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Counsellor bias in occupational choice for female students Schroeder, Alana Shirley 1979

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COUNSELLOR BIAS IN OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE FOR FEMALE STUDENTS  by ALANA SHIRLEY B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  SCHROEDER  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g  We  Psychology  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  ©Alana  Shirley  1979  Schroeder,  1979  In  presenting this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the I  Library  further  for  shall  it  this  thesis for  available for extensive  p  by t h e  i s understood  financial gain shall  nf  C o u n s e l l i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  t  It  A p r i l  23,  1979  the  requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  copying or  for that  study. thesis  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  that  not  Psychology  Columbia  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  permission.  Department  a  of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  written  n  freely  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  agree that  in partial  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ,  ABSTRACT  The school to  purpose of t h i s  counsellors  age  and  and  variables  jobs  counsellor  women.  I t was  t a n t to  e s t a b l i s h i f an  thought  that  f e m a l e s does e x i s t , and  (1976).  described  The  Two  on the  and  other  female  of  200  high  student.  t y p e was bias  school  previously personal  first  against  data to b r i n g This  this  d a t a would  be  university-  designed  could  and  describe  identical  the  used  from  was  the  Thus,  case study  opposite  sample as  ana-  by  the  sex of  e a c h c a s e was  counsellors  to  the  student  e i t h e r a male  second form the  i n the  h a l f of the  counsellors  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  form.  counsellors  impor-  A s s o c i a t i o n were a s k e d  study subject  the  to h a l f of to the  i f these  program.  However, on  each case  designation  use  awareness.  forms c o n t a i n i n g  t i o n were u s e d . of  that  i n each case study  a female.  tion  then,  to  less  s e l e c t i o n f o r young  career  Columbia C o u n s e l l o r s  s i x case s t u d i e s  Donahue  see  occupational  education  A random sample  lyze  career  tendency  counsellor&s  improvement o f b o t h i n - s e r v i c e and  based c o u n s e l l o r  British  i f high  required  In a d d i t i o n ,  a study of t h i s  into counsellors*  u s e f u l f o r the  less,  b a c k g r o u n d were examined t o  r e l a t e d to  information  that paid  more s u p e r v i s i o n .  family  to determine  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d have a  choose f o r f e m a l e s ,  education  s t u d y was  a male  i n the  or  informadesignathe  sex  presented student  sample as  a  P a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a l i s t These o c c u p a t i o n s ficients uisite  on a s e v e n - p o i n t  education,  scale  and f o r l e v e l  these  family The  were a s k e d  enclosed with  to p r o v i d e  d a t a were c o l l e c t e d  over  lors  However,  twelve  u s i n g t h e Mann-Whitney results  demonstrated  i n the study  tended  significant  t o be no d i f f e r e n c e  U  on a  age  f o r these  form.  f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e were f o u n d to remuneration,  of the questionThe d a t a were  test. Columbia  paying case  two v a r i a b l e s .  i n levels  of prerequisite case  counsel-  occupations study  There  sub-  statistappeared  education  study s u b j e c t s .  o f c o u n s e l l o r ' s age and  t o be i n d e p e n d e n t  o f and u n r e l a t e d  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n l e v e l s  o f a l l a g e s and t y p e s  Sixty-  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  The d i f f e r e n c e s were  two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s  Counsellors  of  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  per cent  to choose lower  c h o s e n f o r b o t h male and f e m a l e The  case  of prefer-  In addition,  that B r i t i s h  t h a n f o r male s u b j e c t s .  ically  f o r each  a coefficient  t h a t a r e more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d f o r f e m a l e jects  coun-  a s e v e n week p e r i o d .  n a i r e s r e t u r n e d were n o t i n u s u a b l e  The  The  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r  of the s u b j e c t s completed  data sheets.  analyzed  of prereq-  i n order  assigned  coef-  structure.  nine per cent and  occupations  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n .  short personal data sheet, respondents  level  of s u p e r v i s i o n .  The o c c u p a t i o n s were l a t e r  remuneration,  and  f o r salary,  t o choose t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s  s u b j e c t and r a n k  ence.  occupations.  had been p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n w e i g h t e d  s e l l o r s were a s k e d study  o f 28  chosen.  of f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s  chose  occupations f o r females  highly  that paid less  s u p e r v i s e d than the occupations  male c a s e In  a n d were more  chosen  for  study s u b j e c t s .  conclusion, B r i t i s h  Columbia  counsellors i n this  s t u d y h o l d t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l b i a s e s t o w a r d encourage,  perhaps  currently  accepted  counsellors  a t an unconscious sex r o l e s  level,  women.  i n t h e l a b o u r market.  showed a marked t e n d e n c y  t o choose  tions  chosen  do  These  different  o f o c c u p a t i o n s f o r males t h a n f o r f e m a l e s . perpetuate  They  conformity to the  kinds  earn less  identical  The o c c u p a -  t h e c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n o f women who  t h a n men, s e l d o m work i n a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y a n d  not f u l l y  utilize  their  equivalent, formal  education.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I  II  Page Introduction  1  Purpose  5  of the Study  Definitions  6  Hypotheses  6  Related  9  Literature  9  Stereotypes Effects  16  of Stereotyping  Unique C o n f l i c t s Effects  Created  of Stereotypes  on O c c u p a t i o n s  D o u b l e S t a n d a r d s f o r Men II-I  by S t e r e o t y p i n g  ...  20 27 31  and Women  39  Methodology  4-0  P o p u l a t i o n and Sample  40  Instrumentation List  42  Coefficient  of remuneration  4-2  Coefficient  of education  4-3  Coefficient  of supervision  44  Construction  46  Developing  Occupation Validity  the Occupation  List  and R e l i a b i l i t y  Construct  '.  4-7 4-8  validity  Concurrent  validity  52  Predictive  validity  52 53  Reliability Collection  54-  of the Data  Phase I - M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s  •  55  Phase I I - S e c o n d a r y H y p o t h e s e s  56  Design  58  and A n a l y s i s  Mann-Whitney U t e s t  60  vi  Chapter  IV  Page 6k  Results The Sample  ^  Questionnaire Equivalence  Responses  o f Forms  65 65 (TO  Major Hypotheses  V  u  o  Secondary Hypotheses  77  Summary  82  Conclusions  and D i s c u s s i o n  83 91  Recommendations  95  References Appendix A  L i s t of C o e f f i c i e n t s of Remuneration, Educat i o n , and S u p e r v i s i o n f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n s ....  100  B  Form A and Form B o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  102  C  Letters  107  D  Personal Data Sheet  Accompanying  the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  I l l  vii  L I S T OF TABLES  Table 1  2  3 ; 4  5  6  7  8  9  Page T a b l e o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r E q u i v a l e n c e o f Forms ( A l l C a s e s )  67  Sex, Mean R e m u n e r a t i o n Rank a n d S t a t i s t i c s f o r E a c h o f t h e S i x C a s e s (Form A'and Form B)  69  Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank a n d S t a t i s t i c s f o r E a c h o f t h e S i x C a s e s (Form A and Form B)  70  Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r E a c h o f t h e S i x C a s e s (Form A a n d Form B)  71  Sex, Mean R e m u n e r a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on C a s e s 1,4,6 ( M a l e s v s . F e m a l e s ) a n d on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  73  Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on C a s e s 1,4,6 ( M a l e s v s . F e m a l e s ) a n d on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  75  Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on C a s e s 1,4,6 ( M a l e s v s . F e m a l e s ) a n d on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  76  T a b l e o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s Under 35 and C o u n s e l l o r s 35 and O l d e r  79  T a b l e o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s f r o m " T y p i c a l " and " A t y p i c a l " Family Structures  81  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  D r . Kahn, D r . R a t z l a f f , for  their  time,  and D r . Young, my t h e s i s  committee,  s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e .  My mom, who gave me t h e r o l e m o d e l o f a c o m p e t e n t , woman and e n c o u r a g e d  Gary,  Ms.  f o rlicking  Ernestine  i n my  abilities.  a l l t h e stamps a n d s t u f f i n g  envelopes.  Young, p a s t P r e s i d e n t o f B.C. C o u n s e l l o r s  Association,  f o r s e n d i n g me t h e membership  Len Fern, North Vancouver his  Dr.  me t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y .  f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t and "belief  Justine,  staff  Nevison,  working  t o complete  Manpower manager, f o r e n c o u r a g i n g my r a t i n g  and t h e C o u n s e l l i n g  financial  assistance  B e r n i c e , my t y p i s t ,  list.  toward  scales.  Psychology Department, f o r the m a i l i n g  f o r h e r competent,  expenses.  efficient  work.  CHAPTER  I  Introduction Statistics are  nearly  four  Canada  (January 1 9 7 9 ) reported  and o n e - t h i r d  During the l a s t  decade t h e number o f women w o r k e r s h a s i n c r e a s e d U.S.  News and W o r l d R e p o r t  the work f o r c e  a t a rate  stated  a year  Women i n t h e U.S. and Canada a r e e n t e r i n g  escaped all  the stereotype  and y e t ,  i n t h e U.S.  t h e work  women s t i l l  o f "women's work."  service or light  suggest  t h a t many women c o n t i n u e  crimination. involved. training lack  factory  jobs.  of preparation  s u p p o r t e d by men.  own.  lack  i s sometimes a s c r i b e d  Surveys  the education,  Yet,  jobs.  The  to the "Cinderella  t h e y a l w a y s w i l l be  show t h a t y o u n g women g e n e r a l l y  u n d e r e s t i m a t e how much f u t u r e  4 6 4 , 3 ^ 5  of job d i s -  t o q u a l i f y f o r h i g h e r .paying  S y n d r o m e " — t h e b e l i e f b y women t h a t  that  clerical,  However, more t h a n j u s t j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s  or desire  of their  8 0 $ of  statistics  t o be v i c t i m s  Many w o r k i n g women s i m p l y  jobs  force  have n o t  Nearly  These  6 8 . 6 $ .  entering  w o r k i n g women a r e employed i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  sales,  by  by  t h a t women were  o f two m i l l i o n  at an ever i n c r e a s i n g r a t e ,  there  m i l l i o n women w o r k e r s i n  bofo o f t h e t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e .  Canada, a b o u t  that  livelihoods will  Statistics  Canada  depend  (1976),  f a m i l i e s , almost h a l f a m i l l i o n ,  upon  reports  a r e headed  a woman. In  1 9 7 7 U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t s t a t e d  1  that  among  2  full  time workers, median e a r n i n g s  just  5 8 . 9 % o f t h e $ 1 4 , 6 2 6 m e d i a n e a r n e d b y men. (1979)  Canada ies  I t does r e p o r t i n d u s t r y  $18,907.68  construction,  p e r year;  $12,000.00  s e c r e t a r i e s earn  categories are predominantly  basic  reason  men  i n higher  work i n l o w e r p a y i n g women a r e employed  gists  retail  call  earnings-  by men, where-  $16,000.00--both  filled  b y women.  The  f o r t h e gap i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n .  a r e employed  estate,  filled  and nurses  these  categor-  $20,171.20<«-  mining,  These two i n d u s t r i e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y as  Statistics  d o e s n ' t have i n f o r m a t i o n o n s e p a r a t e  f o r men and women.  $8,818,  f o r women t o t a l e d  jobs.  paying  occupations;  Three-fourths  i n services, finance,  trades  and l i g h t  the " g i r l s '  c o n s t r u c t i o n , mining,  ghetto."  Most  most women  o f a l l working insurance,  f a c t o r y work--what Men, m e a n w h i l e  real sociolo-  dominate  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and heavy m a n u f a c t u r -  ing. E v e n i n i n d u s t r i e s where women h o l d jobs, than  they  a r e seldom  bosses.  80% o f t h e c l e r i c a l  managerial  status occupations?  forces  inhibit  career  options  sex  stereotypes.  are  and l e s s  than  What s o c i o l o g i c a l  the occupational role  classroom  I n b a n k i n g , women h o l d more 2 0 % of the  o f women c o n c e n t r a t e d  limiting role  of the  positions.  Why a r e t h e m a j o r i t y low  jobs  a majority  f o r women? definition  i n these  or psychological A major  force  o f women a r e  Women's r o l e s - - o n t e l e v i s i o n ,  a n d i n t h e f a m i l y have b e e n s t e r e o t y p e d .  repeatedly portrayed  as "mothers w i t h  aprons  i n the Women  on," o r  3 t h e y a r e shown p r i m a r i l y teachers,  limit The  librarians,  b e a u t i c i a n s , and t e l e p h o n e  deep r o o t e d a t t i t u d e s they  as n u r s e s ,  t h a t take  women t o t r a d i t i o n a l  development o f these  occupations  with  a l o n g time roles  These a r e  t o change and  .  attitudes  linking  one s e x o r t h e o t h e r b e g i n s  certain  early  i n the  B r a d y a n d Brown (.1973) examined s e x  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  o f 8-and 1 0 - y e a r - o l d  differences  operators.  waitresses,  boys a n d g i r l s  on s e l e c t e d  vocational behavior variables.  They f o u n d  significantly  o n t h e number o f v a r i e d  occupational 56$ an  higher than g i r l s  occupation.  occupationally  girls  c h o s e t e a c h e r , nurse,-or housewife' a s  The a u t h o r s limit  8-and 1 0 - y e a r - o l d  concluded  themselves  further  o f age a n d t h a t  i t applies to s p e c i f i c  career goals.  Schlossberg  examined c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p i n g occupations.  The d a t a  indicates  t h e r e i s no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t e r e o t y p i n g f r o m  k i n d e r g a r t e n t o s i x t h grade, to  begin to  g i r l s ' occupational goals are concentrated  Goodman (1971)  that  that g i r l s  by 8 y e a r s  on n u r t u r a n t a n d p o s s i b l e s e x - t y p e d  as  exclude  women f r o m  t h e c h i l d r e n were more  men's j o b s t h a n  jobs f o r themselves  that f a l l  ready  t o e x c l u d e men f r o m  women's j o b s and w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e c h i l d r e n  It  scored  c h o i c e s and t h a t 62$ o f 8 - y e a r - o l d g i r l s and  o f 10-year-old  and  t h a t boys  chose  w i t h i n the usual stereotypes.  seemed t h e c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e d a woman's p l a c e was i n c e r -  tain specified feel  occupations  and b y c o n t r a s t , t h e y d i d n o t  t h a t men had t o be s i m i l a r l y  limited.  4-  Women a r e l i m i t e d b y t h e s e as w e l l a s by n e g a t i v e Men  are perceived  have a r e l a t i v e petency. ceived and  socially  stereotypes  of personal  Broverman,  absence of the t r a i t s  which comprise  (Rosenkrantz,  Vogel,  a result  implications  of society's negative  and  b i a s a g a i n s t women,  for future occupational  (Rosenkrantz,  T h i s has  esteem c o r r e s p o n d s  lower  to a lower v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y  Young women have d i f f i c u l t y p o s i t i o n i n the world  viewing  Putnam selflevel.  accurately  Some o f t h e s e  of feminine  role  "Are  options  conflicts  and p e r s o n a l  Vocational counselling with career  centre  from  around the  career ambitions. *  young women must e x p l o r e a l l  a n d i n c l u d e t h e s p e c i a l needs o f e a c h woman.  c o u n s e l l o r s f r e e from t h i s  negative  How c a n c o u n s e l l o r s examine a l l c a r e e r  b i a s a g a i n s t women"?  options  t h e m s e l v e s h o l d p e r s o n a l b i a s e s a g a i n s t women? M a s l i n and Davis arrived  their  a t work and have many v o c a t i o n a l p r o -  blems b a s e d o n r e a l needs a n d c o n c e r n s w h i c h d i f f e r o f men.  Vogel,  important  development.  H a n s e n (1972) have documented t h a t t h i s  concept  per-  1968).  B r o v e r m a n a n d B r o v e r m a n , 1963).  those  com-  noncompetitive  Bee, Broverman  women have a l o w e r l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m  and  qualities.  t o be "competent" a n d women p e r c e i v e d t o  t o be d e p e n d e n t , s u b j e c t i v e , p a s s i v e ,  As  job options  R e l a t i v e t o men, women were s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y  illogical  Bee,  approved  (1975). a n d S c h l o s s b e r g  a t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n ,  i f they S t u d i e s by  a n d Pietrofesa - (1970),  "that counsellor bias  exists  a g a i n s t women e n t e r i n g a m a s c u l i n e counsellors i n B r i t i s h a g a i n s t women"? in  British  Columbia e x h i b i t i n g  T h e r e has  research p e r t a i n i n g to  sex  appropriate o f sex  t i o n process vey  b e e n no  positive This  f o r e i t h e r sex.  commitment  a step  Purpose of the The  sex  career  counsellors l i m i t i n g  results  their  of t h i s  predispositions f e m a l e s and sider  the  female  career  exploracon-  can  be  a  counsel-  i n our  Columbia  North  share  American  s t u d y was-to i n v e s t i g a t e c o n t r i b u t e to  high  the kinds  of occupations  to  clients.  I t was hoped t h a t  s t u d y would make c o u n s e l l o r s more aware t h a t may  that this  full  pervasive  d e c i s i o n making.  in British  A second purpose of the  by  of  s t u d y was- t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r  bias attitudes prevalent  considered  development  Study  c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may school  Clearly,  end.  main purpose of t h i s  culture.  bias.  Columbia high s c h o o l  counsellors i n secondary s c h o o l s the  counsellors  range of o c c u p a t i o n s  to unbiased  toward t h i s  same b i a s  C o u n s e l l o r s must c o n v e y  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of B r i t i s h  l o r s was  I f the  '"Are  s u c h s t e r e o t y p i n g , i t must  t h e message t h a t t h e f u l l  considered  role  i n d i c a t e s the  stereotyping.  i s to counter  on  early attitudinal  career choices role  this  research  C o l u m b i a w h i c h examines s e x  the  quality  occupation."  affect  their  the of  counselling with  a w a r e n e s s would a l l o w  range of occupations  be  them t o  f o r both  sexes.  con-  6  Definitions The use  following  i n this  t e r m s were d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  study.  Androgynous.  Having  the presence  masculine  traits  i n ones'  attitudes  and b e h a v i o r s .  range  of characteristic  Negative B i a s .  As u s e d  is  of a counsellor t o guide females,  the tendency  consciously require  i n this  o f both f e m i n i n e and  o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , toward  less  e d u c a t i o n , pay lower  more s u p e r v i s i o n t h a n t h o s e are  study, negative  bias  occupations  salaries  either that  and r e q u i r e  occupations to which males  guided.  Typical family structure. cially  F a t h e r who works and f i n a n -  s u p p o r t s t h e f a m i l y , m o t h e r who r e m a i n s  home e a r n i n g no income a s a f u l l ing  the f i r s t  home  time  i n the  housewife  twelve years of the c h i l d ' s  dur-  (children)  life.  Atypical family v a r i e s from  structure.  the t y p i c a l  Any f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e  that  norm.  Hypotheses The  main h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s  counselors  i nBritish  Columbia  study was.that  limit,  high school  whether c o n s c i o u s l y  or  u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the k i n d s of o c c u p a t i o n s they c o n s i d e r i n  g u i d i n g female  s t u d e n t s toward  I n more s p e c i f i c t e r m s , this  study  career choices.  t h e r e were t h r e e a r e a s  which  investigated.  Hypothesis  1  High school counsellors w i l l  select  lower paying occupations f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l male c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s as m e a s u r e d by efficient Hypothesis.  2  High  of  a carefully  developed  remuneration.  school counsellors w i l l  occupations cational  co-  that  require  select  less  edu-  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r female  case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l male c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s as m e a s u r e d by efficient  Hypothesis  3  a carefully  developed  co-  of education.  