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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects of counselling methods on process and outcome Higgins, Heather Marie 1979

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THE E F F E C T S OF C O U N S E L L I N G METHODS ON PROCESS AND OUTCOME b y H e a t h e r M a r i e H i g g i n s B . S c , M o u n t A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1974 A T H E S I S SUBM ITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS F O R THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n ' THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s - - a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 ( c ) H e a t h e r M a r i e H i g g i n s , 1979 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E ( i ) A B S T R A C T T h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g m e t h o d s a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w e r e e x a m i n e d i n a n a n a l o g u e s t u d y u s i n g f o r t y t w o s u b j e c t s , s t u d e n t s i n a g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m m e , a n d s e v e n t h e r a p i s t s . T h e m e t h o d s i n c l u d e d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g J a t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n d r a w n f r o m G e s t a l t t h e r a p y , F o c u s i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o x v e d b y E m p a t h i c r e s p o n s e s ' , a n d a C o n t r o l , i n v o l v i n g n o t h e r a p y . D e p t h of E x p e r i e n c i n g ( K l e i n e t a l . , I969) w a s t h e p r o c e s s d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e u s e d t o c o m p a r e t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of t h e t w o t h e r a p y c o n d i t i o n s . O u t c o m e m e a s u r e s , g i v e n t o a l l s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d e d t h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e ( B a t t l e e t a l . , 1 9 ° 6 ) , a w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s , a m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e , a n d s u b j e c t i v e c l i e n t r e p o r t s . F o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h of t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s ; s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e r a p i s t s w i t h whom t h e y e n g a g e d i n a t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . T h e s e v e n t h e r a p i s t s e a c h s a w f o u r c l i e n t s . TITO c l i e n t s r e c e i v e d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g s e s s i o n s a n d two r e c e i v e d s e s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g F o c u s i n g . T h e o r d e r of t r e a t m e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i n o r d e r t o . e l i m i n a t e a n y b i a s o r p r a c t i c e e f f e c t . B e c a u s e t h e Control s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t a s s i g n e d t o t h e r a p i s t s , i t w a s n o t p o s s i b l e t o e m p l o y a f u l l y c r o s s e d 7 X 3 ( t h e r a p i s t - b y - t r e a t m e n t ) d e s i g n . Two of t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d o n m o r e t h a n o n e o c c a s i o n , y i e l d i n g a t h i r d r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s f a c t o r . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s u s i n g a 7 X 2 X r ( t h e r a p i s t - b y - t r e a t m e n t - b y - o c c a s i o n ) f i x e d e f f e c t s ( i i ) a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s p e r f o r m e d . R e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r a p i s t s c o u l d b e p o o l e d a t a l e v e l o f s i g n -i f i c a n c e o f .25. T h e r e f o r e , a 3 X r ( t r e a t m e n t - b y - o c c a s i o n ) d e s i g n w a s e m p l o y e d . A f i x e d e f f e c t s r e p e a t e d , m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s u s e d x « i e r e t h e t r i a l f a c t o r w a s g r e a t e r t h a n o n e , a n d a o n e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s p e r f o r m e d w h e n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was m e a s u r e d o n o n e o c c a s i o n . T h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s e d w a s .05. R e s u l t s s h o w e d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g t o b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n F o c u s i n g i n p r o d u c i n g a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f p e a k , d e p t h o f e x p e r i e n c i n g s c o r e s , b u t t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s o n f r e q u e n c y o f mode s c o r e s a n d o n p r o p o r t i o n mode a n a p e a k s c o r e s . T h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be t x i r een Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g o n a n y o f t h e o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s . T h e s e t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r f r o m t h e C o n t r o l o n t h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e , o r o n t h e m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e . T h e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e a c h o f t h e s e t w o g r o u p s a n d t h e C o n t r o l o n a w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s a n d s u b j e c t i v e c l i e n t r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n o n - s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . T h e s e n o n - s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g m a y b e v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f w h a t i n g r e d i e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y a n d e f f e c t i v e i n t h e r a p y . I f c l i e n t s d e e p e n e x p e r i e n c i n g a n d a c h i e v e n e w a w a r e n e s s a n d s e l f u n d e r -s t a n d i n g , t h e y m a y b e t h e n f r e e d t o p u t t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n t o m o r e c r e a t i v e l i v i n g . CiiD T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s v i i CHAPTER I I NTRODUCT ION 1 B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 T h e P r o b l e m 2 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s U s e d 3 F o c u s i n g 3 Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g O p e r a t i o n 4 D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g 4 T h e S p l i t 5 C o n f l i c t S p l i t 5 S p l i t R e s o l u t i o n 6 A w a r e n e s s 6 S h i f t i n A w a r e n e s s 6 B e h a v i o u r C h a n g e 7 H y p o t h e s e s 7 R a t i o n a l e o f H y p o t h e s e s 10 D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y 11 A s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 11 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y 12 I I L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 14 D e v e l o p m e n t s i n R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y 14 T h e R o l e o f A w a r e n e s s i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y R e s e a r c h 16 T h e R o l e o f S p l i t s i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y R e s e a r c h 17 T h e R o l e s o f Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g T e c h n i q u e s i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y R e s e a r c h 19 ( i v ) T A B L E OF CONTENTS ( c o n t ' d ) P a g e I I I METHODOLOGY 21 I n s t r u m e n t s 21 F o r S u b j e c t D e s c r i p t i o n 21 F o r D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s 22 F o r S u b j e c t i v e C l i e n t I n f o r m a t i o n 25 S u b j e c t S e l e c t i o n a n d P r e p a r a t i o n 26 P o p u l a t i o n 2 8 T h e r a p i s t s 2 8 R a t e r s 29 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 30 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e 31 D e s i g n a n d A n a l y s e s 37 I V R E S U L T S 42 C o m p a r i s o n o f D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c e U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g T r e a t m e n t s 42 C o m p a r i s o n o f T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e R a t i n g s U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g a n d C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s 44 C o m p a r i s o n o f S h i f t i n A w a r e n e s s R a t i n g s U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g a n d C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s 47 C o m p a r i s o n o f C h a n g e i n B e h a v i o u r U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g a n d C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s 49 C o m p a r i s o n o f S u b j e c t i v e C l i e n t R e p o r t R a t i n g s U n d e r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g a n d C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s 50 V D I S C U S S I O N 58 P r o c e s s M e a s u r e s 58 O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s 60 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 66 I m p l i c a t i o n s 68 R e f e r e n c e s 70 A p p e n d i c e s 74 (v ) L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e I O r d e r o f T e s t s w i t h R e s p e c t t o T r e a t m e n t s I I T i m e S e q u e n c e o f T r a i n i n g , T h e r a p y a n d T e s t i n g I I I M e a n E m p a t h y R a t i n g s f o r E m p a t h y S e s s i o n s I V N u m b e r o f R a t i n g s G r e a t e r T h a n o r E q u a l t o F i v e f o r Mode a n d P e a k S c o r e s V M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r F r e q u e n c y a n d P r o p o r t i o n o f Mode a n d P e a k R a t i n g s V I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r F r e q u e n c y a n d P r o p o r t i o n o f Mode a n d P e a k R a t i n g s V I I M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f S c o r e s o f t h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e V I I I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r C h a n g e S c o r e s o f T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e V I X M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d M a r g i n a l M e a n s f o r S h i f t s i n A w a r e n e s s Q u e s t i o n X A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r A w a r e n e s s Q u e s t i o n s X I M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r G o a l A t t a i n m e n t S c o r e s X I I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r G o a l A t t a i n m e n t S c o r e s X I I I M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r B e h a v i o u r C h a n g e S c o r e X I V A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r B e h a v i o u r C h a n g e S c o r e X V M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Q u e s t i o n s F r o m t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t X V I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Q u e s t i o n s F r o m t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t X V I I M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P r o g r e s s Q u e s t i o n X V I I I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s Q u e s t i o n X I X S ummary o f R e s u l t s o f O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s f o r S u b j e c t s i n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g , a n d C o n t r o l G r o u p s ( v i ) L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e A n e x a m p l e o f Mode a n d P e a k S c o r e s f o r t w o c l i e n t s , A a n d B , a f t e r 24 a n d 16 m i n u t e s o f t h e r a p y r e s p e c t i v e l y 36 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 40 ( v i i ) i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h t o e x t e n d a p p r e c i a t i o n t o : L E S GREENBERG, my t e a c h e r , c o l l e a g u e , a n d f r i e n d , f o r h i s c a r i n g , a n d w i t h whom w o r k i n g t h r o u g h a r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s a s v a l u a b l e a n e x p e r i e n c e a s p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . TOTJDROGERS, f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , e n e r g y a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t , a n d f o r h e l p i n g me t o d e e p e n my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a n d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . NORM AMUNDSON, f o r h i s s e n s e o f h u m o u r a n d c o n s i d e r a t e m a n n e r i n w h i c h h e p r e s e n t e d h i s v a l u a b l e i d e a s . DWIGHT H A R L E Y , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g a n d a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h t o c o m p l e t i o n . BRENDA G R E E N B E R G , S Y L V I A M c G I L P , SHARON K A H N , D A N I E L N A E G E L I , L I N T A Y L O R , R A Y P E N N E R , ARTHUR R IDGEWAY a n d NANCY JOHNSON, who s o g r a c i o u s l y a c t e d a s t h e r a p i s t s a n d r a t e r s . B I L L N I C K E R S O N , S Y L V I A M c G I L P , L Y S E D O M P I E R R E , J O A N R I C H A R D T , L I N T A Y L O R , a n d DOUG WILLMS f o r t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y a n d s u p p o r t t h e y o f f e r e d me t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . (viii) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ( c o n t ' d ) T h i s t h e s i s m a r k s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f o n e i m p o r t a n t p h a s e o f my l i f e . U p o n l e a v i n g , r e f l e c t i o n s o f my p u r s u i t ^ a n d l o v e I h a v e o f ' t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y p r o f e s s i o n a r e b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s p o e m : K i s s t o d a y g o o d - b y e T h e s w e e t n e s s a n d t h e s o r r o w We d i d w h a t we h a d t o d o A n d I c a n ' t r e g r e t w h a t I d i d f o r l o v e What I d i d f o r l o v e L o o k , my e y e s a r e d r y T h e g i f t w a s o u r s t o b o r r o w " I t ' s a s i f we a l w a y s k n e w B u t I w o n ' t f o r g e t w h a t I d i d f o r l o v e Wha t I d i d f o r l o v e G o n e . . . . L o v e i s n e v e r g o n e A s we t r a v e l o n L o v e ' s w h a t w e ' l l r e m e m b e r K i s s t o d a y g o o d - b y e A n d p o i n t me t ' w a r d t o m o r r o w W i s h me l i i c k , t h e same t o y o u W o n ' t f o r g e t C a n ' t r e g r e t What I d i d f o r l o v e . f r o m " W h a t I d i d f o r L o v e " b y M a r v i n H a m l i s h a n d E d w a r d K l e b a n CHAPTER I I NTRODUCT ION BACKGROUND O F THE P R O B L E M R e s e a r c h .on p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s t o d a t e h a s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s a n d t h e r a -p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s * M a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n d u c t i n g d i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y h a v e r e t a r d e d a d v a n c e m e n t i n t h i s f i e l d . B u t c h e r a n d K o s s (1978) a d d r e s s s u c h p r o b l e m s : T h e r e s e a r c h o n o u t c o m e o f b r i e f p s y c h o t h e r a p y h a s b e e n p l a g u e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . T h e i n c l u s i o n o f ' r e a l * c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s h a s n o t b e e n r e s o l v e d i n a n y o f t h e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d . M o s t o u t c o m e s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e r e p o r t e d s u b s t a n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t r a t e s may s t i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e H a w t h o r n e e f f e c t — d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t m o s t a n y t h i n g d o n e t o a p a t i e n t r e s u l t s i n m e a s u r e d i m p r o v e m e n t a s l o n g a s h e k n o w s y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g o f h i m a n d c h e c k i n g o n h i m e v e r y s o o f t e n . C o m -p a r i s o n s o f v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t s may b e t h e o n l y e t h i c a l w a y t o a p p r o a c h c o n t r o l l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s n ow ( p p . 6 8 - 6 9 ) . K n o w l e d g e i n t h i s a r e a , t h e n , c a n b e a d v a n c e d o n l y w i t h c a r e f u l a n d c r i t -i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . To d a t e , m a n y s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h p s y c h o t h e r a p y r e s e a r c h h a v e t a k e n a g l o b a l a p p r o a c h b y e x a m i n i n g t h e w h o l e t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . T r u e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e t h e r a p i s t a n d t h e c l i e n t , a s w e l l a s t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t o v e r t h e w h o l e t h e r a p y i s i m p o r t a n t a n d v i t a l i n r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , G r e e n b e r g (1975) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s g l o b a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i f i n s i g h t i s t o b e g a i n e d i n t o w h a t t h e c o m p o n e n t s a r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r h o u r w h i c h a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h a n g e . R a t h e r a m o r e m i c r o s c o p i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n g r e d i e n t s w h i c h p r o m o t e g o o d p r o c e s s a n d i n t u r n f a c i l i t a t e c h a n g e i n b o t h a f f e c t a n d o v e r t b e h a v i o u r . - 2 -A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s d u r i n g t h e r a p y a n d h i g h l y s p e c i f i c c l i e n t r e p o r t m e a s u r e s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e t h e r a p y h o u r a r e n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o h a v e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t h a p p e n s d u r i n g , a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t h e r a p y . A c c o r d i n g t o B u t c h e r a n d K o s s (1978) m a n y r e s e a r c h e r s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o : a s c e r t a i n w h a t s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i ' f o r t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t we • k n o w 1 c l i n i c a l l y a r e i m p o r t a n t t o b r i n g i n g a b o u t b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e i n p a t i e n t s h a r d f a c t s a r e s c a r c e , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e s u c h p r o c e s s e s a r e e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o c a r v e u p i n t o o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s . T h e p u b -l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e i s i n d e e d s c a r c e , a n d o f t e n i n c o n c l u s i v e o n t h e s e i s s u e s ( p . 67). B e r g i n a n d S u i n n (1975) c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h a n g e r e s u l t s , n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e o r o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t r a t h e r a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d c h a n g e n o t o n l y b y e x a m i n i n g p r o -c e s s v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s l e v e l o f c l i e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g d u r i n g t h e h o u r , b u t a l s o b y e x a m i n i n g r e p o r t s o f i n t e r n a l s t a t e s . a n d b y b e h a v i o u r a l -r e p o r t s o f c h a n g e i n t h e w e e k f o l l o w i n g t h e s e s s i o n * T h e c o m p a r i s o n o f l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g w i t h t h e c l i e n t ' s r e p o r t s o f w h a t o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e h o u r i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t h e r a p i e s - m a y p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s o f t h e m e c h a n i s m o f c h a n g e . PROBLEM T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s p e c t s o f p r o c e s s w h i c h e n h a n c e a c l i e n t ' s l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c i n g d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . I n a d d -i t i o n , o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s i n d i c a t i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h o p e r a t e i n a c l i e n t t o p r o m o t e c h a n g e w a s a s e c o n d m a j o r i s s u e . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s w a s d e s i g n e d t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : - 3 -1) Is there a differential treatment effect between Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing with regard to Depth of Experiencing? 