "degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s are psychologically engaged (in) or attached to role a c t i v i t i e s " (Richardson & Alpert, 1978, p. 2). Because of the recent changes and s h i f t s i n the vari e t y and importance of various roles women perform, e s p e c i a l l y with respect to work and family, i t would seem important to inves t i g a t e and measure changes i n involvement i n these r o l e s . Since much of the l i t e r a t u r e about career o r i e n t a t i o n involves r o l e choice, i t would appear that the degree of involvement a g i r l experiences i n an anticipated work role would be important i n consider-ing her general career o r i e n t a t i o n . The concept of ro l e involvement, and s p e c i f i c a l l y work role involve-ment as i t was used i n th i s study, i s based on work done by Richardson and Alpert (1978) i n the development of t h e i r Role Involvement Scale. Some of the background of t h e i r research w i l l be discussed here i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the concept. Although r o l e involvement appears to be generally an unstudied phenomenon i n the l i t e r a t u r e , the concept i s derived from two areas of research — vocational psychology and developmental psychology (Richardson & Alpert, 1978). I t i s re l a t e d i n part to what has been defined i n the l i t e r a t u r e on vocational psychology as job involvement. This concept has been 32 defined by Lodahl and Kejner (1965) as "the degree to which a person i s i d e n t i f i e d psychologically with h i s work, or the importance of work to h i s t o t a l self-image" (p. 24). In t h e i r formulation of the Job Involve-ment Scale, they found from a f a c t o r analysis of items that factors emerged such as the r e l a t i v e importance of work a c t i v i t i e s i n one's l i f e and i n t e r e s t i n , i n d i f f e r e n c e to, or boredom with work. Other researchers have studied job involvement i n the context of how i t r e l a t e s to job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Lawler and H a l l (1970) found that job involvement and job s a t i s f a c t i o n were indeed very d i f f e r e n t concepts and were rel a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to job character-i s t i c s . They concluded that "involvement can perhaps be best thought of as the degree to which a person's t o t a l work s i t u a t i o n i s an important part of h i s l i f e " (p. 310). I t seems apparent that t h i s d e f i n i t i o n could apply not only to involvement i n a work r o l e , but to involvement i n other l i f e roles as w e l l , a concept which was u t i l i z e d i n the development of the Role Involvement Scale. The other general area from which the notion of role involvement i s derived appears to be the.body of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to disengagement theory i n developmental psychology. F i r s t described by Cumming and Henry (1961) and expanded by Havighurst, Newgarten and Tobin (1968), disengagement can be defined as the process by which society and the aging person withdraw from one another. I t i s accompanied by increas-ing preoccupation with s e l f and decreased emotional investment i n per-sons and objects i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s environment. The r e s u l t of disen-gagement i s greater psychological distance and decreased s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In t h e i r research on disengagement, Havighurst :et a l . (1968) studied the degree of psychological engagement (or disengagement) using the Thematic Apperception Test, analyzing the r e s u l t i n g s t o r i e s f o r dimen-33 sions such as ego energy and l e v e l s of vigor and a c t i v i t y . I f the disengagement process implies psychological and s o c i a l withdrawal from persons and events i n the external world, then engage-ment or attachment would imply the opposite - strong psychological and s o c i a l involvement with persons and events i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s environ-ment. This concept of attachment i n terms of l i f e span and i t s r e l a t i o n -ship to disengagement has been c l a r i f i e d by K a l i s h and Knudson (1976) who defined attachment as a f f e c t i v e involvement with persons or objects i n the environment. Richardson and Alpert (1978) v i r t u a l l y equated this view of attachment with r o l e involvement and concluded that "attachment to a role or the s i m i l a r concept of role involvement arises out of p o s i -t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n with persons or a c t i v i t i e s associated with that r o l e " (P.. 5). In summary, the concept of role involvement has arisen from a meld-ing of f a i r l y diverse theories i n vocational and developmental psychology. Since i t has a very d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to career or i e n t a t i o n i n terms of r ole choice and role a c t i v i t i e s , r o l e involvement and s p e c i f i c a l l y work ro l e involvement i s considered to be an important va r i a b l e i n this study. Role involvement i s the l a s t of the four dimensions of career o r i e n t a -t i o n described f or this research. The other major variable to be con-sidered i s vocational maturity. A de s c r i p t i o n of this concept and of the development of i t s measurement follows. Vocational Maturity Donald Super's pioneering work i n career development resulted i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of vocational maturity as an important concept i n career psychology. The f i r s t model of vocational maturity emerged from Super 34 and Overstreet's (1960) Career Pattern Study which was an attempt to test Super's theory about vocational choice. That study examined the vocational development of 142 grade nine boys from a small town near New York City and followed them for twenty-five years. Super defined vocational maturity i n terms of the congruence be-tween an i n d i v i d u a l ' s vocational behavior and the vocational behavior expected for that age. For the purposes of the Career Pattern Study, Super defined s i x dimensions or indices of vocational maturity: orienta-t i o n to'vocational choice, information and planning about the preferred occupation, consistency of vocational preferences, c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of t r a i t s , vocational independence, and wisdom of vocational preferences. Other researchers followed Super's lead and began to develop bat-t e r i e s of instruments to measure l e v e l s of vocational maturity. John Crit e s developed the Vocational Development Inventory 01965) and i t s subsequent r e v i s i o n , the Career Maturity Inventory (1973). Gribbons and Lohnes (1968) introduced the Readiness for Vocational Planning Scale (RVPS). Westbrook, P a r r y - H i l l and Woodbury (1971) were concerned with cognitive measures of vocational maturity and developed the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (CVMT). Super as w e l l worked towards revamping the Career Pattern Study scales of vocational maturity i n t o a p r a c t i c a l instrument for measuring maturity l e v e l s at the exploration stage of vocational development. In 1972 Super and h i s colleagues produced the Career Development Inventory (CDI). Since the present research uses the CDI as the measure for as-sessing vocational maturity, i t s evolution, general content and a p p l i c a -t i o n to women are described below. The s i x factors of vocational maturity used for the Career Pattern Study have already been l i s t e d . As r e s u l t s from the study came i n , f i v e 35 of these indices appeared to have p a r t i c u l a r value: 1) concern with choice, 2) acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or choices and planning, 3) s p e c i f i c i t y of information about the preferred occupation, 4) s p e c i f i c i t y and extent of'planning, and 5) use of resources. The r e s u l t s of the Career Pattern Study were used to develop the Career Questionnaire for another study evaluating the effectiveness of a computerized guidance program - the Education Exploration System (Minor, Meyers & Super, 1969). This questionnaire was the forerunner of the CDI. The items i n the Career Questionnaire were grouped i n t o t h i r t e e n voca-t i o n a l maturity s c a l e s : 1. Acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2. Concern with choice. 3. Work experience. 4. Measured occupational information. 5. Self-estimated amount of occupational information. 6. Knowledge of decision-making p r i n c i p l e s . 7. Planning, daydreaming and fantasy. 8. Implications for vocational preferences of high school a c t i v i t i e s . 9. Definiteness of plans. 10. Quality of p o t e n t i a l resources. 11. Quality of used resources. 12. S p e c i f i c i t y of planning. 13. Agreement of s e l f - r a t e d t r a i t s and preferred occupational ratings. F i n a l l y , a f t e r extensive item and factor analyses and v a l i d a t i o n studies, the questionnaire was r e f i n e d and emerged as the Career Develop-ment Inventory (Super & F o r r e s t , 1972). The thirte e n scales were reduced to three for the CDI: Planning Orientation, Resources for Exploration, and Information and Decision-making. 36 A subject taking the CDI i s asked to respond to the following types of questions (Forrest & Thompson, 1974): 1. A s e l f - r a t i n g on how much thought and planning has been given to a c t i v i t i e s l i k e f i n d i n g out about educational p o s s i b i l i t i e s , taking part i n school a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l help him on the job, getting money for college or t r a i n i n g , taking school courses which would help on the job or i n college. 2. Ratings of himself i n comparison to h i s peers as to the time and thought given to making career-relevant choices. 3. Ratings of how much he knows about h i s preferred occupation, i t s requirements, working conditions, methods of entry, arid advancement. 4. An i n d i c a t i o n as to whether or not the i n d i v i d u a l would go to various sources of information f o r help i n making job plans, sources such as parents, friends, coaches, teachers, counsellors, college cata-logues . . 5. A r a t i n g of how much useful information the subject has already obtained from these sources. 6. A number of questions to f i n d out how much the subject a c t u a l l y knows about the world of work, such as the l e v e l of t r a i n i n g and res-p o n s i b i l i t y of certain occupations, which occupational f i e l d s are ex-pected to grow most ra p i d l y during the next ten years, the educational requirements of occupations, the use of tools and equipment i n various i occupations. 7. Some case h i s t o r y problems to determine whether the subject knows what needs to be known i n order to make wise decisions. For ex-ample, a f t e r being given c e r t a i n information about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s and school records, the. subject i s asked which of a number 37 of occupations the person should consider as a possible future occupa-tion (p. 56). The CDI along with the other measures of vocational maturity that have been mentioned are frequently-used for a s s i s t i n g with counselling, for program evaluation i n educational s e t t i n g s , and for general research i n career development. Jordaan (1974), i n h i s discussion of using voca-t i o n a l maturity instruments i n counselling, concluded that they can be h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g the student's readiness for various kinds of ex-ploratory and r e a l i t y t e s t i n g experiences and i n s e l e c t i n g experiences which would be most l i k e l y to re p a i r d e f i c i t s or b u i l d on e x i s t i n g strengths. H i l t o n (1974) emphasized that measures of vocational matur-i t y can be extremely useful i n evaluating the outcomes of programs., . '_ courses, and other educational treatments i n career education and guid-ance. Vocational Maturity and Women Because i t has been derived from a t r a d i t i o n a l model of vocational development, the concept of vocational maturity i s a male-based theor-e t i c a l model, and i t cannot be applied to women i n the same way that i t i s applied to men. I t has already been discussed that sex-typing of occupations and aspirations occurs at an early age (Harmon, 1971; Schlossberg & Good-man, 1972). As Richardson (1974b) pointed out, the process of sex-typing of aspirations continues at an accelerating pace through adole-scence. Matthews and Tiedeman (1964) found that a drop i n career com-mitment occurred from junior to senior high school and that g i r l s i n senior high appeared to have a greater acceptance of marriage. Because g i r l s and boys are exposed to v i r t u a l l y the same educational experiences, i t i s only a f t e r formal schooling i s over that the diverse career patterns 38 c h a r a c t e r i z i n g women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work force become evident. A f t e r leaving high school g i r l s and boys begin to consider t h e i r future roles i n terms of marriage and parenting. For most young men these role choices are not incompatible with vocational planning and choice. For women, however, the addition of a homemaking role has profound e f f e c t s on t h e i r career planning (Richardson, 1974b). Numerous studies have compared the vocational maturity scores of g i r l s and boys with inconclusive r e s u l t s . C r i t e s (1976), using the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), found that a f t e r the seventh grade, g i r l s were r e l i a b l y more mature i n th e i r attitudes toward career decision-making. Other studies have found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s (Lawrence & Brown, 1976; Smith and Herr, 1972). However, Tesla (1976) and Hardy (1978) both found no sex differences using the CMI with a high school popula-t i o n . As w e l l , Super and Forrest (1972) found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n scores between g i r l s and boys using the CDI. Even i f g i r l s were more voc a t i o n a l l y mature than boys i n senior high school, these differences would be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant (Richard-son, 1974b). What i s important i s consideration of the meaning of voca-t i o n a l maturity scores for young women i n the context of t h e i r career development. Richardson (1974b) stated that: Instruments designed to measure (vocational maturity) behaviors do have relevance for career counseling of women. But the i r r e l e -vance i s l i m i t e d . This l i m i t a t i o n can be viewed i n two ways. F i r s t l y , we do not have an adequate empirical base on women to assume that the p a r t i c u l a r behaviors and attitudes measured by these instruments are i n fact important ones for women. Secondly, the instruments are l i m i t e d not only i n what they measure but also i n what they do not measure (p. 139). 