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The effects of counselling methods on process and outcome Higgins, Heather Marie 1979

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THE E F F E C T S OF COUNSELLING ON P R O C E S S  AND  METHODS  OUTCOME  by Heather B.Sc,  A THESIS  Marie  Mount A l l i s o n  SUBMITTED  IN  Higgins University,  1974  P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  MASTER OF  OF  ARTS  in  '  THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE  (Department  of  Counselling  We a c c e p t  this  thesis--as  to  the required  (c)  Heather  Marie  Psychology)  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H April,  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1979 Higgins,  1979  THE  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  E-6  B P 75-51 1 E  (i)  ABSTRACT  The split in  differential  were  examined  a graduate  included Gestalt and  effects  i n  Two C h a i r R o l e  a Control, Depth  variable  Complaints  Outcome Box Scale  goal  Fourteen conditions;  subjects  subjects  seven t h e r a p i s t s Playing  order any  or practice  Because not  possible  design. occasion, using  the  scale,  saw f o u r a n d two  received  sessions  was c o u n t e r  of t h e t h r e e were  treatment  randomly session.  received  involving  balanced  a  reports.  sessions  TITO c l i e n t s  Target  Two  The Chair  Focusing.  i n order  The  to.eliminate  effect.  t o employ  subjects  a f u l l y  T w o of t h e d e p e n d e n t  a 7 X 2 X r  client  engaged i n a t h e r a p y  clients.  therapy  questions,  assigned t o each  counselling  dependent  included the  awareness  and subjective  randomly  of t h e t w o  to a l l subjects,  w i t h whom t h e y  Control  yielding  from  responses',  was t h e p r o c e s s  effects  e t a l . , 19°6),  of t r e a t m e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n  bias  students  methods  i n t e r v e n t i o n drawn  e t a l . , I969)  given  who r e c e i v e d  sessions  The  folloxved by Empathic  the differential  were  each  conflict  f o r t y two subjects,  a therapeutic  (Klein  (Battle  attainment  using  applied to a  therapy.  measures,  assigned to therapists  Role  no  methods  and seven t h e r a p i s t s .  instructions  of E x p e r i e n c i n g  conditions.  modified  Focusing  compare  study  programme,  PlayingJ  involving  used t o  counselling  an analogue  counselling  therapy,  of  were n o t a s s i g n e d t o t h e r a p i s t s ,  crossed variables  7X3  was  (therapist-by-treatment)  were measured  a t h i r d repeated measures  i t  factor.  (therapist-by-treatment-by-occasion)  on more  than  Preliminary fixed  one analysis  effects  (ii)  analysis  of  variance  variance  associated  ificance  of  was  performed.  with therapists  Therefore,  .25.  employed.  A fixed effects  u s e d x«iere  the  t r i a l  analysis  of  variance  measured  on  one  Results Focusing scores,  in but  was  no  on any  a  there  no  from the goal  and  the  mode  Control  each of  subjective  scale. these client  indicators  of  what  If  deepen  living.  and  Target There  two  of  experiencing  t h e y may be t h e n  a one  and  dependent  to  was,  design  .05. than  experiencing  Box  however,  concerning effects  a  Scale,  or  of  and achieve  their  differ  modified  questions  effects  effective in  energies  Focusing  difference  may be  new awareness  There  did not  awareness  counselling and  and  on t h e  the non-specific  groups  scores.  Playing  significant  C o n t r o l on  are necessary  put  ana peak  Chair Role  was  was  effective of  was  factor  u s e d was  depth  sign-  variance  two treatment groups  and t h e  freed to  of  variable  be more  peak,  Complaints  non-specific ingredients  one,  of  d i f f e r e n c e between the two  These  groups  reports  of  o n p r o p o r t i o n mode  measures.  on t h e  These  standing,  Playing  significant  a level  analysis  significance  d i f f e r e n c e b e t x i r e e n Two  counselling.  clients  than  of  g r e a t e r number  scores  outcome  attainment  between  was  significant of  Two C h a i r R o l e  producing  of  greater  level  at  sources  (treatment-by-occasion)  p e r f o r m e d when t h e The  that  c o u l d be p o o l e d  a 3 X r  f a c t o r was was  showed  repeated, measures  occasion.  showed  on f r e q u e n c y  Results  and  of  valuable therapy.  self  i n t o more  undercreative  CiiD TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  List  of  Tables  v  List  of  Figures  v i  Acknowledgments  v i i  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  Background The  of  the Problem  1  Problem  Definition  2 of  Terms  Used  3  Focusing  3  Two C h a i r R o l e Depth The  Playing  Operation  4  of Experiencing  4  Split  Conflict Split  5 Split  5  Resolution  6  Awareness Shift  in  6 Awareness  Behaviour  6  Change  7  Hypotheses Rationale  7 of  Delimitation Assumptions  10  of the  11  of  Justification II  Hypotheses  the of  Study Study  the  11  Study  12  LITERATURE REVIEW  14  Developments  in  Research  Methodology  The R o l e  of  Awareness  in  The  Role  of  Splits  Psychotherapy  The  Roles  Techniques  of in  in  14  Psychotherapy  Two C h a i r R o l e  Playing  Psychotherapy Research  Research  Research and  16 17  Focusing 19  (iv) T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  (cont'd) III  Page  METHODOLOGY  21  Instruments For  Subject  For  Dependent  For  Subjective Client  Subject  IV  21 Description  21  Variables  22  Information  S e l e c t i o n and P r e p a r a t i o n  26  Population  28  Therapists  28  Raters  29  Data  30  Collection  Scoring  Procedure  31  Design  and Analyses  37  RESULTS  42  Comparison  of  Chair Role  Playing  Comparison  of  Under  Depth  of  Experience  and Focusing  Target  Two C h a i r R o l e  Control  Complaints Playing,  Under  Comparison  of  Chair Role  Playing,  Box  Scale  Focusing  42 Ratings  and  Shift  44 in  Awareness  Focusing  and  Ratings  Under  Two  Control Conditions  C h a n g e i n B e h a v i o u r U n d e r Two C h a i r Focusing and C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s  Comparison of Subjective C l i e n t Report U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g Control  Two  Treatments  Conditions  Comparison of Role Playing,  V  25  Conditions  DISCUSSION  47  49  Ratings and 50 58  Process  Measures  58  Outcome  Variables  60  Recommendations  66  Implications  68  References  70  Appendices  74  (v ) LIST  OF TABLES  Table  I  Order  II  Time Sequence  III  Mean Empathy  IV  Number o f R a t i n g s f o r Mode a n d P e a k  V  Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r F r e q u e n c y a n d P r o p o r t i o n o f Mode a n d P e a k R a t i n g s  VI  A n a l y s i s o f Variance f o r Frequency and P r o p o r t i o n o f Mode a n d P e a k R a t i n g s  VII  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s Target Complaints Box Scale  VIII  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Change Target Complaints Box Scale  VIX  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s , and M a r g i n a l f o r S h i f t s i n Awareness Question  X  Analysis  XI  Means and S t a n d a r d Attainment Scores  XII  Analysis  XIII  Means Change  o f Tests  with  Respect  of Training, Ratings  t o Treatments Therapy  f o r Empathy  G r e a t e r Than Scores  of Variance  Sessions  o r Equal  to Five  o f Scores  Scores  f o r Awareness  Deviations  and Testing  of the  of  Means  Questions  f o r Goal  o f Variance f o r Goal Attainment  and Standard  Deviations  Scores  f o r Behaviour  Score  XIV  Analysis  o f Variance f o r Behaviour  XV  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s the Therapy Session Report  XVI  Analysis o f Variance f o r Questions Therapy Session Report  XVII  Means and S t a n d a r d Question  XVIII  Analysis  XIX  Summary o f R e s u l t s o f Outcome V a r i a b l e s f o r S u b j e c t s i n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g , and C o n t r o l Groups  Deviations  Change  Score  o f Questions  From  From t h e  f o r Progress  o fVariance f o r Progress  Question  (vi)  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  An  example  of  Mode a n d  two c l i e n t s , A and minutes of therapy Experimental  Design  Peak  Scores  B , a f t e r 24 a n d respectively  for 16 36 40  (vii) i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I  wish  to  LES  extend  to:  G R E E N B E R G , my t e a c h e r ,  caring, as  appreciation  a n d w i t h whom w o r k i n g  valuable  TOTJDROGERS,  an  experience  for  project,  and  research  design  in  which  and  his  programming  BRENDA GREENBERG, LIN  TAYLOR,  RAY  so  graciously  me t o  sense  presented  for  energy  his  as  thesis.  interest  and  in  this of  considerate ideas.  and w i l l i n g n e s s through  to  to  see  the  completion.  SHARON KAHN,  therapists  DOUG W I L L M S f o r  o f f e r e d me t h r o u g h o u t thesis.  was  DANIEL  NAEGELI,  PENNER, ARTHUR RIDGEWAY a n d NANCY JOHNSON,  LIN  this  his  my u n d e r s t a n d i n g  valuable  analysis  SYLVIA McGILP,  they  humour  SYLVIA McGILP,  acted  and  for  analysis.  of  B I L L NICKERSON, TAYLOR,  this  and  deepen  patience  and  friend,  a relationship  preparing  statistical  his  he  as  and  through  guidance,  helping  for  DWIGHT H A R L E Y , computer  his  for  NORM AMUNDSON, manner  colleague,  the  and  raters.  LYSE DOMPIERRE, their course  who  JOAN  sensitivity of  RICHARDT,  and  preparation  support of  (viii)  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (cont'd)  This Upon  thesis  leaving,  Psychology  marks  the  conclusion  reflections of  profession  one  important phase  my p u r s u i t ^ a n d l o v e  are best  Kiss The  of  expressed  today  in  this  and  the  we h a d  to  And  regret  what  can't I  Look,  did  gift  It's  as  But  I  What  for  my e y e s  The  was i f  did  As  And p o i n t Wish  for  is  did  for  love  for  love  knew I  did  love  gone on  what w e ' l l  remember  good-bye me t ' w a r d  forget  Can't  regret did  I  what  never  me l i i c k ,  I  do  . . . .  Won't  What  poem:  t o borrow"  we t r a v e l  today  Counselling  dry  forget  Love's  Kiss  are ours  Gone Love  the  love  we a l w a y s  won't I  of'  l i f e .  sorrow  We d i d w h a t  What  have  my  good-bye  sweetness  I  I  of  the  for  same  to  you  love. from  by  tomorrow  Marvin  "What  I  Hamlish  did for and  Love"  Edward  Kleban  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND O F T H E P R O B L E M  R e s e a r c h .on p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c information peutic  process  on t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s  interventions*  have  retarded  such  problems:  of various  Many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  advancement  i n this  t o date  field.  has provided  treatments  conducting  Butcher  l i t t l e  and t h e r a -  disciplined  and Koss  inquiry  (1978)  address  The r e s e a r c h o n outcome o f b r i e f p s y c h o t h e r a p y h a s been plagued with d i f f i c u l t y . The i n c l u s i o n o f ' r e a l * c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s has n o t been resolved i n any o f t h e studies reported. Most outcome s t u d i e s t h a t have r e p o r t e d s u b s t a n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t r a t e s may s t i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a r e p l i c a t i o n of t h e Hawthorne e f f e c t — d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t most a n y t h i n g done t o a p a t i e n t r e s u l t s i n measured improvement as l o n g as he knows y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g o f h i m and c h e c k i n g on h i m e v e r y so o f t e n . Comp a r i s o n s o f v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t s may b e t h e o n l y e t h i c a l way t o a p p r o a c h c o n t r o l l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s now (pp. 68-69). Knowledge ical  a global  as  then,  date,  many  approach  studies  well  suggests  by examining  as t h e process i s  important  that  this  t o be gained  are  can be advanced  dealing  relationship which takes  therapy  is  area,  with  responsible  which  c a r e f u l and  into  what  t h e whole  occurs  level  i n research. of analysis  Rather  facilitate  change  i n both  However, i s  and t h e  crit-  promote  and overt  True,  client,  Greenberg  (1975)  i f  insight  are i n a p a r t i c u l a r hour  which  which  investigation  good p r o c e s s  behaviour.  taken  the whole  inappropriate  a more m i c r o s c o p i c  affect  have  therapeutic relationship.  within the c l i e n t over  t h e components  f o r change.  research  p l a c e between t h e t h e r a p i s t  and v i t a l  global  with psychotherapy  be t a k e n t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n g r e d i e n t s turn  only  experimentation. To  the  i n this  should  and i n  - 2 A detailed examination specific needed a  client  i n order  result  report  measures  t o have  before  According  during  therapy  and  and a f t e r t h e t h e r a p y  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the therapy.  researchers  of the process  o f what  to Butcher  happens  and Koss  highly hour  during,  (1978)  are and as  many  are attempting t o :  a s c e r t a i n what s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s has been e s t a b l i s h e d i ' f o r t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t we •know c l i n i c a l l y are important t o bringing about b e h a v i o u r a l change i n p a t i e n t s hard f a c t s are scarce , l a r g e l y because such processes are exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to carve up i n t o o b j e c t i v e l y measurable q u a n t i t i e s . The p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e i s indeed s c a r c e , and o f t e n i n c o n c l u s i v e on these issues (p. 67). 1  Bergin of  the therapeutic technique  rather  as a r e s u l t  present  study  also  reports of the  levels hour  change of  experience  t o understand of  reports  i n t h e week  change  client  i n  not  counselling.  not only  because  This  by examining during  the  pro-  hour,  o f i n t e r n a l s t a t e s . and b y b e h a v i o u r a l following the session*  experiencing with the client's reports  o f t h e mechanism  results,  experiencing  i n the different therapies-may  ingredients  change  or of the therapeutic relationship, but  such as l e v e l  by examining of  concluded that  of the client's  attempts  cess v a r i a b l e s but  (1975)  and Suinn  of  provide  The  comparison  o f what  insight  -  occurs  into  the  during active  change.  PROBLEM  This client's ition, promote was  study level  outcome change  designed  was concerned w i t h of  aspects  experiencing during  measures was a  indicating  second  t o answer  major  a  counselling  factors issue.  the following  of process  which More  questions:  which  session.  operate  enhance In  add-  i n a client  specifically, this  a  to  thesis  - 3 1)  Is there a differential treatment effect between Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing with regard to Depth of Experiencing?  2)  Is there a differential treatment effect between Focusing, Two Chair Role Playing, and Control with regard to shift i n awareness, behaviour change, and conflict resolution?  DEFINITION OF TERMS USED FOCUSING: The Focusing operation developed by Gendlin  (1969)  i s a technique  whereby the client i s instructed "to experience the present situation of a chosen problem.  The client  i s asked to focus on bodily feelings,  and to listen to feelings from within. The instructions direct the client to pay attention to "that part of you where you usually feel glad or sad, or scared", and to choose a major personal problem on which to -  focus.  I f a newer feeling comes up, i t should be followed and words and  images allowed to develop  and used to heighten the client's present  experiencing of the problem. Kantor and Zimring active technique of focusing operates i n such  (1976)  suggest that the  a manner as to supply new  possibilities for the client's consideration which leads to a redefinition of the problem. TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING OPERATION Two Chair Role Playing i s described by Bohart (1977): Role playing, as used i n Gestalt therapy and other forms of counselling, consists of having a client act out various aspects of a conflict situation. If the conflict involves another person, the client constructs a dialogue between himself or herself, and the other person. The client plays himself, or herself, and then switches roles (and usually chairs) and plays the other (p.214).  This Two Chair Role Playing operation has been defined by Greenberg (1975)  as follows:  - 4(the) operation i s a series of suggestions and observations made by a therapist or f a c i l i t a t o r to c l e a r l y separate two aspects or p a r t i a l tendencies of the s e l f process and to f a c i l i t a t e d i r e c t communication between these. The purpose of the experiment i s to maintain a process of separation and contact between these parts (p. 1 9 7 ) • Greenberg  (1979?  