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Women's work behaviour : an exploration of sex role socialization, changing structures of opportunity,… Pearson, Hilary Mary 1986

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WOMEN'S WORK BEHAVIOUR: AN EXPLORATION OF SEX ROLE SOCIALIZATION, CHANGING STRUCTURES OF OPPORTUNITY, AND WOMEN'S WORK BEHAVIOUR. by HILARY MARY PEARSON B.A., University of Manchester, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Counselling Psychology We accept this paper as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1986 ® Hilary Mary Pearson, 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 27 FEBRUARY, 1986 DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t C u r r e n t t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r development a re moving toward a h o l i s t i c , e c o l o g i c a l framework (Rapoport &• Rapoport, 1980; Super, 1980; Young, 1984a). R e c e n t l y , a t t e m p t s have been made t o de v e l o p a comprehensive model o f c a r e e r b e h a v i o u r t h a t w i l l a r t i c u l a t e the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r environment ( A s t i n , 1984; Farmer, 1985). A s t i n (1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t changes i n work b e h a v i o u r ( a t both the i n d i v i d u a l and group l e v e l ) a r e a f f e c t e d by the complex and c o - d e t e r m i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . The p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h i s a b e g i n n i n g toward v a l i d a t i n g A s t i n ' s model and d e s c r i b i n g the impact of s o c i a l change on women's work b e h a v i o u r . The s t u d y examined d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e p o r t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u r r e n t work b e h a v i o u r o f female c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l workers a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, v o l u n t e e r s were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o two s p e c i f i c age groups: women born p r i o r t o 1940 (45-55 year o l d s ) and women born a f t e r 1950 (25-35 year o l d s ) . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t y o u n g e r women w o u l d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a n m a t u r e women a n d t h a t t h e two g r o u p s w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f work b e h a v i o u r ( n a m e l y P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n , Work v a l u e s a n d A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d Women ' s E m p l o y m e n t ) . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n e a c h c a s e . S p e a r m a n Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t o e x a m i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d work b e h a v i o u r m e a s u r e s p a i r e d w i t h f o u r d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ) . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r o l e p r i o r i t i e s a n d r o l e i n v e s t m e n t i n s i x l i f e a r e a s - E m p l o y m e n t , E d u c a t i o n , M a r r i a g e / P a r t n e r s h i p , C h i l d r e n , S e l f a n d O t h e r . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e p o r t e d s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t w o g r o u p s a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Y o u n g e r women r e p o r t e d t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o h a v e b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l t h a n t h a t o f m a t u r e women. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s on t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f work b e h a v i o u r . i v D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o w o m e n ' s r o l e p r i o r i t i e s a n d r o l e i n v e s t m e n t s h o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e i n b o t h g r o u p s . Q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a h i g h l i g h t e d t h e d y n a m i c t e n s i o n t h a t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e m p l o y m e n t , f a m i l i a l a n d s o c i a l r o l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t r i b u t e c a u s a l i t y o r make d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s . I t was s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s l e n d i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t t o A s t i n ' s ( 1 9 8 4 ) m o d e l . R e s u l t s c o r r o b o r a t e e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e d y n a m i c q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . T h e y a l s o i m p l y t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d on s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s a r e o p e n t o m o d i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g o f women f r o m a l i f e s t y l e p e r s p e c t i v e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f Ta b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgement i x D e d i c a t i o n x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the P r e s e n t Study 7 Research Q u e s t i o n s 9 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 10 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13 Changing O p p o r t u n i t y S t r u c t u r e s 13 The Inadequacy o f E x i s t i n g V o c a t i o n a l 22 Development Models The Importance o f an i n t e g r a t i v e Framework 28 Nev/ D i r e c t i o n s i n the V o c a t i o n a l 33 P s y c h o l o g y o f Women A s t i n ' s model 55 Farmer's model 59 Summary 62 The P r e s e n t Study 63 D e s c r i p t i o n 63 E s t a b l i s h i n g Hypotheses 65 C o n c l u s i o n s 70 Main hypotheses 71 S u b s i d i a r y hypotheses 73 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY 76 P o p u l a t i o n 76 Sample 76 Sampling P r o c e d u r e s 77 I n s t r u m e n t s 78 Sex R o l e S o c i a l i z a t i o n 78 The Bern Sex Role I n v e n t o r y ( 1 9 7 4 ) 79 The Pace S c a l e of A t t i t u d e s 85 Towards M a r r i e d Women's Employment ( 1 9 7 0 ) The Work V a l u e s I n v e n t o r y 87 (Super, 1 9 7 0 ) R o l e P r i o r i t i e s 92 R o l e Investment 92 Design and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s 93 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER IV RESULTS 96 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 97 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample 98 I n t e r n a l R e l i a b i l i t y of the 107 Inst rument Research Hypotheses 111 Sex Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n 111 P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n 119 Work Values 123 A t t i t u d e Toward Married Women's 129 Employment Role P r i o r i t i e s 132 Role Investment 133 Homogeneity of v a r i a n c e 135 Q u a l i t a t i v e Data 137 Summary of Hypotheses ' 141 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY 144 D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 144 T h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s 166 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 168 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 171 Suggestions f o r Future Research 172 Summary 174 REFERENCES 177 APPENDIX A 193 Qu e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX B 205 Psychometric data f o r the BSRI 205 Psychometric data f o r the WVI 208 APPENDIX C 212 Tables of a n a l y s i s of Childhood Exper iences APPENDIX D 226 Tables of a n a l y s i s of BSRI APPENDIX E 234 Tables of a n a l y s i s of WVI APPENDIX F 268 Tables of a n a l y s i s of pace Scale APPENDIX G 272 Tables of a n a l y s i s of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Ta b l e 1 Background I n f o r m a t i o n on S u b j e c t s 100 T a b l e 2 Annual Income by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 104 T a b l e 3 Annual Household Income by L e v e l of 105 E d u c a t i o n Table 4 F i r s t LERTAP A n a l y s i s : I n t e r n a l R e l - 108 i a b i l i t y o f the S i x Reseach Measures Table 5 Second LERTAP A n a l y s i s : I n t e r n a l 110 R e l i a b i l i t y o f the F i n a l Research Instrument Table 6 C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : S t a t i s t i c s 112 and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Table 7 C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : C o r r e l a t i o n 114 C o e f f i c i e n t s T a ble 8 BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s 120 and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Table 9 BSRI F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s 121 and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e T a b l e 10 BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y 122 S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n s T a ble 11 Pace S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s 130 of V a r i a n c e "Table 12 Pace S c a l e : Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n 13.1 C o e f f i c i e n t s T a ble 13 R o l e P r i o r i t i e s : S t a t i s t i c s and F R a t i o s 133 T a b l e 14 R o l e Investment: S t a t i s t i c s and F R a t i o s 134 Table 15 R o l e P r i o r i t i e s and R o l e i n v e s t m e n t 135 Rank O r d e r i n g o f Mean Scores by Age Group v i i i L I S T OF F IGURES F i g u r e 1 A s t i n ' s M o d e l 57 F i g u r e 2 F a r m e r ' s M o d e l 61 F i g u r e 3 A P e r s o n a l - I n t e g r a t i v e A p p r o a c h 68 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h , f i r s t o f a l l , t o t h a n k t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e . I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o D r . S h a r o n K a h n , my c o m m i t t e e c h a i r p e r s o n a n d m e n t o r d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w o y e a r s . H e r i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m h a s b e e n u n f a i l i n g . She h a s c h a l l e n g e d me t o s e e k w i t h i n m y s e l f f o r a n s w e r s I was n o t s u r e w e r e t h e r e a n d h a s h e l p e d me t o w o r k t o w a r d e x c e l l e n c e w h i l s t a v o i d i n g t h e p i t f a l l s o f p e r f e c t i o n i s m . D r . H a r o l d R a . t z l a f f , my s t a t i s t i c s a d v i s o r , h a s g u i d e d me w i t h w i s d o m . H i s e y e f o r d e t a i l a n d , h i s p a t i e n t t e a c h i n g h a s a d d e d g r e a t l y t o t h e q u a l i t y o f my work a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . D r . R i c h a r d Y o u n g h a s i n s p i r e d me t h r o u g h h i s own w r i t i n g s a n d h a s c h a l l e n g e d a n d c r i t i q u e d my i d e a s i n a way t h a t h a s b e e n b o t h s t i m u l a t i n g a n d a f f i r m i n g . I w i s h t o t h a n k D r . M i k e McRae f o r u n s e l f i s h l y s h a r i n g h i s s t a t i s t i c a l e x p e r t i s e , h i s c o m p u t e r w i z a r d r y , a n d h i s f r i e n d s h i p . I owe"my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e women c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s who g a v e t h e i r t i m e t o t h i s s t u d y . I h a v e g r e a t l y v a l u e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h e y p r o v i d e d o f w o r k i n g w i t h , a n d h o p e f u l l y f o r , women. F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k my p a r t n e r , D a v i d . To m e n t i o n a l l t h e many a n d v a r i e d ways i n w h i c h he h a s a s s i s t e d me w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e . The f a c t t h a t he h a s done s o w i t h p a t i e n c e a n d l o v e h a s b e e n a s o u r c e o f i n e s t i m a b l e c o m f o r t a n d s u p p o r t . X DEDICATION T h i s p a p e r i s d e d i c a t e d t o my p a r e n t s , M a r y a n d P e t e r P e a r s o n . My m o t h e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n h e r own c a r e e r a n d my f a t h e r ' s t e n d e r n e s s t a u g h t me t h a t l o v e a n d work a r e i m p o r t a n t human v a l u e s d e v o i d o f g e n d e r p r o s c r i p t i o n s . F r o m my e a r l i e s t y e a r s t h e y e n c o u r a g e d my c u r i o s i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . T h e i r l o v i n g s u p p o r t a n d t h e i r t r u s t i n my a b i l i t i e s h a s h e l p e d me t o p l a n , a t t a i n a n d r e n e g o t i a t e my g o a l s a s I h a v e moved t h r o u g h my own l i f e c a r e e r . To t h e m b o t h I owe wha t g o e s b e y o n d w o r d s . 1 I . INTRODUCTION A n y d i s c u s s i o n o f women i n c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l c h a n g e . The p o s t war t r e n d s i n r i s i n g d i v o r c e r a t e s , l o w e r e d f e r t i l i t y , i n c r e a s i n g e d u c a t i o n , a n d i n c r e a s e d l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e a l l i n s t i g a t o r s o f new s e x r o l e s f o r C a n a d i a n men a n d women (Women ' s B u r e a u , L a b o u r C a n a d a , 1 9 8 4 ) . D r a m a t i c c h a n g e s i n w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h e l a s t 30 y e a r s h a v e c h a l l e n g e d t h e w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f t h a t w o m e n ' s p r i m a r y ( a n d p r e f e r r e d ) r o l e s w e r e t h o s e o f w i f e a n d m o t h e r ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1 9 8 3 ) . I t i s now c l e a r t h a t women a r e a l a r g e , p e r m a n e n t a n d n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e economy ( L a w s , 1979; M a r s d e n , 1 9 8 0 ) . The movement o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f women i n t o t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t h a s a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t e x p a n s i o n i n b o t h t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h on w o m e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r p a t t e r n s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d i d e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . D e s p i t e a c o m m i t m e n t t o e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r women, a c t u a l p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n s l o w (Women ' s B u r e a u , L a b o u r C a n a d a , 2 1983). At the r e s e a r c h l e v e l t h e r e i s , as y e t , no comprehensive t h e o r y o f women's v o c a t i o n a l development ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983; F i t z g e r a l d & c r i t e s , 1980). Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p r o c e s s of both men's and women's c a r e e r development remains fragmented (Harmon & Farmer, 1983) . T h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s due i n p a r t t o the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h i s m t h a t has e x i s t e d between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s - between an emphasis on p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s on the one hand, and c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s on the o t h e r . R e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s i n sh a p i n g b e h a v i o u r i s c a u s i n g a movement toward s y n t h e s i s ( A s t i n , 1984; F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1982; Super, 1980). R e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y are s t a r t i n g t o look at the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i r own work and t h e o r i e s growing out of s o c i o l o g y and l a b o u r economics, and to. c o n s i d e r b o r r o w i n g from r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s used i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s (Harmon & Farmer, 1983). C o i n c i d e n t a l l y t h e r e i s a g r a d u a l s h i f t toward l o o k i n g at v o c a t i o n a l development from an open systems p e r s p e c t i v e . Career t h e o r y and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l paradigm of i n d i v i d u a l i s m (Young, 1984b). Even d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s were in f o r m e d by t h i s b a s i c paradigm and d e s c r i b e d c a r e e r development as a l i n e a r sequence of 3 stages that i n d i v i d u a l s would (and should) move through. In the l a s t few years t h e o r i s t s have recognized the importance not only of context but a l s o of process; they are now advocating the adoption of a h o l i s t i c , e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e that views employment as p a r t of a " l i f e c a r e e r " (Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980; Super,1980; Young, 1984a) . The development of a theory to e x p l a i n women's career p a t t e r n s was f u r t h e r hampered by two major b i a s e s that e x i s t e d w i t h i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l psychology. F i r s t , women as a group were l a r g e l y ignored i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l development theory. Given that men were t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as the "workers" i n s o c i e t y , developmental t h e o r i e s were b u i l t on the study of men's l i v e s and career p a t t e r n s . As i n other areas of developmental psychology, i t was assumed that these t h e o r i e s were g e n e r a l i z a b l e and could be used to de s c r i b e the v o c a t i o n a l development of both sexes ( F i t z g e r a l d & Betz, 1983). The i n a b i l i t y of the male v o c a t i o n a l model to e x p l a i n women's career paths has been h i g h l i g h t e d i n recent years as re s e a r c h e r s have c a l l e d f o r a c l e a r e r focus on the added c o m p l e x i t i e s of the female work experience ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; Go t t f r e d s o n , 1982; Osipow, 1973, 1975b). Second, the d i r e c t i o n of much research was s u b t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p e r v a s i v e assumption that f o r women b i o l o g y was d e s t i n y . An emphasis on b i o l o g y and 4 s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s b i a s e d t h e f i e l d o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y t o w a r d t h e s t u d y o f s e x d i f f e r e n c e s ( A s t i n , 1984; D a r l e y , 1976; D e a u x , 1984; F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1 9 8 3 ) . The i n i t i a l r e s u l t was n o t o n l y a n a r r o w i n g o f f o c u s b u t a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t o r t i o n i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The p i c t u r e o f women t h a t e m e r g e d f r o m a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e " n o r m a l " m a l e c a r e e r p a t h was one o f c o n f u s i o n , d e v i a n c e a n d d e f i c i e n c y ( B e l l , 1976; D a r l e y , 1976; F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1 9 8 2 ) . The u n d e r l y i n g , u n i n t e n t i o n a l b i a s was t h e r e f o r e b o t h l i m i t e d a n d l i m i t i n g . D u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e t h e o r i s t s h a v e d r a w n a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f g e n d e r as an e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e a n d h a v e p r o p o s e d t h a t more e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be g i v e n t o s e x r o l e r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( D e a u x , 1984; o ' N e i l , M e e k e r & B o r g e r s , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f s e x r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n g e n d e r p e r s e , w o u l d p r o v i d e a more p o w e r f u l f r a m e w o r k f o r s t u d y i n g w o m e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983; M a c c o b y & J a c k l i n , 1975; U n g e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The f a c t t h a t s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e t o e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e x t y p e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a s l o n g b e e n a c c e p t e d . What h a s b e e n m i s s i n g i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f s o c i e t a l n o r m s a n d v a l u e s ( A s t i n , 1984; F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983; O s i p o w , 1983; S t a f f o r d , 1 9 8 4 ) . S o c i a l r o l e s h a v e u n d e r g o n e d r a s t i c c h a n g e s i n C a n a d a i n 5 r e c e n t y e a r s . A s M a r s d e n ( 1 9 8 0 ) s a y s : I n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s b o r n a b o u t 1 9 5 0 , q u i t e new p a t t e r n s o f a d u l t l i f e a r e b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d , e s p e c i a l l y b y a d u l t women. D u r i n g t h e p a s t 30 y e a r s , C a n a d a h a s gone t h r o u g h a p e r i o d o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n a n d g r o w t h , a n d a t t h e same t i m e t h e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e h a v e u n d e r g o n e a number o f c h a n g e s s u c h t h a t women now i n y o u n g a d u l t h o o d ( a g e s 2 5 - 3 5 ) c a n n o t f i n d an a c c u r a t e m o d e l o f a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r m o t h e r s ( p . 6 5 ) . The new f o c u s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s ( b o t h a t t h e m i c r o a n d m a c r o s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l s ) h a s moved r e s e a r c h e r s away f r o m wha t F i t z g e r a l d a n d B e t z ( 1 9 8 3 ) h a v e c a l l e d t h e " h o m o g e n i z a t i o n " o f women - t r e a t i n g a l l women a s i f t h e y h a d t h e same a b i l i t i e s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e r e i s now a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d y n a m i c q u a l i t y o f s e x r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ( t h e d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r o r a t t i t u d e s a n d t h o s e p r e s c r i b e d by g e n e r a l s e x r o l e i d e a l s a n d t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ) , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y o f t h e c o m p l e x , i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d c h a n g i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . R e c e n t s t u d i e s on g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l 6 a s p i r a t i o n s and c h o i c e s h a v e p r o v i d e d a f u n d o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t a s A s t i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) p o i n t s o u t , " t h e y do n o t e l a b o r a t e on t h e ways i n w h i c h g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i o s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s g e t t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t work and u l t i m a t e l y i n t o i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s " ( p . 1 1 8 ) ' . The l a c k o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , g u i d i n g t h e o r y o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d . Some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a t h e o r y may be p r e m a t u r e g i v e n t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g r o l e o f women i n s o c i e t y ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1 9 8 0 ; O s i p o w , 1 9 8 3 ) . O t h e r s u n d e r l i n e t h e p r e s s i n g n e c e s s i t y o f t h e o r y b u i l d i n g ( H a r m o n & F a r m e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . The C o m m i t t e e o f women , D i v i s i o n 1 7 , o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , ^ c o g n i z a n t o f t h i s l a c k o f t h e o r y , i n v i t e d H e l e n A s t i n t o w r i t e a t r e a t i s e on t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f women. A s t i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y f o r m u l a t e d a m o d e l o f c a r e e r c h o i c e and work b e h a v i o u r t h a t t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s ( s e e c h a p t e r I I ) . The m o d e l h a s y e t t o be f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a n d e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d , b u t a p p e a r s t o h a v e b o t h e x p l a n a t o r y a n d p r a c t i c a l v a l u e ( B e r n a r d , 1 9 8 4 ; F a r m e r , 1 9 8 4 ; H a r m o n , 1 9 8 4 ; K a h n , 1 9 8 4 ) . A s t i n ' s m o d e l e x e m p l i f i e s t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s a h o l i s t i c , i n t e r a c t i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t s e e k s s y n t h e s i s r a t h e r t h a n d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s , a n d 7 between the m u l t i p l i c i t y of f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o c e s s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r development. Her p e r s p e c t i v e s t r e s s e s the importance o f both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l / e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s and h i g h l i g h t s the dynamic t e n s i o n t h a t e x i s t s between them. Unique t o A s t i n ' s model i s her d e s c r i p t i o n o f the way i n which the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t t o produce change i n work b e h a v i o u r both at the i n d i v i d u a l and group l e v e l (Harmon, 1984). I t i s t h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , s t r u c t u r e of o p p o r t u n i t y and work b e h a v i o u r t h a t formed the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . L o o k i n g a t two groups o f women who grew up and made t h e i r i n i t i a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s i n d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l time frames (namely the 1950's and the 1970's) the stu d y e x p l o r e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e p o r t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u r r e n t work b e h a v i o u r between th e s e two groups o f women. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e P r e s e n t Study Marsden (1980) p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n Canada the g e n e r a t i o n of women born between 1950 and 1960 would "be a l e a d group i n the t r a n s i t i o n t o a s o c i e t y o r g a n i z e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y from t h a t which we now e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 71). I f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s hope t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l 8 s e r v i c e s t o t h e i r f e m a l e c l i e n t s t h e y n e e d a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t o f s o c i a l c h a n g e on w o m e n ' s work b e h a v i o u r . F o r e x a m p l e , t o wha t d e g r e e a r e i n d i v i d u a l w o m e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and w o r k b e h a v i o u r r e s p o n s i v e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e ? A r e t h e r e a n y l i m i t s t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s s h a p e d by e a r l y l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s c a n be m o d i f i e d by c h a n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s ? How do s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e t o e i t h e r l i m i t o r e n h a n c e c h a n g e i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( A s t i n , 1 9 8 4 ) ? When p e o p l e u n d e r s t a n d t h e u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t e x i s t f o r t h e m w i t h i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e y a r e a b l e t o a c t upon t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a n d i n t e r a c t w i t h i t i n ways t h a t e n s u r e t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r g r o w t h a n d a u t o n o m y ( Y o u n g , 1 9 8 4 ) . The p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t o f e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n c o u p l e d w i t h r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t more t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t h e a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d b e h a v i o u r o f C a n a d i a n women may be i n a s t a t e o f f l u x . Women c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s w e r e c h o s e n a s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . L i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s - an o c c u p a t i o n p u r s u e d by one o u t o f t h r e e women i n C a n a d a t o d a y ( P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1 9 8 3 ) . P a s t r e s e a r c h ha s t e n d e d t o f o c u s on a c a d e m i c women o r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s a n d h a s b e e n more c o n c e r n e d w i t h " c a r e e r s " r a t h e r t h a n " j o b s " ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1 9 8 1 ; P e r u n & B i e l b y , 1 9 8 1 ) . M o r e r e c e n t l y s t u d i e s h a v e l o o k e d a t women f o l l o w i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . M o s t women, h o w e v e r , h a v e j o b s a n d mos t o f t h e m a r e c r o w d e d i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w r a n g e o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e j o b s . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e s e women t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o be t h e f i r s t a n d h a r d e s t h i t by r i s i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e ( A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 8 4 ) . M e n z i e s (1981) s t a t e d t h a t , " C a n a d i a n women a r e o n a c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e b e t w e e n t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s a n d t h e i n d u s t r y ' s d i m i n i s h i n g r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h a t l i n e o f w o r k " ( p . x i ) . She p r e d i c t e d t h a t b y 1990 n e a r l y a m i l l i o n women w o u l d be u n e m p l o y e d u n l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e s w e r e t a k e n I f M e n z i e s ' p r e d i c t i o n i s a c c u r a t e t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t l a r g e n u m b e r s o f women w i l l n e e d h e l p t o e n s u r e t h e i r f u t u r e e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n t h e f a c e o f s u c h p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s a n d o b v i o u s n e e d , i t s eemed t i m e l y t o b e g i n t o d e v e l o p a c l e a r e r f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t o e x p l o r e t h e i m p a c t o f c h a n g e on c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s Do women c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l . w o r k e r s b o r n p r i o r t o 1940 r e p o r t a s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t r e p o r t e d by a s i m i l a r g r o u p o f women b o r n a f t e r 1950? 10 I s t he p r e s e n t work b e h a v i o u r o f women c l e r i c a l workers born p r i o r t o 1940, d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f a s i m i l a r group o f women born : a f t e r 1950? Namely: are t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , work v a l u e s , r o l e p r i o r i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s towards m a r r i e d women's employment and r o l e i n v e s t m e n t between t h e two groups? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b t a i n e d s c o r e s on the sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n measure and f i v e measures o f work be h a v i o u r and c e r t a i n demographic v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l income, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ) t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n f l u e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f women's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and work b e h a v i o u r ? D e f i n i t i o n o f terms Career Development Career development i s used i n t h i s s t u d y t o mean "the dev e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f p o s i t i o n s o c c u p i e d by persons throughout l i f e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l and f a m i l y r o l e s " ( R i c h a r d s o n & Johnson, 1984. p. 845). In the pa s t c a r e e r development was used t o r e f e r t o a s t r u c t u r e d sequence o f h i e r a r c h i c a l s t e p s engaged i n by i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c o u r s e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l l i v e s . In t h i s sense of the term, " c a r e e r s " were seen t o be d i f f e r e n t from " j o b s " because of the degree of p e r s o n a l commitment, s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and c o n t i n u i t y they 11 i n v o l v e d . Where c i t e d a u t h o r s have used the terms c a r e e r development and c a r e e r i n t h i s more r e s t r i c t e d s ense, the meaning i s , I b e l i e v e , apparent from the c o n t e x t . Work The d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f work i s the " e x e r t i o n of e f f o r t d i r e c t e d t o produce or a c c o m p l i s h something". Work can t a k e many forms: p a i d work, v o l u n t e e r work, the work i n v o l v e d i n r u n n i n g a home. ( A s t i n , 1984). When r e f e r e n c e i s made s p e c i f i c a l l y t o work o u t s i d e , the home f o r pay, the terms "employment", " p a i d work" or " l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n " w i l l be used. When r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the work i n v o l v e d i n r u n n i n g a home, the term " f a m i l y work" w i l l be used. When the term "work" i s used g e n e r i c a l l y i t i n c l u d e s p a i d work, f a m i l y work and v o l u n t e e r work. Work Behaviour For t he purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , work b e h a v i o u r i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as a m u l t i f a c e t e d c o n s t r u c t c o m p r i s i n g : A. P e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n (as measured by the Bern Sex Rol e I n v e n t o r y , 1974). B. Work v a l u e s (as measured by Super's,1968, Work V a l u e s I n v e n t o r y ) . C. Rol e p r i o r i t i e s (as measured by a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ) . D. A t t i t u d e s towards •' m a r r i e d women's employment (as 12 measured by the Pace, 1970, A t t i t u d e s Toward M a r r i e d Women's Employment S c a l e ) . E. R o l e i n v e s t m e n t (as measured by a p i e c h a r t adapted from T i t t l e , 1981). S t r u c t u r e of O p p o r t u n i t y The c o n s t r u c t o f s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y has been f o r m u l a t e d by A s t i n (1984). I t i n c l u d e s "economic c o n d i t i o n s , the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t are i n f l u e n c e d by s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances, h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s , and s o c i a l / i n t e l l e c t u a l movements" ( A s t i n , 1984. p. 125). 13 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Changing Opportunity Structures It would be useful to keep in mind that vocational problems are not e n t i r e l y i n t e r n a l l y generated, but are s o c i a l l y structured. Developmental tasks such as choosing aspirations, exploring alternatives and adjusting to retirement are to a large extent s o c i a l l y programmed not only for when they occur but also how they should most properly be resolved (Gottfredson, 1982. p.83). Women who grew up in the 1950's and 1970's respectively experienced a very d i f f e r e n t environment in terms of both the s o c i e t a l norms and values that prevailed at each time, and the r e l a t i v e position of women in the labour force . A b r i e f summary of major differences between the two periods i s followed by an overview of women's position in the Canadian work force today. In 1950 only 23% of Canadian women were in the labour force. The great majority of women who had flocked into the labour market during World War II were back in the home. The post-war economic and p o l i t i c a l climate dictated that jobs should go to men and that women should be discouraged from working outside the home. In 14 the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r example, the number o f women a t work d e c l i n e d by f o u r m i l l i o n between 1945-1947 d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t two t h i r d s o f the women s a i d they wanted t o keep t h e i r jobs (Deckard, 1975). The i d e a l o f woman-as-housewife was endorsed by North American governments. A d l a i Stevenson e p i t o m i z e d the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e when s p e a k i n g of women's p o l i t i c a l r o l e : I t h i n k t h e r e i s much you can do about our c r i s i s i n the humble r o l e o f h o u s e w i f e . I c o u l d wish you no b e t t e r v o c a t i o n than t h a t ( F r i e d a n , 1963). The same a t t i t u d e was apparent i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s . One women's c o l l e g e i n the U.S.A. boas t e d t h a t , "we are not e d u c a t i n g our women t o be s c h o l a r s ; we are e d u c a t i n g them t o be wives and mothers" ( F r i e d a n , 1963). The number o f B.A. 's awarded t o women by American u n i v e r s i t i e s dropped by 5% between 1930 and 1960 and c u r r e n t l y f a s h i o n a b l e F r e u d i a n arguments were used t o warn women o f the dangers o f becoming d r i e d up c a r e e r women (Deckard, 1975). S o c i o l o g i s t s promoted the warmth and s u p p o r t i v e n e s s of the f a m i l y ( B o u c h i e r , 1983). B i r t h r a t e s reached an a l l time h i g h i n the l a t e 1940's and c o n t i n u e d r i s i n g u n t i l the l a t e 1950's. Women who s t a y e d a t home were encouraged by the new i d e o l o g y of c h i l d c a r e t o see the tas k o f c h i l d - r e a r i n g as more w o r t h w h i l e than any o t h e r 15 p u r s u i t (Dr. Spock's baby manual had appeared i n 1946). Working mothers, by c o n t r a s t , were burdened w i t h d i s a p p r o v a l and g u i l t . The i d e a l i z e d image o f the model American f a m i l y -s u c c e s s f u l husband working t o su p p o r t h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n i n suburban a f f l u e n c e - q u i c k l y became an i d e a l t h a t p e o p l e at a l l l e v e l s - o f s o c i e t y were s t r i v i n g t o emulate. Deckard (1975) comments: Men l e a r n e d t h a t the h i g h e s t v i r t u e was moneymaking; women were t o l d t h a t the h i g h e s t v i r t u e was t o be a c h i l d p r o d u c i n g machine surrounded by l o t s o f g l i t t e r i n g gadgets i n a l i t t l e box i n the suburbs (p. 309). Magazines p o p u l a r i z e d what F r i e d a n (1963) was l a t e r t o c a l l t he " f e m i n i n e mystique" and i n the consumer boom of the 1950's and e a r l y 1960's new a d v e r t i s i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o c u s e d on women and on t h e i r d omestic r o l e : By f a r the g r e a t e s t volume of consumer goods were connected w i t h home and homemaking, and the a d v e r t i s e r s were 100% agreed t h a t t h i s was women's b u s i n e s s . The c o m p l e x i t y of c h o i c e s now f a c i n g the housewife (which extended from housewares i n t o c l o t h e s , c o s m e t i c s and a c c e s s o r i e s ) r e i n f o r c e d the s e p a r a t i o n o f women by making f e m i n i n i t y an even more r i c h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a r t . T h i s e l e v a t i o n o f the domestic r o l e s e r v e d t o c u t women o f f from 16 o t h e r o p t i o n s ; a f f l u e n c e h e l p e d g i v e t h a t r o l e a s p u r i o u s c o n t e n t ( B o u c h i e r , 1983. p p . 2 3 - 2 4 ) . D e s p i t e t h e g e n e r a l i z e d b a c k - t o - t h e - k i t c h e n i d e o l o g y , more a n d more women b e g a n t o w o r k o u t s i d e t h e home ( D e c k a r d , 1975). T h i s r i s e i n t h e number o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e c a m e , s u r p r i s i n g l y , n o t f r o m s i n g l e b u t f r o m m a r r i e d women a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y f r o m m o t h e r s . The c o n s u m e r b o o m , f o r a l l i t s e m p h a s i s on w o m e n ' s d o m e s t i c r o l e , e n c o u r a g e d t h i s m o v e m e n t . A s t h e i d e a l i z e d l i f e s t y l e i m a g e d i v e r g e d f u r t h e r a n d f u r t h e r f r o m r e a l i t y , f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c e d t h e n e e d f o r a s e c o n d i n c o m e ; t h e e x p a n s i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n a n d s e r v i c e s e c t o r s c o i n c i d e n t a l l y p r o v i d e d s u i t a b l e j o b o p e n i n g s f o r women. The c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o m p l e x : i n c r e a s e s i n w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f l e c t e d e c o n o m i c n e e d , e x p a n s i o n o f w h i t e c o l l a r a n d s e r v i c e s e c t o r s a n d c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s - i n t h e i r t u r n t h e s e i n c r e a s e s h e l p e d t o c h a n g e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t e v e n m o r e . The s e x i s t i d e o l o g y o f t h e 1950 ' s h a d b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e v e n t i n g a n y w o m e n ' s l i b e r a t i o n movement ( D e c k a r d , 1975) b u t b y t h e m i d 1960 ' s t h i n g s w e r e c h a n g i n g r a p i d l y . The C i v i l R i g h t s movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was a t i t s h e i g h t a n d women b e g a n t o o r g a n i z e a r o u n d t h e e q u a l i t y i s s u e . The m y t h o f t h e c o n t e n t e d s u b u r b a n h o u s e w i f e was c h a l l e n g e d ( F r i e d a n , 1963) a n d i n 1966 t h e N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Women was f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h 300 members a n d B e t t y F r i e d a n a s i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . 17 J o h n K e n n e d y e s t a b l i s h e d a p r e s i d e n t i a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S t a t u s o f Women i n D e c e m b e r 1961 a n d by 1967 e v e r y s t a t e i n t h e U . S . A . h a d i t s own C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S t a t u s o f Women. The E q u a l P a y A c t was f i n a l l y p a s s e d i n 1963 ( h a v i n g b e e n i n t r o d u c e d a n d d e f e a t e d e a c h y e a r s i n c e 1945) a n d was f o l l o w e d i n 1965 by a l a w w h i c h made i t i l l e g a l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t women i n h i r i n g a n d p r o m o t i o n . By 1968 women i n E u r o p e a n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w e r e a c t i v e i n c a u s e s s u c h a s a b o r t i o n r i g h t s , c h i l d c a r e , j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d e q u a l p a y , a n d t h e w o m e n ' s movement h a d r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t f u l l s c a l e c o v e r a g e b y t h e m e d i a ( t h e 1966 p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e M i s s A m e r i c a c o n t e s t ) . F a m i l y l i f e b e g a n t o c h a n g e r a p i d l y . A l r e a d y by t h e m i d 1960 ' s t h e b i r t h r a t e was d e c r e a s i n g a n d women w e r e m a r r y i n g l a t e r ; b e t w e e n t h e l a t e 1960 ' s a n d 1970 ' s t h e d i v o r c e r a t e i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . T r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s o f s e x u a l i t y came u n d e r a t t a c k ( c f . G r e e r , 1971) a n d n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s f l o u r i s h e d . C h a n g e s i n C a n a d a , t h o u g h l e s s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d t h a n t h o s e i n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e f l e c t e d s i m i l a r t r e n d s . By 1970, 38.3% o f C a n a d i a n women o v e r age 15 w e r e e m p l o y e d (Women i n t h e L a b o u r F o r c e , 1970: F a c t s a n d F i g u r e s , C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r ) . I n t h i s same y e a r t h e f i r s t r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S t a t u s o f Women was p u b l i s h e d . 18 C o n t i n u i n g changes i n f a m i l y , e d u c a t i o n and work have s u p p o r t e d the movement o f women i n t o the l a b o u r market: i n c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y , d e c l i n i n g b i r t h r a t e s , r i s i n g d i v o r c e r a t e s , advances i n r e p r o d u c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y and the a c c e p t a n c e o f n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s have a l l h e l p e d t o reduce the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by c h i l d - b e a r i n g and c h i l d - r e a r i n g . G r e a t e r a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n , the c o d i f i c a t i o n o f women's r i g h t s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t a re more c o n d u c i v e t o women working have f a c i l i t a t e d women's o c c u p a t i o n a l e n t r y ( A s t i n , 1984; Gunderson, 197 7 ) . Recent Canadian s t a t i s t i c s h i g h l i g h t the f a c t t h a t employment i s now an expected p a r t of most women's l i v e s . Between 1971 and 1981 the number o f women i n the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e i n c r e a s e d by 61.9%. By 1981/1982 women c o n s t i t u t e d 41.2% o f the t o t a l Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e and 51.6% o f a l l women, age 15 and o v e r , were employed. Of th e s e women, 28.1% were aged between 25-34 y e a r s (the prime c h i l d b e a r i n g y e a r s ) as compared t o o n l y 20.7% i n 1971. The Women's Bureau Labour Canada e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1980 t h e r e were about 760,000 p r e - s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n whose mothers worked o u t s i d e the home (Armstrong, 1984; P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983; Women's Bureau, Labour Canada, 1970, 1983). Employment f o r women i s no l o n g e r the e x c e p t i o n , i t i s the norm. Rand and M i l l e r (1972) found t h a t i n t h e i r sample o f women (which spanned j u n i o r h i g h through 19 c o l l e g e y e a r s ) 95% e x p e c t e d b o t h t o m a r r y a n d t o be e m p l o y e d . I n 1977 t h e a v e r a g e A m e r i c a n woman c o u l d e x p e c t t o s p e n d 27.6 y e a r s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ( M a r e t , 1983). The a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n woman c a n c u r r e n t l y e x p e c t t o s p e n d a b o u t 34 y e a r s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ( P a t t e r s o n , 1981). D u r i n g t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r 65% o f l a b o u r f o r c e g r o w t h a n d by t h e y e a r 2000 i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e w i l l a p p r o a c h t h a t o f men ( E m p l o y m e n t a n d i m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , 1981). When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n w o m e n ' s l a b o u r f o r c e i n v o l v e m e n t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h e e q u a l l y r e m a r k a b l e ( b u t o f t e n i g n o r e d ) l a c k o f p r o g r e s s i n w o m e n ' s e c o n o m i c and e m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , women a n d men a r e s h a r i n g t h e w o r l d o f p a i d w o r k b u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a d u a l l a b o u r m a r k e t and o c c u p a t i o n a l s e x s e g r e g a t i o n makes t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s w o r l d v e r y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h women f o r m 40% o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , women a c c o u n t f o r 45% o f t o t a l u n e m p l o y m e n t ( E m p l o y m e n t a n d I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , 1981). F e m a l e wage r a t e s c o n t i n u e t o be a b o u t 40% l o w e r t h a n m a l e e q u i v a l e n t s - t h e same a s t h e y w e r e i n C a n a d a 100 y e a r s ago ( P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983). M o r e o v e r r e s e a r c h shows t h a t t h e g a p b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e e a r n i n g s w i d e n s f o r e v e r y y e a r o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y c o m p l e t e ( G a s k e l l , 1980) a n d t h a t o v e r a l l t h e wage g a p b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s i s i n c r e a s i n g ( A r m s t r o n g , 1984). 20 Women s t i l l choose t h e i r employment from w i t h i n a very narrow range ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981) and, over the l a s t 30 y e a r s the p o l a r i z a t i o n of male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s has i n c r e a s e d (Armstrong, 1984; Laws, 1979). P h i l l i p s and P h i l l i p s (1983) speak of "a g h e t t o i z a t i o n o f women workers" and note t h a t one out o f e v e r y t h r e e women i n Canada i s c u r r e n t l y employed i n a c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n . Even when men and women share the same o c c u p a t i o n women are o v e r w h e l m i n g l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the lower l e v e l s ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1978). E p s t e i n ' s (1970) comment s t i l l seems p e r t i n e n t today: No matter what sphere o f work women are h i r e d f o r or s e l e c t , l i k e sediment i n a wine b o t t l e t h ey seem t o s i n k t o the bottom (p. 2 ) . Al t h o u g h the myth t h a t women work f o r " p i n money" s t i l l p e r s i s t s t o some degree (Laws, 1979) a q u i c k look at r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s on p o v e r t y r e v e a l s t h a t employment can no l o n g e r be seen as a secondary a c t i v i t y f o r most women i n Canada. s p i r a l l i n g i n f l a t i o n , the r i s i n g c o s t o f l i v i n g , changes i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the n u c l e a r f a m i l y , i n c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y and h i g h male unemployment r a t e s make p a i d work a n e c e s s i t y f o r the m a j o r i t y of women today. More women are s o l e l y dependent on t h e i r own e a r n i n g s and many o f them a l s o s u p p o r t f a m i l i e s . i n 1980 48.5% of a l l f a m i l i e s i n p o v e r t y i n Canada were headed by a woman a l o n e ( N a t i o n a l W e l f a r e C o u n c i l of Canada, 1983). 21 Research by Boyd (1977, 1984) on Canadian women workers r e p o r t e d t h a t 10% o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e was widowed, s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d and t h a t 75% o f d i v o r c e d women and 50% o f s e p a r a t e d women r e l i e d on employment as t h e i r major s o u r c e o f income. By 1980 t h e number o f women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h o u t a husband ( i . e . s i n g l e , d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d or widowed) had r i s e n t o 40% ( P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983). P o v e r t y among s i n g l e p ersons i s an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y female problem: two i n eve r y t h r e e poor Canadians a re women ( N a t i o n a l W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1979, 1983). The p i c t u r e f o r f a m i l i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r : i n 1978, 40% o f m a r r i e d women r e l i e d on t h e i r own employment as the major s o u r c e o f f a m i l y income (Boyd, 1977). An a d d i t i o n a l 51% o f Canadian two spouse f a m i l i e s would l i v e below the p o v e r t y l i n e i f wives d i d not work o u t s i d e the home ( N a t i o n a l W e l f a r e C o u n c i l of Canada, 1983). For women i n Canada th e s e s t a t i s t i c s p a i n t a c o n f u s i n g p i c t u r e . Some r e s e a r c h e r s emphasize a p o s i t i v e approach t o the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n : ..Canada's b a l a n c e sheet of e q u a l i t y , i f t h a t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , and i n s p i t e o f the f r u s t r a t i n g l y slow pace o f p r o g r e s s , t h e r e are reasons f o r opti m i s m (Women's Bureau, Labour Canada, 1983, p . i ) . 22 O t h e r s t a k e a more p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w : E v e r y y e a r , p r o g r e s s i s l a r g e l y c h i m e r i c a l . The l a c k o f p r o g r e s s r e s u l t s i n a p e r p e t u a t i o n o f l o s s e s t h a t become i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e v e r s i b l e ( A b e l l a , 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 0 9 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s u n d e r l i n e t h e i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s women a r e l i k e l y t o f a c e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e ( A r m s t r o n g , 1984; M e n z i e s , 1982) a n d c r i t i c i z e t h e t e l e b l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h o f much o f t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e t o d a t e w h e r e b y s t r u c t u r e s a r e t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d a n d d e s c r i b e d r a t h e r t h a n e x p l a i n e d ( A r m s t r o n g , 1984; E m p l o y m e n t a n d I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , 1981; U n g e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n a d e q u a c y o f E x i s t i n g V o c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t M o d e l s T h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on t h e s t u d y o f men h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be i n a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ( c f . F i t z g e r a l d & c r i t e s , 1980; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1982; O s i p o w , 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 5 ) . D e s p i t e a t t e m p t s by t h e o r e t i c i a n s t o e x p a n d t h e i r m o d e l s t o i n c l u d e t h e more c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ( G i n z b e r g , B e r g , B r o w n , H e n n a , Y o h a l e m & G o r e l i c k , 1966; K r u m b o l t z , 1979; S u p e r , 1 9 5 7 ) , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s h a s p r o v i d e d i s a t b e s t s c a n t y and a t w o r s t m i s l e a d i n g . The m u l t i p l e p a t t e r n s o f w o m e n ' s work b e h a v i o u r ( S u p e r , 1957; Z y t o w s k i , 1969) w e r e , when s e e n i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e 23 s t a n d a r d m a l e c a r e e r p a t h , b o t h c o n f u s i n g a n d a p p a r e n t l y c o n f u s e d . The t e n d e n c y t o c o m p a r e a l l women t o t h e m o d e l o f t h e m y t h i c a l , w h i t e , m i d d l e - c l a s s , a d v a n t a g e d m a l e ( L a w s , 1976) c r e a t e d an i m p r e s s i o n o f women t h a t b i a s e d much o f t h e e a r l y r e s e a r c h on w o m e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Women w e r e s e e n a s u n d i r e c t e d , p a s s i v e , e v e n r e l u c t a n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e w o r l d o f p a i d w o r k . F a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e p u r p o r t e d t o be t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f w o m e n ' s l i v e s ( P s a t h a s , 1968; Z y t o w s k i , 1969) -w o m e n ' s b i o l o g y a n d s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be s o . To a l l i n t e n t s a n d p u r p o s e s t h e P a r s o n i a n d i v i s i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l ( m a l e ) a n d e x p r e s s i v e ( f e m a l e ) a c t i v i t i e s was s t i l l s e e n a s t h e n a t u r a l o n e . Women who c h o s e t o r e m a i n s i n g l e o r t o f o l l o w a more t y p i c a l l y m a l e c a r e e r p a t h w e r e s e e n a s d e v i a n t . ( B e l l , 1976; D a r l e y , 1976). The m a j o r i t y o f women w e r e p o r t r a y e d a s s e c o n d a r y w o r k e r s : E m p l o y m e n t was e i t h e r a s t o p g a p - s o m e t h i n g t o do u n t i l t h e r i g h t man came a l o n g - o r a means o f e a r n i n g " p i n m o n e y " . P a i d work w a s , m o r e o v e r , s o m e t h i n g t h a t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h w o m e n ' s p r i m a r y s p h e r e o f i n t e r e s t - t h e f a m i l y . R e s e a r c h i n v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y c e n t r e d on t h e d i l e m m a f o r women o f c o m b i n i n g work a n d f a m i l y : s t u d i e s p r o l i f e r a t e d on t h e c o n f l i c t e x p e r i e n c e d b y women i n t h i s a r e a , on t h e c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s t h e y u s e d a n d on t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o f a m i l i e s ( H o f f m a n , 1974; L o c k s l e y , 1980; P o l o m a , 1972). 