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Personal space, behavior problems, and self-concept among grade six boys Major, Clara Teresa 1979

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PERSONAL SPACE, BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, AND SELF-CONCEPT AMONG GRADE SIX BOYS by CLARA TERESA MAJOR B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August , 19 79 © C l a r a Teresa Majort 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E - i i -ABSTRACT This study i n v e s t i g a t e d pe r sona l space and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to behav ior problems and s e l f - c o n c e p t among grade s i x boys a t t end ing r e g u l a r elementary s c h o o l s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 53 boys s e l e c t e d from three schools l o c a t e d i n Eas t Vancouver. The mean age of the sample was 12.11 y e a r s . A survey of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d i n d i v i d u a l s r equ i r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r pe r sona l space area than "normals" . Concerning s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space , a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the two has been repor ted f o r a d u l t subjec ts but not f o r c h i l d r e n . L a s t l y , the l i t e r a t u r e suggests tha t comparative e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g pe r sona l space measures i s l a c k i n g . Two measures of pe r sona l space, the Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le and an a l t e r e d v e r s i o n of the Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure — C h i l d r e n ' s Form, were employed i n t h i s s tudy . The Walker Problem Behav io r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t was used to ra te behav io r problems. This ins t rument was completed by the s u b j e c t s ' t e ache r s . The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t Sca le and the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le ( r a t ed by the teachers) were the l a s t two measures of s e l f - c o n c e p t used i n the s tudy . The r e s u l t s of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses i n d i c a t e d tha t behav io r problems and pe r sona l space are u n r e l a t e d . However, s t r ong s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were ob ta ined between the D i s tu rbed Peer R e l a t i o n Sca le of the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Check-l i s t and the peer v a r i a b l e s of the p e r s o n a l space measures. The s t r o n g l y - i i i -s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found e s p e c i a l l y f o r those p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v i n g female peers . I t was concluded from these f i n d i n g s tha t d i s t u r b e d peer r e l a t i o n s are i n d i c a t i v e of f a i r l y l a r g e p e r s o n a l space d i s tances mainta ined between oppos i t e - sexed peers which may r e f l e c t the beg inn ing of a future t r end towards i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r s . The f i n d i n g s r ega rd ing s e l f - c o n c e p t and p e r s o n a l space support p r e v i o u s l y r epor ted r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e tha t there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i n c h i l d r e n . S ince a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space has been repor ted f o r adu l t s u b j e c t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t these r e s u l t s r e f l e c t i n s t a b i l i t y due to l a c k of format ion o f d e f i n i t e p e r s o n a l space boundaries i n c h i l d r e n . The v a r i a b l e s of the two p e r s o n a l space measures were c r o s s -c o r r e l a t e d to determine the l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. The r e s u l t s ob ta ined i n d i c a t e tha t the two measures are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r the v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g s t r a n g e r s . S e v e r a l adjunct or pos t hoc analyses were performed to i n v e s t i -gate ques t ions which arose from.the pr imary ana ly se s . The r e s u l t s of one a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d tha t a s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e was ope ra t i ng i n the r a t i n g s of the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t . A f i n a l a n a l y s i s r evea l ed tha t the f i v e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups of subjec ts were unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among the three s c h o o l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t t h i s may have contaminated the r e s u l t s of the s tudy s ince c u l t u r e i s known to a f f e c t p e r s o n a l space . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Study . . . 1 Purposes of the Study 2 Statement of the Problem 3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 Overview o f Subsequent Chapters . 5 I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THE NATURE OF THIS STUDY . . . . 7 The Developmental L i t e r a t u r e . . . . 7 Measurement of P e r s o n a l Space 9 P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e s and P e r s o n a l Space 14 Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review 20 The Nature of t h i s Study. 20 Assumptions U n d e r l y i n g t h i s Research 21 D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 22 Importance of the Study 22 I I I METHODOLOGY . 24 Subjects 24 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Measuring Instruments 24 The Walker Problem Behav io r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t 25 The I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le 26 The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f -Concept Sca le 27 The Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le . . 28 The Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure — C h i l d r e n ' s Form 32 O r i g i n a l . V e r s i o n of the PPSM-CF 32 M o d i f i e d V e r s i o n o f the PPSM-CF (APPSM-CF) 33 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 38 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses 39 IV RESULTS 41 The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Behav ior Problems and P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 1) 41 Se l f -Concep t and P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 2) . . . 48 The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the two Measures of P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 3) 52 A d d i t i o n a l Analyses . 65 - v -Chapter Page V DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 72 The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Behav ior Problems and P e r s o n a l Space 72 Se l f -Concep t and P e r s o n a l Space 74 The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the two P e r s o n a l Space Measures 75 A d d i t i o n a l Analyses 76 Summary, Conclus ions and Suggest ions f o r Fu r the r Research 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDICES A The Walker Problem Behav io r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (WPBIC) B The I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le . . C The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f -Concept Sca le D The Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le . . . . E The A l t e r e d Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure — C h i l d r e n ' s Form . . . . - v i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 CID St imulus Persons and The i r D e s c r i p t i o n s 30 2 L i s t of S t imulus F igures and T h e i r D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the APPSM-CF 36 3 A L i s t o f the Test V a r i a b l e s and T h e i r A b b r e v i a t i o n s 42 4 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the WPBIC, APPSM-CF and CID V a r i a b l e s 45 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the WPBIC Sca les 49 6 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the Se l f -Concep t Sca les and the P e r s o n a l Space Measures 50 7 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the Se l f -Concep t Sca les . . . 53 8 Means., Standard D e v i a t i o n s and I n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the APPSM-CF V a r i a b l e s 55 9 Means, Standard Dev ia t i ons and I n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the CID V a r i a b l e s 59 10 C r o s s - C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the APPSM-CF and CID V a r i a b l e s . . 61 11 T-Tests Between P e r s o n a l Space Dis tance Means . . . . 66 12 One-Way Analyses of Var iance A t t r i b u t a b l e to School D i f f e rences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 13 C u l t u r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Across Schools 71 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h to express my g r a t i t u d e to the chairman o f my committe, Dr . J . A l l a n , and to the members of the committee, D r s . R. Conry and D. Der, f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , encouragement and p a t i e n c e . I am a l so indebted to those Vancouver elementary schools and teachers who were k i n d enough to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study C h i l d r e n ' s use of space i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s has been e x p l o r e d from va r ious p e r s p e c t i v e s to a t t a i n a c l e a r e r under-s t and ing o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r s o n a l space b e h a v i o r . Much o f the work done i n t h i s area i n v e s t i g a t e s changes tha t occur i n p e r s o n a l space w i t h age. Inc luded i n many of these developmental s t u d i e s are i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of s e x u a l d i f f e r ences i n p r o x i m i t y to determine when these v a r i a t i o n s appear i n c h i l d r e n . Al though developmental research forms a l a rge pa r t o f the body of i n q u i r y i n t o p e r s o n a l space behav io r of c h i l d r e n , o ther aspects of the area have a l s o been i n v e s t i g a t e d . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , f o r example, i s ex t ens ive s i n c e the study of human s p a t i a l behav io r was i n c i t e d main ly by a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s of marked c u l t u r a l d i f f e r -ences i n pe r sona l space. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t e s t s , methods and procedures to measure the dimensions of pe r sona l space comprises another major p o r t i o n of the research on proxemics . S tudies on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l o s e n e s s , which i n c l u d e s degree l i k i n g , acquaintance and a f f i l i a t i o n , i s ye t another l i n e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e v e r a l f ac to r s i n a d d i t i o n to those mentioned, such as age (Meise ls &" G u a r d c 1969), sex (Sommer, 1959), c u l t u r a l background ( H a l l , 1959) and degree of acquaintance ( L i t t l e , 1965), have been repor ted to - 2 -i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l space b e h a v i o r . The nature o f the i n t e r a c t i o n ( F e l i p e & Sommer, 1966; H a l l , 1966), the s e t t i n g i n which i t takes p lace ( L i t t l e , 1965) and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d (Cook, 1970; F r a n k e l & B a r r e t t , 1971; W i l l i a m s , 1971) are among these f a c t o r s . I n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance has been construed as an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r ence v a r i a b l e such as t r u s t , emot iona l openness and d e s i r e to a f f i l i a t e ( H o l l e n d e r , Duke & N o w i c k i , 1973). Much of the e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h i s v e i n has focussed on the development of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r ences i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance (Hol lender e t a l . , 1973; Long & Henderson, 1968; W e i n s t e i n , 1965). The research conducted, however, on p e r s o n a l space behav ior i n groups of i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r i n g on p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s which may i n f l u e n c e s p a t i a l behav io r i s not ex t ens ive and the r e s u l t s are i n c o n s i s t e n t (Hayduk, 1978). Purposes of the Study Prev ious research w i t h e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n ( F i s h e r , 196 7) and w i t h dev ian t adolescents (Newman & P o l l a c k , 19 73) has i n d i c a t e d tha t these groups of sub jec t s use l a r g e r p e r s o n a l space d i s t ances than the c o n t r o l o r "normal" groups. The dev ian t and d i s t u r b e d groups i n these s t u d i e s , however, d i s p l a y e d severe problems i n behav io r and t h e i r r e s u l t s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to a r e g u l a r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . There are c h i l d r e n who can f u n c t i o n i n a r e g u l a r c lassroom s e t t i n g but do e x h i b i t behav io r d is turbances to the ex ten t tha t they become l a b e l l e d as "problems" by t h e i r teachers and peers . A purpose of t h i s s tudy was to determine whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to de tec t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between behav io r problems and p e r s o n a l space i n a sample of boys a t t end ing a - 3 -r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l program. C h i l d r e n w i t h behav io r problems are most l i k e l y s i g n a l i n g to the teacher tha t they are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to and coping w i t h some aspect of t h e i r l i v e s . These adjustment problems of ten l e a d to f e e l i n g s of incompetence which i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s s e l f - image (Passow, 1963). Whatever the reasons fo r a c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t y , the behaviors become the message to those he/she i n t e r a c t s w i t h . C h i l d r e n w i t h adjustment problems are of ten unpopular s o c i a l l y and t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s tend to be . low i n comparison to the s e l f - c o n c e p t s of popula r peers (Guinouard & Rych lak , 1962). S t r a t t o n , Tekippe and F l i c k (1973) found tha t h i g h s e l f - c o n c e p t sub jec t s r e q u i r e d l e s s p e r s o n a l space f o r comfortable i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . F r a n k e l and B a r r e t t (1971) repor ted an i nc r ea se i n pe r sona l space requirements as s e l f -esteem decreased i n adu l t s u b j e c t s . A second purpose of the present study was to i n v e s t i g a t e whether these f i n d i n g s h o l d fo r c h i l d r e n . Two d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l space tasks or measures were used i n t h i s s tudy . A f i n a l purpose of t h i s research was to compara t ive ly eva lua te these measurement t echniques . Statement of the Problem The present study measured pe r sona l space d i s tances of boys i n the s i x t h grade w i t h the use o f two s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e , paper and p e n c i l t e s t s . The l e v e l of behav io r problems and s e l f - c o n c e p t of the subjec ts were a l s o assessed i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p these v a r i a b l e s have w i t h pe r sona l space. A comparative e v a l u a t i o n o f the two p e r s o n a l space measures was performed. - 4 -D e f i n i t i o n of Terms S e v e r a l t e c h n i c a l terms p e r t i n e n t to the area of p e r s o n a l space research have a l ready been employed. Before advancing , o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of these terms f o l l o w . 1. P e r s o n a l space i s a p o r t a b l e , expanding and c o n t r a c t i n g area sur rounding an i n d i v i d u a l (Sommer, 1959) which i f i n t r u d e d i n t o arouses d i scomfor t i n the i n d i v i d u a l (Hayduk, 1978). 2. P e r s o n a l s p a c e / s p a t i a l behav io r i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behav io r i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s that r e f l e c t s h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l space c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n v o l v e a c t i v e maintenance of p e r s o n a l space a r ea . S p a t i a l behav io r i s measured e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by b e h a v i o r a l techniques such as measuring a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t op -d i s t ances and by unobt rus ive obse rva t ion or by s imu la t ed pe r sona l space measures such as f e l t board placement and paper and p e n c i l t echn iques . 3. I n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance descr ibes the d i s tances used by an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h another i n d i v i d u a l o r w i t h a group (Ho l l ende r e t a l . , 1973). This term i s narrower than p e r s o n a l space s i n c e an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l d i s t ance r a the r than an area i s i m p l i e d . 4. Proxemics i s the term coined by H a l l (1959, 1963) to def ine human, nonverba l communicative behaviors which are used to s t r u c t u r e p h y s i c a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l space. The term a l so r e f e r s to the f i e l d o f study i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l space. There are s e v e r a l behav iors i n c l u d e d i n the term; however, the only proxemic v a r i a b l e r e l evan t to t h i s study i s d i s t a n c e . 5 . Behav ior problems and any r e l a t e d terms, f o r the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , represent any observable behaviors which are - 5 -i n a p p r o p r i a t e and d i s r u p t i v e i n a r e g u l a r c lassroom environment . Behaviors whose i n t e n s i t y or d u r a t i o n are unusua l ly excess ive are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s term. The Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i -c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (Walker, 1970) was employed i n the present study to assess l e v e l of behav io r problems i n s u b j e c t s . 6. S e l f - c o n c e p t , i n gene ra l , -refers to a pe r son ' s v i ew , a t t i t u d e and f e e l i n g about h i s / h e r s e l f - w o r t h . In t h i s study s e l f - c o n c e p t was measured by the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t Sca le ( P i e r s & H a r r i s , 1969) and by the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le (McDan ie l , 1973) . 7. a) S o c i a l schemata i s a term developed by Kuethe (1962) d e f i n i n g the u n i t forming p r i n c i p l e s used to s t r u c t u r e and organ ize s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n . An example i s the tendency to group s o c i a l s t i m u l i such as women and babies toge the r . b) P e r s o n a l space schemata r e f e r s to the u n i t forming f a c t o r i n s o c i a l pe r cep t i on which organizes p e r c e p t i o n of p r o x i m i t y or p e r s o n a l space p a t t e r n s . For example, i n f i g u r e placement t a s k s , f i g u r e s l a b e l l e d as " f r i e n d s " are p l aced c l o s e r together than " s t r a n g e r s " . Overview of Subsequent Chapters The f i r s t chapter of t h i s t h e s i s presented a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the v a r i o u s areas of p e r s o n a l space research and a statement on the b e a r i n g o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Chapter I I presents a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on developmental r e sea rch , p e r s o n a l space measurement techniques and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r . F o l l o w i n g t h i s review i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the cu r ren t study and the fo rmu la t i on o f research q u e s t i o n s . The t h i r d chapter p rov ides - 6 -methodo log ica l i n f o r m a t i o n . Chapter IV repor t s the r e s u l t s ob ta ined and the f i n a l chapter presents a d i s c u s s i o n on the f i n d i n g s , conc lud ing w i t h recommendations f o r f u r t he r r e sea rch . The B i b l i o g r a p h y of reference m a t e r i a l s f o l l o w s the l a s t chap te r . Succeeding the B i b l i o g r a p h y are the Appendices which con ta in the ques t ionna i r e s and t e s t s employed i n t h i s s tudy . - 7 -CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THE NATURE OF THIS STUDY The l i t e r a t u r e r e l evan t to t h i s s tudy may be c l a s s i f i e d under three broad areas . These a r e : the study of the developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pe r sona l space, the measurement of p e r s o n a l space dimensions and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s tha t have an e f f e c t on s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r . A review o f each of these areas i s p resented , fo l l owed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the nature of the present s tudy . The Developmental L i t e r a t u r e Of the three above mentioned ca tegor i e s of pe r sona l space i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n , developmental research i s the most ex -t e n s i v e . The work of M e i s e l s and Guardo (1969) i s an example of an e m p i r i c a l s tudy d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the developmental aspects of p e r s o n a l space. T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d tha t c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l space decreases w i t h age i n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h oppos i t e - sexed pee r s . With same-sexed peers i n p o s i t i v e a f f e c t c o n d i t i o n s , c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l space i n c r e a s e d . The s h i f t to the use of l e s s space w i t h o p p o s i t e -sexed peers was found to occur i n approximate ly the s i x t h or seventh grade. M e i s e l s and Guardo (1969) a l s o repor ted tha t across a l l grades, females have grea te r p e r s o n a l space d i s tances from both sexes i n nega t ive a f f e c t and f e a r f u l c o n d i t i o n s than males. These f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d to be i n accordance w i t h s o c i a l development and the - 8 -process of s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In a subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n , which examined f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l space schemata of. c h i l d r e n , Guardo and M e i s e l s (1971) repor ted that s p a t i a l usage becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s o c i a l i z e d w i t h age. Two f i n d i n g s supported t h i s sugges t i on . F i r s t , more i d e n t i f i a b l e f ac to r s of s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g were found i n the o l d e r age range of subjec ts (grades 7 to 10) . The second f i n d i n g was the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f a c t o r f o r " c a s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n " i n the o l d e r groups o n l y . This l a t t e r f i n d i n g was more ev iden t i n males than i n females . Guardo and M e i s e l s (19 71) concluded t h a t : . . . s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g tendencies develop i n t o c o n s i s t e n t and c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r u c t u r e d schemata across time and t h i s s chema t i za t ion occurs l a t e r f o r boys than f o r g i r l s . L a s t , s i n c e the present r e s u l t s are i n accord w i t h expec ta t ions based on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g h y p o t h e s e s . . . they p rov ide some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the argument tha t these schemata are i n p a r t s o c i a l l y i n c u l c a t e d p a t t e r n i n g tendencies (p . 