2) Is there a differential treatment effect between Focusing, Two Chair Role Playing, and Control with regard to shift in awareness, behaviour change, and conflict resolution? DEFINITION OF TERMS USED  FOCUSING: The Focusing operation developed by Gendlin (1969) is a technique whereby the client is instructed "to experience the present situation of a chosen problem. The client is asked to focus on bodily feelings, and to listen to feelings from within. The instructions direct the client to pay attention to "that part of you where you usually feel glad or- sad, or scared", and to choose a major personal problem on which to focus. If a newer feeling comes up, i t should be followed and words and images allowed to develop and used to heighten the client's present experiencing of the problem. Kantor and Zimring (1976) suggest that the active technique of focusing operates in such a manner as to supply new possibilities for the client's consideration which leads to a redefin-ition of the problem. TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING OPERATION Two Chair Role Playing is described by Bohart (1977): Role playing, as used in Gestalt therapy and other forms of counselling, consists of having a client act out various aspects of a conflict situation. If the conflict involves another person, the client constructs a dialogue between himself or herself, and the other person. The client plays himself, or herself, and then switches roles (and usually chairs) and plays the other (p.214). This Two Chair Role Playing operation has been defined by Greenberg (1975) as follows: - 4 -(the) operation i s a series of suggestions and observations made by a therapist or f a c i l i t a t o r to clearly separate two aspects or partial tendencies of the self process and to fa c i l i t a t e direct communication between these. The purpose of the experiment i s to maintain a process of separation and contact between these parts (p. 197 )• Greenberg (1979? i n press) has presented five principles which constitute the main structure of the operation. They are: 1. Maintenance of a contact boundary: Maintaining clear separation and contact between the partial aspect of the self. 2. Responsibility: Directing the person to use his or her a b i l i t i e s to respond i n accordance with the true nature of his or her experience. 3» Attending: Directing the person's attention to particular aspects of his or her present functioning. 4» Heightening: Highlighting aspects of experience by increasing the level of arousal. 5. Expressing: Making actual and specific that which i s intellectual or abstract. Particularizing experience by moving from theory to practice. DEPTH OF EXPERIENCING Experiencing, according to Klein, et a l . (1969) refers to the quality of a person's experiencing of himself/herself. It i s the extent to which this experiencing i s integrated with the person's action and thought. At a low level of-experiencing, there may be no description of feelings, and discourse may be superficial and impersonal. At a moderate depth of experiencing the person may describe and elaborate his/her feelings. The greatest depths of experiencing are those i n which the client explores his/her feelings which i n turn leads to problem resolution, and self-understanding. Thus, Depth of Experiencing refers to the quality of the content of a client's words i n therapy. - 5 -THE S P L I T T h e s p l i t h a s b e e n d e f i n e d b y G r e e n b e r g (1975)-: T h e s p l i t i s a v e r b a l p e r f o r m a n c e p a t t e r n m a n i f e s t e d b y o n e p e r s o n ( c l i e n t ) i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r ( t h e r a p i s t ) . T h e c l i e n t h e r e i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s b e i n g i n p r o c e s s , a n d t h e s p l i t i s a n o b s e r v a b l e p r o c e s s f o r m c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e l f p r o c e s s i n t o t w o p a r t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f a r e r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e t e n d e n c i e s d e f i n e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s p l i t s . F o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s p r o c e s s f o r m a r e t o b e f o u n d i n t h e c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s . T h e f o u r f e a t u r e s a r e : p a r t o n e o f t h e s p l i t j p a r t t w o o f t h e s p l i t ; a r e l a t i o n a l f e a t u r e ; a q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e . T o g e t h e r t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a r k e r o f t h e s p l i t ( p . 17). C O N F L I C T S P L I T G r e e n b e r g (1975) h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e t y p e s o f s p l i t s : c o n f l i c t s p l i t s , s u b j e c t / o b j e c t s p l i t s , a n d a t t r i b u t i o n s p l i t s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l r e q u i r e s u b j e c t s t o p r e s e n t c o n f l i c t s p l i t s o n l y . A c o n f l i c t s p l i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e t w o p a r t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h e r e l a t i o n a l f e a t u r e i s a w o r d o r w o r d s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t w o p a r t s a r e b e i n g s e t a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r s u c h a s " b u t - y e t " . T h e p e r s o n s s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f s p l i t i s o n e o f s t r u g g l e i n d i c a t e d b y some p r o c e s s o r c o n t e n t c u e t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s i n v o l v e d i n some f o r m o f i n n e r s t r u g g l e o r c o e r c i i o n s u c h a s " s h o u l d - w a n t " . Some e x a m p l e s o f c o n f l i c t s p l i t s m i g h t b e : a ) On t h e o n e s i d e , I d o n ' t w a n t t o t i e m y s e l f d o w n . On t h e o t h e r s i d e h o w e v e r , I w a n t t h e s e c u r i t y o f f e r e d me b y m a r r i a g e . I j u s t d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t o d o ; o r b ) I w a n t t o s p e n d my f r e e t i m e w i t h my f a m i l y , b u t I a l s o w a n t t o s p e n d m o r e t i m e i v i t h my w o r k . I j u s t d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t o " d o . - 6 -S P L I T RE SOLUT ION T h i s c o n c e p t r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c l i e n t t o c o p e w i t h h i s / h e r p r e s s i n g i s s u e . I t d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t s p l i t i s c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d o r i s n o l o n g e r a n i s s u e . R a t h e r , s p l i t r e s o l -u t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n p u t s l e s s e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y i n t o h i s / h e r p r o b l e m a n d i s l e s s b o t h e r e d b y t h e i s s u e a f t e r a p a s s a g e o f t i m e . AWARENESS T h e t e r m a w a r e n e s s , d e f i n e d i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e f e r s t o t h e a c t o f b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f t h e s e n s a t i o n s c o m i n g f r o m o n e ' s i n t e r n a l b o d i l y e n v i r o n m e n t a s w e l l a s t h o s e c o m i n g f r o m t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d l y e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s a n o n g o i n g p r o c e s s r e a d i l y a v a i l -a b l e a t a l l t i m e s , a n d i s a c o n t i n u o u s m e a n s f o r k e e p i n g u p t o d a t e w i t h o n e ' s s e l f ( Y o n t e f f , 1 9 6 9 ) . P o l s t e r a n d P o l s t e r (1973) o u t l i n e f o u r m a i n a r e a s o f human e x p e r i e n c e w h e r e a w a r e n e s s c a n b e f o c u s e d . T h e y i n c l u d e a w a r e n e s s o f s e n s a t i o n s a n d a c t i o n s , a w a r e n e s s o f f e e l i n g s , a w a r e n e s s o f w a n t s , a n d a w a r e n e s s o f v a l u e s a n d a s s e s s m e n t s . S H I F T I N AWARENESS D y s f u n c t i o n may b e t h o u g h t o f a s o c c u r r i n g d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e a r e u n a w a r e o f t h e i r s e n s a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , w a n t s a n d v a l u e s , a n d s o t h e y a l i e n a t e p a r t s o f t h e i r s e l f - f u n c t i o n i n g ( P o l s t e r a n d P o l s t e r , 1973 ) * M e n t a l i m b a l a n c e o c c u r s , t h e n , w h e n t h e r e i s a n i n t e r r u p t i o n i n t h e f l o w o f a w a r e n e s s . T h e p u r p o s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s t o h e l p a c l i e n t t o t a k e a w a y a n y b a r r i e r s w h i c h p r e v e n t a w a r e n e s s f r o m c o m i n g i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A s h i f t m i g h t o c c u r l e a d i n g t o g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i n g p a r t s , o r t o a c h a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e b y r e f r a m i n g o f t h e - 7 -i s s u e . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t w o e x a m p l e s o f t h e s p l i t s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , a s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s m i g h t l e a d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s b e i n g e x p o s e d : 1. I t h o u g h t my m a j o r c o n c e r n w a s w h e t h e r t o g e t m a r r i e d o r n o t . Now I r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r my a n x i e t y i s t h a t I d o n ' t t a k e e n o u g h t i m e t o d o t h e t h i n g s I l i k e t o d o . 2. I w a s o r i g i n a l l y t o r n b e t w e e n s p e n d i n g t i m e o n my r e s e a r c h o r w i t h my f a m i l y , a n d now I r e a l i z e t h a t my r e a l c o n c e r n i s t h a t I am a n g r y a t my w i f e a n d f e e l u n s u r e o f my r e l a t i o n s h i p . BEHAV IOUR CHANGE C h a n g e i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s t o a n o v e r t o r c o v e r t c h a n g e i n a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r o v e r a w e e k l o n g p e r i o d . I t w i l l b e m e a s u r e d b y a m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e . T h e g o a l o r d e s i r e d c h a n g e w i l l b e s e t f o l l o w i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e r a p y a n d w i l l b e r a t e d a w e e k f o l l o w -i n g t h e s e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c l i e n t p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i r s t c o n f l i c t s p l i t i n t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s may d e c i d e t h a t h e / s h e w a n t s t o s p e n d m o r e t i m e g e t t i n g p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , a n d t h e s e c o n d c l i e n t m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t h e w i l l d i s c u s s h i s f e e l i n g s w i t h h i s w i f e . T h e s e g o a l s w o u l d b e s e t a f t e r t h e t h e r a p y h o u r a n d f o l l o w e d u p a f t e r a w e e k t o m e a s u r e i f a c h a n g e i n b e h a v i o u r h a d o c c u r r e d a s w e l l a s h ow w e l l t h e s e g o a l s w e r e a t t a i n e d . HYPOTHESES H_ T h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t U l w i l l n o t l e a d t o l e v e l s o f E x p e r i e n c i n g w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m l e v e l s o f E x p e r i e n c i n g , r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g T e c h n i q u e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l l e a d t o l e v e l s o f E x p e r i e n c i n g w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m l e v e l s o f E x p e r i e n c i n g r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g t e c h n i q u e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e Two C h a i r o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l n o t l e a d t o r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g t e c h n i q u e , a n d r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e t w o t e c h n i q u e s w i l l n o t b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e Two C h a i r o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l l e a d t o r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g t e c h n i q u e , a n d t h e r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e t w o t e c h n i q u e s w i l l b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e Two C h a i r o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l n o t l e a d t o r e p o r t s o f c h a n g e i n a w a r e n e s s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m r e p o r t s o f c h a n g e i n a w a r e n e s s r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g t e c h n i q u e , a n d t h e r e p o r t s o f c h a n g e i n a w a r e n e s s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e t w o t e c h n i q u e s w i l l n o t be significantly different from reports of change i n awareness resulting from the control group i n the population used i n this study. The Two Chair operation applied to a conflict s p l i t w i l l lead to reports of change i n awareness which are significantly different from reports of change i n awareness resulting from exploration of a conflict s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and the reports of change i n awareness resulting from these two techniques w i l l be significantly different from reports of change i n awareness resultin from the control group i n the population used i n this study. The Two Chair operation applied to a conflict s p l i t w i l l not lead to reports of change after one week which are significantly d i f f -erent from reports of change after one week resulting from explor-ation of a conflict s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and reports of change resulting from these two techniques w i l l not be signi-ficantly different from reports of change resulting from the Control group i n the population used i n this study. The Two Chair operation applied to a conflict s p l i t w i l l lead to reports of change after one week which are significantly different from reports of change after one week resulting from exploration of a conflict s p l i t using the Focusing technique, and the reports of change resulting from these two techniques w i l l be significantly different from reports of change resulting from the control group in the population used i n this study. - 10 -H n T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t h e r a p i s t 5 f a c t o r a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r o n m e a s u r e s o f D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s , a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e f o r t h e t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . H, T h e r e w i l l b e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t h e r a p i s t f a c t o r 5 a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r o n m e a s u r e s o f D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s , a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e f o r t h e t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . R A T I O N A L E OF, HYPOTHESES P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o p e r a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w i l l l e a d t o s p e c i f i c l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p r o d u c e d b y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a c t i v e e m p a t h y t o a c o n f l i c t s p l i t i n c l i e n t s o f s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( G r e e n b e r g , 1975; G r e e n b e r g a n d C l a r k e , 1979)• T h i s e f f e c t c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e e x p l a i n e d a s a n i n t e r e s t o r H a w t h o r n e e f f e c t i n t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s m o r e a c t i v e i n g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g m e t h o d , a n d e m p a t h y i s e s s e n t -i a l l y n o n - d i r e c t i v e . What i s r e q u i r e d i s t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e f f e c t -i v e n e s s o f t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g m e t h o d a t a s p l i t w i t h a m o r e a c t i v e m e t h o d o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e F o c u s i n g o p e r a t i o n i s a c t i v e and. i s t h e m e t h o d t h a t G e n d l i n p o s i t s a s o p t i m a l f o r d e e p e n i n g e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g a n d p s y c h o t h e r a p y . I f t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g m e t h o d l e a d s t o d e e p e r l e v e l s o f E x p e r i e n c i n g a t a s p l i t t h a n F o c u s i n g , t h e n c o n s i d e r a b l e w e i g h t w i l l b e a d d e d t o t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o p e r a t i o n i s t h e m e t h o d o f c h o i c e f o r w o r k i n g w i t h s p l i t s . G e s t a l t t h e r a p i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t d e e p l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e - 11 -f o l l o w e d b y a w a r e n e s s ( K e m p l e r , 1973)* F u r t h e r m o r e , P e r l s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c h a n g e w a s a w a r e n e s s ( P e r l s , 195l)» T h i s s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s may l e a d t o r e s o l u t i o n , o r t o e x p o s i t i o n o f a n u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e w h i c h i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t , s o t h a t a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n may o c c u r . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r c h a n g e s i n e x p e r i e n c i n g , s h i f t s i n a w a r e n e s s , b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e , a n d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n o c c u r s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e f r e q u e n t l y f o r c l i e n t s who r e c e i v e d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g d u r i n g a t h e r a p y s e s s i o n , t h a n f o r t h o s e c l i e n t s who r e c e i v e d e i t h e r F o c u s i n g o r n o t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r a c t i o n . D E L I M I T A T I O N OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y w a s d o n e w i t h s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d i n t h e n o r m a l r a n g e o n t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n , t h a t t h e r e s u l t s may b e g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h o s e p e r s o n s who a r e s o c i a l l y a n d p e r s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s s t u d y w a s a l s o d o n e w i t h t h e r a p i s t s who w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n a n i n t e n s i v e G e s t a l t c o u r s e i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g t o d i r e c t t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e . A l l t h e r a p i s t s w e r e a l s o t r a i n e d i n t h e E m p a t h y t e c h n i q u e , u s i n g t h e C a r k h u f f m e t h o d (1969). T h u s t h e r e s u l t s may b e g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d E m p a t h y m e t h o d s i n w h i c h t h e s e t h e r a p i s t s w e r e t r a i n e d . ASSUMPT IONS I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s p l i t s p r o d u c e d b y t h e c l i e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l b e v a l i d m a t e r i a l f o r r e s e a r c h i n c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s b a s e d o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t e v e r y o n e e x p e r i e n c e s t w o o p p o s i n g f o r c e s s t r u g g l i n g f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i n many o n g o i n g r e s o l u t i o n s o f i s s u e s i n - 12 -t h e i r l i v e s ( P e r l s , I969). S i n c e i t i s o p t i m a l t o e x a m i n e t h e b e s t e v e n t s p o s s i b l e , c l i e n t t r a i n i n g w a s u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c l i e n t s p r e s e n t e d r e a l o r m e a n i n g f u l s p l i t s , a n d t h a t t h e r e w a s p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c l i e n t i n r e s o l v i n g t h e s p l i t s w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t e d . T h i s p r i m e d t h e c l i e n t s f o r g o o d c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . B u t c h e r a n d K o s s (1978) r e p o r t t h a t " m o s t i n v e s t i g a t o r s a c c e p t t h e v i e w t h a t t h e p a t i e n t ' s p r e - t h e r a p y a t t i t u d e s h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g u p o n t h e t h e r a p y i t s e l f " ( p . 49)• J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF THE STUDY L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y d e m a n d s t h a t m o r e v i g o r o u s a t t e m p t s b e made t o u n d e r s t a n d p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e i n t h e r a p y ( B u t c h e r a n d K o s s , 1978)* B o t h p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s t h e s i s w e r e e x a m i n e d . D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g w a s u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t f o r t h e r a p i e s i n w h i c h s e l f a w a r e n e s s a n d s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e m a j o r g o a l s . K l e i n , e t a l . (1969) s u g g e s t s t h a t i f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s i n t h e r a p y c a n e n h a n c e a c l i e n t ' s D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g , h e / s h e may t h e n b e n e f i t f r o m t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y . T h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f o u t c o m e a f t e r a c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r t o t r y t o c a p t u r e t h e i n g r e d i e n t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e i n a p e r s o n . S h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s w a s e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t i s a n i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f m a n y t h e r a p i e s . P o l a n y i (1959) s p e a k s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a w a r e n e s s i n d a i l y l i v e s : To b e a w a r e o f o u r b o d y i n ' t e r m s o f t h e t h i n g s we k n o w a n d d o , i s t o f e e l a l i v e . T h i s a w a r e n e s s i s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f o u r e x i s t e n c e s a s s e n s u o u s a c t i v e p e r s o n s ( p . 