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Counsellor bias in occupational choice for female students Schroeder, Alana Shirley 1979

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COUNSELLOR BIAS IN OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE FOR FEMALE STUDENTS by ALANA SHIRLEY SCHROEDER B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 © A l a n a S h i r l e y Schroeder, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 n a t p A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 7 9 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine i f h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would have a tendency to choose f o r females, jobs t h a t p a i d l e s s , r e q u i r e d l e s s e d u c a t i o n and more s u p e r v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , c o u n s e l l o r & s age and f a m i l y background were examined to see i f these v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to c o u n s e l l o r c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n f o r young women. I t was thought that a study of t h i s type was impor-t a n t to e s t a b l i s h i f an o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r b i a s a g a i n s t females does e x i s t , and then, to use t h a t data to b r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o c o u n s e l l o r s * awareness. This data would be u s e f u l f o r the improvement of both i n - s e r v i c e and u n i v e r s i t y -based c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n program. A random sample of 200 h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s from the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n were asked to ana-l y z e s i x case s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y designed and used by Donahue (1976). The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the student d e s c r i b e d i n each case study c o u l d d e s c r i b e e i t h e r a male or a female. Two forms c o n t a i n i n g i d e n t i c a l case study informa-t i o n were used. However, on the second form the sex designa-t i o n of each case study s u b j e c t was the opposite of the sex d e s i g n a t i o n on the f i r s t form. Thus, each case was presented to h a l f of the c o u n s e l l o r s i n the sample as a male student and to the other h a l f of the c o u n s e l l o r s i n the sample as a female student. P a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a l i s t of 28 o c c u p a t i o n s . These occupations had been p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n weighted c o e f -f i c i e n t s on a seven-point s c a l e f o r s a l a r y , l e v e l of p r e r e q -u i s i t e education, and f o r l e v e l of s u p e r v i s i o n . The coun-s e l l o r s were asked to choose three occupations f o r each case study s u b j e c t and rank these occupations i n order of p r e f e r -ence. The occupations were l a t e r a s s i g n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , on a s h o r t p e r s o n a l data sheet, enclosed w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , respondents were asked to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . The data were c o l l e c t e d over a seven week p e r i o d . S i x t y -nine per cent of the s u b j e c t s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and data s h e e t s . However, twelve per cent of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s r e t u r n e d were not i n usuable form. The data were analyzed u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U t e s t . The r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia c o u n s e l -l o r s i n the study tended to choose lower paying occupations t h a t are more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d f o r female case study sub-j e c t s than f o r male s u b j e c t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t -i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r these two v a r i a b l e s . There appeared to be no d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l s of p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n chosen f o r both male and female case study s u b j e c t s . The two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s of c o u n s e l l o r ' s age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e were found to be independent of and u n r e l a t e d to remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n l e v e l s chosen. C o u n s e l l o r s of a l l ages and types of f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s chose occupations f o r females t h a t p a i d l e s s and were more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d than the occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male case study s u b j e c t s . In c o n c l u s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h i s study h o l d the same o c c u p a t i o n a l b i a s e s toward women. They encourage, perhaps a t an unconscious l e v e l , c o n f o r m i t y to the c u r r e n t l y accepted sex r o l e s i n the labour market. These c o u n s e l l o r s showed a marked tendency to choose d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of occupations f o r males than f o r females. The occupa-t i o n s chosen perpetuate the c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n of women who earn l e s s than men, seldom work i n a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y and do not f u l l y u t i l i z e t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t , f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose of the Study 5 D e f i n i t i o n s 6 Hypotheses 6 I I R elated L i t e r a t u r e 9 Stereotypes 9 E f f e c t s of S t e r e o t y p i n g 1 6 Unique C o n f l i c t s Created by S t e r e o t y p i n g ... 2 0 E f f e c t s of Stereotypes on Occupations 2 7 Double Standards f o r Men and Women 3 1 II-I Methodology 3 9 P o p u l a t i o n and Sample 4 - 0 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 40 Developing the Occupation L i s t 42 C o e f f i c i e n t of remuneration 4 - 2 C o e f f i c i e n t of educ a t i o n 4 - 3 C o e f f i c i e n t of s u p e r v i s i o n 44 Occupation L i s t C o n s t r u c t i o n 46 V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y '. 4 - 7 C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y 4 - 8 Concurrent v a l i d i t y 5 2 P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y 5 2 R e l i a b i l i t y 5 3 C o l l e c t i o n of the Data 5 4 -Phase I - Major Hypotheses • 5 5 Phase I I - Secondary Hypotheses 5 6 Design and A n a l y s i s 5 8 Mann-Whitney U t e s t 6 0 v i Chapter Page IV R e s u l t s 6k The Sample ^ Qu e s t i o n n a i r e Responses 6 5 E q u i v a l e n c e of Forms 6 5 ( T O Major Hypotheses u o Secondary Hypotheses 7 7 Summary 82 V Conclu s i o n s and D i s c u s s i o n 83 Recommendations 91 References 9 5 Appendix A L i s t of C o e f f i c i e n t s of Remuneration, Educa-t i o n , and S u p e r v i s i o n f o r the Occupations .... 1 0 0 B Form A and Form B of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 0 2 C L e t t e r s Accompanying the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 0 7 D P e r s o n a l Data Sheet I l l v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Equ i v a l e n c e of Forms ( A l l Cases) 67 2 Sex, Mean Remuneration Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each of the S i x Cases (Form A'and Form B) 69 3 Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each of the S i x Cases (Form A and ; Form B) 70 4 Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each of the S i x Cases (Form A and Form B) 71 5 Sex, Mean Remuneration Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1,4,6 (Males v s . Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females) 73 6 Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1,4,6 (Males v s . Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s. Females) 75 7 Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1,4,6 (Males v s . Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s. Females) 76 8 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s Under 35 and C o u n s e l l o r s 35 and Older 79 9 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s from " T y p i c a l " and " A t y p i c a l " Family S t r u c t u r e s 81 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr. Kahn, Dr. R a t z l a f f , and Dr. Young, my t h e s i s committee, f o r t h e i r time, support and guidance. My mom, who gave me the r o l e model of a competent, working woman and encouraged me to atte n d u n i v e r s i t y . Gary, f o r the emotional support and "belief i n my a b i l i t i e s . J u s t i n e , f o r l i c k i n g a l l the stamps and s t u f f i n g envelopes. Ms. E r n e s t i n e Young, pas t P r e s i d e n t of B.C. C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r sending me the membership l i s t . Len Fern, North Vancouver Manpower manager, f o r encouraging h i s s t a f f to complete my r a t i n g s c a l e s . Dr. Nevison, and the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department, f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e toward the m a i l i n g expenses. B e r n i c e , my t y p i s t , f o r her competent, e f f i c i e n t work. CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n S t a t i s t i c s Canada (January 1 9 7 9 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t there are n e a r l y f o u r and o n e - t h i r d m i l l i o n women workers i n Canada, about bofo of the t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e . During the l a s t decade the number of women workers has i n c r e a s e d by 6 8 . 6 $ . U.S. News and World Report s t a t e d t h a t women were e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e a t a r a t e of two m i l l i o n a year i n the U.S. Women i n the U.S. and Canada are e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e at an ever i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , and y e t , women s t i l l have not escaped the st e r e o t y p e of "women's work." Nearly 8 0 $ of a l l working women are employed i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l , s a l e s , s e r v i c e or l i g h t f a c t o r y jobs. These s t a t i s t i c s suggest that many women continue to be v i c t i m s of job d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n . However, more than j u s t job d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . Many working women simply l a c k the education, t r a i n i n g or d e s i r e to q u a l i f y f o r h i g h e r .paying jobs. The lac k of p r e p a r a t i o n i s sometimes a s c r i b e d to the " C i n d e r e l l a Syndrome"—the b e l i e f by women t h a t they always w i l l be supported by men. Surveys show that young women g e n e r a l l y underestimate how much f u t u r e l i v e l i h o o d s w i l l depend upon jobs of t h e i r own. Yet, S t a t i s t i c s Canada ( 1 9 7 6 ) , r e p o r t s that 4 6 4 , 3 ^ 5 f a m i l i e s , almost h a l f a m i l l i o n , are headed by a woman. In 1 9 7 7 U.S. News and World Report s t a t e d t h a t among 1 2 f u l l time workers, median earnings f o r women t o t a l e d $ 8,818, j u s t 5 8 . 9 % of the $ 1 4 , 6 2 6 median earned by men. S t a t i s t i c s Canada ( 1 9 7 9 ) doesn't have i n f o r m a t i o n on separate c a t e g o r -i e s f o r men and women. I t does r e p o r t i n d u s t r y e a r n i n g s -c o n s t r u c t i o n , $ 1 8 , 9 0 7 . 6 8 per year; mining, $ 2 0 , 1 7 1 . 2 0 < « -These two i n d u s t r i e s are predominantly f i l l e d by men, where-as s e c r e t a r i e s earn $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 and nurses $ 1 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 - - b o t h these c a t e g o r i e s are predominantly f i l l e d by women. The b a s i c reason f o r the gap i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n . Most men are employed i n high e r paying occupations; most women work i n lower paying jobs. T h r e e - f o u r t h s of a l l working women are employed i n s e r v i c e s , f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e , r e t a i l t rades and l i g h t f a c t o r y work--what s o c i o l o -g i s t s c a l l the " g i r l s ' ghetto." Men, meanwhile dominate c o n s t r u c t i o n , mining, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and heavy manufactur-i n g . Even i n i n d u s t r i e s where women h o l d a m a j o r i t y of the jobs, they are seldom bosses. In banking, women h o l d more than 80% of the c l e r i c a l jobs and l e s s than 2 0 % of the managerial p o s i t i o n s . Why are the m a j o r i t y of women concentrated i n these low s t a t u s occupations? What s o c i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s i n h i b i t c a r e e r options f o r women? A major f o r c e l i m i t i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e d e f i n i t i o n of women are sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . Women's r o l e s - - o n t e l e v i s i o n , i n the classroom and i n the f a m i l y have been s t e r e o t y p e d . Women are r e p e a t e d l y p o r t r a y e d as "mothers w i t h aprons on," or 3 they are shown p r i m a r i l y as nurses, l i b r a r i a n s , w a i t r e s s e s , t e a c h e r s , b e a u t i c i a n s , and telephone o p e r a t o r s . These are deep r o o t e d a t t i t u d e s t h a t take a long time to change and they l i m i t women to t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . The development of these a t t i t u d e s l i n k i n g c e r t a i n occupations w i t h one sex or the other begins e a r l y i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . Brady and Brown (.1973) examined sex d i f f e r e n c e s of 8-and 1 0-year-old boys and g i r l s on s e l e c t e d v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s . They found t h a t boys scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than g i r l s on the number of v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and th a t 62$ of 8-year-old g i r l s and 56$ of 1 0-year-old g i r l s chose teacher, nurse,-or housewife' as an o c c u p a t i o n . The authors concluded t h a t g i r l s b e g i n to o c c u p a t i o n a l l y l i m i t themselves by 8 years of age and t h a t 8-and 1 0-year-old g i r l s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l goals are conc e n t r a t e d on n u r t u r a n t and possible sex-typed c a r e e r g o a l s . S c h l o s s b e r g and Goodman (1971) f u r t h e r examined c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p i n g as i t a p p l i e s to s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . The data i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t e r e o t y p i n g from k i n d e r g a r t e n to s i x t h grade, the c h i l d r e n were more ready to exclude women from men's jobs than to exclude men from women's jobs and w i t h few exceptions, the c h i l d r e n chose jobs f o r themselves t h a t f a l l w i t h i n the u s u a l s t e r e o t y p e s . I t seemed the c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e d a woman's p l a c e was i n c e r -t a i n s p e c i f i e d occupations and by c o n t r a s t , they d i d not f e e l t h a t men had to be s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d . 4-Women are l i m i t e d by these s o c i a l l y approved job op t i o n s as w e l l as by negative s t e r e o t y p e s of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . Men are p e r c e i v e d to be "competent" and women p e r c e i v e d to have a r e l a t i v e absence of the t r a i t s which comprise com-petency. R e l a t i v e to men, women were s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y p e r -c e i v e d to be dependent, s u b j e c t i v e , p a s s i v e , noncompetitive and i l l o g i c a l (Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman, 1968). As a r e s u l t of s o c i e t y ' s negative b i a s a g a i n s t women, women have a lower l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m (Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman, 1963). This has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l development. Putnam and Hansen (1972) have documented t h a t t h i s lower s e l f -esteem corresponds to a lower v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y l e v e l . Young women have d i f f i c u l t y v i e w i n g a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the world a t work and have many v o c a t i o n a l p r o -blems based on r e a l needs and concerns which d i f f e r from those of men. Some of these c o n f l i c t s centre around the concept of feminine r o l e and p e r s o n a l c a r e e r ambitions. * V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h young women must explore a l l c a r e e r options and i n c l u d e the s p e c i a l needs of each woman. "Are c o u n s e l l o r s f r e e from t h i s n e g a t i v e b i a s a g a i n s t women"? How can c o u n s e l l o r s examine a l l c a r e e r options i f they themselves ho l d p e r s o n a l b i a s e s a g a i n s t women? St u d i e s by M a s l i n and Davis (1975). and S c h l o s s b e r g and Pietrofesa - (1970), a r r i v e d a t the same c o n c l u s i o n , " t h a t c o u n s e l l o r b i a s e x i s t s a g a i n s t women e n t e r i n g a masculine o c c u p a t i o n . " '"Are counsellors i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x h i b i t i n g t h i s same b i a s a g a i n s t women"? There has been no r e s e a r c h on c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which examines sex r o l e b i a s . C l e a r l y , the r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to e a r l y a t t i t u d i n a l development of sex a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r c h o i c e s i n d i c a t e s the p e r v a s i v e q u a l i t y of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . I f the c a r e e r e x p l o r a -t i o n process i s to counter such s t e r e o t y p i n g , i t must con-vey the message t h a t the f u l l range of occupations can be c o n s i d e r e d f o r e i t h e r sex. Counsellors must convey a p o s i t i v e commitment to unbiased c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia high s c h o o l c o u n s e l -l o r s was a step toward t h i s end. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of t h i s study was- to determine whether counsellors i n secondary s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia share the sex b i a s a t t i t u d e s p r e v a l e n t i n our North American c u l t u r e . A second purpose of the study was-to i n v e s t i g a t e counsellor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may c o n t r i b u t e to high s c h o o l counsellors l i m i t i n g the kinds of occupations to be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e i r female c l i e n t s . I t was hoped t h a t the r e s u l t s of t h i s study would make counsellors more aware of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t may a f f e c t t h e i r counselling w i t h females and t h a t t h i s awareness would allow them to con-s i d e r the f u l l range of occupations f o r both sexes. 6 D e f i n i t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g terms were d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r use i n t h i s study. Androgynous. Having the presence of both feminine and masculine t r a i t s i n ones' range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . Negative B i a s . As used i n t h i s study, negative b i a s i s the tendency of a counsellor to guide females, e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , toward occupations t h a t r e q u i r e l e s s education, pay lower s a l a r i e s and r e q u i r e more s u p e r v i s i o n than those occupations to which males are guided. T y p i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . F a ther who works and f i n a n -c i a l l y supports the f a m i l y , mother who remains i n the home earning no income as a f u l l time housewife dur-i n g the f i r s t twelve years of the c h i l d ' s ( c h i l d r e n ) home l i f e . A t y p i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . Any f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e t h a t v a r i e s from the t y p i c a l norm. Hypotheses The main hypothesis of t h i s study was.that h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia l i m i t , whether c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the kinds of occupations they c o n s i d e r i n g u i d i n g female students toward c a r e e r c h o i c e s . In more s p e c i f i c terms, t h e r e were three areas which t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d . Hypothesis 1 High s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l s e l e c t lower paying occupations f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t -i c a l male case study s u b j e c t s as measured by a c a r e f u l l y developed co-e f f i c i e n t of remuneration. Hypothesis. 2 High s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l s e l e c t occupations t h a t r e q u i r e l e s s edu-c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t -i c a l male case study s u b j e c t s as measured by a c a r e f u l l y developed co-e f f i c i e n t of e d u c a t i o n . Hypothesis 3 High s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l s e l e c t occupations t h a t r e q u i r e more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r the i d e n t i c a l male case study s u b j e c t s as measured by a c a r e f u l l y developed co-e f f i c i e n t of s u p e r v i s i o n . 8 I f counsellors do have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to choose lower paying jobs t h a t r e q u i r e l e s s e d u c a t i o n and more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r females, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t some counsellors would have a s t r o n g e r p r e d i s p o s i t i o n than o t h e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , coun-sellors who have a tendency to d i s c r i m i n a t e may share c e r -t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Subordinate hypotheses explored two of these d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could be added to some of thekknown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; the g o a l being to b e g i n d e v e l o p i n g a p e r s o n a l p r o f i l e of a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c o u n s e l l o r . The s ubordinate hypothesesrwere: Hypothesis 4 Counsellors under 35 are l i k e l y to d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t females l e s s than counsellors 35 years of age and o l d e r . Hypothesis '5 Counsellors from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y background w i l l be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t females than counsellors from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y background. 