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Elementary school students with school adjustment problems Link, Ilse 1979

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ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS by ILSE LINK B.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1979 (C) Copyright: U s e Link, 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d wi thout/my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f C*,ow^.»« U \ " P k ^ d ^ e ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e a way o f i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h - r i s k m a l a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s b e f o r e t h e i r p r o b l e m s become e x t r e m e . The s t u d y a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o o b t a i n a s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d h e l p t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s t o p l a n i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s s u i t e d t o t h e needs o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 6 and 7 who had been r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g b e c a u s e o f s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s and t h e y a l s o i d e n t i f i e d s t u d e n t s whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . The • s t u d y i n c l u d e d 40 s t u d e n t s , b o y s and g i r l s . The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, Form AA, was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , and t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t . A s o c i o g r a m was d rawn up f o r e a c h c l a s s r o o m t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s o f t h e t a r g e t g r o u p . The s t u d e n t s were a l s o compared on m e a s u r e s o f f a m i l y t y p e , b i r t h o r d e r , and f a m i l y m o b i l i t y . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s on m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , and f a m i l y m o b i l i t y . F a m i l y i i i type and b i r t h order measures y i e l d e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The study showed that teacher i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of students with school adjustment problems was accurate. The study also indicated that the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personal-i t y , the sociogram, and a measure of family mobility were va l i d instruments for identifying high-risk students who were in need of counselling. These results can be of help to teachers and counsellors in c o l l e c t i n g objective data on p o s s i b l e problem students and in i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h - r i s k problem students early. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 Introduction 1 H i s t o r i c a l Background 1 Issues in Counselling 4 Purpose of Study 11 2 Related Literature 13 Introduction 13 Personality Characteristics 14 Social Characteristics 17 Family Background 19 Counselling Techniques and Evaluation 26 Hypotheses , 30 3 Methodology 32 Design 32 Population and Sample 33 Procedure 36 Measurement Instruments 39 Null Hypotheses 45 Data Analysis 46 Conclusion 49 4 Results 51 Parametric Measures 52 Non-parametric Measures 55 Summary 62 5 Discussion, Limitations, Implications and Recommendations 63 Discussion 63 Limitations 68 Implications and Recommendations 68 Conclusion 72 References 73 Append ix A Parental Consent Letter 78 B Request for Subject P a r t i c i p a t i o n 80 C t-scores for Subtests of Personal Adjustment Scale 82 D t-scores for Subtests of Social Adjustment Scale 84 E Measurement Instrument 86 V L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 3.1 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E l e m e n t a r y 42 4.1 P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t , S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t , T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t 53 4.2 Number o f C h o i c e s by P e e r s 57 4.3 F a m i l y Type 59 4.4 B i r t h O r d e r 60 4.5 Number o f S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d 61 1 E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L S T U D E N T S W I T H S C H O O L A D J U S T M E N T P R O B L E M S C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d C o u n s e l l i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t i s a r e l a -t i v e l y n e w p h e n o m e n o n i n C a n a d a . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h o s e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s w h i c h e x i s t n o w w e r e c o n c e i v e d i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o a c c u r a t e d a t a a v a i l a b l e a t p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t o s h o w t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n C a n a d a d o e s n o t r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s ( M e r c h a n t & Z i n g l e , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s d i s c o u r a g i n g t o t h o s e e d u c a t o r s w h o b e l i e v e i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e v e n t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y d i s c o u r a g i n g w h e n s u r v e y s s h o w t h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h d o n o t e m p l o y a n y c o u n s e l l o r s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( A l l a n , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e l a c k o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h a s i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . M a r x , R e d d i n g , a n d S m i t h ( 1 9 6 7 ) s t a t e d t h a t e a r l y t r e a t m e n t o f p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t s i n c e u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s c o m p o u n d t h e c h i l d ' s p r o b l e m . F o r e x a m p l e , e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s l e a d t o l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s , l e a r n i n g 2 p r o b l e m s l e a d t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n t e n s i f y t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . Combs ( 1 9 6 4 ) a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t u n t r e a t e d p r o b l e m s i n a s t u d e n t ' s f u n c t i o n i n g a b i l i t y i n s c h o o l w i l l t e n d t o i n c r e a s e t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t and h i s / h e r t e a c h e r s and b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t and h i s / h e r p e e r s . C l a r i z i o (1970) s t a t e d t h a t a l l " n o r m a l " c h i l d r e n have some a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s a t some t i m e . H owever, he b e l i e v e d v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e s e " n o r m a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t s " s h o u l d n o t be l e f t t o s e l f - r e s o l u -t i o n s i n c e t h e y c a u s e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t r e s s t o b o t h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . C l a r i z i o c i t e d t h r e e s t u d i e s w h i c h d o c u m e n t e d t h a t u n t r e a t e d s c h o o l m a l a d j u s t m e n t d o e s n o t i m p r o v e s i g n i -f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e a l o n e . L o o k i n g a t t h e s e s t u d i e s i n l i g h t o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , one must c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e a r e many c h i l d r e n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l whose s c h o o l a d j u s t -ment p r o b l e m s a r e n o t d e a l t w i t h . T h e s e s t u d e n t s must w a i t u n t i l t h e y r e a c h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e y c a n o b t a i n c o u n s e l l i n g . By t h a t t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s h a v e e s c a l a t e d a n d , i n some c a s e s , t h e c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y t o o l a t e t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t become w e l l -a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . B e c a u s e o f t h e n o v e l t y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g i n C a n a d a , v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d w h i c h f o c u s e s o n c o u n s e l l i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s do n o t know t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 3 There is also a lack of objective and s p e c i f i c information regarding the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the problem students. Counsellors find themselves in the position of having to rely on conjecture and trial-and-error methods in dealing with elementary school students who have been referred for counselling. The situation in the United States regarding counsel-l i n g for elementary school students is somewhat brighter. People were shocked into awareness in 1963 when i t was found that the man who assassinated President Kennedy had a history of social maladjustment going back to his early years in school. Most teachers who had come in contact with Lee Harvey Oswald during his elementary school years had labelled him as having school adjustment problems (Engel, 1972). As a result of Oswald's action, there was a f l u r r y of interest around the issue of counselling the young c h i l d . People began asking questions such as: "How soon can you identi f y problem children?" "How do you best deal with problem children?" (Engel, 1972). This focus on the mental health of the young ch i l d was undoubtedly responsible for almost doubling the number of counsellors in elementary schools in the United States between 1968 and 1970 (Merchant & Zingle, 1977). There was also an increase in the amount of research dealing with counselling conducted at the elementary school l e v e l in the late 1960's in the United States. The bulk of this research is concerned with evaluation of treatment 4 methods. A quick overview of the evaluative studies leaves the reader confused and discouraged. A number of studies indicated that counselling did not a l l e v i a t e the students' problems (Kranzler, 1968; Mayer, Kranzler, & Matthes, 1967). In addition, comparative studies of d i f f e r e n t treatment methods often showed inconclusive results (Alper, 1970; Harris, 1976). Issues in Counselling These research findings are frustrating for counsellors who are attempting to function in an environment which often does not consider counselling to be an important educational p r i o r i t y (Allan, 1976). Some educators, l i k e Kranzler (1968), go as far as asking: "Should we quit counselling?" Such a question i s mischievous when one considers the short time span in which counselling the young ch i l d has been regarded a worthwhile endeavour. In fact, the contradictory research findings are not surprising when one i s aware of the readily apparent flaws in elementary school counselling. This writer agrees with Aubrey (1967) who stated that the major weakness of elementary school counselling i s the absence of a theory underlying the methods. The question i s how can one formulate a theory of counselling the elementary school student when so l i t t l e i s known about the cl i e n t ? According to C l a r i z i o (1970) , 5 researchers have been hesitant to delve deeply into c h i l d -ren's psyches and evaluate their behaviour because of the following reasons: 1. Prevalence of childhood problems in a l l children; 2. Nonpersistence of some developmental problems; 3. Inappropriateness of many measuring instruments for children. These problems notwithstanding, i t is important to continue to make an e f f o r t to research personality charac-t e r i s t i c s of children who are referred for counselling. Only by understanding children's needs and perceptions can one begin to provide services which w i l l a l l e v i a t e the problems which the students face. Despite our knowledge of c h i l d development (Erikson, 1963; Piaget, 1973), we treat children as though they were l i t t l e adults. Counsellors use watered-down versions of adult counselling techniques with elementary school stu-dents. This p r a c t i c e p e r s i s t s d espite evidence which indicates that methods which are applicable to counselling adults are inappropriate, and may even be harmful, for counselling children (Leventhal & Kranzler, 1968; Matthes, Kranzler, & Mayer, 1968). Almost every book on education talks about working with the "whole c h i l d " (Holt, 1970; Phanidis & Duncan, 1975). Indeed, this expression has become a truism. Because of the 6 i n s u f f i c i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , much o f t h e b u r d e n o f h e l p i n g t h e m a l a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t f a l l s on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . Many t e a c h e r s do n o t have t h e t i m e nor t h e s k i l l s t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s o f m a l a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s and c a n o f t e n o n l y use a b a n d - a i d a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m . S i m i l a r l y , c o u n -s e l l o r s who have a h e a v y c l i e n t l o a d f r e q u e n t l y r e s o r t t o u s i n g one t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r a l l p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s . A l l t o o o f t e n t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s a t t e m p t t o " c u r e " u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t by a s s i g n i n g a d d i t i o n a l homework and t h e y t r y t o s o l v e b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s by a p p l y i n g a r i g i d s e t o f c o n s e g u e n c e s . These t e c h n i q u e s may be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e when t h e y c o n s t i t u t e one a s p e c t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c c h i l d b u t as a t o t a l p r o g r a m t h e y a r e doomed t o f a i l u r e b e c a u s e t h e y i n v o l v e o n l y p a r t o f t h e c h i l d and f o c u s s i m p l y on t h e o b s e r v e d symptom ( A b i d i n , 1 9 7 1; Combs, 1 9 6 4 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s t o r e a l i z e t h a t h e l p i n g a s t u d e n t w i t h a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s i s a d i f f i c u l t and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k . A c o u n s e l l o r c a n n o t w r i t e o u t a p r e s c r i p t i o n and h e a l t h e s t u d e n t . S/he must have i n f o r m a -t i o n a b o u t t h e w h o l e c h i l d who i s r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and t h e n p l a n an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t , t h e t e a c h e r , and t h e p a r e n t . The o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h most c o u n s e l l o r s r e c e i v e a b o u t c h i l d r e n who a r e r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g i s t h a t t h e y have s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . C o u n s e l l o r r e f e r r a l s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a r e g e n e r a l l y made b y t h e c l a s s r o o m 7 teacher. Teachers usually i d e n t i f y children with school adjustment problems according to the following c r i t e r i a : 1. Underachievement not due to i d e n t i f i e d organic, neurological, or c u l t u r a l differences; 2. Social problems. The ch i l d has d i f f i c u l t y in interacting with peers or adults; and 3. Emotional problems. The c h i l d i s c h r o n i c a l l y unhappy or depressed and is generally d i s s a t i s f i e d with him/herself. It seems l i k e l y that a ch i l d exhibits school adjustment problems because of certain personal, s o c i a l , and family background factors. The question i s , are there measurable cha r a c t e r i s t i c s which are common to the group of students i d e n t i f i e d as having school adjustment problems? Further, how do these problem students d i f f e r from students who are id e n t i f i e d as being well-adjusted to school? Is i t possible to i d e n t i f y some d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between problem students and well-adjusted students? There are a number of di f f e r e n t variables which have been i d e n t i f i e d by theorists and researchers as contributing to a student's success at school. Self-concept i s an element which i s the subject of many research studies (Attwell, 1968; Combs, 1964; Coopersmith, 1959; Lewis, 1968; Wattenberg & C l i f f o r d , 1962). Attwell (1968) suggested that some children are underachievers because of feelings of inadequacy which lead 8 t h e m t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g . C o m b s ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h a t a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t i n h o w w e l l a s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n s i s h i s / h e r f e e l i n g o f c a p a b i l i t y o f f u n c t i o n i n g . C o o p e r s m i t h ( 1 9 5 9 ) s h o w e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w s e l f - e s t e e m e x h i b i t g r e a t e r d e f e n s i v e n e s s t h a n s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . L e w i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t a c h i l d w i t h a n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t f e a r s , b u t a l s o e x p e c t s , f a i l u r e . W a t t e n b e r g a n d C l i f f o r d ( 1 9 6 2 ) f o u n d t h a t a m e a s u r e o f s e l f - c o n c e p t m a d e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o v e d t o b e m o r e p r e d i c t i v e o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t w o y e a r s l a t e r t h a n w a s a m e a s u r e o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y . T h e s e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t i s e s s e n t i a l i f a s t u d e n t i s t o b e h a p p y a n d s u c c e s s f u l a t s c h o o l . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e w h i c h s e e m s t o i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s , t o m a k e f r i e n d s , a n d t o b e a c c e p t e d b y t h e i r p e e r s . C o o p e r s m i t h ( 1 9 5 9 ) s h o w e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h l o w s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s a l s o s c o r e d l o w o n s e l f - e s t e e m a n d e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r d e f e n s i v e n e s s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s w h o s c o r e d h i g h o n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . G a d e ( 1 9 7 7 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e e r r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e . T h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f a s t u d e n t w i t h i n a c l a s s r o o m t e n d s t o d e v e l o p e a r l y a n d r e m a i n s f a i r l y c o n s t a n t o v e r t i m e . B e s s e l a n d P a l o m a r e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , e c h o i n g A d l e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) a n d M a s l o w ( 1 9 6 8 ) , s t a t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e b a s i c d r i v e s o f p e o p l e i s t o g a i n a c c e p t a n c e b y o t h e r s . P o s i t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s t h u s e s s e n t i a l t o a c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g . I t i s c l e a r t h a t a 9 student's social relations play an important role in his/her attitude towards school. As well as personal factors such as self-concept and social factors such as sociometric status, i t is l o g i c a l to suggest that a child's family background w i l l influence his/her a b i l i t y to adjust to school. Is the risk of school maladjustment greater i f a c h i l d comes from a one-parent family rather than from a two-parent family? L i t t l e re-search has been conducted with elementary school children to determine the effect of l i v i n g with one parent on school adjustment. The study by Thomas (1968) showed that there was no difference in level of self-concept and peer r e l a -tions between children aged 9-11 who l i v e d with both parents and children who lived with their mothers only. Burchinal (1964) indicated that children from unbroken homes scored lower on absenteeism from school than students from broken homes. However, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in scores on a personality measure between students from unbroken, broken, and r e c o n s t i t u t e d f a m i l i e s . One of Burchinal's conclusions from the study was that children from broken homes are better adjusted than children from unhappy, unbroken homes. It is d i f f i c u l t to state with any certainty what effect a one-parent family structure w i l l exert on a child's a b i l i t y to adjust to school. Another family background factor which has been sug-gested as an important influence in a child's adjustment i s b i r t h order (Adler, 1931; Dreikurs, 1958). Adler (1931) 1 0 w r o t e a t l e n g t h a b o u t t h e e f f e c t o f b i r t h o r d e r o n p e r s o n -a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . W a r r e n ( 1 9 6 6 ) c o m m e n t e d o n t h e p r e p o n -d e r a n c e o f f i r s t b o r n s a m o n g e m i n e n t m e n . