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Hyperactive behavior in relation to children’s perceptions of teacher’s classroom behavior Peter, Dennis Wayne 1981

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HYPERACTIVE BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER'S CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR By DENNIS WAYNE PETER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1981  (c)  Dennis Wayne P e t e r , 19 81  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  DF-6  (2/79)  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT T h i s study  sought t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p  tween h y p e r a c t i v e behavior teachers.  and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was  teacher behavior  —  p a i d to two  of  aspects  of  acceptance and demand.  An e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review viewing h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  supported  the p o s i t i o n of  from an i n t e r a c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  In t h i s study the context was w i t h i n the classroom  be-  the t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n  as viewed by the c h i l d .  a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s behavior p e r c e p t i o n s of a d u l t behavior.  The  literature  i s a f f e c t e d by  their  T h i s study sought to examine  t h i s view i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The  sample c o n s i s t e d of 4 7 grade f o u r boys and  f i v e boys from e i g h t r e g u l a r classrooms  i n two  45 grade  schools, located  i n a major urban center i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of acceptance and demand of  their  teacher's b e h a v i o r were measured by a d m i n i s t e r i n g a p a r t i a l form of the Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  to classroom  Observed l e v e l s of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior were measured by s u b j e c t s ' teachers complete the Conner's Abbreviated n a i r e f o r each  groups. having  Question-  boy.  Using c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  was  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to both v a r i a b l e s i n the d i r e c t i o n s of l e s s p e r c e i v e d acceptance and g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d demand.  Hyperactive  behavior r a t i n g s allowed f o r a r e t r o s p e c -  t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d t e a c h e r - r a t e d h y p e r a c t i v e group and a t e a c h e r -  r a t e d non-hyperactive  group.  On group comparison measures,  h y p e r a c t i v e boys p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s acceptance and g r e a t e r demand than t h e i r non-hyperactive  peers.  In c o n c l u s i o n , h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e teacher beh a v i o r as l e s s a c c e p t i n g and more demanding than t h e i r nonh y p e r a c t i v e peers.  The v a r i a b l e o f p e r c e i v e d acceptance  appears more c r i t i c a l t o p d s i t i v e t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n than the demand v a r i a b l e .  I n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e s  and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a l s o appeared o p e r a t i v e .  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o the chairman of my comm i t t e e , Dr. J . A l l a n and t o the other members, Dr. H. R a t z l a f f and Dr. D. Der f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o help and t h e i r  encour-  agement. To the c h i l d r e n , teachers and p r i n c i p a l s who very k i n d l y became i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , I am g r a t e f u l . My deepest  a p p r e c i a t i o n must be expressed t o my w i f e ,  Karen, f o r her p a t i e n c e , l o y a l t y and constant support d u r i n g the many hours spent on t h i s p r o j e c t .  She kept Nathan and  David company while I was away and maintained our home as a r e s t o r a t i v e center. I thank God f o r H i s amazing world and f o r the m i r a c l e of people.  V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page i i  ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  i v - V viii:  Chapter I.  SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Background o f the Study Purposes o f the Study Statement o f the Problem D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Research Questions and R a t i o n a l e Assumptions Underlying t h i s Research D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study  II.  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE B e h a v i o r a l View o f H y p e r a c t i v i t y Operational D e f i n i t i o n Hyperactive C h i l d r e n : Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Group? One Focus: A B e h a v i o r a l D e f i n i t i o n of H y p e r a c t i v i t y Models o f H y p e r a c t i v i t y : Etiology The  I n t e r a c t i o n a l Model The I n t e r a c t i o n a l P o s i t i o n H y p e r a c t i v i t y as a Reaction Prevalence o f H y p e r a c t i v i t y and Male-Female R a t i o Developing a P o s i t i o n : Behavioral, Interactional Facets of I n t e r a c t i o n a l P o s i t i o n S i t u a t i o n a l Aspects of H y p e r a c t i v i t y S o c i a l Aspects Importance o f S o c i a l A s p e c t s : Follow-Up Studies Interaction: Adult-Child F a m i l i e s with Hyperactive C h i l d r e n H y p e r a c t i v i t y and Anger H y p e r a c t i v i t y and the S o c i a l Emotional Climate H y p e r a c t i v i t y and Reactive Depression  1 1 6 7 7 9 10 10 11 13 13 17 18 19 20 23 25 27 28 30 32 35 39 42 43 44 46  vi Chapter  Page P a r e n t - C h i l d and T e a c h e r - C h i l d Dynamics P a r e n t - C h i l d Dynamics G e n e r a l i z i n g t o Teacher-Child Interaction . Teacher-Child Interaction. Teacher-Child I n t e r a c t i o n : Setting Related and Task Related F a c t o r s Children's Perceptions Acceptance as a C r i t i c a l F a c t o r Interpersonal Perceptions Importance and Need f o r Determining Children's Perceptions V a l i d i t y of Children's Perceptions V a l i d i t y o f Hyperactive C h i l d ' s Perceptions Conclusion  III.  METHODOLOGY P o p u l a t i o n and Sampling Procedures D e s c r i p t i o n of Measuring Instruments The Conner's Abbreviated Teacher Questionnaire . Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Nature of the Inventory's Measurement Scales Design and Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses  IV.  RESULTS The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive Behavior and P e r c e i v e d Acceptance (Question 1) The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive Behavior and P e r c e i v e d Demand (Question 2) The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r c e i v e d Acceptance and P e r c e i v e d Demand (Question 3) Comparing Grade Four Boys with Grade F i v e Boys Comparing Teacher-rated H y p e r a c t i v e and Teacher-rated Non-hyperactive Boys A d d i t i o n a l Analyses  49 53 58 61 63 63 66 67 69 70 70 72 72 76 81 82 84 85 85 87 .89 91 93 97  Page  Chapter V.  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between H y p e r a c t i v e Behavior and P e r c e i v e d Acceptance The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive Behavior and P e r c e i v e d Demand The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r c e i v e d Acceptance and P e r c e i v e d Demand Comparing Grade Four Boys with Grade F i v e Boys Comparing T e a c h e r - r a t e d Hyperactive and Teacher-rated Non-Hyperactive Boys.., A d d i t i o n a l Analyses Summary, Conclusions and Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research REFERENCES  102 102 105 107 109 110 113 115 119  APPENDICES A.  Teacher  Inventory  B.  C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory  126 12 7  viii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Page L i s t o f Stimulus Items f o r the P a r t i a l Teacher Behavior Questionnaire (Children's Inventory)  78  A L i s t o f the Test V a r i a b l e s and T h e i r Abbreviations  86  Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between BEHAVE and ACCEPT V a r i a b l e s  87  Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s BEHAVE AND DEMAND V a r i a b l e s  88  Between  Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among ACCEPT and DEMAND V a r i a b l e s  89  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the V a r i a b l e s BEHAVE, TOT ACCEPT and TOT DEMAND  91  7.  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and t Values Comparing Grade Four and Grade F i v e Boys on the V a r i a b l e s BEHAVE, TOT ACCEPT and TOT DEMAND...92  8.  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and t Values Comparing Hyperactive and Non-hyperactive Boys i n Grade Four and F i v e on the V a r i a b l e s BEHAVE, SERIOUS, ACCEPT, and DEMAND  95  One-Way A n a l y s i s of Variance t o Classroom D i f f e r e n c e s  97  9. 10. 11.  12.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Hyperactive Boys Between Schools  Attributable and Non-hyperactive 99  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and t Values Comparing School D i f f e r e n c e s on the V a r i a b l e s BEHAVE, ACCEPT and DEMAND  100  C u l t u r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Across Schools  101  1 CHAPTER I Scope and Background of the  Focus of the  Study  Study  H y p e r a c t i v e behavior of c h i l d r e n has the most common childhood doctors,  1979). the  behavior d i s o r d e r  p s y c h i a t r i s t s , t e a c h e r s , and  s i o n a l s , not  been i d e n t i f i e d as  to mention parents  presented  other r e l a t e d  (Ney,  l a b e l "hyperkinetic  impulse d i s o r d e r "  category i s being o f f i c i a l l y  r e v i s e d as we  (Loney, 1 9 8 0 ) , i t s b e h a v i o r a l  profes-  1974; Weiss and  Laufer et a l . (1956) are c r e d i t e d o f t e n  features  and  to  for  Hechtman,  coining  although t h e i r  enter /the  1980's  have remained amazingly  constant. Problems i n d e f i n i n g h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a c l i n i c a l  entity  (Loney, 1980)  or i n i s o l a t i n g a homogeneous group of t r u l y  "hyperactive"  children  Sandberg e t a l . , 1978)  (Langhorne and has  Loney, 1980;  Ney,  l e d to the o f t e n noted  methodology of o b s e r v e r - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n most commonly agreed upon symptoms.  1974,  research  ( K e i t h , 1974)  These i n c l u d e :  of  the  excessive  physical restlessness,  s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span, i m p u l s i v i t y ,  f r u s t r a t i o n tolerance,  and  emotional l a b i l i t y .  noteworthy d i r e c t i o n p o i n t s  A  low  further  to the informant d e s c r i b i n g  the  h y p e r a c t i v e behavior as being most s i g n i f i c a n t (Langhorne e t al.,  1976). The  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g hyper-  a c t i v i t y i s dominated by the  search f o r e t i o l o g y  (Varga,  1979)  2 which has r e s u l t e d i n three major p e r s p e c t i v e s on the problem. H y p e r a c t i v i t y was  f i r s t viewed as an a t t r i b u t e o f the i n d i -  v i d u a l w h i l e l a t e r s t u d i e s p o i n t e d to the c h i l d ' s environment and r o l e i n i t as being c a u s a t i v e .  More r e c e n t  research  p o s i t s an i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d ' s environment and the c h i l d ' s physio-psychological status  (Lambert e t a l . , 1978).  Recently, much emphasis has been given to the i n t e r a c t i o n a l model of h y p e r a c t i v i t y as having a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r understanding  the most promise o f  of t h i s problem (Stephenson,  1975; Thomas, 1976; Weiss and Hechtman, 1979).  One t r e n d of  r e s e a r c h c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e views hyperact i v i t y as a r e a c t i o n by the c h i l d to s u b t l e but environmental dynamics Stenner, 1972; Ney,  (Hembling, 1978,  1974).  al.,  1980; Marwit and  These dynamics are o p e r a t i v e a t  home and a t school as the present S t u d i e s of i n c i d e n c e  powerful  investigation w i l l  explore.  ( F i r e s t o n e and M a r t i n , 1979; Lambert e t  1978; Stephenson, 1975)  and s t u d i e s of prevalence  indi-  c a t o r s demonstrate a predominantly higher male t o female r a t i o of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  (Ney, 1974).  Another f a c e t of the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n p o i n t s to the s i t u a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y of the h y p e r a c t i v e behavior the need to examine the c h i l d and the s i t u a t i o n (Conrad, 1977; Langhorne and Loney, 1976; 1969; Whalen e t a l . , 1978).  simultaneously  Loney, 1980;  S t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on  and  Wahler,  "situational  h y p e r a c t i v i t y " and, m o r e ' s p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e l a t e d s o c i a l aspects  of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y emphasize the s o c i a l i n a p p r o p r i a t e -  3 ness  ( F i r e s t o n e and M a r t i n , 19 79), the s o c i a l  disadvantage  (Sandberg e t a l . , 19 80), and the a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Routh, 1978  i n Whalen and Henker, 1980)  r e l a t e d t o h y p e r a c t i v e behavior.  The  as being  closely  importance of  investi-  g a t i n g the s o c i a l aspects of t h i s problem i s a l s o emphasized most d r a m a t i c a l l y by the follow-up children 1980;  (Ackerman e t a l . , 1977;  Weiss e t a l . , 1979)  s t u d i e s of h y p e r a c t i v e  Cantwell,  1978;  Morrison,  which demonstrate r a t h e r c o n v i n c -  i n g l y t h a t d e s p i t e the best e f f o r t s at d i a g n o s i s and this i s a l i f e - l o n g disorder  treatment,  (Barkley, 1978).  A r e c u r r i n g theme, a l s o e v i d e n t i n the follow-up s t u d i e s , i s the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s authority figures.  with  S t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on the i n t e r a c t i o n s be-  tween parents  and h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n ( B e l l , 196 8; B e l l  Harper, 1977;  Cunningham and B a r k l e y , 1979;  and  Stevens-Long,  1973)  p o i n t to a s p i r a l of negative i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high l e v e l e x p r e s s i o n s of annoyance, anger, and the parent with c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y behavior.  little  c o n t r o l by  change i n the  Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found  child's  s i m i l a r dynamics at  work i n f a m i l i e s with h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n (Barkley, 19 78; Hembling, 1978;  Ney,  1974).  Inadequate management of anger  w i t h i n f a m i l i e s has a l s o been r e l a t e d to h y p e r a c t i v e i n c h i l d r e n by R a n d a l l and Lomas (1978) and M i l l e r the p r e s e n t author p o s t u l a t e s t h i s as a s i g n i f i c a n t c h i l d dynamic w i t h i n the Anger i s an obvious  behavior  (1977) and teacher-  classroom. c o n t r i b u t o r to p e r c e i v e d acceptance  4  or r e j e c t i o n and t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n has been shown t o be operat i v e i n studies  examining h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a r e a c t i o n t o a  "social-emotional  climate"  (Ackerman e t a l . , 1977;  e t a l . , 1979; Sandberg e t a l . , 1980). supporting  A wealth o f evidence  h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a r e a c t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r " s o c i a l -  emotional c l i m a t e "  i s found i n the r e l a t i v e l y young d i s c i p l i n e  of c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y researchers 1973;  Ackerman  (Neubauer, 1 9 7 4 ) .  (Hembling, 1978;  Miller,  In p a r t i c u l a r , s e v e r a l 1977;  Weinberg e t a l . ,  Yahraes, 1978; Z r u l l e t a l . , 1978) demonstrate c o n v i n c -  i n g l y t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s a common symptom o f a r e a c t i v e type o f c h i l d h o o d  d e p r e s s i o n which i s b e s t understood as an  interaction within  a parent-child  management o f anger w i t h i n  relationship.  t h i s relationship eventually  e x p r e s s i o n through the c h i l d ' s h y p e r a c t i v e The  The mis-  behavior.  p r e s e n t study assumes t h a t the p a r e n t - c h i l d  generalize  t o the t e a c h e r - c h i l d  finds  relationship.  Cox  dynamics (1972),  Toman (19 7 6 ) , and Van Kaam (1977), l i k e w i s e support the premise t h a t the c h i l d w i l l p e r c e i v e  the teacher as a s u r r o -  gate p a r e n t and consequently w i l l b r i n g t o the classroom a unique p e r c e p t u a l  set that influences  g r e a t l y the t e a c h e r -  child interaction. Studies  o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s and  c h i l d r e n have been mainly o b s e r v a t i o n a l  hyperactive  i n methodology and  have shown how the behavior o f these c h i l d r e n i s t y p i c a l l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h classroom r o u t i n e s challenging  and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  f o r the classroom teacher  (Ackerman e t a l . , 1977;  5 Bowers, 1978; 1980).  Conrad, 1977;  The one  K l e i n and Young, 1979;  study, d i s c o v e r e d i n a thorough  Zentall,  literature  search, which e x p l o r e d the t e a c h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view supported the c h i l d ' s unique proposed  (Loney e t a l . ,  from 1976),  and d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n as  i n the p r e s e n t study.  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s of  hyperac-  t i v e c h i l d r e n i n various settings involved i n varying tasks (Flynn and Rapoport, 1976;  Jacob e t a l . ,  1980;  add more weight t o the r a t h e r  Whalen e t a l . ,  inflammatory  1979)  1978;  Steinkamp,  dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher  and the h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving Cunningham and B a r k l e y (1980), P h i l i p s  child.  Ackerman e t a l . (1977),  (1979), Loney e t a l . (1976),  Morrison  (1979), and Z r u l l e t a l . (1970) a l l lend more  d i r e c t support f o r examining  the degree of acceptance  and  the  degree of demand p e r c e i v e d from the parent and the teacher by the c h i l d d i s p l a y i n g v a r y i n g l e v e l s of h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r . The need and importance  f o r determining c h i l d r e n ' s percep-  t i o n s of the behavior of s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s i s based on w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e which s t a t e s how  parent  the  behavior  a f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s development o n l y to the extent i n which the c h i l d p e r c e i v e s i t .  That the c h i l d ' s l e s s  and l e s s devious responses  experienced  seem l i k e l y t o be more a c c u r a t e  than the r a t i n g s by p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , or observers has been amply demonstrated by r e s e a r c h e r s (Ausubel, 1954; 1970;  Hembling, 1980;  Schaefer, 1965;  Loney e t a l . ,  Woyshner, 1979).  1976;  Gecas e t a l . ,  Rohner e t a l . , 1980;  The v a l i d i t y of c h i l d r e n ' s  6  p e r c e p t i o n s as being r e l i a b l e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n about the behaviors of o t h e r s has been f u r t h e r s t u d i e d and (Campbell and Paulauskas, Whalen e t a l . , 1979)  and,  1979;  Lefkowitz  and T e s i n y ,  1980;  the v a l i d i t y of h y p e r a c t i v e  chil^  dren's p e r c e p t i o n s has a l s o been w e l l documented al.,  1979;  Baxley  Loney, 1974;  supported  e t a l . , 1978;  (Ackerman e t  Campbell and Paulauskas,  1979;  Paulauskas and Campbell, 1979).  Purposes of the Study P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n has been t e r i z e d by a focus on the c h i l d ' s d e f i c i t s , u s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , and by s e a r c h i n g f o r e t i o l o g y . clinical  No  charac-  clinical  hyperactive  e n t i t y or homogeneous subgroup has been i s o l a t e d  and  a prominent c u r r e n t t h r u s t uses s t r i c t l y b e h a v i o r a l d e f i n i n g criteria  such as the Abbreviated  Conners Teacher  h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Teacher Inventory  Questionnaire,  (see Chapter I I I ) .  Another r e c e n t t r e n d has been to e x p l o r e the s o c i a l aspects of t h i s problem by u s i n g mainly to and  understand  situational  o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods  the h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving c h i l d .  The  validity  importance of the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view has been w e l l  documented although  scant a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n to the  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h i l d who A purpose of t h i s study was p e r c e p t i o n o f two (acceptance  behaves i n a h y p e r a c t i v e manner. to gather  i n f o r m a t i o n on the  c r i t i c a l dimensions of teacher  child's  behavior  and demand), i n a sample of boys e n r o l l e d i n regu-  l a r e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  7 C h i l d r e n with behavior problems resembling the t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f h y p e r a c t i v e behavior may  tradi-  be r e a c t i n g t o t h e i r  experience of a p a r t i c u l a r type of s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e . Boys i n p a r t i c u l a r have been shown t o r e c e i v e h i g h e r l e v e l s of d i s a p p r o v a l and c o n t r o l from parents and t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y boys w i t h behavior problems. was  A second purpose of t h i s  study  t o compare the extent t o which boys, r a t e d by t e a c h e r s as  d i s p l a y i n g v a r y i n g l e v e l s of behavior a t t r i b u t e d t o  hyper-  a c t i v i t y , d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r .  Statement of the Problem The present study measured the l e v e l s of observed i o r s a t t r i b u t e d t o h y p e r a c t i v i t y of boys i n grades f i v e by means of a teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  behav-  f o u r and  The boys'  percep-  t i o n s of teacher behavior were then assessed w i t h the use of a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the t i o n s h i p these v a r i a b l e s have with l e v e l s of behavior  rela-  attributed  to h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of terms c r i t i c a l to t h i s  study  follow. 1.  H y p e r a c t i v e behavior and o t h e r r e l a t e d terms, f o r the  purposes  of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e f e r t o the commonly agreed  upon b e h a v i o r a l " p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ( p h y s i c a l r e s t l e s s n e s s , s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span,  impulsivity,  8 low  frustration  Teacher  Inventory  the present in  t o l e r a n c e , and  study  emotional  (Conners,  1969;  to assess  the  1973)  lability). will  be  The  employed i n  l e v e l of hyperactive  behavior  subjects.  2.  Perception(s)  a physiological  i s used  sense  a n i s m s and  processes  to  study  in this  s i t u a t i o n has thinking  and  be  as he  hereafter 3.  child's  in this  study  and  i s b e i n g used was  Children's  Behavior  particular  and  (see C h a p t e r I I I ) . refers  o r meaning f o r a c h i l d  a cluster  affiliative  uncon-  behavior  to a resulting  of s i g n i f i c a n t  interchangeably for "loving"  m e a s u r e d by  referred  Questionnaire,  investigation,  Inventory.(nurturance,  companionship,  t h e mech-  perception of teacher  t o as C h i l d r e n ' s I n v e n t o r y  as u s e d  than  This perception includes  his/her perceptions of.the behavior  Acceptance  on  child's perception  i t .  u s i n g the Teacher  degree of p e r s o n a l experience from  The  w o u l d be  rather  f u n c t i o n s as w e l l as c o n s c i o u s  The  referred  Acceptance,  involved.  experiences  feeling  assessed  where t h e c o n c e r n  i n c l u d e s the p e r s o n a l meaning a  scious processes. will  i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense  of f i v e  affective  variables reward,  c o m p a n i o n s h i p and  others.  in  this  on  the  instrumental  principled  disci-  pline) . 4.  Demand may  expectation purposes tive,  be most e a s i l y  from  of t h i s  understood  the degree  o t h e r s w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d by study  i t was  a s s e s s e d by  power, a c h i e v e m e n t demands, and  Children's  as  Inventory.  of  the c h i l d .  combining  indulgence)  For  (prescrip-  from  the  9 Research Questions The present 1.  and R a t i o n a l e  f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study:  Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between observed  of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  (measured by the Teacher  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f acceptance s i o n o f the C h i l d r e n ' s 2.  Inventory)  (measured by the " l o v i n g " dimen-  Inventory)?  Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between observed  of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior and p e r c e p t i o n s o f demand by the "demanding" dimension of the C h i l d r e n ' s 3.  levels  levels  (measured  Inventory)?  Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r c e i v e d  acceptance  (measured by the " l o v i n g " dimension o f the C h i l -  dren's Inventory)  and p e r c e i v e d demand (measured by the  "demanding" dimension o f the C h i l d r e n ' s These r e s e a r c h questions  Inventory)?  arose from some p r e v i o u s  personal  o b s e r v a t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r and from an e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f other s t u d i e s and r e l a t e d theory. "background o f the study",  As noted  i n the  s e v e r a l prominent r e s e a r c h e r s have  r e c e n t l y p o i n t e d t o the need f o r examining the s o c i a l of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior w h i l e o t h e r s have noted of the a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p as a powerful t h i s behavior.  aspects  the importance  i n f l u e n c e on  In s t u d y i n g the a d u l t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n dynam-  i c s , some i n v e s t i g a t o r s have s t r e s s e d the need f o r understanding the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the behavior o f parents and teachers as s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s , s i n c e t h i s p e r s o n a l experience has proven t o be a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on c h i l d r e n ' s behavior,  i f not  10 a determinant.  C h i l d r e n ' s experiences  of anger,  and f r u s t r a t i o n from s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s , higher  levels  of  hostility  who a l s o  exercise  c o n t r o l o v e r them and demand t o w a r d t h e m ,  been c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r i n the However, to date t h e r e i s  scant research  dynamic from the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of v i e w . designed area of  to explore  some c r i t i c a l  child.  investigating This study  aspects of  this  has  this  was  neglected  research.  Assumptions U n d e r l y i n g t h i s Teachers  were asked  i n t h e i r classrooms  Research  to ascribe  levels  of behavior to  b a s e d on t h e i r own o b s e r v a t i o n s  c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the school year.  M a l e s u b j e c t s were  over females because of the h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of b o y s and o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n i o r problems w i l l  of  boys  the  chosen  hyperactive  that observable  be shown t o v a r y i n d e g r e e and  behav-  frequency  w i t h i n any g i v e n c l a s s r o o m g r o u p i n g o f b o y s .  A s i m i l a r assump-  t i o n was made r e g a r d i n g t h e v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f  perceived  a c c e p t a n c e a n d p e r c e i v e d demand.  I t was a l s o assumed  that  s u b j e c t s were c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s items of  the i n v e n t o r y w i t h o u t  D e l i m i t a t i o n s of the This research w i t h a n age  and  difficulty.  Study  focused  on b o y s  i n g r a d e s f o u r and  r a n g e f r o m 8.42 y e a r s t o 12.83 y e a r s .  s u b j e c t s were a t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r  classes  i n two  five  These  elementary  11 schools l o c a t e d i n a l a r g e urban c e n t e r i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia which c o n t a i n s a broad range o f familyp a t t e r n s , c u l t u r a l groups, and socioeconomic  strata.  These  s c h o o l s were s i t u a t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas which i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l groups and v a r i o u s f a m i l y types.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study;. •: Research i n v e s t i g a t i n g h y p e r a c t i v e behavior/has  only  r e c e n t l y s h i f t e d emphasis towards the s o c i a l - s i t u a t i o n a l aspects o f the c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t y .  With very l i t t l e  t i o n , these s t u d i e s have r e l i e d on understanding i o r s through  excep-  these behav-  r a t i n g s by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , d o c t o r s and other  p r o f e s s i o n a l s u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l techniques. suggested  As  by some i n v e s t i g a t o r s , and c a r r i e d out by only one  o r two, the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n themselves needs further exploration. Since c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e v a l i d sources o f data, and s i n c e the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the behavior o f s i g n i f i c a n t others i n f l u e n c e s t h a t c h i l d ' s behavior, g r e a t e r of t h i s dynamic w i t h i n the classroom a b l e i n s i g h t f o r the t e a c h e r .  understanding  s e t t i n g may p r o v i d e v a l u -  One r e c u r r i n g source o f concern  and demand on the teacher's resources l i e s i n managing e f f e c t i v e l y those c h i l d r e n , o f t e n boys, who d i s p l a y v a r y i n g behaviors which can be p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c .  A l l c h i l d r e n have a  unique way o f s e e i n g the world and some c h i l d r e n b r i n g i n t o the classroom a s e t o f "negative" p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r s .  12  C h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s are t r u e , and  i t i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l t h a t teachers be able to a c c u r a t e l y  assess the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r  behavior.  With t h i s enhanced awareness t e a c h e r s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e to c o r r e c t these f a u l t y assumptions and r e d i r e c t c h i l d r e n ' s behavior.  Classroom s t r a t e g i e s d i r e c t l y aimed a t both  altering  c h i l d r e n ' s f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s and r e i n f o r c i n g more a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n s would i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c v e r b a l and non-verbal  strat-  e g i e s from the teacher who i s seen by the c h i l d as a s i g n i f i cant a d u l t . T h i s focus of r e s e a r c h on h y p e r a c t i v e behavior with o n l y a scant amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . i n v e s t i g a t o r s have suggested  i s very new A few  such a d i r e c t i o n and the p r e s e n t  study w i l l attempt to shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h i s c u r r e n t t o p i c .  