39 She goes on to recommend that i f a vocational maturity measure i s used with g i r l s or young women, i t should be accompanied by a separate measure of sex-role or career o r i e n t a t i o n . This recommendation constitutes the basis of the present research which explores the r e l a t i o n s h i p between vocational maturity and career o r i e n t a t i o n . Hypotheses Derived From the L i t e r a t u r e Review Four major n u l l hypotheses resulted from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Hypothesis 1 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spear-man rank-correlation r ) between the career salience and the voca-s t i o n a l maturity of grade twelve g i r l s (0< =.,.05). Career salience w i l l be measured by the L i f e Plan Question and vocational maturity w i l l be measured by the Career Development Inventory, Scales A and B (henceforth referred to as the "CDI"). Based on the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed, there i s some reason to believe that g i r l s who score highly on the career salience question w i l l also score highly on the vocational maturity measure. Richardson (1976) found that career salience was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to vocational ma-t u r i t y ; however, the relevance of her study to the present research may be questionable because she used a d i f f e r e n t measure of career salience (Eyde's Desire to Work Scale) and of vocational maturity ( C r i t e s ' CMI Attitude Scale). Even so, i t would seem that g i r l s who choose l i f e plans i n v o l v i n g work would be more oriented as adolescents to plan for t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a work r o l e . Hypothesis 2 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spear-40 man r ) between work r o l e involvement (as measured by the Role Involvement S c a l e , Work Role Cue) and v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y (as measured by the CDI) of grade twelve g i r l s (<X = . 0 5 ) . I t would appear tha t no s t u d i e s have been done to date r e l a t i n g r o l e involvement to v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . However, on the b a s i s of l i t -e ra tu re surveyed , i t seems p o s s i b l e that work r o l e involvement cou ld be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . S ince v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y i s def ined as a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n to o c c u p a t i o n a l choice and as an a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e r e l evan t resources i n v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , one might assume tha t an i n d i v i d u a l who was o r i e n t e d to p l a n n i n g and to u s ing r e -sources would a l so be a t tached to or i n v o l v e d i n the a n t i c i p a t e d work r o l e . Hypothes is 3 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spear-: . : . ! .man r ) between the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n of grade twelve g i r l s and t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y (IK = . 0 5 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n w i l l be measured u s ing an o r d i n a l s c a l e which assesses the h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a g i r l i s p l a n n i n g to o b t a i n ; v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y w i l l be measured by the CDI . There appears to be l i t t l e research r e l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . Richardson (1976) found that fo r c o l l e g e under-graduate women, e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was un re l a t ed to v o c a t i o n a l matur-i t y as measured by the CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e . S ince the present study w i l l be u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n and a d i f f e r e n t ins t rument to assess v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to make p r e d i c t i o n s i n r e l a -t i o n to t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Hypothes is 4 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spear-41 man r ) between occupational role innovation of grade twelve g i r l s and the i r vocational maturity ( = .05). Occupational r o l e innovation w i l l be measured by the percentage of female workers i n Canada who are engaged i n the anticipated occupation chosen by the subjects (see procedures for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n out-l i n e d i n Chapter III) . Vocational maturity w i l l be measured by the CDI. Previous studies seem to in d i c a t e that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between occupational role innovation and vocational matur-i t y . In two studies, Richardson (1976) found that vocational maturity (as measured by C r i t e s ' CMI Attitude Scale) and occupational role innova-ti o n were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . Gable and Thompson (1976) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s using the CMI-AS as we l l to measure vocational maturity. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the CDI, the measure of voca-t i o n a l maturity used for this research and C r i t e s ' CMI-AS (Super & For-( r e s t , 1972). Because of this lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two measures of vocational maturity, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to make any pre-di c t i o n s for this study. Chapter I I I METHODOLOGY The methodology used to investigate the research problems iden-t i f i e d i n Chapter II i s described i n th i s chapter. The sample s e l e c t i o n , research design, t e s t i n g instruments, data c o l l e c t i o n procedures and data analyses are presented. Research Design This research represents a desc r i p t i v e f i e l d study using the cor-r e l a t i o n a l method of research. No treatments were given and no control groups were necessary. Sample The Subjects The sample for this study consisted of 225 grade twelve g i r l s drawn from three high schools i n two school d i s t r i c t s on the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Of this t o t a l , 26 subjects were d i s -carded because of missing data on the Career Development Inventory (CDI); seven were discarded because of spoi l e d questionnaires. Since i t was decided to l i m i t the sample to grade twelve g i r l s who were 17 and 18 years of age, seven subjects were eliminated because they were e i t h e r 16 or 19 years old. The r e s u l t i n g sample siz e f or this study was 185 subjects. Letters requesting cooperation and permission to conduct this re-search were sent to the two school d i s t r i c t superintendents (Appendix E). D i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s chose the schools to be included i n the study, and l o c a l school aut h o r i t i e s ( p r i n c i p a l s , teachers or counsellors) chose the classes to be tested. 42 43 At the f i r s t school (No. 1), two ready-formed classes c o n s i s t i n g only of g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n a c h i l d care course were tested i n early January. A l l t e s t i n g at this school took place on one day, one class being tested i n the morning; the second, i n the afternoon. At the second school (No. 2), four ready-formed classes c o n s i s t i n g of g i r l s and boys enrolled i n a human development course were tested. Testing took place mornings and afternoons of two sequential days i n early Jan-uary as w e l l . The teacher of the human development class requested that the boys (n = 26) be given the questionnaire as w e l l , although this data was not used i n the data analysis for this study. G i r l s at the t h i r d school (No. 3) i n the other school d i s t r i c t were tested i n early March and were taken from four p h y s i c a l education classes. A l l t e s t i n g at this school took place i n one day. This delay i n t e s t i n g subjects from School 3 occurred because school a u t h o r i t i e s determined that early March was the most convenient time f o r conducting the study i n t h e i r school. Some differences i n vocational maturity between subjects from Schools 1 and 2 and subjects from School 3 could have occurred because of the two-month delay between te s t i n g ses-sions. However, because the g i r l s at School 3 had not received any career education program during that time and because developmental e f f e c t s are not as accelerated i n l a t e adolescence compared to e a r l i e r years, i t i s l i k e l y that any differences caused by this delay are minimal. The Schools A l l three schools were senior high schools c o n s i s t i n g of grades eleven and twelve only. A breakdown of student populations of each school and numbers of subjects tested i s given below. 44 Total Student Population No. of Grade 12's No. of G i r l s Tested School 1 9 79 452 55 School 2 1250 550 61 School 3 930 425 109 TOTAL 3159 1427 225 The schools a l l had counselling services a v a i l a b l e to students. At School 1 f i v e teachers worked as half-time counsellors; at School 2 two counsellors worked f u l l time and one, h a l f time; School 3 em-ployed f i v e f u l l - t i m e counsellors. Schools 1 and 3 offered formal career education programs to senior students, while School 2 conducted informal career guidance i n i t s English classes. None of the subjects tested had taken any of these career programs. The D i s t r i c t s Schools 1 and 2 served a municipality close to Vancouver that had a population of about 97,000. The community consisted of a diverse mix of r e s i d e n t i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , commerical and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . About h a l f the labour force was employed i n the municipality. School 3 was located about 35 miles southeast of Greater Vancouver i n a municipality of approximately 40,000 residents. This was e s s e n t i a l -l y a r e s i d e n t i a l community with only l i g h t industry and some a g r i c u l t u r a l and l o c a l commercial a c t i v i t y . Limitations of the Study Due to Sampling Procedures Subjects used f o r this study were not randomly selected for t e s t -ing. Subjects tested were chosen by school a u t h o r i t i e s and already were i n formed classes, e n r o l l e d i n c h i l d care (School 1), human develop-ment (School 2) or p h y s i c a l education classes (School 3). The c h i l d care 45 and human development classes were e l e c t i v e courses, and by choosing these courses there was some p o s s i b i l i t y that students were i n d i c a t i n g some career and l i f e r o l e preferences, thereby b i a s i n g the sample some-what. The content of the c h i l d care class course included family l i f e studies concerning marriage, pregnancy, and c h i l d development. The students also operated a play school for l o c a l children. The human development course focussed more on the i n d i v i d u a l , covering develop-mental psychology, communication and interpersonal s k i l l s , and community a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of the study are s p e c i f i c to the areas studied - a sub-urb of Vancouver and a small community 35 miles south east of Greater Vancouver. None of the grade twelve g i r l s tested had yet taken the career guid-ance program offered to senior students i n a l l three schools used for the study. Generalization to other grade twelve female populations which have already had career education programs would be questionable. Testing Instruments  The Career Development Inventory (CDI) The CDI i s an objective self-administering paper-and-pencil test designed to measure the l e v e l of vocational maturity of adolescent g i r l s and boys. I t i s based on Donald Super's research and theory development i n the area of vocational psychology. The Inventory consists of three scales: (A) Planning Orientation, (B) Resources for Exploration, and (C) Information and Decision-making. The f i r s t two scales are a t t i t u d i n a l , and the t h i r d one i s cognitive. The two a t t i t u d i n a l scales (A and B) were used for t h i s study. The Planning Orientation Scale, consisting of 33 items, i s concerned with the student's degree of planfulness and includes "measures of con-cern with choice, s p e c i f i c i t y of planning, and self-estimated amount of occupational information" (Super & Forrest, 1972, p. 5). The Resources for Exploration Scale, consisting of 28 items re-presents the degree to which a student uses and sees a v a i l a b l e for use resources to a s s i s t i n vocational planning. Extensive r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y studies have been conducted with the CDI. Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s over the short term (between two and four weeks) for Scales A and B was .85 and .82 res-p e c t i v e l y . Longer-term s t a b i l i t y indices of the scales over a s i x -month period proved to be .71 for Scale A and .64 f o r Scale B (Super & Forrest, 1972). Content v a l i d i t y was established by expert judgement. The items were believed to r e f l e c t behaviors and attitudes implied by the names of the scales which themselves were considered to be important dimensions of vocational maturity. The senior authors of the test drafted or s e l -ected ,test items, most of which were taken from " t h e o r e t i c a l l y derived and e m p i r i c a l l y r e f i n e d scales used i n previous instruments" (Super & Forrest, 1972, p. 30). Construct v a l i d i t y i s defined as evidence that the test measures the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that i t claims to measure. Construct v a l i d i t y f o r the CDI was established by c o r r e l a t i n g the three scales with three other instruments which are designed to measure aspects of vocational maturity: the Attitude Scale of the Vocational Development Inventory or the VDI-AS ( C r i t e s , 1965, 1969), the Readiness f o r Career Planning Scale (Gribbons & Lohnes, 1968, 1969), and the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (Westbrook & Clary, 1967; Westbrook & Cunningham, 1970). 47 Scales A and B of the CDI were found not to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y re-lated to the VDI-AS or to the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test. Scale C, however, did have a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p with the VDI-AS and with the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test. A l l CDI scales did correlate s u b s t a n t i a l l y with the Readiness for Career Planning Scale -.74 for Scale A, .67 for Scale B, and .61 for Scale C. C r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y i s established by comparing test scores with external variables believed to provide d i r e c t measures of r e l e -vant consequent behaviors. In order to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y of the CDI, the test scales were compared to four other r e l e -vant but not n e c e s s a r i l y causal or consequential v a r i a b l e s : r a t i n g of l e v e l of father's occupation, r a t i n g of student's own vocational p r e f e r -ence l e v e l , aptitude (measured by SRA-Verbal Test), and grade point aver-age for ninth-grade courses. As the CDI manual points out, these two status and two behavioral variables are c l e a r l y not measures of vocational maturity i t s e l f , "but might be considered variables important i n help-ing to circumscribe the l i m i t s of the concept of vocational maturity" (Super & Forrest, 1972, p. 31). Most co r r e l a t i o n s between the CDI and these variables were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , but low. Only f o r Scale B was there no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to l e v e l of father's income. The cognitive scale' (C) was the only one to correlate moderately with verbal aptitude and grade point average. Role Involvement Scale - Work The Role Involvement Scale was recently developed by Richardson and Alpert (1978) and explores i n t e r e s t and energy investment i n role a c t i v i t i e s . I t consists of 22 t r u e - f a l s e items which subjects answer a f t e r responding ( i n story form) to verbal p r o j e c t i v e cues relevant to 48 three r o l e s : work, marriage, and parent r o l e s . The items are designed to be n e u t r a l , and the r o l e stimulus i s provided by the p r o j e c t i v e cue. For this study only the cue for the work ro l e was used. The p r o j e c t i v e - o b j e c t i v e methodology used i n this measure was adapted from Spence's (1974) work. He used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) format with verbal rather than p i c t o r i a l cues to measure attitudes toward achievement i n women. In conjunction with using the TAT, he developed an objective questionnaire-from which relevant data about the subjects' responses to the cues could be c o l l e c t e d i n a system-a t i c way. The p r o j e c t i v e aspect of this approach allows subjects the freedom to structure t h e i r own responses, a process which would be "more l i k e l y to e l i c i t s i g n i f i c a n t information about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s underlying motivations and a t t i t u d e s " (Spence, 1974, p. 429). I t i s assumed that how subjects respond to the verbal p r o j e c t i v e cue influences how they w i l l respond to the objective scale which i s the only part of the mea-sure that i s scored. Besides s i m p l i f y i n g scoring procedures, this pro-j e c t i v e - o b j e c t i v e approach allows the i n v e s t i g a t o r to e l i c i t information from subjects on a l l issues of concern relevant to any p a r t i c u l a r study (Spence, 1974). Both r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s have been reported for the instrument (Richardson & A l p e r t , 1978). Seventy female college undergraduates (mean age of 20.2, a l l s i n g l e and c h i l d l e s s ) completed the Role Involvement Scale for a l l three roles (work, marriage, and parent); a questionnaire which assessed a d d i t i o n a l variables was used to determine v a l i d i t y . I nternal consistency of the scale was found to be .91 using the alpha c o e f f i c i e n t based on 210 scores (three for each subject). The three role scales were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and found to be unrelated, i n -49 d i c a t i n g that the scales do not measure an underlying general involve-ment i n l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . Concurrent c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y was p a r t i a l l y established by comparing the scale to various r o l e - r e l a t e d measures. Results of these comparisons for the work ro l e cue are reproduced below (Richard-son & Alpert, 1978) : Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) Between Role Involvement-Work and Role-Related Variables Role-Related Variables Role Involvement-Work Role choice .199* (work, marriage, parent) Proximity of r o l e entry -.123 (desired age of entry i n t o the role) Evaluative attitudes -.074 (towards the role) Role expectations-short term -.161 (degree of expected s a t i s -f a c t i o n - next 5 years) Role expectations-long term -.218* (degree of expected s a t i s - v f a c t i o n - over l i f e t i m e ) L i f e plan .056 ( s i m i l a r to measure used i n t h i s study) *p -<..05 Career Salience The measure which was used to determine career salience i s a v question concerning the a n t i c i p a t e d l i f e plan of the subjects. The question asks subjects to choose a desired l i f e plan from a set of s i x a l t e r n a t i v e s that combine work and homemaking ro l e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s are scored and range from plans that include only homemaking a c t i v i t i e s (1), to those that include only work-oriented a c t i v i t i e s with no marriage or family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (6). This question i s s i m i l a r to questions 50 asked i n Edwards' (1969) and Richardson's (19 72) studies i n v o l v i n g c o l l e women. In her study, Richardson (1972) found that the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i -a b i l i t y f o r the L i f e Plan Question was .89 (Pearson r ) . For purposes of some data analyses for this study, the categories or a l t e r n a t i v e s given i n the question were collapsed into three general l i f e plans: 1 & 2 = homemaking-focussed; 3 & 4 = dual-role focussed; 5 & 6 = career-focussed. Educational A s p i r a t i o n The measure used to determine educational a s p i r a t i o n of grade twelve g i r l s involved a question adapted for a high school population from s i m i l a r questions asked by Richardson (1972) and Erickson and Nordon (19 74) who both used college women i n t h e i r work. >It i s an ord i n a l scale including a l t e r n a t i v e s ranging from high school comple-tio n (1) to completion of a Ph.D. (6). A t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y coef-f i c i e n t for a s i m i l a r question used by Richardson (1972) was .99 (Pearson r ) . Occupational Role Innovation Occupational r o l e innovation was measured by asking students to indi c a t e t h e i r anticipated occupational choice. A s i m i l a r question was asked by Angrist (1972). As w e l l , the GDI requires that students state an occupational choice before answering the inventory. T r a d i t i o n a l i t y or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l i t y of the stated occupational choice, that i s , occupational role innovation, was determined by using c r i t e r i a s i m i l a r to those used i n other studies ( B u r l i n , 1976; Tangri, 1972) and the 1971 Canadian census data. Occupational choices were cate gorized as follows: T r a d i t i o n a l choice: Occupations with more than 50 percent women (Code 1) 51 Moderate choice: Occupations with 30 to 50 percent women (Code' 2) Innovative choice: Occupations with fewer than 30 percent women (Code 3) General Information A short questionnaire was given to each student to obtain a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e information about age, family, work experience and attitudes towards career and marriage. C o l l e c t i o n of Data The measuring instruments and general information questions were group administered and hand scored by the in v e s t i g a t o r . A l l material was presented to subjects i n the form of one questionnaire. The RIS-W was always presented f i r s t because the i n i t i a l s ection was timed; sub-j e c t s were given f i v e minutes to write the story a f t e r reading the pro-j e c t i v e cue. In order to prevent the occurrence of response sets, the rest of the instruments were rotated i n sequential order across subjects. P i l o t Study A p i l o t study was conducted i n one of the selected high schools (No. 1) i n early January, f i v e days before the main study was undertaken. Its purpose was to determine how much time was necessary for the administra-ti o n of the questionnaire and to r e f i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s and questions of the non-standardized measures i f necessary. A sample of eight students selected by the school p r i n c i p a l was used. These students were chosen because they had spare periods at the time the test was being administered. Average administration time was found to be comfortably in s i d e the mini-mum duration of the classes to be tested. Only one a l t e r a t i o n was made to the questionnaire a f t e r the p i l o t study. For the L i f e Plan Question (measuring career s a l i e n c e ) , a majority .52 of g i r l s chose Plan 3 - a dual-role choice. I t was f e l t that i f i n the actual sample tested a majority of subjects were to choose Plan 3, a second l i f e plan choice would indi c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r pre-ference towards e i t h e r homemaking or career a c t i v i t i e s . Therefore subjects i n the main study were asked to give t h e i r f i r s t and second choices for the L i f e Plan Question. This a l t e r a t i o n was minor and did not a f f e c t the major data analyses. Because the a l t e r a t i o n was so minor and because administration conditions ( i n s t r u c t i o n s , t e s t i n g room, time allowed) were s i m i l a r to those of the main study, r e s u l t s from the p i l o t were included i n the main data base. Administration of the Questionnaire Questionnaires were administered to subjects i n the three selected schools described e a r l i e r . A l l subjects were given s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s , with the researcher asking them to answer some questions about t h e i r career plans and choices. They