High school counsellors w i l l occupations  that require  s u p e r v i s i o n f o r female s u b j e c t s t h a n f o r the  select  more  case  study  identical  m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s as m e a s u r e d by efficient  of  a carefully  developed  supervision.  co-  8  If paying for  c o u n s e l l o r s do have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o c h o o s e jobs  that require  females,  less  i ti s likely  that  education  and more  supervision  some c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d  a stronger  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n than others.  s e l l o r s who  have a t e n d e n c y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e  In addition, may s h a r e  tain characteristics.  Subordinate hypotheses  two  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could  to  of these  different  some o f thekknown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;  begin developing  a personal  profile  subordinate  Hypothesis  4  the goal  being  less age  Hypothesis  '5  against  than counsellors  females  35 y e a r s o f  and o l d e r .  Counsellors family  from a  "typical"  b a c k g r o u n d w i l l be more  discriminating against than counsellors family  cer-  to  of a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  u n d e r 35 a r e l i k e l y  to d i s c r i m i n a t e  coun-  be added  hypothesesrwere: Counsellors  have  explored  counsellor. The  lower  from  background.  females "atypical"  9 CHAPTER I L  Related  Literature  Stereotypes I n North A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y s t e r e o t y p e s o u t l i n e a woman's p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h e r a p p r o p r i a t e f e m i n i n e r o l e and the v o c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r h e r .  These s t e r e o t y p e s  are l i m i t i n g f o r t h e p e r s o n a l growth o f women as they supp o r t a n e g a t i v e b i a s toward f e m a l e s .  Fernberger  (1948)  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a s c r i b e d t o men and women and concluded  t h a t n o t o n l y a r e these s t e r e o t y p e s p e r v a s i v e i n  our c u l t u r e b u t i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o overcome t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s and s t e r e o t y p e d o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g male and female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r , F e r n b e r g e r l e c t u r e i n t h e elementary  psychology  had completed a  course on r a c e and s e x  d i f f e r e n c e s i n w h i c h he s t r e s s e d t h a t many such supposed d i f f e r e n c e s had n o t been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y demonstrated f o r e i t h e r r a c e o r s e x . A t e s t was t h e n g i v e n i n groups t o 217 undergraduates who had had t h e l e c t u r e on s e x d i f f e r e n c e s o n l y a few days b e f o r e .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s  b e l i e v e d men a r e more i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n women.  The o p i n i o n s  were t h a t men a r e more i n t e l l i g e n t , more crude, more dependent on t h e o p p o s i t e sex and t h a t they have a l l - r o u n d superiority.  On t h e o t h e r hand, women were b e l i e v e d t o be  10 the  cause of t r o u b l e ,  sitive. in  our  The  social  c u l t u r e and  stressed  no  s e x e s had  may  be  t h a t many o f  such t h a t  e f f e c t on  these opinions  a purely  t o be  e m o t i o n a l as Sherriffs cultural  well and  as  sen-  universal  between  t h e ..'subjects' b e l i e f s .  have an  emotional back-  appeal would I f such  Fernberger f e l t  the  have  stereo-  a p p e a l must  intellectual.  Jarrett  stereotyping  number o f b e h a v i o r s  seem  differences  intellectual  eliminated,  more  a l e c t u r e which  e f f e c t i n changing such opinions.  types are  the  o r no  t o be  these stereotypes  experience  little  ground such t h a t  be  bases of  fundamental p s y c h o l o g i c a l  the  little  t o t a l k too much, and  (1953)  o f men  continued and  research  women.  into  Given a  large  and  attitudes, subjects  were r e q u i r e d  s t a t e whether each item  most a p p r o p r i a t e l y  characterized  o r women.  The  the  subjects  ize  men,  women.  and  as  b e h a v i o r s and  form  Sherriffs  the  t o w h i c h b e h a v i o r s and  This pattern  t o e a c h sex  scale  r e s u l t s showed r e m a r k a b l e a g r e e m e n t  and  comprised  of  s c a l e w o u l d be  differences  basis  McKee  list  as  traits  which are  of  stereotypes.  (1957)  attempted  a l a r g e r sample o f more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  a source  of  between  character-  (1955)  items.  "two This  ascribed  to c o n s t r u c t  traits. and  i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m a l e s and  authors used S a r b i n ' s  men  a t t i t u d e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e •  of g e n e r a l  the  attitudes  to  They  list  felt  show i n d i v i d u a l females.  hundred a d j e c t i v e check  a  The check  i s widely  t o i n c l u d e many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t  agreed  significant  It  11  aspects to ten  o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d i t was n o t s p e c i a l l y  evaluate  males and f e m a l e s .  Subjects  constructed  were a s k e d t o l i s t  o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f men a n d t e n o f women.  a u t h o r s ' m a i n p u r p o s e was t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n really  The  "Is there  a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h members o f  A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y esteem men a n d women"?  Subjects  responded  to t h e a d j e c t i v e  and f r e e  choice  conditions.  check l i s t  under f o r c e d  Another group of s u b j e c t s  r e s p o n d e d t o two f o r m s  o f a r a t i n g s c a l e , one o f w h i c h i n c l u d e d one  o f which d i d not.  c a n t l y more s u b j e c t s females. icantly  a n e u t r a l p o i n t and  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  think  more h i g h l y  o f males  greater  of u n f a v o r a b l e  number o f f a v o r a b l e  adjectives  adjectives  a significantly  to females  the  data i n d i c a t e d i n every  and of  than females.  beliefs.  Interestingly, subjects f o r e i t h e r sex.  o v e r l y i n g t h e i r more f i r m l y ,  They a l s o f e l t  t h e n t a k e many s u b t l e  In both  choice--  t h a t perhaps the c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s  equalitarianism  number  c a s e t h a t m a l e s were r e g a r d e d  a c h a n c e , deny p a r t i a l i t y  McKee f e l t  t o males.  than males.  e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s - - b o t h open a n d f o r c e d  more f a v o r a b l y  signif-  larger  the  given  than o f  On t h e a v e r a g e b o t h men a n d women a s c r i b e d  Women, b u t n o t men, a s c r i b e d  if  signifi-  will,  Sherriffs  had a v e n e e r established  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o w a r d s women may  f o r m s a n d may n o t e v e n be i n one's  awareness. A follow-up to  s t u d y by S h e r r i f f s a n d McKee  examine q u a l i t a t i v e l y  women a s c r i b e  (1957)  attempted  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h men a n d  t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o e a c h o t h e r .  The r e s u l t s  12  indicated  that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t o women c o n t a i n , first  two o r p o s s i b l y t h r e e ,  m i g h t be c a l l e d  phasize  social  emotional tive,"  support.  impression tions  and g r a c e ,  The f i n a l  "artistic,"  and r e l i g i o u s "  irrational,  in social relations,  w h i c h gave t h e  unpleasant  particularly  intellectually  frank  rational  i n dealing with  traits.  felt  The s u b j e c t s were a s k e d  of a d j e c t i v e s those  t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  This  of a d j e c t i v e s from t h e sex-appropriate  Sherriffs greater  and McKee c o n c l u d e d  The r e s u l t s  t h a n men.  effectively  greater  stereotype.  among women.  t h a t women a p p e a r t o have a  tendency t o conform t o social/ e x p e c t a t i o n s  women a r e more role  greater  t o check  a d j e c t i v e s which  of themselves.  t e n d e n c y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  ascribed  largely to  showed t h a t b o t h men and women c h o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y numbers  emphasized  the environment.  excesses  they  emphasized  and competent,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l i m i t e d  f r o m among t h e l i s t  as  and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  Men's u n d e s i r a b l e o f these  implica-  and  The d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and e f f e c t i v e  em-'  t h e words " s e n s i -  and female s u b j e c t s  t o men were t h a t men a r e considered  bold  included  I n g e n e r a l , male s u b j e c t s  womens' n e u r o t i c i s m .  The  a n o t h e r theme was warmth a n d  theme  men's d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  traits  I n a d d i t i o n , women were r e g a r d e d  o f s n o b b e r y , and b e i n g  emotional.  themes.  o f some s o r t o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e s p i r i t u a l  of experience.  guilty  general  a description of a lady—the  skills  "dreamy,"  b o t h men a n d women a s c r i b e d  indoctrinated i n their  or that social •  13 Eleven-years and  later  Rosenkrantz,  V o g e l , Bee, B r o v e r m a n  (1968) d e v e l o p e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a s s e s s  Broverman  i n d i v i d u a l perceptions of " t y p i c a l " masculine behavior.  Items o n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s had 75% agreement  were t h e n termed traits.  stereotypic  The m a s c u l i n e  of e i t h e r masculine  nine p o l e s .  The m a l e v a l u e i t e m s  "competency" c l u s t e r . butes  such  tive,  logical,  skilled  a b l e t o make d e c i s i o n s  is, r e l a t i v e  dent, The  easily,  female-valued  A relative  stereotypic  neat,  items  quiet,  always  acting  of these  p e r c e p t i o n o f women;  illogical, etc.  consisted  interested  of attributes  of others,  tact-  i n a r t and l i t e r a -  tender f e e l i n g s .  i n the' R o s e n k r a n t z  (competent  passive f o r females) but a l s o  adventurous,  absence  to the f e e l i n g s  et a l  as t o f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e  qualities  competi-  These i t e m s a r e  t o a s t h e "warmth a n d e x p r e s s i v e n e s s " c l u s t e r .  Subjects agreed  active,  self-confident,  passive, noncompetitive,  t u r e and a b l e t o e x p r e s s referred  objective,  attri-  t o men, women were p e r c e i v e d t o be depen-  subjective,  religious,  seemedlto^reflect a  the s t e r e o t y p i c  s u c h as g e n t l e , s e n s i t i v e ful,  than the femi-  i n business, worldly,  as a l e a d e r , and a m b i t i o u s .  that  desirable  I n c l u d e d i n t h e c l u s t e r were  as b e i n g independent,  characterized  or feminine  p o l e s o f v a r i o u s i t e m s were more o f -  t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be more s o c i a l l y  traits  and " f e m i n i n e "  include  and independent  (1968) s t u d y  traits,  these  f o r males,  describe not only personal  appropriate responses  clearly  specific  warm and attributes  to situations.  These  Inappropriate the  responses are sex a p p r o p r i a t e  North American Lunnenborg  instrument atic  known t o  culture.  ( 1 9 6 9 )  investigated  r e l a t i o n t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s Personality  and w e l l  i n personality.  I n v e n t o r y was s e l e c t e d f o r i t represented  survey of important  S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  stereotypic  The Edwards  as a n a p p r o p r i a t e  a fairly  up-to-date,  normal p e r s o n a l i t y to p r e d i c t  thinking i n  test system-  variables.  the response  o f the  t y p i c a l male o r f e m a l e f o r t h e purpose o f comparing  these  r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n i n a comparable  sample.  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t  both exaggerated  stereotyped  e x i s t i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s  responding  and c r e a t e d  f e r e n c e s w h i c h m a l e s and f e m a l e s d i d n o t n o r m a l l y  dif-  acknow-  ledge. The the  five  sexes  scales  which o r i g i n a l l y  i n the s e l f  report  condition  t y p e i n s t r u c t i o n s were; p l a n s f o r women), p e r s i s t e n t f o r men), w o r r i e s (higher  When s u b j e c t s  o t h e r t o Edwards p e r s o n a l i t y neither  random n o r m i r r o r s  Rather,  already  traits  t h e y were c r e a t e d . structions  (higher  f o r men) , c a r e f r e e  (higher  i m p r e s s i o n on o t h e r s  t o be a l o n e  (higher  f o r men).  t o r e s p o n d as one s e x o r t h e items t h e i r  judgments were  of self-described  e x i s t i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s  were g r e a t l y  stereo-  things  a b o u t m a k i n g a good  were i n s t r u c t e d  b u t d i d under  and o r g a n i z e s  (higher  f o r women), and l i k e s  d i d not discriminate  sex d i f f e r e n c e s .  i n personality  e x a g g e r a t e d and where t h e r e were none, These  to respond  judgments, f o l l o w i n g  from i n -  i n terms o f p e r s o n a l s t e r e o t y p e o f  15 what  i s  m a s c u l i n e  s t e r e o t y p e s teen  remained  types and  are  same  as  The t y p i n g  p a r t  by  they  i s  v e r y  p e r v a s i v e  ( S h e r r i f f s the  male.  A  when  compared  e a s i l y ,  are  to  system  i s  When  f e r e n c e  f o r  e i t h e r  element  i s  able  n e u r o t i c  t h a t  are  i n  and  are  1953)* such  a c t i v e , .  are of  of  a c t i n g  these  and  and  McKee,  have  ( S h e r r i f f s were  q u a l i t i e s  found of  to  to  and  l a r g e  number com-  a b l e  consensus  round  1 9 4 8 ;  was  Rosenkrantz  s u b j e c t s w i l l  a  the  s u p e r i o r i t y  However,  McKee,  to  t y p i c a l l y  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  a l l  to  w h i c h  women  b e i n g  g e n e r a l  i n  are  to  l e a d e r ,  emphasize  females  b e i n g  only as  men  as  s u b j e c t s and  i s  These  Not  a  1957).  obvious  a s k e d ,  as  t r a i t s The  s t e r e o -  independent,  d e s c r i b e d  ( F e r n b e r g e r ,  d i r e c t l y  women  b e i n g  the  determined  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  as  women.  always  sex  A  i s  to  men  v e r s a .  what  agreement  a s c r i b e d  s t e r e o ^  e x a c t l y  d i f f e r e n c e s .  sexes  females  not  s c a l e s  f o u r -  sex  v i c e  t h a t  c u l t u r e .  i n t e l l i g e n t  S h e r r i f f s  1 9 6 8 ;  sex  of  p r e v i o u s  our  absence  more  of  of  such  c o l l e g e  i n  and  appear  Female  t h a t  males  males  t h a t  s c a l e  f o r  i n  q u a l i t i e s  awareness.  or  be  p e r c e p t i o n  men  b e l i e f  both  same  e x t e n s i o n  and  one  appear  the  would  n o t i o n s  c a n  r e l a t i v e  t h a t  a l ,  Male  s e l f - c o n f i d e n t ,  s t e r e o t y p i c  et  i t  J a r r e t t ,  d e c i s i o n s  would  other  t h i s  p e r v a s i v e  f a v o r a b l e  p e t e n t , make  and  of  that  but  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  d e s c r i b e  suggest  o n l y  d e s c r i b e  females  t y p i c a l  are  I t  as  i s ,  s t e r e o t y p e d  n o t i o n s  e x t e n s i v e  are  i m p l i c a t i o n  by  f e m i n i n e ,  p e r s o n a l i t y  males  r e s e a r c h  measured  i s  u n a f f e c t e d .  t h a t  ways  what  q u i t e  r e g a r d i n g  women,  and  t h i s  or  even  deny  any  1956). the  g r e a t e r  i n p r e -  A n o t h e r  u n f a v o r e x t e n t  16  than er  do m a l e s .  So i t a p p e a r s t h a t women, p e r h a p s t o a g r e a t -  d e g r e e t h a n men, have a n e g a t i v e  v i e w o f "both t h e p e r s o n a l  q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a woman i s " b e l i e v e d t o have a n d h e r f e m i n i n e role  i n our c u l t u r e .  negative  "bias o f t h e m s e l v e s ,  conform t o s o c i a l sex  role  Effects  sex r o l e  potential  themselves i n  et a l ,  these  stereotype continued  t o female t r a i t s .  stereotypes  questionnaire t o be c l e a r l y  ;  found  serve as  that sex role  Despite  respective  and b e h a v i o r s  femininity.  o f men and women a r e v e r y  stereotypes.  I n t h e case  and l e g a l  that a greater stereotypically desirable  And, f i n a l l y , t h e similiar  to the  o f the self-concepts  women t h i s means, p r e s u m a b l y , that,women a l s o h o l d  tive  values  and a  stereotypes  the professed  b o t h men and women a g r e e d  associated with  self-concept  social  V o g e l , Bee,  college students  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a s c u l i n i t y were more s o c i a l l y those  A womanis  d e f i n e d and h e l d i n a g r e e m e n t b y  c o l l e g e men and women. o f sexes,  Rosenkrantz,  (1963), u s i n g  number o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  expectations  a p p e a r s t o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e n e g a t i v e  attached  equality  constitute social  behavior,  B r o v e r m a n and B r o v e r m a n  than  1968).  o b s t a c l e s f o r woman's p e r s o n a l g r o w t h .  self-concept  both  and d e s c r i b e d  (Rosenkrantz,  stereotypes  sex appropriate  values  terms  to this  showed a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o  expectations  appropriate  g i v i n g support  of Stereotyping  As for  Women, a l t h o u g h  o f t h e i r worth r e l a t i v e  t o men  nega-  (Rosenkrantz  et a l ,  1963)•  Baruch ( 1 9 7 2 ) used the same Sex Role Stereotype Questionnaire developed  by Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman  and Broverman to obtain a s e l f - r a t i n g of competence to compare with self-esteem as measured by Coopersmith's S e l f Esteem Inventory.  The results indicated that general s e l f -  esteem and s e l f - r a t i n g s of competence were related.  Eval-  uation of s e l f as competent c l e a r l y i s important to feminine self-esteem.  For women the attainment  and maintenance of a  high l e v e l of self-esteem Is a more d i f f i c u l t and complex task than f o r men, as the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine sex role standard does not endorse competence related t r a i t s such as ambition, competition and aggression. /-Also'.women cons i s t e n t l y underate themselves i n many areas as compared with both men and with t h e i r own actual a b i l i t i e s . Pheterson and K i e s l e r ( 1 9 7 1 )  Goldberg,  devised a study i n which women  were asked to judge paintings created by men and women. Some paintings were said to be entries i n a r t competitions, others were said to have already won prizes.  The subjects  were 1 2 0 female college students who were presented with the eight paintings; sex of the a r t i s t , status of the painting and a b r i e f background of personal d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the a r t i s t , were the variables.  The results indicated  that women evaluted female entries i n a contest less favorably than i d e n t i c a l male entries, but female winners, equally to i d e n t i c a l male winners.  This implies that the work  18 o f women i n c o m p e t i t i o n i s d e v a l u e d  b y o t h e r women.  work t h a t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e work o f a man w i l l inferior et a l  until  (1971), a r g u e d  the d i f f e r i n g men  i t receives special  That  i s , a woman w i l l  she may be as c r e a t i v e  the  attitudes  and c e r t a i n l y  or paintings at a l l ,  they h e l d p r i o r  confronted with another some e n d e a v o r , w i l l expert or simply are based  probably  t h a n a man,  judging  expressing  Women, t h e n ,  woman who i s t r y i n g  l e s s f a v o r e d by o t h e r s .  when  t o succeed i n  These  less  assumptions  to i n f l u e n c e the per-  stereotypes i smaternal  that stereotypic  i n a given family or society. t o be a k e y f a c t o r  Maternal  i n determining  homemaker, t h e i r  roles  employment was f e l t  t h e mother remains a  are clearly  polarized  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f b o t h p a r e n t s  outside  t h e home, t h e i r r o l e s A child  differ-  I f the f a t h e r i s  child.  ed a s s i m i l i a r .  It  differentiation  the degree o f r o l e  t h a t o c c u r s between p a r e n t s . o u t s i d e t h e home, w h i l e  employment.  s e x r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s may be  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e degree o f a c t u a l s e x r o l e  time  Such  o n t h e n e g a t i v e b i a s a g a i n s t women i n o u r c u l t u r e .  been argued  employed  although  as "emotional."  to the study.  com-  assume t h a t s h e i s l e s s m o t i v a t e d ,  c e p t i o n o f sex r o l e  entiation  about  be l e s s  b u t were s i m p l y  A f a c t o r w h i c h has been found  has  reflected  i m p l i e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were n o t r e a l l y  artists  judged  Goldberg  that t h e i r questionnaire data  and h e r accomplishments fewer  analysis  be  e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h women ('or men) have  and women.  petent  distinction.  