13 CHAPTER II Review of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e The  l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s study i s presented i n a  developmental  sequence and may  be c l a s s i f i e d under f o u r g e n e r a l  areas, each having s u b d i v i s i o n s .  The  f i r s t area develops a  model f o r viewing h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n a b e h a v i o r a l manner.  The  i n t e r a c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n i s then e l a b o r a t e d from v a r i o u s vantage p o i n t s f o l l o w e d by an examination of p a r e n t - c h i l d and t e a c h e r child interaction.  E s t a b l i s h i n g the need f o r determining key  aspects of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and t h e i r v a l i d i t y out the  rounds  review. B e h a v i o r a l View of H y p e r a c t i v i t y  Operational  Definition  The h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d has been c a l l e d so many d i f f e r e n t names by l a y people and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e t h a t s e v e r a l  promi-  nent r e s e a r c h e r s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y t h i s syndrome as probably the most common behavior d i s o r d e r of c h i l d r e n 19 79).  (Weiss and Hechtman,  These authors f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y a behavior d e s c r i p t i o n  which found i t s way  i n t o popular c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r c h i l -  dren i n s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s .  They c i t e Stewart who  quoted  an E n g l i s h  t r a n s l a t i o n of a p o p u l a r German t a l e "Struwel P e t e r " by Hoffman: Fidgety P h i l He won't s i t s t i l l He wiggles He g i g g l e s . . . " and when t o l d o f f : The naughty r e s t l e s s c h i l d Grows s t i l l more rude and w i l d .  (p.  1348)  14  L a u f e r e t a l . (1956) are o f t e n c i t e d as being the  first  i n v e s t i g a t o r s to l a b e l t h i s problem as " h y p e r k i n e t i c impulse d i s o r d e r " of c h i l d h o o d .  They a l s o d e s c r i b e d i t s main f e a t u r e s  of i r r i t a b i l i t y ,  low  and v i s u a l - m o t o r  difficulties.  behaviors  f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e , poor schoolwork, These t y p i c a l l y ,  characteristic  have proven to be a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t o r s over  noted by another prominent r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s f i e l d  time as  (Loney,  1980) .  One might a c t u a l l y say t h a t L a u f e r s 2 2 - y e a r - o l d hyperk i n e t i c impulse d i s o r d e r w i l l e x p i r e j u s t a f t e r r e a c h i n g i t s m a t u r i t y , because as we enter the 1980's the Diagn o s t i c and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual of the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be r e p l a c i n g the d i a g n o s t i c category of H y p e r k i n e t i c Reaction of Childhood (DSM-II) w i t h the category A t t e n t i o n D e f i c i t D i s o r d e r w i t h H y p e r a c t i v i t y (DSM-III). (p. 30) 1  Although Loney goes on to sound a note of optimism and agement f o r t h i s r e c e n t s h i f t i n h e r e n t i n any  i n f o c u s , the  encour-  complexities  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s problem of  childhood  are enormous. Levine and O b e r k l a i d  (1980) demonstrate t h i s v i v i d l y i n  a r e c e n t study which surveyed follow-up  reports.  Those s t u d i e s surveyed  i n f l u e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r s who as  and  as a d u l t s .  symptoms emphasized and  r e t r o s p e c t i v e and included several  suggested t h a t c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d  " h y p e r a c t i v e " are a t r i s k  as a d o l e s c e n t s  ten p r e v i o u s  f o r a wide range of In attempting  difficulties  t o match the  other d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a used i n  sample s e l e c t i o n s w i t h the most r e c e n t c a t e g o r i a l d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s d i s o r d e r  (DSM-III), L e v i n e , and O b e r k l a i d s t a t e :  15 " r e c e n t l y there has been c o n s i d e r a b l e attention d e f i c i t disorder.  i n t e r e s t i n the term  T h i s too may  t u r n out to be  o v e r l y i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n " (p. 412).  They go on  an  to  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c h i l d r e n with primary a t t e n t i o n d e f i c i t , secondary a t t e n t i o n d e f i c i t ,  s i t u a t i o n a l i n a t t e n t i o n and  mixed forms of c h r o n i c a t t e n t i o n d e f i c i t .  Further,  d e s c r i b e p o s s i b l e sub-groups w i t h i n each category conclude by  they  and  then  saying:  As a c l i n i c a l phenomenon, i t i s u n l i k e l y ever to become e t i o l o g i c a l l y and t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y s p e c i f i c . I t should be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a v i t a l s u b j e c t area f o r developmental p e d i a t r i c s (and other d i s c i p l i n e s ) r a t h e r than a c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e syndrome. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t "hypera c t i v i t y " i s both a complex symptom and a complex symptom complex. We p r e f e r not to use the term! (p. 413) Other problems i n d e f i n i n g " h y p e r a c t i v i t y " are noted Loney  (1980) i n her e x t e n s i v e  review.  She  p o i n t s to  by  the  tendency i n s t u d i e s of h y p e r a c t i v i t y to c o n s i d e r the syndrome to be v a l i d and r e l i a b l y and  present  only i f i t i s displayed uniformly  yet a p r e v a l e n t  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h y p e r a c t i v i t y  noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s i t s u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . Loney  (1980)  notes another tendency which s u r f a c e s r e s u l t i n g from "those who  b e l i e v e t h a t the l a b e l i s m i s a p p l i e d  t o normally  and  l i v e l y youngsters by' h y p e r r e p r e s s i v e  and  parents"  (p. 29).  e x i s t s to support  who  hyperannoyable  Although Loney's c o n t e n t i o n  that l i t t l e  or r e f u t e t h i s b e l i e f i s v a l i d , K e i t h  p o i n t s out t h a t the h y p e r a c t i v e by o b s e r v e r s :  exuberant  child is typically  (1974)  identified  are s u b j e c t to e r r o r s of judgement; who  expect the c h i l d t o f u l f i l l  t h e i r needs; or who  may  data  be  may  16 i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s ' s t o r i e s of the c h i l d ' s h i s t o r y or p r e s e n t functioning.  In r e v i e w i n g some of the measures which have  been employed s p e c i f i c a l l y t o assess a c t i v i t y l e v e l s i n the classroom, Bowers (1978) summarized q u i t e s u c c i n t l y , t h a t : A fundamental problem i n attempting t o p r o v i d e a measure of h y p e r a c t i v i t y l i e s i n f i n d i n g an a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r a l d e f i n i t i o n of the term. The vagueness, disagreement and s u b j e c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d have been h i g h l i g h t e d by Buddenhagen and S i c k l e r (1969) who conclude: ' I t i s our i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e s those aspects of a person's behavior which annoy the o b s e r v e r ' . (p. 540) To add to the c o n f u s i o n , a t l e a s t 37 d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s have been a p p l i e d to o v e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r manifested i n c h i l d h o o d (DeLong, 1972): Terms such as h y p e r k i n e s i s , h y p e r k i n e t i c impulse d i s o r d e r , h y p e r m o b i l i t y n e u r o s i s , p o s t e n c e p h a l i t i c behavior d i s o r d e r , o r g a n i c d r i v e n e s s and minimal b r a i n d y s f u n c t i o n , w h i l e r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r i n g views of e t i o l o g y and recommended treatment, i n e v i t a b l y o v e r l a p and have come t o be used almost interchangablyj' (p. 412) However, Weiss and Hechtman  (197 9). note t h a t " i n s p i t e of the  d i v e r s e terminology t h e r e i s a remarkable  s i m i l a r i t y i n the  c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the syndrome, and DSM  III defines  o p e r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r the d i a g n o s i s " (p. 1348). commonly observed  The most  and agreed upon symptoms would i n c l u d e ;  excessive general h y p e r a c t i v i t y  (physical  restlessness),  d i f f i c u l t y i n s u s t a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n , impulsive behavior  (as  manifested by sloppy work, speaking out, i n t e r r u p t i n g ,  diffi-  c u l t y w a i t i n g , f i g h t i n g because of low f r u s t r a t i o n poor f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e , and emotional l a b i l i t y .  tolerance), Two  important q u a l i f i e r s would i n c l u d e these symptoms being  other  17 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the norm f o r age q u a n t i t y and  in quality  t h a t the d u r a t i o n be a t l e a s t one  be noted here t h a t i n view o f the c o n f u s i n g  year.  and  It  should  s i t u a t i o n evident  i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h i s study used the term " h y p e r a c t i v e " i d e n t i f i e d c h i l d r e n by s t r i c t l y b e h a v i o r a l  Hyperactive  Children:  Another focus i t s present  criteria.  Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Group?  i n the l i t e r a t u r e worth n o t i n g , along  outcomes, has  as Langhorne and  Loney  and who  (1979), Ney  (1974), and  would behave and  As a l l u d e d to e a r l i e r , and  with  been the e f f o r t s by r e s e a r c h e r s  (1978) to d e l i n e a t e a group of c h i l d r e n who hyperactive  and  such  Sandberg et a l .  c o u l d be  called  respond c o n s i s t e n t l y .  as s t a t e d very c l e a r l y by Loney  (1980) t h a t " d e s p i t e decades of s e a r c h i n g ,  however, no  such  homogeneous group i s p r e s e n t l y known to e x i s t " (p. 30). emphasizes f u r t h e r how monolithic  and  " i t i s c l e a r t h a t the  t h a t c h i l d r e n who  syndrome i s not  are s a i d to have the syndrome  are a hetereogeneous group i n e t i o l o g y , symptoms and (p. 34).  course"  To p a i n t a p i c t u r e even more p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y i n  t h i s regard Langhorne and  Loney  (1979) p o i n t out t h a t even  though s i x o f t h e i r reviewed r e s e a r c h e r s  have suggested sub-  groups based on t h e i r c l i n i c a l experiences, have not been supported e m p i r i c a l l y . other  She  s t u d i e s which have had  these  categories,  They f u r t h e r note  two  s i m i l a r l y disappointing results  using m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l  techniques i n attempting to  i s o l a t e c l u s t e r s of symptoms.  A previous  attempt by Langhorne  18 et  a l . (19 76)  used f a c t o r a n a l y t i c methods on measures of the  most widely agreed  upon core symptoms of h y p e r k i n e s i s i n a  group of 94 boys seen at a c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y c l i n i c and  1972.  I t was  for  64% of the v a r i a n c e were d e f i n e d mainly  between  1967  noted t h a t the three s t a b l e f a c t o r s a c c o u n t i n by v a r i a b l e s from  a p a r t i c u l a r source o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as p s y c h i a t r i s t , c h a r t r a t e r , teacher or parent, r a t h e r than symptom-related v a r i a b l e s They then conclude  with the somewhat s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t t h a t  " i n s t e a d , the outcome of t h i s study, which was  designed  to  maximize the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g a s i n g l e syndrome c l u s t e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as p r e v i o u s analyses of presumably more heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n s of MBD  symptoms"  (p.  206).  T h i s b r i e f review of the more e x t e n s i v e attempts to d e l i n e a t e a homogeneous subgroup of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i s not i n c l u d e d to  demonstrate the f u t i l i t y  of such endeavors, but r a t h e r to  i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g t h r u s t of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on h y p e r a c t i v i t y and t o emphasize some important  assumptions of the  present  study. One  Focus: The  A B e h a v i o r a l D e f i n i t i o n of H y p e r a c t i v i t y  f i r s t p o s i t i o n taken here, which f i n d s support  i n the  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s t u d i e s , i s t h a t a b e h a v i o r a l d e f i n i t i o n of  the h y p e r a c t i v e syndrome i s a v a l i d b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g  c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t i n g these h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r s .  In f a c t ,  t h i s i s the d i r e c t i o n taken by the more recent s t u d i e s on problem.  this  Another aspect of t h i s study which f i n d s support i n  19 the  l i t e r a t u r e involves  l e v e l of v a r i o u s  the  teacher r a t i n g c h i l d r e n on  the  t y p i c a l behaviors s i n c e the teacher i s  one  c r i t i c a l source f a c t o r as mentioned by Langhorne e t a l . (1976). F i n a l l y , these s t u d i e s  a l s o i n d i c a t e one  search f o r e t i o l o g y which dominates the (1979) notes how  "the  c l e a r example of literature.  Varga  l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p l e t e with a v a r i e t y  attempts t o e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s of h y p e r a c t i v i t y " Models of H y p e r a c t i v i t y :  (p.  Etiology  comprehensively by Lambert e t a l . (1978) i n terms of models of h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  The  f i r s t model sees the  as an a t t r i b u t e of the i n d i v i d u a l and or metabolic d e f i c i t .  blends s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t r e s s i n g the  p o s i t s some  The  anthropological  c h i l d ' s environment and  child-centered  and  and  three  condition organic,  s o c i a l system model perspectives  the  environment as d e f i n i n g the h y p e r a c t i v i t y . the  of  414).  These views of e t i o l o g y have been summarized b r i e f l y  neurological  the  by  c h i l d ' s role i n that Combining both  s o c i a l system models y i e l d s the  third  i n t e r a c t i v e system model which suggests a complex i n t e r a c t i o n between the  c h i l d ' s environment and  l o g i c a l s t a t u s which leads to the active.  The  h i s p h y s i c a l and  c h i l d being d e f i n e d  as hyper-  l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n model would  c l a i m t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n c o u l d not be a single behavioral  dimension or by  defined  a single defining  A f u r t h e r outcome of t h i s p o s i t i o n , c r i t i c a l not study but  psycho-  by  system.  only t o t h i s  t o a broader understanding of h y p e r a c t i v i t y , i s t o  20 v i e w i t as  a symptom r a t h e r The  The  Interaction The  ture.  Interactional  Ackerman e t  between 20  al.  traits,  (1979),  cognitive  hyperactive  the  l i k e l i h o o d of  "as  recent  an  and  e x p e r i e n c e s as  92).  Zrull et  in  depth to  to  literature  emotional (19 79)  research  al.  regarding  on  as  litera-  i n a psychosocial  study  comparing  role taking  moral  learning-disabled  boys,  the  the  i n analyzing  r o l e of trend  (p.  t o the 33).  i n the  as  i n t e r a c t i o n of  d i s e a s e s be  E n g e l who  illness  v i e w e d i n w i d e r t e r m s by wider concept of  hyperactive  child  hyperkinetic  pointing and  Hechtman review  suggest  of  a  of  to  that  biopsycho-  a m e d i c a l model  according  1977  challenged  to  use  and  organic  F i n a l l y W e i s s and  all  the  of  voluminous  dysfunction  They c i t e  shown,  case h i s t o r i e s  apparent i n the  t r a d i t i o n a l b i o m e c u l a r model o f  aptly, t o  that  (Cameron,  two  depression  minimal b r a i n  hyperactivity.  This  noted  behavior  stress.."this p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r e x t e n s i v e  l o g i c a l model.  reasoning  They o b s e r v e d  to explain  the  very  and  t h e i r temperments"  (1970),  attention  components"  also  i n the  i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i r home m i l i e u  n o t e d the  "toward g r e a t e r  f i n d s wide s u p p o r t  Chess-Thomas s t u d y g r o u p have  attempt  well  indicate  syndrome, a l s o  20  the  c h i l d r e n without taking  p.  Model  interaction effect.  analyses of  i s irresponsible  life  entity.  Position  interaction position  personality  it  than a disease  applies  them and  their  21 conclusion  i s that:  The h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d syndrome can only be understood i n a l l i t s complexity when viewed from s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t s , and the t r a d i t i o n a l biomecular medical model does not f i t the v a r i o u s manifestations, e t i o l o g y , . a n d course o f the d i s o r d e r o f c h i l d h o o d . Multidimensional o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l models are r e q u i r e d which take i n t o account the complex i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d ' s environment and h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l status. (p. 1353) The  present study a l s o viewed h y p e r a c t i v i t y  from the i n t e r -  a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t e d one c r i t i c a l  aspect o f the  h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s classroom environment, namely, the c h i l d ' s perception  o f some c r i t i c a l  dimensions o f the t e a c h e r - c h i l d  relationship. F u r t h e r support f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n p o s i t i o n i s found i n some very r e l e v a n t symptom r a t h e r  s t u d i e s which viewed h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a  than a syndrome.  Thomas (1976) , i n her review  of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s  which may  have h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a symptom, d e s c r i b e d  underlying  disorders. one  She c i t e s :  manifestation  three  Chess (1956) who saw h y p e r a c t i v i t y as  o f primary emotional problems; Bakwin  (196 7)  who r e f e r r e d t o developmental h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t y l e v e l o f c h i l d r e n who were on the upper end of a normal curve of a c t i v i t y who i d e n t i f i e d h y p e r k i n e s i s gested i n a p p r o p r i a t e problem.  f o r a l l c h i l d r e n ; and Bax (19 72)  apart  educational  from o v e r a c t i v i t y and sugmanagement as one  Thomas then goes on t o d e s c r i b e  two case  which i l l u s t r a t e how h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d sensory impairment and f u r t h e r adds t h a t :  underlying studies  w i t h severe  22 The use of the term " h y p e r a c t i v i t y " as a d i a g n o s t i c l a b e l r a t h e r than as a p o s s i b l e symptom o f an u n d e r l y i n g d i s order - e i t h e r w i t h i n the c h i l d o r the environment - i s hazardous t o the c h i l d . I t i s hazardous because such use i m p l i e s a s i n g l e t h e r a p e u t i c category ( i . e . , t r e a t the h y p e r a c t i v i t y p e r se) when the key t o s u c c e s s f u l management i s t o evaluate the u n d e r l y i n g d i s o r d e r and t r e a t appropriately. (p. 44) Another survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e by Stephenson  (19 75),  inte-  grated w i t h her own c l i n i c a l experience working i n a p e d i a t r i c ambulatory d i a g n o s t i c c e n t r e , where c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d because of h y p e r a c t i v i t y were assessed by a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y team, l e a d her t o a very above.  s i m i l a r conclusion  An i n t e r e s t i n g and p r o d u c t i v e  as t h a t s t a t e d by Thomas o f f - s h o o t o f viewing  h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a symptom was p o s t u l a t e d by Marwit and Stenner (1972) as a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n the  l i t e r a t u r e regarding  behavioral  f o r the c o n f u s i o n  evidenced i n  the d i s o r d e r ' s terminology, e t i o l o g y ,  c o r r e l a t e s and treatment techniques.  They,contend  t h a t o r g a n i c i t y i s but one o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t o be  considered  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g two r e l a t i v e l y independent forms o f the general  disorder  "hyperkinesis".  e n t i a t e d between P a t t e r n  They d e l i n e a t e d and d i f f e r -  I or "hyperactive"  c h i l d r e n , which  would be s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t model d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h e i r review, and P a t t e r n  I I or " h y p e r r e a c t i v e "  c h i l d r e n , which  resembles the second model mentioned e a r l i e r .  Although  later  s t u d i e s have shown t h i s model t o be r a t h e r l i m i t e d as w e l l s i n c e no i n t e r a c t i o n o f the P a t t e r n I w i t h P a t t e r n  II factors  was suggested, the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a " h y p e r r e a c t i v e "  pattern  o f behavior appears t o be an accurate  forerunner  o f the t h r u s t  23 o f present present  investigation.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the focus o f the  study i s suggesting  that a c h i l d ' s hyperactive  i o r may be viewed p a r t i a l l y as a r e a c t i o n t o some elements i n t h a t c h i l d ' s classroom c h i l d s perception 1  o f teacher  behav-  critical  environment, namely, the  behavior.  H y p e r a c t i v i t y as a Reaction One such i n v e s t i g a t o r foreshadowed by Marwit and Stenner i s Hembling  (1978, 1980).  T h i s f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t and r e s e a r c h e r  shares the view t h a t : Gradual c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f c u r r e n t l y u n c l e a r and d i v e r g e n t views on ' h y p e r k i n e s i s ' may come from viewing h y p e r a c t i v e symptomotology as a key m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t syndromes. Stephenson's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t p r e - p u b e r t a l " h y p e r k i n e s i s " o r " h y p e r a c t i v i t y " i s simply a symptom, a l b e i t a w e l l - n o t i c e d symptom, r a t h e r than a d i s c r e t e f e a t u r e o f any one c h i l d h o o d c o n d i t i o n may o f f e r a salutary direction for further discussion, possibly toward the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y d i s p a r a t e hypotheses, (p. 3) In a r e t r o s p e c t i v e study, 72 h y p e r a c t i v e  pre-pubertal  were i d e n t i f i e d from 114 f a m i l y r e f e r r a l s .  children  Hembling noted  through i n t e r v i e w i n g the f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r homes t h a t i n approxi m a t e l y h a l f o f the cases c h a o t i c p a r e n t i n g e x i s t e d r e s u l t i n g i n the c h i l d e x p e r i e n c i n g  q u i t e obvious anxiety as a r e a c t i o n  t o f a m i l y dynamics.  However, i n the other h a l f o f the c h i l d r e n ,  no c h a o t i c home-life  f o r the c h i l d was r e v e a l e d even a f t e r the  most c a r e f u l ! i n t e r v i e w i n g . o f f e r e d t o these parents  When a treatment p l a n was r o u t i n e l y  as though c h a o t i c p a r e n t i n g  i t was demonstrated r a t h e r c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t t h i s c h i l d s e t t l e d down s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  existed  hyperactive  Hembling p o s i t s a r a t h e r  24 convincing explanation  f o r t h i s phenomenon based on a view o f  h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a key m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p r e - p u b e r t a l r e a c t i v e d e pr es si on .  He c l a i m s :  The mosaic i s made up o f c h i l d - s p e c i f i c v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s (Anthony, 1 9 7 4 ) , c e r t a i n p a r e n t a l - f a m i l y dynamics, and c l e a r l y i n many cases operant c o n d i t i o n i n g o f the type already r e f e r r e d t o by many w r i t e r s (Baine, 19 78) (Ney, 1974). The mosaic then becomes complicated f u r t h e r by the huge i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n m a t u r a t i o n a l r a t e s o f the c e n t r a l nervous system (CNS),. e s p e c i a l l y with boys, when s t r e s s e d f u r t h e r by grouped e x p e c t a t i o n s i n most elementary s c h o o l environments (Bener, 1975) (Ames, 1968). Former " d i f f i c u l t b a b i e s " ( A l l e n , 1976) are not the only c a s u a l t i e s t o emerge i n the e a r l y primary grades, u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d f o r assessment on the b a s i s of t h e i r " h y p e r a c t i v i t y " and o f t e n becoming p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s . Add t o t h i s mosaic the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y common l a c k of agreement among v a r i o u s c l i n i c i a n s . . . w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i a g n o s t i c s and treatment. Add f u r t h e r t o the p o o r l y d e f i n e d d i s t i n c t i o n between a t r u e motoric v e r s i o n o f CNS d i s o r d e r and the vaguer sometimes i m p e r c e p t i b l e "conduct" d i s o r d e r , the l a t t e r o f t e n masked t o t a l l y i n the s h o r t p e r i o d o f time devoted and the u n f a m i l i a r surroundings, t y p i c a l o f many c l i n i c a l assessments o f the c h i l d h i m s e l f (Eisenberg, 1966) (Rapoport, 1 9 7 8 ) . So much c o n f u s i o n and ambivalence i n the a d u l t s p r o v i d i n g care f o r such c h i l d r e n , must r e a l i s t i c a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d as one f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the c h i l d ' s sense o f i n s e c u r i t y and a n x i e t y . We know w e l l how s i g n i f i c a n t the environmental and i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s are, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t t o s u b j e c t s a l r e a d y w e l l known t o be h i q h l y f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t (Flynn and Rapoport, 1976). (p. 3-4) Hembling goes on t o e x p l a i n why, on t h i s b a s i s , he b e l i e v e s Ney's  (1974) f o u r t h type o f h y p e r k i n e s i s —  chaotic —  which  accounted f o r 2 1 % o f h i s 60 c h i l d r e n , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y underidentified. This i n s i g h t f u l - ' a n d s i g n i f i c a n t work by Hembling a powerful  provides  example o f the absolute n e c e s s i t y t o assume an i n t e r -  a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n when s t u d y i n g h y p e r a c t i v e  c h i l d r e n and i t  25 also  demonstrates  tion  of  a hyperreactive  Hembling's the  the wisdom of  need  study  to  here  consider  when  assessing  This  point  the  w i l l  the  suggestion  that  his  teacher  a  classroom  of  one o f  to  clinicians  made  to  including  support of  for  children  environment.  i n .this  perception  child  being  of  review  along  or experience  on h i s b e h a v i o r  with of  i n the  by Rutter  et  et  varying prevalence  5%  are boys  cited  syndrome  North  found  2,000.  (1979) m a d e 7%  (1978)  estimates  sought  to  where  amongst  12,000  reference 1  A more  the  this  by Bax  reference  a n d 10% o f  American  may h a v e  A similar  over  summarizes  hyperkinetic,  study  were  referred  (1975)  a l . who i d e n t i f i e d o n l y  between a l .  hyperactivity  although  8% o f  of Wight.  and Martin  Lambert  show  an o f t e n  i n a population of  applied to  that  estimated  Isle  survey,  Stephenson  indicate  to  Ratio  for children being  today.  studies  Study  this  reasons  which  i n the  study  population. widely  common  hyperkinetic  by Firestone  label  for  i n i t i a l  and school  influence  beginning  referred  the  year-olds  work  reason  postula-  or experiences  further  child's  population  She of  a  family  and educators  five  kinetic  the  Pregnancy  cases  the  findings  handicap. no  some  the perceptions  comparable  at  school  Kaui  provide  supported  the most  prevalence  the  to  Another  Hyperactivity and Male-Female  noted  is  public  i s  and Stenner's  environment.  Prevalence As  i s  pattern.  c h i l d ' s  be  Marwit  to  i s  hyper-  recent this  school-age  reconcile  by having parents,  the teachers  26  and p h y s i c i a n s i d e n t i f y h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n a sample o f 500  elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  They note t h a t  "approximately  5 % were c o n s i d e r e d h y p e r a c t i v e by a t l e a s t one d e f i n i n g system; only one percent were considered h y p e r a c t i v e by a l l three definers.  Prevalence  r a t e s were r e l a t i v e l y constant  garten through f i f t h t h a t no more than  grade"  (p. 4 4 6 ) .  They go on t o conclude  1 0 % o f an elementary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n would  be c o n s i d e r e d h y p e r a c t i v e by a l l three d e f i n e r s . aspect o f prevalence a l s o f i n d s support  from k i n d e r -  s t u d i e s , as s t a t e d by Ney  A noteworthy  (1974)  and which  i n numerous other s t u d i e s , i s the male t o  female sex r a t i o o f h y p e r k i n e t i c c h i l d r e n of approximately 9 : 1 . These i n d i c a t o r s o f prevalence for  are i n c l u d e d here not simply  i n t e r e s t sake, but t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l guidance i n i d e n -  t i f y i n g the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study and a l s o t o help i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . Lambert e t a l . ' s  (1978)  data r e g a r d i n g prevalence a d d i t i o n a l support  .study not only p r o v i d e s  valuable  i n d i c a t o r s , but i t a l s o p r o v i d e s  f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n and f o r the  c r i t i c a l environmental  and s i t u a t i o n a l aspects o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y  by n o t i n g : t h a t the r e p o r t o f the c h i l d ' s behavior i s made by those who c o n t r i b u t e t o the c h i l d ' s environment namely the parents and t e a c h e r s . Because they are a p a r t o f the c h i l d ' s environment, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviors a f f e c t both the c h i l d ' s behavior and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s behavior. (p. 4 4 7 ) They f u r t h e r contend how " i t t h e r e f o r e becomes incumbent... to s p e c i f y the environment i n which the behaviour  occurs  and the  27 source of the l a b e l "  (p. 447). There i s a l s o some d i r e c t  support i m p l i e d i n t h i s statement  f o r the need t o i n c l u d e the  c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the environmental  experiences.  