1312). The work o f o ther researchers (Bass S W e i n s t e i n , 1971; Pedersen, 1973b; A i e l l o & A i e l l o , 19 74; Le rne r , Karabenick & M e i s e l s , 1975; Lomranz, S h a p i r a , Choresh & G i l a t , 1975; Tennis & Dabbs, 1975) has supported the f i n d i n g s of M e i s e l s and Guardo (1969). I n summary, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e tha t there i s an inc rease i n the use o f space w i t h age. In younger c h i l d r e n , from p re schoo l age to the t h i r d grade, both sexes ma in t a in less^space or are more, i n t i m a t e s p a t i a l l y w i t h same-sexed peers . The i n c r e a s i n g t rend i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance cont inues to the onset of puberty a t which time c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l space approximates adu l t s p a t i a l pa t t e rns ( A i e l l o & A i e l l o , 1974; Tennis & Dabbs, 1975). In about the s i x t h grade, i n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e -sexed peers , both sexes show a decrease i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance - 9 -(Meise l s & Guardo, 1969; Pedersen, 1973b).. This decreas ing t rend i n the use of space has been e x p l a i n e d i n terms of s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g context (Meise l s & Guardo, 1969). These developmental f i n d i n g s c o n s t i t u t e d the b a s i s f o r the s e l e c t i o n of grade s i x males as subjec ts f o r the present s tudy . By the s i x t h grade., boys ' s p a t i a l behav io r i s developed s o c i a l l y i n the d i r e c t i o n o f appropr ia te s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The hos t of s e x u a l d i f f e r ences found i n the above s tud i e s were not d i scussed s i n c e they are i r r e l e v a n t to the purposes of t h i s study which t e s t ed male sub jec t s o n l y . Measurement of P e r s o n a l Space Many s tud i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l space measure a c t u a l p h y s i c a l d i s t ances between people where sub jec t s are e i t h e r approached or asked to approach another person (Dosey & M e i s e l s , 1969; H a r t n e t t , B a i l e y & Gibson , 1970; F r a n k e l & B a r r e t t , 1971; RawIs, Trego, McGaffey & Rawls , 19 72; Haase & Markey, 19 73; Newman & P o l l a c k , 1973; Tennis & Dabbs, 1975; Greenberg, Aronow & Rauchway, 1977). P e r s o n a l space i s taken to be that d i s t ance which i s comfortable f o r the sub jec t upon approaching another person o r b e i n g approached by another pe r son . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s use unobt rus ive obse rva t ion f o r de te rmining p e r s o n a l space (Bax te r , 1970; A i e l l o & Cooper, 1972; Jones & A i e l l o , 1973; A i e l l o & A i e l l o , 1974; Scherer , 1974; Lomranz, S h a p i r a , Choresh & G i l a t , 1975). U s u a l l y these s t u d i e s employ photographs (Scherer , 1974), h idden measuring guides (Lomranz e t a l . , 1975) or an adapted d i s t ance s c a l e such as H a l l ' s (1963) proxemic n o t a t i o n system ( A i e l l o & Cooper, 19 72; Jones & A i e l l o , 19 73; A i e l l o & A i e l l o , 1974) - 10 -to determine i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e . I t i s not always p o s s i b l e or d e s i r a b l e to use b e h a v i o r a l techniques or unobt rus ive obse rva t ion methods i n pe r sona l space r e sea r ch . Both procedures are complex and of ten i n c l u d e extraneous v a r i a b l e s which cannot be c o n t r o l l e d . For example, i n b e h a v i o r a l s t o p - d i s t a n c e techniques subjec ts are aware tha t t h e i r s p a t i a l behav io r i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . This does not i n f l u e n c e the s i z e o f p e r s o n a l space r a d i c a l l y ( E b e r t s , 1972); n e v e r t h e l e s s , an e f f e c t i s p re sen t . With unobt rus ive o b s e r v a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g s , s e l e c t i o n o f subjec ts and repeated observa t ions are d i f f i c u l t to ca r ry ou t . To overcome some of these problems a number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have designed and cons t ruc ted s imula t ed measures of p e r s o n a l space ( L i t t l e , 1965; Guardo, 1969; Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972; Pedersen, 1973a & b ) . Duke and Nowick i (1972) dev ised the Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le (CID) i n response to L e t t , C l a r k and Al tman ' s (1969) c r i t i c a l review of the area which repor ted the need f o r a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound measuring ins t rument . The CID was cons t ruc ted a f t e r Duke and N o w i c k i ' s i n t e n s i v e review of the e x i s t i n g measurement techniques i n the f i e l d (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972). The CID i s a paper and p e n c i l measure which was d e r i v e d from the body boundary room technique employed by F r a n k e l and B a r r e t t (1971). The t e s t uses a d iagramat ic approach to p e r s o n a l space and c o n s i s t s of a s m a l l c i r c l e i n the center of the page from which e i g h t , 80 m i l l i m e t e r l i n e s emanate (see Appendix D) . Each of the 80 mm r a d i i are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a randomly numbered box or "entrance" from which a s t imu lus f i g u r e approaches the s u b j e c t . The sub jec t imagines h i m / h e r s e l f i n the cent re - 11 -of the diagram, i n the s m a l l c i r c l e , and i n d i c a t e s by marking on the r a d i i where he/she wishes to stop the approach of the imaginary s t imu lus persons desc r ibed by the exper imenter . The d i s t ances between the marks on the r a d i i and the centre of the diagram are measured i n m i l l i m e t e r s to o b t a i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e s . S e v e r a l s t ud i e s have been conducted to assess the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the CID (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972; Duke & K i e b a c h , 1974; V e i t c h , Ge t s inger & A r k k e l i n , 1976). The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d tha t the CID has a h i g h degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and i s a v a l i d measure of i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c i n g . Another s tudy (Greenberg, Aronow & Rauchway, 1977) repor ted tha t the p r o j e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance measure they employed, which was the CID, c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the l i v e measure of d i s t a n c e . These above mentioned r e s u l t s extended to the CID w i t h modi f i ed i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n (Duke & W i l s o n , 1973). Tennis and Dabbs (1975), however, r epor ted a lower than expected c o r r e l a t i o n (pooled w i t h i n grade r = .32) between the i n d i r e c t measure (CID) and the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l measure. Guardo (1966) developed a p e r s o n a l space measure f o r her d i s s e r t a t i o n which employed a s i l h o u e t t e t r a c i n g task to assess i n t e r -pe r sona l d i s t a n c e . This measure i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of Kue the ' s (1962) f e l t f i g u r e placement technique to a paper and p e n c i l t e s t w i t h p r i n t e d f i g u r e s and a moveable s i l h o u e t t e f i g u r e . This t r a c i n g task measure was r e v i s e d s e v e r a l times and used i n subsequent s t u d i e s (Guardo, 1969; Dosey & M e i s e l s , 1969; M e i s e l s & Guardo, 1969; M e i s e l s & Cante r , 1970; Guardo & M e i s e l s , 19 71) . - 12 -The f i n a l r e v i s i o n o f the t e s t c o n s i s t e d of twenty s t imu lus f i g u r e p re sen ta t ions i n the form of a twenty page t e s t b o o k l e t (Guardo & M e i s e l s , 19 71) . The t e s t was d i v i d e d i n t o the four f o l l o w i n g sub-s e c t i o n s : 1) seven p resen ta t ions o f same-sexed peer f i g u r e s , 2) seven p resen ta t ions of oppos i t e - sexed peer f i g u r e s , 3) three p re sen t a t i ons of t h r e e - f i g u r e groups of same-sexed peers , and 4) three p re sen ta t i ons o f t h r e e - f i g u r e groups of oppos i t e - sexed peers . One p r e s e n t a t i o n was dep ic t ed per page. Subjects were to p lace a s e l f - r e f e r e n t , cutout s i l h o u e t t e i n r e l a t i o n to each of the p r i n t e d f i g u r e s and t race i t . The p r i n t e d f i g u r e s were desc r ibed to the sub jec t s by the exper imenter . An example o f the d e s c r i p t i o n f o r one p r i n t e d f i g u r e i s : "This i s your bes t f r i e n d . Where would you be s t and ing?" (Meise l s & Guardo, 1969; 1170). Al though t h i s approach, as a m o d i f i c a t i o n of Keu the ' s t echnique , represented a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n p e r s o n a l space measurement, there are drawbacks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . The technique has l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y and minimal v a l i d i t y data suppo r t i ng i t (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972). There i s a l s o a l a c k of a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s upon which sys t emat i c research cou ld be conducted. F i n a l l y , there i s an absence of a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound measure f o r o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972). A remaining method which belongs to t h i s category of s imu la t ed measures of i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance i s Pedersen ' s P e r s o n a l Space Measure (PPSM). Pedersen (1973a) dev ised a paper and p e n c i l measure w i t h s t andard -i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which i s s i m i l a r to Guardo's t r a c i n g t a sk . A mod i f i ed v e r s i o n of t h i s measure f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n i s c a l l e d the PPSM-V. C h i l d r e n ' s Form (Pedersen, 1973b). This t e s t i s a twenty-four page b o o k l e t w i t h a p r i n t e d o u t l i n e o f a person on each page. A moveable - 13 -p r o f i l e , which the sub jec t i s asked to p l ace as c lo se to the p r i n t e d f i g u r e as i s comfor tab le , i s a t tached to each page. In the f i r s t h a l f of the b o o k l e t the moveable p r o f i l e s represent s e l f - r e f e r e n t f i g u r e s and i n the l a s t h a l f the f i g u r e p r i n t e d on the page represents the s u b j e c t . Pedersen i s the only researcher r e p o r t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y data on h i s measure (Pedersen, 1973a). An acceptab ly h i g h l e v e l of t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was o b t a i n e d . Two s c o r e s , a genera l and a d i r e c t s imu la t ed pe r sona l space s c o r e , were assessed to have both f a c t o r i a l and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . In a f u r t h e r s tudy , Pedersen (19 73c) repor ted tha t s imu la t ed pe r sona l space, measured by the PPSM, and b e h a v i o r a l p e r s o n a l space were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d f o r male s u b j e c t s . For the purposes of the present study a mod i f i ed v e r s i o n of the PPSM-Ch i ld r en ' s Form was employed. The o r i g i n a l measure, which was admin is te red to subjec ts i n d i v i d u a l l y , i s not as p r a c t i c a l t imewise as a group admin i s t e red t e s t . The a l t e r a t i o n s tha t were performed on t h i s t e s t are desc r ibed i n d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter where measuring instruments are d i s c u s s e d . A copy of the measure i s con ta ined i n Appendix E . The present study used the CID and a mod i f i ed v e r s i o n o f the P P S M - C h i l d r e n ' s Form as measures o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e . Such paper and p e n c i l t e s t s have been repor ted as i n f e r i o r to b e h a v i o r a l measures and c o g n i t i v e l y demanding because of t h e i r r e l i a n c e on s u b j e c t s ' p r o j e c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s (Hayduk, 1978). I t i s not always f e a s i b l e , however, to conduct research tha t employs b e h a v i o r a l t echn iques . For example, i f the research i s to be c a r r i e d out i n a s c h o o l , one must d e a l w i t h the requirement f o r a separate room, the i m p o s i t i o n on s t u d e n t s ' and t eache r s ' - 14 -t ime, the amount of d i s r u p t i o n caused by i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a s s i s t a n t s to pose as va r i ous s t imu lus persons . These f ac to r s are very d i f f i c u l t to contend w i t h unless the research i s conducted i n a c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . E o r these reasons , more research must be. done w i t h s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e t e c h -niques so that they may be improved f o r use i n s e t t i n g s where b e h a v i o r a l techniques are i m p r a c t i c a l . The above review of measurement techniques i n d i c a t e s tha t bo th the CID and the.PPSM c o r r e l a t e acceptab ly w i t h b e h a v i o r a l measures of p e r s o n a l space. These measures. were chosen f o r use i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e s and Pe r sona l Space Numerous s t u d i e s have been conducted to determine the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a r i a t i o n s i n pe r sona l space. The e f f e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y ; however, are s t i l l unc l ea r (Evans & Howard, 1973; Hayduk, 1978). T h e o r e t i c a l l y , there i s an assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l c loseness and p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y . This assumption has been supported by s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Kuethe, 1962; L i t t l e , 1965; W e i n s t e i n , 1965; E i s h e r , 1967; T o l o r , 1968; Guardo, 1969). T o l o r de f ined p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t ance as the d e s i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n a l or d i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l tendencies of an i n d i v i d u a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t ance does not r e f e r to the a c t u a l s p a t i a l behav io r of the pe r son . I n s t ead , i t represents the wish o f the i n d i v i d u a l to a s s o c i a t e w i t h or d i s a s s o c i a t e from another person ( T o l o r , 1968 and 1969). The methods used to measure p s y c h o l o g i c a l c loseness are - 15 -d i f f e r e n t than those used f o r measuring p e r s o n a l space. Kue the ' s (1962) s o c i a l schemata technique i s the most w i d e l y used measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c lo senes s . This i s b a s i c a l l y a f e l t f i g u r e placement technique which d i s p l a y s f i g u r e s on a f e l t board and r equ i r e s sub jec t s to r ep lace the f i gu re s a f t e r b e i n g exposed to the board f o r a few seconds. Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s measuring p s y c h o l o g i c a l c loseness used t h i s technique (Weins t e in , 1965; F i s h e r , 1967) or m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f i t ( L i t t l e , 1963; Guardo, 1966; T o l o r , 1968 and 1969). Research i n v e s t i g a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c loseness i s cons idered t a n g e n t i a l to the i s s u e of p e r s o n a l space and i s not d i scussed i n d e t a i l . A number of these s tud i e s are c i t e d , however, where r e l e v a n t . Research d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p e r s o n a l space and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s not e x t e n s i v e . The r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s that have been conducted are g e n e r a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t or c o n f l i c t i n g and f u r t h e r research i s needed (Evans & Howard, 1973). The few s tud i e s which are r e l evan t to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n that they examined r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l space, dev ian t behav io r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s e l f - c o n c e p t , are presented n e x t . A study by Newman and P o l l a c k (19 73) i n v e s t i g a t e d a c t u a l p e r s o n a l space behav io r i n dev ian t adolescent boys and "normals" . Both groups of sub jec t s were of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e but underach iev ing academ-i c a l l y . Both o f the groups were e n r o l l e d i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . The dev ian t group was i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l , a c t i n g - o u t type problems and the normals , who were not m a n i f e s t i n g b e h a v i o r a l problems, were i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r unde rach iev ing . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d tha t the dev ian t group of boys r e q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r p e r s o n a l - 16 -space than the normal group. F i s h e r (1967) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s to those repor ted by Newman and P o l l a c k (1973) . Her subjec ts were d i s t u r b e d boys i n s p e c i a l c l a s ses at the elementary l e v e l and boys from r e g u l a r elementary c l a s s e s . The d i s t u r b e d boys p l aced s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r d i s t ances between f e l t human f i gu re s than the normal group. Her measure of d i s t a n c e , however, was more a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c loseness measure, r a t h e r than a p e r s o n a l space measure. F ind ings that are i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those mentioned above were repor ted by T o l o r (1968). H i s measure o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance was an adap ta t ion of Kue the ' s (1962) f i g u r e replacement technique and not a d i r e c t p e r s o n a l space measure. T o l o r ' s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d tha t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the replacement d i s t ances f o r the e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n as compared to the non -d i s tu rbed group ( T o l o r , 1968). The research f i n d i n g s of Newman and P o l l a c k (19 73) and F i s h e r (1967) are the source f o r some of the ques t ions i n v e s t i g a t e d by the present s tudy . Newman and P o l l a c k ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was extended to a younger age group of boys f u n c t i o n i n g i n the r e g u l a r c lass room. P e r s o n a l space was measured by paper and p e n c i l t e s t s r a the r than by a b e h a v i o r a l method which Newman and P o l l a c k employed (1973). Booraem, Bodner, Flowers and S a t t e r f i e l d (19 77) conducted a study that can be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h the above mentioned i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . This p a r t i c u l a r study exp lo red p e r s o n a l space d i s t ances of de l inquen t male youths who had committed crimes i n the f o l l o w i n g subca t ego r i e s : aga ins t o ther i n d i v i d u a l s , aga ins t p roper ty a n d . v i c t i m l e s s o f fenses . The pe r sona l space measure employed was a d i r e c t , b e h a v i o r a l s t o p - d i s t a n c e - 17 -technique s i m i l a r to that used by Newman and P o l l a c k (1973). Booraem and h i s a s soc i a t e s (1977) repor ted tha t the p e r s o n a l space r e q u i r e d by sub jec t s who committed crimes aga ins t people was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r than the space r e q u i r e d by sub jec t s who.committed crimes aga ins t p r o p e r t y . Subjects who committed v i c t i m l e s s crimes had pe r sona l space requirements s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than those who committed crimes aga ins t p r o p e r t y . These r e s u l t s can be construed as ex tending Newman and P o l l a c k ' s (1973) f i n d i n g s to a more h o s t i l e and aggress ive sample of sub jec t s i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . F r a n k e l . a n d B a r r e t t ' s (1971) research represents a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t focus on the study of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l space. They conducted a study which i n v e s t i g a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n pe r sona l space as a func t ion of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , s e l f - e s t e e m and r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the approach s t i m u l u s . A b e h a v i o r a l measure of p e r s o n a l space was employed where sub jec t s i n d i c a t e d at what p o i n t they became uncom-f o r t a b l e at the approach of a s t imu lus pe r son . F r a n k e l and B a r r e t t (1971) hypo thes ized tha t h igh s e l f - e s t eem sub jec t s would use s m a l l e r proxemic a reas . This hypothes i s was founded