24 Given that p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s were seen as the mo t i v a t i n g f o r c e s of women's work behaviour, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the environmental context and i t s p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e s . Some re s e a r c h e r s ( c f . Sobol, 1963; Senesh, 1973; Osipow, 1975b; O ' N e i l , Meeker & Borgers 1978) pro v i d e d f a i r l y comprehensive frameworks of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g career development but on the whole research stopped short at the q u e s t i o n of why women worked, rather than moving on to consi d e r how and under what c o n d i t i o n s (Laws, 1976). The t h e s i s that p a i d work was not a n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y f o r women, or was n a t u r a l (and t h e r e f o r e s o c i a l l y a cceptable) only to the extent that i t was a) f i n a n c i a l l y necessary and b) remained a very secondary adjunct to f a m i l y commitments, was so p e r v a s i v e t h a t , to a l a r g e degree, women themselves accepted t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . Women who d i d work o u t s i d e the home j u s t i f i e d t h e i r employment on the b a s i s of "womenworkbecausetheyhaveto" (Steinem,1979). Even those women who d e f i e d s o c i a l a p p r o v a l , and admitted that they worked f o r the i n t r i n s i c p l e a s u r e of having a c a r e e r , were s u b j e c t to "covert uneasiness" (Rappoport & Rappoport, 1976). In the f i e l d s of s o c i o l o g y and economics, research that s t u d i e d women's employment behaviour e x h i b i t e d a s i m i l a r b i a s (Armstrong, 1984; B e l l , 1976; Feldberg &• Glen, 1982; G u r i n , 1974). B e l l (1976) notes t h a t : 25 Most o f the a m b i g u i t y and i g n o r a n c e about women's e a r n i n g s , women's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the economy, and f o r t h a t matter the economic s t a t u s o f women stem from the a u t o m a t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a woman as a w i f e and mother - t h a t i s as the female head of a f a m i l y (p. 247) . When, f o r example, d i f f e r e n c e s i n be h a v i o u r between male and female workers were o b s e r v e d , a " j o b " model was a p p l i e d t o men and a "gender" model t o women ( F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1982). Women's l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was seen not i n terms o f o n - t h e - j o b c o n d i t i o n s (as men's was), but as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e i r female p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Armstrong and Armstrong (1980) comment upon t h i s b i a s e d view and m a i n t a i n t h a t e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , " t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e p a t t e r n s e x i s t , they a re a t l e a s t as much a r e s u l t o f the n a t u r e o f the job as they a re a r e f l e c t i o n o f women's p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s " (p. 146). S i m i l a r l y , i n s t u d i e s on wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s , t he r e s i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s l e f t a f t e r the s t a n d a r d p r o d u c t i v i t y p r o x i e s had been t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n were e x p l a i n e d away by p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s ( G u r i n , 1974). Women's poor economic r e t u r n s were the r e s u l t of t h e i r poor c h o i c e s . The economy was presumed t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o gender (Armstrong, 1984) and t h e r e f o r e i t f o l l o w e d t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l a y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l 26 woman, not with the s t r u c t u r e of the job market. As Gurin (1974) says: ... supply analyses of wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s are the economic " v i c t i m d e f i c i t " analog to p e r s o n a l i t y d e f i c i t approaches i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l research on sex and race ... The d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e focus on supply c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t s a b i a s i n both economists and p s y c h o l o g i s t s to look p r i m a r i l y f o r problems i n people (p. 14). Rose-Lizee (1985) sees the problem as one of a fundamental d e n i a l of women as an economic f o r c e : ..our s o c i e t y continues to see women not as a c t i v e agents i n the economic process but rath e r i d e n t i f i e s them i n terms of t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r o l e s . As a group they bear the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that s o c i e t y a s c r i b e s to them. That women are economic agents of t h e i r own, i s s t i l l not w e l l understood (p. 131). Models which have f o l l o w e d a developmental p e r s p e c t i v e have tended, i n the past, to see v o c a t i o n a l development i n terms of a gradual u n f o l d i n g of age-stage r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s (Super, 1953, 1969). As v e r o f f (1982) comments: Too o f t e n developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s make 27 l i f e s p a n p r o c e s s e s t o o a b s t r a c t by a s s u m i n g t h a t , w h i l e p e o p l e age w i t h i n s p e c i f i c s o c i a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s , l i f e s p a n p r i n c i p l e s s h o u l d t r a n s c e n d t h e s e c o n t e x t s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n n o r m a l l y makes a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h e r s a v o i d a s k i n g a b o u t t h e s o c i a l t e x t u r e o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s a n d l e a d s t h e m t o p r o b e o n l y a b o u t u n i v e r s a l g e n e r a l c h a n g e s i n human d e v e l o p m e n t ( p . v i i ) . The r e c e n t w o r k b y G i l l i g a n (1982) on w o m e n ' s m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e f u t e s t h e n o t i o n t h a t women c a n be s u b s u m e d u n d e r a m a l e d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o d e l . I d e a s a b o u t t h e t i m i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s f o r women a l s o a r e b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d b y r e s e a r c h ( R i c h a r d s o n & J o h n s o n , 1984) a n d by t h e v i s i b l e c h a n g e s i n w o m e n ' s work p a t t e r n s . The d i s j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n e x i s t i n g t h e o r y a n d t h e c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e x t h a s s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Ha rmon and F a r m e r (1983) u n d e r l i n e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a t h e o r y t h a t r e f l e c t s r e a l i t y : . . t h e v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t who b u i l d s t h e o r y w i t h o u t a f i r m b a s i s i n t h e r e a l i t y o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s a n d n e e d s , w i l l a t b e s t be s i m p l y l u c k y o r w r o n g , a n d a t w o r s t , s q u a n d e r t h e r e s o u r c e s a n d i n f l u e n c e l i v e s i n a n e g a t i v e way ( p . 39) . 28 young (1984b) comments: In the l i g h t of r e c e n t and p r o j e c t e d s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s , the o l d n o t i o n s o f c a r e e r and employment are not s u f f i c i e n t t o guid e p r a c t i c e . They do not h o l d because work i t s e l f i s i n q u e s t i o n (p. 169). I n c r e a s i n g l y t h e n , t h e r e i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r t h e o r y t h a t r e f l e c t s the l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e of p e o p l e ' s l i v e s and c l a r i f i e s t he n a t u r e o f the dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s between person and environment, "the p r o g r e s s i v e mutual accomodation between a c t i v e , growing human b e i n g and the changing p r o p e r t i e s o f the immediate s e t t i n g s i n which the d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n i s a f f e c t e d by r e l a t i o n s between the s e t t i n g s and by the l a r g e r c o n t e x t s i n which s e t t i n g s a r e embedded" ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1979). The importance o f an I n t e g r a t i v e Framework The movement o f women i n t o t he l a b o u r f o r c e has not been m i r r o r e d by an e q u i v a l e n t d e c l i n e i n women's involvement i n the f a m i l y sphere. Rand and M i l l e r (1972) a t t e s t e d t o the new " c u l t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e " f o r women o f both c a r e e r and f a m i l y . Research c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t women s t i l l h o l d the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e and housework (Berk, 1985; Walker & Woods, 1976). S c o t t 2 9 (1984) remarks t h a t even the d i s t i n c t l y f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r o f p o v e r t y i s r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r p l a y between employment and f a m i l y r o l e s . There i s , however, a growing body o f r e s e a r c h which su g g e s t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s a re s l o w l y b e i n g eroded: new v a l u e s have a l t e r e d the b a l a n c e o f p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n work and l e i s u r e (Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980), and the r i s i n g i n c i d e n c e o f lo n g term unemployment i m p l i e s t h a t work may no l o n g e r p r o v i d e the m e a n i n g f u l , c e n t r a l f o c u s o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s t h a t i t has i n the p a s t (Young, 1984b). Men's c a r e e r p a t t e r n s are changing and the monism which has t y p i f i e d male c a r e e r p a t h s i s b r e a k i n g down. The growing i n c i d e n c e of m i d - l i f e c a r e e r change, m u l t i p l e c a r e e r s , a d e s i r e f o r more e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the r i s i n g unemployment r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t men w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y need and want t o combine f a m i l y and work ( P l e c k , 1982). U n t i l now t h e r e has not been a t h e o r y or model t h a t would e n a b l e r e s e a r c h e r s t o a d e q u a t e l y e x p l o r e the i n t e r a c t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l and f a m i l y r o l e s f o r women ( R i c h a r d s o n & Johnson, 1984). The t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h (and one adopted by the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ) has been t o s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l components f o r s t u d y , so t h a t each can be e x p l o r e d i n g r e a t e r depth and i n what has g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a more c o n t r o l l e d , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d way. The 30 a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t o n c e e a c h s p e c i f i c a r e a i s c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d , t h e n t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e c a n be r e a s s e m b l e d a n d a g l o b a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o b t a i n e d . I n t h i s way t h e p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n s i n g l e d o u t f r o m o t h e r l i f e a r e a s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s s t i l l a r g u e t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h e mos t l o g i c a l ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). To p r o c e e d i n s u c h a way i s t o o v e r l o o k t h e d y n a m i c , i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e t w o r o l e s . R e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e c h a l l e n g e d t h e i d e a t h a t w o r k and f a m i l y r o l e s a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e a n d h a v e a t t e s t e d t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r o t e c t i v e v a l u e o f m u l t i p l e r o l e s ( B a r u c h , B a r n e t t & R i v e r s , 1983; C r o s b y , 1982; W a r r & P a r r y , 1982). D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d o f c y b e r n e t i c s a p p e a r t o c o n f i r m t h e o l d a d a g e t h a t " t h e w h o l e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s " . The t h e o r y o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s c h a n g e h a s b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o s y s t e m i c f a m i l y t h e r a p y ( H o f f m a n , 1981; F i s c h , W e a k l a n d & S e g a l , 1983) a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e u s e o f a c i r c u l a r e p i s t e m o l o g y , h a s b r o u g h t t o t h e f i e l d o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t a n d d y n a m i c i n t e r a c t i o n : V i e w i n g p r o b l e m b e h a v i o r n o t i n i s o l a t i o n b u t i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t . . . e x e m p l i f i e s a s h i f t i n e p i s t e m o l o g y f r o m a s e a r c h f o r l i n e a r c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t c h a i n s t o a c y b e r n e t i c o r s y s t e m s v i e w p o i n t - t h e 31 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f any s e l e c t e d b i t o f b e h a v i o r i n terms o f i t s p l a c e i n a w i d e r , o n g o i n g , o r g a n i z e d system of b e h a v i o r , i n v o l v i n g feedback and r e c i p r o c a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t throughout ( F i s c h et a l . , 1983). To s e p a r a t e the w o r l d s o f f a m i l y and work has obvi o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e and r e s t r i c t s f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h r e e ways: F i r s t , i t m a i n t a i n s the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n which has b i a s e d both what i s s t u d i e d and how the r e s u l t s a re i n t e r p r e t e d ( F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1982). Second, i t e x c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x p l o r i n g the dynamic, m u t u a l l y c o n s t r a i n i n g and enhancing i n t e r a c t i o n between the two areas ( K a n t e r , 1984). T h i r d , i t d e n i e s the r e a l i t y o f women's l i v e s i n which the two spheres are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d ( A s t i n , 1984; R i c h a r d s o n & Johnson, 1984). At t h i s time the l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e approach o f Super (1980), the t r i p l e h e l i x model proposed by Rapoport and Rapoport (1980) and Young's (1984a) e c o l o g i c a l approach remain a t a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . The p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n are p o s i t e d but need t o be e l a b o r a t e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . Rather than s e e k i n g t o de v e l o p a comprehensive model of v o c a t i o n a l development some r e s e a r c h e r s have c a l l e d f o r the development o f a model e x c l u s i v e t o women ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; Osipow, 1983). Osipow (1983) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e are s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s 32 between the sexes to j u s t i f y the development of separate models for men and women "at least u n t i l such time as true sexual equality of career opportunity exists and the results have permeated society at a l l l e v e l s " (p. 263). This approach reinforces the perspective which i n s i s t s upon seeing differences between men and women rather than looking for s i m i l a r i t i e s . It runs the risk of continuing to see women as a special kind of worker and thereby applying d i f f e r e n t "female" c r i t e r i a to the interpretation of women's occupational choices and behaviour. If vocational psychologists hope to explain the impact of environmental structures on women's career development they need to avoid exchanging the dichotomy of the job and gender approach for yet another d i v i s i v e framework. Astin ( 1984) makes a strong case for a comprehensive model: Although the empirical research of the last two decades has demonstrated that a woman's work behavior cannot be examined in i s o l a t i o n from her family role, t h i s fact does not j u s t i f y the assumption that women's work behavior and men's work behavior have t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t roots and are shaped by diff e r e n t forces. Women and men share a common human condition and l i v e together in the same world 33 o f p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s a n d o t h e r s o c i o s t r u c t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e a s i n g l e t h e o r y s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e work b e h a v i o r o f b o t h men a n d women ( p . 119) . A s w e l l a s b e i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n y new m o d e l n e e d s t o be p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e do a f f e c t p e o p l e ' s e m p l o y m e n t b e h a v i o u r a n d , c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p r o a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r l i f e c a r e e r ( A l m q u i s t , 1977; A r m s t r o n g , 1984; D e a u x , 1984; P e r u n & B i e l b y , 1 9 8 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P e r u n a n d B i e l b y (1981) : a s o l u t i o n t o t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l m o r a s s w i l l be f o u n d o n l y when w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s v i e w e d f r o m t h e human d e v e l o p m e n t p a r a d i g m w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s p r o c e s s , c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , and a l i f e c o u r s e p e r s p e c t i v e ( p . 2 4 8 ) . New D i r e c t i o n s i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y o f Women N i e v a a n d G u t e k (1981) h a v e u s e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e t o c o n s t r u c t f o u r m o d e l s t o e x p l a i n t h e i n e q u i t i e s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s i n t h e w o r k p l a c e . The f o u r m o d e l s a r e : 1) t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e f i c i t m o d e l ; 2) t h e s t r u c t u r a l - i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o d e l ; 3) t h e s e x r o l e m o d e l 34 a n d 4) t h e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s m o d e l . E a c h m o d e l , N i e v a a n d G u t e k s u g g e s t , i m p l i e s d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s f o r r e m e d y i n g a p r o b l e m t h a t p e r m e a t e s i n d i v i d u a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d s o c i e t a l l e v e l s . N i e v a a n d G u t e k ' s t y p o l o g y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c u r r e n t i s s u e s i n t h e f i e l d o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The f i r s t m o d e l s t a n d s somewhat a l o n e a s t y p i f y i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , p r e v i o u s l y c r i t i q u e d a p p r o a c h t o w o m e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The o t h e r t h r e e m o d e l s e x e m p l i f y new d i r e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d . W h i l s t t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d a s d i s t i n c t m o d e l s , t h e t h e m e s o f e a c h a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . The f o u r m o d e l s a r e o u t l i n e d a n d r e f e r e n c e i s made t o i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h t h a t i n f o r m s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n d r e f l e c t s e a c h a p p r o a c h . F i n a l l y A s t i n ' s (1984) m o d e l i s e x a m i n e d i n some d e t a i l , a n d F a r m e r ' s (1985) v e r y r e c e n t t e s t i n g o f a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . 1. The I n d i v i d u a l D e f i c i t M o d e l T h i s m o d e l , a s i t s name s u g g e s t s , l o o k s f o r p r o b l e m s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . Women ' s i n n a t e b i o l o g y a n d e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n d o e s n o t f i t t h e m f o r t h e w o r l d o f w o r k ; women t h u s a r e s e e n a s l a c k i n g i n t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s u c c e s s o r c o n v e r s e l y a s h a v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t b l o c k t h e i r way t o s u c c e s s . K a n t e r (1977) sums up t h i s a p p r o a c h s u c c i n c t l y : 35 Something has been h o l d i n g women back. That something was u s u a l l y assumed t o be l o c a t e d i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women as i n d i v i d u a l s ; t h e i r t r a i n i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s ; the n a t u r e o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which make women unable t o compete w i t h men and men unable t o aggress a g a i n s t women; the " t r a c k s " t hey were put on i n s c h o o l or at p l a y ; and even, i n the most b i o l o g i c a l l y r e d u c t i o n i s t v e r s i o n o f the argument, " n a t u r a l " d i s p o s i t i o n s o f the s e x e s . C o n c l u s i o n s l i k e t h e s e have become s t a n d a r d e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r f a m i l i a r s t a t i s t i c s about d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . They form the b a s i s o f the " i n d i v i d u a l " model o f work b e h a v i o r . Whether one l e a n s toward the more s o c i a l or more b i o l o g i c a l s i d e o f the argument, both add up t o an assumption t h a t the f a c t o r s p r o d u c i n g i n e q u i t i e s a t work are somehow c a r r i e d i n s i d e the i n d i v i d u a l p erson (p.261). T h i s model formed the b a s i s f o r much o f the e a r l y r e s e a r c h on women's v o c a t i o n a l development. The assumption i s t h a t b e h a v i o u r can be e x p l a i n e d more r e l i a b l y .when sex i s known ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983). C r i t i c s have p o i n t e d out t h a t the approach i s t e l e o l o g i c a l and i n f l u e n c e s the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . I n f e r e n c e s are made from b e h a v i o u r 36 t o p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h s e x a s t h e c a u s a l l i n k . T h i s makes i t v e r y e a s y t o c o n c l u d e t h a t women g e t wha t t h e y wan t a n d / o r d e s e r v e ( F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1982; F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983; G a s k e l l , 1985; G u r i n , 1974). A n a l y s e s f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t e n d t o r e i f y t h e c o m p l e x a n d d y n a m i c p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ( G a s k e l l , 1985). The e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e s e e n a s f a i r l y p e r m a n e n t l y f i x e d ; i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t a l l t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l s h a p i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a s o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e y e v e r e n t e r t h e w o r k f o r c e . The u n d e r l y i n g t h e s i s i s " o n c e a s e c r e t a r y a l w a y s a s e c r e t a r y " ( K a n t e r , 1977). The a p p r o a c h s t r e s s e s t h a t s o l u t i o n s , l i k e p r o b l e m s , l i e w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l : s e l f i m p r o v e m e n t c o u r s e s a r e a d v o c a t e d f o r women, s e l f e x p l o r a t i o n w o r k s h o p s f o r men . The r o l e o f w o r k s t r u c t u r e s i n s h a p i n g b e h a v i o u r i s t o t a l l y i g n o r e d a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y l i t t l e i s d o n e t o a t t a c k t h e r o o t c a u s e o f i n e q u a l i t i e s ( N i e v a & G u t e k , 1981). B e n s t o n (1983), w r i t i n g a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d b y i n c r e a s e d a u t o m a t i o n , c h a l l e n g e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s a r e v i a b l e i n t h e f a c e o f m a j o r s o c i a l c h a n g e : The e m p h a s i s on i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s e x e m p l i f i e d by s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t a n d b y t r a i n i n g / r e t r a i n i n g i s , I b e l i e v e , s e t t i n g t h e s t a g e f o r a n o t h e r r o u n d o f b l a m e - t h e - v i c t i m , t o w h i c h women a r e a l l t o o o f t e n s u b j e c t . . . 37 The p r o b l e m i s much more t h a n an i n d i v i d u a l o n e ; i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c , t h e r e f o r e t o e x p e c t an i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n ( p . 5 4 ) . R e s e a r c h t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o d e l h a s b e e n d o c u m e n t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s p a p e r , t h e movement away f r o m t h i s d e t e r m i n i s t i c , r e s t r i c t i v e p a r a d i g m t o w a r d s m o d e l s t h a t s t r e s s c o n t e x t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n h a s b e e n n o t e d . 2 . T h e S t r u c t u r a l - I n s t i t u t i o n a l M o d e l T h i s m o d e l h i g h l i g h t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t i n t h e d e v e l o m e n t o f w o r k b e h a v i o u r . I t s f o c u s i s t h e i m p a c t t h a t work o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e on i n d i v i d u a l s a n d i t d e s c r i b e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s a r e e v e n t u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f e m p l o y e e s . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , w o m e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d a t t i t u d e s a r e s e e n a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l work s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e c a u s e s o f t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . W o m e n ' s l o w a s p i r a t i o n s a r e s e e n a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o r e a l i t y ; t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e g r a t i n g i n t o t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i r t o k e n p o s i t i o n s a n d e x c l u s i o n f r o m i n f o r m a l ( m a l e ) n e t w o r k s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a s s i s t a n c e ; t h e i r p r o b l e m s i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s a s s t e m m i n g f r o m t h e i r l a c k o f a u t h e n t i c p o w e r . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e f i c i t m o d e l w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t women mus t c h a n g e i f t h e y w i s h t o a c h i e v e 38 o c c u p a t i o n a l s u c c e s s , t h i s model reframes the problem as a need f o r change i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Women were o f t e n viewed as a s p e c i a l k i n d of worker, i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s o u t s i d e t h e job (Armstrong, 1984; K a n t e r , 1977). Whatever the scope of the s t u d y , r e f e r e n c e was r a r e l y made t o the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s of women on the job ( F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1982). As the dichotomy o f u s i n g a job model f o r men and a gender model f o r women was exposed, r e s e a r c h e r s began t o accumulate e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t s t r u c t u r a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e women's v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , o r i e n t a t i o n , commitment and b e h a v i o u r . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a c e i l i n g of a t t a i n a b i l i t y f o r s p e c i a l groups and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s make t h e i r c a r e e r p r o j e c t i o n s w i t h i m p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s as p a r t o f t h e i r r e a l i t y ( F a l k , 1975). Osipow (1975a) d e s c r i b e d a path o f " l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e " f o r i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r i n g e n t r y l e v e l p o s i t i o n s i n lower l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s . He suggested t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s need t o f o c u s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i n or d e r t o i n c r e a s e r e a l c h o i c e o p t i o n s , r a t h e r than d e s i g n i n g programs t o h e l p p e o p l e s e l e c t from " c h o i c e s " t h a t are not i n f a c t a v a i l a b l e t o them. G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) examined the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n terms o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and b a r r i e r s t h a t mediate 39 c h o i c e and s t r e s s e d the r o l e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s p r o c e s s . G o t t f r e d s o n c o n s i d e r e d t h a t sex and s o c i a l c l a s s a r e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l markers t h a t work t o l i m i t c h o i c e . L i k e Osipow, she remarked upon the r e a l i s m i n v o l v e d i n job c h o i c e and proposed t h a t the e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e ends when peopl e have made a "good enough", not n e c e s s a r i l y o p t i m a l , c h o i c e . G o t t f r e d s o n ' s model h i g h l i g h t s the f a c t t h a t c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n and compromise are e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n the p r o c e s s o f women's v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Research by G a s k e l l , c a r r i e d out i n 1983, showed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n : Young p e o p l e t a k e i n t o account not j u s t what they would i d e a l l y l i k e , but what they see as p o s s i b l e and f e a s i b l e . In a r e c e n t Vancouver st u d y a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s f e l t t h a t i n or d e r t o have a f a m i l y a t a l l they would have t o do the domestic work and p l a n t h e i r work l i v e s around t h i s . Men would not do the domestic work, a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f c h i l d c a r e were not a v a i l a b l e or good f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and as women th e y would earn l e s s money than men and be l e s s l i k e l y t o be h i r e d i n non t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s . I t was t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o n s t r a i n i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , r a t h e r than i n t e r n a l i z e d p r e f e r e n c e s , t h a t e x p l a i n e d t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g adherence t o t r a d i t i o n a l p a t h s 40 ( G a s k e l l , 1985, p.50). T i n s l e y and Faunce (1980) and B i e l b y and B i e l b y (1984) found t h a t s a l i e n t f a c t o r s i n a woman's immediate environment have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n and employment b e h a v i o u r . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , G u r i n (1974) s t r e s s e d the importance o f s i t u a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s which l e a d t o " r e a l i t y based p e r c e p t i o n s about chances f o r s u c c e s s " . G u r i n found i n a v a r i e t y of samples t h a t whereas v a l u e s and m o t i v a t i o n s remained s i m i l a r , e x p e c t a t i o n s and sense o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l d i f f e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c s . Faver (1983) examined the e f f e c t s of age and l i f e c y c l e s t a g e on the correspondence between women's c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n , c a r e e r p l a n s and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . She con c l u d e d t h a t " c a r e e r i n t e n t i o n s a l o n e a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o overcome the s t r u c t u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n h i b i t i n g women's b e h a v i o u r " (p. 195). Research of t h i s n a t u r e not o n l y i l l u m i n a t e s the compromises t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s make i n c h o o s i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s , but a l s o exposes the f a c t t h a t v o c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , t o d a t e , has l i t t l e t o say about such compromises and the way t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h them ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). The b a s i c t h r u s t o f the s t r u c t u r a l model i s c l e a r l y s e t out by Kanter (1982): I t i s time t o move beyond "sex d i f f e r e n c e s " 41 and "sex r o l e s " i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the observed b e h a v i o r of women i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t o r e t u r n t o c l a s s i c and emerging s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l t h e o r i e s t h a t e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r as a f u n c t i o n of p o s i t i o n i n a network o f h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s . By l o o k i n g at t h e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r , we can account f o r the b e h a v i o r of both men and women who f i n d themselves i n s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s i n an o p p o r t u n i t y or power s t r u c t u r e , or i n s i m i l a r sex r a t i o (pp. 246-7). Some r e s e a r c h e r s have seen i n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e a r i s k o f p r e s e n t i n g women as " v i c t i m s " r a t h e r than s e r i o u s workers ( F e l d b e r g & G l e n , 1982). O t h e r s have emphasized the dynamic, r e c i p r o c a l q u a l i t i e s of person/environment i n t e r a c t i o n ( F a l k , 1975) and the need f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o r e s i s t an over-emphasis on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t e c l i p s e s the importance of women's unique p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l needs (Yuen, T i n s l e y & T i n s l e y , 1980). Two r e s e a r c h e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r have p r e s e n t e d models t h a t are f i r m l y based w i t h i n a dynamic systems framework: Kanter (1977) b e l i e v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s always r e t a i n some degree o f freedom i n d e c i d i n g how t o a c t , s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s s t r o n g l y shape the o p t i o n s and means a v a i l a b l e t o them. She f u r t h e r 42 s u g g e s t s t h a t " t o a v e r y l a r g e d e g r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s make t h e i r w o r k e r s i n t o who t h e y a r e . A d u l t s c h a n g e t o f i t t h e s y s t e m " . K a n t e r (1977) s t r e s s e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t e r a c t i v e : T h u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s p r o d u c e d i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , s e e k i n g t o meet t h e i r own n e e d s a n d manage t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , w h i c h c o n s t r a i n t h e i r o p t i o n s f o r t h e w a y s t h e y c a n a c t . The t o t a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s a d y n a m i c o n e : c e r t a i n r e s p o n s e s t o u c h o f f o t h e r s a n d p r o v i d e t h e m o v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d c y c l e s a n d c h a i n s o f e v e n t s ( p . 253) . R a n t e r ' s a i m i s t o move away f r o m a b l a m e - t h e - v i c t i m a p p r o a c h , t o w a r d l o o k i n g a t t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o u t c o m e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y a n d p o w e r s t r u c t u r e s a t b o t h f u n c t i o n a l a n d p r o c e s s l e v e l s . Laws ( 1 9 7 6 , 1979) h a s d e v e l o p e d a m o d e l b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t t h e c o n t e x t s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e f e m a l e l i f e s t y l e . Laws s u g g e s t s t h a t a f o c u s on t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o w s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s ( o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d i n c e n t i v e s a v a i l a b l e t o women) a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h r o l e p a r t n e r s ) , b o t h o f w h i c h c a n m o d i f y e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y p r o v i d e . The m o d e l e m p h a s i z e s 43 the importance of i n f o r m a t i o n i n s h a p i n g m o t i v a t i o n , which i s viewed as a complex c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t s h i f t s over time i n response t o ev e n t s i n the work l i f e . O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s a dynamic p r o c e s s not "a d i s c r e t e event analagous t o the menarche which o c c u r s once i n a l i f e t i m e " (1979. p. 38). Laws t a k e s a much broader p e r s p e c t i v e than Kanter and i n s i s t s t h a t g i v e n the c o m p l e x i t y o f m o t i v a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r a l arrangements i n v o l v e d i n women's employment i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o adopt l i f e s t y l e r a t h e r than o c c u p a t i o n as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s f o r women's p l a n n i n g . G a s k e l l , s p e a k i n g about women and e d u c a t i o n at a r e c e n t c o n f e r e n c e , commented: .. most changes are l o c a t e d c l e a r l y n e i t h e r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n nor i n the i n d i v i d u a l , but i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two. The e x p e c t a t i o n s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and p e r s p e c t i v e s o f s t u d e n t s and e d u c a t o r s a re shaped by e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n and the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which they o p e r a t e and are f i l t e r e d t hrough assumptions about the r o l e of women and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of work (1985, pp. 52-3). From t h i s b r i e f o v e r v i e w i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see t h a t r e s e a r c h w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r a l - i n s t i t u t i o n a l paradigm has moved beyond s i m p l y a p p l y i n g the job model t o women and has u s e f u l l y adopted a p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t l i n k s i t c l o s e l y t o the f o l l o w i n g two models. 44 3. The sex role model This approach focuses on the general s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n s of female roles which naturally include work related roles. Individual's expectations are derived from t r a d i t i o n a l expectations of male and female roles (the Parsonian "instrumental" male and "expressive" female), and sex role prescriptions subsequently provide dir e c t i o n to a broad range of work related behaviours. The sex role model takes into account the l i m i t i n g e f f e c ts of the female s o c i a l i z a t i o n experience, but goes beyond the indi v i d u a l d e f i c i t model by providing a focus on the effects of context on male and female work related behaviours and interactions. Problems for women are seen as being caused by an inappropriate s p i l l o v e r between roles. Women are caught in a double bind: i f they conform to prescribed sex role ideals they w i l l be judged as unsuited to the "male" world of work; i f they defy the l i m i t s of sex role prescriptions they w i l l be punished both externally, by s o c i a l disapproval, and in t e r n a l l y , by g u i l t . Boulding (1977) describes the way in which th i s mutual reinforcement between roles works against women: The woman worker i s punished at home for not giving adequate nurturant service because of her workplace r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; she i s punished at the workplace both for being an 45 " u n r e l i a b l e " p e r s o n who may be c a l l e d t o her home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at any time and f o r be i n g a p e r s o n who at most has o n l y "housekeeping" s k i l l s t o o f f e r at the wo r k p l a c e . Thus each o f her a c t i v i t i e s downgrades the o t h e r and cements her p o s i t i o n at t he bottom o f the s t a t u s and power h i e r a r c h i e s of both the p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e sphere (p. v ) . I t has been noted t h a t women's c a r e e r development, u n l i k e men's, i n v o l v e s two s e q u e n t i a l s t a g e s ( K r i g e r , 1972). Women must f i r s t d e c i d e i f they want t o work, and second what job or c a r e e r t o pursue. S t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s may no l o n g e r be the case and t h a t "the female l i f e c y c l e i s now composed o f work and f a m i l y c y c l e s i n s i m u l t a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n throughout a d u l t h o o d " (Perun & B i e l b y , 1981). None the l e s s , c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e norms have a major impact on women's c a r e e r c h o i c e and o c c u p a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . Both G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) and G u r i n (1974) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t women lower t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and i n c r e a s i n g l y opt f o r t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e o c c u p a t i o n s as m a r r i a g e p l a n s and/or v a l u e s become more prominent. G o t t f r e d s o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l model d e s c r i b e s the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and s e l f c o n c e p t . G o t t f r e d s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l 46 c h o i c e p r o c e s s , v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and p r e s t i g e l e v e l of jobs w i l l be s a c r i f i c e d b e f o r e sex t y p e , because the l a t t e r i s more c e n t r a l t o the s e l f concept and p r o v i d e s a more ob v i o u s c l u e t o s o c i a l i d e n t i t y . Thus i n h i g h s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h boys and g i r l s a r e e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a r r i a g e and pa r e n t h o o d , t h i s i n t e r e s t w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and c h o i c e s because sex r o l e norms d i c t a t e d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e r o l e s f o r each sex ( i . e . , men w i l l a c h i e v e as workers and p r o v i d e r s , women as homemakers and n u r t u r e r s ) . G u r i n (1974) w i t n e s s e d an almost i d e n t i c a l p r o c e s s happening a t c o l l e g e age. Ha c k e t t and Betz (1981) have deve l o p e d a model t o e x p l a i n women's c a r e e r development based on Bandura's (1977) concept o f s e l f e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . S e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s a re a c q u i r e d i n f o u r ways: 1) through performance accomplishments; 2) through v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s ( v i a r o l e m o d e l s ) ; 3) through v e r b a l p e r s u a s i o n (encouragement and s u p p o r t ) and 4) through e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l ( a n x i e t y r e d u c t i o n ) . H a c k e t t and Betz suggest t h a t c u r r e n t female s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s do l i t t l e t o encourage s t r o n g s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s i n women. On the o t h e r hand, e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o women's c a r e e r development a re g r e a t - so g r e a t i n f a c t t h a t women need t o have s t r o n g e r s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s than most men, f o r whom the pat h t o c a r e e r s u c c e s s i s smoother. A c c o r d i n g l y women's o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s are s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d by s t r o n g 47 i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which are i n t e r a c t i v e w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s . Spence and H e l m r e i c h (1980) a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n t o the l i n k between sex r o l e r e l a t e d i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s and s o c i o s t r u c t u r a l b a r r i e r s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t because female s o c i a l i z a t i o n s t r e s s e s e x p r e s s i v e and n u r t u r a n t r o l e s , women l a c k c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , a s s e r t i v e n e s s and s e l f esteem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d as i t i s c u r r e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d . For t h i s r e a s o n , they b e l i e v e , women l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pursue c a r e e r s and opt i n s t e a d f o r t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s . The f a c t t h a t so few women e n r o l l i n s e n i o r l e v e l mathematics c o u r s e s i s o f t e n s u g g ested as a reason f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and e x e c u t i v e l e v e l j o b s . Sherman (1983), i n t e r v i e w i n g grade 11 g i r l s about mathematics and t h e i r f u t u r e l i f e p l a n s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t : .. i t i s n e i t h e r a n x i e t y , nor l a c k o f a b i l i t y t h a t keeps women from mathematics. i t i s a network o f s e x - r o l e i n f l u e n c e s which makes mathematics, and the c a r e e r s mathematics a re needed i n , appear i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h the female r o l e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h motherhood. When g i r l s see t h a t motherhood and demanding c a r e e r s can be combined, a major so u r c e o f r e s i s t a n c e t o mathematics w i l l d i s a p p e a r (p.342). 48 D a r l e y (1976) h i g h l i g h t s t h e l a c k o f c l e a r c u t n o r m s a n d o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y ( i . e . f e m a l e ) r e f e r e n c e g r o u p f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y women who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o c o m b i n e f a m i l y a n d e m p l o y m e n t . D a r l e y p o s i t s t h a t men a n d women s h a r e t h e same p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t t h a t t h e s e w i l l be d i s p l a y e d d i f f e r e n t l y a n d i n d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s t o c o i n c i d e w i t h s o c i a l n o r m s . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w o m e n ' s a p p a r e n t l y o v e r d e p e n d e n t , n o n - a c h i e v i n g n a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be " l a r g e l y o r w h o l l y e p i p h e n o m e n a l " ( p . 97) - t h e r e s u l t o f r o l e c o n f l i c t a n d l a c k o f v a l i d a t i o n b y a s t a b l e r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . P s y c h o l o g i s t s f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n i n m o t i v a t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n e x p e c t a n c i e s a s r e f l e c t o r s o f c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n s and m o t i v e s ( o r n e e d s ) a n d more s t a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d e r i v e d f r o m s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1983). T h e y e m p h a s i z e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h a n c e s f o r s u c c e s s i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , a n d t h e p e r s o n a l i n c e n t i v e v a l u e t h a t s u c h s u c c e s s h o l d s f o r t h e m , mus t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n a n y s t u d y o f m o t i v a t i o n . V a l i d a t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s h a s l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t H o r n e r ' s (1968, 1972) w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d " f e a r o f s u c c e s s " m o t i v e i n women s h o u l d be r e f r a m e d a s a n a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y on t h e p a r t o f women ( U n g e r , 1979). I t i s now r e c o g n i z e d t h a t w o m e n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f 49 men ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980) and, i n terms of oc c u p a t i o n a l achievement, i s i n h i b i t e d by the e f f e c t of sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which teaches women to s t r i v e for e x c e l l e n c e i n the s o c i a l arena and to seek out appr o v a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p and s o c i a l approbation ( G i l l i g a n , 1 9 8 2 ; Hoffman, 1972; Spence & Helmreich, 1980; S t e i n & B a i l e y , 1973; T a n g r i , 1972) . Changes i n s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s i n the 1980's appear to have i n c r e a s e d the scope of accept a b l e behaviours f o r women and there are suggestions that the i n f l u e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s on women's s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s may now be s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced ( S t a f f o r d , 1984). Avery (1980) studying the c r i t i c a l events shaping women's i d e n t i t y , found that the women i n her study d i d not see t h e i r e a r l y l i f e e xperiences as being c r i t i c a l to t h e i r c u r r e n t s e l f d e f i n i t i o n s . She qu e r i e d whether t h i s was due to a conscious r e j e c t i o n of e a r l y sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e to acknowledging the importance of e a r l y l e a r n i n g s , or the e f f e c t s of r a p i d s o c i a l change. Got t f r e d s o n ' s (1981) c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n model, w h i l s t given g e n e r a l support, i s c r i t i c i s e d f o r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n that once l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n i s set (at about age e i g h t , G o t t f r e d s o n s u g g e s t s ) , i t i s f a i r l y s t a b l e and immutable ( A s t i n , 1984; Farmer, 1985). Kaufmann and Richardson (1982) s t r e s s the dynamic q u a l i t y inherent i n the process of weighing and e v a l u a t i n g a d u l t r o l e s , and 50 p o i n t out t h a t , " p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t s i n and commitments to l i f e s c r i p t s and s c h e d u l e s are made by a c t o r s who are r a t i o n a l and s e n t i e n t - c a p a b l e o f n e g o t i a t i n g and r e n e g o t i a t i n g t h e i r r o l e s over the l i f e c o u r s e " (p. x i i ) . Recent r e s e a r c h by Farmer (1985) c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s v i e w p o i n t and su g g e s t s t h a t dimensions of m o t i v a t i o n such as a s p i r a t i o n , mastery, and c a r e e r commitment c o n t i n u e t o be i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y by e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p o r t systems and are f a r from b e i n g permanently f i x e d . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , S p i t z e and Waite (1980), examining the r e l a t i o n s between w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e and e a r l y l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s respond t o , r a t h e r than a f f e c t , e a r l y work e x p e r i e n c e s . C e r t a i n l y such f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m Farmer's (1980a) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t we need t o f o c u s l e s s on background v a r i a b l e s and more on c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s i f we are t o u n t a n g l e the p r o c e s s by which i n d i v i d u a l women p l a n t h e i r c a r e e r development. E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t he need t o look a t how sex r o l e norms and women's e x p e c t a t i o n s are s h i f t i n g . For example, do e x p e c t a t i o n s change more r a p i d l y i n women o f d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s , or who have d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s ? What i s the impact of i n d i v i d u a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s on r a t e o f change? To what degree does the changing a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f c u l t u r a l rewards s t i m u l a t e r o l e i n n o v a t i o n ? 