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The relationship between birth order and teaching as a career choice Palmer, Sylvia 1981

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIRTH ORDER AND TEACHING AS A CAREER CHOICE by SYLVIA PALMER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 19 81 <g) S y l v i a Palmer, 19 81 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date January 2 5 , 1982 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT The primary purpose of t h i s study was to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h o r d e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . In p a r t i c u l a r , i f an occupation such as t e a c h i n g i s chosen on the b a s i s of b i r t h order and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , i t would be expected t h a t f i r s t borns, because they are compliant and person o r i e n t e d , would choose a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . The two main hypotheses proposed were: 1) t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h order and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and 2) t h a t f i r s t borns are engaged i n compliant person o r i e n t e d occupations as f r e q u e n t l y as l a t e r borns. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 209 f a m i l i e s . A n a l y s i s of data was accomplished by c h i square to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between s m a l l f a m i l i e s and l a r g e f a m i l i e s . When the r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s were a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was no meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h order and v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . The study suggests t h a t t i g h t e r c o n t r o l s be used i n f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h a t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y r a t h e r than independent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be used to determine v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . i i i T able of Contents Chapter Page I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 The Problem 5 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 L i m i t a t i o n s and Assumptions 8 I I . Review of Rel a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 10 I I I . Methodology 3 3 Research Design 35 Survey Instrument 3 5 Procedure 36 Data A n a l y s i s 37 IV. F i n d i n g s o f Study 48 V. Summary, Conclus i o n s and Recommendations ... 5 7 Summary 58 Conclusions 59 Recommendations 61 References 6 5 Appendix A Survey Instrument 70 Appendix B Chi Square A n a l y s i s 72 Appendix C Chi Square A n a l y s i s f o r Three S i b l i n g F a m i l i e s 74 Appendix D Symbols I n d i c a t i n g S i b l i n g Statuses . 76 Appendix E Family C o n s t e l l a t i o n 79 Appendix F Computer P r i n t o u t o f S t a t i s t i c s .... 91 i i i a leaves 1 and 2 missed in numbering. 3 Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n v e s t i g a t o r s have been, attempting to d i s c e r n r e l a t i o n -ships between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n (order of b i r t h i n a f a m i l y ) and human behavior f o r over a century (e.g. M i t c h e l l , 1866). Studies have been conducted on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e , academic achievement, a t t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , mental i l l n e s s , e t c . The f i n d i n g s have been i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a common b e l i e f among many p r o f e s s i o n a l contemporaries t h a t f a m i l i a l o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i s a h i g h l y important v a r i a b l e . As Toman (.1970) e x p l a i n e d , i t i s only common sense to assume t h a t the way one l e a r n s t o d e a l with one's f i r s t peers, h i s / her s i b l i n g s , w i l l i n f l u e n c e one's f u t u r e behavior. Sampson and Heath (196 5) a l s o r e f l e c t e d the consensual o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the importance of o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n but admitted t h a t there i s an overwhelming a r r a y o f i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . I t was t h e i r recommendation t h a t the b i r t h order v a r i a b l e warranted f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . Sutton-Smith and Rosenberg (1970, p.2) have noted t h a t the combination of b i r t h order and s i b l i n g sex are e s p e c i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y and should be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n any r e s e a r c h design. 5 Although there has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h conducted on b i r t h o r d e r , a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount of r e s e a r c h has been completed on b i r t h order and the cho i c e s i n the world of work. Studi e s by Gandy, 1972; Mehta and Junej a , 1970; Oberlander, F r a u e n f e l d e r and Heath, 1970; Verger, 1968 and F i s c h e r , Wells and Cohen, 1968 have i n d i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . There has been very l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e made to o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the books on v o c a t i o n a l development and v o c a t i o n a l guidance. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The Problem The l i f e s t y l e of the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s / her choice of occu p a t i o n as much as i n other aspects of behavior. The v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s which have been put forward to e x p l a i n the process o f v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e a l l a f f i r m t h i s i n t h e i r own way CSuper, 1957; Roe, 1957). The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l choice and i n p a r t i c u l a r , i f teach e r s e x h i b i t f i r s t born c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a g r e a t e r extent than non te a c h e r s . 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study I t i s assumed t h a t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n f l u e n c e s human b e h a v i o r and t h a t our s i b l i n g s w i l l have an e f f e c t on our p e r s o n a l i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . T h i s study was devel o p e d t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n • p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i r s t borns and t e a c h i n g v e r s u s non t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e s t u d y w i l l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g A d l e r i a n c o n c e p t s . I f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n does have an i n f l u e n c e on o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s would be v a l u a b l e knowledge f o r a counselchor-'±o po s s e s s when d e a l i n g w i t h c l i e n t s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms B i r t h Order P o s i t i o n s To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e r e i s some a m b i g u i t y s u r r o u n d -i n g t h e meaning o f t h e v a r i o u s b i r t h o r d e r p o s i t i o n s ( V e r g e r , 1965). T h i s a m b i g u i t y stems m a i n l y from t h e f a c t t h a t more t h a n one o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n may be i n c l u d e d under any one o f t h e t h r e e b i r t h p o s i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n th e s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s s tudy. 7 O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n , O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e o r d e r o f b i r t h o f t h e s u b j e c t i n h i s / h e r own f a m i l y . F a m i l y S i z e The number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y . F i r s t Born The f i r s t b orn must have a younger s i b l i n g . He o r she i s the f i r s t c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y . An o n l y c h i l d cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a f i r s t born. Second o r M i d d l e Born A second o r m i d d l e c h i l d must have a s i b l i n g o l d e r t h a n h i m / h e r s e l f . The second born may a l s o occupy t h e p o s i t i o n o f a m i d d l e c h i l d . Youngest The o n l y q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a youngest i s t h a t he o r she must have o l d e r s i b l i n g s . Compliance Jobs Jobs t h a t a re concerned w i t h s e r v i n g and a t t e n d i n g t o t h e needs o f o t h e r s . ( T a b l e A) A g g r e s s i v e Jobs Jobs t h a t a f f o r d h i g h r e m u n e r a t i o n and s o c i a l p r e s t i o r s t a t u s . ( T a b l e B) 8 Detached Jobs Jobs t h a t are f r e e of s u p e r v i s i o n and permit c r e a t i v i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . (Table C) L i m i t a t i o n s and Assumptions L i m i t a t i o n s The study i s l i m i t e d to the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h one or more t e a c h e r s . The data w i l l not i n d i c a t e : a) whether f i r s t borns have g r e a t e r or l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y than l a t e r borns. b) " whether second, and t h i r d born c h i l d r e n are i n f l u e n c e d by the f i r s t born to choose or not to choose t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r . c) whether p a r e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s among s i b l i n g s . Assumptions T h i s study assumes the f o l l o w i n g : a) That c a r e e r choices i n d i c a t e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e s . b) That t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e between f i r s t borns and l a t e r borns. 9 c) That one's v o c a t i o n a l choice i s assumed to be a f r e e d e c i s i o n without duress from such e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s as r e s t r i c t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Adequate c o n t r o l must be provided over other v a r i a b l e s i n order to a s c e r t a i n whether the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n v a r i a b l e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . To determine i f there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t would have to be administered to the subjects. 10 Chapter II Review of Related Literature 11 Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e B i r t h o r d e r has long been an area o f study i n psychology. T h i s chapter w i l l review A d l e r i a n concepts of b i r t h order and the gen e r a l f i n d i n g s o f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n r e s e a r c h which w i l l p r o v i d e a proper p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the study o f evidence r e l a t i n g b i r t h order to v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . A d l e r i a n Concepts of O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n A l f r e d A d l e r was one of the e a r l i e s t b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s who c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n as a c r u c i a l determinant of p e r s o n a l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n a l and i n t e r e s t v a r i a b l e s . He suggests (.1959) t h a t one's p e r c e i v e d p o s i t i o n leads to l i f e goals f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t many of h i s ideas are r e l e v a n t to understanding the nature of b i r t h order d i f f e r e n c e s . Beginning i n 1918, A d l e r began s t r e s s i n g what now seems to be apparent: " I t i s a common f a l l a c y to imagine t h a t c h i l d r e n of the same f a m i l y are formed i n the same environment." (Ansbacher and Ansbacher, 1956). T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n environment i s s i g n i f i c a n t because A d l e r b e l i e v e d t h a t each person c r e a t e s h i s own set of c o n v i c t i o n s about h i m / h e r s e l f and about the world beginning d u r i n g 12 the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s , by u s i n g cues from h i m / h e r s e l f and h i s / h e r environment. Acc o r d i n g t o A d l e r i a n t h e o r y , a b a s i c dynamic f o r c e behind a l l human a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s a s t r i v i n g to move from f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y toward f e e l i n g s of adequacy, t o t a l i t y and completeness (Ansbacher and Ansbacher, 195 6, p. 1)1 A l l behavior i s viewed as having s o c i a l meaning. A p l a c e i n s o c i e t y and the search f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e are the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of every i n d i v i d u a l . A c c o r d i n g t o D r e i k u r s (.1953), man's b a s i c need i s to belong and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n h i s f a m i l y p r o v i d e him with the s u b j e c t i v e experiences which enable him to develop a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of re s p o n s e s - - h i s l i f e s t y l e . He has u s u a l l y developed a d e f i n i t e l i f e s t y l e by the time he. i s s i x years o l d , ( D r e i k u r s , 1953,p.43). A d l e r made the f o l l o w i n g analogy to d e s c r i b e how l i f e s t y l e can be a f f e c t e d by one's r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the s i b l i n g s i t u a t i o n . I f we look at a pine t r e e growing i n a v a l l e y , we w i l l n o t i c e t h a t i t grows d i f f e r e n t l y from one on top of a mountain. I t i s the same k i n d of t r e e , a p i n e , but there are two d i s t i n c t s t y l e s of l i f e . I t s s t y l e on top of the mountain i s d i f f e r e n t from i t s s t y l e when growing i n the valley.