9 CHAPTER I L Related L i t e r a t u r e Stereotypes I n North American s o c i e t y stereotypes o u t l i n e a woman's personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , her appropriate feminine r o l e and the v o c a t i o n a l options s u i t a b l e f o r her. These stereotypes are l i m i t i n g f o r the personal growth of women as they sup-port a negative b i a s toward females. Fernberger (1948) i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s a s c r i b e d to men and women and concluded that not only are these stereotypes pervasive i n our c u l t u r e but i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to overcome the s o c i a l patterns and stereotyped opinions regarding male and female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r , Fernberger had completed a l e c t u r e i n the elementary psychology course on race and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n which he s t r e s s e d that many such supposed d i f f e r e n c e s had not been experimentally demonstrated f o r e i t h e r race or sex. A t e s t was then g i v e n i n groups to 217 undergraduates who had had the l e c t u r e on sex d i f f e r e n c e s only a few days before. The m a j o r i t y of the undergraduates b e l i e v e d men are more i n t e l l i g e n t than women. The opinions were th a t men are more i n t e l l i g e n t , more crude, more de-pendent on the opposite sex and that they have a l l - r o u n d s u p e r i o r i t y . On the other hand, women were b e l i e v e d to be 10 the cause of t r o u b l e , to t a l k too much, and to be more sen-s i t i v e . The s o c i a l bases of these s t e r e o t y p e s seem u n i v e r s a l i n our c u l t u r e and experience such t h a t a l e c t u r e which s t r e s s e d no fundamental p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes had l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on the ..'subjects' b e l i e f s . I t may be t h a t many of these o p i n i o n s have an emotional back-ground such t h a t a p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l appeal would have l i t t l e e f f e c t i n changing such o p i n i o n s . I f such s t e r e o -types are to be e l i m i n a t e d , Fernberger f e l t the appeal must be emotional as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l . S h e r r i f f s and J a r r e t t ( 1 9 5 3 ) continued r e s e a r c h i n t o the c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p i n g of men and women. Given a l a r g e number of behaviors and a t t i t u d e s , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to s t a t e whether each item most a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d men or women. The r e s u l t s showed remarkable agreement between the s u b j e c t s as to which behaviors and a t t i t u d e s c h a r a c t e r -i z e men, and b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e • women. This p a t t e r n of g e n e r a l t r a i t s which are a s c r i b e d to each sex form the b a s i s of s t e r e o t y p e s . S h e r r i f f s and McKee ( 1 9 5 7 ) attempted to c o n s t r u c t a s c a l e comprised of a l a r g e r sample of t r a i t s . They f e l t the s c a l e would be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and show i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards males and females. The authors used S a r b i n ' s ( 1 9 5 5 ) "two hundred a d j e c t i v e check l i s t as a source of items. T h i s check l i s t i s w i d e l y agreed to i n c l u d e many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t 11 aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y and i t was not s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d to evaluate males and females. S u b j e c t s were asked to l i s t t e n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of men and ten of women. The authors' main purpose was to answer the q u e s t i o n "Is the r e r e a l l y a d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree to which members of American s o c i e t y esteem men and women"? Su b j e c t s responded to the a d j e c t i v e check l i s t under f o r c e d and f r e e choice c o n d i t i o n s . Another group of s u b j e c t s responded to two forms of a r a t i n g s c a l e , one of which i n c l u d e d a n e u t r a l p o i n t and one of which d i d not. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more s u b j e c t s t h i n k more h i g h l y of males than of females. On the average both men and women a s c r i b e d s i g n i f -i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s to males. Women, but not men, a s c r i b e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r number of unfavorable a d j e c t i v e s to females than males. In both the experimental designs--both open and f o r c e d c h o i c e - -the data i n d i c a t e d i n every case t h a t males were regarded more f a v o r a b l y than females. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s u b j e c t s w i l l , i f g i v e n a chance, deny p a r t i a l i t y f o r e i t h e r sex. S h e r r i f f s and McKee f e l t t h a t perhaps the c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s had a veneer of e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m o v e r l y i n g t h e i r more f i r m l y , e s t a b l i s h e d b e l i e f s . They a l s o f e l t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards women may then take many s u b t l e forms and may not even be i n one's awareness. A fol l o w - u p study by S h e r r i f f s and McKee (1957) attempted to examine q u a l i t a t i v e l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which men and women a s c r i b e to themselves and to each o t h e r . The r e s u l t s 12 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s both men and women a s c r i b e d to women c o n t a i n , two or p o s s i b l y t h r e e , g e n e r a l themes. The f i r s t might be c a l l e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of a l a d y — t h e t r a i t s em-' phasize s o c i a l s k i l l s and grace, another theme was warmth and emotional support. The f i n a l theme i n c l u d e d the words " s e n s i -t i v e , " "dreamy," " a r t i s t i c , " and r e l i g i o u s " which gave the impre s s i o n of some s o r t of concern f o r the s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a -t i o n s of experience. I n a d d i t i o n , women were regarded as g u i l t y of snobbery, and be i n g i r r a t i o n a l , unpleasant and emotional. I n g e n e r a l , male s u b j e c t s p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized men's d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and female s u b j e c t s emphasized womens' n e u r o t i c i s m . The d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d to men were t h a t men are considered f r a n k and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r a t i o n a l and competent, and b o l d and e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h the environment. Men's u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to excesses of these t r a i t s . The s u b j e c t s were asked to check from among the l i s t of a d j e c t i v e s those a d j e c t i v e s which they f e l t to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of themselves. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t both men and women chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r numbers of a d j e c t i v e s from the se x - a p p r o p r i a t e s t e r e o t y p e . This tendency was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r among women. S h e r r i f f s and McKee concluded t h a t women appear to have a g r e a t e r tendency to conform to social/ e x p e c t a t i o n s or t h a t women are more e f f e c t i v e l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l • r o l e than men. 13 Eleven-years l a t e r Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman (1968) developed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to assess i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s of " t y p i c a l " masculine and "feminine" behavior. Items on which the s u b j e c t s had 75% agreement were then termed s t e r e o t y p i c of e i t h e r masculine or feminine t r a i t s . The masculine p o l e s o f v a r i o u s items were more o f -ten c o n s i d e r e d to be more s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e than the f e m i -nine p o l e s . The male value items s e e m e d l t o ^ r e f l e c t a "competency" c l u s t e r . Included i n the c l u s t e r were a t t r i -butes such as being independent, o b j e c t i v e , a c t i v e , competi-t i v e , l o g i c a l , s k i l l e d i n b u s i n e s s , w o r l d l y , adventurous, able to make d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , always a c t i n g as a l e a d e r , and ambitious. A r e l a t i v e absence of these t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n of women; th a t i s , r e l a t i v e to men, women were p e r c e i v e d to be depen-dent, s u b j e c t i v e , p a s s i v e , noncompetitive, i l l o g i c a l , e t c . The female-valued s t e r e o t y p i c items c o n s i s t e d of a t t r i b u t e s such as g e n t l e , s e n s i t i v e to the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , t a c t -f u l , r e l i g i o u s , neat, q u i e t , i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t and l i t e r a -t u r e and able to express tender f e e l i n g s . These items are r e f e r r e d to as the "warmth and ex p r e s s i v e n e s s " c l u s t e r . S u b j e c t s i n the' Rosenkrantz et a l (1968) study c l e a r l y agreed as to feminine and masculine t r a i t s , these s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s (competent and independent f o r males, warm and pa s s i v e f o r females) d e s c r i b e not only p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s but a l s o i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e responses to s i t u a t i o n s . These In-a p p r o p r i a t e responses are sex a p p r o p r i a t e and w e l l known to the North American c u l t u r e . Lunnenborg ( 1 9 6 9 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d s t e r e o t y p i c t h i n k i n g i n r e l a t i o n to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y . The Edwards P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory was s e l e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t instrument f o r i t rep r e s e n t e d a f a i r l y up-to-date, system-a t i c survey of important normal p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . Subjects were i n s t r u c t e d to p r e d i c t the response of the t y p i c a l male or female f o r the purpose of comparing these responses w i t h the r e s u l t s of s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n i n a compar-able sample. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t s t e r e o t y p e d responding both exaggerated e x i s t i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s and c r e a t e d d i f -f e r e n c e s which males and females d i d not normally acknow-ledge. The f i v e s c a l e s which o r i g i n a l l y d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e the sexes i n the s e l f r e p o r t c o n d i t i o n but d i d under s t e r e o -type i n s t r u c t i o n s were; plans and or g a n i z e s t h i n g s (higher f o r women), p e r s i s t e n t ( h i g h e r f o r men) , c a r e f r e e (higher f o r men), wo r r i e s about making a good impression on others (higher f o r women), and l i k e s to be alone ( h i g h e r f o r men). When s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to respond as one sex or the other to Edwards p e r s o n a l i t y items t h e i r judgments were n e i t h e r random nor m i r r o r s of s e l f - d e s c r i b e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Rather, a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were g r e a t l y exaggerated and where there were none, they were c r e a t e d . These judgments, f o l l o w i n g from i n -s t r u c t i o n s to respond i n terms of p e r s o n a l s t e r e o t y p e of 15 w h a t i s m a s c u l i n e a n d w h a t i s f e m i n i n e , s u g g e s t t h a t s u c h s t e r e o t y p e s a r e q u i t e e x t e n s i v e a s o n l y o n e s c a l e o f f o u r -t e e n r e m a i n e d u n a f f e c t e d . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s e x s t e r e o ^ t y p e s r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y a r e t h e s a m e f o r c o l l e g e m e n a n d w o m e n , t h a t i s , f e m a l e s d e s c r i b e m a l e s i n e x a c t l y t h e s a m e w a y s a s m a l e s d e s c r i b e o t h e r m a l e s a n d v i c e v e r s a . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f p r e v i o u s s t e r e o -t y p i n g r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t w h a t i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d b y t y p i c a l M a l e a n d F e m a l e s c a l e s i s d e t e r m i n e d i n p a r t b y s t e r e o t y p e d n o t i o n s o f s e x d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e s e n o t i o n s a r e v e r y p e r v a s i v e i n o u r c u l t u r e . N o t o n l y a r e t h e y p e r v a s i v e b u t b o t h s e x e s a r e i n a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n b e a n d a r e a s c r i b e d t o m e n a n d w o m e n ( S h e r r i f f s a n d J a r r e t t , 1953)* A s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e f a v o r a b l e q u a l i t i e s s u c h a s b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t , c o m -p e t e n t , s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , a c t i v e , a c t i n g a s a l e a d e r , a b l e t o m a k e d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , . a r e d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g t y p i c a l l y m a l e . A r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e o f t h e s e t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n o f w o m e n . T h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s w a s t h a t m e n a r e m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t a n d h a v e a l l r o u n d s u p e r i o r i t y w h e n c o m p a r e d t o f e m a l e s ( F e r n b e r g e r , 1 9 4 8 ; R o s e n k r a n t z e t a l , 1 9 6 8 ; S h e r r i f f s a n d M c K e e , 1957). H o w e v e r , t h i s b e l i e f s y s t e m i s n o t a l w a y s o b v i o u s t o s u b j e c t s o r e v e n i n a w a r e n e s s . W h e n d i r e c t l y a s k e d , s u b j e c t s w i l l d e n y a n y p r e -f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r s e x ( S h e r r i f f s a n d M c K e e , 1956). A n o t h e r e l e m e n t i s t h a t w o m e n w e r e f o u n d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e u n f a v o r -a b l e o r n e u r o t i c q u a l i t i e s o f f e m a l e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t 16 than do males. So i t appears t h a t women, perhaps to a g r e a t -er degree than men, have a negative view of "both the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s which a woman i s "believed to have and her feminine r o l e i n our c u l t u r e . Women, although g i v i n g support to t h i s n e g a t i v e "bias of themselves, showed a g r e a t e r tendency to conform to s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e s c r i b e d themselves i n sex r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e terms (Rosenkrantz, et a l , 1968). E f f e c t s of S t e r e o t y p i n g As sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s c o n s t i t u t e s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r sex a p p r o p r i a t e behavior, these s t e r e o t y p e s serve as p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e s f o r woman's p e r s o n a l growth. A womanis s e l f - c o n c e p t appears to be i n f l u e n c e d by the negative s o c i a l values attached to female t r a i t s . Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman (1963), u s i n g c o l l e g e students and a st e r e o t y p e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; found t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s continued to be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and h e l d i n agreement by both c o l l e g e men and women. Despite the p r o f e s s e d and l e g a l e q u a l i t y of sexes, both men and women agreed t h a t a g r e a t e r number of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviors s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a s c u l i n i t y were more s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e than those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e m i n i n i t y . And, f i n a l l y , the s e l f - c o n c e p t of men and women are ve r y s i m i l i a r to the r e s p e c t i v e s t e r e o t y p e s . I n the case of the s e l f - c o n c e p t s of women t h i s means, presumably, that,women a l s o h o l d nega-t i v e v a l u e s of t h e i r worth r e l a t i v e to men (Rosenkrantz et a l , 1963)• Baruch ( 1 9 7 2 ) used the same Sex Role Stereotype Ques-tionnaire developed by Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman to obtain a self-rating of competence to com-pare with self-esteem as measured by Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. The results indicated that general self-esteem and self-ratings of competence were related. Eval-uation of self as competent clearly is important to feminine self-esteem. For women the attainment and maintenance of a high level of self-esteem Is a more d i f f i c u l t and complex task than for men, as the traditional feminine sex role standard does not endorse competence related traits such as ambition, competition and aggression. /-Also'.women con-sistently underate themselves in many areas as compared with both men and with their own actual a b i l i t i e s . Goldberg, Pheterson and Kiesler ( 1 9 7 1 ) devised a study in which women were asked to judge paintings created by men and women. Some paintings were said to be entries in art competitions, others were said to have already won prizes. The subjects were 1 2 0 female college students who were presented with the eight paintings; sex of the ar t i s t , status of the paint-ing and a brief background of personal d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the artist, were the variables. The results indicated that women evaluted female entries in a contest less favor-ably than identical male entries, but female winners, equal-ly to identical male winners. This implies that the work 18 of women i n c o m p e t i t i o n i s devalued by other women. Even work t h a t i s e q u i v a l e n t to the work of a man w i l l be judged i n f e r i o r u n t i l i t r e c e i v e s s p e c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n . Goldberg et a l (1971), argued t h a t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e data r e f l e c t e d the d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s which women ('or men) have about men and women. That i s , a woman w i l l probably be l e s s com-petent and her accomplishments fewer than a man, although she may be as c r e a t i v e and c e r t a i n l y as "emotional." Such a n a l y s i s i m p l i e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s were not r e a l l y judging the a r t i s t s or p a i n t i n g s at a l l , but were simply e x p r e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s they h e l d p r i o r to the study. Women, then, when confronted w i t h another woman who i s t r y i n g to succeed i n some endeavor, w i l l assume t h a t she i s l e s s motivated, l e s s expert or simply l e s s f a v o r e d by o t h e r s . These assumptions are based on the negative b i a s a g a i n s t women i n our c u l t u r e . A f a c t o r which has been found to i n f l u e n c e the per-c e p t i o n of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i s maternal employment. I t has been argued t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c sex r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s may be i n f l u e n c e d by the degree of a c t u a l sex r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n a g i v e n f a m i l y or s o c i e t y . Maternal employment was f e l t to be a key f a c t o r i n determining the degree of r o l e d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n t h a t occurs between p a r e n t s . I f the f a t h e r i s employed o u t s i d e the home, w h i l e the mother remains a f u l l time homemaker, t h e i r r o l e s are c l e a r l y p o l a r i z e d f o r the c h i l d . On the other hand, i f both parents are employed o u t s i d e the home, t h e i r r o l e s are more l i k e l y to be p e r c e i v -ed as s i m i l i a r . A c h i l d growing up i n a f a m i l y w i t h a 19 working mother, t h e r e f o r e should experience l e s s p a r e n t a l sex r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n than would a c h i l d w i t h a non-working mother. A c h i l d growing up i n an " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . s i n g l e parent) should a l s o experience l e s s p a r e n t a l sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n than a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c -ture . Harley (1964-) reported t h a t the mother's employment status does, i n f a c t , i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of sex r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Daughters of working mothers see adult men and women as sh a r i n g more i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s than do daughters of nonworking mothers. Vogel, Broverman, Broverman, Clarkson and Rosenkrantz (1970) explored the g e n e r a l i t y and p e r s i s t e n c e of t h i s e f f e c t "by examining the s t e r e o t y p i c sex r o l e perceptions of college-aged men and women w i t h working versus nonworking mothers. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d both men and women who are c h i l d r e n of employed mothers perceive s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between the masculine and feminine r o l e s , on both the s t e r e o t y p i c and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g items, than d i d men and women who are the c h i l d r e n of homemaker mothers. The daughters of working mothers perceived both the masculine r o l e and the feminine r o l e as l e s s extreme and they perceived l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between the r o l e s w i t h respect to competency. These daughters of working mothers perceived the feminine r o l e i t s e l f as e n t a i l i n g greater competency than d i d women w i t h homemaker mothers. The masculine r o l e was perceived by sons of working mothers as e n t a i l i n g more warmth and 20 e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . The r e s u l t s support the hypothesis t h a t sex r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by a c t u a l p a r e n t a l r o l e b ehaviors t o which c h i l d r e n are exposed. I t appears then, t h a t maternal employment e x e r t s a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r own sex, by augmenting competr-n ency f o r g i r l s and emotional warmth and expressiveness f o r boys. Another important i m p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s the evidence t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l conceptions of sex r o l e s are s u b j e c t to v a r i a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l e xperience. Presumably, the l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e and more congruent d e f i n i -t i o n s of sex r o l e s h e l d by c h i l d r e n of working mothers i n f l u e n c e r o l e behavior, so t h a t c h i l d r e n of working mothers f e e l even f r e e r than t h e i r parents to engage i n o v e r l a p p i n g r o l e b e h a v i o r s and so achieve i n t h e i r own l i v e s a g r e a t e r sex r o l e e q u a l i t y . U n t i l t h i s g r e a t e r r o l e e q u a l i t y occurs, women w i l l continue to experience unique c o n f l i c t s . Unique C o n f l i c t s Created by S t e r e o t y p i n g When sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s do not correspond w i t h what people t h i n k of themselves, w i t h what they t h i n k others want them to be, or w i t h what they i d e a l l y would l i k e to be, then some form of c o n f l i c t i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t . Connie Deutsch and L u c i a G i l b e r t ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the adjustment of r e a l s e l f , i d e a l s e l f and b e l i e f s of c o l l e g e men and women. The r e s u l t s showed women's sex r o l e concepts r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e a l s e l f 21 and t h e i r "beliefs of what the other sex d e s i r e s were h i g h l y d i s s i m i l i a r . These f i n d i n g s suggest sources of c o n f l i c t t h a t e x i s t f o r women "but not f o r men. The average c o l l e g e undergraduate woman saw h e r s e l f as s l i g h t l y f e m i n ine, wanted to be more androgynous but b e l i e v e d she was more d e s i r a b l e to men i f she was extremely f e m i n i n e . F u r t h e r d i s c r e p a n c y among females was found i n the d i s p a r i t y between what they b e l i e v e d men's i d e a l woman to be and the men's r e p o r t e d i d e a l woman. E a r l i e r r e s e a r c h by Steinmann and Fox (1966) supported t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . They sampled 837 women and 4-23 men u s i n g the Inventory of Feminine Values to organize data i n t o f o u r c l u s t e r s - - w o r k and accomplishment, marriage, c h i l d - r e a r i n g and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s e l f . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t women d i d share a s e t of v a l u e s . The average response p a t t e r n was the same: most women o u t l i n e d a ^ r e l a t i v e l y b a l a n c -ed s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . Development and achievement through t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l i t i e s was combined w i t h p e r m i s s i v e n u t u r i n g . The women o u t l i n e d a balance between " e x t r a f a m i l y s t r i v i n g s " and " i n t r a f a m i l y s t r i v i n g s . " T h e i r i d e a l wom-an was s l i g h t l y more a c t i v e than themselves. However t h e i r per-c e p t i o n of man's i d e a l woman was a woman wit h l i t t l e of the s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and self-achievement they r e p o r t e d i n themselves or i n t h e i r i d e a l woman. Women saw man's i d e a l woman as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c c e p t i n g and p e r m i s s i v e than t h e i r own s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of a subordinate r o l e i n both p e r s o n a l development and women's p l a c e i n the f a m i l i a l 2 2 s t r u c t u r e . Men, when questioned i n t h i s study, s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r i d e a l woman had a balance of i n t r a f a m i l y and e x t r a -f a m i l y f e e l i n g s . Deutsch and G i l b e r t ( 1 9 7 6 ) f e l t the d i s -crepancy between the f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d , p e r m i s s i v e women t h a t women b e l i e v e d men d e s i r e d and the i d e a l woman t h a t men a c t u a l l y d e l i n e a t e d may be accounted f o r i n a t l e a s t s e v e r a l ways: ( 1 ) a s e r i o u s l a c k of communication between men and women, ( 2 ) women p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r c u r r e n t f e e l i n g s ' and what they would l i k e men to b e l i e v e , and ( 3 ) men t a l k i n g a cu r r e n t l i b e r a l s t e r e o t y p e which they may or may not b e l i e v e . The main i m p l i c a t i o n from t h i s study i s t h a t there i s a r e a l l a c k of communication between men and women and both do not understand each one's d e s i r e s as to what r o l e a woman should assume. These d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s toward women, h e l d by. men and women, were a l s o found i n the Kaplan and Goldman ( 1 9 7 3 ) study. Women, i n t h i s study, b e l i e v e d there was a much g r e a t e r d i f -f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e f o r men .and women than d i d male respon-dents. These f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n s of b e l i e f s have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r women. Peggy Hawley ( 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 ) suggested t h a t women choose c a r e e r s on the b a s i s of t h e i r b e l i e f of what men t h i n k . 23 The processes u n d e r l y i n g women's ca r e e r development are very much d i f f e r e n t from men's. Hawley hypothesized t h a t men's views of a p p r o p r i a t e feminine b e h a v i o r p l a y a s i g n i -f i c a n t , although o f t e n unrecognized, p a r t - i n ..the c a r e e r de-velopment process of women. An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r most women i s the e f f e c t of c a r e e r choice upon the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . Women wi t h v a r y i n g degrees of aware-ness make c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s of what they t h i n k men w i l l t o l e r a t e . Hawley found that women choose c a r e e r s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own judgments of the model of femin-i n i t y h e l d by s i g n i f i c a n t men i n t h e i r l i v e s . For i n s t a n c e , Math-Science majors i n the 1972 study, who were p r e p a r i n g f o r c a r e e r s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l male dominated areas, be-l i e v e d men made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n male-female work r o l e s and other r e l a t e d behaviors and a t t i t u d e s . T h i s group was found to be more androgynous, meaning a p e r c e p t i o n of behavior which does not make sex based d i s t i n c t i o n s . T h e i r model of f e m i n i n i t y allowed the widest range of e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r c h o i c e s without v i o l a t i o n of s e x u a l i d e n t i t y . Teachers p r e p a r i n g f o r t r a d i t i o n a l feminine c a r e e r s were found to be dichotomous, meaning a p e r c e p t i o n of beha v i o r which separates b e h a v i o r i n t o male-female c a t e g o r i e s . Thus,the c a r e e r s women choose and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of men's views of the feminine i d e a l are very much r e l a t e d . These b e l i e f systems, not always i n awareness, become f o r c e s which i n -h i b i t c h o i ce and r e s t r i c t the options t h a t are p s y c h o l o g i c -a l l y a v a i l a b l e to women. Hawley f e l t these a t t i t u d e s 24 i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s ; d e c i s i o n s can be f o l l o w e d by a c t i o n s ; which i n t u r n d e f i n e l i f e s t y l e . The l i f e s t y l e of a woman t h e r e f o r e i s a f f e c t e d by her a t t i t u d e . The study by Matthews and Tiedeman (1962) had as i t s primary purpose to c h a r t the e f f e c t of a t t i t u d e toward c a r e e r and marriage on the l i f e s t y l e of women, as women progress through adolescence and young adulthood. E i g h t e e n scores of a t t i t u d e toward c a r e e r and marriage were the p r i -mary v a r i a b l e s . An a t t i t u d e s c a l e was used as w e l l as two scores of l i f e s t y l e . One score of l i f e s t y l e was c o l l e g e attendance, the second i n c l u d e d plans f o r p a t t e r n i n g of ca r e e r and marriage. They noted t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward c a r e e r and marriage are r e l a t e d to l i f e s t y l e . "What e f f e c t does development have on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ? " was the primary q u e s t i o n of the study. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t women move away from a b e l i e f i n t h e i r i n f e r i o r i t y to men as they mature. C o n f l i c t i n a t t i t u d e s c o n cerning homemaking and feminine r o l e versus c a r e e r s were a l s o noted by the authors. Matthews and Tiedeman (1962) found support f o r the assumptions t h a t a t t i t u d e s are r e l a t e d to l i f e s t y l e , and furthermore a t t i -tudes are r e l a t e d to development. An important theme was a woman's p e r c e p t i o n of the male a t t i t u d e toward her use of her i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t appears t h a t many g i r l s and women s t r u c t u r e t h e i r l i v e s on the premise t h a t males view the female's use of her i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h d i s t a s t e . T h i s a t t i t u d e would be a g r e a t d e t e r r e n t to the r e a l i z a t i o n of 25 s e l f through employment. An a d d i t i o n a l i n h i b i t o r i s the p e r c e p t i o n of the dominant p o s i t i o n of men as be i n g " a p p r o p r i a t e . " The f i n a l theme of a t t i t u d e i n l i f e s t y l e i s the c o n f l i c t between acceptance of t h e ' r o l e of w i f e and mother and acceptance of a feminine c a r e e r . Farmer and Bohn (1970) f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s home-ca r e e r c o n f l i c t . The s u b j e c t s were 50 women from a Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l c l u b who were a l l working women. The Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank f o r Women was used to measure v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s . The Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank f o r Women was adm i n i s t e r e d twice, once w i t h the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s and the second time w i t h e x p e r i -mental s e t i n s t r u c t i o n s : (a) "pretend men l i k e i n t e l l i g e n t women, and (b) pretend women can combine c a r e e r and f a m i l y and perform both w e l l . " The experimental s e t was aimed to reduce home-career con-f l i c t . The hypothesis t h a t women i n response to a s e t which reduced home-career c o n f l i c t would scor e h i g h e r on Career s c a l e s and lower on Home s c a l e s was supported. This study demonstrated t h a t women's a t t i t u d e s towards c a r e e r can be a f f e c t e d . The women i n the study were o l d e r and had a l r e a d y made t h e i r c a r e e r commitments, perhaps the e f f e c t of s e t on young g i r l s would be even g r e a t e r . Sandra H a r r i s (1974-) conducted a study u s i n g s i x t h grade g i r l s which attempted to i n c r e a s e the number of t e n t a -t i v e c a r e e r c h o i c e s and decrease the percentage of sex typed 26 c h o i c e s . Although her sample was very s m a l l - - l 8 s u b j e c t s - -5 were randomly assig n e d to the experimental group and the remaining 13 g i r l s were the c o n t r o l group. The instrument c o n s i s t e d of one q u e s t i o n "Name the jobs you t h i n k you might l i k e to do i n the f u t u r e . " The experimental s u b j e c t s came to the counsellor's o f f i c e f o r weekly 30 minute group sess s i o n s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n number of t e n t a t i v e c a r e e r choices f o r the experimental group and a decrease i n sex typed c h o i c e . E x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h i s study has weaknesses i n t h a t the sample was s m a l l and o n l y one counsellor was used, but i t does appear t h a t the coun-s e l l i n g procedures employed were e f f e c t i v e i n broadening the t h i n k i n g of young g i r l s r e g a r d i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l world. Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s do e x i s t but t h i s framework does not seem as important as the woman's p e r c e p t i o n of her feminine s e l f . T h i s a t t i t u d e can be i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t a l r o l e models, counselling i n t e r -v e n t i o n or one's developmental stage. Putnam and^Hansen (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the feminine r o l e and s e l f - c o n c e p t s to v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . The s t r a t i f i e d sample of 375 g i r l s c o n s i s t e d of 16 y e a r o l d g i r l s from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s i n suburban or r u r a l suburban a r e a s . A feminine r o l e r a t i n g i n v e n t o r y , a s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e , a v o c a t i o n a l development i n v e n t o r y and a p e r s o n a l data form were used. The r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . G i r l s were found to be somewhat v o c a t i o n a l l y immature i n 27 comparison w i t h t h e i r male classmates and have a lower s e l f -concept than tthe average male. A c c o r d i n g to Super's voca-t i o n a l l i f e s t a ges, the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were i n the e x p l o r a t o r y stage and t h e r e f o r e should have been s e l e c t i n g the o c c u p a t i o n through which they c o u l d implement t h e i r s e l f -concept. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study supported the premise t h a t the higher the l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m , the high e r the l e v e l of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the feminine r o l e concept of own s e l f and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the more the g i r l viewed her r o l e as being l i b e r a l , the hi g h e r her l e v e l of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . S i n c e Super's theory of v o c a t i o n a l development views the i n d i v i d -u a l as moving through a s e r i e s of l i f e stages, the i n -d i v i d u a l ' s f i n a l choice r e f l e c t s the thoroughness w i t h which she has implemented her s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t o the world of work. V o c a t i o n a l development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t and v o c a t i o n a l adjustment depends upon the implementation of t h i s s e l f -concept. The feminine r o l e concept which each g i r l s e l e c t s i s then c o n s i s t e n t w i t h her s e l f - c o n c e p t , and her oc c u p a t i o n -a l c h o i c e w i l l be an implementation of her s e l f - c o n c e p t . For women a c o n f l i c t or i n c o n s i s t e n c y appears between a woman's expections and a t t i t u d e s and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards woman's r o l e i n s o c i e t y . E f f e c t s of Stereotypes on Occupations The feminine s o c i a l r o l e i n which women are d e s c r i b e d 28 as p a s s i v e , dependent, i r r a t i o n a l , emotional, warm, l a c k i n g i n c o n f i d e n c e , can be l i m i t i n g to the p e r s o n a l as w e l l as the v o c a t i o n a l growth of women. Not only are there s p e c i f i c b ehaviors t h a t are " t y p i c a l l y " feminine but th e r e are c e r -t a i n jobs which are thought to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women i n our s o c i e t y . S c h l o s s b e r g and Goodman (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the degree to which elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h o l d s t e r e o t y p e s about occupations based on sex. C h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and the s i x t h grade were asked to respond to 12 drawings, r e p -r e s e n t i n g work s e t t i n g s of s i x occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d feminine ( i . e . s e c r e t a r y , elementary teacher, w a i t r e s s , nurse, household worker) and s i x occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d masculine (doctor, d e n t i s t , a r c h i -t e c t , draftsman, T.V. repairman, mechanic and l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n t i s t ) . To d i s c o v e r the degree to which c h i l d r e n s t e r e o -type occupations, the r e s e a r c h e r s helped the c h i l d r e n to i d e n t i f y the p i c t u r e s . The i n t e r v i e w e r would say, "This i s where a person works who f i x e s t e l e v i s i o n s . Could a man (woman) work here"? I n a d d i t i o n , each c h i l d was asked, "What do you want to be when you grow up"? The data i n -d i c a t e d : (1) there was no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t e r e o t y p i n g from k i n d e r g a r t e n to s i x t h grade, (2) c h i l d r e n were more ready to exclude women from men's jobs than to exclude men from 29 women's jobs, (3) w i t h few exceptions, the c h i l d r e n chose jobs f o r themselves t h a t f e l l w i t h i n the u s u a l s t e r e o t y p e s ( i . e . most c h i l d r e n f e l t e i t h e r men or women cou l d be doctors or nurses, but a l l the boys chose to be-doctors and the g i r l s n u r s e s ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n as young as 5 years of age have a l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of a Woman's p l a c e i n the world of work. The c h i l d r e n i n S c h l o s s b e r g and Goodman's study d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y f e e l t h a t a woman's p l a c e was i n the home, but t h a t a woman's place:was in- c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . By c o n t r a s t , these same c h i l d r e n d i d not f e e l t h a t men had to be s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d . Not a s i n g l e c h i l d s p e c i f i e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g or any other q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a man f o r e i t h e r the masculine or feminine o c c u p a t i o n s . Schlossberg, et a l (1972), data from the middle and upper income s i x t h graders and the model c i t i e s p r o j e c t s c h o o l , when compared, showed t h a t middle income s i x t h graders were c o n s i s t e n t l y l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d . One e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t the middle income elementary s c h o o l was i n a community where many of the mothers worked a t p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs. Perhaps t h i s enables the c h i l d r e n to view women as having more- :capa-b i l i t i e s . D i r e c t p o s i t i v e experience i n v o l v e d i n parent modeling appears to moderate the negative s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e toward woman's o c c u p a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s . The sex t y p i n g of occupations r e f l e c t s and perpetuates the d i f f e r e n t i a l s t a t u s 30 of males and females as recorded by Broverman, 1968; Fernberger, 19^8; Lunneburg, 1969; S h e r r i f f s and J a r r e t t , 1953. The r e s e a r c h of Larwood, 0 * C a r r o l l and Logan (1977) has supported the hypothesis t h a t the a r o u s a l of achievement tendencies may depend i n p a r t on the importance and con-spicuousness of r o l e c l u e s . A c h i e v i n g or g o a l d i r e c t e d behavior i s co n s i d e r e d a male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c while t h a t same achievement motive i s overshadowed i n women by the motive to a v o i d success (Horner, 1969, 1972). The motive to a v o i d success presumably s p r i n g s from the females* ac-q u i s i t i o n of the s o c i a l value t h a t success i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r themselves. Success and achievement s t r i v i n g i s not p a r t of the a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e of women i n our North American c u l t u r e . Thus a woman who might o t h e r -wise succeed a t a c h a l l e n g i n g task i s l e d i n s t e a d toward f a i l u r e . Horner (1972) suggests t h a t r a t h e r than b e i n g p r e s e n t i n a l l achievement a r o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s , the motive to a v o i d success may be mediatedbby sex r o l e . I f success i s d i r e c t l y unfeminine, women may f e a r success i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which the norms f o r c o r r e c t sex r o l e b ehavior are both conspicuous and important. Conversely, when such norms are n e i t h e r obvious nor important, the motive to av o i d success may not be s t r o n g l y aroused and a woman may meet a c h a l -l e n g i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y open attempt to succeed. 31 Double Standards f o r Men and Women As a r e s u l t of t h i s s o c i a l v a l u i n g of males, women tend to underrate themselves as w e l l as oth e r women and ho l d n e g a t i v e concepts of themselves. These f a c t o r s make the attainment of a f e e l i n g of competence d i f f i c u l t . S elf-esteem and v o c a t i o n a l development are r e l a t e d , i n t h a t the h i g h e r the l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m , the hi g h e r the l e v e l of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . Women then may need a d d i t i o n a l support and en-couragement from "experts" to step out of t h e i r feminine r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s (Baruch, 1972; Goldberg, et a l , 1971; Putnam and Hansen, 1972; Rosenkrantz, et a l , 1968; S h e r r i f f s and J a r r e t t , 1953). "Are p r o f e s s i o n a l s f r e e from t h i s n e g a t i v e b i a s a g a i n s t women"? i s a q u e s t i o n which has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the ongoing growth of women. Broverman, Broverman, C l a r k s o n , Rosenkrantz, and Vogel (1970) found t h a t a double standard of mental h e a l t h e x i s t s f o r men and women. T h e i r study i n -v o l v e d 79 p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s or s o c i a l workers--4-6 men and 33 women. The c l i n i c i a n s were g i v e n the S t e r e o -type Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h one s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s , e i t h e r "male," "female," or " a d u l t . " The s u b j e c t s were asked to d e s c r i b e a h e a l t h y , mature, s o c i a l l y competent person. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c l i n i c i a n s tended to c o n s i d e r so-c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s more o f t e n as h e a l t h y f o r men than f o r women. Upon examination of the items which d e s c r i b e d a d u l t females i t was found to be a 32 n e g a t i v e assessment of women. F o r i n s t a n c e , c l i n i c i a n s were more l i k e l y to suggest t h a t h e a l t h y women d i f f e r from h e a l t h y men "by being more submissive, l e s s independent, more e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d , l e s s competetive, more e x c i t a b l e i n minor c r i s i s , l e s s o b j e c t i v e and d i s l i k i n g math and s c i e n c e . The r e s e a r c h e r s noted t h a t t h i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n seems an unusual way of d e s c r i b i n g any mature, h e a l t h y i n -d i v i d u a l . Another hypothesis of the study was t h a t concepts of mental h e a l t h f o r an a d u l t (sex u n s p e c i f i e d ) would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the concepts of mental h e a l t h f o r women. The r e s u l t s confirmed the double standard h y p o t h e s i s . I t may be th a t the double standard of h e a l t h f o r men and women may stem from an "adjustment" n o t i o n of h e a l t h , h e a l t h con-s i s t i n g of a good adjustment to one's environment. The authors f e l t t h a t men and women from b i r t h are t r a i n e d to f u l f i l l d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l r o l e s . An adjustment n o t i o n of h e a l t h and the d i f f e r e n t norms of male and female behavior i n our s o c i e t y would then l e a d to a double standard of men-t a l h e a l t h . So f o r a woman to be judged m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y , she must a d j u s t to and accept the b e h a v i o r a l norms f o r her sex, even though these behaviors are g e n e r a l l y l e s s s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e and co n s i d e r e d to be l e s s h e a l t h y f o r the g e n e r a l -i z e d competent mature a d u l t . Given t h a t these c l i n i c i a n s were merely r e f l e c t i n g the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and the d i f f e r i n g v a l u a t i o n s of these s t e r e o t y p e s p r e v a l e n t i n our s o c i e t y , one quest i o n s whether they t r e a t male and female p a t i e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y . B i l l i n g s l e y (1977) designed her study to assess the extent to which a p s e u d o c l i e n t * s sex and p r e s e n t i n g p a t h o l -ogy i n f l u e n c e d the treatment g o a l c h o i c e s of p r a c t i c i n g male and female p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d t h a t c l i e n t ' s sex was not r e l a t e d to psycho-t h e r a p i s t treatment g o a l c h o i c e s , at l e a s t not f o r the two c l i e n t p a t h o l o g i e s used i n the case h i s t o r i e s of the study. The major f i n d i n g s of the study were t h a t male and female t h e r a p i s t s chose d i f f e r e n t kinds of treatment goals f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s and female t h e r a p i s t s chose more masculine treatment g o a l s . The i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t of a t r a i n e d examiner's and c l i e n t ' s sex on the s e v e r i t y of c l i n i c a l i n f e r e n c e has been demonstrated i n two other s t u d i e s (Abramowitz and Abramowitz, 1973; Haan and L i v s o n , 1972). The r e s u l t s of the Abramowitz study i n d i c a t e d t h a t non-l i b e r a l counsellors imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment to a l e f t -o r i e n t e d p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e female than to an i d e n t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d male c l i e n t . These r e s u l t s tend to support the a s s e r t i o n t h a t not o n l y does a b i a s e x i s t a g a i n s t women and i s shared by the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , but t h i s b i a s i s a l s o promoted by c l i n i c a l p e r s o n n e l . C l i n i c a l p e r s o n n e l not o n l y i n the mental h e a l t h area but i n the v o c a t i o n a l counselling area as w e l l have been shown to support t h i s b i a s a g a i n s t women. M a s l i n and Davis (1975) r e p l i c a t e d the Broverman et a l (1970) r e s e a r c h u s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s : - i n - t r a i n i n g f o r s u b j e c t s . T h e i r r e s u l t s i n -d i c a t e d the same . double standards of mental h e a l t h as 3 4 shown i n Broverman's study, except t h a t female c o u n s e l l o r s -i n - t r a i n i n g h e l d r e l a t i v e l y androgynous views. As p r e v i o u s -l y d i s c u s s e d Abramowitz, et a l ( 1 9 7 3 ) > found t h a t n o n l i b e r a l examiners a t t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l maladjustment to the l e f t i s t , p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e female c l i e n t than to her male c o u n t e r p a r t . In 1 9 7 5 u s i n g a very s m a l l sample Abramowitz et a l found t h a t , on the b a s i s of a s h o r t i n t e r v i e w and psy c h o e d u c a t i e h a l .records.., r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l counsellors imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment to female m e d i c a l s c h o o l a s p i r a n t s than to male a s p i r a n t s . Using a d i f f e r e n t experimental method, S c h l o s s b e r g and Pietrofesa,- ( 1 9 7 0 ) a r r i v e d a t the same c o n c l u s i o n , " t h a t counsellor b i a s e x i s t s a g a i n s t women e n t e r i n g a masculine o c c u p a t i o n . " Coached female c l i e n t s (who supposedly co u l d n ' t decide whether to enter e n g i n e e r i n g , a masculine occupation, or a feminine o c c u p a t i o n such as teaching) were i n t e r v i e w e d by c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . B i a s e d statements made by the counsellors were catalogued and analyzed; 8 1 . 3 $ of the b i a s e d statements i f Twereaagainstv:womeniand on l y 1 8 . 7 $ were i n f a v o r of them. Female counsellors d i s p l a y e d as much b i a s as male counsellors. Although S c h l o s s b e r g and Pietrof esal s " ~> study i s s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h , i t has the l i m i t a t i o n s of u s i n g a student p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r than p r a c -t i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . In s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h , t h i s time w i t h p r a c t i s i n g s c h o o l counsellors, Thomas and Stewart ( 1 9 7 1 ) used a sample of 6 2 v o l u n t e e r counsellors. They d i v i d e d the counsellors i n t o groups and showed them three videotapes; an i n t r o d u c t o r y tape, a tape of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a c l i e n t who chose dev i a n t c a r e e r g o a l s , and an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a c l i e n t who chose a conforming c a r e e r g o a l . The counsellors assessed the c l i e n t on a l i s t of 4-2 a d j e c t i v e s , evaluated the degree to which they f e l t the c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the c l i e n t , assessed the degree to which they f e l t the c l i e n t was i n need of a d d i t i o n a l counselling, and suggested two a d d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s t h a t would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the c l i e n t to c o n s i d e r . Female counsellors gave h i g h e r accept-ance scores to both d e v i a t e and conforming c l i e n t s than d i d male counsellors. The authors a l s o found t h a t male c o u n s e l -l o r s showed i n c r e a s e d acceptance as they became more ex-per i e n c e d ; the o p p o s i t e was t r u e of female counsellors. Regardless of t h e i r sex, counsellors r a t e d conforming goals as more a p p r o p r i a t e than d e v i a t e g o a l s . Counsellors a l s o r a t e d female c l i e n t s with d e v i a t e c a r e e r goals to be more i n need of counselling than those w i t h conforming g o a l s . Shapiro (1977) used t r a i n e d graduate students to r o l e p l a y t y p i c a l and a t y p i c a l sex r o l e conditions. - Videotapes of the i n t e r v i e w s were analyzed to assess counsellor r e -inforcement p a t t e r n s of s p e c i f i c c l i e n t "cue" sentences. Contrary to e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t counsellors as a whole e x h i b i t e d more b e h a v i o r a l b i a s w i t h t y p i c a l than w i t h a t y p i c a l c l i e n t s . Counsellors; r e a c t e d more p o s i t i v e l y toward the a t y p i c a l than toward the t y p i c a l c l i e n t s and 3 6 counsellors' responses to a g l o b a l sex r o l e i n v e n t o r y i n -d i c a t e d t h a t counsellors d e s c r i b e d the he a l t h y , w e l l - a d j u s t e d female as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n s t r u m e n t a l than the he a l t h y , w e l l - a d j u s t e d male. Smith (1974-) a l s o found support f o r the nonbias p o s i -t i o n of counsellors. Her study presented f o u r case s t u d i e s , w i t h sex of the c l i e n t and e t h n i c group as the only cues t h a t d i f f e r e d f o r the cases seen by the 512 counsellors. The a n a l y s i s of cov a r i a n c e f a i l e d to r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences due to the sex or e t h n i c group of the c l i e n t or to the sex of the c o u n s e l l o r . Donahue ( 1 9 7 6 ) a l s o u s i n g the case study approach found t h a t high s c h o o l counsellors d i d e x h i b i t a b i a s . Coun-sellors were asked to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s f o r t h e i r s i x case study s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t the counsellors i n the study tended to choose lower paying occupations t h a t are more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d and r e q u i r e l e s s p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r male s u b j e c t s . These d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s — b i a s e d and nonbiased--may i n d i c a t e an u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d i n a l change o c c u r r i n g i n counsellors. Engelhard, Jones and S t i g g i n s ( 1 9 7 6 ) attempted to c h a r t the development of counsellor a t t i t u d e s over a p e r i o d of s i x years from 1 9 6 8 to 1 9 7 4 -• The three major dimensions of counsellors a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g women and women's s o c i a l r o l e s were: a t t i t u d e s toward the d u a l r o l e of mother and worker, a t t i t u d e s toward sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , 3 7 and f i n a l l y a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g the expected impact of women on s o c i e t y . The working mother f a c t o r y i e l d e d the lowest c l u s t e r scores of the three f a c t o r s f o r both men and women counsellors i n d i c a t i n g the most c o n s e r v a t i v e counsellor a t t i -tudes. I n a d d i t i o n , male and female counsellors were f a r t h e r a p a r t . I n 1 9 7 ^ they were s t i l l as f a r a p a r t as i n 1 9 6 8 "but "both have become s i g n i f i c a n t l y more open to the^combined. „r-. worker-mother r o l e . Women counsellors were found to be more open to d i v e r s e sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and score h i g h e r on the S o c i e t a l Impact f a c t o r than male counsellors- I t was shown th a t male and female counsellors d i f f e r on a l l three dimen-si o n s of a t t i t u d e , but there are sign s of s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i -tude growth on the p a r t of both male and female c o u n s e l l o r s . Counsellors i n high schools, i f f r e e from a negative b i a s , could and should be s o c i a l change agents. Thus i t i s im-po r t a n t to know i f counsellors i n B.C. do support a negative b i a s a g a i n s t female students when making v o c a t i o n a l plans and s u g g e s t i o n s . I t i s imperative f o r counsellors to rec o g -n i z e and r e l a t e to the very d i f f e r e n t processes r e q u i r e d f o r a woman to f i n d v o c a t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The unique o b s t a c l e s f a c e d by a young woman t r y i n g to f i n d her pl a c e i n the world of work are numerous and o f t e n s u b t l e . F i r s t l y , she must adapt her needs, p e r s o n a l s t y l e and outlook to conform to s o c i e t y ' s feminine model. Acceptance of the female r o l e means acceptance of many q u a l i t i e s which hin d e r v o c a t i o n a l development ( i . e . l a c k of competence, dependency, 3 8 p a s s i v e e m o t i o n a l i t y , i l l o g i c a l n e s s , e t c.) . -If success i s d i r e c t l y unfeminine, women may f e a r success i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which the norms f o r c o r r e c t sex r o l e behavior are both conspicuous and important. Women have a c q u i r e d the s o c i a l b e l i e f t h a t success i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r themselves. Women devalue themselves, and other women and are f a c e d w i t h l i m i t e d s o c i a l l y approved v o c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . S o c i e t y and more im p o r t a n t l y , the s i g n i f i c a n t men i n t h e i r l i v e s have i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . The home-career con-f l i c t i s a major i s s u e f o r many women. Awareness and com-municating r e c o g n i t i o n of these common i s s u e s and c o n f l i c t s i s c r i t i c a l i f the counsellor i s to be e f f e c t i v e . C o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s can be d e s c r i b e d as the d i s c o v e r y of how the pressures of s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p i n g of male and female q u a l i -t i e s and r o l e s i n f l u e n c e and l i m i t women i n t h e i r c a r e e r development. The counsellor must a i d and encourage women to "step out" of these r o l e confinements and f i n d and develop t h e i r own unique v o c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s as "persons." CHAPTER I I I Methodology Previous s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i g h s c h o o l coun-sell o r s d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t females i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . T h i s study i s an attempt to l e a r n whether h i g h s c h o o l counsellors i n B.C. do have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to d i s c r i m -i n a t e a g a i n s t women i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n and to d i s c o v e r i f the age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e of the counsellor i n f l u e n c e s t h i s "bias. I n t h i s chapter seven aspects of the method-ology are d e s c r i b e d : (1) p o p u l a t i o n and sample, •2) (2) instrument used to measure a counsellor-'s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t females i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n , (3) development of the o c c u p a t i o n l i s t and c o e f f i c i e n t s of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n , (4) v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the case s t u d i e s , (5) c o l l e c t i o n of data, (6) hypotheses, (7) d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s . P o p u l a t i o n and Sample The p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s study i n c l u d e s a l l secondary s c h o o l counsellors i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The sample con-s i s t s of two hundred randomly s e l e c t e d secondary s c h o o l counsellors from the B.C. School Counsellors A s s o c i a t i o n membership l i s t . The p r e s i d e n t of the a s s o c i a t i o n (1977-78) s t a t e d t h a t i t was a f a i r l y comprehensive l i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , there are c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g - w i t h i n the B.C. s c h o o l system who are not members. Although l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s , the h i g h percentage of counsellors on the l i s t (75-80%) makes the random sample f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of counsellors i n the p r o v i n c e . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The instrument used i n t h i s study was developed by Thomas J . Donahue ( D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A g a i n s t Young Women i n Career S e l e c t i o n by High School Counsellors, 1976). I t i n v o l v e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s i x case s t u d i e s i n w r i t t e n form. I t s purpose was to c o l l e c t data t h a t c o u l d be used to assess the degree to which counsellors were pr e d i s p o s e d to choose, f o r "caseestudy"' females, lower p a y i n g jobs t h a t 41 r e q u i r e l e s s e d u c a t i o n and more s u p e r v i s i o n than those chosen f o r "case s t u d y males. The case s t u d i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way t h a t each case study s u b j e c t c o u l d be e i t h e r male or female. Data presented i n c l u d e d measures of a b i l i t y , achievement, i n t e r e s t , socioeconomic background, v a l u e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s t h a t might i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r c h o i c e . The l e v e l s e l e c t e d f o r such f a c t o r s as i n t e l l i -gence and a b i l i t y f tended to be near the median so t h a t a wide v a r i a t i o n among o c c u p a t i o n a l choices was p o s s i b l e . Two forms of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were developed. On Form A the sex d e s i g n a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s were male f o r cases one, f o u r and s i x ; and female f o r cases two, t h r e e and f i v e . Form B used the same case s t u d i e s as Form A, but i n each case the s u b j e c t s were g i v e n the opposite sex d e s i g n a t i o n from those i n Form A. On Form B cases one, four,and s i x were female and cases two, t h r e e and f i v e were male. A l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the case s t u d i e s on Form A and B was i d e n t i c a l . Only the name of the case study s u b j e c t and the gender of the pronouns were changed. The case s t u d i e s were s h o r t and the e n t i r e task i n v o l v e d 15-25 minutes of the counsellors• time. The task was f o r the counsellor to s e l e c t three occupations which might be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the case study s u b j e c t and rank the c h o i c e s i n order of p r e f e r e n c e , (Form A and Form B of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s c a n be found i n the Appendix). The counsellors were asked to s e l e c t the occupations o n l y . Each o c c u p a t i o n 4-2 chosen was l a t e r a s s i g n e d (by the r e s e a r c h e r ) i n d i c e s rep-r e s e n t i n g r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . D eveloping the Occupation L i s t I n order to t r a n s l a t e each p o s s i b l e c a r e e r c h o i c e i n t o a number so t h a t c o m p a r a b i l i t y c o u l d be achieved, a seven p o i n t s c a l e was developed by T. Donahue ( 1 9 7 6 ) f o r each of the three dependent v a r i a b l e s — r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The s c a l e s f o r remuneration .and;1 s u p e r v i s i o n were r e v i s e d to make them r e f l e c t the c u r r e n t B.C. work environment. C o e f f i c i e n t of remuneration. The c o e f f i c i e n t of remuneration i s the number on an o r d i n a l s c a l e a s s i g n -ed to an o c c u p a t i o n which i n d i c a t e s , on a seven p o i n t s c a l e , the approximate wage earned by a person en-gaged i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . A c o e f f i c i e n t of one i n d i c a t e s the lowest wage, and a c o e f f i c i e n t of seven i n d i c a t e s the h i g h e s t wage. The c o e f f i c i e n t s have been r e v i s e d to make them c u r r e n t and a p p r o p r i a t e t o the Canadian s a l a r y s c a l e . F i v e manpower counsellors, from the North Vancouver branch, l i s t e d the average s a l a r y range f o r each o c c u p a t i o n . These s a l a r y ranges were used to f i n d a mean s a l a r y r e p r e s e n t i n g each o c c u p a t i o n . The B.C.  Re g i o n a l S a l a r y : Wage Rate Survey, C i v i l S e r v i c e  Commission S a l a r y Schedules and Wage Rates, S a l a r i e s 43 and' Hours of Labour i n Canada were used as c r o s s r e f e r -e r e ncessources. The r e v i s e d annual s a l a r y range f o r each c o e f f i c i e n t was: 1 . Below $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 2 . $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 4 , 9 9 9 3 . $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 9 , 9 9 9 4 . $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 4 , 9 9 9 5 . $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 9 , 9 9 9 6 . $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 3 4 , 0 0 0 7 . $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 and above C o e f f i c i e n t of e d u c a t i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t of e d u c a t i o n was the number, on an o r d i n a l s c a l e , assigned to an occupation, i n d i c a t i n g , on a seven-point s c a l e , the approx-imate ' amount of formal e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d to engage i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . A c o e f f i c i e n t of one i n d i c a t e s an o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the l e a s t f o r m a l educa-t i o n r e q u i r e d , and a c o e f f i c i e n t of seven i n d i c a t e s an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s the maximum p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t of e d u c a t i o n f o r an occu-p a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y determined by u s i n g job d e s c r i p -t i o n s from the O c c u p a t i o n a l Outlook Handbook. TThe Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n D i c t i o n a r y of Occupations had s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n requirements so the o r i g i n a l co-e f f i c i e n t of e d u c a t i o n as determined by Donahue ( 1 9 7 . 