Even  full  f o r the  a r e employed  a r e more l i k e l y  t o be p e r c e i v -  g r o w i n g up i n a f a m i l y w i t h a  19 w o r k i n g mother, t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e l e s s p a r e n t a l sex r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h a n would a c h i l d w i t h a nonw o r k i n g mother.  A c h i l d growing up i n a n " a t y p i c a l "  family  s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . s i n g l e parent) should also experience l e s s p a r e n t a l sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n than a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c ture . H a r l e y (1964-) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e mother's employment s t a t u s does, i n f a c t , i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e x role characteristics.  Daughters  o f w o r k i n g mothers see  a d u l t men and women as s h a r i n g more i n t h e i r t h a n do daughters o f nonworking mothers. Broverman, C l a r k s o n and Rosenkrantz  (1970)  activities  V o g e l , Broverman, explored the  g e n e r a l i t y and p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h i s e f f e c t "by examining t h e s t e r e o t y p i c s e x r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o l l e g e - a g e d men and women w i t h w o r k i n g v e r s u s nonworking mothers.  The r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d b o t h men and women who a r e c h i l d r e n o f employed mothers p e r c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e r o l e s , on b o t h t h e s t e r e o t y p i c and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t e m s , t h a n d i d men and women who a r e t h e c h i l d r e n o f homemaker mothers.  The daughters o f w o r k i n g  mothers p e r c e i v e d b o t h t h e m a s c u l i n e r o l e and t h e f e m i n i n e r o l e as l e s s extreme and they p e r c e i v e d l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r o l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o competency.  These  daughters of w o r k i n g mothers p e r c e i v e d t h e f e m i n i n e r o l e i t s e l f as e n t a i l i n g g r e a t e r competency t h a n d i d women w i t h homemaker mothers.  The m a s c u l i n e r o l e was p e r c e i v e d by  sons o f w o r k i n g mothers as e n t a i l i n g more warmth and  20  expressiveness. sex r o l e  ency f o r g i r l s  evidence  to variation  o f sex r o l e s  influence  role behaviors sex r o l e  Created  their  self  unique  defini-  equality  w i t h what  w i t h what t h e y t h i n k o t h e r s want ideally  is likely  would l i k e  to r e s u l t .  investigated  concepts  t o be, t h e n  Connie  sex r o l e of real  o f c o l l e g e men a n d women.  showed women's s e x r o l e  occurs,  conflicts.  s t e r e o t y p e s do n o t c o r r e s p o n d  (1976)  a greater  by S t e r e o t y p i n g  i n f l u e n c e on t h e adjustment  and b e l i e f s  own l i v e s  greater role  to experience  of c o n f l i c t  and  experience.  t o engage i n o v e r l a p p i n g  i n their  this  them t o b e , o r w i t h what t h e y  Lucia Gilbert  of sex r o l e s a r e  and more c o n g r u e n t  t h e i r parents  Until  continue  and  i s the  so t h a t c h i l d r e n o f w o r k i n g m o t h e r s  t h i n k o f themselves,  some f o r m  competr-n  of the r e s u l t s  conceptions  restrictive  and so a c h i e v e  When s e x r o l e  by augmenting  as a f u n c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l  than  Unique C o n f l i c t s  i n f l u e n c e on t h e  h e l d by c h i l d r e n o f working mothers  equality.  women w i l l  people  implication  role behavior,  even f r e e r  then,  warmth a n d e x p r e s s i v e n e s s f o r  that the t r a d i t i o n a l  Presumably, the l e s s  feel  own s e x ,  and emotional  Another important  tions  that  I t appears  employment e x e r t s a p o s i t i v e  perception of their  subject  the hypothesis  t o which c h i l d r e n a r e exposed.  that maternal  boys.  support  p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a f f e c t e d by a c t u a l p a r e n t a l r o l e  behaviors  child's  The r e s u l t s  Deutsch  stereotypes self,  ideal  The r e s u l t s  regarding their  real  self  21 and  their  "beliefs  dissimiliar. that  exist  o f what t h e o t h e r s e x d e s i r e s were h i g h l y  These f i n d i n g s  suggest  sources  f o r women "but n o t f o r men.  undergraduate  of c o n f l i c t  The a v e r a g e  woman saw h e r s e l f a s s l i g h t l y  college  feminine,  wanted  t o be more a n d r o g y n o u s b u t b e l i e v e d s h e was more d e s i r a b l e t o men i f she was e x t r e m e l y among f e m a l e s  was f o u n d  feminine.  Further  i n the disparity  discrepancy  b e t w e e n what  they  b e l i e v e d men's i d e a l woman t o be a n d t h e men's r e p o r t e d i d e a l woman. E a r l i e r r e s e a r c h by S t e i n m a n n a n d F o x this  o f Feminine  Values  to organize data  c l u s t e r s - - w o r k and accomplishment, m a r r i a g e , and  characteristics  women d i d s h a r e  of the s e l f .  The r e s u l t s  a s e tof values.  The a v e r a g e  p a t t e r n was t h e same: most women o u t l i n e d ed s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . their  family  The women o u t l i n e d  strivings"  a balance  and " i n t r a f a m i l y  an was s l i g h t l y more a c t i v e  themselves  response  or i n their  through  between " e x t r a  than themselves.  i d e a l woman.  T h e i r i d e a l womHowever t h e i r l i t t l e of  they r e p o r t e d i n  Women saw man's  woman a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c c e p t i n g a n d p e r m i s s i v e their  balanc-  permissive  strivings."  and s e l f - a c h i e v e m e n t  four  showed t h a t  a ^relatively  c e p t i o n o f man's i d e a l woman was a woman w i t h the s e l f - a s s e r t i o n  into  child-rearing  Development and achievement  own p o t e n t i a l i t i e s was combined w i t h  nuturing.  supported  They s a m p l e d 837 women and 4-23 men u s i n g  discrepancy.  the I n v e n t o r y  (1966)  own s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f a s u b o r d i n a t e  role  ideal than  i n both  p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and women's p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l i a l  per-  22  structure. their  Men, when q u e s t i o n e d  i d e a l woman h a d a b a l a n c e  family feelings.  i n this  crepancy between t h e f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d ,  actually  delineated  stated  that  o f i n t r a f a m i l y and e x t r a -  D e u t s c h and G i l b e r t  women b e l i e v e d men d e s i r e d  study,  (1976)  felt  permissive  the d i s women t h a t  a n d t h e i d e a l woman t h a t men  may be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n a t l e a s t  several  ways: (1)  a serious men  (2)  lack  of communication  between  and women,  women p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r and  current f e e l i n g s '  what t h e y w o u l d l i k e men t o b e l i e v e ,  and (3)  men t a l k i n g a c u r r e n t  liberal  stereotype  w h i c h t h e y may o r may n o t b e l i e v e . The lack  main i m p l i c a t i o n from t h i s  study  i s that  there  i s a real  o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n men and women a n d b o t h do n o t  understand should  e a c h one's d e s i r e s  a s t o what r o l e a woman  assume.  These d i f f e r i n g  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women, h e l d  women, were a l s o f o u n d Women, i n t h i s  i n t h e K a p l a n and Goldman  study, b e l i e v e d  there  by. men and (1973)  was a much g r e a t e r  ference  i n a t t i t u d e f o r men .and  women t h a n d i d male  dents.  These f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n s  of beliefs  implications  dif-  respon-  important  f o r women.  Peggy Hawley careers  have  study.  (1971,  on t h e b a s i s  1972)  of their  suggested belief  t h a t women c h o o s e  o f what men t h i n k .  23  The  processes  u n d e r l y i n g women's c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e  v e r y much d i f f e r e n t  f r o m men's.  men's v i e w s o f a p p r o p r i a t e f i c a n t , although  Hawley h y p o t h e s i z e d  feminine  behavior  that  play a  signi-  o f t e n u n r e c o g n i z e d , p a r t - i n ..the c a r e e r d e -  velopment p r o c e s s  o f women.  most women i s t h e e f f e c t woman r e l a t i o n s h i p .  An important  of career choice  Women w i t h  consideration for upon t h e man-  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f aware-  n e s s make c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f what t h e y men  will  tolerate.  consistent with inity  Hawley f o u n d  their  t h a t women c h o o s e  h e l d b y s i g n i f i c a n t men i n t h e i r  careers  was  differentiation  and o t h e r r e l a t e d  found  behavior  behaviors  who were  preparing  i n m a l e - f e m a l e work  and a t t i t u d e s .  This  w h i c h does n o t make s e x b a s e d d i s t i n c t i o n s .  career  choices without  the widest violation  Teachers p r e p a r i n g f o r t r a d i t i o n a l found  For instance,  group  t o be more a n d r o g y n o u s , m e a n i n g a p e r c e p t i o n o f  model o f f e m i n i n i t y allowed and  lives.  i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l male dominated a r e a s , be-  l i e v e d men made l i t t l e roles  careers  own judgments o f t h e m o d e l o f f e m i n -  Math-Science majors i n t h e 1972 study, for  think  Their  range o f e d u c a t i o n a l  of sexual  feminine  identity.  careers  were  t o be d i c h o t o m o u s , m e a n i n g a p e r c e p t i o n o f b e h a v i o r  which separates  behavior  i n t o male-female c a t e g o r i e s .  Thus,the  c a r e e r s women c h o o s e a n d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f men's v i e w s o f the  feminine  ideal  systems, n o t always hibit ally  choice  a r e v e r y much r e l a t e d .  These  belief  i n a w a r e n e s s , become f o r c e s w h i c h i n -  and r e s t r i c t  a v a i l a b l e t o women.  the options  that are psychologic-  Hawley f e l t  these  attitudes  24 influence  decisions;  decisions  which i n t u r n d e f i n e l i f e therefore The  i s affected  The l i f e  progress through  mary v a r i a b l e s .  attendance,  o f a woman  the e f f e c t  on t h e l i f e  (1962) had a s i t s  of attitude  style  toward  o f women, a s women  a d o l e s c e n c e and young a d u l t h o o d .  of attitude  of l i f e  style  by h e r a t t i t u d e .  to chart  c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e  scores  style.  s t u d y by Matthews a n d T i e d e m a n  primary purpose  scores  c a n be f o l l o w e d b y a c t i o n s ;  toward  c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e  An a t t i t u d e style.  s c a l e was u s e d  One s c o r e o f l i f e  the second  included  Eighteen  were t h e p r i -  as w e l l  a s two  s t y l e was c o l l e g e  plans f o r patterning of  c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e . They n o t e d are  related  have o n t h i s study. in  that  to l i f e  attitudes style.  attitudes  inferiority  "What e f f e c t  (1962) f o u n d  attitudes  are related  are related  t h a t women move away f r o m  by t h e a u t h o r s .  to l i f e  style,  t o development.  intelligence.  female's  their  I t appears  lives  versus  Matthews a n d that  and f u r t h e r m o r e  An i m p o r t a n t toward  t h a t many g i r l s  on t h e premise  a belief  Conflict i n  support f o r the assumptions  woman's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e m a l e a t t i t u d e  structure  development  question of the  t o men as t h e y m a t u r e .  noted  Tiedeman  her  does  c o n c e r n i n g homemaking a n d f e m i n i n e r o l e  c a r e e r s were a l s o  tudes  c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e  r e l a t i o n s h i p ? " was t h e p r i m a r y  Results indicated  their  toward  atti-  theme was a her use of  a n d women  t h a t males view t h e  use o f h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h d i s t a s t e .  This  a t t i t u d e w o u l d be a g r e a t d e t e r r e n t t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f  25 self  t h r o u g h employment.  perception  An a d d i t i o n a l i n h i b i t o r  i s the  o f t h e d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n o f men a s b e i n g  "appropriate."  The f i n a l  is  between a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e ' r o l e o f w i f e and  the c o n f l i c t  m o t h e r and a c c e p t a n c e  theme o f a t t i t u d e i n l i f e  of a feminine  style  career.  F a r m e r a n d Bohn (1970) f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s homecareer and  The s u b j e c t s were 50 women f r o m a  conflict.  P r o f e s s i o n a l c l u b who were a l l w o r k i n g women.  Strong  Vocational  the  patterns.  The S t r o n g  B l a n k f o r Women was a d m i n i s t e r e d  standard  The  I n t e r e s t B l a n k f o r Women was u s e d t o  measure v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t Interest  Business  twice,  Vocational once  i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e second time w i t h  with  experi-  mental s e t i n s t r u c t i o n s : (a)  "pretend  (b)  pretend and  The  women c a n combine  career  and f a m i l y  s e t was aimed t o r e d u c e h o m e - c a r e e r  The h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t women i n r e s p o n s e  reduced home-career c o n f l i c t scales  i n t e l l i g e n t women, and  perform both w e l l . "  experimental  flict.  men l i k e  would s c o r e  to a set which  higher  a n d l o w e r o n Home s c a l e s was s u p p o r t e d .  on Career This  d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t women's a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c a r e e r affected.  The women i n t h e s t u d y  made t h e i r  career  Sandra H a r r i s  career  choices  c a n be  o f s e t on  greater.  (1974-) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y  grade g i r l s which attempted tive  study  were o l d e r and had a l r e a d y  commitments, p e r h a p s t h e e f f e c t  young g i r l s w o u l d be e v e n  con-  to increase  and d e c r e a s e  using  sixth  t h e number o f t e n t a -  the percentage  o f sex typed  26 choices.  A l t h o u g h h e r sample was v e r y  5 were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d  to the experimental  remaining  13 g i r l s  consisted  o f one q u e s t i o n  like to  were t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .  the counsellor's o f f i c e  one  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  Sex this  role  (1972) and  choice.  Experimentally  regarding  this  t h e coun-  i n broadening the  the occupational  of personal  of her feminine  qualities  self.  o r one's d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e .  world.  do e x i s t  as the  This  attitude can inter-  Putnam and^Hansen  i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the feminine  self-concepts  to vocational maturity.  sample o f 375 g i r l s  c o n s i s t e d o f 16 y e a r  The  role  r a t i n g inventory,  v o c a t i o n a l development i n v e n t o r y were u s e d .  associated with  from  suburban  areas.  a self-concept scale, a and a p e r s o n a l  The r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d  significantly  role  stratified  o l dg i r l s  middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s i n suburban or r u r a l A feminine  group  t h e sample was s m a l l and o n l y  i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t a l r o l e models, counselling  vention  sess  increase i n  framework does n o t seem a s i m p o r t a n t  woman's p e r c e p t i o n  came  f o r the experimental  employed were e f f e c t i v e  stereotypes  instrument  subjects  c o u n s e l l o r was u s e d , b u t i t does a p p e a r t h a t  t h i n k i n g o f young g i r l s  be  choices  has weaknesses i n t h a t  selling procedures  but  The  f o r w e e k l y 30 m i n u t e g r o u p  a decrease i n sex typed  study  g r o u p and t h e  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  number o f t e n t a t i v e c a r e e r and  subjects--  "Name t h e j o b s y o u t h i n k y o u m i g h t  t o do i n t h e f u t u r e . "  sions.  small--l8  data  form  t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t was  vocational maturity.  were f o u n d t o be somewhat v o c a t i o n a l l y immature i n  Girls  27 c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i r male c l a s s m a t e s concept tional  t h a n the a v e r a g e t  life  and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d  the o c c u p a t i o n through  that  The r e s u l t s  which they of t h i s  the higher the l e v e l  level  role  indicated liberal,  concept  voca-  s t u d y were i n t h e  have b e e n  selecting  c o u l d implement  study  self-  supported  their  self-  t h e premise  of self-esteem, the higher the  of v o c a t i o n a l maturity.  feminine  A c c o r d i n g t o Super's  stages, the subjects i n t h i s  e x p l o r a t o r y stage  concept.  male.  a n d have a l o w e r  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f own s e l f  t h a t t h e more t h e g i r l the higher her l e v e l  between t h e  and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y viewed her r o l e  as b e i n g  of vocational maturity.  Since  Super's t h e o r y o f v o c a t i o n a l development views  the i n d i v i d -  ual  the i n -  as moving t h r o u g h  dividual's final she  a series  of l i f e  choice r e f l e c t s  stages,  the thoroughness with  has implemented h e r s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t o  the world  which  o f work.  V o c a t i o n a l development o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t and v o c a t i o n a l adjustment concept.  depends upon t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n The f e m i n i n e  is  then  al  choice w i l l  be a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  woman's e x p e c t i o n s attitudes  Effects The  concept  which each g i r l  selfselects  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h e r s e l f - c o n c e p t , and h e r o c c u p a t i o n -  F o r women a c o n f l i c t  and  role  of this  o r i n c o n s i s t e n c y appears  and a t t i t u d e s  of Stereotypes  on  between a  and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s  t o w a r d s woman's r o l e  feminine  of her self-concept.  i n society.  Occupations  social role  i n w h i c h women a r e d e s c r i b e d  28 as p a s s i v e , d e p e n d e n t , i r r a t i o n a l , i n confidence,  c a n be  tain  warm,  l i m i t i n g to the personal  t h e v o c a t i o n a l g r o w t h o f women. behaviors  emotional,  that are " t y p i c a l l y "  jobs which a r e thought  lacking  as w e l l a s  Not o n l y a r e t h e r e  feminine  specific  but there are c e r -  t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women  i n our s o c i e t y . Schlossberg  and Goodman  to which elementary occupations  based  (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e d e g r e e  school children hold stereotypes  on s e x .  t h e s i x t h g r a d e were a s k e d  C h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and to respond  t o 12  r e s e n t i n g work s e t t i n g s o f s i x o c c u p a t i o n s considered feminine waitress,  nurse,  traditionally tect,  scientist). type  identify  traditionally teacher,  T.V. r e p a i r m a n ,  (doctor, dentist,  the researchers helped  the p i c t u r e s .  where a p e r s o n  works who  (woman) work h e r e " ? "What do y o u want  The i n t e r v i e w e r w o u l d s a y , " T h i s i s fixes  televisions.  Could  I n a d d i t i o n , e a c h c h i l d was  t o be when y o u grow up"?  t h e r e was  grade, to exclude  f r o m men's j o b s t h a n t o e x c l u d e  man  The d a t a i n -  no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n  c h i l d r e n were more r e a d y  a  asked,  s t e r e o t y p i n g from k i n d e r g a r t e n to s i x t h  (2)  stereo-  the c h i l d r e n to  dicated : (1)  archi-  m e c h a n i c and l a b o r a t o r y  To d i s c o v e r t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n  occupations,  rep-  worker) and s i x o c c u p a t i o n s  considered masculine  draftsman,  drawings,  ( i . e . s e c r e t a r y , elementary  household  about  men  women from  29  women's (3)  with  jobs,  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  the c h i l d r e n  jobs f o r themselves t h a t f e l l usual stereotypes felt  ( i . e . most  chose  w i t h i n the children  e i t h e r men o r women c o u l d be d o c t o r s  or nurses, doctors  b u t a l l t h e b o y s c h o s e t o be-  and t h e g i r l s  indicated  nurses).  t h a t c h i l d r e n as young as 5 y e a r s o f  The  results  age  have a l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f a Woman's p l a c e  world  o f work.  study  d i dnot necessarily f e e l  the  The c h i l d r e n i n S c h l o s s b e r g  i n the  a n d Goodman's  t h a t a woman's p l a c e was i n  home, b u t t h a t a woman's p l a c e : w a s i n - c e r t a i n  occupations.  By c o n t r a s t , t h e s e  t h a t men h a d t o be s i m i l a r l y specified  special  man f o r e i t h e r  training  same c h i l d r e n d i d n o t f e e l  limited.  the masculine  graders  or feminine  the middle  less  child  stereotyped.  income e l e m e n t a r y  for a  occupations.  