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The self concept of hearing impaired pupils in different educational settings in British Columbia : a… McLaughlin, Joseph Robert 1980

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c THE S'ELF CONCEPT OF HEARING IMPAIRED PUPILS IN DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION B.A., Gallaudet C o l l e g e , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Co u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1980 ©Joseph Robert McLaughlin JOSEPH ROBERT MCLAUGHLIN by i n In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 6 i i A b s t r a c t The p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d of the e d u c a t i o n o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n has been i n u n d a t e d by c o n t r o v e r s y f o r the past c e n t u r y . The b a s i c a r e a o f c o n f l i c t has been between those a d v o c a t i n g e d u c a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s and those a d v o c a t i n g e d u c a t i o n i n day s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s . T h i s l e a d s to the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the type o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g which would have the g r e a t e s t impact on the development o f s e l f - c o n c e p t . The purpose o f t h i s s tudy was to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e o f f o u r d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s on the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The responses o f a random sample o f f i f t y - s e v e n h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s and the responses o f t w e n t y - t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ranked s c o r e s on the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y or the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e u s i n g a n o n p a r a m e t r i c ANOVA at the alpha=.05 l e v e l . However, t h e r e was s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c o r r e l a t i o n between the s c o r e s from the Coopersmith and McD a n i e l . T h i s f i n d i n g appears t o be a f u n c t i o n o f the r e s t r i c t e d or i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made by the deaf res p o n d e n t s t o some o f the words i n the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , low s c o r e s on the t e s t may have r e p r e s e n t e d l i m i t a t i o n s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e s t items r a t h e r than a measure of s e l f - c o n c e p t as a p e r s o n a l i t y component. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y shows e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e appears to be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t of the deaf and the types o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which a s t u d e n t spends t w e l v e y e a r s or more o f h i s e a r l y l i f e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM 1 I. E d u c a t i o n f o r the Handicapped 1 A. The Segregated and I n t e g r a t e d S c h o o l s C o n t r o v e r s y 5 German H i s t o r y 5 French H i s t o r y 7 American H i s t o r y 8 Canadian H i s t o r y 9 B. S e g r e g a t i o n and I n t e g r a t i o n i n B.C. S c h o o l s 16 C. The Impact of S e g r e g a t i o n and I n t e g r a t i o n on S e l f - C o n c e p t 19 I I . Statement o f Problem 21 I I I . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 21 Chapter I I . SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 24 I. S e l f - C o n c e p t Theory 24 I I . S e l f - C o n c e p t Research S t u d i e s R e l a t e d to Deafness 38 I I I . S e l f - C o n c e p t Measurements 42 Chapter I I I . METHODOLOGY 48 I. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 48 A. S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 48 B. I n f e r r e d S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 50 C. B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheet 52 I I . S u b j e c t s 52 I I I . Procedure i n C o l l e c t i n g Data 55 IV. S t a t i s t i c a l P rocedures 57 V Page Chapter IV. RESULTS 58 I. F i n d i n g s U s i n g the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 58 I I . F i n d i n g s U s i n g the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 60 I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n Between the Two Sets o f Scores 61 IV. Coopersmith's L i e Items Scores 61 V. Comparison of Gender D i f f e r e n c e s U s i n g the Coopersmith and the McDaniel 66 Chapter V. DISCUSSION AND. -IMPLICATIONS 68 I. E v a l u a t i o n of the Language L e v e l s o f the Coopersmith 69 I I . E v a l u a t i o n of the S e l f - C o n c e p t Measurements of the Coopersmith 71 I I I . Problems i n the T e s t i n g With Coopersmith 75 IV. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 76 REFERENCES 77 Appendix A. Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 89 Appendix B. L e t t e r to P r o f e s s i o n a l s 93 Appendix C. McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 95 Appendix D. B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheet 98 Appendix E. L e t t e r to D i r e c t o r s o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and P r i n c i p a l s o f the Sch o o l s 100 Appendix F. L e t t e r t o Study C o o r d i n a t o r s 102 Appendix G. L e t t e r to P a r e n t s - 105 Appendix H. L e t t e r o f Thanks 108 v i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I 18 Number and Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of H e a r i n g Impaired Students by Type of Homeroom W i t h i n School Type: B r i t i s h Columbia 1976-1977 TABLE I I 54 He a r i n g Impaired S u b j e c t s : Gender and Age by E d u c a t i o n a l Environments TABLE I I I 59 Comparisons of S e l f - E s t e e m Scores For Four Groups ( K r u s k a l - W a l l i s ANOVA) TABLE IV 60 Comparisons o f S e l f - C o n c e p t Scores For Four Groups ( K r u s k a l - W a l l i s ANOVA) TABLE V • 62 Mean Scores on Coopersmith's L i e Items Scores TABLE VI 63 Mean Scores on Coopersmith f o r L i e Items Scores S p l i t Groups TABLE VII 65 Number o f I n c o r r e c t Responses to the Coopersmith's L i e Items TABLE V I I I 67 Mean Score f o r Gender on Coopersmith TABLE IX 67 Mean Score f o r Gender on McDaniel v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1 6 The Cascade System o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e (Deno, 1968) v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the development of s e l f - c o n c e p t , h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s r e c o g n i z e how important s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a re f o r t h e i r p r o p e r growth and development. In t h i s view, I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o my f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and c o l l e a g u e s who s u p p o r t e d me d u r i n g my r e c e n t s t u d i e s . I am t r u l y i n d e b t e d t o a l l who s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i s t e d me w i t h the d e l i b e r a t i o n s and c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y : t o the many t e a c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who a d m i n i s t e r e d the s t u d e n t s ' t e s t s ; t o Mr. Frank Ho f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the n e c e s s a r y computer a n a l y s e s ; t o Mr. Jim M c L a u g h l i n , Mr. J e f f Hyde, and Miss E l e a n o r Low f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n language c o r r e c t i o n ; t o Dr. O l i v a G i r o n e l l a and Dr. Ge r a r d K y s e l a f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a ; t o Mis s Joan T r o t t f o r her a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o o f r e a d i n g ; t o Miss N i n e t t e G i r o n e l l a f o r her g e n e r a l support and u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s i n t y p i n g the many d r a f t s o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t ; and to Miss D o t t i e Inkenbrandt f o r w o r k i n g as an i n t e r p r e t e r f o r my t h e s i s committee members. I am e s p e c i a l l y i n d e b t e d t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. Norm Amundson f o r e xpending e v e r y e f f o r t i n a s s i s t i n g me i n a l l a s p e c t s o f my Maste r ' s t h e s i s and t o whom I p l e d g e my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e . H i s s u p p o r t , p a t i e n c e , and encouragement has done much to make t h i s s t u d y a r e a l i t y . S p e c i a l thanks go t o my committee members, Dr. Bryan C l a r k e and Dr. H a r o l d R a t z l a f f , f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and h e l p throughout the r e s e a r c h . Joseph R. Mc L a u g h l i n 1 Chapter _I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF T_HE PROBLEM  I. E d u c a t i o n f o r the Handicapped When s c h o o l systems f i r s t began p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n , the u s u a l approach was to o f f e r s p e c i a l programs i n s e g r e g a t e d c l a s s r o o m s or s c h o o l s . B e g i n n i n g i n the 1960's, a sequence of ev e n t s i n l e g i s l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the> i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d away from e d u c a t i n g handicapped l e a r n e r s i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , and towards i n t e g r a t i n g or mai n s t r e a m i n g handicapped l e a r n e r s i n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s e s f o r the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r s c h o o l day* The word "mainstreaming" r e c e i v e s wide a c c e p t a n c e and i s the most c r u c i a l s i n g l e i s s u e i n the e d u c a t i o n of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n today. The p h i l o s o p h y o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g , o r i g i n a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the e d u c a b l y m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , has been expanded t o i n c l u d e a l l c a t e g o r i e s of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n (Jones and Murphy, 1972). The i s s u e o f i n t e g r a t i n g or ma i n s t r e a m i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n i s no longer new. Having f i r s t a c q u i r e d s t r e n g t h i n S c a n d i n a v i a n Europe, the movement towards i n t e g r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l needs i n t o the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m has swept through the Western w o r l d . Recent major documents i n Canada (CELDIC R e p o r t , 1970), the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( P u b l i c Law 94-142, 975), and the U n i t e d Kingdom (Warnock Report, 1978) a r e formal acknowledgements o f i n t e g r a t i o n . A l r e a d y f a m i l i a r t o e d u c a t o r s , p a r e n t s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n Canada, the movement i s advocated by many. A l t h o u g h the Warnock Report (1978) s u p p o r t s the c u r r e n t 2 emphasis on i n t e g r a t i o n , i t does not advocate the immediate movement of a l l s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l mainstream. I t c o n c l u d e s that i n t e g r a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y to be s u c c e s s f u l , and c o u l d w e l l be r e t r o g r e s s i v e w i t h o u t c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and a knowledge of the e f f e c t s of h a n d i c a p s on the l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n . B r i t i s h Columbia (The P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t , S e c t i o n 158 under the * M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e , and T e c h n o l o g y ) , has i n r e c e n t y e a r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d the number of programs i n t e g r a t i n g h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s i n t o the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system. These changes p a r a l l e l the g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d emphasis that e d u c a t o r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have been s t r e s s i n g on m a i n s t r e a m i n g and n o r m a l i z a t i o n ( Y a t e r , 1973). Mercer (1974) d e s c r i b e d m a i n s t r e a m i n g as the e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t of n o r m a l i z a t i o n , the S c a n d i n a v i a n p r i n c i p l e a d v o c a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r handicapped persons which approximate a "normal" l i f e s i t u a t i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n o f f e r e d by Kaufman, G o t t l i e b , Agard, and K u k i c (1975) i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n North America: M a i n s t r e a m i n g r e f e r s t o the t e m p o r a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f e l i g i b l e e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n w i t h normal p e e r s . I t i s based on an o ngoing i n d i v i d u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d e d u c a t i o n a l needs assessment, r e q u i r i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g and programming by r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and support p e r s o n n e l (Pages 40-41). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o n t a i n s t h r e e major c o m p o n e n t s - - i n t e g r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and programming, and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f a l l t h r e e elements must be p r e s e n t i n o r d e r f o r a program t o q u a l i f y as m a i n s t r e a m i n g , then the e x i s t e n c e o f a t r u l y mainstreamed program today i s d o u b t f u l . 3 The N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental R e t a r d a t i o n (1978) s t a t e d t h a t : We are c u r r e n t l y w i t n e s s i n g major changes i n s e r v i c e s f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n . With i n n o v a t i o n s i n the area of developmental programming, the p o t e n t i a l f o r promoting the l e a r n i n g o f handicapped c h i l d r e n has o n l y begun to be e x p l o r e d . With growing p h i l o s o p h i c a l commitment to and e v i d e n c e o f the s u c c e s s of " i n t e g r a t i o n " , more p e r s o n n e l now r e g a r d the s t e p of i n c l u d i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e i r r e g u l a r programs a n a t u r a l p a r t of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the community (Page 1). E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , p a r e n t s , and a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n a re e x p l o r i n g the same i d e a . They have become i n t e r e s t e d i n the development o f s e r v i c e s and are demanding t h a t r e g u l a r programs accept t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These developments i n s e r v i c e s have been f o s t e r e d by the b e l i e f i n the r i g h t o f handicapped c h i l d r e n to grow up and f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mainstream o f s o c i e t y . Thus, s o c i e t y has the o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e handicapped c h i l d r e n w i t h the f u l l e s t d e v elopmental o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a l o n g s i d e and i n v o l v e d w i t h non-handicapped c h i l d r e n . In the 1970's, momentum f o r the e d u c a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d began as a r e s u l t o f c o u r t d e c i s i o n s and C o n g r e s s i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n . In 1972, ( M i l l s v e r s u s the Board o f E d u c a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a ) , a c o u r t d e c i s i o n mandated the r e t u r n o f c e r t a i n handicapped l e a r n e r s t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . Handicapped c h i l d r e n a r e d e f i n e d as s e t f o r t h i n 20 U n i t e d S t a t e s Code, S e c t i o n , 1401: The term "handicapped c h i l d r e n " means m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g , d e a f , speech i m p a i r e d , v i s u a l l y handicapped, s e r i o u s l y e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d , c r i p p l e d , or o t h e r h e a l t h i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n who by reason t h e r e o f r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s . 4 P l a i n t i f f s c l a i m e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n must be p r o v i d e d r e g a r d l e s s of a d d i t i o n a l expense and that no i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be e x c l u d e d from the p u b l i c s c h o o l system u n l e s s adequate a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were s u p p l i e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t was r e q u i r e d t h a t the s c h o o l system p r o v i d e an adequate p r i o r h e a r i n g and p e r i o d i c r e v i e w o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s and p r o g r e s s , as w e l l as adequacy of placement. P r o v i s i o n i n g o f programs are made through team c o n s u l t a t i o n t o p l a c e each c h i l d i n t o the s c h o o l program most a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s c a p a b i l i t e s and l o c a t i o n of h i s home w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e n r o l l m e n t i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m , a s p e c i a l c l a s s r o o m i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l , or a s p e c i a l s c h o o l as a day or r e s i d e n t i a l p u p i l . The c u l m i n a t i o n of c o u r t d e c i s i o n s , such as c i t e d above, o c c u r r i n g i n more than twenty-seven s t a t e s has r e s u l t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f c i v i l r i g h t s f o r a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n . In November of 1975, the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress passed the P u b l i c Law 94-142 E d u c a t i o n f o r a l l Handicapped C h i l d r e n A c t , r e q u i r i n g t h a t by September 1978, a l l s t a t e s must l o c a t e and p r o v i d e a " f r e e and a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n " f o r a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n , w i t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r f e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g o f an a d d i t i o n a l 40% o f the s t a t e - p e r - c h i I d budget by f i s c a l year 1982. De S a l l e and P t a s n i k (1976) s t a t e d t h a t : A c r o s s the n a t i o n a t t e m p t s a re b e i n g made t o mainstream h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n i n accordance w i t h the mandates o f the c o u r t s t h a t a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n be educated i n the " l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e e nvironment". U n f o r t u n a t e l y , " l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment" i s not always d e f i n e d the same by e d u c a t o r s as by c o u r t s (Page 533). Both the Conference o f E x e c u t i v e s o f American S c h o o l s f o r the 5 Deaf (CEASD, 1977) and the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f the Deaf ( G a r r e t s o n , 1977) have argued t h a t the n o t i o n of "the l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment" must r e f e r t o the range of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e as w e l l as to t h e i r l o c a t i o n and d e l i v e r y . F i g u r e 1 o f f e r s an example of the cascade system of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s (Deno, 1968). L e v e l one on the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the degree of s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e u t i l i z e d . By p l a c i n g s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n an environment w i t h o u t the needed involvement o f s p e c i a l s u pport s e r v i c e s p l a c e s the l e a s t amount of n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s upon t h a t i n d i v i d u a l . As each l e v e l p r o g r e s s e s the e d u c a t i o n a l environment becomes more r e s t r i c t i v e as i s w a r r a n t e d by i n d i v i d u a l h a n d i c a p s . L e v e l ten H o s p i t a l s and Treatment C e n t r e s - - i s d e s i g n e d to i l l u s t r a t e the most r e s t r i c t i v e k i n d o f environment. A p p r o p r i a t e placement of an i n d i v i d u a l would i n d i c a t e t h a t 24 hour c a r e and s u p e r v i s i o n would best s u i t h i s or her needs. Whi l e indeed on the s c a l e i t appears to be the most r e s t r i c t i v e o f e n v i r o n m e n t s , f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i t may be the l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment i n which he or she c o u l d f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y . A. The Segregated and I n t e g r a t e d S c h o o l s C o n t r o v e r s y The p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n has been d i v i d e d by c o n t r o v e r s y f o r the p a s t c e n t u r y . The b a s i c a rea of c o n f l i c t has been between those a d v o c a t i n g e d u c a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s and those a d v o c a t i n g e d u c a t i o n i n day s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s . German Hi s t o r y As e a r l y as 1815 i n B a v a r i a , Stephani d e c l a r e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the deaf were u s e l e s s l u x u r i e s and attempted t o 6 more s e v e r e * H o s p i t a l s and * * Treatment * * C e n t r e s * move o n l y as f a r as n e c c e s s a r y * H o s p i t a l S c h o o l s * * R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l s * * S p e c i a l Day S c h o o l s * l e s s * F u l l Time S p e c i a l C l a s s e s * r e t u r n as s e v e r e *************************************** soon as * P a r t Time S p e c i a l C l a s s e s * p o s s i b l e * Regular Classroom + Resource Room S e r v i c e * * Regular Classroom w i t h Supplementary * * Teaching or Treatment * * Regular Classroom w i t h C o n s u l t a t i o n * * Most Problems Handled i n Regular C l a s s r o o m * < Number o f Cases > F i g u r e 1. The cascade system o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e (Deno, 1968) 7 educate the deaf i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . In 1821, Graser e s t a b l i s h e d a B a v a r i a n based i n t e g r a t e d program f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l t u t o r s . Under G r a s e r ' s i n f l u e n c e , a l l t e a c h e r s were i n s t r u c t e d i n e d u c a t i o n of the deaf f o r the f u r t h e r i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n . W h i l e the p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n was one o f economy, m a i n s t r e a m i n g - - t h e American b r e a k t h r o u g h i n e d u c a t i o n o f the h e a r i n g impaired--was p r e d a t e d by about 150 y e a r s . In 1828, the German M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d : In the c o u r s e o f ten y e a r s i t w i l l e a s i l y be brought about t h a t i n a l l the p r o v i n c e s of the Kingdom p r o v i s i o n w i l l be made f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f a l l the u n f o r t u n a t e deaf and dumb (Gordon, 1885, Page 125). A r e p o r t by Gordon (1885) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the experiment was a f a i l u r e and t h a t the prophecy was never f u l f i l l e d . By 1858, M o r i t z H i l l c o n c l u d e d that the e d u c a t i o n o f the deaf i n an i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g was d e t r i m e n t a l t o the p r o g r e s s o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . The hope o f e d u c a t i n g the deaf i n a day s c h o o l environment w i t h h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n was abandoned. Gordon (1885) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1871 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% of the deaf i n P r u s s i a were educated i n i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , and 60% i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . By 1881, t h e r e were no deaf c h i l d r e n b e i n g educated i n the i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s . French Hi s t o r y Because the e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s f o r the deaf i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by French e d u c a t o r s , many Americans tended t o b e l i e v e t h a t e d u c a t i o n o f the deaf o r i g i n a t e d i n France. In a c t u a l i t y , o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s to e d u c a t e the deaf i n France were m o t i v a t e d by the work of S p a n i s h e d u c a t o r s , begun some 200 y e a r s e a r l i e r . 