51 4. The in t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s model The i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s model i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the sex r o l e model. I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men and women as groups. The pervas i v e n e s s of s o c i e t a l sex r o l e norms leads to a s t e r e o t y p i n g that exaggerates within-group s i m i l a r i t i e s and between-group d i f f e r e n c e s . In t h i s way the importance given to membership of the group "women" f a r outweighs the c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to other i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that may w e l l be more r e l e v a n t to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n or work-related task. T h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of expectancies from s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s i s compounded by the f a c t that i n the present p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y , men are c o n s i s t e n t l y viewed as s u p e r i o r : Where d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women are found, the male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r . In a d d i t i o n to the assumed s u p e r i o r i t y of male t r a i t s i s the assumption that male a c t i v i t i e s are s u p e r i o r to female a c t i v i t i e s (Nieva & Gutek, 1981. p. 119). The i n t e r g r o u p model thus i m p l i e s that men and women are not t r e a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s but as members of s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r groups r e s p e c t i v e l y : " .. women are 52 i n f l u e n c e d by s i g n i f i c a n t others and i n s t i t u t i o n s f i r s t and d i r e c t l y as members of a subordinate sex and s e c o n d a r i l y as i n d i v i d u a l s " (Richardson & Johnson, 1984, p. 87). T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e has l e d r e s e a r c h e r s to see s i m i l a r i t i e s between women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and those of other m i n o r i t y groups (Gurin, 1974) and to look at r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n terms of power d i f f e r e n t i a l s . Beyard-Tyler and Haring (1984) document the very d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n s made about "female" and "male" jobs i n our present s o c i e t y . In t h e i r study, male jobs were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t ed as having more p r e s t i g e - to the extent that the female p r o f e s s i o n a l c l u s t e r of jobs was rated as having l e s s p r e s t i g e than the male n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l c l u s t e r . In a d d i t i o n , the authors note, both men and women gain more p r e s t i g e when they are i n sex a p p r o p r i a t e jobs (which compounds the d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d f o r e i t h e r sex i n c r o s s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l sex l i n e s ) . Beyard-Tyler and Haring d e s c r i b e the double bind that women face i n n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations: the jobs they t r a d i t i o n a l l y hold are given l e s s p r e s t i g e , and male occupations are given l e s s p r e s t i g e when women are job h o l d e r s . As Steinem (1983a) remarked, a p r o f e s s i o n "begins to t i l t l i k e a neighborhood" when i t becomes more than o n e - t h i r d female. Whilst both sexes s u f f e r from o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p i n g , the economic consequences of t h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e are e s p e c i a l l y 53 important to women, who t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i n d themselves i n the lowest paying job c a t e g o r i e s (Beyard-Tyler & Haring, 1984). Kanter (1977) c l a r i f i e s the way i n which the mechanisms of s t e r e o t y p i n g work to reproduce themselves: O r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t e n act as though i t i s p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t people's job f u t u r e s from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they b r i n g with them to a r e c r u i t i n g i n t e r v i e w . What r e a l l y happens i s that p r e d i c t i o n s are made on the b a s i s of s t e r e o t y p e s and c u r r e n t n o t i o n s of who f i t s where i n the present system; people are then "set up" i n p o s i t i o n s which make p r e d i c t i o n s come true (p. 263). Despite research which shows that men and women respond s i m i l a r l y to an e q u i v a l e n t work context (Deaux & Ullman, 1983), the focus has g e n e r a l l y been upon sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Unger (1979) c r i t i q u e s the way i n which sex i s tacked on to a multitude of s t u d i e s , c r e a t i n g a c o n f u s i n g amalgam of r e s u l t s that serve mainly to obscure sex s i m i l a r i t i e s which, she b e l i e v e s , are much more p r e v a l e n t than the supposed d i f f e r e n c e s . Falk (1975) and Unger (1979) p o i n t to the importance of sex as a stimulus v a r i a b l e , e l i c i t i n g r e a c t i o n s from others i n the environment and mediated by the s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n of the respondent. Unger suggests that 54 whereas career choice i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , sex as a stimulus v a r i a b l e has a strong impact upon women's career adjustment. Falk (1975) s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t other i n f l u e n c e occurs as an ongoing phenomenon, r e g a r d l e s s of whether an i n d i v i d u a l i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n i n i t i a t i n g r e l a t a t i o n s h i p s with others or not. Deaux (1984) p r o v i d e s a very u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the importance of sex as a su b j e c t v a r i a b l e and as a s o c i a l category. Deaux remarks that many tasks cannot be seen as n e u t r a l arenas f o r the t e s t i n g of p o s s i b l e sex d i f f e r e n c e s . E x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c t asks are s t r o n g l y l i n k e d to st e r e o t y p e s about men and women; observed sex d i f f e r e n c e s are r a r e l y durable main e f f e c t s but rather r e s u l t from the s e x - l i n k a g e of a s p e c i f i c task which p r o v i d e s an i n f l u e n t i a l source of observed d i f f e r e n c e s . Deaux p o i n t s to the importance of s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s and the c r i t i c a l r o l e of other people's e x p e c t a t i o n s to e x p l a i n s i t u a t i o n a l s e x - r e l a t e d p a t t e r n s of behaviour. She p o s i t s that the p r o a c t i v e n e s s of women has been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d and emphasizes the need to look at the r o l e of b e h a v i o u r a l choice i n e x p l a i n i n g the f u n c t i o n of gender. B e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , she suggests, are the r e s u l t of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . In t h i s way enacted d i f f e r e n c e s may be the r e s u l t of s i m i l a r p o t e n t i a l s . 55 Like Kanter, Deaux comments upon the vicious c i r c l e set up by the existence of stereotyping: ".. to the extent that the perceiver's expectancies are stereotypic, a sequence may be instigated in which people eventually play out their stereotypes" (p. 114). The conclusions that Deaux draws from her research again stress the need to treat sex-related phenomena as a systemic process: ".. a process that i s influenced by individual choices, molded by s i t u a t i o n a l pressures and ultimately understandable only in the context of s o c i a l interaction" (p. 115). Astin's Model Astin's (1984) sociopsychological model of career choice and work behaviour incorporates elements from several of the models and approaches outlined previously. As well as synthesizing various themes i t moves beyond e a r l i e r models in two important ways: f i r s t , i t i s a comprehensive model that can be used to explain the occupational behaviour of both genders; second, i t uses the concept of structure of opportunity to explain behaviour change (both at the i n d i v i d u a l and group level) over time. Astin's theory comprises four main p r i n c i p l e s : 1. Work behaviour i s a motivated a c t i v i t y intended to s a t i s f y three basic needs: s u r v i v a l , pleasure and contribution. These needs, and hence work motivation, 56 a r e t h e same f o r women a n d men . C a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e b a s e d on e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s o f work ( p a i d w o r k , f a m i l y w o r k , v o l u n t e e r w o r k ) a n d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e t h r e e b a s i c n e e d s . E x p e c t a t i o n s a r e s h a p e d b o t h b y e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d b y t h e p e r c e i v e d s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . E x p e c t a t i o n s c a n be m o d i f i e d b y c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d c o n s e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s c a n l e a d t o c h a n g e s i n c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d work b e h a v i o u r . I n t h i s way s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y c o n t i n u a l l y s h a p e s a n d r e s h a p e s c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d work b e h a v i o u r . The m o d e l ( s e e f i g u r e 1) e x p l a i n s how s i m i l a r work m o t i v a t i o n s o f men and women a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t w o r k e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d w o r k b e h a v i o u r s b e c a u s e , 1) s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e i n f o r c e s g e n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e h a v i o u r s f o r men a n d women a n d 2) t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y i s d i f f e r e n t f o r men a n d women. A s t i n f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t r e c e n t c h a n g e s i n w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t c a n be e x p l a i n e d by c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y ( t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s e q u a l i t y ) w h i c h g i v e women a p o t e n t i a l l y w i d e r c h o i c e o f o p t i o n s . 57 F i g u r e 1 A s t i n : A N e e d - B a s e d S o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l M o d e l o f C a r e e r C h o i c e a n d Work B e h a v i o u r A . WORK M O T I V A T I O N B . SEX ROLE S O C I A L I Z A T I O N STRUCTURE OF OPPORTUNITY T h r e e b a s i c d r i v e s S u r v i v a l - P l e a s u r e - C o n t r i b u t i o n 1 - P l a y - F a m i l y - S c h o o l -Work < E x p e c t a t i o n s - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f j o b s - S e x t y p i n g o f j o b s - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n - J o b R e q u i r e -m e n t s - E c o n o m y - F a m i l y S t r u c t -u r e - R e p r o d u c t i v e S y s t e m C a r e e r C h o i c e a n d Work B e h a v i o u r 58 A s t i n ' s i n n o v a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n t e r a c t t o p r o d u c e s o c i a l c h a n g e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y : T h u s t o u n d e r s t a n d how e x p e c t a t i o n s ( a n d h e n c e , c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d work b e h a v i o r ) c a n c h a n g e , we mus t e x a m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y , w h i c h i t s e l f u n d e r g o e s c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s t h a t i n t u r n may a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . . . t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e a r e i n t e r a c t i v e ; e a c h i n f l u e n c e s t h e o t h e r t o some e x t e n t . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s p r o b a b l y s e t s l i m i t s t o c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y , w h e r e a s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y u l t i m a t e l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e v a l u e s t h a t a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ( p p . 1 2 1 - 2 ) . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c h a n g e r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e a r l y l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s c a n be m o d i f i e d b y c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y , and c o i n c i d e n t a l l y t h e e x t e n t a n d r a t e a t w h i c h c h a n g e s i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . A s t i n a s s u m e s t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s c h a n g e more s l o w l y t h a n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t 59 b e c a u s e i t s u g g e s t s t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l i z a t i o n may p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m b e i n g a b l e t o p e r c e i v e new p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ( F a r m e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e c o n c e p t o f a t i m e l a g b e t w e e n s e x r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ( s t e m m i n g f r o m e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s ) a n d s t r u c t u r e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r s a way t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d e x p l o r e b o t h i n t e r a n d i n t r a r o l e c o n f l i c t i n women. A s w e l l a s h a v i n g b o t h e x p l a n a t o r y a n d h e u r i s t i c v a l u e , A s t i n ' s m o d e l p r o v i d e s c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i t h a p r a c t i c a l a n d w o r t h w h i l e f r a m e w o r k : A s t i n e n c o u r a g e s us t o c h a n g e o u r f o c u s f r o m one o f e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e t o one o f f u n d a m e n t a l s i m i l a r i t y . I t i s a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t a l l o w s us t o work w i t h i n t h e e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s o f b o t h w o m e n ' s a n d m e n ' s work l i v e s a n d one w h i c h e n a b l e s u s t o a r t i c u l a t e i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n a way t h a t i s g u i d e d by t h e o r y and g r o u n d e d i n r e a l i t y . We f a c i l i t a t e t h e g r o w t h o f o u r c l i e n t s a n d become p a r t o f t h e movement t o w a r d a f a i r a n d j u s t s o c i e t y ( K a h n , 1 9 8 4 , p . 1 4 6 ) . F a r m e r ' s M o d e l F a r m e r (1985) h a s d e s i g n e d a n d t e s t e d a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l w h i c h , l i k e A s t i n ' s ( 1 9 8 4 ) , d r a w s h e a v i l y on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ( B a n d u r a , 1 9 7 8 ) . 60 The model (see F i g u r e 2) i n c l u d e s t h r e e s e t s of i n f l u e n c e s - Background, P e r s o n a l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l -and t h r e e m o t i v a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s : A s p i r a t i o n , Mastery and Career Commitment. Farmer t e s t e d the model on 1,863 9th and 12th grade, male and female , American s t u d e n t s , and used h i e r a r c h i c a l s e t m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and p a t h a n a l y s i s t o examine d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of i n f l u e n c e s on the t h r e e m o t i v a t i o n d i m e n s i o n s . The r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s l e n t g e n e r a l s u p p o r t t o the model and p o i n t e d t o the i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s o f the t h r e e i n f l u e n c e s e t s : For A s p i r a t i o n , the i n f l u e n c e ) o f Background v a r i a b l e s was predominant, but Environment c o n t r i b u t e d more than P e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s . Farmer noted i n p a r t i c u l a r t he s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f the Support f o r Women Working s c a l e on the A s p i r a t i o n d i m e n s i o n . M a s t e r y , i n women, was enhanced by math a b i l i t y , i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , t e a c h e r s u p p o r t and support f o r women w o r k i n g ; Farmer r e p o r t e d t h a t the c o m b i n a t i o n of Background and Environment v a r i a b l e s had a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same i n f l u e n c e as p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s on Mas t e r y . R e s u l t s were s i m i l a r f o r C a r e e r : a l t h o u g h the im p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e o f Background suggested t h a t c a r e e r commitment i s p r o b a b l y s e t q u i t e e a r l y i n l i f e , the i n f l u e n c e of Environment and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s d i m e n s i o n , t o o , i s open t o changes i n the s e l f and i n the environment. 61 F i g u r e 2 F a r m e r : M o d e l o f c a r e e r a n d A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n PERSONAL A c a d e m i c S e l f E s t e e m E x p r e s s i v e I n d e p e n d e n t C o o p e r a t i v e C o m p e t i t i v e E f f o r t A t t r i b u t i o n s A b i l i t y A t t r i b u t i o n s I n t r i s i c V a l u e s P e r s o n a l U n c o n c e r n H o m e m a k i n g BACKGROUND Sex S o c i a l S t a t u s R a c e A g e V e r b a l A b i l i t y M a t h A b i l i t y / I s M O T I V A T I O N A s p i r a t i o n M a s t e r y C a r e e r ENVIRONMENT P a r e n t s u p p o r t T e a c h e r S u p p o r t S u p p o r t f o r w o r k i n g women 62 Farmer echoes Osipow's (1975a) demand f o r environmental manipulation when she u n d e r l i n e s "the powerful r o l e of the changing environment on career and achievement m o t i v a t i o n " (p. 388). Her r e s u l t s , which r e v e a l the p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t impact of Environment v a r i a b l e s on young women's career a t t i t u d e s , add e m p i r i c a l weight to the p r o p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d by A s t i n (1984) and f u r t h e r j u s t i f y the approach taken i n the present study. Summary Recent rese a r c h has recognized the importance of environmental s t r u c t u r e s (both at the micro and macro s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l s ) . A t t e n t i o n has been drawn to the changing nature of s o c i e t a l norms and the f a c t that i n d i v i d u a l s ' a t t i t u d e s respond q u i c k l y to changed s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s ( G a s k e l l , 1985). Research a l s o has u n d e r l i n e d the s i m i l a r i t i e s between men's and women's work mo t i v a t i o n s and has v a l i d a t e d the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t i v e , not p a s s i v e , p a r t i c i p a n t i n the process of h i s / h e r career development. An i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l and environmental f a c t o r s has suggested the need to look at these v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the framework of mutual and r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n over time. Coupled with a new respect f o r the f a c t that workers come i n two genders i s a growing r e a l i z a t i o n that we need a model which i s gender conscious but not gender 63 d i v i s i v e . T h e o r i s t s are c u r r e n t l y t r y i n g to develop an i n t e g r a t i v e framework that i s comprehensive yet allows fo r the study of i n d i v i d u a l groups and subsystems - a framework that w i l l enable r e s e a r c h e r s to e l u c i d a t e the process of career development and move, as Laws (1976) suggested, beyond asking why to asking how and under what c o n d i t i o n s . The Present Study Descr i p t ion The present research has been developed w i t h i n the framework of A s t i n ' s (1984) model and i s designed to explore p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the reported sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u r r e n t work behaviour of two groups of female c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l workers. The r e l a t i v e ages of the two groups of women (45-55:25-35) were chosen to r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s of o p p o r t u n i t y i n which each group made t h e i r i n i t i a l c areer d e c i s i o n s - namely the 1950's and the 1970's. The present o c c u p a t i o n a l environment of both groups i s the same - f u l l time c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. For the purposes of t h i s study work behaviour i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as a m u l t i f a c e t e d c o n s t r u c t comprising p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , work va l u e s , r o l e p r i o r i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s toward married women's employment and r o l e investment. These f a c t o r s were chosen f o r t h e i r 64 demonstrated importance as components of women's work behaviour (Farmer, 1980a, 1980b, 1984, 1985; F i t z g e r a l d & Betz, 1983; F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; Ginzberg, Ginzberg, A x e l r a d & Herma, 1951; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981; H a l l & H a l l , 1980; S p i t z e & Huber, 1980; Stake, 1979; S t a f f o r d , 1984; Unger, 1979). Obviously t h i s c h o ice represents one p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of work behaviour, and other r e s e a r c h e r s may choose to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s complex phenomenon d i f f e r e n t l y . Although for purposes of c l a r i t y the v a r i o u s components are presented as i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s , great importance i s attached to the need to view work behaviour from a c y b e r n e t i c or systems p e r s p e c t i v e . Any p a r t i c u l a r component has to be understood i n terms of i t s p l a c e i n the broader dynamic system of work behaviour which i n v o l v e s r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n throughout. Fundamental to the study i s A s t i n ' s p r o p o s i t i o n that i t i s the mutually enhancing and r e s t r a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s that c o n t i n u a l l y reshapes an i n d i v i d u a l ' s work behaviour. This dynamic i n t e r p l a y determines the amount of choice an i n d i v i d u a l i s able to p e r c e i v e and to act upon, and t h e r e f o r e works to e i t h e r maintain or change c u r r e n t behaviour. 65 E s t a b l i s h i n g Hypotheses The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . I t was f e l t , however, t h a t e s t a b l i s h i n g hypotheses would s t r e n g t h e n the stu d y m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and would h e l p t o f o c u s both the q u e s t i o n s e x p l o r e d and r e s u l t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g hypotheses r a i s e d i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s t h a t r e f l e c t e d the d i v e r s i t y o f p o s s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , the i n n a t e c o m p l e x i t y o f the p r o c e s s o f women's c a r e e r development and the changing Canadian c o n t e x t of women's p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c l i v e s . The r e p o r t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u r r e n t work be h a v i o u r o f the two groups o f women were t o be compared u s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s u s l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n t y p o l o g y . Three p o s s i b l e l i n e s o f r e a s o n i n g were e x p l o r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s comparison. 1. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Argument S o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s change s l o w l y and t h e i r impact i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be both p o w e r f u l and permanent. A d o p t i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e would l e a d one t o co n c l u d e t h a t women born o n l y 20 y e a r s a p a r t would have e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r , t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n would be s t r o n g enough t o co u n t e r any p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e from changing o p p o r t u n i t y 66 s t r u c t u r e s , so t h a t women, r e g a r d l e s s of age d i f f e r e n c e s , would e x h i b i t s i m i l a r , t r a d i t i o n a l work be h a v i o u r . Usi n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i n a s l i g h t l y more open way ( i . e . , v i e w i n g the e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n as p o w e r f u l but not n e c e s s a r i l y permanent), one c o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t o l d e r women - who had moved f u r t h e r away i n time from e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s - would, at p r e s e n t , be l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l than younger women. Ol d e r women would perhaps be l e s s i n v e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i e t a l sex r o l e s ( h a v i n g passed an age when m a r r i a g e and m a r r i a g a b i l i t y are of prime importance) so t h a t one would expect t h e i r c u r r e n t work b e h a v i o u r t o be l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l than the younger age group. 2. The S t r u c t u r a l Argument Emphasizing s t r u c t u r a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s would l e a d one t o f o c u s on changing s o c i a l v a l u e s and the very d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s o f the 1950's and 1970's. T h i s approach would suggest t h a t younger women growing up i n the 1970's - a p e r i o d when e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r women was a c t i v e l y propounded i n North America and Europe - would have e x p e r i e n c e d a more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o experiment w i t h v a r i o u s work r o l e s . One would t h e r e f o r e expect them t o h o l d more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s . and t o e x h i b i t l e s s 67 t r a d i t i o n a l work behaviour than an e q u i v a l e n t group of women growing up i n the 1950's. It i s p o s s i b l e to imagine, however, that o l d e r women, having experienced changes i n the work environment and i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s , would have modified t h e i r e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s and would, at present, have e q u a l l y l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n work behaviour. A f u r t h e r l i n e of argument from the s t r u c t u r a l viewpoint i s p o s s i b l e : the lack of r e a l progress i n women's opp o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e and the t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d context of c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l work i n p a r t i c u l a r , might suggest that women working i n t h i s .environment would a l l e x h i b i t f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l work behaviour. Cut o f f from any r e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and bounded by the s t r i c t u r e s of the job i t s e l f , one would p r e d i c t very l i t t l e change toward more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n behaviours. 