UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Sex-role orientation and interpersonal needs Vinet, Maurice R. 1980

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SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION AND INTERPERSONAL NEEDS by MAURICE R. VINET B.PED., U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l , 1970 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS J i n / THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1980 (C) C o p y r i g h t : M a u r i c e R. V i n e t , 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall, not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date J u l y 31. 1980 ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 59 h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . Each s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o f i l l o u t t h e Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) w h i c h was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u b j e c t s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s were formed: A n d r o g y n o u s , M a s c u l i n e , F e m i n i n e and U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n O r i e n t a t i o n - B e h a v i o r (FIRO-B) was used t o measure the s u b j e c t s i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs i n t h e a r e a s o f I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l and A f f e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by e a c h g e n d e r and e a c h s e x - r o l e s u b g r o u p on t h e FIRO-B were compared w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs o f men, women and t h e f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p s . In a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a , t h e s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs was e s t a b l i s h e d . In a d d i t i o n e a c h c o u p l e was a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a b o u t t h e sample used i n t h e s t u d y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e a r e a o f C o n t r o l . M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s had t h e g r e a t e s t need to. e x p r e s s C o n t r o l and F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s t o r e c e i v e C o n t r o l . The I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n s c a l e s y i e l d e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . O n l y t h e d i m e n s i o n , E x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n , was s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t between men and women ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) . Women had a g r e a t e r need t o e x p r e s s a f f e c t i o n t h a n men. The s t u d y showed some r e l a t i o n between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . Based on t h e s e r e s u l t s , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g were a n a l y z e d and a l t e r n a t i v e s s u g g e s t e d . IV TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d 1 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 5 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 7 2 Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 A n d r o g y n y 11 U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d x 3 Sex T y p e d 13 I n t e r p e r s o n a l Needs 16 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 23 3 Methods and P r o c e d u r e s 25 I n t r o d u c t i o n 25 Sample 25 P r e d i c t i v e V a r i a b l e 27 C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e 36 E x t r a n e o u s V a r i a b l e s 4 2 D a t a A n a l y s i s 4 4 R e s u l t s o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n 48 R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e BSRI 4 8 R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B 4 8 C o n c l u s i o n s 63 D i s c u s s i o n 68 L i m i t a t i o n s 69 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g 70 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 70 Summary 71 B i b l i o g r a p h y 73 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Summary Comparison of Personality, Autobio-graphical, and Parental Correlates to Sex-Role Style 15 2 Summary of Studies Finding Aspects of the Three Fundamental Interpersonal Needs 17 3 Relationship of Wives and Husbands Employment Status to FIRO-B Scores 21 4 Relative Strength of Giving Versus Receiving Behaviors 22 5 Percentage of Subjects in Various Sex-Role Groups for a 1975 Sample of Stanford Under-graduates as Defined by a Median-Split of Both Masculinity and Femininity 30 6 Intercorrelations Among FIRO-B Scales 40 7 Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s for the BSRI 48 8 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Subjects Based on a Median-Split Method 49 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects Based on Their Gender and Sex-Role Orientation 50 10 Gender Means for the FIRO-B Subscales 51 11 Sex-Role Orientation Means for the FIRO-B Subscales 53 12 Means of Differences (e - w) and Total for the FIRO-B Subscales 56 13 Cumulative Manova Table Representing the Mean-Square, the F - S t a t i s t i c and the Probability C o e f f i c i e n t Based on Gender, Sex-Role Orien-tation and Interaction for each C r i t e r i o n Variable (FIRO-B) 59 P. V a l u e s Based on Mean D i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e F a c t o r s Gender and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n (MANOVA). S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s B a s e d on S c h e f f e ' s S Method v i i L I S T OF FIGURES Page 1 Gender Means f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s 52 2 S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n Means f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s 54 3 Means o f D i f f e r e n c e s (e - w) and T o t a l f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s 57 v i i i APPENDICES Page APPENDIX A: 7 c I n t r o d u c t i o n L e t t e r 77 I n s t r u c t i o n s 78 BEM I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) 79 F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n O r i e n t a t i o n 81 B e h a v i o r (FIRO-B) , 82 F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 83 R e q u e s t f o r A b s t r a c t 85 APPENDIX B: 87 C e r t i f i c a t e o f A p p r o v a l f o r R e s e a r c h I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s 88 APPENDIX C; 89 T a b l e A C o r r e l a t i o n s Between M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e S e t s and I n t e r p e r s o n a l V a r i a b l e s 90 T a b l e B Mean F a c t o r S c o r e s a n d U n i v a r i a t e F R a t i o s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h F o u r S e x - R o l e C a t e g o r i e s 91 APPENDIX D: 92 Grap h 1 F a m i l y ' s R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 93 Graph 2 P a s t A c a d e m i c I n s t i t u t i o n s A t t e n d e d 93 G r a p h 3 P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n 94 Graph 4 C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age 94 Grap h 5 Number o f C h i l d r e n p e r C o u p l e 95 Graph 6 Number o f C h i l d r e n B a s e d on t h e i r S t a t u s 95 G r a p h 7 Number o f Y e a r s o f C o h a b i t a t i o n 96 Graph 8 Eco n o m i c S t a t u s 96 i x Page APPENDIX E; 97 C e l l Means on t h e FIRO-B f o r : T a b l e A A n d r o g y n o u s M a l e s and Fem a l e s 98 F i g u r e A And r o g y n o u s M a l e s and Females 98 T a b l e B M a s c u l i n e M a l e s and Fem a l e s 99 F i g u r e B M a s c u l i n e M a l e s and Females 99 T a b l e C F e m i n i n e M a l e s and Fem a l e s 100 F i g u r e C F e m i n i n e M a l e s and Females 100 T a b l e D U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d M a l e s and Females 101 F i g u r e D U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d M a l e s and Females 101 T a b l e E A n d r o g y n o u s - M a s c u l i n e - F e m i n i n e -U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d M a l e s 102 F i g u r e E A n d r o g y n o u s - M a s c u l i n e - F e m i n i n e -U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d M a l e s 103 T a b l e F A n d r o g y n o u s - M a s c u l i n e - F e m i n i n e -U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d F emales 104 F i g u r e F A n d r o g y n o u s - M a s c u l i n e - F e m i n i n e -U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d F e m a l e s 105 1 SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION AND INTERPERSONAL NEEDS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d The n o t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women has been p e r v a s i v e i n most s o c i e t i e s . Some t h e o r i s t s f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on r e l a t i v e l y o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e x e s w h i c h a r e p e r s i s t e n t a c r o s s t i m e and c u l t u r e . Some o f t h e s e g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , s u c h as g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and a h i g h e r m e t a b o l i c r a t e f o r men and f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d b e a r i n g i n women, a p p e a r t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o r n e r s t o n e f r o m w h i c h a l l k i n d s o f o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e x e s emerge i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e s , and b e h a v i o r s . Many o f t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s do n o t have e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t . O t h e r t h e o r i s t s a d v o c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and f e m a l e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and ec o n o m i c f o r c e s . The f o c u s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s d i r e c t e d t oward t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r c r o s s -c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Mogey, 1963; Young & W i l l m o t t , 1957) . The s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y u n f o l d s a r a t i o n a l e f o r s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s . The n u c l e a r f a m i l y c o n c e p t e x i s t i n g d u r i n g t h e p r e i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d t h e s h a r p s e x - r o l e 2 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between men and women. The e f f e c t o f t h i s d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s has been t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e w o r l d o f work u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f men and t h e w o r l d o f home and c h i l d c a r e u n d e r t h e domain o f women ( R a p o p o r t and R a p o p o r t , 1969) . Each g e n d e r r o l e d e v e l o p e d w i t h s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and p e r -s o n a l i t y t r a i t s p e r m i t t i n g men and women t o f u l f i l l a d e q u a t e l y t h e i r a s s i g n e d r o l e . T h e s e d i v e r g e n t s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have g i v e n b i r t h t o two d i s t i n c t i v e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f p e r s o n -a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r s o n s and B a l e s (1955) d e s c r i b e t h e s e two c l u s t e r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : " M a s c u l i n i t y r e f l e c t s a c o g n i t i v e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y and g o a l d i r e c t e d n e s s w h i l e f e m i n i n i t y i s c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d by e x p r e s s i v e , s u p p o r t i v e and a f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s " . J o h n s o n (1963) s u p p o r t e d t h i s " I n s t r u m e n t a l i t y - e x p r e s s i v e n e s s " d i s t i n c t i o n . Bakan (1966) c h a r a c t e r i z e d m a s c u l i n i t y as a c o n c e r n f o r one's s e l f and one's own g o a l s - a g e n t i c - and f e m i n i n i t y as a c o n c e r n f o r s e l f b u t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s - communal. The p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n t i n u o u s e x p a n s i o n o f t h e m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e sex r o l e s a s s i g n e d t o men and women. A c o n c e r n f o r a more e g a l i t a r i a n and open s o c i e t y emerged and c a u s e d some m a j o r s o c i a l c h a n g e s . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f women i n t h e l a b o r f o r c e , a g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t o f men i n f a m i l y l i f e , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n among women a r e some examples o f an i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l o p e n e s s ( R a p o p o r t e t a l . 1 9 6 9). O v e r a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e i n n a t e need t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z e 3 and t o m a x i m i z e human p o t e n t i a l w h i c h r e q u i r e s a f r e e d o m o f e x p r e s s i o n n o t a l l o w e d by t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s l e d t o a s h a t t e r i n g o f s t e r e o t y p i c b o u n d a r i e s ( A l l p o r t , 1955; B u h l e r , 1959; E r i c k s o n , 1959; Maslow, 1954; R o g e r s , 1951). A l l o w i n g b o t h g e n d e r s t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s f l e x i b l y , s e l e c t i n g f r o m b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e r e l a t i v e l y new c o n c e p t , a n d r o g y n y . D u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e , t h e n o t i o n o f a n d r o g y n y has been t h e t a r g e t o f many p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . The a p p e a r a n c e o f new m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s b a s e d on t h i s new c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n o f sex r o l e l a u n c h e d a f l o w o f r e s e a r c h . Now, t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f d a t a p r o v i d e d by many c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s between a n d r o g y n y and o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s s u c h a s : s e l f - c o n c e p t , a n x i e t y , f l e x i b i l i t y , a c h i e v e m e n t , and p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . T hese s t u d i e s a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on human b e h a v i o r . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s new body o f knowlede by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y E v e r y human b e i n g i s i n v o l v e d i n a complex i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p n etwork. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d a i l y s a t i s f a c t i o n o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs as w e l l as t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e l a r g e l y t o i n c r e a s e o n e ' s 4 s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s e l f and o t h e r s . Any c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e improvement o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s has d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e i n a l l t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n c l u d i n g m a r i t a l and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . T h r o u g h an i n c r e a s i n g aware-n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n f a c t o r s on r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m i n i m i z i n g n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s t h u s i m p r o v i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s and q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s , c o v a r y i n a m e a n i n g f u l way; i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume, w i t h o u t c o n c l u d i n g any c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t an i n t e r v e n t i o n on one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s m i g h t have an i m p a c t on t h e o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , by c h a n g i n g s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n one c o u l d m o d i f y i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . U s i n g t h e Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) as a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t , e a c h s u b j e c t w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one o f t h e f o u r f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : A n d r o g y n o u s , F e m i n i n e , M a s c u l i n e o r U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . R e s u l t s on t h e BSRI w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s O r i e n t a t i o n - B e h a v i o r ( FIRO-B). S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h i f t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e a c h c a t e g o r y b a s e d on t h e BSRI and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs as measured by t h e FIRO-B. 5 D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be used i n t h i s s t u d y . M a l e o r f e m a l e : R e f e r s t o t h e sex o f an i n d i v i d u a l . BSRI Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y . A s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t m e a s u r i n g s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . M a s c u l i n e : C a t e g o r y d e s c r i b i n g an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n t oward t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m a s c u l i n e sex r o l e . F e m i n i n e : C a t e g o r y d e s c r i b i n g an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n t oward t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f e m i n i n e sex r o l e . A n d r o g y n o u s : C a t e g o r y d e s c r i b i n g an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f b a l a n c e d i n c l i n a t i o n toward m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d : C a t e g o r y d e s c r i b i n g an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a low d e g r e e o f b a l a n c e d i n c l i n a t i o n t oward m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e : A c c u m u l a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e n o r m a l A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s u c h as d e f i n e d by t h e BSRI. M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e : S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n : FIRO-B I n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s : I n d u s i o n : C o n t r o l : A f f e c t i o n : 6 A c c u m u l a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e n o r m a l A m e r i c a n m a l e s u c h as d e f i n e d by t h e B S R I . A f i x e d c o n c e p t i o n o f r o l e b a s e d on s e x u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s O r i e n t a t i o n - B e h a v i o r . A s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t m e a s u r i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . I n d i v i d u a l n e e d s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s - I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l , A f f e c t i o n , s u c h as m e a s u r e d by t h e FIRO-B. The need t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r a c t i o n and a s s o c i a t i o n s u c h as m e a s u r e d by t h e FIRO-B. The n e e d t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n t r o l and power s u c h as m e a s u r e d by t h e FIRO-B. The need t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o v e and a f f e c t i o n s u c h as m e a s u r e d by t h e FIRO-B. 7 E x p r e s s e d : R e f e r s t o t h e need t o e x p r e s s a s p e c i f i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s u c h as measured by t h e FIRO-B. Wanted: R e f e r s t o t h e need t o r e c e i v e a s p e c i f i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s u c h as measured by t h e FIRO-B. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s T h i s s t u d y i n t e n d s t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) Do men and women have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s ? 2) Do A n d r o g y n o u s , F e m i n i n e , M a s c u l i n e and U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s ? 3) Do A n d r o g y n o u s , F e m i n i n e , M a s c u l i n e and U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s have a d i f f e r e n t b a l a n c e between t h e i r e x p r e s s e d and wanted i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs (e - w)? 8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n P a r a l l e l t o a s o c i e t a l e v o l u t i o n , t h e r e has been a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n . E v i d e n c e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i s t i n c t s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s f o r men and women has been a b u n d a n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( A n a s t a s i & F u l e y , 1949; F e r n b e r g e r , 1948; K o n a r v o s k y , 1950; McKee & S h e r i f f s , 1957; Seward & L a r s o n , 1968; W y l i e , 1961; R o s e n k r a n t z , V o g e l , Bee, Broverman & Broverman, 1968; Broverman, Broverman, C l a r k s o n , R o s e n k r a n t z & V o g e l , 1 9 70). One c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i s t h a t , b a s e d on t h e b e h a v i o r s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y a s c r i b e d t o men and women, c l i n i c i a n s have d e v e l o p e d d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h (Broverman e t a l . 1970; R o s e n k r a n t z e t a l . 1 9 68). The f e m a l e norm i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e s s s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e and h e a l t h y t h a n t h e male and a d u l t norm. T h e r e f o r e , b a s e d on t h e s e norms, h e a l t h y women d i f f e r f r o m h e a l t h y men by b e i n g more s u b m i s s i v e , l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t , l e s s a d v e n t u r o u s , more e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d , l e s s a g r e s s i v e , l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e , more e x c i t a b l e i n m i n o r c r i s e s , more e m o t i o n a l , more c o n c e i t e d a b o u t t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , l e s s o b j e c t i v e and h a v i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s more e a s i l y h u r t , and d i s l i k i n g m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e (Broverman e t a l . 1 9 7 0 ) . Rank s u g g e s t e d t h a t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e a r l y a n a l y t i c t h i n k e r s by t h e i r u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e t h e s i s t h a t m a l e n e s s i s b e t t e r , were s i m p l y r e i n f o r c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l 9 s e x i s t p r e j u d i c e s w i t h o u t a r r i v i n g a t a r e a l p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e f e m a l e (Sward, 1 9 8 0 ) . B a s e d on t h e s e c o n v i c t i o n s , r e s e a r c h e r s e l a b o r a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t m e n t a l h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s and sex r o l e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e m a s c u l i n i t y -f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s (M-F) c o n t a i n e d i n most p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s c o n s i s t o f i t e m s t h a t m ales and f e m a l e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o answer d i f f e r e n t l y . T h i s s t r a t e g y o f i t e m s e l e c t i o n p r o d u c e s s c a l e s t h a t e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n c e s between m a l e s and f e m a l e s a t t h e expense o f any s i m i l a r i t i e s w hich may e x i s t between t h e s e x e s ( T y l e r , 1 9 6 5 ) . A n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a f r o m s e v e r a l n o r m a t i v e samples i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e r a t h e r t h a n s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s c a l e s (M-F) f o r e a c h sex ( W o r e l l , 1978). In view o f t h e w i t h i n - s e x v a r i a b i l i t y and t h e o v e r l a p between s e x e s , i t seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o m a i n t a i n d i f f e r e n t i a l h e a l t h and s o c i a l norms among men and women (Broverman e t a l , 1 9 70). Many r e s e a r c h e r s have c o n t e s t e d t h e t h e o r y t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y r e p r e s e n t t h e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d end o f a b i p o l a r and u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n t i n u u m (Bern, 1974; B l o c k , 1973; C a r l s o n , 1971; C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , 1963; H e i l b r u n , 1976; Spence, H e l m r e i c h & S t a p p , 1975). The need f o r a d u a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e i n d e p e n d e n t , o r t h o g o n a l d i m e n s i o n s emerged ( W o r e l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . The a n d r o g y n y t h e o r y r e s t s e s s e n t i a l l y on t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e 10 d i s t i n c t i o n s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l , r e d u c t i v e , u n h e a l t h y and u n f a i r ( S p e n c e & H e l m r e i c h , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h i s new c o n c e p t n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f new m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s : Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y ( B S R I ) , P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PAQ), A d j e c t i v e s Check L i s t ( A C L ) , and P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h Form-ANDRO. (PRF-ANDRO.). T h e s e new t y p e s o f s e x - r o l e i n v e n t o r i e s a r e b a s e d on t h e t h e o r y t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e two i n d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s (Spence & H e l m r e i c h , 1979) i n s t e a d o f t h e b i o p o l a r M-F model u s e d i n p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s s u c h as t h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y (CPI) o r t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI). The most commonly u s e d a n d r o g y n y s c a l e s a r e t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) and t h e P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PAQ). The BSRI and t h e PAQ a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r ( L o c k s l e y & C o l t e n , 1979; K e l l y & W o r e l l , 1977). The main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two i n s t r u m e n t s l i e s i n t h e i r c o m p u t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e ( K e l l y , C a u d i l l , H a t h o r n & O ' B r i e n , 1977). The BSRI has b een r e t a i n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y due t o i t s p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i t e m s on t h e BSRI have been matched f o r s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and t h e s c a l e s have been v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a . T h i s a n d r o g y n y measure aims t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f sex t y p i n g o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . 11 A n d r o g y n y The most c o n c e p t u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g outcome o f t h e o r t h o g o n a l model o f sex t y p i n g i s a n d r o g y n y , whereby t h e p e r s o n e n d o r s e s a r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l b a l a n c e o f f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( W o r e l l , 1978). I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n s d i f f e r f r o m u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s i n r e p o r t i n g a g r e a t e r number o f p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h o u g h b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s may r e p o r t a b a l a n c e between m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . The A n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n d e m o n s t r a t e s a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f f l e x i b i l i t y p e r m i t t i n g an i n t e r g r a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f b o t h i n s t r u m e n t a l ( a s s e r t i v e , c o m p e t e n t , f o r c e f u l , i n d e p e n d e n t ) and e x p r e s s i v e ( n u r t u r a n t , warm, s u p p o r t i v e , c o m p a s s i o n a t e ) d i m e n s i o n s d e p e n d i n g on t h e demands o f t h e s i t u a t i o n (Bern, 1974; Bern & Lenny, 19 76; W o r e l l , 19 7 8 ) . The c o n c e p t o f a n d r o g y n y d e n o t e s a p e r s o n who i s f l e x i b l e , s o c i a l l y c o m p e t e n t , a b l e t o engage c o m f o r t a b l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n b o t h " m a s c u l i n e " and " f e m i n i n e " b e h a v i o r s a c r o s s a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s (Bern, 1974; Bern, 1975; J o n e s e t a l . , 1976). T h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s , a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d some b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y by e x p r e s s i n g " M a s c u l i n e " i n d e p e n d e n c e when u n d e r p r e s s u r e t o c o n f o r m as w e l l as " F e m i n i n e " n u r t u r a n c e when g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a y w i t h a baby k i t t e n (Bern, 1975; Bern & Lenny, 1976; Bern e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e r e i s g r o w i n g e m p i r i c a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a t a n d r o g y n y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more e f f e c t i v e 12 b e h a v i o u r t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l (Bern, 1975; H e i l b r u n , 1976; H e i l b r u n , 1968; Spence e t a l . , 1975). P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y has been r e l a t e d t o h i g h s e l f -e s t e e m and enhanced i n t e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t (Bern, 1976; B e r z i n s , W e l l i n g , W e t t e r , 1978; K e l l y , C a u d i l l , H a t h o r n & O ' B r i e n , 1977). The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f a c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d y between women's s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y , s e l f - e s t e e m , and ego d e v e l o p m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r women i n terms o f b o t h s e l f - e s t e e m and ego d e v e l o p m e n t ( S c h i f f & Koopman, 1 9 7 8 ) . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s do n o t l i m i t t h e i r b e h a v i o r t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a s c u l i n e domain o f d o m i n a n t -a m b i t i o u s ( i n s t r u m e n t a l ) and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e domain o f warm - a g r e e a b l e ( e x p r e s s i v e ) b u t e x h i b i t some b e h a v i o r s i n o t h e r a r e a s s u c h a s : a r r o g a n t - c a l c u l a t i n g , l a z y -s u b m i s s i v e , u n a ssuming - i n g e n u o u s . A n d r o g y n o u s f e m a l e s d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as d o m i n a n t and e x t r a v e r t e d and a n d r o g y n o u s m a l e s as warm and s u b m i s s i v e ( W i g g i n s & H o l z m u l l e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n s e e - A p p e n d i x C T a b l e A. An d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s a p p e a r t o be t h e most s o c i a l l y p o i s e d and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r i e n t e d ( B e r z i n s e t a l . , 1978). F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n s e e - A p p e n d i x C T a b l e B. An d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s d e m o n s t r a t e more v e r s a t i l i t y t h a n t h e s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , do n o t l i m i t t h e i r 13 b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a l e - f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e s (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Some e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t l o w - m a s c u l i n e / l o w - f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s ( u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) o f e i t h e r sex a r e l o w e s t on s e l f - e s t e e m r e l a t i v e t o a n d r o g y n o u s , m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s ( S c h i f f , 1978; Spence e t a l . , 1975). U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s w i t h a low a p p a r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y f o r s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l outcomes ( K e l l y e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . R e l a t e d t o t h e i r low s e l f - c o n c e p t , t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s a t t r i b u t e n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e m s e l v e s s u c h a s : s e l f - d o u b t i n g , u n a s s u r e d , a i m l e s s ( W i g g i n s & H o l z m u l l e r , 1978). I t i s s u g g e s t e d , a t l e a s t f o r men, t h a t u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s d i s c l o s e l e s s p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s and e x p r e s s l e s s n u r t u r a n c e toward o t h e r s t h a n a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s (Bern, 1 9 77). U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f s o c i a l a s c e n d a n c y and i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y among t h e f o u r s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r i e s ( B e r z i n s e t a l . , 1978). S e x - t y p e d ( F e m i n i n e and M a s c u l i n e S u b j e c t s ) S e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s become m o t i v a t e d t o m a i n t a i n a s e l f - i m a g e as m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e , a g o a l w h i c h t h e y p r e s u m a b l y a c c o m p l i s h by s u p p r e s s i n g any b e h a v i o r t h a t m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r g e n d e r . The same i s t r u e f o r s e x - r e v e r s a l i n d i v i d u a l s e x c e p t t h e y a r e 14 11 i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y " r a t h e r t h a n " a p p r o p r i a t e l y " s e x t y p e d b a s e d on t h e s o c i a l norms (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ) . L i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a h i g h l e v e l o f s e x t y p i n g may n o t be d e s i r a b l e (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ) . S e x - t y p e d s u b j e c t s o f f e r a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f r e s i s t a n c e and e x p e r i e n c e t h e most n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s when r e q u e s t e d t o p e r f o r m c r o s s - s e x a c t i v i t i e s . C r o s s - s e x i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r t o be more f l e x i b l e c o n c e r n i n g c r o s s - s e x b e h a v i o r s (Bern & Lenny, 1 9 7 6 ) . M a s c u l i n e men a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s t h a n anyone e l s e . Men's a t t i t u d e s toward women do n o t r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n (Bern, 1977). A l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e i r p a t t e r n s u g g e s t s t h a t m a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s a r e t h e most i n d e p e n d e n t and t h a t t h e f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s a r e t h e l e a s t i n d e p e n d e n t and l e a s t d e f e n s i v e (Bern, 1977; B e r z i n s e t a l . , 1978). Based on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by W i g g i n s and H o l z m u l l e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , m a s c u l i n e i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r t o be d o m i n a n t , a m b i t i o u s , a r r o g a n t , c a l c u l a t i n g and f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s t o be warm, a g r e e a b l e and e x t r a v e r t e d . These r e s u l t s seem t o c o n f i r m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n among men and women. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r t o A p p e n d i x C T a b l e A. I t seems c l e a r t h a t sex t y p i n g does r e s t r i c t one's b e h a v i o r i n u n n e c e s s a r y and p e r h a p s even d y s f u n c t i o n a l ways (Ben & Lenny, 1976). T a b l e 1 summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s between d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . 15 Table 1 Summary Comparison of Personality, Autobiographical and Parental Correlates to Sex-Role Style Characteristic and Source Measures uti l i z e d Sex role correlates Self-esteem (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1975) Self-esteem (Bern, 1977) Self-esteem (Wetter, Note 5) Personality characteristics (Berzins, Note 2) Autobiographical correlates (Helmreich, Wilhem & Stapp 1975) Autobiographical correlates (Woods, Note 6) Parent Practices (Kelly & Worell, 1976) Texas Social Behavior Inventory (Helmreich, Stapp, & Ervin, 1974); P.A.Q. Texas Social Behavior Inventory, B.S« R. I • Self-Esteem Questionnaire, ANDRD. scale P.R.F. principal component factor scores; ANDRD. scale Life History Questionnaire; Personal Attributes Questionnaire Autobiographical Data Inventory; ANDHD. scale Parent Behavior Form; ANDRO. scale Androgynous subjects highest and undifferentiated subjects lowest in self-esteem; sex-typed subjects intermediate but masculine-typed higher than feminine-typed (both sexes) Androgynous and masculine-type subjects both high, feminine-typed and undifferentiated subjects both low in self-esteem (both sexes) Androgynous and masculine-typed subjects both high, feminine-typed and undifferentiated subjects both low in self-esteem (both sexes) Androgynous subjects highest and undifferentiated subjects lowest on Social Ascendancy and Intellectuality P.R.F. factors; masculine-typed subjects least Dependent and most Defensive, feminine-typed subjects most Dependent and least Defensive (both sexes) Androgynous subjects received more scholastic awards, dated more, and had lover incidences of childhood illness than undifferentiated subjects Masculine typing and androgyny are associated with athletic activities, scientific interest, and literary pursuits (both sexes). Feminine typing is associated with religious activities (females). Androgynous males report greater warmth from both parents, feminine-typed males report high maternal warmth relative to masculine-typed and undifferentiated males. Androgyny and masculine typing among females are associated with parental encouragement or curiosity and intellectuality. Masculine typing is also associated with parental permissiveness. Ref.: Kelly, Jeffery A.; Worell, Judith; New Formulations of Sex Roles and Androgyny: A C r i t i c a l Review. Journal of Consultinq and Cl i n i c a l Psychology, 1977, Vol. 75-6, pp. 1105-1115. — ~ 16 I n t e r p e r s o n a l Needs T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t i n g t h e t h e o r y o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p . Even i f t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e v a r i e s e x t e n s i v e l y f r o m one a u t h o r t o t h e o t h e r , many r e t a i n S c h u t z ' s s u b d i v i s i o n as c a n be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g T a b l e 2. T h i s t a b l e shows some i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h may s a t i s f y some i n t e r p e r s o n a l n eeds i n a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t s . 17 Table 2 Summary of Studies Finding Aspects of the Three Fundamental Interpersonal Needs AUTHOR INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION PARENT- l.Balwin, K a l i - Indulgence Democracy i n Acceptance CHILD horn, Breese in home RELATIONS (1945) 2.Champney (1941) Stimulative- Freedom- Approving-i n a c t i v e c o n t r o l depreciating 3.Sewell, Mussen, Parent-child Promotion of Permissive Ha r r i s (1955) i n t e r a c t i o n independence feeding 4.Fromm (1974) Withdrawal- Symbiotic Love relatedness PERSONALITY destructive relatedness TYPES 5.Freud (1931) N a r c i s s i s t i c Obsessional E r o t i c type type type 6.Horney (1945) Moving away Moving against Moving toward from people people people 7.Kaiser group Intensity Dominance- A f f i l i a t i o n GROUP (1957) submission h o s t i l i t y BEHAVIOR 8.Couch, Carter Individual Group-goal S o c i a b i l i t y (1954) prominence f a c i l i t a t i o n 9.Bion (1949) F i g h t - f l i g h t Dependence Pa i r i n g 10. Benne, Sheats Individual Task Maintenance (1948) MISCEL- ll.Swanson (1951) P a r t i c i p a t i o n Influence Being l i k e d LANEOUS 12.Back, et a l . , Group prestige Task d i r e c t i o n Personal STUDIES (1951) a t t r a c t i o n 13.Corsini, Rosen- A c t i o n a l I n t e l l e c t u a l Emotional berg (1955) 14.Jenkins, L i p - Extra c u r r i - Power Friendliness p i t t (1951) cu l a r a c t i v i t y 15.Varon (1953) Status Independence Expressing f e e l i n g s 16.Glueck 1950) Cohesiveness D i s c i p l i n e A f f e c t i o n Ref.: Schutz, W i l l i a m C. The Interpersonal Underworld. Science & Behavior Books, Inc., Palo-Alto, C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. N.B. A r e p r i n t e d i t i o n of FIRO - A three dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior, 1958. 18 P o s t u l a t e No. 1 i n S c h u t z ' s t h e o r y s t i p u l a t e s t h a t e ach i n d i v i d u a l has t h r e e i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs and t h a t t h o s e needs seemed t o c o v e r most i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s . The t h r e e need a r e a s a r e : I n c l u s i o n ( I ) , C o n t r o l (C) and A f f e c t i o n ( A ) . I . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l need f o r i n c l u s i o n i s t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e o p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r a c t i o n and a s s o c i a t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e s e l f , t h i s i s t h e need t o f e e l t h a t t h e s e l f i s s i g n i f i c a n t and w o r t h w h i l e . C. The i n t e r p e r s o n a l need f o r c o n t r o l i s t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e o p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n t r o l and power. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e l f , t h a t i s t h e need t o f e e l t h a t one i s a c ompetent, r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n . A. The i n t e r p e r s o n a l need f o r a f f e c t i o n i s t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e o p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o v e and a f f e c t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e l f , t h i s i s t h e need t o f e e l t h a t t h e s e l f i s l o v a b l e . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l has t h e need t o e x p r e s s and r e c e i v e I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l and A f f e c t i o n . The a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e between the e x p r e s s e d and r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o r s i n t h e s e 3 a r e a s has been d e f i n e d by S c h u t z (1966) i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : 19 1^ p o s i t i v e : A s s o c i a t e , i n t e r a c t , m i n g l e , communicate, b e l o n g , companion, comrade, a t t e n d t o , member, t o g e t h e r -n e s s , j o i n , e x t r a v e r t , pay a t t e n t i o n t o , i n t e r e s t e d , e n c o u n t e r . 1^ n e g a t i v e : E x c l u d e , i s o l a t e , o u t s i d e r , o u t c a s t , l o n e l y , d e t a c h e d , w i t h d r a w n , abandon, i g n o r e , p o s i t i v e : Power, a u t h o r i t y , dominance, i n f l u e n c e , c o n t r o l , r u l e r , s u p e r i o r , o f f i c e r , l e a d e r , n e g a t i v e : R e b e l l i o n , r e s i s t a n c e , f o l l o w e r , a n a r c h y , s u b m i s s i v e . A^ p o s i t i v e : L o v e , l i k e , e m o t i o n a l l y c l o s e , p e r s o n a l , i n t i m a t e , f r i e n d . A^ n e g a t i v e : H a t e , c o o l , d i s l i k e , e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t a n t , r e j e c t i n g . The FIRO-B w i l l be used t o measure i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . The FIRO-B has been used e x t e n s i v e l y and y i e l d e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . The number and s t r e n g t h o f t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e a r e n o t g r e a t enough t o v a l i d a t e t h e use o f t h e FIRO-B f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and g u i d a n c e , b u t Bloxom ( B u r o s , 1972) i n d i c a t e s i t i s d e f i n i t e l y a w o r t h w h i l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r r e s e a r c h . Many t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . The s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e x r o l e s seems t o c o n v e r g e c o n c e p t u a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r d i m e n s i o n s ( B e r z i n s , W e l l i n g & W e t t e r , 1978; C a r s o n , 1969; L e a r y , 1957; W i g g i n s & H o l z m u l e r , 1978). 20 B u r k e and W e i r (1976) f o u n d some p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s b a s e d on t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B between members o f o n e - c a r e e r and t w o - c a r e e r f a m i l i e s (see T a b l e 3 and 4). H o u s e w i v e s compared t o w o r k i n g w i v e s had a g r e a t e r need t o be i n c l u d e d by o t h e r s and t o r e c e i v e a f f e c t i o n f r o m o t h e r s . H o u s e w i v e s were more d e p e n d e n t and p a s s i v e t h a n w o r k i n g w i v e s . Husbands o f h o u s e w i v e s compared t o husbands o f w o r k i n g w i v e s had a g r e a t e r need t o be i n c l u d e d by o t h e r s and t o e x p r e s s c o n t r o l t oward o t h e r s . A l l t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . Based on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , i t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t o e x p e c t r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o Burke and W e i r (1976) i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t h a t : F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s may r e s p o n d as d i d h o u s e w i v e s ; a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s may be s i m i l a r i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs t o w o r k i n g w i v e s and h u s b a n d s o f w o r k i n g w i v e s ; and m a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s may r e s p o n d s i m i l a r l y t o husbands o f h o u s e w i v e s . 21 Table 3 Relationship of Wives and Husbands Employment Status to FIRO-B Scores Working Wives Housewives (N=54) (N=135) Interpersonal Needs X S.D. X S.D. Expressed Inclusion 3.17** 1.97 3.52** 2.03 Wanted Inclusion 1.87* 2.43 2.90* 2.82 Expressed Control 1.91** 2.08 1.51** 1.64 Wanted Control 3.00** 1.80 3.51** 2.09 Expressed A f f e c t i o n 2.71** 1.68 3.24** 1.83 Wanted A f f e c t i o n 4.24* 2.00 4.92* 1.88 T o t a l FIRO-B 16.90* 7.97 19.60* 8.53 Husbands of Husbands of Working Wives Housewives (N=54) (N=135) Interpersonal Needs X S.D. X S.D. Expressed In c l u s i o n 2.72** 1.76 3.08** 1.75 Wanted Inclusion 1.60* 2.34 2.28* 2.07 Expressed Control 2.90* 2.03 3.92* 2.46 Wanted Control 3.08** 1.99 2.71** 1.70 Expressed A f f e c t i o n 2.68 1.63 2.63 1.59 Wanted A f f e c t i o n 4.02** 2.08 4.41** 2.06 T o t a l FIRO-B 17.00* 8.46 19.03* 7.94 a) A l l tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e were t-Tests * p < .01 ** p < .05 Ref.: Burke, Ronald J . , Weir, Tamara, Some Pe r s o n a l i t y Differences Between Members of One-Career and Two-Career Families. Journal of Marriage  and the Family, August 1976. 22 Table 4 Relative Strength of Giving Versus Receiving Behaviors Working Wives (N=54) Housewives (N=135) Husbands of Working Wives (N=54) Husbands of Housewives (N=135) Interpersonal Needs X X X X Inclusion (e - w) 1.30** .62** 1.12 .80 Control (e - w) -1.09** -2.00** - .18*** 1.21*** A f f e c t i o n (e - w) -1.53 -1.68 -1.34 -1.78 T o t a l (e - w) -1.32*** -3.06*** - .40* .23* A l l tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e were t-Tests *** E < .001 ** E < .01 * E < .05 Ref.: Burke, Ronald J . , Weir, Tamara, Some Per s o n a l i t y Differences Between Members of One-Career and Two-Career Families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, August, 1976. 23 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 1) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a =.05) between men and women. 2) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) between men and women. 3) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) between men and women. 4) The a r t h i m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 5) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 6) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 7) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and Wanted I n c l u s i o n ( I e - 1^) as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 24 8) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l (C - C ) as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be e w J s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 9) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n (A^ - A ) as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 2 5 CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e w i t h a f o c u s on t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , and t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The two s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ( t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y : BSRI and t h e F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s O r i e n t a t i o n - B e h a v i o r : FIRO-B) w i l l be a n a l y z e d and t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y r e p o r t e d . F i n a l l y a d i s c u s s i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s i s c o n c l u d e s t h e c h a p t e r . S a mple One h u n d r e d h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s f r o m t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a w e re a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , e a c h c o u p l e had t o be l i v i n g t o g e t h e r a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . The method o f s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e k e y i n f o r m a n t p r o c e d u r e f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s u s e d f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . I t c o n s i s t e d o f a s k i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e s t o i d e n t i f y an u n d e t e r m i n e d number o f c o u p l e s t h a t p r o b a b l y w o u l d v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r h p r o j e c t . E a c h c o u p l e w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , r e c e i v e d by m a i l t h e f o l l o w i n g d o c u m e n t s : 26 a) a l e t t e r s p e c i f y i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y and t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b) an i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t c) BSRI (2 c o p i e s ) d) FIRO-B (2 c o p i e s ) e) F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (1 copy) f ) R e q u e s t f o r a b s t r a c t . A copy o f e a c h document i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x A. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e documents and r e t u r n them by m a i l as s o o n as p o s s i b l e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u e s t e d t o f i l l o u t t h e s e t e s t s i n d i v i d u a l l y and n o t t o compare t h e i r r e s u l t s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h i s p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n . In o r d e r t o r e s p e c t a n o n y m i t y no names were r e q u i r e d . Of t h e 100 p a c k a g e s d i s t r i b u t e d , a t o t a l o f 61 r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d ; two o f w h i c h were r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been i n c o r r e c t l y c o m p l e t e d . T h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e s t u d y , 59 c o u p l e s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e sample. D emographic d a t a was c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The b a r g r a p h s i n A p p e n d i x D g i v e some s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n c e r n i n g t h e sample u s e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 27 The P r e d i c t i v e V a r i a b l e a) O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n The p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e d t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e . The d e g r e e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o a c l u s t e r o f f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e t e r m i n e d t h e n a t u r e and t h e l e v e l o f sex t y p i n g . The l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g was measured by t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y ( B S R I ) . b) The M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t The BSRI c o n s t i t u t e s a new t y p e o f s e x - r o l e i n v e n t o r y . I t t r e a t s m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y as two i n d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . The 40 i t e m s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e f e m i n i n e and t h e m a s c u l i n e s c a l e s on t h e BSRI o r i g i n a t e d f r o m a p o o l o f 200 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were p o s i t i v e and e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e i n t o n e . A n o t h e r 200 were c h o s e n , h a l f o f w h i c h were p o s i t i v e and h a l f were n e g a t i v e t r a i t s and a l l n e u t r a l i n t o n e i n terms o f g e n d e r s u i t a b i l i t y . A g r o u p o f 100 j u d g e s (50 males and 50 f e m a l e s ) s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s , r a t e d e a c h o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y , w i t h i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y f o r one g e n d e r o r t h e o t h e r . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was r e t a i n e d i f i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r . The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s were b a s e d on t w o - t a i l e d t - t e s t s (Bern, 1974). I f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was p e r c e i v e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t h a n f o r a woman by the f o u r s u b - g r o u p s , i t became \ 28 p a r t o f t h e m a s c u l i n e s c a l e (p < . 