- (Ansbacher and Ansbacher, 1956, p. 173). 13 T h i s concept o f l i f e s t y l e i s c o n s i d e r e d by some ( H a l l , Lindsey, .19.57) to be A d l e r ' s "crowning achievement" as a p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t . L i f e s t y l e and i t s u n i t y would t o some extent be i n f l u e n c e d but not determined by b i r t h order. A d l e r b e l i e v e d , f o r example, t h a t the world would look very d i f f e r e n t t o a c h i l d who had always shared h i s parents with other s i b l i n g s than t o one who had h i s parents a l l to h i m s e l f f o r a. time. The world would look d i f f e r e n t to the o l d e s t who would always have :the experience of being "dethroned", while the youngest would never experience t h i s dethronement. Not every c h i l d would i n t e r p r e t these s i t u a t i o n s i n d e n t i c a l l y , but th e r e e x i s t s a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r some s i m i l a r i t y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r i v i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l from a p o s i t i o n p e r c e i v e d as i n f e r i o r t o one p e r c e i v e d as s u p e r i o r ; A d l e r d e s c r i b e s t h i s s t r i v i n g as the dynamic f o r c e of a person's l i f e . In h i s attempts t o understand a person, A d l e r a t t a c h e d great' s i g n i f i c a n c e to b i r t h order. Since l i f e s t y l e and with i t the person's goals develop d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , the s i b l i n g s i t u a t i o n i s an important key to the i n d i v i d u a l . The impact o f the s i b l i n g s i t u a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 14 s i n c e c h i l d r e n "have a strong-tendency to d i v i d e e v e r y t h i n g i n t o o p p o s i t e s " CAdler, 192 9). A d l e r f e l t t h a t such d i c h o t o m i z i n g was found e s p e c i a l l y among c h i l d r e n with s e r i o u s i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s and i n a d u l t s he found t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pronounced i n n e u r o t i c s . The second and l a t e r c h i l d r e n always have a pacemaker, someone ahead of them as they are growing and d e v e l o p i n g a l i f e s t y l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s ' r e l a t e d to b i r t h order are such t h a t we are much more l i k e l y to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s between the o l d e s t c h i l d r e n of two d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s than between the f i r s t and second c h i l d o f the same f a m i l y . ( D r e i k u r s , 1953). A d l e r (1959) noted t h a t i t i s f r e q u e n t l y p o s s i b l e to catalogue human beings a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s i s due to the s i t u a t i o n i n which the i n d i v i d u a l grows up. For example, the e l d e s t c h i l d i s u s u a l l y the one who i s a c c r e d i t e d with enough power and common sense to be the h e l p e r of h i s / h e r parents. Since he/she i s e n t r u s t e d with many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , he/she has a h i g h need f o r power and a u t h o r i t y . He or she i s d e s c r i b e d as c o n s e r v a t i v e and having the t r a i t s of a guardian of law and order. The second c h i l d tends to be 15 l e s s concerned with a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a b s o l u t e power. He/she i s u s u a l l y a c t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e . The most severe s i b l i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i s o f t e n found between the f i r s t and second born c h i l d r e n ( D r e i k u r s , 1953). The o l d e s t c h i l d i s accustomed to the e x c l u s i v e a t t e n t i o n of h i s / h e r parents. Consequently, he/she tends to be threatened by the presence o f another c h i l d . As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n there i s a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g c h a r a c t e r between the f i r s t two c h i l d r e n . I f one achieves s u p e r i o r i t y i n one a c t i v i t y , the other w i l l g e n e r a l l y s t r i v e f o r s u p e r i o r i t y i n another a c t i v i t y . I f a t h i r d c h i l d i s born, i t has been observed t h a t a system of s i b l i n g a l l i a n c e and compe-t i t i o n i s formed ( D r e i k u r s , 1953, p. 24-25). Adjacent s i b l i n g s w i l l be h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e and d i f f e r e n t . However, the f i r s t and t h i r d c h i l d w i l l o f t e n form an a l l i a n c e . A d l e r i a n theory has i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s not the order of b i r t h i n i t s e l f t h a t i s important. Various combinations are p o s s i b l e due to such f a c t o r s as age s p a c i n g , f a m i l y s i z e and sex of s i b l i n g s (Ansbacher and Ansbacher, 1956, p. 376). Whenever A d l e r s t u d i e d a d u l t s , he found 16 i m p r e s s i o n s l e f t on them from t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and l a s t i n g f o r e v e r . He f e l t t h a t the p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y l e f t an i n d e l i b l e stamp upon t h e s t y l e o f l i f e . O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n R e s e a r c h Other o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s A d l e r ' s t h e o r y and c o n c e p t s . However, K a r l K o n i g (1963) f e l t t h a t A d l e r was t o o D a r w i n i a n . L i f e t o him was s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t , a c o n t i n u o u s b a t t l e s t a r t i n g i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n t h e f a m i l y s h e l t e r . Konig hypothe-s i z e d t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l i s d e s t i n e d b e f o r e b i r t h t o f u l f i l l a r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Each c h i l d has a l i f e t a s k , and h i s p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y H i e r a r c h y g i v e s him t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n h i s p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and conform t o t h e assignment of d e s t i n y . H a r r i s (1964) l i k e A d l e r , h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p e r s o n -a l i t y f a c t o r s a r e c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o o r d e r o f b i r t h . H a r r i s uses examples of famous i n d i v i d u a l s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l i t y rfcies. Sampson (.1967 ) p r o v i d e d an a n a l y t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t u d i e s which had been conducted. He was q u i t e c r i t i c a l o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems e x i s t e n t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f ""studies. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e o f t h i s 17 i n c o n s i s t e n c y , he o f f e r e d c e r t a i n t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . For example, he i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t born compared to the l a t e r born i s : 1). more l i k e l y to seek company of o t h e r s when he/she i s anxious, 2) more l i k e l y t o a t t a i n a p o s i t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l eminence, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n more s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s , 3) more l i k e l y t o experience i n c o n s i s t e n t p a r e n t a l treatment, 4) l e s s l i k e l y t o express o v e r t l y a g g r e s s i v e f e e l i n g s , 5) l e s s l i k e l y to be a s o c i a b l e , empathic and sympathetic i n d i v i d u a l , and 6) more l i k e l y t o experience a c o n f l i c t i n regard to dependence versus independence. Sampson suggested t h a t an i n t e r a c t i o n occurs between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and s u b j e c t sex wi t h the f i r s t born male and the second born female e x h i b i t i n g more conforming behaviour than the second born male and the f i r s t born female. Mehta (.196 9) found t h a t the f i r s t born c h i l d i s delegated r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s u p e r v i s i n g l a t e r born c h i l d -ren. Consequently, he or she may l e a r n to assume a d i r e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e at a young age. The f i r s t born c h i l d has a c l o s e r and more i n t e n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with parents and t h e r e f o r e i s more exposed t o a d u l t v a l u e s of order and c o n t r o l . However, the l a t e r born c h i l d u s u a l l y has l e s s 18 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a more r e l a x e d r e l a t i o n s h i p with the parents and the o p p o r t u n i t y to seek more v a r i e d r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . The l a t e r born i n d i v i d u a l s may be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o develop more s o c i a b l e and l i k e a b l e q u a l i t i e s . K. Kammeyer (1967) noted i n h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t t h e r e has been no systematic c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e r p r e t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l connections between b i r t h o r d e r and i t s c o r r e l a t e s . He noted t h a t d e s p i t e t h i s l a c k of system, almost a l l r e s e a r c h e r s were e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n a framework t h a t c o u l d be c a l l e d i n t e r a c t i o n . He assembled a model t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s the most v i a b l e and s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t s p a r t of Kammeyer's model tog e t h e r with r e f e r e n c e t o r e s e a r c h done by B i e g l e s e n (1976) which support Kammeyer's t h i n k i n g . The column on the l e f t p resents Kammeyer's model, while the column on the r i g h t p r e s e n t s the r e s e a r c h support ( B i e g l e s o n , 1976, pp 11-16). F i r s t Born C h i l d ' s S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Experience A. I n t e r a c t i o n Between F i r s t Born C h i l d and Parent The b i r t h and e x i s t e n c e o f the f i r s t born i n the f a m i l y i s c o n s i d e r e d a p r o f o u n d l y s i g n i f i c a n t event by the p a r e n t s . They a t t a c h great importance to the b i r t h and b e i n g of the f i r s t born c h i l d . 1. The f i r s t born c h i l d i s more l i k e l y to be planned and wanted.(Sears, Maccoby and L e v i n , 1967). More time and energy can be spent i n the process o f s o c i a l i z i n g the f i r s t born c h i l d . 2. F i r s t s speak e a r l i e r and more p r e c i s e l y . F i r s t s r e c e i v e more v e r b a l s t i m u l a t i o n . (Koch, 1954). B. I n t e r a c t i o n Between F i r s t Born C h i l d r e n and L a t e r Born S i b l i n g s The f i r s t born c h i l d w i l l p l a y a s u p e r - o r d i n a t e , p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e r o l e r e l a t i v e to the l a t e r born s i b l i n g . 1. F i r s t s b e i n g parent s u r r o g a t e s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n l a r g e f a m i l i e s . F i r s t borns are l e s s comfortable with peers, p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g l e s s e xperience i n t e r a c t i n g as an equal. (Bossard, 1956). C. I n t e r a c t i o n Between F i r s t Born C h i l d , Parent and L a t e r Born S i b l i n g s 1. The f i r s t born c h i l d i s a s s i g n e d a p o s i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by the parent by having him p l a y the foreman r o l e r e l a t i v e to younger s i b l i n g s . 1. F i r s t borns a c t as "foreman", e s p e c i a l l y i n l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . (Bossard, 1956). 2. The f i r s t born c h i l d i s d i s p l a c e d by the younger s i b l i n g as the main o b j e c t o f p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n (the d e t h r o n i n g p r o c e s s ) . 2. F i r s t s are more l i k e l y t o f e e l t h a t parents favour a s i b l i n g . Only the youngest i s most l i k e l y to have a pet name. (Koch, 19 56). r I I . L a t e r Born C h i l d ' s S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Experiences A. I n t e r a c t i o n Between L a t e r Born C h i l d and Parent 1. There i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d to the b i r t h and b e i n g of the l a t e r born c h i l d than there was f o r the f i r s t born c h i l d . 1. The f i r s t born i s more l i k e l y to be planned f o r and wanted. (Bossard, 1956). 2. The parents have more experi e n c e r e g a r d i n g c h i l d -r e a r i n g w i t h t h e i r l a t e r born c h i l d r e n . 2. Parents r e p o r t b e i n g more r e l a x e d with t h e i r l a t e r borns. (McArthur, 19 56). B. I n t e r a c t i o n Between L a t e r Born C h i l d and F i r s t Born (or Older) S i b l i n g 1. The f i r s t born c h i l d w i l l make l i f e d i f f i c u l t f o r the l a t e r born c h i l d and thus be a t h r e a t and source o f a n x i e t y f o r the younger c h i l d . 1. O l d e r c h i l d i s o f t e n h o s t i l e t o the younger. (McArthur, 19 56). H 2. By o b s e r v i n g the f i r s t born c h i l d , (e.g. e n t e r i n g s c h o o l ) , many s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be experienced by the l a t e r born c h i l d . 