8 Gordon (1885) r e p o r t e d t h a t s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t s t o those attempted i n Germany i n v o l v i n g i n t e g r a t i o n were t r i e d throughout c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n Europe w i t h s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . C o n c e r n i n g the work of B l a n c h e t , Gordon (1885) found t h a t p r o p o s a l s f o r co-e d u c a t i o n o f the deaf and h e a r i n g began i n 1836, w i t h two i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s opening i n P a r i s i n 1848, and ten s c h o o l s o p e r a t i n g by 1850. The C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n 1855: T h i s system which r e c e i v e s deaf mutes i n t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d has the immense advantage of r e t a i n i n g them i n the bosoms of t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and o f p l a c i n g them i n s c h o o l s i n the m i d s t o f h e a r i n g p u p i l s who become t h e i r companions i n s t u d y and i n p l a y , and thus form t i e s - o f comradeship which can have upon t h e i r f u t u r e o n l y the h a p p i e s t i n f l u e n c e (Gordon, 1885, Page 132). By 1858, the French M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y endorsed the i n t e g r a t e d B l a n c h e t System, o n l y t o withdraw i t s support one year l a t e r . By 1882, an e s t i m a t e d 30 p u p i l s remained i n the i n t e g r a t e d system. American Hi s t o r y Because the f i r s t s c h o o l s f o r the deaf i n Europe and North America were r e s i d e n t i a l , i t has been m i s t a k e n l y assumed t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n o f the deaf w i t h h e a r i n g i s a new and i n n o v a t i v e phenomenon. L i t t l e known i s the f a c t t h a t some of the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were a c t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as day programs. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the New York School and the P e n n s y l v a n i a S c h o o l , f o r example, were begun as day programs ( B e s t , 1943). The f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l program i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s began i n 1817 w i t h the f o u n d i n g o f the H a r t f o r d School i n H a r t f o r d , C o n n e c t i c u t , the f o r e - r u n n e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l - t y p e s c h o o l s to f o l l o w . From 1817 w i t h the b e g i n n i n g o f the H a r t f o r d School to 9 1870 the growth of r e s i d e n t i a l programs v a s t l y expanded to f o r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s a c r o s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In the 1860's emerged a "new and i n n o v a t i v e " concept i n e d u c a t i n g the d e a f - - t h e day s c h o o l . As h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e s , t h i s i d e a was c e r t a i n l y not new but re-emerging i n y e t another g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g . The ex tab 1ishment of the f i r s t day s c h o o l came i n 1869 w i t h the Horace Mann School f o r the Deaf i n Boston, Massachuset t s . Canadi an Hi s t o r y In E a s t e r n Canada, Monseigneur Bourget o f the Community of C l e r i c s o f S t . V i a t o r founded a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l f o r deaf boys i n M o n t r e a l , Quebec, i n 1868. Three y e a r s l a t e r , a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l f o r deaf g i r l s i n the same c i t y was s t a r t e d by S i s t e r M a r i e de Bonsecours, Mother S u p e r i o r o f the S i s t e r s o f C h a r i t y o f P r o v i d e n c e . In 1856, a p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r the deaf was e s t a b l i s h e d i n H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , The P r o t e s t a n t I n s t i t u t e f o r the Deaf was opened by Joseph MacKay i n M o n t r e a l , Quebec i n 1869. In O n t a r i o , a s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d at B e l l e v i 1 l e i n 1870. With much e a s t e r n i n f l u e n c e t o the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , a sc h o o l f o r the deaf was b u i l t i n Brampton, Manitoba i n 1875, then moved t o Winnipeg i n 1889. The Vancouver School Board opened a c l a s s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n at the Mount P l e a s a n t School i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1915. C.H. Lawrence o f H a l i f a x , a l s o opened a t e m p o r a r i l y based s c h o o l f o r the deaf f i v e y e a r s l a t e r i n Vancouver, which was moved t o a permanent s i t e near J e r i c h o Beach, B.C. T h i s s c h o o l was o p e r a t e d by the B r i t i s h Columbian Government. 10 In Regina, Saskatchewan, the s c h o o l f o r the deaf was opened i n 1915 but c l o s e d one year l a t e r . I t was reopened i n 1932. In A l b e r t a , the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l f o r the deaf was opened i n Edmonton i n 1956 due t o long a g i t a t i o n by the C a l g a r y and Edmonton A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the Deaf. C l a r k e (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t : Thus i t can be seen t h a t a l t h o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r deaf c h i l d r e n have e x i s t e d i n Canada f o r a l i t t l e more than 120 y e a r s the growth has been somewhat s p o r a d i c . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the p a t t e r n o f development has been f o r the p r o v i n c i a l governments to support l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w i t h p e r m i s s i b l e day enrolment and f o r s c h o o l boards to e s t a b l i s h s m a l l e r but numerous day programs f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d at the l o c a l l e v e l (Page 5 ) . L e s l i e (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t : The m a j o r i t y o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n Canada ar e educated i n p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s f o r the deaf. These l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s a r e o f t e n r e f l e c t i v e o f the e d u c a t i o n a l placement o p t i o n s open to p a r e n t s . P r o v i n c i a l governments have p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y support f o r development o f a r e s i d e n t i a l treatment f a c i l i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , support money f o r i n d i v i d u a l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a c q u i r e and m a i n t a i n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l systems, w h i l e the p r o v i n c i a l f a c i l i t y p r e s e n t e d a c e n t r a l i z e d , s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . Hence, l a r g e numbers o f s t u d e n t s were p l a c e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l because i t p r e s e n t e d the most a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l program a v a i l a b l e . Placement o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t i n a s e g r e g a t e d , o f t e n i s o l a t e d , e d u c a t i o n a l environment and, f o r many, s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r f a m i l y u n i t s c r e a t e d some con c e r n s about the p s y c h o - s o c i a l development o f the i n d i v i d u a l (Page 17). With the b e g i n n i n g of the day s c h o o l programs i n North America and t h e i r subsequent development, the e x p a n s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l programs has been d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d . To d a t e , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e a re 472 day c l a s s e s and s c h o o l s v e r s u s s e v e n t y r e s i d e n t i a l programs (American Annals o f the Deaf, 1979). In Canada, the s t a t i s t i c s r e s t at f i f t y - f i v e day c l a s s e s 11 and s c h o o l s v e r s u s twelve r e s i d e n t i a l programs to d a t e . (American Annals o f the Deaf, 1979). The s l o g a n o f many day s c h o o l and day c l a s s programs today i s t h a t of " i n t e g r a t i o n " - - a r e l a t i v e term governed by s i t u a t i o n . A l a r g e v a r i e t y of c i r c u m s t a n c e s can le a d t o many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what i t means to i n t e g r a t e . For c e r t a i n groups o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n , i n t e g r a t i o n can mean s h a r i n g times such as r e c e s s and lunch p e r i o d s w i t h h e a r i n g p e e r s , w h i l e spending the remainder of the s c h o o l day i n s p e c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d c l a s s e s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . On a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , however, a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d may i n t e g r a t e i n t o a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g f o r non-academic s u b j e c t s such as home economics, woodshop, or p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , y e t remain s e g r e g a t e d i n c l a s s r o o m s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d f o r s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h more academic s u b j e c t s . On a h i g h e r l e v e l s t i l l , i n t e g r a t i o n can mean the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n d i v i d u a l spends the m a j o r i t y o f the academic and non-academic s c h o o l day i n v o l v e d i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , w i t h a r e s o u r c e room and r e s o u r c e teacher p r o v i d e d f o r s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e when needed. Complete i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s when the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g w i t h no s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from support s e r v i c e s . T h i s i s the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f i n t e g r a t i o n e f f o r t s , and the most d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . The su p p o r t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o the s t u d e n t p r i o r t o t h i s s t a g e a r e o f v i t a l i mportance t o s u c c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , b oth the s t u d e n t s ' own a b i l i t i e s and s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n , and p a r e n t a l involvment a re s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s . V a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o r the r a p i d growth of day c l a s s programs 12 i n N orth America are o u t l i n e d by B r i l l (1974) i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: The growth o f many day c l a s s programs throughout the c o u n t r y r e s u l t s from the d e s i r e s o f p a r e n t s t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i v e at home r a t h e r than away at a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l as w e l l as from t h e i r d e s i r e to have an e n t i r e l y o r a l program f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the program deemed best f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o h e a r i n g s o c i e t y (Page 261). A d d i t i o n a l reasons f o r t h i s e x p a n s i o n a r e : i . Day s c h o o l s have more urban l o c a t i o n s and a r e c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d . i i . Day s c h o o l s a re an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c i t y p u b l i c s c h o o l system, which are f r e e , n o n - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n as t o e n t r a n c e . i i i . Many o f the day s c h o o l s p r o v i d e bus s e r v i c e s , at ta x p a y e r s ' expense, to t r a n s p o r t p u p i l s t o and from s c h o o l s . Day s c h o o l s c e r t a i n l y appear t o o f f e r some r e a l advantages and these can be summarized as f o l l o w s : i . The c h i l d a t t e n d i n g a day s c h o o l does not become " i n s t i t u t i o n a 1 i z e d " . i i . The c h i l d i s a b l e to l i v e a normal h o m e - l i f e ; t o d e v e l o p a more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e , and t o e x p e r i e n c e the warmth and a f f e c t i o n o f f a m i l y l i f e . i i i . The day s c h o o l may be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h , or a p a r t o f , the s t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l system. Deaf c h i l d r e n come here t o f e e l t h e i r p l a c e i n the normal w o r l d . i v . A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c h o o l s and the p a r e n t s can be kept r e g a r d i n g the p r o g r e s s o f the c h i l d , p r o m o t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the home and the s c h o o l (Fauar,1933) . v. The c h i l d i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s p a r e n t s and s h o u l d 13 remain at home as do o t h e r c h i l d r e n . v i . There i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e g r a t e some o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the deaf c h i l d w i t h those of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ; i n f u t u r e l i f e he w i l l , a f t e r a l l , be l i v i n g i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d ( K i r k , 1972). I t would be m i s l e a d i n g , however to c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . They have a d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i s t o r y (Justman and Moskowitz, 1957) w i t h some advantages 1i s t ed be 1ow: i . The c h i l d comes under t r a i n e d s u p e r v i s i o n at a l l times. i i . The c h i l d i s h a p p i e r , l i v i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n o f the same type and b e i n g p a r t o f a group. i i i . The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s b e t t e r equipped f o r i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g than the day s c h o o l . i v . The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l may p r o v i d e the c h i l d w i t h a b e t t e r home than h i s own. v. The c h i l d may be o v e r p r o t e c t e d at home, but i n a d o r m i t o r y he has t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n and a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y . v i . In a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l w i t h more c h i l d r e n , c h i l d r e n can be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o age, a b i l i t y , and i n t e r e s t s i n a more e f f e c t i v e manner than i s done i n day s c h o o l s . v i i . Deaf p u p i l s become i n s p i r e d by the p r e s e n c e o f w e l l -e ducated deaf t e a c h e r s t o model. In the m a j o r i t y o f day s c h o o l programs, t h e r e a re no deaf t e a c h e r s . K a t z , M a t h i s and M e r i l l (1974) s t a t e d t h a t : N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s important f o r t h a t c h i l d t o be exposed to deaf t e a c h e r s , even i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l environment, f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : i . A deaf teacher understands the n a t u r e o f t h i s s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n b e t t e r than a h e a r i n g 14 p e r s o n , f o r he must cope w i t h i t d a i l y . i i . I t i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r a deaf c h i l d t o be exposed to a s u c c e s s f u l model, a deaf p e r s o n who has a c h e i v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , and i i i . Because of f r e e and easy communication, a deaf teacher and a deaf c h i l d can i d e n t i f y w i t h each o t h e r , p e r m i t t i n g the deaf teacher t o m o t i v a t e the c h i l d i n a more n a t u r a l and e f f e c t i v e way (Page 51). B r i l l (1978) c l a i m s : I f , as i s c l a i m e d , the major r o l e of a t e a c h e r i s t o se r v e as a model t h a t deaf p u p i l s may emulate, t h e r e are not many models i n the ma i n s t r e a m i n g programs. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e because i n any p a r t i c u l a r system the t e a c h e r s are s p r e a d over a number o f d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s (Page 142). Holcomb and C o c k e t t (1975) o u t l i n e d some pr o s and cons o f mai n s t r e a m i ng: PROS: i . There a r e many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f mainstreaming. One or more k i n d s can be found f o r many h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . i i . H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n must l i v e w i t h the w o r l d at l a r g e sooner or l a t e r . Why not teach the c h i l d r e n and g i v e them t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y w h i l e they a r e i n s c h o o l ? I f the s c h o o l s do n o t , who w i l l ? i i i . The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d has the same i n t e l l i g e n c e as the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . With the proper s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s and T o t a l Communication he s h o u l d have a good chance o f b e i n g mainstreamed s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many t h i n g s . i v . Today p e o p l e a r e more u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d no longer has t o make a l l o f the ad j u s t m e n t s as many h e a r i n g p e o p l e now know the language o f s i g n s and f i n g e r s p e l 1 i n g and many o t h e r s a r e w i l l i n g t o l e a r n i t . Many s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a now o f f e r the language o f s i g n s as an e l e c t i v e e i t h e r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r or f o r c r e d i t . People today know how t o communicate b e t t e r w i t h the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . v. The more exposure the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t has t o l e a r n i n g , the more l i k e l y he i s t o l e a r n . M a i n s t r e a m i n g can p r o v i d e the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d w i t h many o p p o r t u n i t i e s which he would o t h e r w i s e not have. 15 v i . The more h e a r i n g p e o p l e a re exposed t o the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d the more f r i e n d s the l a t t e r are l i k e l y t o have i n l a t e r l i f e . CONS: i . C l a s s e s f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n are too l a r g e . i i . The pace o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i s too f a s t . i i i . There i s not enough u n d e r s t a n d i n g and empathy f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . i v . The communication and language problems are too g r e a t Tor the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n t o overcome. v. There a re never enough s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s t o j u s t i f y m a i n s t r e a m i n g . v i . I t i s too e x p e n s i v e t o be done p r o p e r l y (Page 14). Bri 1 1 (1974) p o i n t s o u t : A major c r i t i c i s m o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s was t h a t e n r o l l m e n t i n a s c h o o l d i d not pr e p a r e the deaf c h i l d f o r l i f e i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d (Page 264). Thi s e s p e c i a l l y i s the b i g g e s t c r i t i c i s m o f s e g r e g a t i o n . Many e d u c a t o r s o f the deaf have e x p r e s s e d r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f mai n s t r e a m i n g because o f pa s t systems t h a t have " i n t e g r a t e d " deaf c h i l d r e n , but f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e them w i t h n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s ( B r i l l , 1975; Vernon, 1975; Vernon and P r i c k e t t , 1976). A l a c k o f s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m m o d i f i c a t i o n s , s o c i a 1-emotiona1 development, or s e n s i t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s t o the needs o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d account f o r the p a s t f a i l u r e o f ma i n s t r e a m i n g . I t i s o f v i t a l importance t o c o n s i d e r more a s p e c t s o f each i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d than s o l e l y academic. M a i n s t r e a m i n g s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e as an a p p r o p r i a t e form o f e d u c a t i o n f o r some h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n , but c e r t a i n l y not a l l . Program placement must be made c a r e f u l l y and 16 i n d i v i d u a l l y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , m a i n s t r e a m i n g has proven u n s u c c e s s f u l due to a l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e support s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e . Measures must be taken to a v o i d t h i s at a l l c o s t s . Should a system f a i l , i t i s the s t u d e n t who s u f f e r s as a r e s u l t . With a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t , system f a i l u r e need not o c c u r . R e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s , however, s h o u l d not be downgraded, or c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r to i n t e g r a t e d programs. They e x i s t as an a l t e r n a t e means of e d u c a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l s , and depend a l s o a g r e a t d e a l upon a p p r o p r i a t e and adequate support s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Whether to send a c h i l d t o a day s c h o o l or t o a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r the deaf depends upon many f a c t o r s . Should adequate p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t i n the community, a day s c h o o l may be the best s o l u t i o n . I f , however, t h e r e are few deaf c h i l d r e n i n the community and no f a c i l i t y t o educate them, a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l may p r o v i d e the best o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , r e a l i s t i c a l l y , the q u e s t i o n i s not whether day s c h o o l s a r e more e f f e c t i v e than r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , or v i c e v e r s a , but r a t h e r , what i s most b e n e f i c i a l f o r a p a r t i c u l a r community and i n d i v i d u a l . The d e c i s i o n i s one t h a t the p a r e n t s o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n must make. B. S e q r e q a t i o n and I n t e q r a t i o n i n B.C. S c h o o l s In r e c e n t y e a r s much c o n t r o v e r s y has a r i s e n c o n c e r n i n g the p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l systems throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. Most e d u c a t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have moved q u i c k l y towards the s e r v i c i n g o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n i n i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s . T h i s movement i s r e f l e c t e d i n T a b l e 1 which 17 d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s types o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n B.C. And t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. C l a r k e (1977) i n d i c a t e s t h a t : Of the s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r e l e m e n t a r y , 28 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d ; an a d d i t i o n a l 5.6 p e r c e n t were r e g i s t e r e d i n o t h e r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . In c o n t r a s t , o n l y 2.6 p e r c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g secondary s c h o o l were e n r o l l e d i n a home-room f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , w h i l e 9.8 p e r c e n t were r e g i s t e r e d i n o t h e r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . S l i g h t l y more than one t h i r d o f the s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d at J e r i c h o H i l l were e n r o l l e d i n an o f f -campus home-room (Page 12). 