were in s t r u c t e d that there were no ri g h t or wrong answers to the questions and that the questionnaires would not be marked or graded. Students did not write t h e i r names on the questionnaires; a numbering system was used f o r class i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . They were t o l d that the questionnaire they were f i l l i n g out was part of a research project exploring the career choices of high school students. The researcher offered to come back to the school to discuss the re s u l t s with the students i n small groups i f they wished. Scoring and Coding The CDI and Role Involvement Scale-Work (RIS-W) were scored and coded according to directions given i n the test manual for the CDI and to d i r e c t i o n s s p e c i f i e d by the test developers for the RIS-W. Two ad d i t i o n a l coding categories (4 and 5) were added to the Occupational Role Innovation measure described i n the section on'testing instruments. •53 Results were coded as follows: T r a d i t i o n a l 1 Moderate 2 Innovative 3 Undecided 4 Vague or Unclear 5 The "undecided" category was added to enable coding of those sub-j e c t s who i n d i c a t e d that they had not yet made an occupational choice. A "vague or unclear" code meant that the occupation indicated was too v general or unclear to be i d e n t i f i e d i n the categories given i n the census data used to determine degree.of occupational role innovation. For the RIS-W subjects were asked to write a story about the woman, Judy, described i n the p r o j e c t i v e sentence cue. In many instances, subjects indicated-Judy's occupation i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . I t was f e l t that some a d d i t i o n a l information could be obtained about the Role In-volvement Scale by coding Judy's occupation i f i t were c l e a r l y enough described i n the story. Judy's occupation was coded according to the same c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d f or occupational r o l e innovation. A fourth cate-gory ("unspecified") was added to code those s t o r i e s where no occupation was mentioned. The coding categories for the story were: T r a d i t i o n a l 1 Moderate 2 Innovative • 3 Unspecified 4 In the General Information questions, Mother's occupation was also coded according to the same c r i t e r i a but with the fourth category re-presenting "Homemaking" or "Housewife." Data Analysis Scores for a l l measures and for the general information questions were tabulated and frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s produced. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the CDI and for the Role Involvement Scale -Work. 54 Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated between the CDI and the four measures of career o r i e n t a t i o n . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the four variables of career o r i e n t a t i o n were also calculated. Level of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s was established at C<= .05. This l e v e l was chosen because i t i s commonly used for studies of this nature and because at C< = .05, the r i s k of Type I s t a t i s t i c a l error occurring i s set at an acceptable l e v e l . General Information Some of the data gathered from the general information questions were analyzed to provide a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e information. The influence on vocational maturity of subjects' having a mother who worked outside the home was analyzed using a t - t e s t . Mean scores on the CDI were compared for g i r l s who had working mothers (occupations coded as 1,. 2 or 3) and for g i r l s whose mothers were homemakers (coded as 4). S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was set atO< = .05. The Importance of Marriage and Importance of Career questions i n the general information section of the questionnaire were compared with the Career Salience measure to investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (OC = .05) were calculated between the L i f e Plan Question -and the Importance of Marriage and the Importance of Career questions.. Post Hoc Analyses of Results from Role Involvement Scale-Work and  Career Orientation Variables For the RIS-W some a d d i t i o n a l analyses were c a r r i e d out using Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n and a t - t e s t (<X = .05). D e t a i l s of this post  hoc analysis are given i n Chapter IV. Because of the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s among the career o r i e n t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s , i t was f e l t that further data analysis 55 would provide more i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Cross tabulations and chi square tests of independence were performed f o r the career o r i e n t a t i o n variables except the RIS-W. Level of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at CX. = .05. To f a c i l i t a t e the analysis, data was collapsed and transformed when appropriate; these procedures are des-cribed i n Chapter IV as w e l l . Chapter IV RESULTS OF STATISTICAL ANALYSES This chapter describes the re s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of data and discusses them according to the hypotheses described i n Chapter I I . I t also describes the post hoc analyses that were c a r r i e d out and presents the r e s u l t s . Data were tabulated and analyzed according to the procedures out-l i n e d i n the previous chapter. Frequency tables were produced for a l l va r i a b l e s ; means and standard deviations were calculated f o r the con-tinuous v a r i a b l e s . Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated between a l l variables and a d d i t i o n a l analyses were done when considered necessary. Figure 1 presents the frequency polygon of d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores on the CDI, the shape i n d i c a t i n g a reasonably normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . Fre-quency tables f o r the other variables used i n the study and ad d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s of analyses are presented as they a r i s e i n the reporting of r e s u l t s . C o rrelation of Career Orientation  Variables with Vocational Maturity The purpose of this study was to investigate the re l a t i o n s h i p of s p e c i f i e d career o r i e n t a t i o n variables to the vocational maturity of grade twelve g i r l s . Table 1 summarizes the relationships revealed by Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Vocational Maturity and Career Saleince I t was hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the career salience and the vocational maturity of grade twelve g i r l s (Hypothesis 1). Since no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n 56 Figure 1 Frequency Polygon f o r Summed Scores of the Career Development Inventory, Scales A + B n = 185 Frequencies Range 185 - 522 Mean 360.42 S.D. 69.95 58 Table 1 Spearman C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Vocational Maturity and Four Dimensions of Career Orientation Career Work Role Educational Occupational Salience Involvement A s p i r a t i o n Role Innovation 181 183 183 163 .102 .287 .445 .212 .172 .001 .001 .007 Table 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Career Salience Choices F i r s t Choice Second Choice N % N % i : Marriage & family, with-out ever working. 6 3.3 8 4.5 2. Marriage & family; working only i f necessary. 38 21.0 68 38.6 3. Marriage & family; working a f t e r c h i l d r e n are older. 99 54.7 50 28.4 4. Marriage & family; working continuously. 10 5.5 18 10.2 5. Marriage but no c h i l d r e n and working continuously. 17 9.4 21 11.9 6. No marriage or children; working continuously. 11 6.1 11 6.3 To t a l 181 100.0 176 100.0 n Vocational Maturity r (CDI) S P 59 was found (Table 1), the n u l l hypothesis was accepted. Vocational matur-i t y for this study did not appear to be related to anticipated l i f e plan or role choice of the high school g i r l s tested. An examination of the frequency table (Table 2) for this v ariable provides some further information. The majority of g i r l s selected as t h e i r f i r s t - c h o i c e l i f e plan a dual-role (60.2 percent of subjects chose plans 3 and 4). More g i r l s chose a homemaking-oriented plan (24.3 per-cent) than a career-oriented plan (15.5 percent). These re s u l t s seem to i n d i c a t e that most g i r l s a n t icipated working outside the home, but at the same time s t i l l wanted to be wives and mothers. When second-choice l i f e plans are examined, this trend changes somewhat with g i r l s s h i f t i n g t h e i r preference towards homemaking. For second choice, 43.1 percent of g i r l s chose homemaking plans (1 and 2); 38.6 percent chose dual-role (3 and 4); and 18.2 percent chose career-oriented plans (5 and 6). This second-choice trend seems to indi c a t e that although they wanted to combine work and family, t h e i r preference s t i l l swung towards more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . Vocational Maturity and Work Role Involvement Work ro l e involvement was another of the dimensions of career o r i -entation defined f o r this study. I t was hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between work role involve-ment and vocational maturity (Hypothesis 2). Table 1 indicates that a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spearman r) was found, and on this basis the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. The r e s u l t s imply that subjects who were more highly involved i n a work role as indicated by the RIS-W also had a greater l e v e l of voca-t i o n a l maturity. A frequency polygon for the RIS-W scores was con-structed (Figure 2) and resulted i n a negative skew. In order to obtain 60 Figure 2 Frequency Polygon for Scores of the Role Involvement Scale - Work Role Cue n= 183 Frequencies Role Involvement Scale-Work Scores Range 22 - 44 Mean 36.86 S.D. 6.19 Median 38.7 61 more information about the scale, a post hoc analysis was performed. Post Hoc Analysis of the Role Involvement Scale-Work Results As described i n Chapter I I I , the RIS-W u t i l i z e d a projective-objec-t i v e methodology. Subjects are given a verbal cue ("Judy i s s i t t i n g at her desk i n her o f f i c e . " ) and are asked to write a story about Judy i n her role at work. They are then asked to answer an objective question-naire about Judy's involvement i n her work r o l e . During the scoring and coding of the questionnaires for th i s study, i t was apparent that i n t h e i r s t o r i e s , many of the subjects were des-c r i b i n g Judy as a secretary, r e c e p t i o n i s t or stenographer. The i n v e s t i -gator decided that i f i t were described c l e a r l y enough by the subject, Judy's occupation should be coded according to the c r i t e r i a set out for the occupational r o l e innovation measure; that i s : Code 1 T r a d i t i o n a l / C l e r i c a l 2 Moderate 3 Innovative 4 Unspecified The fourth category was added f o r those s t o r i e s i n which the occu-pation i t s e l f or the work a c t i v i t i e s were not c l e a r l y described. I t must be noted that Code 1 represented only c l e r i c a l or s e c r e t a r i a l oc-cupations. Only one subject described Judy i n a t r a d i t i o n a l occupation that was d i f f e r e n t from c l e r i c a l work, and her RIS-W re s u l t s were treated as missing data f o r this a n a l y sis. Table 3 gives the d i s t r i b u t i o n of subjects who described Judy according to each of the above categories. I t should be noted that while 36.6 percent of subjects saw Judy i n a c l e r i c a l r o l e , an analysis of subjects' occupational choices indicated that only 9.2 percent saw themselves i n a c l e r i c a l work r o l e . In order to gain some a d d i t i o n a l information, these data were analyzed using c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Spearman r) and a t - t e s t . The degree of Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects' Descriptions of Judy's Occupation According to Degree of Occupational Role Innovation Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. T r a d i t i o n a l 67 36.6 2. Moderate 4 2.2 3. Innovative 32 17.5 4. Unspecified 80 43.7 To t a l 183 100.0 Table 4 Comparison of Subjects' Work Role Involvement Scores According to How They Described Judy's Occupation N of Subjects Work Role Involvement Mean S.D. df t P 1. C l e r i c a l 67 34.27 6.44 179 -4141 .000 2. Other 114 38.28 5.58 Tota l 181 63 Judy's occupational role innovation was compared with subjects' work role involvement scores. The r e l a t i o n s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t and highly p o s i t i v e (Spearman r = . 6 2 , p = . 