6 ) was used i n t h i s study. The c o e f f i c i e n t s are shown on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : 1. No ed u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d 2 . Less than a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d 3. High s c h o o l diploma u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d 4 . High s c h o o l diploma required?; or s i g n i f i c a n t on-the-job t r a i n i n g 5 . A p p r e n t i c e s h i p or a s s o c i a t e d degree r e q u i r e d 6. Bachelor's degree r e q u i r e d 7 . Graduate degree r e q u i r e d C o e f f i c i e n t of s u p e r v i s i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t of super v i s i o n was the number on an o r d i n a l s c a l e a s s i g n e d to an o c c u p a t i o n which i n d i c a t e s , on a seven-point s c a l e the approximate amount of s u p e r v i s i o n i n d i v i d u a l s , engaged i n t h a t occupation, normally r e c e i v e d . A c o e f f i c i e n t of one denotes the type of o c c u p a t i o n t h a t i s most c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d , and a c o e f f i c i e n t of seven i n d i c a t e s an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e s m i n i -mal d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n . An occupation's degree of s u p e r v i s i o n was based on the amount of a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and judgment e x e r c i s e d by a worker i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . At the lower end of the continuum were the workers who are completely s u p e r v i s e d and have p r a c t i c a l l y no a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or oppor t u n i t y to make judgment i n t h e i r work. This type of work u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of r o u t i n e t a s k s . At the o t h e r end of the s c a l e were people l i k e c o r p o r a t e e x e c u t i v e s who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l aspects of an o r g a n i z a t i o n who must f r e q u e n t l y make judgments and d e c i s i o n s , and who hold d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y over a l l emf. p l o y e e s . The s u p e r v i s o r y nature of an oc c u p a t i o n was measured on l y i n r e l a t i o n to other employees i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n , and not i n r e l a t i o n to customers, c l i e n t s , p a t i e n t s , or c o n s u l t a n t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : 1. Completely s u p e r v i s e d - a person who su p e r v i s e s no one and i s completely si-p s u p e r v i s e d , while doing r o u t i n e t a s k s . 2. C l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d - a person who su p e r v i s e s no one, but i s c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d . 3. Loosely s u p e r v i s e d - a person who su p e r v i s e s no one, but may e x e r c i s e judgment i n h i s job which i s l o o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d , 4-. Semi-autonomous or a f r e e agent - a person who s u p e r v i s e s no one,.and i s not r e g u l a r l y s u p e r v i s e d by anyone. 46 5. P a r t i a l l y s u p e r v i s o r y - a person who su p e r v i s e s a s m a l l number of employees. 6. P r i m a r i l y s u p e r v i s o r y - a person who su p e r v i s e s a l a r g e number of employees and maintains r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r work. 7. S u p e r v i s o r y - a person who d i r e c t s an i n s t i t u t i o n or b u s i n e s s . The c o e f f i c i e n t of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r an occupation:::-, was determined by computing the mean numerical judgment score of f i v e Canada Manpower counsellors working i n the North Vancouver branch. Occupation L i s t C o n s t r u c t i o n Donahue (1976) s e l e c t e d approximately 60 common occu-p a t i o n s from the O c c u p a t i o n a l Outlook Handbook. Occupa-t i o n a l t i t l e s were s e l e c t e d without r e g a r d to the case s t u d i e s . The occupations were s e l e c t e d i n such a manner th a t they would form a continuum from low to hig h on a l l three v a r i a b l e s — r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The l i s t was reduced by removing occupations which con-t a i n e d s e x i s t terminology, such as clergyman, policeman, or charwoman. Occupations w i t h c o e f f i c i e n t s of remuner-a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n that were h i g h l y i n t e r -c o r r e l a t e d were a l s o dropped. An attempt was made to 4-7 arrange the f i n a l l i s t of occupations i n such a way t h a t f o u r occupations were l i s t e d under each of the seven co-e f f i c i e n t s f o r each of the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y The case study approach was co n s i d e r e d an i n d i r e c t measurement method. I n d i r e c t has been d e f i n e d by Webster's  T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y as " d e v i a t i n g from a d i r e c t l i n e or course, p r o c e e d i n g o b l i q u e l y or c i r c u i t o u s l y " and a d e f i n i t i o n of t e s t i s "an act or process t h a t r e v e a l s i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s (as of c h a r a c t e r ) . " So the case study approach i s a roundabout method of r e v e a l i n g couns-ellor b i a s . K i d d e r and Campbell s t a t e d t h a t i n d i r e c t t e s t s " . . . u t i l i z e and i l l u s t r a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l laws to a g r e a t e r degree than d i r e c t a t t i t u d e t e s t s , and are thus more charac-t e r i s t i c of measurement i n the s u c c e s s f u l s c i e n c e wherein y e s t e r d a y ' s c r u c i a l experiments are today's r o u t i n e measure-1 ment procedures." I n the same a r t i c l e the authors l i s t e d seven s u p p o s i -t i o n s about i n d i r e c t t e s t s . A c c o r d i n g to K i d d e r and Campbell, i n d i r e c t t e s t s are: 1. l e s s a f f e c t e d by experimental m a n i p u l a t i o n of demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , L.H. K i d d e r and D.T. Campbell, "The I n d i r e c t T e s t i n g of S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , " i n A t t i t u d e Measurement, ed. G.F. Sommers (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1971), p.329. 48 2. l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to m a n i p u l a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n apprehension, 3. l e s s l i k e l y to be r e a c t i v e measures by the main and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of t e s t i n g , 4. l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to placebo and haw-thorne e f f e c t s , 5. l e s s a f f e c t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n s to "fake" a good impression, 6. l e s s m o d i f i e d by the requirement to s i g n • one * s name, 7 . l e s s a f f e c t e d by the r o l e s e t t i n g of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The p l a u s i b l e facades of i n d i r e c t a t t i t u d e t e s t s e f f e c -t i v e l y p r o h i b i t s e l f - d e f e n c e and permit t e s t i n g i n many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g s where a t t i t u d e scores might other-2 wise be u n o b t a i n a b l e . Since t h i s study deals w i t h an area i n which l i t t l e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been done, the v a l i d i t y of the i n s t r u -ment had to be based p r i m a r i l y on f a c e or c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , concurrent and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y — a f t e r s u r v e y i n g a l l major v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s of g l o b a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r e d i c t i o n s , Cronbach concluded t h a t " s t r u c t u r e d t e s t s , or performance t e s t s which are very near to working samples of the c r i t e r i o n t a s k s have c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l i d i t y . " The instrument 2 I b i d . , p.335 ^ L . J . Cronbach, E s s e n t i a l s of P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g , 2nd i n t ' l ed. (Tokyo: John W e a t h e r h i l l , Inc., 1966), pp.582ff. 4-9 used i n t h i s study was both h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and i n -v o l v e d a task q u i t e s i m i l a r to a counsellor's work i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance. These two f a c t o r s alone e s t a b l i s h -ed the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the t e s t . By approaching the problem i n d i r e c t l y , the i n s t r u -ment w i l l a v o i d the p i t f a l l of e l i c i t i n g s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e answers t h a t are not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e b e h a v i o r . A t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g occup-a t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r g i r l s w i l l be i n a d v e r t e n t l y r e v e a l e d while the c o u n s e l l o r s s t r u g g l e w i t h the s p e c i f i c prob-lem of three o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s f o r a case study s u b j e c t . S i n c e a t t e n t i o n i s focus e d on a problem t h a t does not appear to be p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to sex of the case study s u b j e c t , the choice of a ca r e e r c o u l d be made without the counsellor's judgment being s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by contemporary s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . T h i s allowed the counsellor to s e l e c t a c c o r d i n g to p e r s o n a l c h o i c e r a t h e r than " s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e " views. Another p i t f a l l of the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the instrument d e a l t w i t h sex s t e r e o t y p e d c a r e e r s . An a i r l i n e p i l o t i s u s u a l l y viewed as a male, whereas the stewardess i s u s u a l l y seen as a female; the docto r i s a male, the nurse a female; the p r i n c i p a l i s a male, the teacher a female; the exe c u t i v e i s a male, the s e c r e t a r y a female. Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g of occupa-t i o n s i s so p e r v a s i v e i n our c u l t u r e t h a t any random l i s t of common occupations would n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t a i n 50 a l a r g e number of st e r e o t y p e d o c c u p a t i o n s . Since s t e r e o t y p e d c a r e e r s e x i s t , and s i n c e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e purported to r e f l e c t r e a l i t y , the o r i g i n a l s e t of occupations were chosen without regard to the sex ste r e o t y p e of the occupations, but w i t h regard to t h e i r p revalence i n the l a b o r market and chosen t o as-sure t h a t there was equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e n t i r e range of each dependent v a r i a b l e . S e x i s t terminology was absent except i n cases i n which both male and f e -male terminology was i n c l u d e d , e.g. w a i t e r and wa i t -r e s s . Careers from the o r i g i n a l l i s t of occupations were a l s o e l i m i n a t e d because they were d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s -i f y , or because t h e i r c o e f f i c i e n t s on one or more of the three dependent v a r i a b l e s were too f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d . Thus, the sex s t e r e o t y p e s of occupations t h a t appear i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were thought not to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the sex s t e r e o t y p e s of occupations throughout the l a b o r market.' Bern and Bern r e p o r t e d t h a t , o n e - t h i r d of a l l working women conce n t r a t e d i n only seven jobs: s e c r e t a r y , r e t a i l s a l e s c l e r k , household worker, s c h o o l teacher, bookkeeper> w a i t r e s s and nurse ... An a d d i t i o n a l o n e - t h i r d are found i n twenty-nine occupations . ,;. Seventy-eight percent (78% of a l l working women—as compared to f o r t y percent (4-0%) of working men—are employed as c l e r i c a l workers, s e r v i c e workers, f a c t o r y workers, and s a l e s c l e r k s ... Only f o u r m i l l i o n women (15% of a l l women workers) are c l a s s i f i e d - as p r o f e s s i o n a l or t e c h n i -c a l workers, and.even t h i s f i g u r e i s mis-l e a d i n g , f o r the s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n of noncollege teacher absorbs n e a r l y h a l f of these women and an a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t are nurses ... Fewer than one per-cent of a l l women workers f i l l those p o s i t i o n s which^to most Americans, connote -"pro'f e s s i o n a l V .-Eight of the 36 occupations t h a t account f o r two-t h i r d s of the female work f o r c e i n t h i s country were repr e s e n t e d among the 28 occupations used i n t h i s study: bookkeeper, f i l e c l e r k , head cook, r e g i s t e r e d nurse, s a l e s c l e r k , s c h o o l teacher, s e c r e t a r y , and w a i t r e s s . Three of the e i g h t (38 percent) were pro-f e s s i o n a l or managerial c a r e e r s : '. head cook, r e g i s t e r e d nurse, and s c h o o l t e a c h e r . Female s t e r e o t y p e d occu-p a t i o n s on the l i s t t h e r e f o r e presented a l a r g e r percentage of f a v o r a b l y sex s t e r e o t y p e d c a r e e r s (38 percent) ,-than a c t u a l l y occur i n the l a b o r market (15%) T h e r e f o r e the l i s t of c a r e e r s can not only be con-s i d e r e d v a l i d , but i t a l s o p r e s e n t s a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s because the oc c u p a t i o n l i s t c o n t a i n s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more female sex s t e r e o t y p e d c a r e e r s , which pay h i g h e r s a l a r i e s and r e q u i r e more educ a t i o n and l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n , than a c t u a l l y occur i n the l a b o r market. Bern Bern, T r a i n i n g the Woman, p.29. 52 C o n s i d e r i n g the s t r u c t u r e d nature of the t e s t , i t s s i m u l a t i o n of a task c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c o u n s e l l o r ' s work, i t s i n d i r e c t approach, and the composition of the o c c u p a t i o n a l choice l i s t , the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the t e s t was judged "by the r e s e a r c h e r to be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h i s study. Concurrent v a l i d i t y — N o normed t e s t c o u l d be used to •estimate concurrent v a l i d i t y , because no t e s t has s u f -f i c i e n t v a l i d i t y to warrant i t s use as a model to the best knowledge of the experimenter. Any d i r e c t measure of t h i s u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e has dubious v a l i d i t y because the c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e , brought about by the f e m i n i s t , would i n f l u -ence the respondents and l i k e l y make p a p e r - a n d - p e n c i l instruments of t h i s type i n v a l i d . Most c o u n s e l l o r s would know the " r i g h t " answers when asked qu e s t i o n s about the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s of g i r l s . When r e -c o r d i n g t h e i r views on a survey form, they would tend to g i v e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e answers, even though t h e i r behavior may be c o n t r a r y to t h e i r s t a t e d views. The i n d i r e c t measure of t h i s a t t i t u d e was t h e r e -f o r e thought to be s u p e r i o r to any d i r e c t measure. No v a l i d instrument which examines a t t i t u d e s toward women i n the l a b o r market e x i s t s t h a t c o u l d be used to e s t a b l i s h concurrent v a l i d i t y . P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y — p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y was important f o r t h i s study only i n s o f a r as i t a f f e c t e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n scores of subgroups such as young counsellors or ' typ c a l ' counsellors. I t was not intended, t h a t scores of i n d i v i d u a l counsellors would be used to produce coun-sellor b i a s . P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i s important, however, be-cause the instrument purported to measure an under-l y i n g c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e of a p a r t i c u l a r group of people. Research i n t h i s f i e l d i s inadequate to es-t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a counsellor's p er-s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and h i s or her job performance i n the area of v o c a t i o n a l guidance of females. This study examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and the counsellor's a t t i t u d e toward a f e -male's o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . Understanding t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e and a t t i t u d e may a l l o w f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of counsellor b i a s . R e l i a b i l i t y - - T h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument c o u l d not be determined i n t r a d i t i o n a l ways because of c e r -t a i n unique aspects of the t e s t . The s p l i t - h a l f method was not a p p r o p r i a t e because the t e s t q u e s t i o n s were a l r e a d y s p l i t i n t o male and female qu e s t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was too s h o r t to s u b d i v i d e f u r t h e r . The b r e v i t y of the t e s t was compensated f o r by u s i n g a l a r g e sample. The instrument was not intended to be a r e l i a b l e index of i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n , but r a t h e r to measure the tendency of subgroups to behave i n c e r t a i n ways. 54 P a r a l l e l - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y was not a s a t i s f a c t o r y method because Form A and Form B d i f f e r e d only i n the gender of the case study s u b j e c t s . A f t e r having taken one form of the t e s t , an i n d i v i d u a l would r e c o g n i z e t h a t i t u n o b t r u s i v e l y measured sex s t e r e o t y p e s as soon as the a l t e r n a t e form was seen. Thus the a l t e r n a t e form would be i n v a l i d . The t e s t - r e t e s t method would be a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of measuring r e l i a b i l i t y , but was not used be-cause i t would be i m p r a c t i c a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n responses from c o u n s e l l o r s once. I t would be more d i f f i c u l t to get p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s to respond to the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e a second time. A separate sample f o r t e s t - r e t e s t would a l s o be i m p r a c t i c a l . The time and expense would be c o n s i d e r a b l e and the p o p u l a t i o n s i z e of 407 makes an a d d i t i o n a l random sample d i f f i c u l t . However, r e l i a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s w i l l be enhanced by the f a c t t h a t each c o u n s e l l o r was r e q u i r e d to make three job s e l e c t i o n s i n s t e a d of one. The three job s e l e c t i o n s on each of the s i x case s t u d i e s were then averaged by the r e s e a r c h e r . C o l l e c t i o n of the Data On 'January 11, 1979 an envelope c o n t a i n i n g c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e , answer sheet, p e r s o n a l data sheet, stamped-addressed-return envelope and 3x5 card, was m a i l e d to a l l s u b j e c t s . A numerical code was on the enclosed, stamped envelope so t h a t those who d i d not respond would r e c e i v e a second l e t t e r . A second l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent on January 29, 1979• Copies of the l e t t e r s can be found i n Appendix C. Phase I - Major Hypotheses Hypothesis .' 1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the remuneration of occupations chosen by high s c h o o l coun-s e l o r s i n B.C. f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and those chosen f o r equiva-l e n t male case study s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis '--2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the e d u c a t i o n a l r e -quirements of occupations chosen by h i g h s c h o o l counsellors i n B.C. f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and those chosen f o r e q u i v a l e n t male case study s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis '3 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the l e v e l of super-v i s i o n of occupations chosen by high s c h o o l counsellors i n B.C. f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and f o r e q u i v a l e n t male case study s u b j e c t s . Phase II - Secondary Hypotheses Hypothesis 4 Counsellor's age. %a. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the remuneration of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors- who are l e s s than 3 5 years o l d and coun-sellors who are 3 5 years o l d or o l d e r . : 4 b There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e -ments of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors who are l e s s than 3 5 'years o l d and counsellors who are 3 5 - years o l d or o l d e r . / ' 4 c There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors who are l e s s than 3 5 . y e a r s o l d and coun-sellors who are 3 5 years o l d or o l d e r . 5 7 Hypothesis 5 Family S t r u c t u r e . • 5 a There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s a l a r y l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors com-i n g from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or counsellors from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . ' 5 b There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors coming from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or counsellors from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . 5 c There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l of oc-cupations chosen f o r male and 'female case study s u b j e c t s by counsellors com-in g from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or counsellors from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . 58 Design and A n a l y s i s Form A and Form B, having i d e n t i c a l case study informa-t i o n but w i t h gender d i f f e r e n c e s , were assumed to be equiva-l e n t forms. Form A, the 57 averaged counsellor responses f o r — r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n were ranked w i t h i t h o s e of Form B. Form A Job Choice #1 # 2 # 3 R l , l R l , 2 R l , 3 R ( C x ) Remuneration R 2 , , l • R 2 , . 2 • • • R 2 , 3 • t R ( C 2 ) • • E l , l E l , 2 E l , 3 E ( C 1 ) E d u c a t i o n E 2 , l • • • E 2 , 2 • • • E 2 , 3 • • • E ( C 2 ) • • t S l , l S l , 2 S l , 2 S ( C ^ S u p e r v i s i o n S 2 , l • -• • • S 2 , 2 • • S 2 , 3 • • • s ( c 2 ) - • • 59 Form B, Job Choice #1 #2 #3 R l , l R l,2 R l,3 R Remuneration R 2 , l R2,2 R2.r3'^" R (c2) • • • • • • • • V • • • • • E l , l E l,2 E l,3 E ( c 1 } E d u c a t i o n E 2 , l E2,2 E2,3 • • - . • • • . . • • 1 • • • S l , l S l,2 S2,2 S ( c ^ S u p e r v i s i o n S 2 , l S2,2 S2,3 • • • • • • • • • • • The R, E, S f o r each counsellor f o r Forms A and B was computed by the method shown above. The Mann-Whitney U t e s t was used f o r analyses of the mean d i f f e r e n c e i n the r a n k i n g of the averaged s c o r e s . 