0 5 ) . The same s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was used f o r t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e f e m i n i n e s c a l e . I f a t r a i t was s e e n as (a) no more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex t h a n t h e o t h e r ( t < 1.2, p > .2) and (b) i f male and f e m a l e j u d g e s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r o v e r a l l d e s i r a b i l i t y j u dgments o f t h a t t r a i t ( t < 1.2, p_ > . 2 ) , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n e u t r a l t r a i t (Bern, 1974). Twenty i t e m s were t h e n s e l e c t e d f o r e a c h s c a l e . The 60 t r a i t s were t h u s s c a l e d as s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r women ( F e m i n i n e ) , f o r men ( M a s c u l i n e ) , o r f o r b o t h ( N e u t r a l ) . The BSRI r e q u e s t s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o use a 7 p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e , r a n g i n g f r o m 1 ( n e v e r o r a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e ) t o 7 ( a l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s t r u e ) , t o show t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e a c h o f t h e 60 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s t r u e o f them. Two s c o r e s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s , a m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e and a f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e . E ach s u b j e c t was a s s i g n e d t o a c a t e g o r y ( A n d r o g y n o u s , F e m i n i n e , M a s c u l i n e o r U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e two s c a l e s . The s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c o r e was n o t computed b e c a u s e o f i t s l a c k o f u t i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and i t s r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h b o t h m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s (Bern, 1974; Spence, 1 9 7 8 ) . c) S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e Bern recommends a f o u r f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b a s e d on median-s p l i t on m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s (Bern, 1976; W i g g i n s e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s 29 r e s e a r c h . Thus s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as a n d r o g y n o u s ( m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c o r e s above t h e m e d i a n ) ; s e x t y p e d (one s c o r e above and t h e o t h e r below t h e m e d i a n ) ; and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( b o t h s c o r e s below t h e m e d i a n ) . Once the m e d i a n ( m i d d l e p o i n t o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r a l l s u b j e c t s ) was d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h s c a l e s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u a d r a n t s . M a s c u l i n i t y S c o r e Above M e d i a n Below M e d i a n Above M e d i a n A n d r o g y n o u s F e m i n i n e S c o r e Below M e d i a n M a s c u l i n e U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d One has t o b e a r i n mind t h a t t h e use o f s u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m does n o t p e r m i t one t o a c h i e v e t h e same l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y as some more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n (Bern, 1977). The m e d i a n - s p l i t method has come un d e r a t t a c k p r i m a r i l y on t h e g r o u n d s o f c r u d e n e s s , l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n a c c u r a r c y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o t y p e s ( P e d h a z u r & Tetenbaum, 1979). Even i f t h e s e remarks a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s u b d i v i d i n g t h e s u b j e c t s i n t o b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s , t h i s s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e i s a d v o c a t e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s m a i n l y b e c a u s e i t p e r m i t s c o m p a r i s o n s between s t u d i e s ( H e i l b r u n , 1976; K e l l y and W o r e l l , 1976; K e l l y , C a u d i l l , N a t h o r n & O ' B r i e n 1977). 30 F o r an example o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e n o r m a t i v e sample o f the BSRI b a s e d on t h i s m e d i a n - s p l i t method, r e f e r t o T a b l e 5. T a b l e 5 P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s i n V a r i o u s S e x - R o l e Groups f o r a  1975 Sample o f S t a n f o r d U n d e r g r a d u a t e s as D e f i n e d by a M e d i a n - S p l i t o f B o t h M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y M a l e s Females Sex R o l e (N=375) (N=290) F e m i n i n e 16% 34% U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 27% 20% A n d r o g y n o u s 21% 29% M a s c u l i n e 37% 16% R e f . : S c o r i n g P a c k e t : Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y r e v i s e d 4/76 d) N o r m a t i v e and P s y c h o m e t r i c Data on t h e BSRI. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t has been used e x t e n s i v e l y and o f f e r s commendable e v i d e n c e o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y ( K e l l y e t a l . , 1977) . I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y The c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a was computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r m a s c u l i n i t y , f e m i n i n i t y and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c o r e s o f t h e 31 s u b j e c t s i n e a c h o f t h e two n o r m a t i v e s a m p l e s . The r e s u l t s showed a l l t h r e e s c a l e s t o be h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a v a r y i n g between .70 and .86 (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . B a s e d on t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e BSRI seems t o be r e l i a b l e . I n t e r - s c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Between M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e two n o r m a t i v e samples r e v e a l t h e two s c a l e s t o be e m p i r i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t w i t h an a v e r a g e P e a r s o n ' s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t v a r y i n g between r = .11 t o .14. T h e r e f o r e , the M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s o f t h e BSRI a r e i n d e p e n d e n t (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y The r e s u l t s f r o m a t e s t - r e t e s t e x p e r i m e n t ( f o u r week i n t e r v a l ) show a h i g h l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y . The product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e 3 r e s p e c t i v e s c a l e s ( M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y and S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y ) v a r y between .89 and .93 (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . C o n v e r g e n t V a l i d i t y The BSRI has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h th e m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s on t h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y and t h e G i l f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n Temperament S u r v e y . T h e r e i s a moderate c o r r e l a t i o n between M a s c u l i n i t y , F e m i n i n i t y and Androgyny s c a l e s on t h e CPI and t h e BSRI and no c o r r e l a t i o n between the BSRI and t h e G u i l f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n (Bern, 1974). A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d y 32 c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f M a s c u l i n i t y , F e m i n i n i t y , Need f o r H e t e r o s e x u a l i t y and A n d r o g y n y b a s e d on t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI), t h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y ( C P I ) , t h e Omnibus P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y ( O P I ) , t h e A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL) and t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y ( B S R I ) , r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . However, t h e BSRI was t h e o n l y t e s t t o measure t h e c o n c e p t o f a n d r o g y n y W a k e f i e l d e t a l . , (1976). T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e BSRI has been e l a b o r a t e d f r o m a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y as b e i n g two i n d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e c o n c e p t . B e r z i n s e t a l . , (1978) u s e d t h e BSRI i n o r d e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h Form-ANDRO. ( P R F - A n d r o . ) . They o b t a i n e d a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t v a r y i n g between .50 and .65 (p < .001). C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y S e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y " a n d r o g y n o u s " i n d i v i d u a l s behave d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . A n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s o f b o t h s e x e s d i s p l a y " m a s c u l i n e " i n d e p e n d e n c e and " f e m i n i n e " p l a y f u l n e s s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e no n - a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s (Bern, 1975; Bern & Lenny, 1976; Bern & Watson, 1 9 7 6 ) . 33 e) C r i t i q u e Concerning the BSRI Pedhazur and Tetenbaum c l a i m that the BSRI i s a t h e o r e t i c a l and t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y have not been c l e a r l y o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . Bern has purposely chosen a s t r i c t l y e m p i r i c a l approach. The theory u n d e r l y i n g the BSRI a s s e r t s that sex-typed i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l conform to whatever d e f i n i t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y the c u l t u r e happens to provide (Bern, 1979). T h i s s t a n d a r d i z e d conception of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y that we c a l l s t e r e o t y p e d i f f e r s among c u l t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , a s t a t i c o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n that would be c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y and c r o s s - c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y v a l i d seems to be a U t o p i a . Then, the d e f i n i t i o n of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i s the r e s u l t of how the American s o c i e t y decides to d e f i n e i t i n the present s i t u a t i o n at the present time. Another major c r i t i c i s m concerns the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the t r a i t s ( G i l b e r t & Strahan, 1978; Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1978). When asked to ra t e the l e v e l of d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r each t r a i t on the BSRI f o r a man, a woman and an ad u l t w i t h i n the American s o c i e t y , the r e s u l t s l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n that the masculine t r a i t s are more d e s i r a b l e than the feminine ones. I t appears t h a t the American s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e s f e m i n i n i t y as being i n f e r i o r to m a s c u l i n i t y and t h e r e f o r e , d e f i n e s i t i n a l e s s d e s i r a b l e way. Some s t u d i e s show t h a t the c r i t e r i o n of e x c e l l e n c e i s c l o s e r to the a c t u a l d e f i n i t i o n of m a s c u l i n i t y 34 t h a n f e m i n i n i t y and a n d r o g y n y . More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t some o f t h e f e m i n i n e t r a i t s s u c h a s : g u l l i b l e , c h i l d l i k e , s h y ; a r e p e r c e i v e d as r e l a t i v e l y u n d e s i r a b l e o r n e g a t i v e ( P e d h a z u r & Tetenbaum, 1979). T h i s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o Bern's s t a t e m e n t m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e 20 m a s c u l i n e and 20 f e m i n i n e i t e m s on t h e BSRI a r e p o s i t i v e and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . A f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m i s aimed a t t h e n a t u r e o f the BSRI i t s e l f . Many r e s e a r c h e r s d e m o n s t r a t e a l o t o f s k e p t i c i s m c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e l f - r e p o r t i n v e n t o r i e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n f e r e n c e s d r a w i n g some c o m p a r i s o n s and d i f f e r e n c e s among r e s p o n d a n t s a r e b a s e d on an u n s t a b l e r e f e r r a n t . S e l f - r e p o r t t e c h n i q u e s a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as o b j e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . T h e i r o b j e c t i v i t y l i e s i n t h e i r r e c o r d i n g and s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . However, i n d i v i d u a l b i a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e f l e c t i n g p e r s o n a l needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c r e a t e c l e a r l y a s u b j e c t i v e o r p r o j e c t i v e component f o r t h e measurement p r o c e d u r e (Brown, 1976). The f a c t t h a t 400 t - T e s t s a i m i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c a p a c i t y o f e a c h p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were t r e a t e d as i f t h e y were i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r seems t o c o n s t i t u t e a t h r e a t t o t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e BSRI ( P e d h a z u r & Tetenbaum, 1979; S t r a h a n , 1975). Bern r e p l i e s t h a t t h e 200 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were r a t e d by f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s o f j u d g e s and t h a t an i t e m was d e f i n e d as 35 feminine or masculine i f , and only i f , i t was c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e l i a b l y r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one or the other of the two sexes by a l l f o u r groups of judges. The p r o b a b i l i t y of t h i s o c c u r i n g by chance f o r any i n d i v i d u a l item i s 1/160,000; the number of items out of 200 expected by chance to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a l l four groups i s .00125 (Bern, 1979). One l a s t major c r i t i c i s m i s concerned with the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s . Some authors c h a l l e n g e the assumption that the s c a l e s on the BSRI are orthogonal and independent (Gaudrau, 1977; L o c k s l e y et a l . , 1979). Based on Gaudrau's f a c t o r a n a l y s i s study, some items on each of the 3 s c a l e s loaded on d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s than the one that they were intended t o . On the masculine s c a l e such items as s e l f - r e l i a n t and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t appear to be more r e l a t e d to m a t u r i t y than m a s c u l i n i t y . The items a t h l e t i c and masculine are more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to gender than to the concept of m a s c u l i n i t y . On the feminine s c a l e such items as: f l a t t e r a b l e , g u l l i b l e , c h i l d l i k e and i n e f f i c i e n t , loaded n e g a t i v e l y on the ma t u r i t y f a c t o r . Three out of four of these items are p a r t of the feminine s c a l e . The item feminine seems to be more r e l a t e d to the gender f a c t o r than the f e m i n i n i t y f a c t o r . Some of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ( f l a t t e r a b l e , g u l l i b l e , c h i l d l i k e ) p l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as soft-spoken, shy, does not use harsh language, loaded very l i t t l e on t h e f e m i n i n i t y f a c t o r and t h e r e f o r e do n o t a p p e a r t o have a v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e BSRI does n o t seem t o s h a r e the same weakness as t r a d i t i o n a l m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s , t h a t i s th e s c a l e s s u c c e s s f u l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between m a s c u l i n e males and f e m i n i n e f e m a l e s ; when i t e m s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d , t h e y l o a d e d on two common f a c t o r s ( f e m i n i n i t y - m a s c u l i n i t y ) . Even i more r e s e a r c h on t h e measurement o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i s n eeded, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e t r a i t s as two s e p a r a t e d i m e n s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n i s a s t e p i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n ( G a u d r e a u , 1977) The C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e a) O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n The i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs s u c h as d e f i n e d by S c h u t z ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e o r y c o n s t i t u t e d t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . b) The M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t The F u n d a m e n t a l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s O r i e n t a t i o n -B e h a v i o r (FIRO-B) was used t o measure t h e s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . Two a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r i n e a c h d i m e n s i o n were a s s e s s e d : t h e b e h a v i o r an i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s e s towards o t h e r s and t h e b e h a v i o r he wants o t h e r s t o e x p r e s s t o w a r d s him. The FIRO-B, t h e r e f o r e , c o m p r i s e s s i x s c a l e s : e x p r e s s e d and wanted b e h a v i o r i n t h e a r e a s o f I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l and A f f e c t i o n . Each s c a l e has n i n e i t e m s and was d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e use o f 37 Guttman s c a l e t e c h n i q u e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) . The t e s t c o n t a i n s 54 i t e m s . E a c h s u b j e c t has t o i n d i c a t e , on a s i x p o i n t s c a l e v a r y i n g f r o m u s u a l l y t o n e v e r o r nobody t o most p e o p l e , how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s own b e h a v i o r t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e . The s i x s c a l e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . 1) E x p r e s s e d I n c l u s i o n ( I g ) : I make e f f o r t s t o i n c l u d e o t h e r p e o p l e i n my a c t i v i t i e s and t o g e t them t o i n c l u d e me i n t h e i r s . I t r y t o b e l o n g , t o j o i n s o c i a l g r o u p s , t o be w i t h p e o p l e as much as p o s s i b l e . 2) Wanted I n c l u s i o n ( I ): w I want o t h e r p e o p l e t o i n c l u d e me i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and t o i n v i t e me t o b e l o n g , even i f I do n o t make an e f f o r t t o t o be i n c l u d e d . 3) E x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l ( C g ) : I t r y t o e x e r t c o n t r o l and i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h i n g s . I t a k e c h a r g e o f t h i n g s and t e l l o t h e r p e o p l e what t o do. 4) Wanted C o n t r o l (C ): w I want o t h e r s t o c o n t r o l and i n f l u e n c e me. I want o t h e r p e o p l e t o t e l l me what t o do. 5) E x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n ( A ): e I make e f f o r t s t o become c l o s e t o p e o p l e . I e x p r e s s f r i e n d l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e f e e l i n g s and t r y t o be p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e . 38 6) Wanted A f f e c t i o n (A ): w I want o t h e r s t o e x p r e s s f r i e n d l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e f e e l i n g s t o ward me and t r y t o become c l o s e t o me. On e a c h s c a l e , s c o r e s c a n v a r y f r o m 0 t o 9. The l a r g e r t h e s c o r e , t h e more p r e d o m i n a n t t h e b e h a v i o r d e s c r i b e d by t h e s c a l e . (eg. A = 9 means an extreme need t o r e c e i v e 3 w a f f e c t i o n ) . The d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g a wanted b e h a v i o r s c o r e f r o m an e x p r e s s e d b e h a v i o r s c o r e i n a g i v e n need a r e a g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f w h e t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r s t o t a k e an a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . A c o m p o s i t e measure, t o t a l FIRO-B, c a n be d e r i v e d b a s e d on t h e sum o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e s i x s e p a r a t e s c o r e s . T h i s measure s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t o r o f t o t a l amount o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t d e s i r e d by an i n d i v i d u a l , c) S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s The s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g g r i d were computed. C o n c e r n i n g s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , r e f e r t o FIRO Awareness S c a l e s M a nual o f S c h u t z , 1978, f o r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t e n s c o r e s were r e t a i n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 39 I C A e I e C e A e w I w C w A w D i f f e r e n c e e - w X d c d A d T o t a l I +C,+A d d d T o t a l I = I n c l u s i o n C = C o n t r o l A = A f f e c t i o n e = e x p r e s s e d w = wanted c ) N o r m a t i v e and P s y c h o m e t r i c D a t a on t h e FIRO-B I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e t e s t i s c o n s i s t e n t and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e l i a b l e , d i f f e r e n t methods a r e u s e d . However, s i n c e t h e s c a l e s o f FIRO-B a r e a l l Guttman s c a l e s , r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h e FIRO-B v a r y between .93 and .94. T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f a l l s c a l e s i s h i g h and c o n s i s t e n t o v e r a l l sam p l e s ( S c h u t z , 1978). T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y The FIRO-B has been r e a d m i n i s t e r e d among H a r v a r d s t u d e n t s o v e r a one month p e r i o d ( e x c e p t f o r A and A T 7 w h i c h were b a s e d e -on an i n t e r l u d e o f one week). The c o e f f i c i e n t s v a r y from .71 t o .82 w i t h a mean c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e s i x s c a l e s e q u a l t o .76. 40 I n t e r - S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n The c o r r e l a t i o n s among the FIRO-B s u b s c a l e s r a n g e from .06 t o .43 w i t h s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s c a l e s a r e n o t i n d e p e n d e n t . T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between e and w f o r I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n , and a somewhat s m a l l e r but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the t o t a l s c a l e s o f I and A. T hese r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s b e i n g measured ( B u r o s , 1972). T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r - s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e FIRO-B. TABLE 6 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among FIRO-B S c a l e s (N=108) V Xw C e Cw A e I e .62 .15 .12 .46 .31 I w .10 .13 .49 .48 C e .25 .17 .00 Cw - . 0 2 - . 0 5 A e .70 A w r . 0 5 .20 r Q 1 = .26 S c h u t z , W i l l i a m C , The I n t e r p e r s o n a l U n d e r w o r l d S c i e n c e and B e h a v i o r Books, I n c . , P a l o - A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . N.B. A r e p r i n t e d i t i o n o f FIRO- A t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l t h e o r y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r 41 V a l i d i t y V a l i d i t y s t u d i e s on t h e FIRO-B q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u g g e s t t h a t i t s s u b s c a l e s a r e r e l a t e d t o n o n t e s t i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s as w e l l as t o o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y measures ( B u r o s , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e s e v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s c h a l l e n g e t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e FIRO-B t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . The o v e r l a p p i n g between I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a t h r e a t t o t h e s u b s t a n t i v e v a l i d i t y (Ryan e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) . Based on t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s , t h e FIRO-B seems t o have a f a v o r a b l e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs measured by t h e FIRO-B a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s s u c h a s : o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , c o n f o r m i t y b e h a v i o r . T hese c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s s u p p o r t t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o t e n t i a l o f t h e FIRO-B. d) C r i t i q u e C o n c e r n i n g th e FIRO-B Some f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s l e a d t o c o n f l i c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . R o s e n f e l d ' s (1971) f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s o f t h e FIRO-B i t e m s y i e l d e d h i s p r o j e c t e d e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h r e e need a r e a s ( i n c l u s i o n , c o n t r o l and a f f e c t i o n ) , whereas L i n d a h l ' s (1972) c l u s t e r - a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d f i v e d i m e n s i o n s : e x p r e s s e d i n c l u s i o n , wanted i n c l u s i o n , e x p r e s s e d c o n t r o l , wanted c o n t r o l and one a f f e c t i o n c l u s t e r . To t e s t t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , Ryan, e t a l . , (1970) c h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s e x p e c t e d t o be h i g h f o r s p e c i f i c need a r e a s u s i n g a n o n - c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n . They f o u n d l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h i s k i n d o f v a l i d i t y . T h i s argument seems 42 t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e d a t a d e s c r i b i n g samples f r o m d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s and showing r e a s o n a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s e g r o u p s . L i n d a h l (1972) c o n f i r m e d t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e FIRO-B by p o s t i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g e x p e c t e d s c o r e s f o r v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s : men v e r s u s women, c l i e n t s v e r s u s n o n - c l i e n t s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c l i e n t s v e r s u s n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c l i e n t s , and e x t r a v e r t s v e r s u s i n t r o v e r t s . E x t r a n e o u s V a r i a b l e s I n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e s e a r c h , some i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d on t h e e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d have been r e s p o n s i b l e c o m p l e t e l y o r p a r t i a l l y f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n e d between t h e BSRI and t h e FIRO-B. I t a p p e a r e d o b v i o u s t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t t h e p a r t n e r s have s p e n t t o g e t h e r would have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r needs i n t h e a r e a s o f I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n . The p r e s e n c e o f c h i l d r e n a t home seemed t o have an o b v i o u s i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s measured by t h e FIRO-B. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d by means o f t h e F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( r e f e r t o g r a p h s e n t i t l e d : Number o f Y e a r s o f C o h a b i t a t i o n and Number o f C h i l d r e n p e r C o u p l e i n A p p e n d i x D ) . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e t h a t c o u l d have a p o s s i b l e e f f e c t on t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s , even t h o u g h i t does a p p e a r t o have o n l y a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on t h e s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s c a l e , i s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d (Spence e t a l . , 1978). T h e r e f o r e , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d ( r e f e r t o g r a p h e n t i t l e d : E c onomic S t a t u s i n A p p e n d i x D). Based on t h e 43 r e s u l t s a v a i l a b l e f r o m a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y , t h e r e i s b o t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c r o s s - n a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e . In v i e w o f s u c h an a m b i g u i t y , one m a j o r a s p e c t o f t h e c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e , t h e r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d , was examined ( r e f e r t o g r a p h e n t i t l e d : F a m i l y ' s R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n i n A p p e n d i x D ) . A c h i e v e m e n t seemed t o be a c o n s i d e r a b l e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r e s u l t s on t h e BSRI. The d i m e n s i o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t was p a r t l y c o v e r e d by t h e two q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o a c a d e m i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s on t h e " F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " . ( R e f e r t o g r a p h s e n t i t l e d : L a s t A c a d e m i c I n s t i t u t i o n A t t e n d e d and P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n i n A p p e n d i x D ) . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e i n most s t u d i e s i s t h e p a r e n t a l a n t e c e d e n t s . Spence and H e l m r e i c h (1978) c o m p i l e d an e x t e n s i v e p o o l o f d a t a a i m i n g t o a n a l y z e t h e n a t u r e and s t r e n g t h o f t h a t f a c t o r on t h e s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e t h e o r y . S c h u t z d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r y c a l l e d "The R e l a t i o n a l C o n t i n u i t y " s u p p o r t i n g t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and t h e n a t u r e and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs i n t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . Many p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s s u c h a s : F r e u d i a n t h e o r y , t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , m o d e l i n g i n t h e b e h a v i o r i s t i c a p p r o a c h , r a t i o n a l - e m o t i v e t h e r a p y e t c . s u p p o r t t h e m a j o r i n f l u e n c e o f a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h , th e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f s u c h an e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e i s beyond the s c o p e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 44 F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s used t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t some d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s : r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , number o f c h i l d r e n , o c c u p a t i o n , e t c . r e f e r t o t h e F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x A. D a t a A n a l y s i s The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r i a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ( 4 x 2 ) was used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F a c t o r F a c t o r B, Gender S e x - R o l e Row O r i e n t a t i o n M a l e ( b 1 ) F e m a l e ( b 2 ) Means A n d r o g y n o u s ( a 1 ) X 1 2 X l M a s c u l i n e ( a ^ ) X^^ X 2 2 X 2 F e m i n i n e ( a 3 ) X^^ X ^ 2 X^ U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( a ) X X . 2 X 4 mean Gr a n d Mean Column means X.^ X . 2 X 45 T h i s f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n i n t e n d e d t o measure t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between F a c t o r A, F a c t o r B and F a c t o r A x B and t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s ( I n t e r p e r s o n a l needs s u c h as measured by FIRO-B). a) D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s The s u b j e c t s were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e BSRI. The m e d i a n - s p l i t t e c h n i q u e was used t o a c h i e v e t h i s s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . Some o t h e r d a t a was computed f o r e a c h s c a l e i n d i v i d u a l l y s u c h a s : t h e mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement and t h e r a n g e . T h e s e d a t a showed t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e BSRI. S i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s were computed f o r F a c t o r A and F a c t o r B b a s e d on t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B. b) I n f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c s I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e s u l t s v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h e FIRO-B among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s and among g e n d e r s , an F - t e s t v a l u e was computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r F a c t o r A and F a c t o r B as w e l l as f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f F a c t o r A and B (A x B) f o r e a c h c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . The p v a l u e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o m m i t t i n g a Type I e r r o r , was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h f a c t o r on e a c h c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . I n t h e c a s e where a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s b a s e d on t h e 46 s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B, a S c h e f f e ' s S t e s t was computed i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s u b g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e o t h e r s . T h e s e methods p e r m i t t e d t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . c) N u l l H y p o t h e s e s 1) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) between men and women. 2) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) between men and women. 3) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) between men and women. 4) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 5) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 6) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 47 7) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n ( I - I ) as measured by t h e e w J FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 8) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l (C - C ) as measured by t h e FIRO-B e w J w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 9) The a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n (A - A ) as measured by t h e e w J FIRO-B w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y . 