from t h e middle  and the model c i t i e s  when compared, showed t h a t m i d d l e consistently  Not a s i n g l e  o r any o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n  S c h l o s s b e r g , e t a l (1972), d a t a income s i x t h  specific  and upper  project school,  income s i x t h g r a d e r s  were  One e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t  s c h o o l was i n a community where  many o f t h e m o t h e r s w o r k e d a t p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s .  Perhaps  this  more- capa-  enables  bilities.  t h e c h i l d r e n t o v i e w women a s h a v i n g  Direct  positive  experience  involved i n parent  modeling appears t o moderate t h e n e g a t i v e t o w a r d woman's o c c u p a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s . occupations  reflects  and p e r p e t u a t e s  :  societal  attitude  The s e x t y p i n g o f  the d i f f e r e n t i a l  status  30 o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s Fernberger,  a s r e c o r d e d b y B r o v e r m a n , 1968;  19^8; L u n n e b u r g , 1969; S h e r r i f f s  and J a r r e t t ,  1953. r e s e a r c h o f Larwood, 0 * C a r r o l l a n d Logan  The supported  the hypothesis  t h a t the a r o u s a l o f achievement  t e n d e n c i e s may depend i n p a r t o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e spicuousness behavior  of role  (1977) has  clues.  Achieving or goal  and c o n directed  i s c o n s i d e r e d a male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i l e  that  same a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v e  i s o v e r s h a d o w e d i n women by t h e  motive  (Horner,  to avoid success  1969, 1972).  to a v o i d s u c c e s s presumably s p r i n g s from  t h e females* a c -  q u i s i t i o n o f the s o c i a l value that success for  themselves.  part  Success  and achievement  o f the a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e  our North American c u l t u r e . wise  succeed  failure. present  The m o t i v e  i s inappropriate  striving  i s not  s t e r e o t y p e o f women i n  Thus a woman who m i g h t  a t a c h a l l e n g i n g task i s l e d instead  Horner  (1972) s u g g e s t s  t h a t r a t h e r than  i n a l l achievement a r o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s ,  othertoward  being  the motive  t o a v o i d s u c c e s s may be m e d i a t e d b b y s e x r o l e .  I f success  is  i n situations  directly  unfeminine,  women may f e a r s u c c e s s  i n w h i c h t h e norms f o r c o r r e c t conspicuous  and i m p o r t a n t .  n e i t h e r obvious may  aroused  the motive  to avoid  success  and a woman may meet a c h a l -  lenging s i t u a t i o n with a r e l a t i v e l y succeed.  behavior are both  C o n v e r s e l y , when s u c h norms a r e  nor important,  n o t be s t r o n g l y  sex r o l e  open a t t e m p t t o  31 Double  Standards  As tend  a result  of this  social valuing  to underrate themselves  negative  as w e l l  concepts of themselves.  attainment  of a feeling  and  vocational  the  level  f a c t o r s make t h e  i n that  additional  of vocational  s u p p o r t and e n -  s t e r e o t y p e s ( B a r u c h , 1972; G o l d b e r g ,  "Are p r o f e s s i o n a l s women"?  free  i s a q u e s t i o n which  ongoing  Rosenkrantz, mental  g r o w t h o f women.  e t a l , 1971;  health  from  this  exists  negative bias  has i m p o r t a n t  Broverman, Broverman, C l a r k s o n , that  a double  f o r men a n d women.  79 p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  "male," " f e m a l e , "  psychiatrists  The c l i n i c i a n s  or "adult."  that  clinicians  desirable masculine  Their study i n -  or s o c i a l  described  workers--  were g i v e n t h e S t e r e o either  competent p e r s o n .  tended  The  to consider so-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s more o f t e n a s  h e a l t h y f o r men t h a n f o r women. items which  standard  The s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o  d e s c r i b e a h e a l t h y , mature, s o c i a l l y indicated  against  implications f o r  t y p e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h one s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  cially  Putnam  e t a l , 1968; S h e r r i f f s a n d  (1970) f o u n d  and V o g e l  4-6 men a n d 33 women.  results  feminine  1953).  Jarrett,  volved  Self-esteem the higher  "experts" to step out of t h e i r  and Hansen, 1972; R o s e n k r a n t z ,  of  These  are related,  Women t h e n may need  women  as o t h e r women a n d h o l d  o f competence d i f f i c u l t .  development  couragement from  the  o f males,  of self-esteem, the higher the l e v e l  maturity.  role  f o r Men and Women  Upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  adult females  i t was f o u n d t o be a  32 negative  a s s e s s m e n t o f women.  were more l i k e l y  to suggest  For instance,  t h a t h e a l t h y women d i f f e r  h e a l t h y men "by b e i n g more s u b m i s s i v e , more e a s i l y  influenced, less  i n minor c r i s i s , science.  less  dividual.  independent, more e x c i t a b l e  that this  constellation  way o f d e s c r i b i n g any m a t u r e , h e a l t h y i n -  of mental h e a l t h f o r an a d u l t  o f t h e s t u d y was t h a t  results  confirmed  may  be t h a t t h e d o u b l e  may  stem f r o m  t h e double standard  standard  hypothesis.  an "adjustment" n o t i o n o f h e a l t h , h e a l t h  authors  felt  fulfill  different  t h a t men a n d women f r o m b i r t h social  h e a l t h and t h e d i f f e r e n t o u r s o c i e t y would t h e n  roles.  she  must a d j u s t t o and a c c e p t  So f o r a woman t o be j u d g e d  even though these  were m e r e l y r e f l e c t i n g differing  Given  the sex r o l e  v a l u a t i o n s o f these  standard  mentally  o f men-  healthy,  are generally less  t o be l e s s  competent mature a d u l t .  behavior  t h e b e h a v i o r a l norms f o r h e r  behaviors  and c o n s i d e r e d  The  An a d j u s t m e n t n o t i o n o f  l e a d t o a double  health.  con-  are t r a i n e d to  norms o f male a n d f e m a l e  tal  ized  It  o f h e a l t h f o r men a n d women  o f a good a d j u s t m e n t t o one's e n v i r o n m e n t .  desirable  differ  o f m e n t a l h e a l t h f o r women.  sisting  sex,  concepts  (sex u n s p e c i f i e d ) would  from t h e concepts  The  in  from  o b j e c t i v e a n d d i s l i k i n g math a n d  Another hypothesis  significantly  less  competetive,  The r e s e a r c h e r s n o t e d  seems a n u n u s u a l  clinicians  healthy f o r the generalt h a t these stereotypes  clinicians and t h e  stereotypes prevalent  society,  one q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r t h e y  patients  differently.  socially  i n our  t r e a t m a l e and f e m a l e  (1977)  Billingsley extent ogy  designed  her  study  to which a p s e u d o c l i e n t * s  sex  and  i n f l u e n c e d the  m a l e and  treatment goal  indicated  that  client's  therapist  treatment goal  c l i e n t pathologies The  their  i n the  and  i n f e r e n c e has  results  liberal  The  r e l a t e d to  kinds  sex  on  Abramowitz,  effect  1973;  i n two  does a b i a s  but  i n the  only  the  clinical  for  studies  an  non-  to a  left-  identically  to support  the  a g a i n s t women but  not  only  this  bias  i n the m e n t a l h e a l t h as w e l l have  t h i s b i a s a g a i n s t women. the  1972).  Livson,  is  personnel. area  been  M a s l i n and  Davis  B r o v e r m a n e t a l (1970) r e s e a r c h  using  counsellors:-in-training f o r subjects. the  exist  v o c a t i o n a l counselling area  (1975) r e p l i c a t e d  tend  general population,  personnel  shown t o s u p p o r t  dicated  other  a c t i v e female than to  a s s e r t i o n t h a t not  Clinical  female  indicated that  These r e s u l t s  p r o m o t e d by  study.  clinical  counsellors imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment  by  two  of a t r a i n e d  Haan and  d e s c r i b e d male c l i e n t .  also  f o r the of the  s e v e r i t y of  o f the Abramowitz s t u d y  i s shared  study  psycho-  of treatment goals  the  been demonstrated  oriented p o l i t i c a l l y  and  not  of the  were t h a t m a l e and  interactive  client's  (Abramowitz and  practicing  results  at l e a s t  pathol-  f e m a l e t h e r a p i s t s c h o s e more m a s c u l i n e  treatment g o a l s . e x a m i n e r ' s and  of  case h i s t o r i e s  study  chose d i f f e r e n t  clients  not  choices,  major f i n d i n g s of the  therapists  The  used  sex was  The  the  presenting  choices  female p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s .  to assess  same . d o u b l e  standards  Their results of mental h e a l t h  inas  34  shown i n B r o v e r m a n ' s s t u d y ,  except that female  in-training  androgynous views.  ly  held r e l a t i v e l y  discussed  Abramowitz, e t a l  examiners a t t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y maladjustment client  to the l e f t i s t ,  found  (1973)>  a short  a c t i v e female a very  Abramowitz e t a l f o u n d t h a t , on t h e b a s i s o f  i n t e r v i e w and p s y c h o e d u c a t i e h a l .records.., r e l a t i v e l y  traditional  counsellors imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment t o  female medical Using  school  (1970)  counsellor b i a s occupation." couldn't  aspirants  a different  Pietrofesa,-  than t o male a s p i r a n t s .  experimental  method, S c h l o s s b e r g a n d  a r r i v e d a t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n ,  Coached female c l i e n t s  decide  whether t o e n t e r  (who s u p p o s e d l y  engineering,  o r a feminine  interviewed  by c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g .  occupation  were i n f a v o r  statements  ifT  o f them.  limitations  Biased  statements  and a n a l y z e d ; 8 1 . 3 $  wereaagainstv:womeniand o n l y 1 8 . 7 $  A l t h o u g h S c h l o s s b e r g and  i s s i g n i f i c a n t research,  of using  were  Female c o u n s e l l o r s d i s p l a y e d a s much  b i a s as m a l e c o u n s e l l o r s . P i e t r o fesal s " ~> s t u d y  a masculine  such as t e a c h i n g )  made by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s were c a t a l o g u e d the biased  "that  e x i s t s a g a i n s t women e n t e r i n g a m a s c u l i n e  occupation,  of  psychological  In 1 9 7 5 using  t h a n t o h e r male c o u n t e r p a r t .  s m a l l sample  As p r e v i o u s -  that n o n l i b e r a l  greater  politically  counsellors-  a student  population  i t has t h e  rather than  prac-  tising professionals. In s i m i l a r counsellors, volunteer  research,  this  Thomas a n d S t e w a r t  counsellors.  time w i t h (1971)  practising  school  u s e d a sample o f  They d i v i d e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n t o  62  g r o u p s and tape,  showed them t h r e e v i d e o t a p e s ;  a tape  deviant  o f an  interview with  career goals,  and  an  to  client  on a l i s t  which they  felt  a client  The  the  assessed  career  i n n e e d o f a d d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , and  to b o t h  male c o u n s e l l o r s .  t h a t w o u l d be  assessed the  felt  The  and  authors  opposite  appropriate  for  a l s o found  t h a t male  they  became more  of t h e i r  sex,  counsellors r a t e d conforming  as more a p p r o p r i a t e  than  deviate  play of  goals.  those  with  goals  Counsellors a l s o t o be  conforming  more  goals.  (1977) u s e d t r a i n e d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s t o r o l e  typical  and  the  atypical  sex  role  i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d patterns  Contrary  expectations,  to  conditions. -  to assess  of s p e c i f i c  client  results  Videotapes  counsellor r e -  "cue"  sentences.  i n d i c a t e d that counsellors  a w h o l e e x h i b i t e d more b e h a v i o r a l b i a s w i t h  with  ex-  Shapiro  inforcement  as  did  t r u e of female counsellors.  deviate career goals  need o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h a n  the  counsel-  Regardless  in  client  than  the  with  for  accept-  perienced;  rated female c l i e n t s  was  the two  conforming c l i e n t s  showed i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e as  degree  suggested  Female c o u n s e l l o r s gave h i g h e r deviate  who  appropriate  degree to which they  choices  to c o n s i d e r .  ance s c o r e s  lors  the  o b j e c t i v e was  was  client  a client  o f 4-2 a d j e c t i v e s , e v a l u a t e d  client,  career  chose  counsellors  the  additional  introductory who  interview with  chose a c o n f o r m i n g c a r e e r g o a l . the  an  atypical  toward the  clients.  atypical  than  Counsellors; r e a c t e d more toward  the  typical  typical  than  positively  clients  and  36  counsellors' dicated  responses  that  to a g l o b a l sex r o l e i n v e n t o r y  counsellors d e s c r i b e d  the healthy,  f e m a l e a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n s t r u m e n t a l well-adjusted Smith  well-adjusted  than the healthy,  male.  (1974-) a l s o f o u n d  t i o n of counsellors.  support f o r the nonbias  Her study p r e s e n t e d f o u r  w i t h sex o f the c l i e n t  and e t h n i c  case  posi-  studies,  group as t h e o n l y  cues  d i f f e r e d f o r t h e c a s e s s e e n by t h e 512 c o u n s e l l o r s .  that  analysis  of covariance  failed  e n c e s due t o t h e s e x o r e t h n i c the  in-  to reveal  significant  group o f t h e c l i e n t  The  differor to  sex o f the c o u n s e l l o r . Donahue  found  that  (1976)  high  also using  school  s e l l o r s were a s k e d  counsellors  case study s u b j e c t s .  the  counsellors  prerequisite f o r male  a r e more h i g h l y  education  period  f o r their  to choose lower  supervised  that paying  and r e q u i r e  f o r female case study s u b j e c t s  results—biased  an u n d e r l y i n g  counsellors. to c h a r t  careers  Coun-  less  than  subjects.  These d i f f e r i n g indicate  approach  The r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d  i n the study tended  that  study  did exhibit a bias.  to s e l e c t appropriate  six  occupations  the case  attitudinal  Engelhard,  and nonbiased--may  change o c c u r r i n g i n  Jones and S t i g g i n s  attempted  (1976)  t h e development of counsellor a t t i t u d e s over a  o f s i x years from  dimensions of counsellors  1 9 6 8 to 1974-•  The t h r e e  attitudes regarding  major  women a n d  women's s o c i a l r o l e s were: a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e d u a l of mother and worker, a t t i t u d e s toward s e x r o l e  role  definition,  3 7  and  finally  on  society.  cluster  attitudes regarding  i m p a c t o f women  The w o r k i n g m o t h e r f a c t o r y i e l d e d t h e l o w e s t  scores  counsellors  the expected  o f the three  f a c t o r s f o r b o t h men a n d women  i n d i c a t i n g t h e most c o n s e r v a t i v e  tudes.  I n a d d i t i o n , male a n d f e m a l e  apart.  I n 1 9 7 ^ t h e y were s t i l l  counsellor  counsellors  as f a r a p a r t  atti-  were f a r t h e r  as i n 1 9 6 8 "but  "both have become s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o p e n t o t h e ^ c o m b i n e d . „r-. worker-mother r o l e . open t o d i v e r s e Societal  sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and score  Impact f a c t o r t h a n m a l e c o u n s e l l o r s -  t h a t male and f e m a l e sions  Women c o u n s e l l o r s were f o u n d  counsellors d i f f e r  of a t t i t u d e , but there  tude growth on t h e p a r t Counsellors could  and s h o u l d  portant bias and  for  against  in she  be s o c i a l  dimen-  of s i g n i f i c a n t  faced  f o r counsellors  fulfillment.  negative  to recog-  required  her place  o f work a r e numerous and o f t e n s u b t l e .  Firstly,  s t y l e and o u t l o o k t o  feminine model.  Acceptance  o f the  o f many q u a l i t i e s w h i c h  ( i . e . lack  plans  The u n i q u e  by a young woman t r y i n g t o f i n d  f e m a l e r o l e means a c c e p t a n c e  bias,  Thus i t i s im-  d i f f e r e n t processes  vocational  development  atti-  counsellors.  i n B.C. do s u p p o r t a  I t i s imperative  to society's  vocational  on a l l t h r e e  change a g e n t s .  must a d a p t h e r n e e d s , p e r s o n a l  conform  I t was shown  f e m a l e s t u d e n t s when m a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l  a woman t o f i n d  the world  on t h e  schools, i f f r e e from a n e g a t i v e  and r e l a t e t o t h e v e r y  obstacles  higher  o f b o t h male a n d f e m a l e  t o know i f c o u n s e l l o r s  suggestions.  nize  i n high  are signs  t o be more  o f competence,  hinder  dependency,  38  passive  emotionality,  directly  illogicalness,  etc.) .  u n f e m i n i n e , women may f e a r s u c c e s s  i n w h i c h t h e norms f o r c o r r e c t s e x r o l e conspicuous belief  and i m p o r t a n t .  that success  devalue themselves, limited  socially  flict  is  ties  the s o c i a l  a n d o t h e r women a n d a r e f a c e d  men i n t h e i r  vocational plans.  r e c o g n i t i o n o f these  c a n be d e s c r i b e d  of social  Women  with  S o c i e t y and lives  have  The h o m e - c a r e e r  con-  Awareness a n d com-  common i s s u e s a n d c o n f l i c t s  i f t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s t o be e f f e c t i v e .  effectiveness pressures  a r e both  i s inappropriate f o r themselves.  i s a m a j o r i s s u e f o r many women.  critical  behavior  Women have a c q u i r e d  the s i g n i f i c a n t  on t h e i r  municating  i n situations  approved v o c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s .  more i m p o r t a n t l y , influence  -If success i s  as t h e d i s c o v e r y  stereotyping  Counsellor o f how t h e  o f male a n d f e m a l e  and r o l e s i n f l u e n c e and l i m i t women i n t h e i r  quali-  career  development.  The c o u n s e l l o r must a i d a n d e n c o u r a g e women  to  of these  "step  out"  develop t h e i r  role  confinements and f i n d and  own u n i q u e v o c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s a s " p e r s o n s . "  CHAPTER  III  Methodology  Previous  studies  sellors d i s c r i m i n a t e This  s t u d y i s an  the  against  age  and  t h i s "bias. ology  are  (1)  against  attempt  c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. inate  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t  do  to  females  i n career  s e l e c t i o n and of  the  school  of  discrim-  to d i s c o v e r  counsellor  chapter seven aspects  and  the  method-  sample,  •2) (2)  instrument used  to measure a  counsellor-'s  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to d i s c r i m i n a t e females i n career (3)  development of coefficients and  (4)  occupation  list  of remuneration,  and  education  supervision,  v a l i d i t y and  reliability  studies, (5)  against  selection,  the  collection  of  data,  of  the  if  influences  described:  population  coun-  selection.  have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o  structure  In t h i s  school  l e a r n whether h i g h  women i n c a r e e r  family  high  case  (6)  hypotheses,  (7)  design  Population The school sists  and a n a l y s i s .  a n d Sample  population  counsellors  of this  study  includes  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  o f two h u n d r e d r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d  a l l secondary  The sample secondary  c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m t h e B.C. S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s membership l i s t . 78)  stated  that  Nevertheless, the  i t was a f a i r l y  there  B.C. s c h o o l  limiting  The p r e s i d e n t  Association  comprehensive  random sample f a i r l y  (1977-  Although  of the r e s u l t s ,  on t h e l i s t  representative  list.  working-within  s y s t e m who a r e n o t members.  percentage o f counsellors  school  of the a s s o c i a t i o n  are counsellors  the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  con-  the high  (75-80%) makes t h e o f counsellors  i n the  province.  Instrumentation The  instrument used  i n this  s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d b y  Thomas J . Donahue ( D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A g a i n s t  Young Women i n  C a r e e r S e l e c t i o n by H i g h S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s , involved form.  the presentation  1976).  o f s i x case s t u d i e s  I t s p u r p o s e was t o c o l l e c t  to  assess  to  choose, f o r "caseestudy"' f e m a l e s ,  data that  It  i n written  could  t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h c o u n s e l l o r s were lower p a y i n g  be u s e d  predisposed jobs  that  41  require  less  education  and  more s u p e r v i s i o n t h a n  those  c h o s e n f o r "case s t u d y m a l e s . The  c a s e s t u d i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d  each case study Data presented interest, traits,  c o u l d be  e i t h e r male or  i n c l u d e d measures of a b i l i t y ,  socioeconomic background, v a l u e s ,  and  choice.  subject  s o c i a l pressures  The  g e n c e and  level  ability  forms of the  Form A t h e  sex  cases  f o u r and  one,  t o be  but  i n each case the  Form B u s e d  the  study The  minutes of the  order  f o r the  found  asked to s e l e c t  the  On  two,  three  the  case study  p r o n o u n s were entire  occupations  task  The  only.  The  one, five on  case changed.  involved  t a s k was  for  which might rank the  Form B o f the  i n the Appendix).  sex  case s t u d i e s  s u b j e c t and  (Form A and  and  name o f t h e  occupations  A,  opposite  three  i n the  Only the  three  a  possible.  