Before l e a v i n g t h i s study by Lambert e t a l . (1978)  i t  i s important t o note what they d i s c o v e r e d r e g a r d i n g peaks i n prevalence r a t e s o f the s c h o o l - i d e n t i f i e d h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n . T h e i r b a s i c f i n d i n g was t h a t although s l i g h t peaks were noted at k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade t h r e e , i n c o n t r a s t t o grades one and two, w i t h f u r t h e r peaks a t grades  four and f i v e , the  p a t t e r n was more one o f r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r prevalence r a t e s across grades.  They e x p l a i n e d t h i s movement as r e s u l t i n g  from  c h i l d r e n moving i n and out o f the c o n s i d e r e d h y p e r a c t i v e group as a r e f l e c t i o n o f the changing and d i f f e r e n t responses  demands of s c h o o l and home  of the c h i l d ' s developing  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h environmental  circumstances.  organism  Again, we f i n d  support f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . Developing a P o s i t i o n :  Behavioral, Interactional  Before moving on t o the next stage o f t h i s review, a summary w i l l serve t o h i g h l i g h t the development o f our t o p i c and the focus o f t h i s study.  I t has been noted t h a t e x t e n s i v e  e f f o r t s t o i s o l a t e a homogeneous group o f c h i l d r e n with a h y p e r a c t i v e syndrome has been u n s u c c e s s f u l .  There i s wide-  spread agreement however, on common b e h a v i o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of h y p e r a c t i v i t y which lends support t o our b e h a v i o r a l operational definition.  Another t r e n d g a i n i n g r e c e n t acceptance i s  28  t h a t o f viewing h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a symptom which i s b e s t understood as a dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d and the environment w i t h i n which the h y p e r a c t i v e behavior o c c u r s . more s p e c i f i c focus on the c h i l d ' s experience environment has a l s o been noted and prevalence  A  of a p a r t i c u l a r studies indicate  t h a t the elementary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n would l i k e l y i n c l u d e a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c h i l d r e n which could be i d e n t i f i e d by teachers as e x h i b i t i n g h y p e r a c t i v e  behaviors.  In order t o d e l i n e a t e f u r t h e r u n d e r l y i n g premises and p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s study, p r e v i o u s reviews examined next  and s t u d i e s w i l l be  f o r t h e i r f i n d i n g s , c a u t i o n s , and suggestions  r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y . Facets o f I n t e r a c t i o n a l P o s i t i o n The e a r l i e r c i t e d review by Weiss and Hechtman (19 79) o f f e r s some s u p p o r t i v e d i r e c t i o n by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t even though the environment may not provide answers r e g a r d i n g primary for hyperactive children, i t i s a highly s i g n i f i c a n t variable.  cause  antecedent  They add f u r t h e r t h a t the f a m i l y and s c h o o l e n v i r o n -  ment are c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s a b e r r a t i o n s regardless of t h e i r largely unquantifiable r o l e .  Support f o r  Lambert e t a l . ' s (1978) i n t e r a c t i o n p o s i t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f teachers' and parents'  a t t i t u d e s on both the c h i l d ' s  behavior  and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of i t i s given, and they a l s o suggest the s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t many h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n have v a r i o u s r e a c t i v e problems r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s o r t o r e s u l t i n g  29 experiences of r e j e c t i o n and f a i l u r e at s c h o o l , a t home and with peers. Loney s 1  (19 80) e x t e n s i v e review deserves r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n  to note her d i s c u s s i o n and summary comments r e g a r d i n g her hypot h e t i c a l " s t a t e h y p e r a c t i v e s " ( c h i l d r e n whose behavior i s r e l a t i v e l y r e s i s t a n t t o environmental  changes).  important q u e s t i o n worth i n v e s t i g a t i n g :  She poses an  "In what k i n d s of  s i t u a t i o n s do they behave l i k e normals and i n what s i t u a t i o n s are they h y p e r a c t i v e " (p.33)?  She  a l s o lends support t o the  d i r e c t i o n of t h i s study by adding t h a t " a d d i t i o n a l  illumination  of the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l and environment v a r i a b l e s might i n f a c t be e a s i l y s u p p l i e d by workers who upon t h a t p a r a d o x i c a l l y responsive organism: child"  (p.33).  The  choose t o focus  the h y p e r a c t i v e  c r i t i c i s m aimed at s t u d y i n g a c h i l d  who  i s n ' t t r u l y h y p e r a c t i v e because he only behaves t h a t way  at  s c h o o l i s r e f u t e d most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by Loney when she  insight-  f u l l y adds t h a t " c e r t a i n l y the problems of c h i l d r e n with h y p e r a c t i v i t y are as  ' r e a l ' i n t h e i r own  state  context as are the  problems of c h i l d r e n with t r a i t h y p e r a c t i v i t y "  (p.33).  A t h i r d study, a l s o r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , by Langhorne Loney  (1976) sought  t o d e l i n e a t e a s t a b l e c l u s t e r of symptoms  of h y p e r k i n e s i s .  The  analytic  e s s e n t i a l l y p a r a l l e l l e d those o b t a i n e d i n  methods  and  r e s u l t s of t h e i r e x t e n s i v e f a c t o r -  p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by demonstrating  t h a t measures of presumably  d i f f e r e n t symptoms from a common source of i n f o r m a t i o n  (i.e.,  p s y c h i a t r i s t s , c h a r t - r a t e r s , teachers and parents) are more h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d than are s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e measures of  30  a single t o the is  symptom.  source  specific  situational of Wahler do n o t  they  suggest  i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e much o f c h i l d  to particular specificity  situations.  of behavior  has  the  i s given i n t h e i r  specific  been f u r t h e r  ecology  of h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  coupled with parent  i n f r e q u e n t but  and  often  from  home  aspects  by Whalen e t a l .  need f o r t h i s  beginning  d e s c r i b e d as  (p. 7 9 ) .  Other  and  summarizing  in a the  stressing  f o l l o w but  assumed i n t h e p r e s e n t  examining  the  "relatively  t h a t stand out  evidence  focus of research w i l l  actional position e x p a n d e d by  Before  related  o r are n o t i c e a b l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e from  of a c t i v i t y "  of  teacher interviews, revealing  inappropriate behaviors  situation  the  the b a s i c  study w i l l  a position  ongoing  be  inter-  further  s t a t e d by  (1977).  S i t u a t i o n a l Aspects This  social  from  of H y p e r a c t i v i t y  system approach r e s u l t e d  descriptor,  nificantly Conrad  citing  c o n s i d e r e d h y p e r a c t i v e were  a p a t t e r n of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g behavior  priate  f o r the  effects  have been i n v o l v e d i n e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h  social  observed,  situational  underscored  r e s e a r c h , dozens of c h i l d r e n  Conrad  Further support  demonstrated t h a t treatment  need t o study  (1978) who  stream  behavior  settings.  hyperactivity  given  strongly to return  g e n e r a l i z e a c r o s s e n v i r o n m e n t s as i s t h e c a s e  The  cited  o f the  (196 9) who  to school  to the  In b r i e f ,  i n the very  "situational hyperactivity".  Jane Mercer's  (1977) a r g u e s  Drawing  approach t o the m e n t a l l y  that hyperactivity  can  approsig-  retarded,  be v i e w e d as  deviant  31 behavior  s i n c e the behavior:  v a r i e s from the norms and  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s of a given s o c i a l system; i s i d e n t i f i e d and by a s i g n i f i c a n t audience  (family or s c h o o l ) ; i s designated  h y p e r a c t i v e and i s a s c r i b e d t o the c h i l d ; can be and understood system. i n one  only w i t h i n the boundaries  Situational  defined as  identified  of a p a r t i c u l a r  social  h y p e r a c t i v i t y then i s t h a t which i s r e p o r t e d  or more, but not a l l s o c i a l systems the c h i l d i s i n .  f u r t h e r p o i n t s out t h a t the c h i l d ' s  behavior may  on the s o c i a l system and understanding  He  vary depending  the behavior would r e q u i r e  an e v a l u a t i o n of the s o c i a l system as w e l l as an e v a l u a t i o n of the  child. The p r e s e n t study supports  Conrad's suggestion t h a t the  h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n might be t e l l i n g us more about the t i o n they experience This s i t u a t i o n a l  than about t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  h y p e r a c t i v i t y may  situa-  "pathology".  be seen as " s o c i a l l y caused"  or as a response t o a s p e c i f i c environment and i n f a c t , i t may be a meaningful response t h a t i s e l i c i t e d w i t h i n the To summarize Conrad's p o s i t i o n , be; it,  he notes  an a d a p t a t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n ,  situation.  t h a t the behavior  a resulting  or a statement about the s o c i a l system.  His  may  c o n f l i c t within contention  t h a t remediation might need to be focused on the s o c i a l system r a t h e r than the c h i l d c e r t a i n l y mentioned r e s e a r c h  f i n d s support  (Hembling, 1978,  i n previously  1980).  Assuming t h a t an adequate argument has been presented the need to explore the s i t u a t i o n a l l e t us now aspects.  for  aspects of h y p e r a c t i v i t y ,  t u r n to f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h which e x p l o r e s i t s s o c i a l  32 S o c i a l Aspects In an a n a l y s i s of the h y p e r a c t i v e attempt was  syndrome, where an  made t o determine whether the commonly d e s c r i b e d  symptoms a s s o c i a t e d with h y p e r a c t i v i t y are unique t o a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n , F i r e s t o n e and M a r t i n  (19 79)  concluded  that  differ-  ences e x i s t e d i n comparison to normals but only a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from behavior children.  problem and  Since t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r d e l i n e a t i n g the  problem c h i l d r e n may  asthmatic  behavior  have i n c l u d e d those where 3 of 4 r a t e r s  d e s c r i b e d them as h y p e r a c t i v e , t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d not considered independent or e x c l u s i v e .  be  However, i n t h e i r review  they note t h a t : Although e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s suggested t h a t h y p e r a c t i v e s were much more a c t i v e than normal c o n t r o l s , more s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d t h a t i t i s not the o v e r a l l a c t i v i t y l e v e l t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s these c h i l d r e n but i t s s o c i a l inappropriateness. (p. 262) In reviewing  t h e i r own  f i n d i n g s they noted other s t u d i e s which  a l s o support  the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t h y p e r a c t i v e  c h i l d r e n are  unable to cope r e a l i s t i c a l l y with f r u s t r a t i n g events and t o deny t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . here would be:  One  important  q u e s t i o n t o be asked  What f a c t o r s i n the c h i l d ' s environment might  p r e c i p i t a t e such a d e n i a l or such an o v e r - r e a c t i o n ? study may  tend  The  present  y i e l d some answers.  Sandberg e t a l . (19 80) whether o r g a n i c and  focused  on the u n c e r t a i n t y about  s o c i a l f a c t o r s of p o s s i b l e c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e  can d i s c r i m i n a t e between the d i s o r d e r of h y p e r k i n e s i s and what Hembling  (1978) d e s c r i b e d as the  "vaguer, sometimes i m p e r c e p t i b l e  33 'conduct  d i s o r d e r ' " (p. 4).  Working with a sample of 226  i n the age range of peak r i s k  ( f i v e to nine years) these r e -  searchers gathered i n f o r m a t i o n on:  medical and s o c i a l back-  ground f a c t o r s , p h y s i c a l examination  of the c h i l d ,  behavior  r a t i n g s of the c h i l d by two t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 1969,  1973;  (Conners,  (Conners  and R u t t e r , 1967), and a parent q u e s t i o n n a i r e  1974).  A f t e r examining  and i m t e r c o r r e l a t i n g  r e s u l t s they confirmed and extended c l i n i c study  (Sandberg  et a l . ,  that s o c i a l factors play little  a  disturbance.  disadvantage  was  their  the r e s u l t s of a p r e v i o u s  19 78) where evidence was  found  causal r o l e i n hyperkinesis with  or no suggestion t h a t they p l a y e d any d i f f e r e n t  i n conduct  boys  role  They f u r t h e r note t h a t " o v e r a l l  social  s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d w i t h both k i n d s of d i s t u r b a n c e  on the t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and mother's mental d i s t r e s s w i t h h i g h scores of both h y p e r a c t i v i t y and conduct problems on the parent q u e s t i o n n a i r e " (p. 306).  Of noteworthy i n t e r e s t i n  t h i s study was  the weight p l a c e d on parent and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s  as being v a l i d  discriminators.  In a r a t h e r comprehensive p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  social  ecology of h y p e r a c t i v i t y Whalen and Henker (1980) i n c l u d e d a chapter by Routh.  He t r a c e d the development of h i s own  which began i n 19 72 by l o o k i n g at the c o v a r i a t i o n of  research  minimal  b r a i n d y s f u n c t i o n l e a d i n g t o a narrower focus on h y p e r a c t i v i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o normal c h i l d development and behavior.  social  In 19 74 Routh began h i s i n i t i a l playroom s t u d i e s  with younger h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n and t h i s l e d him t o comment  34 i n 1978: But c l e a r l y , s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s are p r o v i n g t o be c r u c i a l i n understanding c h i l d r e n ' s playroom b e h a v i o r . Looking at the l i t e r a t u r e on h y p e r a c t i v i t y a f t e r these eye-opening experiences w i t h the importance o f s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s , the author f i n d s much emerging evidence f o r the importance o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s . (p. 69) One p a r t i c u l a r aspect of s o c i a l development which Routh noted, and which has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e i n the p r e s e n t study, was the attachment behavior o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n .  Routh was  l e d t o suggest t h a t "perhaps when we come t o understand b e t t e r the  'mother presence  w i l l f i n d that i t , (p. 72).  e f f e c t ' i n the l a b o r a t o r y playroom, we  t o o , has some r e l e v a n c e t o h y p e r a c t i v i t y "  In the present study i t i s suggested  t h a t the r e l a -  t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between the c h i l d and the s i g n i f i c a n t adult, p a r t i c u l a r l y  from the' c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h a t a d u l t ,  i s h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l on the c h i l d ' s behavior and i n f a c t , the behavior may be a r e a c t i o n t o the p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . In a r e c e n t overview a t r e n d apparent initially  of r e s e a r c h Barkley  (19 78) t r a c e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e where h y p e r a c t i v i t y was  "viewed as a d i s t u r b a n c e i n motoric a c t i v i t y  (Werry, 196 8) and l a t e r as an a t t e n t i o n d e f i c i t 1974).  levels  (Douglas,  19 72;  Current c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on  the broader problems i n the s o c i a l development o f these children  (Routh, 1978)"  (p. 158). He l a t e r concluded h i s  review by r e i t e r a t i n g the n o t i o n t h a t the more important  prob-  lems of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n center on t h e i r s o c i a l development and a d a p t a t i o n .  Another s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n made by B a r k l e y ,  which w i l l be taken up f u r t h e r , views h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a  35 l i f e - l o n g d i s o r d e r o f the i n d i v i d u a l and he f u r t h e r  suggested  t h a t the more s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n s o c i a l development become exacerbated  with i n c r e a s e d age and with i n c r e a s e d e n t r y  into larger social  contexts.  Since a l l c h i l d r e n need t o r e l a t e t o a d u l t s i n numerous s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , and s i n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i s a l i f e - l o n g experience,  a focus on some r e s e a r c h  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n as adolescents  and as a d u l t s w i l l not only shed more l i g h t on  t h i s area, but w i l l a l s o serve t o emphasize the importance o f making the s o c i a l aspects o f h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  a focus o f  research.  Importance of S o c i a l Aspects:  Follow-Up S t u d i e s  Beginning with r e f e r e n c e t o Barkley  (19 78), he c i t e d one  of the few s t u d i e s by Weiss which p o s i t s o p t i m i s t i c outcomes for hyperactive children.  However i n examining t h i s  study  by Weiss e t a l . (1979), where 75 h y p e r a c t i v e and 44 c o n t r o l s , initially  assessed a t s i x t o twelve years o f age, were f o l l o w e d  up f o r t e n t o twelve  y e a r s , i t was noted t h a t the h y p e r a c t i v e  s u b j e c t s had l e s s e d u c a t i o n , a h i s t o r y of more c a r a c c i d e n t s , more g e o g r a p h i c a l moves and some c o n t i n u i n g symptoms from the h y p e r k i n e t i c c h i l d syndrome, i n c l u d i n g i m p u l s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y traits.  They then s t r e s s the importance o f t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y  t h i s subgroup as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e f o r purposes o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n c e these i m p u l s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s sometimes r e s u l t i n  36  problems i n t h e i r l i f e  situation.  A study by Morrison a d u l t p a t i e n t s , who  (19 80) compared s o c i a l f a c t o r s of 4 8  as c h i l d r e n had h y p e r a c t i v e syndrome, with  4 8 p a t i e n t s matched f o r sex, age  and f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s  never had been i d e n t i f i e d as h y p e r a c t i v e .  who  Each p a t i e n t  asked about h i s a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the e a r l y s c h o o l years those who to  stood out from t h e i r peers were q u e s t i o n e d  was and  further  obtain s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s disorder.  Morrison  found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups which i n c l u d e d such s o c i a l d e b i l i t a t i n g experiences as:  less education,  more d i v o r c e s , t r o u b l e s e r v i n g i n the m i l i t a r y , l e s s  likeli-  hood of a c h i e v i n g a h i g h e r job s t a t u s , f o u r times the of  v i o l e n c e , and twice the p r e v a l e n c y of l e g a l  frequency  involvement.  He then goes on t o suggest t h a t the h y p e r a c t i v e group's d e f i c i t may  social  have r e s u l t e d from "a f a i l u r e of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l  r a t h e r than a d i r e c t e f f e c t of t h e i r c h i l d h o o d h y p e r a c t i v i t y " (p.40).  T h i s p o i n t i s worth n o t i n g here as i t i s c r i t i c a l  to  a focus of the p r e s e n t study which suggests a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d demand and h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r . In  f a c t , an i n t e r a c t i o n between the two  i s l i k e l y more a c c u r a t e .  Ackerman e t a l . ' s (1977) study i n v o l v e d three groups of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d boys, 23 h y p e r a c t i v e s , 25 14 h y p o a c t i v e s , compared to 31 c o n t r o l s . on 80% of the s u b j e c t s at age between the i n i t i a l included:  normoactives~and.  Follow-up  14 w i t h an average  study of f o u r y e a r s .  was  done  interval  Measures o b t a i n e d  b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s i n the l a b o r a t o r y , home, and  37 community; academic progress measures; and a combination the two.  of  I t was found t h a t a l l three groups remained a t a  disadvantage  t o c o n t r o l s on academic and c o g n i t i v e measures  and on complex r e a c t i o n time.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the  f i n d i n g t h a t h a l f the h y p e r a c t i v e s had experienced  major con-  f l i c t s with a u t h o r i t y . In a thorough review of the l i t e r a t u r e examining the connection between the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d syndrome and the development o f d e l i n q u e n t , a n t i s o c i a l behavior adolescence, divisions.  and l a t e r l i f e ,  Cantwell  (19 78)  i n childhood,  used three sub-  From s i x s t u d i e s based on c h i l d h o o d h i s t o r i e s o f  a d u l t s with a n t i s o c i a l behavior Cantwell noted outcomes such as:  impulsiveness,  d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s , a l c o h o l i s m , antisocial.",  p e r s o n a l i t y , and delinquency. follow-up in  Two r e t r o s p e c t i v e or post f a c t o  s t u d i e s noted outcomes i n c l u d i n g :  p s y c h o t i c , time  j a i l and j u v e n i l e h a l l s , and more frequent j o b changes.  His t h i r d d i v i s i o n , p r o s p e c t i v e follow-up  studies, referred  to  the l i n k between the  three major s t u d i e s which a l s o support  h y p e r k i n e t i c syndrome and a n t i s o c i a l behavior i n l a t e r with outcomes c i t e d such a s :  a n t i s o c i a l behavior, high  life, inci-  dence o f r e f e r r a l t o the c o u r t s , f i g h t i n g , s t e a l i n g , and drug abuse.  In summary, Cantwell  feels confident i n stating that  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d h o o d h y p e r k i n e s i s and l a t e r  anti-  s o c i a l behavior e x i s t s and, although he i s u n c l e a r o f the reason  f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n , he suggests p o s s i b i l i t i e s such a s :  p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s ; f a m i l i a l and environmental  factors;  38 and e d u c a t i o n a l  failure.  T h i s review o f the outcomes o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i s best summarized by Barkley  (19 78):  F i r s t , i t i s apparent t h a t while the gross motor a c t i v i t y problems o f these c h i l d r e n may d e c l i n e with age, as i t does i n normal c h i l d r e n (Routh e t a l . 1974), problems with r e s t l e s s n e s s , poor a t t e n t i o n span, and s c h o l a s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s continue i n t o adolescence and even adulthood. Second i t appears t h a t with age, the problems o f hypera c t i v e c h i l d r e n become more and more s e r i o u s i n the realm of s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . That i s the o v e r a c t i v e , tempermental i n f a n t becomes the h y p e r a c t i v e , non-compliant p r e s c h o o l c h i l d , and e v e n t u a l l y the c h i l d who has t r o u b l e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s and teacher commands i n the classroom d u r i n g s c h o o l years. As the c h i l d e n t e r s adolescence and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a l a r g e r s o c i a l sphere, problems with peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s become paramount, as does d i f f i c u l t y i n obeying the r u l e s of s o c i e t y . With e n t r y i n t o adulthood, these problems p e r s i s t and may a f f e c t the a d u l t ' s s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n and a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n and h o l d employment. . . . a t h i r d i m p l i c a t i o n from the follow-up r e s e a r c h i s t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y , d e s p i t e our best treatment e f f o r t s , i s a l i f e - l o n g d i s o r d e r , r a t h e r than simply one l i m i t e d to c h i l d h o o d . (p. 160) T h i s r a t h e r powerful  statement leads t o both an obvious  more s u b t l e c o n c l u s i o n .  and a  F i r s t , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t the s o c i a l  aspects of t h i s problem need immediate i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n order to  i n t e r r u p t the r a t h e r v i c i o u s outcomes.  author maintains  Secondly,  the p r e s e n t  t h a t an u n d e r l y i n g dimension i n the s t u d i e s  reviewed here i s t h a t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y more a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s as he matures. Having e s t a b l i s h e d the importance and need f o r e x p l o r i n g more f u l l y the s o c i a l aspects o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y and a l s o having determined the wisdom of: examining i t s s i t u a t i o n a l let  us now review  aspects,  some r e s e a r c h on the s p e c i f i c aspects of  39 adult-child interaction.  Interaction:  Adult-Child  Some very r e l e v a n t (19 73)  required  research  5 7 female and  i n t h i s regard by  Stevens-Long  3 male parents of c h i l d r e n  r o l l e d i n an elementary s c h o o l  to respond t o v i d e o t a p e d  sequences showing e i t h e r an o v e r a c t i v e ,  u n d e r a c t i v e , or average-  a c t i v e c h i l d , by s e l e c t i n g a d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e and toward the influence  child.  I t was  her  the nature and  chosen t o c o n t r o l the d i r e c t e d toward the  o f a c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r and  may  s e v e r i t y of d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e s  c h i l d ' s behavior as w e l l as the  child.  an a f f e c t  assumption t h a t c e r t a i n contexts  an a d u l t ' s e v a l u a t i o n  also influence  en-  She  f u r t h e r proposed t h a t  feelings certain  c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as a c t i v i t y l e v e l , or a s p e c i f i c l a b e l such as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d , v i o r a l context" w i t h i n which the Analysis  of v a r i a n c e  overactive  generally  might p r o v i d e t h i s "beha-  c h i l d ' s behavior i s e v a l u a t e d .  supported her h y p o t h e s i s  c h i l d r e n were punished more s e v e r e l y  c h i l d r e n , and  there was  tone or a f f e c t and  of the  l e v e l and  Bell  (196 8) i s /  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n  c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r e n t a l  as c o n g e n i t a l  other  Other aspects of  a l s o bear mentioning.  cited for his elaboration  suggests t h a t a c t i v i t y  than the  a l s o a c o r r e l a t i o n between f e e l i n g  s e v e r i t y of d i s c i p l i n e .  Steven-Long's research  that  use  of d i s c i p l i n e .  assertiveness  c h i l d d i f f e r e n c e s which r e q u i r e  can  be  He viewed  a parent t o  h i g h magnitude, perhaps more severe, measures of c o n t r o l .  use Two  o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s are a l s o c i t e d f o r t h e i r f u r t h e r support of  40  this interaction  effect.  Cunningham and B a r k l e y ' s  (1979)  study o f 20 normal and  20 h y p e r a c t i v e boys ranging i n age from 6 t o 12 years the child-mother i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g a 15-minute and a 15-minute  s t r u c t u r a l task.  observed  free play  H y p e r a c t i v e boys proved t o  be more a c t i v e , l e s s compliant and l e s s l i k e l y  t o remain on  task while mothers o f h y p e r a c t i v e boys were l e s s l i k e l y t o respond p o s i t i v e l y t o any of the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r , even the constructive.  These mothers a l s o imposed more s t r u c t u r e and  c o n t r o l on a l l aspects o f the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r .  In t h e i r  review they note the lack o f r e s e a r c h emphasis p l a c e d on an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i s environment and go on t o s t a t e that: The b e h a v i o r o f the c h i l d , however, i s a f u n c t i o n not only o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l temperment and a b i l i t i e s , but a l s o of the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by s p e c i f i c environments and, perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t l y , the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h whom the c h i l d i n t e r a c t s i n those environments. (p. 2 1 7 ) They f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e t h a t the b e h a v i o r o f the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d may e l i c i t  r a t h e r i n e f f e c t i v e management s t r a t e g i e s  a d u l t s and thus a s p r i a l o f negative i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r s .  from For  these reasons the behavior o f the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d can only be understood  c l e a r l y w i t h i n the context o f the b e h a v i o r o f  s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i s environment. Evidence  s u p p o r t i n g two key assumptions o f the p r e s e n t  study are a l r e a d y q u i t e e v i d e n t from the above two r e s e a r c h e r s . The premise  t h a t c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d as h y p e r a c t i v e by a c l a s s -  41 room t e a c h e r w i l l less  perceive  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e j e c t i o n  acceptance from the a d u l t  w i t h the premise adult  as  (19 79)  that  is  t h e s e same c h i l d r e n w i l l  b e i n g more d e m a n d i n g o f t h e m .  study  showed t h e m o t h e r s  more c o n t r o l a n d s t r u c t u r e ,  yet the  consequently less  fail  perceive  the a d u l t  c o n t r o l l i n g o f them s i n c e  t o s t o p what i s  to support Since described  this  Cunningham and  intended.  as  child  will and  Further evidence w i l l  efforts  be  gathered  position.  above i s  work by B e l l  hyperactive.  repeated  the i n t e r a c t i v e p a t t e r n between a d u l t  present study,  Barkley's  b e i n g more d e m a n d i n g the a d u l t ' s  the  imposing  c h i l d r e n remain  the h y p e r a c t i v e as  along  experience  of hyperactives  The p r e s e n t a u t h o r s u g g e s t s t h a t  yet  d i r e c t l y supported,  and  so c r i t i c a l  it will  the  using reference  (1977) w h i c h e x a m i n e s  c h i l d r e n h a v e on a d u l t s .  