on data from s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e d that h i g h se l f - e s t eem sub jec t s respond to th rea t w i t h d e n i a l whereas low se l f - e s t eem sub jec t s respond w i t h over t e x p r e s s i o n ( F r a n k e l & B a r r e t t , 1971). Some amount of s t r e s s would en te r i n t o c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l spac ing and research on s t r e s s has i n d i c a t e d tha t i t has a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s i n g e f f e c t on p e r s o n a l space (Dosey & M e i s e l s , 1969). Therefore , i t was proposed tha t low se l f - e s t eem sub jec t s would be more r e a c t i v e and express ive towards c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . This hypothes is was conf i rmed. F r a n k e l and B a r r e t t (1971) r epor ted a - 18 -s i g n i f i c a n t i nc rease i n p e r s o n a l space as s e l f - e s t eem decreased. F ind ings r epor ted by S t r a t t o n , Tekippe and F l i c k (1973) support the r e s u l t s of F r a n k e l and B a r r e t t (1971). S t r a t t o n , Tekippe and F l i c k (19 73) measured a c t u a l p e r s o n a l space behav io r of subjec ts r a t ed h i g h , middle and low s e l f - c o n c e p t on the Tennessee Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d tha t h i g h s e l f - c o n c e p t s u b j e c t s , when approaching .a s t imu lus person , had s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s tances than the two other groups ( S t r a t t o n , e t a l . , 1973). Two s t u d i e s conducted by Guardo (1966; 1969) ob ta ined r e s u l t s c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h those of S t r a t t o n - a n d h i s a s soc i a t e s (19 73) . Her subjec ts were c h i l d r e n subd iv ided i n t o h igh and low s e l f - c o n c e p t groups whose p e r s o n a l space was measured by a s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e s i l h o u e t t e t r a c i n g task . In he r d i s s e r t a t i o n (Guardo, 1966), she r epor ted no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l space and the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e of s e l f -concept . I n a subsequent study Guardo (1969) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence on the p e r s o n a l space task o f the two s e l f - c o n c e p t groups. Al though Dosey and M e i s e l s (1969) r epor ted tha t s t r e s s has an e f f e c t on p e r s o n a l space, t h e i r s tudy f a i l e d to detec t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between pe r sona l space and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . The p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s they i n v e s t i g a t e d were anx ie ty and body-image boundary d e f i n i t e n e s s as measured by the Rorschach. A b e h a v i o r a l measure, a s i l h o u e t t e t r a c i n g task and two ques t i onna i r e s were used to measure pe r sona l space . T h e i r r e s u l t s d i d not i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l space as measured by the three exper imen ta l methods (Dosey & M e i s e l s , 1969). A s tudy conducted by Sanders (1976) r epor t s r e s u l t s tha t are - 19 -i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those of Dosey and M e i s e l s (1969). Sanders i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between pe r sona l space and body-image boundary d e f i n i t e -ness as measured by the Holtzman I n k b l o t Technique (HIT) . The CID (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972) paper and p e n c i l t e s t was used as the p e r s o n a l space measure. Sanders (1976) p r e d i c t e d that sub jec t s s c o r i n g h i g h on the B a r r i e r s c a l e , would have grea te r p e r s o n a l space d i s tances i n t h r ea t en ing s i t u a t i o n s than low B a r r i e r subjec ts s i n c e h i g h B a r r i e r i n d i v i d u a l s tend to be o v e r l y concerned w i t h s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . Sanders ' r e s u l t s supported t h i s p r e d i c t i o n . He obta ined s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between pe r sona l space and body-image boundary d e f i n i t e n e s s (Sanders , 1976). Another i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Greenberg, Aronow & Rauchway, 1977) repor ts r e s u l t s tha t complete ly c o n t r a d i c t those of Sanders (19 76) . Greenberg and h i s a s soc i a t e s (1977) repor ted s i g n i f i c a n t nega t ive c o r r e l a t i o n s between body-image boundary d e f i n i t e n e s s and p e r s o n a l space u s ing the HIT and the CID as Sanders (19 76) had. The p r e d i c t i o n o f a nega t ive c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s case was based on p rev ious research which found tha t B a r r i e r score r e l a t e d to i n t e r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as r a t ed a b i l i t y to communicate w i t h others (Greenberg, e t a l . , 1977). These f i n d i n g s r epor ted by Greenberg and h i s a s soc i a t e s p a r t i a l l y support the r e s u l t s of Frede , Gautney and Bax te r (1968). This l a t t e r study p r e d i c t e d tha t sub jec t s s c o r i n g h i g h on the HIT B a r r i e r s c a l e would p l ace c l o s e r d i s t ances between f i g u r e s than low b a r r i e r sub jec t s (Frede , e t a l . , 1968). The p r e d i c t i o n was founded on the assumption tha t h igh b a r r i e r sub jec t s shou ld be l e s s threatened by c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s s i n c e boundary d e f i n i t e n e s s i s con-s t rued as an e s s e n t i a l face t of s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n . S e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n - 20 -r e l a t e s to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i m s e l f as an ob jec t and i s a l s o connected to how he/she r ece ives i n f o r m a t i o n from and responds to h i s / h e r environment (Frede, e t a l . , 1968). The r e s u l t s o f the study c l e a r l y supported the p r e d i c t i o n made by Frede and her c o l l e a g u e s . This i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, i s cons idered t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to pe r sona l space research s i n c e the i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t ance measure used was the Make a P i c t u r e S tory (MAPS) t e s t which r e q u i r e d sub jec t s to rep lace f i g u r e s a f t e r exposure to them (Frede, et a l . , 1968). Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review The developmental l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s tha t the e f f e c t s of age on p e r s o n a l space has r e c e i v e d . f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l and c o n s i s t e n t suppor t . The research on measurement o f p e r s o n a l space suggests that b e h a v i o r a l methods such as the s t o p - d i s t a n c e technique are p r e f e r a b l e to the o ther methods. P r o j e c t i v e , paper and p e n c i l t e s t s are cons idered i n f e r i o r and f u r t h e r research i s needed to improve t h i s type o f measure. The research on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and pe r sona l space i s e q u i v o c a l to say the l e a s t . The r e s u l t s are c o n f l i c t i n g and i n c o n c l u s i v e . The Nature of This Study Hayduk's (19 78) e v a l u a t i v e overview of p e r s o n a l space research suggests tha t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of causes and consequences of p e r s o n a l space v a r i a t i o n s . Fur thermore, Hayduk a s se r t s tha t the l a c k of a t h e o r e t i c a l framework to guide i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s and i n a t t e n t i o n to measurement i s sues are l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s i n the study of p e r s o n a l space. In h i s - 21 -overview Hayduk acknowledges the d i f f i c u l t y i n overcoming the d e f i c i e n c y i n the t h e o r e t i c a l aspect of the a rea . The s e c t i o n i n h i s paper d e a l i n g w i t h t heo r i e s of pe r sona l space, however, appears incomple t e . Hayduk d ismisses Duke and N o w i c k i ' s (1972) s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory as a "hypo thes i s" w i thou t r ev i ewing a subsequent a r t i c l e by Duke (19 77) which e l abora tes t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n . P ropos ing a theory of pe r sona l space i n a d d i t i o n to those tha t e x i s t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study but an attempt i s made to extend some p rev ious f i n d i n g s and to c l a r i f y some o f the i s sues r a i s e d by research which remain u n s e t t l e d . The f o l l o w i n g research ques t ions were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present s tudy : 1. I s there a c o r r e l a t i o n between pe r sona l space d i s t ance (measured by the a l t e r e d PPSM-CF and by the CID) and behav io r problems (as r a t ed .by the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t ) ? 2 . Do s e l f - c o n c e p t scores (obta ined by use o f the P i e r s -H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t Sca le and the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le ) c o r r e l a t e w i t h pe r sona l space scores? 3. What i s the l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n between s p a t i a l d i s t ances measured by the two p e r s o n a l space tasks? Assumptions U n d e r l y i n g This Research Male subjec ts were s e l e c t e d over females on the b a s i s of the assumption tha t observable behav io r problems are more frequent i n boys . I t was a l s o assumed tha t sub jec t s were f u n c t i o n i n g at a l e v e l where v e r b a l t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s and t e s t i tems cou ld be understood wi thou t - 22 -d i f f i c u l t y . D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study The present research i n v o l v e d grade s i x males only between the ages of e leven yea r s , f i v e months and t h i r t e e n y e a r s , e i g h t months. These boys were a t t end ing r e g u l a r c l a s se s i n three elementary schools l o c a t e d i n the Eas t Vancouver a rea . East Vancouver i s f a i r l y r ep resen ta -t i v e of lower soc io-economic s t r a t a and the d i s t r i c t s i n which these schools are l o c a t e d i n c l u d e s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l groups. These groups, i n order of s i z e , a re : European, which i s the l a r g e s t , O r i e n t a l , and East I n d i a n . These schools are s i t u a t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas . Importance of the Study Research i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s which may i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l space has focussed l a r g e l y on a d u l t s . S tudies i n t h i s area w i t h c h i l d r e n have used c l i n i c a l samples where the d i s tu rbance i n the exper imen ta l groups was severe enough to separate the c h i l d r e n out of r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . A l s o , much of t h i s research has been t a n g e n t i a l to p e r s o n a l space r a the r than s p e c i f i c to i t s i n c e i t i n v e s t i g a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t ance ( F i s h e r , 1967; T o l o r , 1968 and 1969) r a t h e r than a c t u a l p h y s i c a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e s . I t i s necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e p e r s o n a l space and v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g i t i n the r e g u l a r c lassroom so. tha t more i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to educa to rs . There are c h i l d r e n i n many c l a s se s who are able to f u n c t i o n y e t are the centre of a l o t of problems w i t h i n the c l a s s . Can the s p a t i a l behav io r of these c h i l d r e n , who e x h i b i t problem b e h a v i o r s , be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from tha t of the adjus ted c h i l d r e n ? I t i s important to f i n d out whether such r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be de tec ted i n a - 23 -r e g u l a r s c h o o l sample. P e r s o n a l space i s an observable phenomenon. Teachers see t h e i r s tudents i n many types of i n t e r a c t i o n s day i n and day out f o r extended per iods of t ime . I f p e r s o n a l space, behav io r problems and s e l f - c o n c e p t are r e l a t e d , teachers cou ld observe and become aware of any anomalies i n pe r sona l space b e h a v i o r . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n to obser -v a t i o n of o ther v a r i a b l e s tha t i n d i c a t e adjustment problems, would p rov ide the teacher w i t h important i n f o r m a t i o n i f he/she suspects that a c h i l d may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l h e l p . This f i e l d of pe r sona l space research, i s r e l a t i v e l y new and many of the f i n d i n g s are. i n c o n s i s t e n t . Any r igo rous i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f pe r sona l space and v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g i t w i l l add to the body of work tha t has been done. F u r t h e r research may he lp to c l a r i f y some of the many ques t ions r a i s e d by p rev ious i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . - 24 -CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY The me thodo log ica l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the present s tudy are s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s chap te r . Subjects A t o t a l o f 53 boys served as sub jec t s i n t h i s s t udy . Grade s i x males , a t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r c l a s ses i n one of three East Vancouver elementary s c h o o l s , were t e s t e d . The ages of the boys ranged from e leven y e a r s , f i v e months to t h i r t e e n y e a r s , e i gh t months; the mean age b e i n g 12.1066 years w i t h a s tandard d e v i a t i o n of 0.4586 y e a r s . P a r e n t a l consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study was ob ta ined f o r the boys p r i o r to the onset of t e s t i n g . There were f i v e broad c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . i d e n t i f i e d which sub jec t s belonged t o . These groups were: A n g l o , C o n t i n e n t a l A s i a n , C o n t i n e n t a l European, Eas t I nd i an and O r i e n t a l . The Anglo group was comprised of sub jec t s w i t h e i t h e r B r i t i s h , I r i s h or S c o t t i s h backgrounds. One sub jec t w i t h a Russ ian background and one w i t h U k r a i n i a n h e r i t a g e formed the C o n t i n e n t a l A s i a n group. Subjects w i t h F rench , German, I t a l i a n and Scandinavian backgrounds became the C o n t i n e n t a l European group. Indians from I n d i a and F i j i formed the Eas t I nd i an group. The O r i e n t a l group was Chinese w i t h the excep t ion of one Japanese s u b j e c t . D e s c r i p t i o n of Measuring Instruments The ins t ruments used i n the present s tudy were the Walker - 25 -Problem Behav io r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (Walker , 1970), the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le (McDanie l , 1973), the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f -Concept Sca le ( P i e r s & H a r r i s , 1969), the Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972) and a mod i f i ed v e r s i o n of Pedersen ' s Pe r sona l Space Measure - C h i l d r e n ' s Form (Pedersen, 1973b). Subjects were r a t ed by t h e i r teachers on the f i r s t two measures. The remaining three t e s t s were completed by the s u b j e c t s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of each of the f i v e ins t ruments f o l l o w s . 1. The Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (WPBIC) The WPBIC, developed by Walker (1970), was employed i n the s tudy to ob t a in the s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s on the v a r i a b l e behav io r problems. This i s a 50 - i t em c h e c k l i s t designed to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h b e h a v i o r a l problems a t the elementary s choo l l e v e l . There are f i v e f ac to r s tha t the c h e c k l i s t measures. These f ac to r s a r e : a c t i n g out , w i t h d r a w a l , d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y , d i s t u r b e d peer r e l a t i o n s and immatu r i t y . The f i v e s c a l e scores are added together to o b t a i n the t o t a l s c o r e . When the WPBIC i s used f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes a boy i s c l a s s i f i e d as d i s t u r b e d i f he r ece ives a t o t a l score o f 22 o r h i g h e r . In the present s t udy . the c h e c k l i s t was not used as a d i a g n o s t i c ins t rument and there fore the scores were not g iven d i a g n o s t i c i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s . The c h e c k l i s t was used to assess the r e l a t i v e l e v e l of p rob l ema t i c behav io r o f a l l the boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t udy . The c lassroom teachers , who are cons idered the most q u a l i f i e d r a t e r s of t h i s ins t rument (Walker , 1970), completed the c h e c k l i s t f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i n g s tuden t s . Us ing a Kuder -Richardson method, Walker (1970) repor ted a s p l i t -- 26 -h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y es t imate of .98 f o r the c h e c k l i s t . Cont ras ted groups v a l i d i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l and a b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of .68 was computed between c h e c k l i s t scores and c r i t e r i o n s c o r e s . The c r i t e r i o n scores were based on three independent c r i t e r i a of behav io r d i s t u rbance . For a copy of t h i s ins t rument r e f e r to Appendix A . 2 . The I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le The I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le (McDanie l , 1973) i s a 30- i tem s c a l e designed to be r a t ed by t eachers . The s c a l e i s used to assess s e l f - c o n c e p t as i n f e r r e d from behav io r manifes ted i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . Each of the 30 statements or i tems are r a t ed on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . The c i r c l e d numbers, i n each column are added up and the sum of these column t o t a l s y i e l d s the t o t a l s c o r e . This i n f e r r e d s e l f - c o n c e p t score i s construed as a p o i n t on a continuum between 30 and 150, w i t h 30 r e p r e s e n t i n g a low (or s o c i a l l y undes i rab le ) and 150 r e p r e s e n t i n g a h igh ( p o s i t i v e ) concept of s e l f (McDanie l , 1973). This s c a l e was one of the instruments used to assess the s e l f -concepts of the s u b j e c t s . Examiner r e l i a b i l i t y , t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y were analyzed f o r the s c a l e . Amount of agreement between examiners was repor ted to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Teacher r a t i n g s , however, were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than counse lor r a t i n g s . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r i t e m con-s i s t e n c y were both s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l r e f l e c t i n g a h i g h degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was a l s o demonstrated w i t h s i x months between t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . To - 27 -assess cons t ruc t v a l i d i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t scores were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s . Language IQ, Non-Language IQ and T o t a l IQ c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e l f - c o n c e p t scores at the .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Se l f - concep t scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .05 l e v e l w i t h A r i t h m e t i c Achievement and T o t a l Achievement (McDanie l , 1973). See Appendix B f o r a copy of t h i s s c a l e . 3. The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . This s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d , 80- i tem s e l f -repor t ins t rument designed f o r c h i l d r e n ( P i e r s & H a r r i s , 1969). The sub jec t i s r e q u i r e d to c i r c l e e i t h e r a yes o r no response f o r each of the e igh ty s ta tements . A s c o r i n g key i s r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n the t o t a l s c o r e . This score represents an o v e r a l l . l e v e l o f s e l f -concept or a t t i t u d e towards s e l f . A h i g h t o t a l score i s eva lua ted i n terms of h igh s e l f esteem. This ins t rument was used f o r research purposes s o l e l y and scores were not i n t e r p r e t e d f o r d i a g n o s t i c l a b e l l i n g . There .are a l s o s i x . f a c to r s measured by the s c a l e f o r which c l u s t e r scores a r e . o b t a i n e d w i t h the use of the k e y . These s i x f a c to r s a re : b e h a v i o r , i n t e l l e c t u a l and s c h o o l s t a t u s , p h y s i c a l appearance and a t t r i b u t e s , a n x i e t y , p o p u l a r i t y and happiness or s a t i s f a c t i o n . These c l u s t e r scores are not f a c t o r scores which r e c e i v e we igh t ings acco rd ing to the l o a d i n g on the f ac to r s ( P i e r s & H a r r i s , 1969). This s c a l e was used as the second measure of s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t s i n the present s tudy . The Kuder -Richardson Formula 21 was used i n the o r i g i n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n study to assess i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The c o e f f i c i e n t s computed ranged from .78 to .90,• The Spearman-Brown formula was - 28 -a p p l i e d as a check f o r h a l f of the grades s i x and ten sample; the r e s u l t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s were . 9 0 f o r grade s i x and . 8 7 f o r grade t en . Wing ( 1 9 6 6 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y on the -r e v i s e d 8 0 - i t e m s c a l e which was used i n t h i s s tudy . She repor ted t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f . 