18 Tab le I Number and Pe r cen tage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Hea r i ng Impa i red S t uden t s by Type o f Homeroom w i t h i n School Type B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 1976-77 Schoo1 Type P r e -schoo1 Regu1ar TYPE OF HOMEROOM C l a s s f o r Off -Campus H e a r i n g J e r i c h o Impa i r ed H i l l f % f % 0 0.0 1 25.0 0 0.0 Other Speci a 1 C1 ass f % 3 75.0 T o t a l % o f T o t a l 100 Regu1ar e l emen - 236 66.3 100 28.1 0 0.0 t a r y Regu l a r s e c o n - 98 86.0 3 2.6 2 0.8 d a r y J e r i c h o H i l l 0 0.0 121 65.8 63 34.2 20 5.6 356 100 51.1 11 9.8 114 100 16.4 0 0.0 184 100 26.4 V.O.C 0 0.0 16 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 16 100 2.3 Other S p e c i a l 4 18.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 18 81.8 22 100 3.2 S c h o o l s At Home 3(0 .4%) M i s s i n g d a t a 0 (0.0%) ( C l a r k e , e t a l . , 1977 19 C. The Impact of Seqreqat i on and I n t e q r a t i o n on Se1f Concept I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o i l l u s t r a t e a case f o r the f a c t t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i l l have an impact upon s e l f - c o n c e p t development. I t i s more d i f f i c u l t , however, to p r e d i c t what k i n d of e f f e c t the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i l l produce. The move towards m a i n s t r e a m i n g and i n t e g r a t i o n r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t handicapped c h i l d r e n need to " n o r m a l i z e " t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r to e n s u r e adequate s e l f - c o n c e p t development. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e the s p e c i a l s c h o o l has more s t i g m a because of the n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f s o c i e t y toward the d i s a b l e d . Group i n t e g r a t i o n ( C l a s s e s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d ) has l e s s s t i g m a because the s p e c i a l c l a s s i s s i t u a t e d i n a normal s c h o o l and thus i s p e r c e i v e d more p o s i t i v e l y . I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m appears t o be the most d e s i r a b l e o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s because c h i l d r e n have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o take p a r t i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . S a i f a t y and K a t z (1976) s t a t e d t h a t : A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h one o f these s e t t i n g s i s b e l i e v e d to have a d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e on the s e l f concept of the p u p i l . The more p o s i t i v e the a t t i t u d e o f s o c i e t y to the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , the more p o s i t i v e the s e l f -concept of the c h i l d w i l l be (Page 438). These r e s u l t s provoked c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l debate c e n t e r e d around the i s s u e of whether i t i s b e t t e r to s e g r e g a t e c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s where they may be s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d by o t h e r handicapped p u p i l s or t o i n t e g r a t e the handicapped c h i l d w i t h normal p e e r s i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s where they tend to be s o c i a l l y r e j e c t e d . Proponents of the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n have argued t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h normal peers i s p r e f e r a b l e because m i l d l y handicapped y o u n g s t e r s w i l l , a f t e r a l l , have t o l i v e i n the mainstream of nonhandicapped s o c i e t y as a d u l t s . 2 0 On the o t h e r hand, s u p p o r t e r s o f the s p e c i a l c l a s s movement have contended that s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n impedes the handicapped c h i l d ' s development i n a t t a i n i n g a d a p t i v e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l adjustment i n a d u l t l i f e . Hence, i t has been h e l d t h a t s e g r e g a t e d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s p r o t e c t the m i l d l y handicapped c h i l d from the p o t e n t i a l l y damaging e f f e c t s of peer r e j e c t i o n . As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , some p e o p l e make a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l c a s e f o r the o p p o s i t e v i e w p o i n t t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t development w i l l be enhanced by a t t e n d i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . The argument e x i s t s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t s i n u n f a i r c o m p e t i t o n f o r the handicapped c h i l d w hich u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t s i n lowered s e l f esteem. A d d i t i o n a l arguments are t h a t : A. H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n the s e t t i n g , r e c e i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e s u c c e s s , and p r o f i t from l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . I f the st u d e n t passes a l l academic c o u r s e s but f e e l s i s o l a t e d and has no f r i e n d s i n c l a s s , then he or she i s not s u c c e s s f u l l y mainstreamed; and B. They l a c k language development, s p e e c h r e a d i n g s k i l l s , speech growth, and g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement which a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e and p r o f i t a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s e s f o r h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s ; w i t h o u t these s k i l l s , they a r e f a c e d w i t h problems o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n - - e d u c a t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l l y , and e m o t i o n a l l y i s o l a t e d or s e g r e g a t e d from t h e i r h e a r i n g c l a s s m a t e s . T h i s s t u d y has s i g n i f i c a n c e i n th a t i t i s an i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the impact o f d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s on 21 the s e l f concept of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s . I t may a l s o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g m a i n s t r e a m i n g or s e g r e g a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . I I . Statement of Problem The purpose of the s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s on the s e l f concept of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . The e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s were a. Regular c l a s s w i t h h e l p ; b. C l a s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l ; c. J e r i c h o H i l l off-campus; and d. J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a continuum from i n t e g r a t e d t o s e g r e g a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The s t u d y attempted t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e l f -concept o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ? I I I . Def i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e f i n i t i o n o f the t e r m i n o l o g y as a p p l i e d t o t h i s s t u d y : i . H e a r i n g Impairment - A g e n e r i c term i n d i c a t i n g a h e a r i n g d i s a b i l i t y r a n g i n g i n s e v e r i t y from m i l d t o p r o f o u n d ; i t i n c l u d e s the s u b s e t s of deaf and hard o f h e a r i n g . i i . P u p i l s - Those h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g e i t h e r day or r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . i i i . Age - The c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f the s t u d e n t as o f December 3 1 s t , 1978. P u p i l s chosen were between 12 and 18 year as of t h a t d a t e . NOTE: The age group was i m p o r t a n t as they were e n r o l l e d i n the grades where a l l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s were r e p r e s e n t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the grade was s e l e c t e d 22 t o i n s u r e t h a t they would have the n e c e s s a r y v o c a b u l a r y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l t o handle the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . i v . Age of onset - Age at which d e a f n e s s o c c u r s - -P r e l i n g u a l d e a f n e s s : Deafness p r e s e n t at b i r t h , or ( p r i o r t o age two) p r i o r t o the development of speech or language under age two. v. H e a r i n g Loss - H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s who have a h e a r i n g l o s s g r e a t e r t h a t 74 d e c i b e l s (dB) unaided. For each p u p i l , the average t h r e s h o l d , e x p r e s s e d i n dB, e q u a l s the a r i t h m e t i c mean o f the pure tone t h r e s h o l d s o b t a i n e d at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz f o r the b e t t e r e a r , u s i n g the American N a t i o n a l Standards I n s t i t u t e (ANSI) c r i t e r i a . v i . Gender - Male and female. v i i . Method o f Communication - P r i m a r y communication system used by each s t u d e n t , c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r o r a l or t o t a l communication (Ora1/Manua1). The e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : i . R e g u lar c l a s s w i t h h e l p ( I n t e g r a t e d ) - The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d i s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a r e g u l a r c l a s s w i t h the h e l p o f a te a c h e r o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . i i . C l a s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l ( I n s u l a t e d ) - The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d a t t e n d s a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g and i n t e g r a t e s i n t o non-academic c o u r s e s : i . e . B u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e , a r t , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , home economics, metal and wood shops, e t c . , w i t h a l l academic work o c c u r r i n g a p a r t form h e a r i n g p e e r s . f 23 i i i . J e r i c h o H i l l off-campus (Separated) - The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d a t t e n d s a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l , c o n t a c t w i t h n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n o c c u r r i n g at r e c e s s , l u n c h , and d u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . i v . J e r i c h o H i l l School (Segregated) - The h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d a t t e n d s c l a s s w i t h o t h e r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l f o r the deaf. 24 Chapter J_I SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE  I . Se1f-Concept Theory The a t t e n t i o n which the concept of s e l f has been g i v e n i n r e c e n t times has proven t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e . " P s y c h o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y alone have accounted f o r over 2000 p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s e l f " (Gorden and Gergen, 1968, Page 1). The s e l f has f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l c o n t r o l , economic b e h a v i o r , s o c i a l d e v i a n c e , p e r s o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , and p s y c h o t h e r a p y , t o name but a few. Concern w i t h the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s becoming more and more an a c c e p t a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach to the e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y . S e l f t h e o r i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i o l o g i s t s , began as long ago as Cooley i n 1902. They thought o f man as a c r e a t u r e o f h i s s o c i e t y . Mead (1934) i s perhaps the c l o s e s t t o b e i n g the " f a t h e r " o f s e l f t h e o r y . Mcleod (1947 ) s t a t e s : A f t e r a h a l f c e n t u r y o f n e g l e c t o f the s e l f by p s y c h o l o g y , i t i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n human b e h a v i o r (Pages 194-195). A c t u a l l y , James (1918) s t u d i e d the s e l f as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , as d i d Mead (1934) i n the 1930's. However, because of the i n f l u e n c e o f b e h a v i o r i s m on American p s y c h o l o g y , s t u d y o f the s e l f or s e l f - c o n c e p t was c o n s i d e r e d u n f a s h i o n a b l e u n t i l more r e c e n t t i m e s . The d e t e r m i n a n t s of e i t h e r a p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e c o n c e p t , a c c o r d i n g to James (1918), were achievement, human a s p i r a t i o n s , and v a l u e s . A p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s u l t e d from achievement of a s p i r a t i o n i n a v a l u e d area such as music, a r t , or a t h l e t i c s , or 25 more s i m p l y , the s e l f - c o n c e p t " i s d e t e r m i n e d by the r a t i o of our a c t u a l i t i e s to our supposed p o t e n t i a l i t i e s " (Page 15). James (1918) a l l o w e d f o r many a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s f o r s e 1 f - e v a 1 u a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a man's body, p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s , house, w i f e , f r i e n d s , r e p u t a t i o n , a n c e s t o r s , and c h i l d r e n . He a l l o w e d a l s o many " s e l f s " f o r the same i n d i v i d u a l , among them e x i s t i n g the " s o c i a l s e l f " . Mead (1934) c o n t a i n e d an e l a b o r a t i o n of what James (1918) termed the s o c i a l s e l f . He s t a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l i z e s the ideas and a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d by the key f i g u r e s of h i s l i f e . The i n d i v i d u a l t h e r e f o r e responds to h i m s e l f and d e v e l o p s h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h these a t t i t u d e s . He v a l u e s h i m s e l f as o t h e r s , who are s i g n i f i c a n t i n h i s l i f e , v a l u e him, and demeans h i m s e l f t o the e x t e n t t h a t they r e j e c t , igno_re, or demean him. Both Mead (1934) and James (1918) p r e s e n t e d major i n s i g h t s and g u i d e l i n e s as w e l l as g e n e r a l cogent f o r m u l a t i o n s of the s t u d y o f s e l f . S i n c e the 1940's the s e l f concept has become a most imp o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i n p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s . W y l i e (1961) wrote a s c h o l a r l y , c r i t i c a l volume t h a t was h e l p f u l i n i n t e g r a t i n g r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y s t a t i n g : . . A l l the t h e o r i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y which have been put f o r t h w i t h i n the l a s t two decades a s s i g n importance t o a phenomenal and/or nonphenomena1 s e l f -concept w i t h c o g n i t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s (Page 1) . S u l l i v a n ' s (1970) w r i t i n g s were an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the work done w i t h p a t i e n t s under t r e a t m e n t . H i s t h e o r y was somewhat o f an extended a n a l y s i s o f Mead's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r i g i n s of s e l f and the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the development o f 26 s e l f - c o n c e p t and persona 1 i t y . For S u l l i v a n (1947), the awareness of o t h e r p e o p l e was omnipresent and important i n d e t e r m i n i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t . P o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t was the r e s u l t of p r a i s e or d e g r a d a t i o n from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . A n x i e t y and avo i d a n c e were de f e n s e s a g a i n s t t h r e a t s t o p o s i t i v e s e l f -concept . Horney (1945 and 1950) e x p l a i n e d the development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t through i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s e s . Poor s e l f - c o n c e p t , a n x i e t y , and t h r e a t s and the means o f a v o i d i n g them r e s u l t from such s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s as d o m i n a t i o n , i n d i f f e r e n c e , l a c k o f r e s p e c t , disparagement, l a c k o f a d m i r a t i o n , l a c k o f warmth, i s o l a t i o n , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Horney, the i n d i v i d u a l forms an i d e a l s e l f - i m a g e t o s e r v e as a de f e n s e a g a i n s t a n x i e t y and t h r e a t and to b o l s t e r the s e l f - c o n c e p t . Another Neo-Freudian, Fromm (1941 and 1947) t h e o r i z e d on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s and development o f s e l f . But he s t r e s s e d the p o s s i b l e d e b i l i t a t i o n from s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . The s e l f t h e o r i s t , Rogers (1951), spoke of i d e a l s e l f and r e a l s e l f i n c o n g r u e n c i e s c a u s i n g a n x i e t i e s and c o n f l i c t s t o the i n d i v i d u a l . He d i d not t r e a t the o r i g i n s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t d i r e c t l y , but h i s c o n c e r n w i t h the s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s o f human b e h a v i o r has p r o v i d e d an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s e l f and has f a c i l i t a t e d the s t u d y of s e l f - c o n c e p t . There i s a consensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f the way i t i s measured, a good s e l f - c o n c e p t i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r i n d i c e s o f good adjustment. S t u d i e s r e viewed by McCandless ( 1967) r e v e a l e d f o r example, t h a t good s e l f - c o n c e p t s accompanied low a n x i e t y . To some degree f o r most s t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i o n o f 2 7 adjustment t o a n x i e t y , s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y q u a l i t i e s of the items i n b o t h types o f measure und o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p , as d i s c u s s e d above. The f o c u s of many s t u d i e s has been the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i m s e l f ( h i s s e 1 f - c o n c e p t ) i n r e l a t i o n to h i s b e h a v i o r . R e s u l t s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s tended to support the p o s i t i o n t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g b e h a v i o r . Woolner (1966) p o i n t e d out t h a t a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t ( l i k i n g one's s e l f ) tended to produce p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r such as a c c e p t i n g one's s e l f , making a p p r o p r i a t e a d j u s t m e n t s , and a c h i e v i n g i n s c h o o l ; w h i l e a n e g a t i v e s e l f -concept produced u n a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r such as u n c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s , under achievement, and maladjustment. C a r l s o n (1965) r e p o r t e d that sex d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l a t i o n s t o the s o c i a l s e l f and p e r s o n a l s e l f , i n c r e a s e w i t h age. There appeared, i n s i x t h grade, no d i f f e r e n c e between the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s e l f - c o n c e p t o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the boys and g i r l s o f C a r l s o n ' s s t u d y but by t w e l f t h g r a d e , the g i r l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d than the boys. However, C a r l s o n (1965) found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a c t u a l l e v e l o r s t a b i l i t y o f s e l f - e s t e e m o f boys and g i r l s . E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a person m a i n t a i n i n g a low s e l f - e s t e e m was l e s s c a p a b l e o f r e s i s t i n g p r e s s u r e s t o conform ( J a n i s , 1 9 5 4 ) and was l e s s a b l e to p e r c e i v e t h r e a t e n i n g s t i m u l i . They f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t a person p o s s e s s i n g h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m m a i n t a i n e d a f a i r l y c o n s t a n t image of h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s and of h i s d i s t i n c t n e s s as a person. Another major e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , Coopersmith (1967) i n d i c a t e d 2 8 t h a t : . . . Persons h i g h i n s e l f - e s t e e m a r e h a p p i e r and more e f f e c t i v e i n meeting environment demands than are persons w i t h low esteem (Page 19). In a l a t e r a r t i c l e , A v i l a (1970) noted t h a t s e l f -a c t u a l i z i n g p e o p l e saw themselves i n p o s i t i v e ways such as " l i k e d , wanted, a c c e p t a b l e , a b l e , d i g n i f i e d , and