i n press) has presented f i v e p r i n c i p l e s which  constitute the main structure of the operation.  They are:  1.  Maintenance of a contact boundary: Maintaining clear separation and contact between the p a r t i a l aspect of the self.  2.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : Directing the person to use h i s or her a b i l i t i e s to respond i n accordance with the true nature of h i s or her experience.  3»  Attending: Directing the person's attention to p a r t i c u l a r aspects of his or her present functioning.  4»  Heightening: Highlighting aspects of experience by increasing the l e v e l of arousal.  5.  Expressing: Making actual and s p e c i f i c that which i s i n t e l l e c t u a l or abstract. P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g experience by moving from theory to p r a c t i c e .  DEPTH OF EXPERIENCING Experiencing, according to Klein, et a l .  (1969)  refers to the q u a l i t y  of a person's experiencing of himself/herself. I t i s the extent to which t h i s experiencing i s integrated with the person's action and thought.  At a low l e v e l of-experiencing, there may be no d e s c r i p t i o n  of f e e l i n g s , and discourse may be s u p e r f i c i a l and impersonal.  At a  moderate depth of experiencing the person may describe and elaborate his/her f e e l i n g s .  The greatest depths of experiencing are those i n which  the c l i e n t explores his/her feelings which i n turn leads to problem resolution, and self-understanding.  Thus, Depth of Experiencing refers  to the q u a l i t y of the content of a c l i e n t ' s words i n therapy.  - 5THE  SPLIT  The  split  has  been  defined  by  Greenberg  (1975)-:  The s p l i t i s a v e r b a l p e r f o r m a n c e p a t t e r n m a n i f e s t e d b y one p e r s o n ( c l i e n t ) i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r (therapist). The c l i e n t h e r e i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as b e i n g i n p r o c e s s , and t h e s p l i t i s an o b s e r v a b l e p r o c e s s f o r m c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e l f p r o c e s s i n t o two p a r t i a l aspects o f t h e s e l f a r e r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t ways and t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the tendencies d e f i n e different types of s p l i t s . Four discriminative features of t h i s p r o c e s s form a r e t o be found i n t h e c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r a l productions. The f o u r f e a t u r e s a r e : p a r t one o f t h e splitj p a r t two o f t h e s p l i t ; a r e l a t i o n a l f e a t u r e ; a q u a l i t a t i v e feature. Together they c o n s t i t u t e the marker of the s p l i t (p.  17).  CONFLICT  SPLIT  Greenberg splits, will is  (1975)  subject/object  require  subjects  characterized by  opposition which  has  with  indicate that  to  present two  two  persons  conflict  The  splits  are  is  one  of  struggle  i n d i c a t e d by  some p r o c e s s  person  is  involved  in  of  a)  On t h e o n e other side marriage.  b)  I want t o a l s o want know what  subjective  being  "but-yet".  Some  examples  of  splits:  of  the  set  self is  of  inner  struggle  or  conflict  splits  might  thesis  being  each  or  words  other  type  of  cue t h a t  coerciion  such  split the  such  be:  s i d e , I d o n ' t want t o t i e m y s e l f down. On t h e h o w e v e r , I w a n t t h e s e c u r i t y o f f e r e d me b y I j u s t d o n ' t know what t o do; or s p e n d my f r e e t i m e w i t h my f a m i l y , b u t I t o s p e n d m o r e t i m e i v i t h my w o r k . I just to"do.  split  in  a word  this  content  conflict  conflict  A  against  experience or  This  only.  relational feature  parts  some f o r m  of  attribution splits.  p a r t i a l aspects  other. the  and  types  as  "should-want".  The  splits,  the  each  identified three  don't  as  -  SPLIT  6  -  RESOLUTION  This his/her  concept  pressing  completely ution  issue.  eliminated or  refers  his/her  refers  to  the  fact  problem  and  is  to  the  It  does not  is  no  that  less  a b i l i t y of  the  client  mean t h a t  longer  an  a person  bothered  issue.  puts  by  the  cope  conflict  Rather,  less  the  to  after  split  split  emotional  issue  with is  resol-  energy  into  a passage  of  time.  AWARENESS  The thesis, from  term refers  one's  external able  at  one's main  awareness,  worldly  self areas  SHIFT IN  times,  they  1973)* in  the  client into of  of  of  of  is  wants,  a  It  sense  conscious  is  as  an  continuous Polster  and  awareness  that of  well  means  values  is  used  those  from  readily  (1973)  can be  up  to  date  outline  of  the  avail-  focused.  awareness  this  coming  coming  keeping  and  in  sensations  process  Polster  actions,  of  as  for  awareness  i t  the  ongoing  and  where  sensations and  the  environment  1969).  of  in  being  human e x p e r i e n c e  with  four They  feelings,  assessments.  AWARENESS  are  may b e  unaware  of  Mental  thought  their  alienate parts  of  of  their  flow of  awareness.  The  to  away  opposing  parts,  then,  purpose  any b a r r i e r s A  occurring  which  shift  might  or  a  to  due  feelings,  self-functioning  occurs,  take  as  sensations,  imbalance  consciousness.  the  and  (Yonteff,  Dysfunction  so  act  environment.  awareness  awareness  people  the  internal bodily  a l l  include  to  defined  when of  of  the  wants  is  an is  awareness  leading  to  perspective  fact  and  (Polster  counselling  prevent  occur  change  there  to  values,  and  and  Polster,  interruption to  help  from  greater by  that  a  coming  integration  reframing  of  the  - 7-  issue.  For  presented  example,  earlier,  underlying  issues I  1.  in  Now I is to  BEHAVIOUR  person's  that  I  don't  behaviour  thesis over  refers  a week  attainment  experience  ing  the  For  session.  in  the  above  getting  physical  that  he w i l l  discuss  after the  change  in  in  example,  examples  time  were  of  lead to  whether  the  take  the  the  main  to  get  reason  splits  following  married  for  enough t i m e t o  therapy  behaviour  an o v e r t period.  The  or  do  my the  things  desired be  and t h e  he/she  second  with his  hour  f o l l o w e d up  occurred  as  change  rated the  These  as  by  a week  to  how w e l l  be  follow-  conflict  spend  more  conclude  goals  a week  a  will  first  wants  after  in  measured  c l i e n t might  wife.  well  change  be  client presenting  feelings  had  covert will  and w i l l  may d e c i d e t h a t  and  or It  goal  therapy the  exercise, his  to  long  scale.  following the  a  might  c o n c e r n was  realize that  set  i f  awareness  examples  do.  this  a modified goal  set  two  CHANGE  Change i n  be  the  I w a s o r i g i n a l l y t o r n b e t w e e n s p e n d i n g t i m e o n my r e s e a r c h o r w i t h my f a m i l y , a n d n o w I r e a l i z e t h a t my r e a l c o n c e r n i s t h a t I am a n g r y a t my w i f e a n d f e e l u n s u r e o f my r e l a t i o n s h i p .  2.  split  to  exposed:  my m a j o r  not. like  regard  shift  being  anxiety I  a  thought  or  with  to  would measure  these  goals  conflict  split  attained.  HYPOTHESES  H_ U  The  Two  Chair  Role  Playing  operation  applied to  a  l will  not  lead to  different of  a  levels  from l e v e l s  conflict split  used i n  this  study.  of  of  using  Experiencing  Experiencing, the  Focusing  which  are  significantly  resulting  from  Technique  in  exploration  the  population  The  Two  will  Chair  lead  to  different of  a  used  The to  a  from  in  this  conflict  conflict  Experiencing of  applied which  Experiencing  using  operation conflict of  the  to  are  a  conflict  split  significantly  resulting  from  Focusing technique  split  significantly from  applied to resolution  a  using  the  in  different  the  from  from  exploration the  population  these  in  the  two of  w i l l  not  significantly from  technique,  reports  control group  are  split  resulting  Focusing  resulting  conflict  which  conflict resolution  resolution  resulting  of  operation  study.  of  reports  Playing  levels split  Chair  reports  be  levels  conflict  Two  from  Role  and  population  different  exploration reports  techniques  conflict  lead  of  of  w i l l  not  resolution used i n  this  study.  The  Two  reports from a  Chair of  conflict  reports  conflict  operation  of  split  resolution  conflict using  of  conflict resolution  be  significantly  resulting  applied to  which  resolution  the  Control  from group  conflict are  split  from  technique,  from these reports in  the  w i l l  significantly  resulting  Focusing  resulting  different  from the  a  of  and  two  lead  different  exploration the  population  of  reports  techniques  conflict  to  will  resolution used i n  this  study.  The to  Two  reports  from a  Chair of  reports  conflict  change i n  operation  applied  change i n  awareness which  of  split  change i n using  awareness  the  to  awareness Focusing  resulting  from  a  conflict are  split  from  technique, two  not  significantly  resulting  these  will  and  lead  different  exploration  of  the  of  techniques  reports will  not  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change i n awareness r e s u l t i n g from the control group i n the population used i n t h i s study. The Two Chair operation applied to a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l lead to reports of change i n awareness which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change i n awareness r e s u l t i n g from exploration of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and the reports of change i n awareness r e s u l t i n g from these two techniques w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change i n awareness r e s u l t i n from the control group i n the population used i n t h i s  study.  The Two Chair operation applied to a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l not lead to reports of change after one week which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f erent from reports of change after one week r e s u l t i n g from exploration of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and reports of change r e s u l t i n g from these two techniques w i l l not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change r e s u l t i n g from the Control group i n the population used i n t h i s  study.  The Two Chair operation applied to a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l lead to reports of change after one week which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change after one week r e s u l t i n g from exploration of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and the reports of change resulting from these two techniques w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from reports of change r e s u l t i n g from the control group i n the population used i n t h i s study.  -  H  There  n  will  be no  10 -  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n between the  therapist  5 factor  and t h e  conflict the H,  two  There  treatment  resolution, treatment  will  be  a  f a c t o r on measures  shift  in  awareness,  of  and  Depth  of  behaviour  Experiencing, change  for  groups.  significant  i n t e r a t i o n between the  therapist  factor  5 and  the  treatment  conflict the  two  factor  resolution, treatment  on measures  shift  in  of  Depth  awareness,  of  Experiencing,  and b e h a v i o u r  change  for  groups.  R A T I O N A L E OF, H Y P O T H E S E S  Previous operation  applied  experiencing the  research to  which  This  in  could  that  suggestions i a l l y  in  of  the  counsellor  the  Two  Two  method  of  is  the  method  that  in  counselling to  deeper  considerable Playing  Chair  is  Role  Gendlin  and  weight is  of  w i l l the  therapists  added  method believe  of  is  the  the  to  at  the  choice  that  deep  and  than  of  of  1979)•  Clarke,  Hawthorne  is  of  the  with  a  is  Role  and.  experiencing  Playing  with  essent-  more  active  Two  and  effect-  Focusing,  the  working  levels  by  deepening  claim that for  produced  empathy  split  Chair  split  of  directions  comparison  for  levels  or  giving  a  Playing  clients  and  operation  Two a  in  interest  at  optimal  If  split  method,  Focusing  as  from those  in  method  Experiencing be  an  Role  specific  Greenberg  active  Playing  posits  as  Chair  to  conflict  Playing  The  lead  1975;  required  psychotherapy.  levels  a  more  Role  What i s  Chair  to  explained  intervention.  operation  Gestalt  be  Two  different  (Greenberg,  the  active  leads  empathy  possibly  the  split w i l l  significantly  active  non-directive.  iveness  suggested that  conflict  characteristics  effect  effect  a  are  application of  specified  has  method then  Chair  Role  splits.  experiencing  are  - 11 -  followed the  by  single  195l)»  awareness most  This  (Kempler,  important  shift  in  an u n d e r l y i n g  of  conflict resolution  changes  in  issue  resolution  received  Two  clients  who  Chair  study  Role  done  generalized to  trained  study  in  was  Chair  Role  the  Empathy  may b e  methods  in  in  by  awareness,  during  Playing  no  Personality.  It  persons  who  done  course  technique. using  the the  therapists  Two  exposition  investigate  in  appears, socially of  amount  whether  change,  and  clients  than  for  who those  the  normal  then,  that  and  range the  results  personally  Personality. who  were  a group  method  Chair  were  to  that  (Perls,  certain  session,  Role  specifically  setting  A l l therapists Carkhuff  a  behaviour  scored  are  in  or  frequently for  with therapists  Gestalt  awareness  that  will  believed  therapeutic interaction.  C a l i f o r n i a Test  generalized to  which these  or  was  so  a therapy  who  the  also  thesis  subjects  those  technique,  results  with  of  an i n t e n s i v e  Two  Playing  was  measured  important,  This  Perls  resolution,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  STUDY  may b e  This  shifts  THE  C a l i f o r n i a Test  as  more  either Focusing  on t h e  adjusted  is  change  may l e a d t o  may o c c u r .  occur  received  D E L I M I T A T I O N OF  This  which  experiencing,  conflict  Furthermore,  prerequisite for  awareness  of  1973)*  were  to  also  (1969). Playing  direct  the  trained  Thus and  in  the  Empathy  trained.  ASSUMPTIONS  It will is  is  assumed t h a t  be v a l i d  based  material for  on t h e  struggling  for  the  belief that  splits  produced  research  in  everyone  integration in  many  by the  clients  counselling.  experiences  ongoing  two  This  in  of  study  assumption  opposing  resolutions  this  forces  issues  in  - 12 -  their  lives  events  I969).  (Perls,  possible,  client  t o ensure  and  t h e r e was p e r s o n a l  resolving good  counselling  investigators have  that  the splits  an important  o p t i m a l t o examine  the clients presented investment  which they  process.  accept  i t i s  t r a i n i n g was u n d e r t a k e n  sessions that  Since  the view  bearing  upon  counselling  or meaningful  splits,  on t h e p a r t  of the client  i n  This  the patient's  the therapy  primed the c l i e n t s  (1978)  and Koss  that  the  best  real  presented.  Butcher  before  the  report that  pre-therapy  itself"  (p.  for  "most attitudes  49)•  J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF THE STUDY Literature attempts and  1978)*  were examined.  which  et  a l .  a  self  (1969)  client's  Both  Depth  i n this  in  of psychotherapy  b e made t o u n d e r s t a n d  Koss,  process  i n the area  process  study  because  suggests  i t i s  and s e l f that  and outcome  and outcome  of Experiencing  awareness  Depth  process  i f  demands  that  i n therapy  f o r subjects  was u s e d  understanding  construct  are major  a p a r t i c u l a r process  of Experiencing,  he/she  the  thesis  counselling  for  goals.  i n therapy  may t h e n b e n e f i t  vigorous (Butcher  i n this  t o examine  an important  more  therapies Klein, can  enhance  from t h e  psychotherapy. The in  order  change because speaks  examination to t r y to  i n a person. i t i s  Shift  of the importance  to feel  existences  a counselling  was examined  goal  therapies.  o f many  o f awareness  This  sensuous  i n ' terms awareness  i n daily  active persons  i n this Polanyi  we know  an e s s e n t i a l (p.  i s  important  and b e h a v i o u r a l study  (1959)  lives:  of the things i s  session  of psychological  i n awareness  o f o u r body alive. as  after  capture the ingredients  an i m p o r t a n t  To b e a w a r e is  o f outcome  207).  part  and d o , of our  - 13 -  In  addition,  in-therapy what  other  subjective  experience,  factors  are  client  and b e h a v i o u r  operating  in  the  reports  concerning  change were used i n  c l i e n t which  promote  split order change.  