7 7 f o r both a two month and four month i n t e r v a l between t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . Content v a l i d i t y was b u i l t i n t o the s c a l e as i t was be ing dev ised by d e f i n i n g the area to be measured. Fac to r s i n c l u d e d s i g n i f i c a n t load ings f o r i tems from s e v e r a l of J e r s i l d ' s ( 1 9 5 2 ) ca tegor i e s w i t h an emphasis on the two ca t egor i e s "Jus t Me, M y s e l f " and " P e r s o n a l i t y , Charac te r , Inner Resources , Emot iona l Tendencies" . These two ca tegor i e s are cons idered to be a good r e f l e c t i o n o f genera l s e l f - c o n c e p t . A c o r r e l a t i o n of . 6 8 was r epor ted f o r compared scores on the P i e r s - H a r r i s w i t h scores on L i p s i t t ' s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . Cons t ruc t v a l i d i t y was a l s o assessed by c o r r e l a t i n g scores on the P i e r s - H a r r i s w i t h the Big .Prob lems s c a l e of the SRA J u n i o r Inven to ry . A c o r r e l a t i o n of - . 6 4 was ob ta ined f o r the B i g Problems checked and - . 4 8 was the c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h H e a l t h Problems. C o r r e l a t i o n s between the P i e r s - H a r r i s and teacher and peer r a t i n g s of s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e behav io r were s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l . Appendix C conta ins a copy of t h i s s c a l e . 4 . The Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance Sca le (CID) The CID (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972) i s a s i n g l e sheet , paper - 29 -and p e n c i l measure of p e r s o n a l space. Subjects were asked to imagine themselves i n the s m a l l c i r c l e at the cent re o f the diagram where the e i g h t r a d i i i n t e r s e c t . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e i g h t s t imulus persons a s soc i a t ed w i t h . t h e "en t rances" and r a d i i were then desc r ibed to s u b j e c t s , one f i g u r e a t a t ime , i n a random orde r . A f t e r a s t imu lus f i g u r e was d e s c r i b e d , each sub jec t marked on the appropr ia te r ad ius the p o i n t where he wished tha t p a r t i c u l a r s t imulus to s top i t s approach. The sub jec t p l aced . the mark where he f e l t comfortable w i t h the d i s t ance between h i m s e l f and the desc r ibed f i g u r e . The CID i n the present study was used to measure f r o n t a l approach d i s t ances only f o r e i g h t d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l u s . p e r s o n s . The t e s t i s a l so used f o r measuring a s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l space from the e i g h t d i f f e r e n t angles which y i e l d s p e r s o n a l space a r ea . For the purposes o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n subjec ts were i n s t r u c t e d to imagine themselves f a c i n g each of the entrances from which the f i gu re s approached them. The d i s t ances from the marks t o the cen t e rpo in t were measured i n m i l l i m e t e r s to ob t a in s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r -pe r sona l d i s tances f o r the e i g h t s t imulus f i g u r e s . The s t imu lus persons presented to the subjec ts i n t h i s study are p r o v i d e d - i n Table 1. . A f t e r a s t imu lus f i g u r e had been desc r ibed the sub jec t s p l aced t h e i r marks on the rad ius connected to the appropr ia te en t rance . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s were conducted by Duke and Nowick i (19 72) to The f i g u r a l l ayou t of t h i s t e s t was desc r ibed i n the measurement s e c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e r ev iew. - 30 -Table 1 CID St imulus Persons and T h e i r D e s c r i p t i o n s E n t - R e l a t i o n -rance sh ip S t imulus D e s c r i p t i o n Q W M Pi Male Peer Female Peer A d u l t Male A d u l t Female This i s a boy your age. know h im. He i s a good f r i e n d o f y o u r s . You This i s a g i r l your age. You know h e r . She i s a good f r i e n d of y o u r s . This i s a man who you know. He i s a f r i e n d of y o u r s . This i s a woman who you know. She i s a f r i e n d of y o u r s . Pi w o 13 <! Pi H Male Peer Female Peer A d u l t Male A d u l t Female This i s a boy your age. You have never seen h i m . He i s a complete s t r ange r to y o u . This i s a g i r l your age. You have never seen h e r . She i s a complete s t r ange r to y o u . This i s a man who you have never seen be fo re . He i s a complete s t r ange r to you . This i s a woman who you have never seen b e f o r e . She i s a complete s t r ange r to y o u . - 31 -assess the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the CID. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r male c o l l e g e s tudents were .86 f o r same-sexed s t i m u l i and .75 f o r oppos i te - sexed s t i m u l i . For elementary s c h o o l s tudents the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were on ly m i n i m a l l y accep t ab l e . For males , t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .45 f o r same-sexed and .40 f o r oppos i te - sexed s t i m u l i . The i n t e r v a l between t e s t admin-i s t r a t i o n s , however, was four months and the authors concluded that most of these c h i l d r e n were i n the t r a n s i t i o n stage around puber ty which M e i s e l s and Guardo (1969) repor ted i n t h e i r developmental work. I t was suggested that t h i s developmental f a c t o r lowered the r e l i a b i l i t y e s t ima te s . These c h i l d r e n were a l s o admin i s t e red the C r a n d a l l Sca le to assess the p o t e n t i a l confounding f a c t o r of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . The ob ta ined c o r r e l a t i o n s between CID scores and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Cons t ruc t v a l i d i t y was assessed by c o r r e l a t i n g CID responses to a c t u a l p r e f e r r e d b e h a v i o r a l d i s t a n c e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r epor t ed from two s t u d i e s a s ses s ing t h i s ranged from .65 (same-sexed) to .71 (opposi te-sexed) f o r male and female subjec ts and .83 and .84 f o r same- and oppos i t e - sex r e s p e c t i v e l y . S e v e r a l o ther i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of cons t ruc t v a l i d i t y a l l r epor ted s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (Duke & N o w i c k i , 1972). I t was concluded tha t the CID i s a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure of i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e . I t i s a t e s t tha t i s easy to admin i s t e r to a wide age range and i s easy to s c o r e . Refer to Appendix D f o r a copy of the CID. - 32 -5 . The Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure - C h i l d r e n ' s Form,(PPSM-CF) The o r i g i n a l PPSM-CF, developed by Pedersen (1973b), was modi f i ed f o r use i n the present s tudy . The u n a l t e r e d form of the t e s t i s d i scussed f i r s t f o l l owed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the mod i f i ed v e r s i o n . O r i g i n a l V e r s i o n of the PPSM-CF The PPSM-CF i s a 24 page b o o k l e t o f h o r i z o n t a l l y p l a c e d , 8 :1 /2" x 11" pages. There are separate forms o f the t e s t f o r males and females. On the l e f t hand s i d e of each page of the b o o k l e t there i s a p r i n t e d o u t l i n e of a pe r son . These p r i n t e d f i g u r e s are s t and ing on a l i n e which extends approximate ly 170 m i l l i m e t e r s to the r i g h t of each of them. In the f i r s t h a l f o f the b o o k l e t the p r i n t e d p r o f i l e s represent a man, a woman, a boy and a g i r l . Each o f these f i g u r e s i s p r i n t e d f a c i n g l e f t , f a c i n g f ron t and f a c i n g r i g h t . The second h a l f of the t e s t has three se t s of four f i gu re s each, p r i n t e d on the l e f t s i d e o f the pages. The f i r s t se t of four f i g u r e s has a boy ( i n the v e r s i o n f o r males) f a c i n g r i g h t . The second se t has the boy f a c i n g f ront and f o r the t h i r d se t the boy i s f a c i n g l e f t . These three se t s o f f i gu re s represent the s e l f or the sub jec t f o r t h i s h a l f of the b o o k l e t . At tached to the top of each page of the b o o k l e t i s a moveable p r o f i l e . These p r o f i l e s are to be p l aced on the l i n e s ex tend ing from the s t a t i o n a r y f i gu re s throughout the b o o k l e t . For the f i r s t h a l f of the b o o k l e t the moveable p r o f i l e s are s e l f - r e f e r e n t f i g u r e s . In the v e r s i o n f o r male s u b j e c t s , these moveable f i gu re s are boys - 33 -f a c i n g l e f t . Fo r the second h a l f of the t e s t the moveable p r o f i l e s represent a man, a woman, a boy and a g i r l , a l l f a c i n g l e f t . There are three of each of these f i g u r e s f o r approaching the s t a t i o n a r y s e l f - r e f e r e n t which i s f a c i n g i n three d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the PPSM-CF i s admin is te red i n d i v i d u a l l y . Subjects are i n s t r u c t e d to pre tend tha t the des ignated s e l f - r e f e r e n t f i g u r e s , whether s t a t i o n a r y or moveable, are themselves . The o ther s t imu lus f i gu re s are desc r ibed as ' a man ' , ' a woman 1, ' a boy your age' and ' a g i r l your a g e ' . Subjects are to p lace the moveable p r o f i l e s (which have adhesive backings) on the l i n e s ex tend ing from the s t a t i o n a r y - f i g u r e s at d i s t ances that are comfortable f o r them. These d i s t ances are then measured to the neares t m i l l i m e t e r to o b t a i n the four subscores f o r the ca tegor i e s man, woman, boy and g i r l . This o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f the. PPSM-CF, desc r ibed above, was n e c e s s a r i l y a l t e r e d f o r the present s tudy . S ince only one-quar ter of the t e s t b o o k l e t and only one moveable p r o f i l e was made a v a i l a b l e to the author , s e v e r a l changes were made so that the t e s t cou ld be used. M o d i f i e d V e r s i o n of the PPSM-CF (APPSM-CF) No a d u l t f i g u r e s were present i n the p o r t i o n o f the t e s t made a v a i l a b l e ; t h e r e f o r e , the boy f a c i n g f ron t and g i r l f a c i n g f r o n t were des ignated as the adu l t p r o f i l e s . Two c a t e g o r i e s , a same-sexed peer group and an oppos i t e - sexed peer group, were added to the t e s t . These two ca tegor ies were present i n Guardo's measure (Me i se l s & Guardo, 1969) as important v a r i a b l e s , but were not i n c l u d e d i n the - 34 -PPSM-CF. The peer groups added to t h i s t e s t were cons t ruc ted w i t h the f i g u r e s from the PPSM-CF. The PPSM-CF d i d not desc r ibe the f i g u r e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p to the sub jec t as Guardo's measure d i d . Therefore , i n the APPSM—CF, sub jec t s marked d i s t ances f o r s t imu lus f i g u r e s l a b e l l e d s t rangers and f r i e n d s . Moveable p r o f i l e s of boys f a c i n g l e f t were made from l i g h t -we igh t , wh i t e cardboard by the au thor . These f i g u r e s were the same as those i n the o r i g i n a l t e s t ; however, they d i d not have adhesive back ings . In s t ead , an i n v e r t e d ' V ' was cut i n t o the cardboard at the toe of the f i g u r e where subjec ts p l aced a p e n c i l mark a f t e r they, had p o s i t i o n e d the p r o f i l e at a d e s i r e d d i s t ance from the s t a t i o n a r y f i g u r e . Every sub jec t was g iven one p r o f i l e o n l y , of a boy f a c i n g l e f t , which served as the s e l f - r e f e r e n t f i g u r e throughout the t e s t . In the a l t e r e d v e r s i o n t h e r e f o r e , sub jec t s were approaching s t imu lus f i g u r e s w i t h t h e i r s e l f ^ r e f e r e n t f i g u r e , but were not b e i n g approached by o ther moveable p r o f i l e s . Dis tances were measured from the toe of the s t a t i o n a r y f i g u r e t o the p e n c i l mark (toe of the moveable f i g u r e ) i n m i l l i m e t e r s . The APPSM-CF was admin is te red to subjec ts i n groups r a the r than i n d i v i d u a l l y . Each sub jec t was g iven a ten page b o o k l e t and one moveable p r o f i l e . The s e l f - r e f e r e n t p r o f i l e was e x p l a i n e d to the sub jec t s as i n the o r i g i n a l t e s t . The exper imenter de sc r i bed the s t a t i o n a r y f i g u r e s to the sub jec t s as they worked through the b o o k l e t . These d e s c r i p t i o n s were the same as those used i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n ; however, a statement denot ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the - 35 -f i g u r e to the sub jec t was added to each s t imulus The boys worked through the t e s t b o o k l e t once, marking d i s t ances f o r f i g u r e s desc r ibed as s t r a n g e r s . They were i n s t r u c t e d to l a b e l these p e n c i l marks .wi th an ' S ' f o r the s t r ange r ca tegory . Then, sub jec t s went through the t e s t aga in marking d i s tances f o r the same f igu re s which were now desc r ibed as f r i e n d s . The marks p r e v i o u s l y made fo r s t r angers were a v a i l a b l e to sub jec t s as re ference p o i n t s when i n d i c a t i n g d i s t ances from f r i ends except f o r the peer group ca tegor i e s of which there were separate copies f o r s t r angers and f r i e n d s . Table 2 l i s t s the s t imu lus p r o f i l e s of t h i s t e s t , and t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s , i n the order they were presented to s u b j e c t s . Pedersen (1973a & e) a s s e s s e d . t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , f a c t o r i a l v a l i d i t y and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r the a d u l t v e r s i o n of h i s t e s t , the PPSM. These analyses were not conducted w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s form of the PPSM. Pedersen (1973a) repor ted t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .51 to .91 f o r s e l f - s t a t i o n a r y items and from .64 to .90 f o r s e l f moving i t ems . T h e s e . r e l i a b i l i t i e s are cons idered acceptab ly h i g h . Content v a l i d i t y was measured us ing f a c t o r a n a l y s i s which i d e n t i f i e d four f a c t o r s . Two s c o r e s , a genera l s imu la t ed pe r sona l space score (Fac tor . I) and a d i r e c t s imu la t ed p e r s o n a l space score (Fac to r IV) were repor ted to have both f a c t o r i a l and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . The p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t i e s of Fac to r s I and I V , w i t h a b e h a v i o r a l measure of pe r sona l space (where sub jec t s were aware that p e r s o n a l space was b e i n g measured) were .32 and .41 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both of these v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t - 36 -Table 2 L i s t of S t imulus F igures and T h e i r D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the APPSM-CF St imulus „ . ^ . D e s c r i p t i o n F igures Male Peer Female Peer Adu l t Male A d u l t Female Male Peer ( f a c i n g l e f t ) Female Peer ( f a c i n g l e f t ) Peer Group (same-sexed) Peer Group (oppos i t e -sexed) This i s a boy your age. You have never seen h im, he i s a complete s t r anger to you . This i s a g i r l your age. You have never seen h e r , she i s a complete s t r ange r to you . This i s a man you have never seen b e f o r e . He i s a complete s t r anger to you . This i s a woman you have never seen b e f o r e . She i s a complete s t r ange r to you . D e s c r i p t i o n same as f o r boy, above. D e s c r i p t i o n same as f o r g i r l , above. This i s a group of boys your age. You have never seen them, they are complete s t rangers to y o u . This i s a group of g i r l s your age. You have never seen them, they are complete s t rangers to you . Male Peer Female Peer This i s a boy your age. He i s a good f r i e n d of y o u r s . This i s a g i r l your age. She i s a good f r i e n d of y o u r s . A d u l t Male This i s a man who you know w e l l . He i s a f r i e n d . - 37 -Table 2 Continued S t imulus F igu res D e s c r i p t i o n A d u l t Female This i s a woman who you know w e l l . She i s a f r i e n d . Male Peer ( f a c i n g l e f t ) Female Peer ( f a c i n g l e f t ) Peer Group (same-sexed) Peer Group ( o p p o s i t e -sexed) D e s c r i p t i o n same as f o r boy , above. D e s c r i p t i o n same as f o r g i r l , above. This i s a group of boys your age. They are good f r i ends of y o u r s . This i s a group of g i r l s your age. They are good f r i ends of y o u r s . - 38 -at the .01 l e v e l . . For a f u r t h e r s tudy , Pedersen (19 73c) repor ted tha t s i m u l a t e d . p e r s o n a l space, measured by the PPSM and a c o r r e s -ponding b e h a v i o r a l p e r s o n a l space task were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d f o r male s u b j e c t s . A c o r r e l a t i o n of .62 , p < . 0 1 , was ob ta ined between the o v e r a l l average score on the PPSM and the o v e r a l l average score on the b e h a v i o r a l measure. Refer to Appendix E f o r the APPSM-CF. Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures S u b j e c t s ' c lassroom teachers were g iven copies of the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t and the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . Teachers were d i r e c t e d to f i l l out these forms acco rd ing to the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the t e s t manuals. The remaining three measures were admin i s t e red to sub jec t s by the exper imenter i n group t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . One t e s t i n g s e s s i o n was arranged i n each of the three s c h o o l s . Fourteen sub jec t s were t e s t ed i n the f i r s t s c h o o l , e leven i n the second s c h o o l and a group of twenty-e igh t sub jec t s was t e s t ed i n the t h i r d s c h o o l . The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t Sca le was the f i r s t t e s t g iven to the s u b j e c t s . The procedure f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h i s t e s t fo l l owed the i n s t r u c t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n the t e s t manual. The exper imenter began by r ead ing the t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the s u b j e c t s . I t was s t r e s s e d tha t sub jec t s respond to the statements about themselves as they r e a l l y f e l t and not as they thought they should f e e l . Each i t e m was read twice f o r the subjec ts as they worked through the t e s t . A f t e r an i t e m had been read f o r the second t ime , sub jec t s had approximate ly ten seconds to respond to i t before the next statement was read . - 39 -The f o l l o w i n g t e s t admin is te red was the APPSM-CF. The o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s were s l i g h t l y mod i f i ed to correspond w i t h the a l t e r e d v e r s i o n of the t e s t . These i n s t r u c t i o n s began by d i r e c t i n g sub jec t s to pre tend tha t the moveable, s e l f - r e f e r e n t p r o f i l e was themselves. They were then t o l d that they would be p l a c i n g t h i s p i c t u r e of themselves on the l i n e s ex tend ing from the p r i n t e d f i gu re s and would be moving i t a long these l i n e s u n t i l they reached a comfortable d i s t ance from each s t a t i o n a r y f i g u r e . When sub jec t s found t h e i r comfortable d i s t ances they were to mark the spot i n the i n v e r t e d ' V ' at the toe of the moveable p r o f i l e . The experimenter gave the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s t a t i o n a r y f i gu re s to the sub jec t s as they worked through the t e s t . A f t e r each d e s c r i p t i o n sub jec t s were asked the q u e s t i o n s , "Where would you s tand by t h i s person so tha t you would s t i l l f e e l comfor tab le?" and "What would be the r i g h t d i s t ance f o r you , not too c l o s e and not too f a r ? " The f i n a l t e s t completed by sub jec t s was the CID. Subjects were asked to imagine themselves i n the s m a l l c i r c l e a t the centre of the diagram. They were t o l d tha t from each doorway an imaginary person would be approaching them along the l i n e running from the doorway to the c i r c l e . Subjects were asked to face each doorway as the experimenter presented i t and desc r ibed the person approaching from i t . A f t e r an imaginary person was d e s c r i b e d , sub jec t s were asked to p l ace a mark across the l i n e at the p o i n t where they wanted tha t p a r t i c u l a r s t imu lus f i g u r e to s t o p . S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses Analyses of r e s u l t s i n the present study are p r i m a r i l y c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n na tu re . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were - 40 -computed between the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t v a r i a b l e s and both the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s and the CID p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s (see Research Ques t ion 1, Chapter I I ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s were a l so computed to es t imate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e s and the p e r s o n a l space d i s t ance measures (see Research Ques t ion 2, Chapter I I ) . The P i e r s - H a r r i s and the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t s c a l e s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d to determine t h e i r l e v e l s of r e l a t i o n s h i p . The APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s were a l s o i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , as were the subsca les of the CID, to es t imate i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s of the t e s t s . The v a r i a b l e s o f the two p e r s o n a l space tasks were c r o s s - c o r r e l a t e d to assess the l e v e l of convergent v a l i d i t y between these two measures (see Research Quest ion 3, Chapter I I ) . T - t e s t s were performed. to t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a number of pe r sona l space d i s t ance means. Other analyses were conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e a d d i t i o n a l ques t ions which arose from the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to the research ques t i ons . The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (1975) was used f o r conduct ing a l l the above mentioned ana ly se s . - 41 -CHAPTER IV RESULTS The r e s u l t s obta ined i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the proposed research ques t ions are repor ted i n t h i s chap te r . Resu l t s of adjunct ana lyses , not d i r e c t l y connected to the e x p l o r a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c research q u e s t i o n s , are a l s o p resen ted . These a d d i t i o n a l analyses were conducted. to examine ques t ions tha t arose when examining r e s u l t s o f the pr imary ana lyses . In format ion on the three research ques t ions o f the present s tudy was ob ta ined by computing Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s 2 between p a i r s of measures admin is te red to s u b j e c t s . A l i s t o f these measures and v a r i a b l e s a long w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e abb rev i a t i ons are presented i n Table 3. The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Behav ior Problems and P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 1) In order to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behav io r problems and p e r s o n a l space, the WPBIC v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the v a r i a b l e s of the two pe r sona l space measures (see Table 4 ) . S ince the number o f c o r r e l a t i o n s r epor ted i n t h i s t ab l e i s l a r g e , on ly the p e r t i n e n t r e s u l t s w i l l be h i g h l i g h t e d and d i s c u s s e d . As the r e s u l t s of the t ab l e i n d i c a t e , there are two p e r s o n a l S ince there were no m i s s i n g data the degrees of freedom are 51 f o r a l l of the c o r r e l a t i o n s computed. The va lues of r = .27 and r = .35 are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 and .01 l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . For o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s , the va lue o f r = .23 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l and an r = .32 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Table 3 A L i s t o f the Test V a r i a b l e s and The i r Abbrev ia t ions r e v i -Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n - S c a l e 1 - Ac t ing-Out WAO ' C h e c k l i s t (WPBIC) - S c a l e 2. - Withdrawal WW - S c a l e 3 - D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y WD - S c a l e 4 - Dis tu rbed Peer Re la t i ons WDPR - S c a l e 5 - Immaturity WIM - T o t a l Score WTOT I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le (ISCS) - T o t a l Score ISCS P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t - F a c t o r I - Behavior PHI Sca le (PHSCS) - F a c t o r I I - I n t e l l e c t u a l and School Status PHI I - F a c t o r I I I - P h y s i c a l Appearance•and A t t r i b u t e s P H I I I - F a c t o r IV - Anx ie ty PHIV - F a c t o r V - P o p u l a r i t y PHV - F a c t o r VI - Happiness and S a t i s f a c t i o n PHVI A l t e r e d Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure - -Male Peer , F r i e n d (Pedersen, F r i e n d , B o y ) . . . . PFB C h i l d r e n ' s Form (APPSM-CF) -Female Peer , F r i e n d PFG - A d u l t Male , F r i e n d PFM - A d u l t Female, F r i e n d PFW Table 3 Continued bb r e v i -a t ions (APPSM-CF, Continued) -Male Peer , F r i e n d , Rear • PFBR -Female Peer , F r i e n d , Rear PFGR -Male Peer Group, Fr iends PFBG -Female Peer Group, Fr iends PFGG -Male Peer , St ranger PSB -Female Peer , Stranger PSG - A d u l t Male , St ranger PSM - A d u l t Female, St ranger PSW -Male Peer , S t ranger , Rear PSBR -Female Peer , S t ranger , Rear- PSGR -Male Peer Group, Strangers PSBG -Female Peer Group, Strangers PSGG - O v e r a l l Average Dis tance for F r i e n d Category . . . AVFRPED - O v e r a l l Average Dis tance f o r Stranger Category • • AVSTPED Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance -Male Peer , F r i e n d (CID, F r i e n d , Boy) CFB Sca le (CID) -Female Peer , F r i e n d CFG - A d u l t Male , F r i e n d CFM - A d u l t Female, F r i e n d CFW -Male Peer , St ranger CSB -Female Peer , Stranger CSG Table 3 Continued bb re v i -a t i o n s (CID, Continued) - A d u l t Male , S t ranger CSM - A d u l t Female, Stranger CSW -Average Di s t ance , F r i e n d AVFRCID -Average D i s t ance , Stranger AVSTCID - 45 -Table 4 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between The WPBIC, APPSM-CF and CID V a r i a b l e s i r i a b l e s WAO WW WD WDPR WIM WTOT PFB - . 0 4 .38** .13 .31* .18 .22 PFG T-.39** .15 - . 3 0 * .23 - . 1 4 - . 2 4 PFM - . 0 4 .24 .22 .20 .04 .16 PFW - . 0 9 .24 .06 .21 .10 .09 CFB .10 .03 - . 1 9 - . 0 2 - . 1 1 - . 0 1 CFG - . 2 3 .13 —.22 .19 - . 1 3 - . 1 3 CFM - . 1 5 .20 - . 1 0 .10 - . 05 - . 0 4 CFW - . 1 3 .03 - . 15 - . 1 6 - . 0 9 - . 15 PSB - . 09 .03 .01 .25 - . 2 1 - . 0 3 PSG - . 1 5 .13 - . 1 2 .35** - . 1 6 - . 0 4 PSM - . 0 7 - . 1 3 - . 0 3 .12 - . 2 5 - . 1 1 PSW .01 - . 0 3 .08 .24 - . 1 5 .03 CSB - . 1 3 .14 - . 1 2 .19 - . 3 3 * - . 0 8 CSG - . 0 8 .17 - . 0 9 .32* - . 2 7 * - . 0 1 CSM .00 .22 - . 0 6 .24 - . 2 6 .05 CSW - . 1 9 .14 - . 2 4 .26 - . 3 5 * * - . 15 PFBR .12 .18 .33* .29* .22 .31* PFGR - . 1 6 .44** .00 .41** .21 .16 PFBG .02 .27* - . 0 4 .12 .09 .12 PFGG - . 2 8 * .22 - . 1 4 .14 - . 0 9 - . 1 1 PSBR - . 1 9 .19 - . 0 1 .20 - . 1 4 - . 0 4 PSGR - . 1 4 .24 - . 05 .28* - . 0 1 .03 PSBG - . 2 6 .03 - . 1 0 .17 - . 2 9 * - . 19 PSGG - . 1 7 .29* - . 0 7 .38** - . 0 7 - . 0 3 * p < .05 ** p < .01 - 46 -space v a r i a b l e s tha t c o r r e l a t e • s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h , the Walker A c t i n g -out S c a l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFG and W A O i s r = - . 3 9 , p < . 0 1 ; between v a r i a b l e s PFGG and WAO the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = - . 2 8 , p < . 05 . These are c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s s i n c e both p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e g i r l s that are f r i e n d s . o f the sub jec t s and both c o e f f i c i e n t s are n e g a t i v e . The next WPBIC v a r i a b l e s i n Table 4, the Withdrawal S c a l e , c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h four of the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between PFB and WW and between PFGR and WW are r = .38 and r = .44 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both o f these c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFBG and WW i s r . 27 , p = . 0 5 . The f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s group of v a r i a b l e s i s tha t between PSGG and WW w i t h r = . 29 , p < . 0 5 . This f i n a l c o e f f i c i e n t i s the only s i g n i f i c a n t one f o r the s t r anger ca tegory as the o ther three c o e f f i c i e n t s concern f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s . There are on ly two c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the next group of v a r i a b l e s . The D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y Sca le of the Walker c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h two pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s of the f r i e n d ca tegory . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFG and WD and between PFBR and WD i s r = - . 3 0 and r = .33 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . These two r e s u l t s are i n c o n s i s t e n t ; however, the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e two d i f f e r e n t approach d i r e c t i o n s . For the PFBR v a r i a b l e s , w i t h the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , sub jec t s were approaching s t imulus f i g u r e s from the r e a r . The o ther v a r i a b l e represented a f r o n t a l approach. The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e i n Table 4 i s the Di s tu rbed Peer R e l a t i o n s Sca le o f the Walke r . There are seven s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between - 47 -t h i s v a r i a b l e and those of the p e r s o n a l space measures. The f i r s t c o e f f i c i e n t , r = . 3 1 , p' .<"' . 05 , i s between.PFB and WDPR. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between PSG and WDPR i s r = .35 , p = . 0 1 . The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the v a r i a b l e s CSG and WDPR w i t h r = .32 , p < . 05 . The f o l l o w i n g two c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between PFBR and WDPR and between PFGR and WDPR are r = .29 , p < .05 and r = . 4 1 , p < .01 i n the r e s p e c t i v e o rde r . The two f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s se t of v a r i a b l e s are between PSGR and WDPR and between PSGG and WDPR. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s r = .28 , p <..05 between PSGR and WDPR and r = .38 , p < .01 between the l a t t e r p a i r of v a r i a b l e s . This se t of r e s u l t s i s p r e d i c t a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t . The D i s tu rbed Peer R e l a t i o n s Sca le c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h d i s t ance from male and female peers i n both the f r i e n d and s t r anger c a t e g o r i e s . There are four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s and the Immaturi ty Sca le of the WPBIC. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between CSB and WIM and between CSG and WIM, i n t h i s o rde r , are r = - . 3 3 , p < .05 and r = - . 2 7 , p = . 05 . The f o l l o w i n g no tab le c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the v a r i a b l e s CSW and WIM w i t h r = - . 3 5 , p = . 0 1 . F i n a l l y , the c o r r e l a t i o n between PSBG and WIM i s r = - . 2 9 , p < . 05 . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are i n accordance s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are nega t ive i n each case and represent on ly the s t r ange r category of the pe r sona l space measures. As can be seen i n Table 4, the T o t a l Score of the WPBIC c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h on ly one o f the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s . This c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFBR and WT0T w i t h r = . 3 1 , p < . 05 . S ince on ly one s a l i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s ev iden t i n t h i s f i n a l group of v a r i a b l e s , a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was conducted to examine the - 48 -r e l a t i o n s h i p among the Walker Sca les . Csee Table 5) . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s t a b l e , there are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s c a l e s . Each of these i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . For r e s u l t s of cons ide rab le importance, the reader i s d i r e c t e d to the l a s t row of Table 5 where the T o t a l Score of the WPBIC i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f i v e s ca l e s of the measure. These c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e a h igh degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the T o t a l Score of the t e s t and each of the s c a l e s . Se l f -Concep t and P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 2) The ques t ion of whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between p e r s o n a l space and s e l f - c o n c e p t was proposed f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To examine t h i s , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between the s e l f -concept s c a l e s and pe r sona l space measures a d m i n i s t e r e d . t o s u b j e c t s . Table 6 . represen ts the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x of the v a r i a b l e p a i r s con-s i d e r e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n regard ing t h i s q u e s t i o n . There are r e l a t i v e l y few s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s as can be observed i n the t a b l e . Four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are apparent between the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s . a n d the f i r s t subsca le or f a c t o r of the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . This s u b s c a l e , P H I , c o n s i s t s of those t e s t i tems r e l a t e d to "behav io r " , i . e . obedience. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between PFB and PHI i s r = . 38 , p < . 0 1 ; between the v a r i a b l e s PFG and PHI the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = . 3 1 , p < . 0 5 . The f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the v a r i a b l e s CSB and PHI w i t h r = - . 2 8 , p < . 0 5 . Between PFGR and PHI , the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = . 3 1 , p < .05 . These r e s u l t s These are o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s . - 49 -Table 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the WPBIC Sca les V a r i a b l e s WAO WW WD WDPR WIM WTOT WAO . WW - . 0 3 WD .62** WDPR .06 WIM .53** WTOT .81** .19 .39** .21 .29** .62** .03 .45** .82** .39** .72** * p < .05 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) ** p < .01 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) - 50 -Table 6 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between The Se l f -Concep t Sca les and the P e r s o n a l Space Measures V a r i -ables PHI PHI I PHI 11 PHIV PHV PHVI PHTOT ISCS PFB .38** - . 0 7 - . 2 0 .06 - . 0 2 .07 .08 - . 1 5 PFG .31* - . 2 7 * - . 3 2 * - . 2 1 - . 1 2 - . 0 4 - . 1 3 .24 PFM .03 .06 .01 .03 .22 - . 05 .07 - . 0 3 PFW .17 - . 0 0 - . 0 1 - . 0 3 .08 .07 - . 0 1 - . 0 5 CFB - . 1 0 - . 0 9 - . 0 3 .07 - . 0 4 - . 1 4 - . 1 1 .03 CFG .11 - . 2 1 - . 1 7 - . 1 2 - . 0 5 .01 - . 0 8 .12 CFM - . 0 1 - . 1 9 - . 1 4 - . 0 5 - . 2 0 - . 3 1 * - . 2 0 .13 CFW - . 0 9 .01 - . 0 3 - . 0 3 - . 0 8 - . 1 9 - . 1 1 .10 PSB - . 1 1 - . 0 3 .04 .03 - . 0 4 - . 2 7 * - . 0 7 .01 PSG - . 0 9 - . 0 3 - . 1 9 - . 2 4 - . 1 0 - . 4 2 * * - . 2 6 .09 PSM - . 2 0 .09 .12 - . 0 9 .11 - . 1 9 - . 0 8 .01 PSW .00 .20 .08 .03 - . 0 1 - . 25 - . 0 1 - . 0 4 CSB - . 2 8 * - . 1 2 - . 0 6 - . 1 7 .01 - . 2 6 - . 2 2 .01 CSG - . 2 3 - . 0 2 - . 1 3 - . 1 6 .02 - . 2 1 - . 1 8 .03 CSM - . 0 8 - . 1 1 - . 05 - . 1 0 .07 - . 1 1 - . 0 9 - . 1 1 CSW - . 1 7 - . 1 4 - . 09 - . 0 7 - . 1 3 - . 26 - . 1 9 .19 PFBR .11 .08 - . 0 4 .06 - . 1 0 - . 0 2 - . 0 1 - . 2 8 * PFGR .31* - . 0 8 - . 2 2 - . 0 3 - . 19 - . 0 5 - . 05 - . 1 5 PFBG .22 - . 1 7 - . 2 0 .04 - . 0 3 .05 - . 0 1 - . 2 1 PFGG .16 - . 1 8 - . 3 5 * * .14 - . 1 7 - . 0 5 - . 1 5 .10 PSBR .06 .11 .02 .19 - . 0 7 - . 1 7 - . 0 1 - . 0 7 PSGR .05 .00 .01 .08 - . 1 5 - . 0 5 - . 0 5 - . 2 1 PSBG - . 0 4 - . 0 3 .05 .12 .00 - . 1 4 - . 0 6 .22 PSGG .02 - . 0 8 - . 1 0 - . 0 3 - . 2 0 - . 1 6 - . 1 7 - . 0 6 * p < .05 ** p < .01 - 51 -i n v o l v e peers w i t h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the f r i e n d category of the d i s t ance measures and a nega t ive c o r r e l a t i o n , f o r the s t r ange r ca tegory . As mentioned i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the P i e r s - H a r r i s , h i g h scores on the subsca les o f the t e s t denote a p o s i t i v e s e l f - v i e w i n the r e s p e c t i v e areas measured by the f a c t o r s . The d i r e c t i o n of the ob ta ined c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s s e t of v a r i a b l e s might be cons idered unexpected concern ing the f r i e n d ca tegory . However, the nega t ive c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the s t r ange r v a r i a b l e i s p r e d i c t a b l e . In the next se t of v a r i a b l e s there i s a s i n g l e c o r r e l a t i o n tha t i s m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The c o e f f i c i e n t between PFG and PHII i s r = - . 2 7 , p = .05 , w i t h PHII r ep re sen t ing s c h o o l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t u s . There are two s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s and the t h i r d s u b s c a l e • o f .the P i e r s - H a r r i s . This sub-s c a l e , P H I I I , s i g n i f i e s p h y s i c a l appearance and a t t r i b u t e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between PFG and PHI I I and between PFGG and PHI I I are r = - . 3 2 , p < .05 and r = - . 3 5 , p = .01 r e s p e c t i v e l y . These r e s u l t s are p r e d i c t a b l e . Both p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e peers o f the oppos i te sex who are l a b e l l e d as f r i ends of the subjec ts and a nega t ive r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s i s i n d i c a t e d i n both cases . As can be seen i n Table 6, there are no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s and the two subsequent f a c t o r s of the P i e r s - H a r r i s , PHIV and PHV. PHIV i s composed o f items r e l a t e d to a n x i e t y , i . e . nervousness , insomnia , e t c . The PHV f a c t o r i n v o l v e s those t e s t i tems concerning p o p u l a r i t y . The absence o f any no tab le r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s se t o f v a r i a b l e s i s unexpected. There are three s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n the t a b l e between the p e r s o n a l space measures and the s i x t h f a c t o r o f the P i e r s -- 52 -H a r r i s S c a l e . PHVI i s composed of those t e s t i tems which, r e f l e c t happiness i n g e n e r a l . The f i r s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between the v a r i a b l e s CFM and PHVI w i t h r = - . 3 1 , p < . 0 5 . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PSB and PHVI i s r = - . 2 7 , p = .05 ; between PSG and PHVI the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s r = - . 4 2 , p < . 0 1 . These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t f o r both the f r i e n d and s t r anger ca tegor ies of pe r sona l space d i s t a n c e . Table 6 i n d i c a t e s tha t the o v e r a l l s e l f - c o n c e p t score on the P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e , PHTOT, does not c o r r e l a t e w i t h any of the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . A probable e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s might be tha t the t o t a l score i s comprised of such d i s t i n c t groups of i tems tha t i t i s not f i n e enough i n i t s c o n s o l i d a t i o n to a l l o w f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s and i t s e l f to be de tec ted . The f i n a l group of v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d . i n Table 6 are the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s w i t h the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . This s c a l e , r a t ed by s u b j e c t s ' teachers fo r a second index of s e l f - c o n c e p t , i s not composed of subscales as the P i e r s - H a r r i s Sca le i s . One o v e r a l l t o t a l score i s computed f o r the measure. As Table 6 i n d i c a t e s there i s only one c o r r e l a t i o n tha t reaches s i g n i f i c a n c e . This c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , between PFBR and ISCS, i s r = - . 2 8 , p < .05 . Subsequent analyses were performed w i t h the two s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e s . Table 7 presents i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the subsca les of the P i e r s - H a r r i s w i t h the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le i n c l u d e d i n the m a t r i x . The t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r these c o r r e l a t i o n s are o n e - t a i l e d . Of a l l o f the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s i n Table 7 among the P i e r s - H a r r i s subsca l e s , on ly two c o e f f i c i e n t s f a i l to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between PHII I and PHI and between PHV and PHI are r = .13 and r = .22 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Table 7 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the Se l f -Concep t Sca les V a r i -ables PHI PHI I P H I I I PHIV PHV PHVI PHTOT PHI I . 3 1 * — PHII I . 1 3 . 6 1 * * — PHIV . 3 3 * * . 4 0 * * . 4 0 * * — PHV . 2 2 . 6 1 * * . 6 7 * * . 3 1 * — PHVI . 2 7 * . 2 5 * . 4 7 * * . 3 7 * * . 4 4 * * — PHTOT . 6 4 * * . 7 4 * * . 7 2 * * . 6 3 * * . 7 3 * * . 6 3 * * ISCS - . 0 3 . 0 7 - . 0 3 - . 0 5 . 1 7 - . 0 4 . 0 2 * p < . 0 5 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) ** p < . 0 1 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) - 54 -t o t a l score of the P i e r s - H a r r i s and the subsca les are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . The f i n a l row of the m a t r i x d i s p l a y s c o r r e l a t i o n s between the P i e r s - H a r r i s subscales and the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t S c a l e . I t i s apparent from these r e s u l t s that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the two measures o f s e l f - c o n c e p t . The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Two Measures o f P e r s o n a l Space (Quest ion 3) In o rder to i n v e s t i g a t e the l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the APPSM-CF and the CID, the v a r i a b l e s of both tasks were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and then c r o s s - c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between the two measures ( a l l o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s ) . F i r s t the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s of each measure are h i g h l i g h t e d fo l l owed by the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c r o s s -c o r r e l a t i o n s . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s , a long w i t h the means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s , are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 8. The f i r s t APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e , PFB, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a l l of the v a r i a b l e s i n the f r i e n d ca tegory . These c o e f f i c i e n t s range from r = .32 , p = .01 to r = . 76 , p < . 0 1 . There are no s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s between the v a r i a b l e s o f the s t r ange r ca tegory and PFB. A number of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between PFG, the second APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e , and the o ther v a r i a b l e s are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 8. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between PFM and PFG and between PFW and PFG are r = . 25 , p < .05 and r = .23 , p = .05 i n the r e s p e c t i v e o rde r . Between PFGR and PFG the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = . 43 , p < . 0 1 . The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFBG and PFG w i t h r = . 3 5 , p < . 