2. F i r s t s , females e s p e c i a l l y , tend to a f f i l i a t e more when anxious, p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g l e s s v i c a r i o u s e xperience o f s t r e s s . (Schachter, 1964). 3. Much of the l a t e r born c h i l d ' s s o c i a l behaviour w i l l be l e a r n e d from peer models. 3. When pre s c h o o l c h i l d r e n have a s i b l i n g o f the same sex, they d i s p l a y more sex s t e r e o t y p e d behaviour. (Rosenberg & Sutton-Smith, 1954). C. I n t e r a c t i o n Between L a t e r Born C h i l d , Parent and F i r s t Born S i b l i n g 1. Norms w i l l be l e a r n e d by the l a t e r born c h i l d through parent and o l d e r s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . 1. Parents tend t o d i r e c t commentaries o r performance to the o l d e s t . (Koch, 1953). rO ro 2. The l a t e r born s i b l i n g w i l l have to compete wi t h an o l d e r s i b l i n g (who i s s u p e r i o r i n many ways) f o r p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n . 2. Parents tend to p i t c h t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n to the l e v e l o f the o l d e s t . (Koch, 19 54). CO 24 The most comprehensive attempt to pr o v i d e a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n of b i r t h order r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s a book, The S i b l i n g , by B r i a n Sutton-Smith and B. G. Rosenberg (1970). They propose new areas of emphasis f o r s t u d i e s of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In p a r t i c u l a r they note t h a t without c a r e f u l m ethodological c o n t r o l s , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o know whether apparent d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g s are r e a l l y due to s i b l i n g s t a t u s or are a c t u a l l y a product o f f a m i l y s i z e or socioeconomic s t a t u s or some oth e r s i b l i n g v a r i a b l e s (p. 13). O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n and V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s Although the nature of b i r t h order r e s e a r c h has been somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y , some p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between f i r s t born and l a t e r born have been e s t a b l i s h e d (Sutton-Smith and Rosenberg, 1970; F o r e r , 1970). S e v e r a l o f the rec e n t s t u d i e s have r e l e v a n c e to v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . For example, Sutton-Smith and Rosenberg (1970) found t h a t f i r s t borns are more a c h i e v i n g , a f f i l i a t i v e and conforming and p r e f e r a c t i v i t i e s which i n v o l v e the d i r e c t i o n , c o n t r o l and s u p e r v i s i o n of o t h e r s . They conducted a study with c e r t a i n Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e s and observed t r e n d s 25 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f i r s t borns p r e f e r c u l t u r a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations (e.g. p s y c h o l o g i s t , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) and t h a t f i r s t born females, i n p a r t i c u l a r , p r e f e r academic and par e n t - s u r r o g a t e r o l e s such as t e a c h i n g . In a d d i t i o n , they noted i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t among male dyads (M1M and MM2), the f i r s t b o r n male c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the second born male by h i s i n t e r e s t i n occupations i n v o l v e d with a s t r a t e g i c success s t y l e (outcomes determined through r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s ) and the l a t t e r c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by h i s i n t e r e s t i n occ u p a t i o n s i n v o l v e d with a p h y s i c a l power success s t y l e ( a p p l i c a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l power t o persons, animals and o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g s ) such a d e n t i s t o r v e t e r i n a r i a n . The t r e n d was r e v e r s e d among female dyads. (See Appendix D) Th i s study was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by F i s c h e r (1962) who conducted a study with student nurses i n a p e d i a t r i c h o s p i t a l . Her r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r tendency f o r student nurses to be o l d e s t c h i l d r e n i f they came from a f a m i l y s i z e of f o u r or l a r g e r . T h i s was f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a study i n v o l v i n g an expressed i n t e r e s t i n becoming a c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r ( F i s c h e r , Wells and Cohen, 1968). Among 2 95 female s e n i o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g 26 two c o l l e g e s and two u n i v e r s i t i e s , 70% of the f i r s t borns as compared t o 43% of the l a t e r borns expressed a fa v o u r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g as a ca r e e r . F i r s t born and l a t e r born males showed about the same degree of i n t e r e s t . They i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s as r e s u l t i n g from c u l t u r a l - f a m i l i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , with f i r s t born women perhaps l e a r n i n g r o l e p a t t e r n s c o n s i s t e n t with a s p i r i n g to i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a t u s s o c i e t a l p o s i t i o n s . However, t h i s was c o n t r a d i c t e d i n a study by Mehta (.196 9) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t among hig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , l a t e r born females expressed a p r e f e r -ence f o r occupations i n v o l v i n g a parent surrogate r o l e more f r e q u e n t l y than f i r s t borns. Verger (1965) suggests t h a t b i r t h order i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s to the development of i n t e r e s t s because of a p a t t e r n of s i b l i n g a l l i a n c e s and r i v a l r i e s by p i t t i n g adjacent s i b l i n g s a g a i n s t each o t h e r , and to a l e s s e r extent, making a l l i e s of a l t e r n a t e s i b l i n g s . The p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r e s t s i m i l a r i t i e s occur because the a l l i e s tend to be l i k e each o t h e r , the competitors tend to be d i f f e r e n t . Using the Kuder Pre f e r e n c e Record - V o c a t i o n a l , h i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e 27 i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (_. 01 l e v e l ) g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r e s t s between f i r s t and second born c h i l d r e n t h a n between f i r s t and t h i r d born c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e same f a m i l y . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i r t h o r d e r i s r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t i n such a way t h a t f i r s t and t h i r d born a r e more s i m i l a r t h a n f i r s t and second born. F o r e r (1969) s t a t e s t h a t o l d e s t c h i l d r e n a v o i d c o n f l i c t w i t h s u p e r i o r s by e n t e r i n g i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s where t h e y work i n d e p e n d e n t l y . She a l s o found t h e y demand b o t h obedience and achievement from o t h e r s . D e l e g a t e d a dominant r o l e by t h e i r p a r e n t s , f i r s t borns have a l o n g e x p e r i e n c e o f s u p e r i o r i t y o v er s i b l i n g s . C a t t e l l (.1947) showed f i r s t borns t o be o v e r -r e p r e s e n t e d among eminent American s c i e n t i s t s . F i s c h e r , W e l l s and Cohen (.1968 ), have r e p o r t e d f i r s t borns t o be o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Toman (197 0) found f i r s t borns t o be overrepres:ented:'in h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d s u b j e c t s . Koch (1956) r e p o r t e d them t o be more f a c i l e i n language development. S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg (197 0) found t h a t a f i r s t born's p e r c e p t i o n o f the f a m i l y i s one where power i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h o s e o f h i g h e r s t a t u s and who 28 are t h e n u r t u r e r s . A p r e d i c t i o n s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t h a t when a d u l t e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n terms o f t h e i r s u r r o g a t e c h a r a c t e r , f i r s t borns s h o u l d be found o c c u p y i n g r o l e s f o r wh i c h t h e y have been p r e p a r e d by t h e i r c h i l d -hood e x p e r i e n c e s o f n u r t u r a n c e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s u r r o g a -t i o n , and c o m p l i a n c e . I n p a r t i c u l a r f i r s t borns s h o u l d be found i n t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s and o t h e r " s i m i l a r " o c c u p a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Roe (.1956), Dodge has made two s t u d i e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r . I n both he used a p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y . He found t h a t t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s as: a) more a t ease s o c i a l l y b) more w i l l i n g t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c) l e s s s u b j e c t t o f e a r s and w o r r i e s d) more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s e) s l o w e r i n making d e c i s i o n s Morey s t u d i e d S t r o n g s c o r e s o f 340 el e m e n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l women t e a c h e r s and 34 0 u n i v e r s i t y women w i t h p r a c t i c e - t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . He found c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d -ence among a l l subgroups; however, t h e el e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r tended t o be more f e m i n i n e , more a r t i s t i c and more i n t e r e s t e d i n home and s o c i a l a f f a i r s ; t h e j u n i o r h i g h 29 s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were p r i m a r i l y e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z e r s and i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o g r e s s and t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s showed g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l and a b s t r a c t i n t e r e s t s and more independence. The second c h i l d a c c o r d i n g t o A d l e r (1969) i s c o m p e t i t i v e , a t t e m p t i n g t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t u s . They compete f o r a t t e n t i o n w i t h someone who i s i n some ways s u p e r i o r and who has been a sou r c e of a n x i e t y . They p e r f o r m b e t t e r under p r e s s u r e as i n c o m p e t i t i o n and s t a t u s . The second born has a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r b e i n g a c t i v e i n groups. A s t u d y by Cobb (1966) showed t h a t a second born may make h i s o r ''• x> her way i n o c c u p a t i o n s where p e r s o n a l charm, a b i l i t y t o a r b i t r a t e and m a n i p u l a t e a r e i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . P o l i t i c s , s t a t e s m a n s h i p and s a l e s m a n s h i p are some t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n which m i d d l e c h i l d r e n might be found i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s t a t u s . F o r e r (1969) found second borns t o be M a c h i a v e l l i a n , g r e g a r i o u s and f r i e n d l y . The S t r o n g O c c u p a t i o n a l I n v e n t o r y r e v e a l e d t h a t second borns p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s o f b u y i n g and s e l l i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t then,'.: t h a t second c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r 30 p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , would choose a g g r e s s i v e j o b c a t e g o r i e s . Assuming t h a t f i r s t borns are more c o n s e r v a t i v e and c o n f o r m i n g than l a t e r b o r n s , Eisenmman C19 614 ) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d a l s o be l e s s o r i g i n a l and l e s s a r t i s t i c a l l y c r e a t i v e t h a n l a t e r b o r ns. He found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on a c r e a t i v i t y d e s i g n t e s t i n f a v o r o f l a t e r b o r ns. He found t h a t l a t e r b o r n s , i n t e r e s t e d i n r o l e p l a y , have l e d i n t o drama and a c t i n g because t h e y p r e f e r independence and t o l e r a t e i s o l a t i o n . L a t e r borns a r e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o d e v e l o p more s o c i a b l e and l i k e a b l e q u a l i t i e s . M o d e l l i n g o t h e r s i b l i n g s have p e r m i t t e d them a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s e s o r r o l e s a t t h e i r command.. S u t t o n -Smith and Rosenberg (1970) r e p o r t e d t e n t a t i v e s u pport t h a t l a t e r borns have a g r e a t e r t a l e n t and i n t e r e s t i n r e g a r d t o d r a m a t i c and c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . They a r e more s o c i a l l y f l e x i b l e . I n d i v i d u a l i t y and i d i o s y n c r a c y r a t h e r t h a n c o n f o r m i t y a r e c o n f i r m e d t r a i t s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t l a t e r borns s h o u l d p r e f e r more detached o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n t h e f i r s t o r second borns. 