resolution, to  suggest  - 14 CHAPTER  II  enansi "Tir-asmsc: 1  LITERATURE  DEVELOPMENTS I N  Recent field  R E S E A R C H METHODOLOGY  research  area maintain that  and  i s  showing  of psychotherapeutic  analysis  i s  Clarke,  ation  1979)•  events  experience  that  outcome  approaches  required  of the total  icular  REVIEW  new t r e n d s  studies.  a r e emerging  i n the  Many r e s e a r c h e r s  are too macroscopic  and t h a t  i n  this  more  process  1967; G r e e n b e r g , 1975; S t r u p p , 1973  (Rice,  Greenberg  f  (1979)  Greenberg  suggests  moving  therapeutic i n t e r a c t i o n toward  within the therapy  r e l a t e s t o subsequent  hour  i n order  change  aiiray f r o m a n  an emphasis  t o examine  i n the client  on  examinpart-  how i n - t h e r a p y  as a r e s u l t  of  therapy. In  the early  research  i n a period  process".  People  show h e i g h t e n e d rather  I960*s.much  than  c o i n e d b y Hock  i n the field  interest  the events  Kiesler  (1966)  process  studies,  interest  points  and Zubin  occurring  which persists  (1964)  of psychotherapeutic  i n examining  out that  was shown i n t h e a r e a o f  variables  before  this  research  during  outcome  research  therapeutic variables  the course  situation  t o outcome  effectiveness  (Kiesler, stunted  only  of the  regard  with pre-post  I966).  This  the progress  and  itself  measures  patient while  outside  reluctance to relate  research  and change  with  f o r outcome,  o f examining  and l e d t o a d e c l i n e o f process  to  session.  of behaviour  concerned  of therapy without  was concerned  began  day, l e d t o an unnecessary  were t a k e n . changes  into  d i s t i n c t i o n between outcome  to this  process  research  o r as a r e s u l t  i n which measures  seems t h a t  "flight  within the interview  u n f o r t u n a t e p o l a r i t y i n t h e manner It  as  process  the process  psychotherapeutic (Bergin  and  Strupp  - 15 1972). all  However,  therapies  (Malan,  1973;  recent  examined t o t h i s Cristol,  Schwartz  and Myers,  Lambert,  1978).  to and  outcome  included to  There suitable There  i s  of both  process  events,  t o be used t o  and Morgan,  (1971)  applicable for  to  points  counselling Greenberg  results  and  (Orlinsky study  an  and  related  attempt  subsequent  of  concerning  studies  1960's  i n  an issue  argued  methods  that  to  of the  setting.  studies  the research  group  con-  i n a review  the natural  analogue  as t h e which  analogue  (1974)  most  psychotherapy.  as w e l l  However,  the  may b e  may h a v e  directly  implications  practise. and Clarke Playing  (1979)  who c o n d u c t e d  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the procedures  i n actual  i n  and outcome  Munley  or at least  who  those  work  The p r e s e n t  generalize  approximate  Chair  their  1972;  of process  research  I965).  methods,  Two  process,  Role  (Bordin,  out that  In  one c o u l d  closely  counselling,  process  the  settings  research  effective  Bergin  that  of research  1970).  counselling  need not always  area  case  actual  analogue  1973;  f o r studies  the single  was whether  Strong  Duborsky,  1978).  that  and Dumpson,  therapeutic process,  study  researchers  analogue  Mullen  and outcome  i n this  of both  proven  change.  cerned  counselling  1971»  a n d Waskow,  much d e b a t e  (Kejcie  1973;  have  t o be e q u a l l y  i d e n t i f y therapeutic processes  are proponents  approach  research  appear  Kubie,  and b e h a v i o u r a l  method  date  has l e d t o a c a l l  pre-therapy  psychological  i n outcome  Bergin,  1978; P a r l o f f  aspects  examine  1972;  1973;  This  to help  Howard,  studies  sessions  w i t h Empathic  and i s s u e s  counselling  an analogue  reflection pointed  were  situations,  out that  shown t o b e f u l l y  were'-not> g r e a t l y  study  comparing the  involved  dissimilar  clients  i n the  from  and i t was concluded t h a t  results  - 16 -  from t h i s  analogue  Bohart the  process  same  of  mental  hope  resulting  Thus,  that the  i s  "real"  therapy.  and a n a l y s i s  appear  the self  i s  research  environment  area  o f i n d i v i d i a l change  his/her feelings  1973)•  behaviour, which  he/she  go a l o n g  the self  unawareness  i s  i s  and P o l s t e r ,  to get a person  aware  important  or  " i n the here  Bergin  strategies of  as  contacts  that  i s  important  before  (Polster  the feeling,  a person  sensing,  needs  1973; P e r l s , 1951)•  to experience and now".  that  Yontef  (1969)  alter  and 1  one's  self.  loses  awareness  and t h i n k i n g .  This  experiencing,  form incomplete  The t a s k  himself/herself,  can  and P o l s t e r ,  t o be i n touch w i t h when  with  i n the  a person  behaviour  occurs  notion  o f t h e organism  with his/her  b l o c k e d b y unmet  result  Gestalt  (1951)  to Perls  the sensations  doing  this  together.  of  encompass  i s  a  closer  first  then,  i n  and  which  change  principles  Awareness  due t o t h e f a c t must  as f o r  and t h e e x p e r i -  maintained by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e organisms  new g e s t a l t e n become (Polster  moment.  or psychopathology  which  study  the  RESEARCH  o f responses  To b e i f f ; a w a r e n e s s ,  Dysfunction  case  principle relates  at any given  i s  analogue  a n d p r a c t i s e may b e b r o u g h t  This  that  i n the literature  t h e mechanism  one o f t h e two most  a system  i n therapy  Furthermore,  t o be t h e o n l y  of isolating  1966).  (Perls,  counselling. i n the area  from t h e experience  the experimental  approaches  i n the area  i n  participated i n a counselling  sought  that  engaged  from h i s research  ROLE OF AWARENESS I N PSYCHOTHERAPY  therapy  is  to people  concluded  who h a v e  suggest  Awareness  of  apply  excellent review  analogue  therapy.  THE  change  i n their  (1970)  field  offer  also  c l i e n t s who h a v e  Strupp  of  (1977)  f o r persons  those  should  gestalten  i n therapy,  then,  and t o become  fully  maintains  that  only  and  an  aware  - 17 gestalt leads to change and t h i s stems from Perl's o r i g i n a l notion that "awareness per se —  (1951? 19&9)  by and of i t s e l f —  can be  curative". Experience--and awareness appear to be i n t e r r e l a t e d and many believe awareness follows experiencing  (Corsini,  1973)*  To r e s t r i c t either w i l l  r e s u l t i n incomplete gestalten and psychopathology; to f u l l y experience and become f u l l y aware f a c i l i t a t e s the natural processes of need discrimination and need f u l f i l l m e n t which leads to healthy functioning (Perls,  I969).  Polster and Polster  (1973)  suggest that a person moves  continuously between an already synthesized  experience and the awareness  of the pieces that make up his existence i n a continually self-renewing cycle.  Therefore, i t may be suggested that i f a person experiences  deeply, t h i s w i l l lead to greater awareness during or a f t e r therapy, which may i n turn r e s u l t i n behaviour change. THE ROLE OF SPLITS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH Many t h e o r i s t s have stressed the importance of p l a r i t i e s and s p l i t s i n human functioning (Jung,  1966; Rank, 1945; P e r l s , 1951)•  Dysfunction  r e s u l t i n g from a d i v i s i o n or s p l i t i n a person's functioning i s at the basis of Gestalt therapy.  A s p l i t , as defined by Greenberg, i s a verbal  performance pattern i n which a c l i e n t reports a d i v i s i o n of the s e l f into p a r t i a l aspects of the s e l f .  He argues that a s p l i t or fragmentation  i n a person's functioning can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d from a c l i e n t ' s own v e r b a l i z a t i o n about t h e i r experience (Greenberg,  1979)*  The goal of Gestalt therapy i s to achieve strong gestalts (Perls,  195l)»  Polster and Polster  (1973)  maintain that psychopathology i s a  result of the discrepency between f e e l i n g one thing, but being unaware  -  of  It,  and thus  doing  touch with his/her The  resulting  Polster  another.  feelings  behaviour  and b e h a v i o u r  18 -  and thus  Awareness  when d o i n g  may h e l p  one t h i n g  f o l l o w i n g t h e awareness void  the discrepancy  a person  t o get i n • ';  and f e e l i n g  another.  would  integrate  between t h e t w o .  feelings  Polster  and  report:  a n d s o , t h e f a c t i s t h a t p e o p l e who a r e l o n e l y s o m e t i m e s e a t , a n d t h o s e who a r e s e x u a l l y a r o u s e d make s p e e c h e s ... B e f o r e he can a l t e r h i s b e h a v i o u r i n any way t h e i n d i v i d u a l must f i r s t encompass t h e s e n s a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s w h i c h go along with i t . Recovery o f t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f awareness — no m a t t e r w h a t i t may r e v e a l — i s a c r u c i a l step on t h e r o a d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new b e h a v i o u r . . . Though a t t h e moment t h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s sensation, e x p r e s s i o n emerges from t h i s awareness and t o g e t h e r t h e y f o r m a u n i t e d e x p e r i e n c e s(p;i 214).  (1979)  Greenberg parts the  of their  Perls  struggle  with  each  i f p e o p l e become  aware  contact between them,  (1970)  reconciliation of opposites  useless and  that  c o n f l i c t a n d make  path to resolution.  "the  speaks  so t h a t  of  they  o f t h e two  they  may d i s c o v e r  conflict resolution  no l o n g e r  waste  other but can j o i n i n productive  as  energy  i n  combination  interplay". One  area  different active  of  concernrof  interventions  ingredients  subsequent  the this  resolution thesis,  splits  of  both  for clients  i n  awareness  behavioural  the clients total  this  thesis  i s  on t h e r e s o l u t i o n  involved  may i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l  to  argues  change.  changing which These  of the conflict  i n order  leads  to increased  and l i f e  style.  awareness  i n the three treatments w i l l  In  integrated and  applicable addition,  i n awareness.  and r e s o l u t i o n be  of  The  more  choices  processes  may b e r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e  changes i n g e n e r a l  split.  t o become  are general  being-in-the-world  splits  exploration of the effect  of  investigated.  In specific  -  THE  ROLES OF  which  Two  is  Clarke, was  niques.  than  1975;  were  Greenberg  chair"  applicable split  led  at  a  of  (1978)  showed t h a t  (1975) and  from  that  1975;  Gestalt  hostile  analysis  He  that  found  three did  the  that  single  Two  psychodramatic  reduction of  of  test  anxiety  as  (1979)  found  that  increase  Greenberg Chair  Role  and  and Playing  behavioural  principles  where  "two to  is  the  procedure  Kipper  two  of  tech-  most  significantly  the  with  i t  chair"  responses.  use  therapy  emotional discharge  point  cases  and  attitudes,  or  the  Empathic  Gestalt  experience  Greenberg,  anger,  states  split.  the  deepen  1977;  found  stems  s p e c i f i c a l l y defined the  experiencing than  equivalent  to  intellectual  repeatedly in  levels  an  (1977)  RESEARCH  technique  Bohart,  reducing  treatment is  Playing  counsellors  Bohart  AND  PSYCHOTHERAPY  Role  effective in  aggression  a  IN  many  (Fagan,  1979).  more  "two  Chair  used by  awareness  -  TWO C H A I R R O L E P L A Y I N G  FOCUSING TECHNIQUES  The  19  deeper  and  Giladi  c h a i r method  systematic  at  led  to  desensitization  procedures. Greenberg more  split.  As  Clarke  e f f e c t i v e than  bringing  that  and  about  changes  However,  the  two  s t a t e d by  Empathic  one  in  Reflection in  awareness  possibility  chair  technique  Yontef  (1969):  is  the  this  chair  deepening  when t h e  for  two  technique  experiencing  client is  working  d i f f e r e n c e may b e  relatively active  as  the  on  is  and a  fact  compared w i t h  empathy.  I n G e s t a l t t h e r a p y t h e t h e r a p i s t i s n o t p a s s i v e , as i n older Rogerian therapy, but i s quite a c t i v e . Attending to behaviour not mentalisms, t o awareness not s p e c u l a t i v e quest i o n s , h e r e a n d now a n d n o t t h e r e a n d t h e n , a l l n e c e s s i t a t e a c t i o n and a s s e r t i v e n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p i s t ( p . 220). What i s is  the  needed,  therefore, to  a c t i v i t y component  of  the  investigate  two  chair  the  speculation  method t h a t  accounts  that for  i t i t s  - 20 -  effectiveness, i s to compare the two chair technique to another i n t e r vention i n which the c l i e n t and therapist are both a c t i v e .  Focusing i s  a technique i n which, as i n the two chair operation, c l i e n t s must make contact with t h e i r present experience through t h e i r senses.  Both tech-  niques attempt to increase awareness on the part of the c l i e n t as well as to confront feelings and other i n t e r n a l aspects of his/her problem. Kantor  (1976)  i n attempts to expose the ingredients of the process of  Focusing and show how i t operates, concluded that i t brings about a r e d e f i n i t i o n of the problem rather than revealing hidden aspects of the issue.  The c l i e n t then receives new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r further consid-  eration i n working through his/her issue.  Thus, both Focusing and the  Two Chair Role Playing technique may provide the c l i e n t with new awarenesses not previously entertained and behaviour change and c o n f l i c t resolution may then follow.  CHAPTER  III  METHODOLOGY  In  this  chapter  the  dependent  are  descriptions  the  data  in  a description  variables  used  i n this  of the subjects,  c o l l e c t i o n and s c o r i n g  the design  of the measuring  and s t a t i s t i c a l  study  is  therapists  procedures,  instruments  presented. and r a t e r s ,  as w e l l  Also  for included  an o u t l i n e  as methods  of  involved  analyses.  INSTRUMENTS  The to  instruments  measure  the four  used  i n this  dependent  study  served  variables,  to describe  and t o g a i n  the  subjects,  subjective  client  information.  FOR  SUBJECT  In of  DESCRIPTION  order  to describe  Personality  subjects ing  (Thorpe,  before  i n this  which the whole and  Clark  the therapy  certain important  Personality  subjects  refers  adjustment  i s  security  and s o c i a l  adjustment  Half  of the items  social of  security,  personal  his/her  and t h e o t h e r  test  half  has the aim o f  and s o c i a l  impresses  other  on f e e l i n g s of  to a l l identify-  of  six  measure  with  problems,  persons. personal  social  t o measure  of the items  Test  adjustment.  and e f f e c t i v e n e s s  on f e e l i n g s  are designed  the California  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  personal  he/she  based  study,  and s o c i a l  assumed t o be based  on t h e t e s t  security.  This  t o t h e manner  i n which  Personal  1953)  i n personal  i n d i v i d u a l meets  i n d i r e c t l y t h e manner  i n this  and T i e g s ,  session.  factors  test  used  security. components  six  of  components  - 22 R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s computed using the Kuder-Richardson formula 201  have been computed by the designers of the t e s t using r e s u l t s from adults. ment of  The r e s u l t s show an r of .97  with a standard error of measure-  9«34»  V a l i d i t y of the test has been established by many researchers. Syracuse University  (1953)  found that the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality  correlated more closely with c l i n i c a l findings than any other personality test.  The test has also proven to be a valuable instrument of research.  Summary of Investigations Number One  (1953)  published by the C a l i f o r n i a  Test Bureau l i s t s and b r i e f l y describes ninety such studies. FOR DEPENDENT VARIABLES 1.  THE EXPERIENCING SCALE The Experiencing Scale (Klein, et a l . ,  variable, Depth of Experiencing.  I969)  This scale was  measured the dependent developed  . . . f o r evaluating the q u a l i t y of a patient's s e l f - i n v o l v e ment i n psychotherapy d i r e c t l y from tape-recordings or types c r i p t s of the same session (Klein, et a l . , 1969» p» l ) This scale i s a seven point rating device which i s sensitive to s h i f t s i n patient involvement.  The lowest l e v e l s of the scale rate  s u p e r f i c i a l c l i e n t discourse, the central l e v e l s of the scale mark simple description of f e e l i n g s , while at high l e v e l s of experiencing, exploration of feelings may lead to problem solving and c l i e n t understanding  self  (see appendix A).  Several studies have employed the Experiencing Scale and have determined i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y .  