Their position is  by  (19 79)  Cunningham and B a r k l e y  child  t o the p o s i t i o n taken i n  be s t r e s s e d a g a i n  and H a r p e r  and  to  the e f f e c t  summarized  in their previously  that succinctly  mentioned  study: B e l l a n d H a r p e r (1977) h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h e r e c i p r o c i t y i n h e r e n t i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h i s p o s i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r o f e a c h member o f a d y a d i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b e h a v i o r a n d r e s p o n s e s o f the o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r s e r v e s as a s t i m u l u s t o w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e s p o n d s . S i m i l a r l y t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a c t s as an a n t e c e d e n t t o v a r i o u s responses from the mother. The r e s p o n s e s o f t h e m o t h e r a n d c h i l d a r e f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d by t h e s u b s e q u e n t responses o f the o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e m o t h e r a n d c h i l d w h i c h must be s t u d i e d r a t h e r than the independent responses or u n i l a t e r a l e f f e c t s of e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l . ( p . 217) In  o r d e r t o g a i n a p i c t u r e of the c o m p l e x i t y of  this  42 i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s , we w i l l now examine v a r i o u s f a m i l y e x p e r i ences i n v o l v i n g h y p e r a c t i v e  F a m i l i e s with Hyperactive Barkley's  children.  Children  (1978) review  d e s c r i b e s the e v o l u t i o n o f f a m i l y  d i s t u r b a n c e c o n t r i b u t e d t o by the r o l e o f the h y p e r a c t i v e as seen i n h i s c l i n i c a l experience.  Fathers  child  c l a i m not t o have  d i f f i c u l t y managing the c h i l d and blame the mother f o r being too p e r m i s s i v e , r e s u l t i n g i n m a r i t a l arguments and o f t e n d i v o r c e . B a r k l e y f u r t h e r adds t h a t the p a r e n t s ' response s t y l e s may exacerbate  the behavior problems.  Ney (19 74), i n h i s d e l i n e a -  t i o n o f f o u r types o f h y p e r k i n e s i s by c a t e g o r i z i n g 60 hyperk i n e t i c c h i l d r e n from a sample o f 26 3, d e s c r i b e s two o f h i s subgroups.  "Conditioned h y p e r k i n e t i c " c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y have  p a r e n t s , u s u a l l y s i n g l e mothers who are depressed.  Being  withdrawn and unaware of the c h i l d ' s normal p l a y , she only i n t e r a c t s with the c h i l d f o r misbehaving.  This  situation  e s c a l a t e s t o the p o i n t where the mother i s angry and the c h i l d feels alienated.  "Chaotic h y p e r k i n e t i c " c h i l d r e n experience  an u n p r e d i c t a b l e s o c i a l environment r e s u l t i n g i n a r i s e i n the c h i l d ' s a n x i e t y l e v e l , which c o n t r i b u t e s f u r t h e r t o h i s r e s t l e s s n e s s l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s e d chaos i n h i s environment. Hembling  (1978) notes:  Even a d u l t s have weaker impulse c o n t r o l when they're anxious. They get clumsy, knock t h i n g s over, o r b l u r t out t h i n g s they don't mean t o say. That's j u s t what the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d i s doing. Worse s t i l l , h i s a n x i e t y makes him angry, and then h i s aggressive behavior annoys the a d u l t s . . . and so the c h i l d gets l e s s p a r e n t i n g ,  43  not more. The parents have t o keep reminding themselves t h a t t h e i r k i d f e e l s unsafe, threatened. He needs t o be h e l d and made t o f e e l t h a t t h i n g s are under c o n t r o l , (p. 24)  H y p e r a c t i v i t y and Anger The  above r e f e r e n c e s t o anger deserve h i g h l i g h t i n g  here  s i n c e i t i s the h a n d l i n g o f t h i s emotion which c o n t r i b u t e s t o the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s experience of r e j e c t i o n from cant a d u l t s i n h i s l i f e — study.  a key assumption  signifi-  i n the p r e s e n t  Two other s t u d i e s shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h i s dynamic.  Miller  (1977)  i s o l a t e d 70 c h i l d r e n with h y p e r k i n e t i c  syndrome from an o r i g i n a l sample o f 290 based on 10 years o f c l i n i c a l experience as a p e d i a t r i c i a n .  H i s unique  relation-  s h i p as f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n i s the b a s i s f o r the c o n c l u s i o n s he presents —  the main one being t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s p r i m a r i l y  an emotional problem.  He goes on t o add t h a t :  The h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n my p r a c t i c e have, I b e l i e v e , problems w i t h e x c e s s i v e i n t e r n a l anger, o f t e n s e l f - d i r e c t e d , but i n t e r m i t t e n t l y d i r e c t e d outward. H y p e r k i n e s i s i s the outcome o f t h i s ; d i f f u s e motor a c t i v i t y - not d e p r e s s i v e a f f e c t - i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c response o f p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s to i n t e r n a l anger without o u t l e t o r means o f r e s o l u t i o n . S e v e r a l l i n e s o f evidence suggest t h i s . In the study f a m i l i e s , the parents d i d not express t h e i r anger t o each other d i r e c t l y ; i t was d i s p l a c e d onto the c h i l d a t an e a r l y age. T h i s displacement a p p a r e n t l y helped the p a r e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s u r v i v e , but the c h i l d was scapegoated. In the nature o f f a m i l i e s , one o f the few defenses open t o the c h i l d i s a c t i n g - o u t . (p. 2 2 1 ) R a n d a l l and Lomas (19 78)  p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t focus on  the dynamics of anger and extend M i l l e r ' s  (19 77)  They contend t h a t parents p e r c e i v e c h i l d r e n with  argument. behavior  44  'problems (e.g., h y p e r a c t i v e ) as b e i n g " d i s a b l e d " because o f :  p r o j e c t i n g f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s onto the c h i l d .  From a  psychodynamic viewpoint, t h i s p r o j e c t i o n can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a defense a g a i n s t anger.  They then argue t h a t parents  g e n e r a l l y i n v e s t so much energy  i n a v o i d i n g anger t h a t they  f a i l t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y t o change the problem behavior. The p r e s e n t author suggests t h a t t h i s s u p p r e s s i o n o f anger along w i t h the f r u s t r a t i o n o f a c h i l d not behaving  as d e s i r e d  c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o the parent o r teacher sending s t r o n g messages of r e j e c t i o n , l i k e l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y , which the c h i l d receives e i t h e r overtly or covertly.  Since t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t  a surrogate parent t o c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l and e s p e c i a l l y f o r p r e a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n ,  these  dynamics are very l i k e l y t o be present i n the t e a c h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the classroom context. another key concept  f o r purposes  This represents  o f the present study and i t  w i l l be expanded on l a t e r .  H y p e r a c t i v i t y and the S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l Climate Three s t u d i e s w i l l add r e l e v a n t data t o the suggested l i n k expressed between h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r and the " s o c i a l emotional c l i m a t e " .  Ackerman e t a l . ' s (1979) study  three groups o f 20 boys with a mean age of 8.5 years  compared (hyper-  a c t i v e , l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , and c o n t r o l s ) on measures o f personality t r a i t s ,  c o g n i t i v e r o l e - t a k i n g , and moral r e a s o n i n g .  45 In  a d d i t i o n , parents of these c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d i n a  p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d f a s h i o n , with one s o c i a l data i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the two  f i n d i n g from the  psycho-  c l i n i c a l - g r o u p s were  separated most c l e a r l y by a dimension  of a g g r e s s i v i t y - p a s s i v i t y  and with the suggestion t h a t immature mothers may  be a s i g n i f i -  cant f o r c e i n the emergence of the h y p e r k i n e t i c syndrome. suggestion here b e i n g t h a t the h y p e r a c t i v e boys' exasperated the younger moms.  The  conduct  A p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o study  by Ackerman e t a l . (1977) followed-up three groups of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d boys  ( h y p e r a c t i v e , normoactive,  and hypoactive) t o  age 14, comparing them t o a normal c o n t r o l group on measures of behavior and achievement.  They are l e d t o conclude  a h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d i s a phenotype and not a genotype,  that and  they s p e c u l a t e on the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e outcomes had h i s e a r l i e r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r e n t i n g , been d i f f e r ent. or  The h y p e r a c t i v e boys i n t h e i r study were t y p i c a l l y  first  second born t o f a i r l y young mothers w i t h s m a l l f a m i l i e s . L a s t l y , Sandberg e t a l . ' s (1980) p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d  study  i n c l u d e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l f a c t o r s on the i n c i d e n c e of h y p e r k i n e s i s and conduct problems i n a primary school population. (1977) who  They c i t e Brandon  (19 71)  and Loney e t a l .  have shown a c o r r e l a t i o n between h y p e r k i n e t i c beha-  v i o r i n c h i l d r e n and broken homes, p a r e n t s ' m a r i t a l  difficulties,  p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r i n the mother and h o s t i l i t y i n p a r e n t child relationships. to  Sandberg e t a l . ' s study added support  one p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f these f i n d i n g s by showing a s t r o n g  46 r e l a t i o n s h i p between both v a r i e t i e s of behavior  disturbance  at home and the mother's r e p o r t o f h e r own mental d i s t r e s s . As p o i n t e d out by these authors,  the q u e s t i o n o f which v a r i a b l e  a f f e c t s the other i n terms of sequence and d i r e c t i o n must be asked.  However, i t does add f u r t h e r support  hyperactive  behavior  f o r the c h i l d ' s  as being one p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n t o a par-  t i c u l a r social-emotional  climate.  H y p e r a c t i v i t y and Reactive  Depression  The complex i n t e r a c t i o n between a c h i l d ' s emotional mechanisms  and a proposed s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e , as r e f e r r e d  t o above, needs f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  The  study of these dynamics and t h e i r p o s s i b l e consequences f i n d s root i n the r e l a t i v e l y young d i s c i p l i n e o f c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y and  i n p a r t i c u l a r the work being done i n v e s t i g a t i n g c h i l d h o o d  depression.  As Neubauer  i s a comparatively  (19 74) p o i n t s out, " c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y  new d i s c i p l i n e .  a g a i n s t the e f f o r t t o apply  It i s s t i l l struggling  t o c h i l d r e n the experiences  and  d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a d u l t patients"  (p. 51).  The l i n k between c h i l d h o o d  depression  h y p e r a c t i v i t y has been noted e a r l i e r by Hembling Miller  (19 78)  and  and  (1977) i n t h i s review.  A s i g n i f i c a n t work by Z r u l l e t a l . (1978) observed t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e i r r e p o r t of case s t u d i e s from practice.  clinical  They note t h a t upon c a r e f u l examination o f c h i l d r e n  with h y p e r k i n e t i c syndrome, based on a v a r i e t y o f e t i o l o g i c a l  47  e x p l a n a t i o n s , there i s evidence f o r a l i n k between i t and depression.  Using both d e s c r i p t i v e evidence of the d e p r e s s i v e  d i s o r d e r i n the c h i l d as w e l l as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dynamics, they s u b s t a n t i a t e d e p r e s s i o n i n p r e a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n whose p r e s e n t i n g complaint was  hyperkinesis.  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s  o u t l i n e the type of comprehensive and i n s i g h t f u l assessment necessary i n coming t o a c l e a r e r understanding of h y p e r k i n e s i s . I t seems reasonable t h a t a dual approach to viewing c h i l d r e n with t h i s problem would be more u s e f u l . For i n s t a n c e , the developmental h i s t o r y i s one example where both the areas of p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s converge and can i n some measure be assessed simultaneously. Noting c l a s s i c a l developmental m i l e s t o n e s i n the h y p e r k i n e t i c c h i l d ' s background i s not enough. We need to understand developmental p r o c e s s e s , such as the q u a n t i t y of maternal a t t e n t i o n at any e a r l y age, the mother's a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d , the circumstances under which the c h i l d began such independent a c t s as f e e d i n g and walking, and the q u a l i t y of the t o i l e t t r a i n i n g (not j u s t when), w i t h the c h i l d ' s emotional responses t o i t . Then, too, the responses of the parents to the h y p e r k i n e s i s , w i t h attendant p r o h i b i t i o n s on them, or f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s ; a l l have an impact on the symptomatology. (pp. 3 4 - 3 5 ) Z r u l l e t a l . a l s o p r o v i d e us with a r e v e a l i n g p r o s p e c t i v e on the l i n k between h y p e r a c t i v i t y as a symptom of c h i l d h o o d d e p r e s s i o n i n a comparison  to the symptoms of an a d u l t syndrome,  c a l l e d a g i t a t e d d e p r e s s i o n , where the f r e q u e n t l y seen symptoms a r e : a g i t a t i o n , poor c o n c e n t r a t i o n , d e p r e s s i o n and Upon matching,  irritability.  p a r a l l e l s can be seen between h y p e r a c t i v i t y  and  a g i t a t i o n , d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y and poor c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i r r i t a b i l i t y and emotional i n s t a b i l i t y .  The important d i f f e r e n c e worth  n o t i n g i s t h a t i n c h i l d r e n the i m p u l s i v i t y i s the means of h a n d l i n g a g g r e s s i o n , whereas the a d u l t t u r n s t h i s a g g r e s s i o n  48 inward and "appears" depressed.  An a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t  h i g h l i g h t i n g i n t h i s c l i n i c a l study  deserving  i s the e x p l a n a t i o n  given  f o r the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e review of the present  study, r e g a r d i n g the outcomes o f h y p e r a c t i v e  c h i l d r e n as a d o l e s c e n t s . h y p e r k i n e t i c behaviors a n t i s o c i a l behavior, of o v e r t depression  They observe t h a t g e n e r a l l y the  decrease a t puberty  with an upswing i n  along with the not uncommon development i n the adolescent.  Z r u l l et a l . postulate  t h i s as a p o s s i b l e answer t o what happens t o the h y p e r k i n e s i s as the c h i l d reaches  puberty.  A f u r t h e r example o f the s u b t l e but powerful  consequences  of these p a r e n t - c h i l d dynamics i s found i n a p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d work by Hembling  (1978).  He s t a t e s :  I b e l i e v e t h a t some c h i l d r e n may be made anxious and become r e a c t i v e l y depressed i n response t o p a r e n t a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and double messages, so hidden from view, t h a t even the most s k i l l f u l t h e r a p i s t w i l l not i d e n t i f y t h e i r presence o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Reactive d e p r e s s i o n i s j u s t such a d i a g n o s t i c category, and i n p r e - l a t e n c y aged c h i l d r e n i t s presence g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n h y p e r a c t i v i t y , a c t i n g - o u t , a high l e v e l o f anger, d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y , l o s s of normal s l e e p p a t t e r n s , a l l of which i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t y p i c a l depressed states i n adults. (p. 5) Hembling a l s o c i t e s Segal  (19 77) who argues f o r the value o f  viewing h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n the context This p o s i t i o n i s a l s o supported  of depressive s t a t e . by Yahraes  (19 78) who  c i t e s the work o f Dr. W. E. Bunney J r . and a s s o c i a t e s i n t h e i r work with the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Mental Health.  They r e p o r t  t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s common i n the c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c i n g the most p r e v a l e n t type o f c h i l d h o o d depression  -- masked  depression.  49 H y p e r a c t i v i t y as a common symptom o f 45 out of 72 p r e p u b e r t a l c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o an e d u c a t i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c c e n t e r and l a t e r diagnosed as c l i n i c a l l y depressed was a l s o r e p o r t e d by Weinberg e t a l . (1973). I t i s c l e a r then t h a t much evidence  e x i s t s t o support  s t r o n g l i n k between h y p e r a c t i v i t y and c h i l d h o o d  a  depression  which i s b e s t understood as an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a p a r e n t child relationship.  I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t anger, and the manner  i n which i t i s managed i s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n the symptomatology o f d e p r e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  Although  t h i s f o r e g o i n g r e s e a r c h suggests very s t r o n g l y t h a t M i l l e r ' s (19 77)  c o n t e n t i o n o f emotional  explanation  dynamics p r o v i d i n g the b e s t  f o r h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s probably  a c c u r a t e , the e t i o l o g y  of t h i s d i s o r d e r i s not the concern o f the present  study.  r e s e a r c h was presented  f o r examining  t o provide  f u r t h e r evidence  This  the a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the c h i l d ' s experience  o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n order t o r e l a t e t o the hyper-  a c t i v e c h i l d more e f f e c t i v e l y . v i d e d t o support  F u r t h e r evidence  was a l s o pro-  the dimension o f acceptance versus  rejection  i n the a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p as a consequence of the manner of d e a l i n g with the u n d e r l y i n g emotion of anger.  Parent-ChiId  and Teacher-ChiId  Dynamics  P a r e n t - C h i l d Dynamics G e n e r a l i z i n g t o T e a c h e r - C h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n So f a r we have e x p l o r e d dynamics o f the a d u l t - c h i l d t i o n s h i p from the p a r e n t - c h i l d p e r s p e c t i v e .  rela-  T h i s has o c c u r r e d  50  f o r two main reasons.  F i r s t , t h e r e i s much more r e s e a r c h on  the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p than on any o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of a d u l t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n .  Secondly, the p o s i t i o n taken  here, and supported by other t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s , i s t h a t the dimensions o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p g e n e r a l i z e t o o t h e r adult r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  As r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , the t e a c h e r as  "surrogate parent" r e p r e s e n t s another very s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i f e  of an elementary  adult  s c h o o l age c h i l d and i t i s t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the p r e s e n t study i s e x p l o r i n g from the c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f view.  Before l o o k i n g at the t e a c h e r - c h i l d  relation-  s h i p i t i s important t o gather more evidence s u p p o r t i n g the assumption  presented above s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the dimensions o f  the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p g e n e r a l i z e t o other a d u l t - c h i l d relationships. Cox  (1962) p r o v i d e d a p a r t i a l t e s t f o r the h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t the a t t i t u d e s a c h i l d has towards h i s parents g e n e r a l i z e t o many o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , by g a t h e r i n g data from 243, 10 t o 11 year o l d boys on the Thematic Apperception Test as a means of a s s e s s i n g degree of attachment parent f i g u r e s .  t o o r r e j e c t i o n o f both  He then c o r r e l a t e d these f i n d i n g s w i t h f o u r  peer group measures and found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . p r e s e n t i n g h i s t h e o r e t i c a l background  In  he notes the d i f f e r e n t  concepts used t o e x p l a i n these t r a n s f e r s o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . One such concept —  stimulus g e n e r a l i z a t i o n —  proposed  by D o l l a r d and M i l l e r , d e s c r i b e s how the p e r s o n a l i t y o f a t h e r a p i s t and h i s presence c r e a t e s a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n which  51 reminds the p a t i e n t reward  of e a r l i e r experiences of punishment or  involving authority  figures.  The  s t i m u l i of the  t h e r a p i s t then makes him s i m i l a r i n many ways t o parents the p a t i e n t  generalizes  those responses on t o the  and  therapist.  Cox a l s o c i t e s a r e f e r e n c e t o P i a g e t : A c c o r d i n g as the f i r s t i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l experiences of the c h i l d who i s j u s t l e a r n i n g t o speak are connected w i t h a f a t h e r who i s understanding or dominating, l o v i n g or c r u e l , e t c . , the c h i l d w i l l tend (even throughout l i f e i f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s have i n f l u e n c e d h i s whole youth) t o a s s i m i l a t e a l l other i n d i v i d u a l s t o h i s f a t h e r scheme. (p. 872) On the b a s i s  of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l background Cox then assumes:  There would be a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e s towards h i s parents and the q u a l i t y of h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s with whom he e n t e r s i n t o s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s : namely i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which have a f f e c t i v e and/or a u t h o r i t a r i a n components ( c f . t e a c h e r s ) . (p. 822) In a powerful and p e r s u a s i v e paper, Van Kaam (19 77)  traces  the dynamics o f hope and despondency i n the parents of h a n d i capped c h i l d r e n — such handicap.  we  could  In e x p l o r i n g  and h i s parents he notes how  consider hyperactivity  t o be  one  the i n t e r a c t i o n between a c h i l d every c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y one  with a handicap, i s l e f t w i t h a deep impression of how  he  experiences and must cope with h i s parents r e g a r d l e s s  of  obvious t h a t impression might be.  rela-  tionships that  The  c h i l d ' s future  how  are then modelled on these e a r l i e r ones t o the e x t e n t  "these e a r l y meetings w i t h d i s i l l u s i o n e d , anxious or  f a l s e l y g u i l t y parents give r i s e t o emotional experiences permeate the l i f e  of the handicapped  c h i l d to i t s deepest  that  52 roots"  (p. 30 8).  Toman (19 76)  also posits  how:  A person t r a n s f e r s o r g e n e r a l i z e s h i s experiences w i t h i n the f a m i l y to s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y , f o r i n s t a n c e t o the playground, to k i n d e r g a r t e n or s c h o o l , to acquaintances he might have and to f r i e n d s he might make . . . a t any r a t e , day a f t e r day, o f t e n f o r many years. (p. 4) And he f u r t h e r  proposes:  One may assume t h a t i t i s the e a r l y and more p e r v a s i v e l i f e contexts r a t h e r than contexts emerging r e l a t i v e l y l a t e and more s p o r a d i c a l l y t h a t serve as a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of past experiences t o new c o n t e x t s . The f a m i l y ' s i n f l u e n c e on a person's b e h a v i o r i n s c h o o l i s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than the s c h o o l ' s i n f l u e n c e on h i s behavior i n the f a m i l y . (p. 5) As we now  begin to e x p l o r e the dynamics of the t e a c h e r -  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p and search f o r evidence present study c o n s i d e r s c r i t i c a l  s u p p o r t i n g what the  dimensions of t h i s  relation-  s h i p as i t r e l a t e s t o the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d , a b r i e f r e f o c u s i n g w i l l serve both as a reminder and as a guidepost. The n e c e s s i t y of examining the context where h y p e r a c t i v e behavior occurs i s e v i d e n t , along w i t h the need t o focus on the a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h a t context.  A more s p e c i f i c  need i s t o assess the i n t e r a c t i v e process o c c u r r i n g between the a d u l t and c h i l d as i n f l u e n c e d by the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . I t i s assumed t h a t the classroom teacher w i l l r e a c t t o the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d and w i l l a l s o be experienced by the  child  i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o the f o r e g o i n g e l a b o r a t i o n of the p a r e n t - c h i l d dynamics.  In a sense, the classroom can be viewed  as a f a m i l y w i t h a s i n g l e surrogate parent having an e x t r a o r d i n a r y number o f s i b l i n g s a l l with s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r ages. The  c r i t i c a l dynamics which we  are e x p l o r i n g i n the p r e s e n t  53  study,  as p e r c e i v e d by  A thorough (Loney ship  review  o f the  e t a l . , 1976)  from  evidence  the  child,  are  literature  acceptance  uncovered  requiring  gathered  lines  by more i n d i r e c t  means s u c h  study which  f o c u s e d on  ing  interchange.  coupled with  the  of a c t i v i t y  f o r the  The  with  stimuli  some i d e a l  how  c a t i o n here very  i t i s being  i n the  taught,  specific  or wiggly are not  and  child  teachers are as  disturbed.  The  full  and  by whom.  o f the  f o r not  to one  completing  child's account-  meaning o f  One  clear  the  impliis  context.  likely  work p o i n t s o u t  tolerant  o f the and  for being  work, and  restless  and  f o r not performing  that  restless  other  However, t h e h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s rules,  either  teacher response  l o n g as work i s c o m p l e t e d  for breaking classroom able,  serve  o r norm w o u l d r e q u i r e  Ackerman e t a l . ' s (1977) s i g n i f i c a n t both parents  can  activity  a w a r e n e s s o f what i s b e i n g  i s t h a t the q u a l i t y  critical  of a p o s s i b l e  so t o compare any  context.  b e h a v i o r w o u l d a l s o r e q u i r e an taught,  response  behavior,  i n the  degree  p o s s i b l e contagion of high  teacher's  such  the  i n s c h o o l s , Bowers  C a m p b e l l e t a l . ' s (1977) d e s c r i p t i o n  or exacerbate  level  reading  Interaction  of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of assessing h y p e r a c t i v i t y (1978) c i t e s  as  of r e l a t e d s t u d i e s .  In a p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d  calm  study  the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f view, thus  Teacher-Child  level  o n l y one  relation-  between t h e  classroom  demand.  teacher-child  t o be  which examined the  and  children  propensity distractup  to  e x p e c t a t i o n s would c e r t a i n l y l e a d him t o being s i n g l e d out. One wonders a f t e r a l l how many teachers c o u l d t o l e r a t e and accept such a c h i l d w i t h i n the classroom. Using m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses and planned  comparisons o f  t e a c h e r r a t i n g s , peer p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s , and c l a s s room behaviors on 17 h y p e r a c t i v e and 17 a c t i v e school-age  boys, K l e i n and Young (19 79)  elementary  attempted t o assess  h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n what they d e s c r i b e d as i t s most probable setting —  the classroom.  types of h y p e r a c t i v e s  T h e i r major r e s u l t s d e l i n e a t e d f o u r  ( i . e . , anxious,  conduct  problem, i n a t -  t e n t i v e , and low problem) and p o i n t e d t o the need t o study and t r e a t them as heterogeneous groups.  However, among t h e i r  o t h e r f i n d i n g s some have p a r t i c u l a r relevance t o the p r e s e n t study.  They note, f o r example, t h a t t h e i r review o f the  l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e d b e h a v i o r a l and academic problems o c c u r r i n g i n the classroom s e t t i n g as being two o f the common c l i n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l e a d i n g t o the l a b e l l i n g of h y p e r a c t i v i t y . In t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f classroom i n t e r a c t i o n , h y p e r a c t i v e boys i n t e r a c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more w i t h a d u l t s i n the c l a s s room than d i d a c t i v e boys and these o b s e r v a t i o n s v a l i d a t e d the teachers' r e p o r t t h a t a time-consuming and formidable task was t o keep the h y p e r a c t i v e boys on-task The present author suggests  and n o n d i s r u p t i v e .  t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f the p e r -  s o n a l i t y o f the classroom teacher, the nature of the t e a c h e r ' s task r e q u i r e s a p r i o r i t y o f concern task behavior.  f o r o r d e r , r o u t i n e and on-  Since h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n present f u n c t i o n i n g  55 p a t t e r n s v i r t u a l l y at odds with these g o a l s , i t i s the except i o n a l teacher who  would not become f r u s t r a t e d with  unaccepting of these h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n who be seen as t h w a r t i n g the teacher's p l a n s . t h a t the c h i l d r e n themselves  and  could e a s i l y  I t i s also  felt  must be e x p e r i e n c i n g the t e a c h e r ' s  behavior i n a r a t h e r unique manner from other more "competent" and  "compliant" peers.  r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g was  In f a c t , K l e i n and Young's other  t h a t " h y p e r a c t i v e boys were found to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a c t i v e s on measures from a l l data sources i n t h a t they were p e r c e i v e d and i n t e r a c t e d more negatively"  (p.  425).  