48 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION In this chapter the results obtained on the BSRI and the FIRO-B w i l l be presented. Certain s t a t i s t i c a l procedures w i l l be used in order to determine s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences existing among genders and sex-role orientation subgroups based on subjects' interpersonal needs. Among the 118 subjects who participated in the present research (59 males and 59 females), no data was missing on the BSRI and the FIRO-B. Results obtained on the BSRI In order to gain a better knowledge of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the scores obtained on the BSRI, the mean, the standard deviation, the median, the standard error and the range were computed for each scale i n d i v i d u a l l y , for a l l subjects. These descriptive s t a t i s t i c s are presented in Table 7. Table 7 Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s for the BSRI  N = 118 Subjects Scales M SD Mdn SE R Masculinity scale 94 .975 16.19 97.50 1.49 66 Femininity scale 94 .636 11.52 94.72 1.06 78 49 I n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e s u b j e c t s i n t o one o f t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s , t h e v a l u e o f t h e m e dian was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e a c h s c a l e on t h e BSRI. In c o m p u t i n g t h e m edian, s u b j e c t s were p o o l e d and t h e i r g e n d e r was n o t t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The v a l u e o b t a i n e d was r ounded o f f t o t h e n e a r e s t whole number. S u b s e q u e n t l y , e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e on t h e m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s was compared w i t h t h e two m e dians p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d . T h u s , e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s were formed, 4 f o r m ales and 4 f o r f e m a l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a l u e s shown below ( T a b l e 8 ) . T a b l e 8 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S u b j e c t s B a s e d on a M e d i a n - S p l i t Method S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n M a l e s : N = 59 F e m a l e s : N = 59 > 98a > 98 A n d r o g y n o u s >_ 95b >_95_ > 98 > 98 M a s c u l i n e < 95 < 95 < 98 < 98 F e m i n i n e > 95 > 95 < 98 < 98 U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d < 95 < 95 a) Md f o r M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e = 97.500 b) Md f o r F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e = 94.722 50 Based on t h e above c r i t e r i a , t h e s u b j e c t s were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o one o f t h e f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s as shown below ( T a b l e 9 ) . T a b l e 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s B a s e d on T h e i r Gender and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n s M a l e : N=59 Fema l e : N=5 9 T o t a l : N=118 And r o g y n o u s 14 13 27 M a s c u l i n e 23 9 32 F e m i n i n e 6 28 34 U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 16 9 25 S i n c e t h i s n o n - o r t h o g o n a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n v o l v e s two p r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s and t e n c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , a m u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was u s e d . In t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s , an F t e s t s t a t i s t i c w i t h a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05 was s e l e c t e d . The f i r s t s t e p c o n s i s t e d o f d r a w i n g t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s : a) Gender d i f f e r e n c e s / s i m i l i a r i t i e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s ( F I R O - B ) . b) S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s / s i m i l a r i t i e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s ( F I R O - B ) . 51 c) I n t e r a c t i o n between g e n d e r s and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s on t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s ( F I R O - B ) . R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B. O n l y one m e a n i n g f u l s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b a s e d on g e n d e r was f o u n d . The v a r i a b l e , e x p r e s s e d a f f e c t i o n , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (p = . 0 0 4 ) . F i g u r e 1, b a s e d on g e n d e r , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e f i r s t s i x v a r i a b l e s . The mean f o r e a c h o f t h e s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs a r e shown i n T a b l e 10. T a b l e 10 G ender Means f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s (N=118) Gen d e r Means on FIRO-•B M a l e (N=59) I c I w C e Cw A e 2. 85 1.59 3.44 2. 90 2.93 4.34 Female (N=59) 3. 52 2.75 1.97 3.51 4.25 5.34 A l l numbers ro u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t two d e c i m a l s . 52 Male * Female •• 53 T a b l e 11 d i s p l a y s t h e means o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s b a s e d on s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f g e n d e r . The d i f f e r e n c e among means f o r t h e v a r i a b l e e x p r e s s e d c o n t r o l ( C e : p = .003) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The means o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s were g r a p h e d ( F i g u r e 2) s e p a r a t e l y f o r a n d r o g y n o u s , m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s and t h e i r v a l u e s a r e shown below i n T a b l e 11. T a b l e 11 S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n Means f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s (N=118) S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n Means on FIRO-B I I C C ' A A e w e w e w And r o g y n o u s 3.41 3.33 3.33 2.59 4.22 5.56 M a s c u l i n e 3.00 1.56 4.25 2.66 2.94 4.31 F e m i n i n e 3.44 2.23 1.47 4.09 3.88 5.44 U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 2. 84 1.60 1.72 3.36 3.36 3.92 A l l numbers r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t two d e c i m a l s . 54 F i g u r e 2 Sex-Role 0 r i e n t a t i o n Means f o r the FIRO-B Subscales (N=118) Means 6 L_ \ N v x J L I I C C A A e w e w e w I n t e r p e r s o n a l needs Androgynous • « Masculine — — Feminine •— — • U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d * • 55 None o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s , b a s e d on b o t h s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and g e n d e r , were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . The s e c o n d o f t h e a n a l y s e s i n v o l v e d an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e between t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s ( g e n d e r ; s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ) and t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s ( I n c l u s i o n - C o n t r o l - A f f e c t i o n ) . The mean f o r t h e s e t h r e e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e a l g e b r a i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x p r e s s e d and wanted needs f o r e a c h o f t h o s e d i m e n s i o n s (I - I = I , ; C - C = C , ; A - A = A.,) . The e w d e w d e w d means o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s a r e shown i n T a b l e 12. No s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b a s e d on g e n d e r and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and g e n d e r were f o u n d . A l t h o u g h , b a s e d on s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l was s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (C: p_ = .001). The means o b t a i n e d by e a c h s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e t h r e e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 3 and t h e i r v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. T a b l e 12 Means o f D i f f e r e n c e s (e - w) and T o t a l f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s (N=118) S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n Means on FIRO-B  Z d C d A d T 0 T ' d A n d r o g y n o u s 0.08 0.74 -1.34 -0.52 M a s c u l i n e 1.44 1.59 -1.37 • 1.66 F e m i n i n e 1.21 -2.62 -1.56 -2.97 U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 1.24 -1.64 -0.56 -0.96 A l l numbers r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t two d e c i m a l s . 57 F i g u r e 3 Means o f D i f f e r e n c e s (e - w) and T o t a l f o r t h e FIRO-B S u b s c a l e s (N=118) Means I n t e r p e r s o n a l needs A n d r o g y n o u s • M a s c u l i n e — -• F e m i n i n e — — • U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d • • 58 The l a s t v a r i a b l e t o be a n a l y z e d was t h e " T o t a l D i f f e r e n c e " . T h i s v a l u e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a l g e b r a i c sum o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d on t h e I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l and A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s (I., + C _, + A , ) . The t o t a l was s t a t i s t i c a l l y d d d s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , ( T o t : p = .0485) f o r t h e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n f a c t o r ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . T a b l e 13 shows t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA). The d i m e n s i o n e x p r e s s e d a f f e c t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t between men and women and t h e d i m e n s i o n s e x p r e s s e d c o n t r o l , C o n t r o l and T o t a l was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . A l l F - t e s t s had a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05. tn T a b l e 13 C u m u l a t i v e Manova T a b l e R e p r e s e n t i n g the Mean-Square, the F - S t a t i s t i c and the P r o b a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Based on Gender, Sex-Role O r i e n t a t i o n and I n t e r a c t i o n f o r each C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e (FIRO-B) I n t e r p e r s o n a l Needs Gender (df=l) Sex-Role O r i e n t a t i o n (df=3) I n t e r a c t i o n (GxS)(df = 3) M.S. F P M.S. F P M.S. F P E x p r e s s e d I n c l u s i o n 9.1493 2. 2679 0. 1350 1 .0758 0. 2667 0. .8493 1.1132 0. 2759 0. .8427 Wanted I n c l u s i o n 31.8954 3. 8071 0. 0536 16 .4422 1. 9626 0. . 1239 5.5140 0. 6582 0, .5796 E x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l 20.6857 3. 7002 0. 0570 39 .8832 7. 1341 0.0003 7.9576 1. 4234 0. .2399 Wanted C o n t r o l 0.9158 0. 1729 0. 6784 12 .2729 2. 3170 0. .0796 2.2171 0. 4186 0, . 7401 E x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n 39.4884 8. 4995 0. 0044 5 .5242 1. 1890 0. ,3174 4.4288 0. 9533 0. .4177 Wanted A f f e c t i o n 11.1559 1. 8458 0. 1771 12 .6109 2. 0865 0. . 1062 7.9211 1. 3106 0. , 2747 I n d u s i o n 6.8791 0. 8517 0. 3.581 10 . 7852 1. 3352 0. , 2667 6. 8400 0. 8469 0. ,4712 C o n t r o l 30.3064 2. 7726 0. 0988 89 . 6337 8. 2002 0. .0001 9.3398 0. 8545 0. .4672 A f f e c t i o n 8.6667 1. 4023 0. 2389 7 .1460 1. 1562 0. 3299 0.5048 0. 0817 0. ,9699 T o t a l 26.8939 9320 0. 3365 78 .2150 2. 7126 0. ,0485 7.0809 0. 2456 0. .8644 60 The P values r e s u l t i n g from the m u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and re p o r t e d i n Table 13 are summarized and presented i n Table 14. Only four i s o l a t e d p values were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the alpha = .05 l e v e l . Table 14 P Values Based on Mean D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the F a c t o r s Gender and Sex-Role O r i e n t a t i o n (MANOVA) V a r i a b l e s Gender(G) Sex-Role O r i e n t a t i o n ( S ) I n t e r a c t i o n ( G x S ) I e 0.1350 0.8493 0.8427 I w 0.0536 0.1239 0.5796 C e 0.0570 0.0003* 0.2399 C w 0.6784 0.0796 0.7401 A e 0.0044* 0.3174 0.4177 A w 0.1771 0.1062 0.2747 0.3581 0.2667 0.4712 C d 0.0988 0.0001* 0.4672 A d 0.2389 0.3299 0.9699 TOT. d 0.3365 0.0485* 0.8644 *p < .05 61 The l a s t step consisted in focusing on those s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences obtained by comparing the d i f f e r e n t sex-role orientation subgroups and the i r results obtained on the FIRO-B. This comparison permitted the determination of which sex-role orientation subgroups were responsible for the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference registered for C e , C and TOT. The A P o s t e r i o r i Multiple Comparisons test selected was Scheffe's S method due to the unequal number of subjects in each c e l l . The sex-role orientation subgroups were compared with regard to the three c r i t e r i o n variables: C - C - TOT. e The results are presented in Table 15. 62 T a b l e 15 S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s B a s e d on S c h e f f e ' s S Method * S u b g r o u p s E x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l C o n t r o l T o t a l A-M 0.9167 0.8530 2.1747 A-F 1.8627* 3.3583** 2.4521 A-U 1.6133 2.3807 0.4415 M-F 2.7794** 4.2113** 4.6268** M-U 2.5300** 3.2337** 2.6162 F-U 0.2494 0.9776 2.0106 * p < .05 ** p < .01 A = A n d r o g y n o u s M = M a s c u l i n e F = F e m i n i n e U = U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 1 = A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f t h e o b t a i n e d d i f f e r e n c e between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . 63 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION B a s e d on t h e B S R I , t h e 118 s u b j e c t s (59 m a l e s and 59 f e m a l e s ) w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . The m e d i a n - s p l i t s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u b j e c t s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B, some c o m p a r i s o n s w ere made among t h e d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s and b e t w e e n g e n d e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h o s e c o m p a r i s o n s w ere p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s C h a p t e r . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h o s e d e s c r i p t i v e and i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were made. a) S i g n i f i c a n t R e s u l t s B a s e d o n G e n d e r The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d t o g e n d e r , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean o f e x p r e s s e d and w a n t e d A f f e c t i o n - C o n t r o l and I n c l u s i o n as m e a s u r e d by t h e FIRO-B w o u l d n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) b e t w e e n men and women, we r e a c c e p t e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n d i m e n s i o n ( A £ : p = . 0 0 4 4 ) . F e m a l e s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d a g r e a t e r need t o e x p r e s s a f f e c t i o n t h a n m a l e s u b j e c t s . The e x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e d i d n o t y i e l d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . When t h e mean c e l l s w e r e p l o t t e d f o r e a c h g e n d e r ( A p p e n d i x E F i g u r e s A t o F ) , f e m a l e s e x p r e s s e d more a f f e c t i o n t h a n m a l e s w i t h i n 64 e a c h o f t h e f o u r s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r i e s . In c o m p a r i n g the mean f o r a l l t h e f e m a l e s w i t h t h e mean f o r a l l m a l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e , t h e t o t a l d i f f e r e n c e r e f l e c t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s n o t i c e d w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . T h i s a d d i t i v e e f f e c t was p a r t l y a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o u n d between males and f e m a l e s on t h e e x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e . b) S i g n i f i c a n t R e s u l t s B a s e d on S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n The s t u d y showed some m e a n i n g f u l s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s u b g r o u p s h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . The d i m e n s i o n , e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l , was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l b a s e d on s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ( C e : p = 0 . 0 0 0 3 ) . M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s had t h e g r e a t e s t need t o e x p r e s s c o n t r o l f o l l o w e d by t h e A n d r o g y n o u s , U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s . M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n t r o l t h a n f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Bern, 1977; B e r z i n s e t a l . , 1978; Burke e t a l . , 1976) . A n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n t r o l t h a n F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s as w e l l as M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s v e r s u s U n d i f f e r e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted c o n t r o l (e - w) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( c : p = . 0 0 0 1 ) . F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s had t h e g r e a t e s t need t o r e c e i v e c o n t r o l and M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s t o g i v e . C o n t r o l . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were 65 r e p o r t e d by B u r k e e t a l . , (1976) between h o u s e w i v e s and w o r k i n g w i v e s . The C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e y i e l d e d t h e same s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as t h e e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e . The t o t a l d i f f e r e n c e on t h e FIRO-B was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (TOT: p = .0485). M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g a g r e a t e r need t o e x p r e s s i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e e d s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e s e t h r e e s u b s c a l e s ( C g , C and TOT.) on t h e FIRO-B were no t t o t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r . The c o n t r o l s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l (C = CQ - C w ) and t h e t o t a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e sum o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e on e a c h s u b s c a l e (TOT. = 1^ + C^ + A ^ ) . I t was e x p e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s n o t i c e d on t h e e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e would be r e f l e c t e d on the C o n t r o l and T o t a l D i f f e r e n c e s u b s c a l e s . B a s e d on t h e s e r e s u l t s , t h e need f o r c o n t r o l was r e l a t e d t o s u b j e c t ' s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . S c h u t z (1966) d e f i n e d t h e need t o e x p r e s s c o n t r o l as a need t o be i n f l u e n t i a l , r e s p o n s i b l e and d e m o n s t r a t e a l e a d e r s h i p a t t i t u d e . M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p e a r e d t o be more d o m i n a n t and seemed t o assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o n t r a r i l y , f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d more p a s s i v i t y and t e n d e d t o t a k e a r e c i p i e n t r o l e i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s seemed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e f e m i n i n e and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by O r l o f s k y and W i n d l e (1978) 66 i n t h e i r s t u d y on s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , b e h a v i o r a l a d a p t a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s showed a b a l a n c e d need t o e x p r e s s and r e c e i v e c o n t r o l (C = 0 .74). A l l s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s were l i m i t e d t o t h e e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l , C o n t r o l and T o t a l s u b s c a l e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s s t a t i n g , t h a t t h e a r i t h m e t i c means o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l as measured by t h e FIRO-B would n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y , were g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t , b a s e d on s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , was r e l a t e d t o t h e I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s s t a t i n g , t h a t t h e a r i t h m e t i c means o f e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n as w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n as measured by t h e FIRO-B would n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( a l p h a = .05) a c r o s s s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r y , were a c c e p t e d . c ) I n t e r a c t i o n None o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B, b a s e d on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f g e n d e r and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (.2399 < p < .9699). The l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n meant t h a t F a c t o r B ( g e n d e r ) d i d n o t behave d i f f e r e n t l y u nder d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f F a c t o r A ( s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ) . Due t o t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s f o u n d between g e n d e r and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , t e s t i n g o f s i m p l e main e f f e c t s was n o t u n d e r t a k e n . F i g u r e s A t o F i n A p p e n d i x E, i l l u s t r a t e c e l l means f o r s u b g r o u p s . 