Ebel's  (1951)  i n t r a class method was used  to determine r e l i a b i l i t y of the means of the judges' ratings  t  an  ^  i  an estimate of the average i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of a l l possible judge p a i r s  - 23 -  (r-^).  The  0.44  to  (see  Klein  2.  TARGET  O.67,  This degree  et  values  the  a l . ,  1969»  discomfort were  asked  discomfort  l i t t l e "  by  were The  the  to  scores  outcome  rate  a box  were  have  ranged  f r o m O.76  from to  0.91  before  rank  their  w h i c h was  a  and  by  in  column  compared  with  determine  after by  rating  divided the  the pre  the  top  into  and  post  results  thirteen  bottom box,  box.  the  psychotherapy.  the seventh box,  by  both  to  problems  printed beside  be w o r s e "  discomfort  (1966)  a l .  "very  "a much"  Patients interviews.  of  the  four  other  measures: Patient's  b)  Therapist's  c)  Social  d)  Discomfort  It  was  by  correlated to which  Complaint  Box  pre-post  and  was  of  rating  overall of  in used  improvement  patient's  overall  improvement  Scale  Scale Battle, a  (see the as  et  a l .  significant  provides  Scale  measure  rating  Ineffectiveness  found  measures,  iveness  then  " p r e t t y much"  and  et  patients  a l l " were  "couldn't  analyzed  a)  scores  and  scale,  at  their  studies  coefficients vary  by B a t t l e ,  disturbed state  and  various  SCALE  f o u r t h box,  t e n t h box,  asked  of  "not  the  45)•  p.  designed  to  on  The w o r d s  the  was  in  crucial r ^  C O M P L A I N T BOX  boxes.  by  obtained  while  measure  of  Patients their  r  some  (1966) degree  evidence  appendices present  with these  target other  its  validity.  E)  was  used  to  an i n d i c a t o r o f  the  for  B -  study  that  help  as  determine  conflict  complaints four The  one  outcome  Target  repeated  therapy  resolution.  effect-  -  3.  AWARENESS  QUESTION  A measure  of  specifically one  asking  asking five  i f  the  this  questions  was  asked  after the  BEHAVIOUR  in  order  to  experiencing Twenty would  have  during  the  conflict i f  this  in  the  (goal  goal  awareness  client rating  of  C and  two  questions: the  other  himself/herself.  D)  appendices  researcher  awareness,  (see  A  questions. well  and were  as  Both  twenty  treated  four  as  analysis.  attainment  the  four been  hours able  session,  change  behaving  goal  and  during  as  by  the  result  had  to  researcher  of  feel  At  the  client  Behaviour  measured  experience i n  shift  occur,  in  in  a week  that the  c l i e n t s were  baseline),  way d u r i n g  behaving  that  change  measured  by  and t h e  by the  or asked behaviour  presently and  the  present  way  the  at  how  coming  c l i e n t s were then  feeling or  score  therapy  awareness  how o f t e n t h e y w e r e behaviour  was  clients  particular feeling or  asked  behave  end o f  fact,  any  any  (present  or  which time  subjective  time to  change  way  to  during  which time  have  that  in  designed  occurred  their  They were t h e n in  was  session,  integrate  attainment  a t t a i n m e n t was  which  a f t e r the  to  like  setting).  scale  session.  them w a n t i n g  attainment).  between the  in  as  during  how o f t e n t h e y w e r e , (goal  shift  of  hour  any  often they would week  a  consists  immediately after the  r e s o l u t i o n would  or  had  by the  both  capture  led to  measure  his/her for  designed  CHANGE  coming week.  feeling  he/she  the  A modified goal in  The  was  of  hour  repeated measures  4.  study.  used  -  awareness  increased  scale were  in  client i f  he/she  point  hours  for  shift  2h  asked  that  time  difference  behaviour  d i f f e r e n c e between the  score, goal  and  - 25 -  attainment a  seven  point  question  FOR  score  scale  5 and  SUBJECTIVE  1.  1966. the  therapy  which  and  question  ratings  were  each number; (see  done  appendix  on  D,-  3).  Session  Report were  was  designed  interested in  and b e l i e v e d t h a t  experience namely  Orlinsky  studying  The  client  dialogue,  and  the  psychotherapeutic  empirical inquiry.  i n f o r m a t i o n from the  by  report  concerning  in  development  of  experiences  is  a  four  relationship,  Howard  can  questionnaire aspects  feeling  of  the  process,  exchange. After  the  patients  who  total  eight  of  analysis  atic  questionnaire  filled  of  were  after  hundred  and  ninety  i n i t i a l  Therapy  and  empirical view  Session  each t h e r a p y  aim of well  question  as  to  6).  They  Report, of  the  are  in  capture the  was  fifteen  given  Item  analysis  patients  of  global  patient  then,  has of  study  the  making and  factor the  out  Therapy  taking a as  a  client  systemmay  soon as  Session  ingredients  have  possible  Report  immediately following therapy  their  a  experience.  aim o f  filled  sixty  resulted in  experiences  be of  the  to  sessions,  from these  variety  into  i t  sessions.  Questions  this  insight  each o f  intended to  session.  clients  gaining to  forms  eleven dimensions  The  given  designed,  out  psychotherapy.  after  was  i t  on these  definition  as  on  A l l  REPORT  systematic  therapeutic  score.  INFORMATION  researchers  gathers  setting  with descriptors  CLIENT  session  for  goal  a p p e n d i x . E,  Therapy  These  be used  the  the  THERAPY SESSION The  in  and  with  subjective therapeutic  experience,  of  appendix  "good"  therapy  (see  C,  -  2.  REPORTS OF  One week much p r o g r e s s the  hour.  with  after they  3.  at  therapy  perceived their (see  as  to  One  after  on  C,  by  week  attainment happened  to  l i f e  report  by  rating  the  a five  program  Columbia.  had  the  on  aim o f  (see  a five  point  checking  appendix  E,  how since  scale,  to  see  how  question  4)»  the  a l l  the  as  understanding  point  scale  7 and  who  r e c e i v e d one  This  and  helpful.  report  important was  of  i n d i c a t i n g whether  with descriptors  8).  hour,  was  ingredient  at  they  They  rated  each  level  included of  the  as  a  therapy,  trust,  present.  (see  other  this  asked  than  appendix  the  E,  w h i c h may h a v e  behaviour  rating  whether hour,  question been more  on  the modified  anything  to  unusual  which they  5)»  This  goal  would  allowed  responsible  than  subjects the  change.  PREPARATION  study  Counselling  The w e r e  following the  c l i e n t s were  events  in  subjects  questions  questions  week,  change  for  a l l  QUESTIONS  after  producing  Subjects  and  hour,  a very  two  S U B J E C T S E L E C T I O N AND  degree  measured  completed two  these  during any  in  was  questions  scale,  attribute  hour  dealing with their issues  therapeutic techniques  UNUSUAL EVENT  4.  in  confirm whether  measured  asked  h a d made  their therapists  responses  check  c l i e n t s were  they  each p o i n t ,  sessions  appendix  experience,  UNDERSTANDING  Immediately two  therapeutic  felt  the  PERCEIVED  the  question  descriptors were  -  PROGRESS  This  effective  26  told that  consisted  of  volunteers  Psychology  at  the  was  thesis  the  from the  University  focused  on t h e  of  masters British  study  of  - 27 -  c o n f l i c t s p l i t s , one of which they would be asked to define.  When the  i n i t i a l request was made, the a c t i v i t i e s involved were described i n s u p e r f i c i a l , behavioural terms.  They were also t o l d that they would be  required to f i l l out four questionnaires concerning t h e i r s p l i t , as well as complete a paper and p e n c i l t e s t .  None of the subjects were informed  of any of the variables under consideration. volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study.  Fifty-one persons o r i g i n a l l y  However, forty-two persons  were available f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n interview when a follow up request was made.  The volunteers were then randomly assigned to one of the two  treatment groups or the Control.  Randomization was done at t h i s point  as the d e t a i l e d explanation of involvement at the o r i e n t a t i o n interview d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y f o r the treatment and Control groups. At an i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n interview, i n sessions with one to four other c l i e n t s , the subjects received an explanation of s p l i t d e f i n i t i o n . They were asked to present an emotional  " f e l t " c o n f l i c t s p l i t ( see  Appendix F f o r description and examples presented).  The difference i n  t r a i n i n g between the subjects who were assigned to therapy than those who received no therapy i s the former were t o l d they would receive a counselling session with a t h e r a p i s t , whereas persons i n the Control group were t o l d to do whatever they would normally do i n the hour between f i l l i n g out the pre and post questionnaires.  A l l subjects were then  requested to complete the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality.  The subjects  used i n the study then could be characterized, according to the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality, as being well adjusted both personally and s o c i a l l y . No subject showed a p a r t i c u l a r l y low p r o f i l e on t h i s t e s t . for  s o c i a l adjustment f o r the sample was  range =  70)  with a standard deviation of  70.26 13.44.  The means  (within percentile The mean f o r t o t a l  - 28 -  adjustment f o r the sample was with a standard deviation of  145.84 10.36.  (within percentile range =  70)  The subjects who were t o l d they  would receive therapy sessions were then randomly assigned to therapists, then randomly assigned to one of the two therapy techniques. POPULATION The subjects f o r t h i s study consisted of forty-two volunteers from the population of persons i n a graduate course i n Counselling Psychology, at a large, public University. This population consists of  approximately  two hundred people between 24 and 50 years of age, with at least four years of u n i v e r s i t y education, and a v a r i e t y of counselling related professional backgrounds.  These persons acted as counsellors and  c l i e n t s during t h e i r t r a i n i n g , and were not requesting therapy, but rather volunteered to experience therapy f o r t h i s analogue study. I t i s assumed that the r e s u l t s of t h i s study can be generalized to processes occurring i n "actual" counselling with "normal"'and "mildly neurotic" c l i e n t s .  Because of differences in, reactions to therapy  between "neurotic" and "psychotic" patients (Kiesler,  1971)r  these  r e s u l t s w i l l not apply to an extremely distressed c l i e n t population. THERAPISTS Seven therapists, four women and three men, A l l therapists who  administered the Two  were used i n t h i s study.  Chair Role Playing technique  had a l l received at l e a s t f i f t y hours of t r a i n i n g i n t h i s operation. This t r a i n i n g i s described i n a paper by the d i r e c t o r of the t r a i n i n g group (see Greenberg, i n p r e s s ) .  Included i n the course of twenty weekly  three hour t r a i n i n g sessions are explanations and examples of the f i v e p r i n c i p l e s of Two thesis.  Chair Role Playing as reported i n Chapter I of t h i s  Discussion and feedback'follow practise during the course of  -  t r a i n i n g by therapists who  29  -  p a r t i c i p a t e as both c l i e n t s and counsellors.  A l l therapists have learned and used the Focusing i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix G), and have a l l received at l e a s t f i f t y hours i n s t r u c t i o n i n empathic r e f l e c t i o n which they used i n the Focusing interviews a f t e r the Focusing d i r e s t i o n s were given. A l l therapists had varying post M.A.  work experience ranging from  two to seven years. Therapists were randomly assigned four c l i e n t s . Two  Two  c l i e n t s received  Chair Role Playing sessions and two received sessions i n v o l v i n g  Focusing.  The therapists staggered the order of treatment  i n order to eliminate any bias or p r a c t i s e e f f e c t . assigned a treatment  presentation  Therapists were  sequence by the researcher and treatment methods  ivere randomly assigned to subjects. RATERS The Focusing sessions were rated by two graduate students i n a Counselling Psychology program.  Both raters had experience using the  Focusing instructions as well as two hundred hours experience using the Carkhuff Scale which was used to rate therapists empathic responses which followed the Focusing i n s t r u c t i o n s . The Two  Chair Role Playing technique was  occurring by the person who  rated as occurring or not  o r i g i n a l l y defined the operation and  trained a l l the t h e r a p i s t s , along with a graduate student who  who  also had  t r a i n i n g i n the operation. The Experiencing Scale rating was done by two Masters candidates i n Counselling Psychology.  They were trained i n the Experiencing Scale  - 30 -  Training Manual (Klein, et a l . , 1969) by a professor i n Counselling Psychology.  This involved approximately f o r t y eight hours of t r a i n i n g  and p r a c t i s e .  These raters were both f a m i l i a r with the Focusing and  Two Chair Role Playing operations used i n t h i s study.  However, neither  was aware of the experimental hypotheses. DATA COLLECTION Immediately before the therapy session each c l i e n t completed a questionnaire i n order to i d e n t i f y his/her s p l i t , and indicated t h e i r subjective feelings toward t h i s s p l i t .  These feelings were indicated on  the Target Complaint Discomfort Box Scale.  The c l i e n t i n the treatment  groups then began the therapy hour with the therapist who directed the interview according to the assigned method of therapy.  Examples of  actual s p l i t s presented by persons i n the three groups can be found i n Appendix F.  Clients i n the Control group proceeded to do whatever they  had normally planned.  The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s persons i n t h i s group  reported included reading, watching t e l e v i s i o n , preparing supper, thinking about issues, bathing, studying, relaxing, and housecleaning.  Immediately  a f t e r the hour, a l l c l i e n t s once again completed the Target Complaint Discomfort Box Scale, i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r feelings toward t h e i r s p l i t . Upon completing these outcome measures, a l l c l i e n t s were asked to complete the Therapy Session Report i n order to gather subjective c l i e n t information concerning t h e i r experience as a result of the hour.  The  i n d i c a t o r of c o n f l i c t resolution, the Target Complaints Box Scale was also administered 24 hours, as well as one week following the hour. The twenty-four hour time period was used as the c l i e n t w i l l have had s u f f i c i e n t time to r e f l e c t upon the session, and one week t r a d i t i o n a l l y has been the time period between therapy sessions.  - 31 -  In  order  awareness complete twenty  to  investigate  occurring a  client  four  to  scale  hours,  was  define the  in  had been  the  the  one  week  after  order  to  attained  be  i n i t i a l  hours  in  requested  to  after In  order  a modified goal  as  B -  shift  session*  the  well  whether the  appendices  a  questions  after  changed,  investigate  (see  h e / s h e was  occurred  four  to  perceived  awareness  the  change  behaviour  client  hour,  which included  behaviour  desired  of  E  one  these  in  order  week  desired  for  attain-  therapy as  to  level  pre  and  measures). The  be  of  administered twenty  therapy  post  and any  following change  a result  report  determine whether ment  as  whether  sequence  seen i n  of  Table  training,  therapy,  and t e s t i n g  for  any  client  can  II.  SCORING PROCEDURE Scoring that  the  then  after  process  of  the  order  tapes the  tapes  of  to the  two  stages —  This  to  A  bias. Chair  interviews  using  the  Depth  that  the  outlined in  method is  of  being  Playing.  clinical  judgement  must  rated  as  a c c e p t a b l e as  seven  therapists.  Two  such  suffice.  were  Chair  rated  Two  as I,  was  collected,  to a  Role  done  ratings  Playing i f  Playing  is  the  on  five  is  the  occurred,  principles  clearly and  available, this  Chair been  therapists;  operation  operationally define  Two had  the  ensure  correctly included in  Role  scale  to  Scale.  occurring were  Chair  A l l  technique  check  Experiencing  developed  Until  the  of  Chapter  rating  a  c o r r e c t l y conducted by  the  i n t e r v i e w s were  scale  Role  were  first  of  ensure  operation,  process.  