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t f i r s t b o r n s w e r e m o r e d e p e n d e n t a n d s u s c e p t i b l e t o s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t h a n l a t e r b o r n s . M a c D o n a l d ( 1 9 7 1 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a n d f o u n d t h a t f i r s t b o r n s s c o r e d h i g h e r o n a m e a s u r e o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n l a t e r -b o r n s . N e w h o u s e ( 1 9 7 4 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y w i t h s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 4 - 6 w h i c h m e a s u r e d l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b l i t y . H i s s t u d y d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d b y M a c D o n a l d . N e w h o u s e ' s f i n d i n g s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e i n l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e t w e e n f i r s t b o r n s a n d l a t e r b o r n s . T h e r e s e e m s t o b e n o c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e o n t h e r o l e w h i c h b i r t h o r d e r p l a y s i n s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . A f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o n a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o s c h o o l i s f a m i l y m o b i l i t y . I f a c h i l d a t t e n d s a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s r a t h e r t h a n r e m a i n i n g i n o n e s c h o o l , i s s / h e m o r e l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s ? C h a s k e l ( 1 9 6 4 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c a u s e s a n d e f f e c t s o f m o v i n g a r e m a i n l y e c o n o m i c a n d l i m i t s h i s s t u d y t o t h i s t o p i c . G a t h e r c o l e ( 1 9 6 7 ) s t a t e d t h a t m o v i n g c a n b e a m e t h o d o f d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h e n m o v i n g i s d o n e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e e f f e c t o n t h e f a m i l y i s l i k e l y t o b e n e g a t i v e . W h a l e n a n d F r i e d ( 1 9 7 3 ) r e v i e w e d n u m e r o u s s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y o n student achievement. The studies f e l l into three categor-ies: 1. moving had a negative effect on student achieve-ment; 2. moving had a positive e f f e c t on student achieve-ment; 3. moving had no effect on student achievement. Splete and Rasmussen (1977) suggested that moving can have negative effects on elementary school students. They urged counsellors to give special support to incoming children. There seems to be some evidence to suggest that in certain circumstances moving affects children's school adjustment negatively. ' The foregoing discussion has highlighted some possible factors which may contribute to school adjustment problems in elementary school pupils. These were: personal fac-t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y s e l f - c o n c e p t ; s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g sociometric status; and family background factors such as family type, birth order, and family mobility. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to obtain a description of s p e c i f i c attributes which characterize elementary school students with school adjustment problems. The study sought to determine whether or not there are measurable character-i s t i c s which distinguish students with adjustment problems from students who are i d e n t i f i e d as being well-adjusted to school. The students were compared on several variables: personal adjustment, social adjustment, sociometric status, family type, b i r t h order, and family mobility. These 12 v a r i a b l e s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y c o n s t i t u t e f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t t o c o u n s e l l o r s . The o b t a i n e d d a t a g i v e a c o u n s e l l o r i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c a r r y i n g o u t an e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . The s t u d y a l s o s e r v e d as a v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r a c c u r a c y i n i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s who were i n need o f c o u n -s e l l i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y u s e d s e v e r a l measurement i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y s e r v e a s p r e d i c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h - r i s k p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s . CHAPTER 2 13 RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Counselling the elementary school student i s a concept which, at present, seems of dubious importance to educators. Allan (1976) has documented that few elementary school children in B r i t i s h Columbia receive adequate counselling services and the provision of these services i s not con-sidered to be an educational p r i o r i t y for the majority of educators in the school system. This situation makes i t d i f f i c u l t for those counsellors who are actively trying to improve counselling services to children or attempting to present empirical evidence to show that counselling improves students' problems. Because of inadequate formal training (Allan, 1976; Merchant & Zingle, 1977) or impossible c l i e n t loads (Allan, 1976), few counsellors are in a position to carry out research projects which could document that their interventions reduced student problems. Further, there are special problems when one attempts to do research with children. C l a r i z i o (1970) stated that research findings were often contradictory because of the nonpersistence of some developmental problems. Another serious problem in conducting research with children i s the lack of suitable measurement instruments. Harris (1976) and Mayer et al (1967) suggested that one reason for some non-significant 1 4 f i n d i n g s w a s t h e b r e v i t y o f m o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . M o s t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s r u n 8 - 1 2 w e e k s , p e r h a p s n o t l o n g e n o u g h t o a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o c h a n g e a t t i t u d e s o r b e h a v i o u r s . D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , s o m e r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . I n t h i s c h a p -t e r , a n u m b e r o f f i n d i n g s w h i c h a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i -c a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y , a r e e x a m i n e d . T h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h e f o l -l o w i n g g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s : 1 . P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 2 . S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 . F a m i l y B a c k g r o u n d 4 . C o u n s e l l i n g T e c h n i q u e s P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n w h o a r e l a b e l l e d " p r o b l e m s " b e c a u s e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t , s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , o r e m o -t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . W i l l i a m s a n d C o l e ( 1 9 6 8 ) c o n d u c t e d a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' s e l f -c o n c e p t a s i t r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . T h e i r h y p o t h e -s i s w a s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f s c h o o l w a s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y u s e d 8 0 G r a d e 6 s t u -d e n t s i n t h e i r s t u d y . T h e y a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , a n d 1 5 a s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u r e . R e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d m e a s u r e s o f c o n c e p t i o n o f s c h o o l , s o c i a l s t a t u s , e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t . W i l l i a m s a n d C o l e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y a r e c i p r o c a l c a u s e -e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c h i l d ' s a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s i s n o t d e t e r m i n e d b y o n e v a r i a b l e a l o n e , t h a t i s , i n t e l l e c -t u a l a b i l i t y ; s e l f - e s t e e m s e e m s t o b e a n o t h e r m a j o r d e t e r -m i n a n t . C o o p e r s m i t h ( 1 9 5 9 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s e l f - e s t e e m . H i s s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f 8 7 s t u d e n t s 1 0 - 1 2 y e a r s o l d . C o o p e r s m i t h c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d l o w o n s e l f - e s t e e m e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r d e f e n s i v e n e s s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d h i g h o n s e l f - e s t e e m . L e w i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) d e a l t w i t h d e f e n s i v e n e s s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d l e a r n i n g . He s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t f e a r a n d e x p e c t f a i l u r e . T h e s e c h i l d r e n s u f f e r f r o m a n i n h i b i t i n g a n x i e t y a n d u s e t h e i r e n e r g y f o r d e f e n s e r a t h e r t h a n e x p l o r a t i o n . L e w i s r e f e r r e d t o M a s l o w ' s ( 1 9 6 8 ) h i e r a r c h y o f n e e d s . W h e n t h e r e a r e c o n f l i c t i n g n e e d s t h e c h i l d w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e b a s i c n e e d f o r s u r v i v a l ; t h e r e f o r e , a c h i l d w i t h a n e g a t i v e s e l f -c o n c e p t w i l l c h o o s e s e c u r i t y o v e r g r o w t h . L e w i s q u o t e d t h e s t u d y b y W a t t e n b e r g a n d C l i f f o r d ( 1 9 6 2 ) t o e m p h a s i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d l e a r n i n g . W a t t e n b e r g 1 6 a n d C l i f f o r d f o u n d t h a t m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t m a d e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f k i n d e r g a r t e n w e r e m o r e p r e d i c t i v e o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t w o y e a r s l a t e r t h a n w e r e m e a s u r e s o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y . T h e C o m b s ' s t u d y ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e a l t w i t h t h e t o p i c o f p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f i n t h e a c a d e m i c a l l y c a p a b l e u n d e r -a c h i e v e r . T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d w i t h t w o g r o u p s o f a d o l e s c e n t b o y s , o n e g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f a c a d e m i c a l l y c a p a b l e b o y s w h o w e r e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , t h e o t h e r g r o u p w a s c o m p o s e d o f e q u a l l y c a p a b l e b o y s w h o s e s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e b o y s w e r e c o m p a r e d o n t h e C o m b s A p p e r -c e p t i o n T e s t a n d t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t . T h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e a c h i e v e r s o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1 . s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s l e s s a d e q u a t e 2 . s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s l e s s a c c e p t a b l e 3 . s a w t h e i r p e e r s a s l e s s a c c e p t a b l e 4 . s a w a d u l t s a s l e s s a c c e p t a b l e 5 . t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o p r o b l e m s o l v i n g w a s l e s s e f f e c -t i v e t h e y h a d l e s s f r e e d o m o f e x p r e s s i o n . C o m b s s a w a b a s i c t h r e a d r u n n i n g t h o u g h a l l h i s r e s u l t s , n a m e l y , t h a t a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t o f h o w w e l l o n e f u n c t i o n s i s o n e ' s f e e l i n g o f c a p a b i l i t y o f f u n c t i o n i n g . 1 7 A t t w e l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d i e d v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l . T h i s r e s e a r c h s i n g l e d o u t s e l f - c o n c e p t a s a m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r w h e n d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n who a r e u n d e r a c h i e v i n g . O n e m u s t b e a w a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y w h i c h m a y b e a m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y . T h e s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s s e e m t o c o n f i r m t h e h y o t h e s i s t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . S t u d e n t s who h a v e a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s s e e m t o s c o r e l o w e r o n m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t o r s e l f -e s t e e m . C o u n s e l l o r s , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t h a v e t h e s k i l l s n e c e s -s a r y t o d e a l w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s . S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e a l w i t h t h e s o c i a l s k i l l s a p e r s o n l e a r n s b y l i v i n g i n s o c i e t y , t h e a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s a n d t o b e a c c e p t e d b y o t h e r s . T h e s c h o o l i s a n i n s t i t u t i o n w h e r e s o c i a l s k i l l s a r e a n e c e s s i t y i f a s t u d e n t i s t o a d j u s t w e l l t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h s t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s o f t e n s h o w t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s s c o r e l o w o n s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u r e s ( C o m b s , 1 9 6 4 ; C o o p e r s m i t h , 1 9 5 9 ; - W i l l i a m s & C o l e , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e s e s a m e s t u d i e s p o i n t t o w a r d s a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d t h e s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s o f a s t u d e n t . C o m b s ' ( 1 9 6 4 ) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s b e i n g l e s s a c c e p t a b l e , a n d a l s o 1 8 c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s t o b e l e s s a c c e p t a b l e , t h a n d i d t h e i r w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e e r s . C o o p e r s m i t h ( 1 9 5 9 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s w h o s c o r e d l o w o n m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - e s t e e m t e n d e d t o s c o r e l o w o n m e a s u r e s o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . T h e W i l l i a m s a n d C o l e ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d y f o u n d a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . M e a s u r e s u s e d w e r e t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , a n d a s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u r e . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t s e l f - a p p r a i s a l w a s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o g r o u p a p p r a i s a l . W i l l i a m s a n d C o l e s u g g e s t e d t h a t o n e w a y o f a l t e r i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t i s t o c h a n g e s o c i a l s t a t u s . B e s s e l a n d P a l o m a r e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l s k i l l s a n e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n b e i n g a w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n . T h e y s t a t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f h u m a n s i s t o b e a c c e p t e d b y o t h e r s a n d t o g a i n t h e i r a p p r o v a l . B e s s e l a n d P a l o m a r e s h a v e d e v i s e d a p r o g r a m c a l l e d " T h e M a g i c C i r c l e " w h i c h a t t e m p t s , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t o h e l p c h i l d r e n l e a r n h o w t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s a n d t o b e a c c e p t e d b y t h e m . D i n k m e y e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e i s s u e o f s o c i a l s k i l l s , m a k i n g a n d k e e p i n g f r i e n d s . H e b e l i e v e d t h a t c h i l d r e n m u s t b e t a u g h t t h e s e s o c i a l s k i l l s i f t h e y a r e t o b e c o m e w e l l - a d j u s t e d c i t i z e n s . D i n k m e y e r p r o d u c e d a t e a c h i n g a i d c a l l e d " D e v e l o p i n g U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f S e l f a n d O t h e r s " . T h i s a c t i v i t y k i t f o c u s s e s o n t h e s k i l l s n e e d e d t o r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y . 19 Gade (1977) d i s c u s s e d t h e use o f s o c i o m e t r y i n e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g . T e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s must be a ware o f s t u d e n t s ' s o c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s i n c e t h i s f a c t o r g r e a t l y a f f e c t s t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l . Gade a l s o s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n t e n d t o d e v e l o p a s o c i a l s t a t u s e a r l y w h i c h r e m a i n s f a i r l y c o n s t a n t o v e r t i m e . I f any p r o b l e m s e x i s t i n t h e a r e a o f s o c i a l s k i l l s t h e y must be d i a g n o s e d and t r e a t e d as s oon as p o s s i b l e . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l s k i l l s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t i f c h i l d r e n f e e l p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , o t h e r s w i l l f e e l p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s them, and t h e y w i l l f e e l p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s o t h e r s . C l e a r l y s o c i a l s k i l l s a r e a s e c o n d v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t w e l l t o s c h o o l . F a m i l y B a c k g r o u n d R e s e a r c h has shown t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l s k i l l s c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t w e l l t o t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . The c h i l d ' s f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , h o w e v e r , must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d t o e x e r t an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . T h e r e a r e a number o f a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h c o u l d be f o l l o w e d when i n v e s t i g a t i n g f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d i n f l u e n c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t o n e i n a f a m i l y , o r t h e f a m i l y a t m o s p h e r e , w o u l d seem t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . M ethod o f d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e home l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e s c h i l d r e n a g r e a t d e a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t 20 is almost impossible for a researcher to gather data in these areas. Davids (1972) reported some d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in administering the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, a questionnaire assessing family atmosphere by measuring h o s t i l i t y - r e j e c t i o n and authority-control. Davids reported parental reluctance in answering questions regard-ing child-rearing practises. He doubted the v a l i d i t y of the test r e s u l t s , wondering whether the parents answered the questions in a way that indicated their preferred method of c h i l d - r a i s i n g rather than reporting about what was actually happening at home. Davids suggested that a more r e l i a b l e measure of family atmosphere would be dir e c t observation by the investigator. This method would undoubtedly result in more accurate data; however, would a researcher be able to convince enough families to allow this intrusion into their homes? Since dir e c t observation and personal questionnaires yi e l d uncertain results, family background factors could be studied by examining those variables in family l i f e which can be measured objectively and without invading people's privacy. This study attempted the task of identifying variables in family background by focussing on the following areas: Family Type, Birth Order, and Family Mobility. Studies which dealt with these three areas are now examined. 2 1 F a m i l y T y p e I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n a d r a m a t i c c h a n g e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y . W i t h d i v o r c e a n d s e p a r a t i o n b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m m o n o c c u r r e n c e s , t h e n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y s e t t i n g s i s g r o w i n g . M o r e a n d m o r e c h i l d r e n d o n o t g r o w u p w i t h t w o p e r m a n e n t p a r e n t s . S o m e c h i l d r e n a r e e x p o s e d t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p a r e n t f i g u r e s a n d s o m e c h i l d r e n l i v e w i t h o n l y o n e p a r e n t . W h a t e f f e c t , i f a n y , d o e s l i v i n g i n a n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e h a v e o n a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t ? S c h l e s i n g e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i n h i s a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e 1 9 7 1 c e n s u s s h o w e d 9 . 4 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s , o r 4 7 7 , 5 2 5 f a m i l i e s , h e a d e d b y o n e p a r e n t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , S c h l e s i n g e r ' s b i b l i o g r a p h y c i t e d o n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o n t h e c h i l d o f l i v i n g i n a o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l y . T h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s f o c u s o n t h e a d u l t who i s r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n a l o n e . O n e s t u d y w h i c h f o c u s s e d o n c h i l d r e n w i t h a b s e n t f a t h e r s w a s c o n d u c t e d b y T h o m a s ( 1 9 6 8 ) . T h o m a s c h o s e 4 7 c h i l d r e n , a g e d 9 t o 1 1 y e a r s , w h o b e l o n g e d t o a l o w s o c i o -e c o n o m i c g r o u p a n d l i v e d w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f 4 7 c h i l d r e n o f t h e s a m e a g e a n d s a m e s o c i o e c o n o m i c b r a c k e t who l i v e d w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s a n d f a t h e r s . T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e g i v e n t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f 22 P e r s o n a l i t y t o m e a s u r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g s e l f -c o n c e p t a n d p e e r r e l a t i o n s . N o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w a s f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s o n e i t h e r v a r i a b l e . T h o m a s e x p l a i n e d t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 9 a n d 1 1 a r e a r e l a t i v e l y q u i e s c i e n t s t a g e i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . A l s o , i n t h e a b s e n t - f a t h e r g r o u p , t h e f a t h e r s h a d b e e n a b s e n t f o r a t l e a s t t w o y e a r s a n d t h e c h i l d r e n h a d p r o b a b l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e i r h o m e s i t u a t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a b s e n c e o f a f a t h e r i n a l o w s o c i o e c o n o -m i c g r o u p w o u l d h a v e b e e n p e r c e i v e d a s a m a j o r e m o t i o n a l l o s s b y t h e c h i l d r e n . P e r h a p s o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a t h o m e h a d a g r e a t e r i m p a c t o n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . B u r c h i n a l ( 1 9 6 4 ) l o o k e d a t a d o l e s c e n t s f r o m u n b r o k e n , b r o k e n , a n d r e c o n s t i t u t e d f a m i l i e s . B u r c h i n a l a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e M i n n e s o t a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a s s e s s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d y s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . T h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o f a c t o r s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e a n d n u m b e r o f f r i e n d s . T h e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e b r o k e n h o m e s m i s s e d m o r e s c h o o l d a y s a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y l i k e d f e w e r s c h o o l - m a t e s t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e u n b r o k e n a n d r e c o n s t i t u t e d g r o u p s . T h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o n s t u d e n t s o f l i v i n g i n a ' s p l i t f a m i l y m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e a n y a s s u m p t i o n s a s t o w h a t e x t e n t t h i s v a r i a b l e 2 3 i n f l u e n c e s a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t w e l l t o t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . O n e m a y a r g u e t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a l u p h e a v a l i n a f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n w o u l d c r e a t e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w h i c h c o u l d b e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o s c h o o l , b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d o u t i n t h i s a r e a , o n e c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e a b o u t c a u s e s a n d e f f e c t s . B i r t h O r d e r B i r t h o r d e r h a s b e e n a p o p u l a r s u b j e c t i n A d l e r i a n w r i t i n g s . A d l e r ( 1 9 3 1 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t e a c h p e r s o n c o n -s t r u c t s f o r h i m / h e r s e l f a u n i q u e l i f e s t y l e w h i c h , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , d e p e n d s o n t h e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s b o r n . B i r t h o r d e r i s t h o u g h t t o b e a n i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r a n d p e r s o n a l i t y o f a n i n d i v i d u a l . I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t r u e , b i r t h o r d e r s h o u l d a l s o h a v e a n e f f e c t o n h o w w e l l a c h i l d i s a b l e t o a d j u s t t o s c h o o l . T h e r e s e a r c h o n b i r t h o r d e r s h o w s s o m e v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . W a r r e n ( 1 9 6 6 ) d i d a s t u d y o f b i r t h o r d e r i n a d u l t s a n d f o u n d a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f i r s t - b o r n s a m o n g e m i n e n t m e n , f o r e x a m p l e , U . S . P r e s i d e n t s a n d a s t r o n a u t s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t f i r s t - b o r n s a r e m o r e d e p e n d e n t a n d m o r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . M a c D o n a l d ( 1 9 7 1 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o n b i r t h o r d e r o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He f o u n d n o d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a s u r e s o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , d o g m a t i s m , a m b i g u i t y a n d t o l e r a n c e , a n d 2 4 n e e d f o r a p p r o v a l . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s o n m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d r i g i d i t y . O n m e a s u r e s o f t h e f o r m e r , o n l y - c h i l d r e n s c o r e d h i g h e s t , f i r s t - b o r n s n e x t , a n d l a t e r - b o r n s s c o r e d l o w e s t . O n m e a s u r e s o f r i g i d i t y , f i r s t - b o r n s s c o r e d h i g h e s t , l a t e r -b o r n s s c o r e d n e x t , a n d o n l y - c h i l d r e n s c o r e d l o w e s t . N e w h o u s e ( 1 9 7 4 ) d i d a s t u d y w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s m e a s u r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n b i r t h o r d e r a n d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . H i s s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 8 0 0 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s f r o m G r a d e s 4 - 6 . A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t w o m a j o r f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , o n l y - c h i l d r e n s e e m e d t o a s s u m e l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u c c e s s t h a n f i r s t - b o r n s o r l a t e r - b o r n s . S e c o n d , f i r s t - b o r n s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t h a n l a t e r - b o r n s . T h e s e c o n d f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t s t h e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s b y M a c D o n a l d ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n d W a r r e n ( 1 9 6 6 ) . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e d p r e s e n t s a n i n c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f t h e r o l e o f b i r t h o r d e r i n p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . S t u d i e s w h i c h w e r e d o n e w i t h a d u l t s c o n t r a d i c t t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h w e r e f o u n d w i t h c h i l d r e n ( M a c D o n a l d , 1 9 7 1 ; W a r r e n , 1 9 6 6 ) . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r w h e t h e r o r n o t b i r t h o r d e r d o e s i n d e e d i n f l u e n c e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t a n d s o c i a l s u c c e s s . F a m i l y M o b i l i t y S t a b i l i t y o f h o m e l o c a t i o n i s a f u r t h e r v a r i a b l e w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s a c h i l d ' s l i f e ( E n g e l , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e r e s e a r c h , h o w e v e r , s e e m s t o b e d i v i d e d o n t h e i s s u e o f g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y a s h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o n a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . W h a l e n a n d F r i e d ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u m m a r -i z e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s who h a d m o v e d t o n e w s c h o o l s . T h e r e s e a r c h f e l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , s t u d i e s w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t m o v i n g h a d a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o n s t u d e n t s , s t u d i e s w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t m o v i n g h a d a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n s t u d e n t s , a n d s t u d i e s w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t m o v i n g h a d n o e f f e c t o n s t u d e n t s . W h a l e n a n d F r i e d h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e m a n y d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o f a m i l y m o b i l i t y w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s c h o o l a d j u s t -m e n t . F o r t h e i r s t u d y t h e y i s o l a t e d t w o f a c t o r s , s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a n d I . Q . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o w o r h i g h s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t . I . Q . w a s f o u n d t o b e a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e . S t u d e n t s w i t h I . Q . s c o r e s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 1 0 p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r w h e n t h e y w e r e m o b i l e t h a n w h e n t h e y d i d n o t c h a n g e s c h o o l s . S t u d e n t s w i t h I . Q . s c o r e s l e s s t h a n 1 1 0 p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r w h e n t h e y d i d n o t c h a n g e s c h o o l s r a t h e r t h a n w h e n t h e y w e r e m o b i l e . S i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s o b t a i n I . Q . s c o r e s o f l e s s t h a n 1 1 0 , o n e m i g h t b e t e m p t e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t , f o r t h e a v e r a g e s t u d e n t , m o b i l i t y i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . H o w e v e r , W h a l e n a n d F r i e d c a u t i o n e d t h e r e a d e r a b o u t t h e i r r e s u l t s . T h e y s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a n I . Q . a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w h e n f a m i l y m o b i l i t y a n d s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t 2 6 p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m o v i n g a n d f a m i l y s i z e a r e t w o s u c h s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . T w o o t h e r s t u d i e s c o n f i r m W h a l e n a n d F r i e d ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e m a n y f a c t o r s w i t h i n a f a m i l y w h i c h d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r m o b i l i t y h a s a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o n c h i l d r e n . C h a s k e l ( 1 9 6 4 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h o s e f a m i l i e s w h o h a v e a h e a l t h y f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o a d j u s t t o m o b i l i t y . G a t h e r c o l e ( 1 9 6 7 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o b i l i t y i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l w h e n i t b e c o m e s a w a y o f h a n d l i n g c o n f l i c t b y s e p a r a t i n g f r o m i t . T h e s t u d i e s o n f a m i l y m o b i l i t y i n d i c a t e t h a t , f o r s o m e s t u d e n t s , c h a n g i n g t o a n e w s c h o o l c a n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r s c h o o l l i f e . T h e q u e s t i o n i s t o f i n d o u t f o r w h i c h s t u d e n t s a n d u n d e r w h i c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s m o v i n g t o a n e w s c h o o l r e s u l t s i n s c h o o l m a l a d j u s t m e n t . C o u n s e l l i n g T e c h n i q u e s a n d E v a l u a t i o n T h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e h i g h l i g h t e d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o c o n t r i -b u t e t o s c h o o l m a l a d j u s t m e n t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h e s e w e r e : p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , a n d f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . I t s e e m s o b v i o u s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s m u s t b e a b l e t o d e a l w i t h a l l o f t h e s e a r e a s i f t h e y a r e t o m a k e a n y e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . M o s t c o u n s e l -l o r s , h o w e v e r , i g n o r e t h e t o t a l l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o f p e o p l e ( D i n k m e y e r & C a r l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s u n d e r s t a n d -a b l e w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t m o s t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e n o t 2 7 t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s i n e f f e c t i v e c h i l d r e a r i n g a n d f a m i l y b r e a k d o w n . A l s o , m a n y p e o p l e a r e n o t y e t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f h o m e a n d s c h o o l s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d . O f t e n a c o u n s e l l o r ' s a t t e m p t s a t w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s i s v i e w e d a s m e d d l i n g . A u b r e y ( 1 9 6 7 ) r a i s e d t w o s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s w h i c h b e s e t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r : 1 . T h e l a c k o f b o t h t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h w h i c h r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a s t o d i r e c t i o n a n d m e t h o d s . 2 . T h e t r a i n i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n a n d m o d e l s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y d e v i s e d f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i r s t o f A u b r e y ' s s t a t e m e n t s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s w h o h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e i d e a o f m e t h o d s a n d d i r e c t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l . A b i d i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t a t e d t h a t o n e r e a s o n c o u n s e l -l o r s w e r e i n e f f e c t i v e w a s t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e o n u s i n g o n e t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n , f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . K e a t ( 1 9 7 4 ) a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g m u s t b e b a s e d o n a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s p r e s e n t l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g a n d o n f a c t o r s i n h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t . A l p e r a n d K r a n z l e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) c o m p a r e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t w o i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , b e h a v i o u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d c o u n s e l l i n g , f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s t r e a t e d 3 6 2 8 c h i l d r e n f o r o u t - o f - s e a t b e h a v i o u r . T h e y c o n d u c t e d i n d i v i d -u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s o v e r a 4 - w e e k p e r i o d . N e i t h e r g r o u p s h o w e d a n y s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t . A l p e r a n d K r a n z l e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t o u t - o f - s e a t b e h a v i o u r w a s a s i t u a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n a n i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o b l e m . T h e y f e l t t h a t t a l k i n g t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e c o u n s e l -l i n g o f f i c e a b o u t b e h a v i o u r w h i c h w a s o c c u r r i n g e l s e w h e r e w a s a w a s t e o f t i m e . A l p e r a n d K r a n z l e r u r g e d c o u n s e l l o r s t o d i s c a r d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g m e t h o d s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d i d n o t o f f e r a d e f i n i t i v e a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h f o r c o u n s e l l o r s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . A u b r e y ' s s e c o n d c o n c e r n d e a l s w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s a n d t r y t o a d a p t t h e s e m e t h o d s t o t h e i r w o r k w i t h c h i l d r e n . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s o f d u b i o u s v a l u e . T h e M a t t h e s , K r a n z l e r , a n d M a y e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d y s h e d s o m e l i g h t o n o n e a s p e c t o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h i s s u p p o s e d l y c r u c i a l t o p r o m o t i n g c h a n g e i n t h e c l i e n t , n a m e l y , c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f c o u n s e l l o r u n c o n d i t i o n a l i t y o f r e g a r d ( R o g e r s , 1 9 5 7 ) . M a t t h e s e t a l w o r k e d w i t h 2 2 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s o n c e a w e e k f o r 6 w e e k s i n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d w e r e t h e B a r r e t t - L e n n a r d s c a l e t o m e a s u r e p e r c e i v e d c o u n s e l l o r u n c o n d i t i o n a l i t y o f r e g a r d , t h e M i c h i g a n S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a s s e s s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c h o o l , a n d a s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y s h o w e d n o p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c l i e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f c o u n s e l l o r 29 u n c o n d i t i o n a l i t y o f r e g a r d and a change i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , a t t i t u d e s , and s o c i a l s k i l l s . M a t t h e s e t a l w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t , w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r a c c e p t a n c e s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s t u d e n t s ' n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . L e v e n t h a l and K r a n z l e r (1968) c o n d u c t e d an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d e p t h o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e . The r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t , f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , t h e r e was no p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i -a b l e s . I n f a c t , L e v e n t h a l and K r a n z l e r f e l t t h e need t o c a u t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s when w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n a b o u t i n t r a p e r s o n a l i s s u e s . C o u n s e l l o r s c a n n o t assume t h a t a c h i l d ' s d i s c l o s i n g o f p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i s t h e r a p e u t i c . The a u t h o r s t h o u g h t i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t d i s c l o s u r e c o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e c h i l d and t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l i t y . A u b r e y ' s c r i t i c i s m o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g , t h a t i s , t h e l a c k o f a t h e o r y and e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d s , e m p h a s i z e d t h e p o i n t t h a t b e f o r e one c a n f o r m u l a t e a t h e o r y o f c o u n s e l l i n g f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , one must h a v e a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s . The r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e many a t t r i b u t e s o f c h i l d r e n w h i c h a r e n o t u n d e r s t o o d . Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e o n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i s i n c o n c l u s i v e o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n a r e t o be i m p r o v e d , t h e r e must be a 3 0 g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s o n a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s a n d e v a l u a t -i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s . H y p o t h e s e s T h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r p o i n t s t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o s c h o o l : 1 . P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 2 . S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 . F a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d T h e s u b s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1 . S t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l s c o r e l o w e r o n m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . 2 . S t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l s c o r e l o w e r o n m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s w h o a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . 3 . S t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l h a v e a l o w e r s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l -a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . 4. S t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l h a v e a g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o m i n g f r o m a o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l y t h a n s t u d e n t s w h o a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . 5 . S t u d e n t s who h a v e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l h a v e a l e s s e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g a f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . 6. S t u d e n t s who have s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l h a v e a t t e n d e d a g r e a t e r number o f s c h o o l s t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o g a t h e r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s b y f o c u s s i n g on t h e f a c t o r s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s u b -s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s e s . 32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d a number o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d ' s a b l i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . N ot much r e s e a r c h has been d o n e , e s p e c i a l l y i n C a n a d a , w h i c h f o c u s s e d on t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t who i s i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . T h i s s t u d y was an a t t e m p t t o l e a r n more a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h e l p c o u n s e l l o r s u n d e r s t a n d and d e a l w i t h t h i s g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s more e f f e c t i v e l y . I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e m e t h o d o l o g y used t o c a r r y o u t t h e s t u d y i s d e s c r i b e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : D e s i g n , P o p u l a t i o n and S a m p l e , P r o c e d u r e , M e a s u r e m e n t I n s t r u m e n t s , H y p o t h e s e s , and D a t a A n a l y s i s . D e s i g n T h i s - s t u d y i s a d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d s t u d y . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who were r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g b e c a u s e o f s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s were compared t o s t u d e n t s who were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . The s t u d y s o u g h t t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s and a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e s e s t u d e n t s d i f -f e r e d f r o m t h e i r w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e e r s . 3 3 P o p u l a t i o n a n d S a m p l e T h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y w a s t h o s e s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 6 a n d 7 who w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g s c h o o l a d j u s t -m e n t p r o b l e m s . T h e s t u d y w a s l i m i t e d t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e u p p e r e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s s i n c e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n s h o w a g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e o f s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n d o o l d e r s t u -d e n t s . S c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n c h i l d r e n a n d , b y t h e t i m e s t u d e n t s r e a c h G r a d e 5 o r 6 , t h e i r s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r h a s s t a b i l i z e d c o n s i d e r a b l y ( C l a r i z i o , 1 9 7 0 ) . A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a w a s c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y . T h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s w e r e c h o s e n b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1 . S c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n — T h e s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t i n e a c h s c h o o l f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t o G r a d e 7 t o t a l l e d a t l e a s t 3 5 0 s t u d e n t s . 2 . S o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l — S c h o o l s w e r e c h o s e n w h i c h w e r e l o c a t e d i n m i d d l e - c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e d u c e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y w h o l i v e d i n e x t r e m e p o v e r t y o r w h o c a m e f r o m e x t r e m e l y w e a l t h y h o m e s . 3 . C u l t u r e — S c h o o l s w e r e c h o s e n w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s w e r e o f A n g l o - S a x o n b a c k g r o u n d . T h i s c r i t e r i o n w a s u s e d t o a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s c o u l d b e m a i n l y d u e t o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . 34 4. S c h o o l t y p e — The s c h o o l s r e f l e c t e d a t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m s . T h e r e were f i v e s c h o o l s i n t h e d i s t r i c t w h i c h s a t i s f i e d t h e s e c r i t e r i a . Two s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The p r i n c i p a l s o f b o t h s c h o o l s r e a d i l y a g r e e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e s t u d y and s e v e n t e a c h -e r s o f G r a d e s 6 and 7 a l s o were i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g w i t h t h e s t u d y . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e s a m p l e s t u d e n t s . They were a s k e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e names o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who had been r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g f o r one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. P o o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . S t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e -ment t e s t s and c l a s s work i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t u -d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i s b e l o w t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d e l e v e l . P o o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i s n o t due t o i d e n t i f i e d o r g a n i c , n e u r o l o g i c a l , o r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . 2. S o c i a l p r o b l e m s . The c h i l d h a s d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h p e e r s o r a d u l t s . 3. E m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . The c h i l d i s c h r o n i c a l l y unhappy o r d e p r e s s e d and i s g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i m / h e r s e l f . 3 5 T h e t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d 2 3 s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s c a t e g o r y . T h e t e a c h e r s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o s e l e c t a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : ( N o t e : S t u d e n t s h a d t o d e m o n s t r a t e a l l o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ) 1 . A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t a s i n d i c a t e d b y s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a n d c l a s s w o r k i s a t ( o r a b o v e ) t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d e l e v e l . 2 . S o c i a l l y t h e c h i l d i n t e r a c t s w e l l w i t h p e e r s a n d a d u l t s . 3 . T h e c h i l d f e e l s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i m / h e r -s e l f a n d h a s r e a l i s t i c s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n s . A f t e r t h e t e a c h e r s h a d i d e n t i f i e d t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d 2 3 t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y c o n t r o l l i n g f o r g r a d e l e v e l a n d s e x . T h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t e a c h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s h a s b e e n s h o w n t o b e r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e . B o w e r a n d L a m b e r t ( 1 9 6 1 ) a s k e d t e a c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y a n d r a t e m a l a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t s b y e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' j u d g e m e n t s w e r e f o u n d t o b e 9 0 p e r c e n t a c c u r a t e w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e c l i n i c i a n s ' a s s e s s m e n t s . 36 L e t t e r s o f p e r m i s s i o n were s e n t o u t t o t h e p a r e n t s whose c h i l d r e n had been c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y s a m p l e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) . T h r e e p a r e n t s r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . One c h i l d moved away, and one s t u d e n t was i l l w h i l e t h e s t u d y was i n p r o g r e s s . One c h i l d i n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p was r a n d o m l y e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s t u d y i n o r d e r t o keep t h e numbers i n e a c h g r o u p e q u a l . The f i n a l number o f t h e s t u d e n t s was 20 i n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p and 20 i n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p . Sex and g r a d e l e v e l were a s f o l l o w s : B o y s G i r l s P r o b l e m G r o u p G r a d e 6 G r a d e 7 8 5 3 4 W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p G r a d e 6 G r a d e 7 7 5 5 3 T o t a l 13 7 T o t a l 12 8 B o y s  G i r l s P r o c e d u r e T h e r e a r e a number o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s w h i c h were used i n t h i s s t u d y t o compare t h e g r o u p o f p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e g r o u p o f w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . The v a r i a b l e s a r e d e f i n e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n o f how e a c h was m e a s u r e d . 37 Personal Adjustment, Social Adjustment, Total Adjustment These three v a r i a b l e s , personal adjustment, s o c i a l adjustment, and total adjustment, were measured using an objective personality inventory, The C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality, Grades 4-8, C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, Thorpe and Clark (1953). The instrument was i n d i v i d u a l l y administered to each student by the researcher. Standardized instruc-tions were given to the participants (see Appendix B). Each test was scored by the researcher after a l l tests had been administered. Personal adjustment, social adjustment, and t o t a l adjustment l e v e l was determined by a r r i v i n g at a numerical score; a low numerical score indicated a low l e v e l of adjustment and a high numerical score indicated a high le v e l of adjustment. Sociometric Status Sociometric status was defined as the number of choices a student received from his/her peers on a sociometric measure which was administered to each p a r t i c i p a t i n g class-room. The classroom teacher was asked to administer t h i s exercise. In this way, the task would be seen by students as a part of the regular classroom routine, no bias would be introduced as a result of experimenter e f f e c t . The teachers were asked to give the students each a piece of paper and then proceed with the following instruc-tions : 38 1. P u t y o u r f i r s t and l a s t name a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a p e r . 2. W r i t e t h e names o f t h r e e p e o p l e i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m w i t h whom you w o u l d l i k e t o s i t . 3. F o l d y o u r p a p e r once and hand i t i n . The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d t h e raw d a t a f r o m t h e t e a c h e r and c o n s t r u c t e d a s o c i o m e t r i c m a t r i x f o r e a c h c l a s s r o o m . The s c o r e s f o r t h e t a r g e t s t u d e n t s were t h e n r e c o r d e d . F a m i l y Type F a m i l y t y p e was d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f p a r e n t s , b i o l o g i c a l o r a d o p t i v e , w i t h whom t h e c h i l d p r e s e n t l y l i v e s . T h e r e were o n e - p a r e n t and t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l y t y p e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by t h e r e -s e a r c h e r f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s . B i r t h O r d e r B i r t h o r d e r was d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n a c h i l d h o l d s i n t h e f a m i l y . Two t y p e s o f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d : f i r s t b o r n s and o n l y c h i l d r e n , and l a t e r b o r n s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s . F a m i l y M o b i l i t y F a m i l y m o b i l i t y was m e a s u r e d by t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s a s t u d e n t had a t t e n d e d s i n c e s t a r t i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n . 3 9 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s . M e a s u r e m e n t I n s t r u m e n t s P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , a n d t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t w e r e m e a s u r e d b y m e a n s o f a p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n -t o r y . K e a t ( 1 9 7 4 ) c o n s i d e r e d p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g t o b e a n e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k d u e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d d u r i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . K e a t l i s t e d o n l y 2 t e s t s w h i c h h e c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r u s e w i t h c h i l d r e n a g e d 8 - 1 2 . O n e o f t h e s e t e s t s i s T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 . F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , F o r m A A , w a s u s e d t o m e a s u r e p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r u s i n g t h i s t e s t i s t h a t i t h a s b e e n u s e d i n m a n y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s a n d h a s a v e r y g o o d r e c o r d o f v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y . S e c o n d -l y , t h e f o r m a t o f t h e t e s t c o n s i s t s o f w h a t K e r l i n g e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) l a b e l s a g r e e m e n t - d i s a g r e e m e n t i t e m s p e r m i t t i n g o n e o f t w o p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d i r e c t i o n s a r e s i m p l e a n d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d u n l i k e l y t o c o n f u s e y o u n g c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e s t s u p p l i e s 1 5 d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s f o r v e r y s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . 4 0 D e s c r i p t i o n o f T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , F o r m A A T h e t e s t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o m a i n p a r t s , p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . E a c h m a j o r s e c t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d t o y i e l d 6 s e p a r a t e , v a l i d , a n d r e l i a b l e s u b s c o r e s : P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t S e l f - r e l i a n c e S e n s e o f P e r s o n a l W o r t h S e n s e o f P e r s o n a l F r e e d o m F e e l i n g o f B e l o n g i n g W i t h d r a w i n g T e n d e n c i e s N e r v o u s S y m p t o m s . S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t S o c i a l S t a n d a r d s S o c i a l S k i l l s A n t i - s o c i a l T e n d e n c i e s F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s C o m m u n i t y R e l a t i o n s T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t T h e t e s t c o n s i s t s o f 1 4 4 d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e s p o n d s " Y e s " o r " N o " . S c o r e s a r e c o m p u t e d f o r 4 1 e a c h s u b t e s t t o y i e l d s c o r e s f o r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t -m e n t s c o r e s a d d e d t o g e t h e r y i e l d a t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e . T h e s c o r e s m a y b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s w h i c h w e r e n o r m e d w i t h 4 , 5 6 2 p u p i l s i n G r a d e s 4 t o 8 i n c l u s i v e i n s c h o o l s i n N e b r a s k a , New J e r s e y , N e w Y o r k , O h i o , M a s s a c h u -s e t t s , a n d C a l i f o r n i a . T h e s a m p l i n g c a s e s c o n s t i t u t e d a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r m e n t a l a b i l i t y a n d t y p i c a l a g e - g r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e l i a b i l i t y T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s h a v e b e e n c o m p u t e d w i t h t h e K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n f o r m u l a . A d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 . 1 . V a l i d i t y T h e m a i n p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y w a s d e s i g n e d a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1 . T o p r o v i d e a f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g a c o n c e p -t u a l s t r u c t u r e a n d a s a m p l i n g o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , a n d a c t i n g p a t t e r n s ) r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e t e r m i n a n t s a n d t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r a n d t o t h e t o t a l f u n c t i o n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y ; 2 . T o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h i s u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d i m p r o v i n g t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t ; 42 TABLE 3.1 RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS CALIFORNIA TEST OF PERSONALITY - ELEMENTARY Form AA Both or BB Forms S.E. S.E. Components r Meas. r Meas. 1. Personal Adjustment .93 3. 44 .96 5. 20 a. Self reliance .64 1.50 .78 2.34 b. Sense of Personal Worth .79 1.49 . 88 2. 25 c. Sense of Personal Freedom .79 1.14 .88 1.73 d. Feeling of Belonging .77 0. 96 .87 1.44 e. Withdrawing Tendencies .83 1.65 .91 2.40 (Freedom from) f. Nervous Symptoms .82 1. 48 . 90 2. 21 (Freedom from) 2. Social Adjustment .92 2. 97 . 96 4.20 a. Social Standards .59 0.96 .74 1.53 b. Social S k i l l s .73 1.30 .84 2. 00 c. A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies .77 0.96 .87 1.44 (Freedom from) d. Family Relations .77 0. 96 . 87 1. 44 e. School Relations .78 1.41 .88 2.08 f. Community Relations .79 0.69 . 88 2. 08 Total Adjustment .94 5.02 .97 7.09 Number of cases 648 4 3 3 . T o s e r v e a s a n i n s t r u m e n t o f r e s e a r c h f o r o b t a i n i n g o t h e r t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y f o u n d t h a t t h e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d m o r e c l o s e l y w i t h c l i n i c a l f i n d i n g s t h a n a n y o t h e r t e s t ( S u m m a r y o f I n v e s t i g a -t i o n s , 1 9 4 9 ) . J a c k s o n ( 1 9 4 6 ) c o m p a r e d t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e f o r e v a l u a t i n g p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . J a c k s o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y p r o v i d e d a m o r e a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n a s w e l l a s b e i n g m o r e e f f i c i e n t t h a n i n t e r v i e w s . T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y i s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . T h e S u m m a r y o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , N u m b e r O n e , E n l a r g e d E d i t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , l i s t s a n d d e s c r i b e s s o m e 9 0 o f t h e s e s t u d i e s . T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , s e e m e d a l o g i c a l c h o i c e f o r u s e i n t h i s s t u d y t o m e a s u r e p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s a n d w e l l -a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 6 a n d 7 . T h e t e s t h a s a g o o d r e c o r d o f v a l i d i t y a n d h a s b e e n u s e d f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y i n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . T h e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t i s n o t o n e r o u s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 m i n u t e s p e r c h i l d . T h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s c o m f o r t a b l e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; t h e y a r e a s s u r e d o f t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a n d n e e d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e t e s t e r o n l y a s m u c h a s t h e y 44 d e s i r e . The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y was used b e c a u s e i t seemed t o g e n e r a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e and n o n -t h r e a t e n i n g manner. S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s K e r l i n g e r (1973) d e f i n e d s o c i o m e t r y a s t h e s t u d y and m e a s u r e m e n t o f s o c i a l c h o i c e . K e a t s ( 1 9 7 4 ) d e s c r i b e d s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r u s i n g s o c i o m e t r y w i t h c h i l d r e n some o f w h i c h a r e : 1. S o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s c a n be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r s c r e e n i n g and a s s e s s i n g s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s . 2. The p r o c e d u r e g e n e r a t e s t e a c h e r i n t e r e s t and i n -v o l v e m e n t . 3. I t c a n be u t i l i z e d as a c r i t e r i o n f o r b e h a v i o u r c hange b e f o r e and a f t e r a c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s s t u d y used s o c i o m e t r y f o r t h e f i r s t r e a s o n s t a t e d . The s t u d y compared t h e number o f c h o i c e s w h i c h p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s and w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e q u e s t : " W r i t e t h e names o f t h r e e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m w i t h whom you w o u l d l i k e t o s i t " . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h i s s t u d y m e a s u r e d t h e s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f . p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s as compared t o w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . A l s o , s i n c e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s c o n s t i t u t e d one o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f s c h o o l 4 5 m a l a d j u s t m e n t , t h e s t u d y s e r v e d t o v e r i f y t h e t e a c h e r s ' c r i t e r i a f o r r e f e r r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . A s o c i o m e t r i c m a t r i x w a s u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . K e r l i n g e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) s t a t e d t h a t s o c i o m e t r y i s u s e f u l f o r c l a s s i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t s o c i o m e t r y i s a s i m p l e , e c o n o m i c , a n d n a t u r a l t e s t i n g m e t h o d w h i c h w o r k s a s w e l l f o r k i n d e r -g a r t n e r s a s f o r a t o m i c s c i e n t i s t s . T h e r e i s c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a s o c i o m e t r i c m a t r i x w a s a d e s i r -a b l e m e a s u r e t o u s e i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s o f G r a d e 6 a n d 7 s t u d e n t s . N u l l H y p o t h e s e s T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n m e a n p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 2 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n m e a n s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 3 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n m e a n t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s 4 6 m e a s u r e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 4 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s b e t w e e n e l e -m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 5 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n f a m i l y t y p e b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s ; 6 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n b i r t h o r d e r b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 7 . T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n f a m i l y m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . D a t a A n a l y s i s D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e h a s b e e n g i v e n , i n c l u d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g r a d e , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . 4 7 I n f e r e n t i a l D a t a 1 . P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t T h e p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e i s o r d i n a l - i n t e r v a l . A t - t e s t w a s r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e a n s c o r e s o f t h e g r o u p s . A l p h a w a s s e t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . 2 . S o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t T h e s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t m e a s u r e i s a n o r d i n a l - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . A t - t e s t w a s r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e a n s c o r e s o f t h e g r o u p s . A l p h a w a s s e t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . 3 . T o t a l a d j u s t m e n t T h e t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t m e a s u r e i s a n o r d i n a l - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . A t - t e s t w a s r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e a n s c o r e s o f t h e g r o u p . A l p h a w a s s e t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . 4 . S o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s T h e n u m b e r o f c h o i c e s a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e d f r o m h i s / h e r p e e r s d e t e r m i n e s h i s / h e r s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . T h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n n u m b e r o f c h o i c e s i n e a c h g r o u p . A l p h a w a s s e t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . A 2 x 3 g r i d w a s c o n s t r u c t e d a s f o l -l o w s : 4 8 N u m b e r o f c h o i c e s b y p e e r s 0 - 1 2 - 3 4 + P r o b l e m G r o u p W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p 5 . F a m i l y t y p e F a m i l y t y p e r e f e r s t o o n e - p a r e n t a n d t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . T h e c h i s q u a r e t e s t w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n u m b e r o f o n e - p a r e n t v e r s u s t w o -p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n e a c h g r o u p . A l p h a w a s s e t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . A 2 x 2 g r i d w a s c o n s t r u c t e d a s f o l l o w s : F a m i l y T y p e O n e - p a r e n t T w o - p a r e n t P r o b l e m G r o u p W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p 6 . B i r t h o r d e r B i r t h o r d e r w a s m e a s u r e d o n t h e b a s i s o f f i r s t - b o r n a n d o n l y c h i l d r e n , a n d l a t e r b o r n s . T h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n u m b e r o f f i r s t b o r n / o n l y c h i l d r e n a n d l a t e r b o r n s i n e a c h g r o u p . A l p h a was s e t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . A 2x2 g r i d was c o n s t r u c t e d as f o l l o w s : B i r t h O r d e r F i r s t b o r n s / o n l y L a t e r b o r n s P r o b l e m G r o u p W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p 7. F a m i l y m o b i l i t y F a m i l y m o b i l i t y was m e a s u r e d by t h e number o f d i f -f e r e n t s c h o o l s a s t u d e n t has a t t e n d e d s i n c e k i n d e r -g a r t e n . The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d i n e a c h g r o u p . A l p h a was s e t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . A 2x2 g r i d was c o n s t r u c t e d as f o l l o w s : Number o f S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d 1 - 2 3 + P r o b l e m G r o u p W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p C o n c l u s i o n C h a p t e r 3 h a s d e a l t w i t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h was u s e d t o c o n d u c t t h i s s t u d y . A d e s c r i p t i o n was g i v e n o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h were f o l l o w e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e s t u d y . A r a t i o n a l e was 50 g i v e n f o r c h o o s i n g t h e s p e c i f i c m e asurement i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h were used i n t h e s t u d y and a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, and t h e s o c i o m e t r i c m a t r i x a r e i n c l u d e d . A l s o i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were l i s t e d and t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s i s e x p l a i n e d . The n e x t c h a p t e r f o c u s s e s on t h e o b t a i n e d d a t a and i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . CHAPTER 4 51 RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e p a r a m e t r i c and n o n - p a r a -m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s / s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h were used t o a n a l y z e t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a . H y p o t h e s e s 1, 2, and 3 were t e s t e d u s i n g a t - t e s t t o compare t h e s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p and t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e g r o u p s — two i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s w i t h s i g m a unknown, d f e q u a l s 38 (n + n - 2) — t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a was used t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a : X l - X2 w h e r e : X i mean s c o r e o f t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p X2 mean s c o r e o f t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p no. o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p no. o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p p o o l e d v a r i a n c e . The p o o l e d v a r i a n c e was computed as f o l l o w s : S 2 p = ( n i - l ) ( S i 2 ) + ( n 2 - D ( S 2 2 ) n1 + n 2 - 2 52 H y p o t h e s i s 1: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) i n mean p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, b e t w e e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t was m e a s u r e d by s i x s u b t e s t s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s i l l u s t r a t e d by T a b l e 4.1. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . The t - s c o r e s f o r t h e s i x s u b t e s t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x C. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s w h i c h measure f r e e d o m f r o m n e r v o u s symptoms. T h i s r e s u l t seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y show t h e same d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n as t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s i n t e r m s o f d i s p l a y i n g n e r v o u s symptoms. C l a r i z i o ' s r e -s e a r c h (1970) i n d i c a t e d t h a t most c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d some n e r v o u s symptoms a t some s t a g e , s u c h as n i g h t m a r e s , s t o m a c h a c h e s , l a c k o f a p p e t i t e , b u t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e symptoms d i s a p p e a r by t h e t i m e a c h i l d r e a c h e s age 9. T h i s s t u d y seems t o p o i n t o u t t h a t p u p i l s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s m a t u r e a t a b o u t t h e same r a t e as w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s i n t e r m s o f o u t g r o w i n g n e r v o u s symptoms. 53 TABLE 4.1 PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT, SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, TOTAL ADJUSTMENT P r o b l e m G r o u p W e l l - a d j u s t e d G r o u p Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S t a n d a r d Mean D e v i a t i o n t - s c o r e P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t 44.7 10.714 54.50 7.416 3.3291* S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t 46.3 10.583 55.65 5. 914 3.4490* T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t 91.1 19.338 110.15 11.146 3.8169* * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; t - c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ±2.021 w i t h 38 d f . 54 H y p o t h e s i s 2: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) i n mean s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . S o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t was m e a s u r e d by s i x s u b t e s t s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s i l l u s t r a t e d by T a b l e 4.1. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s who"are i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . The t - s c o r e s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s w h i c h f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x D. I n t h i s s e r i e s o f t e s t s t h e one m e a s u r i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i s a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i n f a i l i n g t o a p p r o a c h a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n b o t h t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p and t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p a r e s i m i l a r . I t i s a l s o p o s -s i b l e t h a t t h e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were a s k e d were t o o p e r s o n a l a n d , p e r h a p s , t h r e a t e n i n g t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a c h i l d c o u l d f e e l a c o n f l i c t o f l o y a l t i e s i n a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : "Do y o u l i k e b o t h o f y o u r p a r e n t s a b o u t t h e same?" "Do y o u s o m e t i m e s f e e l l i k e r u n n i n g away f r o m home?" "Do you f e e l t h a t no one a t home l o v e s y o u ? " 55 L e v e n t h a l and K r a n z l e r (1968) c a u t i o n e d c o u n s e l l o r s a b o u t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' f r a g i l e p s y c h e s a n d recommended e x t r e m e s e n s i t i v i t y when d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s i n t r a p e r s o n a l i s s u e s . P e r h a p s t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s t e s t i s an e x a m p l e o f q u e s t i o n i n g w h i c h was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e e x a m i n e r had n o t e s t a b l i s h e d a c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . H y p o t h e s i s 3: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) i n mean t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . The t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.1. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on m e a s u r e s o f t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . H y p o t h e s e s 4, 5, 6, and 7 were t e s t e d u s i n g a non-p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e , t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i s a t e s t o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f v a r i a b l e s ; i t i n d i -c a t e s w h e t h e r o r n o t a d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s i s s t a t i s t i c a l -l y s i g n i f i c a n t o r m e r e l y a c h a n c e r e s u l t . The f o r m u l a f o r c a l c u l a t i n g c h i - s q u a r e i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : 5 6 ( f - f ) 2 x 2 = n _ o e _ j f e H y p o t h e s i s 4 : T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s b e t w e e n e l e -m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . A s o c i o g r a m w a s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r e a c h p a r t i c i p a t i n g c l a s s r o o m a n d y i e l d e d t h e r e s u l t s s h o w n i n T a b l e 4 . 2 . T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r o n a m e a s u r e o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . H y p o t h e s i s 5 ; T h e r e i s n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) i n f a m i l y t y p e b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . F a m i l y t y p e w a s d e f i n e d a s o n e - p a r e n t a n d t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . T h e r e s u l t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4 . 3 . T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e o f a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f a m i l y t y p e 57 TABLE 4.2 NUMBER OF CHOICES BY PEERS 0-1 2-3 4 + P r o b l e m g r o u p 14 6 0 W e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p 3 6 11 X 2 = 18.11 * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; x 2 c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ±5.991 w i t h 2 d f . 58 b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s who have s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s and , s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . H y p o t h e s i s 6; T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) i n b i r t h o r d e r b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . B i r t h o r d e r was d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : f i r s t b o r n and o n l y c h i l d r e n , and l a t e r b o r n s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e -s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.4. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n b i r t h o r d e r b e tween e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s Q who have s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s and s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . H y p o t h e s i s 7: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) i n f a m i l y m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . F a m i l y m o b i l i t y was d e t e r m i n e d by c o u n t i n g how many d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s a c h i l d h a d a t t e n d e d s i n c e s t a r t i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.5. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d s i n c e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a 59 TABLE 4.3 FAMILY TYPE O n e - p a r e n t f a m i l y T w o - p a r e n t f a m i l y P r o b l e m g r o u p 6 14 W e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p 5 15 X 2 = 0.125 X 2 - c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ±3.841 a t t h e .05 l e v e l w i t h 1 d f . 60 TABLE 4.4 BIRTH ORDER F i r s t b o r n / O n l v L a t e r b o r n P r o b l e m g r o u p 6 14 . W e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p 9 11 X 2 = 0.96 X 2 - c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ±3.841 a t t h e .05 l e v e l w i t h 1 d f . 61 TABLE 4.5 NUMBER OF SCHOOLS ATTENDED 1 - 2 3 + P r o b l e m g r o u p 11 9 W e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p 19 1 X 2 = 8.53 * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; x 2 ~ c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ±3.841 w i t h 1 d f . 62 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f a m i l y m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s who have s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s and s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . Summary The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e a r e m e a s u r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s as h a v i n g s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b -l e m s and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g w e l l -a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . The c o l l e c t e d d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e w e l l -a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s on m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , and t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s a l s o s c o r e d l o w e r on a m e a s u r e o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . I n a d d i -t i o n , t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on a m e a s u r e o f f a m i l y m o b i l i t y t h a n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d f o r two v a r i a b l e s : f a m i l y t y p e and b i r t h o r d e r . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e q u e n c y o f o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e was a l s o no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p and t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p i n t e r m s o f t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f f i r s t b o r n / o n l y c h i l d r e n and l a t e r b o r n s . CHAPTER 5 63 DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS D i s c u s s i o n The l i t e r a t u r e on c o u n s e l l i n g has shown t h a t t h e s e r -v i c e s t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e i n a d e q u a t e ( A l l a n , 1976; M e r c h a n t & Z i n g l e , 1977) and o f t e n seem t o be i n e f f e c -t i v e ( A l p e r & K r a n z l e r , 1970; K r a n z l e r , 1968; Mayer e t a l , 1967). A u b r e y (1967) l i s t e d f a c t o r s s u c h a s l a c k o f a c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r y and i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s as c o n t r i b u t i n g i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h c o u n s e l l o r s a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g when w o r k i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s . M e r c h a n t and Z i n g l e (1977) c a l l e d f o r a g r e a t e r r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g c h i l d -r e n ' s n e e d s so t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d be g i v e n some d i r e c -t i o n s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s s t u d y s o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s who have been i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g s c h o o l a d j u s t -ment p r o b l e m s and t o a s c e r t a i n how t h e s e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s d i f f e r f r o m t h e i r w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y showed t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s h a r e d a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d them f r o m t h e w e l l -a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . 64 P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The r e s u l t s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, showed t h a t , r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s c o r e d l o w e r on t e s t s m e a s u r i n g p e r s o n a l w o r t h , f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g , and f r e e d o m f r o m w i t h d r a w a l t e n d e n c i e s . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s have a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c y . They f e e l a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s a n d , p o s s i b l y , e x h i b i t a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l i n s e c u r i t y t h a n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n s e c u r i t y c o u l d i n h i b i t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d c r e a t e a gap b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e e r s and t e a c h e r s . S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s s c o r e d l o w e r on t e s t s m e a s u r i n g s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s , s o c i a l s k i l l s , s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s , and c o mmunity r e l a t i o n s t h a n t h e w e l l -a d j u s t e d g r o u p . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s do n o t know o r do n o t a c c e p t some o f t h e s o c i a l e t h i c s w h i c h a r e a p a r t o f o u r c u l t u r e . The r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e w i t h t h e s c h o o l and w i t h t h e i r c ommunity t h a n do t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . The s o c i o g r a m showed t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e w e r c h o i c e s f r o m t h e i r p e e r s t h a n d i d t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . The p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d a " p r o b l e m " n o t o n l y by t h e i r t e a c h e r s b u t a l s o 65 by t h e i r p e e r s who show t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l by n o t a c c e p t i n g them. F a m i l y B a c k g r o u n d The measure o f f a m i l y m o b i l i t y showed t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d a g r e a t e r number o f s c h o o l s t h a n t h e s t u -d e n t s i n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p . T h i s e v i d e n c e seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t some o f t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s have l i t t l e c h a n c e t o d e v e l o p a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g t o a c e r t a i n s c h o o l and c o m m u n i t y s i n c e t h e y o f t e n change t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . An i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t w h i c h emerged p o s t hoc was t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t , t h o u g h some o f t h e s t u d e n t s had c h a n g e d s c h o o l s , t h e i r r e s i d e n c e had n o t c h a n g e d . Upon f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r l e a r n e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s who had e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s were p l a c e d i n a n o t h e r s c h o o l i n t h e hope o f i m p r o v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s . O b v i o u s l y , i n some c a s e s , t h e p r a c t i c e d i d n o t p r o v e t o be s u c c e s s f u l . I n r e t r o s p e c t , i t w o u l d have been u s e f u l t o i n c l u d e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on s c h o o l t r a n s f e r i n t h i s s t u d y . A d d i t i o n a l R e s u l t s T h i s s t u d y a l s o v e r i f i e d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i n s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s who a r e i n need o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The p r o b l e m g r o u p s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on a m e a s u r e o f t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s g r o u p d e f i n i t e l y needed s p e c i a l i z e d h e l p i n o r d e r t o d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s . 6 6 T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4 - 8 , a n d t h e s o c i o g r a m w e r e f o u n d t o b e v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . C o u n s e l l o r s a n d t e a c h e r s c o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e s e m e a s u r e s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i -f y h i g h - r i s k s t u d e n t s e a r l y a n d t o p l a n s u i t a b l e i n t e r v e n -t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t R e s u l t s b i r t h o r d e r : B i r t h o r d e r , a m e a s u r e o f t h e n u m b e r o f f i r s t b o r n / o n l y c h i l d r e n a n d l a t e r b o r n s i n t h e t w o g r o u p s , d i d n o t s h o w a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s a m p l e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w a s n o t l a r g e e n o u g h t o g e t a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f b i r t h o r d e r . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t b i r t h o r d e r d i f f e r e n c e s s h o w u p m o r e d i s t i n c t l y i n o l d e r p e r s o n s . T h e s t u d i e s b y M a c D o n a l d ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n d W a r r e n ( 1 9 6 6 ) w h i c h s h o w e d b i r t h o r d e r d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h a d u l t s . f a m i l y t y p e : F a m i l y t y p e , o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s v e r s u s t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , w a s a s e c o n d v a r i a b l e w h i c h s h o w e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p a n d t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p . P o s s i b l y t h i s e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e t h e o r y s u g g e s t e d b y T h o m a s ( 1 9 6 8 ) t h a t t h e a g e o f t h e c h i l d a n d t h e l e n g t h o f a b s e n c e o f t h e s e c o n d p a r e n t p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n d e t e r m i n -i n g t h e l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t o u t c o m e . B u r c h i n a l ( 1 9 6 4 ) , o n 67 t h e o t h e r h a n d , f e l t t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m b r o k e n homes a r e b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m unhappy, u n b r o k e n homes. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e number o f p a r e n t s a c h i l d h a s . P e r h a p s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e been i n e r r o r when l o o k i n g a t t h e o n e - p a r e n t v e r s u s t h e t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l y . I t may be more p r o d u c t i v e t o l o o k a t f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f p a r e n t s , w h i c h seem t o p r o d u c e w e l l - a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n and a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y some common e l e m e n t s . A r e a s s u c h a s f a m i l y a t m os-p h e r e , c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r e n t s c o u l d be e x a m i n e d . R e s e a r c h -e r s w o r k i n g i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d p r o b a b l y f a c e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e g a r d i n g i s s u e s s u c h as i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y and b r e a c h o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . However, i t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y b e n e f i c i a l t o d i s c o v e r t h e common e l e m e n t s o f t h e f a m i l i e s o f w e l l -a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . o Summary T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s t u d e n t who e x h i b i t s s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s d i f f e r s f r o m a s t u d e n t who i s i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s f e e l i n s e c u r e a b o u t t h e i r p e r s o n a l w o r t h and t h a t t h e y have few c l o s e c o n t a c t s among t h e i r p e e r s . T hese s t u d e n t s f e e l a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e s c h o o l e n v i -r o n m ent and do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o be w o r t h w h i l e and c o n t r i b u t i n g members o f t h e s c h o o l . The p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s 68 have l i t t l e s e n s e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l o r f e e l t h a t t h e y do n o t r e a l l y b e l o n g t o t h e s c h o o l and t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u -d e n t s i n G r a d e s 6 and 7 who c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as l i v i n g i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y may n o t be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o s t u d e n t s who l i v e i n e x t r e m e s o c i o -e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , t o m i n o r i t y g r o u p c h i l d r e n , o r t o much o l d e r o r much y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . S c h o o l m a l a d j u s t m e n t due t o d e p r i v a t i o n , r a c i a l p r o b l e m s , o r a g e - r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o b l e m s i s a s e p a r a t e i s s u e . A s e c o n d l i m i t a t i o n was t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y , a t o t a l o f 40 s t u d e n t s , 20 i n t h e p r o b l e m g r o u p and 20 i n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p . A l a r g e r n w o u l d have added g r e a t e r w e i g h t t o t h e r e s u l t s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y have d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e w o r k i n g w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n "How soon c a n you i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n ? " p o s e d by E n g e l (1972) c a n be a n s w e r e d t o some d e g r e e . The s t u d y showed t h a t p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 6 and 7 c a n be i d e n t i f i e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , G r a d e s 4-8, t o them, and by c o n s t r u c t i n g a c l a s s r o o m s o c i o g r a m . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y 6 9 t e s t c o u l d b e u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , f o r e x a m p l e , G r a d e 4 s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i t h y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s w o u l d b e u s e f u l s i n c e e a r l y d e t e c t i o n a n d i n t e r v e n -t i o n i s s e e n t o b e i m p o r t a n t i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o a d j u s t t o s c h o o l ( C l a r i z i o , 1 9 7 0 ; L e w i s , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h i s s t u d y a l s o s u p p o r t e d f i n d i n g s w h i c h c l a i m t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t , s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t , a n d s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t ( C o o p e r s m i t h , 1 9 5 9 ; L e w i s , 1 9 6 8 ; W i l l i a m s & C o l e , 1 9 6 8 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m s s e e m t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d d e a l o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y w i t h t h e i s s u e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . M o s t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a d m i n i s t e r I . Q . a n d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s b u t v e r y f e w a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e v a l i d , r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t ( W i l l i a m s & C o l e , 1 9 6 8 ) . C o u n s e l l o r s m u s t m a k e e d u c a t o r s a w a r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t , s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t , a n d s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d u t i l i z e s e l f - c o n c e p t m e a s u r e s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s . T h e s t u d i e s b y A l l a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) a n d M e r c h a n t a n d Z i n g l e ( 1 9 7 7 ) d o c u m e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y h o w s c a r c e t h e s e r v i c e o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g i s . M a n y c o u n s e l l o r s h a d i m p o s s i b l e c l i e n t l o a d s a n d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d n o c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s w h a t s o e v e r . T h i s s t u d y s h o w e d t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s n e e d n o t b e a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g , e x p e n s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g . I n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y . T h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y c a n b e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a w h o l e c l a s s i n 70 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m i n u t e s . S i m i l a r l y , a s o c i o g r a m c a n be c o n d u c t e d i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . The i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e i s t h a t a t e a c h e r c o u l d u n d e r t a k e t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s , t h u s l e a v i n g t h e c o u n s e l l o r f r e e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . A f u r t h e r r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' j u d g m e n t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s . The s t u d e n t s who were r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s c o r e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on m e a s u r e s o f t o t a l a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i o -m e t r i c s t a t u s t h a n t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s . T h i s r e s u l t u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c l o s e l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t e a c h -e r and c o u n s e l l o r . B o t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s t u -d e n t s . E n g e l ' s (1972) s e c o n d q u e s t i o n : "How do y o u b e s t d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n ? " c a n a l s o be d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t a c o u n s e l -l o r must work i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e , p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i f t h e s t u d e n t i s t o b e n e f i t f r o m c o u n s e l l i n g and i f s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s a r e t o be a l l e v i a t e d . I n t h e p e r s o n a l a r e a , t h e c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s o f s e c u r i t y and p e r -s o n a l w o r t h . The t e a c h e r and p a r e n t s w o u l d a l s o be i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o a t t a i n a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . I n t h e a r e a o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , t h e c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d i n i t i a t e g r o u p o r c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r i n g a r o u n d 7 1 s o c i a l i s s u e s . T h e t e a c h e r c o u l d d o v a l u a b l e p r e v e n t i v e w o r k b y u s i n g m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s " T h e M a g i c C i r c l e " b y B e s s e l a n d P a l o m a r e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) o r " T h e D . U . S . O K i t " b y D i n k m e y e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e t e a c h e r c o u l d . a l s o a d m i n i s t e r a s o c i o g r a m p e r i o d i c a l l y i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n o b j e c t i v e d a t a o n t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e p u p i l s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s a r e a b y e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a p r o -g r a m i n a f f e c t i v e a n d s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n o n t h e s c h o o l a d j u s t -m e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h e t h i r d a r e a w h e r e a c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d i n t e r v e n e h a s b e e n l a b e l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s c h o o l s i t u a -t i o n i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s . W h a t s e e m s t o b e n e e d e d i s a n a f f i r m a t i v e p r o g r a m t o h e l p s t u d e n t s who a r e n e w t o a s c h o o l t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e w r i t e r h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o f i n d a s c h o o l w h i c h h a s s u c h a p r o g r a m . S p l e t e a n d R a s m u s s e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e f i n i t e l y r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d t a k e a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n t h i s a r e a a n d , w i t h t h e h e l p o f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , d e v i s e a p r o g r a m t o s u i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l t o a s s i s t t h e i r n e w s t u d e n t s . E m p h a -s i s s h o u l d a l s o b e g i v e n t o t e a c h i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s t u -d e n t s h o w t o w e l c o m e n e w s t u d e n t s a n d h o w t o i n c l u d e t h e m i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . A f u r t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w o u l d b e t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r a c t i c e o f t r a n s f e r r i n g p r o b l e m s t u d e n t s f r o m o n e s c h o o l t o a n o t h e r . F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s c o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t a s t u d e n t ' s p r o b l e m s a r e a l l e v i a t e d b y t h e t r a n s f e r . A l s o , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h i c h t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s a r e 7 2 d i m i n i s h e d a n d w h i c h o n e s a r e e x a c e r b a t e d b y a n e w e n v i r o n -m e n t s h o u l d b e a d d r e s s e d . C o n c l u s i o n T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y g i v e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s o m e o f t h e n e e d s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f t h o s e r e s e a r c h e r s w h o s t a t e d t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n m u s t b e w i t h t h e w h o l e c h i l d i n h i s / h e r i n d i v i d u a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( A l p e r & K r a n z l e r , 1 9 7 0 ; C o m b s , 1 9 6 4 ; D i n k m e y e r & C a r l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ; K e a t , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e s t u d y a l s o g i v e s s u p p o r t t o L e w i s ' ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t a t e m e n t w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c o u n s e l l o r m u s t a s s i s t c h i l d r e n b y h e l p i n g t h e m t o u n d e r s t a n d s o c i e t y . A c o u n s e l l o r m u s t h e l p t h e c h i l d c o r r e c t f a u l t y a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t . A n d f i n a l l y , a c o u n s e l l o r m u s t h e l p s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r . 7 3 R E F E R E N C E S A b i d i n , R . J r . W h a t ' s w r o n g w i t h b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 9 ( 1 ) , 3 8 - 4 2 . A d l e r , A . W h a t l i f e s h o u l d m e a n t o y o u . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n & C o . , 1 9 3 1 . A l l a n , J . A . B . T h e n e e d f o r t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e B . C . s c h o o l s y s t e m . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 1 9 7 6 , 2 ( 1 ) , 3 3 - 3 9 . A l p e r , T . G . & K r a n z l e r , G . D . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s o f b e h a v i o u r a l a n d c l i e n t c e n t r e d a p p r o a c h e s f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 7 0 , 5 ( 1 ) , 3 5 - 4 3 . A t t w e l l , A . A . S o m e f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o u n d e r a c h i e v e -m e n t i n s c h o o l : A s u g g e s t e d r e m e d y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 3 ( 2 ) , 9 8 - 1 0 3 . A u b r e y , A . F . T h e l e g i t i m a c y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l -l i n g : S o m e u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s a n d c o n f l i c t s . T h e P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 7 , 4 6 ( 4 ) , 3 5 5 - 3 5 8 . A u b r e y , A . F . G u i d a n c e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n : S l o g a n o r r e a l i t y ? E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 2 ( 4 ) , 2 4 3 - 2 5 2 . B e s s e l , H . & P a l o m a r e s , U . H u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m . C a l i f o r n i a : H u m a n D e v e l o p m e n t I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 0 . B l a n c o , R . F . P r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g a n d  a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C . T h o m a s , 1 9 7 2 . B l o c h e r , D . H . D e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l i n g . N e w Y o r k : T h e R o n a l d P r e s s C o . , 1 9 6 6 . B o w e r , E . M . & L a m b e r t , N . M . A p r o c e s s f o r i n - s c h o o l s c r e e n - i n g o f c h i l d r e n w i t h e m o t i o n a l h a n d i c a p s . C a l i f o r n i a : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 1 . B u r c h i n a l , L . G . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d o l e s c e n t s f r o m u n b r o -k e n , b r o k e n , a n d r e c o n s t i t u t e d f a m i l i e s . J o u r n a l o f  M a r r i a g e a n d t h e F a m i l y , 1 9 6 4 , X X V I , 4 4 - 5 1 . C a p l a n , G . ( E d . ) . P r e v e n t i o n o f m e n t a l d i s o r d e r s i n c h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s I n c . , 1 9 6 1 . C h a s k e l , R . E f f e c t o f m o b i l i t y o n f a m i l y l i f e . S o c i a l W o r k , 1 9 6 4 , 9 ( 4 ) , 8 3 - 9 1 . C l a i b o r n , H . F . & C o h e n , R . S c h o o l i n t e r v e n t i o n . N e w Y o r k : B e h a v i o u r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 3 . 7 4 C l a r i z i o , H . F . & M c C o y , G . F . B e h a v i o r d i s o r d e r s i n s c h o o l -a g e d c h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 7 0 . C o m b s , C . F . P e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f a n d s c h o l a s t i c u n d e r a c h i e v e -m e n t i n t h e a c a d e m i c a l l y c a p a b l e . T h e P e r s o n n e l a n d  G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 4 , 4 3 ( 1 ) , 4 7 - 5 1 . C o o p e r s m i t h , S . A m e t h o d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t y p e s o f , s e l f -e s t e e m . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 9 , 5 9 , 8 7 - 9 4 . D a v i d s , A . A b n o r m a l c h i 1 d r e n a n d y o u t h : T h e r a p y a n d r e s e a r c h . T o r o n t o : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 7 2 . D i n k m e y e r , D . D e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f a n d o t h e r s . M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , 1 9 7 0 . D i n k m e y e r , D . & C a r l s o n , J . C o n s u l t a t i o n : A b o o k o f r e a d - i n g s . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 7 5 . D i n k m e y e r , D . J r . & D i n k m e y e r , D . C o n c i s e c o u n s e l i n g a s s e s s m e n t : T h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i f e - s t y l e g u i d e . E l e m e n t a r y  S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 7 7 , 1 2 ( 2 ) , 1 1 7 - 1 2 4 . D r e i k u r s , R . T h e c h a l l e n g e o f p a r e n t h o o d . New Y o r k : D u e l l , S l o a n , P e a r c e , 1 9 5 8 . E n g e l , M . P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n c h i l d h o o d . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h I n c . , 1 9 7 2 . E r i k s o n , E . C h i l d h o o d a n d s o c i e t y . N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o . , 1 9 6 3 . F a u s t , V . E s t a b l i s h i n g g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 6 8 . G a d e , E . M . I n n o v a t i v e u s e s o f s o c i o m e t r y i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 7 7 , 1 2 ( 2 ) , 1 3 3 - 1 3 7 . G a t h e r c o l e , D . J . M o b i l i t y : I t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e a n d s o c i a l c a s e w o r k . C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1 9 6 7 , 4 6 ( 1 ) , 1 6 - 2 3 . G l a s s , G . V . & S t a n l e y , J . C . S t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s i n e d u c a t i o n  a n d p s y c h o l o g y . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 7 0 . H a r r i s , S . R . R a t i o n a l e m o t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m : A g u i d a n c e s t u d y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 7 6 , 2 ( 2 ) , 1 1 3 - 1 2 3 . H o l t , J . W h a t d o I d o M o n d a y ? New Y o r k : D e l l P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 7 0 . 7 5 J a c k s o n , J . T h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a p e r - p e n c i l t e s t , i n t e r v i e w , a n d r a t i n g s a s t e c h n i q u e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 4 6 , 2 3 , 3 5 - 5 4 . — K e a t , D . B . F u n d a m e n t a l s o f c h i l d c o u n s e l i n g . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 7 4 . K e r l i n g e r , F . N . F o u n d a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 7 3 . K r a n z l e r , G . D . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l i n g : A n e v a l u a t i o n . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 2 ( 4 ) , 2 8 6 - 2 9 4 . L e v e n t h a l , R . B . & K r a n z l e r , G . D . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e p t h o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : A n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d  C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 3 ( 1 ) , 1 2 - 1 9 . L e w i s , M . D . S e l f - c o n c e p t a n d l e a r n i n g : B r e a k i n g t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 2 ( 3 ) , 1 7 3 - 1 7 8 . L e w i s , M . D . T h e e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l i n g a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n u p o n t h e s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s a n d p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l a d j u s t -m e n t o f t h i r d g r a d e p u p i l s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e  a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 7 0 , 5 ( 1 ) , 4 4 - 5 2 . L l o y d - J o n e s , E . , B a r r y , R . , & W o l f , B . ( E d s . ) . G u i d a n c e i n  e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 8 . M a c D o n a l d , A . P . B i r t h o r d e r a n d p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g a n d C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , _ 3 6 , 1 7 1 - 1 7 6 . M a r x , S . H . , R e d d i n g , J . F . , & S m i t h , L . J . A p r o g r a m o f g r o u p c o u n s e l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 7 , 2 ( 1 ) , 3 3 - 4 2 . M a s l o w , A . H . T o w a r d a p s y c h o l o g y o f b e i n g . New Y o r k : D . V a n N o s t r a n d C o . , 1 9 6 8 . M a t t h e s , W . A . , K r a n z l e r , G . D . , & M a y e r , G . R . T h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c l i e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f c o u n s e l o r b e h a v i o r a n d c h a n g e i n t h e c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o r . E l e m e n -t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1 9 6 8 , 2 ( 3 ) , -I rw= • M a y e r , G . R . , K r a n z l e r , G . D . , & M a t t h e s , W . A . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l i n g a n d p e e r r e l a t i o n s . T h e P e r s o n n e l a n d  G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 7 , 4 6 ( 4 ) , 3 6 0 - 3 6 5 . 7 6 M e r c h a n t , D . & Z i n g l e , H . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g u i d a n c e i n C a n a d i a n u r b a n a r e a s : A s t u d y o f p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 1 9 7 7 , 1 1 ( 4 ) , 2 0 1 - 2 0 9 . M u s o n , H . M o r a l t h i n k i n g : C a n i t b e t a u g h t : P s y c h o l o g y  T o d a y , 1 9 7 9 , 1 2 ( 9 ) , 4 8 - 6 8 , 9 2 . N e w h o u s e , R . D . L o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d b i r t h o r d e r i n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 4 , 3 0 ( 3 ) , 3 6 4 - 3 6 5 . P h a n i d i s , J . & D u n c a n , A . G r o w i n g i n s i d e o u t . V i c t o r i a : F l e m i n g R e v i e w P r i n t i n g , 1 9 7 5 . P i a g e t , J . T h e c h i l d a n d r e a l i t y . W i s c o n s i n : G e o r g e B a n t a C o . , 1 9 7 3 . P i n e s , M . S u p e r k i d s . P s y c h o l o g y T o d a y , 1 9 7 9 , 1 2 ( 8 ) , 5 3 - 6 3 . R h o d e s , W . C . & T r a c y , M . L . A s t u d y o f c h i l d v a r i a n c e , v o l . 1 , c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l s . A n n A r b o r : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c H T g a n P r e s s " ^ T9~T4~. R o g e r s , C . R . T h e n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r a p e u t i c p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 7 , 2 1 , 9 5 - 1 0 3 . S a t i r , V . P e o p l e m a k i n g . C a l i f o r n i a : S c i e n c e a n d B e h a v i o r B o o k s I n c . , 1 9 7 2 . S c h l e s i n g e r , B . T h e o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l y , p e r c e p t i y e s a n d a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 . S p l e t e , H . & R a s m u s s e n , J . A i d i n g t h e m o b i l e c h i l d . E l e m e n -t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l l i n g , 1 9 7 7 , 2 ( 3 ) , 2 2 5 - 2 2 8 . S u m m a r y o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s N u m b e r O n e . L o s A n g e l e s : C a l i f o r n i a T e s t B u r e a u , 1 9 4 9 . T a v u c h i s , N . M o b i l i t y a n d f a m i l y : P r o b l e m s a n d p r o s p e c t s . C o r n e l l J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 7 6 , 1 1 ( 1 ) , 5 3 - 5 8 . T h o m a s , M . M . C h i l d r e n w i t h a b s e n t f a t h e r s . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e a n d t h e F a m i l y , 1 9 6 8 , X X X , 6 9 - 9 6 . T h o r p e , L . P . , C l a r k , W . W . & T i e g s , E . W . C a l i f o r n i a t e s t o f  p e r s o n a l i t y , m a n u a l , a l l l e v e l s . M o n t e r e y : C T B / M c G r a w -H i l l , 1 9 5 3 . 77 W a h l e r , R.G., House, A.E., & Stambough, E.E. E c o l o g i c a l d s . g e s . s n i e i l t _ o f _ c h i I d p r o b l em b e h a v i o r : A c l i n i c a l p a c k a g e f o r home, s c h o o l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s , 1976". W a r r e n , J.R. B i r t h o r d e r and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . P s y c h o l o g y  B u l l e t i n , 1 9 6 6 , 6 5 , 38-49. W a t t e n b e r g , W.W. & C l i f f o r d , C. R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e l f -c o n c e p t t o b e g i n n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g . C o o p e r a -t i v e R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t #377, D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1962. W e i n e r , I.B. P s y c h o d y n a m i c A s p e c t s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y : The p a s s i v e - a g g r e s s i v e u n d e r a c h i e v e r . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 9 (3) , 2 4 6 - 2 5 1 . W e i s z , P.V. & Cowen, E.L. R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f C o m m u n i t y P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 4 ( 2 ) , 181-189. W h a l e n , T. & F r i e d , M.A. G e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y and i t s e f f e c t on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 3 , 67 (4) , 16 3 - 1 6 7 . . W i l l i a m s , R.L. & C o l e , S. S e l f - c o n c e p t and s c h o o l a d j u s t -ment. The P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 8 , 4 6 ( 5 ) , 478-481": 78 APPENDIX A PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER 79 P a r e n t a l C o n s e n t L e t t e r Dear M r . / M r s . I am a t e a c h e r i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r p r e s e n t l y c o m p l e t i n g a M a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m w i t h t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t UBC. I am a s k i n g y o u r p e r m i s s i o n t o a l l o w y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s p o n s o r e d by D r . S t e p h e n M a r k s , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , UBC, and a p p r o v e d by t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . The s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l e v e l o f p e r -s o n a l and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 5-7. I t i s a w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d f a c t t h a t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a s t u d e n t ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , i n f l u e n c e s h i s / h e r p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e c o r e s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y l a n g u a g e a r t s and m a t h e m a t i c s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t c h i l d r e n t h i n k a n d f e e l a b o u t e v e r y d a y s i t u a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t and t o i m p r o v e t h e i r a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e . Y o u r c h i l d has been c h o s e n as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s s t u d y . The t a s k f o r t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l be t o f i l l o u t a s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d i n g " Y e s " o r "No" t o s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h w i l l ask t h e i r o p i n i o n on how t h e y u s u a l l y t h i n k , how t h e y u s u a l l y f e e l , o r what t h e y u s u a l l y do i n e v e r y d a y s i t u a t i o n s . The t a s k w i l l t a k e a b o u t 45 m i n u t e s . Y o u r c h i l d w i l l n o t p u t h i s / h e r name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c e I am i n t e r e s t e d i n g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s . A l l d a t a w i l l be k e p t c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l ; I w i l l be t h e o n l y p e r s o n a d m i n i s t e r i n g and s c o r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The raw d a t a w i l l be d e s t r o y e d as soon as t h e s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e d . I w o u l d be p l e a s e d t o answer any q u e s t i o n s o r p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t any a s p e c t o f t h e s t u d y . P l e a s e h a v e y o u r c h i l d r e t u r n t h e e n c l o s e d c o n s e n t f o r m t o t h e s c h o o l as s o o n as p o s s i b l e . A l s o , be a s s u r e d t h a t s h o u l d y o u r c h i l d w i s h t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y a t any t i m e b e f o r e or d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n , h e / s h e w i l l be f r e e t o do s o . I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r a g r e e m e n t i n a s s i s t i n g me w i t h t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y and I t h a n k y o u f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s m a t t e r . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , U s e L i n k P r i n c i p a l ' s S i g n a t u r e APPENDIX B REQUEST FOR SUBJECT P A R T I C I P A T I O N R e q u e s t f o r S u b j e c t P a r t i c i p a t i o n 8 1 ( t o be r e a d t o e a c h s u b j e c t i n d i v i d u a l l y p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , you may know fr o m t h e l e t t e r t h a t was s e n t t o y o u r p a r e n t s t h a t you were one o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r c h o s e n t o t a k e p a r t i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The p r o j e c t i s b e i n g done t o l e a r n more a b o u t how e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t h i n k a b o u t e v e r y d a y t h i n g s . Remember t h a t you do n o t p u t y o u r name on t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e w h i c h you w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l o u t . No one w i l l know w h i c h i s y o u r p a p e r and o n l y I w i l l see any o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s . I want you t o know t h a t you do n o t have t o f i l l o u t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h a t you do n o t have t o answer a n y one p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . A l s o , you c a n s t o p a t any t i m e i f you w i s h , b u t I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r h e l p w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t . B e f o r e we s t a r t , a r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s you w o u l d l i k e t o a s k ? 82 APPENDIX C -SCORES FOR SUBTESTS OF PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT SCALE 8 3 t - S C O R E S FOR S U B T E S T S OF P E R S O N A L A D J U S T M E N T S C A L E T e s t t - s c o r e S e l f - r e l i a n c e S e n s e o f P e r s o n a l W o r t h S e n s e o f P e r s o n a l F r e e d o m F e e l i n g o f B e l o n g i n g W i t h d r a w i n g T e n d e n c i e s ( F r e e d o m f r o m ) N e r v o u s S y m p t o m s ( F r e e d o m f r o m ) 1 . 7 8 2 8 3 . 9 4 5 7 * 1 . 7 8 3 5 3 . 4 1 3 2 * 2 . 6 5 3 6 * 0 . 4 1 4 9 P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t 3 . 3 2 9 1 * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l ; t - c r i t i c a l e q u a l s ± 2 . 0 2 1 w i t h 3 8 d f . 84 APPENDIX D t-SCORES FOR SUBTESTS OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT SCALE t-SCORES FOR SUBTESTS OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT SCALE T e s t S o c i a l S t a n d a r d s S o c i a l S k i l l s A n t i - S o c i a l T e n d e n c i e s (Fdm) F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s Community R e l a t i o n s S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t 3.4 490 * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; t - c r i t i c a l e q u a l s -2.021 w i t h 38 d f . t - s c o r e 2.0432 3.7442 1.3937 0.8588 4.2804 2.6281 APPENDIX E MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL IN APPENDIX E, LEAVES 8 7 - 94. NOT MICROFILMED. Elementary 8 form AA C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y 1953 R e v i s i o n May be obta ined from: CTB/McGraw-Hi11 Del Monte Research P a r k , Montery , C a l i f o r n i a 93940 87 Elementary • . form fornia Test of Personality 1953 R e v i s i o n Devised by LOUIS P. T H O R P E , W I L L I S W . C L A R K , A N D ERNEST W . T IEGS Do nor write or mark on this booklet unless told to do so by the examiner . (CIRCLE ONE) Name Grade Boy Girl las ! Firit Middle Dote of School City Test Month Day Year Date of Examiner ( ) Pupil's Age Birth.. Month Day Year --via;-} Sfn\i ^Published by C T B / M c G r a w - H i U , Del Monte Research Park, Monterey, California 93940. Copyright © 1 9 4 2 , 1953 by | jp| McGraw-Hil l . Inc. A l l Rights Reserved. Printed in the U . S. A . N o p a n of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 50324 88 INSTRUCTIONS TO PUPILS DO NOT WRITE OR MARK ON THIS TEST BOOKLET UNLESS TOLD TO DO SO BY THE EXAMINER. You ore to decide for each question whether the answer is YES or NO and mark it as you are told. The following are two sample questions: SAMPLES A . D o you have a dog at home? YES NO B. C a n you ride a bicycle? YES NO DIRECTIONS FOR MARKING ANSWERS ON ANSWER SHEETS Moke a heavy black mark under the word YES or NO to show your answer. If you have a dog at home, you would mark under the YES for question A as shown below. If you cannot ride a bicycle, you would mark under the NO for question B as shown below. YES NO A | ii B ii I Remember, you mark under the word that shows your answer. Now find Samples A and B on your answer sheet ond show your answer for each by morking YES or NO. Do it now. Find answer row number 1 on your answer sheet. Now wait until the examiner tells you to begin. ON TEST BOOKLETS Draw a circle around the word YES or NO, whichever shows your answer. If you have a dog at home, draw a circle around the word YES in Sample A above; if not, draw a circle around the word NO. DO it now. If you can ride a bicycle, draw a circle around the word YES in Sample B above; if not, draw a circle around the word NO. Do it now. Now wait until the examiner tells you to begin. After the examiner tells you to begin, go right on from one page to another until you have finished the test or are told to stop. Work as fast as you can without making mistakes. Now look at item 1 on poge 3. Reody, begin. Page 2 C T P - E - A A SECTION 1 A SECTION 1 B 89 1. D o you usually keep at your work unt i l it is done? YES NO 2. D o you usually apologize when you are wrong? YES NO 3. D o you help other boys and girls have a good time at parties? YES NO 4. D o you usually believe what other boys or girls tell you? YES NO 5. Is it easy for you to recite or talk in class? YES NO 6. When you have some free t ime, do you usually ask your parents or teacher what to do? YES NO 7. D o you usually go to bed on time, even when you wish to stay up? YES NO 8. Is it hard to do your work when someone blames you for some-thing? YES NO 9. C a n you often get boys and girls to do what you want them to? YES NO 10. D o your parents or teachers usually need to tell you to do your work? YES NO 11. If you are a boy, do you talk to new girls? If you are a g i r l , do you talk to new boys ? YES NO 12. W o u l d you rather plan your own work than to have someone else plan it for you? YES NO 13. D o your friends generally th ink . that your ideas are good? YES NO 14. D o people often do nice things for you? YES N O 15. D o you wish that your father (or mother) had a better job? YES NO 16. A r e your friends and classmates usually interested in the things you do? YES NO 17. D o your classmates seem to think that you are not a good friend? YES NO 18. D o your friends and classmates often want to help you? YES NO 19. A r e you sometimes cheated when you trade things? YES NO 20. D o your classmates and friends usually feel that they know more than you do? YES NO 21. D o your folks seem to think that you are doing well? YES NO 22. C a n you do most of the things you try? YES NO 23. D o people often th ink that y o u cannot do things very well? YES NO 24. D o most of your friends and classmates th ink you are bright? YES NO Page 3 C T P - E - A A Section I A (number right) Section 1 B Inumber right) SECTION 1 C SECTION 1 D 90 25. D o you feel that your folks boss you too much? YES NO 26. A r e you allowed enough time to play? YES NO 27. M a y you usually br ing your friends home when you want to? YES NO 28. D o others usually decide to which parties you may go? YES NO 29. M a y you usually do what you want to during your spare time? YES NO 30. A r e you prevented from doing most of the things you want to? YES NO 31. D o your folks often stop you from going around w i t h your friends? YES NO 32. D o you have a chance to see many new things? YES NO 33. A r e you given some spending moneyr ? YES NO 34. D o your folks stop you from taking short walks w i t h your friends? YES NO 35. A r e you punished for lots of litt le things? YES NO 36. D o some people t ry to rule you so much that you don't like it? YES NO 37. D o pets and animals make friends wi th you easily? YES NO 38. A r e you proud of your school? YES NO 39. D o your classmates th ink you cannot do well in school? YES NO 40. A r e you as well and strong as most boys and girls? YES NO 41. A r e your cousins, aunts, uncles, or grandparents as nice as those of most of your friends? YES NO 42. A r e the members of your family usually good to you? YES NO 43. D o you often think that nobody likes you? YES NO 44. D o you feel that most of your classmates are glad that you are a member of the class? YES NO 45. D o you have just a few friends? YES NO 46. D o you often wish you had some other parents? YES NO 47. Is it hard to find friends who w i l l keep your secrets? YES NO 48. D o the boys and girls usually invite you to their parties? YES NO ~wmmm Page 4 C T P - E - A A Section 1 C (number right) Section 1 D (number right) SECTION 1 E 49. H a v e people often been so unfair that you gave up? YES NO 50. W o u l d you rather stay away from most parties? YES NO 51. Does it make you shy to have everyone look at you when you enter a room? YES NO 52. A r e you often greatly discour-aged about many things that are important to you YES NO 53. D o your friends or your work often make you worry? YES NO .54. Is your work often so hard that you stop trying? YES NO 55. A r e people often so u n k i n d or unfair that it makes you feel bad? YES NO 56. D o your friends or classmates often say or do things that hurt your feelings? YES NO 57. D o people often t r y to cheat you or do mean things to you? YES NO 58. Are you often w i t h people who have so l itt le interest in you that you feel lonesome? YES NO 59. A r e your studies or your life so dul l that you often think about many other things? YES NO 60. A r e people often mean or unfair to you? YES NO SECTION 1 F 91 61. D o you often have dizzy .spells? YES NO 62. D o you often have bad dreams? YES NO 63. D o you often bite your finger-nails? YES NO 64. D o you seem to have more head-aches than most children? YES NO 65. Is it hard for you to keep from being restless much of the time? YES NO 66. D o you often f ind you are not hungry at meal time? YES NO 67. D o you catch cold easily? 68. D o you often feel tired before noonr ? YES NO YES NO 69. D o you believe that you have more bad dreams than most of the boys and girls? YES NO 70. D o you often feel sick to your stomach? YES NO 71. D o you often have sneezing spells? YES NO 72. D o your eyes hurt often? YES NO immsi Page 5 C T P - E - A A Section 1 E (number right) . Section 1 F (number rightl . SECTION 2 A SECTION 2 B 92 73. Is it all right to cheat in a game when the umpire is not looking? YES NO 74. Is it all right to disobey teachers if you think they are not fair to you? YES NO 75. Should one return things to people who won't return things they borrow? YES NO 76. Is it al l right to take things y o u need if you have no money? YES NO 77. Is it necessary to thank those who have helped you? YES NO 78. D o children need to obey their fathers or mothers even when their friends tell them not to? YES NO 79. If a person finds something, does he have a right to keep it or sell i t? YES NO 80. D o boys and girls need to do what their teachers say is right? YES NO 81. Should boys and girls ask their parents for permission to do things? YES NO 82. Should children be nice to people they don't like? YES NO 83. Is it all right for children to cry or whine when their parents keep them home from a show? YES NO 84. W h e n people get sick or are in trouble, is it usually their own fault? YES NO 85. D o you let people know .you are right no matter what they say? YES NO 86. D o you t ry games at parties even if you haven't played them be-fore? YES NO 87. D o you help new pupils to talk to other children? YES NO 88. Does it make you feel angry when you lose in games at parties? YES NO 89. D o you usually help other boys and girls have a good time? YES NO 90. Is it hard for you to talk to people as soon as you meet them? YES NO 91. D o you usually act fr iendly to people you do not like? YES NO 92. D o you often change your plans in order to help people? YES NO 93. D o you usually forget the names of people you meet? YES NO 94. D o the boys and girls seem to think you are nice to them? YES NO 95. D o you usually keep from show-ing your temper when you are angry ? YES NO 96. D o you talk to new children at school? YES NO Page 6 C T P - E - A A Section 2 A (number right) .. Section 2 B .(number right) . SECTION 2 C 97. D o you like to scare or push smaller boys and girls? YES NO 98. Have unfair people often said that you made trouble for them? YES NO 99. D o you often make friends or classmates do things they don't want to? YES NO 100. Is it hard to make people re-member how well you can do things? YES NO 101. D o people often act so mean that you have to be nasty to them? YES NO 102. D o you often have to make a " fuss" or "act u p " to get what you deserve? YES NO 103. Is anyone at school so mean that you tear, or cut, or break things? YES NO 104. Are people often so unfair that 3^ou lose your temper? YES NO 105. Is someone at home so mean that you often have to quarrel? YES NO 106. D o you sometimes need some-thing so much that it is all right to take it? YES NO 107. D o classmates often quarrel wi th you? YES NO 108. D o people often ask you to do such hard or foolish things that you won't do them? YES NO SECTION 2 D 93 109. D o your folks seem to th ink that you are just as good as they are? YES NO 110. D o you have a hard time be-cause it seems that your folks hardly ever have enough money? YES NO 111. Are you unhappy because your folks do not care about the things you like? YES NO 112. When your folks make you mind are they usually nice to you about it? YES NO 113. D o your folks often c laim that you are not as nice to them as you should be? YES NO 114. D o you like both of your par-ents about the same? YES NO 115. D o you feel that your folks fuss at you instead of helping you? YES NO 116. D o you sometimes feel like run-ning away from home? YES NO 117. D o you t ry to keep boys and girls away from your home be-cause it isn't as nice as theirs? YES NO 118. Does it seem to you that your folks at home often treat you mean? YES NO 119. D o you feel that no one at home loves you? YES NO 120. D o you feel that too m a n y people at home t ry to boss you? YES NO Page 7 C T P - E - A A Section 2 C (number right) .. Section 2 D (number right) .. SECTION 2 E 121. D o you think that the boys and girls at school like you as well as they should? YES NO 122. D o you think that the children would be happier if the teacher were not so strict? YES NO 123. Is it fun to do nice things for some of the other boys or girls? YES NO 124. Is school work so hard that you are afraid you w i l l fail? YES NO 125. D o your schoolmates seem to think that you are nice to them? YES NO 126. Does it seem to you that some of the teachers "have it in for " pupils? YES NO 127. D o many of the children get along with the teacher m u c h better than y o u do? YES NO 128. W o u l d you like to stay home from school a lot if it were right to do so? YES NO 129. Are most of the boys and girls at school so bad that y o u t r y to stay away from them? YES NO 130. Have you found that some of the teachers do not l ike to be wi th the boys and girls? YES NO 131. D o many of the other boys or girls claim that they play games more fairly than you do? YES NO 132. Are the boys and girls at school usually nice to you? YES NO SECTION 2 F 94 133. D o you vis i t m a n y of the inter-esting places near where y o u live? YES NO 134. D o you think there are too few interesting places near y o u r home? YES NO 135. D o you sometimes do things to make the place in which you live look nicer? YES NO 136. D o you ever help clean up things near your home? YES NO 137. D o you take good care of your own pets or help w i t h other people's pets? YES NO 138. D o you sometimes help other people? YES NO 139. D o you t ry to get your friends to obey the laws? YES NO 140. D o you help children keep away from places where they might get sick? YES NO 141. D o you dislike m a n y of the people who live near your home? YES NO 142. Is it al l right to do what y o u please if the police are not around? YES NO 143. Does it make you glad to see the people l iv ing near you get along fine? YES NO 144. W o u l d you like to have things look better around your home? YES NO t&ktiL Page 8 C T P - E - A A Section 2 E 'number right) . Section 2 F (number right) . 

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