67 d) N o n - S i g n i f i c a n t R e s u l t s The I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s y i e l d e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h no c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e was f o u n d , some t e n d e n c i e s a p p e a r e d . The f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s showed t h e g r e a t e s t need t o e x p r e s s I n c l u s i o n and t o r e c e i v e C o n t r o l and a g r e a t e r need t o e x p r e s s and r e c e i v e a f f e c t i o n t h a n t h e m a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s . M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t r e s u l t s on t h e wanted I n c l u s i o n and t h e e x p r e s s e d A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s . T h i s t r e n d was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h g e n d e r w i t h i n t h e same s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , f e m a l e s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n males on a l l t h e FIRO-B s u b s c a l e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e ( r e f e r A p p e n d i x E - T a b l e s A t o F i n c l u d e d ) . Those r e s u l t s seemed t o c o n f o r m t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n male as b e i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l -a s s e r t i v e - c o m p e t e n t - f o r c e f u l - i n d e p e n d e n t and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n f e m a l e as b e i n g e x p r e s s i v e -n u r t u r a n t - warm - s u p p o r t i v e - c o m p a s s i o n a t e - (Bakan, 1966; Bern and Lenny, 1976; J o h n s o n , 1963; W o r e l l , 1978). The a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s s c o r e d t h e h i g h e s t on t h e wanted I n c l u s i o n , e x p r e s s e d and wanted A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s . They o b t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t r e s u l t on t h e wanted C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e . The o b t a i n e d d i f f e r e n c e on t h e t h r e e s u b s c a l e s d e m o n s t r a t e d a r e l a t i v e b a l a n c e between the e x p r e s s e d and wanted i n t e r p e r s o n a l n eeds (-1.34 < d < 0.08). These r e s u l t s seem t o be c o n v e r g e n t 68 w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s s t a t i n g t h a t t h e a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n d e m o n s t r a t e s a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f f l e x i b i l i t y p e r m i t t i n g an i n t e g r a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f b o t h i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e d i m e n s i o n (Bern, 1974; Bern, 1975; Bern & L e n n y , 1976;) J o n e s e t a l . , 1976; W o r e l l , 1 9 78). The low s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s on the e x p r e s s e d and wanted I n c l u s i o n , e x p r e s s e d C o n t r o l and wanted A f f e c t i o n s u b s c a l e s seemed t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g t h a t u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s have a low s e l f - e s t e e m and a low l e v e l o f s o c i a l p o i s e ( B e r z i n s e t a l . , 1978; Spence e t a l . , 1 975). C o n t r a r y t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t employment o u t s i d e o f t h e home would be i n d i c a t i v e o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d n o t f i n d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . D i s c u s s i o n The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s and t h e t r e n d s r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y s u p p o r t e d t h e b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f M a s c u l i n i t y ( i n s t r u m e n t a l -a g e n t i c ) and F e m i n i n i t y ( e x p r e s s i v e - c o m m u n a l ) . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e FIRO-B r e f l e c t e d t h e d o m i n a n t and a s s e r t i v e a t t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e and t h e c o m p a s s i o n a t e and t e n d e r a t t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e o f t h e BSRI. O t h e r s t u d i e s by L i p p a (1977) and W i g g i n s (1978) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e BSRI. The p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x p r e s s e d and wanted C o n t r o l s u b s c a l e s r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r s t u d i e s by Bern (1977) and B e r z i n s e t a l . (1978) s t a t i n g t h a t t h e m a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s a r e t h e most i n d e p e n d e n t and t h a t f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s a r e 69 t h e l e a s t i n d e p e n d e n t . The h i g h need t o e x p r e s s C o n t r o l d e m o n s t r a t e d by M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s and t o r e c e i v e C o n t r o l by F e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s c o n f i r m t h e o l d p a t t e r n o f male a u t h o r i t y and f e m a l e s u b s e r v i e n c e among s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The t r e n d f o r f e m a l e s t o o b t a i n h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n m a l e s on t h e I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n FIRO-B s u b - s c a l e s seemed t o s u p p o r t Bern's f i n d i n g s (1976) t h a t M a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s were l e s s n u r t u r a n t t h a n F e m i n i n e o r A n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s . L i m i t a t i o n s One o f t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y was t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c c u r a t e and o b j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s t o measure p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s s u c h as I n c l u s i o n , C o n t r o l and A f f e c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d e f i n e s e x - r o l e s c r e a t e d a d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g a c c e p t e d and u p - t o - d a t e s t a n d a r d s f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e sample and t h e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e used made i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e sample and, t h e r e f o r e , l i m i t s t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d y . I t would have been d e s i r a b l e t o c o n t r o l s u c h e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s a s : b a c k g r o u n d , age o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e number o f c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e l a c k o f a u n i f o r m t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . In l i m i t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h o s e f a c t o r s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l n eeds c o u l d have been enhanced. 70 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y showed t h a t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o a p e r s o n ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l need f o r c o n t r o l . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p e o p l e ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d o r i g i n a t e i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r s e x - r o l e . C o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d b e g i n t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s by e x a m i n i n g t h e c l i e n t s ' v i e w s on r o l e s as male o r f e m a l e . I f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o r i g i n a t e i n t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e c o g n i t i o n s c o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e . To i n c r e a s e p e o p l e ' s a wareness c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f any g i v e n s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a m a j o r g o a l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . T h i s o b j e c t i v e c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by s e t t i n g up c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g g r o u p s o r o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p s aimed a t h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s become aware o f t h e i n t r i n s i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f any s t e r e o t y p e s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , b r o a d e n t h e i r v i e w s on t h e i r s e x - r o l e . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e f o c u s o f f u t u r e s t u d i e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a i m i n g t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r o l e m o d e l s d u r i n g m a t u r a t i o n , s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e r i v e d f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s o r c u l t u r a l a n t e c e d e n t s ; c o u l d 71 permit c o u n s e l l o r s to improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Other s t u d i e s could aim at a n a l y z i n g the i n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamic e x i s t i n g between couples having s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s of such s t u d i e s could bear a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on f a m i l y and m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Summary The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n f a c t o r was r e l a t e d to the c o n t r o l dimension. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n subgroups on the I n c l u s i o n and A f f e c t i o n s c a l e s . The need to express and r e c e i v e c o n t r o l v a r i e d l a r g e l y among s u b j e c t s having a d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the masculine and feminine s u b j e c t s . The masculine s u b j e c t s had a g r e a t e r need to express c o n t r o l and the feminine s u b j e c t s to r e c e i v e c o n t r o l . A r e d u c t i o n of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was n o t i c e d among androgynous s u b j e c t s . T h i s inbalance i n the C o n t r o l area can have c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s on the development and a c t u a l i z a t i o n of one's p o t e n t i a l . A f l e x i b l e environment seems to be a f a v o r a b l e f a c t o r i n the f u l f i l l m e n t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs. The r e s t r i c t i o n s attached to t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e s do not f a c i l i t a t e a human being's p e r s o n a l growth. A d i s s o c i a t i o n from any l i m i t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s such as s t e r e o t y p i c s e x - r o l e s , could allow an i n d i v i d u a l to develop h i s or her own i d e n t i t y . One of Ranks c e n t r a l assumptions, f i n a l l y , was h i s b e l i e f t h a t every human being has c e r t a i n b u i l t i n c a p a c i t i e s f o r s e l det e r m i n a t i o n . Men and women a l i k e , he maintained, l i k e to e x e r c i s e a c e r t a i n freedom of choice and a c t i o n and to shape t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s as much as p o s s i b l e (Sward, 1980). 73 Bibliography Bern, S., Martyna, W., & Watson, C. Sex Typing and Androgyny: Further Explorations of the Expressive Domain. Journal  of Personality and Social Psychology. 197 6, 34(6), 1016-1023. Bern, S. The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny. Journal  of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1974, 42(2), 155-162. Bern, S. On the U t i l i t y of Alternative Procedures for Assessing Psychological Androgyny. Journal of Consulting and  C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1977 45 (2) , 196-205. Bern, S. Sex-Role Adaptability: One Consequence of Psycho-l o g i c a l Androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, 1975, 31(4), 634-643. Bern, S. & Lenney, E. Sex-Typing and the Avoidance of Cross-Sex Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, 33 (1) , 48-54. Bern, S. Theory and Measurement of Androgyny: A reply to the Pedhazur-Tetenbaum and Locksley-Colten Critiques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37(6), 1947-1054. Berzins, J.I., Welling M.A., & Wetter R.E. A New Measure of Psychological Androgyny Based on the Personality Research Form. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, 46 (1) , 126-138. Borg, W.R. & G a l l , M.D. Educational Research - An Introduction, David McKay Company Inc., New York, 2nd ed., 1974. Broverman, I.K. et a l . Sex-Role Stereotypes and C l i n i c a l Judgements of Mental Health. Journal of Consulting and  C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1970, 34, 1-7. Brown, F.G. P r i n c i p l e s of Educational and Psychological  Testing. Ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976, 2nd e d i t i o n . Burke, R.J. & Weir, T. Some Personality Differences Between Members of One-Career and Two-Career Families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, August, 1976. Buros, O.K. (Ed.) The Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park, N.I., Gryphon Press, 1972 Review of the FIRO-B by Bloxon, Bruce P. 78-79. 74 G a u d r e a u , P. F a c t o r - A n a l y s i s o f t h e Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1977, 4 5 ( 2 ) , 299-302. H e i l b r u n , A.B. J r . Measurement o f M a s c u l i n e and F e m i n i n e Sex R o l e I d e n t i t i e s as I n d e p e n d e n t D i m e n s i o n s . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1976, 4 4 ( 2 ) , 138-190. H o p k i n s , K.D. & G l a s s , G.V. B a s i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l  S c i e n c e s • P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . 07632, 1978. J o n e s , W.H. O'C. C h e r n o v e t z , M.E. & H a n s s o n , R.O. The enigma o f a n d r o g y n y : D i f f e r e n t i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s ? J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1978, 46, 298-313. K e l l y , J.A., C a u d i l l , S.M., H a t h o r n , S. & O ' B r i e n , G.C. S o c i a l l y U n d e r s i r a b l e S e x - C o r r e l a t e d C h a r a c h e r i s t i c s : A ndrogyny and A d j u s t m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y . 1977, 4 5 ( 6 ) , 1185-1186. K e l l y , J.A. & W o r e l l , J . New F o r m u l a t i o n s o f Sex R o l e s and A n d rogyny: A C r i t i c a l Review. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 4 5 ( 6 ) , 1977, 1101-1115. K i r k , R.E. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n : P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l  S c i e n c e s , B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company, B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a , 1968. L i p p a , R., The n a i v e p r e c e p t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y on t h e b a s i s o f e x p r e s s i v e c u e s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n  P e r s o n a l i t y , 1977, 11, 21-37. L o c k s l e y , A. & C o l t o n , M.E. P s y c h o l o g i c a l A n d r o g y n y : A Case o f M i s t a k e n I d e n t i t y ? J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1979, 3 7 ( 6 ) , 1017-1031. Mor e h o u s e , R.K. P s y c h o l o g i c a l A n d r o g y n y and M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t , D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 38(B) 3407-3408. O r d e r No. 77-28, 693, 89 p a g e s . P a i g e , B.K. S e x - T y p i n g i n W i ves and Husbands as R e l a t e d t o  S e v e r a l M e a s u r e s o f t h e M a r r i a g e R e l a t i o n s h i p . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 38(B) 1896. O r d e r No. 77-21, 885, 401 p a g e s . P e d h a z u r , E . J . & Tetenbaum, T . J . Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y : A T h e o r e t i c a l and M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e . J o u r n a l o f  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1979, 3 7 ( 6 ) , 996-1016. R a p o p o r t , R. & R a p o p o r t , R.N. The D u a l C a r e e r F a m i l y : Human  R e l a t i o n s , 2 2 ( 1 ) , 1969 . 