Two  in  therapeutic operations  were done  In the  occurred  Role  Playing  the  subject rate  type  of  sessions  c o r r e c t l y d i r e c t e d by  were  the  TABLE  II  TIME SEQUENCE OF TRAINING, THERAPY AND TESTING  INITIAL SESSION  Split  IMMEDIATELY PRE THERAPY  THERAPY SESSION  IMMEDIATELY POST THERAPY  TWENTY FOUR HOURS POST THERAPY  ONE WEEK THERAPY  Target. Complaints Box S c a l e  Target Complaints Box S c a l e  Target Complaints Box S c a l e  Therapy Session Report Questions  Awareness Questions  Goal Attainment Question  Awareness Quest-ions  Goal S e t t i n g Questions (Present behaviour and g o a l setting)  Progress Question  Training  C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality  Target Complaints Box S c a l e  Therapeuti c Intervention (One o f Two C h a i r Role P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g , or Control)  P e r c e i v e d Understanding Questions (treatment groups o n l y )  Unusual Event Question  The  Focusing  Instructions following to  five  from  Scale.  were  each empathis and t h e l a s t  Scale.  Stanley,  1970).  (eg.:  Rater  rating  lower than  1 = 3*5  The t h r e e each r a t e r , ratings Table  were t h e n  III  presents  listened t o three  according  agreed  five  The r a t e r s  of ratings  gave  empathy averaged  ratings  rating  were t h e n  f o r each  to obtain  the results  SESSION (Therapist)(Client)  of the  percent  tested.  correlation and  ratings of the  a mean  of this  averaged  ratings  was t h e  session. empathy  rating  to obtain,  for  The t w o j u d g e s ' rating  f o r each  procedure.  III  SESSION  MEAN EMPATHY RATING  11 12 21 22  4.0 3.0 3.5 4.0  31 32 41 42 51 52  3.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.5  71 72  of the  moment  o f t h e segments  MEAN EMPATHY R A T I N G S FOR EACH EMPATHY  62  each  3*0.  TABLE  61  the middle  was .89 ( G l a s s  on one hundred I n none  minute  o f each r a t e r were  as a Pearson-Product  2 = 4.0).  according  to the criteria  o n t h e 79 p e r c e n t  of the scale  reflection  f i v e minutes,  f o r t y two ratings  expressed  Rater  Focusing  minimally facilitative  one a n d f i v e  intra-session  a mean  at least  t h e f o r t y two pairs  step  i f the  followed and t h e empathic  segments.  The r a t e r s  and w i t h i n a h a l f  as o c c u r r i n g  interview, the first  The r e s u l t i n g  across  rated  f i v e minute  interratei- r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficient  -  The two r a t e r s  a r a t i n g between  Carkhuff  were  G) were  the instructions  minutes  segment  Tne  (see Appendix  the Carkhuff  segments  interviews  33  mean session.  -  34 -  I t i s concluded from these ratings that a l l empathic responses i n the Focusing sessions were at l e a s t minimally f a c i l i t a t i v e by C a r k h u f f s (1969)  c r i t e r i o n that a f a c i l i t a t i v e response i s a rating of three or  above.  Therefore, none of the Focusing interviews were repeated because  the technique was not conducted properly.  However, one Focusing session  had to be repeated with another volunteer from the population due to an inaudible tape recording. The r e s u l t i n g twenty eight tapes (14 Two Chair Role Playing and 14 Focusing) were then submitted to raters to be rated on the Experiencing Scale (Klein et a l . , I969).  Each rater rated two t h i r d s of the tapes.  This provided one t h i r d of the tapes f o r an i n t e r r a t e r check.  Raters  rated randomized four minute segments, assigning each segment two ratings from one to seven i n c l u s i v e , i n d i c a t i n g the c l i e n t ' s mode and peak Depth of Experiencing as defined on the Experiencing Scale.  There  were a t o t a l of 166 four minute segments of Two Chair Role Playing process, and a t o t a l of 130 four minute segments on the tapes of Focusing. Three raters were trained at the same time before the data was collected.  The two raters chosen to rate the tapes rated a series of  randomized segments at the end of t h e i r t r a i n i n g .  The c o r r e l a t i o n of  t h e i r scores was .79* They agreed on seventy percent of the ratings, and within one half step of the scores on one hundred percent of the ratings.  Both raters then rated the overlapping material which was one  t h i r d of the actual therapy tapes.  However, due to the passage of f i v e  months, rater d r i f t occurred and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the raters' scores decreased  (r = .42).  Therefore, the t h i r d rater, who was also trained  at the same time as these i n i t i a l raters also rated the one t h i r d of the  - 35 overlapping material.  The i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y between t h i s t h i r d  rater and the f i r s t r a t e r was greater ( r = .83)  than the i n t e r r a t e r  r e l i a b i l i t y between the second and t h i r d r a t e r s .  The f i r s t rater there-  fore rated the remaining one t h i r d of the tapes and a l l ratings of the f i r s t r a t e r were used f o r the analysis. For each interview the frequency of segments as well as the proport i o n of segments assigned a rating equal to, or greater than f i v e was calculated.  Scores rated as f i v e represent a c l i e n t ' s presentation and  exploration of a personal problem, and stages 6 and 7 i n d i c a t e resolution of personally s i g n i f i c a n t issues.  The stages were selected as c r i t e r i a  for "deeper experiencing" comparisons. For each four minute segment running scores were obtained to the number and depth of the c l i e n t ' s responses.  according  One most common  score (mode) and one highest score (peak) was calculated f o r each four minute segment.  Frequency counts were taken f o r a l l Focusing and Two Chair  Role Playing interviews as well as proportion scores f o r both mode and peak. In the f i r s t method of data c o l l e c t i o n (use of frequency) time was considered an i r r e l e v a n t variable and emphasis was placed on obtaining high Depth of Experiencing scores regardless of time i n therapy, whereas i n the second method (use of proportion) time was considered to be' a main element i n obtaining scores.  For example, Client A i n one of the therapy  sessions may have a section of therapy 2 4 minutes i n lenght, whereas Client B may have a section of therapy 16 minutes i n length.  The mode  and peak score f o r each four minute segment may be represented i n the following f i g u r e :  - 36 -  FOUR MINUTE SEGMENTS  |  3,  4  4,  5  5,  5  5,  5  4,  6  6,  1st  Score  =  mode  2nd  Score  =  peak  *3,*^  B  4,  * ** (Figure  2  and  4 for  would be  scores  mode  .33  6,  6  6  6  A n e x a m p l e o f mode a n d p e a k s c o r e s f o r t w o c l i e n t s , A a n d B , a f t e r 24 a n d 16 m i n u t e s o f t h e r a p y r e s p e c t i v e l y . )  1:  Frequency  4,  5  and  and .50,  for peak and  both  clients,  as  shown i n  r e s p e c t i v e l y , whereas for  peak,  .66  and  Table  IV  proportion for  1.00  would  scores  Clients  A and  be for  mode  B  respectively.  TABLE  IV  N U M B E R O F R A T I N G S G R E A T E R T H A N OR E Q U A L F I V E FOR  MODE AND  PEAK  SCORES  NUMBER OF SCORES =  Client  in  Peak  A  2  4  B  2  4  scores,  analysed  the  5  Mode  Both were  TO  to  sessions.  frequency provide Thus,  and  proportion,  for  information regarding this  variable  was  the the  two t r e a t m e n t depth  t r e a t e d as  of  a unit  groups  experiencing of  analysis  -  37  -  both independent of time, and as a unit i n which time was important. There were 166 segments of Two  Chair Role Playing process and 158  segments of therapy f o r the Focusing group.  However, the f i r s t  two  segments f o r each person i n Focusing were spent i n silence making a t o t a l of 130 segments. ments of Two  Therefore, the ratings f o r the f i r s t two seg-  Chair Role Playing were deleted, making a t o t a l of 138  segments rated.  The number of segments were then approximately equal  so that frequency i s a more acceptable measure.  The amount of time f o r  Depth of Experiencing to occur may be dependent upon many variables such as the issue presented, the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of therapist and c l i e n t , and the relationship between them.  Therefore, i t may be argued that  what i s important i n therapy i s that c l i e n t s experience deeply regardl e s s of the time involved.  These facts led to the i n c l u s i o n of both  frequency and proportion scores f o r examination. DESIGN AND ANALYSES This study did not employ a basic design and discussion of t h i s dilemma and attempts to explain the actual design used w i l l now be made. Subjects were randomly assigned to each of three treatment conditions: Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing and Control. subjects i n each group.  There were fourteen  Subjects i n the f i r s t two treatment conditions  were randomly assigned to therapists with whom they engaged i n a therapy session.  Control group subjects received no therapeutic intervention,  although they i d e n t i f i e d a c o n f l i c t s p l i t and completed a l l measures as did  subjects i n the treatment conditions.  Because the Control subjects  were not assigned to therapists, i t was not possible to employ a f u l l y  crossed that  three  yielding of  the  (therapist-by-treatment)  7X3 of  the  dependent  variables  a t h i r d repeated measures  occasion  at  which  design.  each dependent  Table  variable  Dependent Variable  Pre Therapy  I  be  on more  also than  contains  was  a  noted one  occasion,  summary  measured.  I  O R D E R O F T E S T S W I T H R E S P E C T TO ORDER OF  should  were measured  factor.  TABLE  It  TREATMENTS  TESTING Immediately Post Therapy  During Process  24 H r s Post Therapy  1 Week Post Therapy  Depth of Experiencing Conflict Resolution  "4  Shift in Awareness Goal  Attainment  Behaviour  In the a  addition to  Therapy  report  progress  by  examine  therapists.  of  were  was  fully levels  twenty four  used to  Table  Following  of  involving  significance  in  the twelve  resolve  the  after  the  questions  design,  I.  2 X r  analysis sources  a 7 X of  variance  of  (1971), t h e m a i n therapist  order to  variance effect  were t e s t e d a t  minimize the  (r  with  (therapist was  the  = 1,  and  by  therapist .25  p r o b a b i l i t y of  a  with  2,  each  performed  assocxated  of  hour  associated  where r  associated  First,  the  of  hour.  difficulty  repeated factors  pooling  Winer  hours  7 X 3 X r  crossed of  variables,  administered immediately after  fixed effects  possibility  i n t e r a c t i o n terms level  of  dependent  given  indicated in  occasions) the  was  but not  t h e number  the measures ment  main  step procedure  7 X 2 X r,  denotes  these  Session Report  of  A two the  &  Change  of treatto  with and  3,  the  4)  -  39  -  Type I I error of i n c o r r e c t l y concluding there was no d i f f e r e n t i a l therapist effect.  I f the corresponding test hypotheses were rejected, then the  Control group data was to be disregarded, leaving a f i n a l 7 X 2 X r design. Secondly, i f the test hypotheses of no differences attributable to the therapists were not rejected at a l e v e l of significance of ,25» then the corresponding sources of variance were to be pooled, thereby allowing consideration of a f X r (treatment-by-occasions) fixed effects repeated measures design. The preliminary analysis was done f o r each of the four dependent variables, the twelve questions of the Therapy Session Report, and the report of progress.  These analyses showed there to be no s i g n i f i c a n t  therapist main effect i n 17 of the 20 summary ANOVA tables.  There was  a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between therapist and treatment i n one of the twenty summary t a b l e s . the chance range.  These four s i g n i f i c a n t effects are well within  Thus, although therapist i s considered to be a fixed  factor, the corresponding sources of variance were pooled, data from the Control subjects were included, and a 3 X r (treatment-by-occasion) design was employed and the experimental design used can be seen i n Figure 2. Following Winer (1971), a f i x e d effects repeated measures analysis of variance was used where l e v e l s of the t r i a l factor, r , was greater than one; otherwise a one-way analysis of variance was used.  The  computer programme used f o r a l l analyses was the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (1975) and the programme was run at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Center.  -  40 -  Certain scores were modified i n order to make them more appropriate and v a l i d f o r analysis of variance.  Mode and peak proportion scores  were passed through an arc sine transformation (Kirk, 1968^ p. 66) i n order to create a r e l a t i v e l y normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores. Factor Two Chair Role Playing  B-Method:  Focusing  Control  1  E-i  2  CO M  P-t  3  H  EH  I  4  8  5  o  6  7  Figure 2: Note:  Experimental  Design.  There are two subjects per c e l l i n the Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing  methods, and 14 subjects i n the c e l l of the Control group  method.  Conflict Resolution was operationally defined as the difference i n the premeasure with each of the three Target Complaints Box Scale .  subsequent post measures on the  Therefore, three d i f f e r e n t change  scores  were computed f o r each subject, and these scores were analysed using a repeated measures design.  - 41 -  Goal attainment scores were obtained by computing the difference between ratings of actual behaviour a f t e r the week and ratings of the goal setting scale on the twenty four hour post t e s t .  Similarily,  behaviour change scores were obtained by computing the difference between the ratings of actual behaviour a f t e r the week and ratings of actual behaviour on the twenty four hour post t e s t . were analysed using a one way  These two  analysis of variance  sets of  scores  design.  Fixed factors A and B (treatment and occasion) were tested at a l e v e l of significance of .05.  In cases where the Omnibus Test proved to be  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the factors of i n t e r e s t , Tukey's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968)  was used to examine s i g n i f i c a n t differences  between a l l pairs of means•  - 42 -  CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS This chapter presents the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis performed on the dependent variables and subjective c l i e n t reports. Each w i l l be presented i n the order they were described i n Chapter I I I . The r e s u l t s of analysis of variance used to determine the d i f f e r e n t i a l effects of Two  Chair Role Playing and Focusing techniques on Depth of  Experiencing are followed by reports on the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used on the Target Complaints Box Scale, S h i f t i n Awareness questions and Behaviour  Change questions f o r the three groups.  F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s  of the Therapy Session Report and the progress question are presented i n t h i s chapter. COMPARISON OF DEPTH OF EXPERIENCING UNDER TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING AND FOCUSING TREATMENTS FREQUENCY There were 166  segments of Two  Chair Role Playing process, and  158  segments of time i n which subjects spent i n therapy i n the Focusing group. However, due to the nature of the Focusing technique, the f i r s t eight minutes, or two segments, were spent i n silence during which time the Focusing instructions were given by the counsellor. were 130  Therefore, there  segments f o r which Depth of Experiencing ratings could be given.  It was  considered important to have an equivalent length of time  i n therapy f o r the two groups i n order f o r frequency to be an acceptable measure.  The idea of giving Depth of Experiencing ratings to the f i r s t  two segments of Focusing was  entertained.  However, i t was  impossible  - 43 -  to know what were the subjects' l e v e l of experiencing during t h i s time. The number of mode and peak scores of 5 or greater f o r the f i r s t two segments of Two Chair Role Playing was examined.  There were no mode  scores of 5 or greater, and one peak score of 5«  The ratings of the  t h i r d and fourth segments of both counselling groups were examined. There was one mode score of 5 f o r the Two Chair Role Playing group, and 4 mode scores of 5 f o r Focusing.  There were found to be four peak  scores of a' rating of 5 i n the Two Chair Role Playing group, and six peak scores of 5 f o r the Focusing group.  Due to the r e l a t i v e l y fewer  number of high Depth of Experiencing scores i n the f i r s t and second segments as compared with the t h i r d and fourth segments of the Two Chair Role Playing, and due to the fact there was a high number of Depth of Experiencing scores i n the f i r s t segments which could be rated a f t e r the Focusing i n s t r u c t i o n s , the f i r s t eight minutes of therapy i n both groups may be considered to be a warm up period. In order to have an equivalent length of time i n which to compare frequencies of deep l e v e l s of experiencing f o r the two groups, the ratings f o r the f i r s t two segments of Two Chair Role Playing were dropped, and the ratings used i n the analyses were those which began i n the ninth minute f o r each group.  