3. A P e r s o n a l - i n t e g r a t i v e Approach The components of work behaviour i n c l u d e d i n the present study are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as being on a continuum that extends from r e l a t i v e l y more i n t r i n s i c to r e l a t i v e l y more e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s . Thus i n the model (see f i g u r e 3) p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n i s pl a c e d at the i n t r i n s i c end of the continuum and r o l e investment at the e x t r i n s i c end. 68 F i g u r e 3 Pearson: A Systemic Model of Women's Work Behaviour BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS SEX ROLE SOCIALIZATION STRUCTURE OF OPPORTUNITY EXPECTATIONS CAREER CHOICE WORK BEHAVIOUR P e r s o n a l i t y Or i e n t a t i o n Work Va l u e s R o l e P r i o r i t y R o l e Investment A t t i t u d e s toward Women's Employment S INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC E S 69 I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s ( i . e . p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , w o r k v a l u e s ) a r e more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s r e l a t e d t o e a r l y s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . E x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s a r e more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y s o c i o - s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s , w h i c h r e f l e c t c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . A s t i n a s s u m e s t h a t c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o c c u r more s l o w l y t h a n c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s w o u l d i m p l y t h a t c o m p o n e n t s o f work b e h a v i o u r t h a t a r e more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s a l s o may c h a n g e more s l o w l y t h a n c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h a r e more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y s o c i o - s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s . I t w o u l d f o l l o w , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p o t e n t i a l c h a n g e s i n w o m e n ' s work b e h a v i o u r w o u l d be more r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e i n e x t r i n s i c a s o p p o s e d t o i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h a n g e t h e o r y ( t h a t b e h a v i o u r s a r e more r e a d i l y a l t e r e d t h a n s e l f c o n c e p t o r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s ) a n d w o u l d seem t o f i n d s u p p o r t i n t h e work o f G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) a n d H o f f m a n (1981). F i g u r e 3 d e p i c t s t h i s p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c h a n g e a n d a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a n a d a p t a t i o n o f A s t i n ' s m o d e l i n t h e l i g h t o f r e c e n t c r i t i c i s m ( F a r m e r , 1984; H a r m o n , 1984; K a h n , 1984). F a r m e r (1984) r e m a r k s u p o n t h e n e e d f o r A s t i n ' s m o d e l t o be more c o n s i s t e n t l y 70 grounded i n the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y (Bandura, 1977, 1978) t h a t i n f o r m s i t . She s u g g e s t s t h a t backgound v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be g i v e n a p l a c e i n the model and t h a t m o t i v a t i o n s b e l o n g i n the box l a b e l l e d " E x p e c t a t i o n s " t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t they c o n t i n u e t o be i n f l u e n c e d and shaped by c u r r e n t o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s . C o n c l u s i o n s C l e a r l y the c o m p l e x i t y and i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r development and the r a p i d i t y o f s o c i a l change at t h i s j u n c t u r e i n t i m e , add t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f p r e d i c t i n g the n a t u r e o f changes i n women's work b e h a v i o u r . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y p r e c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f making d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t s about the c a u s a l nature, o f observed d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s s i m i l a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o draw any d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s about the essence of the i n t e r a c t i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o - s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s , or between the v a r i o u s components of work b e h a v i o u r . T h i s r e s e a r c h was e n v i s a g e d as an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y - a p l a c e t o b e g i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the impact o f s o c i a l change on female c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s . G i v e n t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , the s t a t e d purpose of the study and the t h r u s t o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , i t was d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h hypotheses i n l i n e w i t h the most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d o f the s t r u c t u r a l arguments o u t l i n e d 71 above. Namely, that younger women growing up i n the 1970's would report t h e i r s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and cu r r e n t work behaviour as being more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n than o l d e r women who grew up i n the 1950's. Main Hypotheses Sex Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n H 1 The repor t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the two groups, as measured by the ei g h t Childhood Experiences q u e s t i o n s , w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : o l d e r women (45-55) w i l l r e p o r t t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as having been t r a d i t i o n a l , younger women w i l l r e p o rt t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as having been l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n . P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n H 2 The p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n of the two groups, as measured by the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) (1974) w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : o l d e r women w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e (denoting an e x p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n ) than the younger age group. Younger women w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e (denoting an in s t r u m e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n ) than the ol d e r age group. Work values H 3 The work values of the two groups of women as measured by Super's (1968) Work Values Inventory (WVI), w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : the ol d e r group w i l l g ive higher values to s c a l e s measuring Surroundings, A s s o c i a t e s , A l t r u i s m and 72 Esthetics than the younger women. The younger group w i l l give higher values to scales measuring I n t e l l e c t u a l Stimulation, Independence, Prestige, variety and Management than the older women. Role P r i o r i t i e s H 4 For the area of employment, p r i o r i t y scores w i l l be similar and r e l a t i v e l y high for both groups of women. For the areas of marriage/partnership and children, scores on the Role P r i o r i t i e s measure w i l l vary within , and between groups. For the area of education, scores w i l l vary within and between groups. Attitudes Toward Married Women's Employment H 5 Attitudes toward married women's employment, as measured by the pace (1970) Scale, w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : younger women w i l l hold more posit i v e attitudes toward married women's employment than older women. Role Investment H 6 For the area of employment, Role Investment scores w i l l be similar for both groups of women r e f l e c t i n g their common occupational status, i . e . f u l l time c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l work. For the areas of education, marriage/partnership, children, s e l f and other, Role Investment scores w i l l vary within and between groups r e f l e c t i n g individual women's preferences and personal l i f e s t y l e . 73 S u b s i d i a r y Hypotheses Sex Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n H 7 There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l household income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and scores on the Childhood Experiences measure. P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n H 8 There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and scores on the BSRI. Work Values H 9 There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and subscale scores on the WVI. Role P r i o r i t i e s H 10 There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o t a l income and employment p r i o r i t y s c o r e s , ( i . e . , women who have a low t o t a l income - l e s s than $25,000 per annum - w i l l g i v e g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y to employment). There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and p r i o r i t y scores f o r the areas of m a r r i a g e / p a r t n e r s h i p and c h i l d r e n , ( i . e . , women who are m a r r i e d / i n p a r t n e r s h i p or who have c h i l d r e n w i l l g i v e higher p r i o r i t y to marriage/ p a r t n e r s h i p and c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 74 There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e relationship between l e v e l of education and education p r i o r i t y scores, ( i . e . , women who have a higher l e v e l of education - more than grade 12 - w i l l give greater p r i o r i t y to education). Attitudes Toward Married Women's Employment H 11 There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e relationships between le v e l of education, t o t a l income, marital/parental status and scores on the Pace Scale. Women who have a higher l e v e l of education (more than grade 12), or a higher t o t a l income (over $34,000 per annum), or who have combined marriage and parenthood with employment, w i l l have higher p o s i t i v e scores on the Pace Scale. Role Investment H 12 There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t positive relationship between marital and parental status and role investment in these areas, . ( i . e . , women who are married/in partnership, or who have children, w i l l invest more time in marriage/partnership and children respectively). There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t positive relationship between l e v e l of education and role investment in thi s area, ( i . e . , women who have a higher l e v e l of education w i l l invest more time in education) . For the areas of education and other there w i l l be 75 s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s , t o t a l i n c o m e a n d r o l e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e s e a r e a s , ( i . e . , women who a r e m a r r i e d / l i v i n g i n p a r t n e r s h i p , who h a v e c h i l d r e n o r who h a v e a l o w t o t a l i n c o m e , w i l l i n v e s t l e s s t i m e i n E d u c a t i o n a n d O t h e r ) . 76 I I I . METHODOLOGY P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e f i n e d as women c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l workers employed on l a r g e u n i v e r s i t y campuses i n Canada. There a re p o s s i b i l y many s i m i l a r i t i e s between such women and o t h e r s employed i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n North America. I t .was f e l t , however, t h a t the p o t e n t i a l f o r d i f f e r e n c e s was s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o r e q u i r e t h a t t he p o p u l a t i o n be r e s t r i c t e d t o c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s who work f o r l a r g e u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada. Sample P a r t i c i p a n t s were women c u r r e n t l y employed i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s , at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC). For c o m p a r a t i v e purposes women were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o two age groups: t h o s e between the ages o f 45-55 (born p r i o r t o 1940) and those between the ages o f 25-35 (born a f t e r 1950) . 7 7 P a s t r e s e a r c h h a s n o t e d t h a t t h e 5 t h g r a d e ( o n s e t o f t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f a d o l e s c e n c e ) a n d h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n ( c o m i n g t o t e r m s w i t h t h e a d u l t s e x - r o l e ) a r e i m p o r t a n t i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f w o m e n ' s work o r i e n t a t i o n s ( L a w s , 1 9 7 4 ) . Women i n t h e t w o s p e c i f i e d age g r o u p s w o u l d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d v e r y d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y d u r i n g t h e s e i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l y e a r s : t h o s e i n t h e o l d e r g r o u p m a k i n g t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s a n d c h o i c e s i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s ; t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e I n g e n e r a l women c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s a t UBC w e r e c o n t a c t e d i n p e r s o n b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t h e i r p l a c e o f w o r k . The s t u d y was e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y t o t h e m , a n d women who f e l l i n t o t h e t w o age g r o u p s ( 2 5 - 3 5 ; 4 5 - 5 5 ) w e r e a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p l e t i n g a n d r e t u r n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by m a i l , and a s s u r e d women t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s t o c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a n d r e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e w o u l d be r e s p e c t e d . I n some i n s t a n c e s ( w h e r e women w e r e on v a c a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e ) , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e l e f t w i t h c o - w o r k e r s f o r s u b s e q u e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n ; i n o t h e r s ( w h e r e c o n t a c t i n g women i n d i v i d u a l l y w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t o r d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e i r w o r k s c h e d u l e s ) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e 78 g i v e n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r v i s o r s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o i n f o r m t h e i r s t a f f by memorandum t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a v a i l a b l e t o women w i s h i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the st u d y . Every e f f o r t was made t o ensure t h a t the sample would r e f l e c t the wide v a r i e t y of areas i n which women are employed as c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s at UBC. Mrs. Jane Durant, Employment A d m i n i s t r a t o r , UBC, was h e l p f u l i n p o i n t i n g out p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between women c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s who choose t o work i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female area s ( e . g . , A r t s , E d u c a t i o n , Home Economics) and those who are a t t r a c t e d t o n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s ( e . g . , S c i e n c e , A g r i c u l t u r e , E n g i n e e r i n g ) ( J . Durant, p e r s o n a l communication, June 25, 1985). Once p e r m i s s i o n had been o b t a i n e d from AUCE, L o c a l 1, the P e r s o n n e l D i v i s i o n and i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d as w i d e l y as p o s s i b l e throughout the v a r i o u s academic departments, l i b r a r i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s o f the u n i v e r s i t y . I n s t r u m e n t s Sex R o l e S o c i a l i z a t i o n Sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s measured by an e i g h t i t e m r a t i n g s c a l e e n t i t l e d C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s . The in s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y by the r e s e a r c h e r . I t aims t o measure the degree t o which 79 r e s p o n d e n t s r e c a l l t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e l i f e r o l e s a s h a v i n g b e e n e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l o r l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n . The i t e m s t h a t make up t h e s c a l e w e r e t a k e n f r o m a l o n g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d b y F i n e - D a v i s ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Women a r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o e a c h o f t h e e i g h t q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e . S c o r e s c a n r a n g e f r o m 8 ( e x t r e m e l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n ) t o 40 ( e x t r e m e t r a d i t i o n a l ) . S c o r e s b e l o w 24 a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n d i c a t i n g a l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n ; s c o r e s a b o v e 24 a s i n d i c a t i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A s p a r t o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , H o y t ' s c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y was c o m p u t e d ( u s i n g t h e L E R T A P p r o g r a m ) t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t was a s s u m e d t h a t t h i s i s a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e a l l o w i n g f o r t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ( b a s e d on t h e r a t i o n a l e p r e s e n t e d b y G a r d n e r , 1975). The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (1974) The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y ( B S R I ) p r e s e n t s 60 a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T w e n t y o f t h e s e a r e m a s c u l i n e , 20 a r e f e m i n i n e a n d 20 a r e n e u t r a l . R e s p o n d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e on a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e how w e l l e a c h o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s . The s c a l e r a n g e s 80 f r o m 1 ( " N e v e r o r a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e " ) t o 7 ( " A l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s t r u e " ) . The i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t s o f 3 s c a l e s : M a s c u l i n i t y , F e m i n i n i t y , a n d S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y . S c a l e D e s c r i p t i o n s The M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e i s c o m p o s e d o f t h o s e i t e m s j u d g e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y f o r a man t h a n f o r a woman; t h e F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e i t e m s j u d g e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman t h a n f o r a man i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y (p < .05). Bern (1974) comments t h a t , " I n g e n e r a l , m a s c u l i n i t y h a s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n , a c o g n i t i v e f o c u s on ' g e t t i n g t h e j o b d o n e ' ; a n d f e m i n i n i t y h a s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e x p r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , a n a f f e c t i v e c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s " ( p . 1 5 6 ) . The S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f a d j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e n e u t r a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e x . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i t e m s i n t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e was b a s e d on t h e j u d g e m e n t s o f 50 m a l e a n d 50 f e m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who s e l e c t e d f r o m an o r i g i n a l p o o l o f 400 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n v e n t o r y g e n e r a t e s 4 s c o r e s : M a s c u l i n i t y , F e m i n i n i t y , A n d r o g y n y a n d S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y . The M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s e q u a l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mean s e l f - r a t i n g s on t h e 20 m a s c u l i n e a n d 20 f e m i n i n e i t e m s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Bern (1978) c o n s i d e r s t h a t 81 m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y each r e p r e s e n t p o s i t i v e domains of b e h a v i o u r , and the BSRI t r e a t s them as two o r t h o g o n a l dimensions r a t h e r than as the two ends of a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n . The m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s are l o g i c a l l y independent and are f r e e t o v a r y i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The androgyny s c o r e " i s d e f i n e d as a s t u d e n t ' s t r a t i o f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between a person's m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s e l f endorsement" (Bern, 1974, p. 158). The d i f f e r e n c e between i n d i v i d u a l s ' m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s i s n o r m a l i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n among each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i t e m s c o r e s on the two s c a l e s . The g r e a t e r the a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f the androgyny s c o r e , the more a person i s s a i d t o be sex t y p e d ( h i g h p o s i t i v e s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g a f e m i n i n e sex t y p i n g , h i g h n e g a t i v e s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g a m a s c u l i n e sex t y p i n g ) . The c l o s e r the androgyny s c o r e i s t o z e r o , the more a pe r s o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be androgynous. Bern (1974) compared t h i s o r i g i n a l t r a t i o method f o r c l a s s i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s as androgynous w i t h a m e d i a n - s p l i t method suggested by Spence, H e l m r e i c h and Stapp (1975). Spence et a l . (1975) recommended t h a t s u b j e c t s be d i v i d e d at the median on both M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y a p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between tho s e i n d i v i d u u a l s who s c o r e h i g h on both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y and those who s c o r e low on b o t h . The m e d i a n - s p l i t method r e s u l t s 82 i n a f o u r f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s : masculine (high masculine-low f e m i n i n e ) , feminine (high feminine-low masculine), androgynous (high masculine-high f e m i n i n e ) , or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (low masculine- low f e m i n i n e ) . Bern found that w h i l s t the two methods d i f f e r e d l i t t l e i n the way that they d e f i n e d m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , they d i d d i f f e r i n the way they d e f i n e d androgyny. Bern concluded t h a t , "a d i s t i n c t i o n between high-high and low-low s c o r e r s does seem to be warranted, that the term 'androgynous' ought to be reserved only for those i n d i v i d u a l s who score high i n both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , and that the BSRI ought henceforth to be scored so as to y i e l d four d i s t i n c t groups of masculine, feminine, androgynous and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b j e c t s " (Bern, 1978, p. 9, note 2). The S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e was o r i g i n a l l y used to ensure that the BSRI would not simply be tapping a g e n e r a l tendency to endorse s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s . C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and each of the other three s c o r e s . The f i n d i n g s suggested that m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are r e l a t e d to s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y ( c o r r e l a t i o n s range from .15 to .42) but androgyny i s independent of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y ( c o r r e l a t i o n s range from -.12 to +.12). Bern (1974) concluded that the androgyny score taps, not a g e n e r a l tendency to say p o s i t i v e t h i n g s about o n e s e l f , but a very s p e c i f i c tendency to i d e n t i f y with s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e standards of behaviour f o r men and women. The S o c i a l 83 D e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e i s now m a i n l y used t o p r o v i d e a n e u t r a l background f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e s (Bern, 1974) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Scores G i l b e r t (1985) c r i t i c i z e s the assumption t h a t s c a l e s l a b e l l e d m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e are r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measures of sex r o l e s , sex r o l e i d e n t i t y , and sex r o l e b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r . She s t r o n g l y a dvocates t h a t e x i s t i n g measures of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y be c o n s i d e r e d as a s s e s s i n g the s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Other r e s e a r c h e r s ( c f . Spence & H e l m r e i c h , 1978, 1980) have a l s o argued f o r t h i s narrower i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the BSRI w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o G i l b e r t ' s (1985) s u g g e s t i o n : M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s are regarded as measuring the degree t o which respondents endorse i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Support f o r such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s found i n Bern's (1974) d e f i n i t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y as d e n o t i n g an " i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n " and f e m i n i n i t y "an e x p r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " (p.156). A r e l a t e d i s s u e t h a t has been the f o c u s o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i s t h a t o f the unique p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of androgyny v e r s u s main e f f e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s 84 a l o n e . T a y l o r a n d H a l l (1982), f o l l o w i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a d d i t i v e a n d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t w o s c a l e s d o e s n o t o f f e r g r e a t e r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , M a r k u s , C r a n e , B e r n s t e i n a n d S i l a d i (1982), i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s e l f s c h e m a r e l a t e d t o s e x , f o u n d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a u n i q u e s t a t e o f a n d r o g y n y p r e d i c t e d r e s p o n s e s a b o v e a n d b e y o n d t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . Deaux (1984) n o t e s t h a t , "The c o n c e p t i t s e l f ( a n d r o g n y ) h a s n o t b e e n e x a m i n e d t h o r o u g h l y , a n d i n t h e i n t e r i m h a s b e e n a s k e d t o b e a r t o o much c o n c e p t u a l b a g g a g e " ( p . 