207). - 13 -I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r s u b j e c t i v e c l i e n t r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n , i n - t h e r a p y e x p e r i e n c e , a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e w e r e u s e d i n o r d e r t o s u g g e s t w h a t f a c t o r s a r e o p e r a t i n g i n t h e c l i e n t w h i c h p r o m o t e c h a n g e . - 14 -CHAPTER I I enansi1 "Tir-asmsc: L I T E R A T U R E REV IEW DEVELOPMENTS I N RESEARCH METHODOLOGY R e c e n t r e s e a r c h i s s h o w i n g t h a t n e w t r e n d s a r e e m e r g i n g i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c o u t c o m e s t u d i e s . Many r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s a r e a m a i n t a i n t h a t a p p r o a c h e s a r e t o o m a c r o s c o p i c a n d t h a t m o r e p r o c e s s a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d ( R i c e , 1967; G r e e n b e r g , 1975; S t r u p p , 1973f G r e e n b e r g a n d C l a r k e , 1979)• G r e e n b e r g (1979) s u g g e s t s m o v i n g ai iray f r o m a n e x a m i n -a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r a c t i o n t o w a r d a n e m p h a s i s o n p a r t -i c u l a r e v e n t s w i t h i n t h e t h e r a p y h o u r i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e how i n - t h e r a p y e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e s t o s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e i n t h e c l i e n t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r a p y . I n t h e e a r l y I960*s.much i n t e r e s t w a s s h o w n i n t h e a r e a o f p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h i n a p e r i o d c o i n e d b y H o c k a n d Z u b i n (1964) a s " f l i g h t i n t o p r o c e s s " . P e o p l e i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c r e s e a r c h b e g a n t o s how h e i g h t e n e d i n t e r e s t i n e x a m i n i n g v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e i n t e r v i e w r a t h e r t h a n t h e e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e o r a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e s s i o n . K i e s l e r (1966) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n o u t c o m e a n d p r o c e s s s t u d i e s , w h i c h p e r s i s t s t o t h i s d a y , l e d t o a n u n n e c e s s a r y a n d u n f o r t u n a t e p o l a r i t y i n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h m e a s u r e s o f b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e w e r e t a k e n . I t s e e m s t h a t p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h p a t i e n t c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e r a p y w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r o u t c o m e , w h i l e o u t c o m e r e s e a r c h w a s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h p r e - p o s t m e a s u r e s o u t s i d e t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n ( K i e s l e r , I966). T h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o r e l a t e p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s t o o u t c o m e s t u n t e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f e x a m i n i n g p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d l e d t o a d e c l i n e o f p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h ( B e r g i n a n d S t r u p p - 15 -1972). H o w e v e r , r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n o u t c o m e r e s e a r c h h a v e p r o v e n t h a t a l l t h e r a p i e s e x a m i n e d t o t h i s d a t e a p p e a r t o b e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e ( M a l a n , 1973; C r i s t o l , 1972; K u b i e , 1973; M u l l e n a n d D u m p s o n , 1972; S c h w a r t z a n d M y e r s , 1973; B e r g i n , 1971» D u b o r s k y , 1973; B e r g i n a n d L a m b e r t , 1978). T h i s h a s l e d t o a c a l l f o r s t u d i e s o f p r o c e s s r e l a t e d t o o u t c o m e t o h e l p i d e n t i f y t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s e s t h a t w o r k ( O r l i n s k y a n d H o w a r d , 1978; P a r l o f f a n d W a s k o w , 1978). T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n c l u d e d a s p e c t s o f b o t h p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e r e s e a r c h i n a n a t t e m p t t o e x a m i n e p r e - t h e r a p y e v e n t s , t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s , a n d s u b s e q u e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e . T h e r e i s m u c h d e b a t e i n t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e m e t h o d t o b e u s e d t o s t u d y p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . T h e r e a r e p r o p o n e n t s o f b o t h t h e s i n g l e c a s e s t u d i e s a s w e l l a s t h e g r o u p a p p r o a c h ( K e j c i e a n d M o r g a n , 1970). I n t h e 1960's a n i s s u e w h i c h c o n -c e r n e d r e s e a r c h e r s w a s w h e t h e r o n e c o u l d g e n e r a l i z e a n a l o g u e m e t h o d s t o a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g s ( B o r d i n , I965). H o w e v e r , i n a r e v i e w o f c o u n s e l l i n g a n a l o g u e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s , M u n l e y (1974) a r g u e d t h a t t h e a n a l o g u e n e e d n o t a l w a y s c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . S t r o n g (1971) p o i n t s o u t t h a t r e s u l t s o f a n a l o g u e s t u d i e s may b e d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o c o u n s e l l i n g , o r a t l e a s t t h e r e s e a r c h may h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i s e . G r e e n b e r g a n d C l a r k e (1979) who c o n d u c t e d a n a n a l o g u e s t u d y c o m p a r i n g Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g w i t h E m p a t h i c r e f l e c t i o n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e c l i e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s w e r e s h o w n t o b e f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e i r s e s s i o n s a n d i s s u e s w e r e ' - n o t > g r e a t l y d i s s i m i l a r f r o m t h o s e i n a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s , a n d i t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e s u l t s - 16 -f r o m t h i s a n a l o g u e s h o u l d a p p l y t o p e o p l e e n g a g e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g . B o h a r t (1977) a l s o c o n c l u d e d f r o m h i s r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e r a p y i s t h e same f o r p e r s o n s who h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c o u n s e l l i n g a n a l o g u e a s f o r t h o s e c l i e n t s who h a v e s o u g h t " r e a l " t h e r a p y . F u r t h e r m o r e , B e r g i n a n d S t r u p p i n t h e i r e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w a n d a n a l y s i s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d (1970) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c a s e s t u d y a n d t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l a n a l o g u e a p p r o a c h e s a p p e a r t o b e t h e o n l y s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h o f f e r h o p e i n t h e a r e a o f i s o l a t i n g t h e m e c h a n i s m o f c h a n g e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r a p y . T h u s , r e s e a r c h a n d p r a c t i s e may b e b r o u g h t c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . THE ROLE OF AWARENESS I N P SYCHOTHERAPY R E S E A R C H A w a r e n e s s i s o n e o f t h e t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s o f G e s t a l t t h e r a p y ( P e r l s , 1966). T h i s p r i n c i p l e r e l a t e s t o P e r l s (1951) n o t i o n t h a t t h e s e l f i s a s y s t e m o f r e s p o n s e s o r c o n t a c t s o f t h e o r g a n i s m w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t . A w a r e n e s s i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e a r e a o f i n d i v i d i a l c h a n g e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t b e f o r e a p e r s o n c a n a l t e r h i s / h e r b e h a v i o u r , h e / s h e m u s t f i r s t e n c o m p a s s t h e s e n s a t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s w h i c h g o a l o n g w i t h h i s / h e r b e h a v i o u r ( P o l s t e r a n d P o l s t e r , 1 1973)• To b e i f f ; a w a r e n e s s , t h e n , i s t o b e i n t o u c h w i t h o n e ' s s e l f . D y s f u n c t i o n o r p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y o c c u r s w h e n a p e r s o n l o s e s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s e l f w h i c h i s d o i n g t h e f e e l i n g , s e n s i n g , a n d t h i n k i n g . T h i s u n a w a r e n e s s i s m a i n t a i n e d b y r e s t r i c t i n g t h e o r g a n i s m s e x p e r i e n c i n g , a n d new g e s t a l t e n b e c o m e b l o c k e d b y u n m e t n e e d s t h a t f o r m i n c o m p l e t e g e s t a l t e n ( P o l s t e r a n d P o l s t e r , 1973; P e r l s , 1951)• T h e t a s k i n t h e r a p y , t h e n , i s t o g e t a p e r s o n t o e x p e r i e n c e h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f , a n d t o b e c o m e f u l l y a w a r e " i n t h e h e r e a n d n o w " . Y o n t e f (1969) m a i n t a i n s t h a t o n l y a n a w a r e - 17 -gestalt leads to change and this stems from Perl's (1951? 19&9) original notion that "awareness per se — by and of i t s e l f — can be curative". Experience--and awareness appear to be interrelated and many believe awareness follows experiencing (Corsini, 1973)* To restric t either w i l l result i n incomplete gestalten and psychopathology; to f u l l y experience and become f u l l y aware fa c i l i t a t e s the natural processes of need discrimination and need fulfillment which leads to healthy functioning (Perls, I969). Polster and Polster (1973) suggest that a person moves continuously between an already synthesized experience and the awareness of the pieces that make up his existence i n a continually self-renewing cycle. Therefore, i t may be suggested that i f a person experiences deeply, this w i l l lead to greater awareness during or after therapy, which may i n turn result i n behaviour change. THE ROLE OF SPLITS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH Many theorists have stressed the importance of pl a r i t i e s and splits i n human functioning (Jung, 1966; Rank, 1945; Perls, 1951)• Dysfunction resulting from a division or s p l i t i n a person's functioning i s at the basis of Gestalt therapy. A s p l i t , as defined by Greenberg, i s a verbal performance pattern i n which a client reports a division of the self into partial aspects of the self. He argues that a s p l i t or fragmentation in a person's functioning can be easily identified from a client's own verbalization about their experience (Greenberg, 1979)* The goal of Gestalt therapy i s to achieve strong gestalts (Perls, 195l)» Polster and Polster (1973) maintain that psychopathology i s a result of the discrepency between feeling one thing, but being unaware - 18 -o f I t , a n d t h u s d o i n g a n o t h e r . A w a r e n e s s may h e l p a p e r s o n t o g e t i n '•; t o u c h w i t h h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s w h e n d o i n g o n e t h i n g a n d f e e l i n g a n o t h e r . T h e r e s u l t i n g b e h a v i o u r f o l l o w i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s w o u l d i n t e g r a t e f e e l i n g s a n d b e h a v i o u r a n d t h u s v o i d t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e t w o . P o l s t e r a n d P o l s t e r r e p o r t : a n d s o , t h e f a c t i s t h a t p e o p l e who a r e l o n e l y s o m e t i m e s e a t , a n d t h o s e who a r e s e x u a l l y a r o u s e d make s p e e c h e s . . . B e f o r e h e c a n a l t e r h i s b e h a v i o u r i n a n y w a y t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u s t f i r s t e n c o m p a s s t h e s e n s a t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s w h i c h g o a l o n g w i t h i t . R e c o v e r y o f t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a w a r e n e s s — n o m a t t e r w h a t i t may r e v e a l — i s a c r u c i a l s t e p o n t h e r o a d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new b e h a v i o u r . . . T h o u g h a t t h e moment t h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s a t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n e m e r g e s f r o m t h i s a w a r e n e s s a n d t o g e t h e r t h e y f o r m a u n i t e d e x p e r i e n c e s (p ; i 214). G r e e n b e r g (1979) a r g u e s t h a t i f p e o p l e b e c o m e a w a r e o f t h e t w o p a r t s o f t h e i r c o n f l i c t a n d m a k e c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e m , t h e y may d i s c o v e r t h e p a t h t o r e s o l u t i o n . P e r l s (1970) s p e a k s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a s " t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s s o t h a t t h e y n o l o n g e r w a s t e e n e r g y i n u s e l e s s s t r u g g l e w i t h e a c h o t h e r b u t c a n j o i n i n p r o d u c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n a n d i n t e r p l a y " . One a r e a o f c o n c e r n r o f t h i s t h e s i s i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s o n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t s p l i t . T h e a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s i n v o l v e d i n c h a n g i n g i n o r d e r t o b e c o m e m o r e i n t e g r a t e d may i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s w h i c h l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d c h o i c e s a n d s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e . T h e s e a r e g e n e r a l p r o c e s s e s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e c l i e n t s t o t a l b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d a n d l i f e s t y l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f s p l i t s may b e r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n a w a r e n e s s . I n t h i s t h e s i s , b o t h c h a n g e s i n g e n e r a l a w a r e n e s s a n d r e s o l u t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s p l i t s f o r c l i e n t s i n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s w i l l b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . - 19 -THE ROLES OF TWO CHA IR ROLE P L A Y I N G AND F O C U S I N G TECHN IQUES I N P SYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH T h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e s t e m s f r o m G e s t a l t t h e r a p y w h i c h i s u s e d b y m a n y c o u n s e l l o r s t o d e e p e n e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s ( F a g a n , 1975; B o h a r t , 1977; G r e e n b e r g , 1975; G r e e n b e r g a n d C l a r k e , 1 9 7 9 ) . B o h a r t (1977) f o u n d t h a t G e s t a l t Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g w a s m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g a n g e r , h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s , a n d b e h a v i o u r a l a g g r e s s i o n t h a n w e r e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s o r e m o t i o n a l d i s c h a r g e t e c h -n i q u e s . G r e e n b e r g (1975) s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e " t w o c h a i r " t r e a t m e n t a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e i t i s m o s t a p p l i c a b l e i s a t a s p l i t . He f o u n d t h a t t h e " t w o c h a i r " p r o c e d u r e a t a s p l i t l e d r e p e a t e d l y i n t h r e e s i n g l e c a s e s t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e e p e r l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g t h a n d i d E m p a t h i c r e s p o n s e s . K i p p e r a n d G i l a d i (1978) s h o w e d t h a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c u s e o f t h e t w o c h a i r m e t h o d l e d t o a n e q u i v a l e n t r e d u c t i o n o f t e s t a n x i e t y a s w i t h s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . G r e e n b e r g a n d C l a r k e (1979) f o u n d t h a t t h e t w o c h a i r t e c h n i q u e i s m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n E m p a t h i c R e f l e c t i o n i n d e e p e n i n g e x p e r i e n c i n g a n d b r i n g i n g a b o u t c h a n g e s i n a w a r e n e s s w h e n t h e c l i e n t i s w o r k i n g o n a s p l i t . H o w e v e r , o n e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may b e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t w o c h a i r t e c h n i q u e i s r e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e a s c o m p a r e d w i t h e m p a t h y . A s s t a t e d b y Y o n t e f (1969): I n G e s t a l t t h e r a p y t h e t h e r a p i s t i s n o t p a s s i v e , a s i n o l d e r R o g e r i a n t h e r a p y , b u t i s q u i t e a c t i v e . A t t e n d i n g t o b e h a v i o u r n o t m e n t a l i s m s , t o a w a r e n e s s n o t s p e c u l a t i v e q u e s -t i o n s , h e r e a n d now a n d n o t t h e r e a n d t h e n , a l l n e c e s s i t a t e a c t i o n a n d a s s e r t i v e n e s s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p i s t ( p . 220). What i s n e e d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t i t i s t h e a c t i v i t y c o m p o n e n t o f t h e t w o c h a i r m e t h o d t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r i t s - 20 -effectiveness, i s to compare the two chair technique to another inter-vention i n which the client and therapist are both active. Focusing i s a technique in which, as i n the two chair operation, clients must make contact with their present experience through their senses. Both tech-niques attempt to increase awareness on the part of the client as well as to confront feelings and other internal aspects of his/her problem. Kantor (1976) i n attempts to expose the ingredients of the process of Focusing and show how i t operates, concluded that i t brings about a redefinition of the problem rather than revealing hidden aspects of the issue. The client then receives new pos s i b i l i t i e s for further consid-eration i n working through his/her issue. Thus, both Focusing and the Two Chair Role Playing technique may provide the client with new awarenesses not previously entertained and behaviour change and conflict resolution may then follow. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY I n t h i s c h a p t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e r a p i s t s a n d r a t e r s , a n o u t l i n e o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a s w e l l a s m e t h o d s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i g n a n d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . INSTRUMENTS T h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y s e r v e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e s u b j e c t s , t o m e a s u r e t h e f o u r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , a n d t o g a i n s u b j e c t i v e c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . FOR S U B J E C T D E S C R I P T I O N I n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e s u b j e c t s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y ( T h o r p e , C l a r k a n d T i e g s , 1953) w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l s u b j e c t s b e f o r e t h e t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . T h i s t e s t h a s t h e a i m o f i d e n t i f y -i n g c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . P e r s o n a l i t y i n t h i s t e s t r e f e r s t o t h e m a n n e r a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e w h o l e i n d i v i d u a l m e e t s h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , a n d i n d i r e c t l y t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h h e / s h e i m p r e s s e s o t h e r p e r s o n s . P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t i s a s s u m e d t o b e b a s e d o n f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t b a s e d o n f e e l i n g s o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . H a l f o f t h e i t e m s o n t h e t e s t a r e d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e s i x c o m p o n e n t s o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e i t e m s m e a s u r e s i x c o m p o n e n t s o f p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y . - 22 -Reliability coefficients computed using the Kuder-Richardson formula have been computed by the designers of the test using results from 201 adults. The results show an r of .97 with a standard error of measure-ment of 9«34» Validity of the test has been established by many researchers. Syracuse University (1953) found that the California Test of Personality correlated more closely with c l i n i c a l findings than any other personality test. The test has also proven to be a valuable instrument of research. Summary of Investigations Number One (1953) published by the California Test Bureau l i s t s and b r i e f l y describes ninety such studies. FOR DEPENDENT VARIABLES 1. THE EXPERIENCING SCALE The Experiencing Scale (Klein, et a l . , I969) measured the dependent variable, Depth of Experiencing. This scale was developed . . . for evaluating the quality of a patient's self-involve-ment in psychotherapy directly from tape-recordings or type-scripts of the same session (Klein, et a l . , 1969» p» l ) This scale i s a seven point rating device which i s sensitive to shifts i n patient involvement. The lowest levels of the scale rate superficial client discourse, the central levels of the scale mark simple description of feelings, while at high levels of experiencing, exploration of feelings may lead to problem solving and client self understanding (see appendix A). Several studies have employed the Experiencing Scale and have deter-mined interrater r e l i a b i l i t y . Ebel's (1951) intra class method was used to determine r e l i a b i l i t y of the means of the judges' ratings t an^i an estimate of the average intercorrelation of a l l possible judge pairs - 23 -( r - ^ ) . T h e r v a l u e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s h a v e r a n g e d f r o m 0.44 t o O.67, w h i l e t h e c r u c i a l r ^ c o e f f i c i e n t s v a r y f r o m O.76 t o 0 .91 ( s e e K l e i n e t a l . , 1969» p . 