worthy" whereas inadequate persons saw themselves as . " u n i i k e d , unwanted, u n a c c e p t a b l e , u n a b l e , and the l i k e " (Page 400). In g e n e r a l , p e o p l e w i t h h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m were a l s o a c c e p t i n g o f o t h e r p e o p l e (McCandless, 1967). I t has a l s o been found that h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m e d p e o p l e o f a l l ages are more p o p u l a r than low s e l f - e s t e e m e d p e o p l e . However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r s and p o p u l a r i t y has not been c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e d . I t may be t h a t one a c t i v e l y seeks those of whose ac c e p t a n c e he i s not e n t i r e l y s u r e ; w h i l e those who accept one e a s i l y a re not so a s s i d u o u s l y counted and thus, perhaps, not the most p o p u l a r . There has been much r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and achievement. C o o p e r s m i t h (1959) r e p o r t e d t h a t o f f o u r groups t e s t e d , each was found t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n achievement, s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , i d e a l s e l f , and achievement m o t i v a t i o n , which a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d d i s t i n c t types o f s e l f esteem. Combs and Soper (1963) found t h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t s were p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e i r academic achievement i n f i r s t and second grade. Wattenberg and C l i f f o r d ' s (1964) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t a f f e c t e d r e a d i n g achievement more s i g n i f i c a n t l y than r e a d i n g achievement a f f e c t e d s e l f - c o n c e p t . R e n z a g l i a (1952) and Reeder (1955) examined 29 c o r r e l a t e s of s e l f - s t r u c t u r e and found t h a t a p o s i t i v e g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h academic achievement. Thomas (1962) i n d i c a t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r c o l lege g r ades. There have been, l i k e w i s e , many s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s o f s e 1 f - c o n c e p t s and f u n c t i o n i n g i n s c h o o l . J e r s e l d (1951), f o r example, demonstrated the v a l u e o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t i n making the e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s more v a l u a b l e . Reeder (1955) and Stevens (1956) found t h a t p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about the s e l f a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good academic achievement, and F i n k (1962) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t an inadequate s e l f - c o n c e p t i s r e l a t e d t o low academic achievement. Brookover e_t a l . (1964) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i f i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s o f a b i l i t y r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f academic a b i l i t y and per f o r m a n c e s , and C o l e (1968) found a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f - c o n c e p t and r e a d i n g achievement and between s e l f - c o n c e p t and mathematical achievement. The f o r m a t i o n o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s not a c c o m p l i s h e d i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t , as many s e l f - c o n c e p t and p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t s m a i n t a i n , i s the r e s u l t o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f any i n d i v i d u a l . S u l l i v a n (1947) s t a t e d t h a t the s e l f - c o n c e p t i n an i n d i v i d u a l i s the " r e s u l t o f the r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " (Page 139). Ausubel (1952) c l a i m e d t h a t the s e l f - c o n c e p t " a r i s e s w i t h i n an i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e t t i n g " i n which " f e e l i n g s about s e l f a r e e s t a b l i s h e d " (Page 142). Cammins and Fa g i n (1957) s t a t e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s u l t s from "the g i v e and ta k e of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s " and i s 30 "dependent upon the r o l e he and o t h e r s expect him to p l a y i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (Page 69) . Dinkmeyer (1965) e x p l a i n e d the s e l f - c o n c e p t as r e s u l t i n g from "the e v a l u a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s " and from "the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h i s g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e or r e j e c t i o n i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n " (Page 184). A d l e r (1924), Lecky (1945), Mas low (1943), Mead (1934), Rogers (1951), Snugg and Combs (1949) are among the t h e o r i s t s who a l s o e x p l a i n s e l f - c o n c e p t as a r i s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g from i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f s e l f -c oncept i n a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d , as f o r any o t h e r c h i l d , l i e s w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r s , and c o u n s e l l o r s . P a r e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , because they have the most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e and the c o n t i n u o u s p r i m a r y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r c h i l d , have t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f . The c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t depends d i r e c t l y upon the p a r e n t s ' l o v e , a c c e p t a n c e , r e j e c t i o n , d e n i a l , o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , or p o s i t v e or n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s the p a r e n t s have toward t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . Luker (1978) mentioned the work of S c h a e f e r , who i n v e s t i g a t e d p a r e n t i n g atmospheres and agreed t h a t : Where we f i n d p a r e n t s who g i v e l o v e and autonomy, the chances are t h a t the c h i l d r e n are g o i n g to be happy, o u t g o i n g , s u c c e s s f u l l y a g g r e s s i v e - - t h a t i s , w i t h i n our bounds of c o n f o r m i t y - - a n d by a l l odds, they are g o i n g t o have the b e s t s e l f - i m a g e (Page 14). A b e t t e r g r a s p and r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p a r e n t s , the r e m a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and a l l s o c i e t y i s c e r t a i n l y d e s i r e d . 31 As c h i l d r e n become more and more i n v o l v e d i n the w o r l d s u r r o u n d i n g them, they assume the t a s k of i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the w o r l d . Thus, s e l f -concept b e g i n s and c o n t i n u e s to d e v e l o p from the e a r l i e s t k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l has w i t h h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n v o l v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However most w r i t e r s go a l o n g w i t h A l l p o r t and r e c o g n i z e t h a t a s p e c i a l f e e l i n g i s i n v o l v e d when the phenomenon b e i n g s t u d i e d i s the s e l f and the m a j o r i t y d e s c r i b e i t as a f e e l i n g o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n which s e r v e s to u n i f y the p e r s o n a l i t y through p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e by e x t e n d i n g the c i r c l e o f o b j e c t s , p o s s e s s i o n s , i d e a l s , and groups t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l c a l l s h i s own. A l l p o r t (1955[a]) c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e s phases i n the development o f t h i s aspect o f the p e r s o n a l i t y r a n g i n g from the b a s i c " b o d i l y me" through " e g o - e x t e n s i o n " and f i n a l l y i n v o l v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - i m a g e . " S e l f " as a concept o n l y has meaning i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s and the importance o f t h i s has been emphasised by Rogers(1959) who a l t h o u g h p o s t u l a t i n g a s e l f a c t u a l i z i n g tendency s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e t o the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r i v i n g o f o t h e r w r i t e r s , a l s o argues f o r a movement away from b a s i c b o d i l y needs through a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n through communication and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Thus he argues t h a t p a r a l l e l w i t h the development of awareness o f s e l f , - t h e r e d e v e l o p s a need f o r p o s i t i v e r e g a r d from o t h e r s . Mead (1934) argued t h a t the s e l f - c o n c e p t d e v e l o p s when the c h i l d b e g i n s t o view h i m s e l f as an o b j e c t o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s . In t h i s view, the concept o f s e l f i s de v e l o p e d 32 through communication but does not precede communication. The c h i l d a c t s toward h i m s e l f as he sees o t h e r s a c t i n g toward him, and i n the f i r s t s t a g e s of t h i s " r o l e t a k i n g " , m e r e l y i m i t a t e s w i t h o u t any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r o l e s of o t h e r s . Kennedy (1976) wrote: A h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t e v o l v i n g d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of l i f e i s c r i t i c a l f o r the p s y c h o s o c i a l development of a l l c h i l d r e n . The f a m i l y , the neighborhood and e s p e c i a l l y the s c h o o l s attempt t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n t o f i n d t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n a group and t o a c q u i r e the t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r mature s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s — a c c e p t a n c e and empathy f o r o t h e r s (Page 3 ) . C r a i g (1965) s t a t e d t h a t : Because the deaf c h i l d i s d e p r i v e d of s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of s t i m u l a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n a l feed-back from h i s environment, he has l e s s d a t a a v a i l a b l e upon which to base h i s s e l f - i m a g e . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the non-deaf c h i l d , but n e i t h e r the e x i s t e n c e nor the d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e have been v e r i f i e d . To d a t e , e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been l a c k i n g on t h i s c r u c i a l f a c e t o f the deaf c h i l d ' s development (Page 456). V a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s o f deaf persons have found t h a t they tend t o l a g behind h e a r i n g p e o p l e i n s o c i a l m a t u r i t y and adjustment. Thus L e v i n e (1956) found not o n l y a l a g i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dynamics o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s but a l s o a tendency f o r deaf c h i l d r e n t o have a h i g h l y e g o c e n t r i c view o f l i f e . Thus a l t h o u g h v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e t o s e l f : the f a m i l y l i v e s i n a neighbourhood, b e l o n g s t o a s o c i a l c l a s s , u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s group and d e r i v e s from a n a t i o n a l background; c u t t i n g a c r o s s a l l o t h e r s o c i a l groups i n a deaf person's l i f e i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " d e a f / h e a r i n g " . Even today the deaf a r e seen as l e s s c a p a b l e than t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . Such a t t i t u d e s work 3 3 a g a i n s t the deaf p e r s o n i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i n employment, i n community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and most b a s i c a l l y i n i n d i v i d u a l s e l f -concept development (Sussman and S t e w a r t , 1971). The p r o c e s s by which "awareness" of one's own a t t r i b u t e s becomes t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s e l f - c o n c e p t s was d i s c u s s e d by G.H. Mead (1956). H i s t h e o r y anchored the development of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . "The s e l f , " he argued, " i s not i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t at b i r t h but a r i s e s i n the p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t d e v e l o p s i n a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t o f h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s o c i a l system as a whole and t o o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h a t s o c i a l system." Mead f u r t h e r argued t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s h i m s e l f not d i r e c t l y , but i n an i n d i r e c t f a s h i o n , from h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r s t a n d p o i n t o f the s o c i a l system i n which he f u n c t i o n s . In o t h e r words, the i n d i v i d u a l becomes an " o b j e c t " to h i m s e l f by t a k i n g the a t t i t u d e s o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s toward h i m s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g model s e r v e s t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s t h e o r y . My B e h a v i o r My S e l f - C o n c e p t O t h e r s ' s P e r c e p t i o n o f Me \ S My P e r c e p t i o n o f Others P e r c e p t i o n o f Me T h i s system i n v o l v e s the l e a r n i n g and t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n o f human u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t i n f e r s mental c a p a c i t y - - t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t s t h a t have become i n t e r n a l i z e d by an i n d i v i d u a l through past e x p e r i e n c e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t are l e g i o n . Erb (1971) has d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o " l e a r n i n g and t h i n k i n g " and has noted: 34 L e a r n i n g c o n s i s t s o f p e r s i s t e n t changes t h a t take p l a c e w i t h i n the p e r s o n as a r e s u l t of h i s exchange w i t h the environment. From b i r t h , and perhaps even b e f o r e b i r t h , a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r i s u n d e r g o i n g c o n s t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n and r e v i s i o n (Page 141).. The importance o f the c h i l d ' s s e l f - i m a g e as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g has a l s o been emphasized. Sears and Sherman (1964) wro t e : . . The s e l f - c o n c e p t r e p r e s e n t s expected s u c c e s s i n the c h i I d ' s endeavors t o meet these problems and t a s k s [of development]. The s e l f - c o n c e p t i s complex, made up of many f a c e t s , w i t h each f a c e t d i f f e r i n g i n importance--or reward v a l u e - - f r o m the o t h e r s . E x p e c t a n c i e s have been l e a r n e d f o r each f a c e t , so t h at the i n d i v i d u a l can p r e d i c t s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h b e h a v i o r t h a t p e r t a i n s t o a g i v e n f a c e t . These e x p e c t a n c i e s have been a c q u i r e d and can be changed a c c o r d i n g to p r i n c i p l e s of l e a r n i n g (Page 10) . A c h i l d ' s s p e c i a l needs s t a t u s i n v o l v e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i m s e l f , h i s d i s a b i l i t y , h i s f a m i l y , environment, and s o c i e t y ' s r e s o u r c e s . A c h i l d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r d i s a b i l i t y , such as d e a f n e s s , may be h e l p e d t o work around the d i s a b i l i t y so t h a t i t does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s development. There a r e s t i l l t e a c h e r s and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e w o r k i n g i n or w i t h Canadian s c h o o l s who c o n t i n u e t o t e l l p a r e n t s o f the deaf t h a t these c h i l d r e n can become the same as normal h e a r i n g p e o p l e . The f a c t remains t h a t these c h i l d r e n are deaf and i t cannot be o v e r l o o k e d t h a t d e a f n e s s i s a d i s a b i l i t y . They can become normal deaf a d u l t s - - a n d a few may i n t e g r a t e i n t o the h e a r i n g w o r l d - - i f g i v e n e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to grow and d e v e l o p as human b e i n g s . However, t h e i r d e a f n e s s can never be i g n o r e d or o v e r l o o k e d . I f d e a f n e s s i s t r e a t e d as a normal p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h a r a c t e r , then the o p p o r t u n i t y to grow up as a normal deaf a d u l t i s enhanced. Communication, the c e n t r a l problem of the deaf c h i l d , i s 35 a l s o a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s e l f -concept . B r i 1 1 (1974) argues t h a t : The proponents o f the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l take the p o s i t i o n t h a t s e g r e g a t i o n i s a matter of communication r a t h e r t h a t a matter o f p h y s i c a l placement (Page 264). I f a deaf c h i l d i s l i v i n g at home but has l i t t l e or no communication w i t h h i s f a m i l y even at the d i n i n g room t a b l e , and has l i t t l e communication w i t h h i s n e i g h b o u r s , he i s , i n a c t u a l i t y s e g r e g a t e d . I f i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , he has easy communication w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n w i t h whom he i s l i v i n g and w i t h the a d u l t s w i t h whom he comes i n t o c o n t a c t , he may be deemed an i n t e g r a t e d member o f th a t s o c i e t y . B r i l l (1974) s t a t e d t h a t : More o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems t h a t r e s u l t from s e g r e g a t i o n may oc c u r t o a c h i l d who i s l i v i n g at home but i s not a s s i m i l a t e d by h i s s o c i e t y than w i l l occur t o a c h i l d who i s l i v i n g away from home but i n a s o c i e t y i n which he i s a c c e p t e d (Page 265). Schwartz, Ross, and Houchins (1975) p o i n t e d o u t : Teachers o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d have s u s p e c t e d that communication a b i l i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d (most o f t e n n e g a t i v e l y ) t o the deaf s e l f - c o n c e p t as the deaf p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d i s one o f the most d i f f i c u l t and d e s i r e d achievements (Page 572) . I f the p a r e n t s have e s t a b l i s h e d an e f f e c t i v e communication w i t h t h e i r deaf c h i l d at an e a r l y age, t h i s would be a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the c h i l d ' s development. Bauman and Yoder (1966) and Mykelbust (1969) contend t h a t p a r t i a l h e a r i n g l o s s can a f f e c t the s e l f - c o n c e p t more d r a s t i c a l l y than d e a f n e s s because b e i n g so c l o s e t o normal makes i t more d i f f i c u l t t o accept the d i s a b i 1 i t y . As i s o f t e n the case 36 w i t h the hard o f . h e a r i n g , the d e f e c t may go v i r t u a l l y u n d e t e c t e d i n many s i t u a t i o n s . H e a r i n g p e e r s may r e a l i z e t h a t something appears " d i f f e r e n t " about a hard o f h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l w i t h o u t b e i n g c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f the problem. T h i s l a c k of knowledge by h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , can r e s u l t i n f e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n and s e l f - d o u b t , r e s u l t i n g i n a low s e 1 f - c o n c e p t . The hard o f h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l i s o f t e n caught between two w o r l d s ; h e a r i n g too w e l l to f u n c t i o n c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h the de a f , y e t not h e a r i n g w e l l enough to f u n c t i o n w i t h the h e a r i n g w i t h o u t s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . I t seems apparent t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r a c t i o n between the s e l f - c o n c e p t and the f l o w o f e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g and l e a r n i n g at s c h o o l . One o f the major i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g e d u c a t i o n today, t h e r e f o r e , would appear t o be the d e t e r m i n a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n , from a l l segments o f our p o p u l a t i o n , a c q u i r e a t t i t u d e s o f s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e w h i c h a re a c c u r a t e l y founded on f e e l i n g s o f competency i n some a r e a . G o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r low-income c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t a r e a s have been proposed by Landers (1964), among o t h e r s . These g o a l s i n g e n e r a l emphasize the importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g the p u p i l ' s s e l f - i m a g e as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g and i n c l u d e , among o t h e r g o a l s (1) the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h i l d r e n and the s c h o o l , (2) the improvement o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g and l e v e l o f achievement, and (3) the i n c u l c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s , h a b i t s , i n t e r e s t s , and v a l u e s which make f o r p r o g r e s s . "A p u p i l ' s s e l f -image has t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g , as w e l l as the i n f l u e n c e o f emotions, a t t i t u d e s , and c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 37 h e l d by members of a s o c i e t y f o r them" (La n d e r s , 1964, Page 330). Many t h e o r i s t s o f v a r y i n g s c h o o l s of thought, f e e l t h a t the concept one has o f s e l f i n f l u e n c e s e v e r y a c t i o n . I t a l s o r e f l e c t s the p o s i t i o n taken by A11 p o r t (1955 [b]) t h a t " a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s [which are] commonly a s c r i b e d to s e l f or ego must be a d m i t t e d as d a t a i n the s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y of p e r s o n a l i t y " (Page 55), and the p o s i t i o n taken by P e r k i n s (1958), who suggests t h a t the s e l f - c o n c e p t phenomenon can s e r v e e d u c a t i o n i n another way--"as a v i t a l and i m p o r t a n t aspect of l e a r n i n g and development which the s c h o o l through i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s seeks t o promote and f o s t e r i n e v e r y c h i l d " (Pages 203-204). For those who share such c o n v i c t i o n s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the concept o f s e l f , as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t which e n a b l e s t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l o r s , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r s t o a c h i e v e deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the b e h a v i o r and development of c h i l d r e n , become v e r y i m p o r