T h i s need f o r order and c o n t r o l i n the classroom has been r e f e r r e d t o by Conrad  (1977) as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  the c h i l d being r e p o r t e d h y p e r a c t i v e a t s c h o o l but not a t home. He  contends  that  7  the c h i l d ' s behavior might be a comment or  a d a p t a t i o n t o the classroom s o c i a l system and he c i t e s H o l t and Silberman  as having documented the main preoccupations i n  elementary  s c h o o l classrooms  this line,  Zentall  as being order and c o n t r o l .  Along  (1980), i n a study which w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  l a t e r , noted t h a t h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n t a l k e d more and were n o i s i e r i n the f a m i l i a r classroom s e t t i n g s . and r i g h t l y so, how  t h i s type of b e h a v i o r :  He  f u r t h e r notes,  would draw a  teacher's a t t e n t i o n , might be i r r i t a t i n g , and c o u l d be n o t i c e d c o n t i n u o u s l y even i f the teacher wasn't l o o k i n g a t the  child.  T h i s p a t t e r n c o u l d a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the teacher l a b e l l i n g the c h i l d h y p e r a c t i v e .  56 Loney e t a l . ' s (19 76) only one  found  study, r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r as  to have s t u d i e d the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s  t i o n of teacher behavior,  percep-  compared three groups of elementary  s c h o o l boys r a t e d by the teacher t o be h y p e r a c t i v e and most a c t i v e but not r e f e r r a b l e , and normoactive Each boy was  the  referrable,  classmates.  then given the Teacher A p p r o v a l - D i s a p p r o v a l  T h i s s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e had p r e v i o u s l y been on a sample of 144 boys and  166  and on t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  Scale.  validated  g i r l s i n ten grade four c l a s s e s s t u d i e s was  shown to produce  c o - e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0 at the p<.001 l e v e l f o r 21 out of 2 3 items for g i r l s .  Although  f o r boys and 20 out of 2 3 items  the sample s i z e was  the h y p e r a c t i v e s when the t e s t was three groups  (n's = 16, 25,  r e l a t i v e l y small for  then a d m i n i s t e r e d  93 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ,  to the  significant dif-  ferences were noted i n t h e i r responses to 8 out o f 11  individual  items which ask the c h i l d about the amount of teacher  approval  and d i s a p p r o v a l d i r e c t e d  toward h i m s e l f p e r s o n a l l y and  the frequency  happiness and unhappiness i n the  room.  of h i s own  about class-  In comparison, the boys d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on only  2 of 11 corresponding teacher behaviors  c l a s s items, which ask the c h i l d about  toward the c l a s s as a whole or about the  happiness and unhappiness of the e n t i r e c l a s s .  More s p e c i f i -  c a l l y , the most a c t i v e r a t e d boys d i f f e r e d from normoactives i n t h e i r r a t i n g of i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i s a p p r o v a l to the whole class.  However, the h y p e r a c t i v e boys s a i d they r e c e i v e d s i g -  nificantly  l e s s approval from t e a c h e r s f o r academic, m o t i v a t i o n a l ,  57  and s o c i a l behaviors than d i d normoactives c a n t l y more g e n e r a l d i s a p p r o v a l .  as w e l l as  Loney e t a l . then  signifi-  suggest  the p o s s i b l i t y of a h i g h e r prevalence of l e a r n i n g problems i n the h y p e r a c t i v e group and consequently  l e s s academic r e i n f o r c e -  ment . They a l s o c i t e other r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h p o i n t i n g to d i f f e r e n t i a l t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and treatment based on sex of c h i l d . For example: Lahaderne  Meyer and Thompson  (1956) and Jackson  and  (1967) r e p o r t more teacher d i s a p p r o v a l dispensed t o  boys; Good and Brophy teacher-nominated  (1972) noted twice as many boys i n a  " r e j e c t i o n group"; and M a r t i n  (1972) d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t high r a t e s of t e a c h e r - c h i l d d i s a p p r o v i n g c o n t a c t s were recorded f o r boys as compared t o g i r l s and, more c r i t i c a l l y , f o r a m i n o r i t y of boys —  those w i t h b e h a v i o r problems.  F i n a l l y , Loney e t a l . noted t h e i r study boys r e c e i v i n g  less  p e r s o n a l a p p r o v a l , more p e r s o n a l d i s a p p r o v a l , and having more negative i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s about being i n the One  classroom.  c r i t i c i s m of the above study by the present  author  i s addressed a t the nature of the s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which, although being d e s c r i b e d as b e h a v i o r a l l y focused, does i n f a c t ask the c h i l d to make judgements about o t h e r s ' h a p p i ness and enjoyment on a few items.  In s p i t e of t h i s s h o r t -  coming, t h i s study p r o v i d e s some v a l u a b l e groundwork i n determining the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' behavior toward them.  Of p a r t i c u l a r importance  i s the  impli-  c a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h d i s r u p t i v e behavior problems, mostly boys, are l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e g r e a t e r teacher d i s a p p r o v a l .  58 The  p r e s e n t study e x p l o r e s and  Teacher-Child Interaction:  extends t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n .  S e t t i n g R e l a t e d and  C l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g these s t u d i e s  Task R e l a t e d  Factors  on t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r -  a c t i o n are some t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s and  tasks on the p a t t e r n  active children.  of functioning  These w i l l be examined f o r the  of hyperadded l i g h t  they shed on the o v e r r i d i n g important t e a c h e r - c h i l d as i n f l u e n c e d  by the  Zentall's  child's  perception.  (1980) p r e v i o u s l y  continuous r e c o r d i n g h y p e r a c t i v e and  relationship  r e f e r r e d to work i n v o l v e d  a  of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s of matched p a i r s  of  normally a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n s i x d i f f e r e n t  n a t u r a l classroom s e t t i n g s which v a r i e d from h i g h  structure  and  no d i s t r a c -  low  external  t i o n s ) , t o low  stimulation  structure  and  ( i . e . , seat work and high e x t e r n a l  stimulation  f r e e choice and h i g h ) l e v e l o f d i s t r a c t i o n ) . f i n d i n g s using m u l t i v a r i a t e but  Some of  (i.e.,  the  analyses have been r e p o r t e d  earlier  o f s p e c i a l note here i s t h a t i n the most f r e q u e n t l y  classroom s e t t i n g s —  low  stimulation  (seat work) —  a c t i v e c h i l d r e n showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more noise and along with more d i s r u p t i v e and of s t r u c t u r e , d e f i n e d  o f f - t a s k behavior.  the  hyper-  talking The  amount  here as degree of teacher d i r e c t i o n ,  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the. type of o f f - t a s k b e h a v i o r , and h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n showed h i g h e r l e v e l s of d i s r u p t i v e across the h i g h and  observed  low  structure  was  the acts  s e t t i n g s even though these  d i f f e r e n c e s became l e s s over time i n the h i g h s t r u c t u r e  settings.  In a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d study by Jacob e t a l . (19 78) e i g h t h y p e r a c t i v e and s i x t e e n nonhyperactive  c h i l d r e n were compared  on f i v e i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h y p e r a c t i v e behavior:  s o l i c i t i n g teacher a t t e n t i o n , a g g r e s s i o n , r e f u s i n g  teacher request, change of p o s i t i o n , and daydreaming. o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were between the two  Using found  groups i n formal s e t t i n g s i n v o l v i n g a s m a l l  number of t e a c h e r - s p e c i f i e d tasks but not i n the i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s i n v o l v i n g choice and a v a r i e t y of t a s k s . noted by Jacob e t a l . (1978) was  Further  the tendency of c h i l d r e n i n  the h y p e r a c t i v e group to d i s p l a y h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s of behavior than c o n t r o l s i n both s e t t i n g s on f o u r of the f i v e categories.  An i n t e r e s t i n g by-product  behavior  of t h i s study showed  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the composite  observa-  t i o n a l measures.;and the Connors A b b r e v i a t e d Rating S c a l e  (1969)  as w e l l as a teacher s u b j e c t i v e rank o r d e r i n g of h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n the formal s e t t i n g .  T h i s supports one  dology of the present study. e t a l . ' s study may  aspect of the metho-  A f i n a l p o i n t i m p l i c i t i n Jacob  be drawn by c o n s i d e r i n g the  possibilities  of t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n i n a t y p i c a l , t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d , formal classroom s e t t i n g .  The present author maintains  that  c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y i n g h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , h y p e r a c t i v e behavior may  be the t a r g e t of l e s s t e a c h e r  tance and more t e a c h e r demand. i n the present study suggests  One  accep-  other p o s s i b i l i t y p o s i t e d  t h a t these  "hyperactively acting"  c h i l d r e n w i l l i n f a c t p e r c e i v e the t e a c h e r more n e g a t i v e l y  60 than t h e i r l e s s d i s r u p t i v e classmates, thus a g g r a v a t i n g an already d i f f i c u l t  situation.  Flynn and Rapoport  (19 76)  compared two groups of 30 hyper-  a c t i v e boys who had p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a study o f drug treatment o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  In attempting t o gather data on  the more a p p r o p r i a t e type o f classroom f o r these boys, 10 were observed  i n "open" classroom environments and 13 were  observed i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " s e t t i n g s . Rating S c a l e  (1969), as completed  Using the Connors  Teacher  by observers as w e l l as the  t e a c h e r , the groups were compared f o r l e v e l o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y and academic s t a t u s as i t r e l a t e d t o type o f classroom. and Rapoport Lehtinen  (19 76) c i t e Cruickshank  (19 47)  Flynn  (196 7) and S t r a u s s and  as s u p p o r t i n g the long s t a n d i n g  assumption  t h a t the high s t r u c t u r e d , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d classroom i s the most d e s i r a b l e environment f o r h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n . f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t open classrooms placement f o r many h y p e r a c t i v e boys.  However, t h e i r  may be a p r e f e r a b l e T h i s seemingly  conflicting  f i n d i n g i s c l a r i f i e d i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the open c l a s s rooms i n t h e i r study which t y p i c a l l y :  operated w i t h  clear  g u i d e l i n e s ; had teachers who d e a l t with c o n f l i c t s and d i s r u p t i v e behavior without i n v o l v i n g the group; and had warm, open, and a c c e p t i n g emotional c l i m a t e s .  The emphasis here on teacher  d i f f e r e n c e s has been f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by Whalen e t a l . (19 79) i n t h e i r long term r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the classroom e n v i r o n ment as one c r i t i c a l aspect o f the s o c i a l ecology o f hyperactivity.  They note t h a t :  61 I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n teachers a l s o e n t e r the p i c t u r e . Some teachers f u n c t i o n best i n q u i e t , o r d e r l y classroom s e t t i n g s where a l l c h i l d r e n f o l l o w a s i n g l e , w e l l d e l i n e a t e d r o u t i n e . Other teachers (and t h e i r students) t h r i v e i n a more complex, f l e x i b l e , and-multidimensional environment. (p. 79) While comparing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s  distrac-  t i o n s and task performance of h y p e r a c t i v e and normal c h i l d r e n , Steinkamp  (19 80) made some r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g  which add  f u r t h e r emphasis to the dynamics o f the t e a c h e r - c h i l d  interaction. decreases  She  noted t h a t although  t i m e - o f f on a complex task  e f f o r t s addressed  observations  the presence of an a d u l t ( i . e . , A r i t h m e t i c ) , the  to d e c r e a s i n g t i m e - o f f task do not i n them-  s e l v e s r e s u l t i n improved score performance.  The  potential  teacher f r u s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from no s c h o o l gains i n s p i t e o f i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t i n managing the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d i s obvious  to the p r e s e n t author.  Add  t o t h i s the c h i l d ' s  p e r c e p t i o n of the teacher's e f f o r t s at " h e l p i n g " him,  faulty  and  a  d e s t r u c t i v e , i n t e r a c t i o n a l c y c l e i s s e t i n motion.  Children's Acceptance as a C r i t i c a l Supporting evidence  Perceptions  Factor f o r the need to examine the degree  of acceptance p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d d i s p l a y i n g v a r y i n g  levels  of h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r has a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d to i n the f o r e g o i n g review.  Ackerman e t a l . (1977) and Morrison  lend a d d i t i o n a l support by n o t i n g how  f o r t h i s i n t h e i r follow-up  a d u l t s diagnosed  r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y as  (1980)  studies  hyperactive  62 v i v i d l y r e c a l l the m u l t i p l e f a i l u r e s with r e s u l t i n g d i s a p p r o v a l and d e p r e s s i o n , and the h i g h e r tendency f o r h y p e r a c t i v e boys to remember f a t h e r s who  were h o s t i l e .  Cunningham and  (1979) c i t e B a t t l e and Lacey as n o t i n g how  Barkley  mothers of o v e r a c t i v e  boys appear more c r i t i c a l and d i s a p p r o v i n g .  Z r u l l e t a l . (1970)  i n t h e i r c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the r o l e of depression i n the h y p e r k i n e t i c syndrome d e s c r i b e how  the c h i l d r e a c t s not  only to h i m s e l f but to o t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , f r u s t r a t i o n s because of h i s d e f i c i t s . parents may  He  and  a l s o p o i n t s out  how  e i t h e r r e j e c t the c h i l d or have u n r e a l i s t i c expec-  t a t i o n s depending on whether they are u n w i l l i n g t o recognize the problem or are unaware of i t . how  the c h i l d ' s d e p r e s s i o n may  Z r u l l et a l . also postulate  be r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n .  Stewart e t a l . ' s (1973) study o f the s e l f d e s c r i p t i o n o f f o r merly h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n , now  a d o l e s c e n t s , p o i n t e d out  common phenomenon o f the a r o u s a l of f e e l i n g s o f and resentment i n t h e i r parents among t h e i r peers.  Philips  frustration  and teachers as w e l l as  (19 79)  the  dislike  a l s o d e s c r i b e s some p o s s i b l e  consequences f o r the h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving c h i l d i n s c h o o l whose f a u l t y e f f o r t s  ( i . e . , clowning,  daydreaming) at g a i n i n g  acceptance and reward o f t e n l e a d to s c o l d i n g and punishment. He  f u r t h e r notes how  the c h i l d ' s a c t i n g - o u t behavior  i s seldom  r e c o g n i z e d as a need f o r c o n s o l a t i o n but i s r a t h e r seen as annoying and  the corresponding  f o r c e s the c h i l d ' s negative  teacher response f u r t h e r r e i n -  perceptions.  F i n a l l y , Loney e t a l . ' s (1976) study deserves again.  Using a Teacher A p p r o v a l - D i s a p p r o v a l  highlighting  Scale t h i s  study  63  confirmed the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t teachers behave more d i s a p p r o v i n g l y towards h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n from the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view.  The suggested  reasons  f o r t h i s are a t t r i b u t e d t o more  d i s r u p t i v e classroom b e h a v i o r and poorer performance on c o g n i t i v e and academic t a s k s .  A further finding pointed to  fewer p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s when the c h i l d was  asked  teacher behaviors toward the c l a s s as a whole. i n the r e s u l t s was  Also  about suggested  a p a t t e r n of g r e a t e r t e a c h e r d i s a p p r o v a l  of c h i l d r e n with behavior problems, most of whom are boys. T h i s study supports the c l a i m i n the present study t h a t c h i l d r e n who  d i s p l a y a h i g h e r l e v e l of d i s r u p t i v e  behavior,  sometimes l a b e l l e d h y p e r a c t i v e , p e r c e i v e teacher behavior d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e i r classmates. f o r examining  the dimension  More evidence i s a l s o  of acceptance  i n the  experience of the t e a c h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . w i l l now  found  child's  Our  attention  be turned t o v a r i o u s aspects of i n t e r p e r s o n a l per-  ceptions .  Interpersonal Perceptions Importance and Need f o r Determining  Children's Perceptions  In r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e around c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , as t h i s r e l a t e s so c e n t r a l l y t o the present study, i t seemed important  t o demonstrate the need  f o r determining c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the c h i l d who  i s displaying hyperactive behaviors.  Support  the accuracy of the p e r c e p t i o n s of the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d also  gathered.  for was  ( Research a d u l t s has tionships.  examining  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of  64 significant  a r i s e n through e x t e n s i v e study of p a r e n t - c h i l d  rela-  Ausubel e t a l . ' s (1954) o f t e n c i t e d work notes  two  main assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the need f o r determining c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of parent behavior.  F i r s t , although parent beha-  v i o r i s an o b j e c t i v e event, i t a f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s development only t o the e x t e n t i n which the c h i l d p e r c e i v e s i t .  Secondly,  i n attempting t o measure such i n t r i n s i c and e m o t i o n a l l y laden i s s u e s as acceptance  or r e j e c t i o n , the c h i l d ' s l e s s  and l e s s devious responses  seem l i k e l y to be more accurate  than the r a t i n g s by the parents themselves Schaefer Goldin  experienced  or by an observer.  (1965) i s a l s o c i t e d r e g u l a r l y and i s viewed by  (196 9) as one  r e s e a r c h e r who  has done the most exten-  s i v e f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c work i n the area of c h i l d r e n ' s r e p o r t s of parent behavior. Inventory  His C h i l d r e n ' s Reports of Parent  (1965), which has been used most widely by subsequent  r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d , assumption v i o r may  Behavior  i s based  on t h i s same u n d e r l y i n g  t h a t the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s p a r e n t s ' beha-  be more r e l a t e d t o h i s adjustment  than the  actual  behaviors of h i s p a r e n t s . Using the Bronfenbrenner  Parent Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Rogers, 1966), Gecas e t a l . (1970) a p p l i e d t h i s  principle  of the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of parents across two  c u l t u r e s and  found s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s . deserves mentioning  Their theoretical orientation  here:  In the t r a d i t i o n of G.H. Mead (19 34) and C H . Cooley (1902) the s e l f i s d e f i n e d as a symbolic c o n s t r u c t and e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l of o t h e r s .  65 In c o i n i n g the concept of the " l o o k i n g - g l a s s s e l f " , Cooley emphasized the r e f l e c t i v e nature of the s e l f , i . e . , one's s o c i a l r e f e r e n c e i s determined by h i s i m a g i n a t i o n of how he appears i n the minds of o t h e r s . S u l l i v a n (1947) d e f i n e d the s e l f as an o r g a n i z a t i o n of conceptions and p e r c e p t i o n s whose primary purpose i s to decrease a n x i e t y which r e s u l t s from the d i s a p p r o v a l of o t h e r s . . . . Thus, through e v a l u a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , the i n d i v i d u a l forms an o r g a n i z e d p a t t e r n of p e r c e p t i o n s about h i s own n a t u r e — p e r c e p t i o n s of both negative and p o s i t i v e value. (p. 317) The present author contends  t h a t c h i l d r e n b r i n g these  v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o the classroom and they i n f l u e n c e g r e a t l y the ensuing t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n .  Loney e t a l .  (19 76) p o i n t out q u i t e r i g h t l y t h a t c h i l d r e n know b e t t e r than observers which teacher behaviors a c t u a l l y serve as  approvals  and d i s a p p r o v a l s , and, s i n c e the c h i l d r e n spend much more time i n the classroom than i s e i t h e r p r a c t i c a l or p o s s i b l e f o r even the most a s t u t e observer, the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s w i l l important  r e g a r d l e s s of the degree of correspondence  observer r a t i n g s .  Woyshner (19 79)  ages 7 to 11 and 1,747  surveyed 2,2 79  parents along w i t h 1,730  self-administered questionnaires.  Of p a r t i c u l a r  be  with  children  teachers u s i n g noteworthi-  ness t o our study i s her o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s percept i o n s of themselves  and t h e i r environment are o f t e n very  d i f f e r e n t from the p e r c e p t i o n s of the a d u l t s who who  share the same environments.  She  know them and  a l s o noted how  source of i n f o r m a t i o n c h i l d r e n have about themselves  rich a and  they can be both a r t i c u l a t e and eloquent about matters a f f e c t them d i r e c t l y .  Hembling  (19 80)  how  that  comes t o a s i m i l a r  c o n c l u s i o n i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the e t i o l o g y of f a m i l y based  c h i l d disturbance.  He c i t e s Rohner e t a l . ' s (1980) work  66 i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n and concludes: Such a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d approach and focus on the c h i l d ' s own experience o f h i s f a m i l y appears more r e l e v a n t than some e x t e r n a l judge's view of the p a r e n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d might e x p e r i e n c e . (p. 7) V a l i d i t y of Children's  Perceptions  Having e s t a b l i s h e d the importance and need f o r d e t e r mining c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s ,  we now examine some evidence  i n support o f the v a l i d i t y o f c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s r e l i a b l e sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n  as being  about the behavior o f o t h e r s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y a d u l t behavior. A few r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g elementary s c h o o l boys which s u r f a c e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e d  data  d e r i v e d from peers which was found t o be very r e l i a b l e . e t a l . (19 79)  Whalen  compared i n t e r a c t i o n s o f normal and h y p e r a c t i v e  boys i n a s t r u c t u r e d communication task.  T h e i r review observes,  i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which are unusual from most, data  derived  from peers i n c l u d e d i n p r e d i c t i v e b a t t e r i e s f o r h y p e r a c t i v i t y . In l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n , peer  sociometric  data was shown t o p r e d i c t a d u l t outcomes b e t t e r than a d u l t r a t i n g s , p r o f e s s i o n a l assessments, o r o b j e c t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s . They a l s o c i t e B r u i n i n k s  (1978) and Gronlund  (1959) who suggest  t h a t r a t i n g s by c h i l d r e n o f the same sex are the most s e n s i t i v e measure o f s t a t u s w i t h i n the c h i l d ' s peer group. Campbell and Paulauskas  Likewise,  (1979) c i t e Cowen e t a l . (1973) who  r e p o r t c h i l d r e n r a t e d n e g a t i v e l y by peers i n grade three as being more l i k e l y t o experience p s y c h i a t r i c disturbance  as  adults.  perceptions  A f i n a l example o f the accuracy o f c h i l d r e n ' s  67  of  others i s demonstrated by Lefkowitz and Tesiny  (19 80).  In  t h e i r assessment o f c h i l d h o o d d e p r e s s i o n u s i n g a peer nominat i o n i n v e n t o r y w i t h c h i l d r e n 10 years o l d , f i n d i n g s that a l i s t  indicated  of the presumed symptoms can be t r a n s l a t e d  into  observable behaviors which can be assessed r e l i a b l y and by a peer nomination  validly  technique.  V a l i d i t y of H y p e r a c t i v e C h i l d ' s P e r c e p t i o n s Although  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s have been proven g e n e r a l l y  r e l i a b l e , does t h i s a l s o h o l d t r u e f o r c h i l d r e n behaving h y p e r a c t i v e manner?  Campbell and Paulauskas  (19 79)  in a  noted  s t u d i e s which assessed the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and have not found d e f i c i t s .  They suggest the  characteristic  b e h a v i o r a l symptoms of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n are i n f l u e n c e d more s t r o n g l y by f a c t o r s other than a delay of s o c i a l c o g n i t i v e skills.  Loney  (19 74) s p e c i f i c a l l y examined b e h a v i o r and  l i g e n c e t e s t scores o f 12 younger and boys.  Her r e s u l t s supported  c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l at second  intel-  12 o l d e r h y p e r a c t i v e  the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h y p e r a c t i v e and f i f t h grades  from t h e i r peers i n i n t e l l e c t u a l endowment.  do not  differ  Ackerman e t a l .  (1979) compared and c o n t r a s t e d 7 t o 10 year o l d h y p e r a c t i v e and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d boys on s e v e r a l measures i n c l u d i n g personality t r a i t s ,  c o g n i t i v e r o l e t a k i n g , and moral b e h a v i o r .  The h y p e r a c t i v e boys were found to be as much i n touch w i t h the i d e a l , or the way but teachers saw  t h i n g s should be, as o t h e r c h i l d r e n ,  them as much l e s s w i l l i n g or able t o r e d i r e c t  68 t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and e f f o r t t o the classwork or t o the of t h e i r b e h a v i o r .  Paulauskas  and Campbell  control  (1979) compared  10 year o l d h y p e r a c t i v e boys with c o n t r o l s on three measures of s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g and f a i l e d t o f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s between groups.  significant  They f u r t h e r r e p o r t t h a t  although  the h y p e r a c t i v e boys were able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e i n a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g , teacher r e p o r t s suggest t h a t do not use t h e i r s o c i a l reasoning a b i l i t y i n the n a t u r a l environment.  they'  social  In a s s e s s i n g 26 e l e v e n year o l d boys' knowledge  and a t t i t u d e s about t h e i r own Baxley e t a l . (19 78) about the purpose  medication f o r h y p e r a c t i v i t y ,  found t h e i r responses t o be knowledgeable  of t h e i r medication and suggest t h i s accurate  p e r c e p t i o n as having p o s s i b l e c l i n i c a l relevance f o r the outcome of drug treatment o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n . T h i s evidence f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y of the p e r c e p t i o n s of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n may e a r l i e r f o r the unique these c h i l d r e n have.  appear counter t o the argument s t a t e d  and f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n of o t h e r s t h a t The r a t h e r d e l i c a t e p o i n t b e i n g e s t a b -  l i s h e d here maintains the "soundness" of the h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving c h i l d ' s mechanisms f o r p e r c e i v i n g o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r . In other words, these c h i l d r e n are able t o p e r c e i v e o t h e r s as a c c u r a t e l y or r e l i a b l y as t h e i r peers.  However, the message  they p i c k up i s d i f f e r e n t because of t h e i r unique p e r c e p t u a l "set".  69 • Conclusion In c o n c l u s i o n , the focus of t h i s study w i l l be r e s t a t e d to h i g h l i g h t and underscore  i t s importance.  Since c h i l d r e n ' s  p e r c e p t i o n s o f others are r e l i a b l e and g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e  their  own b e h a v i o r , they deserve f u r t h e r examination i n the context of the classroom.  C h i l d r e n who behave i n a h y p e r a c t i v e manner  present one o f the major concerns many o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  f o r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and  However, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s t u d i e s  on these c h i l d r e n have v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n . As s t a t e d by Stewart e t a l . (19 73) and l a t e r by Weiss and Hechtman (19 79): Among the many s t u d i e s o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y and i t s treatment there does not seem t o be one t h a t i s concerned w i t h the thoughts and f e e l i n g s o f the p a t i e n t s themselves. (Stewart e t a l . , p. 3) T h i s i s s u e o f c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s i s the concern and the main t h r u s t o f the p r e s e n t study.  70  CHAPTER I I I  Methodology The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and d e t a i l s o f the  p r e s e n t study are s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s  chapter.  P o p u l a t i o n and Sampling Procedures A t o t a l of 1 0 3 boys served as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s The  study.  i n i t i a l t h r u s t was t o i n v o l v e boys i n grades f o u r and  f i v e e n r o l l e d i n r e g u l a r elementary s c h o o l classrooms.  This  t a r g e t group was r e a l i z e d with 4 7 grade f o u r boys and 4 5 grade f i v e boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g . In grade f o u r the ages o f boys ranged from 9 . 0 0 years to  1 1 , 3 3 y e a r s ; the mean age being 1 0 . 0 7 years with a  standard d e v i a t i o n o f . 5 0 y e a r s .  The f i f t h  grade boys  ranged i n age from 1 0 . 4 2 years t o 1 2 . 3 3 y e a r s ; the mean age being 1 0 . 