Form B c a s e s  two,  counsellors• time.  of p r e f e r e n c e ,  n a i r e s c a n be  On  gender of the  counsellor to s e l e c t  appropriate in  the  cases  information  identical.  and  that  were d e v e l o p e d .  female f o r cases  c a s e s t u d i e s were s h o r t and  15-25 the  subject  intelli-  s u b j e c t s were m a l e f o r  i n Form A.  A l l of the  career  same c a s e s t u d i e s as Form  s i x were f e m a l e and  B was  was  s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h e  d e s i g n a t i o n from those  Form A and  choices  questionnaire  s i x ; and  five.  were m a l e .  personality  n e a r t h e m e d i a n so  d e s i g n a t i o n of the  and  four,and  achievement,  s e l e c t e d f o r s u c h f a c t o r s as ftended  that  female.  t h a t might i n f l u e n c e  w i d e v a r i a t i o n among o c c u p a t i o n a l Two  i n s u c h a way  be  choices  question-  c o u n s e l l o r s were  Each  occupation  4-2 c h o s e n was  later  a s s i g n e d (by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ) i n d i c e s  resenting remuneration,  e d u c a t i o n and  rep-  supervision.  Developing the Occupation L i s t In order to t r a n s l a t e a number point the  so t h a t  s c a l e was  comparability  into  seven  f o r each of  (1976)  variables—remuneration,  The s c a l e s  were r e v i s e d  career choice  c o u l d be a c h i e v e d , a  d e v e l o p e d b y T. Donahue  t h r e e dependent  supervision.  each p o s s i b l e  e d u c a t i o n and  f o r r e m u n e r a t i o n .and; s u p e r v i s i o n 1  t o make them r e f l e c t  the c u r r e n t  B.C.  work  environment. Coefficient  of remuneration.  r e m u n e r a t i o n i s t h e number ed t o a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h scale, gaged  The c o e f f i c i e n t  on a n o r d i n a l indicates,  of  scale  assign-  on a s e v e n  point  t h e a p p r o x i m a t e wage e a r n e d b y a p e r s o n e n i n that  indicates  occupation.  o f one  t h e l o w e s t wage, and a c o e f f i c i e n t  seven i n d i c a t e s The  A coefficient  the highest  coefficients  of  wage.  have been r e v i s e d  t o make them  c u r r e n t and a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e C a n a d i a n s a l a r y F i v e manpower c o u n s e l l o r s , f r o m t h e N o r t h branch,  listed  occupation. a mean s a l a r y  the average s a l a r y  These  salary  representing  Vancouver  range f o r each  r a n g e s were u s e d t o f i n d each o c c u p a t i o n .  R e g i o n a l S a l a r y : Wage R a t e S u r v e y , C i v i l Commission S a l a r y  scale.  The  B.C.  Service  S c h e d u l e s and Wage R a t e s ,  Salaries  43 and' H o u r s o f L a b o u r i n Canada were u s e d erencessources.  The  each c o e f f i c i e n t Below  2.  $10,000  -  $14,999  3.  $15,000  -  $19,999  4.  $20,000  -  $24,999  5.  $ 2 5 , 0 0 0  -  $ 2 9 , 9 9 9  6.  $ 3 0 , 0 0 0  -  $34,000  7.  $35,000  and  the  to  indicating,  ' amount o f f o r m a l  engage i n t h a t an  The  on  coefficient  scale,  a seven-point  A  o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the  least  r e q u i r e s t h e maximum  coefficient  o r i g i n a l l y determined  tions  the  similar  was  on t h e  using  O c c u p a t i o n a l Outlook  education requirements  used  by  Classification Dictionary  efficient  o f e d u c a t i o n as i n this  following  study. scale:  of  so  one  educa-  prerequisite  job  occu-  descripTThe  of Occupations the  original  are  had  co-  by Donahue  coefficients  approx-  indicates  Handbook.  determined The  the  of e d u c a t i o n f o r an  p a t i o n was  Canadian  of seven  an  required  formal  an  from  to  scale,  coefficient  a coefficient  The  education  education or t r a i n i n g  occupation.  occupation that  of  assigned  t i o n r e q u i r e d , and  education.  range f o r  above  number, on an o r d i n a l  indicates  salary  refer-  $10,000  of education.  occupation, imate  annual  cross  was:  1.  Coefficient was  revised  as  (197.6)  shown  1.  No e d u c a t i o n  2.  Less  required  than a high  school  education  required  3.  High school  diploma u s u a l l y  4.  High school  diploma required?; or  significant  on-the-job  5.  Apprenticeship  required  training  or associated  degree  required 6.  B a c h e l o r ' s degree  7.  Graduate degree  Coefficient  required  required  of supervision.  The c o e f f i c i e n t  of super  v i s i o n was t h e number o n a n o r d i n a l s c a l e a s s i g n e d an  occupation  the  which i n d i c a t e s ,  a p p r o x i m a t e amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n  engaged i n t h a t coefficient that of  on a s e v e n - p o i n t  i s most c a r e f u l l y  supervised,  seven i n d i c a t e s an occupation  mal  direct  supervision.  of  coefficient  receives  An o c c u p a t i o n ' s  A  occupation  and a  that  scale  individuals,  occupation, normally r e c e i v e d .  o f one d e n o t e s t h e t y p e  to  mini-  degree o f  s u p e r v i s i o n was b a s e d o n t h e amount o f a u t h o r i t y , responsibility that  and judgment e x e r c i s e d  occupation.  At the lower  were t h e w o r k e r s who  by a w o r k e r i n  end o f t h e c o n t i n u u m  are completely  supervised  and  have p r a c t i c a l l y  no a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t u n i t y t o make judgment  i n t h e i r work.  work u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f r o u t i n e end  o f t h e s c a l e were p e o p l e  who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e  This  tasks.  like  type o f  At the other  corporate  f o ra l l aspects  o r oppor  executives  of an o r g a n i z a t i o n  who must  f r e q u e n t l y make judgments and d e c i s i o n s , a n d  who h o l d  direct  ployees. measured  or i n d i r e c t  The s u p e r v i s o r y only  of an o c c u p a t i o n employees  and n o t i n r e l a t i o n  patients, or consultants.  were c l a s s i f i e d 1.  nature  i n r e l a t i o n to other  same o r g a n i z a t i o n , clients,  a u t h o r i t y o v e r a l l emf.  according  t o customers,  The c o e f f i c i e n t s  Completely  supervised  supervises  no one a n d i s c o m p l e t e l y  supervised,  2.  Closely supervised supervises  i n the  to the following scale:  si-p  while  - a p e r s o n who  doing  routine  tasks.  - a p e r s o n who  no one, b u t i s c l o s e l y  supervised.  3.  Loosely  supervised  supervises judgment  - a p e r s o n who  no one, b u t may  exercise  i n h i s job which i s l o o s e l y  supervised,  4-.  Semi-autonomous  o r a f r e e agent  p e r s o n who s u p e r v i s e s not  - a  no one,.and i s  r e g u l a r l y supervised  was  by anyone.  46 5.  Partially  s u p e r v i s o r y - a p e r s o n who  supervises 6.  Primarily  a s m a l l number  o f employees.  s u p e r v i s o r y - a p e r s o n who  supervises  a large  number  o f employees  and m a i n t a i n s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r their  work. 7.  S u p e r v i s o r y - a p e r s o n who d i r e c t s a n institution  The was  coefficient  determined  score  of five  p a t i o n s from titles  studies.  t h e mean n u m e r i c a l  judgment  Canada Manpower c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g  i n the  branch.  List Construction  Donahue  tional  o f s u p e r v i s i o n f o r a n occupation:::-,  by computing  North Vancouver  Occupation  or business.  (1976)  selected  approximately  the O c c u p a t i o n a l Outlook were s e l e c t e d w i t h o u t  a continuum  common  Handbook.  occu-  Occupa-  r e g a r d to the case  The o c c u p a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d  t h a t they would form  60  from  i n s u c h a manner  low t o h i g h on a l l  t h r e e v a r i a b l e s — r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The  list  tained  was r e d u c e d  occupations which  s e x i s t terminology, s u c h as clergyman,  o r charwoman. ation,  by r e m o v i n g  Occupations  with coefficients  policeman, o f remuner-  e d u c a t i o n a n d s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t were h i g h l y  c o r r e l a t e d were a l s o  dropped.  An a t t e m p t  con-  inter-  was made t o  4-7  arrange four  the f i n a l  list  o c c u p a t i o n s were  efficients  Validity  f o r each  and  study approach  was  indirect  (as of c h a r a c t e r ) . "  and i l l u s t r a t e  that  So t h e c a s e  stated  by W e b s t e r ' s  couns-ellor that  psychological  reveals  o f measurement  yesterday's  crucial  indirect  tests"  . . .  laws t o a g r e a t e r  are today's  charac-  wherein  routine  measure-  1 ment  procedures." I n t h e same a r t i c l e  t i o n s about Campbell, 1.  indirect  indirect  the authors  tests.  is a  bias.  i n the s u c c e s s f u l science  experiments  inherent  study approach  t h a n d i r e c t a t t i t u d e t e s t s , and a r e t h u s more  teristic  a direct  o r c i r c u i t o u s l y " and a  o f t e s t i s "an a c t o r p r o c e s s  K i d d e r and C a m p b e l l  degree  variables.  as " d e v i a t i n g f r o m  obliquely  r o u n d a b o u t method o f r e v e a l i n g  utilize  that  of the seven co-  c o n s i d e r e d an  International Dictionary  definition  a way  I n d i r e c t has been d e f i n e d  or course, proceeding  qualities  under each  o f the t h r e e dependent  measurement method.  line  listed  i n such  Reliability  The c a s e  T h i r d New  of occupations  listed  seven  supposi-  A c c o r d i n g t o K i d d e r and  tests are:  l e s s a f f e c t e d by e x p e r i m e n t a l o f demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  manipulation  L.H. K i d d e r and D.T. C a m p b e l l , "The I n d i r e c t T e s t i n g o f S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , " i n A t t i t u d e Measurement, e d . G.F. Sommers ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1971), p.329.  48  2.  less susceptible to manipulation of evaluation apprehension,  3.  l e s s l i k e l y t o be r e a c t i v e m e a s u r e s by t h e m a i n and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f testing,  4.  less susceptible thorne e f f e c t s ,  5.  l e s s a f f e c t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n s a good i m p r e s s i o n ,  6.  l e s s m o d i f i e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t one * s name,  7.  l e s s a f f e c t e d by t h e r o l e s e t t i n g o f t e s t administration.  The tively  plausible  to placebo  to "fake" to s i g n •  facades of i n d i r e c t a t t i t u d e  prohibit self-defence  administrative  a n d haw-  and p e r m i t  s e t t i n g s where a t t i t u d e  tests  effec-  t e s t i n g i n many scores might  other-  2 w i s e be u n o b t a i n a b l e . Since previous  t h i s study deals w i t h an a r e a  research  h a s b e e n done, t h e v a l i d i t y  ment had t o be b a s e d p r i m a r i l y Nevertheless,  i n which  concurrent  on f a c e  and p r e d i c t i v e  little  of the i n s t r u -  or construct  validity.  v a l i d i t y were  also  considered. C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y — a f t e r surveying a l l major studies  of g l o b a l  concluded  that  personality  "structured  predictions,  validity  Cronbach  t e s t s , o r performance  tests  which a r e v e r y near to working samples o f t h e c r i t e r i o n tasks  have c o n s i d e r a b l e  validity."  The i n s t r u m e n t  p.335  2  Ibid.,  ^  L . J . Cronbach, E s s e n t i a l s of P s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t ' l ed. (Tokyo: John W e a t h e r h i l l , I n c . ,  Testing,  2nd  1966), pp.582ff.  4-9 used  i n this  volved  s t u d y was b o t h h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a n d i n -  a task  quite  s i m i l a r t o a c o u n s e l l o r ' s work i n  v o c a t i o n a l guidance. ed  the construct By  avoid  acceptable  lem  subject.  socially  Attitudes regarding  will  be i n a d v e r t e n t l y  struggle with  occupational  Since  the i n s t r u -  are not c o r r e l a t e d with the  suitable f o rg i r l s  o f three  indirectly,  of e l i c i t i n g  true behavior.  the counsellors  establish-  of the t e s t .  the p i t f a l l  answers t h a t  individual's  while  validity  approaching the problem  ment w i l l  ations  T h e s e two f a c t o r s a l o n e  choices  occuprevealed  the s p e c i f i c  f o r a case  a t t e n t i o n i s focused  prob-  study  on a p r o b l e m  that  does n o t a p p e a r t o be p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o s e x o f t h e case study s u b j e c t , made w i t h o u t  the choice  choice  than " s o c i a l l y  Another p i t f a l l instrument dealt with  the is  social  pilot  stewardess  acceptable"  teacher  secretary tions list  This  to personal views.  of the construct  validity  sex stereotyped  careers.  o f the An  i s u s u a l l y viewed as a male, whereas i s u s u a l l y s e e n as a female;  a male, t h e nurse a female;  the  strongly  pressures.  the counsellor to s e l e c t according rather  airline  c o u l d be  t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s judgment b e i n g  i n f l u e n c e d by contemporary allowed  of a career  a female;  a female.  i s so p e r v a s i v e  the doctor  the p r i n c i p a l  the executive  i s a male,  i s a male, t h e  Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g  of occupa-  i n o u r c u l t u r e t h a t any random  o f common o c c u p a t i o n s  would n e c e s s a r i l y  contain  50  a l a r g e number stereotyped purported  of stereotyped occupations.  careers exist,  to r e f l e c t  and s i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  reality,  the o r i g i n a l  o c c u p a t i o n s were c h o s e n w i t h o u t stereotype  regard  to the sex  i n t h e l a b o r market and chosen t o a s -  t h a t t h e r e was e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e  range o f each dependent v a r i a b l e . was  s e t of  of the occupations, but with regard to  t h e i r prevalence sure  Since  absent  except  male t e r m i n o l o g y  i n cases  Sexist  terminology  i n w h i c h b o t h male and f e -  was i n c l u d e d , e . g . w a i t e r and w a i t -  ress . Careers  from  the o r i g i n a l  list  of occupations  also  e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y were d i f f i c u l t  ify,  o r because t h e i r  the  to class-  o n one o r more o f  t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were t o o f r e q u e n t l y  represented. that be  coefficients  were  Thus, t h e s e x s t e r e o t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s  a p p e a r i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were t h o u g h t  significantly  of occupations  different  throughout  from  not to  the s e x stereotypes  t h e l a b o r market.'  Bern and Bern r e p o r t e d t h a t , o n e - t h i r d o f a l l w o r k i n g women c o n c e n t r a t e d i n only seven jobs: s e c r e t a r y , r e t a i l s a l e s c l e r k , household worker, s c h o o l t e a c h e r , bookkeeper> w a i t r e s s a n d n u r s e ... An a d d i t i o n a l o n e - t h i r d a r e found i n twentynine occupations .,. Seventy-eight percent (78% o f a l l w o r k i n g w o m e n — a s compared t o f o r t y p e r c e n t (4-0%) o f w o r k i n g m e n — a r e employed as c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s , f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , and s a l e s c l e r k s ... O n l y f o u r m i l l i o n women (15% o f a l l women w o r k e r s ) ;  a r e c l a s s i f i e d - as p r o f e s s i o n a l o r t e c h n i c a l workers, and.even t h i s f i g u r e i s misleading, f o r the s i n g l e occupation of noncollege teacher absorbs n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e s e women a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a r e n u r s e s ... Fewer t h a n one p e r c e n t o f a l l women w o r k e r s f i l l t h o s e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h ^ t o most A m e r i c a n s , c o n n o t e "pro'f e s s i o n a l V  .-Eight o f t h e 36 o c c u p a t i o n s thirds  o f t h e f e m a l e work f o r c e i n t h i s  represented  among t h e 28 o c c u p a t i o n s  study:  bookkeeper, f i l e  nurse,  sales clerk,  waitress.  or managerial  on t h e l i s t  percentage  Therefore sidered  valid,  list  pro-  registered  Female s t e r e o t y p e d  occu-  a larger careers  (38  i n t h e l a b o r market  (15%)  a conservative  dependent v a r i a b l e s because t h e  c o n t a i n s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more  stereotyped  and  r e q u i r e more e d u c a t i o n occur  were  o f c a r e e r s c a n n o t o n l y be c o n -  sex  actually  registered  (38 p e r c e n t )  but i t also presents  on t h e three  i n this  c a r e e r s :'.head cook,  occur  were  s e c r e t a r y , and  o f f a v o r a b l y sex stereotyped  the l i s t  occupation  used  therefore presented  p e r c e n t ) ,-than a c t u a l l y  f o r two-  country  head c o o k ,  school teacher,  and s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  pations  test  clerk,  Three o f the e i g h t  fessional nurse,  t h a t account  c a r e e r s , which pay higher and l e s s  i n t h e l a b o r market.  Bern Bern, T r a i n i n g t h e Woman, p . 2 9 .  female  salaries  supervision,  than  52  Considering the structured simulation  of a task c l o s e l y  work, i t s i n d i r e c t occupational choice  approach, list,  nature  related  of the t e s t , i t s  to the counsellor's  and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e  the construct  v a l i d i t y of the  t e s t was j u d g e d "by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r this  study.  Concurrent v a l i d i t y — N o •estimate concurrent ficient  normed t e s t  c o u l d be u s e d t o  v a l i d i t y , b e c a u s e no t e s t  v a l i d i t y t o warrant  has s u f -  i t s use a s a m o d e l t o t h e  b e s t knowledge o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . Any has  direct  measure o f t h i s  dubious v a l i d i t y because  climate,  brought  underlying  the current  a b o u t by t h e f e m i n i s t ,  ence t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and l i k e l y make instruments  of this  type i n v a l i d .  w o u l d know t h e " r i g h t "  cording t h e i r to  give  b e h a v i o r may be c o n t r a r y  fore  answers,  to t h e i r  t h o u g h t t o be s u p e r i o r  to  establish  this  questions  When r e they would  even though  stated  attitude  concurrent  their  was  there-  measure. toward  c o u l d be u s e d  validity.  validity—predictive  study only  that  tend  views.  i n s t r u m e n t which examines a t t i t u d e s  Predictive for  counsellors  t o any d i r e c t  women i n t h e l a b o r m a r k e t e x i s t s  influ-  paper-and-pencil  of g i r l s .  i n d i r e c t measure o f t h i s  No v a l i d  would  Most  v i e w s on a s u r v e y f o r m ,  s o c i a l l y acceptable  The  cultural  a n s w e r s when a s k e d  about the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s  attitude  insofar  v a l i d i t y was  as i t a f f e c t e d  important  the  difference  in  scores  cal'  of  s u b g r o u p s s u c h as  counsellors.  individual sellor  I t was  counsellors  not  cause the lying  w o u l d be  validity  instrument  the  sonality a r e a of  i s important,  of  of  traits  and  vocational  variables  his  the  counsellor's role.  s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y a l l o w f o r the  split  questionnaire  The  brevity  of  was  the  sample.  the  of  the  test.  per-  This  personality fe-  this relation-  attitude  may  bias.  instrument  The  too  short  could  The  of  test  subdivide  questions  not  using  intended  individual predisposition, tendency of  and  further.  c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by  i n s t r u m e n t was  cer-  split-half  female questions to  the  study  toward a  because the  t e s t was  t o measure t h e  c e r t a i n ways.  and  counsellor  i n t o male and  a r e l i a b l e index  rather  of  appropriate  the  es-  i n t r a d i t i o n a l ways b e c a u s e o f  t a i n unique aspects not  attitude  variable  reliability  determined  were a l r e a d y  females.  Understanding  p r e d i c t i o n of  Reliability--The  large  i s inadequate to  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n  and  method was  of  job performance i n  guidance of  male's o c c u p a t i o n a l  be  a p a r t i c u l a r group  or her  be-  under-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a counsellor's  examines t h e  in  ' typ  coun-  however,  t o measure an  Research i n t h i s f i e l d  tablish  be  scores  used to produce  purported  cultural attitude  people.  a  intended, t h a t  or  bias. Predictive  not  young counsellors  subgroups to  to but  behave  54  Parallel-form method b e c a u s e gender one  Form A and  of the t e s t ,  as t h e a l t e r n a t e f o r m w o u l d be The  A f t e r having  seen.  s t e r e o t y p e s as  Thus t h e  t e s t - r e t e s t method w o u l d be  i t w o u l d be  more d i f f i c u l t  reliability,  impractical.  counsellors  to get p r a c t i s i n g  expense w o u l d be o f 407  population size sample  that  once.  time.  to  be-  to  I t would  counsellors  be  respond  A separate  impractical.  c o n s i d e r a b l e and  averaged  of r e s u l t s w i l l  e a c h c o u n s e l l o r was  job s e l e c t i o n s  selections  on e a c h  the  random  instead  o f one.  be  enhanced  required The  t o make  t h r e e job  o f t h e s i x c a s e s t u d i e s were  then  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  of the  On 'January 11, letters,  not used  difficult.  