Thus frequency ratings of 5 or  greater f o r mode and peak scores from 130 segments of Focusing  process  (mean = 9»29) were compared with 138 segments of Two Chair Role Playing process (mean = 9 « 8 6 ) . The analysis of variance revealed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two treatments f o r frequency of mode scores. However, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of peak scores greater than, or equal to 5 f o r Two Chair Role Playing sessions as compared  -  with Focusing means the  and  analysis  of  On t h e  basis  is  Two  a level  standard  hypothesis it  at  However,  not  Role the  scores  concluded Playing Depthyof using  variance of  for  the  of  effect  support  to  in  r e j e c t i o n of  Depth  of  are  Depth  f i r s t  of  can be  number and  i t  Chair  an o v e r a l l clearly  is  Role  Findings  r e p l i c a t i o n of  b e made b e f o r e  hypothesis  of  Two  Experiencing*  t e n t a t i v e , and  between  Experiencing.  hypothesis,  d i f f e r e n c e between  null and  effects  the n u l l  c l i e n t s must the  producing  VI.  the  alternate hypothesis,  r e j e c t i o n of  producing  concerning  scores,  treatment  and  Table  analysis  in  of  mode  in  from the  and F o c u s i n g  number  the  of  the  ratings,  resulting  a significant  a larger  frequency  are presented  differential  is  ratings  and p e a k  of  that there  Experiencing  Table V presents  .05.  frequency  favour  are no  of  results  and F o c u s i n g  significant lends  these  rejected in  Playing  f o r mode  analysis  there  -  significance  deviations  concluded that  Chair  peak  is  of  kk  on  this  the study  conclusion  made.  PROPORTION Table and peak seen the  in null  scores Table  VI.  On t h e is  findings  Chair Role  t h e means  while the  hypothesis  From t h e s e Two  V presents  Playing  standard  analysis  of  basis  the  not  there  and  of  variance  rejected in appears  to  and F o c u s i n g  deviations  analysis favour  be no in  of  these  of  of  proportion  ratings  can  both proportion  the  alternate  significant  producing  for  of  be ratings,  hypothesis.  difference  proportions  mode  between  Depth  of  Experiencing.  COMPARISON OF TARGET C O M P L A I N T S BOX S C A L E R A T I N G S U N D E R TWO C H A I R R O L E P L A Y I N G , F O C U S I N G A N D C O N T R O L  The means Complaints  Box  and  standard  Scale  may be  deviations found  in  of  Table  CONDITIONS  change. .scores 1  VII.  of  The means  the  Target  reveal that  in  - 45 TABLE  V  Means and Standard Deviations For Frequency and Proportion of Mode and Peak Ratings  Representation of Ratings  Treatment*  Mean  Standard Deviation  Frequency  1  2.2857  1.7289  (Mode)  2  1.3571  1.1507  Frequency  1  3.7143  2.2336  (Peak)  2  2.2143  1.4769  Proportion  1  0.2200  -0.1520  (Mode)  2  0.1500  0.1340  Proportion  1  0.4000  0.2010  (Peak)  2  0.264P  O.I75O  *  Treatment 1 : Treatment 2 :  Two Chair Role Playing Focusing  TABLE  VI  Analysis of Variance For Frequency and Proportion of Mode and Peak Ratings Representation of Scores  MS, b  MS w  E  P  Frequency (Mode)  6.0357  2.1566  2.799  O.IO63  Frequency (Peak)  15.7500  3.5852  4.393  O.046O  Proportion (Mode)  -0.2842  •0.2547  1.116  0.3005  Proportion (Peak)  .0.8829  •0.2971  2.971  O.6966  The degrees of freedom f o r sources of v a r i a t i o n presented i n t h i s table are 1 and 26 f o r between and within groups respectively.  -  46  TABLE  -  VII  Means and Standard Deviations, f o r Target Complaints  Treatment  Two  Box Scale Difference Scores  Measure*  Chair Role Playing  Focusing  Control  Standard Deviation  Mean  M 1  3.143  3.085  M 2  3.357  2.170  M 3  3.786  2.486  M 1  2.429  1.697  M 2  2.571  1.910  M 3  3.214  2.293  M 1  1.214  1.424  M 2  2.000  2.746  M 3  2.071  2.759  Measure  1  =  Pre t e s t  -  Immediate post t e s t  Measure  2  =  Pre t e s t  -  24 Hour post test  Measure  3  =  Pre t e s t  —  One week post test  TABLE  VIII  Analysis of Variance f o r Change Scores of Target Complaints Box Scale  Source  D F  Between Groups  Error Measures GXM Error  -.,  M.S.  2  29.452  39  11.436  2  F  P  2.575  O.O89  6.095  2.429  0.095  4  0.512  0.204  0.935  78  2.510  - 47 -  a l l  groups  result  the  difference  indicates  that  three  measures  for  found  in  VIII  Table  treatments  across  measures,  and no  Thus,  null  the  o t h e s i s , and amount  of  the  increased  amount  of  a l l groups.  the  three  over  the  there  measures,  of is  no  variance no  is  not  concluded that  conflict resolution  there  over  the  is  and  favour  no  three  increased  of  significant  rejected in  measures.  these  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n between treatments is  three  conflict resolution  Analysis  revealed that  hypothesis  i t  scores  This  over  the  results  difference  between  difference  between  differences  scores.  of  the  significant measures  alternate  hyp-  difference  between the  in  the  three  methods.  C O M P A R I S O N OF S H I F T I N AWARENESS R A T I N G S UNDER TWO C H A I R R O L E P L A Y I N G . F O C U S I N G A N D C O N T R O L C O N D I T I O N S  The  scores  intervals  were  Appendices time  intervals  between the  together  two  awareness  similar  and  essentially  was  scores  Table  There  is  therefore  for  after the  and t h e  IX,  significant  and  Also,  two  session  was  is  It  was  found  .73»  was  of  effect  no  questions  scores  and  standard of  across  between the  for  the  that  the  between  the  two  two  are  the  correlation  were  using  located in but  questions  i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment  added  a  can be  two measures  two times  scores  twenty-  scores  deviations  different  Pearson  Pearson  analyzed,  variance the  two  time  (see  administered the  were  at two  question  and t h e  Therefore,  analysis  i n means  there  scores  hour  .80.  same  two  1970)  The means  treatment  the  Stanley,  sets  of  administered  the  awareness  two  results  difference  administered.  the  design.  significant  asked  computed.  (Glass  resulting  and t h e  questions  A c o r r e l a t i o n of  immediately after the  repeated measures in  D).  coefficient  administered  hours  the  C and  correlation  four  of  found Table  no were  and t i m e  of  X.  - 48TABLE Means,  Standard Deviations,  Means  Treatment  Two  IX  for Shifts  Measure*  Focusing  Control  i n Awareness  Mean  0.829  M 2  .8.929  0.997  M  1  8.929  1.269  M 2  8.286  2.785  M  1  5.500  1.871  M 2  5.000  1.617  1  1  =  Scores  of immediatly post  Measure  2  =  Scores  o f 21+ h o u r  TABLE  Source  Between Group  post  t h e r a p y Awareness  M.S.  118.940  39  4.485  Measures  1  G X M Error  2  9.000  8.607  5.250  questions  questions  X  2  Error  1  t h e r a p y Awareness  o f V a r i a n c e f o r Awareness  D F  Marginal Means (M & M )  Standard Deviation  Measure  Analysis  Question  9.071  M  Chair Role Playing  and M a r g i n a l  Questions  F  P  26.517  0.001  3.855  3.119  O.O85  2  O.465  0.376  0.689  39  I.236  - 49 -  questionnaire across  t h e two measures p a i r wise  1968) in  administration.  awareness  ever,  awareness  of  .05.  t h r e e m a r g i n a l means  Table  IX)  m u l t i p l e comparison  o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n Two  each of  in  (see  The  these when  were  examined using  technique.  Chair Role  two t e c h n i q u e s  led to  compared w i t h t h e  for  No  treatments Tukeys  (Kirk,  difference in  Playing  shifts  and F o c u s i n g .  significantly greater  C o n t r o l group  at  a level  How-  shifts  of  significance,  COMPARISON OF CHANGE I N BEHAVIOUR UNDER W O C H A I R R O L E P L A Y I N G . F O C U S I N G AND CONTROL C O N D I T I O N S  Behaviour was  change,  examined i n  subject  was  obtained.  goal  rating  a measure  w h i c h was  set,  rating  of the  same  were used in  the  nature  was the  of  the  of  less,  behaviour.  whereas  behaviour.  on t h e  the  set  subjects'  For  i f  a  at  goal  hours  absolute  i f  goals  a  wished  were  subject would be to  focus  rating were  set  rating  or  values  moved upon  criticize  than the  the or  himself/  present  aspects  would be more t h a n t h e the  between  a positive  on - p o s i t i v e  relative to  goal  Absolute  same  week,  session.  the  depending in  a  the  and t h e  wished t o less  differ-  end of  of  session.  and,  each  difference  a week  score  scale,  the  after  regardless  the  of  at the  eitiibr- remained the  rating  therefore,  value  scale  end of  after  change,  the numerical goal ratings,  the  the  attainment  instance,  subject  of  attainment  attainment f o r  absolute  change,  hours  scores  the  goal  twenty four  value  twenty four  of  behaviour  actual behaviour  the numerical goal  The  a measure  actual behaviour  a l l  the modified goal  d e f i n e d as  desired behaviour  himself/her self,  by  each had  d e f i n e d as  direction.  behaviour,  in  which  behaviour  since  was  d i r e c t i o n toxiiard t h e  negative herself  of  It  First,  actual rating  Secondly,  the  measured  two ways.  ence between t h e and t h e  as  desired  of  present change  - 50 -  The means three  and  treatment  summarized  in  effects  goal  the  in  means  analysis  Inspection  of  this  three for  of  null  groups —  Focusing,  and  they  groups,  attributed tnis  the  hour,  and  10  whereas  percent  occurring  27  of  during  the  groups. change  seen  over  the  the  the  variance,  treatment XIII  scores, in  significant  and b e h a v i o u r of  of  Table  can be  be no  change  favour  and  subjects  cent  change  presents  while  Table  the XIV.  difference  week.  change  led to  the  alternate hypothesis  clients  percent  72  t h e number of  tne  set  for  of  tne in  other  of  Two  in  the  occurring  subjects  Focusing  than the  goals  who  a l l  non-  at  a  Role  Playing,  although'there goals  Control  group  tne  Two U n a x r  in  was  the  reported  week o t h e r Role  a t t r i b u t e d change  therapy  three  set  during  in  in  Chair  However,  persons  persons  events  subjects week  of  respectively.  to  percent  the  Analysis  for  .05.  72,  per  three  scores  differential  groups  attainment  difference in f i f t y  were no  to  attainment  XI.  three  same n u m b e r  79,  Table  behaviour  on b e h a v i o u r  in  goal  for  shows t h e r e  of  Control  significant  the  hypothesis  the  in  between the  goal  significance  for  there  deviations  table  both  found  reveals  groups  treatment  three  XII,  attainment  Approximately  no  can be  standard  of  Results  level  deviations  variance-between  between the  rejection  groups  Table  and of  standard  than  Pxayirig,  to  l i f e  events,  session.  C O M P A R I S O N O F S U B J E C T I V E C L I c M RniPORT R A T I N G S U N D E R TWU C H A I R R u L E P L A Y I N G , F U C U S I N G . A N D C O N T R O L C O N D I T I O N S 1  Table  XV p r e s e n t s  from tne  Therapy  question  can be  the  tables  and  Control  the  means  Session Reports, found  show no  in  Table  significant  conditions.  For  and  standard  while the  XVI".  The  nine  analysis  first  difference in  the  deviations  three  ratings  questions  in  of  of  the  variance  questions for  which  questions  the  for  each  listed  in  treatment  significant  results  - 51 TABLE Means  and Standard  for  Chair  Deviations  Goal Attainment  Treatment  Two  XI  Scores Standard Deviation  Mean  Role  Playing  O.6429  0.8419  Focusing  0.5714  0.7559  Control  0.7143  0.7263  TABLE Analysis  Source  Between Groups Error  of Variance  XII  f o r Goal Attainment  Scores--  D F  M.S.  F  2  0.0714  0.119  39  0.6026  P  O.8885  -  52 -  TABLE  XIII  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Behaviour Change Scores  Standard Deviation  Treatment  Mean  Two Chair Role Playing  1.0714  1.0716  Focusing  0.7143  0.9945  Control  0.5714  0.7559  TABLE  XIV  Analysis of Variance f o r Behaviour Change Scores  Source  D.F.  Between Groups Error  •  M.S.  2  0.9236  39  O.9029  F  1.028  P  O.367I  - 53 -  occurred, wise  Twcey's  differences  Multiple  between t h e means.  questions,  there  Focusing.  However,  means  of  between (see  the  either  an  of  the and  however,  reassurance  a l l  subjects  both the  amount  and  after  compared  and  in  used to  that,  Chair Role  differences  and  in  a l l  Control  pair  nine  Playing  between  significant and  examine  and  a l l  differences w i t h one  exception  and with  and  Table  they  received  significantly  from the  hour  than  subjects  or  a l l  a  subjects  l e t  ideas  XVIII  conditions  and  get  dealing  of  are  showed  found a  of in  in  received  self-control received  over  something  from  split. group,  conditions  subjects  reported  in  receiving  about  what  things  their  chest,  a b i l i t y  reasons  behind  their  of  off  the  with people  t h e i r thoughts  deviations  subjects  in talking  understanding for  they  Control  and F o c u s i n g  go  the  between  reported they  better  felt  the  help  difference  in  conditions.  conflict in  did  received by  Control  subjects  rating  groups  significant  from tensions,  confidence, to  no  the three  Flaying  standard  three  felt  was  Playing  feelings,  feelings,  for the  summarized  Two  encouragement  r e a l i s t i c "evaluations  The means question  their  and  and  hope,  chances  there  relief  defining  them,  experience  and more  of  actions,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  behaviour  was  found  Playing  treatment  under  Two C h a i r R o l e  troubling  group,  encouragement  Thus,  hour  was  significant  Control  Focusing  Chair Role  moods  were  Chair Role  Two  However,  to  Two  the  equivalent  their the  in  condition;  amount  It  d i f f e r e n c e between  there  of  Technique  6)  reassurance  Control  no  and t h e  a l l means  Clients more  was  Focusing  Question  Comparison  the  scores  Table  significant  and  and t h e i r  was  really  problems,  feelings. on t h e  XVII.  progress  Analysis  of  variance,  d i f f e r e n c e between means  at  54 TABLE  XV  Means and Standard Deviations of Questions from the Therapy Session Report  Question (12)*  Something  Group 1 2  3.. •' (10)  S e l f Control  1 2  3 (4)  Relief  1 2  3 (1)  Let Go  1 2  3 (2)  Hope  l. 2  3 (3)  Help  1 2  3 (5)  Understanding  1 2  3 (6)  Reassurance, Encouragement  l 2  3 (7)  Confidence  1 2  3 (8)  A b i l i t y to Feel  1 2  3 (9)  Ideas  1 2  3 (ll)  R e a l i s t i c Evaluation  1 2  3  Means  Standard Deviation  2.9286 2.7857 2.7857  0.2673 0.4258 0.4258  1.2857 1.4286 1.1429  0.6112 0.6462 O.363I  1.8571 2.2143 I.6429  0.7703 0.5789 0.7449  2.0000 2.3571 1.2143  0.6794 0.4972 0.5789  2.0714 2.4286 1.5714  0.8287 O.6462 0.7559  2.0714 2.5000 1.2857  0.7300 O.6504 0.6112  2.2857 2.6429 1.3571  0.6112 0.4972 0.6333  1.7143 2.0714 1.3571  O.4688 0.8287 0.7449  2.0714 1.8571 1.2857  0.6157 O.663O O.4688  2.1429 2.2857 1.2143  O.663O 0.6112 O.4258  I.6429 1.9286 1.1429  0.6333 0.7300 O.3631  2.1429 2.5000 1.5000  0.5345 O.6504 O.6504  * Numbers i n bracket indicate o r i g i n a l number of question. ** Group 1 = Two Chair Role Playing Group 2 = Focusing Group 3 = Control  -55 TABLE  XVI  Analysis of Variance f o r Questions from the Therapy Session Report  Question  MS, b  MS  F w  (12)  Something  0.0952  0.1447  O.658  0.5234  (10)  Self Control  0.2857  O.3077  O.929  0.4037  (4)  Relief  1.1667  0.4945  2.359  0.1078  (1)  Let Go  4.7857  O.348O  13.753  0.0000  (2)  Hope  2.5952  0.5586  4.646  0.0155  (3)  Help  5.3096  0.4432  11.979  0.0001  (5)  Understanding  6.1667  O.3407  18.102  0.0000  (6)  Reassurance, Encouragement  1.7857  0.4872  3.665  0.0348  (7)  Confidence  2.3095  0.3462  6.672  0.0032  (8)  A b i l i t y to Feel  4.7381  0.3315  14.293  0.0000  (9)  Ideas  2.2143  0.3553  6.232  0.0045  (11)  Realistic Evaluation  3.5952  0.3773  9.529  0.0004  Degrees of freedom f o r sources of v a r i a t i o n presented i n t h i s table are 2 and 39 f o r between and within groups r e s p e c t i v e l y .  TABLE Means  XVII  and Standard  for  Progress  Treatment*  Question  Mean  1 2 3  *  Deviations  Standard Deviation  3.0714 2.8571 3.9286  Treatment  1  =  Two C h a i r  Treatment  2  =  Focusing  Treatment  3  =  Control  Role  TABLE Analysis  Source  of Variance  O.9169 0.8644 0.9169  Playing  XVIII f o r Progress  M S  D F  Between Groups  4.5000  2  Within  O.8O95  39  Groups  Question  F  5.559  P  0.0075  - 57 -  an  alpha l e v e l  there  to  however,  be no  of  m u l t i p l e comparison  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n means  subjects  in  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than  Tukey's  .05.  did  subjects  One  hundred  each  of  progress in  the  percent  these in  dealing  Control of  the  perceived t h e i r therapists  as  then,  both  that  a l l  subjects  conditions  had  an  in  two  of  t h e two treatment  conditions  revealed groups;  r e p o r t e d t h e y had  with their issues  over  the  made  week  group. persons  who  received counselling  both understanding  o p t i m a l amount  technique  Two of  Chair Role trust  in  and  helpful.  Playing  their  and  It  sessions appears  Focusing  counsellors.  -  58 -  CHAPTER  V  DISCUSSION In t h i s chapter, a discussion of the findings of the process and outcome measures are presented.  Discussion of the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s  of Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing on Depth of Experiencing i s followed by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a l effects of the two treatment conditions.-and Control on Conflict Resolution, s h i f t i n awareness, behavi  iour change, goal attainment  and subjective c l i e n t information.  conclusions w i l l be drawn concerning counselling.  General  some of the non-specific effects of  F i n a l l y , some recommendations and implications f o r the  research and practise of counselling,as a result o f findings from t h i s study are made. PROCESS MEASURES The analysis of the- frequency  scores on modal Depth of Experiencing  reveals ,that there are no'-differential e f f e c t s between Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing techniques.  Results of the frequency  scores on peak  experiencing however, support that Two Chair Role Playing i s more effect i v e than Focusing i n producing Depth of Experiencing.  This result  indicates that c l i e n t s i n the Two Chair Role Playing sessions reached l e v e l s of experiencing greater than or equal to f i v e more often than c l i e n t s i n the Focusing  sessions.  Results of the proportion scores i n d i c a t e no difference between Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing i n producing Depth-of Experiencing f o r both mode and peak scores.  This i s explained by the fact that,  - 59 -  significantly sessions,  a large  sessions. the  Two  In  the  percentage  xtfhich i s  length  of  Focusing  and  which produce deepen  peak  to  appears  This  enable  analogue,  oring the  finding  the  their  high  o n mode issues  assumption  a  in that  between  than the  score  than  However,  Focusing  subjects variance  frequency i t  session that  may b e deep  as  within between  to  experiencing, is  be p o t e n t  presented.  a  to  be  this  Depth scores  personally  split  study.  indicates  meaningful  analogue  is  that ways.  of  therapists  Experiencing  other this  in  representative  of  level  this  therapists was  clients  This  to  Playing,  deep  attained in the  of  both  can be used  Although  i t  interventions  occasions  by the  that  regardless  .Two C h a i r R o l e  r e p l i c a t e d on  of  times,  and which  takes  experiencing  indicate that  appear  i t  argued  therefore,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  of  the  results  beyond  the  scores  in  of  split  peak  reached  Playing  t h e number  applied to  levels  Chair Role  rather  would need  and  the  Playing  produce  when  in  but  These  when  also  Two  group.  time  of  the  larger  account.  levels  to  was  into  generalization  conditions  to  high  of  stronger  Role  in  were  a  of  Chair  experiencing  study.  is  session.  experiencing  hoxtfever,  group  important,  Two  peaks  Focusing  and t i m e  occurs  reached  variance  Playing  proportion  the  of  addition, the  frequency  not  were  number  within the  Clearly  is  peaks  Chair Role  subjects  both  more  lends  an both were  expl-  strength  counselling.  -60 -  OUTCOME VARIABLES The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the amount of Conflict Resolution i s the same f o r a l l treatment conditions.  Thus, f o r the s o c i a l l y and personally  well adjusted persons used as c l i e n t s i n t h i s study, the procedure of deciding upon a meaningful issue, and p e r i o d i c a l l y attending to i t , by and of i t s e l f , appears to lead to reduction i n the degree of d i s t r e s s related to the i s s u e .  I t was reported by some subjects that the very act  of deciding upon a concrete  s p l i t and writing i t down encouraged issues on  both sides of the s p l i t to emerge f o r consideration.  Perhaps, then, the  process of defining and writing down a troublesome issue i s one way of resolving i t . Thus, i t may be suggested, since the control group subjects had the same amount of c o n f l i c t resolution during the week following therapy, as did persons receiving counselling sessions, that natural l i f e events, spontaneous remission, history? and maturation e f f e c t s during the week may play an active part i n reducing d i s t r e s s . The Hawthorne e f f e c t may be operating with respect to t h i s measure as w e l l .  I t may be proposed that the procedure of defining and period-  i c a l l y commenting on subjective feelings toward a meaningful c o n f l i c t  split,  and knowing that someone w i l l be monitoring the ratings, may have a c a r t h a r t i c e f f e c t and can be c l a s s i f i e d as a method of treatment i t s e l f . Some attention should be directed toward the v a l i d i t y of t h i s measuring instrument*  In t h i s study, i t was assumed that ranking  how much a s p l i t  bothers a subject on a box scale was a measure of C o n f l i c t This may well not be the case.  Resolution.  Although "bothered" was the word used by  - 61 -  the researchers who  o r i g i n a l l y defined the measure (Battle et a l . , 1 9 6 6 ) ,  i n future studies c l i e n t s could rate how  resolved they f e e l  concerning  their issue. Two  Chair Role Playing and Focusing appear to be techniques which are  e f f e c t i v e i n producing  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s h i f t s i n awareness than the  Control i n the hour a f t e r defining the s p l i t . of the effectiveness of therapy.  This may be a key ingredient  A counselling session's usefullness may  be explained by the fact that i t provides c l i e n t s with a broader  understanding  of t h e i r issues.  In Polanyi's (1959) terms, awareness means "to f e e l  a l i v e " (p. 207).  In terms of Polster and Polster (1973)» awareness refers  to becoming conscious of sensations, f e e l i n g s , wants, values and assessment. Thus counselling, i t seems, adds something to the q u a l i t y of the subjective human experience which helps bring about a change i n perspective which i s not received without Two  sharing issues with another human being i n a session.  Chair Role Playing, Focusing and Control subjects a l l attained  similar amounts of behaviour change and goal attainment. believed that only those c l i e n t s who set  goals and a t t a i n them.  experienced  I t was  originally  a s h i f t i n awareness would  However, t h i s proved not to be the case.  It  may well be that the Hawthorne effect has an i n t e g r a l part to play i n goal attainment  and behavioural change.  I f a concrete behaviour, which a  person wishes to change, i s defined and the desired goal set, the observing of t h i s act by another person may  lead to goal attainment  and behaviour change.  D e f i n i t i o n of desired behaviour change took place twenty four hours a f t e r the hour, and rating of actual behaviour change took place one week a f t e r the hour.  Thus t h i s measure may  appear to be a mode of treatment i n i t s e l f ,  quite separate from any other therapeutic process.  Smith (1976) has shown  - 62 -  that  goal  attainment  producing toward  goal  The felt and  behaviour  commenting  on  how much  feelings  carthartic  effect took  self  The  control  to  think  on  i t .  sessions to  persons of  therapies  may be  the  It  treatment  subjective  "anything"  receiving  from the appear in  due  than  to  have  when  to  more  interest  hope,  a  step  in  progress  on  the  they the  f i l l i n g and  groups  were  a result  of the  Control the  specific  able  commenting  help,  under-  reported in  the the  the  by  Control  which  counselling  effect  was  significant Hawthorne  *  effect  improvement.  Because  non-specific  g r o u p who  received  questionnaires,  the  effectiveness.  Also,  active  subject  better  feelings,/and  Haxiithorne  experiencing the  were  and  ingredients  r e c e i v e d more  out  obtained  people  w h i c h were  in  or a  experience  results  split  that  defining  However,  clients  suggest  confidence,  the  a l l  their  they  contributed to  client  shown t o  in  from t e n s i o n  compated w i t h those  reports.  some u n i q u e  both treatment  of  felt  after  feelings  and  showed  those  researcher  split  suggested that  to  controls  and m o n i t o r i n g  non-specific  client  done  and  indicate that  as  groups  therapy  s u g g e s t e d , was  than merely  may be  aJdefinite  relief  may  and  valuable  treatment  defining  The  ability to  groups  to  show t h a t  controls  amounts go,  be  and  their  thoughts  be t h e  counselling  clients  let  two t h e r a p y  the  that  to  of  client. in  for  interest  i t  a  effect  effects  the  the  may w e l l  suggests the  chance  evaluation  in  results  actions  o b j e c t i v e l y about  ideas,  realistic  offers  and  after  them.  defining  a l l treatment  moods  hour  treatments  by  adjunct  Session Report  bothered  significantly greater  standing  persons  place  an  change.  from the  reported by  that  over  more  The  in  fact  Therapy  i t  as  s e t t i n g may w e l l  and behaviour  something  unpleasant  split.  Goal  from the  received  can be u s e d  change.  attainment  questions  they  scaling  by  deeply.  and p o t e n t the  This  fact,  interventions  counsellor.  -  Orlinsky intent  of  and  gathering  feeling  process,  client.  These  techniques, who  using  through  counsellor of  his  self  in  in  support.  greater the  a  effective) The From  a  came  from the  interpersonal  that  subjects  session  in  (Two  the  counsellor  reassurance the  between the  two  and  deeply and  sides  find  encouragement  as  relationship with the  with their issues  Chair Role  when t h e y h a d n o  examination  of  the  a l l three  specific meaningful a route  a n d w r i t i n g down  than  Playing  more  perceive themselves  dealing  results  p e r i o d may b e  and  The  Chair  counsellor  condition.  progress  than  encourag-  r e c e i v e d Two  Two C h a i r R o l e  conflict  clients  and  encouragement  a c t i v e l y dialogue  and  counselling  fact that  operations.  rated reassurance  of  over  the  active  reassurance  encouragement  experience the  summary  effect  of  the  relationship,  both  The  and  subjects  appears  counselling  reassurance  to  in  c l i e n t s who  Thus,  Focusing  i c a n t l y more  client to  and  in  with  p l a c e between t h e r a p i s t  r e p o r t e d more  whereas  questions  dialogue,  and F o c u s i n g .  provides  reflection,  the  report  functioning  the nature  technique  order  when i t  It  r e p o r t more  directs the  split  are  Control group  relate to  Focusing  empathic  then  operation  g r o u p may  the  which takes  Focusing  did not  therapy  concerning  Playing  i n the  -  these  Chair Role  ement t h a n t h o s e  Control  exchange  ingredients,  Two  Playing  designed  information  and  received the  Role  Howard  63  data  of  to  outcome  which there  conditions, conflict  i t  issue  feeling less  a behaviour  and  having  in  the  made  week  and Focusing  signif-  following  were  equally  session.  the  in  Playing  as  may be and  data was  can be no  attending  a goal  of  in  Table  differential  suggested that  bothered by  setting  seen  to i t . the  i t  treatment  deciding  over  a week  Similarly, desired  XIX.  upon long  defining  behaviour  TABLE XIX  SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF OUTCOME VARIABLE FOR SUBJECTS IN TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING, FOCUSING, AND CONTROL GROUPS  No D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment E f f e c t s For Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing, or Control.  No D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment E f f e c t Between Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing. Differential Treatment E f f e c t Between the Two Methods and Control.  Conflict  S h i f t i n Awareness  Resolution  Goal Attainment  Progress i n dealing with issue  Behaviour Change  Hope  R e l i e f from tensions, or unpleasant feelings  Confidence  Better s e l f control over moods and actions  Chance to get things o f f chest  Ideas A b i l i t y to experience feelings Understand of motivation  R e a l i s t i c evaluation of thoughts and feelings  - 65 -  change  may,  concrete person to  in  this  effect.  separate  treatments  shows  interest  and m o n i t o r s  occurs''an  It  hour  cathartic  self  produce  and  therapy.  issue  turn  appears  after  effect  having  a  client  them l e s s  The  be  over  them,  issue  two  an  the  and may b e  is  sides  period of runs  of  a  why  the  of  factors.  rich  and v a l u a b l e  issues,  and t h e  questions are  w h i c h make  the It  goals  other benefits  has  of  been  reorganization  into  awareness.  stimulation Rogers'  client  skills  the  discoveries  and  about and  view  of  (1957)  be  some  in  concept  the  of  this  their  feeling  report  their  outcome  of split  measures,  is  the  significance  of  the  psychological events,  progress  Therapy  of  so  with  Session  and f e e l i n g s  and  Kahn  (1979»  Playing  Report  esteem  themselves necessary  conditions, arousal  and understanding counselling  occur.  to  Having  self-understanding,  deepened clients  However, of  raised  Perhaps  new  sufficient  the use  which help  press)  by b r i n g i n g  and  be  in  and F o c u s i n g ,  p e r c e p t u a l change.  emotional  themselves.  with  xtfhich  therapies.  sufficient  of  Controls,  described self  feelings  along  compared w i t h d a i l y l i f e  Chair Role  help promote  effects  new awareness  Rogers'  clients  adjuncts  This  self-report  may w e l l  Greenberg  Two  a persons  client's  awareness  non-specific  wuch as  of  as  humanistic by  Perhaps  Shiftsiin.Awareness,  improved  suggested  Like  necessary  encourages  in  many  skills,  as  experience.  may r e s u l t  stimulation a  an  therapy,  as  week.  the treatment from the  ingredients  another  unpleasant  their issue.  through  These  that  objective perspective  which distinguishes s u b j e c t i v e human  considered  recommended  or  defined.  i n d i c a t i o n of  common t h r e a d t h a t  providing  from tensions  gains- a more  i d e n t i f i e d the  may b o t h be  themselves,  relief  a pressing  c o n t r o l may w e l l  bothers  that  in  These  i t  is  clients to  are then  skills  some  more of  make  freed  information  unlike  that  experiencing  activate  conditions,  these so  that  and so  rapid  these  new achieved they  can  - 66 -  put their energies into more creative l i v i n g . Obviously there are some benefits from therapy which can be defined in psychological rather than behavioural terms.  These relate to the needs  of people, as social beings, to share pressing issues with others, and they relate to needs to make contact with, and communicate with one's inner experiencing.  Depth of Experiencing, according to Klein (1969)  refers to the quality and extent to which people's experiencing of themselves constitutes their awareness and communications about themselves. It i s an important construct for therapies in which self awareness and self-understanding are major goals.  Because both Two Chair Role Playing  and Focusing produced a high proportion of Depth of Experiencing during the counselling process, they were both successful in producing valuable aspects of outcome including shifts i n awareness, self understanding, and perceived progress which were not gained when a shared experience i n counselling with another human being had not occurred. RECOMMENDATIONS From the findings of this study, the following recommendations could be made::. 1)  Because of the controversy concerning the use of frequency and proportion scores, running ratings could be used for the whole therapy session rather than the convenient time based segments. Running ratings are the Depth of Experiencing scores which are continuously made by raters when they judge the quality of clients' responses during a therapy session. Although the length of sessions could s t i l l be examined, continuous running ratings could be examined, and these running ratings could indicate the path of Depth of Experiencing for the therapy session.  Given  a  clear understanding  attempts for  c o u l d b e made t o  conflict resolution  jects  c o u l d have  periods  a  after the  of  what  produce  is  session  interest to  change.  order to  track  measured,  instruments  Jji a d d i t i o n ,  interview with their  in  be  more v a l i d outcome  and behaviour  f o l l o w up  of  sub-  counsellors  at  outcome v a r i a b l e s  more  closely.  The  results  study well  of  proved  process  t o be  adjusted.  similar ation  of  true  It  results  of  outcome v a r i a b l e s  f o r persons  would be  of  occurred i f  "neurotic"  would be  and  and  interest  to  It  splits,  appears  factor Few  but  the  study  or,  repeat  study  this  studies  have  therapists  as  Macintosh,  1970;  been  therapists,  i f  in  Because nique type  they  to  of  are  from  process  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a  often  stronger  technique used,  a  therapeutic  investigate  the  effects  1965).  