001 , n = 103) . Unspecified occupations coded as category 4 were not used i n the c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis. A t - t e s t was performed to gain more information about the nature of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Occupational categories for Judy were collapsed i n t o two groups: - Group 1 was comprised of those subjects who described Judy i n a c l e r i c a l r o l e ; Group 2 ("Other") was comprised of subjects who saw Judy as moderate or. innovative or who did not specify her occupation (categories 2 , 3 and 4 ) . The difference i n means for the two groups on the RIS-W was then compared using the t - t e s t . Table 4 displays the r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e that the c l e r i c a l group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the RIS-W than did the other group. I t would appear from these r e s u l t s that the RIS-W scores were i n -fluenced by how subjects saw Judy's occupation. Vocational Maturity and Educational A s p i r a t i o n The n u l l hypothesis (Hypothesis 3) s t a t i n g that there was no s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between educational a s p i r a t i o n and vo-c a t i o n a l maturity was rejected. Table 1 shows a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r = . 4 4 5 ) , i n d i c a t i n g that g i r l s who aspired to higher educational l e v e l s were also more voc a t i o n a l l y mature. Table 5 i l l u s t r a t e s that a large proporation of g i r l s chose to com-plete a two-year career program (42.6) while the rest were f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between high school completion only (26.2 percent) and u n i -v e r s i t y bound (choices 3 to 6, comprising 31.1 percent). In terms' of the educational opportunities a v a i l a b l e to them, 69 percent of subjects wanted two years of college or l e s s . Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects 'According to Educational A s p i r a t i o n Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. High school diploma 2. Career program ( 1 - 2 years) 3. U n i v e r s i t y degree ( 4 - 5 years) 4. Masters degree 5. Professional degree (e.g. law or medicine) 6. Doctoral degree 48 78 44 4 7 26.2 42.6 24.0 2.2 3.8 1.1 T o t a l 183 100.0 Table 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects' Occupational Choices According to Degree of Occupational Role Innovation Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. T r a d i t i o n a l 2. Moderate 3. Innovative 4. Undecided 5. Vague (not codable) 92 31 40 6 15 50.0 16.8 21.7 3.3 8.2 T o t a l 184 100.0 65 Of a l l the variables of career o r i e n t a t i o n used i n this study, educational a s p i r a t i o n was the most highly correlated with vocational maturity. Vocational Maturity and Occupational Role Innovation (ORI) I t was hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Spearman r) between occupational r o l e innovation and voca-t i o n a l maturity (Hypothesis 4). Based on the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n obtained (Table 1), the n u l l hypothesis^was rejected. I t would seem that g i r l s who were more innovative i n t h e i r occupational choices tended to be more vocationally mature, as w e l l . Table 6 shows that 50 percent of subjects chose t r a d i t i o n a l jobs; 16.8 percent chose moderate occupations; and 21.7 percent were innova-t i v e i n t h e i r choice. An analysis of how occupational role innovation was r e l a t e d to each of the sub-scales of the CDI revealed some further information. Cor-r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Spearman r) were calculated between ORI and Scale A (Planning Orientation) and Scale B (Resources for Exploration) of the CDI. Level of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at C< = .05. Table 7 i l l u s t r a t e s that ORI correlates s i g n i f i c a n t l y with only Scale B - Resources for Exploration. Relationships Among the  Career Orientation Variables Table 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ( (X = .05) among the career o r i e n t a t i o n variables used i n this study. Several s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are apparent. Educational a s p i r a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y re-lated to a l l the rest of the variables - career salience, work ro l e i n -volvement, and occupational role innovation. Career salience, i n addi-t i o n , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to occupational role innovation. A post 66 Table 7 Co r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s (Spearman r) Between Occupational Role Innovation (ORI) and Scales A and B of the CDI n Scale A Scale B (Planning Orientation) (Resources f or Exploration) 163 163 ORI r .081 .216 s p .306 .006 Table 8 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r Career Orientation Variables (Spearman r Co r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ) Variable A B C D A Career n 179 160 181 Salience r s .004 .237 .209 P .955 .033 .005 B Work Role n 161 181 Involvement r s -.010 .171 P .899 .021 C Occupational n 162 Role Innovation r s .261 P .001 D Educational n — A s p i r a t i o n r s 67 hoc analysis of data was performed i n an attempt-to c l a r i f y these i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s . Results from this analysis are reported at the end of this chapter. General Information Some relevant d e s c r i p t i v e data emerged from the General Information questions the students were requested to answer. Mother's Occupation Mother's occupation was coded according to the same c r i t e r i a used for the occupational role innovation measure. A fourth category for housewives was added. Table 9 shows the r e s u l t s . The majority of mothers were eit h e r housewives (43.2 percent) or worked at a t r a d i t i o n a l job (46.9 percent). Only 9.8 percent of sub-jec t s had mothers who worked at innovative or moderate jobs. Since t h i s d i v i s i o n was so apparent i n the data, the in v e s t i g a t o r questioned whether subjects who had working mothers (categories 1, 2 and 3) would score d i f f e r e n t l y on the CDI that g i r l s who had mothers who were house-wives. A t - t e s t was performed (0< = .05); Table TO summarizes the r e s u l t s . The groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , i n d i c a t i n g that the g i r l s ' l e v e l of vocational maturity was not re l a t e d to whether or not t h e i r mothers worked outside the home. Career and Marriage Importance Tables 11 and 12 give d i s t r i b u t i o n s for these v a r i a b l e s . The ,major-i t y of g i r l s indicated that both career and marriage were very important to them. These r e s u l t s tend to re i n f o r c e the choices subjects made on the career salience v a r i a b l e where the majority chose a dual-role l i f e plan. In f a c t , i n order to test the re l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated. As would be expected, Table 13 I Table 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Occupational Role Innovation of Mother's Occupation Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. T r a d i t i o n a l 76 46.9 2. Moderate 8 4.9 3. Innovative 8 4.9 4. Housewives 70 43.2 T o t a l 162 100.0 Table 10 Comparison of Subjects' CDI Scores According to Mother's Work Role Mother's Role N of Subjects Vocational Maturity (CDI) Mean S.D. df t p 1. Working Mother 92 361.83 68.95 160 0.21 .835 2. Homemaking Mother 70 359.60 64.97 To t a l 162 Table 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Career Importance Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. Very unimportant 1 .5 2. F a i r l y unimportant 5 2.7 3. F a i r l y important 66 36.1 4. Very important 111 60.7 To t a l 183 100.0 Table 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Degree of Marriage Importance Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. Very unimportant 4 2.2 2. F a i r l y unimportant 13 7.1 3. F a i r l y important 57 31.0 4. Very important 110 59.8 T o t a l 184 100.0 70 indicates that marriage importance i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y and negatively related to career salience (r = -.317), and that career importance i s s i g n i f i -cantly and p o s i v i t e l y r e l a t e d to career salience (r = .300). Work Experience Subjects were asked to indic a t e ("yes" or "no") whether they had had work experience (including volunteer work). Table 14 indicates that most subjects (92 percent) had indeed had some exposure to the world of work. Post Hoc Analysis of Career Orientation Variables Since there were several s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c orrelations among the career o r i e n t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s , i t was f e l t that further data analysis could provide a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t into the nature of those c o r r e l a t i o n s . Cross tabulations and chi square analyses were performed with three of these v a r i a b l e s : educational a s p i r a t i o n , career salience, and occupational r o l e innovation. Because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning the Role Involvement Scale-Work discussed i n Chapter V, i t was not i n -cluded i n the cross tabulation procedure. Data Transformations To f a c i l i t a t e the cross tabulation analysis, some of the variables were collapsed and recoded. The career salience variable was collapsed into three categories -L i f e Plans 1 & 2 = Homemaking; Plans 3 & 4 = Dual-Role; Plans 5 & 6 = Career. The educational a s p i r a t i o n variable was recoded as follows: Choice 1 (high school only) = Low a s p i r a t i o n ; Choice 2 (two years of college) = Moderate a s p i r a t i o n ; Choices 3, 4, 5 & 6 (university degree) = High a s p i r a t i o n . Table 13 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s (r ) Between Marriage/Career Importance and Career Salience Marriage Importance Career Importance 180 179 .317 .300 .001". .001 Table 14 Subjects' Work Experience Category N of Subjects % of Subjects 1. Subjects who had never worked 13 7.1 2. Subjects who had worked (including volunteer experience) 171 92.9 n Career x Salience s P Tot a l 184 100.0 72 The occupational role innovation variable was not recoded, main-ta i n i n g i t s three categories of t r a d i t i o n a l , moderate, and innovative occupational choices. Results of the Post Hoc Analysis Career salience and educational a s p i r a t i o n . Table 15 displays the re s u l t s of t h i s cross tabulation. The chi square test of independence revealed that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference among c e l l frequencies. Half the subjects who chose homemaking-oriented l i f e plans aspired to high school completion only. Most of the dual-role choosers wanted at l e a s t two years of post-high school education- (47.7 percent) or a u n i v e r s i t y degree (35.8 percent). The aspirations of the career-oriented choosers were f a i r l y evenly divided among high school comple-tio n only, two years of college, and a u n i v e r s i t y degree. Occupational r o l e innovation and career salience. The contingency table for these two variables i s displayed in.Table 16. Again the chi square value obtained was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The table reveals that most of the homemaking (67.6 percent) and dual-r o l e (56.4 percent) choosers a n t i c i p a t e d working i n t r a d i t i o n a l occupa-tions. Most career-oriented subjects (48.0 percent) chose innovative occupations, although more than one-third (36.0 percent) wanted a t r a d i -t i o n a l occupation. Occupational innovation and educational a s p i r a t i o n . The c h i square test of independence for these two variables proved to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Table 17 shows that most g i r l s who had low or moderate, educational a s p i r a t i o n chose t r a d i t i o n a l jobs, whereas g i r l s who had high educational a s p i r a t i o n were not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e i r degree of occupational r o l e innovation. As w e l l , most g i r l s who chose moderate or innovative occupations also had moderate to high education-a l a s p i r a t i o n s . 73 Table 15 Cross Tabulations Comparing Educational A s p i r a t i o n and Career Salience Educational A s p i r a t i o n Row Low Moderate High T o t a l I 2. iA 1 44 50.0* 31.8 18.2 24.3 Homemaking 14.0 12.2 7.7 4.4 18 52 39 109 Career Salience Dual-Role 76.5 37 .5 9 .9 47.7 68.4 28.7 35.8 68.4 21.5 60.2 8 10 10 28 28.6 3 5 . 7 3 5 . 7 75 .5 C a r e e r 76 .7 73 .2 77 .5 4.4 5 .5 5 .5 Column 48 76 57 181 Total 2 6 . 5 4 2 . 0 3 7 . 5 700.0 Chi Square = 18.77 Degrees of freedom = 4 Pr o b a b i l i t y = .001 <X = .05 * ItaLLc* Indicate. peAcentageA g-iven in the. following oKdeA: Row p2.Kco.vit Column pe.Kce.nt Total peA.ce.nt 74 Table 16 Cross Tabulations Comparing Occupational Role Innovation and Career Salience Occupational Role Innovation T r a d i -t i o n a l Moderate Inno-vative Row Total Homemaking 23 6 7 . 6 * 2 5 . 8 14.4 14.1 lb. 1 3.1 17.6 15.0 3.8 34 2 7 . 3 Career Salience Dual-Role 57 5 6 . 4 64.0 3 5 . 6 22 2 7 . 8 71.0 13.8 22 2 7 . 8 55.0 13.8 101 63 .7 Career 36.0 10.1 5.6 76 .0 72 .9 2 .5 12 48.0 30.0 7.5 25_ 75.6 Column Total 89 5 5 . 6 31 79.4 40 2 5 . 0 160 700.0 Chi Square =9.90 Pr o b a b i l i t y = -042. Degrees of freedom = 4 0< = .05 *Italia Indicate. peAce.nta.geJ> given in the. fallowing ohdeA'* Row peA.ce.nt Column peA.ce.nt Total peAcent 75 Table 17 Cross Tabulations Comparing Occupational Role Innovation and Educational A s p i r a t i o n Occupational Role Innovation T r a d i - Inno- Row t i o n a l Moderate vative T o t a l Low 26 7 0 . 3 * 2 8 . 6 16.0 10.8 12.9 2 . 5 1 8 . 9 17.5 4 . 3 37 2 2 . 