4 5 ) • 2. TARGET COMPLA INT BOX S C A L E T h i s m e a s u r e w a s d e s i g n e d b y B a t t l e , e t a l . (1966) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f d i s c o m f o r t o f d i s t u r b e d p a t i e n t s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r p s y c h o t h e r a p y . P a t i e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o s t a t e a n d t h e n r a n k t h e i r p r o b l e m s b y r a t i n g t h e i r d i s c o m f o r t o n a b o x s c a l e , w h i c h w a s a c o l u m n d i v i d e d i n t o t h i r t e e n b o x e s . T h e w o r d s " n o t a t a l l " w e r e p r i n t e d b e s i d e t h e b o t t o m b o x , " a l i t t l e " b y t h e f o u r t h b o x , " p r e t t y m u c h " b y t h e s e v e n t h b o x , " v e r y m u c h " b y t h e t e n t h b o x , a n d " c o u l d n ' t b e w o r s e " b y t h e t o p b o x . P a t i e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o r a t e t h e i r d i s c o m f o r t i n b o t h p r e a n d p o s t i n t e r v i e w s . T h e s c o r e s w e r e a n a l y z e d a n d c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f o u r o t h e r o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s : a ) P a t i e n t ' s r a t i n g o f o v e r a l l i m p r o v e m e n t b ) T h e r a p i s t ' s r a t i n g o f p a t i e n t ' s o v e r a l l i m p r o v e m e n t c ) S o c i a l I n e f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e d ) D i s c o m f o r t S c a l e I t w a s f o u n d b y B a t t l e , e t a l . (1966) t h a t t h e t a r g e t c o m p l a i n t s s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e w i t h t h e s e o t h e r f o u r o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e f o r i t s v a l i d i t y . T h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t B o x S c a l e ( s e e a p p e n d i c e s B - E ) w a s u s e d a s o n e r e p e a t e d p r e - p o s t m e a s u r e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e r a p y e f f e c t -i v e n e s s a n d w a s u s e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . - 2h -3. AWARENESS QUEST ION A m e a s u r e o f s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s w a s d e s i g n e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h e m e a s u r e c o n s i s t s o f t w o q u e s t i o n s : o n e a s k i n g t h e c l i e n t i f h e / s h e h a d a s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s , t h e o t h e r a s k i n g i f h e / s h e i n c r e a s e d h i s / h e r a w a r e n e s s o f h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f . A f i v e p o i n t s c a l e w a s u s e d f o r c l i e n t r a t i n g o f b o t h q u e s t i o n s . B o t h q u e s t i o n s w e r e a s k e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e h o u r a s w e l l a s t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e h o u r ( s e e a p p e n d i c e s C a n d D) a n d w e r e t r e a t e d a s r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . 4. BEHAV IOUR CHANGE A m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e w a s d e s i g n e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n o r d e r t o c a p t u r e a n y c h a n g e w h i c h o c c u r r e d a s r e s u l t o f c l i e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . T w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e c l i e n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e r a p y d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n , a n d d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e a n y s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n w o u l d h a v e h a d t i m e t o o c c u r , c l i e n t s w e r e a s k e d i f t h i s l e d t o t h e m w a n t i n g t o c h a n g e a n y p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g o r b e h a v i o u r i n t h e c o m i n g w e e k . T h e y w e r e t h e n a s k e d how o f t e n t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t l y f e e l i n g o r b e h a v i n g i n t h a t w a y ( p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r b a s e l i n e ) , a n d how o f t e n t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o f e e l o r b e h a v e i n t h a t w a y d u r i n g t h e c o m i n g w e e k ( g o a l s e t t i n g ) . A t t h e e n d o f a w e e k t h e c l i e n t s w e r e t h e n a s k e d how o f t e n t h e y w e r e , i n f a c t , f e e l i n g o r b e h a v i n g t h a t w a y a t t h a t t i m e ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) . B e h a v i o u r c h a n g e w a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c o r e a n d t h e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r s c o r e , a n d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t w a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g o a l - 25 -a t t a i n m e n t s c o r e a n d t h e g o a l s e t t i n g s c o r e . A l l r a t i n g s w e r e d o n e o n a s e v e n p o i n t s c a l e w i t h d e s c r i p t o r s o n e a c h n u m b e r ; ( s e e a p p e n d i x D,-q u e s t i o n 5 a n d a p p e n d i x . E , q u e s t i o n 3). FOR S U B J E C T I V E C L I E N T INFORMAT ION 1. T H E R A P Y S E S S I O N REPORT T h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t w a s d e s i g n e d b y O r l i n s k y a n d H o w a r d i n 1966. T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h e r a p y s e s s i o n a n d b e l i e v e d t h a t p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e s c a n b e u s e d f o r s y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y . T h e r e p o r t i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h g a t h e r s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c l i e n t c o n c e r n i n g f o u r a s p e c t s o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e n a m e l y d i a l o g u e , r e l a t i o n s h i p , f e e l i n g p r o c e s s , a n d e x c h a n g e . A f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s d e s i g n e d , i t w a s g i v e n t o s i x t y p a t i e n t s who f i l l e d i t o u t a f t e r e a c h o f f i f t e e n s e s s i o n s , m a k i n g a t o t a l o f e i g h t h u n d r e d a n d n i n e t y s e s s i o n s . I t e m a n a l y s i s a n d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o n t h e s e i n i t i a l f o r m s f r o m t h e s e p a t i e n t s r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e l e v e n d i m e n s i o n s o f p a t i e n t g l o b a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t , t h e n , h a s t h e a i m o f t a k i n g a s y s t e m -a t i c a n d e m p i r i c a l v i e w o f t h e v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s a c l i e n t may h a v e i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . T h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o b e f i l l e d o u t a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e a f t e r e a c h t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . Q u e s t i o n s o f t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t w e r e g i v e n t o c l i e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e r a p y w i t h t h e a i m o f g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e , a s w e l l a s t o c a p t u r e t h e i n g r e d i e n t s o f " g o o d " t h e r a p y ( s e e a p p e n d i x C , q u e s t i o n 6 ) . - 26 -2. REPORTS OF PROGRESS One w e e k a f t e r t h e t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e , c l i e n t s w e r e a s k e d how m u c h p r o g r e s s t h e y f e l t t h e y h a d made i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r i s s u e s s i n c e t h e h o u r . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s m e a s u r e d b y r a t i n g o n a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e , w i t h d e s c r i p t o r s a t e a c h p o i n t , a n d h a d t h e a i m o f c h e c k i n g t o s e e how e f f e c t i v e w e r e t h e t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s ( s e e a p p e n d i x E , q u e s t i o n 4)» 3. P E R C E I V E D UNDERSTAND ING I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e h o u r , a l l s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d o n e o f t h e t w o t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s c o m p l e t e d t w o q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t h e r a p i s t s a s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d h e l p f u l . T h e y r a t e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s o n a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e w i t h d e s c r i p t o r s a t e a c h l e v e l ( s e e a p p e n d i x C, q u e s t i o n s 7 a n d 8) . T h i s r e p o r t w a s i n c l u d e d a s a c h e c k t o c o n f i r m w h e t h e r a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e r a p y , t r u s t , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s e t w o q u e s t i o n s w a s p r e s e n t . 4. UNUSUAL E V E N T QUEST IONS One w e e k a f t e r t h e h o u r , f o l l o w i n g t h e r a t i n g o n t h e m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e , a l l c l i e n t s w e r e a s k e d w h e t h e r a n y t h i n g u n u s u a l h a p p e n e d d u r i n g t h e w e e k , o t h e r t h a n t h e h o u r , t o w h i c h t h e y w o u l d a t t r i b u t e a n y c h a n g e ( s e e a p p e n d i x E , q u e s t i o n 5)» T h i s a l l o w e d s u b j e c t s t o r e p o r t l i f e e v e n t s w h i c h may h a v e b e e n m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t h a n t h e h o u r i n p r o d u c i n g b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e . S U B J E C T S E L E C T I O N AND P R E P A R A T I O N S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f v o l u n t e e r s f r o m t h e m a s t e r s d e g r e e p r o g r a m i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e t h e s i s w a s f o c u s e d o n t h e s t u d y o f - 27 -conflict s p l i t s , one of which they would be asked to define. When the i n i t i a l request was made, the activities involved were described i n superficial, behavioural terms. They were also told that they would be required to f i l l out four questionnaires concerning their s p l i t , as well as complete a paper and pencil test. None of the subjects were informed of any of the variables under consideration. Fifty-one persons originally volunteered to participate i n this study. However, forty-two persons were available for the orientation interview when a follow up request was made. The volunteers were then randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups or the Control. Randomization was done at this point as the detailed explanation of involvement at the orientation interview differed slightly for the treatment and Control groups. At an i n i t i a l orientation interview, i n sessions with one to four other clients, the subjects received an explanation of s p l i t definition. They were asked to present an emotional " f e l t " conflict s p l i t ( see Appendix F for description and examples presented). The difference i n training between the subjects who were assigned to therapy than those who received no therapy i s the former were told they would receive a counselling session with a therapist, whereas persons i n the Control group were told to do whatever they would normally do i n the hour between f i l l i n g out the pre and post questionnaires. A l l subjects were then requested to complete the California Test of Personality. The subjects used i n the study then could be characterized, according to the California Test of Personality, as being well adjusted both personally and socially. No subject showed a particularly low profile on this test. The means for social adjustment for the sample was 70.26 (within percentile range = 70) with a standard deviation of 13.44. The mean for total - 28 -adjustment for the sample was 145.84 (within percentile range = 70) with a standard deviation of 10.36. The subjects who were told they would receive therapy sessions were then randomly assigned to therapists, then randomly assigned to one of the two therapy techniques. POPULATION The subjects for this study consisted of forty-two volunteers from the population of persons i n a graduate course i n Counselling Psychology, at a large, public University. This population consists of approximately two hundred people between 24 and 50 years of age, with at least four years of university education, and a variety of counselling related professional backgrounds. These persons acted as counsellors and clients during their training, and were not requesting therapy, but rather volunteered to experience therapy for this analogue study. It i s assumed that the results of this study can be generalized to processes occurring i n "actual" counselling with "normal"'and "mildly neurotic" clients. Because of differences in, reactions to therapy between "neurotic" and "psychotic" patients (Kiesler, 1971)r these results w i l l not apply to an extremely distressed client population. THERAPISTS Seven therapists, four women and three men, were used i n this study. A l l therapists who administered the Two Chair Role Playing technique had a l l received at least f i f t y hours of training i n this operation. This training i s described i n a paper by the director of the training group (see Greenberg, in press). Included i n the course of twenty weekly three hour training sessions are explanations and examples of the five principles of Two Chair Role Playing as reported i n Chapter I of this thesis. Discussion and feedback'follow practise during the course of - 29 -training by therapists who participate as both clients and counsellors. A l l therapists have learned and used the Focusing instructions (see Appendix G), and have a l l received at least f i f t y hours instruction i n empathic reflection which they used in the Focusing interviews after the Focusing direstions were given. A l l therapists had varying post M.A. work experience ranging from two to seven years. Therapists were randomly assigned four clients. Two clients received Two Chair Role Playing sessions and two received sessions involving Focusing. The therapists staggered the order of treatment presentation in order to eliminate any bias or practise effect. Therapists were assigned a treatment sequence by the researcher and treatment methods ivere randomly assigned to subjects. RATERS The Focusing sessions were rated by two graduate students i n a Counselling Psychology program. Both raters had experience using the Focusing instructions as well as two hundred hours experience using the Carkhuff Scale which was used to rate therapists empathic responses which followed the Focusing instructions. The Two Chair Role Playing technique was rated as occurring or not occurring by the person who originally defined the operation and who trained a l l the therapists, along with a graduate student who also had training i n the operation. The Experiencing Scale rating was done by two Masters candidates i n Counselling Psychology. They were trained i n the Experiencing Scale - 30 -Training Manual (Klein, et a l . , 1969) by a professor i n Counselling Psychology. This involved approximately forty eight hours of training and practise. These raters were both familiar with the Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing operations used i n this study. However, neither was aware of the experimental hypotheses. DATA COLLECTION Immediately before the therapy session each client completed a questionnaire in order to identify his/her s p l i t , and indicated their subjective feelings toward this s p l i t . These feelings were indicated on the Target Complaint Discomfort Box Scale. The client i n the treatment groups then began the therapy hour with the therapist who directed the interview according to the assigned method of therapy. Examples of actual spli t s presented by persons i n the three groups can be found i n Appendix F. Clients i n the Control group proceeded to do whatever they had normally planned. The variety of activities persons in this group reported included reading, watching television, preparing supper, thinking about issues, bathing, studying, relaxing, and housecleaning. Immediately after the hour, a l l clients once again completed the Target Complaint Discomfort Box Scale, indicating their feelings toward their s p l i t . Upon completing these outcome measures, a l l clients were asked to complete the Therapy Session Report i n order to gather subjective client information concerning their experience as a result of the hour. The indicator of conflict resolution, the Target Complaints Box Scale was also administered 24 hours, as well as one week following the hour. The twenty-four hour time period was used as the client w i l l have had sufficient time to reflect upon the session, and one week traditionally has been the time period between therapy sessions. - 31 -I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r t h e c l i e n t p e r c e i v e d a s h i f t i n a w a r e n e s s o c c u r r i n g a s a r e s u l t o f t h e h o u r , h e / s h e w a s r e q u e s t e d t o c o m p l e t e a c l i e n t r e p o r t w h i c h i n c l u d e d a w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s , a n d o n e w e e k a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l s e s s i o n * I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n y b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e o c c u r r e d a m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n -m e n t s c a l e w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e t h e r a p y i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r t o b e c h a n g e d , a s w e l l a s o n e w e e k f o l l o w i n g t h e r a p y i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f c h a n g e h a d b e e n a t t a i n e d ( s e e a p p e n d i c e s B - E f o r t h e s e p r e a n d p o s t m e a s u r e s ) . T h e s e q u e n c e o f t r a i n i n g , t h e r a p y , a n d t e s t i n g f o r a n y c l i e n t c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e I I . S C O R I N G PROCEDURE S c o r i n g o c c u r r e d i n t w o s t a g e s — f i r s t a c h e c k w a s d o n e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t h e r a p e u t i c o p e r a t i o n s w e r e c o r r e c t l y c o n d u c t e d b y t h e t h e r a p i s t s ; t h e n a f t e r t h e t a p e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o l l e c t e d , r a t i n g s o n t h e p r o c e s s w e r e d o n e u s i n g t h e D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g S c a l e . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o p e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d , t h e t a p e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e r a t e d a s o c c u r r i n g i f t h e f i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n , o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I, w e r e c o r r e c t l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s m e t h o d o f r a t i n g Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g i s c l e a r l y s u b j e c t t o b i a s . A s c a l e i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d t o o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e a n d r a t e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g . U n t i l s u c h a s c a l e i s a v a i l a b l e , t h i s t y p e o f c l i n i c a l j u d g e m e n t m u s t s u f f i c e . A l l Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g s e s s i o n s w e r e r a t e d a s a c c e p t a b l e a s t h e t e c h n i q u e h a d b e e n c o r r e c t l y d i r e c t e d b y t h e s e v e n t h e r a p i s t s . TABLE II TIME SEQUENCE OF TRAINING, THERAPY AND TESTING INITIAL SESSION IMMEDIATELY PRE THERAPY THERAPY SESSION IMMEDIATELY POST THERAPY TWENTY FOUR HOURS POST THERAPY ONE WEEK THERAPY S p l i t Training C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality Target Complaints Box Scale Therapeuti c Intervention (One of Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing, or Control) Target. Complaints Box Scale Therapy Session Report Questions Awareness Quest-ions Perceived Understanding Questions (treatment groups only) Target Complaints Box Scale Awareness Questions Goal Setting Questions (Present behaviour and goal setting) Target Complaints Box Scale Goal Attainment Question Progress Question Unusual Event Question - 33 -T h e F o c u s i n g i n t e r v i e w s w e r e r a t e d a s o c c u r r i n g i f t h e F o c u s i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x G ) w e r e f o l l o w e d a n d t h e e m p a t h i c r e f l e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e a t l e a s t m i n i m a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C a r k h u f f S c a l e . T h e t w o r a t e r s l i s t e n e d t o t h r e e f i v e m i n u t e s e g m e n t s f r o m e a c h e m p a t h i s i n t e r v i e w , t h e f i r s t f i v e m i n u t e s , t h e m i d d l e f i v e m i n u t e s a n d t h e l a s t f i v e m i n u t e s e g m e n t s . T h e r a t e r s g a v e e a c h s e g m e n t a r a t i n g b e t w e e n o n e a n d f i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e C a r k h u f f S c a l e . T h e r e s u l t i n g f o r t y t w o r a t i n g s o f e a c h r a t e r w e r e t e s t e d . T n e i n t e r r a t e i - r e l i a b i l i t y e x p r e s s e d a s a P e a r s o n - P r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a c r o s s t h e f o r t y t w o p a i r s o f r a t i n g s w a s . 8 9 ( G l a s s a n d S t a n l e y , 1970). T h e r a t e r s a g r e e d o n t h e 79 p e r c e n t o f t h e r a t i n g s a n d w i t h i n a h a l f s t e p o f t h e s c a l e o n o n e h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f t h e r a t i n g s ( e g . : R a t e r 1 = 3*5 R a t e r 2 = 4 . 0 ) . I n n o n e o f t h e s e g m e n t s was t h e r a t i n g l o w e r t h a n 3 * 0 . T h e t h r e e i n t r a - s e s s i o n r a t i n g s w e r e t h e n a v e r a g e d t o o b t a i n , f o r e a c h r a t e r , a m e a n e m p a t h y r a t i n g f o r e a c h s e s s i o n . T h e t w o j u d g e s ' m e a n r a t i n g s w e r e t h e n a v e r a g e d t o o b t a i n a m e a n e m p a t h y r a t i n g f o r e a c h s e s s i o n . T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e . T A B L E I I I MEAN EMPATHY R A T I N G S FOR E A C H EMPATHY S E S S I O N S E S S I O N ( T h e r a p i s t ) ( C l i e n t ) MEAN EMPATHY R A T I N G 11 12 21 22 31 32 41 42 51 52 61 62 71 72 4 . 0 3 . 0 3.5 4 . 0 3.5 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0 3.5 3.5 3.5 - 34 -It i s concluded from these ratings that a l l empathic responses i n the Focusing sessions were at least minimally f a c i l i t a t i v e by Carkhuffs (1969) criterion that a f a c i l i t a t i v e response i s a rating of three or above. Therefore, none of the Focusing interviews were repeated because the technique was not conducted properly. However, one Focusing session had to be repeated with another volunteer from the population due to an inaudible tape recording. The resulting twenty eight tapes (14 Two Chair Role Playing and 14 Focusing) were then submitted to raters to be rated on the Experiencing Scale (Klein et a l . , I969). Each rater rated two thirds of the tapes. This provided one third of the tapes for an interrater check. Raters rated randomized four minute segments, assigning each segment two ratings from one to seven inclusive, indicating the client's mode and peak Depth of Experiencing as defined on the Experiencing Scale. There were a total of 166 four minute segments of Two Chair Role Playing process, and a total of 130 four minute segments on the tapes of Focusing. Three raters were trained at the same time before the data was collected. The two raters chosen to rate the tapes rated a series of randomized segments at the end of their training. The correlation of their scores was .79* They agreed on seventy percent of the ratings, and within one half step of the scores on one hundred percent of the ratings. Both raters then rated the overlapping material which was one third of the actual therapy tapes. However, due to the passage of five months, rater d r i f t occurred and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the raters' scores decreased (r = . 4 2 ) . Therefore, the third rater, who was also trained at the same time as these i n i t i a l raters also rated the one third of the - 35 -overlapping material. The interrater r e l i a b i l i t y between this third rater and the f i r s t rater was greater (r = .83) than the interrater r e l i a b i l i t y between the second and third raters. The f i r s t rater there-fore rated the remaining one third of the tapes and a l l ratings of the f i r s t rater were used for the analysis. For each interview the frequency of segments as well as the propor-tion of segments assigned a rating equal to, or greater than five was calculated. Scores rated as five represent a client's presentation and exploration of a personal problem, and stages 6 and 7 indicate resolution of personally significant issues. The stages were selected as c r i t e r i a for "deeper experiencing" comparisons. For each four minute segment running scores were obtained according to the number and depth of the client's responses. One most common score (mode) and one highest score (peak) was calculated for each four minute segment. Frequency counts were taken for a l l Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing interviews as well as proportion scores for both mode and peak. In the f i r s t method of data collection (use of frequency) time was con-sidered an irrelevant variable and emphasis was placed on obtaining high Depth of Experiencing scores regardless of time i n therapy, whereas i n the second method (use of proportion) time was considered to be' a main element i n obtaining scores. For example, Client A i n one of the therapy sessions may have a section of therapy 24 minutes i n lenght, whereas Client B may have a section of therapy 16 minutes in length. The mode and peak score for each four minute segment may be represented i n the following figure: - 36 -FOUR M INUTE SEGMENTS B * 3 , * ^ | 3 , 4 4 , 5 5, 5 4, 6 6, 6 4, 5 5, 5 4, 6 6, 6 * 1st S c o r e = mode * * 2nd S c o r e = p e a k ( F i g u r e 1: A n e x a m p l e o f mode a n d p e a k s c o r e s f o r t w o c l i e n t s , A a n d B , a f t e r 24 a n d 16 m i n u t e s o f t h e r a p y r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) F r e q u e n c y s c o r e s f o r b o t h c l i e n t s , a s s h o w n i n T a b l e I V w o u l d b e 2 a n d 4 f o r mode a n d p e a k r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h e r e a s p r o p o r t i o n s c o r e s f o r mode w o u l d b e .33 a n d . 5 0 , a n d f o r p e a k , .66 a n d 1.00 f o r C l i e n t s A a n d B r e s p e c t i v e l y . T A B L E I V NUMBER OF R A T I N G S GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO F I V E FOR MODE AND P E A K SCORES NUMBER OF SCORES = 5 C l i e n t A B Mode 2 2 P e a k 4 4 B o t h s c o r e s , f r e q u e n c y a n d p r o p o r t i o n , f o r t h e t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s w e r e a n a l y s e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e d e p t h o f e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t h e s e s s i o n s . T h u s , t h i s v a r i a b l e w a s t r e a t e d a s a u n i t o f a n a l y s i s - 37 -both independent of time, and as a unit i n which time was important. There were 166 segments of Two Chair Role Playing process and 158 segments of therapy for the Focusing group. However, the f i r s t two segments for each person i n Focusing were spent i n silence making a total of 130 segments. Therefore, the ratings for the f i r s t two seg-ments of Two Chair Role Playing were deleted, making a total of 138 segments rated. The number of segments were then approximately equal so that frequency i s a more acceptable measure. The amount of time for Depth of Experiencing to occur may be dependent upon many variables such as the issue presented, the personalities of therapist and client, and the relationship between them. Therefore, i t may be argued that what i s important i n therapy i s that clients experience deeply regard-less of the time involved. These facts led to the inclusion of both frequency and proportion scores for examination. DESIGN AND ANALYSES This study did not employ a basic design and discussion of this dilemma and attempts to explain the actual design used w i l l now be made. Subjects were randomly assigned to each of three treatment conditions: Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing and Control. There were fourteen subjects in each group. Subjects i n the f i r s t two treatment conditions were randomly assigned to therapists with whom they engaged in a therapy session. Control group subjects received no therapeutic intervention, although they identified a conflict s p l i t and completed a l l measures as did subjects i n the treatment conditions. Because the Control subjects were not assigned to therapists, i t was not possible to employ a f u l l y c r o s s e d 7 X 3 ( t h e r a p i s t - b y - t r e a t m e n t ) d e s i g n . I t s h o u l d b e a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h r e e o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d o n m o r e t h a n o n e o c c a s i o n , y i e l d i n g a t h i r d r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s f a c t o r . T a b l e I c o n t a i n s a s u m m a r y o f t h e o c c a s i o n a t w h i c h e a c h d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w a s m e a s u r e d . T A B L E I ORDER OF T E S T S W ITH R E S P E C T TO TREATMENTS ORDER OF T E S T I N G D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e I m m e d i a t e l y 24 H r s 1 Week P r e D u r i n g P o s t P o s t P o s t T h e r a p y P r o c e s s T h e r a p y T h e r a p y T h e r a p y D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n S h i f t i n A w a r e n e s s G o a l A t t a i n m e n t & B e h a v i o u r C h a n g e "4 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e m a i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , t h e t w e l v e q u e s t i o n s o f t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e h o u r a n d a r e p o r t o f p r o g r e s s w a s g i v e n t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e h o u r . A t w o s t e p p r o c e d u r e was u s e d t o r e s o l v e t h e d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e 7 X 2 X r , b u t n o t f u l l y c r o s s e d 7 X 3 X r d e s i g n , where r ( r = 1, 2, 3 , 4) d e n o t e s t h e n u m b e r o f l e v e l s o f r e p e a t e d f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e m e a s u r e s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I . F i r s t , a 7 X 2 X r ( t h e r a p i s t b y t r e a t -m e n t b y o c c a s i o n s ) f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s p e r f o r m e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o o l i n g s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e a s s o c x a t e d w i t h t h e r a p i s t s . F o l l o w i n g W i n e r (1971), t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f t h e r a p i s t a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t e r m s i n v o l v i n g t h e r a p i s t w e r e t e s t e d a t t h e .25 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a - 39 -Type II error of incorrectly concluding there was no differential therapist effect. If the corresponding test hypotheses were rejected, then the Control group data was to be disregarded, leaving a f i n a l 7 X 2 X r design. Secondly, i f the test hypotheses of no differences attributable to the therapists were not rejected at a level of significance of ,25» then the corresponding sources of variance were to be pooled, thereby allowing consideration of a f X r (treatment-by-occasions) fixed effects repeated measures design. The preliminary analysis was done for each of the four dependent variables, the twelve questions of the Therapy Session Report, and the report of progress. These analyses showed there to be no significant therapist main effect i n 17 of the 20 summary ANOVA tables. There was a significant interaction between therapist and treatment i n one of the twenty summary tables. These four significant effects are well within the chance range. Thus, although therapist i s considered to be a fixed factor, the corresponding sources of variance were pooled, data from the Control subjects were included, and a 3 X r (treatment-by-occasion) design was employed and the experimental design used can be seen i n Figure 2. Following Winer (1971), a fixed effects repeated measures analysis of variance was used where levels of the t r i a l factor, r, was greater than one; otherwise a one-way analysis of variance was used. The computer programme used for a l l analyses was the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences (1975) and the programme was run at the University of British Columbia Computer Center. - 40 -Certain scores were modified i n order to make them more appropriate and valid for analysis of variance. Mode and peak proportion scores were passed through an arc sine transformation (Kirk, 1968^ p. 66) i n order to create a relatively normal distribution of scores. Factor B-Method: Two Chair Role Playing Focusing Control 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 E-i CO M P-t H EH I 8 o Figure 2: Experimental Design. Note: There are two subjects per c e l l i n the Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing methods, and 14 subjects i n the c e l l of the Control group method. Conflict Resolution was operationally defined as the difference i n the premeasure with each of the three subsequent post measures on the Target Complaints Box Scale . Therefore, three different change scores were computed for each subject, and these scores were analysed using a repeated measures design. - 41 -Goal attainment scores were obtained by computing the difference between ratings of actual behaviour after the week and ratings of the goal setting scale on the twenty four hour post test. Similarily, behaviour change scores were obtained by computing the difference between the ratings of actual behaviour after the week and ratings of actual behaviour on the twenty four hour post test. These two sets of scores were analysed using a one way analysis of variance design. Fixed factors A and B (treatment and occasion) were tested at a level of significance of .05. In cases where the Omnibus Test proved to be significant for the factors of interest, Tukey's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968) was used to examine significant differences between a l l pairs of means• - 42 -CHAPTER IV  RESULTS This chapter presents the results of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis performed on the dependent variables and subjective client reports. Each w i l l be presented i n the order they were described i n Chapter III. The results of analysis of variance used to determine the differential effects of Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing techniques on Depth of Experiencing are followed by reports on the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used on the Target Complaints Box Scale, Shift i n Awareness questions and Behaviour Change questions for the three groups. Finally, the results of the Therapy Session Report and the progress question are presented i n this chapter. COMPARISON OF DEPTH OF EXPERIENCING UNDER TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING AND FOCUSING TREATMENTS FREQUENCY There were 166 segments of Two Chair Role Playing process, and 158 segments of time i n which subjects spent i n therapy i n the Focusing group. However, due to the nature of the Focusing technique, the f i r s t eight minutes, or two segments, were spent in silence during which time the Focusing instructions were given by the counsellor. Therefore, there were 130 segments for which Depth of Experiencing ratings could be given. It was considered important to have an equivalent length of time in therapy for the two groups i n order for frequency to be an acceptable measure. The idea of giving Depth of Experiencing ratings to the f i r s t two segments of Focusing was entertained. However, i t was impossible - 43 -to know what were the subjects' level of experiencing during this time. The number of mode and peak scores of 5 or greater for the f i r s t two segments of Two Chair Role Playing was examined. There were no mode scores of 5 or greater, and one peak score of 5« The ratings of the third and fourth segments of both counselling groups were examined. There was one mode score of 5 for the Two Chair Role Playing group, and 4 mode scores of 5 for Focusing. There were found to be four peak scores of a' rating of 5 in the Two Chair Role Playing group, and six peak scores of 5 for the Focusing group. Due to the relatively fewer number of high Depth of Experiencing scores i n the f i r s t and second segments as compared with the third and fourth segments of the Two Chair Role Playing, and due to the fact there was a high number of Depth of Experiencing scores i n the f i r s t segments which could be rated after the Focusing instructions, the f i r s t eight minutes of therapy in both groups may be considered to be a warm up period. In order to have an equivalent length of time i n which to compare frequencies of deep levels of experiencing for the two groups, the ratings for the f i r s t two segments of Two Chair Role Playing were dropped, and the ratings used i n the analyses were those which began in the ninth minute for each group. Thus frequency ratings of 5 or greater for mode and peak scores from 130 segments of Focusing process (mean = 9»29) were compared with 138 segments of Two Chair Role Playing process (mean = 9«86 ) . The analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant difference between the two treatments for frequency of mode scores. However, there was a significantly greater number of peak scores greater than, or equal to 5 for Two Chair Role Playing sessions as compared - kk -w i t h F o c u s i n g a t a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05. T a b l e V p r e s e n t s t h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r mode a n d p e a k f r e q u e n c y r a t i n g s , a n d t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f f r e q u e n c y o f mode s c o r e s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s , a n d i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e n o d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s b e t w e e n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g i n p r o d u c i n g D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f n u m b e r p e a k s c o r e s l e n d s s u p p o r t t o r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , a n d i t i s concluded t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g i n p r o d u c i n g D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g * F i n d i n g s o n t h e D e p t h y o f E x p e r i e n c i n g r a t i n g s a r e t e n t a t i v e , a n d r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y u s i n g a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f c l i e n t s m u s t b e made b e f o r e a n o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e j e c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s c a n b e c l e a r l y m a d e . PROPORT ION T a b l e V p r e s e n t s t h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r p r o p o r t i o n mode a n d p e a k s c o r e s w h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f t h e s e r a t i n g s c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e V I . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f b o t h p r o p o r t i o n r a t i n g s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s . F r o m t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g i n p r o d u c i n g p r o p o r t i o n s o f D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g . COMPAR ISON OF TARGET C O M P L A I N T S BOX S C A L E R A T I N G S UNDER TWO C H A I R ROLE P L A Y I N G , F O C U S I N G AND CONTROL COND IT IONS T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f c h a n g e . 