t a n t . The importance o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on the development of s e l f - c o n c e p t has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . The c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g e d u c a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Is i t . ever p o s s i b l e to g i v e handicapped c h i l d r e n who spend most of t h e i r young l i v e s i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , where they mix m a i n l y w i t h c h i l d r e n who have s i m i l a r h a n d i c a p s , the range o f e x p e r i e n c e which w i l l e n a b l e them, both as c h i l d r e n and l a t e r as a d u l t s , t o l i v e s a t i s f y i n g l i v e s i n the o r d i n a r y w o r l d ? Or, t o put the q u e s t i o n the o t h e r way: Is i t p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e i n o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s the s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s t h a t handicapped c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e w h i l e at the same time e n s u r i n g t h a t they mix s o c i a l l y and i n s c h o o l w i t h the o r d i n a r y c h i l d r e n from t h e i r neighbourhood? ( T i z a r d , 1971, Foreward). In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e can be no hard and f a s t r u l e as to 38 which e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s most b e n e f i c i a l , or c o n d u c i v e , t o the development of a h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t f o r a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . An o v e r a l l consensus o f l i t e r a t u r e from the v a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s of s o c i o l o g i s t s - - C o o l e y (1902), Mead (1934), MacLeod (1947), p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t s - - W y 1 i e (1961), or ne o - F r e u d i a n s Horney (1935-50), and Fromm (1941-47) i n d i c a t e t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of how i t i s measured, a good s e l f - c o n c e p t i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r i n d i c e s of good judgement. Other v a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s such as C r a i g (1965), B r i l l (1974), and Kennedy (1976) w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d i e s of the deaf support t h i s consensus a l s o . A h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h environment, f a m i l y , p e e r s , and how w e l l he i s a c c e p t e d . There have been s u c c e s s e s , as w e l l as f a i l u r e s , i n both s e p a r a t e and i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s e t t i n g s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e r e can be no s i n g l e f a c t o r t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s . As each h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d l e a r n e r i s an i n d i v i d u a l , so i s the s i t u a t i o n from w h i c h each l e a r n e r comes, and t o t r y to e s t a b l i s h a s i n g l e type of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , t o f i t a l l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s , would be a g r o s s i n j u s t i c e t o them. I t i s w i t h c a r e f u l judgement t h a t p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s a l i k e must weigh the e n t i r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g f o r a c h i l d , b e f o r e d e c i d i n g which w i l l best s u i t h i s needs as a human b e i n g . Even then, c l o s e f o l l o w - u p i s i n d i c a t e d to make s u r e t h a t t h i s c o n t i n u e s t o remain the environment b e s t s u i t e d t o h i s needs. B. S e l f - C o n c e p t Research S t u d i e s R e l a t e d t o Deafness In t h i s s e c t i o n , the auth o r r e v i e w e d s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e l a t i v e t o the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d 39 c h i l d r e n i n the v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 1. The purpose was to d i r e c t the r e s u l t s o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n t h e s e areas toward u n c o v e r i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r use t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s w o r k i n g w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s i n v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . C o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e appears to e x i s t i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on the r e l a t i v e s e 1 f - c o n c e p t s o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l set t i ngs. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s support the i d e a o f s e g r e g a t i o n . C r a i g (1965) found t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d deaf c h i l d r e n had h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m than a group who were not i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . Van den Horst (1971) compared groups of hard o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n who were f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o normal s c h o o l s w i t h s i m i l a r c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s . The groups were matched f o r I.Q., age, sex, degree and n a t u r e o f l o s s , and h e a r i n g a i d use. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h the i n t e g r a t e d group performed b e t t e r on a v e r b a l achievement t e s t , the c h i l d r e n i n the s p e c i a l s c h o o l appeared to be b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . Dale (1972) found t h a t c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s r a r e l y d e v e l o p e d between i n t e g r a t e d hard o f h e a r i n g and normal c h i l d r e n . Shears and Jensema (1969) found t h a t i n t e g r a t e d hard o f h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s f e l t f r u s t r a t e d w i t h and r e s e n t f u l of t h e i r s t a t u s i n the c l a s s , w h i l e s e g r e g a t e d s t u d e n t s e v i d e n c e d good s o c i a l adjustment and peer r e l a t i o n s . A number o f s t u d i e s showed t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s d i d not p e r f o r m at the l e v e l o f t h e i r h e a r i n g p eers ( F i s h e r , 19.71; Vanden Berg, 1971; P e t e r s o n , 1971; Peckham, S c h e r i d a n and B u l t e r , 1972). 40 S e v e r a l o t h e r s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n may have an adverse e f f e c t on mental h e a l t h (Dale,1972; Shears and Jensema, 1969; P e t e r s o n , 1971; C r a i g , 1965). There i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e on how w e l l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y succeed i n i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s . Along w i t h concerns about s o c i a l adjustment i s the i s s u e of s e l f esteem. I t has been argued t h a t i n t e g r a t e d c h i l d r e n w i l l have lower s e l f - e s t e e m because they are comparing themselves t o normal c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a t t o o t h e r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . Apart from these o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x p e r i m e n t a l judgements, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f a more s c i e n t i f i c n a t u r e have been conducted. Force (1956) found t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n were not as w e l l a c c e p t e d as normal c h i l d r e n i n i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s r o o m s at the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . Those who were a c c e p t e d m a n i f e s t e d many s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s ; o f those not a c c e p t e d , none had enough of t h e s e p o s i t i v e a s s e t s t o c o m p l e t e l y o f f s e t the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f b e i n g l a b e l l e d handicapped by t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s . The f i n d i n g s o f E l s e r (1959) a l s o s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n are not as w e l l a c c e p t e d as normal c h i l d r e n i n i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s r o o m s . P e r r y (1965) d i s c o v e r e d that h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n , as a group, seem l e s s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d than normal h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n normal c l a s s e s . The impact o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g upon s o c i a l development and adjustment o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n has r e c e i v e d o n l y moderate e m p i r i c a l emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( E l s e r , 1 9 5 9 ; F r i c k , 1973; Kennedy, N o r t h c o t t , McCauley, and W i l l i a m s , 1976; 41 B l o o d , B l o o d , and Danhauer,1977). H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n have been found to be r e t a r d e d s o c i a l l y , and t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e that s o c i a l r e t a r d a t i o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h the degree o f s e g r e g a t i o n from r e g u l a r l i f e ( Q u a r r i n g t o n and Solomon, 1975). R i s t e r (1975) however, found that 50% o f a group of s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n who were s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d d i d not appear t o ' have s o c i a l development d e l a y s . T e l f o r d and Sawrey (1967) found, i n t h e i r s t u d y comparing h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a r e g u l a r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , t h a t w h i l e the c h i l d r e n i n the i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l had h i g h e r s c h o o l achievement, they a l s o had more adjustment problems. R e c e n t l y , S a r f a t y and K a t z (1978) s t u d i e d t h r e e groups o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . They found t h a t the p u p i l s i n the two i n t e g r a t i v e s c h o o l s e t t i n g s as a group and i n d i v i d u a l l y , had h i g h e r s e l f - c o n c e p t s than the p u p i l s i n the s p e c i a l s c h o o l . No d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n the adjustment p r o f i l e s o f the p u p i l s i n a l l t h r e e s e t t i n g s . Kennedy and B u r i n i n k s (1974) found t h a t hard o f h e a r i n g and deaf c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y had h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n the group than n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s an unusual r e s u l t , even more so because i t i s u s u a l l y found t h a t a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n tend t o be somewhat s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d (Shears and Jensema, 1979; Lapp, 1957; B l a t t , 1958; John s t o n , 1962). There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t m i l d l y handicapped y o u n g s t e r s have r e l a t i v e l y lower s e l f - e s t e e m . Low s e l f - c o n c e p t has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low i n t e l l e c t u a l 42 f u n c t i o n i n g (Macmi11 an , 1977). Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s Sheare's (1978) f i n d i n g t h a t peer acceptance or r e j e c t i o n e x e r t s a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on handicapped c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - e s t e e m . In h i s sample, p u p i l s who were r e j e c t e d by peers a l s o r e v e a l e d lower measures of s e l f -c o n c e p t . Academic f a i l u r e has been found t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h lower measures o f s e l f - e s t e e m (Lumpkin, 1959; Bodwin, 1959). P e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s such as becoming e m o t i o n a l when f r u s t r a t e d , g i v i n g up on t a s k s p r e m a t u r e l y , e v a d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f a t i g u e , d e p r e s s i o n , and a n x i e t y were a l l found by M c l n t i r e and Drummond (1977) to be s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h measures o f s e l f - c o n c e p t i n c h i l d r e n . G e n e r a l l y the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i s v e r y d i s a p p o i n t i n g when s e e k i n g support f o r a f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on s e l f - c o n c e p t s o f handicapped p u p i l s as a f u n c t i o n o f c l a s s placement (e . g . , r e g u l a r c l a s s , s p e c i a l c l a s s , r e s o u r c e room). For example, C a r r o l (1967) r e p o r t e d t h a t e d u c a b l e r e t a r d e d p u p i l s i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s were more s e l f - d e r o g a t o r y than r e t a r d e d p u p i l s who were p a r t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . However, H o e l t k e (1967) and Schurr and Brookover (1967) found t h a t r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s had b e t t e r s e l f - c o n c e p t s than r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . On the o t h e r hand, K n i g h t (1967) and Bacher (1965) found no d i f f e r e n c e s as a f u n c t i o n o f c l a s s placement. I I I . S e l f - C o n c e p t Measurements I f m a i n s t r e a m i n g e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d , one might a n t i c i p a t e that the c h i l d may f e e l b e t t e r about h i m s e l f ("I am a normal s t u d e n t " ) or t h a t he may d e v a l u e h i m s e l f as a 43 r e s u l t o f b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d c o n s t a n t l y by peers who are more a b l e than he. In e i t h e r c a s e , the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h , or the e x t e n t to which he i s " w e l l - a d j u s t e d " p e r s o n a l l y , w i l l be a f f e c t e d . S h a v e l s o n , Hubner, and S t a n t o n (1976) c o n t a i n e d an a n a l y s i s of the major s c a l e s a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring s e 1 f - c o n c e p t . These s c a l e s were of unknown v a l i d i t y f o r handicapped p o p u l a t i o n s . The language and v o c a b u l a r y demands i n t r o d u c e d b i a s or e r r o r i n t o the d a t a . Moreover, the r e t a r d e d were known t o g i v e more s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e answers than c h i l d r e n o f average i n t e l l i g e n c e ( C r a n d a l l , C r a n d a l l , and K a t k o v s k y , 1965; Jones, 1976), which c o n t r i b u t e d a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r t o the d a t a when c h i l d r e n (assuming they comprehended what the q u e s t i o n asked) g i v e an answer they thought s h o u l d be g i v e n i n s t e a d o f the answer t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r a c t u a l f e e l i n g s . B r i e f l y , c o n s i d e r the p o i n t s r a i s e d by Cohen and DeYoung (1973) as major arguments i n e d u c a t i o n c a s e s : a) t e s t s used to measure i n t e l 1 i g e n c e a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e as they do not a c c u r a t e l y measure l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s o f the p l a i n t i f f s ; b) u n l e s s the t e s t e r i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the c u l t u r a l background and language of the c h i l d , he f u n c t i o n s i n c o m p e t e n t l y ; c) p a r e n t s have not been informed and i n v o l v e d i n the placement p r o c e s s ; d) the s p e c i a l c l a s s i s i nadequate and f a i l s t o d e v e l o p adequate e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s ; and e) placement and l a b e l i n g do i r r e p a r a b l e p e r s o n a l harm. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s i n deaf p o p u l a t i o n s were most d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t owing to a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the adequacy or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of measurement 44 i n s t r u m e n t s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d groups. G a r r i s o n , Tesch, and DeCaro (1978) i n d i c a t e t h a t : A l t h o u g h e x p e r i e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e a f n e s s have been p r e d i c t e d by v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t o have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on p e r s o n a l i t y development i n g e n e r a l and s e l f - c o n c e p t i n p a r t i c u l a r , attempts t o measure such e f f e c t s have employed d i f f e r e n t t e s t s and produced i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s (Page 968). The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e used by B l a n t o n and N u n n a l l y (1964) i n d i c a t e d t h a t deaf a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e d themselves more n e g a t i v e l y than d i d h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , a s t u d y o f deaf a d u l t s u s i n g the Tennessee S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e showed them to have a g e n e r a l l y lower l e v e l o f s e l f - r e g a r d (Sussman, 1973). C o n v e r s e l y , Brunschwig (1936), u s i n g a s e l f -r e p o r t i n v e n t o r y , found h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s to have a more p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e than d i d a group of norma 1-hearing c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , L e v i n e (1956) i n t e r p r e t e d the r e s u l t s o f a Rorschach assessment o f deaf a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s as showing p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r i c t i o n , which was a t t r i b u t e d t o l i m i t e d language development" a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e a f n e s s . S u p p o r t i n g the above p o s i t i o n , Lewis (1968) found t h a t teacher r a t i n g s o f p e r s o n a l i t y m a t u r a t i o n o f deaf s t u d e n t s were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the s t u d e n t s ' s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . Many o f the t e s t s used w i t h deaf respondents were d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r h e a r i n g p e r s o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they p o s s e s s both language and s i t u a t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t i e s l y i n g o u t s i d e the range o f a b i l i t y and e x p e r i e n c e o f the deaf i n d i v i d u a l . With few e x c e p t i o n s , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s used w i t h the deaf have been s u b j e c t e d t o so many c r i t i c i s m s t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s appear f r e q u e n t l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l 45 e v a l u a t i o n of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d persons have been f r e q u e n t l y noted ( L e v i n e , 1960; Vernon, 1967 and 1968; My k l e b u s t , 1960) and appear t o be r e l a t e d t o two main f a c t o r s which a re 1) f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p r o c e d u r e and format of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g and 2) the language l e v e l o f the t e s t items. Some accommodations to these two problems have been made i n the a r e a s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and academic achievement t e s t i n g , but the area o f p e r s o n a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n remains an e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t one f o r workers w i t h the deaf. Most s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s are o f v e r y l i m i t e d v a l u e because o f a l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e n o r m a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s o f deaf p e r s o n s a g a i n s t which to compare the i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g e v a l u a t e d . S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow (1972) s t a t e d t h a t : The, n a t u r e o f the deaf c h i l d ' s s e l f - i m a g e , and the r e l a t i o n o f the development o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f language, a re o f g r e a t importance t o those i n t e r e s t e d i n bo t h t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f d e a f n e s s (Page 113). Language, as i t r e l a t e s t o the development o f the s e l f , i s c e n t r a l t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n e l a b o r a t e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f Mead (1934) and Coo l e y (1902). T h i s p o s i t i o n l a t e r was e l a b o r a t e d i n t o what i s now c a l l e d the s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach to s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n , or s i m p l y the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach ( e . g . , Gordon and Gergen, 1968; Manis and M e l t z e r , 1972). G a r r i s o n and Tesch (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t : A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , the development of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the s e l f i s dependent e n t i r e l y upon one's e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r s , which p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form o f feedback and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s e l f (Page 458). Language i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e s s e n t i a l element i n the 46 s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s and i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e , which are both n e c e s s a r y f o r the development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t (Mead, 1934). As such, Myklebust (1960) argued that d e a f n e s s imposes on e x p e r i e n c e by l i m i t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n and 1 i n g u i s t i c feedback from the s o c i a l environment, thus a f f e c t i n g the development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t . S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow ( 1972) s t a t e d t h a t : The s e l f can become an o b j e c t to i t s e l f by means of the m a n i p u l a t i o n of symbols, t h a t i s , . t h r o u g h the use of language (Page 133). Research e f f o r t s towards d e f i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y o f the deaf c h i l d have been hampered by the language handicap i t s e l f . Test v a l i d i t y i s s e v e r e l y c h a l l e n g e d when the language o f the t e s t becomes as much or more of an i s s u e than the t a s k t o be t e s t e d . Based on r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s o f Green and Shepherd (1975) which showed deaf c h i l d r e n t o have a r e s t r i c t e d s e m a n t i c system i n c o m parison to h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , i t appeared t h a t the d i v e r s i t y o f f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d i n assessment of s e l f - c o n c e p t o f deaf persons may have r e s u l t e d i n p a r t from measurement e r r o r due t o the l i n g u i s t i c l i m i t a t i o n s m a n i f e s t e d i n deaf p o p u l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h Vegely and E l l i o t t (1968) c o n c l u d e d t h a t the poor s c o r e s of deaf c h i l d r e n on a s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d as an a r t i f a c t o f the t e s t , Rudner (1978) i d e n t i f i e d s i x l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s which may have b i a s e d t e s t items a g a i n s t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d examinees. A c c o r d i n g t o L e v i n e (1960), the deaf c h i l d may tend t o a t t r i b u t e v e r y l i t e r a l meanings t o words t h e r e b y h a v i n g 47 d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r more a b s t r a c t c o n n o t a t i o n s . The v o c a b u l a r y , or more b r o a d l y , the language t a u g h t , might w e l l be examined and a s s e s s e d f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n of items and c o n c e p t s p e r t i n e n t to f a c i l i t a t i n g more p r e c i s e communication i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Dependence of s e l f - c o n c e p t upon language development s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s aspect of the deaf c h i I d ' s e d u c a t i o n needs g r e a t e r s t r e s s . R e c e n t l y , G a r r i s o n , Tesch, and DeCaro (1978) • found t h a t deaf s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d h i g h e r on a t e s t o f r e a d i n g comprehension o b t a i n e d more p o s i t i v e s c o r e s on the Tennessee S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e (TSCS) than d i d s t u d e n t s who were lower i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . Subsequent i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 30 members o f the s t u d y sample r e v e a l e d t h a t many of the deaf s t u d e n t s had i n t e r p r e t e d t e s t s t i m u l i p e c u l i a r l y , thus a f f e c t i n g t h e i r s c o r e s on the TSCS i n a n e g a t i v e manner. I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the low l e v e l s of s e l f - e s t e e m i n d i c a t e d by s c o r e s on the TSCS r e f l e c t e d l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t e s t items i n t h e i r w r i t t e n form. Given the v a r i e t y o f measures used and the range o f f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t l e v e l s among the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , i t was u n c l e a r whether the deaf i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n or i f d i s p a r i t i e s i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d an a r t i f a c t o f the measurement p r o c e s s . 