8 Educational Aspiration Moderate 46 6 4 . 8 5 0 . 5 2 8 . 4 10 1 4 . 1 3 2 . 3 6 . 2 15 21.1 37.5 9 . 3 71 4 3 . 8 19 17 18 54 „. . 35.2 37.5 33.3 33.3 H l g h 20.9 5 4 . 8 4 5 . 0 1 1 . 7 1 0 . 5 1 1 . 1 Column 91 31 A° 162 T o t a l 56.2 1 9 . 1 2 4 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 Chi Square = 15.57 Degrees of freedom P r o b a b i l i t y = .004 « = .05 *ltaticA> indicate. peAcentageA given In the. hollowing ondeK: Row peAcent Column pex.de.nt Total pe.nce.nt Chapter V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this chapter i s to present a summary and discussion of the r e s u l t s of the study, to outline implications of this research, and to o f f e r suggestions for future research. Summary, and Discussion of Results This was a d e s c r i p t i v e , exploratory i n v e s t i g a t i o n comparing voca-t i o n a l maturity and four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n of grade twelve g i r l s . A secondary purpose was to examine relationships among the career o r i e n t a t i o n dimensions defined for the research - career salience, occu-p a t i o n a l r o l e innovation, educational a s p i r a t i o n , and work role involve-ment. The sample consisted of 185 grade twelve g i r l s taken from three schools i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two scales of the Career Development Inventory were used to measure vocational maturity. The four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n were measured with four separ-ate instruments. The variables were compared using c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses and chi square tests of independence. Of the four major n u l l hypotheses a r i s i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e re-view, three were rejected and one, accepted. Hypothesis 1 The f i r s t n u l l hypothesis concerning vocational maturity and career salience was accepted - a n t i c i p a t e d degree of work a c t i v i t i e s i n l i f e plan was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to vocational maturity. These re s u l t s are somewhat contrary to expectations. They do not agree with Richardson's (1976) findings; however, her r e s u l t s are not p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable to 76 t h i s study because she used d i f f e r e n t instruments to assess the variables and a d i f f e r e n t population - college-age women. The lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p between vocational maturity and career salience found f o r the present study might be p a r t i a l l y explained by examining r e s u l t s on the career salience variable (Table 2). Most g i r l s chose e i t h e r dual-role or career-oriented l i f e plans (75.5 percent), i n -d i c a t i n g t h e i r a n t i c i p a t i o n that work outside the home would play a major part i n t h e i r l i v e s . Perhaps l e v e l of vocational maturity i s unaffected by an t i c i p a t e d l i f e plan because most g i r l s today expect to work anyway regardless of t h e i r plans to marry and have chi l d r e n . In other words, t h e i r planning and exploration a c t i v i t i e s regarding work roles may not be rela t e d to t h e i r plans for marriage and family. This o r i e n t a t i o n to work seems consistent with current trends towards increasing female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour force. In addi-t i o n , the f a c t that most g i r l s chose a dual-role l i f e plan (60.2 percent) supports Rand and M i l l e r ' s research of several years ago (1972) which indicated that high school and college women wanted to combine work and family. The present study reinforces the assertion that i n the past few years, a new c u l t u r a l imperative has emerged f o r young women i n terms of t h e i r expected working r o l e i n society. G i r l s today appear to be moving away from the homemaking-only t r a d i -t i o n of past years. However, when asked to give t h e i r second-choice l i f e plan, subjects indicated a s h i f t toward more t r a d i t i o n a l roles (Table 2). This second-choice trend could indicate that even though the g i r l s wanted to incorporate work into t h e i r l i v e s , marriage and family were s t i l l more important to them than work. Hypothesis 2 The n u l l hypothesis concerning the re l a t i o n s h i p between work ro l e 78 involvement and v o c a t i o n a l ma tu r i t y was r e j e c t e d . Subjects who were more h i g h l y i n v o l v e d i n a work r o l e appeared to have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r degree of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . However, the r e s u l t s from the pos t hoc a n a l y s i s o f the Role Involvement Scale-Work (RIS-W) i n d i c a t e tha t t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p should be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y . For the RIS-W subjec t s wrote a s t o r y about Judy, the woman des-c r i b e d i n the p r o j e c t i v e cue g iven i n the s c a l e . G i r l s who cas t Judy i n a c l e r i c a l occupat ion (36.6 percent ) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the s c a l e than d i d g i r l s who desc r ibed Judy i n o ther occupa t ions . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n for these r e s u l t s i s the na ture of the v e r b a l cue used f o r the s t o r y - "Judy i s s i t t i n g at he r desk i n her o f f i c e . " The cue appears to have an " o f f i c e work" connota t ion which the g i r l s seemed to have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s t e r e o t y p i c o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e f o r women. O f f i c e work i n g e n e r a l , and for women i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s of ten seen nega-t i v e l y - as u n i n t e r e s t i n g , r e p e t i t i v e and u n f u l f i l l i n g . I t may be tha t the low RIS-W scores fo r g i r l s who saw Judy as a s tenographer r e f l e c t e d s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards and f e e l i n g s about c l e r i c a l occupat ions r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r own involvement i n a work r o l e . One cou ld specu la te tha t i f a d i f f e r e n t , l e s s b i a s e d cue were used fo r the t e s t , the mean score would have been even h i g h e r than 36 .8 . I t seems that the RIS-W cou ld indeed be c l e r i c a l l y b i a s e d because of the wording of the work r o l e cue. On the o ther hand, the g i r l s who cas t Judy i n a c l e r i c a l r o l e might have done so r ega rd les s of what p r o j e c t i v e cue was presented to them. These are ques t ions tha t cannot be answered i n t h i s s tudy; the r e s u l t s of the RIS-W must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y fo r g i r l s who saw Judy i n a c l e r i c a l j o b . For the r e s t o f the sub jec t s (63.4 p e r c e n t ) , the ins t rument may indeed be t app ing t h e i r a c t u a l involvement i n a work r o l e . However, 79 because of the pronounced negative skew of the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of the scores (Figure 2), even t h i s conclusion i s debatable. There are some major weaknesses apparent i n t h i s instrument, and i t s usefulness as a measure describing one aspect of career orienta-t i o n i n the present study i s questionable. I t may be that g i r l s who are more highly involved i n a work r o l e are indeed more vo c a t i o n a l l y mature, as the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s . However, the d i f f i c u l t i e s described above r a i s e some serious doubts as to how meaningful t h i s r e l a -tionship i s . For these reasons, the RIS-W was not used i n the post hoc analysis of the dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n . The concept of ro l e involvement could p o t e n t i a l l y be useful i n studying the career development of women. However, given the problems encountered i n t h i s study, more research with t h i s instrument i s needed before i t can be meaningfully used i n future studies concerning female career choice. Hypothesis 3 In comparing educational a s p i r a t i o n with vocational maturity, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. This r e s u l t appears to contradict a previous study done with college women (Richardson, 1976) where no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between a s p i r a t i o n and vocational maturity. I t may be that c o r r e l a t i o n was obtained i n the pre-sent study for high school g i r l s because they had a greater range of ed-ucational -alternatives a v a i l a b l e to them than college women who had only graduate school or pr o f e s s i o n a l degrees a v a i l a b l e as choices. Another explanation for the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p could be that many of the Planning Orientation and Resources for Exploration scale items of the CDI are ju s t as relevant to educational as occupational decisions. G i r l s who have high educational a s p i r a t i o n could be more adept at planning 80 and using resources than g i r l s with low a s p i r a t i o n simply because they have had to use these s k i l l s i n researching and preparing f o r t r a i n i n g and educational opportunities. Another possible explanation f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n i s that high a s p i r a -t i o n g i r l s may have a "future o r i e n t a t i o n . " As Psathas (1971) pointed out, a future o r i e n t a t i o n i s needed for entry i n t o an occupation re q u i r i n g a long period of t r a i n i n g . This o r i e n t a t i o n , i f pre-sent, i s more l i k e l y to lead to a pattern of l a t e r rather than e a r l i e r marriage (p. 256). I f high a s p i r a t i o n g i r l s are future oriented, they could be more plan-ning oriented as w e l l , looking ahead to t h e i r futures a f t e r leaving high school without considering marriage and c h i l d r e n u n t i l t h e i r education i s complete. In f a c t , the cross tabulation analysis shows that h a l f (50.2 percent) of the sample chose moderate to high educational a s p i r a t i o n and a dual r o l e combining marriage,,;family and work roles (Table 15). Most subjects aspired to completion of a two-year technical or career college program (42.6 percent - Table 5). I t would seem from these r e s u l t s that high school g i r l s are recognizing the need for educa-t i o n i f they wish to enter the labour force. The trend appears to be to-wards choosing quick, s p e c i a l i z e d , job-oriented t r a i n i n g at the college l e v e l which w i l l give them employment before and a f t e r marriage. These r e s u l t s agree somewhat with those that Gaskell (1978) reported for her sample of grade twelve g i r l s . For her study 27 percent of sub-j e c t s chose high school completion, while for the present study, 26.2 percent wanted high school completion. Although she did not report percent-ages of g i r l s choosing post high school and u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , 9 percent of her sample did choose post-graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l degrees compared with 81 7.1 percent f o r this study. Hypothesis 4 The fourth dimension of career o r i e n t a t i o n used for this study, oc-cupational r o l e innovation, was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to vocational maturity. G i r l s who chose more innovative occupations also had higher l e v e l s of vocational maturity. These r e s u l t s appear to con-t r a d i c t Richardson's (1976) and Gable and Thompson's (1976) studies which found no r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s . Both studies used the Career Maturity Inventory and college women as subjects, so t h e i r r e s u l t s are not d i r e c t l y applicable to t h i s study. Further analysis of data revealed that occupational role innova-t i o n was r e l a t e d only to Scale B of the CDI - Resources for Exploration. This r e s u l t seems to i n d i c a t e that g i r l s who were more innovative also were more aware of and more r e a d i l y used a v a i l a b l e resources for career exploration. They were not necessarily more oriented to planning than g i r l s who chose t r a d i t i o n a l careers. A possible explanation for this d i s c r e -pancy could be that perhaps innovative g i r l s tended to be more aware of choices and options a v a i l a b l e to them generally and were more assertive i n exploring those choices. Tangri's (1972) research i n d i c a t e d that i n -novators were more autonomous and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c than t r a d i t i o n a l s and were more committed to a career, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could account f o r more active exploration and u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. F i f t y percent of the g i r l s chose t r a d i t i o n a l occupations, i n d i c a t -ing perhaps that they s t i l l could have been seeing innovative jobs as a deviation from acceptable sex-role behavior. In f a c t , the cross tabulation analysis revealed that g i r l s who chose t r a d i t i o n a l occupations also chose more t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e roles - 25.8 percent indicated