31 Hypotheses The g e n e r a l n u l l h y p o t h e s i s upon wh i c h t h i s s t u d y i s based i s : 1. That t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n th e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h o r d e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The s p e c i f i c n u l l hypotheses a r e : 2. That f i r s t borns are engaged i n c o m p l i a n t p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as l a t e r borns. 3. That t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r s and non t e a c h e r s e x h i b i t i n g ' f i r s t born c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4. That second and m i d d l e born c h i l d r e n a r e engaged i n a g g r e s s i v e , p r e s t i g e - o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as f i r s t b orn o r youngest. 5. That t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between youngest and h i s / h e r o l d e r s i b l i n g s i n c h o o s i n g d e t a c h e d , c r e a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s . 32 Previous r e s e a r c h on o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t between the two v a r i a b l e s . The purpose of t h i s study was to f u r t h e r c o nfirm t h i s o r d i s p r o v e the theory. I f f i r s t borns tend t o choose occupations which r e q u i r e nurturance, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and compliance, i t would f o l l o w t h a t f i r s t borns should be found i n t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y than second or l a t e r born. I f a youngest c h i l d possesses the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s d e s c r i b e d by Pepper Cp. 38) and E c h s t e i n (Appendix E) i t would f o l l o w t h a t youngest would p r e f e r occupations t h a t are more detached, independent and c r e a t i v e . 33 Chapter I I I Methodology 34 Methodology Three e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , t h r e e j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s and f o u r s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d . Two hundred and n i n e t e a c h e r s comprised t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a l l the t e a c h e r s were asked t o f i l l i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y . ' Only t h o s e w i t h t h r e e s i b l i n g s i n t h e i r f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n were used t o t e s t the s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s . V e r g e r ' s (1965) s a m p l i n g o f comparing s i b l i n g s w i t h i n one f a m i l y was chosen, r a t h e r t h a n groups o f f i r s t , second and t h i r d born t h a t were u n r e l a t e d . V e r g e r ' s approach was d e r i v e d from A d l e r i a n p r i n c i p l e s . Adequate c o n t r o l s had t o be p r o v i d e d (.families o f t h r e e s i b l i n g s ) o v e r o t h e r v a r i a b l e s t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t b i r t h o r d e r was t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . W e l l e r , S c h l o m i and Zimmont (19 76) f e l t numbers s h o u l d be k e p t c o n s t a n t i n t h e i r s t u d y . Large f a m i l i e s e n t a i l f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n l a t e r borns and one o f the s t u d y ' s prime concern was t e a c h e r s and f i r s t b o r n . A c h i square a n a l y s i s f o r t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n was used t o t e s t t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s a n a l y s i s was a l s o used t o de t e r m i n e any d i f f e r e n c e s between s m a l l f a m i l i e s and l a r g e f a m i l i e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . 35 Research Design T h i s r e s e a r c h study attempts to a s c e r t a i n whether or not t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t congruency between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n was chosen as the independent v a r i a b l e s i n c e i t 'can be assumed th a t i f th e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h order and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , the data was i n f l u e n c e d by the former r a t h e r than the l a t t e r . The other independent v a r i a b l e s were the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : compliance type j o b s , a g g r e s s i v e type jobs and detached type jobs. The s u b j e c t s were admi n i s t e r e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A) and the occupations were compared t o Moser's m o d i f i c a t i o n of the Roe C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Tables 1, 2 , 3). Survey Instrument The survey instrument was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A) r e g a r d i n g o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and present o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of a l l the s i b l i n g s i n the f a m i l y and to i n d i c a t e the gender of each member. The s u b j e c t s were asked t o w r i t e down the present o c c u p a t i o n of each of 36 the s i b l i n g s . I f a member of t h e ' f a m i l y was a housewife, the s u b j e c t was to i n d i c a t e the pr e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n of tha t member. The survey instrument was i n t e n t i o n a l l y b r i e f so t h a t the s u b j e c t s c o u l d respond and r e t u r n them the same day. Procedure The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s were contacted two weeks p r i o r to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and were given an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p r o j e c t . They expressed i n t e r e s t i n having the s t a f f members respond but gave no guarantees the members would a l l p a r t i c i p a t e . I t was decided t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n e i g h t of the .ten?, schools would be answered p r i o r t o a s t a f f meeting so t h a t a l l teachers present c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s would a l s o ensure maximum r e t u r n . The study was e x p l a i n e d to the s u b j e c t s and s e v e r a l expressed i n t e r e s t i n the f i n d i n g s . The s u b j e c t s were informed the r e s u l t s would be made a v a i l a b l e to them as soon as the study was completed. The average time r e q u i r e d t o f i l l out the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was thr e e minutes and p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y . Twenty three s u b j e c t s chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the survey. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o l l e c t e d at the c o n c l u s i o n of the s t a f f meeting. 37 In the remaining two s c h o o l s , the s u b j e c t s were questioned p e r s o n a l l y . T h i s was to a n t i c i p a t e problems and to r e a l i z e the experience of p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g techniques. A l l s u b j e c t s questioned v o l u n t e e r e d the information.. Data A n a l y s i s The c h i square t e s t was a p p l i e d with the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f i v e percent. The data was analyzed f o r each of the t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : compliant type j o b s , a g g r e s s i v e type jobs and detached type j o b s . Percentages were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each o c c u p a t i o n a l category. The above procedure was f o l l o w e d s i n c e i t was reasonable to assume t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of choosing any f i g u r e f o r a given category would be the same f o r a l l o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s i f there were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s . Chi square a n a l y s i s (Appendix B) was used f o r the e n t i r e sample to determine i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between sma l l f a m i l i e s of one, two or t h r e e s i b l i n g s and l a r g e r ones of f o u r , f i v e , ' s i x or seven s i b l i n g s . A 3/3 contingency t a b l e (Appendix C) was used to show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between o r d i n a l 38 p o s i t i o n and c a r e e r c h o i c e s f o r t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s . The A d l e r i a n c o n c e p t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i r s t , m i d d l e , youngest and o n l y b o r n , used i n t h e study were t a k e n from F. Pepper,"The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a m i l y C o n s t e l l a t i o n " (pp. 75-79). The F i r s t C h i l d 1. I s an o n l y c h i l d f o r a p e r i o d o f time and has t h e r e f o r e been t h e c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t . 2. Has t o be t h e f i r s t - - i n t h e sense o f g a i n i n g and h o l d i n g s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h e n e x t c h i l d r e n . 3. Becomes a dethroned c h i l d w i t h t h e b i r t h o f t h e second c h i l d . (Sometimes f e e l s u n l o v e d and n e g l e c t e d . ) He u s u a l l y s t r i v e s t o keep o r r e g a i n h i s mother's a t t e n t i o n by p o s i t i v e deeds; ••/if 1.! t'KirS3 f a i l s , he q u i t e o f t e n s w i t c h e s t o t h e u s e l e s s s i d e and may become obnoxious. I f h i s mother f i g h t s back, he may become a problem c h i l d . 4. C o u l d d e v e l o p a good, competent b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n o r become e x t r e m e l y d i s c o u r a g e d . 5. Sometimes s t r i v e s t o p r o t e c t and h e l p o t h e r s i n h i s s t r u g g l e t o keep t h e upper hand. 6. Sometimes de a t h - w i s h e s o r e x p r e s s i o n s o f h a t e a r e d i r e c t e d toward t h e second c h i l d . 39 7. I f the f i r s t c h i l d i s a boy f o l l o w e d by a s i s t e r w i t h i n a short time; a) P e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t may become a p a t t e r n of sexual d i s c o r d . b) G i r l s develop f a s t e r than boys d u r i n g the age of one to seventeen and press c l o s e l y on the h e e l s of the f i r s t c h i l d . c) The boy u s u a l l y t r i e s to a s s e r t h i m s e l f because of s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r boys and may take advantage of h i s masculine r o l e . d) The g i r l may develop a f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y and pushes on. The Middle C h i l d of Three The middle c h i l d of t h r e e has an u n c e r t a i n p l a c e i n the f a m i l y group--and:may f e e l n e g l e c t e d . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t he has not the p r i v i l e g e s of the youngest nor the r i g h t s of the o l d e r c h i l d . 1. May f e e l unloved and abused. 2. Becomes a "squeezed c h i l d " whenever a t h i r d c h i l d i s born. 3. May h o l d the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t people are u n f a i r to him. 4. May be unable to f i n d h i s p l a c e i n the group. 40 5. May become e x t r e m e l y d i s c o u r a g e d - - a n d more prone t o become a "problem c h i l d . " M i d d l e C h i l d r e n - - L a r g e F a m i l y C h i l d r e n who come i n t h e m i d d l e o f a f a m i l y u s u a l l y d e v elop a more s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r , and t h e c o n f l i c t between the c h i l d r e n t e n d s t o be l e s s f i e r c e . I n o t h e r words, the l a r g e r t h e f a m i l y , u s u a l l y t h e l e s s c o n f l i c t and s t r i f e among t h e c h i l d r e n . The Youngest C h i l d The youngest c h i l d has q u i t e a p e c u l i a r p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n and may become a "speeder" because he i s o u t d i s t a n c e d and may become t h e most s u c c e s s f u l ; o r he may become d i s c o u r a g e d and have i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s . 1. I s o f t e n l i k e an o n l y c h i l d . 2. U s u a l l y has t h i n g s done f o r h i m - - d e c i s i o n s made and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t a k e n . 3. U s u a l l y i s s p o i l e d by t h e f a m i l y . 4. F i n d s r h i m s e l f i n an embarassing p o s i t i o n - - i s u s u a l l y t h e s m a l l e s t , t h e weakest and above a l l - - n o t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . 41 5. May become t h e "boss" i n t h e f a m i l y . 6. E i t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x c e l l h i s b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s o r evades t h e d i r e c t s t r u g g l e f o r s u p e r i o r i t y . The Second C h i l d The second c h i l d has somewhat o f an u n c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n i n l i f e and u s u a l l y t a k e s a steam-engine a t t i t u d e , t r y i n g t o c a t c h up w i t h the c h i l d i n f r o n t and f e e l s as though he i s under." c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . 1. Never has h i s p a r e n t s u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n . 2. Always has i n f r o n t o f him a n o t h e r c h i l d who i s more advanced. 3. F e e l s t h a t t h e f i r s t c h i l d cannot be beaten which ' d i s p u t e s h i s c l a i m o f e q u a l i t y . 4. O f t e n a c t s as though he were i n a r a c e . H y p e r a c t i v e and pushy. 5. I f t h e f i r s t c h i l d i s s u c c e s s f u l , t h e second i s more l i k e l y t o f e e l u n c e r t a i n o f s e l f and h i s a b i l i t i e s . 