9 7 years with a standard d e v i a t i o n of . 3 7 years. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the boys were e n r o l l e d i n e i g h t r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n two d i f f e r e n t elementary s c h o o l s which were p a r t o f a l a r g e s c h o o l system i n a major urban centre l o c a t e d in  the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Both s c h o o l s were  situ-  ated i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas somewhat removed from the " i n n e r - c i t y " core.  However, the p a r t i c u l a r demographic f e a t u r e s c o u l d be  d e s c r i b e d as:  g e n e r a l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s with some v a r i a t i o n i n  71 socio-economic  l e v e l s ; containing r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l family  types with .a s m a l l percentage  ( l e s s than  30% a c c o r d i n g t o  s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) of s i n g l e - p a r e n t homes; s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n terms of c u l t u r a l group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . There were f i v e c u l t u r a l groups i d e n t i f i e d f o r the cipating subjects.  These were:  Anglo, C o n t i n e n t a l European,  East I n d i a n , Native Indian, and O r i e n t a l . was  parti-  The  Anglo group  comprised o f s u b j e c t s with e i t h e r B r i t i s h , I r i s h , S c o t t i s h  or Canadian backgrounds.  Subjects w i t h I t a l i a n , German and  French backgrounds formed the C o n t i n e n t a l European group.  The  East Indian group was  comprised of s u b j e c t s with background  from I n d i a , while one  s u b j e c t formed the Native Indian group.  Two  s u b j e c t s with Japanese background and one  with  Chinese  background made up the O r i e n t a l group. The  somewhat d e l i c a t e nature  i n the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n i n grades f o u r and to p a r t i c i p a t e .  of the present  (Borg and G a l l ,  f i v e classrooms  Although  study r e s u l t e d  19 79) being boys  where the teacher  volunteered  v o l u n t e e r samples have been shown t o  d i f f e r from t r u e random samples i n some t y p i c a l ways (Borg G a l l , 19 79;  Rosenthal  and  and Rosnow, 19 75;), t h i s i s seen as  n o n - c r i t i c a l f o r t h i s study s i n c e i t i s examining dimensions of t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n from the c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . The  data gathered  on each c h i l d , and summarized above, appears  t o i n d i c a t e a p o p u l a t i o n which c o u l d r e p r e s e n t many  classroom  s i t u a t i o n s , but c e r t a i n l y not a l l . Boys i n grades f o u r and f i v e were chosen f o r three major  72 reasons. ceptions  The instrument t o be used t o measure c h i l d r e n ' s p e r (see Appendix  B)  has been used p r e v i o u s l y w i t h c h i l d r e n  i n grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x .  Secondly, the d i s c u s s i o n o f  prevalence r a t e s and male:female activity  r a t i o i n s t u d i e s on hyper-  (see Chapter II) j u s t i f i e s the focus on boys and time  c o n s t r a i n t s r e s u l t e d i n narrowing the study t o c h i l d r e n i n grades f o u r and f i v e . study was  P a r e n t a l consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  o b t a i n e d f o r the boys p r i o r t o the onset of t e s t i n g  by each s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r .  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Measuring  Instruments  The instruments used i n the p r e s e n t study were the Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Koopman and Schroeder, 1977)  and the  Conners' A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Conners, 1969). S u b j e c t s completed the f i r s t measure and were r a t e d by teacher on the second measure.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f each  their instru-  ment f o l l o w s . 1.  The Conners' A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The Conners  forms  1  Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n one of i t s s e v e r a l  (Conners, 1969;  Goyette, Conners and U l r i c h , 1978; Werry  and Hawthorne, 19 76; Werry, Sprague  and Cohen, 19 75) has been  used most e x t e n s i v e l y and has been recommended f o r r e s e a r c h and s c r e e n i n g purposes  (Loney, 19 80).  The A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s o f 10 b r i e f d e s c r i p t i v e statements o f b e h a v i o r d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o hyperactivity.  Each statement i s r a t e d from a "Not a t A l l "  (0) t o  73 "Very Much" (3), y i e l d i n g a score from 0 t o 30.  A score  from  15 t o 30 has been shown t o c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e h y p e r a c t i v e from non-hyperactive  children  (Campbell and R e d f e r i n g , 1979;  Gordon, 19 79; Loney, 19 80; Sprague, C h r i s t e n s e n and Werry, 19 74; Weissenburger 19 75).  and Loney, 197 7; Werry, Sprague and Cohen,  Although the primary t h r u s t o f the p r e s e n t study d i d  not attempt  t o i d e n t i f y a group o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n ,  s t a t e d purpose  of the instrument bears  For the purposes  this  mentioning.  o f the p r e s e n t study t h i s  instrument  was chosen t o a s c r i b e t o c h i l d r e n v a r i o u s l e v e l s of behavior t y p i c a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n a fashion s i m i l a r to Copeland  and Weissbrod  (1978).  T h i s r a t i n g s c a l e was used t o  assess the r e l a t i v e l e v e l o f p r o b l e m a t i c behavior of a l l boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study.  The classroom t e a c h e r s , who are  c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e and competent r a t e r s o f observed (Conners, 196 9; Campbell  and R e d f e r i n g , 1979; Lambert e t a l . ,  19 78; Loney, 19 74; Whalen e t a l . , 19 7 8), for  completed  the s c a l e  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i n g students. Conners' (196 9)  of  behavior  o r i g i n a l teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d  39 items d e s c r i b i n g problem b e h a v i o r s r a t e d on a 4-point  scale.  In attempting t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e l i a b i l i t y ,  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , and s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h i s instrument t o teacher observed b e h a v i o r s , Conners compared one group of c h i l d r e n h a v i n g l e a r n i n g and/or behavior d i s o r d e r s , and b e i n g t r e a t e d with drugs, t o another placebo group i n a d o u b l e - b l i n d study.  The study sample c o n s i s t e d o f 82 boys and 21 g i r l s ,  74 with a mean age  of nine years and  randomly t o e i t h e r group. were asked to f i l l child.  The  out  nine months, being a s s i g n e d  Teachers who  a pre  and  knew the  child  post-study s c a l e  pre-drug r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t e d  components f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , using  well  f o r each  to a p r i n c i p a l  u n i t y i n the  diagonal  and  r o t a t i o n to simple s t r u c t u r e by the varimax c r i t e r i o n . a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d f i v e f a c t o r s as f o l l o w s : a g g r e s s i v e conduct d i s o r d e r ; t i v e dimension; hyperactive, l a t i n g the  Factor  restless;  Factor  f o r each placebo group s u b j e c t , from .71  to  .91.  V - health.  f a c t o r pre  I -  and  By  Factor further  The  computing change  I, measuring a g g r e s s i v e ,  accounted f o r most of the v a r i a n c e with F a c t o r  IV - h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  and was  The  and  has  structure  across ages and  I t was  disturbing  also  behavior,  somewhat c o r r e l a t e d  l i s t has  analyzed on a sample of c l i n i c o u t p a t i e n t s (N = 6 83)  on  r e s u l t s showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  changes w i t h drug treatment f o r a l l f i v e f a c t o r s . noted t h a t F a c t o r  corre-  t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged  A f i n a l analysis involved  groups.  IV -  post-treatment scores  scores f o r each group which were e v a l u a t e d by t - t e s t s uncorrelated  defiant,  II - daydreaming, i n a t t e n -  I I I - anxious, f e a r f u l ; Factor  f i v e highest  Factor  This  been f a c t o r  and normal c h i l d r e n  been shown t o give r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a wide s o c i a l c l a s s range  factor  (Conners,  1970). As noted by  Z e n t a l l and  shortened t h i s form t o the tionnaire  (ATQ)  Barack  (19 79)  i n 19 73  Conners  10-item A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Ques-  by e l i m i n a t i n g the  anxiety  and  sociability  75  items which were l e s s r e l a t e d t o h y p e r a c t i v i t y .  These 10 items  are among those most f r e q u e n t l y checked by p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s of  o u t p a t i e n t c h i l d r e n and have been found t o be r e l a t i v e l y  s e n s i t i v e t o drug changes.  Steinkamp  Sprague, C h r i s t e n s e n and Werry of two  (19 80)  c i t e s work by  (19 74) who found the r a t i n g  15, chosen as a c u t o f f i n grouping  subjects, t o represent  standard d e v i a t i o n s above the i t e m mean o f the s t a n d a r d i z a -  t i o n sample o f 291 c h i l d r e n .  Z e n t a l l and Barack  examined the concurrent v a l i d i t y , i n t e r - r a t e r and i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , have  reliability,  f o r the ATQ (Conners,  the Rating S c a l e s f o r H y p e r k i n e s i s  19 73) and  (Davids, 1971).  They had  e i g h t teachers r a t e 83 boys and g i r l s , mean age 8 years and 3 months, i n r e g u l a r classrooms,  along with 46 boys and 3 g i r l s ,  mean age 8 years and 9 months, i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s being r a t e d by e i g h t other teachers on both measures.  In determining  i n t e r s c a l e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , scores from the Conners and Davids S c a l e s were c o r r e l a t e d r e s u l t i n g i n the s i g n i f i c a n t  overall  c o r r e l a t i o n o f r_ (228) = .84, and f o r both r e g u l a r s c h o o l s r  (179) = .81, and f o r the s p e c i a l c l a s s e s _r (47) = . 80, a l l  at the p < The  .001 l e v e l .  ATQ was chosen t o a s c r i b e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f observable  classroom b e h a v i o r s , having a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o hypera c t i v i t y , t o s u b j e c t s i n the present study.  I t has been used  most e x t e n s i v e l y with teachers by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s and i t s b r e v i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s s u i t a b i l i t y . To a v o i d a " c l i n i c a l s e t " o r negative h a l o , the s c a l e was  76 named Teacher  Inventory f o r purposes  Appendix A f o r the ATQ 2.  of t h i s study.  Refer t o  (Teacher I n v e n t o r y ) .  Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T h i s instrument i s based  Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1962).  upon the Bronfenbrenner  (Devereux, Bronfenbrenner  Koopman and Schroeder  Suci,  (1977) m o d i f i e d the items t o  r e f l e c t the classroom environment. statements  and  Parent  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e has  concerning t e a c h e r s ' behavior and taps 15  v a r i a b l e s u s i n g three statements  f o r each.  45  separate  Sophisticated  f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l methods have c o n s i s t e n t l y y i e l d e d three major components:  "loving",  "punishment", and  punishment component was  "demanding".  e l i m i n a t e d from the p r e s e n t  The study,  r e s u l t i n g i n f i v e remaining v a r i a b l e s c l u s t e r i n g t o g e t h e r t o a r r i v e a t a score f o r " l o v i n g " and f o u r v a r i a b l e s f o r the "demanding" s c o r e .  V a r i a b l e s f o r the " l o v i n g " component i n c l u d e :  nurturance, a f f e c t i v e reward, i n s t r u m e n t a l companionship, affiliative  companionship, and p r i n c i p l e d d i s c i p l i n e , while  the "demanding" concept  consists of:  achievement demands, and Each c h i l d was  p r e s c r i p t i v e , power,  indulgence.  asked t o s e l e c t one of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e  choices f o r each of the 27 items: F a i r l y Often, and Always.  The  Never, Hardly Ever, Sometimes,  s c o r i n g ranges  from 5 (Never)  to 1 (Always), so t h a t a low f i n a l score a f f i r m s c e r t a i n behaviors.  I t should be noted here t h a t the three  comprising the "indulgence" sub-dimension " r e f l e c t e d " manner.  teacher  statements  were p r e s e n t e d i n a  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r score a f f i r m i n g  77 t h a t dimension  of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r .  transformed t o account weightings  range from:  C h i l d r e n ' s scores were  f o r t h i s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s .  The  1 t o 5 f o r a s i n g l e item; from 3 t o  15 f o r a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e ;  from 15 t o 75 f o r the " l o v i n g " compo-  nent; and from 12 t o 6 0 f o r the "demanding" component. v a r i a b l e s with t h e i r corresponding statements i n Table 1.  The 9  are presented  This p a r t i a l Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  ( C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory) was administered t o classroom of p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n by the r e s e a r c h e r .  groupings  78 TABLE 1 L i s t o f Stimulus Items f o r the P a r t i a l  Teacher  Behavior Questionnaire~ ( C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory) Loving Component 1.  Nurturance: Comforts me when I have t r o u b l e s . Is there f o r me when I need her/him. I can t a l k w i t h him/her e a s i l y .  2.  A f f e c t i v e Reward: Says n i c e t h i n g s about me t o o t h e r people. Is very f r i e n d l y with me. P r a i s e s me when I have done something good.  3.  Instrumental Companionship: Teaches me t h i n g s I want t o l e a r n . Helps and encourages me with my own s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . Helps me with my schoolwork when I don't understand something.  4.  A f f i l i a t i v e Companionship: Does fun type a c t i v i t i e s with me. Is happy when with me. Enjoys t a l k i n g with me.  5.  Principled Discipline: Is j u s t and f a i r when p u n i s h i n g me. When I must do something she/he' e x p l a i n s why. Is reasonable when c o r r e c t i n g my mistakes.  Demanding Component 6.  Prescriptive: Expects me t o h e l p around the classroom. T e l l s me what I have t o do when my r e g u l a r schoolwork i s completed. Expects me t o keep my t h i n g s i n order.  7.  Power: I n s i s t s t h a t I get p e r m i s s i o n before I go t o the bathroom. Makes me do my work e x a c t l y when and how he/she t e l l s me t o . I n s i s t s t h a t I do t h i n g s h e r / h i s way.  8.  Achievement Demands: I n s i s t s t h a t I make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t i n e v e r y t h i n g . I n s i s t s t h a t I t r y t o get good grades. I n s i s t s t h a t I do a good j o b on my schoolwork.  9.  Indulgence: I can t a l k her/him i n t o most anything. Lets me o f f easy when I misbehave. Finds i t d i f f i c u l t t o punish me.  79 The Bronfenbrenner of  Parent Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s  45 parent p r a c t i c e items drawn from a l a r g e r s e t used by  Devereux, Bronfenbrenner,  and S u c i (1962) i n a p r e v i o u s study  which found the 15 g e n e r a l v a r i a b l e s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . then used i t f o r c r o s s - n a t i o n a l comparisons  of child-rearing  p r a c t i c e s w i t h 72 German-American p a i r s of s i x t h grade (40 boys and 32 g i r l s ) .  In s e a r c h i n g f o r dimensions  behavior ,which were e m p i r i c a l l y independent a l l 45 items t o generate  They  they  students  of parental  intercorrelated  f o u r separate c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s :  boys d e s c r i b i n g f a t h e r s ; boys d e s c r i b i n g mothers; and the same matchings f o r g i r l s .  A p p l y i n g Thurstone's  d i a g o n a l method of  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o each matrix they found 9 f a c t o r s t o be common to  a l l four matrices.  In comparing the mean score r a t i n g s  between groups on these 9 f a c t o r s , 7 were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the p < Siegelman Bronfenbrenner  .05 l e v e l and 1 a t the p <  .01 l e v e l .  (1965) e v a l u a t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Parent Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e as a r e s e a r c h  technique by a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t t o 81 boys and 131 g i r l s i n grades four, f i v e and s i x .  Using the same f o u r m a t r i c e s o f m a l e - f a t h e r ,  male-mother, f e m a l e - f a t h e r and female-mother, s e v e r a l analyses of  the data were made.  In a p p l y i n g g e n e r a l i z e d Kuder-Richardson  formula 20 r e l i a b i l i t i e s , .45,  he found mean r e l i a b i l i t i e s  .68, and .51 i n correspondence  o f .58,  t o the above m a t r i c e s .  C o n s i d e r i n g the s c a l e ' s use o f only three items p e r f a c t o r , Siegelman  found these r e l i a b i l i t i e s  quite satisfactory.  He f u r t h e r analyzed the data u s i n g a combination of  80 p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s with a varimax and  found three f a c t o r s t o account  of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e corresponding matrices.  procedure  f o r 62%, 54%, 54% and 48% t o the above-mentioned  These three f a c t o r s were l a b e l l e d  "Loving",  "Punish-  ment", and "Demanding" and f a c t o r - s c o r e r e l i a b i l i t i e s based on these merged s c a l e s ranged from .70 t o .91.  Siegelman  f u r t h e r how h i s f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  notes  facilitates  i n s i g h t i n t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature of a given v a r i a b l e (e.g., the "Nurturance" factorial validity validity  v a r i a b l e f o r male-father has high  f o r F a c t o r I - "Loving" and low f a c t o r i a l  f o r F a c t o r s I I and I I I ) .  In t h i s way, examining  f a c t o r l o a d i n g s c o n t r i b u t e s t o our understanding s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the Bronfenbrenner  o f the con-  Parent Behavior Ques-  tionnaire. S e v e r a l other f i n d i n g s and o b s e r v a t i o n s are worth n o t i n g f o r purposes o f the present study.  Mean comparisons between  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f f a t h e r versus mother found s i g n i f i c a n t ences between boys and g i r l s on f i v e v a r i a b l e s .  differ-  Siegelman.o.  then observed how the three f a c t o r s resemble dimensions r e p o r t e d by other r e s e a r c h e r s i n a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f parent behavior. conclude  Schaefer  (1965) and Roe and Siegelman  (1963)  t h a t f a c t o r s o f love versus r e j e c t i o n and c a s u a l  versus demanding are d e s c r i p t i v e o f r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by s e v e r a l researchers. Koopman and Schroeder  (1977),  v e l o p i n g the Teacher Behavior  credited e a r l i e r  f o r de-  Questionnaire, administered i t  81 to  78 boys and 61 g i r l s i n grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x .  varimax r o t a t i o n a l principal-component s i m i l a r t o Siegelman  a n a l y s i s i n a manner  (1965), they a l s o d e r i v e d three p a r a l l e l  components of teacher behavior: "Demanding".  "Loving",  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s  v a r i a b l e s ranged from .69 r e j e c t i o n which was  Using a  "Punishing",  and  c a l c u l a t e d f o r the  f o r power to .85  15  for expressive  found s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r such an  instrument.  They a l s o c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s u s i n g Cronbach's alpha on the three f a c t o r s and chose the v a r i a b l e s with above .50  as d e f i n i n g the f a c t o r s . .81  The  loadings  r e l i a b i l i t i e s were  for  F a c t o r I - "Loving",  f o r F a c t o r I I - "Punishing",  .63  f o r F a c t o r I I I - "Demanding", r e s u l t i n g i n  .86 and  non-overlapping  factors. The of  Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  chosen f o r purposes  the present study because of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y ,  construct  v a l i d i t y , and s e n s i t i v i t y to c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l t i o n s of teacher behavior.  percep-  In order t o a v o i d a " c l i n i c a l s e t "  or negative h a l o e f f e c t the name of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e changed t o C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory. Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was  Refer t o Appendix B f o r the  (The C h i l d r e n ' s I n v e n t o r y ) .  Nature of the Inventory's Measurement S c a l e s Both of the instruments Likert scales.  The  used i n the p r e s e n t study employ  Teacher Inventory  c o n s i s t s of 11  statements  which r e q u i r e the teacher to give a r a t i n g on a b i p o l a r continuum from,"Not At A l l "  (0) to "Very Much" (3).  The  Children's  82 Inventory c o n s i s t s of 2 7 items which r e q u i r e the c h i l d t o give a r a t i n g on a b i p o l a r continuum from Although  "Always" (1) t o "Never" (5).  i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o argue t h a t the  interval  between each p o i n t i n the s c a l e i s e q u i v a l e n t , there i s s u f f i c i e n t reason t o suggest t h a t the p o i n t s i n the s c a l e are more r e f i n e d than a simple o r d i n a l l e v e l .  One  c o u l d argue t h a t the  measurement s c a l e s employed i n the present study's  intruments  are a t l e a s t q u a s i - i n t e r v a l i n nature. (This j u s t i f i c a t i o n allows us t o employ p a r a m e t r i c tical  techniques and a n a l y s e s , i n c l u d i n g the Pearson  moment c o r r e l a t i o n i n comparing the Design  and Data C o l l e c t i o n  statis-  product-  results.)  Procedures  T h i s study i s c l a s s i f i e d as c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . j e c t s s e l e c t e d were expected to vary on the measures of  Subobserved  classroom b e h a v i o r and on the measures of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r behavior.  I t may  f u r t h e r be d e f i n e d as a r e l a t i o n s h i p  study between classroom behavior and p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r h a v i o r which were both measured at approximately  be-  the same time.  S u b j e c t s ' classroom teachers were given copies of the Teacher  Inventory and were asked to complete them f o r p a r t i c i -  p a t i n g boys i n t h e i r classroom a c c o r d i n g t o the given at the top o f the form. by the r e s e a r c h e r .  The  directions  These r a t i n g s were then scored  C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory was  administered  by the r e s e a r c h e r to classroom groupings of boys w i t h t e s t i n g s e s s i o n i n each of the e i g h t p a r t i c i p a t i n g  one  classrooms.  83 The procedure f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the form.  The  followed  experimenter  began by g i v i n g each group the three p r a c t i c e statements f o r purposes of f a m i l i a r i z i n g s u b j e c t s with the 5-point  rating  scale.  subjects:  1.  The  f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were s t r e s s e d with the  Answering these items r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of thinking.  2.  There i s no r i g h t or wrong answer.  3.  The  teacher w i l l not see the  4.  The  important  student 5.  results.  i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d i s how  t r u e each  t h i n k s a statement i s .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l h e l p other teachers  understand  c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t s of view b e t t e r . Once the c h i l d r e n understood the answering format, the r e s e a r c h e r read the i n s t r u c t i o n s and  stressed that  subjects  respond to the statements about the teacher  as they  f e l t and not as they thought i t should be.  Each item  read twice  appeared to have responded.  F i f t e e n to twenty seconds was  Again,  was  f o r the s u b j e c t s and the experimenter paused a f t e r  each item u n t i l a l l students  responding,  really  used as a g u i d i n g l i m i t f o r  and each group's t e s t i n g r e q u i r e d 30 minutes.  a l l s c o r i n g was  completed by the  researcher.  I t should be mentioned here t h a t i n order to  facilitate  the t e s t i n g procedure i n each s c h o o l , the g i r l s remained i n the classroom  and a l s o completed the C h i l d r e n ' s  However, t h i s data gathered study.  was  Inventory.  not r e l a t e d to the  present  84 Statistical  Analyses  Analyses o f r e s u l t s i n the present study are p r i m a r i l y c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n nature.  Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s  were computed between the Teacher and the acceptance (see Research  Inventory behavior r a t i n g  v a r i a b l e s of the C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory  Question  1, Chapter  I).  C o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o  computed t o estimate the r e l a t i o n s h i p ) between the  Teacher  Inventory behavior r a t i n g and the demand v a r i a b l e s of the C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory The  acceptance  (see Research Question 2, Chapter I ) .  v a r i a b l e s and the demand v a r i a b l e s of the  C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory were a l s o c o r r e l a t e d t o determine l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p  (see Research  T - t e s t s were performed  Question  their  3, Chapter I ) .  to t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -  ences between grade f o u r and f i v e boys on mean scores of behavior, acceptance,  and demand.  The  r e s u l t s of the  Inventory b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s allowed f o r t - t e s t s t o be  Teacher computed  which compared groups of t e a c h e r - r a t e d h y p e r a c t i v e and r a t e d non-hyperactive  teacher-  boys on the v a r i a b l e s of acceptance  demand (see The Conner's A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher  and  Questionnaire,  Chapter I I I ) . Other analyses were conducted  t o e x p l o r e a d d i t i o n a l ques-  t i o n s which arose from the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h . The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s f o r conducting a l l the above mentioned a n a l y s e s .  (1980) was  used  I  85 CHAPTER IV  Results The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the proposed r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are r e p o r t e d i n t h i s chapter.  The post  f a c t o analyses w i t h corresponding r e s u l t s f o l l o w and the r e s u l t s o f adjunct a n a l y s e s , although not d i r e c t l y  connected  to the i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , are a l s o p r e s e n t e d f o r the a d d i t i o n a l understanding  they g i v e .  Information on the three r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s of the p r e s e n t study was o b t a i n e d by computing Pearson product-moment  correla-  t i o n s between p a i r s of measures a d m i n i s t e r e d to s u b j e c t s .  It  should be noted here t h a t a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s computed were onet a i l e d t e s t s and the sample c o n s i s t e d of 47 boys i n grade f o u r and  45 boys i n grade f i v e , thus y i e l d i n g a t o t a l of N = 92.  A list  of these measures and v a r i a b l e s , along with t h e i r respec-  t i v e a b b r e v i a t i o n s are presented i n Table 2.  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive Behavior and P e r c e i v e d Acceptance  (Question 1)  The teacher r a t i n g of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior was  correlated  with the c h i l d ' s p e r c e i v e d acceptance v a r i a b l e s i n order t o investigate their relationship  (see Table 3 ) .  86 TABLE 2  A L i s t o f the Test V a r i a b l e s and T h e i r A b b r e v i a t i o n s  TEST  VARIABLES  Teacher Inventory  Hyperactive Behavior  ABBREVIATIONS  BEHAVE  Children s 1  Inventory  Nurturance Affective  NURT Reward  Instrumental Companionship A f f i l i a t i v e Companionship Principled Discipline Acceptance  - T o t a l Score  Prescriptive Power Achievement Demand Indulgence Demand - T o t a l Score  AFF REW INST COMP AFFIL COMP PRINC DIS TOT ACCEPT PRES POW ACH DEM INDUL TOT DEMAND  87 TABLE 3 Pearson  Product-Moment  Correlations  Between BEHAVE and ACCEPT  AFF REW  NURT  Variables  . 34**•*••• .26***  BEHAVE  INST COMP .22**  c  Variables  AFFIL COMP .19*  PRINC DIS . 28** •  TOT ACCEPT . 32** *  A l l t e s t s are o n e - t a i l e d . *•'•£< .05. **  p<  .OIL;'  *** p < .001.  As the r e s u l t s o f Table 3 i n d i c a t e , there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior and a l l o f the p e r ceived  acceptance  variables.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between BEHAVE  and TOT ACCEPT i s r = +.32, p <  .001; which i s expected  a l l o f i t s sub-dimensions have s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s BEHAVE.  since with  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = +.19, p < .05 f o r AFFIL COMP  with BEHAVE, although s i g n i f i c a n t , i s the lowest  correlation  of the f i v e sub-dimensions f o r TOT ACCEPT.  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  Between Hyperactive Behavior and P e r c e i v e d  Demand (Question 2) The q u e s t i o n o f how the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f demand i s r e l a t e d t o the teacher's r a t i n g o f h y p e r a c t i v e behavior was  88 examined.  Table 4 c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n .  TABLE 4 Pearson Product-Moment  Correlations  5  Between BEHAVE and DEMAND V a r i a b l e s  Variables  PRES  POW  BEHAVE  -.11  -.18*  ACH DEM -.12  INDUL  -.29** •  TOT DEMAND -.25**  t e s t s are o n e - t a i l e d . .05.  Three s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d between the r a t i n g o f h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r and the p e r c e i v e d demand v a r i ables.  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = -.25, p < . 0 1 between BEHAVE  and TOT DEMAND i s accounted f o r by s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of two sub-dimensions. p<  The BEHAVE w i t h POW shows an r = -.18,  .05 and the BEHAVE w i t h INDUL shows an r = -.29, p < .01.„  The h i g h degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between BEHAVE and TOT DEMAND appears a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the POW sub-dimension and, more part i c u l a r l y , the INDUL sub-dimension.  89  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  Between Perceived  Acceptance and P e r c e i v e d  Demand (Question 3 ) . In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e the l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between each dimension o f the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n each dimension o f p e r c e i v e d correlated.  