0 1 . The f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n i n the f r i e n d category i s between the v a r i a b l e s Table 8 Means, Standard Deviations and Intercorrelations Among the APPSM-CF Variables Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Mean S.D. 1. PFB 14.53 8.40 2. PFG .47** — 17.55 12.18 3. PFM .61** .25* — 18.00 9.09 4. PFW .39** .23* .62** — 20.11 11.39 5. PFBR .42** -.04 .32** .28* — 15.66 8.14 6. PFGR .54** .43** .35** .36** .38** — 17.15 11.27 7. PFBG .76** .35** .53** .42** .51** .41** — 11.34 7.12 8. PFGG .32** .50** .17 .19 .16 .23* .36** — 18.94 15.17 9. PSB -.06 -.02 .08 .02 .02 .02 -.11 .02 89.83 44.00 10. PSG -.06 .25* .18 .13 -.07 .37** -.10 .09 .61** — 84.36 50.57 11. PSM -.10 .10 .24* .03 .03 -.06 -.09 .14 .53** .45** — 105.08 48.41 12. PSW -.02 .17 .18 .19 -.01 .12 -.13 -.08 .49** .63** .70** — 91.08 39.74 13. PSBR .09 .07 .18 .05 .32** .37** .09 .20 .50** .47** .43** .43** — 68.42 43.96 14. PSGR .02 .12 .11 .13 .18 .49** .07 .13 . 38** .59** .28* .41** . 73** — 57.15 36.03 15. PSBG .08 .22 .27* .03 .14 .21 -.03 .19 .31* .30* .49** .25* .5 7** .33** — 102.43 37.51 16. PSGG .09 .27* .13 .26* .18 .47** .03 .37** .58** .65** . 39** .49** .69** .70** .55** 76.83 34.81 * p < .05 (one-tailed) ** p < .01 (one-tailed) - 56 -PFGG and PFG where r = .50 , p < .01 . Two v a r i a b l e s of the s t r ange r category c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the PFG v a r i a b l e . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are between PSG and PFG and between PSGG and PFG w i t h r . 25 , p < .05 and r = .27 , p < .05 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e , PFM, as seen i n the t ab le c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h four v a r i a b l e s o f the f r i e n d category and w i t h two v a r i a b l e s from the s t r ange r ca tegory . Between the v a r i a b l e s PFW and PFM the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .62 , p < . 0 1 . Between PFBR and PFM and between PFGR and PFM the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are r = .32 , p = .01 and r = . 35 , p < . 0 1 , i n the appropr i a t e o rde r . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFBG and PFM i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l w i t h r = . 53 . PSM and PFM c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between these two v a r i a b l e s i s r = .24 , p < . 05 . F i n a l l y , the c o r r e l a t i o n between PSBG and PFM i s r = .27 , p < .05 . The next v a r i a b l e , PFW, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h four v a r i a b l e s , one of which i s i n the s t r ange r ca tegory . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFBR and PFW i s r = .28 , p < .05; between PFGR and PFW the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .36 , p < . 0 1 . PFBG c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h PFW as r = .42 , p < . 0 1 . In the s t r ange r groups, the c o r r e l a t i o n between PSGG and PFW i s r = .26, p < . 05 . In Table 8, the f i f t h v a r i a b l e i s PFBR. This v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h three of the v a r i a b l e s i n the column. Between PFGR and PFBR the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .39 , p < . 0 1 . The next s i g n i f i c a n t The r eversed order of c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s i s not presented; t h e r e f o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s are noted on ly once i n the t e x t . For example, the c o r r e l a t i o n between PFB and PFG has appeared p r e v i o u s l y as PFG w i t h PFB. - 57 -c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFBG and PFBR with , r = . 5 1 , p < . 0 1 . The f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s i n the s t r anger category between PSBR and PFBR w i t h r = . 32 , p = . 0 1 . PFBG i s the next v a r i a b l e of the APPSM-CF. I n t h i s o rder i t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h on ly one o ther v a r i a b l e , PFGG. However, PFBG does c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a l l o f the o ther s i x v a r i a b l e s tha t were presented p r e v i o u s l y . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFGG and PFBG i s r = .36 , p < . 01 . As the t ab l e i n d i c a t e s , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between PFBG and the v a r i a b l e s of the s t r ange r category are n e g l i g i b l e . The f i n a l v a r i a b l e i n the f r i e n d ca tegory , PFGG, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h one other v a r i a b l e i n t h i s sequence. This c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PSGG and PFGG w i t h r = .37 , p < . 0 1 . The remaining e i g h t v a r i a b l e s of the APPSM-CF be long to the s t r ange r category of the t e s t . Upon observ ing Table 8 i t i s ev iden t tha t a l l of these v a r i a b l e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o the r . The lowest va lue o f a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s , between the v a r i a b l e s PSBG and PSW, r = .25 , p < . 05 . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PSGR and PSBR reached the h i g h e s t va lue w i t h r = . 73 , p < . 0 1 . These r e s u l t s concerning the c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s t r ange r v a r i a b l e s are p r e d i c t a b l e . A number of n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among the f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s , however, are unexpected. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t r = - . 0 4 , between PFBR and PFG, i s unusua l ly low. Fur thermore, three n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were ob ta ined between three f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s w i t h the PFGG v a r i a b l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFGG and PFM i s r = .17 ; between PFGG and PFW the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .19 and l a s t l y between PFGG and PFBR the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .16 . Of these n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , the most unexpected i s tha t ob ta ined between the v a r i a b l e s PFGG and PFW - 58 -s i n c e both these v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e female f r i e n d s , the only d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g age. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the CID v a r i a b l e s were a l s o computed. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table 9 which i n c l u d e s means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the v a r i a b l e s as w e l l . The f i r s t v a r i a b l e i n the f r i e n d category of the CID, CFB, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h four v a r i a b l e s . Between CFG and CFB, the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .24, p < . 0 5 . The c o r r e l a t i o n between CFM and CFB and between CFW and CFB are r = .46 , p < .01 and r = . 32 , p = .01 i n the r e s p e c t i v e o rde r . The l a s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between CSM, of the s t r ange r ca tegory , and CFB w i t h r = . 23 , p = . 05 . CFG, the second v a r i a b l e i n the t a b l e , c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h only two o ther v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between CFM and CFG i s r = .37 , p < . 0 1 ; between CSM and CFG the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .24, p < . 05 . Three s a l i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were ob ta ined between the t h i r d v a r i a b l e CFM and the o ther v a r i a b l e s d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s column. CFW and CFM c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the .01 l e v e l w i t h r = .56 . In the s t r ange r ca tegory , the c o r r e l a t i o n between CSB and CFM i s r = . 3 1 , p < .05 ; between CSW and CFM the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .29 , p < . 0 5 . The l a s t CID v a r i a b l e i n the f r i e n d category i s CFW. Table 9 shows three s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h i s v a r i a b l e and the o the r s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between CSB and CFW i s r = .37 , p < . 0 1 . Between CSG and CFW the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .24 , p < . 05 . The l a s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between CSW and CFW w i t h r = . 25 , p < . 05 . A l l o f the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the CID s t r ange r v a r i a b l e s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . The va lues of the c o r r e l a t i o n - 59 -Table 9 Means, Standard Dev ia t ions and I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the CID V a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean S . D . 1. CFB — .11.51 5.24 2 . CFG .24* — 10.30 7.95 3. CFM .46** .37** — 17.09 10.21 4. CFW .32** .22 .56** — 19.5 7 15.64 5. CSB .20 .18 .31* .37** — 43.55 18.63 6. CSG - . 0 1 .07 .05 .24* .69** 37.45 22.56 7. CSM .23* .24* .17 .09 .69** .58** 51.96 23.44 8. CSW .06 .17 .29* .25* .62** .74** .57** 42.74 20.92 * p < .05 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) ** p < .01 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) - 60 -c o e f f i c i e n t s range from r = .62 to r = .74 . The r e s u l t s among the CID v a r i a b l e s are s i m i l a r to those ob ta ined among the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . The p a t t e r n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the s t r ange r -var iables f o r both measures are c e r t a i n l y p a r a l l e l . Among the f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s of the CID there i s on ly one n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n which i s unexpected. I t i s between the v a r i a b l e s CFW and CFG and the c o e f f i c i e n t i s r = . 2 2 . As w i t h the comparable v a r i a b l e s o f the APPSM-CF, t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t was computed f o r the f r i e n d category i n v o l v i n g females. The d i f f e r e n c e between the v a r i a b l e s i s again age, w i t h the CFG v a r i a b l e r ep re sen t ing a female peer and CFW denot ing an a d u l t female. The APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s were c r o s s - c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the v a r i a b l e s of the CID to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two measures ( research q u e s t i o n 3 ) . The r e s u l t s are p rov ided i n Table 10. The CID v a r i a b l e s of the f r i e n d category ( f i r s t four v a r i a b l e s across i n Table 10) c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t en of the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . CFB, the f i r s t v a r i a b l e , c o r r e l a t e s w i t h three APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s a l s o o f the f r i e n d g roup ing . PFB and CFB c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r = .24 , p < . 0 5 . Between PFG and CFB the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .27 , p < .05 . The t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFBG and CFB w i t h r = . 43 , p < . 0 1 . The f o l l o w i n g CID v a r i a b l e , CFG, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h f i v e of the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . Four o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s are w i t h v a r i a b l e s of the f r i e n d ca tegory . Between PFB and CFG the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .36 , p < . 0 1 . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFG and CFG i s r = .57 , p < . 0 1 . The va lue o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s no t ab ly l a r g e r than the c o e f f i c i e n t between the male v a r i a b l e s (PFB and CFB) which - 61 -Table 10 C r o s s - C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the APPSM-CF and CID V a r i a b l e s V a r i -ables CFB CFG CFM CFW CSB CSG CSM CSW PFB PFG PFM PFW PSB PSG PSM PSW PFBR PFGR PFBG PFGG PSBR PSGR PSBG PSGG .24* .27* .13 -.02 -.12 -.16 .06 -.05 .18 .01 .43** .03 .02 -.14 -.02 -.10 .36** .57** .18 .06 .06 .18 -.07 -.08 -.06 .38** .24* .21 -.04 .02 .16 .25* .12 .19 .29* .17 .20 .14 .05 .05 .17 .18 .22 .19 .09 .02 .05 .22 .08 -.03 .20 .08 .13 -.07 .03 -.14 .21 -.07 .21 .37** .14 -.11 .10 .17 -.06 .05 .27* .08 .57** .42** .48** .23* .10 .03 .05 .10 .27* .20 .37** .37** - . 0 0 .20 .22 .17 .59** .61** .54** .44** .06 .07 .00 .35** . 39** .32** .40** .61** .17 .24* .33** .02 .47** .40** .68** .43** .07 .13 .13 .01 .28* .19 .44** .33** - . 1 2 .20 .05 - . 0 5 .60** .63** .47** .38** - . 1 4 .10 - . 1 5 .18 .36** .34** .40** .54** * p < .05 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) ** p < .01 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) - 62 -correspond to these two g i r l v a r i a b l e s . The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFGR and CFG w i t h r = .38 , p < . 0 1 . Between PFBG and CFG the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .24, p < . 0 5 . The f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s group of v a r i a b l e s i s between PSGG and CFG w i t h r = .25 , p < .05 . As can be seen i n Table 10, the next CID v a r i a b l e , CFM, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h on ly one o f the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFM and CFM i s r = .29 , p < . 0 5 . The f i n a l v a r i a b l e i n the f r i e n d grouping of the CID i s CFW. There i s on ly one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between i t and the v a r i a b l e s of the APPSM-CF. PFGG and CFW c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .01 l e v e l w i t h r = .37 . The four subsequent v a r i a b l e s of the CID are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s t r anger ca tegory . As Table 10 i n d i c a t e s , the number of c o r r e l a t i o n s which reach s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the s t r ange r ca tegory i s much g rea te r than that of the f r i e n d groupings . CSB, the f i r s t s t r anger v a r i a b l e o f the CID, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h e i g h t of the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . PFM and CSB c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the .05 l e v e l w i t h r = .27 . This i s the on ly c o r r e l a t i o n reach ing s i g n i f i c a n c e between CSB. and an APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e of the f r i e n d ca tegory . Four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between CSB and the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s f o l l o w . These v a r i a b l e s are PSB, PSG, PSM and PSW. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from r = . 23 , p = .05 between PSW and CSB to r = .57 , p < .01 between PSB and CSB. The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PSBR and CSB w i t h r = .27 , p < . 0 5 . The two f i n a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are between PSBG and CSB and between PSGG and CSB. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t computed f o r both of these p a i r s i s - 63 -r = .37 , p. < . 0 1 . The CID v a r i a b l e f o l l o w i n g CSB i n the t a b l e i s CSG. This v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y wi th , n i n e APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . These four v a r i a b l e s tha t CSG c o r r e l a t e s w i t h are PSB, PSG, PSM and PSW. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from r = .44, p < .01 between PSW and CSW to r = . 6 1 , p < .01 between PSG and CSG. The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PFGG and CSG w i t h r = . 35 , p < . 0 1 . This i s . t h e on ly APPSM-CF f r i e n d v a r i a b l e that c o r r e l a t e s w i t h CSG. The l a s t four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between CSG and the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s of t h i s se t are PSBR, PSGR, PSBG and PSGG. The lowest va lue c o e f f i c i e n t i s r = .32 , p = .01 between PSGR and CSG. The c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h the h i g h e s t va lue i s between the v a r i a b l e s PSGG and CSG; r = . 6 1 , p < . 0 1 . CSM, the next CID v a r i a b l e , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n ine o f the APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFG and CSM i s r = .24, p < . 0 5 . PFM and CSM c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the .01 l e v e l w i t h r = . 33 . As Table 10 i n d i c a t e s , four consecu t ive APPSM-CF s t ranger v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h CSM. The APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s a r e , i n o rde r , PSB, PSG, PSM and PSW. The c o r r e l a t i o n s range from r = .40 , p < .01 between PSG and CSM to r = .68 , p < .01 between PSM and CSM. The next s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between PSBR and CSM w i t h r = .28 , p < . 05 . The l a s t two APPSM-CF v a r i a b l e s i n the t ab l e c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h CSM. Between PSBG and CSM the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = .44 , p < .01 and between the v a r i a b l e s PSGG and CSM the c o r r e l a t i o n i s r = . 33 , p < . 0 1 . The f i n a l CID v a r i a b l e i n Table 10 i s CSW which c o r r e l a t e s - 64 -s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a l l of the e i g h t APPSM-CF s t r anger v a r i a b l e s . PSB, PSG, PSM and PSW are the f i r s t four of the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s . Each o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between these v a r i a b l e s and CSW reach s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .01 l e v e l . The lowest va lue c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s between PSW and CSW w i t h r = .38, p < . 0 1 . The va lue o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between PSG and CSW was the h i g h e s t where r = . 63 , p < . 0 1 . F i n a l l y , the l a s t four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n Table 10 are between CSW and the four remaining s t r anger v a r i a b l e s of the APPSM-CF. As d i s p l a y e d i n the t ab le these v a r i a b l e s are PSBR, PSGR, PSBG and PSGG. The values of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from r = .34 , p < .01 between PSGR and CSW to r = .54 , p < .01 between PSGG and CSW. An overview of the r e s u l t s i n Table 10 p o i n t s to s e v e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , both s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , which are of i n t e r e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n between PFGG and CFG f a i l e d to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r = . 2 1 . Since the c o r r e l a t i o n between PFBG and CFG i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l , one would expect tha t the p a i r p r e v i o u s l y mentioned should c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Both PFGG and CFG are v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v i n g female peers tha t are f r i ends of the s u b j e c t s . The v a r i a b l e PFGG, however, represents a group of g i r l s whereas CFG denotes one g i r l . Another n o t i c e a b l e r e s u l t i s the c o r r e l a t i o n between PFGG and CFW which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l w i t h r = . 37 . This r e s u l t i n i t s e l f i s not unusual s i n c e both v a r i a b l e s represent females tha t are f a m i l i a r to the s u b j e c t . The d i f f e r ences between the v a r i a b l e s are age and number o f s t i m u l i , where PFGG s i g n i f i e s a group of females r a the r than a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e which CFW rep resen t s . The unexpected f i n d i n g i n t h i s se t of v a r i a b l e s i s the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between PFW and CFW. Here the n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = .08 i s unp red i c t ab l e s ince - 65 -PFW and CFW are p a r a l l e l v a r i a b l e s r ep re sen t ing a d u l t females that are f r i ends of the s u b j e c t s . A l s o , the c o r r e l a t i o n of r = - . 0 3 between PFG and CFW, which i s more m i n i s c u l e than the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c o e f f i c i e n t , i s p u z z l i n g when compared to the c o r r e l a t i o n between PFGG and CFW. Upon examining . the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t r ange r v a r i a b l e s , i t i s ev iden t tha t the magnitude o f these c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are l a r g e r than those computed among the f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s . The frequency of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s t r anger v a r i a b l e s i s g rea te r than the occurrence o f s i g n i f i c a n t values f o r the f r i e n d ca tegory . The CID s t r anger v a r i a b l e CSM c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h PFG, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s b e i n g r = .24 , p < . 05 . There i s , however, a ve ry n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between PFW and CSM w i t h r = .02 . I t i s unusual tha t PFG and CSM would c o r r e l a t e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y but PFW and CSM would n o t . PFG and.CSM represent a g i r l tha t i s a f r i e n d and an adu l t male s t r a n g e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . PFW s i g n i f i e s an a d u l t female tha t i s a f r i e n d . I t would seem more appropr i a t e tha t the two adu l t v a r i a b l e s would c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a the r than the c h i l d v a r i a b l e w i t h the a d u l t . One f i n a l i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t , i n t h i s same se t o f v a r i a b l e s , i s the absence o f a c o r r e l a t i o n between PSGR and CSM w i t h r = .19 . Comparing t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h tha t between PSGG and CSM where r = . 33 , p < . 0 1 , the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between PSGR and CSM appears to be i n -c o n s i s t e n t . S ince both PSGR and PSGG represent g i r l s tha t are s t rangers to the sub jec t s the d i f f e r ence i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s i s unexpected. i A d d i t i o n a l Analyses A number of adjunct analyses were conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e - 66 -Table 11 T-Tests Between P e r s o n a l Space Dis tance Means V a r i a b l e P a i r s Means S.D. T-Value PFG PFB 17.55 14.53 12.18 8.40 1.99 PFW PFM 20.11 18.00 11.39 9.09 1.68 CFG CFB 10.30 11.15 7.95 5.23 - .74 CFW CFM 19.57 17.09 15.64 10.21 1.39 PSG PSB 84.36 89.83 50.57 44.00 - .95 PSW PSM 91.08 105.08 39.74 48.41 - 2 .91 CSG CSB 37.45 43.55 22.56 18.63 - 2 .68 CSW CSM 42.74 51.96 20.92 23.44 - 3.26 PSB PFB 89.83 14.53 44.00 8.40 12.11 PSG PFG 84.36 17.55 50.57 12.18 9.94 PSM PFM 105.88 18.00 48.41 9.09 13.47 PSW PFW 91.08 20.11 39.74 11.39 13.19 Table 11 Continued V a r i a b l e „ n ^ _ T T , _ . Means S .D . T-Value P a i r s CSB CFB 43.55 11.15 CSG CFG 37.45 10.30 CSM CFM 51.96 17.09 CSW CFW 42, 19. 