4 8 Chapter 111  Methodology I . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n A. S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y The Coopersmith (1967) S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y was used t o measure s e l f - e s t e e m ( r e f e r t o Appendix A ) . T h i s measure was chosen i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C a l i f o r n i a School f o r the Deaf at B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . I t must be noted that the Coopersmith was recommended as the bes t a v a i l a b l e i n v e n t o r y o f s e l f - e s t e e m , but was s t i l l not e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . As the Coopersmith was d e s i g n e d f o r h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l o f the t e s t was a l s o d e s i g n e d f o r the h e a r i n g . In o r d e r t o make the Coopersmith more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r a deaf p o p u l a t i o n , c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c components needed t o be adapted. Without the n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n s , many p a r t s o f the Coopersmith I n v e n t o r y might have proven to be too d i f f i c u l t f o r the s t u d e n t s t o un d e r s t a n d from a l i n g u i s t i c s t a n d p o i n t . As the g o a l f o r the Coopersmith i s t o e v a l u a t e s e l f - c o n c e p t and not l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t y , had the t e s t been l e f t unchanged the t e s t r e s u l t s would be c o n s i d e r e d i n v a l i d . By a d m i n i s t e r i n g an a l t e r e d language a p p r o p r i a t e i n v e n t o r y , i t i s hoped that a more v a l i d t e s t i n g o c c u r r e d . Hence, a l e t t e r (Appendix B) was sent t o v a r i o u s well-known p r o f e s s o r s , who had e x p e r t i s e i n r e s e a r c h of d e a f n e s s i n N o r t h America. I n d i v i d u a l r e sponses by the p r o f e s s o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a) the i s s u e o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t and how t o measure i t , e s p e c i a l l y i n c h i l d r e n proposes a c o n v o l u t e d and c o n f u s i n g problem; b) pess i m i s m e x i s t e d about r e s e a r c h endeavors which 4 9 I r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y upon the use of paper and p e n c i l s e l f - c o n c e p t assessment t e c h n i q u e s ; c) a s s i s t a n c e to the author i n r e g a r d t o s e l f - c o n c e p t t e s t s f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c o u l d not be o f f e r e d due to a l a c k o f r e f e r e n c e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the a u t h o r ' s r e s e a r c h t o p i c ; or e) h a v i n g had no e x p e r i e n c e i n the a r e a of s e l f - c o n c e p t t e s t i n g w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , no p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o f f e r e d . Coopersmith (1967) d e f i n e s s e l f - e s t e e m i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: By s e l f - e s t e e m we r e f e r to the e v a l u a t i o n which the i n d i v i d u a l makes and c u s t o m a r i l y m a i n t a i n s w i t h r e g a r d to h i m s e l f . I t e x p r e s s e s an a t t i t u d e o f a p p r o v a l or d i s a p p r o v a l , and i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t t o which an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f to be c a p a b l e , s i g n i f i c a n t , s u c c e s s f u l , and worthy (Pages 4-5). The S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y was c o n s t r u c t e d on the b a s i s o f items s e l e c t e d from the Rogers and Dymond s c a l e (1945) which were reworded f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n o f 8 t o 12 y e a r s o l d . I t c o n s i s t s o f f i f t y - e i g h t iterns t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the f i v e p a r t s as f o l l o w s : G e n e ral S e l f ( t w e n t y - s i x i t e m s ) , S o c i a l S e l f - P e e r s ( e i g h t i t e m s ) , Home-Parents ( e i g h t i t e m s ) , L i e s c a l e ( e i g h t i t e m s ) , and School-Academic ( e i g h t i t e m s ) . The p a r t s need not be s c o r e d s e p a r a t e l y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the L i e S c a l e . Each i t e m checked i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , i . e . , an i t e m d e s i g n a t i n g h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m checked i n the " L i k e Me" column or an item d e s i g n a t i n g low s e l f - e s t e e m checked i n the " U n l i k e Me" column was a s s i g n e d one p o i n t . J a n i c e Booth, a P o s t - G r a d u a t e ( d o c t o r a l ) s t u d e n t i n r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, u s i n g the Spache and F r y formulae c a l c u l a t e d the average r e a d i n g l e v e l o f the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y at grade 3.5 t o 3.8. F u r t h 50 (1966) showed t h a t the average deaf student r a r e l y a c h i e v e d a r e a d i n g l e v e l beyond t h a t o f the f i f t h g r ade. Other s t u d i e s ( S t e l l e , 1941; Babbidge, 1965; Denton, 1966; McClure, 1966; Vernon and Koh, 1970; Moores,1976) support F u r t h ' s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t at g r a d u a t i o n , deaf s c h o o l s t u d e n t s r a r e l y r ead beyond the t h i r d to f i f t h grade l e v e l . T h is e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the average deaf s t u d e n t at g r a d u a t i o n s h o u l d be a b l e t o comprehend the language used i n the Coopersmith. Research f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s c o r e s f o r boys and g i r l s was not s i g n i f i c a n t ( C o o p e r s m i t h , 1959 and 1967). Coopersmith (1959) r e p o r t e d t h a t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y a f t e r a f i v e week i n t e r v a l w i t h the sample o f 30 f i f t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n was 0.88. He r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y a f t e r a t h r e e year i n t e r v a l w i t h a sample of 56 c h i l d r e n from 1,748 c h i l d r e n o f d i v e r s e background was 0.70 (Coopersmith, 1967). In the C oopersmith (1959) s t u d y , h i s s u b j e c t s were 102 f i f t h - and s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n and he r e p o r t e d that p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f - e s t e e m and s o c i o m e t r i c c h o i c e w i t h s c h o o l achievement h e l d c o n s t a n t , and c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f -esteem and s c h o o l achievement w i t h s o c i o m e t r i c c h o i c e a l s o h e l d c o n s t a n t . From the Coopersmith (1967) s t u d y , t h e r e was an attempt t o compare the s e l f - e s t e e m measure w i t h o t h e r b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c o r e s on the s e l f - e s t e e m and these o t h e r c r i t e r i a . B. I n f e r r e d S e l f - C o n c e p t S e a l e The McDaniel (1973) I n f e r r e d ^ S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e was used t o measure s e l f - c o n c e p t ( r e f e r t o Appendix C). T h i s measure was chosen i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C a l i f o r n i a S c hool f o r the Deaf 51 at R i v e r s i d e , C a l i f o r n i a . T h i s showed the same recommendation as e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y i n the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y . McDaniel (1973) d e f i n e s s e l f - c o n c e p t i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: S e l f - c o n c e p t i s d e f i n e d by E n g l i s h and E n g l i s h as "a per s o n ' s view o f h i m s e l f " . Here, we are concerned w i t h t h a t concept of s e l f g e n e r a t e d by and i n the sc h o o l s e t t i n g . A " p o s i t i v e " s e l f - c o n c e p t i s here assumed to be a per s o n ' s view o f h i m s e l f as "competent" i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g and as "acc e p t e d " by c l a s s m a t e s and a d u l t s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n t h a t s e t t i n g (Page 3 ) . The McDaniel (1973) I n f e r r e d S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e has each o f the 30 items r a t e d on a 5- p o i n t s c a l e and a l l items a r e s c o r e d i n an a f f i r m a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . E i g h t items (1, 2, 4, 18, 19, 20, 25, 29) s e l e c t e d randomly from the 30 i t e m s , a r e worded so t h a t an i t e m d e s i g n a t e s t h a t a h i g h concept o f s e l f i s p e r c e i v e d by the r a t e r (a teacher o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d ) when the it e m i s g i v e n a " f o u r " or a " f i v e " r a t i n g . An it e m d e s i g n a t e s t h a t a low st u d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t i s p e r c e i v e d by the r a t e r when i t i s g i v e n a "one" or "two" r a t i n g . Twenty-two items a r e worded so t h a t they have t o be r a t e d i n the r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n . Thus, the p e r c e p t i o n o f n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e s the o b s e r v e r t o r a t e items i n an o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n from items a s s e s s i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . In the McDaniel s t u d y (1973), h i s s u b j e c t s , about whom the d a t a were p r o v i d e d by t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , c o n s i s t e d o f 180 c h i l d r e n ; 30 each i n grades one through s i x , 96 t e a c h e r s ; one from each grade i n each o f 16 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , and 16 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l between the 52 c o u n s e l l o r s ' " t o t a l s c a l e " s c o r e s , and the t e a c h e r s ' " t o t a l s c a l e " s c o r e s f o r the 180 s t u d e n t s . The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between the sum o f the 15 even-numbered items and the sum o f the 15 odd-numbered items f o r : 1) C o u n s e l l o r s , 2) Teachers, and 3) C o u n s e l l o r s and Teachers combined were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.01 l e v e l ( M c D a n i e l , 1973). McDaniel (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y a f t e r s i x months w i t h the same sample was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.01 l e v e l . He r e p o r t e d t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s which were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h many of the b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s , i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p among them. C. B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheet In o r d e r to g a t h e r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h i l d and the t e a c h e r , a b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a sheet ( r e f e r to Appendix D) was dev e l o p e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a s s i s t e d i n d e s c r i b i n g the c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . 11. S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y met the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a: 1. Had reached the t w e l f t h but not the e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y and was a t t e n d i n g a P u b l i c School or School f o r the Deaf i n B r i t i s h Columbia on January 1, 1979. 2. Had a h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l g r e a t e r than 74 d e c i b e l s (dB). 3. Were c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g a p e n c i l and paper t e s t . 4. Had a h e a r i n g l o s s s i n c e b i r t h or p r i o r t o two y e a r s o f age. These s t u d e n t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from the p o p u l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d by u s i n g the Demographic Study o f H e a r i n g Impaired S t udents i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( C l a r k e e t a l . 1977). There were 12 53 s u b j e c t s i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s w i t h h e l p , 15 s u b j e c t s i n a c l a s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l , 15 s u b j e c t s i n J e r i c h o H i l l off-campus, and 15 s u b j e c t s i n J e r i c h o H i l l School.. The s m a l l e r number of s u b j e c t s i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s w i t h h e l p group was due t o p o s t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . T a ble I I l i s t s the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . 5 4 Table I I He a r i n g Impaired S u b j e c t s : Gender and Age by E d u c a t i o n a l Environments Regu1ar C1 ass C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Jer i cho Hi 1 1 Jer i cho Hi 1 With Help Impai red i n Off-Campus School Regu1ar School N= 12 N= 15 N= 15 ' N= 15 Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Male 12 Male 12 Male 13 Male 15 Male 13 Male 12 Male 14 Male 16 Male 16 Male 13 Male 15 Male 16 Female 12 Male 14. Male 15 Male 17 Fema1e 12 Male 14 Male 17 Male 17 Fema1e 12 Male 15 Female 12 Male 17 Female 14 Male 15 Female 12 Male 17 Fema1e 14 Male 15 Fema1e 13 Male 18 Female 15 Female 12 Female 13 Female 12 Female 16 Female 13 Female 15 Female 12 Female 17 Fema1e 13 Fema1e 16 Female 12 Fema1e 18 Female 13 Female 16 Female 13 Female 14 Female 17 Female 15 Female 14 Female 17 Female 17 Female 15 Female 18 Female 18 5 5 I I I . Procedure i n C o l l e c t i n g Data A l e t t e r ( r e f e r to Appendix E) was sent to the D i r e c t o r s of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and P r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s b r i e f l y e x p l a i n i n g the study, and a s k i n g f o r t h e i r s u p port t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s to the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . Once they agreed to support the s t u d y , each d i r e c t o r / p r i n c i p a l was asked t o nominate a teacher o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d to be a s t u d y c o o r d i n a t o r , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g the t e s t i n g w i t h the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y and the McDaniel I n f e r r e d S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e f o r h i s / h e r d i s t r i c t . Once the s t u d y c o o r d i n a t o r s had been named by t h e i r d i r e c t o r s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n or p r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s , they r e c e i v e d the s e l f - c o n c e p t t e s t m a t e r i a l s and b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a s h e e t s w i t h a l e t t e r ( r e f e r to Appendix F and G) f o r the t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s , as w e l l as f u l l d i r e c t i o n s f o r t e s t i n g . Because the i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y were too d i f f i c u l t f o r a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d , they were m o d i f i e d to a more a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l . For example, i n the o r i g i n a l s e n t e n c e " P l e a s e mark each statement i n the f o l l o w i n g way.", the word "statement" was changed to "sentence". With the r e q u e s t " I f the statement d e s c r i b e s how you u s u a l l y f e e l , put a checkmark i n the column ' L i k e Me'", the word " d e s c r i b e s " was changed t o " t e l l s " , and " i n the" was changed t o "under". The phrase " U n l i k e Me" was changed t o "Not L i k e Me". T h i s was n e c e s s a r y to a s s u r e t h a t the deaf c h i l d u n d e r s t o o d the i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h i s was v e r y important based on the 1 i t e r a t u r e f o r s e l f - c o n c e p t measurements (see c h a p t e r I I ) . Coopersmith has 56 s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e v i s e d h i s t h i n k i n g and f e e l s t h a t s i n c e a l l c u r r e n t measures of s e l f - c o n c e p t a r e h e a v i l y language based, they p r e s e n t low v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s when used w i t h language i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . A " p r a c t i c e " e x e r c i s e was dev e l o p e d i n or d e r t o h e l p the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d the two d i f f e r e n t columns " L i k e Me" and "Not L i k e Me". I t was v i t a l t h a t the s u b j e c t s u n d e r s t o o d the s e p a r a t i o n of the two i d e a s . The Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the s t u d y c o o r d i n a t o r s and the a u t h o r , on a g r o u p / i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , t o the s u b j e c t s . P r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s were d e s i g n e d to m i n i m i z e a n x i e t y , and i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n v e n t o r y was not r e l a t e d t o academic work, nor was i t a t e s t o f achievement, and th a t the r e s u l t s would remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . The auth o r i n s t r u c t e d the s t u d y c o o r d i n a t o r s that i f , d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t the s u b j e c t c o u l d not un d e r s t a n d an item, then any means o f communication ( o r a l , cued speech, or t o t a l communication) c o u l d be used f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The a u t h o r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s r e q u e s t e d t h a t t e s t i n g t a k e p l a c e i n a q u i e t c l a s s r o o m w i t h adequate l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h each s e s s i o n t a k i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 t o 20 minutes. The t e a c h e r s o f the s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y were asked t o r a t e each s u b j e c t on the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e - - a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e presumed t o be r e l a t e d t o s e l f - c o n c e p t . The t e a c h e r s r a t e d the s u b j e c t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y and at no time c o l l a b o r a t e d i n t h e i r r a t i n g s . A l l d a t a from the Coopersmith, the McDaniel t e s t m a t e r i a l s , and the b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a s h e e t s were c o l l e c t e d by the a u t h o r . 57 L e t t e r s o f thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n ( r e f e r t o Appendix H) were forwarded to the d i r e c t o r s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , the p r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s , and the s t u d y c o o r d i n a t o r s . IV, S t a t i s t i ca1 Procedures The n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l o g t o a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (one way c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , f o r o r d i n a l data) i s the Kruska1 -Wa11is One-Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (ANOVA). Kruska1-Wa11is can be used f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and nonexperimenta1 d a t a and i s s i m p l e and e f f e c t i v e . Cases a r i s e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h where the measurement i s such t h a t i t i s d o u b t f u l whether p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s i s i s l e g i t i m a t e . In many cases i t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t o rank o r d e r the s c o r e s and do the a n a l y s i s on the ranks. T h i s was used t o a n a l y z e the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p u p i l s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . A problem t h a t o f t e n a r i s e s w i t h d a t a i s t h a t s e v e r a l s c o r e s may be e x a c t l y the same. Al t h o u g h the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n on which we base our measures may be c o n t i n u o u s , our measures a r e , f o r the most p a r t , q u i t e crude. For the K r u s k a l -W a l l i s H-Test, t h e r e i s a p r o v i s i o n f o r t i e d ranks i n the d a t a . I f t i e d r a n k s do o c c u r , t h e r e e x i s t s a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r . To i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Coopersmith s c o r e s and the McDaniel s c o r e s , the Spearman c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was used due t o the d a t a b e i n g o r d i n a l i n n a t u r e . The s e l f - c o n c e p t p r o f i l e s o f .the four e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s were compared u s i n g a one-way ANOVA. 