a preference for home-making and 64.0 percent preferred a combined or dual (Table 16). As w e l l , 82 the g i r l s p r e f e r r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l occupations for the most part wanted a high school education (28.6 percent) or a two-year college degree (50.5 percent). These r e s u l t s seem to indicate that the occupational plans of many of these high school g i r l s were sex-typed and r e f l e c t e d current employ-ment trends i n female employment - women concentrated i n low-status, low-paying t r a d i t i o n a l jobs. The g i r l s who chose less t r a d i t i o n a l jobs - moderate or innovative -were less c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along the other career o r i e n t a t i o n var-i a b l e s , but some trends were apparent. Thirty-eight percent of a l l g i r l s wanted moderate or innovative occupations (Table 6). Most of these aspired to a u n i v e r s i t y education (Table 17) and were most l i k e l y to prefer a dual-role l i f e plan (Table 16). In summary, occupational role innovation and educational a s p i r a t i o n were the variables of career o r i e n t a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to voca-t i o n a l maturity. Although work role involvement and vocational maturity were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d as w e l l , d i f f i c u l t i e s with the scale measur-ing work role involvement cast doubt on i t s usefulness f o r t h i s study. Most of the grade twelve g i r l s i n t h i s study were oriented to work and an t i c i p a t e d a dual-role l i f e plan combining marriage, family and career. As w e l l , they generally considered both work and family involve-ment to be very important i n t h e i r l i v e s . Most subjects chose t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and aspired to completing a two-year technical or career pro-gram at the college l e v e l . Almost a l l g i r l s had some p r a c t i c a l work ex-perience and almost h a l f had mothers who worked outside the home. Implications of the Study Chapter II outlined the importance of considering both vocational 83 maturity and career o r i e n t a t i o n i n the career development of women. L i t t l e research has been done i n t h i s area with high school g i r l s . This study has attempted to explore the relationships between these two variables to provide a bett e r understanding of how g i r l s make career choices. The g i r l s i n th i s study were oriented to working regardless of t h e i r plans to marry and have c h i l d r e n . The issue seems to be no longer whether women work, but rather what type of work they do and at what l e v e l , what education and t r a i n i n g they receive, how they incorporate work in t o t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , and the opportunities and attitudes i n the workplace. Counselling and career guidance programs i n educational settings can have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on students' occupational and l i f e choices. The resu l t s of th i s study point to the importance of considering g i r l s ' edu-c a t i o n a l aspirations and occupational choice i n the context of t h e i r voca-• t i o n a l maturity. Counsellors can a s s i s t i n breaking down the sex stereo-typing of occupations by providing encouragement to explore a wide v a r i e t y of educational and occupational opportunities. Young women should be given unbiased occupational counselling and information and encouraged to consider n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. This type of exploration could enhance students' planning and decision-making s k i l l s f o r both occupational and l i f e roles and could work to increase general l e v e l s of vocational maturity as w e l l . The r e s u l t s suggest that some of the g i r l s had very t r a d i t i o n a l plans and expectations - a homemaking l i f e plan, low educational a s p i r a t i o n and a t r a d i t i o n a l career choice. Given the r e a l i t i e s that these g i r l s w i l l face, a v a i l a b i l i t y of unbiased counselling and information and active en-couragement to explore a l t e r n a t i v e educational and occupational choices become even more important with t h i s group. 84 The current trend towards l i f e career planning discussed i n Chapter II i s e s p e c i a l l y important for g i r l s at the high school l e v e l . In th i s context vocational maturity i s j u s t as important as maturity i n planning and decision-making f o r other l i f e roles besides work. Most g i r l s i n t h i s study planned to work and to combine r o l e s . In a l i f e - c a r e e r plan-ning framework, students could be encouraged to consider the consequences of t h e i r occupational choices and how they would integrate marriage, family and career r o l e s . They could consider problems surrounding combined ro l e s , implications of spouse's attitudes and expectations, of c h i l d care and housekeeping issues, of the consequences of interrupted or unstable career patterns, of sex bias and disc r i m i n a t i o n i n the workplace. The study focussed on four dimensions of career o r i e n t a t i o n - factors thought to be e s p e c i a l l y important f o r a high school population. Career o r i e n t a t i o n i s a diverse and complex concept; the l i t e r a t u r e abounds with d e f i n i t i o n s and descriptions of numerous instruments used to measure as-pects of career o r i e n t a t i o n . This unsystematic and sometimes confused approach to research makes the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these studies l i m i t e d . These d i f f i c u l t i e s point to the need f o r a comprehensive, systematic career development theory for women combining concepts from t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r e t i c a l models (including vocational maturity) and aspects of career o r i e n t a t i o n . Attempts at formulating a theory e s p e c i a l l y f o r women (described i n Chapter II) have been s u p e r f i c i a l and have not been broad enough or extensive enough to have p r a c t i c a l use i n systematic research. One d i f -f i c u l t y with formulating a theory f o r women i s that so much s o c i a l change i s now occurring i n the area of sex and vocation, and "any t h e o r e t i c a l proposal made now i s l i k e l y to be premature as i s any generalization about women's career development" (Osipow, 1973, p. 265). 85 Indeed, with changing economic conditions, new attitudes to work and sex r o l e s , and current trends toward s e l f development, the concept of career o r i e n t a t i o n i s becoming increasingly relevant to the career development of men. Men are rethinking the importance of work, family and l e i s u r e i n t h e i r l i v e s with considerable consequences i n the work place (Renwick & Lewler, 1978; Yankelovich, 1978). What seems to be ultimately needed i s a new approach to career development theory f o r both women and men considering career planning and choice as an i n t e g r a l part of l i f e planning i n general. Suggestions f o r Further Research Most g i r l s i n th i s study chose dual-role l i f e plans. More research needs to be done exploring the nature of dual-role commitment at the high school l e v e l and how i t relates to vocational planning. Some elements that could be explored are realism of expectations, presence of ro l e con-f l i c t , a n t icipated ages of marriage and c h i l d bearing, number and spacing of c h i l d r e n planned, and personality factors r e l a t e d to dual-role choice. The concept of ro l e involvement appears to be p o t e n t i a l l y useful i n exploring career o r i e n t a t i o n , but d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n th i s study using the work role cue of the Role Involvement Scale. In any sub-sequent research using this instrument, consideration should be given to changing the work-role p r o j e c t i v e cue to remove the c l e r i c a l bias which could have influenced the re s u l t s of this study. A sentence completion stem might be more appropriate; f o r example, "Judy i s at work and. . . " Occupational choices and plans made by g i r l s and boys i n senior high school are c r u c i a l and can have l i f e - l o n g consequences. As more emphasis i s placed on l i f e career planning, new approaches to career guidance and counselling are necessary. E s p e c i a l l y needed i s the development of guid-86 ance programs that a s s i s t students i n planning and decision-making f o r future r o l e s . More refined instruments are needed that do not just mea-sure vocational maturity or career o r i e n t a t i o n as separate concepts. Certain decision-making and planning behaviors are probably common to both areas and could be i d e n t i f i e d and used to measure broader l e v e l s of maturity. More l o n g i t u d i n a l research i s needed both during the school years and following high school graduation. An important question i s how pre-d i c t i v e are p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l s of vocational maturity and career orienta-ti o n factors i n future career involvement. A s t i n and Myint's (1971) work was a promising beginning with t h e i r conclusion that educational le v e l s and marital status were the best environmental predictors of career outcomes for women. However, when one considers Donald Super's extensive Career Pattern Study and a l l the rela t e d work i t generated, i n comparison l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t research has been conducted with women. Comprehensive l o n g i t u d i n a l studies following the career development of women would prove invaludable i n formulating an integrated, sound theor-e t i c a l framework on which to base systematic research i n the future. REFERENCES 87 REFERENCES Almquist, E., & Angrist, S. Career salience and a t y p i c a l i t y of occu-pa t i o n a l choice among college women. 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APPENDICES 95 96 APPENDIX A ROLE INVOLVEMENT SCALE-WORK Instructions In this test you w i l l be given the f i r s t sentence of a story. Your task i s to make up as dramatic a story as you can and to write your story. The woman mentioned i n the f i r s t sentence should be the main character i n the story. For your story, write: 1. What has l e d up to the event i n the story. 2. Describe what i s happening at the moment. 3. Describe what the character i s thinking and feeling.'. 4. F i n a l l y , give the outcome of the story. You w i l l have f i v e minutes to write the story. The researcher w i l l announce when the f i v e minutes allowed for the story have passed. You w i l l then be asked to turn the page and answer some questions about the main character i n that story. Answer these questions quickly. TURN THE PAGE AND READ THE FIRST SENTENCE OF THE STORY . . . 97 JUDY IS SITTING AT HER DESK IN HER OFFICE (Please write a story about Judy i n her role at work) Remember to write: 1. What has led up to the event i n the story. 2. What i s happening at the moment. 3. What the character i s thinking and f e e l i n g . 4. Give the outcome of the story. 98 On t h i s page are a number of statements. You are to decide whether these statements are true or f a l s e for the woman i n the story you j u s t wrote. C i r c l e T i f you think the statement i s true or mostly true f or this woman. C i r c l e F i f you think the statement i s f a l s e or mostly f a l s e f o r the women. Be sure to answer every item. T F T y p i c a l l y , she gives more than i s asked or required of her. T F She probably wouldn't be there i f she didn't have to • be. T F She i s w i l l i n g to devote a l o t of time to her da i l y tasks. T F She has l i t t l e enthusiasm. T F She i s a very busy person. T F She i s often curious. T F She enjoys r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T F She usually i s able to throw h e r s e l f into her da i l y a c t i v i t i e s . T F She finds h e r s e l f exhausted much of the time. T F She looks forward to challenges. T F She doesn't r e a l l y care. T F She would rather be doing something other than what she i s doing. T F She puts a l o t of energy into what she does. T F She i s thinking about something e l s e . T F She seldom f e e l s bored. T F She wants to do what she i s doing. T F She often has nothing to do. T F She i s devoted to what she does. T F She usually looks forward to her day's a c t i v i t i e s . T F She only does what she has to do. T F She never has enough time to do everything she wants to do. T F Her l i f e i s monotonous. APPENDIX B .99. LIFE PLANS Afte r you complete your education, which of the following future l i f e plans do you think you w i l l follow? Indicate your FIRST and SECOND choices i n the blanks below. 1. Get married and have a family sh o r t l y a f t e r I complete my education without ever working i n an outside occupation. 2. Pursue my occupation and then get married. I would eventually devote f u l l time to home and family, working only i f necessary. 3. Pursue my occupation and then get married. I would devote f u l l time to my children during t h e i r early years and return to my occupation a f t e r they are older. 