109). G i v e n t h e s e c u r r e n t c o n c e r n s a n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f a n d r o g y n y a s a u s e f u l c o n c e p t , i t was d e c i d e d t o o m i t a n y p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d u p o n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l w o m e n ' s a n d r o g y n y s c o r e s on t h e B S R I . C o n s e q u e n t l y o n l y t h e m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s w i l l be c o m p u t e d a n d a n a l y z e d . P s y c h o m e t r i c D a t a f o r t h e B S R I The i n s t r u m e n t was n o r m e d on a p p r o x i m a t e l y 900 m a l e and f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y a n d c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n .70 a n d .86; t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s b e t w e e n .89 and .93 (Bern, 1974). M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s w e r e e m p i r i c a l l y a s w e l l a s c o n c e p t u a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t ( a v e r a g e 85 r_ = -.03) a n d t h e t r a t i o A n d r o g y n y s c o r e was i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t ( a v e r a g e = .86), r e l i a b l e ( a v e r a g e _r = .93), a n d u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e t e n d e n c y t o d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e way ( a v e r a g e £ = - . 0 6 ) . C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y f o r t h e s c a l e s h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d b o t h t h r o u g h c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h c o m p a r a b l e t e s t s a n d t h r o u g h a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y ha s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s a s s e s s e d b y t h e i n v e n t o r y . A more d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e B S R I i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s i s a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e a n d p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s may be e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e b a s e d on t h e r a t i o n a l e p r e s e n t e d by G a r d n e r ( 1975) . The p a c e s c a l e o f A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d Women ' s E m p l o y m e n t (1970) The p a c e S c a l e o f A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d Women ' s E m p l o y m e n t (1970) p r e s e n t s 20 s t a t e m e n t s , mos t o f w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f m a r r i e d women w o r k i n g . H a l f t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e p h r a s e d t o r e f l e c t a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e a n d h a l f t o r e f l e c t a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e . R e s p o n d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o r a t e how s t r o n g l y t h e y a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h e a c h s t a t e m e n t on a 86 5-point s c a l e ranging from 1 ("Strongly agree") to 5 ("Strongly d i s a g r e e " ) . items are o b j e c t i v e l y scored and e q u a l l y weighted. Total- scores can range from 20 (very negative a t t i t u d e s toward married women's employment) to 100 (very p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward married women's employment). Scores below 60 were considered by Pace to r e f l e c t a negative a t t i t u d e ; scores above 60 a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . The s c a l e i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r ages 16 and over. I t can be s e l f administered and takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. No r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y data are pr o v i d e d . An o r i g i n a l pool of 34 statements was administered to 60 women. Item a n a l y s i s was performed and 15 items that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d at the .001 l e v e l between the highest and lowest s c o r i n g women together with 5 items that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d at the .01 l e v e l were i n c l u d e d i n the present s c a l e . Pace (1970) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l , economic and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . She r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s and employment h i s t o r y , l e v e l of educat i o n , f a m i l y income, p e r c e p t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s , p e r c e p t i o n of peer's f e e l i n g s , p e r c e p t i o n of husband's a t t i t u d e s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between a t t i t u d e s and age, f a m i l y s t a t u s , p l a c e of re s i d e n c e , s a t i s f a c t i o n from housework, s a t i s f a c t i o n with f a m i l y income or s a t i s f a c t i o n with volunteer 87 s e r v i c e . P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were a s s o c i a t e d with women who had worked s i n c e marriage ( e s p e c i a l l y i f they were employed at the time of the s t u d y ) , had f a m i l y incomes of $10,000 or more, p e r c e i v e d t h e i r husband, c h i l d r e n and peers as being i n favour of married women working and were employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial, c l e r i c a l , s a l e s or craftsmen jobs. The p e r c e p t i o n of support f o r women working has been found to i n f l u e n c e the range of c a r e e r s considered by high school g i r l s ( B irk & Tanney, 1973) and both l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n (Farmer, 1980a, 1985) and career m o t i v a t i o n (Farmer, 1980b, 1985) i n high school g i r l s . For the purposes of t h i s study the Pace Scale i s assumed to be a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . In accordance with the r a t i o n a l e presented by Gardner (1975), parametric s t a t i s t i c s were used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure. The Work Values Inventory (Super, 1970) The Work Values Inventory (WVI) was developed to assess the wide range of values - both e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s i c - t hat a f f e c t the m o t i v a t i o n to work. Values, a c c o r d i n g to Super (1968), "are r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t s , but d i f f e r i n that they are the q u a l i t i e s sought r a t h e r than the a c t i v i t i e s or o b j e c t s which embody them: they are thus more fundamental" (p.4). 88 The present form of the WVI i s the most recent of previous longer forms developed over approximately 20 years. The inventory presents 45 b r i e f items, each descriptive of a pa r t i c u l a r value refer r i n g to work and jobs. The respondent rates each value in terms of i t s importance to him/her, using a 5-point scale which ranges from 1 ("Unimportant") to 5 ("Very important"). The 45 items are designed to assess the importance to the respondent of each of 15 values, with three dif f e r e n t items applying to each value. The WVI generates 15 subscales: C r e a t i v i t y , Achievement, Independence, Variety, Esthetics, Altruism, I n t e l l e c t u a l Stimulation, Management, Surroundings, Supervision, Security, Associates, Prestige, Economic Returns and Way of L i f e . The inventory can be s e l f administered and takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. Items are clear and undisguised and the instrument i s therefore open to d i s t o r t i o n . In discussing t h i s matter Super (1968) concludes that, "when motivation i s good, and when the subject i s interested in understanding himself, or in making wise descisions, deliberate d i s t o r t i o n need not be a matter of concern. Unconscious d i s t o r t i o n may in some instances prevent a true picture of the person's values from emerging, but the values which a person would unconsciously l i k e to be seen as possessing represent real drives which may have quite as much 89 p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y as those which he a c t u a l l y does ho l d " (p. 10) . Rapport with the t e s t taker and b e t t e r r e l i a b i l i t y are given as reasons f o r p r e f e r r i n g the c u r r e n t r a t i n g s c a l e format to that of a f o r c e d - c h o i c e format (Super, 1968). Three methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g scores are suggested i n the manual. F i r s t , the respondent can rank h i s / h e r raw scores paying a t t e n t i o n to the s e v e r a l h i g h e s t and lowest s c o r e s . Second, raw scores can be converted i n t o grade or a d u l t p e r c e n t i l e ranks. T h i r d , a respondent can compare h i s / h e r scores to those of o c c u p a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n groups. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , although separate norms are presented f o r each sex and grade from 7 to 12, no a d u l t p e r c e n t i l e ranks or o c c u p a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n data are provided i n the manual. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i f f e r e n c e s An examination of the concurrent o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l i d i t y of the WVI i s of i n t e r e s t to the present study. Although data are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the c u r r e n t form, the values of d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l groups are reported i n the manual based on e a r l i e r forms of the i n v e n t o r y . The r e s u l t s f o r c l e r i c a l , s e c r e t a r i a l and o f f i c e workers are approximately as f o l l o w s : high values were given to s c a l e s measuring i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n , management, surroundings and a s s o c i a t e s ; medium values were given to a l t r u i s m , e s t h e t i c s , achievement and independence; low values were given to c r e a t i v i t y and p r e s t i g e . 90 W i t h r e g a r d t o a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , S u p e r (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s was g i v e n o n l y m o d e r a t e w e i g h t b y a l l e m p l o y e e s ; S e c u r i t y was g i v e n l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e a s was Way o f L i f e ( e x c e p t f o r t h e e n d o r s e m e n t g i v e n t o i t by P e a c e C o r p s t e a c h e r s ) ; V a r i e t y was r a t e d n e i t h e r h i g h n o r l o w a n d S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y n o t s t r e s s e d . K u i p e r (1976), s t u d y i n g t h e w o r k v a l u e s o f 271 m a r r i e d f e m a l e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , i d e n t i f i e d f i v e work v a l u e s d i m e n s i o n s : J o b E x t r i n s i c s , M a n a g e m e n t , S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n , A l t r u i s m a n d C r e a t i v e - E s t h e t i c . D o m i n a n t v a l u e s w e r e S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n a n d J o b E x t r i n s i c s ; t h e w e a k e s t v a l u e was C r e a t i v e - E s t h e t i c . K u i p e r n o t e d t h a t l a b o u r f o r c e a t t a c h m e n t was more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o A l t r u i s m ( a n i n t r i n s i c v a l u e ) t h a n t o e c o n o m i c m o t i v a t i o n o r m a n a g e r i a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Desmond (1975) c o m p a r e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , work v a l u e s a n d o t h e r b i o d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r a d i t i o n a l a n d p i o n e e r f e m a l e f a c u l t y m e m b e r s . O n l y one s c a l e o f t h e WVI d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n p i o n e e r a n d t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p s , t r a d i t i o n a l women a t t a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i m p o r t a n c e t o A l t r u i s m t h a n p i o n e e r s . P s y c h o m e t r i c D a t a f o r t h e WVI The WVI was s t a n d a r d i z e d on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f 10,083 A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . Norms w e r e a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f c a s e s i n e a c h o f s e v e r a l 91 c a t e g o r i e s , i n a c c o r d w i t h P r o j e c t T a l e n t p r o c e d u r e s . The c o n t e n t o f t h e 15 p r e s e n t s c a l e s was d e s i g n e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e same 15 v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d i n e a r l i e r f o r m s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A m e d i a n c o r r e l a t i o n o f .65 was n o t e d b e t w e e n new i t e m s a n d o r i g i n a l i t e m s b a s e d on a s a m p l e o f 99 10th g r a d e s t u d e n t s . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o v e r a t w o - w e e k p e r i o d r a n g e f r o m .74 t o . 8 8 w i t h t h e m e d i a n b e i n g . 8 3 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s c a l e s r a n g e up to, .66. A s t h e i n v e n t o r y ha s b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e ( i n v a r i o u s f o r m s ) f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 y e a r s , f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e v a l i d i t y d a t a i s p r o v i d e d . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S t r o n g a n d K u d e r i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s a n d w i t h t h e A l l p o r t - v e r n o n - L i n z e y S t u d y o f V a l u e s . c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y i s b a s e d on f i e l d s t u d i e s a n d c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by d a t a f r o m o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s who t o o k an e a r l i e r f o r m o f t h e t e s t . A more d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e WVI i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B . The WVI i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e a l l o w i n g t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e ( b a s e d on t h e r a t i o n a l e p r e s e n t e d by G a r d n e r , 1975) . 92 Role P r i o r i t i e s Role P r i o r i t i e s were measured by a 5-item rating scale designed by the researcher for the purposes of this study. The scale aims to assess the r e l a t i v e importance of six l i f e areas - Education, Employment, Marriage/partnership, Children, Self and Other - to individual women. Respondents are asked to rate how important each area i s to them on a 5-point scale. The scale can be s e l f administered and takes approximately 5 to 10 minutes to complete. As part of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, Hoyt's c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y was computed (using the LERTAP program) to establish the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s instrument. For the purposes of t h i s study the scale i s considered to be a quasi-interval scale. in accordance with the rationale presented by Gardner (1975) parametric s t a t i s t i c s were employed in the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure. Role Investment Role Investment i s measured by a pie chart adapted from T i t t l e (1981) for the purposes of the present study. The pie chart i s divided into 20 segments. Respondents are asked to show graphically how much time they invested in six l i f e areas (Education, Employment, Marriage/Partnership, Children, Self and Other) during the previous month by dividing the pie accordingly. The pie chart i s s e l f administered and takes approximately 93 10 minutes to complete. During the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis Hoyt's c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y was computed (using the LERTAP program) to establish the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. In order to allow for the use of LERTAP, scores on the instrument were calculated according to a 10 point scale, each two segments on the pie chart being equivalent to one point on the scale. For the purposes of t h i s study the measure i s assumed to be a r a t i o scale allowing for the employment of parametric s t a t i s t i c s in the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure. Design and S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis To achieve the study's purpose main and subsidiary hypotheses were tested at the = .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Although research hypotheses suggest the use of d i r e c t i o n a l tests, evidence in the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y the use of one-tailed tests. Given the exploratory nature of this study, non-directional tests were deemed to be appropriate. Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s . Totals, percentages and means (where appropriate) were calculated for demographic variables: marital status, ethnic designation, l i v i n g arrangements, parental status, household income, employment history, number of hours worked per week, and use of career counselling services. Means and standard 94 deviations were calculated for Childhood Experiences, BSRI, Pace Scale, WVI, Role P r i o r i t i e s and Role Investment scores for both groups. Internal R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instrument. The Laboratory of Educational Research Test Package (LERTAP) (Nelson, 1974) was applied to the data in order to establish the internal consistency of the research instrument (comprising six measures: Childhood Experiences, BSRI, WVI, Pace scale, Role P r i o r i t i e s and Role Investment). The use of LERTAP enables one to consider 1) the index of t o t a l test r e l i a b i l i t y without e x p l i c i t l y acknowledging the existence of separate subtests, and 2) the apparent consistency of the subtests ( i . e . , how well they appear to hang together). To examine the f i r s t consideration LERTAP applies Hoyt's (1941) anova approach. This allows for d i f f e r e n t i a l weighting of test items and can therefore be considered to have some advantage over other estimates of internal consistency. The second consideration i s addressed by computing the value of Cronbach's alpha for weighted subtest scores. This alpha i s an index of the degree to which subtests tend to measure the same thing. As r e l i a b i l i t y data were not provided for several of the instruments included in this study, LERTAP was used to examine a) the internal consistency of the six measures considered as individual t e s t s , and b) the internal consistency of the t o t a l research instrument (comprising t h e s i x t e s t s ) . 9 5 I n f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c s . W i t h r e g a r d t o m a i n h y p o t h e s e s , a u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t was p e r f o r m e d t o t e s t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n e a c h c a s e . Where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d t o e x i s t on t o t a l s u b t e s t mean s c o r e s , a n i t e m a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t i n o r d e r t o p i n p o i n t t h o s e i t e m s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . To t e s t s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s e s , S p e a r m a n Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d t h e i r s c o r e s on t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d work b e h a v i o u r m e a s u r e s . The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e ANOVA s u b - p r o g r a m o f S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r y t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , v e r s i o n X ( S P S S ) . S p e a r m a n Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e a l s o c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g Y SPSS . A l l t h e c o m p u t e r a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s a n d C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e , o p e r a t i n g u n d e r t h e M i c h i g a n T e r m i n a l S y s t e m ( M T S ) . 96 I V . R E S U L T S T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The i n i t i a l s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e a r e o u t l i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h . A t h i r d s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e L E R T A P a n a l y s i s w h i c h was u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l t i t y o f t h e s i x s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e s a n d o f t h e f u l l r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n r e p o r t s r e s u l t s o f b o t h m a i n a n d s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s e s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o e a c h o f t h e s i x a r e a s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s t u d y ( n a m e l y , Sex R o l e S o c i a l i z a t i o n , P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n , Work V a l u e s , R o l e p r i o r i t i e s , A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d Women ' s E m p l o y m e n t a n d R o l e I n v e s t m e n t ) . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i t y , r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s a r e r e s t a t e d a n d r e s u l t s a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y o u t l i n e d . A f i f t h s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a s s u m p t i o n s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d b y an o u t l i n e o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a p r o v i d e d b y p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e s p o n s e t o t w o q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e R o l e P r i o r i t i e s m e a s u r e . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t w e r e e x a m i n e d a n d r e p o r t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s . 97 Data C o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s A t o t a l o f 91 women responded t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of these 34 women were i n the mature age group (45-55) and 47 women were i n the younger group (25-35). To ensure the a c c u r a c y of assignment, a t h i r d age c a t e g o r y (36-44) was i n c l u d e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A t o t a l of 10 women i n t h i s age group responded. As the study was d e s i g n e d t o compare two d i s t i n c t age groups, the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from women aged 36 t o 44 y e a r s was not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s of d a t a . . I t was o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o have 40 women i n each age group. The f i n a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n group s i z e i s i n p a r t a r e f l e c t i o n o f the se e m i n g l y l a r g e r numbers of 25-35, as opposed t o 45-55, year o l d women employed as c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s a t UBC. I t may a l s o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o ot h e r more p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s : Mature women may a l r e a d y have been exposed t o many r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s , and t h e r e f o r e be r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e a g a i n ; they may have had h e a v i e r p e r s o n a l commitments and more job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than younger women. O b v i o u s l y such s u g g e s t i o n s a re h y p o t h e t i c a l and would b e n e f i t from f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Undoubtedly the d e s i g n o f the stu d y ( f o c u s i n g as i t d i d on two ve r y s p e c i f i c age c a t e g o r i e s ) c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . Many p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x c l u d e d on the b a s i s o f age, and 98 s e v e r a l women expressed t h e i r disappointment at not being able to v o l u n t e e r . Some d e l i c a c y was i n v o l v e d i n asking women i f they f e l l i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e age c a t e g o r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y during the l a t e r stages of data c o l l e c t i o n when the focus was on t r y i n g to contact only mature (45-55 year old) women. The taboos surrounding women's age remain s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g that o v e r e s t i m a t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l woman's age might be i n t e r p r e t e d as u n f l a t t e r i n g . S e v e r a l 60 to 65 year o l d s were d e l i g h t e d to be asked i f they belonged i n the 45-55 age group; f o r t u n a t e l y when mistakes were made i n the other d i r e c t i o n , v/omen were very understanding and o f t e n shared a smile or a joke with the r e s e a r c h e r . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample Demographic data on p a r t i c i p a n t s are o u t l i n e d i n summary form i n Table 1. Th i s t a b l e g i v e s frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s a c c o r d i n g to age group. Group 1 (58% of the t o t a l sample) was comprised of 47 women between the ages of 25-35 ye a r s . Group 2 (42% of the t o t a l sample) c o n s i s t e d of 34 women aged 35-45 ye a r s . Approximately 55% of the sample were c u r r e n t l y e i t h e r married (41%) or l i v i n g i n a common law r e l a t i o n s h i p (14%). Twenty four women (30%) were s i n g l e and 13 (16% of the sample) were separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed. As expected, more women i n the younger age group were 99 s i n g l e (18 as compared to 6 i n the mature group), and a l a r g e r number of women i n the mature group were separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed (9 as compared to 4 i n the younger group) . Of the women who were not l i v i n g with e i t h e r a husband or common law p a r t n e r , 32% (11 women i n the younger group and 15 i n the mature group) were l i v i n g alone. F i v e women i n the younger group were c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g with parents and 6 were l i v i n g with f r i e n d s . More than h a l f the sample :'(55%) were c h i l d l e s s . The great m a j o r i t y of these women (45%) were i n the 25-35 year o l d group. Ten women (5 i n each group) had one c h i l d , 15 had two c h i l d r e n , and 11 had three or more c h i l d r e n . As Table 1 shows, most of the women who had two or more c h i l d r e n were i n the mature age group. The ages of the c h i l d r e n c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g with p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from under 5 to over 18. As would be expected, the ages of the c h i l d r e n were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to those of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Twelve women i n the younger group were c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n under the age of 12; 19 women i n the 45-55 year group were c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n over the age of 13, as compared to only one woman i n the younger group. 100 Tab l e 1 B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n on S u b j e c t s (n=81) Group 1 (n=47) Group 2 (n= 34) 25-35 45-55 % o f V a r i a b l e n n sample M a r i t a l s t a t u s Never m a r r i e d 18 6 29.7 M a r r i e d 18 15 40. 7 Common law 7 4 13.6 S e p a r a t e d , d i v - 4 9 16.0 o r c e d , widowed E t h n i c d e s i g n a t i o n Anglo-European/ 38 32 86.4 Canadian Chinese/Canadian 4 0 4.9 East I n d i a n / C a n - 0 0 0.0 a d i a n French Canadian 1 1 2.5 N a t i v e I n d i a n / 1 0 1.2 Canadian Other • 3 1 4.9 L i v i n g arrangements L i v i n g a l o n e 11 15 32.1 L i v i n g w i t h husb- 25 19 54. 3 an d / p a r t n e r L i v i n g w i t h p a r - 5 0 6 . 2 en t s L i v i n g w i t h f r i e n d s 6 0 7.4 Number of c h i l d r e n No c h i l d r e n 37 8 5.5. 6 One c h i l d 5 5 12.3 Two c h i l d r e n 3 12 18. 