6. U s u a l l y i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f the f i r s t c h i l d . ( I f the f i r s t c h i l d i s dependable and " g o o d " — t h e second may become undependable and "bad." 7. Becomes a "squeezed" c h i l d whenever a t h i r d c h i l d i s born. 42 The Only C h i l d The o n l y c h i l d has a d e c i d e d l y d i f f i c u l t s t a r t i n l i f e as he spends h i s e n t i r e c h i l d h o o d among p e r s o n s who a r e more p r o f i c i e n t . He may t r y t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s i n a r e a s ' ~ t h a t w i l l g a i n a p p r o v a l o f t h e a d u l t w o r l d o r he may s o l i c i t t h e i r sympathy by b e i n g shy, t i m i d o r h e l p l e s s . 1. U s u a l l y i s a pampered c h i l d - - a n d i f a boy, has a mother complex. 2. I f a boy, sometimes f e e l s t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s h i s r i v a l . 3. E n j o y s h i s p o s i t i o n as the c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t . 4. U s u a l l y i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n h i m s e l f . 5. Sometimes has a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y due t o t h e a n x i e t y o f h i s p a r e n t s . 6. U s u a l l y a r e not t a u g h t t o g a i n t h i n g s by own e f f o r t s ; m e r e l y t o want something i s t o have i t . 7. I f h i s r e q u e s t s a r e not g r a n t e d , he may f e e l u n f a i r l y t r e a t e d and r e f u s e t o c o o p e r a t e . O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s The c a t e g o r i e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Roe C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of O c c u p a t i o n s used by M o s i e r , D u b l i n and S h e l s k y . They i n c l u d e : 43 Compliance Jobs - t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h s e r v i n g and a t t e n d i n g t o t h e needs and w e l f a r e o f o t h e r p e r s o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e s o c c u p a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h p r e s e r v a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . I n c l u d e d here, a r e o c c u p a t i o n s i n g u i d a n c e , s o c i a l work, d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e , t e a c h i n g , m i n i s t r y f i r e m e n , p o l i c e m e n , e t c . The c a t e g o r y would a l s o i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y concerned with- s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y and/or i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . i n c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s would i n v o l v e c a r e e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f m e d i c i n e , p h y s i c s , b i o l o g y , and c h e m i s t r y . CTable A) On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s r e l a t i v e t o t h i s c a t e g o r y would be t h o s e o f a f i r s t born who s t r i v e s t o p r o t e c t o r h e l p o t h e r s i n a s t r u g g l e t o keep t h e upper hand. A g g r e s s i v e Jobs - t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e commodities, i n v e s t m e n t s , r e a l e s t a t e and s e r v i c e s . The j o b o f p e r s o n a l p e r s u a s i o n and p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n r e l a t i o n s i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . T h i s would i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f commercial e n t e r p r i s e s and r e l a t e d government a c t i v i t i e s . ' T h i s would i n v o l v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c l e r i c a l and c o m p u t a t i o n a l 44 o c c u p a t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and government and m a n a g e r i a l j o b s ( T a b l e B ) . A g g r e s s i v e j o b s a r e t h o s e a f f o r d i n g h i g h r e m u n e r a t i o n and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o r s t a t u s . A p r e d i c t i o n would be t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s r e l a t i v e t o t h i s c a t e g o r y would be t h o s e o f a second c h i l d o r a m i d d l e c h i l d . Detached Jobs - those o c c u p a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h c u l t i v a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n and h a r v e s t i n g o r g a t h e r -i n g o f c r o p s , marine, o r i n l a n d water r e s o u r c e s and t h e b r e e d i n g and c a r i n g o f a n i m a l s . The c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e s t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the f i e l d o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . T h i s group i n c l u d e s o c c u p a t i o n s i n a r t , music, c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . ( T a b l e C) Detached j o b s a r e t h o s e f r e e o f s u p e r v i s i o n and p e r m i t c r e a t i v i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , i t would appear t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s c a t e g o r y would be t h o s e o f a youngest c h i l d . ) Table A Compliance Occupations Research s c i e n t i s t (.social) S o c i a l w e l f a r e worker Pr o b a t i o n o f f i c e r Manager of a penal i n s t i t u t i o n Employment i n t e r v i e w e r Nurse ( r e g i s t e r e d ) P h y s i c a l d i r e c t o r CYMCA) Barber Chef Policeman P r a c t i c a l Nurse Chauffeur Cook Fireman Fortune t e l l e r J a n i t o r Watchman D e n t i s t Doctor Chemist G e n e t i c i s t Pharmacist V e t e r n a r i a n P h y s i c i s t P h y s i c a l T h e r a p i s t Judge Teacher Clergyman News E d i t o r J u s t i c e o f the Peace L i b r a r i a n S c i e n t i s t - p h y s i c s , chemistry Reporter Table B A g g r e s s i v e Occupations Salesmanager P r i v a t e S e c r e t a r y Personnel manager Stenographer Sales Engineer S t a t i s t i c i a n Salesman (.auto, insurance bond, r e a l e s t a t e ) C a s h i e r C l e r k ( f i l e ) Wholesaler Telephone o p e r a t o r A u c t i o n e e r T y p i s t Canvasser Mailman Salesman (house to house) Peddler S a l e s c l e r k T i c k e t agent Cabinet member P r e s i d e n t (.large c o r p o r a t i o n ) Banker Broker H o t e l manager Accountant Owner ( s m a l l business) 47 Table C Detached Occupations Inventor Research S c i e n t i s t (.Engineering) Engineer A v i a t o r C o n t r a c t o r (.General, Carpentry, e t c . ) Blacksmith. Carpenter Dressmaker Paperhanger P l a s t e r e r . Truck D r i v e r Deckhand Conservation O f f i c e r F i s h , W i l d l i f e S p e c i a l i s t G e o l o g i s t Farmer F o r e s t Ranger. Landscaper Miner Fisherman Gardener Nursery Worker D i t c h e r Animal Tender Orches t r a Conductor Mus i c i a n T.V. D i r e c t o r A r c h i t e c t B a s e b a l l P l a y e r S c u l p t o r C r i t i c I n t e r i o r Decorator Photographer I l l u s t r a t o r Window Decorator Clothes Model Stagehand A c t o r Chapter IV F i n d i n g s of Study 49 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s and D i s c u s s i o n The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present the r e s u l t s which are r e l e v a n t t o the hypotheses p r o v i d e d i n Chapter I. Supplementary f i n d i n g s are a l s o presented. Chi square a n a l y s i s of a l l 2 09 f a m i l i e s and c h i square a n a l y s i s of t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l e s was used t o determine any d i f f e r e n c e s between small f a m i l i e s and l a r g e f a m i l i e s . Hypothesis #1 The . f i r s t h y p o t hesis p r e d i c t e d t h a t there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l choic e . At .05 p r o b a b i l i t y and 10 degress of freedom t h i s h y p o thesis was confirmed. (Appendix B) Table 1 (Hypothesis 1) O r d i n a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Category P o s i t i o n Compliant A g g r e s s i v e Detached 1st 132 - 33 28 2nd 99 40 54 3rd 56 32 39 4th 19 17 31 5th 19 6 16 6-7th 8 3 3 L e v e l of significance NS NS NS 50 F i f t y two p e r c e n t C52%) o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d chose c o m p l i a n t j o b s . Twenty p e r c e n t C20%) o f t h e s u b j e c t s chose a g g r e s s i v e j o b s and twenty seven p e r c e n t (27%) chose detached --j'obs. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f j o b s o r p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e c o u l d be d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n c h o o s i n g c o m p l i a n t j o b s . S i b l i n g s may a f f e c t each o t h e r i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . Based on p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s e s o r f a i l u r e s i n an a r e a , an o l d e r ". b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r , f o r example, may be v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l i n p u s h i n g a s i b l i n g toward an a r e a o f work. T a b l e 2 Three S i b l i n g F a m i l i e s O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n C o m p l i a n t A g g r e s s i v e Detached F i r s t born 40 12 8 M i d d l e born 39 9 12 Youngest 28 17 15 L e v e l o f significance NS NS NS At p r o b a b i l i t y .05 and degrees of freedom a t 4, t h e h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d f o r t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s . (See Appendix C). 51 I n 3 s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s 61% o f t h e e n t i r e sample p o p u l a t i o n chose c o m p l i a n t t y p e j o b s . Twenty p e r c e n t C2 0%) chose detached j o b s . I n s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s c o m p l i a n t j o b s were more f r e q u e n t l y chosen t h a n i n f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e o r more. The same l o g i c c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o the s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s as were a p p l i e d t o t h e l a r g e r ones. H y p o t h e s i s 2 H y p o t h e s i s 2 p r e d i c t e d .that f i r s t borns choose c o m p l i a n t p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as l a t e r b o r n s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d . Table 3 O l d e s t M i d d l e Youngest Co m p l i a n t Jobs 37 . 3% 36.4% 26 .1% There appears t o be a v e r y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n between o l d e s t , m i d d l e and youngest b o r n c h i l d r e n . P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each s i b l i n g as d e s c r i b e d by Pepper, p. 3 8 and E c h s t e i n (Appendix E) do not seem t o be an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . 52 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3 p r e d i c t e d t h a t teachers d i d not e x h i b i t f i r s t born c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to a g r e a t e r extent than non t e a c h e r s . T h i s hypothesis was r e j e c t e d f o r the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n but was confirmed f o r f a m i l i e s of three s i b l i n g s . Table. 4 examines the d i s t r i b u t i o n which r e s u l t s from the assumption t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between o r d i n a l f a m i l i a l p o s i t i o n and those choosing teach-in g as a c a r e e r . Table 4 Teacher P o s i t i o n i n the Family B i r t h Order Oldest 2nd 3rd 4-7 Only Teachers 113 77 37 23 16 Percentage 42 29 14 • 8 6 Table 5 Teacher P o s i t i o n i n 3 S i b l i n g F a m i l i e s B i r t h Order Oldest Middle Youngest Teachers 33 34 16 Percentage 40 41 19 53 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n t h r e e member f a m i l i e s u s i n g a sample o f 83. I n l a r g e r f a m i l i e s , o l d e s t s i b l i n g s t e n d t o c h o o s e t e a c h i n g t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e i r y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s a n d / o r s i s t e r s . F o r t y two p e r c e n t (.42%) o f t h e f a m i l i e s had an o l d e s t c h i l d who c h o s e t e a c h i n g . Twenty n i n e p e r c e n t (.2 9%) o f t h e s e c o n d b o r n c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l i e s c h o s e t e a c h i n g a s compared t o f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t (14%) o f t h i r d b o r n s and e i g h t p e r c e n t (8%) o f f o u r t h , f i f t h , ~.sixtn;:ahd s e v e n t h c h i l d r e n who c h o s e t e a c h i n g a s a c a r e e r . I n t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s , t h i r t y t h r e e p e r c e n t (33%) o f t h e o l d e s t c h i l d r e n and t h i r t y f o u r p e r c e n t (34%) o f t h e m i d d l e c h i l d r e n c h o s e t e a c h i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g l i t t l e o r no d i f f e r e n c e , between f i r s t and m i d d l e c h i l d r e n c h o o s i n g t e a c h i n g a s a c a r e e r . H y p o t h e s i s 4 H y p o t h e s i s 4 p r e d i c t e d t h a t s e c o n d o r m i d d l e b o r n s c h o o s e p r e s t i g e o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y a s f i r s t o r y o u n g e r b o r n s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . 54 T a b l e 6 F i r s t M i d d l e Y o u n g e s t A g g r e s s i v e J o b s 32% 23% 45% P e r c e n t a g e T h e s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s s e c o n d b o r n s t e n d t o c h o o s e c o m p l i a n t t y p e j o b s and d e t a c h e d j o b s ' t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n a g g r e s s i v e t y p e j o b s . . Y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n t e n d ' t o c h o o s e a g g r e s s i v e t y p e j o b s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n m i d d l e c h i l d r e n . H y p o t h e s i s 5 H y p o t h e s i s 5 p r e d i c t e d t h a t y o u n g e s t , s e e k i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e , w o u l d be e n g a g e d i n d e t a c h e d c a r e e r s a s f r e q u e n t l y a s t h e i r o l d e r s i b l i n g s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d b u t no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s w e r e o b s e r v e d a s t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n was o n l y 35. A l a r g e r p o p u l a -t i o n w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n f i r m t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . T a b l e 7 O l d e s t M i d d l e Y o u n g e s t D e t a c h e d "Job P e r c e n t a g e s 22.8% 34. 