1 . s c o r e s o f t h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e m a y b e f o u n d i n T a b l e V I I . T h e m e a n s r e v e a l t h a t i n - 45 -TABLE V Means and Standard Deviations For Frequency and Proportion of Mode and Peak Ratings Representation Standard of Ratings Treatment* Mean Deviation Frequency 1 2.2857 1.7289 (Mode) 2 1.3571 1.1507 Frequency 1 3.7143 2.2336 (Peak) 2 2.2143 1.4769 Proportion 1 0.2200 -0.1520 (Mode) 2 0.1500 0.1340 Proportion 1 0.4000 0.2010 (Peak) 2 0.264P O.I75O * Treatment 1 : Two Chair Role Playing Treatment 2 : Focusing TABLE VI Analysis of Variance For Frequency and Proportion of Mode and Peak Ratings Representation of Scores MS, b MS w E P Frequency (Mode) 6.0357 2.1566 2.799 O.IO63 Frequency (Peak) 15.7500 3.5852 4.393 O.046O Proportion (Mode) -0.2842 •0.2547 1.116 0.3005 Proportion (Peak) . 0 . 8 8 2 9 •0.2971 2.971 O.6966 The degrees of freedom for sources of variation presented i n this table are 1 and 26 for between and within groups respectively. - 46 -TABLE VII Means and Standard Deviations, for Target Complaints Box Scale Difference Scores Standard Treatment Measure* Mean Deviation Two Chair Role Playing M 1 3.143 3.085 M 2 3.357 2.170 M 3 3.786 2.486 Focusing M 1 2.429 1.697 M 2 2.571 1.910 M 3 3.214 2.293 Control M 1 1.214 1.424 M 2 2.000 2.746 M 3 2.071 2.759 Measure 1 = Pre test - Immediate post test Measure 2 = Pre test - 24 Hour post test Measure 3 = Pre test — One week post test TABLE VIII Analysis of Variance for Change Scores of Target Complaints Box Scale Source D F M.S. F P Between Groups 2 29.452 2.575 O.O89 Error 39 11.436 Measures - . , 2 6.095 GXM 4 0.512 Error 78 2.510 2.429 0.204 0.095 0.935 - 47 -a l l g r o u p s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d o v e r t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n c r e a s e d o v e r t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s f o r a l l g r o u p s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f t h e s e r e s u l t s f o u n d i n T a b l e V I I I r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t s a c r o s s t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s , n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s , a n d n o i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s s c o r e s . T h u s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p -o t h e s i s , a n d i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a m o u n t o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n o v e r t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e m e t h o d s . COMPAR ISON OF S H I F T I N AWARENESS R A T I N G S UNDER TWO CHA IR R O L E P L A Y I N G . F O C U S I N G AND CONTROL COND IT IONS T h e s c o r e s o f t h e t w o a w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t w o t i m e i n t e r v a l s w e r e s i m i l a r a n d e s s e n t i a l l y a s k e d t h e same q u e s t i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C a n d D ) . A c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e t w o s c o r e s f o r t h e t w o d i f f e r e n t t i m e i n t e r v a l s w a s t h e r e f o r e c o m p u t e d . I t wa s f o u n d t h a t t h e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( G l a s s a n d S t a n l e y , 1970) b e t w e e n t h e t w o s c o r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e h o u r was .73» a n d t h e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e t w o a w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d t w e n t y -f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n was . 8 0 . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t w o s c o r e s w e r e a d d e d t o g e t h e r a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g t w o s e t s o f s c o r e s w e r e a n a l y z e d , u s i n g a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s d e s i g n . T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c a n b e f o u n d i n T a b l e I X , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a r e l o c a t e d i n T a b l e X . T h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t a c r o s s t h e t w o m e a s u r e s b u t n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a n s b e t w e e n t h e t w o t i m e s t h e q u e s t i o n s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d . A l s o , t h e r e i s n o i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t a n d t i m e o f - 48-T A B L E I X M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d M a r g i n a l M e a n s f o r S h i f t s i n A w a r e n e s s Q u e s t i o n T r e a t m e n t M e a s u r e * M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n M a r g i n a l M e a n s ( M 1 & M 2 ) Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g F o c u s i n g C o n t r o l M 1 M 2 M 1 M 2 M 1 M 2 9.071 .8.929 8 .929 8 . 2 8 6 5.500 5.000 0.829 0.997 1.269 2.785 1.871 1.617 9.000 8.607 5.250 M e a s u r e 1 = S c o r e s o f i m m e d i a t l y p o s t t h e r a p y A w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s M e a s u r e 2 = S c o r e s o f 21+ h o u r p o s t t h e r a p y A w a r e n e s s q u e s t i o n s T A B L E X A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r A w a r e n e s s Q u e s t i o n s S o u r c e D F M . S . F P B e t w e e n G r o u p 2 1 18 . 9 4 0 26.517 0.001 E r r o r 39 4.485  M e a s u r e s 1 3.855 3.119 O.O85 G X M 2 O.465 0.376 0.689 E r r o r 39 I . 2 3 6 - 49 -q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e t h r e e m a r g i n a l m e a n s f o r t r e a t m e n t s a c r o s s t h e t w o m e a s u r e s ( s e e T a b l e I X ) w e r e e x a m i n e d u s i n g T u k e y s ( K i r k , 1968) p a i r w i s e m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e . No d i f f e r e n c e i n s h i f t s i n a w a r e n e s s o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g . H o w -e v e r , e a c h o f t h e s e t w o t e c h n i q u e s l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s h i f t s i n a w a r e n e s s w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p a t a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , o f .05. COMPAR ISON OF CHANGE I N BEHAV IOUR UNDER W O C H A I R R O L E P L A Y I N G . F O C U S I N G AND CONTROL COND IT IONS B e h a v i o u r c h a n g e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e , was e x a m i n e d i n t w o w a y s . F i r s t , a m e a s u r e o f g o a l a t t a i n m e n t f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was o b t a i n e d . I t wa s d e f i n e d a s t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f t h e d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l r a t i n g o n t h e b e h a v i o u r s c a l e a t t h e e n d o f a w e e k , a n d t h e g o a l r a t i n g w h i c h e a c h h a d s e t t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n . S e c o n d l y , a m e a s u r e o f a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e g o a l w h i c h was s e t , was d e f i n e d a s t h e v a l u e o f t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r a t i n g o f t h e a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r a t t h e e n d o f a w e e k a n d t h e r a t i n g o f t h e s ame b e h a v i o u r t w e n t y f o u r h o u r s a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n . A b s o l u t e v a l u e s w e r e u s e d s i n c e a l l s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s e i t i i b r - r e m a i n e d t h e same o r m o v e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t o x i i a r d t h e g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c o r e a n d , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e , g o a l s w e r e s e t i n a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f a s u b j e c t w i s h e d t o c r i t i c i z e h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f l e s s , t h e n u m e r i c a l g o a l r a t i n g w o u l d b e l e s s t h a n t h e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r , w h e r e a s i f a s u b j e c t w i s h e d t o f o c u s o n - p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f , t h e n u m e r i c a l g o a l r a t i n g w o u l d b e m o r e t h a n t h e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r . T h e r a t i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , w e r e r e l a t i v e t o t h e d e s i r e d c h a n g e i n b e h a v i o u r . - 50 -T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s c a n b e f o u n d i n T a b l e X I . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e X I I , r e v e a l s t h e r e w e r e n o d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s i n g o a l a t t a i n m e n t b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . T a b l e X I I I p r e s e n t s t h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e s c o r e s , w h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e - b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e X I V . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e s h o w s t h e r e t o b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o n b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e o v e r t h e w e e k . R e s u l t s f o r b o t h g o a l a t t a i n m e n t a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e l e d t o t h e n o n -r e j e c t i o n o f n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s a t a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f . 0 5 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same n u m b e r o f c l i e n t s s e t g o a l s i n a l l t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s — 79, 72, a n d 72 p e r c e n t f o r Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , F o c u s i n g , a n d C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h ' t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s who s e t g o a l s i n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t n e p e r s o n s i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t n i s c h a n g e t o e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t n e w e e k o t h e r t h a n t h e h o u r , w h e r e a s 27 p e r c e n t o f t n e s u b j e c t s i n Two U n a x r R o l e P x a y i r i g , a n d 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n F o c u s i n g a t t r i b u t e d c h a n g e t o l i f e e v e n t s , o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e w e e k o t h e r t h a n t h e t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . COMPAR ISON OF S U B J E C T I V E C L I c M 1 RniPORT R A T I N G S UNDER TWU C H A I R R u L E P L A Y I N G , F U C U S I N G . AND CONTROL COND IT IONS T a b l e X V p r e s e n t s t h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s f r o m t n e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t s , w h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n c a n b e f o u n d i n T a b l e XV I " . T h e f i r s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h e t a b l e s s h o w n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t i n g s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t a n d C o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s . F o r t h e n i n e q u e s t i o n s i n w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s - 51 -T A B L E XI M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r G o a l A t t a i n m e n t S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g O.6429 0.8419 F o c u s i n g 0.5714 0.7559 C o n t r o l 0.7143 0.7263 T A B L E XII A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r G o a l A t t a i n m e n t S c o r e s - -S o u r c e D F M . S . F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 0.0714 0.119 O.8885 E r r o r 39 0.6026 - 52 -TABLE XIII Means and Standard Deviations for Behaviour Change Scores Treatment Mean Standard Deviation Two Chair Role Playing Focusing Control 1.0714 0.7143 0.5714 1.0716 0.9945 0.7559 TABLE XIV Analysis of Variance for Behaviour Change Scores Source D.F. M.S. F P Between Groups 2 0.9236 1.028 O.367I Error • 39 O.9029 - 53 -o c c u r r e d , T w c e y ' s M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s o n T e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d t o e x a m i n e p a i r w i s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m e a n s . I t w a s f o u n d t h a t , i n a l l n i n e q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e w a s n o d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a l l m e a n s o f F o c u s i n g a n d t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p , a n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a l l m e a n s o f Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d C o n t r o l w i t h o n e e x c e p t i o n ( s e e Q u e s t i o n 6 ) C l i e n t s i n t h e F o c u s i n g t r e a t m e n t f e l t t h e y r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e r e a s s u r a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m t h e h o u r t h a n d i d s u b j e c t s i n t h e C o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a m o u n t o f r e a s s u r a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t r e c e i v e d b y s u b j e c t s i n e i t h e r t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g o r C o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s . T h u s , a l l s u b j e c t s u n d e r t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h e y r e c e i v e d a n e q u i v a l e n t a m o u n t o f r e l i e f f r o m t e n s i o n s , b e t t e r s e l f - c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r m o o d s a n d a c t i o n s , a n d a l l s u b j e c t s f e l t t h e y r e c e i v e d s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e h o u r a f t e r d e f i n i n g a n d r a t i n g a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . H o w e v e r , c o m p a r e d w i t h s u b j e c t s i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p , s u b j e c t s i n b o t h t h e Two C h a i r R o l e F l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e h o p e , c o n f i d e n c e , h e l p i n t a l k i n g a b o u t w h a t was r e a l l y t r o u b l i n g t h e m , c h a n c e s t o l e t g o a n d g e t t h i n g s o f f t h e i r c h e s t , a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a n d f e e l i n g s , i d e a s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e a n d t h e i r p r o b l e m s , a n d m o r e r e a l i s t i c " e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e i r t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s . T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s c o r e s o n t h e p r o g r e s s q u e s t i o n f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e X V I I . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e X V I I I s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e a n s a t 54 TABLE XV Means and Standard Deviations of Questions from the Therapy Session Report Question Group Means Standard Deviation (12)* Something 1 2.9286 0.2673 2 2.7857 0.4258 3.. •' 2.7857 0.4258 (10) Self Control 1 1.2857 0.6112 2 1.4286 0.6462 3 1.1429 O.363I (4) Relief 1 1.8571 0.7703 2 2.2143 0.5789 3 I.6429 0.7449 (1) Let Go 1 2.0000 0.6794 2 2.3571 0.4972 3 1.2143 0.5789 (2) Hope l . 2.0714 0.8287 2 2.4286 O.6462 3 1.5714 0.7559 (3) Help 1 2.0714 0.7300 2 2.5000 O.6504 3 1.2857 0.6112 (5) Understanding 1 2.2857 0.6112 2 2.6429 0.4972 3 1.3571 0.6333 (6) Reassurance, l 1.7143 O.4688 Encouragement 2 2.0714 0.8287 3 1.3571 0.7449 (7) Confidence 1 2.0714 0.6157 2 1.8571 O.663O 3 1.2857 O.4688 (8) A b i l i t y to Feel 1 2.1429 O.663O 2 2.2857 0.6112 3 1.2143 O.4258 (9) Ideas 1 I.6429 0.6333 2 1.9286 0.7300 3 1.1429 O.3631 ( l l ) Realistic Evaluation 1 2.1429 0.5345 2 2.5000 O.6504 3 1.5000 O.6504 * Numbers i n bracket indicate original number of question. ** Group 1 = Two Chair Role Playing Group 2 = Focusing Group 3 = Control -55 -TABLE XVI Analysis of Variance for Questions from the Therapy Session Report Question MS, MS F b w (12) Something 0.0952 0.1447 O.658 0.5234 (10) Self Control 0.2857 O.3077 O.929 0.4037 (4 ) Relief 1.1667 0.4945 2.359 0 .1078 (1) Let Go 4.7857 O.348O 13.753 0.0000 (2) Hope 2.5952 0.5586 4.646 0.0155 (3 ) Help 5.3096 0.4432 11.979 0.0001 (5) Understanding 6.1667 O.3407 18.102 0.0000 (6) Reassurance, Encouragement 1.7857 0.4872 3.665 0.0348 (7) Confidence 2.3095 0.3462 6.672 0.0032 (8) A b i l i t y to Feel 4 .7381 0.3315 14.293 0.0000 (9 ) Ideas 2.2143 0.3553 6.232 0.0045 (11) Realistic Evaluation 3.5952 0.3773 9.529 0.0004 Degrees of freedom for sources of variation presented i n this table are 2 and 39 for between and within groups respectively. T A B L E X V I I M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P r o g r e s s Q u e s t i o n T r e a t m e n t * M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 3.0714 O.9169 2 2.8571 0.8644 3 3.9286 0.9169 * T r e a t m e n t 1 = Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g T r e a t m e n t 2 = F o c u s i n g T r e a t m e n t 3 = C o n t r o l T A B L E X V I I I  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s Q u e s t i o n S o u r c e M S D F F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 4.5000 2 5.559 0.0075 W i t h i n G r o u p s O.8O95 39 - 57 -a n a l p h a l e v e l o f .05. T u k e y ' s m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e c h n i q u e r e v e a l e d t h e r e t o b e n o d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e a n s o f t h e t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s ; h o w e v e r , s u b j e c t s i n e a c h o f t h e s e t w o c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h e y h a d m a d e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e p r o g r e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r i s s u e s o v e r t h e w e e k t h a n d i d s u b j e c t s i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p . One h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f t h e p e r s o n s who r e c e i v e d c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t h e r a p i s t s a s b o t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d h e l p f u l . I t a p p e a r s t h e n , t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s i n b o t h Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s h a d a n o p t i m a l a m o u n t o f t r u s t i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s . - 58 -CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION In this chapter, a discussion of the findings of the process and outcome measures are presented. Discussion of the differential effects of Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing on Depth of Experiencing i s followed by interpretation of the differential effects of the two treatment conditions.-and Control on Conflict Resolution, shift i n awareness, behav-i iour change, goal attainment and subjective client information. General conclusions w i l l be drawn concerning some of the non-specific effects of counselling. Finally, some recommendations and implications for the research and practise of counselling,as a result of findings from this study are made. PROCESS MEASURES The analysis of the- frequency scores on modal Depth of Experiencing reveals ,that there are no'-differential effects between Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing techniques. Results of the frequency scores on peak experiencing however, support that Two Chair Role Playing i s more effec-tive than Focusing i n producing Depth of Experiencing. This result indicates that clients i n the Two Chair Role Playing sessions reached levels of experiencing greater than or equal to five more often than clients i n the Focusing sessions. Results of the proportion scores indicate no difference between Focusing and Two Chair Role Playing i n producing Depth-of Experiencing for both mode and peak scores. This i s explained by the fact that, - 59 -s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e p e a k s w e r e r e a c h e d i n t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g s e s s i o n s , a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p e a k s w e r e a l s o r e a c h e d i n t h e F o c u s i n g s e s s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e v a r i a n c e o f s c o r e s b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g g r o u p was l a r g e r t h a n t h e v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e F o c u s i n g g r o u p . C l e a r l y p r o p o r t i o n i s a s t r o n g e r s c o r e t h a n f r e q u e n c y a s i t t a k e s b o t h f r e q u e n c y a n d t i m e i n t o a c c o u n t . H o w e v e r , i t may b e a r g u e d t h a t i t i s n o t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t i m e i n t h e s e s s i o n t h a t d e e p e x p e r i e n c i n g o c c u r s x t fh ich i s i m p o r t a n t , b u t r a t h e r t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f l e n g t h o f t h e s e s s i o n . T h e s e r e s u l t s t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h F o c u s i n g a n d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a p p e a r t o b e p o t e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s w h i c h p r o d u c e h i g h l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g , a n d w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o d e e p e n e x p e r i e n c i n g w h e n a s p l i t i s p r e s e n t e d . .Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g , hox t feve r , a p p e a r s t o p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e o c c a s i o n s o f d e e p l e v e l p e a k e x p e r i e n c i n g w h e n a p p l i e d t o a s p l i t b y t h e t h e r a p i s t s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s f i n d i n g w o u l d n e e d t o b e r e p l i c a t e d o n o t h e r t h e r a p i s t s t o e n a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b e y o n d t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h t h i s was a n a n a l o g u e , t h e h i g h l e v e l s o f D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g a t t a i n e d i n b o t h c o n d i t i o n s o n mode a n d p e a k s c o r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c l i e n t s w e r e e x p l -o r i n g t h e i r i s s u e s i n p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l w a y s . T h i s l e n d s s t r e n g t h t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e a n a l o g u e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c o u n s e l l i n g . -60 -OUTCOME VARIABLES The results indicate that the amount of Conflict Resolution i s the same for a l l treatment conditions. Thus, for the socially and personally well adjusted persons used as clients i n this study, the procedure of deciding upon a meaningful issue, and periodically attending to i t , by and of i t s e l f , appears to lead to reduction i n the degree of distress related to the issue. It was reported by some subjects that the very act of deciding upon a concrete s p l i t and writing i t down encouraged issues on both sides of the s p l i t to emerge for consideration. Perhaps, then, the process of defining and writing down a troublesome issue i s one way of resolving i t . Thus, i t may be suggested, since the control group subjects had the same amount of conflict resolution during the week following therapy, as did persons receiving counselling sessions, that natural l i f e events, spontaneous remission, history? and maturation effects during the week may play an active part i n reducing distress. The Hawthorne effect may be operating with respect to this measure as well. It may be proposed that the procedure of defining and period-i c a l l y commenting on subjective feelings toward a meaningful conflict s p l i t , and knowing that someone w i l l be monitoring the ratings, may have a carthartic effect and can be classified as a method of treatment i t s e l f . Some attention should be directed toward the va l i d i t y of this measuring instrument* In this study, i t was assumed that ranking how much a s p l i t bothers a subject on a box scale was a measure of Conflict Resolution. This may well not be the case. Although "bothered" was the word used by - 61 -the researchers who originally defined the measure (Battle et a l . , 1 9 6 6 ) , i n future studies clients could rate how resolved they feel concerning their issue. Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing appear to be techniques which are effective i n producing significantly more shifts i n awareness than the Control i n the hour after defining the s p l i t . This may be a key ingredient of the effectiveness of therapy. A counselling session's usefullness may be explained by the fact that i t provides clients with a broader understanding of their issues. In Polanyi's (1959) terms, awareness means "to feel alive" (p. 207). In terms of Polster and Polster (1973)» awareness refers to becoming conscious of sensations, feelings, wants, values and assessment. Thus counselling, i t seems, adds something to the quality of the subjective human experience which helps bring about a change i n perspective which i s not received without sharing issues with another human being i n a session. Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing and Control subjects a l l attained similar amounts of behaviour change and goal attainment. It was originally believed that only those clients who experienced a shift i n awareness would set goals and attain them. However, this proved not to be the case. It may well be that the Hawthorne effect has an integral part to play i n goal attainment and behavioural change. If a concrete behaviour, which a person wishes to change, i s defined and the desired goal set, the observing of this act by another person may lead to goal attainment and behaviour change. Definition of desired behaviour change took place twenty four hours after the hour, and rating of actual behaviour change took place one week after the hour. Thus this measure may appear to be a mode of treatment i n i t s e l f , quite separate from any other therapeutic process. Smith (1976) has shown - 62 -t h a t g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l i n g c a n b e u s e d a s a n a d j u n c t t o t r e a t m e n t i n p r o d u c i n g b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e . G o a l s e t t i n g m a y w e l l b e a J d e f i n i t e s t e p t o w a r d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e . T h e q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t s h o w t h a t a l l c l i e n t s f e l t t h e y r e c e i v e d s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e h o u r a f t e r d e f i n i n g t h e i r s p l i t a n d c o m m e n t i n g o n how m u c h i t b o t h e r e d t h e m . T h e r e l i e f f r o m t e n s i o n o r u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e p o r t e d b y t r e a t m e n t s a n d c o n t r o l s s u g g e s t t h a t a c a r t h a r t i c e f f e c t t o o k p l a c e b y d e f i n i n g a n d m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r e s s o n t h e s p l i t . T h e f a c t t h a t a l l t r e a t m e n t a n d c o n t r o l s f e l t t h e y o b t a i n e d b e t t e r s e l f c o n t r o l o v e r m o o d s a n d a c t i o n s m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t p e o p l e w e r e a b l e t o t h i n k m o r e o b j e c t i v e l y a b o u t t h e i r s p l i t a f t e r d e f i n i n g a n d c o m m e n t i n g o n i t . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r a m o u n t s o f h o p e , c o n f i d e n c e , h e l p , u n d e r -s t a n d i n g i d e a s , c h a n c e t o l e t g o , a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s , / a n d r e a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s w h i c h w e r e r e p o r t e d b y p e r s o n s i n t h e t w o t h e r a p y g r o u p s a s c o m p a t e d w i t h t h o s e i n t h e C o n t r o l s e s s i o n s m a y w e l l b e t h e v a l u a b l e n o n - s p e c i f i c i n g r e d i e n t s w h i c h c o u n s e l l i n g o f f e r s t o a c l i e n t . I t m a y b e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e H a x i i t h o r n e e f f e c t w a s i n e f f e c t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t * r e s u l t s f o r t h e s u b j e c t i v e c l i e n t r e p o r t s . H o w e v e r , t h e H a w t h o r n e e f f e c t s u g g e s t s t h a t " a n y t h i n g " d o n e t o a c l i e n t r e s u l t s i n i m p r o v e m e n t . B e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g t h e r a p y s h o w e d t h e y r e c e i v e d m o r e n o n - s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h a n t h o s e i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p who r e c e i v e d i n t e r e s t f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r w h e n f i l l i n g o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e t h e r a p i e s a p p e a r t o h a v e some u n i q u e a n d s p e c i f i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A l s o , t h e c l i e n t s i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d e e p l y . T h i s f a c t , i t m a y b e s u g g e s t e d , w a s m o r e a r e s u l t o f t h e a c t i v e a n d p o t e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a n m e r e l y d u e t o i n t e r e s t s h o w n t o t h e s u b j e c t b y t h e c o u n s e l l o r . - 63 -O r l i n s k y a n d H o w a r d d e s i g n e d t h e s e t h e r a p y r e p o r t q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i a l o g u e , r e l a t i o n s h i p , f e e l i n g p r o c e s s , a n d e x c h a n g e w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e r a p i s t a n d c l i e n t . T h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s , t h e n a r e f u n c t i o n i n g i n b o t h a c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s , Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g . T h e f a c t t h a t c l i e n t s who r e c e i v e d t h e F o c u s i n g o p e r a t i o n r e p o r t e d m o r e r e a s s u r a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g -e m e n t t h a n t h o s e i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p a n d c l i e n t s who r e c e i v e d Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g d i d n o t r e p o r t m o r e r e a s s u r a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h a n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p m a y r e l a t e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s . T h e c o u n s e l l o r u s i n g t h e F o c u s i n g t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d r e a s s u r a n c e t h r o u g h e m p a t h i c r e f l e c t i o n , w h e r e a s i n Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g t h e c o u n s e l l o r d i r e c t s t h e c l i e n t t o a c t i v e l y d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e t w o s i d e s o f h i s s p l i t i n o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e c o n f l i c t m o r e d e e p l y a n d f i n d s e l f s u p p o r t . T h u s , s u b j e c t s r a t e d r e a s s u r a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t a s g r e a t e r w h e n i t came f r o m t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e F o c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s h a v i n g made s i g n i f -i c a n t l y m o r e p r o g r e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r i s s u e s i n t h e w e e k f o l l o w i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n (Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g w e r e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e ) t h a n w h e n t h e y h a d n o s e s s i o n . T h e s u m m a r y o f r e s u l t s o f t h e o u t c o m e d a t a c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e X I X . F r o m e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a i n w h i c h t h e r e w a s n o d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t o v e r a l l t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s , i t m a y b e s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e c i d i n g u p o n a s p e c i f i c m e a n i n g f u l c o n f l i c t i s s u e a n d a t t e n d i n g t o i t o v e r a w e e k l o n g p e r i o d may b e a r o u t e t o f e e l i n g l e s s b o t h e r e d b y i t . S i m i l a r l y , d e f i n i n g a n d w r i t i n g down a b e h a v i o u r a n d s e t t i n g a g o a l o f t h e d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r TABLE XIX SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF OUTCOME VARIABLE FOR SUBJECTS IN TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING, FOCUSING, AND CONTROL GROUPS No Differential Treatment Effects For Two Chair Role Playing, Focusing, or Control. No Differential Treatment Effect Between Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing. Differential Treatment Effect Between the Two Methods and Control. Conflict Resolution Goal Attainment Behaviour Change Relief from tensions, or unpleasant feelings Better self control over moods and actions Shift i n Awareness Progress i n dealing with issue Hope Confidence Chance to get things off chest Ideas Abi l i t y to experience feelings Understand of motivation Realistic evaluation of thoughts and feelings - 65 -c h a n g e m a y , i n t u r n p r o d u c e t h i s e f f e c t . T h e s e m a y b o t h b e c o n s i d e r e d c o n c r e t e a n d s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t s i n t h e m s e l v e s , p r o v i d i n g t h a t a n o t h e r p e r s o n s h o w s i n t e r e s t a n d m o n i t o r s t h e m , a n d m a y b e r e c o m m e n d e d a s a d j u n c t s t o t h e r a p y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t r e l i e f f r o m t e n s i o n s o r u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s o c c u r s ' ' a n h o u r a f t e r a p r e s s i n g i s s u e i s d e f i n e d . P e r h a p s a l o n g w i t h t h i s c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t a c l i e n t g a i n s - a m o r e o b j e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r i s s u e h a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e t w o s i d e s o f t h e i r i s s u e . T h i s f e e l i n g o f s e l f c o n t r o l m a y w e l l b e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f w h y c l i e n t s r e p o r t t h e i r s p l i t b o t h e r s t h e m l e s s o v e r t h e p e r i o d o f a w e e k . T h e common t h r e a d t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h t h e s e l f - r e p o r t o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h e C o n t r o l s , i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u b j e c t i v e human f a c t o r s . T h e s e m a y w e l l b e some o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s w h i c h m a k e t h e r a p y , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h d a i l y l i f e e v e n t s , s o r i c h a n d v a l u a b l e a n e x p e r i e n c e . S h i f t s i i n . A w a r e n e s s , p r o g r e s s w i t h i s s u e s , a n d t h e o t h e r b e n e f i t s a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t q u e s t i o n s m a y r e s u l t i n i m p r o v e d s e l f c o n c e p t a n d f e e l i n g s o f e s t e e m xt fh ich a r e t h e g o a l s o f m a n y h u m a n i s t i c t h e r a p i e s . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d b y G r e e n b e r g a n d K a h n (1979» i n p r e s s ) t h a t s t i m u l a t i o n s k i l l s , w u c h a s Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g , a c t i v a t e a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p e r s o n s v i e w o f t h e m s e l v e s b y b r i n g i n g n e w i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a w a r e n e s s . L i k e R o g e r s ' (1957) n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s , s t i m u l a t i o n s k i l l s h e l p p r o m o t e p e r c e p t u a l c h a n g e . H o w e v e r , u n l i k e R o g e r s ' n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s , t h e u s e o f t h e s e s k i l l s e n c o u r a g e s t h e c l i e n t ' s e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l t o b e r a i s e d s o t h a t m o r e r a p i d c l i e n t a w a r e n e s s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o c c u r . P e r h a p s i t i s some o f t h e s e n o n - s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h h e l p c l i e n t s t o m a k e n e w d i s c o v e r i e s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s . H a v i n g d e e p e n e d e x p e r i e n c i n g a n d a c h i e v e d n e w a w a r e n e s s a n d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c l i e n t s a r e t h e n f r e e d s o t h e y c a n - 66 -put their energies into more creative living. Obviously there are some benefits from therapy which can be defined in psychological rather than behavioural terms. These relate to the needs of people, as social beings, to share pressing issues with others, and they relate to needs to make contact with, and communicate with one's inner experiencing. Depth of Experiencing, according to Klein (1969) refers to the quality and extent to which people's experiencing of them-selves constitutes their awareness and communications about themselves. It is an important construct for therapies in which self awareness and self-understanding are major goals. Because both Two Chair Role Playing and Focusing produced a high proportion of Depth of Experiencing during the counselling process, they were both successful in producing valuable aspects of outcome including shifts in awareness, self understanding, and perceived progress which were not gained when a shared experience in counselling with another human being had not occurred. RECOMMENDATIONS From the findings of this study, the following recommendations could be made::. 1) Because of the controversy concerning the use of frequency and proportion scores, running ratings could be used for the whole therapy session rather than the convenient time based segments. Running ratings are the Depth of Experiencing scores which are continuously made by raters when they judge the quality of clients' responses during a therapy session. Although the length of sessions could s t i l l be examined, continuous running ratings could be examined, and these running ratings could indicate the path of Depth of Experiencing for the therapy session. G i v e n a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o b e m e a s u r e d , a t t e m p t s c o u l d b e made t o p r o d u c e m o r e v a l i d o u t c o m e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e . J j i a d d i t i o n , s u b -j e c t s c o u l d h a v e a f o l l o w u p i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s a t p e r i o d s a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n i n o r d e r t o t r a c k o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e s m o r e c l o s e l y . T h e r e s u l t s o f p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y p r o v e d t o b e t r u e f o r p e r s o n s who w e r e p e r s o n a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y w e l l a d j u s t e d . I t w o u l d b e o f i n t e r e s t t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r s i m i l a r r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d i f t h e s t u d y w a s r e p e a t e d u s i n g a p o p u l -a t i o n o f " n e u r o t i c " a n d " p s y c h o t i c " i n d i v i d u a l s . S i m i l a r l y , i t w o u l d b e o f i n t e r e s t t o r e p e a t t h i s s t u d y u s i n g " r e a l " c l i e n t s who s o u g h t t h e r a p y r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g v o l u n t e e r s who p r e s e n t e d m e a n i n g -f u l s p l i t s , b u t who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n a n a l o g u e s t u d y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r a p i s t i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be e i t h e r a r a n d o m f a c t o r o r , i n d e e d , n o t a f a c t o r a t a l l i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c r e s e a r c h . F e w s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n d o n e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f r e g a r d i n g t h e r a p i s t s a s a f i x e d f a c t o r (Moo s a n d C l e m e s , 1966; Moo s a n d M a c i n t o s h , 1970; V a n d e r V e e n , 1965). Due t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s a n d g e n e r a i i z a b i l i t y , i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e r a p i s t s , i f t h e y a r e f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i e d a n d l i m i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t r a i n i n g , be t r e a t e d a s a f i x e d f a c t o r i n s t u d i e s o f p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e . B e c a u s e a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e t o a s p e c i f i c c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h -n i q u e m a y b e a s t r o n g e r d e t e r m i n a n t o f p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e t h a n t h e t y p e o f t e c h n i q u e u s e d , i t w o u l d b e o f i n t e r e s t t o r e p l i c a t e t n e - 68 -s t u d y a n d i n v e s t i g a t e now i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r f r o m t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s . T h u s , a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s d e s i g n c o u l d b e e m p l o y e d a n d t h e c o u n s e l l i n g m e t h o d s c o u l d b e a d m i n i s t -e r e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t t i m e s b e t w e e n s e s s i o n s t o e n s u r e n o o v e r l a p i n o u t c o m e r e p o r t s o c c u r . 