6o Mann-Whitney U T e s t . Mann-Whitney U t e s t i s a nonpara-m e t r i c d i f f e r e n c e t e s t which can "be used i f the study i n v o l v e s two independent samples. T h i s r e s e a r c h used two separate samples as the counsellors who r e c e i v e d Form A were randomly chosen as were the counsellors who r e c e i v e d Form B. The U t e s t i s a powerful nonpara-m e t r i c technique and can be used i n p l a c e of the pa r a -m e t r i c " t " t e s t w i t h l i t t l e l o s s i n power e f f i c i e n c y . As the three s c a l e s of remuneration, s u p e r v i s i o n and education. i are not a l l i n t e r v a l s c a l e s but o r d i n a l , -the Mann-Whitney U t e s t was a p p r o p r i a t e . The U t e s t i s based on the n o t i o n t h a t i f scores of two s i m i l a r groups ( c o e f f i c i e n t s of Form A of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and c o e f f i c i e n t s of Form B) are ranked to g e t h e r , there w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r m i n g l i n g of the two groups' rankings; but i f one group s i g n i f i -c a n t l y exceeds the other ( i . e . the male case study s u b j e c t s ) , then most of the s u p e r i o r groups' rankings w i l l be h i g h e r than those of the i n f e r i o r group. . The value of U i s computed1; a f t e r the combined ranking, by c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the lower ranked group and c o u n t i n g the number of ranks of the h i g h e r group which f a l l below the lower ranked group. The lower the value of the s t a t i s t i c y i e l d e d by the t e s t , the more s i g n i f i c a n t i t i s . F i r s t t e s t s : Mann-Whitney U t e s t 61 Form A Form B R l ' R 2 , R^, - • v s . R 2 J The t e s t was repeated f o r E d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . Second t e s t s : Mann-Whitney U t e s t Form A (case 1) Form B (case 1) R^, R 2, vs . R^, R 2, R^, The t e s t was repeated f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The t e s t was repeated f o r each case.-6 2 T h i r d t e s t : Mann-Whitney U t e s t Form A ( 1 , 4 , 6 ) Form B ( 1 , 4 , 6 ) The t e s t was repeated f o r ed u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The t e s t was repeated f o r combined cases 2 , 3 , 5 Form A and~Form B. Subordinate Hypotheses - Mann-Whitney U t e s t s Form A (counsellors, under 3 5 ) R l ' R 2 ' R 3 ' vs Form A (counsellors • 3 5 ahd.-o over) R l ' R 2 ' R 3 ' The t e s t was repeated f o r ed u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The t e s t was repeated f o r Form B. Form A ( t y p i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ) R l ' R 2 ' R 3 ' v s . R 1 ' R 2 ' R 3 , Form A ( a t y p i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ) The t e s t was repeated f o r ed u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n , The t e s t was repeated f o r Form B. 6 3 I n the f o l l o w i n g chapter the analyses of the data w i l l "be p r e s e n t e d . The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s w i l l "be presented as f o l l o w s : (1) the sample, (2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses, ( 3 ) equivalence of forms, (4) major hypotheses, ( 5 ) secondary hypotheses, and ( 6 ) summary. 64 CHAPTER IV Re s u l t s The main purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether high s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have a tendency to d i s c r i m i n a t e i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g of female c l i e n t s . A second purpose was to d i s c o v e r i f the c o u n s e l -l o r ' s age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e d the s t r e n g t h of t h i s tendency i f , i n f a c t , i t d i d e x i s t . Two hundred randomly s e l e c t e d h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , from the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n membership l i s t , - w e r e asked to choose a p p r o p r i a t e occupations f o r . t h r e e male and three female case study s u b j e c t s . Responses were assign e d c o e f f i c i e n t s on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . These response c o e f f i c i e n t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U t e s t . The Sample Two hundred (200) s u b j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of f o u r hundred seven (407) h i g h s c h o o l coun-s e l l o r s who were members of the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n (Membership l i s t : 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 ). One hundred were randomly s e l e c t e d to r e c e i v e Form A and one hundred Form B. Of the 114 s u b j e c t s who retu r n e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 37% 65 were under 35 years of age and 20$ grew up i n " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Responses From a p o p u l a t i o n of 200 randomly chosen s u b j e c t s , 138 (69$) r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and 114 (57$) completed t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n such a way t h a t they c o u l d be used f o r a n a l y s e s . Ten were r e t u r n e d unopened due to a l a c k of a forwarding address, and fourteen were r e t u r n e d incomplete. The f o u r reasons most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d f o r not complet-i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were as f o l l o w s : (1) f i v e respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t there was i n s u f f i c i e n t data presented i n the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , (2) f i v e respondents were not h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , (3) three respondents f e l t t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s do not, and should not, "choose a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s " f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s , (4) one person d i d not wish to take p a r t i n the study. Equivalence of Forms The Mann-Whitney U t e s t was used t o - s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyze the difference in mean. rank. between;the~coefficiien^?-from Form A ...and. coeffic^ i e n t s from Form B. The Mann-Whitney U t e s t i s a non-66 parametric d i f f e r e n c e t e s t which can be used w i t h two i n -dependent samples. This r e s e a r c h used two separate samples; those randomly s e l e c t e d c o u n s e l l o r s who r e c e i v e d Form A of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and those randomly s e l e c t e d c o u n s e l l o r s who r e c e i v e d Form B. The three occupations chosen by each c o u n s e l l o r ' f o r each of the s i x cases, were a s s i g n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t f o r each of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n ; c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e -v i o u s l y determined by expert judges. These c o e f f i c i e n t s were then averaged f o r each c o u n s e l l o r and f o r each case study. These averages f o r remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n from Form A were ranked along w i t h the averages f o r remuner-a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n from Form B. I t was hypothesized t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e as Form A and B were thought to be e q u i v a l e n t . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 1 there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Form A and Form B. The r e f o r e , Form A and Form B were assumed e q u i v a l e n t . Donahue (1976), i n a study done w i t h high s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n Michigan, had found t h a t com-puted scores on Form A were h i g h e r than computed scores on Form B. In the p r e s e n t study the two forms were shown to be e q u i v a l e n t . Therefore, they can be compared and d i f f e r e n c e s a t t r i b u t e d to case sex d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r than d i f f e r e n c e i n form. TABLE 1 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Equ i v a l e n c e of Forms ( A l l Cases) Remuneration E d u c a t i o n S u p e r v i s i o n Mean Rank: Form A Form B Subjec t s (n): Form A Form B Mann-Whitney: U: P: Z: 5 7 . 9 6 5 7 . 0 4 -57 57 1598.5* 0 . 8 8 3 * * - 0 . 14-7*** 5 7 . 9 9 5 7 . 0 1 5 7 5 7 1 5 9 6 . 5 0 . 8 7 4 - 0 . 1 5 9 5 8 . 6 1 5 6 . 3 9 5 7 5 7 1 5 6 1 . 0 0 . 7 1 9 - 0 . 3 6 0 * U i s the minimum of the two valu e s 1 ^ and I„ * ( i n v e r s i o n s ) ** P p r o b a b i l i t y associated withithe obtained U value; *** Z F i s h e r randomization two sample t e s t - i f computed Z i s g r e a t e r than - I . 9 6 or l e s s than + I . 9 6 , Ho i s not r e j e c t e d a t the 0 . 0 5 l e v e l 6 8 Major Hypotheses The c o u n s e l l o r s were asked to s e l e c t three occupations, and rank them i n order of p r e f e r e n c e , f o r the s i x case study s u b j e c t s . Each of the 28 occupations had been p r e v i o u s l y r a t e d and assigned a c o e f f i c i e n t r a n g i n g from 1 - 7 f o r the three dependent v a r i a b l e s of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The'three c o e f f i c i e n t s of remuneration f o r each case study were then averaged, as were the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The mean remuneration s c o r e s f o r the case s t u d i e s on Form A were ranked, a l o n g w i t h the mean remuneration scores f o r the case s t u d i e s on Form B. The same was done f o r ed u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . The Mann-Whitney U t e s t was a p p l i e d to each i n t u r n . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2, cases 1 , 2, 4 and 5 w i t h male case study s u b j e c t s are ranked s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than female case study s u b j e c t s f o r the v a r i a b l e of remuneration. Cases 3 and 6 show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the ranks f o r males and females. The v a r i a b l e of e d u c a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d on Table 3 shows no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ranks f o r males and females on the cases 1 , 2, 3$ 5 and 6 . Case 4 , however, shows a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r rank f o r male s u b j e c t s than f o r female s u b j e c t s of the same case. A l s o i n d i c a t e d on Table 4 , s u p e r v i s i o n i s ranked s i g n i -f i c a n t l y h igher f o r male s u b j e c t s on cases 1 , 2, 4 and 5 than f o r female s u b j e c t s of the same cases. Cases 3 and 6 6 9 TABLE 2 Sex, Mean Remuneration Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r :Each of the S i x Cases (Form A and Form B) C a s e 4 Case Sex: Form A Form B Mean Rank: Form A Form B Mann-Whitney: U: P: Z: M F 7 8 3 - 0 0 . 0 0 0 - 4 . 7 9 0 F M F M M F F M 9 6 9 . 0 1 6 1 3 . 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 5 0 M F 7 2 . 2 6 4 6 . 0 0 5 7 . 3 1 7 4 . 1 8 4 9 . 0 1 5 7 . 9 2 4 2 . 7 4 6 9 . O O 5 7 . 6 9 4 0 . 8 2 6 5 . 9 9 57-08 6 7 3 . 5 1 1 4 0 . 5 1 6 0 0 . 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 8 9 0 - 3 . 7 3 0 - O . 0 6 3 - 5 . 5 0 4 - 2 . 7 5 6 - 0 . 1 3 8 7 0 TABLE 3 Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each of the S i x Cases (Form A and Form B) C a s e 4 Case Sex: Form A Form B Mean Rank: Form A Form B Mann-Whitney: U: P: Z: M F F M F M F M F 5 8 . 3 6 5 4 . 5 0 5 9 . 7 6 6 6 . 5 8 5 3 . 5 0 5 8 . 6 1 56.64 6 0 . 5 0 55.24 48.42 6 1 . 5 0 56.39 1575-5 1453-5 1495.5 1 1 0 7 . 0 1396.5 1561.0 O . 7 8 0 0.330 - 0 . 2 7 9 - 0 . 9 7 3 0 . 4 4 5 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 1 9 3 0 . 7 1 3 • O . 7 6 3 - 2 . 9 8 1 - 1 . 3 0 1 - 0 . 3 6 8 7 1 TABLE 4 Sex, Mean Supervision Rank and Statistics for Each of the Six Cases (Form A and Form B) C a s e 4 5 Case Sex: Form A M Form B F Mean Rank: Form A 7 1 - 5 5 Form B 4 3 . 4 5 Mann-Whitney: U: P: 0 . 0 0 0 Z: - 4 . 5 5 9 F M 4 7 - 7 5 6 7 . 2 5 F M 5 4 . 2 3 6 0 . 7 7 F M 6 7 . 6 5 5 0 . 6 8 4 7 . 3 5 6 4 . 3 2 0.002 0 . 2 7 7 0.001 - 3 . 1 6 4 -1.088 - 3 . 3 4 3 M F 5 8 . 7 7 5 6 . 2 3 8 2 3 . 5 1 0 6 9 . 0 1 4 3 8 . 0 1046 . 0 1 2 3 6 . 0 1 5 5 2 . 0 0 . 0 2 7 O . 6 7 7 -2.214 - 0.417 7 2 show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the ranks of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r male and female s u b j e c t s . The next s e t of t e s t s u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U t e s t i n v e s t i g a t e d the ranki n g of the mean remuneration scores f o r cases 1, 4 and 6 from Form A with the mean remuneration scores f o r cases 1, 4 and 6 from Form B. On Form A, cases 1, 4 and 6 are a l l male case study s u b j e c t s and on Form B, cases 1, 4 and 6 are a l l female case study s u b j e c t s . Cases 2 , 3 and 5 on Form A ( a l l female) were ranked w i t h cases 2 , 3 and 5 on Form B ( a l l male). The t e s t s were repeated f o r the v a r i a b l e s of educ a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . Major Hypotheses: ': Hypothesis 1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the remuneration a s -signed to occupations chosen by hig h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and those chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l case study s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d as males. A n a l y s i s of the data y i e l d e d r e s u l t s shown i n Table 5 -The n u l l h y p o thesis was r e j e c t e d at the . 0 5 l e v e l of con-f i d e n c e . C o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia chose h i g h e r p a y i n g occupations f o r male case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l female case study s u b j e c t s . 7 3 TABLE 5 Sex, Mean Remuneration Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1 , 4 , 6 (Males v s . Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s. Females) C a s e s 1 , 4 , 6 2 , 3 , 5 Cases Sex: Form A M F Form B F ' M Mean Rank: Form A 7 3 - 0 9 4 6 . 7 5 Form B 4 1 . 9 1 6 8 . 2 5 Mann-Whitney: U: 7 3 6 . 0 1 0 1 2 . 0 P: 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 Z: - 5 . 0 4 5 - 3 . 4 7 6 74 Hypothesis 2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n a l requirements of occupations chosen by hi g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and those chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male case study s u b j e c t s . A n a l y s i s of the data y i e l d e d the r e s u l t s shown i n Table 6. The n u l l h ypothesis was accepted. C o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not chose c a r e e r s w i t h a hig h e r e d u c a t i o n a l p r e -r e q u i s i t e f o r male case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l female case study s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis 3 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the l e v e l of super-v i s i o n r e q u i r e d f o r occupations chosen by h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r female case study s u b j e c t s and f o r i d e n t i c a l male case study sub-j e c t s . A n a l y s i s of the data y i e l d e d the r e s u l t s shown i n Table 7 . The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d a t the . 0 5 l e v e l of co n f i d e n c e . C o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia chose jobs r e -q u i r i n g l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n f o r male case study s u b j e c t s than f o r female case study s u b j e c t s . 7 5 TABLE 6 Sex, Mean E d u c a t i o n Rank and S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1 , 4 , 6 (Males vs. Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males vs. Females) C a s e s 1. 4 , 6 2 , 3 , 5 Cases Sex: Form A M F Form B F M Mean Rank: Form A 6 2 . 3 4 5 4 . 9 3 Form B 5 2 . 6 6 6 0 . 0 7 Mann-Whitney: U: 1 3 4 8 . 5 1 4 7 8 . 0 P: 0 . 1 1 7 0 . 4 0 6 Z: - 1 . 5 6 9 - 0 . 8 5 2 7 6 TABLE 7 Sex, Mean S u p e r v i s i o n Rank and. S t a t i s t i c s on Cases 1 , 4 , 6 (Males v s . Females) and on Cases 2 , 3 , 5 (Males v s . Females) C a s e s 1 , 4 , 6 2 , 3 , 5 Cases Sex: Form A M F Form B F M Mean Rank: Form A 7 0 . 8 5 4 7 . 7 2 Form B 4 4 . 1 5 6 7 . 2 8 Mann-Whitney: U: 8 6 3 . 5 IO67.O P: 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 Z: - 4 . 3 2 3 - 3 . 1 6 5 77 Secondary Hypotheses The purpose of the two secondary hypotheses was to d i s -cover f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e or be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the tendencies r e v e a l e d by the three major hypotheses. The two v a r i a b l e s were c o u n s e l l o r s ^ age and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . (a) C o u n s e l l o r ' s age. Hypothesis 4 ( a ) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n remuneration assig n e d to occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who are l e s s than 3 5 years o l d and c o u n s e l l o r s who are 3 5 years or o l d e r . Hypothesis 4 ( b ) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of occupations cho-sen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who are l e s s than 3 5 years o l d and c o u n s e l l o r s who are 3 5 years or o l d e r . Hypothesis 4 ( c ) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i - . cant d i f f e r e n c e between the l e v e l of s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r e d f o r 7 8 occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s hy c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who are l e s s than 3 5 years o l d and c o u n s e l l o r s who are 3 5 years or o l d e r . A n a l y s i s of the data y i e l d e d the r e s u l t s shown i n Table 8 . The n u l l hypotheses r e l a t e d to the age of the c o u n s e l l o r were accepted f o r the v a r i a b l e s of remunera-t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . As s t a t e d i n Table 8 , there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the assigned s a l a r y l e v e l , or s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r male and female case study s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l l o r s l e s s than 3 5 years of age and c o u n s e l l o r s 3 5 years or o l d e r . However, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . (b) Family s t r u c t u r e . Hypothesis 5 ( a ) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n remuneration as s i g n e d to occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case s t u -dy s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia coming from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or c o u n s e l l o r s coming from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . 7 9 TABLE 8 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r Counsellors Under 3 5 and Counsellors 3 5 and Older Remuneration Education S u p e r v i s i o n Mean Rank: ^ 3 5 3 1 . 1 1 3 4 . 3 1 3 0 . 1 1 3 5 + 2 6 . 4 9 2 4 . 9 3 2 6 . 9 7 Subjects (n): -C35 18 18 18 3 5 + 3 7 3 7 3 7 Mann-Whitney: U: 2 7 7 . 0 2 1 9 . 5 2 9 5 . 0 P: 0 . 3 1 5 0.041 0 . 4 9 5 Z: - 1 . 0 0 6 - 2 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 6 8 3 80 Hypothesis 5(h) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and f e -male case study s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l -l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia coming from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or c o u n s e l l o r s from " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . Hypothesis 5(c) There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e between the l e v e l of s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r e d f o r occupa-t i o n s chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s by coun-s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia coming from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or c o u n s e l l o r s from " a t y p i c a l " fam-i l y s t r u c t u r e . A n a l y s i s of the data y i e l d e d the r e s u l t s shown i n Table 9- A l l three n u l l hypotheses r e l a t e d to f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e were accepted. As s t a t e d i n Table 9> there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s a l -ary l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , or s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l of occupations chosen f o r i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s by c o u n s e l l o r s who come from a " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e or those from an " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . 81 TABLE 9 Table of Mean Ranks and S t a t i s t i c s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s from " T y p i c a l " and " A t y p i c a l " Family S t r u c t u r e s Remuneration E d u c a t i o n S u p e r v i s i o n Mean Rank: T y p i c a l 2 7 . 3 9 2 6 . 6 8 2 8 . 0 0 A t y p i c a l 3 0 . 7 5 3 3 * 9 5 2 8 . 0 0 Subjects, (n) : T y p i c a l 4 5 4 5 4 5 A t y p i c a l 1 0 1 0 1 0 Mann-W h i tney: U: 1 9 7 . 5 1 6 5 . 5 2 2 5 . 0 P: 0 . 5 4 8 0 . 1 9 3 • 1 . 0 0 0 Z: - 0 . 6 0 1 - 1 . 3 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 82 Summary C o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia when presented w i t h i d e n t i c a l male and female case study s u b j e c t s chose occupa-t i o n s w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of remuneration and l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n f o r the male case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l female case study s u b j e c t s . L e v e l s of p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n a s s i g n e d to the occupations chosen f o r the male and female case study s u b j e c t s showed no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . C o u n s e l l o r ' s age (under 3 5 ; 3 5 and o l d e r ) and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ( " t y p i c a l " and " a t y p i c a l " ) d i d not i n f l u e n c e coun-s e l l o r s ' tendencies to d i s c r i m i n a t e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean ranks f o r remuneration and s u p e r v i s i o n of c o u n s e l -l o r s under 3 5 years and c o u n s e l l o r s 3 5 years and o l d e r . C o u n s e l l o r s from " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s and those from " a t y p i c a l " s t r u c t u r e s a l s o d i d not show any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r mean ranks f o r remuneration, ed u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . 83 CHAPTER V Conclusio n s and D i s c u s s i o n Women i n Canada are fac e d w i t h many i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i a l o b s t a c l e s to s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n the working world. An area of concern to those i n the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s themselves may be person-a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l to the s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r female c l i e n t s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t b i a s a g a i n s t females permeates many aspects of s o c i e t y . C o u n s e l l o r s ap-pear to be n e i t h e r b e t t e r nor worse than ot h e r people i n - r e s p e c t to b i a s a g a i n s t females. As i s prob a b l y t r u e f o r most segments of s o c i e t y , c o u n s e l l o r s seem to a s s i m i l a t e the c u l t u r a l norms of s o c i e t y . One c u l t u r a l norm i s t h a t there are s p e c i f i c occupations f o r males and f o r females. Women who a s p i r e to occupations which have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y thought of as masculine o f t e n encounter c o u n s e l l o r b i a s a g a i n s t these a s p i r a t i o n s . Abramowitz, et a l (1975), found t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment to female m e d i c a l s c h o o l a s p i r a n t s than to the males. S c h l o s s b e r g and P i e t r o f e s a (1970) a r r i v e d a t the same c o n c l u s i o n " t h a t c o u n s e l l o r b i a s e x i s t s a g a i n s t women e n t e r i n g a masculine o p e r a t i o n . " The masculine occupations u s u a l l y have h i g h e r remuneration l e v e l s as w e l l as o f t e n being s u p e r v i s o r y i n nature. Thus f o r a woman to attempt to improve her working 84 s t a t u s she runs the r i s k of encountering t h i s b i a s a g a i n s t females e n t e r i n g masculine o c c u p a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s , "What type of c a r e e r c o u n s e l -l i n g do young g i r l s r e c e i v e from h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s " ? Thomas and Stewart (1971) found t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s r a t e d con-forming goals ( i . e . females chosing t r a d i t i o n a l female c a r e e r s ) as more a p p r o p r i a t e than d e v i a t e g o a l s . C o u n s e l l o r s a l s o r a t e d female c l i e n t s w i t h d e v i a t e c a r e e r goals to be more i n need of c o u n s e l l i n g than those w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l g o a l s . The Thomas and Stewart study examined the b i a s c o u n s e l l o r s e x h i b i t to a g i r l who has made a d e c i s i o n . What then happens to a g i r l who i s undecided as to her c a r e e r options? Do c o u n s e l l o r s examine and encourage a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s or do they encourage o n l y the t r a d i t i o n a l l y female occupations? A study examining t h i s i s s u e was completed by Donahue ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Coun-s e l l o r s were presented w i t h data on s i x case study s u b j e c t s and asked to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s . The r e s u l t s i n d i -c a t e d there was a b i a s a g a i n s t females e x h i b i t e d by the h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . The c o u n s e l l o r s tended to choose lower paying occupations t h a t are more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d and r e -q u i r e l e s s p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r male s u b j e c t s . .Donahue's study was com-p l e t e d three years ago and the c o u n s e l l o r s i n the study worked i n Michigan. Do S o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1 9 7 9 , guide females toward t r a d i t i o n a l occupations which r e q u i r e lower remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n l e v e l s ? R e s u l t s from 85 t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h o l d a n o c c u p a t i o n a l b i a s t o w a r d w o m e n . T h e c o u n -s e l l o r s s e l e c t e d , f o r t h e f e m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s , o c c u p a -t i o n s t h a t h a d l o w e r r e m u n e r a t i o n l e v e l s a n d m o r e s u p e r v i s i o n , t h a n f o r t h e i d e n t i c a l m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s . C o u n s e l l o r s , p e r h a p s w i t h o u t a w a r e n e s s , e n c o u r a g e c o n -f o r m i t y t o c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d s e x r o l e s i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t . T h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h i s s t u d y , s h o w e d a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y t o c h o o s e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f o c c u p a t i o n s f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r e q u a l -l y q u a l i f i e d f e m a l e s . R a t h e r t h a n f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s o l e -l y o n t h e t a l e n t s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s , t h e y c o n s i d e r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s w h i c h t e n d e d t o r e f l e c t t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d o f w o r k . T h i s i s a w o r l d w h e r e w o m e n s e l d o m w o r k i n a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , w h e r e w o m e n e a r n l e s s t h a n m e n , a n d w h e r e w o m e n w o r k i n o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h d o n o t f u l l y u t i l i z e t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . C o u n s e l l o r s , i n t h i s s t u d y , d i d c h o o s e o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n f o r m a l e a n d f e m a l e c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s . T h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h c o u n -s e l l o r s s o m e t i m e s c h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s f o r f e m a l e s t h a t r e q u i r e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e y s e l d o m c h o s e a c a r e e r t h a t p a i d a h i g h s a l a r y o r w a s s u p e r v i s o r y i n n a t u r e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t m a y b e v i e w e d a s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r w o -m e n - t o h a v e a n e d u c a t i o n , a s l o n g a s t h e y s t a y i n a d e p e n d e n t , s u p e r v i s e d r o l e . O r p e r h a p s i t r e f l e c t s a m i d d l e c l a s s a t t i t u d e t h a t e v e r y o n e w h o p o s s i b l y c a n w i l l p u r s u e h i g h e r 86 e d u c a t i o n a l development. Thus, e d u c a t i o n may become a g o a l i n i t s e l f r a t h e r than a means to advanced o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . A g i r l may he encouraged to pursue a u n i v e r s i t y -l e v e l e d u c a t i o n f o r a number of reasons and the g o a l may not be a s p e c i f i c c a r e e r . Women may be encouraged to a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y to meet e l i g i b l e males and to add to her value as a w i f e and mother. The u n d e r l y i n g assumption s t i l l h e l d by many people i s t h a t women work onl y f o r a s h o r t time, i f at a l l , and then assume t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of w i f e and mother. I t appears t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s support the edu c a t i o n of women. However, t h i s e d u c a t i o n may not be enough to g a i n e n t r y i n t o high paying jobs t h a t u t i l i z e s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s . The subordinate hypothesis concerning c o u n s e l l o r age d i d not r e s u l t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l o r ' s b i a s a g a i n s t females and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The assumption was t h a t younger c o u n s e l l o r s (under 35 years of age) would hold-more f l e x i b l e b e l i e f s about a female's capa-b i l i t i e s , sex r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s i t i o n i n the work-i n g world. I t was thought t h a t the b e l i e f s might not be r e -s t r i c t e d by t r a d i t i o n a l , s e x - t y p i n g of c a r e e r s . However, the data i n d i c a t e s there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e e x h i b i t e d by the younger c o u n s e l l o r s when compared to 35 and over age group on the v a r i a b l e s of remuneration and s u p e r v i s i o n . I t appears that the re c e n t s o c i a l focus on women's f i g h t f o r e q u a l i t y and i n c r e a s e d movement i n t o the l a b o u r 87 f o r c e have had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on c o u n s e l l o r s of any age. C o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a p p a r e n t l y continue t o ho l d a negative b i a s on a woman's r o l e i n the world of work. An a d d i t i o n a l subordinate hypothesis c o n s i d e r e d the c o u n s e l l o r s f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e as a young c h i l d . A " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e was d e f i n e d as f a t h e r working and f i n a n -c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g the f a m i l y , w h i l e mother remained i n the home f o r the f i r s t twelve y e a r s . " A t y p i c a l " was a f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e which d i f f e r e d from the " t y p i c a l . " The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d there was- no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x h i b i t e d by c o u n s e l l o r s from e i t h e r f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . I t was thought t h a t s i n c e many n o t i o n s of sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g are formulated i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , c o u n s e l l o r s r a i s e d i n a f a m i l y s e t t i n g i n which the sex r o l e s of the parents had not been " t y p i c a l " might hol d " a t y p i c a l " b e l i e f s about male, female c h a r a c e r i s t i c s and c a p a b i l i t i e s . Vogel, Broverman, Broverman, C l a r k s o n and Rosenkrantz (1970) found t h a t men and women of employed mothers p e r c e i v e d l e s s d i f f e r e n c e bet-ween masculine and feminine r o l e s . They viewed the feminine r o l e as e n t a i l i n g g r e a t e r competency and masculine r o l e as e n t a i l i n g more warmth and expressiveness than d i d men and women wit h homemaker mothers. Thus a v a r i a t i o n from the " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e d i d r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e l i e f systems. A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h a t r e a s o n i n g was t h a t perhaps any v a r i a t i o n from the norm would produce changes i n a t t i -tudes about male, female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s i n g l e parent by n e c e s s i t y has expanded h i s or her r o l e f u n c t i o n s and thus 88 the r o l e m o d e l l i n g f o r the c h i l d doesn't f i t the " t y p i c a l " male, female c a t e g o r i e s . I n r e t r o s p e c t , " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e may have been too "broad a category. F a m i l i e s i n which n e i t h e r parents worked ( i . e . students; i l l n e s s ) , both parents working f u l l or p a r t time, dead p a r e n t s , and many more s i t u a t i o n s f i t i n t o the " a t y p i c a l " f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . S c h l o s s b e r g and Goodman (1971) found t h a t w i t h young c h i l d r e n the type of o c c u p a t i o n f i l l e d by the mother was i n f l u e n t i a l on c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s . C h i l d r e n w i t h mothers working at p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s were l e s s b i a s e d a g a i n s t wo-men o c c u p a t i o n a l l y than were c h i l d r e n whose mothers had low l e v e l j o b s . Are c h i l d r e n from hig h e r socioeconomic homes more s o c i a l l y aware of a wider range of c a r e e r options f o r women? Perhaps parents or a t t i t u d e s of the mother, as p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d , are c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s . A q u e s t i o n a s k i n g the coun-s e l l o r s , "What would your mother t h i n k of a woman as mayor"? may i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s p r e v a l e n t i n the f a m i l y background t h a t would be more i n f l u e n t i a l than the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . I t seem-ed to the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t the hypothesis must be s p e c i f i c i f the r e s u l t s are to be s p e c i f i c and u s e f u l . Some g e n e r a l tendencies noted i n the data were the f o l l o w i n g . Occupations chosen were q u i t e s i m i l a r f o r p a r t i -c u l a r case study s u b j e c t s . T h i s conformity may i n d i c a t e t h a t the case s t u d i e s d i d give enough i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t coun-s e l l o r s weren't g u e s s i n g w i l d l y , t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n gave 89 a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s u b -j e c t . T h e c o u n s e l l o r s * p e r s o n a l b i a s o r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o f m e n a n d w o m e n t h e n d e t e r m i n e d t h e p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f r e m u n e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d s u p e r v i s i o n c h o s e n . S o m e c o u n s e l l o r s b i a s w a s f a i r l y o b v i o u s a n d c o n -s i s t e n t a s o b s e r v e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y i n f o r m a t i o n , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t w o m e n s u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n -e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l o w l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s h a i r s t y l i s t , s a l e s c l e r k , s e c r e t a r y . O c c u p a t i o n s s e e m e d t o d i f f e r i n t h e l e v e l s o f p o p u l a r i t y — p h y s i c i a n w a s s e l d o m s u g g e s t e d , b u t s m a l l b u s i n e s s o w n e r / m a n a g e r , ' C . A . a n d a r c h i t e c t s e e m e d f r e q u e n t l y t o b e t h e c h o i c e . A n o t h e r c a t e g o r y n o t o f t e n s e l e c t e d w a s s e m i - s k i l l e d o r s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . P e r h a p s t h e c o u n s e l l o r s d i d n o t h a v e a c l e a r i d e a a s t o j o b s i n c l u d e d i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . O r , a r e t h e p o p u l a r j o b c h o i c e s r e f l e c t i n g a m i d d l e c l a s s b i a s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ? T h e l a b o u r m a r k e t t o d a y h a s a s h o r t a g e o f s e m i -s k i l l e d a n d s k i l l e d w o r k e r s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f v a l u -i n g o r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h a t t y p e o f o c c u p a t i o n . T h e s e j o b s o f t e n h a v e a l o w e r l e v e l o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s b u t o f t e n h i g h l e v e l s o f r e m u n e r a t i o n a n d a r e s o m e t i m e s s u p e r -v i s o r y i n n a t u r e . T w o c a s e s t u d i e s (3 a n d 6) a p p e a r t o b e i n • s o m e w a y u n i q u e . O n l y t h e s e t w o , f r o m t h e t o t a l o f s i x , h a d n o s i g n i = f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e o n a l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s o f r e -n u m e r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d s u p e r v i s i o n . F o r t h e s e t w o c a s e s t u d i e s t h e r e w a s o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s a c c o r d i n g t o c a r e e r c h o i c e s m a d e b y t h e c o u n s e l l o r s . B o t h 90 case s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e a person capable of b e t t e r than average a b i l i t y w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n t h e o r e t i c a l work. Case 6 i s s l i g h t l y unusual i n t h a t the s u b j e c t i s d e s c r i b e d as a "bookworm who has a hard time g e t t i n g along w i t h h i s / h e r p e e r s . " Case 3 would a l s o rather'work w i t h data than w i t h people and t h i n g s . Perhaps the somewhat e c c e n t r i c q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d do not f i t the s t e r o t y p i c image of the t y p i c a l female. Broverman, et a l (1968)', found t h a t s u b j e c t s c l e a r l y agreed as to feminine and masculine t r a i t s . The female valued s t e r e o t y p i c items c o n s i s t e d of a t t r i b u t e s such as g e n t l e , s e n s i t i v e to the f e e l i n g s of others, s o c i a b l e , t a c t -f u l , e t c . These a t t r i b u t e s which d e s c r i b e e t y p i c a l female q u a l i t i e s are d i f f e r e n t than those d e s c r i b e d i n case s t u d i e s 3 and 6. Since these two case study s u b j e c t s were not t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine, perhaps c o u n s e l l o r s avoided s e l e c t -i n g t r a d i t i o n a l female occupations f o r them. Perhaps coun-s e l l o r s are w i l l i n g to encourage " d i f f e r e n t " occupations to these somewhat unique females. The case study s u b j e c t s , who may have been regarded as " d i f f e r e n t " y e t capable, were ass i g n e d by the c o u n s e l l o r s occupations of hi g h l e v e l s of remuneration, e d u c a t i o n and occupations t h a t were s u p e r v i s o r y i n nature. A f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n was t h a t some of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o u n s e l l o r s , when asked to make o c c u p a t i o n a l choice about a c l i e n t , s t a t e d t h a t they do not judge counsellees- or make d e c i s i o n s f o r them. N e v e r t h e l e s s , these c o u n s e l l o r s do 91 p r o v i d e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l e e s and decide which i n f o r m a t i o n i s more a p p r o p r i a t e to share. I f c o u n s e l -l o r s have a tendency to choose low paying occupations that need more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s , as shown i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r w i l l more o f t e n choose c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlets or d i s c u s s lower paying nonsupervisory jobs f o r female than f o r male c l i e n t s . Another s u b t l e form of c o u n s e l l o r b i a s would be s e l e c t i v e p o s i t i v e v e r b a l reinforcement when the female c l i e n t d i s c u s s e s t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Body language and accompanying f a c i a l e x pressions may communicate t h i s b i a s to the female c l i e n t . These s u b t l e forms of b i a s a g a i n s t female o c c u p a t i o n a l choices may not even be i n the c o u n s e l l o r s awareness, However, the b i a s d e t e c t e d i n t h i s study undoubtedly has an e f f e c t on the nature of c o u n s e l l i n g r e c e i v e d by g i r l s i n s p i t e of the o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d by some c o u n s e l l o r s contacted i n t h i s study. Recommendations The major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study was the use of a membership l i s t to o b t a i n the study p o p u l a t i o n . The sample was randomly s e l e c t e d from the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n membership l i s t . As the A s s o c i a t i o n doesn't have every h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r c u r r e n t l y working i n B r i t i s h Columbia on i t s l i s t , the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s may be l i m i t e d . An improvement would be to have a sample randomly 92 s e l e c t e d from a l l working c o u n s e l l o r s . The r e s u l t i n g data would then be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c o u n s e l l o r s and study r e s u l t s c o u l d then be g e n e r a l i z e d to the whole p r o v i n c e . Another recommendation involves' post hoc a n a l y s i s of the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the c o u n s e l l o r s on the p e r s o n a l data sheet. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s coun-s e l l o r s * sex, geographic l o c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and years of experience. T h i s a n a l y s i s would f u r t h e r add to e x i s t i n g d a t a . I t may answer ques t i o n s such as "Are a l l the c o u n s e l l o r s b i a s e d or j u s t the males/females"? ",Are coun-s e l l o r s l i v i n g i n the lower mainland l e s s b i a s e d than those l i v i n g elsewhere"? "Are c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n l e s s biased"? "What p o r t i o n of respondents were males and what p o r t i o n were females"? "Did the m a j o r i t y of respondents l i v e o u t s i d e the lower mainland"? Perhaps being more i s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s i n these areas have a g r e a t e r need to belong to the C o u n s e l l o r s A s s o c i a t i o n . The membership l i s t may r e p r e s e n t more c o u n s e l l o r s i n these ou t e r areas. Post hoc a n a l y s i s may throw some l i g h t on these i s s u e s and add to the data on c o u n s e l l o r b i a s . The f i n a l recommendation would be to make p r a c t i c a l use of t h i s data. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia do e x h i b i t a b i a s a g a i n s t women i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . I n i t i a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s must be made aware of the r e s u l t s of the study. A m a j o r i t y of the coun-s e l l o r s who d i d take p a r t i n the study requested the r e s u l t s . These c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l be sent a summary of of the r e s u l t s 93 of t h i s study. A r t i c l e s should he presented f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n j o u r n a l s and magazines. The Canadian C o u n s e l l o r and B.C.T.F. are two examples of p u b l i c a t i o n s c i r c u l a t e d to those i n v o l v e d i n the f i e l d of ed u c a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l method of communicating these f i n d i n g s would be to n o t i f y the v a r i o u s s c h o o l boards i n the p r o v i n c e . With t h i s n o t i f i c a t i o n of the study r e s u l t s , i t should be recommended t h a t a c t i o n , i n the format of workshops, i n - s e r v i c e , l e c t u r e s , should be taken. The aim of these programs' would be to reduce c o u n s e l l o r b i a s and i n t e n s i v e l y examine the i s s u e of women and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . As women presen t d i f f e r e n t needs, p r e s s u r e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , a theory f o r e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g of young women could b e g i n to deve-lop. . An e f f e c t i v e theory f o r c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g must examine the widest range of occupations p o s s i b l e , the r e a l i s t i c nec-e s s i t y of h i g h l e v e l employment ( r i s i n g r a t e of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s ) , the lengthy work span p o s s i b l e f a r women, and a l t e r n a t e methods of combining c h i l d r e a r i n g and working o u t s i d e the home. An e f f e c t i v e theory f o r c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g of young women would i n c l u d e these unique i s s u e s and a i d i n w e l l planned, long range ca r e e r o p t i o n s . Not only are i n - s e r v i c e workshops necessary f o r c o u n s e l -f l o r s c u r r e n t l y " w o r k i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia but an a d d i t i o n a l focus should be on c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . A course, or workshop on women, t h e i r s p e c i a l needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d become a requirement f o r those students i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . A p e r s o n a l focus on "biases a g a i n s t men or women would be h e l p -f u l to "bring these a t t i t u d e s i n t o awareness and should be i n c l u d e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s . In c o n c l u s i o n , c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n t h i s study, d i d e x h i b i t a negative b i a s a g a i n s t women i n t h e i r c h o i ce of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . They s e l e c t e d occupations w i t h lower l e v e l s of remuneration and more s u p e r v i s i o n f o r female case study s u b j e c t s than f o r i d e n t i c a l male case study sub-j e c t s . T h i s a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t s the c u r r e n t l a b o u r market where most women are concentrated i n lower paying and l e s s rewarding p o s i t i o n s . T h i s must change 1 I n order to be e f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l change agents, c o u n s e l l o r s must convey the message t h a t the f u l l range of occupations can be co n s i d e r e d f o r e i t h e r sex. C o u n s e l l o r s must e x h i b i t a p o s i t i v e commit-ment to unbiased c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. 