4. Pursue my occupation a f t e r marriage with r e l a t i v e l y short periods of staying home to look after-home and family. 5. Pursue my occupation more or less continuously with some l i m i t a t i o n on family involvement (for instance, marry but have no c h i l d r e n ) . 6. Pursue my occupation continuously without marriage or chil d r e n . FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE (Indicate choices with appropriate numbers) EDUCATIONAL PLANS What i s the highest l e v e l of education you are planning to complete? (CIRCLE one answer only.) 1. Highschool diploma 2. Career program at college or te c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e (1 to 2 years) 3. U n i v e r s i t y derree (4 to 5 years) 4. Masters degree (e.g. M.A. or M.Sc.) 5. Pro f e s s i o n a l degree such as law or medicine (6 year or more) 6. Doctoral degree (Ph.D.) OCCUPATIONAL PLANS As things look now, what occupation or f i e l d of work are you considering 100 APPENDIX C CAREER DEVELOPMENT INVENTORY (Scale A = Items 1-33; Scale B = Items 34-61) Introduction The questions you are about to read ask you about school, work, your future career, and some of the plans you may have made. The only r i g h t answers are the ones which are r i g h t for you. Give the best answer you can. Answers to questions l i k e these can help teachers and counsellors o f f e r the kind of help which high school students want and need i n planning and preparing for a job a f t e r graduation, for vocational and technical school t r a i n i n g , or for going to college or u n i v e r s i t y . SECTION I Students d i f f e r considerably i n the amounts of thinking and planning they do about t h e i r future careers. Here are f i v e statements showing d i f f e r e n t amounts of thinking and planning: (A) T have not given any thought to t h i s . (B) I have given some thought to t h i s , but haven't made any plans yet. Ce) I have some plans, but am s t i l l not sure of them. (D) I have made d e f i n i t e plans, but don't know how to carry them out. (E) I have made d e f i n i t e plans, and know what to do to carry them out. For EACH QUESTION (questions 1 through 14) i n t h i s f i r s t section, choose the statement which i s closest to showing the amount of thinking and planning you have done. CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE LETTER (A, B, C, D, or E) BESIDE EACH QUESTION. I. HOW MUCH THINKING AND PLANNING HAVE YOU DONE IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS? A B C D E 1. Finding out about educational and occupational p o s s i b i l -i t i e s by going to the l i b r a r y , sending away for information, or t a l k i n g to somebody who knows about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A B C D E 2. Talking about career decisions with an adult who knows something about me. A B C D E 3. Taking high school courses which w i l l help me decide what l i n e of work to go into when I leave school, community c o l -lege or u n i v e r s i t y . 101 Here are f i v e statements showing d i f f e r e n t amounts of thinking and planning: (A) I have not given any thought to t h i s . (B) I have given some thought to t h i s , but haven't made any plans yet. (C) I have some plans, but am s t i l l not sure of them. (D) I have made d e f i n i t e plans, but don't know how to carry them out. (E) I have made d e f i n i t e plans, and know what to do to carry them out. A B O D E 4. Taking high school courses which w i l l help me l a t e r i n uni v e r s i t y , i n job t r a i n i n g , or on the job. A B O D E 5. Taking part i n school or out-of-school a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l help me i n u n i v e r s i t y , i n t r a i n i n g , or on the job. A B O D E 6. Taking part i n school or a f t e r school a c t i v i t i e s (for ex-ample, science club, school newspaper, Sunday School teach-ing, volunteer nurse's aide) which w i l l help me decide what kind of work to go into when I leave school. A B O D E 7. Getting a part-time or summer job which w i l l help me de-cide what kind of work I might go i n t o . A B O D E 8. Getting a part-time or summer job which w i l l help me get the kind of job or t r a i n i n g I want. A B C D E 9. Getting money for u n i v e r s i t y , college or t r a i n i n g . A B C D E 10. Dealing with things which might make i t hard for me to get the kind of t r a i n i n g or the kind of work I would l i k e . A B C D E 11. Getting the kind of t r a i n i n g , education, or experience which I w i l l need to get into the kind of work I want. A B C D E 12. Getting a job once I've f i n i s h e d my education and t r a i n i n g . A B C D E 13. Doing the things one needs to do to become a valued em-ployee who doesn't have to be a f r a i d of l o s i n g h i s job or being l a i d o f f when times are hard. A B C D E 14. Getting ahead (more money, promotions, etc.) i n the kind of work I choose. 102 I I . High school students d i f f e r greatly i n the amount of time and thought they give to making choices. Use the statement below to compare yourself to the t y p i c a l students of your sex i n your grade on each of the following kinds of choices (questions 15 - 21). Compared to my classmates I am . ... (A) much below average, not as good as most (B) a l i t t l e below average (C) average (D) a l i t t l e above average (E) much above average, be t t e r than most .... i n the amount of time and thought I give to: A B C D E 15. Choosing high school courses. (CIRCLE THE LETTER OF YOUR CHOICE) A B C D E 16. Choosing high school a c t i v i t i e s . A B C D E 17. Choosing out-of-school a c t i v i t i e s . A B C D E 18. Choosing between u n i v e r s i t y , community college, b u s i -ness college, work, m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , marriage, home-making, etc. A B C D E 19. Choosing a u n i v e r s i t y , community college, branch of m i l i -tary s e r v i c e , husband or wife, etc. A B C D E 20. Choosing an occupation for a f t e r high school, u n i v e r s i t y , college or job t r a i n i n g . A B C D E 21. Choosing a career i n general. 22. How would you rate your plans f o r " a f t e r high school"? (CIRCLE ONE LETTER) A Not at a l l c l e a r or sure. B Not very c l e a r . C Some not cl e a r , some cl e a r . D F a i r l y c l e a r . E Very c l e a r , a l l decided. 103 I I I . Below are f i v e possible answers to use i n answering questions 23. through 33, questions about how much you know about the occupation you s a i d you were considering i n a previous question. CIRCLE THE LETTER OF YOUR CHOICE AFTER EACH STATEMENT. I know .... (A) hardly anything (B) ' a l i t t l e (C) an average mount (D) a good deal (E) a great deal .... about: A B C D E 23. What people r e a l l y do on the job. A B C D E 24. S p e c i a l i t i e s i n the occupation. A B C D E 25. D i f f e r e n t places where people might work i n t h i s occu-pation. A B C D E 26. The a b i l i t i e s and t r a i t s needed i n the occupation. A B C D E 27. The p h y s i c a l working conditions. A B C D E 28. The education or t r a i n i n g needed to get i n t o the occupa-t i o n . A B C D E 29. The courses offered i n high school that are the best for the occupation. The need for new people i n the occupation. A B C D E 30. A B C D E 31. A B C D E 32. A B C D E 33. The s t a r t i n g pay i n the occupation. The chances for getting ahead i n the occupation. 1 0 4 IV. There are f i v e answers which can be used f o r questions 3 4 through 4 7 . Use these answers to show whether or not you would go to the sources of information l i s t e d below f or help i n making your job, u n i v e r s i t y , or other t r a i n i n g plans. I would .... (A) d e f i n i t e l y not (B) probably not (C) not be sure whether to (D) probably ( E ) d e f i n i t e l y .... go to: A B C D E 3 4 . Father or male guardian. A B C D E 3 5 . Mother or female guardian. A B C D E 3 6 . Brothers, s i s t e r s , or other r e l a t i v e s . A B C D E 3 7 . Friends. A B C D E 3 8 . Team coaches or phys i c a l education teachers. A B C D E 3 9 . Other teachers. A B C D E 4 0 . Minister, p r i e s t , or rabbi. A B C D E 4 1 . School counsellors. A B C D E 4 2 . Private counsellors, outside of school. A B C D E 4 3 , Books with the information I needed. A B c D E 4 4 . Audio or v i s u a l aids l i k e tape recordings, movies, or computers. A B c D E 4 5 . University or community college calendars. A B c D E 4 6 . Persons i n the occupation or at the u n i v e r s i t y or col! I am considering. A B c D E 4 7 . TV shows, movies, or magazines. 105 V. Here again are f i v e answers which are to be used with the following items. This time use the statements to show which of the sources of information below have already given you information which has been h e l p f u l to you i n making your job, u n i v e r s i t y or other t r a i n i n g plans. I have obtained .... (A) no useful information (B) very l i t t l e u s e ful information (C) some useful information (D) a good deal of useful information (E) a great deal of useful information •:... from: A B C D E 48. Father or male guardian. A B C D E 49. Mother or female guardian. A B C D E 50. Brothers, s i s t e r s , or other r e l a t i v e s . A B C D E 51. Friends. A B C D E 52. Team coaches or ph y s i c a l education teachers. A B C D E 53. Other teachers. A B C D E 54. Minister, p r i e s t , or rabbi. A B C D E 55. School counsellors. A B C D E 56. Private counsellors, outside of school. A B C D E 57. Books with the information I needed. A B C D E 58. Audio or v i s u a l aids l i k e tape recordings, movies, or computers. A B C D E 59. University or community college calendars. A B C D E 60. Persons i n the occupation or at the un i v e r s i t y or col-lege I am considering. A B c D E 61. TV shows, movies, or magazines. 106 APPENDIX D GENERAL INFORMATION This information w i l l a s s i s t me with my research. I f you don't wish to answer some of the questions, you may leave them out. The information w i l l remain completely c o n f i d e n t i a l . Age 2. Date of b i r t h : Day Month Year 3. What i s your mother's occupation? 4. What i s your father's occupation? 5. Have you worked at a job (include volunteer work)? Yes No 6. Do you consider preparing f o r and having a career to be ( c i r c l e one) a) very important i n your l i f e b) f a i r l y important i n your l i f e c) f a i r l y unimportant i n your l i f e d) very unimportant i n your l i f e 7. Do you consider marriage and having a family to be ( c i r c l e one): a) very important i n your l i f e b) f a i r l y important i n your l i f e c) f a i r l y unimportant i n your l i f e d) very unimportant i n your l i f e 107 APPENDIX E. SAMPLE OF LETTER OF REQUEST SENT TO SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS Dear : I am a graduate student i n Counselling Psychology at the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Presently I am working on my thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of my Master of Arts degree requirements. My research i n t e r e s t concerns female career development, and I wish to work with a population of young women i n senior high school. Today because of changing c u l t u r a l values and increased educa-t i o n a l opportunities, young women are faced with making multiple r o l e choices i n th e i r adult l i v e s . As a r e s u l t , female career development i s generally seen as in c l u d i n g both occupational and homemaking r o l e s . The purpose of my study i s to examine the role choices that grade twelve g i r l s see themselves making and how these choices r e l a t e to th e i r vocational maturity. Vocational maturity i s a construct that has arisen from career development theory and i s usually applied to adolescents' vocational decision-making behavior. The Career Development Inventory (CDI), based on Donald Super's pioneering research, measures the e f f e c t i v e -ness with which an i n d i v i d u a l copes with v o c a t i o n a l l y relevant tasks. I strongly believe that an examination of how vocational maturity i s affec t e d by l i f e r ole choices has important implciations for career education and counselling for today's students. I have enclosed the questionnaire that I would l i k e to administer to about 100 g i r l s i n your d i s t r i c t ; i t includes the CDI plus some questions concerning educational aspirations and l i f e plans. I t also includes a measure designed to assess work ro l e involvement. My com-mittee at U.B.C. (chaired by Dr. Borgen) has approved my research pro-posal and the questionnaire. I would very much l i k e to meet with you to acquaint you and/or your counsellors with the objectives of my study and to discuss the f e a s i b i l i t y of conducting my research i n your d i s t r i c t . I w i l l t e l e -phone your o f f i c e on November 22 or 23 to get your feedback about my questionnaire and to set up a possible meeting time. .12 108 Thank you for your consideration. Yours t r u l y , Joan Richardt Graduate Student Counselling Psychology Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Dr. William Borgen Assistant Professor (Supervisor) Department of Counselling Psychology Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Enclosure 

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