6) K l e i n , e t a l . (19t>9) s u g g e s t t n a t D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o u t c o m e . E x p e r i e n c e a n d a v r a r e n e s s a p p e a r t o b e i n t e r r e l a t e d a n d m a n y t h e r a p i s t s b e l i e v e a w a r e n e s s f o l l o w s e x p e r i e n c i n g ( C o r s i n i , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r a n a l y -s i s o n d a t a f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s r e c o m m e n d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r D e p t h o f E x p e r i e n c i n g i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a n y o f t h e o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s r e p o r t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e t w o c o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p s . I M P L I C A T I O N ' S B e c a u s e b o t h Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g a n d F o c u s i n g a p p e a r t o d e e p e n e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c l i e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s m a y w a n t t o b e c o m e p r o f i c i e n t i n u s i n g e i t h e r o r b o t h t e c h n i q u e s . T h e c h o i c e o f m e t h o d m a y d e p e n d u p o n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e c l i e n t a n d t h e c o u n s e l l o r , a s w e l l a s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e b e i n g p r e s e n t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , Two C h a i r R o l e P l a y i n g m a y b e a p p l i e d t o t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t w o s i d e s o f a c o n f l i c t s p l i t w h e n c l i e n t s xd.sh t o e n g a g e i n p h y s i c a l m o v e m e n t o r h a v e a h i g h e n e r g y l e v e l . F o c u s i n g m a y b e u s e d w h e n c l i e n t s a r e s t u c k o n t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e i r c o n f l i c t a n d w a n t t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h t h e tx-jo o p p o s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . C o u n s e l l o r s may w a n t t o u s e t h e T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t s B o x S c a l e i n o r d e r t o m o n i t o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n o v e r t i m e . T h e m o d i f i e d g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l e m a y a l s o b e u s e d xirhen c l i e n t s xri.sh b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e . B o t h o f t h e s e - 69 -a d j u n c t s t o t h e r a p y m a y b e u s e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e c o n c r e t e i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s o f d e s i r e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e . T h e n o n - s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g m a y b e v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s t o c o u n s e l l o r s o f w h a t i n g r e d i e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y a n d e f f e c t i v e i n t h e r a p y . 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Corsini (Ed.), Current psychotherapies Itasca, 111.: Peacock, 1973. Kiesler, D. J. Some myths of psychotherapy research and the search for a paradigm, Psychological Bulletin, 1966, 65_, 110-136. Kiesler, D. J. Patient experiencing and successful outcome in individual psychotherapy of schizophrenics and psychoneurotics. Journal  of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 121 370-385 Kipper, L. and Giladi, M. Effects of psychodrama on test anxiety. Journal  of Counselling Psychology, 1978, 25_, 17-22. Kirk, R. Experimental design; procedures for the behaviour sciences. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1968. KLein, M. H., Mathieu, P. L., Gendlin, E. T. and Kiesler, D. J. The experiencing scale. Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute, Madison, Wisconsin, 1969. Kubie, L. S. The process of evaluation of therapy in psychiatry. Archives of  General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 880-884. Malan, D. H. The outcome problem in psychotherapy research: A historical review. Archives of General Psychiat-ry, 1973, 22, 719-729. MEBEtffiMCEa ( c o n t ' d ) -12-M u l l e n , i i . J . , D u m p s o n , J . R., (Ms), E v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . S a n / r a n c i s c o , J o s s e y - B a s s , 1 9 7 2 . M u n x e y , P . A r e v i e w o f C o u n s e l l i n g a n a l o g u e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s . J o u r n a l  o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 4 f 21> 3 2 0 - 3 3 0 . M o o s , ' R . H . a n d C i e m e s , S . R . M u l t i v a r i a t e s t u d y o f t h e p a t i e n t - t h e r a p i s t s y s t e m . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1967f J2n 1 1 9 - 1 3 0 . M o o s , R. H . a n d M a c i n t o s h , S . M u l t i v a r i a t e s t u d y o f t h e p a t i e n t - t h e r a p i s t s y s t e m : a r e p l i c a t i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n , J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g a n d  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , 21* 2 9 8 - 3 0 7 . N i e , N . H . , H a l l , C . H . , J e n k i n s , J . G . , S t e i n b r e n n e r , K . a n d B e n t , D. H . S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ; New Y o r k : M c G r a w -H i l l , . 1975. O r l i n s k y , D. a n d H o w a r d , K. T h e r e l a t i o n o f p r o c e s s t o o u t c o m e i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . I n S . L . G a r f i e l d a n d A . E . B e r g i n ( E d s ) H a n d b o o k o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d B e h a v i o u r C h a n g e ( 2 n d E d . ) New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 7 8 . O r l i n s k y , D. a n d H o w a r d , K. T h e r a p y S e s s i o n R e p o r t I l l i n o i s : P s y c h o t h e r --. a p y S e s s i o n P r o j e c t , i960. P a r l o f f , M . a n d W a s k o w , I. R e s e a r c h o n t h e r a p i s t v a r i a b l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o  p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e " I n S . L . G a r f i e l d a n d A . E . B e r g i n ( E d s . ) , H a n d b o o k o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e ( 2 n d e d . ) New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 7 8 . P e r l s , F . H e f f e r l i n e , J . , G o o d m a n , P . G e s t a l t t h e r a p y New Y o r k : -J u l i a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 • P e r l s , F . S . I n a n d o u t t h e g a r b a g e p a i l . L a f a y e t t e , C a l i f . : R e a l P e o p l e P r e s s , I 9 6 9 P e r l s , F . S . G e s t a l t t h e r a p y v e r b a t i m . L a f a y e t t e , C a l i f . : R e a l P e o p l e P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . P e r l s , F . S . T h e G e s t a l t A p p r o a c h , New Y o r k : S c i e n t e a n d b e h a v i o u r b o o k s , 1973 P o l a n y i , M . P e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e . U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k : H a r p e r & R o w , 1 9 5 8 . P o l s t e r , E . , P o l s t e r , M . G e s t a l t h e r a p y i n t e g r a t e d . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r / M a z e l , 1 9 7 3 . R i c e , L . , W a g s t a f f , A . C l i e n t v o i c e q u a l i t y , a n d e x p r e s s i v e s t y l e a s i n d e x e s o f p r o d u c t i v e p s y c h o t h e r a p y . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , J l , 5 5 6 - 5 6 3 -R E F E R E N C E S ( c o n t ' d ) R o g e r s , C . T h e n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r a p e u t i c p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1957, 21, 95-103. S c h w a r t z , C . C , M y e r s , J . K . anc} A s t r a c h a n , B . M . T h e o u t c o m e s t u d y i n p s y c i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h . A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a -t r y , 22, (1973), 756-759. S t r o n g , S . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y r e s e a r c h . I n S . L . G a r f i e l d a n d A . E . B e r g i n ( E d s ; H a n d b o o k o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ) New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y , 1971• S t r u p p , H . H . On t h e b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g & C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 1-8. Summary o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s N u m b e r O n e , E n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f  P e r s o n a l i t y , L o s t A n g e l e s , C a l i f . T e s t B u r e a u , 1949, p . 5. T h o r p e , L . C l a r k , W. & T i e g s , E . M a n u a l C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : C a l i f o r n i a T e s t B u r e a u , 1953. V a n d e r V e e n , F . E f f e c t s o f t h e t h e r a p i s t a n d t h e p a t i e n t o n e a c h o t h e r ' s t h e r a p e u t i c b e h a v i o u r . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1965, 22, 19-26. W i n e r , B . J . S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n (2nd E d i t i o n ) , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971. A P P E N D I X A SHORT P O M OF- E X P E R I M C I M & S C A L E S t a g e C o n t e n t 1 E x t e r n a l e v e n t s ; r e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e 2 E x t e r n a l e v e n t s ; b e h a v i o u r a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n 3 P e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o e x t e r n a l e v e n t s ; l i m i t e d s e l f - d e s c r i p -t i o n s ; b e h a v i o u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f f e e l i n g s 4 D e s c r i p t i o n s o f f e e l i n g s a n d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s 5 P r o b l e m s o r p r o p o s i t i o n s a b o u t f e e l i n g s a n d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s 6 S y n t h e s i s o f r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e -'•a f e e l i n g s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s t o r e s o l v e p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ;. i s s u e s T r e a t m e n t I m p e r s o n a l , d e t a c h e d I n t e r e s t e d , p e r s o n a l , s e l f -p a r t i c i p a t i o n R e a c t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d S e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e ; a s s o c i a t i v e E x p l o r a t o r y , e l a b o r a t i v e , h y p o t h e t i c a l F e e l i n g s v i v i d l y e x p r e s s e d , i n t e g r a t i v e , c o n c l u s i v e o r a f f i r m a t i v e F u l l , e a s y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c i n g ; a l l e l e m e n t s c o n f i d e n t l y i n t e g r a t e d E x p a n s i v e , i l l u m i n a t i n g , c o n f i d e n t , b u o y a n t Reference: K l e i n , M . H . , M a t h i e u , P i . L . , G e n d l i n , E . T . a n d K i e s l e r , D. J . T h e e x p e r i e n c i n g s c a l e . M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n P s y c h i a t r i c I n s t i t u t e , 196? > p . 42. - 7 5 -APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE Briefly describe the s p l i t that you wish to work on. Please indicate, by checking one of the boxes below, how much this split bothers you now. . couldn't-be worse very much pretty much a l i t t l e not at a l l - 7 6 -APPENDIX C  QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Please indicate, by checking one of the boxes below, how much the sp l i t which you just worked on, bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a l i t t l e not at a l l 2. Did you increase your awareness of yourself? 1 2 3 4 5 definitely no don't think so unsure think so definitely yes 3. Did something shift for you i n the hour? (Possible examples: maybe you saw something differently, experienced something freshly, made some discovery about yourself, or became aware of new choices.) 1 2 3 4 5 definitely no don't think' so unsure think so definitely yes 4. If so, what was the shift? Please describe what happened and how you see yourself or the world differently. - 7 7 -5. How do you feel about the hour which you have just completed? (Please circle the one answer which best applies.) 1. Perfect 2. Excellent 3. Very good 4. Pretty good 5. Fair 6 . Pretty poor 7. Very poor 6 . What do you feel that you got out of the hour? (For each item, circle the answer which best applies.) I feel that I got: No Some A lot 1. A chance to let go and get things off 1 2 3 my chest. 2. Hope: A feeling that things can ^ 2 3' work out for me. 3. Help in talking about what was ^ 2 3' really troubling me. 4. Relief from tensions or unpleasant 1 2 3' feelings. 5. More understanding of the reasons behind ^ • 2 3 my behaviour and feelings. 6 . Reassurance and encouragement about how ^ • g ^ I'm doing. 7. Confidence to try to do things 1 • 2 V 0/ differently. * 8. More ability to feel my feelings, to ^ . 2 y know what I really want. 9. Ideas for better ways of dealing with ^ 2 3 people and problems. 10. Better self control over my moods ^ • 2 3 and actions. 11. A more realistic evaluation of my thoughts 2 '3 and feelings. 12. Nothing in particular: I feel the same 3 2 1 as I did before the hour. 13-17. Other - ?8 -7. How .well did your therapist seem to understand what you were feeling and thinking this session? My therapist: 1. Understood exactly how I thought and felt. 2 . Understood very well how I thought and felt . 3 . Understood pretty well, but there were some things he (she) didn't seem to grasp. 4. Didn't understand too well how I thought and felt. 5. Misunderstood how I thought and felt. 8. How helpful do you feel your therapist was to you this session? 1. Completely helpful 2 . Very helpful 3b Pretty helpful 4. Somewhat helpful 5. Slightly helpful 6. Not at a l l helpful - 79-APPENDIX D  QUESTIONNAIRE Yesterday, you identified a sp l i t which was of concern to you. Please indicate, by checking one of the boxes below, how much this s p l i t bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a l i t t l e . not at a l l 1. Did you increase your awareness of yourself? 1 2 3 4 5 definitely no don't think so unsure think so definitely yes 2. Did something shift for you i n the hour? (Examples: Maybe you saw something differently, experienced something freshly, made some discovery or became aware of new choices.) L 2 3 4 5 definitely no don't think so unsure think so definitely yes 3. If so, what was the shift? Please describe what happened and how you see yourself or the world differently. 4. From this new perspective, are there any general things about yourself or your l i f e that you would like to change? - 80 -5. (a) From this general perspective, what specific feeling or behaviour would you hope would change i n the coming week? (For example, c r i t i c i z e myself less, spend more time with my family, discuss my feelings with my boyfriend, or assert myself more.) (b) How often have you been experiencing yourself or behaving i n this way i n the last while? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not at hardly seldom sometimes frequently most of a l l of the a l l ever the time time (c) How often would you like to see this experience or behaviour occurring i n the coming week? 1 2 3 4 5 6 not at hardly seldom sometimes frequently most of a l l ever the time 7 a l l of the time APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Last week, you identified the following s p l i t which was of concern to you. Please indicate, by checking one of the boxes below, how much this s p l i t bothers you now. couldn't be worse very much pretty much a l i t t l e not at a l l 2. Have you experienced a change in yourself during the past week since the hour? 1 2 3 4 5 definitely no don't think so unsure think so definitely yes 3. After the last hour you indicated that you hoped that the following feeling or behaviour would change during the week How often are you experiencing yourself or behaving i n this way now? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not at hardly seldom sometimes frequently most of a l l of the a l l ever the time time - 32 -4. How much progress do you feel you made in dealing with your issues since the last hour? (Please circle the item which best applies) 1. A great deal of progress 2. Considerable progress 3. Moderate progress 4. Some progress 5o Didn't get anywhere 5. Has anything unusual happened during the week other than the hour to which you attribute any change you have reported? If so, what? - 83 -APPENDIX F SPLIT DRAINING Thank you for your willingness to participate in my thesis project. Dr. Les Greenberg and I are iirorking together, and we are studying conflict-splits. I will explain what a conflict split i s , and will give you instructions concerning your involvement in the project. First of a l l , I would ask you to think of a conflict split which is an issue you are dealing with at the present time - a real issue that is of importance to you, in which two sides of you are struggling for some type of compromise. I will play a tape recording giving three examples of conflict splits for you now: 1) I want to get involved in more intimate relationships, but I'm afraid to let anyone get too close. I just don't seem to be able to do anything about i t . 2) Sometimes I feel that I should stay in the programme. Other times I want to quit and go back to work f u l l time. It's a struggle for me to know just what's best to do. 3) On one hand, I want the security offered to me by marriage, but on the other hand I don't want to be tied down. I just don't know what to do. I would ask you not to identify a totally behavioural split such as "I don't know whether to go to California or New York for my vacation", but rather to choose one in which you have invested some emotional energy. You will be contacted by a counsellor with whom you will arrange - 34 -a time to meet when i t i s convenient for you both. Please present your conflict s p l i t at this session. You w i l l be asked to define your issue before the hour, and w i l l be required to f i l l out forms during the next week concerning your s p l i t and your experience i n the hour. There are no "best" answers, and please report your feelings as accurately as you can. The sessions w i l l be audio taped and w i l l be heard by myself and two raters. The questionnaires w i l l be seen by myself and Les. Both the tapes and the questionnaires w i l l be treated with professional confi-dence. Dp you have any questions? Once again, I thank you for your time and participation. - 8 5 -APPENDIX G FOCUSIKG TECHNIQUE First identify the split that clients wish to work on. Then begin with: "I don't know i f you have ever had a focusing experience before, but that is what we will do for the first few minutes of this session. It is a silent technique, so I would ask you to relax, close your eyes and breathe." (5 seconds) "This is going to be just to yourself. What I will ask you to do will be silent, just to yourself. Take a moment just to relax 5 seconds. All right now, just to yourself, inside you, I would like you to pay attention to a very special part of you Pay attention to that part where you usually feel sad, glad or scared. 5 seconds. Pay attention to that area in you and see how you are now. See what comes to you when you ask yourself, "How am I now?" "How do I feel?" "What is the main thing for me right now?" (30 seconds) Focus your attention on the split which you have just identified, and see what comes to you. (10 seconds) 1. Of course, there are many parts to that split you are thinking about — too many to-think of each one alone. But, you can feel a l l of those things together. Pay attention there where you usually feel things, and in there you can get a sense of what a l l of the split feels like. Let yourself feel a l l of that. (30 seconds or less) 2. As you pay attention to the whole feeling of i t , you may find that one special feeling comes up. Let yourself pay attention to that one feeling. ( l minute) 3. Keep following one feeling. Don't let i t be just words or pictures — wait and let words or pictures come from the feeling. ( l minute) k* If this one feeling changes, or moves, let i t do that. Whatever i t does, follow the feeling and pay attention to i t . ( l minute) 5. Now, take what is fresh, or new, in the feel of i t now and go very easy. Just as you feel i t , try to find some new words or pictures to capture what your present feeling is al l about. There doesn't have to be anything that you didn't know before. New words are best but old words might f i t just as well. As long as you now find words or pictures to say what is fresh to you now. ( 1 minute) 6. If the words or pictures that you now have make some fresh difference, see what that i s . Let the words or pictures change until they feel just right in capturing your feelings. ( l minute) When you're ready, open your eyes and come back. Where are you now? What happened? (Please note — i t is important that you and your clients explore what happened as a result of the focusing experience, and not just talk about what they had experienced. It is a take-off point.) APPENDIX F  EXAMPLES OF SPLITS PRESENTED Examples of the splits which persons in each group defined included the following: TWO CHAIR ROLE PLAYING; 1) On the one hand I'd like to have another child, but on the other hand I'm afraid I ' l l lose my freedom. 2) On the one hand I would like to try some different occupation, but on the other hand, I feel very secure and comfortable in Education. I just don't know what's best to do. 3) On the one hand, I want to be assertive with this person, but on the other hand, I want to be submissive. I'm struggling with this issue. FOCUSING 1) I have a job offer here in Vancouver, but I don't want to live here. I don't know what's best to do. 2) On the one hand, I want to stay in the relationship with my fianceJ, but on the other hand, I want to break up with him. I just don't know what to do. 3) I have an opportunity to have a f u l l time job, but I also can stay at home with my baby. I don't know what decision to make. CONTROL l) I want to have the closeness of a continuing relationship, but I'm really afraid of being stuck with a helpless person. I don't know what to do. - 88 -2) One part of me wants to get more serious about my career and move into administrative positions, while another part of me wants to stop awhile, relax, and enjoy l i f e . Its a struggle to know what's best to do. 3) I think I want to have children, but I'm afraid of the time, responsibility and loss of freedom that i t will bring. ^1 don't know what to do. 

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