2% 42 . 8% 55 Table 8 Comparison of Oc c u p a t i o n a l Choices of O l d e s t , Middle and Youngest S i b l i n g s O c c u p a t i o n a l Category Compliant A g g r e s s i v e Detached F i r s t borns 66% 20% 13% Middle '' 65% 15% 29% Youngest 47% 20% 25% Compliant jobs are most f r e q u e n t l y chosen by a l l members of a th r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l y . There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between f i r s t borns (.66%) and middle borns (65%) choosing compliant type jobs. F i r s t borns (20%) and youngest (.20%) tend to choose a g g r e s s i v e jobs more f r e q u e n t l y than middle borns (15%). Middle c h i l d r e n (29%) tend t o choose detached jobs more f r e q u e n t l y than o l d e s t c h i l d r e n (13%).but choose detached jobs as f r e q u e n t l y as youngest (25%). A v a i l a b l i l i t y of compliant jobs over a g g r e s s i v e and detached jobs c o u l d i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r c h o i c e . P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and s o c i a l c l a s s could a l s o a i d i n 5 6 t h e s e l e c t i o n o f an o c c u p a t i o n . P a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , may p r e s s t h e i r a m b i t i o n s on t h e i r c h i l d r e n and expect them t o r i s e s o c i a l l y . Because o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e , c h i l d r e n may t e n d t o i n h e r i t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y o f t h e i r p a r e n t s and choose a v o c a t i o n w i t h i n a r e s t r i c t e d range o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o a g i v e n c l a s s . V a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e s o c i a l environment might i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r c h o i c e . I t i s apparent t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l might be i n f l u e n c e d by numerous s o c i a l f o r c e s such as f a m i l y background, peer groups, s i g n i f i -c a nt a d u l t s , s o c i a l c l a s s , o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l and economic s i t u a t i o n s . 57 Chapter V Summary, C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 58 Summary, C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations Summary The p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . b e t w e e n b i r t h o r d e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I t a t t e m p t e d t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e a re s i g n i f i c a n t b i r t h o r d e r d i f f e r e n c e s among p e o p l e c h o o s i n g t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r . F i v e hypotheses were proposed: 1) There i s no p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 2) F i r s t borns choose c o m p l i a n t , p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as l a t e r b o r n s . 3) Teachers do not e x h i b i t f i r s t born c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n non t e a c h e r s who a r e l a t e r born. 4) Second o r mi d d l e born would choose p r e s t i g e o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as f i r s t borns o r youngest born. 5) Youngest, s e e k i n g independence, would choose detached c a r e e r s as f r e q u e n t l y as t h e i r o l d e r s i b l i n g s . The sample was r e s t r i c t e d t o f a m i l i e s w i t h one o r more t e a c h e r s . A t o t a l o f two hundred and n i n e f a m i l i e s c o mprised t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n . The sample p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s was s i x t y . A n a l y s i s o f d a t a was a c c o m p l i s h e d by c h i square a n a l y s i s . 59 C o n c l u s i o n s The most e v i d e n t and l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h can be i n f e r r e d from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t when r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s were a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was no m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e v a r i a b l e s b i r t h o r d e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . One cannot assume t h a t b i r t h o r d e r a l o n e was t h e sole' d e t e r m i n a n t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . F a c t o r s w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l such as a p t i t u d e , i n t e r e s t s and s p e c i a l s k i l l s c o u l d a l s o o p e r a t e i n d e t e r m i n i n g one's c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n . A l o n g t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , Angers C1974) suggested t h a t f a c t o r s such as age o f p a r e n t s , age range between o f f s p r i n g , f a m i l y income and f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e c o u l d each i n i t s own way, o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n , a l s o i n f l u e n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s s tudy show t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i d d l e born c h o o s i n g a g g r e s s i v e t y p e j o b s and youngest c h o o s i n g detached j o b s . Reasons f o r t h i s may be t h a t Moser's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Roe's occupa-t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were not t y p i c a l o f t h e s a m p l i n g o f m i d d l e and youngest born. The s t u d y was not a b l e t o s u p p o r t Eisenmann (1964) i n h i s s t u d y o f c r e a t i v e , independent l a t e r b o r n s , as t h i s s tudy i n d i c a t e s t h a t 60 l a t e r borns a r e not autonomous o r employed i n t h e a r t s t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t e a c h e r s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were e l d e s t and mi d d l e c h i l d r e n . O l d e s t c h i l d r e n who were t e a c h e r s would p o s s e s s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s s p e c i f i c t o t h e A d l e r i a n p r o j e c t i o n o f the o l d e s t s i b l i n g . From t h e r e s e a r c h , one i s unable t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f t e a c h i n g second o r middle c h i l d r e n had chosen. B i r t h o r d e r v a r i a b l e s might i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r - w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n a broad p r o f e s s i o n such as t e a c h i n g may be m a n i f e s t i n p o s i t i o n s such as commerce, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Second o r mi d d l e borns may be a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e i r s t a t u s and r e m u n e r a t i o n i n the t e a c h i n g f i e l d j u s t as youngest borns may be a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e i r c r e a t i v e and detached r e q u i r e m e n t s i n a r t , a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics. F a c t o r s such as so c i o - e c o n o m i c background, s i z e o f home towns and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t e a c h e r s c o u l d a f f e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h i n g . Other f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t e a c h i n g as a. 61 v o c a t i o n c o u l d be: c o u n s e l by f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h an admired a d u l t , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s such as s e c u r i t y , p r e s t i g e , s a l a r y and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Recommendations F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h by S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg (1970) i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t might be n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n not o n l y t h e number o f s i b l i n g s i n t h e f a m i l y , but a l s o t h e i r sex o r d e r and t h e number o f y e a r s s e p a r a t i n g them. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h a t expand upon A d l e r , o r d i n a l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e a f f e c t e d f o r i n s t a n c e , i f t h e o l d e s t male i s t h e e l d e s t o f males o r f e m a l e s . S u t t o n -S mith and Rosenberg i s o l a t e 2 4 s e p a r a t e b i r t h o r d e r p o s i t i o n s on t h i s b a s i s i n a t h r e e c h i l d f a m i l y . (See Appendix D). They propose f u r t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g t i g h t e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l s t o d etermine i f d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g s a r e a c t u a l l y due t o s i b l i n g s t a t u s o r a r e a p r o d u c t of some non s i b l i n g v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i o economic s t a t u s , s i z e o f ' f a m i l y , p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e or c u l t u r a l background. Other v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a r e sex o f s i b l i n g s , age s p a c i n g 62 and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s i b l i n g s and parents. Further research could determine whether occupational choice i s the same i f s i b l i n g s are from a l a r g e f a m i l y or a small f a m i l y . Extensive f a m i l y case stud i e s may determine what i n f l u e n c e other s i b l i n g s have on each other. The number of years separating s i b l i n g s could be a determining f a c t o r i n p e r s o n a l i t y development and t h e r e f o r e occupa-t i o n a l choice. The degree of p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on each s i b l i n g and f a m i l y values such as importance of education could a l s o determine occupational choice. A f a c t o r which may c o n t r i b u t e to f u t u r e research i s a v a i l a b i l i t y of jobs. Are c e r t a i n occupations more a v a i l a b l e and popular during c e r t a i n time periods? The r e s u l t s of such a study would be weighted and c h i square a n a l y s i s could not be used. Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research i n b i r t h order and occupations w i t h i n the teaching p r o f e s s i o n might center around f i r s t born's a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and present day student values. P o s s i b l e undemocratic teachers ( f i r s t borns) are a stimulus to d i s r u p t i v e student behav io r . 6 3 A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n the area of the l a t e r born i s needed. There i s evidence CSutton-Smith and Rosenberg, 1970) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t youngest c h i l d r e n have a s s e t s of the f i r s t born (.achievement and p o p u l a r i t y ) but not t h e i r handicaps such as a n x i e t y . An important f a c t o r to be considered i s the age gap t h a t separates the youngest from the other s i b l i n g s . A short age gap between the youngest i n a t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l y might cause the youngest to be more l i k e the second born. A study i n v o l v i n g the youngest, h i s / h e r age gap and modeling f a c t o r s would be i n f o r m a t i o n i n p r e d i c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . The development of i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l i t y as they are i n f l u e n c e d by s i b l i n g r i v a l r i e s and a l l i a n c e s c o u l d a l s o a f f e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s recommended as w e l l as r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g A d l e r i a n concepts. Since most s t u d i e s c e n t e r i n g around A d l e r ' s t h e o r i e s are very g e n e r a l , t i g h t e r c o n t r o l s are needed. Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l c o n s i d e r t e a c h i n g as a v o c a t i o n i f they p e r c e i v e the f e a t u r e s of t e a c h i n g as being s i m i l a r to the f e a t u r e s d e s i r e d i n an occupation f o r the s e l f . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s recommended to i d e n t i f y those f e a t u r e s which an i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s i n an o c c u p a t i o n and to p o i n t out where and how these f e a t u r e s are a v a i l a b l e to him/her i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Other factors which could contribute to t h i s study's ndings are: 1) average size of family 2 ) media attractiveness of vocations 3) degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the chosen occupation 4) knowledge of careers before choosing an occupation 5) modelling and observational learning as an influence i n career s e l e c t i o n . 65 References 66 R e f e r e n c e s A d l e r , A. The p r a c t i c e and' t h e o r y o f i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y . New York: H a r c o u r t , . Brace and.Company, 192 7. A d l e r , A. U n d e r s t a n d i n g human n a t u r e . New York: P r e m i e r Books, 1959. Angus, Wm. 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The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a m i l y ' c o n s t e l l a t i o n . P o r t l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , P o r t l a n d , Oregon. 