73 57 18.63 5.23 12.86 * 22.56 7.95 8.45 * 23.44 10.21 10.62 * 20.92 15.64 7.41 * * p < .01 - 68 -some of the ques t ions tha t arose from the pr imary analyses and to p rov ide more i n f o r m a t i o n r ega rd ing the sample o f sub jec t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s tudy . T - t e s t s were performed to determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e s i n pe r sona l space d i s t ances between the p a i r s of v a r i a b l e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t or no t . Table 11 p rov ides the means, s tandard d e v i a t i o n s and t - va lue s f o r the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t four r e s u l t s presented i n Table 11 show t - v a l u e s tha t do not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . These are expected f i n d i n g s . The d i f f e r e n c e between PSG and PSB i s not s i g n i f i c a n t which i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g as the d i s t ance mainta ined between s t range males i s u s u a l l y l a r g e r than d i s tances kept from strange females . Al though the s m a l l e r d i s t ance from females i s shown i n the mean v a l u e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f a i l e d to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r these same o r p a r a l l e l v a r i a b l e s of the CID the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however. The remaining r e s u l t s i n Table 11 conform to the f i n d i n g s of p rev ious r e sea r ch . The d i s t ance mainta ined from f r i ends i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than tha t kept from s t rangers i n a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s of both t a sks . The d i s t ance mainta ined from strange males i s g rea te r than the d i s t ance kept from strange females. The sub jec t s i n v o l v e d i n the study were r e c r u i t e d from three d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . A s e r i e s of one-way analyses of va r i ance were performed i n order to determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l d i f f e r ences e x i s t f o r a number o f v a r i a b l e s . Table 12 presents these a n a l y s e s . The T o t a l Score of the WPBIC, which was obta ined by teacher r a t i n g s , was i n c l u d e d as a v a r i a b l e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s group of ana lyses . The r e s u l t o f the one-way a n a l y s i s of va r i ance r evea l s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the schools on t h i s v a r i a b l e (F = 5 .25 , - 69 -Table 12 One-Way Analyses of Var iance A t t r i b u t a b l e to School Di f fe rences V a r i a b l e Source of Var iance MS df F P WTOT Between Groups 476.59 2 5.25 .0085 W i t h i n Groups 90.71 50 AVFRPED Between Groups 30.50 2 0.64 n.s ' . W i t h i n Groups 47.66 50 AVSTPED Between Groups 8,562.01 2 12.56 .0000 W i t h i n Groups 681.74 50 AVFRCID Between Groups 378.18 2 9.35 .0004 W i t h i n Groups 40.43 50 AVSTCID Between Groups 2 ,778.71 2 11.62 .0001 W i t h i n Groups 239.11 50 - 70 -df = 2 /50 , p < . 0 1 ) . A v e r b a l r epor t by one o f the r a t e r s r ega rd ing the WPBIC formed the r a t i o n a l e f o r conduct ing t h i s a n a l y s i s . The r a t e r e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d tha t none of h i s s tudents were "behavior problems", eve r , and consequently gave these sub jec t s very low r a t i n g s on the WPBIC. For the remaining analyses i n Table 12, the d i s t ances f o r the f r i e n d and s t r ange r ca t egor i e s o f the pe r sona l space measures were t r a n s -formed i n t o average f r i e n d and average s t r anger s c o r e s . The f i r s t o f these four ana lyses , which examines the average, f r i e n d v a r i a b l e o f the APPSM-CF between s c h o o l s , f a i l e d to a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h F = .64 , df = 2 /50 . The r e s u l t s o f the l a s t three analyses i n Table 12, f o r the v a r i a b l e s AVSTPED, AVFRCID and AVSTCID, reached s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond the .001 l e v e l . The a n a l y s i s f o r the v a r i a b l e AVSTPED y i e l d e d the outcome F(2,50) = 12 .56 , p < .001 . For the average, f r i e n d and s t r anger CID v a r i a b l e s , the r e s u l t s are F(2 ,50) = 9 .35 , p < .001 and F(2 ,50) = 11 .62 , p < .001, r e s p e c t i v e l y . From these f i n d i n g s i t i s apparent tha t s c h o o l e f f e c t s were o p e r a t i n g . Table 13 d i s p l a y s the f requencies of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s as they occur i n the three s c h o o l s . To f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e s c h o o l v a r i a t i o n s , a ch i - square t e s t was c a r r i e d out to determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r e s across the schools reaches s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s o f the ch i - square a n a l y s i s were 2 s i g n i f i c a n t (x = 17 .41 , df = 8, p < .05) i n d i c a t i n g tha t the c u l t u r a l groups were, i n f a c t , unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d across the three s c h o o l s . This chapter repor ted the r e s u l t s obta ined from the analyses performed to i n v e s t i g a t e the three research ques t ions and the a d d i t i o n a l ques t ions tha t a rose . These r e s u l t s are d i scussed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter which concludes t h i s paper . - 71 -Table 13 C u l t u r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Across Schools C o n t i n - C o n t i n -e n t a l e n t a l Eas t Anglo A s i a n European Ind i an O r i e n t a l School 1 School 2 School 3 5 2 13 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g to the problems r a i s e d i n t h i s study are d i scussed i n the order of the research ques t ions as they were presented i n the previous chap te rs . Outcomes of adjunct o r post hoc analyses are d i scussed w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r r e sea r ch .ques t i on ( s ) they are connected t o . The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Behav io r Problems and P e r s o n a l Space O v e r a l l , the r e l a t i v e l y few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s and behav io r problems as r a t ed by the WPBIC i n d i c a t e tha t there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. This deduct ion i s s t rengthened when examining the T o t a l Score o f the WPBIC s i n c e there i s on ly one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between i t and the v a r i a b l e s of the pe r sona l space measures. Furthermore, the va lue of t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t does not suggest a s t r ong r e l a t i o n s h i p . A number of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , however, were found between the pe r sona l space v a r i a b l e s and the WDPR Sca le o f the WPBIC. This s c a l e represents those t e s t i tems i n d i c a t i v e o f d i s t u r b e d peer r e l a t i o n s . A l l seven s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e the peer c a t e g o r i e s , both male and female, of the pe r sona l space measures. The p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e tha t h i g h r a t i n g s on the WDPR Sca le y i e l d g rea te r pe r sona l space d i s t ance s c o r e s , and c o n v e r s e l y , low scores on one r e s u l t i n low scores on the o the r . Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g among t h i s same group o f v a r i a b l e s - 73 -i s worth n o t i n g . The three c o r r e l a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l occur between the female peer ca t egor i e s o f . t h e . p e r s o n a l space measure and the WDPR S c a l e . Cons ide r ing the developmental t r end o f p e r s o n a l space f o r t h i s age group of s u b j e c t s , the tendency i s toward s m a l l e r d i s t ances between peers of the oppos i te sex and movement away from c l o s e d i s t ances between same-sexed peers . Therefore , these r e s u l t s suggest tha t d i s t u r b e d peer r e l a t i o n s among t h i s age group are q u i t e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to g rea te r d i s t ances main ta ined from oppos i t e - sexed peers . The f i n d i n g s a l so i n d i c a t e tha t appropr i a t e s e x - r o l e behav io r and s o c i a l adjustment may be somewhat h inde red sugges t ing a fu ture t rend of i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r s . An a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s which i n v o l v e d the T o t a l Score o f the WPBIC revealed, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between schools on the r a t i n g of t h i s s c a l e . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t r a t e r b i a s may have been o p e r a t i n g . As w i t h most e d u c a t i o n a l research employing teacher r a t ed instruments^ i n t e r -r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was not e s t a b l i s h e d because of the s u b j e c t i v i t y tha t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n the comple t ion of such s c a l e s . However, teachers are con-s i d e r e d the most q u a l i f i e d r a t e r s o f s ca l e s l i k e the WPBIC which i s unders tandable . The use o f u n o b t r u s i v e , anonymous r a t e r s f o r t h i s measure would y i e l d ve ry l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on behav io r problems. To summarize, the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to t h i s research ques t i on seem i n c o n c l u s i v e . The WPBIC as i t measures behav io r problems appears to be u n r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l space as measured by the two t a sks . I f , however, the i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e s of the WPBIC are examined s e p a r a t e l y , the WDPR Sca le does c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h p e r s o n a l space behav io r among peers . These r e s u l t s are e s p e c i a l l y s t rong f o r the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s r ep re sen t ing oppos i te - sexed peers . - 74 -Se l f -Concep t and P e r s o n a l Space I t i s ev iden t from the f i n d i n g s ob ta ined i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s research ques t ion that s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space are not r e l a t e d . The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s Se l f -Concep t S c a l e , which was completed by the s u b j e c t s , c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h very few of the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . S i m i l a r l y , on ly one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was computed between the teacher r a t ed I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le and a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e ; o f the pe r sona l space measures. Fur thermore, the va lue of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s tha t d i d reach s i g n i f i c a n c e are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i n d i c a t e weak r e l a t i o n s h i p s . When examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , the separate f ac to r s of the P i e r s -H a r r i s r e v e a l a c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t w i t h on ly one of these s u b s c a l e s . P H I I I which represents p h y s i c a l appearance and a t t r i b u t e s c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h two p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . Both o f these v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e female peers tha t are l a b e l l e d as f r i ends of the s u b j e c t s . The nega t ive d i r e c t i o n o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest tha t h igh scores on P H I I I , which i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t eem w i t h respec t to p h y s i c a l appearance, are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s m a l l e r or c l o s e r p e r s o n a l space d i s t ances from g i r l s tha t are f r i e n d s . The subsca les of the P i e r s - H a r r i s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the I n f e r r e d Se l f -Concep t Sca le to determine the l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. I t can be concluded from the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s that the two s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e s are u n r e l a t e d . Regarding these measures of s e l f - e s t e e m , i t appears tha t t eache r s ' e s t ima t ions of s tuden t s ' s e l f -concept do not correspond w i t h the r a t i n g s made by c h i l d r e n . The outcome p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s research ques t i on i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s r epor ted by Guardo (1966 and 1969). The f i n d i n g that - 75 -s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space are u n r e l a t e d , however, does not correspond w i t h the outcome repor ted by S t r a t t e n , Tekipe and F l i c k (1973). These researchers employed the Tennessee Se l f -Concep t Sca le w i t h adu l t sub jec t s and found tha t h i g h s e l f - c o n c e p t i n d i v i d u a l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r pe r sona l space d i s tances than low s e l f - c o n c e p t s u b j e c t s . The d i s a g r e e -ment between the previous f i n d i n g s and t h i s r e s u l t may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the p o s s i b l e d i f f e r ences i n the q u a l i t y of the ins t ruments employed by the va r ious s t u d i e s . Another p o s s i b i l i t y which may account f o r the d ivergen t f i n d i n g s i s tha t p e r s o n a l space and s e l f - c o n c e p t among adu l t s are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , whereas i n c h i l d r e n both are undergoing developmental changes and are i n t r a n s i t i o n . The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the two P e r s o n a l Space Measures The v a r i a b l e s of the APPSM-CF and the CID were sub jec ted to a number of ana lyses . The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s computed among the v a r i a b l e s o f each task showed many c o r r e l a t i o n s tha t reached s i g n i f i -cance. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s be long ing to a s i n g l e ca tegory , e i t h e r the f r i e n d o r s t r ange r g rouping , were expec ted ly more frequent than c o r r e l a t i o n s between p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e s spanning both c a t e g o r i e s . For both t e s t s these r e s u l t s are s t ronge r among the v a r i a b l e s o f the s t r anger ca tegory . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the f i n d i n g s o f these i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s seem to i n d i c a t e tha t d i s t ances kept from others whether great or s m a l l , tend to be c o n s i s t e n t r ega rd le s s o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t imu lus f i g u r e s , i . e . a d u l t , peer , same-sex o r oppos i t e - s ex . These r e s u l t s h o l d f o r both "approach" and "be ing approached" d i s t a n c e s . Due to the few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s o f c o n t r a s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , i . e . a f r i e n d - 76 -v a r i a b l e w i t h a s t r anger v a r i a b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to conclude tha t d i s t ances i n one category are not p r e d i c t i v e of d i s t ances i n the o ther ca tegory . To ob t a in i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h i s l a s t research q u e s t i o n , the v a r i a b l e s of both t e s t s were c r o s s c o r r e l a t e d to examine the l e v e l of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two measures. As b e f o r e , f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s o f one measure c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h f r i e n d v a r i a b l e s o f the o the r ; however, these c o r r e l a t i o n s are not as s t rong nor as frequent as those found between the s t r anger v a r i a b l e s of the two t e s t s . From the r e s u l t s ob ta ined i t i s ev iden t tha t there i s an accep tab ly h igh l e v e l o f convergent v a l i d i t y between the measures. Al though one t e s t measures s u b j e c t s ' approach d i s t ances and the o ther measures d i s tances o f sub jec t s be ing approached by o t h e r s , the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e tha t the d i s t ances correspond. F i n a l l y , very few c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s of opposing ca t egor i e s a t t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e which suggests tha t d i s t ances f o r the ca t egor i e s f r i e n d and s t r ange r are not r e l a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l Analyses S e v e r a l t - t e s t s were performed between a number o f the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s to examine whether the d i f f e r ences between the mean d i s t ances a t t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s support previous f i n d i n g s ( L i t t l e , 1965; Guardo, 1969) which r epor t ed tha t pe r sona l space d i s t ance inc reases as degree of acquaintance and l i k i n g decreases . The d i s t ances main ta ined from s t rangers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r than d i s tances kept from f r i ends i n a l l cases . A f i n a l a n a l y s i s was conducted to examine the d i s t r i b u t i o n of - 77 -the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s i n the s c h o o l s . The ch i - squa re t e s t performed revea led tha t the f i v e i d e n t i f i e d c u l t u r a l groups were unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among the s c h o o l s . This presents a weakness i n the study s ince c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s are known to i n f l u e n c e pe rsona l space and i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t the r e s u l t s may be contaminated by u n c o n t r o l l e d f o r c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n the sample. Summary, Conc lus ions and Suggest ions f o r Fu r the r Research The present study i n v e s t i g a t e d p e r s o n a l space among boys e n r o l l e d i n r e g u l a r schools to determine whether i t i s r e l a t e d to behav io r problems. In a d d i t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe rsona l space was a l s o examined. A review o f the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d tha t pe r sona l space requirements o f s e v e r l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n and adu l t s are s i g n i f i -c a n t l y g rea te r than the pe r sona l space needs of c o n t r o l sub jec t s o r "normals" . This s tudy employed the Walker Problem Behavior I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C h e c k l i s t , a teacher r a t ed ins t rument , as the behav io r problem measure. Two p e r s o n a l space t a s k s , the Comfo r t ab l e . In t e rpe r sona l Dis tance s c a l e and an a l t e r e d v e r s i o n of the Pedersen P e r s o n a l Space Measure — C h i l d r e n ' s Form, were admin is te red to subjec ts fo r measuring p e r s o n a l space d i s t a n c e s . From the r e s u l t s ob ta ined , i t appears tha t pe r sona l space and behav io r problems o c c u r r i n g i n the r e g u l a r c lass room, as r a t ed by the WPBIC, are u n r e l a t e d . However, i f the Sca les o f the WPBIC are examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , some r e s u l t s of i n t e r e s t are e v i d e n t . The D i s t u r b e d Peer R e l a t i o n s Sca le of the c h e c k l i s t c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . Most of these v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e female pee rs . A r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l space and the DPR Scale o f the WPBIC i s - 78 -apparent . I t was concluded tha t w i t h these sub jec t s appropr i a t e s e x - r o l e behav io r and s o c i a l adjustment might be h i n d e r e d , which i s i n accordance w i t h s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory . Cons ide r ing these r e s u l t s , f u r t h e r research would be v a l u a b l e . The use o f more s e n s i t i v e ins t ruments to de tec t d i s turbances i n peer r e l a t i o n s i s suggested s i n c e t h i s would enable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups. A p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r educators would be to g r a d u a l l y rearrange the s e a t i n g p l a n throughout the year i n the d i r e c t i o n of c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n to the oppos i te s ex , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those c h i l d r e n suspected o f hav ing problems w i t h s o c i a l adjustment. This i s on ly a sugges t i on , however, s i n c e fu r the r research i s d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e d before making f i r m recommendations. To t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space, the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f Concept Sca le and the I n f e r r e d S e l f -Concept Sca le were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the p e r s o n a l space v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. These f i n d i n g s support p rev ious r e s u l t s (Guardo, 1966; 1969) which i n d i c a t e tha t s e l f - c o n c e p t and pe r sona l space, i n c h i l d r e n , are u n r e l a t e d . The two measures of pe r sona l space were a l s o c o r r e l a t e d to assess the l e v e l of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that an accep tab ly h i g h l e v e l o f convergent v a l i d i t y was o b t a i n e d . The r e s u l t s are e s p e c i a l l y s t rong among the s t r ange r v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t i n g that a h i g h l e v e l of agreement was ob ta ined between.the v a r i a b l e s o f both t e s t s which i n v o l v e d s t imu lus f i gu re s l a b e l l e d s t r a n g e r s . F i n a l l y , i n any subsequent r e sea rch , c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n must be c o n t r o l l e d . The present study i d e n t i f i e d f i v e c u l t u r a l groups o f subjec ts which were unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among the s c h o o l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e - 79 -tha t c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s were ope ra t i ng throughout the study which may have contaminated the ob ta ined r e s u l t s . - 80 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A i e l l o , J . R . , & A i e l l o , T . D . C . The development o f p e r s o n a l space: Proxemic behav io r of c h i l d r e n 6 through 16. Human E c o l o g y , 1974, 2, 177 - 189. A i e l l o , J . R . , & Cooper, R . E . 