by t h e f a c t  Collection  satisfactory  makes an a d d i t i o n a l  However, r e l i a b i l i t y  three  soon  alternate  It is difficult  sample f o r t e s t - r e t e s t w o u l d a l s o be and  a  b u t was  t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s e c o n d  time  taken  invalid.  o b t a i n responses from  The  only i n the  an i n d i v i d u a l would r e c o g n i z e  f o r m was  method o f m e a s u r i n g  to  satisfactory  Form B d i f f e r e d  i t u n o b t r u s i v e l y measured sex  cause  not a  of the case study s u b j e c t s .  form  that  r e l i a b i l i t y was  Data 1979  questionnaire,  stamped-addressed-return  an e n v e l o p e  containing covering  answer s h e e t , p e r s o n a l d a t a s h e e t , envelope  and  3x5  c a r d , was  mailed  to  a l l subjects.  A n u m e r i c a l code was  stamped  envelope  so t h a t  t h o s e who  receive  a second  letter.  A second  was  s e n t on J a n u a r y  found  i n Appendix  Phase I - M a j o r  29,  1979•  on t h e e n c l o s e d ,  d i d not respond  l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Copies  of the l e t t e r s  can  be  C.  Hypotheses  H y p o t h e s i s .' 1  There  i s no  difference  selors  statistically significant  between the r e m u n e r a t i o n  occupations  chosen  i n B.C.  s u b j e c t s and  by  '--2  There  i s no  high school  f o r female  those  chosen  l e n t male case s t u d y  Hypothesis  would  case  coun-  study  f o r equiva-  subjects.  statistically significant  difference  between t h e  quirements  of occupations chosen  educational reby  h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C.  for  female  those  case  of  s t u d y s u b j e c t s and  c h o s e n f o r e q u i v a l e n t male c a s e  study  subjects.  Hypothesis  '3  There  i s no  difference vision  statistically significant between the  level  of  super-  of o c c u p a t i o n s chosen  by  high  s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C.  f o r female  case  study  male case  Phase I I  - Secondary 4  Hypothesis  s u b j e c t s and study  Counsellor's i s no  difference occupations case are  study less  There  age. statistically i n the  i s no  difference  remuneration  s u b j e c t s by  are  female  case  old  and  old  or o l d e r .  There  difference occupations case are  study less  sellors  subjects  less  are  by  3 5 'years  3 5 - years  significant  supervisory level  c h o s e n f o r m a l e and s u b j e c t s by  than 3 5 . y e a r s  who  than  statistically i n the  significant  c h o s e n f o r male  c o u n s e l l o r s who  i s no  coun-  educational require-  study are  female  o l d or o l d e r .  statistically  c o u n s e l l o r s who  /'4c  o l d and  3 5 years  i n the  of  counsellors- who  3 5 years  ments o f o c c u p a t i o n s and  significant  c h o s e n f o r m a l e and  than  s e l l o r s who 4b  subjects.  Hypotheses  %a. T h e r e  :  f o r equivalent  are 3 5 years  female  counsellors o l d and  of  who  coun-  o l d or o l d e r .  57  Hypothesis  5  Family  • 5 a There  Structure. i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference  i n the s a l a r y l e v e l of  occupations  c h o s e n f o r m a l e and f e m a l e  case study s u b j e c t s ing  significant  by c o u n s e l l o r s  from a " t y p i c a l "  or counsellors  from  family  com-  structure  "atypical"  family  structure. '5b  There  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference level  significant  i n prerequisite  educational  o f o c c u p a t i o n s c h o s e n f o r male  and f e m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s counsellors family  structure  "atypical" 5c  There  coming from a  cupations  family  or  i n supervisory  significant level  of oc-  c h o s e n f o r m a l e and 'female by c o u n s e l l o r s  from a " t y p i c a l " counsellors from  structure.  from  structure.  case study s u b j e c t s ing  "typical"  o r counsellors  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference  by  family  "atypical"  com-  structure family  58  Design  and  Analysis  Form A and Form B, h a v i n g i d e n t i c a l  case  study  informa-  tion  b u t w i t h g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s , were assumed t o be  lent  forms.  Form A, t h e  57 a v e r a g e d  counsellor  for—remuneration,  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n  withithose  B.  o f Form  Form  Remuneration  R  2,,l  #2 R  R  2,.2  R  l , 3 2,3  R  (C )  R  (C )  x  2  •  l , l  E  2,l  E  ranked  #3  l , 2  R  •  Education  were  Choice  #1  l , l  responses  A  Job  R  equiva-  •  •  •  •  t  •  l , 2  E  2,2  E  E  E  l , 3 2,3  E  (C )  E  (C )  1  2  • •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  l , l  S  Supervision  2,l  S  •  t  l , 2  S  2,2  S  •  l , 2  S  2,3  S  • •  -• • •  •  •  •  -  S  ( C ^  s  (c )  • •  2  59 Form  B,  Job C h o i c e #2  #1  l,l  R  Remuneration  2,l  R  l,2  R  2,2  l,3  R  2.r3'^"  R  R  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • • •  l,l 2,l  E  E  l,2  E  2,2  E  l,3  E  2,3  S  S  - .  l,l 2,l  •  S  l,2  S  2,2 •  • •  •  •  2  V  (c1}  •  • •  E  (c )  •  •  •  •  Supervision  R  •  E  Education  R  #3  . .  •  •  1  S  2,2  S  2,3  S  •  •  •  •  •  •  (c^  The R, E , S f o r e a c h c o u n s e l l o r f o r Forms A and B was computed by t h e method shown a b o v e . was  used f o r a n a l y s e s  of the averaged  The Mann-Whitney U  o f t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e  scores.  test  i n the r a n k i n g  6o Mann-Whitney U T e s t . metric  Mann-Whitney U t e s t  d i f f e r e n c e t e s t w h i c h c a n "be u s e d  involves  two i n d e p e n d e n t  two s e p a r a t e  samples.  This  i s a nonparai f the  study  research  used  s a m p l e s as t h e c o u n s e l l o r s who  received  Form A were r a n d o m l y c h o s e n as were t h e c o u n s e l l o r s who received  Form B.  The U t e s t  metric  technique  metric  " t "test with  As t h e t h r e e education.i  and c a n be u s e d little  are not a l l i n t e r v a l  U test  o f two s i m i l a r questionnaire together, the  i s based groups  will  there  efficiency.  will  s u p e r v i s i o n and  s c a l e s but o r d i n a l , -  on t h e n o t i o n t h a t i f s c o r e s o f Form A o f t h e  o f Form B) a r e r a n k e d  be c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n t e r m i n g l i n g of  b u t i f one g r o u p  signifi-  ( i . e . t h e male case  than those  of the i n f e r i o r  o f U i s computed ; a f t e r 1  t h e combined r a n k i n g , by  number o f r a n k s o f t h e h i g h e r  below t h e lower r a n k e d group. the  statistic  it i s .  rankings  g r o u p . . The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t h e l o w e r r a n k e d g r o u p and the  study  t h e n most o f t h e s u p e r i o r g r o u p s '  be h i g h e r  value  i n power  appropriate.  and c o e f f i c i e n t s  exceeds the o t h e r  subjects),  of the para-  (coefficients  two g r o u p s ' r a n k i n g s ;  cantly  loss  nonpara-  i n place  s c a l e s of remuneration,  t h e Mann-Whitney U t e s t was The  i s a powerful  group which  The l o w e r  y i e l d e d by t h e t e s t ,  counting fall  the v a l u e  t h e more  of  significant  61  First  tests:  Form A  Mann-Whitney U  R ,  l '  R  2  test  R^, - • vs.  Form B  R  2J  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d  f o r E d u c a t i o n and  supervision. Second t e s t s :  Form A ( c a s e 1)  Mann-Whitney U  R^,  test  R, 2  vs. Form B ( c a s e 1)  R^,  R, 2  R^,  The t e s t was  repeated  f o r e d u c a t i o n and  repeated  f o r each  supervision. The t e s t was  case.-  62  Third  test:  Mann-Whitney  U  test  Form A ( 1 , 4 , 6 )  Form B ( 1 , 4 , 6 )  The t e s t  was r e p e a t e d  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d A and~Form B.  Subordinate  Form A  f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . f o r combined  Hypotheses  - Mann-Whitney  (counsellors, u n d e r 3 5 )  R  l '  2,  cases  R  U  2 '  3 , 5 Form  tests  3 '  R  vs Form A ( c o u n s e l l o r s • 3 5 ahd.-o over)  R  l '  R  2 '  R  3 '  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d  f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n .  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d  f o r Form B.  Form A ( t y p i c a l f a m i l y  structure)  R  R  l '  2 '  R  3 '  vs. Form A  (atypical  family  structure)  R  1 '  R  2 '  R  3 ,  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d  f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n ,  The t e s t was r e p e a t e d  f o r Form B.  63  In  the  following  "be p r e s e n t e d .  The  chapter  the a n a l y s e s  research results w i l l  follows: (1)  the  sample,  (2)  questionnaire  (3)  equivalence  (4)  major  (5)  secondary  (6)  summary.  of  responses, forms,  hypotheses, hypotheses,  and  of the  data  "be p r e s e n t e d  will as  64  CHAPTER IV  Results  The m a i n p u r p o s e high to  school  counsellors  lor's this  whether  have a t e n d e n c y  v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g of female  A s e c o n d p u r p o s e was t o d i s c o v e r  i f the counsel-  age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f tendency  i f , i n fact,  Two h u n d r e d from  s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  discriminate i n their  clients.  randomly  the B r i t i s h Columbia  list,-were  asked  male and t h r e e assigned  coefficients Whitney  t o choose  U  i tdid exist. selected high Counsellors  school  appropriate  on t h e t h r e e  education  occupations  analyzed  for.three  Responses  dependent  and s u p e r v i s i o n .  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  counsellors,  A s s o c i a t i o n membership  female case study s u b j e c t s .  coefficients  remuneration,  The  of t h i s  were  variables of  These using  response t h e Mann-  test.  Sample Two h u n d r e d  a population  (200) s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y  of f o u r hundred  seven  (407)  high  s e l e c t e d from school  s e l l o r s who were members o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Association randomly  (Membership  list:  1977-78).  Counsellors  One h u n d r e d  s e l e c t e d t o r e c e i v e Form A and one h u n d r e d  Of t h e 114  s u b j e c t s who  returned  their  coun-  were Form B.  questionnaires,  37%  65  were u n d e r 35 y e a r s  o f age and 20$ grew up i n  "atypical"  family structures.  Questionnaire  Responses  From a p o p u l a t i o n o f 200 r a n d o m l y c h o s e n s u b j e c t s , (69$)  returned  questionnaires  questionnaires  i n s u c h a way  analyses.  T e n were r e t u r n e d  forwarding  address,  The ing  and 114 t h a t they  (57$) c o m p l e t e d  their  c o u l d be u s e d f o r  unopened due t o a l a c k o f a  and fourteen were r e t u r n e d  f o u r reasons  138  most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d  incomplete.  f o r not complet-  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were as f o l l o w s : (1)  five  respondents reported  insufficient  that there  data presented  was  i n the question-  naire , (2)  five  r e s p o n d e n t s were n o t h i g h  school  counsellors, (3)  three not,  respondents f e l t and s h o u l d  careers" (4)  the  Equivalence The  n o t , "choose  for their  one p e r s o n  t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s do appropriate  clients,  d i d not wish to take  part i n  study.  o f Forms  Mann-Whitney  U test  was  used  t o - s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyze  the difference in mean. rank. between;the~coefficiien^?-from Form A ...and. c o e f f i c ^ ients  f r o m Form B.  The Mann-Whitney U t e s t  i s a non-  66  parametric  difference  dependent samples. those  t e s t w h i c h c a n be u s e d  T h i s r e s e a r c h used  randomly s e l e c t e d  who  r e c e i v e d Form  two s e p a r a t e  c o u n s e l l o r s who  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h o s e  w i t h two i n -  r e c e i v e d Form A o f  randomly s e l e c t e d c o u n s e l l o r s  B.  The t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s  c h o s e n by e a c h c o u n s e l l o r ' f o r  e a c h o f t h e s i x c a s e s , were a s s i g n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of  remuneration,  viously  by e x p e r t  f o r remuneration,  Form A were r a n k e d  ation,  along with  hypothesized  as Form A and B were Table  1 t h e r e was  the averages  equivalent.  Form  Form  difference As  indicated difference  T h e r e f o r e , Form A and Form B Donahue  (1976),  i n a study had f o u n d  done t h a t com-  s c o r e s on Form A were h i g h e r t h a n computed s c o r e s  on  B. In  the p r e s e n t  equivalent. attributed in  study.  B.  significant  with high school c o u n s e l l o r s i n Michigan, puted  were  f o r remuner-  t o be e q u i v a l e n t .  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  b e t w e e n Form A and Form B. were assumed  These c o e f f i c i e n t s  t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no  thought  pre-  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n f r o m  I t was  in  judges.  f o r e a c h c o u n s e l l o r and f o r e a c h c a s e  These a v e r a g e s from  f o r each  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n ; c o e f f i c i e n t s  determined  then averaged  samples;  form.  study  Therefore, to case  t h e two f o r m s were  they  shown t o be  c a n be compared and  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  r a t h e r than  differences  difference  TABLE 1  Table  o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s o f Forms  f o r Equivalence  ( A l l Cases)  Remuneration  Education  Supervision  Mean Rank: Form A  57.96  57.99  58.61  Form B  57.04-  57.01  56.39  Subjects (n): Form A  57  57  57  Form B  57  57  57  Mann-Whitney:  1598.5*  U: P:  0 . 8 8 3 * *  Z:  -0.14-7***  1561.0  1596.5 0.874 - 0 . 1 5 9  1^  0.719 - 0 . 3 6 0  and I„  *  *  U  i s t h e minimum o f t h e two v a l u e s (inversions)  **  P  probability  ***  Z  F i s h e r r a n d o m i z a t i o n two sample t e s t - i f computed Z i s g r e a t e r t h a n - I . 9 6 o r l e s s t h a n + I . 9 6 , Ho i s not r e j e c t e d a t the 0 . 0 5 l e v e l  associated withithe obtained U value;  68  Major Hypotheses The and  c o u n s e l l o r s were a s k e d  rank  E a c h o f t h e 28 o c c u p a t i o n s h a d b e e n  and a s s i g n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t  t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s supervision.  The'three  r a n g i n g from  of remuneration,  coefficients  e a c h c a s e s t u d y were t h e n a v e r a g e d , for  e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n .  for  the case s t u d i e s  mean r e m u n e r a t i o n The  three occupations,  them i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e , f o r t h e s i x c a s e  subjects. rated  to s e l e c t  previously 1 - 7 f o r the  e d u c a t i o n and  of remuneration f o r a s were t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s  The mean r e m u n e r a t i o n s c o r e s  on Form A were r a n k e d ,  s c o r e s f o r the case  along with the  studies  on Form B.  same was done f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n .  W h i t n e y U t e s t was a p p l i e d As  indicated  t o each  The Mann-  i n turn.  i n T a b l e 2, c a s e s 1 , 2, 4 and 5 w i t h m a l e  case s t u d y s u b j e c t s a r e ranked female  study  significantly  case study s u b j e c t s f o r the v a r i a b l e  C a s e s 3 and 6 show no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  higher than of remuneration. i n the ranks  f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s . The no  variable  significant  o f e d u c a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d  differences  i n t h e r a n k s f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s  on t h e c a s e s 1 , 2, 3$ 5 and 6 . significantly subjects Also ficantly  on T a b l e 3 shows  Case 4 , however, shows a  h i g h e r r a n k f o r male s u b j e c t s t h a n f o r f e m a l e  o f t h e same c a s e . indicated  on T a b l e 4 , s u p e r v i s i o n i s r a n k e d  signi-  h i g h e r f o r male s u b j e c t s on c a s e s 1 , 2, 4 and 5  than f o r female  s u b j e c t s o f t h e same c a s e s .  C a s e s 3 and 6  69  TABLE 2 Sex, Mean R e m u n e r a t i o n Rank a n d S t a t i s t i c s f o r :Each o f t h e S i x C a s e s  (Form A and Form  B)  C a s e 4  Case Sex: Form A  M  F  F  M  F  M  Form B  F  M  M  F  M  F  Mean Rank: Form A  72.26  46.00  57.31  74.18  49.01  57.92  Form B  42.74  69.OO  57.69  40.82  65.99  57-08  U:  783-0  969.0  1613.5  673.5  1140.5  1600.5  P:  0.000  0.000  0.950  0.000  0.006  0.890  Z:  -4.790  - 3 . 7 3 0  - 5 . 5 0 4  - 2 . 7 5 6  - 0 . 1 3 8  Mann-Whitney:  -O.063  70  TABLE 3 Sex,  Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank  Each of the S i x Cases  and S t a t i s t i c s f o r  (Form A a n d Form  B)  C a s e 4  Case  Sex:  Form A  M  F  F  Form B  F  M  M  M F  F  Mean Rank: Form A  58.36  54.50  59.76  66.58  53.50  5 8 . 6 1  Form B  56.64  60.50  55.24  48.42  61.50  56.39  U:  1575-5  1453-5  1495.5  1107.0  1396.5  1561.0  P:  O.780  0.330  0.445  0.003  0.193  0.713  Z:  - 0 . 2 7 9  - 0 . 9 7 3  •O.763  - 2 . 9 8 1  - 1 . 3 0 1  - 0 . 3 6 8  Mann-Whitney:  71  TABLE 4 Sex, Mean Supervision Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each of the Six Cases (Form A and Form B)  C a s e 4  5  Case Sex: Form A  M  F  F  F  M  Form B  F  M  M  M  F  Mean Rank: Form A  71-55  47-75  54.23  67.65  50.68  58.77  Form B  43.45  67.25  60.77  47.35  64.32  56.23  1069.0  1438.0  1046.0  1236.0  1552.0  0.277  0.001  0.027  O.677  -1.088  - 3 . 3 4 3  -2.214  Mann-Whitney: U:  823.5  P:  0.000  Z:  - 4 . 5 5 9  0.002 -3.164  -0.417  72  show no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  i n the ranks  of s u p e r v i s i o n  f o r male and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s . The n e x t investigated  s e t of tests  t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e mean r e m u n e r a t i o n  1, 4 and 6 f r o m  cases  u s i n g t h e Mann-Whitney  Form A w i t h t h e mean  1, 4 and 6 f r o m  scores f o r cases  1, 4 and 6 a r e a l l male c a s e  2, 3  3 and 5 on Form A and 5 on Form B  the v a r i a b l e s  scores f o r  remuneration On Form A,  case  ( a l l female)  ( a l l male).  study s u b j e c t s .  were r a n k e d  Hypothesis  w i t h cases  '  :  1  There  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  signed  significant  between the r e m u n e r a t i o n a s -  to occupations  chosen  by h i g h  school counsellors i n B r i t i s h for  female  those  case  chosen  subjects  of the data y i e l d e d  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d  fidence.  Counsellors i n B r i t i s h  o c c u p a t i o n s f o r male case  Columbia  s t u d y s u b j e c t s and  for identical  identified  The n u l l  case  2,  The t e s t s were r e p e a t e d f o r  difference  female  Cases  o f e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n .  Major Hypotheses:  Analysis  cases  s t u d y s u b j e c t s and on Form B,  1, 4 and 6 a r e a l l f e m a l e  cases  Form B.  U test  case  study  as m a l e s .  results  shown i n T a b l e 5 -  at the . 0 5 l e v e l Columbia  chose  o f con-  higher  paying  study subjects than f o r i d e n t i c a l  study s u b j e c t s .  73  TABLE 5 Sex,  Mean R e m u n e r a t i o n  Cases  Rank and S t a t i s t i c s  1 , 4 , 6 (Males v s . Females)  Cases  on  and on  2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  C a s e s 1,  4,  6  2,  3,  5  Cases Sex: Form A  M  F  Form B  F '  M  Mean Rank: Form A  73-09  46.75  Form B  41.91  68.25  Mann-Whitney: U:  736.0  1012.0  P:  0.000  0.001  Z:  - 5 . 0 4 5  -3.476  74  Hypothesis  2  There  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference  between the p r e r e q u i s i t e  educational requirements chosen  subjects  Analysis 6.  The n u l l  Columbia requisite female  Columbia  f o r female  and t h o s e  case study  of the data y i e l d e d  chosen  case  study  for identical  subjects.  the r e s u l t s  h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d .  d i d n o t chose  of occupations  by h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n  British  male  significant  shown i n T a b l e  Counsellors i n B r i t i s h  careers with a higher educational pre-  f o r male case s t u d y s u b j e c t s t h a n f o r i d e n t i c a l  case study  Hypothesis  3  subjects. There  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference  significant  between the l e v e l  vision required  f o r occupations  by h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s Columbia and  of super-  f o r female  chosen  in British  case study s u b j e c t s  f o r i d e n t i c a l male  case study  sub-  jects . Analysis 7.  The n u l l  o f the data y i e l d e d  the r e s u l t s  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d  confidence.  Counsellors i n B r i t i s h  quiring  s u p e r v i s i o n f o r male  for  less  female  case  study  subjects.  shown i n T a b l e  a t the .05 Columbia  l e v e l of  chose  jobs r e -  case study s u b j e c t s than  75  TABLE  6  Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s Cases 1 , 4 , 6  on  ( M a l e s v s . F e m a l e s ) and on  Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  C a s e s 1.  Cases  4,  6  2,  3,  5  Sex: Form A  M  F  Form  F  M  Form A  62.34  54.93  Form B  52.66  60.07  B  Mean Rank:  Mann-Whitney: U:  1348.5  P:  0.117  Z:  - 1 . 5 6 9  1478.0 0.406 - 0 . 8 5 2  76  TABLE  7  Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank  and. S t a t i s t i c s  on  C a s e s 1 , 4 , 6 ( M a l e s v s . F e m a l e s ) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females)  C a s e s 1,  4,  6  2,  3,  5  C a s e s Sex: Form A  M  F  Form B  F  M  Form A  70.85  47.72  Form B  44.15  67.28  Mean Rank:  Mann-Whitney: U: P: Z:  863.5 0.000 - 4 . 