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E s s e n t i a l s of P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g . Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d i t i o n . Toyko: John W e a t h e r h i l l , Inc., 1966'. Deutsch, C.J. & G i l b e r t , L.A. S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s : e f f e c t on p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f and others and on p e r s o n a l a d j u s t -ment. J o u r n a l of Counseli n g Psychology, 1976,,23(4), 373-379. Donahue, T.J. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t young women i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n by h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . J o u r n a l of Counsel- i n g Psychology, 1977, 24(6) , 481-486. Engelhard, P.A., Jones, K.A. & S t i g g i n s , R.J. Trends i n counselor a t t i t u d e about women's r o l e s . J o u r n a l of  Coun s e l i n g Psychology, 1976, 23_(4) , 365-372. Farmer, H.S. & Bohn, J r . M.J. Home-career c o n f l i c t r e d u c t i o n and the l e v e l of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t i n women. J o u r n a l of  Coun s e l i n g Psychology. 1970, ! Z ( 3 ) , 228-232. Farmer, H.S. To r e s o l v e the home-career c o n f l i c t . J o u r n a l  of Personnel and Guidance, June 1971, 4_9_(10), 795-801. Fernberger, S.W. P e r s i s t e n c e of st e r e o t y p e s concerning sex d i f f e r e n c e s . J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 1948, 4_3_, 97-101. Gardner, J . S e x i s t c o u n s e l i n g must s t o p . Personnel and  Guidance J o u r n a l , 1971, 4 £ , 705-714. Goldberg, P. Are women p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t women. Trans- A c t i o n , A p r i l 1968, 28-30. Goldberg, P., Pheterson, G. & K i e s l e r , S. E v a l u a t i o n of the performance of women as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r sex, a c h i e v e -ment, and p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and  S o c i a l Psychology, 1971, 1£(1), 114-118. Gove, P.B.(ed.). Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y  of the E n g l i s h Language Unabridged. G. & C. Merriam Co., 1976, II51, 2361. Haan, L. & L i v s o n , N. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the eyes of expert p e r s o n a l i t y a s s e s s o r s : b l i n d spots? J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  Assessment, 1973, 31(5), 486-492. 9 7 H a r r i s , S.R. G i r l s ' c a r e e r c h o i c e s : a c h a l l e n g e to counse-l o r s . The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , December 1 9 7 4 , 1 2 8 - 1 3 3 . H a r t l e y , R.E. Current p a t t e r n s i n sex r o l e s : c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s . J o u r n a l of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of  Women Deans and Counselors, I 9 6 I , 2~5~, 3 - 1 3 . H a r t l e y , R.E. A developmental view of female sex r o l e d e f i n i -t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y of  Behavior and Development, 1 9 6 4 , lb~, 3 - 1 6 . Hawley, P. Pe r c e p t i o n s of male models of f e m i n i n i t y r e l a t e d to c a r e e r c h o i c e . J o u r n a l of Cou n s e l i n g Psychology, 1 9 7 2 , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 3 0 8 - 3 1 3 . Hawley, P. What women t h i n k men t h i n k : does i t a f f e c t t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . J o u r n a l of Cou n s e l i n g Psychology, F a l l 1 9 7 1 , 18, 1 9 3 - 1 9 4 " ^ Horner, M.S. Women's w i l l to f a i l . Psychology Today, I969, 1, 3 6 - 3 8 . Horner, M.S. Toward an understanding of achievement-rated c o n f l i c t s i n women. J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, 1 9 7 2 , 2 8 , 1 5 7 - 1 7 5 . Kaplan, R.M. & Goldman, R.D. Stereotypes of c o l l e g e students toward the average man's and woman's a t t i t u d e s toward women. J o u r n a l of Counseli n g Psychology, 1 9 7 3 , 2 0 ( 5 ) , 4 6 3 - 4 7 0 . Kidder, L.H. & Campbell, D.T. The i n d i r e c t t e s t i n g of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . In A t t i t u d e Measurement, e d i t e d by Gene F. Sommers. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1 9 7 1 . Larwood, L., O ' C a r r o l l , M. & Logan, J . S e x - r o l e as a media-t o r of achievement i n task performance. Sex Roles, 1 9 7 7 , 2 ( 2 ) , 1 1 1 - 1 1 6 . Lunneborg, P.W. S t e r e o t y p i c aspect i n m a s c u l i n i t y — f e m i n i n i t y measurement. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psycho-logy, 1 9 7 0 , ^ 4 , 1 1 3-118. M a s l i n , A. & Davis, J.L. S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g as a f a c t o r i n mental h e a l t h standards among coun s e l o r s i n t r a i n i n g . J o u r n a l of Cou n s e l i n g Psychology, 1 9 7 5 , 2 2 , 8 7 - 9 1 . Matthews, E. & Tredeman, D.V. A t t i t u d e s toward c a r e e r and marriage and the development of l i f e s t y l e i n young women. Jo u r n a l of Counseli n g Psychology, 1 9 6 4 , 1 1 , 3 7 5 - 3 8 3 . 98 McEwen, M.K. Co u n s e l i n g women: a review of the r e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l of C o l l e g e Student Personnel, September 1975, 381-388. Putnam, B.A. & Hansen, J.C. R e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l f - c o n c e p t and feminine r o l e concept to v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n young women. J o u r n a l of Counseli n g Psychology, 1972, 19(5), 436-440. Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I . & Brover-man D.C. Se x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and s e l f - c o n c e p t s i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  Psychology, 1968, ^2, 287-295. S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. & P i e t r o f e s a , J.L. Counselor b i a s and the female o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, ERIC No. CG 006 056. S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. & Goodman, J . A woman's p l a c e : 6hildren's sex s t e r e o t y p i n g of occ u p a t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  Q u a r t e r l y , June 1972, 266-270. S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. & P i e t r o f e s a , J.L. P e r s p e c t i v e s on coun-s e l i n g b i a s : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r counselo r e d u c a t i o n . The  Counselin g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1973, 1, 44-53. Shapiro, J . S o c i a l i z a t i o n of s e x - r o l e s i n the c o u n s e l i n g s e t t i n g : d i f f e r e n t i a l c o u n s e l o r b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d -i n a l responses to t y p i c a l and a t y p i c a l female sex r o l e s . Sex Roles, 1977, 1(2), 173-184. S h e r r i f f s , A.C. & J a r r e t t , R.F. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s about sex d i f f e r e n c e s . J o u r n a l of Psychology, 1953, 35, 161-168. S h e r r i f f s , A.C. & McKee, J.P. The d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a l u a t i o n of males and females. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 1957, 25 , 356-371. S h e r r i f f s , A.C. & McKee, J.P. Q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of b e l i e f s about men and women. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 1957, 25, 451-464. Smith, M.L. I n f l u e n c e of c l i e n t sex and e t h n i c group on counselor judgments. J o u r n a l of Co u n s e l i n g Psychology, 1974, 21(6), 516-521. Steinmann, A. & Fox, D.J. Male-female p e r c e p t i o n s of the female r o l e i n the United S t a t e s . J o u r n a l of Psychology, 1966, 6 4 , 265-270. Super, D.E. V o c a t i o n a l adjustment implementing a s e l f -concept. Occupations, 1951, 30, 88-92. 99 Thomas, A.S. & Stewart, N.K. Counselor response to female c l i e n t s w i t h d e v i a t e and conforming c a r e e r g o a l s . J o u r n a l of Cou n s e l i n g Psychology, 1971, 18, 352-357. Vogel, S.R., Broverman, I.K., Broverman, D.M., C l a r k s o n , F.E. & Rosenkrantz, P.S. Maternal employment and p e r c e p t i o n of s e x - r o l e s among c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3_, 384-391. Women's Bureau '74 - Labour Canada. Women's Bureau, I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, 1975* Working Women. U.S. News and World Report, January 15, 1979, 64-74. Zytowski, D.G. Toward a theory of ca r e e r development f o r women. Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , March 1969, 47, 660-664. APPENDIX A LIST OF COEFFICIENTS OF REMUNERATION, EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION FOR THE OCCUPATIONS 1 0 1 Occupations w i t h C o e f f i c i e n t s of Remuneration, Education, and S u p e r v i s i o n Remuneration E d u c a t i o n S u p e r v i s i o n A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l l e r 6 6 3 A r c h i t e c t 5 6 Automobile S a l e s Manager 5 Bookkeeper 2 3 2 Carpenter 5 Chartered Accountant 7 6 Computer Programmer C o r p o r a t i o n E x e c u t i v e 7 7 7 D i r e c t o r of Personnel 6 5 6 F i l e C l e r k 1 2 1 H a i r S t y l i s t 1 2 3 Head Cook 3 2 5 Mayor 7 7 7 Noncommissioned O f f i c e r 3 5 P h y s i c i a n 7 7 5 R e g i s t e r e d Nurse 3 5 S a l e s C l e r k 1 ' 1 2 School A d m i n i s t r a t o r 6 7 6 School Teacher 3 6 S e c r e t a r y 2 3 S e m i - s k i l l e d Worker 3 5 2 S e r v i c e S t a t i o n Attendant 1 1 1 S k i l l e d Worker 5 5 3 Small Business Owner/Manager 6 7 Supervisor/Foreman 5 1 6 U n s k i l l e d Worker 2 1 1 Waiter/Waitress 2 1 2 Welder 3 2 3 APPENDIX B FORM A AND FORM B OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 103 FORM A OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l l e r A r c h i t e c t Bookkeeper Carpenter C h a r t e r e d Accountant Computer Programmer C o r p o r a t i o n E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of P e r s o n n e l F i l e C l e r k H a i r S t y l i s t Head Cook Mayor Non-commissioned O f f i c e r i n the M i l i t a r y P h y s i c i a n R e g i s t e r e d Nurse S a l e s C l e r k School A d m i n i s t r a t o r School Teacher S e c r e t a r y S e m i - s k i l l e d Worker S e r v i c e S t a t i o n Attendant S k i l l e d Worker Small Business Owner/ Manager Supervisor/Foreman U n s k i l l e d Worker Waiter Waitress Welder D i r e c t i o n s From the occupations above, choose three c a r e e r s you f e e l are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each of the s u b j e c t s below. Write your choice on the enclosed data sheet. 1. W i l l i e i s an E a s t I n d i a n "C" average student from a disadvantaged neighborhood. His nonverbal I.Q. i s 112; h i s v e r b a l I.Q. i s 97. He i s the best dancer i n the s c h o o l and has a l s o done w e l l i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c s . He i s a capable l e a d e r and has o r g a n i z e d two e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r groups, p r a c t i c a l l y without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n . 2. Ann i s a grggariousyyoung woman who enjoys working w i t h people. She e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d working as a v o l u n t e e r i n a h o s p i t a l . She r e c e i v e d 590 v e r b a l and 460 math on the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e Test .-(mean i s 500). 3. R i t a i s a b e t t e r than average student whose bes t h i g h s c h o o l grades have been i n b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y and a r t . She i s good i n a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t survey i n d i c a t e t h a t she p r e f e r s to work w i t h data r a t h e r than people or t h i n g s . 4-. John i s a q u i e t person w i t h a few i n t e r e s t s . His' f u l l s c a l e I.Q. i s 92. He doesn't want more out of l i f e than a decent wage and being l e f t a l o n e . 1C4 - 2 -5. B e t t y d i s l i k e s r o u t i n e a n d w a n t s t o f o l l o w a s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t c a r e e r . H e r I . Q . i s i n t h e " b r i g h t n o r m a l r a n g e , b u t s h e o n l y s c o r e s a t t h e 50th p e r c e n t i l e o n m a t h , m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s o n t h e D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t . S h e a d m i r e s h e r f a t h e r w h o i s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r . 6. J o e i s a b o o k w o r m w h o h a s a h a r d t i m e g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h h i s p e e r s . H e i s i n t e r e s t e d a n d c a p a b l e o f a n y k i n d o f a c a d e m i c w o r k a n d e n j o y s t h e o r e t -i c a l w o r k b e s t . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , p l e a s e w r i t e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s y o u w o u l d c h o o s e f o r e a c h c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t b e l o w a n d r a n k t h e m i n o r d e r o f c h o i c e . ( W i l l i e ) C a s e #1 ( A n n ) C a s e #2 ( R i t a ) C a s e #3 ( J o h n ) C a s e #4 ( B e t t y ) C a s e #5 ( J o e ) C a s e #6 N o w p l e a s e c h e c k t h e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h m o s t a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e y o u o n e a c h o f t h e s h o r t a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s o n t h e - p e r s o n a l d a t a _ s h e e t . 1 0 5 FORM B OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l l e r A r c h i t e c t Automobile Sales Manager Bookkeeper Carpenter Chartered. Accountant Computer Programmer C o r p o r a t i o n E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of P e r s o n n e l F i l e C l e r k H a i r S t y l i s t Head Cook Mayor Non-commissioned O f f i c e r R e g i s t e r e d Nurse S a l e s C l e r k S c h o o l Teacher S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r S e c r e t a r y S e m i - s k i l l e d Worker S e r v i c e S t a t i o n Attendant S k i l l e d Worker Small Business Owner/ i n the M i l i t a r y P h y s i c i a n Manager Supervisor/Foreman U n s k i l l e d Worker Waiter Waitress Welder D i r e c t i o n s From the occupations l i s t e d above, choose three c a r e e r s you f e e l are most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each of the s u b j e c t s below. Write your choice on the enclosed data sheet. 1 . B e l i n d a i s an E a s t I n d i a n "C" average student from a disadvantaged neighborhood. Her nonverbal I.Q. i s 1 1 2 ; her v e r b a l I.Q. i s 9 7 . She i s the b e s t dancer i n the s c h o o l and a l s o does w e l l i n i n t e r -s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c s . She i s a capable l e a d e r and has o r g a n i z e d two e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r groups, p r a c t i c -a l l y without t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n . 2 . John i s a g r e g a r i o u s young man who enjoys working w i t h people. He e s p e c i a l l y likedvworking-asaa v o l u n t e e r i n a h o s p i t a l . He r e c e i v e d 5 9 0 v e r b a l and 4 6 0 math on the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e Test (mean i s 5 0 0 ) . 3. Joe i s a b e t t e r than average student whose bes t high s c h o o l grades have been i n b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y and a r t . He i s good i n a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t surveys i n d i c a t e t h a t he l i k e s to work w i t h data r a t h e r than people and t h i n g s . 4 . Betty i s a q u i e t person w i t h few i n t e r e s t s . Her f u l l s c a l e I.Q. i s 9 2 . She does not want more out of l i f e than a decent wage and being l e f t a l o n e . 106 - 2 -5. Steve d i s l i k e s r o u t i n e and wants to f o l l o w a s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t c a r e e r . His I.Q. i s i n the b r i g h t normal range, hut he only scores at the 50th p e r c e n t i l e on math, mechanical a p t i t u d e and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s on the DAT. He admires h i s f a t h e r who i s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r . 6. Ann i s a bookworm who has a hard time g e t t i n g along w i t h her peers. She i s i n t e r e s t e d and capable of any k i n d of academic work and enjoys t h e o r e t i c a l work b e s t . On the b a s i s of the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the case s t u d i e s , p l e a s e w r i t e three occupations you would choose f o r each case study below and rank them i n order of c h o i c e . (Belinda) Case #1 (John) Case #2 (Joe) Case #3 (Betty) Case #4-(Steve) Case #5 (Ann) Case #6 Now p l e a s e check the responses which most a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e you on each of the s h o r t answer q u e s t i o n s on the p e r s o n a l . d a t a • s h e e t . APPENDIX C LETTERS ACCOMPANYING THE QUESTIONNAIRE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y OI : E D U C A T I O N Counselling Psychology January 3, 1979 Dear Colleague: As a counsellor educator at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I am involved i n supervising graduate student research. Although I am unable to reveal the d e t a i l s of t h i s present project, I do want to assure you that t h i s research i s of i n t e r e s t to a l l of us who are concerned with counselling services i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I w i l l appreciate your cooperation and thank you i n advance for your e f f o r t s to complete t h i s research. Sincerely, Sharon E. Kahn, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Counselling Psychology SEK/TMM Enclosures 109 1150 W. 29th Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6H 2E5 January 3 , 1979 Dear Colleague: In order to complete some research of interest to our profession, I need data which only you can supply. Your name was randomly chosen from the membership l i s t of the B.C. Counsellors' Association. I would greatly appreciate your cooperation. Please read the six short sketches on the enclosed sheet and choose three career objectives from the l i s t of occupations which you f e e l is most appropriate for each one. Write the careers on the enclosed sheet. As your time is limited, the case studies have been kept short. Do not be concerned about possible incomplete data or spend an excessive amount of time deliberating. When several careers on the l i s t seem appropriate, narrow the choice down to three. There are no right or wrong answers. You may use a career more than once. In addition to the career selections please check the appropriate responses on the personal data items. A l l i n -formation w i l l be kept confidential. No information about individual counsellors w i l l be recorded or used, since this study only deals with groups of counsellors as a professional category, and in no way compares one coun-sellor with another. If you know a colleague who has also received a question-naire, please don't discuss i t u n t i l after both of you have completed and returned i t . If you wish to have a summary of the results of the study, please write your name and address on the enclosed 3 x 5 card and return i t with the data sheet in the self-addressed stamped envelope. The entire task should take less than half an hour, i f you don't deliberate excessively. Since the success of this study depends on your cooperation, please do i t now. Thank you. Alana Schroeder 1150 West 29th Ave Vancouver, B.C. V6H 2E5 January 29, 1979 Dear Col l e a g u e : About three weeks ago I asked you to complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e by choosing c a r e e r s f o r each of s i x s h o r t case s t u d i e s and answering some qu e s t i o n s about background. The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to determine i f some c o u n s e l l o r s have a tendency to s e l e c t c e r t a i n k i n d s of o c c u p a t i o n s . This would be v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r our p r o f e s s i o n s i n c e i n order to counsel e f f e c t i v e l y , we must understand our own conscious and unconscious t e n d e n c i e s . Because of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l random sampling r e s t r i c t i o n s I am unable to ask someone e l s e to complete the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i f you don't. I f you would a s s i s t me and our pro-f e s s i o n by t a k i n g a few minutes to r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e i t . I f you wish to have a summary of the f i n d i n g s , r e t u r n the e n c l o s e d 3 x 5 c a r d w i t h your name and address on i t . S i n c e r e l y , APPENDIX D PERSONAL DATA SHEET PERSONAL DATA SHEET 112 My age i s : under 3 5 3 5 and over I am: male female I h o l d : l e s s than b a c h e l o r degree bac h e l o r degree up to 10 u n i t s beyond a bachelor, degree 10 or more u n i t s beyond a b a c h e l o r degree masters degree 10 or more u n i t s beyond a masters degree Ed.D or Ph.D. I l i v e : i n lower mainland a r e a elsewhere As a young c h i l d (up to age 12) f a t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y supported the f a m i l y w h i l e mother remained a t home f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t than above I have approximately years of c o u n s e l l i n g experience v. 

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