69 Roe, A, The p s y c h o l o g y o f o c c u p a t i o n s , New York: W i l e y and Sons, 19 56. R u l e , W. R. £ Comer, A. T. F a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n and b i r t h o r d e r v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f d e n t i s t r y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1979, 45, 883-890. Sampson, E. E. £ Hancock, F. T. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y and c o n f o r m i t y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 5, 398-407. S c h a c t e r , S. B i r t h o r d e r and s o c i o m e t r i c c h o i c e . J o u r n a l o f  Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 68, 453-456. S i e s s , T. F. and Rogers, T. Roe's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h e m u l t i d e m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1974, 4, 403-415. S m i t h , E w a r t , E. and G o o d c h i l d s , J . D. Some p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o b i r t h o r d e r . J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1963, 47, 300-303. S u t t o n , S m i t h , B. and Rosenberg, B. G. The s i b l i n g . New York: H o l t , Renehart and W i n s t o n , 1970. Toman, W. B i r t h o r d e r r u l e s a l l . P s y c h o l o g y Today, 197 0, Dec, 45-48. V e r g e r , D. M. B i r t h o r d e r and s i b l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s . J o u r n a l o f I n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968 , 2_4 , 56-59. Appendix 71 Appendix A Survey Instr u m e n t Dear C o l l e a g u e : I am p r e p a r i n g a r e s e a r c h paper on "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n . a n d T e a c h i n g " f o r my paper a t U.B.C. and would a p p r e c i a t e a few minutes o f your t i m e . P l e a s e check o f f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s . I n d i c a t e s e l f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s M F Self M or F P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n 1. O l d e s t 2. Second 3. T h i r d 4. F o u r t h 5. F i f t h 6. . S i x t h 7. Seventh Thank you v e r y much. I f you would l i k e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t u d y , p l e a s e c a l l me a t 274-5768. P l e a s e r e t u r n t h e completed form t o . S y l v i a Palmer Appendix 73 Appendix B C h i Square A n a l y s i s A g g r e s s i v e . C o m p l i a n t Detached Observed E x p e c t e d Observed E x p e c t e d Observed Expected 1 s t 132 101 33 40 28 51.9 193 2nd 99 101 40 40 54 51.9 193 3rd 56 66 . 5 32 26 . 35 39 34.1 127 4t h 19 .35 17 13.9 31 18 67 5 t h 19 21.46 6 8 . 5 16 11.02 41 6-7th 8 7 . 85 4 3 .11 3 4.03 15 333 132 171 636 = 46.225 .05 s i g n i f i c a n c e and df 10=18.31 Appendix 75 Appendix C C h i Square A n a l y s i s f o r 3 S i b l i n g F a m i l i e s C o m p l i a n t A g g r e s s i v e Detached 0 E 0 E 0 E O l d e s t 40 35. 67 12 13 8 12 60 M i d d l e 39 35 67 9 13 12 12 60 Youngest 28 35 .67 17 13 15 12 60 107 38 35 180 x 2 = 7.10 x 2 = 9.49 a t .05 p r o b a b i l i t y e d f = 4 Appendix 77 Appendix D Symbols I n d i c a t i n g S i b l i n g S t a t u s e s CSutton-Smith £ Rosenberg) An o n l y male: M An o n l y f e m a l e : F Boy w i t h younger b r o t h e r ' M1M Boy w i t h younger s i s t e r : M1F Boy w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r : MM2 Boy w i t h o l d e r s i s t e r : FM2 G i r l w i t h younger b r o t h e r : F1M G i r l w i t h younger s i s t e r : F1F G i r l w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r : MF2 G i r l w i t h o l d e r s i s t e r : FF2 .78 Appendix D S u b j e c t s can be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o i m m e d i a t e l y o l d e r and younger s i b l i n g s . . I n a t h r e e s i b l i n g f a m i l y , t h e r e a r e 24 p o s i t i o n s p o s s i b l e CSutton-Smith S Rosenberg). Males: M1MM, M1MF,.M1FM, MIFF MM2M, MM2F., FM2M, FM2F MMM3, MFM3, FMM3, FFM3 Females: F1FF, F1MF, F1FM, F1MM FF2F, FF2M, MF2F, MF2M FFF3, FMF3, MFF3, MMF3 Note; The p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n r e f e r r e d t o i s t h e one w i t h t h e number a f t e r h i s M or F; t h a t number r e p r e s e n t s h i s b i r t h o r d e r i n the f a m i l y . 7 9 Appendix E 80 Appendix E F a m i l y C o n s t e l l a t i o n  L i f e S t y l e , E. E c h s t e i n , L, B a r u t h , D. Maher, K e n d a l l / H u h t P u b l i s h i n g Co., Iowa. 1978 p. 11 - 13. One o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e development o f a person's l i f e s t y l e i s f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , t h e o r d e r o f b i r t h o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h i n a f a m i l y and t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i b l i n g s and o t h e r members o f t h e f a m i l y group. D r e i k u r s , Grunwald, and Pepper C.19 71) s t a t e t h a t i n t h e l i f e - p a t t e r n o f e v e r y p e r s o n , " t h e r e i s t h e i m p r i n t o f h i s p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y w i t h i t s d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s upon t h i s one f a c t - - t h e c h i l d ' s s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f h i s p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n - - t h a t much o f h i s f u t u r e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e depends" (p. 46). I n a way, F r e u d , A d l e r , and Jung o r i g i n a t e d t h e concept of f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Toman (1969) "Freud brought s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n t o a person's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s and c o n t r i b u t e d c o n c e p t u a l v i g o r t o t h e under-s t a n d i n g of human m o t i v a t i o n s . A d l e r was h e l p f u l w i t h h i s e a r l y emphasis on c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e and s i b l i n g p o s i t i o n s . 81 Jung s p o t t e d t h e problem o f p r e - e x i s t e n t c o n f l i c t between p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . , , " C p . TV). To b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e concept o f f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a -t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t from t h e moment o f b i r t h t h e c h i l d a c t s i n a way i n which he o r she hopes t o a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o r s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e f a m i l y . A c t i o n s t h a t a r e not p r o d u c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g t h e s e g o a l s w i l l be d i s c a r d e d and r e p l a c e d by new b e h a v i o r s aimed a t t h e same g o a l s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f S i b l i n g s To i l l u s t r a t e t h e concept o f f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n a h y p o t h e t i c a l i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y w i l l be used. The f i r s t s t e p i s t o l i s t a l l s i b l i n g s i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r , i n c l u d i n g our s u b j e c t , R o b e r t , i n h i s o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . The age o f each s i b l i n g i n our case study and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s . I f t h e r e had been any deceased s i b l i n g s , t h e y would be noted i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n and i d e n t i f i e d i n some way such as w i t h a broken c i r c l e , i . e . vBo£' The age and sex o f each s i b l i n g a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t as a f a m i l y w i t h an unbalanced s i b l i n g sex d i s t r i b u t i o n may have s p e c i a l problems. F o r example, a boy w i t h f o u r 82 s i s t e r s would p r o b a b l y have a d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k on l i f e t h a n a boy with- f o u r b r o t h e r s . I n R o b e r t ' s case he had an o l d e r s i s t e r , a younger b r o t h e r , and a" younger s i s t e r . He was t h e o l d e s t male, and t h e second o f f o u r s i b l i n g s . I n f a m i l i e s where males a r e g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e , t h i s f a c t would have d e c i d e d l y i n f l u e n c e d him, but i n R o b e r t ' s f a m i l y n e i t h e r males nor f emales a r e g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r i s t h e age d i f f e r e n c e between s i b l i n g s . C o m p e t i t i o n can be e x t r e m e l y keen between s i b l i n g s t h a t a r e c l o s e i n age. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e w i t h a younger female who d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y may " s u r p a s s " a s l i g h t l y o l d e r b r o t h e r . C o n v e r s e l y , s i b l i n g s s e p a r a t e d by s e v e r a l y e a r s may f e e l l i t t l e , i f any, c o m p e t i t i o n . I f the age d i f f e r e n c e i s f i v e o r more y e a r s , t h e s i b l i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n two d i f f e r e n t " s u b - f a m i l i e s . " A diagram of R o b e r t ' s f a m i l y would l o o k l i k e t h i s : Mary Robert F r e d Susan 19 17 15 8 Sub - f a m i l y S u b - f a m i l y 83 A l o o k a t the diagram suggests t h a t Mary, Robert and F r e d b e l o n g t o one s u b - f a m i l y and Susan belongs t o a second s u b - f a m i l y . I f i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e sub-group i n which a s i b l i n g b e l o n g s , ask t h e p e r s o n which s i b l i n g was most d i f f e r e n t from him o r h e r and who p l a y e d w i t h whom. The s i b l i n g s mentioned w i l l u s u a l l y be i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own sub-group. We can guess t h a t t h e c o m p e t i t i o n between Robert and H i s o l d e r , . s i s t e r (Mary) and younger b r o t h e r ( F r e d ) would p r o b a b l y be q u i t e i n t e n s e . For example, i f Mary was a good s t u d e n t , Robert might be a poor s t u d e n t . T h i s phenomena i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " t e e t e r - t o t t e r " e f f e c t - -meaning t h a t when one s i b l i n g e x c e l s i n an a r e a t h e o t h e r does p o o r l y arid v i c e v e r s a . I n our f a m i l y , i f Mary were a m u s i c i a n , Robert might be an a t h l e t e . Because t h e c o m p e t i t i o n i s so i n t e n s e , Robert would p r o b a b l y not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e a s i n which Mary was competent u n l e s s he t h o u g h t he c o u l d do b e t t e r . I t i s almost as i f he concedes o r d e f a u l t s c e r t a i n a r e a s t o Mary, c l a i m i n g o t h e r s f o r h i m s e l f . Of c o u r s e , i f Robert does p o o r l y i n an a r e a which h i s p a r e n t s v a l u e i n t e n s e l y , problems a r e almost i n e v i t a b l e . . 84 Because o f c o m p e t i t i o n , u s u a l l y -the f i r s t and t h i r d s i b l i n g s have more i n common tha n t h e . f i r s t and second. However, i n R o b e r t ' s f a m i l y , because t h e f i r s t s i b l i n g i s a g i r l and t h e t h i r d s i b l i n g a boy, t h e r e i a a h i g h proba-' b i l i t y t h a t he would have more i n common w i t h h i s b r o t h e r t h a n w i t h e i t h e r o f h i s s i s t e r s . When one s i b l i n g i s p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , th e o t h e r s i b l i n g s a r e u s u a l l y a f f e c t e d . They may be r e q u i r e d t o assume many o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t would n o r m a l l y be c a r r i e d out by t h e o t h e r s i b l i n g were ( s ) h e not handicapped. A d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s when one o f t h e s i b l i n g s d i e s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . N o r m a l l y t h e p a r e n t s w i l l t e n d t o be o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e o f s i b l i n g s born a f t e r t h e dea t h o f t h e c h i l d . P a r e n t s may a l s o t e n d t o compare t h e r e m a i n i n g s i b l i n g s w i t h t h e deceased c h i l d , by sta t e m e n t s l i k e , "Why a r e n ' t you as smart as your s i s t e r was?" o r , " I w i s h you were more l i k e Johnny used t o be." T h i s i s an e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n because a c h i l d cannot compete w i t h a s i b l i n g who, i n the p a r e n t ' s e y e s , i s a p p r a o c h i n g s a i n t h o o d . I t ' s d i f f i c u l t enough t o compete w i t h " m o r t a l " s i b l i n g s , but " a n g e l s i n heaven" a re u n t o u c h a b l e . 85 When a h a l f - b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r , c o u s i n s , o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n l i v e w i t h the f a m i l y f o r an extended p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e y become p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n . U s u a l l y t h e c h i l d r e n w i l l a l i g n ' : t hemselves p r e t t y much by age r a t h e r t h a n t h e b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r . T h i s can be a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r a c h i l d who has become accustomed t o a p a r t i c u l a r place, i n t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y o l d e s t o r youngest) and a l l o f a sudden a n o t h e r c h i l d has t h a t place.. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y common when two d i v o r c e d p e o p l e w i t h c h i l d r e n marry, as i n t h e p o p u l a r t e l e v i s i o n show "The Brady Bunch." I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have t h e s u b j e c t d e s c r i b e t h e s i b l i n g s . Such d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l be v e r y h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e s u b j e c t viewed r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e f i r s t s o c i a l group--the f a m i l y . The f a c t t h a t t h e s i b l i n g s may be d e s c r i b e d i n a c c u r a t e l y i s not i m p o r t a n t ; we are most concerned w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f f a m i l y members. There a r e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e common t o each o f t h e s i b l i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n ; however, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t a c o m p o s i t e , so not ev e r y d e t a i l w i l l a p p l y i n a l l c a s e s . We a r e making guesses 86 aimed a t p r o b a b i l i t i e s , , Some g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a r i o u s o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d e - t h e f o l l o w i n g : O l d e s t C h i l d : The o l d e s t c h i l d has a unique s i t u a t i o n i n a f a m i l y . B e i n g born f i r s t e n t i t l e s such a c h i l d t o t h e p a r e n t s ' u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n , a t l e a s t u n t i l a n o t h e r ~ s i b l i n g i s born. U s u a l l y an o l d e s t c h i l d w i l l conform t o t h e p a r e n t ' s s t a n d a r d s because he or she doesn't want t o l o s e t h e i r f a v o r . Such c h i l d r e n t e n d t o be v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e because o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o meet t h e a d u l t s t a n d a r d s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . When a n o t h e r s i b l i n g i s born t h e y o f t e n i n i t i a l l y f e e l "dethroned!"' U s u a l l y because t h e y a r e b i g g e r and more c a p a b l e , t h e t h r e a t o f t h e new a r r i v a l w i l l d i m i n i s h w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e . However, i f t h e second c h i l d i s v e r y c l o s e i n age t o t h e f i r s t , t h e r e i s a chance t h a t t h e second might be more c a p a b l e t h a n t h e o l d e r . The s i t u a t i o n o f t h e second s i b l i n g p ermanently d e t h r o n i n g t h e f i r s t i s most f r e q u e n t when th e o l d e r c h i l d i s a boy f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by a g i r l . Her a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e o f human growth and development makes such a "dethronement" more p o s s i b l e . Other f r e q u e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e p r e f e r e n c e f o r a u t h o r i t y , d i s l i k e f o r change, c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w - p o i n t , b e i n g "pacemaker" 87 f o r t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n , a m b i t i o u s , achievement o r i e n t e d , and h a v i n g a tendency t o r e l a t e b e t t e r t o a d u l t s t h a n p e e r s . M i d d l e C h i l d : The m i d d l e c h i l d w i l l u s u a l l y t r y t o t a k e -o v e r t h e f i r s t as a r e s u l t o f what has become known as the " A v i s Complex" (.because I'm second I ' l l t r y h a r d e r ) . U s u a l l y t h e m i d d l e c h i l d w i l l choose t o compete i n a r e a s in- which th e o l d e s t c h i l d i s not p r o f i c i e n t . I f o l d e s t c h i l d r e n a r e good s t u d e n t s , a t h l e t e s , o r models of good b e h a v i o r , t h e n m i d d l e c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o b a b l y be poor s t u d e n t s , u n i n t e r e s t e d i n a t h l e t i c s , and d i s c i p l i n e p roblems; however, t h e y might be good m u s i c i a n s , a r t i s t s , o r s t r o n g i n an a r e a where the o l d e s t i s n ' t s k i l l e d . Whereas t h e o l d e s t c h i l d i s t h e " c e n t e r o f the u n i v e r s e " the second c h i l d must " s l i p i n on t h e second a c t . " M i d d l e c h i l d r e n t e n d t o be more s o c i a b l e t h a n o l d e s t c h i l d r e n . They a l s o a r e o f t e n s e n s i t i v e t o i n j u s t i c e s , u n f a i r n e s s , f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g s l i g h t e d or abused, o r of h a v i n g no p l a c e i n t h e group. When a younger'.: s i b l i n g i s born i n t o t h e f a m i l y , t h e m i d d l e c h i l d o f t e n f e e l s d e t h r o n e d , because of the new c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e youngest c h i l d . 88 Youngest C h i l d ; Youngest c h i l d r e n have something g o i n g f o r theirt t h a t t h e o l d e s t , and m i d d l e c h i l d r e n do n o t - - t h e y have never been d e t h r o n e d , They a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e most p o w e r f u l p e r s o n s i n the. f a m i l y because of t h e many ways of g e t t i n g t h e p a r e n t s and o t h e r s i b l i n g s t o do t h i n g s f o r t h e . Youngest c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y a r e . n o t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y because t h e y a r e t h e s m a l l e s t , and as a r e s u l t , t h e y may be s p o i l e d by o t h e r s . A l o n g w i t h t h e o l d e s t c h i l d , the young-e s t has a unique p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n . However, i t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t youngest c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have good s i b l i n g models from which t o o b s e r v e and l e a r n . S i n g l e C h i l d : S i n g l e c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y d e v e l o p i n one o f two b a s i c d i r e c t i o n s : e i t h e r t h e y w i l l t r y t o meet t h e " a d u l t l e v e l of competence o r t h e y w i l l r emain h e l p l e s s and i r r e s p o n s i b l e as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . U s u a l l y s i n g l e c h i l d r e n w i l l have b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e much o l d e r o r much younger t h a n t h e y a r e , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e i r peer group. S i n g l e c h i l d r e n may r e f u s e t o c o o p e r a t e when t h e i r e v e r y w i s h i s not g r a n t e d . They a r e s i m i l a r t o youngest c h i l d r e n i n t h a t n e i t h e r have been d i s p l a c e d . 89 S i n g l e c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n l o n e r s , not v e r y " s h a r i n g " o r i e n t e d and may expect a " s p e c i a l p l a c e " w i t h o u t h a v i n g earned i t . Adopted C h i l d : An i m p o r t a n t i s s u e r e l a t e s t o t h e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o adopt a c h i l d . F o r example, many p a r e n t s o v e r p r o t e c t and/or pamper adopted c h i l d r e n by means o f a "We c o u l d n ' t have any c h i l d r e n o f our own, but t h i s , c h i l d w i l l have t h e f i n e s t o f e v e r y t h i n g " a t t i t u d e . A n o t h e r i s s u e i n v o l v e s whether t h e r e a re o t h e r s i b l i n g s b i o l o g i c a l l y born t o t h e p a r e n t s . " I n " and "out" groups o f s i b l i n g s o f t e n r e s u l t from such a s i t u a t i o n . Of c o u r s e , t h e advantages s u r r o u n d i n g an a d o p t i o n i n c l u d e t h e c h i l d ' s h a v i n g been p l a n n e d and d e s i r e d by t h e p a r e n t s and the a d o p t i o n agency's h a v i n g conducted a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the home environment p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ' s placement i n t h e home. In l a r g e f a m i l i e s t h e r e can be s e v e r a l s u b - f a m i l i e s . I n R o b e r t ' s case t h e r e a r e two s u b - f a m i l i e s : i n one sub-group Mary would be t h e o l d e s t c h i l d , Robert a m i d d l e c h i l d , and F r e d t h e youngest c h i l d ; and i n t h e mother sub-f a m i l y , Susan would be a s i n g l e c h i l d . Large f a m i l i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n among t h e 90 m i d d l e s i b l i n g s . P a r e n t s u s u a l l y have l e s s t i m e t o spend w i t h each s i b l i n g , so t h e r e i s o f t e n v e r y l i t t l e f o r which th e s i b l i n g s may compete. R a t i n g o f S i b l i n g s I n an attempt* t o c a p t u r e t h e u niqueness of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f , o t h e r s , and l i f e , c l i e n t s a re asked t o p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h o t h e r s . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c e n t e r e d around th e q u e s t i o n o f how such i n d i v i d u a l s v iew t h e m s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r s i b l i n g s i n t h e f a m i l y . Responses t o a l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w hich a r e used f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i v e n a t u r e y i e l d d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s unique ~ p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . 91 A p p e n d i x F 1 » v •». re* .>-v u ••=*•• ( « cue *v^ c v . e-* v>* .. l. -VI. . TOTAL NO. OF.. SIBLINGS'".,.-.'653 TOTAL NUMBER" OF FAMILIES -209. TOTAL NUMBER OF. TEACHERS? " 2 6 £ .'" ''' AVE.RAGE . NUMBER OF. SIBLINGS frEl; FAMILY AVERAGE NUMBER OF TLACHL-RS, PER FAMILY 3. 11 . 27 •) U C C U R A T I QNf tL . G A T pOOF* I ' O F S X ESI_ X NGS • , • ' ' • ', 1EACHER * ft.' OTHI.'.R COMPLi TOTAL COMF1... AGGRESSIVL SIBLING ' ' ". • ' 8 . . " " • " . » DETACHED TOTAL Ol-YOUNGEST IS. INCLUDED IN THE PREVIOUS DATA AND DOES NOT INCLUDE ONLY. MUMIDF.R OF Si I E*l_ X' NGS . FEF* FAMILY ^.•23 • NUIIbEK OF SIBLINGS PER FAMILY ' NO OF FAM," 'A OF- FAM ONE 16 TWO 66 32 "i i:: G M F F< POS I "I I ON I [vi O ,; © " » * O f. ONLY NUMBER. 16' I • -/. IUTAL ' 1HHCHER, 6 .' * ; ANALYSI£ 1 ST. 113 •I 42 2 ND. 77 ' 29 THREE FOUR 60'. 26 29 12 H PiM X. L. V" , POSITION i,3 RD. 4 TH. \" '•' 37 3 1 14 ' 4 FIVE 26 12 TH. SIX 14 7 6 TH. SEVEN 1 0 7 TH. 1 YOUNGEST 60 OF NUMBER OF NO OF FAM 7. OF FAM ONE ' 161 , 77 • "I HO 37 13 T EACHERS F E Fc F P» l-i X L_ V NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN THE FAMILY 1 HI;EL FOUf; FIVE 9 . 1 0 4 ' .0 0 SIX 0 0 SEVEN 0 0 * © © •. . ONLY >' 16 - 36 16 -r i RSi * .1 i 3 i 9. ' * 132 33 ' 28' 193 © SECOND 7 V 22 '• 99 40 54 193 HIIRO S7 19 56 32 39 127 ® ... .: i OUP.XH 11 8 19 17 31 67 | IF Mf • £ 13 19 6 16 41 _ ;.| l.'IH -3 l s' 4 3 35 ' © . SEVENTH 1 , 0 1 0 0 1 U L D L t H n i29 19 143 33 28 209. © O i ..YUUNGES1 60 .31 91 45 57 193 ii F 1RST DOES NOT INCLUDE ONL.Y. © -' 0LDE3' ' INCLUDES FIRST AND ONL.Y. © © 0 © © !<|.ADY O^TA „£l!yMMAKV. ',, ,. FAI i lL ISES OF" *. 3 OR *V S I B L I N G S I TOTAL NO. Or S I 61 I NOS ~ 284 ' • • ' . TOTAL NUHBEK OP F A M I L I E S " 8 6 TpTAl. NUML<Fl< tip TfcACHL RS •- 15 9 AVERAGE NUHI.CK OP S.T&LJ NOS PER F A M I L Y « 3 . 3 ' • A V B R f i i X NUMfcCf; OP TfcftCHl fJS PEK FAM 11 Y « i . 38 k 11 '. O i-i T S.-H. IW t-i k.. O A TFCOR X fcrTtai OF S I B L I N G : F ACH! < OTHLR COMl'L TOTAL COMPL. A G G R E S S I V E DETACHED . TOTAL • i l B L I M G O N I Y 0 - . 0 - 0 1 I R * "I i. .• > i 1 53 16 12 86 •:,( corio '!• i 0 54 14 13 86 ! i: I >vD .• i 1 6 37 23 26 86 ? •3 10 4 12 26 i 1F7H ' 0 0 0 0 0 0 S I X T H . i o 0 0 0 0 < X V E . N ' I I-I 0 0 , . 0 " : 0 0 0 47 i 1 53 16 12 86 YijMNGE&T i 5 33 . 2 i 27 86 F I R S T DOCS NOT 1NCLUUE ONLY. 0LHF.ST INCLUDES F I R S T ANH ONLY. YOUNGPS") IS lNCLULiP.Li IN THE PREVIOUS DATA ANl.i HOLS NOT I NCI.LUC ONL Y. Ok- L -H- T ; OP . S 1" BL. I NG 3 - PER F A hi I L V NUMC-SLK or a JUL HMOS PFK F A M I L Y ONt "1 WO "1 HREF FOUR F I V E S I X SEVEN NO OP l-ftl'i 0 0 60 26 0 0 0 • x or PAH 0 0 70 3 0 0 0 0 ft:-AOl-iFFc P X INi F A 8- '( 1. L_ V P O S I T I O N ONLY i ST. 2 NU. 3 RD. 4 'IH. 5 TH. 6 IH . 7 TH. NUMBER U 47 44 2 5 7 0 0 0 V. TOTAI 0 'i I- AC'HER 0 39 37 13 6 0 0 .'.IF-' P i . _ P O F kTAC-HFR S k— FJ R F A l-i I I V " NUMBER OF I F A C H L R S IN THE FAMILY ONL TWO THREE FOUR F I V E ' S I X " SEVEN NO 01' FAM 60 20 5 i 0 0 0 Z OP FAM 70 23 ' 6 i * 0 0 0 YOUNGEST 23 19 R P A D V , J . . A T A l ^UI-if- iAK Y . , . . F;RH I L, 1 E S •,<^ffi P N L , Y .TOTAL, NO. OF S I B L I N G S = 101 * > ' ' TOTAL NUMBER . O F ' F A M I L I E S = 2 6 TOTAL. NUMBER OF '1 F.ACHLRS ~ 3 6 . • • AVERAGE NUMBER OF S I B L I N G S PER F A M I L Y » . 4 : " ' ' AVERAGE NUMBER OF. 1EACH1RS PER F A M I L Y = 1 . 3 8 ' H ^ G U P A T 5 ' - ' M *=»'— G A T FT O p R I ti S O F i S I B L I r-4 Ci . I IK. 1 Ni'.i U L 1 If. S I * vu 1 *N0ti-1 TEACHER . OTHER COMPL. TOTAL COMPL. A G G R E S S I V E DETACHED TOTAL ONI. Y 0 0 .... 0 F I R S T il 14 4 ' 18 4 4 26 SECOND 1 0 5 15 5 6 26 1 Hl'f iD 5 4 9 6 11 26 i OURTFI 7 3 10 4 12 2 6 F I F T H . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S I X T H 0 0 0 0 0 SEVENTH 0 0 ' 0 . ' 0 0 0 14 4 18 4 4 26 7 3 10 4 12 26 f-t I vl A I.. V S X S O F » F I R S T DOES NOT INCLUDE ONLY. OLDEST INCLUDES F I R S T AND ONLY. YOUNGEST IS INCLUDED IN THL PREVIOUS DATA AND DOES NOT INCLUDE ONLY. Nl_»ii-iir-. R O S I B L I fv|OS f•>t=!R F" A M I L Y NO OF FAM X Of" FAM U N E o 0 NUMBER OF S I B L I N G S PER FAMILY TWO THREE . FOUR 0 0 26 0 0 100 F I V E 0 0 S I X 0 0 S E V E N 0 0 I c A C H E K F O S n I O h - i X M F:AM I I. V 1 ' ONLY Nun tit K 0 'A I U I AL. I1..HCHER o ' I S I . 14 3 9 1 ND. 10 28 POSIT ION 3 RD. 14 4 TH. 7 19 IH. 6 TH. 0 7 TH. 0 YOUNGEST 7 19 LO - P «•=-» tM A l_ V &> T S • O F WIJMBFR O F N0 OF FAM X c 0 P T F A M ONE ' 19 .: 73 TWO 19 ~l F A C H E R S P E R F A M I L Y NUMBER OF TEACHLRS IN THE F A M I L Y THREE FOUR F I V E S I X 1 1 0 " 0 4 4 0 0 S E V E N 0 0 

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