o f acceptance w i t h  demand, these v a r i a b l e s were  cross-  Table 5 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f these a n a l y s e s .  TABLE 5 Pearson Product-Moment  Correlations  5  Among ACCEPT and DEMAND V a r i a b l e s  Variables  NURT  AFF REW  TOT ACCEPT  AFFIL COMP  PRINC DIS  .04  . 11  .20*  . 11  INST COMP  PRES  . 12  POW  .01  .14  .003  .08  .06  .07  ACH DEM  .07  . 17*  . 14  .20*  .17*  . 19*  -.03  INDUL  - . 3 5 * * * -.22**  -.24**  TOT DEM  -.06  -.02  a  .03  -.20* .07  -.35*** .02  -.33*** .01  -tailed. T e s t s are a l l one * P  ** p ***  p  . 05. .01. .001.  AS i n d i c a t e d , the v a r i a b l e o f TOT DEM does n o t show a significant  l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h TOT ACCEPT, r = .01.  90 However, s e v e r a l o f the sub-dimension r e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n s .  v a r i a b l e s do show  Most n o t a b l y , the INDUL v a r i -  able i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o a l l o f the ACCEPT sub-dimensions at the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s :  r = -.35, p <  .001 with NURT;  r = -.22, p < .01 w i t h AFF REW; r = -.24, p < COMP; r = -.20, p < PRINC DIS.  .01 w i t h INST  .05 w i t h AFFIL COMP; and r = -.35 w i t h  A l s o notable i s the r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  relation-  s h i p t h a t INDUL shows with TOT ACCEPT, r = -.33, p < .001. I t bears mentioning  here t h a t a l l o f these v a r i a b l e s are  n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d i n d i c a t i n g an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with indulgence which was expected. Four o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e the ACH DEM variable.  I t shows an r = .17 w i t h AFF REW; an r = .20 w i t h  AFFIL COMP; an r = .17 w i t h PRINC DIS; and an r = .,19 w i t h TOT ACCEPT, a l l a t the p < sub-dimension  .05 l e v e l .  F i n a l l y , t h e PRES  i s r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the.PRINC DIS v a r i a b l e  with an r = .20, p < .05. A summary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the major v a r i a b l e s —  h y p e r a c t i v e behavior, p e r c e i v e d acceptance  demand —  and p e r c e i v e d  along w i t h t h e i r means and standard d e v i a t i o n s a r e  presented i n Table 6.  91 TABLE 6 Means, Standard  D e v i a t i o n s , and Pearson  Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s  5  Among the V a r i a b l e s  BEHAVE, TOT ACCEPT, and TOT DEMAND  TOT Variables  BEHAVE  A  C  C  E  p  T  TOT DEMAND  M  a  ^  n  8.90  BEHAVE TOT  ACCEPT  .32**  —  TOT  DEMAND  -.25*  .01  a  e  7.01  40.23 —  24.18  10.34 6.88  A l l t e s t s are o n e - t a i l e d . * p  <.01.  ** p < . 0 0 1 . Comparing Grade Four Boys w i t h Grade F i v e Boys I t was assumed i n the p r e s e n t study t h a t the outcomes o f the v a r i a b l e s measured would be f a i r l y s i m i l a r f o r the boys i n both grades. assumption,  In order t o i n v e s t i g a t e the accuracy o f t h i s t - t e s t s were computed t o compare the d i f f e r e n c e s  between these two groups i n t h e i r mean scores on the behavior r a t i n g as w e l l as t h e i r mean scores on the p e r c e i v e d and p e r c e i v e d demand v a r i a b l e s .  acceptance  The 47 grade f o u r boys and  the 45 grade f i v e boys were viewed as independent these analyses and the t e s t s performed  groups i n  were a l l t w o - t a i l e d  u s i n g pooled v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e s . The r e s u l t s o f these comparisons along with the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each group are p r e s e n t e d i n Table 7,  92 TABLE 7 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and t Values Comparing Grade Four and F i v e Boys on the V a r i a b l e s , BEHAVE, ACCEPT, and DEMAND  Grade  Mean  SD  BEHAVE  4 5  9. 45 8. 33  7.48 6.65  TOT ACCEPT  4 5  38.47 42.07  NURT  4 5  AFF REW  Variables  — 90  Value a  • 75  10. 01 10. 46  -1.69  8.13 8.69  2.53 2.51  -1.07  4 5  7. 36 8. 80  2. 36 2.29  -2.96**  INST COMP  4 5  6 . 79 7. 33  2. 39 2.60  -1.05  AFFIL COMP  4 5  8. 79 9.27  2.54 2.50  -.91  PRINC DIS  4 5  7. 40 7.98  2.60 2. 71  -1.04  TOT DEMAND  4 5  21.66 26. 82  5.26 7. 42  -3.86***  PRES  4 5  6.09 6.64  1.91 2.32  -1.27  POW  4 5  4. 87 6. 89  2.00 2. 42  -4.36***  ACH DEM  4 5  4. 89 6. 44  2. 18 2.93  -2.89**  INDUL  4 5  5. 81 6. 84  2.44 2.71  -1.93*  a  d f = 90 f o ra l l  * p_< .05. ** p < .005. *** p < .000.  tests..  I t i s obvious t h a t some h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  are o p e r a t i v e between grade f o u r and grade f i v e boys, as p a r t i c u l a r l y shown by t = -3.86, p_< variable.  .000 on the TOT  DEMAND  T h i s h i g h l e v e l of d i f f e r e n c e i s riot s u r p r i s i n g  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t three of i t s f o u r sub-dimensions shows d i f f e r ences ranging from t = -1.93, p < p<  .000 f o r POW.  these two p<  The  .05 f o r INDUL t o t =  only other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  groups occurs with the AFF  REW  variable, t =  Non-Hyperactive The  Teacher-rated  Boys  o u t l i n e of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses f o r the present  (see S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses, Chapter post facto'  study  I I I ) r e f e r s t o some p o s s i b l e  comparisons between t e a c h e r - r a t e d h y p e r a c t i v e  c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r - r a t e d non-hyperactive The  -2.96,  .005.  Comparing T e a c h e r - r a t e d Hyperactive and  ;  -4.36,  children  (see a l s o  Conner's A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Chapter I I ) .  For purposes  of comparing d i f f e r e n c e s between these two  groups  on the main v a r i a b l e s of h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r , acceptance demand, the designated c u t - o f f p o i n t of 15 or h i g h e r 21 h y p e r a c t i v e boys i n our sample.  and  identified  In order t o promote a  s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior i n a comparison group, the c u t - o f f p o i n t of 10 or lower i d e n t i f i e d 5 8 non-hyperactive  boys i n our sample.  In order t o e x p l o r e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s  be-  tween these two groups, t - t e s t s were computed on the dependent  94 varibles referred to e a r l i e r . independent  These groups were c o n s i d e r e d  and t w o - t a i l e d t e s t s were used i n c l u d i n g pooled  variance estimates.  The r e s u l t s of these comparisons along  with means and standard d e v i a t i o n s are presented i n Table 8. A l s o i n c l u d e d are the comparisons of the t e a c h e r - r a t i n g of s e r i o u s n e s s o f problem (SERIOUS) f o r these boys Inventory, Appendix A ) .  (see Teacher  95 TABLE 8 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and t Values Comparing Hyperactive  5  and N o n - h y p e r a c t i v e  b  Boys i n Grades Four and F i v e  on the V a r i a b l e s , BEHAVE, SERIOUS, ACCEPT, and DEMAND  Variables  Group  0  Mean  SD  df  4.07 3. 33  77  d  t Value  BEHAVE  1 2  19. 10 4. 36  SERIOUS  1 2  1. 81 . 38  TOT ACCEPT  1 2  45. 33 38.53  11.16 8.78  2.82**  NURT  1 2  9.48 7. 90  2.60 2.26  2.64**  AFF REW  1 2  9. 10 7. 76  2.57 2. 15  2. 32*  INST COMP  1 2  8.00 6. 88  2. 85 2.19  1. 85  AFFIL COMP  1 2  2.63 2.29  2.09*  PRINC DIS  1 2  8.67 7. 17  2. 82 2. 42  2. 32*  TOT DEMAND  1 2  20.90 25. 47  6.64 6. 86  -2.63**  PRES  1 2  5.67 6. 41  2.03 2.06  -1.43  POW  1 2  4.90 6.21  1. 95 2. 32  -2.29*  ACH DEM  1 2  5.10 5. 84  2.59 2.65  -1.12  INDUL  1 2  5.24 7.00  2. 39 2.54  -2.77**  10. 10 8. 83  . 75 . 70  16. 36*** 7.90***  a  N = 21.  b  N = 58.  c  Group 1 r e f e r s t o Hyperactive and 2 r e f e r s t o Non-hyperactive.  d  d f = 77 f o r a l l t e s t s  * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .000.  (two-tailed).  96 As expected, and as i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s , boys d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y  hyperactive  from non-hyperactive boys on a l l but  f o u r o f the v a r i a b l e s compared.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , some of: the  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the SERIOUS and BEHAVE, t = 16.36, p <  .000,  v a r i a b l e s which were measured by an i n s t r u -  ment designed t o d e f i n e h y p e r a c t i v e manner.  children i n a behavioral  The r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two  groups on the TOT ACCEPT v a r i a b l e , t = 2.82, p <  .01, i s com-  posed of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on four of i t s sub-dimension variables.  T h i s i n c l u d e s AFF REW, AFFIL COMP, and PRINC DIS,  a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t the p <  .05 l e v e l , as w e l l as the NURT  v a r i a b l e , with a t = 2.64, p < .01. When comparing these two groups on TOT DEMAND, the o b v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f t = 2.6 3, p <  .01 appears s u b s t a n t i a l l y  a f f e c t e d by the INDUL sub-dimension, with a t = -2.77, p < .01, and  i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the d i f f e r e n c e i n the POW v a r i a b l e  at the p < DEM  .05 l e v e l .  I t i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the ACH  component d i d not show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  groups s i n c e i t measures the degree o f i n s i s t e n c e and demand the c h i l d experiences from the teacher i n r e l a t i o n t o s c h o o l tasks. O v e r a l l , these r e s u l t s , comparing the h y p e r a c t i v e  and the  non-hyperactive boys on the main v a r i a b l e s measured, s t r o n g l y support the high hyperactive  l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s evidenced between  b e h a v i o r and p e r c e i v e d  demand which have been noted  acceptance and p e r c e i v e d  previously.  97 Additional  Analyses  A number o f adjunct analyses were conducted  to investigate  some q u e s t i o n s t h a t arose from the primary analyses and t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the sample o f s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the present  study.  One q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g from the primary analyses  concerned  determining the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t may be p r e s e n t on the main v a r i a b l e s o f behavior, p e r c e i v e d acceptance  and p e r c e i v e d de-  mand as a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c u l a r classroom group d i f f e r e n c e s . One-way analyses o f v a r i a n c e were performed  i n order t o d e t e r -  mine whether s i g n i f i c a n t classroom d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t f o r these variables.  Table 9 presents these r e s u l t s , which compare a l l  e i g h t classrooms  from the two schools i n v o l v e d i n t h i s  study.  TABLE 9 One-Way Analyses o f Variance  Attributable  t o Classroom D i f f e r e n c e s Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  df  F  BG* WG  829.46 3716.65  118.49 44.25  7 84  2. 68  .015  ACCEPT  BG WG  2100.55 7625.64  300.08 90. 78  7 84  3. 31  .004  DEMAND  BG WG  1062.16 3247.72  151.74 38.66  7 84  3. 93  .001  Variable BEHAVE  Source of Variance  b  Between Groups Within Groups  P  98 As the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  exist  on a l l three v a r i a b l e s when c o n s i d e r i n g a l l e i g h t classrooms simultaneously.  Although t h i s f i n d i n g allows us t o conclude  that a t l e a s t two o f the mean classroom r e s u l t s are n o t e q u a l (Kirk, 19 78),  i t would be more h e l p f u l t o know whether any  two d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and, i f so, which p a i r . Scheffe's S t e s t  By a p p l y i n g  ( K i r k , 1978) t o the data o u t l i n e d ' i n Table 9  i t was determined t h a t no two classroom groups are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the p < ACCEPT.  .05 l e v e l on the v a r i a b l e s BEHAVE and  However, one group o f grade f o u r boys d i f f e r e d  signifi-  c a n t l y from one group o f grade f i v e boys, each having N = 12, on the DEMAND v a r i a b l e a t the p <  .05 l e v e l .  This difference  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by n o t i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e means and standard d e v i a t i o n s on t h i s sub-dimension.  The grade f o u r boys showed  a M = 19.50, SD = 5.18; while the grade f i v e boys showed a M = 30.00, SD = 9.92. In  order t o e x p l o r e these d i f f e r e n c e s on the v a r i a b l e  DEMAND even f u r t h e r , a d d i t i o n a l analyses o f v a r i a n c e were p e r formed w i t h S c h e f f e ' s procedure by e l i m i n a t i n g each o f the two groups i n t u r n .  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n no two groups being  c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the p < four boys was i n c l u d e d .  signifi-  .05 l e v e l when the group o f grade  However, the same group o f grade  five  boys showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h another group o f grade four boys a t the p < i n the a n a l y s e s .  .05 l e v e l when they were i n c l u d e d  Further s t i l l ,  by e l i m i n a t i n g both o f these  groups a t the same time, an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e along w i t h  99  S c h e f f e ' s procedure  showed no two groups being s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t on the DEMAND v a r i a b l e . From these f i n d i n g s grade  i t i s apparent t h a t the one group o f  f i v e boys i s d i f f e r e n t from the others on the DEMAND  variable.  The classroom groups may be c o n s i d e r e d comparable  however, on the BEHAVE and ACCEPT v a r i a b l e s . A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n arose from the primary analyses p e r taining to possible  differences  between s c h o o l s on the major  v a r i a b l e s measured i n t h i s study.  The f i r s t  step i n answering  t h i s q u e s t i o n was t o note the f r e q u e n c i e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n and non-hyperactive the two s c h o o l s .  c h i l d r e n between  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table 10. TABLE 10  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Hyperactive and Non-Hyperactive  Boys Between Schools  N  Percent  Hyperactive  School 1 School 2  8 13  39.1 60.9  Non-hyperactive  School 1 School 2  35 23  60.3 39.7  I t i s obvious from these r e s u l t s t h a t School 2 has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher proportion of t e a c h e r - i d e n t i f i e d hyperactive c h i l d r e n and S c h o o l 1 has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r number o f t e a c h e r - r a t e d non-hyperactive  children.  100 This q u e s t i o n was next e x p l o r e d by performing t - t e s t s on the mean v a r i a b l e scores f o r BEHAVE, ACCEPT, and DEMAND as combined f o r each s c h o o l .  The r e s u l t s o f these t e s t s are  presented i n Table 11 along with means and standard  deviations.  TABLE 11 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s School D i f f e r e n c e s  and t Values Comparing  on the V a r i a b l e s  BEHAVE, ACCEPT, and DEMAND  t Value  School  M  SD  df  b 2  7. 42 10. 67  6.34 7.55  90  -2.24*  ACCEPT  1 2  37. 74 43.19  9.66 10. 44  90  -2.60**  DEMAND  1 2  25.50 22.62  7.29 6.09  90  2.03*  Variables BEHAVE  X  b  a  N = 50.  b  N = 42.  * p< ** p <  .05 (two-tailed). .01 (two-tailed).  The  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e shown between s c h o o l s on the  DEMAND v a r i a b l e , t = 2.03, p <  .05, was expected s i n c e the  groups o f grade f o u r and f i v e boys, r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r i n the  analyses o f v a r i a n c e ,  were i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s .  the BEHAVE and ACCEPT v a r i a b l e s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the p <  a l s o show d i f f e r e n c e s  .05 and p <  However, which  .01 l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These are a l s o expected r e s u l t s i n the l i g h t o f the frequency  101  d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t s seen i n Table 10 which p o i n t t o r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the s c h o o l s . next may  The  f i n a l area t o be  explored  provide a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e .  Information obtained.  Table  on the s u b j e c t s ' c u l t u r a l background 12 d i s p l a y s the f r e q u e n c i e s of the  c u l t u r e s as they occur i n both  was  different  schools.  TABLE 12 C u l t u r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Across  Schools  Cultures School  Anglo  Cont. Europe  East Indian  Native Indian  1  42  3  —  —  2  2  26  8  10  1  —  Oriental  To i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s , a chi-square was  test  c a r r i e d out to determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n the  t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r e s between schools reached  dis-  significance.  2  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , _x_  =21,  df = 9, p <; .02,  cate t h a t the c u l t u r a l groups were, i n f a c t , unevenly  indi-  distributed  between s c h o o l s . T h i s chapter r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s obtained from the  analyses  performed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the three i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , the post f a c t o a n a l y s i s , and the a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s which arose.  These r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and  conclusions  will  be drawn i n the f o l l o w i n g and f i n a l chapter of t h i s paper.  102 CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n of Results and The  Conclusions  r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s e x p l o r e d i n the  present study w i l l now i n e a r l i e r chapters.  be d i s c u s s e d i n the same order used Outcomes of the post f a c t o analyses  f i n d i n g s of the a d d i t i o n a l analyses  and  are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n  r e l a t i o n t o the p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ( s ) i n v o l v e d .  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive  Behavior  and  Perceived  Acceptance The markedly high l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p shown between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  and the c h i l d ' s p e r c e i v e d acceptance i s  c o n s i s t e n t with the r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r and, t i c u l a r , the work by Loney e t al.,(1976).  Since t h i s i s a  c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p may p o s i t e d between these two conclude  dynamics.  not  be  However, i t i s safe t o  t h a t as the l e v e l of observed  i n the classroom  i n par-  hyperactive  behavior  i n c r e a s e s , the teacher's behavior i s p e r c e i v e d  by the c h i l d as l e s s a c c e p t i n g . reverse order and s t i l l  T h i s c o u l d be s t a t e d i n the  remain c o n s i s t e n t with the  statistical  findings. The  c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n here does not c e n t e r on  or on attempting  causality  t o e s t a b l i s h which f a c t o r comes f i r s t .  the s t u d i e s reviewed e a r l i e r which i n d i c a t e d a n e g a t i v e ,  But, esca-  l a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between the a d u l t and the h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving c h i l d do f i n d support  i n these p r e s e n t  findings.  In  103 s h o r t , the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n i s supported. Some c a u t i o n needs t o be expressed before d i s c u s s i n g the r e s u l t s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior and the sub-dimensions of acceptance.  The development o f t h i s  instrument as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r d i d show these f a c t o r s t o be non-overlapping.  In s p i t e o f t h i s , i t seems r a t h e r d a r i n g t o  make claims about a complex f a c t o r such as "nurturance" on the r e s u l t s of three statements  only.  based  With t h i s c a u t i o n i n  mind, some f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n i s i n o r d e r . The nurturance  s u b - v a r i a b l e showed the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n  with h y p e r a c t i v e behavior. it  Again, t h i s f i n d i n g i s expected as  concurs with the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g h y p e r a c t i v i t y  and the s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e v i d u a l statements  (see Chapter  II).  which y i e l d a "nurturance" score  The i n d i (see Table 1)  are e s s e n t i a l l y asking f o r the c h i l d ' s experience o f the t e a c h e r i n terms o f comfort, a v a i l a b i l i t y , openness, and c a r i n g . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these q u a l i t i e s c o u l d be seen as more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the p e r s o n a l growth o f a teacher and suggest the heed to emphasize these aspects i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs Although  significant, affiliative  companionship showed  the lowest c o r r e l a t i o n with h y p e r a c t i v e behavior. statements  Two o f the  comprising the score f o r t h i s sub-dimension  have given c h i l d r e n some d i f f i c u l t y  may  (see Table 1) s i n c e they  ask the c h i l d t o make a judgement on the t e a c h e r ' s i n n e r ex;-, perience.  T h i s a b s t r a c t a b i l i t y may have been beyond the  developmental  c a p a b i l i t y o f some c h i l d r e n as was i n d i c a t e d  104 by t h e i r comments during a p o s t - t e s t i n g d e b r i e f i n g ^ t i m e . One  f a c t o r which needs h i g h l i g h t i n g when c o n s i d e r i n g these  r e s u l t s stems from the e a r l i e r i n d i c a t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e review r e g a r d i n g the d i f f i c u l t y h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n e x p e r i ence w i t h many s c h o o l t a s k s . which form the acceptance under each sub-dimension  By examining  the statements  v a r i a b l e , a t l e a s t one o f the three c o u l d c o n t a i n s c h o o l task  connotations  which are very l i k e l y t o be negative f o r the c h i l d who behaves more h y p e r a c t i v e l y than h i s peers.  I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o  separate the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l from the a t t i t u d e toward the t e a c h e r and t h i s most l i k e l y has i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s of p e r c e i v e d acceptance  i n the present  study.  An a d d i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r on the behavior and acceptance  v a r i a b l e outcomes bears mentioning  here as a r e s u l t  of comparing s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s . School 2 proved t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r b e h a v i o r by teachers and r a t i n g s o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y tance by c h i l d r e n than d i d s c h o o l 1.  ratings  l e s s p e r c e i v e d accep-  These r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g  r e s u l t s may be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r a l backgrounds between schools and they would serve t o i n c r e a s e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the measures on r e l a t i o n s h i p s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n with  acceptance.  To summarize, the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h i s r e s e a r c h quest i o n are s t r o n g and c l e a r with suggestions f o r f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s worth e x p l o r i n g .  Hyperactive behavior shows a s t r o n g i n v e r s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p with p e r c e i v e d acceptance, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the p e r c e i v e d nurturance  sub-dimension.  105 The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hyperactive  Behavior  and  Perceived  Demand As the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d , h y p e r a c t i v e behavior strong negative  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the TOT  shows a  DEMAND v a r i a b l e .  Since a low score a f f i r m e d t h a t p e r c e i v e d dimension of behavior,  teacher  i t appears e v i d e n t t h a t as the c h i l d i s observed  to  behave more h y p e r a c t i v e l y so a l s o the teacher i s p e r c e i v e d as more demanding by the c h i l d . i n no way support vior.  suggests  T h i s h i g h l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n  a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p but i t does again  lend  t o the i n t e r a c t i o n a l model of viewing h y p e r a c t i v e behaThe p o s s i b l e inflammatory  e f f e c t s of g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d  demand combined with l e s s p e r c e i v e d acceptance by the hypera c t i v e l y behaving c h i l d are obvious. support  given to suggestions  A l s o obvious  i s the  i n e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h reviewed r e -  garding the i n - b u i l t s t r e s s f a c t o r s f o r the h y p e r a c t i v e i n many s c h o o l s e t t i n g s and t a s k s . needs f o r order, r o u t i n e , and t h i s c h i l d ' s lack of impulse The  The  teacher's and  child  school's  c o n t r o l are o f t e n at odds w i t h control.  sub-dimension of indulgence  was  found t o c o n t r i b u t e  aolarge p a r t towards the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  and the p e r c e i v e d demand v a r i a b l e .  the statements f o r indulgence were presented manner, the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h negative t h a t as observed  i n a reflected  c o r r e l a t i o n shown  h y p e r a c t i v e behavior  p e r c e i v e s the teacher as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Since  i n c r e a s e s , the  suggests  child  less indulgent.  other sub-dimension of power a l s o showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  The negative  106 c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r , suggesting t h a t as behavior i n c r e a s e s the c h i l d p e r c e i v e s the teacher as e x e r t i n g g r e a t e r power over him.  Since both power and indulgence are  such complex i s s u e s which can have such d i f f e r i n g meanings, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , c a u t i o n needs t o be e x e r c i s e d i n drawing too many c o n c l u s i o n s from these based on three statements  results  only.  However, some p o s s i b l e meanings of the more h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d p e r c e i v i n g the teacher as l e s s i n d u l g i n g might i n c l u d e : viewing the t e a c h e r as t r e a t i n g them more s e v e r e l y than  their  more "compliant" peers; a d e s i r e f o r g r e a t e r acceptance  and  approval which may be understood  as synonymous with  indulgence  by a c h i l d ; o r i t may even suggest the c h i l d ' s deeper wish f o r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l from the teacher. statements  By reviewing the i n d i v i d u a l  comprising the power dimension  (see Table 1) i t i s  p o s s i b l e t o suggest t h a t words such as " i n s i s t s " , and  "makes",  " e x a c t l y " c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o a negative view of power by  the c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c h i l d who may be e x p e r i e n c i n g a misuse of power by the other s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s i n h i s l i f e . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , these statements  would tend t o accentuate  i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r understanding of power i n the classroom.  and use  The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the  demand v a r i a b l e noted i n one classroom grouping d u r i n g the a d d i t i o n a l analyses c o u l d be viewed as a r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e . A f i n a l d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t centers around the p o s s i b l e  107 influence of  of  teacher  demand.  distasteful him  to  peer  do  who In  these finds  school  tasks  Very  l i k e l y  a  tasks  as  the  each  tasks  there  day,  easy  is  a  indulgence  Relationship  be  and  and  more  explained as  c h i l d ' s  who  finds  the  perception certain  teacher,  demanding  than  tasks  who  asks  his  enjoyable. positive  behavior  power  a  view  significant  hyperactive may  on  child  also  observed  i n  to  d i f f i c u l t would  relationship  ences  The  and  short,  between This  attitude  and  by  perceived  individual  perceived  Between  Perceived  very  correlation  by  Acceptance  demand.  teacher  d i f f e r -  the  child.  and  Perceived  Demand The  results  suggest  tionship  between  the  This  finding  follow both  acceptance The  increased, However,  It  might  these  children p a r t i a l analyses  the  and  finding  with  a  exploration and w i l l  be  the  operate to  with group of  since  would  was  that  as  rather  study  of  this  i d e n t i f i e d  the  discussed  was  later.  done  to  related  to  perceived would  of  each  demand  suggest  that  of  other.  each  between  hyperactive  children. i n  to  decrease.  relationship  group  r e l a -  appear  related  would  non-hyperactive nature  is  independently  investigate  an  the  no  variables.  be  acceptance  present  is  would  behavior  they  of  there  i t  then  level  i n  that  TOT DEMAND  hyperactive  demand,  interesting  variables and  i f  outcomes  and  surprising  perceived  variables be  two  that  expected  the  two  TOT A C C E P T  rather  logically  other.  these  was  markedly  the  post  A facto  10 8 Although  the g l o b a l r e l a t i o n between acceptance  proved to be n e g l i g i b l e , two  of the demand sub-dimensions  showed s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s with the sub-dimensions.  Indulgence  r e l a t e d t o both nurturance  and demand  was  found t o be:  acceptance  substantially  and p r i n c i p l e d d i s c i p l i n e ; o b v i o u s l y  r e l a t e d t o a f f e c t i v e reward and i n s t r u m e n t a l companionship; s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a f f i l i a t i v e  companionship.  and  A l l of  these are negative c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t as the teacher i s p e r c e i v e d as more a c c e p t i n g on a l l of these  sub-dimensions,  he i s a l s o very l i k e l y t o be p e r c e i v e d as l e s s i n d u l g i n g .  This  f i n d i n g g i v e s i m p l i c i t support t o the n o t i o n t h a t a teacher might c o n t r i b u t e best towards a warm, rewarding,  relaxing  and  open classroom c l i m a t e -- as p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d -- by being f i r m and c o n s i s t e n t . The o t h e r sub-dimension  of demand, achievement demands,  a l s o showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s with reward, a f f i l i a t i v e  companionship, and p r i n c i p l e d  affective discipline  l e a d i n g t o a corresponding p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n w i t h the acceptance  variable.  global  These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t a teacher  need not s a c r i f i c e or compromise achievement standardfein order to promote a p o s i t i v e and rewarding f a c t , what i s suggested  classroom experience.