75 S c h i f f , E. & Koopman, E.J. The Relationship of Women's Sex-Role Identity to Self-Esteem and Ego Development. Journal of Psychology, 1978, 98, 299-305. Schutz, W.C. FIRO Awareness Scales Manual. Consulting Psy-chologists Press Inc., Palo-Alto, C a l i f o r n i a , 1978. Schutz, W.C. The Interpersonal Underworld. Science & Behavior Books, Inc., Palo-Alto, C a l i f o r n i a , 1966 N.B. A reprint e d i t i o n of FIRO- A three dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior, 1958. Spence, J.T. & Helmreich, R.L. Masculinity and Femininity. Their Psychological Dimensions, Correlated, & Antecedents. University of Texas Press, Austin & London, 1978. Spence, J.T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. Ratings of Self and Peers on Sex Role Attributes and the i r Relations to Self Esteem and Conceptions of Masculinity and Femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1975, 32 (1) , 29-39. Spence, J.T. & Helmreich, R. The Many Faces of Androgyny: A Reply to Locksley and Colten. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37(6), 1032-1046. Strahan, R.F. Remarks on Bern's Measurement of Psychological Androgyny: Alternative Methods and a Supple-Analysis. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1975, 43 (4) , 568-571. Sward, K. Sel f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n and Women: Rank and Freud Contrasted. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 20(2) Spring 1980. Wakefield, J.A., Sasek, J . , Friedman, A.F. & Bowden, J.D. Androgyny and Other Measures of Masculinity-Femininity. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 19 76 44 (5) , 766-770. Wiggins, J.S. & Holzmuller, A. Psychological Androgyny and Interpersonal Behavior. Journal of Consulting and  C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, 46(1), 40-52. Worell, J. Sex Roles and Psychological Weil-Being: Perspec-tives and Methodology. Journal of Consulting and  C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1978, 46(4), 777-791. 76 APPENDIX A 78 INSTRUCTIONS 1. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o m p l e t e t h e two t e s t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . P l e a s e , do n o t s h a r e y o u r a n s w e r s . 2. The t e s t c o p i e s w i t h a r e d s t i c k e r ( u p per l e f t hand c o r n e r ) must be c o m p l e t e d by t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t . 3. Read t h e d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g each t e s t . 4. The F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e may be answered j o i n t l y o r s e p a r a t e l y . 5. Make s u r e t o r e t u r n t h e f o l l o w i n g documents: a) F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (1 c o p y ) . b) Bern I n v e n t o r y (2 c o p i e s ) . c) FIRO-B (2 c o p i e s ) . *************************** DO NOT COPY 79 BEM INVENTORY Developed by Sandra L. Bern, Ph.D. Name Age Sex Phone No. or Address Date 19 If a student: School Yr. in School _ If not a student: Occupation DIRECTIONS On the opposite side of this sheet, you will find listed a number of personality characteristics. We would like you to use those characteristics to describe yourself, that is, we would like you to indicate, on a scale from 1 to 7, how true of you each of these characteristics is. Please do not leave any characteristic unmarked. Example: sly Write a 1 if it is never or almost never true that you are sly. Write a 2 if it is usually not true that you are sly. Write a 3 if it is sometimes but infrequently true that you are sly. Write a 4 if it is occasionally true that you are sly. Write a 5 if it is often true that you are sly. Write a 6 if it is usually true that you are sly. Write a 7 if it is always or almost always true that you are sly. Thus, if you feel it is sometimes but infrequently true that you are "sly," never or almost never true that you are "malicious," always or almost always true that you are "irresponsible," and often true that you are "carefree," then you would rate these characteristics as follows: Sly Malicious Irresponsible Carefree 7 CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS, INC. 577 College Avenue Palo Alto, California 94306 ©Copyright, 1978, by Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Duplication of this form by any process is a violation of the copyright laws of the United States except when authorized in writing by the Publisher. DO NOT COPY 80 Never or Usually Sometimes but Occasionally Often almost not infrequently true true Usually true Always or almost never true true true always true Defend my own beliefs Adaptable Flatterable Affectionate Dominant Theatrical Conscientious Tender Self-sufficient Independent Conceited Loyal Sympathetic Willing to take a stand Happy Moody Love children Individualistic Assertive Tactful Soft-spoken Sensitive to needs of others Aggressive Unpredictable Reliable Gentle Masculine Strong personality Conventional Gullible Understanding Self-reliant Solemn Jealous Yielding Competitive Forceful Helpful Childlike Compassionate Athletic Likable Truthful Cheerful Ambitious Have leadership abilities Unsystematic Do not use harsh language Eager to soothe hurt feelings Analytical Sincere Secretive Shy Act as a leader Willing to take risks Inefficient Feminine Warm Make decisions easily Friendly a b Class R.S. S.S. a-b SS diff. DO NOT COPY 1977 E d i t i o n W I L L SCHUTZ, Ph.D. DIRECTIONS: This questionnaire explores the typical ways you interact with people. There are no right or wrong answers. Sometimes people are tempted to answer questions like these in terms of what they think a person should do. This is not what is wanted here. We would like to know how you actually behave. Some items may seem similar to others. However, each item is different so please answer each one with-out regard to the others. There is no time limit, but do not debate long over any item. N A M E G R O U P DATE M A L E _ . A G E . F E M A L E e w sum (e + w) diff (+ or -(e - w) Sum + C + A) 4, Total Sum ->• 1 I Total Diff -* 1 • C O N S U L T I N G P S Y C H O L O G I S T S P R E S S 577 COLLEGE AVENUE, PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA 94306 © Copyri 8h« 1967 by Wllllo. C. Schu.z. fubM.hed 1967 by Consulting P,ycr,olo8iS., Pres. M_ rigM, r L r v e l Thh . « . . o, pom thereof, mcy no. be reproduce! in any form without p.rm„, .on of the publuher. DO NOT COPY For each statement below, decide which of the fallowing answers best applies lo you. Place (he nuntber of" the answer in (he box at Ihe left of ihe statement. Please he as honest as you can. I. never 2. rarely 3. occasionally 4. sometimes 5. often 6. usually • I | *). I try lo include other people in mv I. I try lobe with people. | | p , . ] n v | 1 - I let other people deckle what lo do. | | | | c l 0iher people control my actions. 1 | y I join social groups. | | tl . I try to have people around nic. • 4. I try to have close relationships with i 1 |i | , r v l o g c , c | o s e a n j personal with people. I | people. • 5. I tend lo join social organizations i 1 jv When people are doing things together when 1 have an opportunity. | | | tend to join them. • 6. I let other people strongly influence . . my actions. I I 14. I am easily led by people. n 7. I try to be included in informal social i 1 activities. I I 15. I try to avoid being alone. • 8. I try to have close, personal relation- ( 1 ships with people. I I 1 6 I try to participate in group activities. For each of the next group of statements, choose one of the following answers: I, nobody 2. one or two J. a few 4. some 5. many 6. most people people people people people • I I 23. I try to get close and personal with 17. \ try to be friendly to people. | | p e 0 p | e . [ | 24. I let other people control my actions. people | | 18. I let other people decide what to do. •19. My personal relations with people ar cool and distant. _ •, „ , , , , , , I I 25. I act cool and distant with people 20. I let other people take charge of 1 ' things. • 21. I try to have close relationships with | | 26. I am easily led by people, people. people ilher people strongly influence | | 27. ships with people. •22. I let ot I I . I try to have close, personal relation-my actions. I |  For each of the next group of statements, choose o I. nobody 2. one or two 3. a few 4. people people |^ | 28. I like people lo invite me to things. • 29. I like people to aci close and personal wiih me. • 30. I try lo influence strongly other peo-ple's actions. • 31. I like people to invite me to join in their activities. | [ 32. I like people to act close toward me. • 33. I try to take charge of things when I am with people. • 34. I like people to include me in their activities. ie of the following answers: some 5. many 6. most people people people n 35. I like people to act cool ;iml distant toward me. •3b. I try to have other people do things the way I want them done. • 37. I like people to ask me to participate in their discussions. • 38. I like people lo act friendly toward me. • 39. I like people to invite nic to partici-pate in their activities. | | 40. I like people to act distant toward me. For each of the next group of statements, choose o 1. never 2. rarely 3. occasionally 4 • 41. I try to be the dominant person when I am with people. | | 42. I like people to invite me to things. | | 43. I like people to act close toward me. • 44. I try to have other people do things I want done. •45. I like people to invite me to join their activities. • 4b. I like people to act cool and distant toward me. e of the following answers: sometimes 5. often 6. usually • 48. I like people to include me in their activities. •49. I tike people lo act close and personal with me. •50. I try to take charge of things when I'm with people. • 51. I like people to invite me to partici-pate in their activities. | | 52. I like people lo act distant toward me. •53. I Iry to have other people do things the way I want them done. 47. I try to influence strongly other peo-ples actions. 54. I take charge of things when I'm with people. FAMILY ORIENTATION QUESTIONNAIRE What i s y o u r f a m i l y ' s r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ? O r i e n t a t i o n M a l e Female C a t h o l i c G r e e k O r t h o d o x P r o t e s t a n t J e w i s h None O t h e r What i s t h e l a s t a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n a t t e n d e d ? I n s t i t u t i o n Male Female H i g h - s c h o o l C o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y ( U n d e r - g r a d u a t e ) U n i v e r s i t y ( G r a d u a t e ) What i s y o u r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n ? O c c u p a t i o n M a l e Female H o u s e h o l d P a r t - t i m e employment F u l l - t i m e employment S t u d e n t V o l u n t e e r work How o l d a r e you? Age M a l e Female 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - o v e r 84 5. How many c h i l d r e n do you have (18 years o l d or l e s s ) ? L i v i n g at home Attending school but l i v i n g at home Attend i n g s c h o o l but l i v i n g somewhere e l s e Others How long have you been l i v i n g together ( c o n t i n u o u s l y ) ? 0 - 4 years 5 - 9 years 10 - 14 years 15 - 19 years 20 - 2 4. years 25 - more 7. What i s your annual combined f i n a n c i a l income (gross)? $15,000 t o 19,999 20,000 to 29,999 30,000 t o 39,999 40,000 to 49,999 50,000 t o 59,999 60,000 - over 85A Leaf 86 emitted in page numbering. 87 APPENDIX B 89 A P P E N D I X C APPENDIX C. Table A Cor r e l a t i o n s Between Masculinity-Femininity Scale Sets and Interpersonal Variables Dominant- Arrogant- Cold- Aloof- Lazy- Unassuming- Warm- Gregarious-Scale ambitious c a l c u l a t i n g quarrelsome introverted submissive ingenuous agreeable extraver BSRI-F -.050 -.266 -.609 -.175 .168 .283 .750 -.388 BSRI-M .797 .512 .204 .251 -.600 -.281 -.073 .374 BSRI-D -.620 -.534 -.506 .084 .540 .381 .492 -.051 ACL-F -.072 -.124 -.521 -.281 .206 .141 .731 .478 ACL-M .763 .678 .376 -.126 -.566 -.413 -.219 .241 ACL-D -.580 -.550 -.563 -.071 .517 .372 .572 .103 Woman -.134 -.316 -.453 -.148 .186 .219 .436 .257 Man .173 .316 .431 .178 -.186 -.188 -.397 -.240 WM-D -.156 -.323 -.452 -.166 .190 .208 .418 .255 Note. BSRI-F = Bern Sex Role Inventory Femininity scale; BSRI-M = Bern Sex Role Inventory Masculinity scale; BSRI-D = d i f f e r e n c e between the two scales; ACL-F = Adjective Check L i s t Femininity scale; , ACL-M = Adjective Check L i s t Masculinity scale; ACL-D = difference between the two scales; WM-D = di f f e r e n c e between the Woman and Man scal e s . For N = 187, and r of .187 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Ref.: Wiggins, J e r r y S.; Holzmuller, Ana; Psychological Androgyny and Interpersonal Behavior, Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, V o l . 46, No. 1 40-52, Table 6. 91 APPENDIX C Table B Mean F a c t o r Scores and U n i v a r i a t e F R a t i o s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Four Sex Role Categories Across F i v e P r i n c i p l e P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form Components Among C o l l e g e Students Category P.R.F. Component Indeter- Feminine Masculine minate typed typed Androgynous Dependency Men Women 53.9. c 46.9 61. 55.9, 44.7 c 35.4 51.8, 45.6 78.53*** 156.30*** S o c i a l Poise Men 41.4^ d Women 43.2 = a I n t e l l e c t u a l i t y Men 44.5 = a Women 44.5 a Defensiveness Men 49.0 Women 50.7 a I m p u l s i v i t y Men 51.2 Women 53.3 a Men : N 102 Women: N 98 a,b 49.7 b 50.1c. 5 : L 6 b , c 49.9c 46. 48.2 47.0 52 290 51.5c 48.3c 50.3c 51.6 a 56.^ 50.5 53.7 a 205 66 57.1 c 57.7 55.5 c 54.8 49.0 50.5 a,b 49.3 4 8 . ^ 75 98 51.16*** 44.57*** 20.05*** 20.31*** 5.25** 12.38*** 2.45* 9.56*** Note. In each row, c e l l s w i t h the same s u b s c r i p t do not d i f f e r a t the .05 l e v e l o r b e t t e r by Tukey's honestly s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t e s t . A l l f a c t o r scores have been standardized t o a mean of 50 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 10. *p < .06 **p < .002 ***p < .0001 Ref.: B e r z i n s , J e r i s I . ; W e l l i n g , Martha A.; Wetter, Robert, E.; A New Measure o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l Androgyny Based on the P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form, J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g a d C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, V o l . 46, No. p. 126-138 - Table 3. 92 APPENDIX D 93 Graph 1 Religious Affiliation Catholic Protestant Jewish None Others Family's Religious Affiliation (N=118) • i l i u m JL J _ 10 15 20 25 30 Subjects 35 40 45 m i Male Female Level High School Graph 2 Last Academic Institution Attended (N=118) University (under grad.) University (graduate) 10 15 Subjects 20 Male Female 25 94 Graph 3 Present Occupation (N=118) Occupation household part-time employment full-time employment student DPnH uno m m _L J L J L J_ J_ J L 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Subjects Graph 4 Chronological Age (N=118) Age 50-ove] 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 fTTTTTITn 10 15 Subjects 20 ^ M a l e Female Y////A Male ffTTTITTI Female Children Graph 5 Number of Children Per Couple (N=59) 5 4 3 2 10 15 Couples 20 .25 Status Graph 6 Number of Children Based on Their Status 10 15 20 Number of Children 25 1 = L i v i n g a t home. 2 = Going to school but l i v i n g a t home. 3 = Going to school but l i v i n g away from home. 4 = Others Years 25-- more 20-24 15-19 10-14 5 - 9 0 - 4 Graph 7 Number o f Y e a r s o f C o h a b i t a t i o n (N=59) 10 15 C o u p l e s 20 Graph 8 Annual Income g £ S t a t u s Per Couple (N-59) 60000-over | 50000-59999 I 40000-49999 I 30000-39999 I 20000-29999 ~~ 15000-19999 1 0-14999 1 I 5. 10 15 20 C o u p l e s 97 A P P E N D I X E 98 APPENDIX E Table A C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous Males and Females I I C C A A N=14 e w e w e w Androgynous Male 3.36 3.07 3.56 3.79 4.07 5.86 N=13 Androgynous Female 3.46 3.61 3.08 3.38 4.38 5.23 Figure A C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous Males and Females C e l l Means 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 w e w e Interpersonal Needs Androgynous Males x Androgynous F e m a l e s * — w 99 APPENDIX E Table B C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Masculine Males and Females I I C C A A e w e w e w N = 2 3 -, o -7n l 4ft 4 96 2.56 2.65 4.22 Masculine Male 2.70 1.4b 4.yt> .^=>° N = 9 -, -3 -7Q l 7 R ? 44 2.89 3.67 4.56 Masculine Female 3.78 1.78 2..^ *.o? C e l l Means Figure B r p U Means on the FIRO-B f o r Masculine Males and Females 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 e w e w e Interpersonal Needs Masculine Males x — Masculine Females 0 — w 100 APPENDIX E Table C C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Feminine Males and Females I I C C A A N=63 e w e w e w Feminine Male 3.00 0.33 2.00 4.17 2.17 4.00 N=28 Feminine Female 3.54 2.64 1.36 4.07 4.25 5.75 Figure C C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Feminine Males and Females C e l l . Means 6.0 Interpersonal Needs 101 /APPENDIX E Table D C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Undifferentiated Males and Females I I C C A A „ e w e w e w N=16 Undiffer e n t i a t e d Males 2.56 0.94 1.69 3.00 2.63 3.31 N=9 Undiffer e n t i a t e d Females 3.33 2.78 1.78 4.00 4.67 5.00 Figure D C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Un d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Males and Females C e l l 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 w e w e Interpersonal Needs Und i f f e r e n t i a t e d Males * x Und i f f e r e n t i a t e d Females • A w APPENDIX E Table E C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous-Masculine-Feminine and Undi f f e r e n t i a t e d Male Subjects Males (N=59) I I C C A^ A v ' e w e w e w N=14 Androgynous 3.36 3.07 3.57 2.79 4.07 5.86 N=23 Masculine 2.70 1.48 4.96 2.56 2.65 4.22 N=6 Feminine 3.00 0.33 2.00 4.17 2.17 4.00 N=16 Undiffer e n t i a t e d 2.56 0.94 1.69 3.00 2.62 3.31 APPENDIX E Figure E C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous-Masculine-Feminine and Undi f f e r e n t i a t e d Male Subjects 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 I I C C A A e w e w e w Interpersonal Needs Androgynous • Masculine « Feminine — — Undifferentiated »• 104 APPENDIX E Table F C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous-Masculine-Feminine and  Undi f f e r e n t i a t e d Female Subjects Females(N=59) N=13 Androgynous N=9 Masculine N=28 Feminine N=9 Und i f f e r e n t i a t e d I I C e w e 3.46 3.61 3.08 3.78 1.78 2.44 3.54 2.64 1.36 3.33 2.78 1.78 C A A w e w 2.38 4.38 5.23 2.89 3.67 4.56 4.07 4.25 5.75 4.00 4.67 5.00 APPENDIX E Figure F C e l l Means on the FIRO-B f o r Androgynous-Masculine-Feminine and  Undiffer e n t i a t e d Female Subjects C e l l Means 6.0 1.0 0.5 Interpersonal Needs Androgynous • « Masculine •- •• Feminine • — • Undifferentiated » • 

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