3 2 3  IO67.O 0.002 - 3 . 1 6 5  77  Secondary The  Hypotheses purpose of  the  two  s e c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s e s was  c o v e r f a c t o r s t h a t may  influence  o r be  tendencies revealed  the  major hypotheses.  by  three  v a r i a b l e s were c o u n s e l l o r s ^ (a)  Counsellor's  age  and  associated  family  to  with  disthe  The  two  structure.  age.  Hypothesis 4(a)  There cant  i s no  statistically  difference  assigned  to  i n remuneration  occupations  i d e n t i c a l m a l e and study subjects British 35 are Hypothesis 4(b)  o l d and  3 5 years  There cant  i s no  or  counsellors  are  There  i n the  by  C o l u m b i a who  prerequisite  o l d and or  cho-  female  counsellors are  less  counsellors  older.  statistically  signifi-.  d i f f e r e n c e between the  of s u p e r v i s i o n  than who  of occupations  3 5 years  i s no  in  signifi-  f o r i d e n t i c a l male and  than 3 5 years  cant  less  statistically  level  in British  Hypothesis 4(c)  are  counsellors  case study s u b j e c t s  who  case  older.  difference  education sen  by  chosen f o r  female  C o l u m b i a who  years  signifi-  required  for  level  78  occupations male and hy  chosen f o r  female  counsellors  who  identical  case study in British  subjects Columbia  l e s s than 3 5 years  are  counsellors  who  old  3 5 years  are  and  or  older. Analysis 8.  Table  The  of  the  null  d a t a y i e l d e d the  r e s u l t s shown i n  hypotheses r e l a t e d to  the  c o u n s e l l o r were a c c e p t e d f o r t h e  variables  t i o n and  i n Table 8 ,  no  supervision.  statistically  salary  level,  f o r m a l e and less  (b)  Family  level  of  i n the  and  was  by  counsellors  a statistically  educational  of  the  remunerathere  was  assigned  occupations  female case s t u d y s u b j e c t s of age  of  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  or s u p e r v i s o r y  However, t h e r e  difference  stated  significant  than 3 5 years  older.  As  age  chosen  counsellors 3 5 years  or  significant  level.  structure.  Hypothesis  5(a)  There cant  i s no  statistically  difference  assigned  to  i n remuneration  occupations  i d e n t i c a l m a l e and dy  subjects  British  family  counsellors  chosen f o r  female  counsellors  Columbia  "typical"  family  by  signifi-  case in  coming f r o m structure  stu-  a  or  coming from " a t y p i c a l "  structure.  79  TABLE 8 T a b l e o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s Under 3 5 and C o u n s e l l o r s 3 5 and O l d e r  Remuneration  Education  Supervision  Mean Rank: ^ 3 5 35  +  31.11  3 4 . 3 1  3 0 . 1 1  26.49  24.93  26.97  18  18  18  37  37  37  2 1 9 . 5  295.0  Subjects (n): -C35 35  +  Mann-Whitney: U:  277.0  P:  0 . 3 1 5  0.041  0.495  Z:  - 1 . 0 0 6  - 2 . 0 3 9  - 0 . 6 8 3  80 5(h)  Hypothesis  There cant  i s no  statistically signifi-  difference  education  i n the  level  of  prerequisite  occupations  chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l  m a l e and  male c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s lors a  fe-  by  counsel-  i n B r i t i s h Columbia coming  "typical"  counsellors  family from  structure  "atypical"  from  or family  structure. 5(c)  Hypothesis  There cant  i s no  statistically signifi-  d i f f e r e n c e between the  of s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r e d tions  chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l  female  from a  or c o u n s e l l o r s  Analysis Table  9-  of  the  A l l three  s t r u c t u r e were a c c e p t e d . was  no  ary  level,  occupations  family  by  structure  structure.  coun-  coming  structure  "atypical"  results  fam-  shown i n  hypotheses r e l a t e d to As  stated  level,  counsellors  i n Table  who  o r t h o s e from an  family  9>  there  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  or s u p e r v i s o r y  chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l  study subjects  and  structure.  statistically significant educational  family  from  d a t a y i e l d e d the null  by  i n B r i t i s h Columbia "typical"  occupamale  case study s u b j e c t s  sellors  ily  for  level  male and  level  female  come f r o m a "atypical"  salof  case  "typical" family  81  TABLE 9 Table Counsellors  from  o f Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r "Typical"  and " A t y p i c a l "  Remuneration  Family  Education  Structures  Supervision  Mean Rank: Typical  27.39  26.68  28.00  Atypical  30.75  33*95  28.00  Typical  45  45  45  Atypical  10  10  10  S u b j e c t s , (n) :  Mann-W h i t n e y : U:  197.5  165.5  P:  0.548  0.193  Z:  - 0 . 6 0 1  - 1 . 3 0 1  225.0 •  1.000 0.000  82  Summary Counsellors  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a when p r e s e n t e d  i d e n t i c a l m a l e and f e m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s tions with higher for  t h e male  levels  case study  case study s u b j e c t s . assigned  Counsellor's structure sellors'  o f r e m u n e r a t i o n and l e s s subjects  Levels  to the occupations  case study s u b j e c t s  lors  of p r e r e q u i s i t e  female  education  c h o s e n f o r t h e male and f e m a l e differences.  age ( u n d e r 3 5 ; 3 5 and o l d e r )  and f a m i l y  ( " t y p i c a l " and " a t y p i c a l " ) d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e tendencies  to discriminate  i n occupational  significant  difference  mean r a n k s f o r r e m u n e r a t i o n a n d s u p e r v i s i o n under 3 5 y e a r s and c o u n s e l l o r s  Counsellors "atypical"  from  "typical"  structures  significant education  occupa-  supervision  than f o r i d e n t i c a l  showed no s t a t i s t i c a l  T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y the  chose  with  also  differences  family  and s u p e r v i s i o n .  selection.  between  of  counsel-  3 5 y e a r s and o l d e r .  structures  d i d n o t show any  i n their  coun-  and t h o s e  from  statistically  mean r a n k s f o r r e m u n e r a t i o n ,  83  CHAPTER V  Conclusions  and D i s c u s s i o n  Women i n C a n a d a a r e f a c e d social  obstacles  to s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  An  area  is  the p o s s i b i l i t y  ally  of concern to those  detrimental  w i t h many i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d  that  i n the working  i nthe counselling  counsellors  world.  profession  t h e m s e l v e s may be p e r s o n -  to the s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  of t h e i r  female  clients. A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e f e m a l e s p e r m e a t e s many a s p e c t s p e a r t o be n e i t h e r b e t t e r - respect  to bias  against  cultural  there  Women who a s p i r e  females.  people i n  seem t o a s s i m i l a t e  One c u l t u r a l  norm i s t h a t  t o o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h have b e e n  against  these a s p i r a t i o n s .  medical school  C o u n s e l l o r s ap-  o c c u p a t i o n s f o r males and f o r f e m a l e s .  o f as m a s c u l i n e  counsellors  often  encounter c o u n s e l l o r  maladjustment  than t o t h e males.  to female  S c h l o s s b e r g and  (1970) a r r i v e d a t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n  counsellor  bias  exists  remuneration l e v e l s nature.  against  The m a s c u l i n e as w e l l  bias  Abramowitz, e t a l (1975), f o u n d  imputed g r e a t e r  aspirants  traditionally  Pietrofesa  operation."  against  As i s p r o b a b l y t r u e f o r  counsellors  thought  that  of society.  norms o f s o c i e t y .  are specific  bias  n o r worse t h a n o t h e r  most segments o f s o c i e t y , the  showed t h a t  women e n t e r i n g  occupations  a masculine  u s u a l l y have  as o f t e n b e i n g  Thus f o r a woman t o a t t e m p t  "that  higher  supervisory i n  t o improve h e r w o r k i n g  84  status  she  females  do  question  then  young g i r l s  Thomas and forming  the r i s k  of encountering  e n t e r i n g masculine  The ling  runs  goals  found  as more a p p r o p r i a t e  than  female  deviate  of and  c o u n s e l l i n g than Stewart study  a girl who  with  who  has  i s s u e was  were p r e s e n t e d  t h e r e was  goals.  What t h e n  paying  occupations  options?  on  Do  s i x case  careers.  The  exhibit  o r do  study  ago  and  the  girl  they A  to  subjects indi-  the  choose  case  c o u n s e l l o r s i n the  study Coun-  results  f o r male s u b j e c t s . .Donahue's s t u d y  p l e t e d three y e a r s  to  counsellors  t h a t a r e more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d f o r female  rated  Thomas  (1976).  The  c o u n s e l l o r s tended  less p r e r e q u i s i t e education  subjects than  The  female occupations?  data  appropriate  also  happens t o a  c o m p l e t e d by Donahue  with  careers)  more i n n e e d  a b i a s a g a i n s t f e m a l e s e x h i b i t e d by  counsellors.  in  t o be  con-  female  Counsellors  traditional  traditionally  school  quire  counsellors"?  traditional  goals.  career  counsel-  counsellors rated  career goals  with  as t o h e r  asked to s e l e c t  cated  school  encourage a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s  examining t h i s  and  chosing  deviate  those  against  of career  examined t h e b i a s c o u n s e l l o r s  encourage o n l y the  sellors  that  made a d e c i s i o n .  i s undecided  examine and  "What t y p e  r e c e i v e from h i g h  ( i . e . females  clients  bias  occupations.  arises,  (1971)  Stewart  this  high  lower  and  re-  study was  com-  study  worked  Michigan. Do  Sounsellors  females toward remuneration,  in British  traditional education  and  Columbia,  occupations  i n 1979,  guide  which r e q u i r e  supervision levels?  lower  Results  from  85  t h i s  study  Columbia s e l l o r s t i o n s than  i n d i c a t e  h o l d  an  f o r  had  the  f o r  lower  The  to  q u a l i f i e d  l y  on  they the  i n  d i f f e r e n t  l y  the  p r e s e n t  work  i n  a  men,  and  u t i l i z e  where  l e v e l s  study  s e l l o r s h i g h e r t h a t  a  work.  s u p e r v i s e d  work  f o r m a l  of  i n  This  i n  i s  t h i s  study,  p r e r e q u i s i t e The  chose  data  d i d  s u p e r v i s i o n ,  market.  tendency  t h e i r  case  c o n -  l a b o u r  males  than  to  f o r  e q u a l -  a t t e n t i o n  study  w o r l d  where  women  earn  which  s o l e -  s u b j e c t s ,  tended  to  r e f l e c t  women l e s s  do  seldom  than  not  f u l l y  t h a t  may  viewed  be  e d u c a t i o n ,  as  perhaps  everyone  who  f o r t h e y  male  and  even  females seldom  t h a t chose  i n  as  a c c e p t a b l e  s o c i a l l y as  they  r e f l e c t s  p o s s i b l y  can  i n  a  m i d d l e  w i l l  female  pursue  coun-  r e q u i r e d a  c a r e e r  n a t u r e .  stay a  w i t h  though  s u p e r v i s o r y  l o n g i t  o c c u p a t i o n s  i n d i c a t e d  o c c u p a t i o n s  was  choose f o r  or  t h a t  f o r  e d u c a t i o n  s a l a r y  Or  o c c u p a -  e d u c a t i o n .  h i g h  r o l e .  a  coun-  encourage  marked  o c c u p a t i o n s  e d u c a t i o n ,  an  more  the  w h i c h  where  f o r m a l  i t  i n  a  the  c h o i c e s  c a p a c i t y ,  and  f o c u s  of  of  t h a t  have  a t t i t u d e  i n t e r e s t s  s u b j e c t s .  l e v e l s  p a i d  men- to  of  women  sometimes  suggests  and  than  The  s u b j e c t s .  r o l e s  o c c u p a t i o n s  R a t h e r  s u p e r v i s o r y  C o u n s e l l o r s ,  case  of  B r i t i s h  s u b j e c t s ,  awareness,  showed  i n  women.  study  study  sex  study,  toward  l e v e l s  w i t h o u t  o c c u p a t i o n a l  w o r l d  t h e i r  s i m i l a r  t h i s  c o u n s e l l o r s  case  case  accepted  k i n d s  t a l e n t s  b i a s  female  male  f e m a l e s .  c o n s i d e r e d  s c h o o l  r e m u n e r a t i o n  perhaps  c u r r e n t l y  c o u n s e l l o r s  choose  the  i d e n t i c a l  C o u n s e l l o r s , f o r m i t y  h i g h  o c c u p a t i o n a l  s e l e c t e d ,  t h a t  t h a t  This f o r  wo-  dependent,  c l a s s h i g h e r  86  educational in  itself  development.  be  a specific  university  It  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s a n d t h e g o a l may n o t  career.  and m o t h e r .  The u n d e r l y i n g  and t h e n assume t r a d i t i o n a l  However, t h i s high  paying The  education  i n any s i g n i f i c a n t  would hold-more f l e x i b l e sex r o l e  ing world.  occupational  into  beliefs  characteristics  choice.  The  ( u n d e r 35 y e a r s o f  about  a female's  capa-  a n d p o s i t i o n i n t h e work-  I t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e b e l i e f s m i g h t n o t be r e -  the  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  35  o f women.  differences i n counsellor's  sex-typing  ference  and mother.  c o u n s e l l o r age  s t r i c t e d by t r a d i t i o n a l , data  i f at  skills.  concerning  a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t y o u n g e r c o u n s e l l o r s  bilities,  time,  the education  supervisory  hypothesis  a g a i n s t females and t h e i r  age)  h e l d by  may n o t be enough t o g a i n e n t r y  that u t i l i z e  subordinate  for a short  roles of wife  c o u n s e l l o r s support  jobs  not result  bias  assumption s t i l l  i s t h a t women work o n l y  appears t h a t  did  Women may be e n c o u r a g e d t o a t t e n d  t o meet e l i g i b l e m a l e s and t o a d d t o h e r v a l u e as  many p e o p l e all,  occupational  A g i r l may he e n c o u r a g e d t o p u r s u e a u n i v e r s i t y -  education  a wife  may become a g o a l  r a t h e r t h a n a means t o a d v a n c e d  positions. level  Thus, e d u c a t i o n  i n d i c a t e s there  of careers.  However,  significant  dif-  e x h i b i t e d by t h e y o u n g e r c o u n s e l l o r s when compared t o  a n d o v e r age g r o u p o n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f r e m u n e r a t i o n a n d  supervision. fight  I t appears that  the recent  s o c i a l focus  o n women's  f o r e q u a l i t y a n d i n c r e a s e d movement i n t o t h e l a b o u r  87 force  have h a d l i t t l e  Counsellors a negative An  i nBritish bias  influence  Columbia a p p a r e n t l y  family  structure  family  s t r u c t u r e was d e f i n e d  cially  supporting  o f work.  considered the  as a y o u n g c h i l d .  A  "typical"  a s f a t h e r w o r k i n g and f i n a n -  twelve years.  s t r u c t u r e w h i c h d i f f e r e d from i n d i c a t e d there  difference  continue t o hold  t h e f a m i l y , w h i l e mother remained  home f o r t h e f i r s t  study  of any age.  o n a woman's r o l e i n t h e w o r l d  a d d i t i o n a l subordinate hypothesis  counsellors  the  on c o u n s e l l o r s  i n the  " A t y p i c a l " was a f a m i l y  the " t y p i c a l . "  The r e s u l t s o f  was- no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  e x h i b i t e d by c o u n s e l l o r s  from  significant  either  family  structure. I t was t h o u g h t typing  are formulated  in a family not  that  s i n c e many n o t i o n s  i n early childhood,  hold  "atypical" beliefs  female c h a r a c e r i s t i c s and c a p a b i l i t i e s . Broverman, C l a r k s o n  and Rosenkrantz  ween m a s c u l i n e  and f e m i n i n e r o l e s .  as e n t a i l i n g g r e a t e r  Vogel,  (1970)  women o f employed m o t h e r s p e r c e i v e d  role  "typical"  family  systems.  A continuation  Broverman,  f o u n d t h a t men  They v i e w e d  bet-  the feminine  structure  t h a n d i d men a n d  Thus a v a r i a t i o n f r o m t h e  did result i n differences  of that reasoning  v a r i a t i o n f r o m t h e norm w o u l d p r o d u c e  tudes about male, female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . necessity  about male,  competency and m a s c u l i n e r o l e a s  women w i t h homemaker m o t h e r s .  by  raised  less difference  e n t a i l i n g more warmth a n d e x p r e s s i v e n e s s  any  counsellors  stereo-  s e t t i n g i n which t h e s e x r o l e s o f t h e p a r e n t s had  been " t y p i c a l " might  and  o f sex r o l e  h a s expanded h i s  was t h a t  i n belief perhaps  changes i n a t t i A single  or her role functions  parent and thus  88 the  role modelling  male, f e m a l e  f o r the  part the  "atypical" family  "broad a c a t e g o r y .  worked  Families  ( i . e . students;  time,  "atypical" family Schlossberg  influential  and  type on  of  and  level  jobs.  socially  Are  the  (1971)  Goodman  occupation  sellors, may  the  following. c u l a r case  researcher  against  factors.  t o be  that  A question  wo-  specific  did give  asking  This  the  by coun-  mayor"?  f a m i l y background  family  structure.  that  I t seem-  specific  if  useful.  t e n d e n c i e s noted i n the  study s u b j e c t s .  perceived  h y p o t h e s i s must be and  low  f o r women?  o f a woman as  i n the  t h a n the the  options  t h e m o t h e r , as  O c c u p a t i o n s c h o s e n were q u i t e  case s t u d i e s  was  s o c i o e c o n o m i c homes more  of c a r e e r  a t t i t u d e s of  more i n f l u e n t i a l  r e s u l t s are  the mother  C h i l d r e n w i t h mothers  "What w o u l d y o u r m o t h e r t h i n k  to the  or  young  t h a n were c h i l d r e n whose m o t h e r s had  critical  Some g e n e r a l  the  by  were l e s s b i a s e d  indicate attitudes prevalent  w o u l d be ed  are  found that w i t h  filled  aware o f a w i d e r r a n g e  child,  parents  structure.  c h i l d r e n from higher  Perhaps p a r e n t s or  have b e e n  both parents working f u l l  children's attitudes.  occupationally  s t r u c t u r e may  many more s i t u a t i o n s f i t i n t o  working at p r o f e s s i o n a l careers men  "typical"  i n which n e i t h e r  illness),  dead p a r e n t s ,  c h i l d r e n the  doesn't f i t the  categories.  In retrospect, too  child  d a t a were  similar for  conformity  enough i n f o r m a t i o n  s e l l o r s weren't g u e s s i n g w i l d l y , that  the  the  may so  parti-  indicate that  information  that  coungave  89  a  g e n e r a l  j e c t .  p i c t u r e  The  p a r t i c u l a r  study ed  r o l e s  l e v e l  Some  s i s t e n t  as  s a l e s  of  c l e r k ,  — p h y s i c i a n  was  C.A.  c h o i c e .  Another  c l e a r  p o p u l a r  i t  o f t e n  to  jobs  lower  l e v e l s  i n  n a t u r e .  Two unique. f i c a n t  s t u d i e s  of of  these  to  as  a  (3  and  s m a l l  subthe  the  c o n -  of  the  were  h a i r  case a s s i g n -  s t y l i s t ,  6)  from  has  a  on  o c c u p a t i o n a l  by  the  have  Or,  to  a  are  the  h i g h e r  shortage  of  s e m i -  of  a  l a c k  These  of  v a l u -  jobs  o f t e n  sometimes  be  of  three  e q u a l i t y  made  not  p r e r e q u i s i t e s  are  t o t a l a l l  s e m i - s k i l l e d  of  o c c u p a t i o n .  and  the  b i a s  because  s u p e r v i s i o n .  c h o i c e s  c l a s s  owner/  be  c a t e g o r y .  appear  the  to  d i d  t h a t  p o p u l a r i t y  b u s i n e s s  c o u n s e l l o r s  e d u c a t i o n a l  and  of  was  middle  of  l e v e l s  s e l e c t e d  today  d i f f e r e n c e  c a r e e r  i n  type  the  f r e q u e n t l y  perhaps  f o r m a l  two,  e d u c a t i o n was  the  remuneration  Only  s t a t i s t i c a l  a c c o r d i n g  of  and  s u b j e c t s such  the  s u p e r v i s i o n  Regardless  but  o f t e n  market  t h a t  s t u d i e s  there  not  workers  case  numeration,  and  obvious  women  i n  seemed  r e f l e c t i n g  of  l e v e l  h i g h  d i f f e r  i n c l u d e d  l a b o u r  acceptance  v i s o r y  determined  o c c u p a t i o n s  Perhaps  s k i l l e d  a  then  f a i r l y  t h a t  suggested,  category  s k i l l e d  have  to  a r c h i t e c t  The  or  p e r c e p t i o n  r e s e a r c h e r .  l e v e l  seldom  c h o i c e s  and  or  e d u c a t i o n  was  appeared  seemed  and  as  job  women  b i a s  the  low  e d u c a t i o n ?  i n g  by  w o r k e r s .  i d e a  and  of  s e c r e t a r y .  manager,'  s k i l l e d  men  c a p a b i l i t i e s  b i a s  remuneration,  observed  t r a d i t i o n a l  and  p e r s o n a l  c o u n s e l l o r s  Occupations  or  of  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  the  p e r s o n a l i t y  c o u n s e l l o r s *  o c c u p a t i o n a l  chosen.  of  For  s u p e r -  i n •some  s i x ,  had  way no  v a r i a b l e s these  between  two  the  c o u n s e l l o r s .  but  of  s i g n i = r e case  sexes Both  90 case  studies describe a person  capable  of better than  a b i l i t y w i t h an i n t e r e s t  i n t h e o r e t i c a l work.  slightly  t h e s u b j e c t i s d e s c r i b e d as a  unusual  "bookworm who peers." people  i n that  has a h a r d  time  Case 3 w o u l d a l s o and t h i n g s .  described  getting  with data than  t h e somewhat  do n o t f i t t h e s t e r o t y p i c  Case 6 i s  along with h i s / h e r  rather'work  Perhaps  average  eccentric  with  qualities  image o f t h e t y p i c a l  female. Broverman, e t a l agreed  as t o f e m i n i n e  valued  stereotypic  gentle, ful,  sensitive  etc.  (1968)',  items  subjects  traits.  Since these  traditionally  than  female s u c h as  of others, sociable,  those  two c a s e  female  are w i l l i n g  t h e s e somewhat  unique  s u b j e c t s were n o t  o c c u p a t i o n s f o r them.  females.  