Due  to  1966;  the  of  to  be t r e a t e d a s  response  and  recommended  of  and  regarding  implications  is  random  research.  Moos  a population training,  meaning-  be e i t h e r a  the  Clemes,  who  study.  considered to  and  i t  clients  a l l in  (Moos  popul-  Similarly,  presented  an analogue  socially  whether  "real"  who  and g e n e r a i i z a b i l i t y , i t  with respect  studies  may be of  done  VanderVeen,  analysis  characteristics  volunteers  a factor at  a fixed factor  statistical  factor  is  using  this  and  repeated using  individuals.  therapist  indeed, not  was  investigate  "psychotic"  who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  that  were p e r s o n a l l y  interest to  sought therapy r a t h e r than u s i n g ful  who  obtained from  s p e c i f i e d and a  for that  limited fixed  outcome.  to  a  specific  counselling  determinant  of  process  i t  of  interest to  would be  and  tech-  outcome t h a n replicate  tne  the  -  study  and i n v e s t i g a t e  under  different treatments.  c o u l d be  employed  6)  outcome  and the  Klein,  et  reports  a l .  positively appear t o follows sis  on  Depth  Thus,  from  counselling  methods  between s e s s i o n s  (19t>9) s u g g e s t  design  c o u l d be  to  tnat  Depth  of  ensure  administno  Experiencing  Experience  i n t e r r e l a t e d and many t h e r a p i s t s (Corsini,  data from t h i s  study  Experiencing  outcome measures  themselves  a repeated measures  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h outcome. be  differ  overlap  occur.  experiencing  of  -  now i n d i v i d u a l s  ered with s u f f i c i e n t times in  68  is  1973).  is  and  recommended  avrareness  believe  Therefore, to  is  awareness  further  investigate  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any  reported by the  subjects  in  analy-  the  two  whether  of  the  counselling  groups.  IMPLICATION'S  Because experiencing using the  in  clients  of  the  being  applied to  the  xd.sh t o  presented. struggle  engage  in  may be u s e d when  conflict  and want t o  Counsellors monitor  scale  may  get  may want  conflict also  counsellors  client  Focusing  to  Playing  both techniques.  personality issue  Two C h a i r R o l e  clients,  either or  of the be  both  may want  The  choice  and the For  and Focusing to of  become  between two  sides  of  a  or  clients  on t h e  in  touch  t o use  resolution  stuck  well  conflict  have  a high surface  w i t h t h e tx-jo o p p o s i n g the  over  b e u s e d xirhen c l i e n t s  Target time.  depend as  Two C h a i r R o l e  p h y s i c a l movement are  as  Complaints  the  in upon  nature  Playing split energy of  may  when level.  their  tendencies. Box  Scale  The m o d i f i e d g o a l  xri.sh b e h a v i o u r  deepen  proficient  method may  counsellor,  instance,  appear t o  change.  in  order  attainment Both  of  these  - 69 -  adjuncts  to  t h e r a p y may be  progress  of  desired  psychological  The n o n - s p e c i f i c to  counsellors  Counsellors and of  themselves, chosen  so  effects  what  can then  awareness  their  of  of  order  they  are  lifestyle.  able  to  give  counselling  clients have  to  concrete  and b e h a v i o u r a l  ingredients  direct  that  and  used i n  a broader  and  and more  of  and  in  therapy.  experiencing  dynamic  happily  indicators  effective  deep l e v e l s  f u n c t i o n more  of  change.  may b e v a l u a b l e  are necessary toward  indication  understanding  creatively  in  REFERENCES Battle,  C ;  Imber,  Target of  S.}  Hoen-Saric,  complaints  as  R.;  Stone,  criteria  of  A.;  Nash,  E.;  improvement.  and Frank,  American  J . ;  Journal  1966, 2 0 , 184-192.  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Statistical principles  New Y o r k :  McGraw-Hill,  in  1971.  experimental design  (2nd  Edition),  APPENDIX  SHORT P O M  Stage 1  A  OF- E X P E R I M C I M &  SCALE  Treatment  Content  Impersonal,  detached  External events; behavioural or intellectual self-description  Interested,  personal,  Personal reactions to external events; l i m i t e d s e l f - d e s c r i p tions; behavioural descriptions of feelings  Reactive, involved  Descriptions  Self-descriptive; associative  External  events;  refusal  to  participate 2  3  4  personal  feelings  and  experiences  5  Problems feelings  6 -'•a  Synthesis of f e e l i n g s and resolve issues  of  or propositions about and p e r s o n a l experiences  significant  emotionally  Exploratory, hypothetical Feelings  readily accessible experiences to  personally  self-  participation  vividly  integrative, ;.  elaborative,  expressed,  conclusive  or  affirmative  F u l l , easy presentation of experiencing; a l l elements confidently integrated  Expansive,  illuminating,  confident,  buoyant  Reference: Klein, The  M.  H.,  Mathieu,  experiencing  Psychiatric  scale.  Institute,  Pi. L.,  Gendlin,  Madison, 196?  > p.  E.  T.  Wisconsin: 42.  and  Kiesler,  Wisconsin  D.  J .  -75  APPENDIX  -  B  QUESTIONNAIRE  B r i e f l y describe the s p l i t that you wish to work on.  Please i n d i c a t e , by checking one of the boxes below, how much t h i s s p l i t bothers you now.  .  couldn't-be worse very much pretty much a little not at a l l  -  7 6  APPENDIX  -  C  QUESTIONNAIRE  1.  Please indicate, by checking one of the boxes below, how much the s p l i t which you just worked on, bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a little not  2.  Did you increase your awareness of yourself?  1 d e f i n i t e l y no 3.  2 don't think so  3 unsure  4 think so  5 d e f i n i t e l y yes  Did something s h i f t f o r you i n the hour? (Possible examples: maybe you saw something d i f f e r e n t l y , experienced something freshly, made some discovery about yourself, or became aware of new choices.)  1 d e f i n i t e l y no 4.  at a l l  2  3  4  don't think' so  unsure  think so  5 d e f i n i t e l y yes  I f so, what was the shift? Please describe what happened and how you see yourself or the world d i f f e r e n t l y .  -77-  5.  How do you feel about the hour which you have just completed? (Please circle the one answer which best applies.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  6.  Perfect Excellent Very good Pretty good Fair Pretty poor Very poor  What do you feel that you got out of the hour? (For each item, circle the answer which best applies.) I feel that I got:  No  1.  A chance to let go and get things off my chest.  1  2.  Hope: A feeling that things can work out for me.  ^  2  3'  3.  Help i n talking about what was really troubling me.  ^  2  3'  4.  Relief from tensions or unpleasant feelings.  1  5.  More understanding of the reasons behind my behaviour and feelings.  ^ •  2  3  6.  Reassurance and encouragement about how I'm doing.  ^ •  g  ^  7.  Confidence to try to do things differently.  8.  More ability to feel my feelings, to know what I really want.  ^ .  2  9.  Ideas for better ways of dealing with people and problems.  ^  2  10.  Better self control over my moods and actions.  ^ •  11.  A more realistic evaluation of my thoughts and feelings.  12.  Nothing i n particular: I feel the same as I did before the hour.  13-17.  Other  Some 2  3  3  2  •  1  A lot  3'  0/ *  V 2  y 3 2  3  2  '3  2  1  -  7.  ?8 -  How .well did your therapist seem to understand what you were feeling and thinking this session? My therapist:  8.  1.  Understood exactly how I thought and f e l t .  2.  Understood very well how I thought and f e l t .  3.  Understood pretty well, but there were some things he (she) didn't seem to grasp.  4.  Didn't understand too well how I thought and f e l t .  5.  Misunderstood how I thought and f e l t .  How helpful do you feel your therapist was to you this session? 1.  Completely helpful  2.  Very helpful  3b  Pretty helpful  4.  Somewhat helpful  5.  Slightly helpful  6.  Not at a l l helpful  - 79-  APPENDIX  D  QUESTIONNAIRE  Yesterday, you i d e n t i f i e d a s p l i t which was of concern to you. Please indicate, by checking one o f the boxes below, how much t h i s s p l i t bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a little . 1.  Did you increase your awareness of yourself?  1  d e f i n i t e l y no 2.  not at a l l  2  don't think so  3  unsure  4  think so  5  d e f i n i t e l y yes  Did something s h i f t f o r you i n the hour? (Examples: Maybe you saw something d i f f e r e n t l y , experienced something f r e s h l y , made some discovery or became aware of new choices.) L d e f i n i t e l y no  2  don't think so  3  unsure  4  think so  5  d e f i n i t e l y yes  3.  I f so, what was the s h i f t ? Please describe what happened and how you see yourself or the world d i f f e r e n t l y .  4.  From t h i s new perspective, are there any general things about yourself or your l i f e that you would l i k e to change?  - 80 -  5.  (a) From t h i s general perspective, what s p e c i f i c f e e l i n g or behaviour would you hope would change i n the coming week? (For example, c r i t i c i z e myself l e s s , spend more time with my family, discuss my feelings with my boyfriend, or assert myself more.)  (b) How often have you been experiencing yourself or behaving i n t h i s way i n the l a s t while?  1  not at all  2  hardly ever  3  seldom  4  sometimes  5  frequently  6  most of the time  7  a l l of the time  (c) How often would you l i k e to see t h i s experience or behaviour occurring i n the coming week?  1  not at all  2  hardly ever  3  seldom  4  sometimes  5  frequently  6  most of the time  7 a l l of the time  APPENDIX  E  QUESTIONNAIRE  1.  Last week, you i d e n t i f i e d the following s p l i t which was of concern to you.  Please i n d i c a t e , by checking one of the boxes below, how much t h i s s p l i t bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a little not at a l l  2.  Have you experienced the hour?  1  d e f i n i t e l y no 3.  a change i n yourself during the past week since  2  don't think so  3  4  unsure  think so  5  d e f i n i t e l y yes  After the l a s t hour you indicated that you hoped that the following f e e l i n g or behaviour would change during the week  How often are you experiencing yourself or behaving i n t h i s way now?  1  2  not at hardly all ever  3  seldom  4  sometimes  5  frequently  6  most of the time  7  a l l of the time  - 32 -  4.  5.  How much progress do you feel you made i n dealing with your issues since the last hour? (Please circle the item which best applies) 1.  A great deal of progress  2.  Considerable progress  3.  Moderate progress  4.  Some progress  5o  Didn't get anywhere  Has anything unusual happened during the week other than the hour to which you attribute any change you have reported? I f so, what?  - 83 APPENDIX F SPLIT DRAINING Thank you for your willingness to participate in my thesis project. Dr. Les Greenberg and I are iirorking together, and we are studying conflictsplits.  I w i l l explain what a conflict split i s , and w i l l give you  instructions concerning your involvement i n the project. First of a l l , I would ask you to think of a conflict split which is an issue you are dealing with at the present time - a real issue that is of importance to you, in which two sides of you are struggling for some type of compromise.  I w i l l play a tape recording giving three  examples of conflict splits for you 1)  now:  I want to get involved in more intimate relationships, but afraid to l e t anyone get too close.  I'm  I just don't seem to be able  to do anything about i t . 2)  Sometimes I feel that I should stay i n the programme. Other times I want to quit and go back to work f u l l time.  It's a struggle for  me to know just what's best to do. 3)  On one hand, I want the security offered to me by marriage, but on the other hand I don't want to be tied down. I just don't know what to do. I would ask you not to identify a totally behavioural split such as  "I don't know whether to go to California or New York for my vacation", but rather to choose one in which you have invested some emotional energy. You will be contacted by a counsellor with whom you w i l l arrange  - 34 -  a time to meet when i t i s convenient f o r you both. c o n f l i c t s p l i t at t h i s session.  Please present your  You w i l l be asked to define your issue  before the hour, and w i l l be required to f i l l out forms during the next week concerning your s p l i t and your experience i n the hour.  There are  no "best" answers, and please report your feelings as accurately as you can. The sessions w i l l be audio taped and w i l l be heard by myself and two raters.  The questionnaires w i l l be seen by myself and Les. Both the  tapes and the questionnaires w i l l be treated with professional c o n f i dence. Dp you have any questions? Once again, I thank you f o r your time and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  -85-  APPENDIX  G  FOCUSIKG TECHNIQUE First identify the split that clients wish to work on. Then begin with: "I don't know i f you have ever had a focusing experience before, but that i s what we w i l l do for the f i r s t few minutes of this session. It i s a silent technique, so I would ask you to relax, close your eyes and breathe." (5 seconds) "This i s going to be just to yourself. What I w i l l ask you to do w i l l be silent, just to yourself. Take a moment just to relax 5 seconds. A l l right now, just to yourself, inside you, I would like you to pay attention to a very special part of you Pay attention to that part where you usually feel sad, glad or scared. 5 seconds. Pay attention to that area in you and see how you are now. See what comes to you when you ask yourself, "How am I now?" "How do I feel?" "What i s the main thing for me right now?" (30 seconds) Focus your attention on the split which you have just identified, and see what comes to you. (10 seconds) 1.  Of course, there are many parts to that split you are thinking about — too many to-think of each one alone. But, you can feel a l l of those things together. Pay attention there where you usually feel things, and i n there you can get a sense of what a l l of the split feels l i k e . Let yourself feel a l l of that. (30 seconds or less)  2.  As you pay attention to the whole feeling of i t , you may find that one special feeling comes up. Let yourself pay attention to that one feeling. ( l minute)  3.  Keep following one feeling. Don't let i t be just words or pictures wait and let words or pictures come from the feeling. ( l minute)  k*  If this one feeling changes, or moves, let i t do that. does, follow the feeling and pay attention to i t . ( l minute)  Whatever i t  —  5.  Now, take what i s fresh, or new, i n the feel of i t now very easy.  and go  Just as you feel i t , try to find some new words or pictures to capture what your present feeling i s a l l about. There doesn't have to be anything that you didn't know before. New words are best but old words might f i t just as well. As long as you now find words or pictures to say what i s fresh to you now. ( 1 minute) 6.  I f the words or pictures that you now have make some fresh difference, see what that i s . Let the words or pictures change until they feel just right i n capturing your feelings. ( l minute)  When you're ready, open your eyes and come back. Where are you now? What happened? (Please note — i t i s important that you and your clients explore what happened as a result of the focusing experience, and not just talk about what they had experienced. It i s a take-off point.)  APPENDIX F EXAMPLES OF SPLITS PRESENTED Examples of the splits which persons i n each group defined included the following: TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING; 1)  On the one hand I'd like to have another child, but on the other hand I'm afraid I ' l l lose my freedom.  2)  On the one hand I would like to t r y some different occupation, but on the other hand, I feel very secure and comfortable i n Education.  3)  I just don't know what's best to do.  On the one hand, I want to be assertive with this person, but on the other hand, I want to be submissive.  I'm  struggling with this issue. FOCUSING 1)  I have a job offer here i n Vancouver, but I don't want to live here.  2)  I don't know what's best to do.  On the one hand, I want to stay i n the relationship with my fianceJ, but on the other hand, I want to break up with him. I just don't know what to do.  3)  I have an opportunity to have a f u l l time job, but I also can stay at home with my baby. I don't know what decision to make.  CONTROL l)  I want to have the closeness of a continuing relationship, but I'm really afraid of being stuck with a helpless person. know what to do.  I don't  - 88 -  2)  One part of me wants to get more serious about my career and move into administrative positions, while another part of me wants to stop awhile, relax, and enjoy l i f e .  Its a struggle  to know what's best to do. 3)  I think I want to have children, but I'm afraid of the time, responsibility and loss of freedom that i t w i l l bring. ^1 don't know what to do.  

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