-  In  i s t h a t t h i s type of classroom c l i m a t e  i s r e l a t e d t o . c l e a r , s t r o n g achievement demands.  The  l a c k of  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p seen between achievement demands and the nurturance, as w e l l as the a f f i l i a t i v e  companionship  vari-  ables, c o u l d a l s o suggest t h a t some c h i l d r e n would not p e r c e i v e  109 the achievement demands i n an a c c e p t i n g manner. To summarize,  as g l o b a l v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e i v e d acceptance  and demand are u n r e l a t e d and would appear to operate independ e n t l y i n the classroom.  However, the t e a c h e r who  i s seen as  l e s s i n d u l g e n t can a l s o be p e r c e i v e d as more a c c e p t i n g . the teacher who ment may and  Also,  i s p e r c e i v e d as h i g h l y demanding i n a c h i e v e -  a l s o be viewed by the c h i l d as rewarding, f r i e n d l y ,  fair.  Comparing  Grade Four Boys w i t h Grade F i v e  Boys  As the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e , the assumption of e q u a l outcomes f o r grade four and grade f i v e boys h o l d s true f o r the b e h a v i o r r a t i n g and f o r the o v e r a l l p e r c e i v e d acceptance r a t i n g .  How-  ever, i n c o n s i d e r i n g p e r c e i v e d demand there i s a measurably s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found i n the d i r e c t i o n of l e s s demand as p e r c e i v e d by grade f i v e boys.  This large d i f f e r e n c e i s  composed of grade f i v e teachers being seen as;  exerting far  l e s s power, s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s demanding i n achievement, and more i n d u l g i n g . The a d d i t i o n a l analyses i n v e s t i g a t i n g classroom d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e d one grade f o u r group and one grade f i v e group h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the demand v a r i a b l e .  When these two  groups were removed i n a subsequent a n a l y s i s , no  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s were noted.  In f a c t , removing the one grade  group alone l e d t o a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g .  This suggests t h a t  five indi-  v i d u a l t e a c h e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n one grade f i v e c l a s s and a l s o i n  110 one  grade f o u r c l a s s c o u l d account  f o r much o f the d i f f e r e n c e  noted between grade f o u r and grade f i v e boys on the demand variables. The  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e noted between grade  on the a f f e c t i v e reward sub-dimension  does not f i n d support i n  any o f the o t h e r comparisons of acceptance a d d i t i o n a l analyses.  groupings  v a r i a b l e s o r i n the  T h i s f i n d i n g c o u l d again be p a r t i a l l y  e x p l a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e as the c o r r e s p o n d i n stimulus statements  r e f e r t o f a i r l y s p e c i f i c teacher behaviors  I t seems safe t o conclude t h a t the grade f o u r and grade f i v e boys i n our sample form a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group. The  d i f f e r e n c e s noted are g e n e r a l l y e x p l a i n a b l e through  indi-  v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e i n one or p o s s i b l y two classrooms.  Comparing T e a c h e r - r a t e d H y p e r a c t i v e and T e a c h e r - r a t e d Non-Hyperactive  Boys  These post f a c t o analyses may be viewed as e x t e n s i o n s of the p r e v i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n a l f i n d i n g s .  The r e s u l t s of the c o r r e  l a t i o n s /between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior and p e r c e i v e d demand acceptance, as w e l l as p e r c e i v e d demand, p o i n t e d t o high relationships i n particular directions.  level  The r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n  f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between these two r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d groups a l l o w f o r s t r o n g e r s t a t e ments t o be made a s s o c i a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r outcomes f o r hyperactive  children.  The  s t r o n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two group  Ill i n the s e r i o u s n e s s of the h y p e r a c t i v e behavior as judged the teacher lends some f u r t h e r v a l i d i t y t o the r a t i n g  by  instru-  ment used and t o the soundness of the teacher's o b s e r v a t i o n s . Teacher-rated hyperactive c h i l d r e n perceived s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s acceptance  from teachers than t h e i r non-hyperactive  peers  which lends more d i r e c t support t o the work by Loney e t a l . , 1976, which showed h y p e r a c t i v e boys as s e e i n g g r e a t e r t e a c h e r d i s a p p r o v a l d i r e c t e d towards them.  A l s o supported  i s the  p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e review on acceptance  as  a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of a d u l t behavior. By reviewing the d i f f e r e n c e outcome measures f o r the acceptance accounts  sub-dimensions, the nurturance  f o r the c h i l d ' s experience  v a r i a b l e , which  of comfort,  accessibility  and openness from the teacher, c o n t r i b u t e s most h i g h l y to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e f o r the t o t a l acceptance  vari-.  able.  prin-  A f f e c t i v e reward, a f f i l i a t i v e  companionship, and  c i p l e d d i s c i p l i n e each i n d i c a t e a comparable l e v e l of s t r e n g t h i n t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n of these two  groups.  Again, these  sub-  dimensions are measured by asking f o r the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of  teacher b e h a v i o r i n v o l v i n g dynamics such as:  friendliness,  g e n e r o s i t y with p r a i s e , p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t , showing p l e a s u r e with the c h i l d , and demonstrated f a i r n e s s  (see Table 1).  I f the c h i l d b r i n g s these types of p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o the classroom,  as suggested  Van Kaam (1977),or teacher response  e a r l i e r by Cox  (1972); Toman (1976) and  i f these p e r c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t y p i c a l  as experienced by the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ,  then  112 promoting change r e q u i r e s a m u l t i - f a c e t e d s t r a t e g y i n v o l v i n g c h i l d , teacher, and p a r e n t s .  A l s o apparent i s the  strong  l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d would experience teacher as being angry with him, which may  or may  the  not be t r u e .  T h i s p o s s i b l e mismanagement of anger by the teacher or t h i s probable  experience  of anger by the c h i l d can e a s i l y be  as a c o n t r i b u t o r to h y p e r a c t i v e behavior to t h a t proposed by Hembling, 1978;  seen  i n a fashion s i m i l a r  Miller,  1977;  and  Zrull  et a l . , 1978. On the measured d i f f e r e n c e of p e r c e i v e d demand a h s i g n i f i cant s e p a r a t i o n e x i s t s between h y p e r a c t i v e and children.  non-hyperactive  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s most e v i d e n t on the  sub-dimension  of indulgence which i n d i c a t e s t h a t h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n perc e i v e teacher behavior as much l e s s i n d u l g i n g than do non-hyperactive  peers.  their  A l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i s the d i f f e r e n c e  noted by the i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t i o n of power shown f o r the hyperactive children.  As suggested  i n the e x p l o r a t i o n of  d i f f e r e n c e s as p a r t of the a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , teacher d i f f e r e n c e may  individual  p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n t  come found between these groups on p e r c e i v e d demand. f i n d i n g s do however l e n d support Ackerman e t a l . , 1977; 1978;  c o n t r o l manifested  out-  These  t o e a r l i e r suggestions  F l y n n and Rapoport, 1976;  and Steinkamp, 1980,  impulse  classroom  by  Jacob e t a l . ,  t h a t the t y p i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  by the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d would be  at odds with t y p i c a l teacher goals of order and on-task behavior.  T h i s i n t u r n could be seen to r e s u l t i n h i g h e r  levels  113 of  teacher i n t e r v e n t i o n being d i r e c t e d at these  children,  r e s u l t i n g i n p e r c e p t i o n s of l e s s indulgence being granted them and a l s o g r e a t e r power being e x e r t e d over them.  To  chil-  dren, what i s seen as g r e a t e r indulgence given to t h e i r more compliant peers may  be i n t e r p r e t e d as g r e a t e r acceptance.  The  r e s u l t a n t c o n c l u s i o n of p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment would serve t o exacerbate In  an a l r e a d y n e g a t i v e s p i r a l of i n t e r a c t i o n .  s h o r t , h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e teacher behavior  as l e s s a c c e p t i n g and more demanding-than do t h e i r peers.  non-hyperactive  T h i s might be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n teacher  s t y l e s of r e l a t i n g or t o the c h i l d ' s f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s . p o s s i b i l i t i e s would c o n t r i b u t e t o inflammatory  Both  dynamics between  the teacher and the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d .  Additional The  Analyses  r e s u l t s of the analyses of v a r i a n c e , which compared  classroom groups on the main v a r i a b l e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t the e i g h t d i f f e r e n t groups have s i m i l a r outcomes w i t h r e s p e c t t o the behavior r a t i n g s and the p e r c e i v e d acceptance  ratings.  outcome lends some support t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the measures  employed and adds to the confidence of our f i n d i n g s .  This  The  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n c e noted on the p e r c e i v e d demand v a r i a b l e appears  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o one  grade f i v e group and i s at l e a s t  p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e . e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be found i n c o n s i d e r i n g s i t u a t i o n a l ences f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s .  A further differ-  Worth n o t i n g here i s a  114 d i s c u s s i o n with one grade f i v e teacher d u r i n g the f i e l d p a r t o f the present study.  work  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s was i n v o l v e d  i n numerous s h i f t s as a r e s u l t of t i m e t a b l i n g problems and the t e a c h e r shared p e r s o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s over the way t h i n g s were compared t o the "hoped f o r " s i t u a t i o n .  Although  there i s no  a f f i r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t h a t t h i s i s the d i v e r g e n t group, t h i s d i s c u s s i o n g i v e s some i n s i g h t i n t o p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s which were not accounted The  f o r i n the present  study.  outcome of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s c h o o l s  on a l l three main v a r i a b l e s appears e x p l a i n a b l e by the noted d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of h y p e r a c t i v e and children. accounted  non-hyperactive  D i f f e r e n c e s on the p e r c e i v e d demand v a r i a b l e appear f o r by the two most h i g h l y separated  classroom  groups being i n separate s c h o o l s as w e l l as the h i g h e r  inci-  dence of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n o c c u r r i n g i n the s c h o o l which showed g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d demand.  In a d d i t i o n , the d i s c r e p a n c y  i s accentuated by having a lower number of non-hyperactive c h i l d r e n i n the: s c h o o l showing l e s s p e r c e i v e d demand. d i f f e r e n c e s found on the acceptance  v a r i a b l e may a l s o be ex-  p l a i n e d by the v a r i a n t numbers o f h y p e r a c t i v e and c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d i n each s c h o o l .  School  non-hyperactive  F i n a l l y , the s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e found on the behavior v a r i a b l e between schools i s o b v i o u s l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d i r e c t i o n of occurrence a c t i v e and.non-hyperactive i s the reason(s)  children.  The i s s u e l e f t  of hyperunexplained  f o r the s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t e a c h e r s '  behavior r a t i n g s o f h y p e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r .  115 The  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between schools noted i n the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l groups c o u l d very l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o both the l e v e l of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior and t o the nature o f the t e a c h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Ghildrearing patterns, adult-  c h i l d communication s t y l e s , sex r o l e s , and a t t i t u d e s toward a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s would be some o f the f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o c u l t u r a l background and would a l s o have some b e a r i n g on the teacher-child interaction. be unduly  R e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t study may  i n f l u e n c e d by u n c o n t r o l l e d c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n  the sample.  Other v a r i a t i o n s i n : socio-economic  or f a m i l i a l  p a t t e r n s may a l s o be o p e r a t i v e and are not accounted  Summary, Conclusions and Suggestions  for.  f o r F u r t h e r Research  The major focus of the p r e s e n t study centered on e x p l o r i n g t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n from the c h i l d ' s viewpoint  and, i n  p a r t i c u l a r , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d ' s p e r c e i v e d acceptance  and p e r c e i v e d demand and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s  of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior.  A secondary  t h r u s t sought t o d e t e r -  mine the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n these p e r c e p t i o n s o f teacher behavior between a group o f t e a c h e r - r a t e d h y p e r a c t i v e boys and a group o f t e a c h e r - r a t e d non-hyperactive e n r o l l e d i n r e g u l a r elementary  boys, a l l  classrooms.  An e x t e n s i v e review o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o h y p e r a c t i v i t y promoted the i n t e g r a t i o n o f key f i n d i n g s as a p p l i e d i n the present study.  The Conner's A b b r e v i a t e d Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Teacher Inventory)  was used t o assess the l e v e l o f h y p e r a c t i v e  116 b e h a v i o r f o l l o w i n g the most widely adopted r e c e n t p r a c t i c e o f defining hyperactivity behaviorally. the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f acceptance  Choosing  t o focus on  and demand from the t e a c h e r  was the r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l other s i g n i f i c a n t trends i n p a s t research.  An i n t e r a c t i o n a l model o f viewing h y p e r a c t i v i t y  combined with a focus on i t s s o c i a l aspects as t h i s r e l a t e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n has been s t r o n g l y suggested.  Further  suggestions p o i n t t o a focus On the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d ' s e x p e r i ence w i t h i n a given s i t u a t i o n as being s o r e l y needed.  This  study used a p o r t i o n of the Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( C h i l d r e n ' s Inventory)  t o assess the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f  t e a c h e r s ' classroom behavior along the dimensions o f acceptance and demand. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p e r a c t i v e behavior and p e r c e i v e d acceptance acceptance  i n the d i r e c t i o n o f l e s s  being experienced by the more h y p e r a c t i v e l y behaving  c h i l d with p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n noted i n the nurturance sub-dimension.  The h i g h e r l e v e l s of h y p e r a c t i v e behavior are  a l s o r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o p e r c e p t i o n s of g r e a t e r demand as c o n t r i b u t e d t o most s t r o n g l y by p e r c e i v i n g teacher as l e s s i n d u l g i n g .  behavior  In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t e a c h e r - r a t e d hyper-  a c t i v e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e the teacher as l e s s a c c e p t i n g and more demanding when compared t o t h e i r non-hyperactive was a l s o determined acceptance  peers.  It  by the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h a t p e r c e i v e d  and p e r c e i v e d demand operate independently w i t h i n  the classroom  setting.  117 The appears  i n t e r a c t i o n a l model o f viewing h y p e r a c t i v e behavior f r u i t f u l as i s the e x p l o r a t i o n of the s o c i a l - s i t u a t i o n a l  aspects o f the problem from the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n . The  r e s u l t s o f the present study suggest d i r e c t i o n s f o r  future research.  I t would be h e l p f u l t o determine  the unique-  ness o f each c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f a d u l t behavior as separate from the classroom teacher.  T h i s might be accomplished by  a d m i n i s t e r i n g a "Parent Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " t o the c h i l d r e n or by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Teacher Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t the onset o f a s c h o o l year as w e l l as l a t e r on.  The r e s u l t s o f  these measures would help t o separate out i n d i v i d u a l teacher d i f f e r e n c e s and p a r e n t - r e l a t e d i n f l u e n c e s .  A further  direction  f o r r e s e a r c h c o u l d i n v o l v e comparisons o f c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f r e p o r t s with those of observer r a t i n g s and a l s o teacher of t h e i r own behavior.  ratings  Any d i s c r e p a n c i e s would become q u i c k l y  obvious and these r e s u l t s could then be f o l l o w e d f u r t h e r . F i n a l l y , c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n , socio-economic  f a c t o r s , and f a m i l -  i a l s t y l e s need t o be c o n t r o l l e d i n subsequent r e s e a r c h .  The  uneven c u l t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n between schools very l i k e l y had some i n f l u e n c e i n the present study, and a l l these  factors  would c e r t a i n l y appear t o be r e l a t e d t o behavior and a d u l t child  interaction. Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r classroom management o f h y p e r a c t i v e l y  behaving  c h i l d r e n a r i s e from t h i s study.  I t would appear t h a t  the teacher who d e a l s with h y p e r a c t i v e behavior i n c h i l d r e n might i n c r e a s e h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on ways t o  118  communicate nurturance, c a r i n g and acceptance  t o these  children.  T h i s i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l growth w i t h i n the t e a c h e r , which i s needed.in  the focus of teacher t r a i n i n g programs.  experiences acceptance  from the teacher through  The  the words the  t e a c h e r d i r e c t s a t him or the words spoken about him, through non-verbal teacher b e h a v i o r s .  child  and  also  In other words, v e r b a l  and non-verbal s t r a t e g i e s need t o be developed by the teacher who  d e s i r e s t o a l t e r the d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of h y p e r a c t i v e  children. 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Prevalence of h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l system d e f i n e r s . American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1978,  48,  446-463.  122 Langhorne, J . E., Loney, J . , P a t e r n i t e , C. E., & B e c h t o l d t , P. Childhood h y p e r k i n e s i s : a r e t u r n t o the source. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1976 , 85_, 201-209. Langhorne, J . E., & Loney, J . A f o u r - f o l d model f o r sub-grouping the hyperkinetic/MBD syndrome. C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Human Development, 1979, 9, 153-159. L a u f e r , M., Denhoff, E., & Solomins, G. H y p e r k i n e t i c impulse d i s o r d e r i n c h i l d r e n ' s behavior problems. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1956, 19, 38-49. L e f k o w i t z , M. M., & Tesiny, E. P. Assessment o f c h i l d h o o d depression. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1980, 4 8 , (1), 43-50. Levine, M. D., & O b e r k l a i d , F. H y p e r a c t i v i t y , symptom complex or complex symptom? American J o u r n a l of Diseases o f C h i l d r e n , 1980, 134, 409-414. Loney, J . The i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f h y p e r a c t i v e elementary s c h o o l boys: a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 197.4, £ 4 , 754-762. Loney, J . H y p e r k i n e s i s comes o f age: what do we know and where should we go? American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 19 80, 50, 28-42. Loney, J . , Weissenburger, F. E., Woolson, R. F., & L i c h t y , E. C. Comparing p s y c h o l o g i c a l and pharmocological treatments f o r h y p e r k i n e t i c boys and t h e i r classmates. J o u r n a l of Abnormal C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y , 1979, 7, 133-143. Loney, J . , Whaley-Kahn, M., & Weissenburger, F. E. Responses of h y p e r a c t i v e boys t o a b e h a v i o r a l l y focused s c h o o l a t t i t u d e questionnaire. C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Human Development, 1976, 6, 123-133. Marwit, S. J . , & Stenner, A. J . H y p e r k i n e s i s : delineation of two p a t t e r n s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1972, ^8, 401-406. M i l l e r , J . C. Hyperactive c h i l d r e n : a ten-year study. P e d i a t r i c s F o r The C l i n i c i a n , August 19 77, 217-22 3. Morrison, J . R. Childhood h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n an a d u l t p s y c h i a t r i c population: s o c i a l f a c t o r s . Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychiatry, 1980, 41, (2), 40-43. Neubauer, P. B. Disorders o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . In S. A r i e t i (Ed.), American Handbook o f P s y c h i a t r y (2nd ed.). New York: B a s i c Books, 1974.  123 Ney, P. G. Four types of h y p e r k i n e s i s . Canadian P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 1974, 19, 543-550. Paulauskas, S. L., & Goodman Campbell, S. B. S o c i a l Perspective t a k i n g and teacher r a t i n g s of peer i n t e r a c t i o n i n h y p e r a c t i v e boys. J o u r n a l of Abnormal C h i l d Psychology, 1979 , 1_, 438-493. P h i l i p s , I . Childhood d e p r e s s i o n : interpersonal interactions and d e p r e s s i v e phenomena. American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 1979, 136, 511-515. R a n d a l l , M. F., & Lomas, D. F. Anger d i s a b i l i t y , and demands i n the f a m i l y . American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1978, 4ji, 228-236. Roe, A. & Siefelman, M. A parent-child relations questionnaire. C h i l d Development, 1963, 34, 355-369. Rohner, E. C , C h a i l l e , C., & Rohner. P e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l a c c e p t a n c e - r e j e c t i o n and the development of c h i l d r e n s ' locus of c o n t r o l . The J o u r n a l of Psychology, 19 80, 104, 83-86. Rosenthal, R., & Roscow, R. L. York: John Wiley, 19 75. Routh, Donald activity. Children: New York:  The V o l u n t e e r  K. Developmental and In C. K. Whalen and B. The S o c i a l Ecology of Academic P r e s s , Inc.,  Subject.  New  s o c i a l aspects of hyperHenker (Eds.), Hyperactive I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Treatment. 1980.  S a f e r , D. J . , & A l l e n , R. P. Hyperactive and Management. B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: 1976.  Children: Diagnosis U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s ,  Sandberg, S., R u t t e r , M., & T a y l o r , E. Hyperkinetic disorder i n p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c attenders. Developmental Medicine and C h i l d Neurology, 1978, _20, 279-299. Sandberg, S. T., Wieselberg, M., & S h a f f e r , D. Hyperkinetic and conduct problem c h i l d r e n i n a primary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n : some e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . J o u r n a l of C h i l d Psychology and P s y c h i a t r y , 1980, 21, 293-311. Schaefer, E. S. C h i l d r e n ' s r e p o r t s of p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r : inventory. C h i l d Development, 1965, 36_, 413-424.  an  Siegelman, M. E v a l u a t i o n of Bronfenbrenner's q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r c h i l d r e n concerning p a r e n t a l behavior. C h i l d Development, 1965, 36, 16 3-174  124 Sprague, R., C h r i s t e n s e n , D. E., & Werry, J . S. Experimental psychology and s t i m u l a n t drugs. In C. K. Conners (Ed.), C l i n i c a l Use o f Stimulant Drugs i n C h i l d r e n . The Hague: Exerpta Medica,19 74, 141-164. Steinkamp, M. W. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between environmental d i s t r a c t i o n s and task performance of h y p e r a c t i v e and normal c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1980, 1_3, (4), 40-45. Stephenson, S. P. The h y p e r k i n e t i c c h i l d : assumptions. CM.A. J o u r n a l , 1975 , 113,  some m i s l e a d i n g 764-768.  Stevens-Long, J . The e f f e c t of b e h a v i o r a l context on some aspects of a d u l t d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e and a f f e c t . Child Development, 1973, 4_4, 476-484. Stewart, M. A., Mendelson, W. B., & Johnson, N. E. Hyperactive c h i l d r e n as a d o l e s c e n t s : how they d e s c r i b e themselves. C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Human Development, 1973, 3-11. S w i d l e r , H. J . , & Walson, P. D. Hyperactivity: a current assessment. The J o u r n a l of Family P r a c t i c e , 1979, 601-608. Thomas, E. D. H y p e r a c t i v i t y not a s s o c i a t e d with MBD. of P e d i a t r i c Psychology, 19 76, 1, 42-44.  Journal  Toman, W. Family C o n s t e l l a t i o n . I t s E f f e c t s on P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r : ( T h i r d E d i t i o n . New York: ' S p r i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976. Van Kaam, A. The dynamics of hope and despondency i n the parents of handicapped c h i l d r e n . Humanitas, 1977, 13, 307-316. Varga, J . The h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d . American J o u r n a l of of C h i l d r e n , 19 79, 133, 413-418.  Diseases  Weinberg, W. A., Rutman, J . , S u l l i v a n , L., Penick, E. C., & D i e t z , S. G. Depression i n c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o an educat i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c c e n t e r : d i a g n o s i s and treatment. The J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , December 1973, 1069-1072. Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. The h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d syndrome. Science, 1979, 205, 1348-1353. Weiss, G., Hechtman, L., Perlman, T., Hopkins, J . , & Werner, A. H y p e r a c t i v e s as young a d u l t s . A r c h i v e s of General P s y c h i a t r y , 1979, 36_, 675-681. Weissenburger, F. E., & Loney, J . 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J o u r n a l of Abnormal C h i l d Psychology, 1980, 8, 93-109. Z e n t a l l , S. S., & Barack, R. S. Rating s c a l e s f o r h y p e r a c t i v i t y : concurrent v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and d e c i s i o n s t o l a b e l f o r the Conners and Davids a b b r e v i a t e d s c a l e s . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal C h i l d Psychology, 1979, 1, 179-190. Z r u l l , J . P., McDermott, J . F., & Poznanski, E. H y p e r k i n e t i c syndrome: the r o l e o f d e p r e s s i o n . C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Human Development, 19 70, 1, 33-40.  126  APPENDIX A TEACHER INVENTORY INSTRUCTIONS! L i s t e d below are items concerning c h i l d r e n ' s behavior o r the problems they sometimes have. Bead each item c a r e f u l l y and decide how much you think t h i s c h i l d has been bothered by t h i s problem a t t h i s tlmej NOT AT ALL, JUST A LITTLE, PRETTY MUCH, or VERY MUCH. Indicate your choice by f i l l i n g l n the space (-) l n the appropriate column t o the r i g h t of each Item, ANSWER ALL ITEMS Not Just at a Pretty Very A l l L i t t l e Much Much 0  1. Restless (overactive) 2 . E x c i t a b l e , impulsive 3. Disturbs other c h i l d r e n k. F a l l s t o f i n i s h things he s t a r t s (short a t t e n t i o n span) 5. Fidgeting 6. Inattentive, d l s t r a c t a b l e 7. Demands must be met immediately; f r u s t r a t e d 8. C r i e s 9. Mood changes q u i c k l y 10. Temper outbursts (explosive and unpredictable behavior) How serious a problem do you think t h i s c h i l d has a t t h i s time?  Datat- SexiBoy Girl AgeiYrs.  Code Not Mos.  C u l t u r a l Backgroundt_  1  2  ?  127  APPENDIX B CHILDREN'S INVENTORY  Code Not  INSTRUCTIONS > Read s i l e n t l y each statement below as you hear i t being read out loud. Then check the column which shows how true you think t h i s i s of your teacher. Always F a i r l y Some Hardly Never Often times Ever 1 2 3 ^ .5 1. Comforts me when I have troubles. 2. Says nice things about me t o other people. 3. Teaches me things I want to l e a r n . k. Does fun type a c t i v i t i e s with me. 5. Expects me t o help around the classroom. 6. I n s i s t s that I get permission before I go to the bathroom. 7. I n s i s t s that I make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t l n everything. 8. Is Just and f a i r when punishing me. 9. I can t a l k her/him i n t o most anything. i  10. Is there f o r me when I need him/her. 11. I s very f r i e n d l y with me. 12. Helps and encourages me with my own special interests. 13. I s happy when with me. 1*K T e l l s me what I have to do when my r e g u l a r schoolwork I s completed. 15. Makes me do my work exactly when and how she/he t e l l s me t o . 16. I n s i s t s that I t r y t o get good grades. 17. When I must do something she/he explains why. 18. Lets me o f f easy when I misbehave. * 19. I can t a l k with her/him e a s i l y . 20. Praises me when I have done something good. 21. Helps me with my schoolwork when I don't understand something. 22. Enjoys t a l k i n g with me.  j  J ,  12 8  APPENDIX B CHILDREN'S INVENTORY Always Fairly Some Hardly Never Often times Ever  1  23. Expects me to keep my things in order.  j  2  I  Zh. Insists that I do things her/his way. 25. Demands that I do a good job on my schoolwork. 26. Is reasonable when correcting my mistakes. 27. Finds i t difficult to punish me.  PRACTICE ITEMS A. Animals are more fun ln the summer. B. Doctors treat me ln a kind way. C. Children are kind to me.  /  3  j  ^  5  J  

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