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Los Ange le s : Western P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e , 1973. M e i s e l s , M. & Guardo, C . Development-of p e r s o n a l space schemata. C h i l d  Development, 1969, 40, 1167 - 1178. M e i s e l s , M. & Canter , F . M . P e r s o n a l space and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : A n o n - c o n f i r m a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Repor t s , 1970, 27_, 287 - 290. Newman, R . C , & P o l l a c k , D. Proxemics i n dev ian t ado le scen t s . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psycho logy , 1973, 40, 6 - 8 . - 83 -N i e , N . H . , H u l l , C . H . , J e n k i n s , J . G . , S te inbrenner , K . , & Bent , D . H . S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (2nd e d i t i o n ) . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1975. Passow, A . ( E d . ) . Educa t ion i n Depressed Areas . New Y o r k : Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. Pedersen, D .M. Development o f a pe r sona l space measure. P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Repor t s , 1973, 12, 527 - 535. (a) Pedersen, D .M. Developmental trends i n p e r s o n a l space. The J o u r n a l of  Psycho logy , 1973, 83, 3 - 9. (b), Pedersen, D .M. R e l a t i o n s among sensa t ion seek ing and s imu la t ed and b e h a v i o r a l p e r s o n a l space. The J o u r n a l o f Psychology , 1973, 83 , 79 - 88. (c) Pedersen, D . M . & Shears , L . M . A review o f p e r s o n a l space research i n the framework of genera l system theory . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1973, 80, 367 - 388. P i e r s , E . V . , & H a r r i s , D . B . Manual fo r the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - Concept S c a l e . N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee: Counselor Recordings and T e s t s . 1969. Rawls , J . R . , Trego, R . E . , McGaffey, C . N . , & RawIs, D . J . P e r s o n a l space as a p r e d i c t o r of performance under c l o s e work ing c o n d i t i o n s . J o u r n a l  o f S o c i a l Psycho logy , 1972, 86 ,^ 261 - 267. Sanders , J . L . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f pe r sona l space to body-image boundary d e f i n i t e n e s s . J o u r n a l o f Research i n P e r s o n a l i t y , 1976, 10_, 478 - 481. Schere r , S . E . Proxemic behav io r of pr imary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r soc ioeconomic . c l a s s and s u b c u l t u r e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l Psycho logy , 1974, 29_, 800 - 805. Sommer, R. S tud ies i n p e r s o n a l space. Sociometry , 1959, 22., 247 - 260. Sommer, R. The d i s t ance fo r comfortable c o n v e r s a t i o n : A fu r the r s tudy . Sociometry , 1962, 25, 111 - 116. S t r a t t o n , L . O . , Tekippe , D . J . , & F l i c k , . G . L . P e r s o n a l space and s e l f -concept . Sociometry , 19 73, _3j6, 424 - 429. Tennis , G . H . , & Dabbs, J . M . , J r . Sex, s e t t i n g and pe r sona l space: F i r s t grade through c o l l e g e . Sociometry , 19 75, _38, 385 - 39.4. T o l o r , A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t ance i n d i s t u r b e d and normal c h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Repor t s , 1968, 23, 695 - 701. T o l o r , A . C h i l d r e n ' s p p o p u l a r i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e . Proceedings of 77th Annual Convent ion . APA, 1969, 4. 545 - 546. Tuckman, B.W. Conduct ing E d u c a t i o n a l Research (2nd e d i t i o n ) . New Y o r k : Hareour t , Brace , Jovanov ich , 1978. V e i t c h , R . , . G e t s i n g e r , A . , & A r k k e l i n , D. A note on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the Comfortable I n t e r p e r s o n a l Dis tance S c a l e . The  J o u r n a l of Psycho logy , 19 76, 94., 163 - 165. Walker , H . M . Manual f o r the Walker Problem Behav io r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  C h e c k l i s t . Los Ange les : Western P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s , 1970. R e v i s e d , 19 76. W e i n s t e i n , L . S o c i a l schemata of emo t iona l l y d i s t u r b e d boys . J o u r n a l o f  Abnormal Psycho logy , 1965, 70, 457 - 461. W i l l i a m s , J . L . P e r s o n a l space and i t s r e l a t i o n to e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o -v e r s i o n . Canadian J o u r n a l of B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , 1971, _3, 156 - 160. Wing, S.W. A study of c h i l d r e n whose r epor ted s e l f - c o n c e p t d i f f e r s from c lassmates ' e v a l u a t i o n of them. Unpubl ished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1966. PREVIOUSLY" COPYRIGHTED M A T E R I A L , IN APPENDIX A , LEAVES 8 5 - 8 6 , NOT MICROFILMED, "WALKER PROBLEM BEHAVIOR I D E N T I F I C A T I O N CHECKLIST" REVISED 1976 BY H I L L M , WALKER, P h d , PUBLISHED B T - WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 12031 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD LOS A N G E L E S , CALIFORNIA 9.0025 COPYRIGHT © 1970. , 1976. by WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL S E R V I C E S , PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED M A T E R I A L , IN APPENDIX B , LEAVES 8 7 9 8 8 , NOT MICROFILMED. INFERRED SEEf-CONCEPT S C A L E " by E . L , M c D A N I E L ( l . P h d . PUBLISHED BY - WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 12031 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD LOS A N G E L E S , CALIFORNIA 9 0 0 2 5 COPYRIGHT ^ 1 9 7 3 by WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL S E R V I C E S , PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED M A T E R I A L , IN APPENDIX C , LEAVES 8 9 - 9 3 , NOT MICROFILMED, THE P I E R S - H A R R I S C H I L D R E N ' S SELF CONCEPT SCALE (THE WAY IFFEEL ABOUT M Y S E L F ) . by ELLEN V . P I E R S , P h D , a n d DALE B . H A R R I S , P h D , PUBLISHED BY COUNSELOR RECORDINGS AND TESTS BOX 6 1 8 4 ACKLEN STATION N A S H V I L L E , TENNESSEE 37212 Walker Problem Behavior identification Checklist Revised 1976 by Hill M. Walker, Ph.D. Published by WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 12031 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90025 A DIVISION OF MANSON WESTERN CORPORATION Name: School: Address: Grade: Age: Sex: M F Date: Classroom: Rated By: Position of Rater: I N S T R U C T I O N S Please read each statement carefully and respond by circling the number to the right of the statement if you have observed that behavioral item in the child's response pattern during the last two month period. If you have not observed the behavior described in the statement during this period, do not circle any numbers (in other words, make no marks whatsoever if the state-ment describes behavior which is NOT present). Examples: Scales 1. Has temper tantrums 2. Has no friends 3. Refers to himself as dumb, stupid, or incapable 4. Must have approval for tasks attempted or completed Statements 1 and 4 are considered to be present while statements 2 and 3 are considered to be absent. Therefore, only the numbers to the right of items 1 and 4 are circled, and the numbers to the right of 2 and 3 are NOT circled. Prof i le Ana lys is Char t (PAC) 4 i s '-97A Copyright © 1970, 1976 by WESTERN P S Y C H O L O G I C A L SERVICES Not to be reproduced in whole or part without written permission of copyright owner All rights reserved. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Printed in U.S.A. - 86 -(WPBIC, Page 2) 1. C o m p l a i n s about others' unfairness a n d / o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards him 2. Is listless and continually tired 3 . Does not conform to l imits on his own without control from others 4 . Becomes hysterical , upset or angry when t h i n g s do not go his way 5 . Comments that no one understands h i m 6. Perfectionistic: M e t i c u l o u s about having everything exactly right 7. Will destroy or take apart s o m e t h i n g he has made rather than show it or ask to have it displayed. 8. Other children act as if he were taboo or tainted 9. Has difficulty concentrating for any length of t i m e SCALE 10. Is overactive, restless, a n d / o r continually s h i f t i n g body positions 11. Apologizes repeatedly for himself a n d / o r his behavior 12. Distorts the truth by m a k i n g statements contrary to fact 13. Underachieving: Performs below his demonstrated ability level 14. Disturbs other c h i l d r e n : t e a s i n g , provoking fights, interrupting others 15. Tries to avoid c a l l i n g attention to himself 16. Makes distrustful or s u s p i c i o u s remarks about actions of others toward him 17. Reacts to stressful situations or changes in routine with general body aches, head or stomach aches, nausea. 18. Argues and must have the last word in verbal exchanges 19. Approaches new t a s k s a n d situations with an "I c a n ' t do i t " response 2 0 . Has nervous t i c s : m u s c l e - t w i t c h i n g , e y e - b l i n k i n g , n a i l - b i t i n g , hand-wringing. 2 1 . Habitually rejects the school experience through actions or c o m m e n t s 2 2 . Has enuresis. (Wets bed.) 2 3 . Utters nonsense syllables a n d / o r babbles to himself 2 4 . Continually seeks attention 2 5 . Comments that nobody likes him 2 6 . Repeats one idea, thought, or activity over and over 27. Has temper t a n t r u m s 2 8 . Refers to himself as d u m b , s t u p i d , or incapable 2 9 . Does not engage in group activities 3 0 . When teased or irritated by other c h i l d r e n , takes out his frustration(s) on another inappropriate person or t h i n g 3 1 . Has r a p i d mood s h i f t s : depressed one moment, m a n i c the next 3 2 . Does not obey until threatened with punishment 3 3 . C o m p l a i n s of nightmares, bad dreams 3 4 . Expresses concern about b e i n g lonely, unhappy 3 5 . Openly strikes back with angry behavior to t e a s i n g of other children 3 6 . Expresses concern about s o m e t h i n g terrible or horrible h a p p e n i n g to h i m . 3 7 . Has no friends 3 8 . M u s t have approval for t a s k s attempted or completed 3 9 . Displays physical aggression toward objects or persons 4 0 . Is hypercritical of himself 4 1 . Does not complete t a s k s attempted 4 2 . Doesn't protest when others hurt, tease, or criticize h i m . . 4 3 . S h u n s or avoids heterosexual activities * 4 4 . Steals t h i n g s from other children 4 5 . Does not initiate relationships with other children 4 6 . Reacts with defiance to instructions or c o m m a n d s 47. Weeps or cries without provocation 4 8 . Stutters, s t a m m e r s , or blocks on s a y i n g words 4 9 . Easily distracted away from the task at hand by ordinary classroom s t i m u l i , i .e . minor movements of others, noises, etc 5 0 . Frequently stares blankly into space and is unaware of his surroundings when doing s o . . + + 2 . . . 4 + Scale 1 Scale 2 Scale 3 Scale 4 Scale 5 Score Score Score Score Score APPENDIX B Inferred Self-Concept Scale by E. L. McDaniel, Ph.D Published by Information on Child WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 12031 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90025 A DIVISION OF MANSON WESTERN CORPORATION Name Ethnic Group Date of Birth Age Sex School Examiner Date Supplementary information (As Desired for Research) Test Scores 1. Mental Maturity Test (_ Date Language Non-Language Total Standard Score(T) 2. Achievement Test (_ Date Reading Arithmetic (Comprehension) (Computation) Raw Score Standard Score Grade Equivalent Classifying Data (Check where appropriate) • Male • Female • Only Child • Oldest Child • Middle Child • Youngest Child DIRECTIONS You are asked to describe your perception of a student's self-concept in terms of the following items. Please indicate your rating on each item by circling one of the five numbers at the right of each item. Never Seldom Sometimes Usually Always Enjoys working with others. For example, student may smile, laugh, or look pleased when engaged in productive group activity Exhibits self-confidence. For example, student initiates activities, goes ahead in work and play without direction Plays with smaller or younger children. For example, student seeks simple play activities in order to excel or dominate peers Evidences strong pleasure in good work. For example, student voluntarily redoes poor or sloppy constructions, paperwork, coloring, etc. unless he is satisfied (may smile, chuckle, sigh, look pleased) with his product Is antagonistic to adults. For example, student talks back, refuses to obey, balks in the presence of adults Has unrealistic expectations for himself. For example, student sets minor a n d / o r major goals, academically a n d / o r physically, which he is incapable of attaining Is easily discouraged. For example, student ceases activity when minor failure or mishap occurs Appears unsociable. For example, student plays and works alone. He may leave setting or activity when others join him Copyright © 1973 by WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES ( ISCS, Page 2) - 88 -9. Cries easily. For example, student "puckers up" or tears come to his eyes when he has a mishap, failure, or difficulty with activity (work or play) or with interpersonal relationships 10. Is unfriendly to classmates. For example, student works and plays alone. He leaves activity when others appear and refuses (with words or gestures or looks) friendly overtures 11. Tries to dominate or bully. For example, student attempts to lead activities even though this is counter to desires of group. He attempts to force his wishes, verbally a n d / o r physically on others 12. Fights 13. Talks compulsively. For example, student does not await his turn, nor stop talking when his turn is over. He has to "have his say" to peers and adults 14. Seems afraid of teacher. For example, student never disagrees with teacher. He does not voluntarily speak up or perform and seems to withdraw physically from any contact with teacher 15. Feels he is "picked o n " by classmates. For example, student claims others treat him "unfairly." He claims they make him do more "work" (and have less "fun") 16. Gives up easily. For example, student meets difficulty or mishap with work or play by ceasing activity 17. Is defiant. For example, student rejects criticism. He may do so verbally (sass) a n d / o r nonverbally (tear up work, destroy game, disrupt group activity, fight) 18. Thinks he is right. For example, student does not seek verification of his procedures in work or play. He proceeds when his own goal is satisfied . . . . 19. Is ready to accept blame when at fault. For example, student does not try to shift accusations or rebukes to others for his actions 20. Is trusting. For example, student has unquestioning reliance in statements, actions, and justice of others. He is not suspicious of their motives 21. Seems to have a " c h i p " on his shoulder. For example, student misinterprets expressed thoughts, motives, and actions of others in both work and play as being opposed to his best interests 22. Is quarrelsome or argumentative. For example, student may taunt others a n d / o r disagree with the statements of others 23. Is "oversensitive". For example, student may cry or withdraw or become silent when his statements or actions are questioned 24. Provokes hostility from classmates. For example, student may tease others a n d / o r disagree with statements by others. He may do these things verbally or nonverbally 25. Thinks his teacher likes him. For example, student acts happy (may smile, work, or play as if contented) when in presence of teacher 26. Tattles. For example, student tells teacher of statements and actions Which were not intended for teacher to know about 27. Is withdrawing. For example, student does not play a n d / o r work with peers 28. Is fearful. For example, student backs away or withdraws from routine activities (work a n d / o r play) where he could be hurt, or where he might • undergo stress or be embarrassed 29. Seems satisfied with level of performance. For example, student does not withdraw from work and/or play situations and appears visibly to be content 30. Appears worried. For example, student may have an anxious "look" (i.e., furrowed brow, "cowed" expression) TOTAL SCORE = - 89 -APPENDIX C THE PIERS-HARRIS CHILDREN'S SELF CONCEPT SCALE (The Way I Feel About Myself) by E L L E N V . PIERS, Ph.D. and D A L E B . HARRIS , Ph.D. Published by Counselor Recordings and Tests B O X 6184 A C K L E N S T A T I O N N A S H V I L L E , T E N N E S S E E 37212 - 90 -H e r e a r e a s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s . S o m e o f t h e m a r e t r u e o f y o u a n d so y o u w i l l c i r c l e t h e y e s . S o m e a r e n o t t r u e o f y o u a n d s o y o u w i l l c i r c l e t h e n o . A n s w e r e v e r y q u e s t i o n e v e n i f s o m e a r e h a r d t o d e c i d e , b u t d o n o t c i r c l e b o t h y e s a n d n o . R e -m e m b e r , c i r c l e t h e ^ e s i f t h e s t a t e m e n t is g e n e r a l l y l i k e y o u , o r c i r c l e t h e n o i f t h e s t a t e m e n t i s g e n e r a l l y n o t l i k e y o u . T h e r e a r e n o r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s . O n l y y o u c a n t e l l us h o w y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u r s e l f , s o w e h o p e y o u w i l l m a r k t h e w a y y o u r e a l l y f e e l i n s i d e . 1 . M y c l a s s m a t e s m a k e f u n o f m e y e s n o 2 . I a m a h a p p y p e r s o n y e s n o 3 . It is h a r d f o r m e t o m a k e f r i e n d s y e s n o 4 . I a m o f t e n s a d y e s n o 5 . I a m s m a r t y e s n o 6 . I a m s h y • • • • y e s n o 7 . I g e t n e r v o u s w h e n t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s o n m e y e s n o 8 . M y l o o k s b o t h e r m e y e s n o 9 . W h e n I g r o w u p , I w i l l b e a n i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n y e s n o 1 0 . I g e t w o r r i e d w h e n w e h a v e t e s t s i n s c h o o l y e s n o 1 1 . I a m u n p o p u l a r ' y e s n o 1 2 . I a m w e l l b e h a v e d i n s c h o o l ' y e s n o 1 3 . It i s u s u a l l y m y f a u l t w h e n s o m e t h i n g g o e s w r o n g • . y e s n o 1 4 . I c a u s e t r o u b l e t o m y f a m i l y y e s n o 1 5 . I a m s t r o n g y e s n o 1 6 . I h a v e g o o d i d e a s y e s n o 1 7 . 1 a m a n i m p o r t a n t m e m b e r o f m y f a m i l y • • • y e s n o 1 8 . I u s u a l l y w a n t m y o w n w a y y e s n o 1 9 . 1 a m g o o d a t m a k i n g t h i n g s w i t h m y h a n d s y e s n o 2 0 . I g i v e u p e a s i l y y e s n o - 91 -2 1 . I a m g o o d i n m y s c h o o l w o r k y e s n o 2 2 . I d o m a n y b a d t h i n g s y e s n o 2 3 . I c a n d r a w w e l l y e s n o 2 4 . I a m g o o d i n m u s i c • . y e s n o 2 5 . I b e h a v e b a d l y a t h o m e y e s n o 2 6 . I a m s l o w i n f i n i s h i n g m y s c h o o l w o r k y e s n o 2 7 . I a m a n i m p o r t a n t m e m b e r o f m y c l a s s y e s n o 2 8 . I a m n e r v o u s y e s n o 2 9 . I h a v e p r e t t y e y e s y e s n o 3 0 . I c a n g i v e a g o o d r e p o r t i n f r o n t o f t h e c l a s s y e s n o 3 1 . In s c h o o l I a m a d r e a m e r y e s n o 3 2 . I p i c k o n m y b r o t h e r ( s ) a n d s i s t e r ( s ) y e s n o 3 3 . M y f r i e n d s l i k e m y i d e a s . . . y e s n o 3 4 . I o f t e n g e t i n t o t r o u b l e y e s n o 3 5 . I a m o b e d i e n t a t h o m e . . . y e s n o 3 6 . I a m l u c k y y e s n o 3 7 . I w o r r y a l o t . . • y e s n o 3 8 . M y p a r e n t s e x p e c t t o o m u c h o f m e • • • y e s n o 3 9 . I l i k e b e i n g t h e w a y I a m y e s n o 4 0 . I f e e l l e f t o u t o f t h i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . y e s n o - 92 -4 1 . I h a v e n i c e h a i r . y e s n o 4 2 . I o f t e n v o l u n t e e r i n s c h o o l y e s n o 4 3 . I w i s h I w e r e d i f f e r e n t . y e s n o 4 4 . I s l e e p w e l l a t n i g h t : y e s n o 4 5 . I h a t e s c h o o l y e s n o 4 6 . I a m a m o n g t h e l a s t t o b e c h o s e n f o r g a m e s y e s n o 4 7 . I a m s i c k a l o t y e s n o 4 8 . I a m o f t e n m e a n to o t h e r p e o p l e y e s n o 4 9 . M y c l a s s m a t e s i n s c h o o l t h i n k I h a v e g o o d i d e a s y e s n o 5 0 . I a m u n h a p p y y e s n o 5 1 . I h a v e m a n y f r i e n d s y e s n o 5 2 . I a m c h e e r f u l y e s n o 5 3 . I a m d u m b a b o u t m o s t t h i n g s y e s n o 5 4 . I a m g o o d l o o k i n g r • • y e s n o 5 5 . I h a v e l o t s o f p e p y e s n o 5 6 . I g e t i n t o a l o t o f f i g h t s . . . y e s n o 5 7 . I a m p o p u l a r w i t h fyoys y e s n o 5 8 . P e o p l e p i c k o n m e y e s n o 5 9 . M y f a m i l y is d i s a p p o i n t e d i n m e y e s n o 6 0 . I h a v e a p l e a s a n t f a c e y e s n o - 93 -6 1 . W h e n I t r y t o m a k e s o m e t h i n g , e v e r y t h i n g s e e m s t o g o w r o n g . . . . . y e s n o 6 2 . I a m p i c k e d o n a t h o m e . y e s n o 6 3 . I a m a l e a d e r i n g a m e s a n d s p o r t s y e s n o 6 4 . 1 a m c l u m s y y e s n o 6 5 . In g a m e s a n d s p o r t s , I w a t c h i n s t e a d o f p l a y y e s n o 6 6 . I f o r g e t w h a t I l e a r n y e s n o 6 7 . I a m e a s y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h v e s n o 6 8 . I l o s e m y t e m p e r e a s i l y y e s n o 6 9 . I a m p o p u l a r w i t h g i r l s y e s n o 7 0 . I a m a g o o d r e a d e r y e s n o 7 1 . I w o u l d r a t h e r w o r k a l o n e t h a n w i t h a g r o u p y e s n o 7 2 . I l i k e m y b r o t h e r ( s i s t e r ) y e s n o 7 3 . I h a v e a g o o d f i g u r e y e s n o 7 4 . I a m o f t e n a f r a i d y e s n o 7 5 . I a m a l w a y s d r o p p i n g o r b r e a k i n g t h i n g s y e s n o 7 6 . I c a n b e t r u s t e d . y e s n o 7 7 . 1 a m d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e y e s n o 7 8 . I t h i n k b a d t h o u g h t s y e s n o 7 9 . I c r y e a s i l y y e s n o 8 0 . I a m a g o o d p e r s o n y e s n o S c o r e : - 95 -APPENDIX E vi rz 111 CP cC. Ul Q 111 a. - 96 -- 97 -- 98 -- 99 -- 100 -- 101 -- 102 -- 103 - 104 -

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