have b e e n r e g a r d e d  "different" The c a s e  as " d i f f e r e n t "  supervisory A final  select-  Perhaps  coun-  occupations to  study  s u b j e c t s , who  y e t capable,  a s s i g n e d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s o c c u p a t i o n s of remuneration,  female  counsellors avoided  t o encourage  tact-  d e s c r i b e d i n case s t u d i e s  study  f e m i n i n e , perhaps  ing t r a d i t i o n a l  were  of high  e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n s  t h a t were  i n nature. o b s e r v a t i o n was t h a t  c o u n s e l l o r s , when a s k e d client,  The  These a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e e t y p i c a l  3 and 6.  levels  clearly  consisted of a t t r i b u t e s  to the f e e l i n g s  are d i f f e r e n t  may  that  and m a s c u l i n e  qualities  sellors  found  stated  that  d e c i s i o n s f o r them.  some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  t o make o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e a b o u t  t h e y do n o t judge  c o u n s e l l e e s - o r make  Nevertheless, these  c o u n s e l l o r s do  a  91  provide  occupational  which information lors  information f o r counsellees  i s more a p p r o p r i a t e  have a t e n d e n c y t o  c h o o s e low  n e e d more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r f e m a l e in  this  research,  i t is likely  o f t e n choose c a r e e r paying  paying  t h a t the  Another s u b t l e form  jobs  f o r female  traditional  careers.  expressions  may  when t h e  this  bias  may  the  bias  the  nature  not  e v e n be  detected  i n the  i n this  or d i s c u s s  study  by  more  clients.  selective  female c l i e n t  discusses  accompanying f a c i a l  to the  female  client.  occupational  u n d o u b t e d l y has  some c o u n s e l l o r s  shown  lower  c o u n s e l l o r s awareness,  o f c o u n s e l l i n g r e c e i v e d by  objections raised  that  counsellor w i l l  These s u b t l e forms of b i a s a g a i n s t female choices  counsel-  t h a n f o r male  Body l a n g u a g e and  communicate  If  s u b j e c t s , as  o f c o u n s e l l o r b i a s w o u l d be  v e r b a l reinforcement  decide  occupations  case study  i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlets  nonsupervisory  positive  to s h a r e .  and  girls  an  effect  i n spite  contacted  However,  of  on  the  i n this  study.  Recommendations The  major l i m i t a t i o n  membership l i s t was  to  of t h i s  o b t a i n the  randomly s e l e c t e d from  high  Columbia be  on  limited.  school  the  As  the  the  of  The  a  sample  Counsellors  A s s o c i a t i o n doesn't  generalizability  improvement w o u l d be  use  population.  c o u n s e l l o r c u r r e n t l y working  its list, An  study  was  the B r i t i s h Columbia  A s s o c i a t i o n membership l i s t . every  study  of  have  in British the  results  t o have a sample  may  randomly  92 selected  from a l l working c o u n s e l l o r s .  The  r e s u l t i n g data  w o u l d t h e n be  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  results  t h e n be  to the whole  could  generalized  counsellors  A n o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n involves' the  additional information  the  personal  data  sheet.  sellors*  sex,  years  experience.  of  existing  counsellors sellors living  This  geographic  data.  living  information  lower mainland  "Are  m a l e s and  what p o r t i o n were f e m a l e s " ?  more i s o l a t e d  The  outside  outer  areas.  these  issues The  of t h i s  Post and  final data.  may hoc  add  The  r e s u l t s of  a n a l y s i s may data  on  Initially, the  d i d take p a r t  These c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l  coun-  than  those  levels  of  be  being  Association. i n these  t h r o w some l i g h t counsellor  on  bias.  t o make p r a c t i c a l counsellors  a g a i n s t women i n  A majority  their  the  of the  use  in  of the  study requested  s e n t a summary o f  of  areas  c o u n s e l l o r s must be  study.  i n the  i n these  more c o u n s e l l o r s  exhibit a bias  aware o f t h e  ",Are  Perhaps  Counsellors  r e s u l t s indicate that  choices.  a l l the  the m a j o r i t y  lower mainland"?  represent  to the  occupational  to  "Are  higher  "Did  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w o u l d be  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a do  s e l l o r s who  the  need t o b e l o n g t o t h e  membership l i s t  and  "What p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s were  geographically, counsellors  have a g r e a t e r  on  coun-  level  less biased  l e s s biased"?  live  includes  s u c h as  counsellors with  of  counsellors  the m a l e s / f e m a l e s " ?  education  respondents  analysis  a n a l y s i s w o u l d f u r t h e r add  just  i n the  elsewhere"?  from the  answer q u e s t i o n s  or  hoc  study  province.  location, educational  This  I t may  biased  obtained  post  and  made counresults.  results  93 of  this  study.  Articles  should  in  j o u r n a l s and magazines.  he p r e s e n t e d  for publication  The C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r a n d  B.C.T.F. a r e two examples o f p u b l i c a t i o n s c i r c u l a t e d involved  i n the f i e l d  of education.  communicating  these  s c h o o l boards  i n the province.  study  the  format o f workshops,  be  results,  taken.  and  their  With t h i s  occupational  n o t i f i c a t i o n of  be recommended  that action, i n  in-service, lectures,  roles.  As women p r e s e n t  and e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  lop. . A n e f f e c t i v e  theory  a theory  f o r career  range o f occupations  essity  of high  parent  families),  level  for  the lengthy  t h e home.  Not  only  t o deveexamine nec-  rate of s i n g l e  work s p a n p o s s i b l e f a r women, a n d child  An e f f e c t i v e  l o n g range  effective  c o u n s e l l i n g must  (rising  career  r e a r i n g and w o r k i n g  theory  o f y o u n g women w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e s e w e l l planned,  different  possible, the r e a l i s t i c  employment  a l t e r n a t e methods o f c o m b i n i n g outside  should  programs' w o u l d be t o r e d u c e  c o u n s e l l i n g o f y o u n g women c o u l d b e g i n  the widest  the various  a n d i n t e n s i v e l y examine t h e i s s u e o f women  needs, p r e s s u r e s career  i t should  The a i m o f t h e s e  counsellor bias  An a d d i t i o n a l method o f  f i n d i n g s w o u l d be t o n o t i f y  the  t o those  f o r career  unique  counselling  i s s u e s and a i d i n  options.  a r e i n - s e r v i c e workshops n e c e s s a r y  for  counsel-  f lors  currently"working  focus  should  i nBritish  be o n c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g .  w o r k s h o p o n women, t h e i r occupational for  those  Columbia but an a d d i t i o n a l  special  self-actualization  students  A course, or  needs a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o u l d become a r e q u i r e m e n t  involved i n career  counselling.  A  personal ful  focus  o n "biases a g a i n s t men o r women w o u l d be h e l p -  t o "bring t h e s e  included  a t t i t u d e s i n t o a w a r e n e s s and s h o u l d be  i n counselling training  In conclusion,  counsellors  study, did e x h i b i t a negative choice  of occupational  lower l e v e l s case study jects.  i nBritish  bias  roles.  a g a i n s t women i n t h e i r  t h a n f o r i d e n t i c a l male c a s e s t u d y  attitude reflects  rewarding p o s i t i o n s . effective, social  the current  e i t h e r sex.  ment t o u n b i a s e d  career  i s an e f f e c t i v e  I n order  with  market and l e s s t o be  c a n be  considered  must e x h i b i t a p o s i t i v e commit-  d e c i s i o n making.  first  sub-  c o u n s e l l o r s must c o n v e y t h e  range o f occupations  Counsellors  labour  i n lower paying  T h i s must change 1  change a g e n t s ,  message t h a t t h e f u l l  study  i n this  They s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s  where most women a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d  for  Columbia,  o f r e m u n e r a t i o n a n d more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r f e m a l e  subjects  This  centers.  step.  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Women's B u r e a u , I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, 1975* W o r k i n g Women.  64-74.  U.S. News a n d W o r l d R e p o r t ,  January  15, 1979,  Z y t o w s k i , D.G. Toward a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r women. P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , M a r c h 1969, 47,  660-664.  APPENDIX  A  L I S T OF COEFFICIENTS OF REMUNERATION, AND  EDUCATION  SUPERVISION FOR THE OCCUPATIONS  101  Occupations with  C o e f f i c i e n t s of  Remuneration, Education,  and  Supervision  Remuneration E d u c a t i o n Air  Traffic  Controller  Architect Automobile Sales  6  6  5  6  Manager  Bookkeeper  3  5 2  3  Carpenter  2  5  Chartered Computer  Supervision  Accountant  7  6  Programmer  Corporation  Executive  7  7  7  Director  Personnel  6  5  6  of  File  Clerk  1  2  1  Hair  Stylist  1  2  3  Head  Cook  3  2  5  7  7  7  3  5  7  7  5  3  5  Mayor Noncommissioned  Officer  Physician Registered Sales  Nurse  Clerk  1  '  1  2 6  School  Administrator  6  7  School  Teacher  3  6  Secretary  2  Semi-skilled  Worker  Service Station Skilled Small  Attendant  Worker  Business  Owner/Manager  3  3  5  2  1  1  1  5  5  3  6  7  Supervisor/Foreman  5  1  6  Unskilled  2  1  1  Waiter/Waitress  2  1  2  Welder  3  2  3  Worker  APPENDIX B  FORM A AND FORM B OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE  103 FORM A OF Air Traffic Controller Architect Bookkeeper Carpenter Chartered Accountant Computer Programmer Corporation Executive D i r e c t o r of Personnel F i l e Clerk Hair S t y l i s t Head Cook Mayor Non-commissioned O f f i c e r i n the M i l i t a r y Physician R e g i s t e r e d Nurse  THE  QUESTIONNAIRE Sales Clerk School Administrator School Teacher Secretary S e m i - s k i l l e d Worker Service Station Attendant S k i l l e d Worker S m a l l B u s i n e s s Owner/ Manager Supervisor/Foreman U n s k i l l e d Worker Waiter Waitress Welder  Directions feel your  From t h e o c c u p a t i o n s above, c h o o s e t h r e e c a r e e r s y o u are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each of the s u b j e c t s below. Write c h o i c e on t h e e n c l o s e d d a t a s h e e t . 1.  W i l l i e i s an E a s t I n d i a n "C" a v e r a g e s t u d e n t f r o m a disadvantaged neighborhood. H i s n o n v e r b a l I.Q. i s 112; h i s v e r b a l I.Q. i s 97. He i s t h e b e s t d a n c e r i n t h e s c h o o l and has a l s o done w e l l i n interscholastic athletics. He i s a c a p a b l e l e a d e r and has o r g a n i z e d two e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r g r o u p s , p r a c t i c a l l y without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n .  2.  Ann i s a g r g g a r i o u s y y o u n g woman who e n j o y s w o r k i n g with people. She e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d w o r k i n g as a volunteer i n a hospital. She r e c e i v e d 590 v e r b a l and 460 math on t h e S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t .(mean i s 500).  3.  R i t a i s a b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e s t u d e n t whose b e s t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s have b e e n i n b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y and a r t . She i s good i n a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g and spatial relations. V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t survey i n d i c a t e t h a t she p r e f e r s t o work w i t h d a t a r a t h e r than people or t h i n g s .  4-.  J o h n i s a q u i e t p e r s o n w i t h a few i n t e r e s t s . His' f u l l s c a l e I.Q. i s 92. He d o e s n ' t want more out of l i f e t h a n a d e c e n t wage and b e i n g l e f t a l o n e .  1C4 d i s l i k e s r l y r e l e v a n normal ra e r c e n t i l e l r e l a t i o n She admir .  o u t ng on s es  2  -  5.  B e t t y s o c i a l "bright 50th p s p a t i a T e s t . d o c t o r  t i n e and wants to c a r e e r . Her I.Q. e, but she o n l y s c math, m e c h a n i c a l on the D i f f e r e n t i a h e r f a t h e r who i s  f o l l o w a i s i n the o r e s at the a p t i t u d e l A p t i t u d e a m e d i c a l  6.  Joe i s a bookworm who has a h a r d t i m e g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h h i s p e e r s . He i s i n t e r e s t e d a n d capable of any k i n d of academic work and enjoys t h e o r e t i c a l work b e s t .  On t h e b a s i s of the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the case s t u d i e s , p l e a s e w r i t e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s you would choose f o r each case study s u b j e c t below and rank them i n order of c h o i c e .  ( W i l l i e )  Case  #1  (Ann)  Case  #2  ( R i t a )  Case  #3  (John)  Case  #4  (Betty)  Case  #5  (Joe)  Case  #6  Now d e s c r i b e -personal  p l e a s e check the r e s p o n s e s w h i c h most a c c u r a t e l y you on each of the s h o r t answer q u e s t i o n s on the d a t a _ s h e e t .  105  FORM B OF Air T r a f f i c Controller Architect A u t o m o b i l e S a l e s Manager Bookkeeper Carpenter Chartered. Accountant Computer Programmer Corporation Executive D i r e c t o r of Personnel File Clerk Hair S t y l i s t Head Cook Mayor Non-commissioned O f f i c e r i n the M i l i t a r y Physician  THE  QUESTIONNAIRE R e g i s t e r e d Nurse Sales Clerk School Teacher School Administrator Secretary S e m i - s k i l l e d Worker Service Station Attendant S k i l l e d Worker S m a l l B u s i n e s s Owner/ Manager Supervisor/Foreman U n s k i l l e d Worker Waiter Waitress Welder  Directions From t h e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e , c h o o s e t h r e e c a r e e r s you f e e l a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s b e l o w . W r i t e y o u r c h o i c e on t h e e n c l o s e d d a t a s h e e t . 1.  B e l i n d a i s an E a s t I n d i a n "C" a v e r a g e s t u d e n t f r o m a disadvantaged neighborhood. Her n o n v e r b a l I.Q. is 112; h e r v e r b a l I.Q. i s 9 7 . She i s t h e b e s t d a n c e r i n t h e s c h o o l and a l s o does w e l l i n i n t e r scholastic athletics. She i s a c a p a b l e l e a d e r a n d has o r g a n i z e d two e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r g r o u p s , p r a c t i c a l l y without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n .  2.  J o h n i s a g r e g a r i o u s young man who e n j o y s w o r k i n g with people. He e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d v w o r k i n g - a s a a volunteer i n a hospital. He r e c e i v e d 5 9 0 v e r b a l and 4 6 0 math on t h e S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t (mean i s 5 0 0 ) .  3.  Joe i s a b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e s t u d e n t whose b e s t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s have b e e n i n b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y and a r t . He i s good i n a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g and spatial relations. V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t surveys i n d i c a t e t h a t he l i k e s t o work w i t h d a t a r a t h e r t h a n p e o p l e and t h i n g s .  4.  B e t t y i s a q u i e t p e r s o n w i t h few i n t e r e s t s . Her f u l l s c a l e I.Q. i s 9 2 . She does n o t want more o u t of l i f e t h a n a d e c e n t wage and b e i n g l e f t a l o n e .  106  - 2 5.  S t e v e d i s l i k e s r o u t i n e and wants t o f o l l o w a s o c i a l l y relevant career. H i s I.Q. i s i n t h e b r i g h t n o r m a l r a n g e , h u t he o n l y s c o r e s a t t h e 50th p e r c e n t i l e on math, m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s on t h e DAT. He a d m i r e s h i s f a t h e r who i s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r .  6.  Ann i s a bookworm who has a h a r d t i m e g e t t i n g along with her peers. She i s i n t e r e s t e d and c a p a b l e o f any k i n d o f a c a d e m i c work and e n j o y s t h e o r e t i c a l work b e s t .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , p l e a s e w r i t e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s you w o u l d c h o o s e f o r e a c h c a s e s t u d y b e l o w and r a n k them i n o r d e r o f c h o i c e . ( B e l i n d a ) C a s e #1 (John)  C a s e #2  (Joe)  Case  #3  (Betty)  Case  #4-  (Steve)  Case  #5  (Ann)  Case  #6  Now p l e a s e c h e c k t h e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h m o s t a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e you on e a c h o f t h e s h o r t answer q u e s t i o n s on t h e personal.data•sheet.  APPENDIX C  LETTERS ACCOMPANYING THE QUESTIONNAIRE  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L  VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA  V6T 1W5 FACULTY OI EDUCATION :  Counselling  Psychology  January 3, 1979  Dear  Colleague:  As a c o u n s e l l o r educator a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I am i n v o l v e d i n s u p e r v i s i n g graduate student r e s e a r c h . Although I am unable t o r e v e a l t h e d e t a i l s of t h i s p r e s e n t p r o j e c t , I do want t o a s s u r e you t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h i s o f i n t e r e s t t o a l l o f us who a r e concerned w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I w i l l a p p r e c i a t e your c o o p e r a t i o n and thank you i n advance f o r your e f f o r t s t o complete t h i s r e s e a r c h . Sincerely,  Sharon E. Kahn, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology SEK/TMM Enclosures  109 1150 W. 29th Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6H 2E5 January 3 ,  1979  Dear Colleague: In order to complete some research of interest to our profession, I need data which only you can supply. Your name was randomly chosen from the membership l i s t of the B.C. Counsellors' Association. I would greatly appreciate your cooperation. Please read the s i x short sketches on the enclosed sheet and choose three career objectives from the l i s t of occupations which you f e e l i s most appropriate f o r each one. Write the careers on the enclosed sheet. As your time i s limited, the case studies have been kept short. Do not be concerned about possible incomplete data or spend an excessive amount of time deliberating. When several careers on the l i s t seem appropriate, narrow the choice down to three. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. You may use a career more than once. In addition to the career selections please check the appropriate responses on the personal data items. A l l i n formation w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . No information about i n d i v i d u a l counsellors w i l l be recorded or used, since this study only deals with groups of counsellors as a professional category, and i n no way compares one couns e l l o r with another. If you know a colleague who has also received a questionnaire, please don't discuss i t u n t i l after both of you have completed and returned i t . I f you wish to have a summary of the results of the study, please write your name and address on the enclosed 3 x 5 card and return i t with the data sheet i n the self-addressed stamped envelope. The entire task should take less than half an hour, i f you don't deliberate excessively. Since the success of this study depends on your cooperation, please do i t now. Thank you.  Alana  Schroeder  1150 West 29th Ave  Vancouver, V6H 2E5 J a n u a r y 29,  Dear  B.C. 1979  Colleague:  About t h r e e weeks ago I a s k e d y o u t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e by c h o o s i n g c a r e e r s f o r e a c h o f s i x s h o r t c a s e s t u d i e s and a n s w e r i n g some q u e s t i o n s a b o u t b a c k g r o u n d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f some c o u n s e l l o r s have a t e n d e n c y t o s e l e c t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f occupations. T h i s w o u l d be v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o u r p r o f e s s i o n s i n c e i n o r d e r t o c o u n s e l e f f e c t i v e l y , we must u n d e r s t a n d o u r own c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s tendencies. B e c a u s e o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l random s a m p l i n g restrictions I am u n a b l e t o ask someone e l s e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f you d o n ' t . I f you w o u l d a s s i s t me and o u r p r o f e s s i o n by t a k i n g a few m i n u t e s t o r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e I w o u l d g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e i t . I f y o u w i s h t o have a summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s , r e t u r n t h e e n c l o s e d 3 x 5 card w i t h y o u r name and a d d r e s s on i t . Sincerely,  APPENDIX D  PERSONAL DATA SHEET  112  PERSONAL DATA SHEET  under 3 5  My age i s :  35  I am:  and o v e r  male female  I hold:  l e s s t h a n b a c h e l o r degree bachelor up  degree  t o 10 u n i t s  beyond  10 o r more u n i t s  a bachelor, degree  beyond  a bachelor  beyond  a masters  degree masters  degree  10 o r more u n i t s degree Ed.D o r Ph.D. I  live:  i n lower mainland a r e a elsewhere  As  a young  child  (up t o age 12) f a t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y supported the f a m i l y w h i l e m o t h e r r e m a i n e d a t home family  I have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t t h a n above  years of counselling experience  v.  

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