58 CHAPTER J_V RESULTS The responses of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s and the responses o f the t e a c h e r s of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d u s i n g the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y and the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e r e s p e c t i v e l y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y and s e p a r a t e l y t r e a t e d u s i n g a n o n p a r a m e t r i c ANOVA. The r e s u l t s and a comparison between the two are g i v e n i n the s u c c e e d i n g pages. There were a t o t a l o f f i f t y - s e v e n (57) s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s . s t u d y and a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - t h r e e (23) t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e v a l u a t i n g the s t u d e n t s ' s e 1 f - c o n c e p t . I. F i n d i n q s U s i n g the Coopersmi t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y Comparisons were made o f the st u d e n t s c o r e s i n the f o u r d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s e t t i n g m o d a l i t i e s . Table I I I i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups at the alpha=.05 l e v e l . I n s p e c t i o n o f the d a t a showed t h a t the mean rank s c o r e s o f the c l a s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g s was h i g h e s t w h i l e the mean rank f o r the J e r i c h o H i l l School s t u d e n t s was lowest. The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean rank were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the alpha=.05 l e v e l . 59 Table I I I Comparisons of S e l f - E s t e e m Scores For Four Groups (Kruska1 -Wa11is ANOVA) E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g N X Standard Mean Ranks D e v i a t i o n Regular C l a s s With Help 12 33. ,75 6. ,58 27. ,67 C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n R e g ular School 15 36, .6 5. ,04 37. ,40 J e r i c h o H i l l Off-Campus 15 34. .27 5. .98 27. .93 J e r i c h o H i l l School 15 32. .27 4, .28 22. .73 Chi-Square o b s e r v e d : 6.154 P: 0.104 60 11. F i n d i n g s U s i n g the McDaniel Se1f-Concept S c a l e Table IV a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e s o f the McDaniel S e l f -Concept S c a l e f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n each o f the four e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note upon the i n s p e c t i o n of the d a t a from t h i s sample t h a t J e r i c h o H i l l School t e a c h e r s had the h i g h e s t s e l f - c o n c e p t mean rank f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s w h i l e the J e r i c h o H i l l Off-Campus t e a c h e r s o b t a i n e d the lowest mean rank. These d i f f e r e n c e s , however, d i d not r e a c h a l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (p=0.37). Table IV Comparisons of S e l f - C o n c e p t Scores For Four Groups (Kruska1-Wa11is ANOVA) E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s N X Sta n d a r d Mean Ranks D e v i a t i o n s Regular C l a s s With Help 12 121 . ,6 15, ,08 30. ,42 C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n R e g ular School 15 118. ,13 17, .4 27. .83 J e r i c h o H i l l O f f Campus 15 116, ,3 15, .35 24, . 17 J e r i c h o H i l l School 15 125, ,2 18, .21 34, .47 C h i - S q u a r e o b s e r v e d : 3.159 P: 0.368 61 I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n Between the Two Sets o f Scores Based on the c a l c u l a t i o n of the Spearman c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c o r e s from the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y and the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e (r=.446, p<.01). I f the o b t a i n e d Coopersmith and the McDaniel a r e r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measures of s e l f - c o n c e p t , i t would appear t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s tend to agree. Coopersmith used the word " s e l f - e s t e e m " and McDaniel used the word " s e l f - c o n c e p t " . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the manuals showed t h a t the two words are s i m i l a r i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r s t a n d p o i n t of the s o c i a l system. IV. Coopersmi t h ' s L i e I terns Scores Table V l i s t s the mean s c o r e s showing the number o f s t u d e n t s , s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o the f o u r s c h o o l m o d a l i t i e s , and how they responded i n c o r r e c t l y t o the e i g h t l i e items o f the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y . A s c o r e o f z e r o (0) meant e i t h e r the s t u d e n t d i d not u n d e r s t a n d the i d i o m a t i c language o f the t e s t , answered the t e s t items at random, or gave a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the item ( e . g . , #13: I always do the r i g h t t h i n g ) . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e between the f o u r groups y i e l d e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F - v a l u e s o f .95 (df=3,53). An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Table V shows t h a t when the d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l systems a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , J e r i c h o H i l l School appears t o have responded more d i s h o n e s t l y to the t e s t because i t has the lowest mean s c o r e s . At the same token, the c l a s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l and r e g u l a r c l a s s w i t h 62 h e l p appear to have responded most h o n e s t l y to the t e s t because they have the h i g h e s t mean s c o r e s , even though t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s . Table V Mean Scores on Coopersmith's L i e Items S c o r e s E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g N X Regular C l a s s w i t h h e l p 12 4.4 C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n Regular School 15 4.4 J e r i c h o H i l l O f f Campus 15 3.7 J e r i c h o H i l l School 15 3.3 63 Table VI i s a f u r t h e r breakdown o f each of the s c h o o l systems. I t shows the s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d i n two groups f o r l i e items s c o r e s showing 0 - 4 and those showing 5 - 8. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t two columns appear n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n the d i f f e r e n c e (mean s c o r e s ) between the groups on the t o t a l C oopersmith s c o r e s . However, J e r i c h o H i l l O f f Campus had somewhat o f a d i f f e r e n c e between two columns. T a b l e VI Mean Scores on Coopersmith f o r L i e Items Scores S p l i t Groups E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s L i e Items Scores L i e Items S c o r e s 0 - 4 5 - 8 X X Regular C l a s s w i t h Help 33.6 34.0 C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n Regular School 37.6 29.4 J e r i c h o H i l l O f f Campus 36.7 29.4 J e r i c h o H i l l School 33.2 30.8 X 35.2 32.2 64 An i t e m a n a l y s i s o f the same e i g h t items was done. Table VII shows the f r e q u e n c y o f i n c o r r e c t r esponses made to each o f the items. A l i s t of the l i e t e s t items i s found i n Appendix A where they are i d e n t i f i e d by a z e r o (0) i n the answer column. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h r e e items (#13, 27, and 48) had a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f i n c o r r e c t response. A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e items show that they are p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d . In o t h e r words, they are items t h a t have to do w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The h i g h e s t s c o r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y , was on the i t e m t h a t shows a b s o l u t e p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d ("I always t e l l the t r u t h . " ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the deaf c h i l d r e n see themselves as b e i n g w e l l a c c e p t e d by o t h e r p e o p l e , thus i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h r e g a r d f o r o n e s e l f . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the language l e v e l o f comprehension has l e d to m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . For example, #13 uses the word " r i g h t " i n the s e n t e n c e , and #27 uses the word " l i k e " , both words h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s depending on t h e i r use i n c o n t e x t . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i n g u i s t i c d e f i c i e n c y may h i n d e r the deaf c h i l d ' s development o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f , as w e l l as h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . At the o t h e r end o f the continuum a r e the items t h a t were l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y responded t o (#6, 34, 41, and 55). These iterns a r e a l s o p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d but not i n b r o a d , g l o b a l terms. They a r e more s e l f - g e n e r a t e d items i n r e l a t i o n t o one-to-one i n t e r a c t i o n s . 65 Table VII Number of I n c o r r e c t Responses to the Coopersmith's L i e Items E d u c a t i o n a l L i e Items Frequency S e t t i n g #6 #13 #20 #27 #34 #41 #48 #55 Regular C l a s s w i t h h e l p (N= 12) 1 4 4 10 4 5 8 6 ' 42 C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n Reg-u l a r School (N=15) 6 9 7 13 2 4 1 0 5 56 J e r i c h o Hi 11 O f f -Campus (N=15) 7 10 8 14 4 6 1 3 3 65 J e r i c h o H i l l School (N=15) 6 9 7 13 9 6 1 1 7 68 Frequency 20 32 26 50 19 21 42 21 231 66 The language component e n t e r s i n t o t h i s a g a i n but more i n terms of the n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n o f the word "never". R e g a r d l e s s of c o n t e x t , the a u t o m a t i c response to "never" was on the column "Not L i k e Me". Another area t h a t was looked at was the k i n d of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g to d e t e r m i n e any d i f f e r e n c e i n f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e s . I t i s most i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the J e r i c h o H i l l s t u d e n t s had the h i g h e r number of i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . With i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the deaf t h e i r p s y c h o s o c i a l development i s not as wholesome p r i m a r i l y because of the l a c k of exposure to the w o r l d and a d e a r t h o f e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l o t o f s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n take f o r g r a n t e d . They are i s o l a t e d and i n s u l a r , and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to p e o p l e are s t e r e o t y p e d and l i m i t e d . V. Compar i sons of Gender P i f f e r e n c e s Usi ng the Coopersmi th and  the McDaniel On the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y , the t o t a l mean s c o r e s between the males and females were almost i d e n t i c a l such t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were shown. Even the e x a m i n a t i o n o f means between the two genders from one e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g to the o t h e r showed c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y . T a ble V I I I shows t h i s r a t h e r c l e a r l y . On the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e t h e r e was some d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean s c o r e s between the genders a l t h o u g h the t o t a l mean s c o r e s s t i l l d i d not show enough d i s c r e p a n c y to o b t a i n a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the alpha=.05 l e v e l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the Regular C l a s s w i t h Help and the J e r i c h o H i l l School have c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s 67 between the genders. Table IX shows the breakdown of the mean s c o r e s . T a b l e V I I I Mean Score f o r Gender on Coopersmith E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g Gender Male Female Mean Male Female Regular Clas,s With Help 3 9 C l a s s f o r Hea r i n g Impaired i n R e g ular School 8 7 J e r i c h o H i l l O ff Campus 5 10 J e r i c h o H i l l School 8 7 34 33.67 37 36.14 34 34.4 32.63 31.86 34.41 34.02 T a b l e IX Mean Score f o r Gender on McDaniel E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g Gender Mean Male Female Male Female Regular C l a s s With Help C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g Impaired i n Regular School J e r i c h o H i l l O ff Campus J e r i c h o H i l l School 3 9 101.67 128.33 8 7 116.5 120.0 5 10 118.8 115.1 8 7 129.87 119.86 X 116.71 120.82 68 Chapter V Di scuss i o n and Imp 1 i c a t i o n s The s e l f - c o n c e p t measures o f f i f t y - s e v e n (57) h e a r i n g im-p a i r e d p u p i l s i n fo u r d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t w e n t y - t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n e v a l u a t i n g the s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t i n d i c a t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ranked s c o r e s on the Co o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y or the McDaniel S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e used at the alpha=.05 l e v e l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the f o u r groups on the s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s . I t would appear t h a t i n s e 1 f - c o n c e p t , the f o u r groups have a common problem t o which s c h o o l s e t t i n g a p p a r e n t l y has no r e l a t i o n s h i p (p=0.37). A l s o , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c o r e s from the Coopersmith and McDaniel (r=,446, p<.01). The c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s e t s of s c o r e s would make i t appear t h a t t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s tend t o agree i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s between the fo u r groups, who responded i n c o r r e c t l y to the e i g h t l i e items o f the Coop e r s m i t h s c o r e s , (F=.95, df=3,53). Even though, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t two groups f o r l i e items s c o r e s showing 0 - 4 and those showing 5 - 8 appear non-s i g n i f i c a n t . I t shows t h a t the language l e v e l s o f the Coopersmith r e f l e c t e d l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e s t items by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the comparisons o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g the Coopersmith and the M c D a n i e l . 6 9 These r e s u l t s appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l approach of c a t e g o r i z i n g adjustment s t r a t e g i e s o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d (Meyerson, 1955). I t s u p p o r t s Meyerson's b e l i e f t h a t the b e s t a d j u s t e d l i f e - s t y l e f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i s the one w h i c h a c c e p t s b o t h the w o r l d o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d and the w o r l d of the h e a r i n g . The s t u d y of S a r f a t y and K a t z (1978) showed t h a t the t h r e e s c h o o l s e t t i n g s do not p r o v i d e a complete answer f o r the adjustment problems o f t h e i r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s . When Walker (1972) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f a r e s o u r c e room sup p o r t program f o r mainstreamed c h i l d r e n , she found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t s o f c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g such s e r v i c e s and those r e t a r d e d p u p i l s who remained i n the s e l f -c o n t a i n e d s p e c i a l c l a s s programs. R e i c h , Hambleton, and H o u l d i n (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f - e s t e e m or s o c i a l adjustment f o r 195 h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n f o u r programs which v a r i e d i n t h e i r d egree of i n t e g r a t i o n . I. E v a l u a t i o n o f the Language L e v e l s o f the Coopersmi th Mead (1934) contended t h a t the a c q u i s i t o n o f language i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the development of s e l f , and i f the language p r o c e s s poses problems f o r deaf i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t they l a g b e h i n d t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s i n terms of the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n they have a v a i l a b l e upon w h i c h to base t h e i r s e l f -image . The t e a c h e r s o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s had c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g the E n g l i s h language. That i s , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to a r e a s of unique 7 0 l i n q u i s t i c development. In the p a s t , r e s e a r c h e r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on i n v e s t i g a t i n g the l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o r of deaf c h i l d r e n i n terms o f t h e i r s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Even fewer r e s e a r c h e r s have p r o v i d e d r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t e s t i n g the language s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . The Coopersmith has a l l c u r r e n t measures o f s e l f concept w hich are h e a v i l y language-based and they p r e s e n t low v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s when used w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ( c h a p t e r 3 ) . I t appears t o measure s e l f - c o n c e p t a d e q u a t e l y f o r them but i s s t i l l not e n t i r e l y appro-p r i a t e . In a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c types o f comprehension problems, n e a r l y a l l o f the s t u d e n t s had problems u n d e r s t a n d i n g n e g a t i v e s w h i c h were i m p l i e d by comparisons and/or i n f e r e n c e s . For example, many s t u d e n t s were found to have o v e r l o o k e d the n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f the items "I'm not d o i n g as w e l l i n s c h o o l as I'd l i k e t o . " , "I r e a l l y don't l i k e b e i n g a b o y - g i r l . " , "There a r e many times when I'd l i k e t o lea v e home." And "Most p e o p l e a re b e t t e r l i k e d than I am." Having examined i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s and a n a l y z i n g each i t e m , i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s t o de t e r m i n e t h e i r semantic u n d e r s t a n d i n g s on c e r t a i n t e s t items on the Coopersmith. Upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t e s t r e s u l t s , s t u d e n t s w i t h low s c o r e s were s i n g l e d o u t . Then t h r e e s t u d e n t s out o f each c l a s s were i n t e r v i e w e d . I d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s were found t o be a s o u r c e o f c o n f u s i o n f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , such e x p r e s s i o n s as " g i v e i n " , "make up my mind", " l i k e t o be c a l l e d on", " p i c k on me", 71 "depended on", "pays much a t t e n t i o n " , "are p u s h i n g " , and "not good enough" were not u n d e r s t o o d . In a d d i t i o n , the t r a n s l a t i o n o f w r i t t e n E n g l i s h i n t o manual forms of e x p r e s s i o n was not always s i m p l e and d i r e c t . For example, the word " s t i c k " was i n t e n d e d t o mean " a t t a c k " but the deaf s t u d e n t s a s s o c i a t e d the word w i t h the branch from a t r e e or shrub. One or,more of the l i n g u i s t i c problems d i s c u s s e d above, namely s u b t l e n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s , i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , and l a c k o f d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a f f e c t e d o n e - t h i r d o f the i t e m s . Moreover, e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Coopersmith r e v e a l e d t h a t n i n e t e e n o f f i f t y - e i g h t items on the complete t e s t were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by at l e a s t one o f the above l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , which i n c l u d e i d i o m a t i c (17 items) and n e g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s (10 i t e m s ) . Rudner (1978) found t h a t these k i n d s o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e s tend t o produce b i a s a g a i n s t deaf r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s was s i m i l a r t o G a r r i s o n , Tesch, and DeCaro's (1978) s t u d y . There was a semantic problem w i t h the word " l i k e " . The word r e p r e s e n t e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t meanings: "same", " l o v e " , and "want". T h i s was r e v e a l e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w d i s c u s s i o n s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the Coopersmith r e v e a l e d that e i g h t o f the f i f t y -e i g h t items use the word " l i k e " . T h i s caused the s u b j e c t s , who had language d i f f i c u l t i e s , a d i f f i c u l t time c h o o s i n g which one o f the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t meanings was t o be used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i t e m s . For example, i n i t e m #37, "I r e a l l y don't l i k e b e i n g a b o y - g i r l " , the o n l y c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the word " l i k e " i s "want". However, d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w a number of the s t u d e n t s i n t e r c h a n g e d i t f o r " l o v e " . 11. E v a l u a t i o n o f the S e l f - C o n c e p t Measurements 72 In r e l a t i o n t o s e l f - c o n c e p t , both L e v i n e (1960) and Myklebust (1960) have.suggested t h a t the l i n g u i s t i c l i m i t a t i o n s of the deaf c h i l d may be d e t r i m e n t a l t o both s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and the development o f s e 1 f - i d e n t i t y . Beyond the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , Goffman (1963) argued t h a t i f i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s handicaps t h a t c a r r y w i t h them n e g a t i v e s o c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s , they may l e a r n t o r e g a r d themselves w i t h the same n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t s o c i e t y a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e i r h a n d i c a p s . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f Coopersmith's l i e items. E x t e n d i n g t h i s same argument to r e s e a r c h on d e a f n e s s , Sussman (1973) i n v e s t i g a t e d the s e l f -c o n c e p t s o f a sample o f deaf a d u l t s r e s i d i n g i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n New York C i t y area. Sussman r e p o r t e d that n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f f r e q u e n t l y were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e l i e f s t h a t h e a r i n g persons p e r c e i v e the deaf i n terms o f d e f e c t s , r e a l or ima g i n a r y . Hence, w h i l e the q u a l i t y o f one's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s may be viewed as c r i t i c a l t o h i s or her concept o f s e l f , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e r e p r e s e n t s the a c t u a l f o u n d a t i o n upon which t h a t same concept i s b u i l t . In c o n t r a s t t o the views o f Myklebust and C r a i g , Meadow (1968, 1969) a t t r i b u t e d problems i n p e r s o n a l i t y development o f deaf i n d i v i d u a l s t o e x p e r i e n c e s o f n e g a t i v e feedback from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . F i f t y - e i g h t deaf c h i l d r e n o f deaf p a r e n t s were compared to a matched group o f deaf c h i l d r e n of h e a r i n g p a r e n t s who, i n Meadow's view, were more l i k e l y t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i s a b i l i t y . The c h i l d r e n were s t u d e n t s from a l l grades i n a s t a t e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r the deaf. Meadow's h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d by f i n d i n g s which showed 73 that c h i l d r e n from homes w i t h deaf p a r e n t s and p o s i t i v e f a m i l y c l i m a t e o b t a i n e d the h i g h e s t s c o r e s on a s e l f - i m a g e . t e s t d e v i s e d f o r use w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n , and on t e a c h e r - c o u n s e l o r r a t i n g s of s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . In comparison, deaf c h i l d r e n of h e a r i n g p a r e n t s and "lower" f a m i l y c l i m a t e were found t o s c o r e lowest on these measures. These r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t the q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n between the deaf c h i l d and h i s or her p a r e n t s i s r e l a t e d to the e v a l u a t i o n a l component o f the s e l f -c o n c e p t , u s u a l l y c a l l e d s e l f - e s t e e m or s e l f - r e g a r d . Meadow suggested f u r t h e r that the h e a r i n g p a r e n t s ' h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the deaf c h i l d ' s achievement may be the p r i m a r y f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of the i n t e r a c t i o n between deaf c h i l d r e n and h e a r i n g p a r e n t s , as compared to deaf c h i l d r e n and deaf p a r e n t s . S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow (1972) and Kennedy (1973) suggested t h a t some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g deaf c h i l d r e n ' s p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n o f the ca s e s marking E r i k s o n ' s (1959) s t a g e s o f development may be: i ) n e g a t i v e p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s t o the c h i l d ' s d e a f n e s s ; i i ) e x c e s s i v e p a r e n t a l r e s t r a i n t of the deaf c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s ; i i i ) d i f f i c u l t y i n communication; and i v ) estrangement from n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g p e e r s and t e a c h e r s . These f a c t o r s a r e found among the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d deaf who are i s o l a t e d and i n s u l a r . T h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o pe o p l e a r e s t e r o t y p e d and l i m i t e d . Thus, the q u e s t i o n t o be addressed i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t would seem to be whether the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f the deaf p e r s o n d i f f e r s i n some q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s from t h a t of the n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g p e r s o n , or whether the ob s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t a developmental l a g among the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . 74 More r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on the s o c i a l s e l f has suggested however, t h a t s e l f - a p p r a i s a l ' s are s u b j e c t to the s t r u c t u r e of the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . On t h i s i s s u e , Webster and S o b i e s z e k (1974) wr o t e : B l a c k p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y b l a c k s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , a r e o f t e n s a i d t o have low s e l f - i m a g e s , as i f they c a r r i e d t h i s image around w i t h them i n a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . From our p o i n t of view, such a c l a i m i s m e a n i n g l e s s . B l a c k s may w e l l have low e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r performance at c e r t a i n t a s k s , such as s choolwork, and they may 'have low s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s by comparison w i t h w h i t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; but u n t i l the t a s k and the r e f e r e n t o t h e r s a r e s p e c i f i e d , the c l a i m has n e i t h e r meaning nor e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t . There i s a good d e a l o f e v i d e n c e t h a t b l a c k c h i l d r e n change t h e i r " s e l f - i m a g e " c o n s i d e r a b l y depending on which o t h e r s they t h i n k they a r e b e i n g compared w i t h , and t h e r e i s at l e a s t a s m a l l amount of e v i d e n c e t h a t they have q u i t e p o s i t i v e s e l f -e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s ,of t a s k s . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , j u s t what we would expect from a t h e o r y o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s ; i t i s not e x p l a i n a b l e from a t h e o r y of a t r a n s s i t u a t i o n a l " s e l f - i m a g e " . What i s s u r p r i s i n g to us i s t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s would have t o be reminded t o " r e d i s c o v e r the p r i m a r y group" (Page 163). Thus, i t may be f r u i t f u l i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the development of the s e l f - c o n c e p t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e c o n s t r u c t s i n a manner which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a f f o r d s an a n a l y s i s of the r e q u i r e m e n t s of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s has been done i n the f i e l d o f d e a f n e s s i n f r e q u e n t l y ( C r a i g , 1965; J o i n e r et a l . , 1969) . In the a r e a o f programmatic i n t e r v e n t i o n s and s e l f - c o n c e p t enhancement, v e r y l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n f o c u s i n g on the deaf i n d i v i d u a l . Kohl (1967) suggested t h a t the encouragement of sign-1anguage as an element o f deaf c u l t u r a l l i f e may have enhancing e f f e c t s upon the s e l f - e s t e e m o f deaf p e r s o n s . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Sotomayer (1977), who o b s e r v e d that the n a t i v e language i n s t r u c t i o n o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups 7 5 may f o s t e r the development of s e l f - i d e n t i t y and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e l f - c o n c e p t as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t o f f e r s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p e r s o n a l i t y through a c o n c e r n f o r the p e r s o n and not the d i s a b i l i t y . The s e l f - c o n c e p t i s a c e n t r a l and i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t o f the p e r s o n and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to probe the g r e a t e s t r e s o u r c e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , such as m o t i v a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e , and adjustment ( F i t t s , 1967). A l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p may not be n e c e s s a r i l y one o f cause and e f f e c t , the s e l f - c o n c e p t does p l a y a dominant r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the a d o l e s c e n t ' s g o a l s , l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n , and s t r i v i n g s . On the o t h e r hand a g i t a t i o n s , d i s t u r b a n c e s , and b l o c k s to l e a r n i n g or e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r do i n v o l v e the s e l f -c o n c e p t . For the more s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the a r e a o f the e d u c a t i o n of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t u d e n t s ' s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses w i t h r e g a r d s t o s e l f -a c c e p t ance f o r example, can e n a b l e t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r e n t s , and a l l s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t o approach t h e i r j o b o f a c c e p t i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and e n c o u r a g i n g w i t h g r e a t e r courage, i n s i g h t , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s c h o o l l i k e w i s e i n i t s e f f o r t s t o f o s t e r the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s f o r e v e r y c h i l d can b e n e f i t from the d i m e n s i o n o f the p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t up u n t i l now has been i g n o r e d , v i z . , s e l f - c o n c e p t p r o f i l e . I I I . Problems i n the T e s t i n g Wi t h Coopersmi th Most o f the t e a c h e r s of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d r e p o r t e d t h a t they found the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s t o be t e d i o u s and d i f f i c u l t . These t e a c h e r s a l l had p u p i l s who ranged from age 12 t o 18 and 76 they i n d i c a t e d that most c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the two columns of " L i k e Me" and "Not L i k e Me". Th i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g comment from t e a c h e r s : The w o rding was not easy f o r them, e.g., " L i k e Me" and "Not L i k e Me" r e a l l y c o n f u s e d the s t u d e n t s . J u s t t r u e or f a l s e would be b e t t e r or yes and no. Most o f the s t u d e n t s found i t hard to say f o r s u r e " L i k e Me" or "Not L i k e Me" and f e l t they wanted t o say "Sometimes" t o a l o t o f the q u e s t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the format o f the Coopersmith (1967) s e l f -esteem s c a l e ("Like Me-Not L i k e Me" c a t e g o r i e s ) i s noted and i t i s suggested t h a t i n any f u t u r e s t u d i e s t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s be a l t e r e d t o "Yes-No" or " T r u e - F a l s e " t o see whether more v a l i d r e s ponses may be o b t a i n e d from the s t u d e n t s . IV. Imp 1 i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research R e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n prompted the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : i . t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y i n the same e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s but w i t h d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s , i i . t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y i n a s e t t i n g where the mode o f communication has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p e r i o d o f ti m e , and i i i . t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e d t o e x p r e s s i v e language and a l s o w i t h b e h a v i o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l or academic s e l f - c o n c e p t . 77 R E F E R E N C E S 7 8 REFERENCES A d l e r , A l f r e d . The p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y o f i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y . London: Rout ledge and Kegan P a u l , 1924. 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K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s s e 1 f - c o n c e p t s i n r e l a t i o n  to t h e i r K i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i e n c e s . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Memphis S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1956. W y l i e , R. The s e l f c o n c e p t . L i n c o l n , Nebraska: U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , 1961. Y a t e r , V.V. I n t e g r a t i o n of deaf s t u d e n t s i n t o r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The F o u r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on Deaf- ness , I s r a e l , 1973. S i l v e r S p r i n g , M a r y l a n d : The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f the Deaf, 1973. 89 Appendix A Coopersmith. Self-Esteem Inventory 90 Please mark each sentence in the following way* If the sentence t e l l s how you usually f e e l , put a check (^) under "LIKE ME". If the sentence does not t e l l how you usually f e e l , put a check (w) under "NOT LIKE ME". There are no right or wrong answers. WARM UP EXERCISE 1. I like ice cream. 2 . I am happy. 3. I always play with older children, 4. I do not study hard at school. LIKE ME NOT LIKE ME LIKE ME 1. I spend a lot of time daydreaming. 2 . I'm pretty sure of myself. 3. I often wish I were someone else. 4. I'm easy to l i k e . 5. My parents and I have a lot of fun together, 6. I never worry about anything. 7. I find i t very hard to talk in front of the class. 8. I wish I were younger. 9. There are lots of things about myself I'd change i f I could. 10. I can make up my mind without too much trouble. 11. I'm a lot of fun to be with. 12. I get upset easily at home. X X X X NOT LIKE ME X X X X X 13. I always do the right thing. 14. I'm proud of ray school work. 15* Someone always has to t e l l me what to do. 16. It takes me a long time to get used to anything new. 17. I'm often sorry for the things I do. 18. I'm popular with kids my own age. 19. My parents usually consider my feelings. 20. I'm never unhappy. 21. I'm doing the best work that I can. 22. I give i n very easily. 23. I can usually take care of myself. 24. I'm pretty happy. 25. I would rather play with children younger than me, 26. My parents expect too much of me, 27. I like everyone I know, 28. I l i k e to be called on in class. 29. I understand myself. 30. It's pretty tough to be me, 31. Things are a l l mixed up in my l i f e . 32. Kids usually follow my ideas. 33. No one pays much attention to me at home. 34. I never get scolded, 35. I'm not doing as well in school as I'd lik e to. 36. I can make up my mind and stick to i t . 37. I really don't like being a boy - g i r l . 38. I have a low opinion of myself. 39. I don't like to be with other people. 40. There are many times when I'd like to leave home. 41. I'm never shy. 42. I often feel upset in school. 43. I often feel ashamed of myself. 44. I'm not as nice looking as most peopleo 45. If I have something to say, I usually say i t . 46. Kids pick on me very often. 47. My parents understand me. 48. I always t e l l the truth. 49. My teacher makes me feel I'm not good enough. 50. I don't care what happens to me. 51. I'm a fa i l u r e . 52. I get upset easily when I'm scolded. 53. Most people are better liked than I am. 54. I usually feel as i f my parents are pushing. 55. I always know what to say to people. 56. I often get discouraged i n school. 57. Things usually don't bother me. 58. I can't be depended on. Appendix B L e t t e r to P r o f e s s i o n a l s 95 Appendix C McDaniel Self-Concept Scale 96, Student I.D. # Teacher I.D. tf DIRECTIONS You are asked to describe your perception of a student's self-concept in terms of the following items. Please indicate your rating on each item by circling one of the five numbers at the right of each item. Never Seldom Sometimes Usually Always 1. Enjoys working with others. For example, student may smile, laugh, or look pleased when engaged i n productive group activity _ 1 2 3 4 5 2. Exhibits self-confidence. For example, student initiates activities, goes ahead in work and play without direction _ 1 2 3 4 5 3. Plays with smaller c r younger children. For example, student seeks simple play activities in order to excel or dominate peers _ 5 4 3 2 1 4. Evidences strong pleasure in good work. For example, student voluntarily redoes poor or sloppy constructions, paperwork, coloring, etc. unless he is satisfied (may smile, chuckle, sigh, look pleased) with his product 1 2 3 4 5 5. Is antagonistic to adults. For example, student talks back, refuses to obey, balks in the presence of adults 5 4 3 2 J 6. Has unrealistic expectations for himself. For example, student sets minor a n d / o r major goals, academically a n d / o r physically, which he is incapable of attaining . 5 4 3 2 1 7. Is easily discouraged. For example, student ceases activity when minor failure or mishap occurs _ _ . . . . . 5 4 3 2 1 8. Appears unsociable. For example, student plays and works alone. He may leave setting or activity when others join him _ 5 4 3 2 1 9 . , Cries easily. For example, student "puckers u p " or tears come to his eyes when he has a mishap, failure, or difficulty with activity (work or play) or with interpersonal relationships _ 10. Is unfriendly to classmates. For example, student works and plays alone. He leaves activity when others appear and refuses (with words or gestures or looks) friendly overtures _ 11. Tries to dominate or bully. For example, student attempts to lead activities even though this is counter to desires of group. He attempts to force h i s wishes, verbally a n d / o r physically on others 12. FightsJ 1.... 1 3 . . Talks compulsively. For example, student does not await his turn, nor stop talking when his turn i s over. He has to "have his say" to peers and adults 14. Seems afraid of teacher. For example, student never disagrees with teacher. He does not voluntarily speak up or perform a n d seems to withdraw physically from any contact with teacher . 15. Feels he is "picked o n " by classmates. For example, student claims others treat him " u n f a i r l y . " He claims they make him do more "work" (and have less " f u n " ) „ . . . _ _ . . . . . _ 16. Gives up easily. For example, student meets difficulty or mishap with work or play by ceasing activity „ _ 17. Is defiant. For example, student rejects criticism. He may do so verbally (sass) a n d / o r nonverbally (tear up work, destroy game, disrupt group activity, fight) _ _ _ „ 18. Thinks he i s r i g h t For example, student does not seek verification of his procedures i n work or play. He proceeds when his own goal is satisfied . . . . IS. Is ready to accept blame when at f a u l t For example, student does not try to shift accusations or rebukes to others for his actions 20. Is trusting. For example, student has unquestioning reliance in statements, actions, and justice of others. He is not suspicious of their motives 21. Seems to have a " c h i p " on his shoulder. For example, student misinterprets expressed thoughts, motives, and actions of others in both work and play as being opposed to his best interests _ _ . : 22. Is quarrelsome or argumentative. For example, student may taunt others a n d / o r disagree with the statements of others _ 23. is "oversensitive". For example, student may cry or withdraw or become silent when his statements or actions are questioned 24. Provokes hostility from classmates. For example, student may tease others a n d / o r disagree with statements by others. He may do these things verbally or nonverbally '._„..._"..' ........1'..'.."...'..'. ........ 25. Thinks his teacher likes him. For example, student acts happy .(may smile, work, or play as if contented) when i n presence of teacher . . . v i . . . . _ . . , _ 26. Tattles. For example, student tells teacher of statements and actions which were not intended for teacher to know about _ 27. Is withdrawing. For example, student does not play a n d / o r work with peers _ ". 28. Is fearful. For example, student backs away or withdraws from routine activities (work a n d / o r play) where he could be hurt, or where he might undergo stress or be embarrassed 29. Seems satisfied with level of performance. For example, student does not withdraw from work a n d / o r play situations and appears visibly to be content : •• 30. Appears worried. For example, student may have an anxious " l o o k " (i .e. , furrowed brow, " c o w e d " expression) TOTAL SCORE = Appendix D B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheet 99 Biographical Data Sheet I. General Information 1. Student I.D. # 2. Gender Male Female 3. Date of Birth 4. Type of Education (Check one)i Regular class with help ; Class for hearing impaired in regular school [ Jericho H i l l off-campus Jericho H i l l School 5. How long has this student been receiving this type of educationi 6 . What other types of education has the student received! II. History 1. Parent(s) (Check one)i a) 2 parents family single parent b) Is the student l i v i n g with his/her parent(s) ( i f not, please explain) 2. Number of children in family 3. Birth order 4. Socio-economic background (Check one)i parent(s) earn more than $25,000 parent(s) earn more than $15,000 parents) earn less than $15,000 III. Characteristics of teacher " •. 1. Teacher I.D. # 2. Age 3. Length of training (Check one or more)i B.Ed. M*Ed. Diploma of Education of the Deaf B.A. M.A. Others (please specify) 4. Length of teaching against neutral for 5. Attitude toward "integration" 1 2 3 4 5 (Put a c i r c l e around the response number) Appendix E L e t t e r to D i r e c t o r s o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and P r i n c i p a l s o f the S c h o o l s 102 Appendix F L e t t e r to Study C o o r d i n a t o r s 103 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION A p r i l 18, 1979 Dear Thank you very much f o r your l e t t e r of A p r i l 12, 1979 rega r d i n g your approval of my study. Enclosed are 10 Coopersmith S e l f Esteem Inventory Tests f o r each h e a r i n g impaired p u p i l , and 10 McDaniel I n f e r r e d S e l f Concept Scales along with the B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheets f o r the teachers of the h e a r i n g impaired. I t would be appreciated i f you would please d i s t r i b u t e the enclosed p a r e n t a l consent forms as i n d i c a t e d f o r the hearing impaired students a t t e n d i n g your s c h o o l . Parents are asked t o complete these forms and send them i n the stamped r e t u r n envelopes d i r e c t l y t o me at my home address. Only those students whose parents i n d i c a t e t h e i r approval w i l l be asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g sessions which w i l l be conducted d u r i n g school time. For Coopersmith S e l f Esteem Inventory, i t i s important that the students understand the items. I f a student cannot understand an item, then any means of communication ( o r a l , cued speech, o r t o t a l communication) may be used t o c l a r i f y i t s meaning. The subjects form a B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n which meets the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1) Has reached the 12th but not the 18th b i r t h d a y and i s a t t e n d i n g a P u b l i c School or School f o r the Deaf i n B r i t i s h Columbia on January 1, 1979. 2) Has grea t e r than 74 d e c i b e l s (dB). 3) Is capable of completing a p e n c i l and paper t e s t . 4) Has had the h e a r i n g l o s s s i n c e b i r t h or p r i o r t o two years of age. 105 Appendix G L e t t e r to Parents 107 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION April 18, 1979 CONSENT FORM I hereby grant my permission to have my child participate in the self concept study of hearing impaired students. I refuse permission to have my child participate in the self concept study of 1 hearing impaired students. Signature! (Parent or guardian) Datet 108 Appendix H L e t t e r of Thanks i 

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