5 Three or more 2 9 13.6 c h i l d r e n 101 Ta b l e 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) % o f V a r i a b l e n n sample Ages o f . C h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s Age 5 and under 10 0 12.4 Age 6-12 2 0 2.4 Age 13-18 0 8 9.9 Age over 18 1 11 14.8 T o t a l h o u sehold income per annum Less than $18,000 10 5 18.5 $18,000-$24,999 17 9 32.1 $25,000-$33,999 5 5 12.3 $34,000-$43,000 7 6 16.0 Over $43,000 8 9 21.0 Main e a r n e r Yes 22 18 49.4 No 25 16 50.6 Education., Less than grade 12 2 0 2.4 Grade 12 9 9 22.2 T e c h n i c a l / v o c a t - 5 11 19.7 i o n a l Some c o l l e g e / 18 11 35.8 u n i v e r s i t y Graduate from 13 3 19.7 u n i v e r s i t y P o s t - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s Yes 35 28 77.7 No 12 6 22.3 Work e x p e r i e n c e ( g e n e r a l ) Less than 5 y e a r s 1 1 2.4 5-10 y e a r s 23 0 28.4 11-20 y e a r s 23 7 37.0 21-30 y e a r s 0 16 19.8 More than 30 y e a r s 0 10 12.3 102 T a b l e 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) % o f V a r i a b l e n n s a m p l e Work e x p e r i e n c e ( s e c r e t a r i a l ) L e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s 7 1 9.9 5-10 y e a r s 30 4 42.0 11-20 y e a r s 10 12 27.2 21-30 y e a r s 0 9 11.1 M o r e t h a n 30 y e a r s 0 8 9.9 A v e r a g e h o u r s w o r k e d p e r week L e s s t h a n 20 h o u r s 3 0 3.7 20-25 h o u r s 3 0 3.7 26-30 h o u r s 0 1 1.2 31-35 h o u r s 25 17 51.9 36-40 h o u r s 15 15 37.0 M o r e t h a n 40 h o u r s 1 1 2.5 C a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s u s e d H i g h - s c h o o l c o u n - 17 5 27.2 s e l l i n g C o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y 14 5 23.5 c o u n s e l l i n g C E I C 15 5 24.7 WECU ( B r o a d w a y ) 4 1 6.2 WRC ( R o b s o n ) 7 4 13.6 P r i v a t e c o u n s e l l - 3 5 9.9 i n g The t o t a l h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e o f t h e t w o g r o u p s r a n g e d up t o more t h a n $43,000 p e r annum. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s (32%) r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g b e t w e e n $18,000 a n d $24,999 p e r y e a r . T e n women i n t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p and 5 i n t h e m a t u r e g r o u p (18% o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ) r e p o r t e d an i n c o m e o f l e s s t h a n $18,000 p e r y e a r . S e v e n t e e n women (8 i n t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p a n d 9 i n t h e m a t u r e g r o u p ) 103 r e p o r t e d an annual income o f over $43,000. T a b l e 2 shows the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f annual income by m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Most o f the women (80%) i n the younger group r e p o r t i n g an income of $34,000 or above were l i v i n g w i t h a husband or common law p a r t n e r ; the r e m a i n i n g 3 women (20%) r e p o r t i n g such an income were presumably among thos e s i n g l e women who v/ere c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . The 15 women i n the mature group who had an annual income o f $34,000 or above were a l l e i t h e r m a r r i e d or i n a common law r e l a t i o n s h i p . Of the 13 women i n the sample who r e p o r t e d b e i n g e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d or widowed, o n l y one had an income o f over $25,000 per annum. When asked who was the main ea r n e r i n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d , 46% o f the younger group and 53% o f the mature group responded t h a t they themselves were the main e a r n e r . S e v e r a l women, who responded t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , added comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e such a s , " H o p e f u l l y o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y " , "Only because o f the economic c l i m a t e i n BC", " J u s t because o f my husband's unemployment". These r e s u l t s would appear t o c o n f i r m the g e n e r a l t r e n d r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , whereby more and more women are f i n d i n g themselves t o be the main s u p p o r t e r s o f themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 104 T a b l e 2 Income Annual Income by M a r i t a l S t a t u s  Group 1 S i n g l e M a r r i e d Common law D i v o r c e d <$18,000 $18,000-$24,999 $25,000-$33,999 $34,999-$43,000 >$43,000 Income <$18,000 $18,000-$24,999 $25,000-$33,999 $34,000-$43,000 >$43,000 (n=18) 7 7 1 1 2 Group 2 S i n g l e (n = 6) 0 5 1 0 0 (n=18) 2 3 3 4 6 (n=15) 1 1 2 5 6 (n = 7) 0 4 1 2 0 (n = 4) 0 0 0 1 3 (n = 4) 0 4 0 0 0 M a r r i e d Common law D i v o r c e d (n=9) 4 4 1 0 0 Al t h o u g h the e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of s u b j e c t s ranged from l e s s than grade 12 t o u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y of the sample were q u i t e w e l l educated. Only two women ( i n the younger group) had l e s s than grade 12 e d u c a t i o n , whereas 66% o f the younger group and 41% of the mature group had r e c e i v e d some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n (36% o f the t o t a l sample) or were g r a d u a t e s from u n i v e r s i t y (19.8% o f the t o t a l s a m p l e ) . i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the sample (78%) had tak e n p o s t - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s . Most o f the s e c o u r s e s were j o b - r e l a t e d , r e f l e c t i n g no doubt the women's d e s i r e and/or need t o keep up w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes o c c u r i n g i n o f f i c e work. Table 3 shows the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f annual income by e d u c a t i o n 105 l e v e l . Any d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s confounded by the f a c t t h a t women were r e p o r t i n g t o t a l household income. P a r t n e r ' s and i n some cases p a r e n t ' s wages no doubt account f o r many o f the observed d i f f e r e n c e s . T a b l e 3 Annual Household Income by L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n Group 1 Grade Grade T e c h n i c a l / Some U n i v e r s i t y Income <12 12 Vocat i o n a l C o l l e g e Graduate <$18,000 1 2 1 4 2 $18,000-$24,999 1 1 2 10 3 $25,000-$33,999 0 3 0 0 2 $34,999-$43,000 0 2 0 3 2 >$43,000 0 1 2 1 4 Group 2 Grade Grade T e c h n i c a l / Some U n i v e r s i t y Income <12 12 v o c a t i o n a l C o l l e g e Graduate <$18,000 $18,000-$24,999 $25,000-$33,999 $34,000-$43,000 >$43,000 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 3 1 4 1 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses (Table 1) t o q u e s t i o n s about g e n e r a l and s e c r e t a r i a l / c l e r i c a l work e x p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t e d the d i f f e r e n t age ranges o f the two groups. They a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d the f a c t t h a t f o r women , i n the mature group, work has been a major p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s . Twenty s i x women (32% o f the t o t a l sample) i n the 45-55 year range had 21 y e a r s or more work e x p e r i e n c e - 10 of 106 these women r e p o r t i n g over 30 years employment. S i m i l a r l y 17 women (22% of the t o t a l sample) i n the mature group reported having more than 20 years experience i n c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s . In the younger age group almost a l l of the women repor t e d having e i t h e r 5-10 (48%) or 11-20 (48%) years work experience. S i x t y four percent of them had 5-10 years experience i n s e c r e t a r i a l / c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s and another 21% had worked i n such jobs f o r between 11 and 20 yea r s . Only 2.4% of the t o t a l sample had l e s s than 5 years g e n e r a l work experience (one woman i n each group) and 10% had l e s s than 5 years s e c r e t a r i a l experience (7 women i n the younger group and one woman i n the mature group). The m a j o r i t y of the sample (89%) worked between 31 and 40 hours per week; 6 women i n the younger group worked l e s s than 26 hours per week, and 2 women (one i n each group) rep o r t e d working over 40 hours a week. Comparatively few women appeared to have sought career c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s : only 36% of women i n the younger group and 15% of women aged 45-55 had r e c e i v e d career guidance at high s c h o o l . Fourteen women i n the younger group (29%) had sought c o u n s e l l i n g at Canadian Employment and Immigration Centres, as compared to 5 women i n the mature group. The Women's Employment C o u n s e l l i n g Unit on Broadway and the Women's Resources Centre at Robson S t r e e t had provided s e r v i c e s to 16 107 women ( a b o u t 20% o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ) . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t a l l f o r m s o f c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s l i s t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e w e r e 60 p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s f r o m women a g e d 25-35, a n d 25 f r o m women a g e d 45-55. O b v i o u s l y some women h a d u s e d more t h a n one s o u r c e o f g u i d a n c e b u t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e u s e o f c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s was more p r e v a l e n t among t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p i n t h i s s a m p l e . I n t e r n a l R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t An i n i t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s i x i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( b y means o f t h e L E R T A P c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m ) ( N e l s o n , 1974) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e R o l e P r i o r i t i e s a n d R o l e I n v e s t m e n t m e a s u r e s h a d v e r y l o w i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y ( H o y t e s t i m a t e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y = 0.13 a n d -0.0 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The f i r s t o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s ( R o l e P r i o r i t i e s ) was c r e a t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y ; t h e s e c o n d ( R o l e I n v e s t m e n t ) was a d a p t e d f r o m a n i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y by T i t t l e (1981). R e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t L E R T A P a n a l y s i s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 4. T h i s t a b l e shows H o y t ' s e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y a n d t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s . Where an i n s t r u m e n t i s c o m p r i s e d o f s e v e r a l s u b s c a l e s ( n a m e l y , t h e B S R I a n d t h e WVI) H o y t a n d t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t a r e r e p o r t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s u b s c a l e s a n d H o y t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e , t o g e t h e r w i t h C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a , a r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o m p o s i t e m e a s u r e . 108 T a b l e 4 F i r s t L E R T A P A n a l y s i s : I n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e S i x R e s e a r c h M e a s u r e s I n s t r u m e n t H o y t SEM C r o n b a c h s A l p h a C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s 0.55 Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y M a s c u l i n i t y 0 F e m i n i n i t y 0 S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y 0 F u l l t e s t 0 ,84 75 ,32 , 80 2.93 5.22 5.00 5.00 0. 40 Work v a l u e s I n v e n t o r y I n t e l l e c t u a l 0.59 0.94 S t i m u l a t i o n A l t r u i s m 0.85 0.66 E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s 0.65 0.87 V a r i e t y 0.75 0.84 I n d e p e n d e n c e 0.70 0.88 P r e s t i g e 0.56 1.08 E s t h e t i c s 0.53 1.37 A s s o c i a t e s 0.64 1.02 S e c u r i t y 0.88 0.76 Way o f L i f e 0.62 0.74 S u p e r v i s o r y 0.56 0.61 R e l a t i o n s S u r r o u n d i n g s 0.65 0.92 A c h i e v e m e n t 0.69 0.70 Managemen t 0.84 0.76 C r e a t i v i t y 0.83 0.72 F u l l t e s t 0.89 0.82 R o l e P r i o r i t i e s 0.13 2.42 P a c e S c a l e 0.75 3.61 R o l e I n v e s t m e n t 0.00 2.83 G i v e n t h e r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e 4 i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a n y s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s o f d a t a u s i n g t h e R o l e P r i o r i t i e s a n d R o l e I n v e s t m e n t m e a s u r e s w o u l d be o f 109 dubious value: l i t t l e confidence could be placed in results based on instruments with such low internal r e l i a b i l i t y . For this reason the Role P r i o r i t i e s and Role Investment data were omitted from further analyses and the results obtained from these instruments are reported for descriptive purposes only. The f i n a l research instrument was established as consisting of the four remaining measures, namely, Childhood Experiences, BSRI, WVI and the pace attitudes scale. The LERTAP program was run for a second time to examine the internal consistency of t h i s f i n a l instrument. As only the Masculinity and Femininity scales of the BSRI were of interest in the present study, the Social D e s i r a b i l i t y scale was omitted from the analysis. Item 6 of the Childhood Experiences measure was also omitted as a large number of women (27 in a l l ) had not responded to t h i s item. Results of the second LERTAP analysis (see Table 5) showed the o v e r a l l internal consistency of the f u l l test instrument to be s a t i s f a c t o r y (.85). The fact that the Hoyt value exceeded alpha (.50) indicated that within each subtest, the subtest items correlated p o s i t i v e l y . Although the Hoyt value for the childhood Experiences instrument was somewhat low (.57), the instrument was deemed to be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e for the purposes of th i s exploratory study. 110 Table 5 Second LERTAP A n a l y s i s : I n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e F i n a l Research Instrument Instrument Hoyt SEM Cronbach's A l p h a C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s 0.57 2.32 Bern Sex Ro l e I n v e n t o r y M a s c u l i n i t y 0. 84 5. 22 F e m i n i n i t y 0. 75 5. 00 :k V a l u e s I n v e n t o r y I n t e l l e c t u a l 0. 59 0. 94 S t i m u l a t i o n A l t r u i s m 0. 85 0. 66 Economic R e t u r n s 0. 65 0. 87 V a r i e t y 0. 75 0. 84 Independence 0. 70 0. 88 P r e s t i g e 0. 56 1. 08 E s t h e t i c s 0. 53 1. 37 A s s o c i a t e s 0. 64 1. 02 Secur i t y 0. 88 0. 76 Way o f L i f e 0. 62 0. 74 S u p e r v i s o r y 0. 56 0. 61 R e l a t i o n s S u r r o u n d i n g s 0. 65 0. 92 Achievement 0. 69 0. 70 Management 0. 84 0. 76 Cre a t i v i t y 0. 83 0. 72 :e S c a l e 0. 75 3. 61 T o t a l Composite t e s t 0.85 10.69 0. 50 I l l Research Hypotheses Sex Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n Main Hypothesis The main res e a r c h hypothesis examined with regard to sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : The rep o r t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the two groups, as measured by the ei g h t Childhood Experiences q u e s t i o n s , w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : o l d e r women (45-55) w i l l r e p o rt t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as having been t r a d i t i o n a l . Younger women w i l l r e p o r t t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as having been l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n . R e s u l t s An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r Childhood Experience scores of both age groups which showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the two groups (p = .0121). The n u l l hypothesis that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the reported sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the two groups was r e j e c t e d . F i n d i n g s are repor t e d i n Table 6. The mean f o r younger women was 19.362, and f o r ol d e r women was 21.500, i n d i c a t i n g that the younger group r e p o r t e d t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n to have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l than mature women. 112 Table 6 C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 19.362 21.500 20.259 Standard D e v i a t i o n 3. 644 3.768 3.824 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source Between Sum o f Squares df 1 Mean Square S i g . 0.0121 90.2045 90.2045 6.6023 W i t h i n 1079.3511 79 13.6627 T o t a l 1169.5556 80 In o r d e r t o examine t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e more c l o s e l y , an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the e i g h t items of the c h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s measure. Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , F r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a re r e p o r t e d i n Appendix C, Ta b l e 1. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the group means on Item 4 (p = .0185), Item 7 (p = .0000), and Item 8 (p = .0322). 113 Item 7 ( p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f u t u r e l i f e r o l e s ) was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the.groups (p = .0000). The mean of the younger age group (3.043) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the mature group (3.826). On average, younger women repor t e d t h e i r parents as expecting them to combine the r o l e s of wife and mother with a job or ca r e e r , whereas mature women tended toward seeing t h e i r parents as expec t i n g them t o be mainly wives and mothers. S i m i l a r l y , with regard to Item 8 ( p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s ) , the younger group of women (mean = 2.787) appear to have p l a c e d more emphasis on the r o l e of worker when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s than mature women d i d (mean = 3.206). The t h i r d area where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found (Item 4) r e f e r r e d to the degree that p a r t i c i p a n t s ' mothers worked o u t s i d e the home. The mean of 25-35 year o l d women (3.447) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of 45-55 year olds (4.206). T h i s suggests that younger women remembered t h e i r mothers working o u t s i d e the home more f r e q u e n t l y than mature women d i d . S u b s i d i a r y Hypothesis The s u b s i d i a r y hypothesis r e l a t i n g to women's repor t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of educat i o n , t o t a l household 114 income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and s c o r e s on the C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s measure. R e s u l t s Spearman Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the t o t a l C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s s c o r e p a i r e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , income l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (see Ta b l e 7 f o r r e s u l t s ) . The C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s s c o r e s d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h any o f the f o u r demographic v a r i a b l e s and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was u p h e l d . T a b l e 7 C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s P n Educat i o n -0.1840 0. 100 81 Income -0. 0870 0. 440 81 Mar i t a l S t a t u s 0. 0967 0. 390 81 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.2069 0.064 81 Secondary A n a l y s i s An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the t o t a l C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s s c o r e and f o r the e i g h t items on the measure broken down by 1) e d u c a t i o n l e v e l (5 l e v e l s ) , 2) income l e v e l (5 l e v e l s ) , 3) m a r i t a l s t a t u s (4 l e v e l s ) , and 4) p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (4 l e v e l s ) . 115 R e s u l t s E d u c a t i o n . R e s u l t s f o r t h e t o t a l c h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s s c o r e by e d u c a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d i n A p p e n d i x C, T a b l e 2A. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d among t h e f i v e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t o t a l mean s c o r e s . F i n d i n g s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C, T a b l e 2B) s h o w e d t h e r e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n on s c o r e s on I t e m 1 (p = .0149), a n d I t e m 2 (p = .0500). T h e s e i t e m s r e f e r t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t was i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r m o t h e r s ( I t e m 1) a n d t h e i r f a t h e r s ( I t e m 2). D u n c a n ' s p r o c e d u r e f o r m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n was a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e more p r e c i s e l y w h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s l a y among t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s . T a b l e 2C, A p p e n d i x C, g i v e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e a n d r e s u l t s o f D u n c a n ' s p r o c e d u r e f o r I t e m 1. A s t h i s t a b l e s h o w s , E d u c a t i o n L e v e l 3 ( t e c h n i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m L e v e l 2 ( g r a d e 12), L e v e l 4 ( some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y ) , a n d L e v e l 5 ( u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s ) . The mean s c o r e o f s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e L e v e l 3 e d u c a t i o n g r o u p (2.563) was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f women i n L e v e l 2 (1.944), L e v e l 4 (2.069), a n d L e v e l 5 (1.813). Women i n t h e L e v e l 3 g r o u p p e r c i e v e d t h e i r m o t h e r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n v e s t e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n women i n t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . 116 Results of the analysis of variance and multiple comparison test for Item 2 are provided in Table 2D, Appendix C. The mean score of subjects in Level 1 (less than grade 12) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of women in the other four levels of education. For women with less than grade 12 the mean score was 4.000 as compared to 1.889 (grade 1 2 ) , 2.357 (technical/ vocational t r a i n i n g ) , 2.035 (some co l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y ) , and 2.000 (university graduates). These results indicate that women in the f i r s t education l e v e l group (less than grade 12) perceived their school achievement to be less important to their fathers than women in the other groups. The interpretation of these results must be considered cautiously, however, owing to the small sample size (n = 2) of the Level 1 education group. Income. Table 3 A , Appendix C, reports results for the t o t a l Childhood Experiences score by t o t a l household income. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found among t o t a l mean scores of the fi v e levels of income. Si m i l a r l y , item analyses (see Table 3 B , Appendix C) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among income l e v e l groups with regard to mean scores on individual test items. Marital status. An analysis of variance was calculated for t o t a l Childhood Experiences scores by marital status (see Table 4A, Appendix C) which revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the four levels of 117 m a r i t a l s t a t u s . R e s u l t s o f i t e m a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 4 B , A p p e n d i x C) a l s o s h o w e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t o e x i s t among t h e f o u r g r o u p s on t h e e i g h t i t e m s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c a l e . P a r e n t a l s t a t u s . R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t o t a l C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s s c o r e s by p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e 5A, A p p e n d i x C . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d among t h e mean t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e p a r e n t a l s t a t u s g r o u p s . I t e m a n a l y s e s by p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ( s e e T a b l e 5B, A p p e n d i x C) s h o w e d t h e r e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e f o u r l e v e l s on I t e m 4 (p = .0360), I t e m 7 (p = .0000), a n d I t e m 8 (p = .0003). T h e s e i t e m s r e f e r t o : t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i r m o t h e r s g i v i n g i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i r s c h o o l i n g ( I t e m 1 ) ; t h e amount p a r t i c i p a n t s ' m o t h e r s w o r k e d o u t s i d e t h e home ( i t e m 4 ) ; p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s f u t u r e l i f e r o l e s ( I t e m 7 ) ; s u b j e c t s ' own r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s ( I t e m 8 ) . D u n c a n ' s m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e d u r e was a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a t o e x a m i n e t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . R e s u l t s o f m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n f o r I t e m 4 ( s e e T a b l e 5C, A p p e n d i x C) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e mean o f L e v e l 2 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f L e v e l 3 and L e v e l 1. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s s h o w e d t h a t women w i t h t w o c h i l d r e n (3.067) r e p o r t e d t h e i r m o t h e r s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home f o r a g r e a t e r amount o f t i m e t h a n e i t h e r women w i t h t h r e e o r more c h i l d r e n 118 ( 4 . 2 7 3 ) , o r women who w e r e c h i l d l e s s (4.600). R e s u l t s t h a t r e l a t e t o i t e m 4 mus t be v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n h o w e v e r , a s p o s t a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e g r o u p v a r i a n c e s on t h i s i t e m . When t h e mean s c o r e s o f I t e m 7 w e r e a n a l y s e d , f i n d i n g s s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean o f L e v e l 0 (3.089) a n d t h e means o f L e v e l 2 ( 3.733) a n d L e v e l 3 ( 3. 909). I t w o u l d seem t h a t women who a r e c u r r e n t l y c h i l d l e s s r e p o r t t h e i r p a r e n t s a s h a v i n g e x p e c t e d t h e m t o c o m b i n e w i f e / m o t h e r r o l e s w i t h a j o b o r c a r e e r ; women w i t h t w o o r more c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a s h a v i n g t e n d e d somewhat more t o w a r d s t h e w i f e / m o t h e r o n l y o p t i o n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 5D, A p p e n d i x C . Q u e s t i o n 8 e x a m i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s f o r t h i s i t e m a r e p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 5E, A p p e n d i x C . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n L e v e l 0 (women w i t h no c h i l d r e n ) and t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s . The mean s c o r e f o r c h i l d l e s s women (2.622) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f women w i t h one c h i l d ( 3 . 2 0 0 ) , t w o c h i l d r e n ( 3 . 2 7 3 ) , a n d t h r e e o r more c h i l d r e n ( 3 . 6 0 0 ) . . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t women w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d g i v i n g more e m p h a s i s t o t h e j o b / c a r e e r r o l e when t h e y w e r e i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s t h a n women i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s . The mean s c o r e s o f women who c u r r e n t l y h a d c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d more c l o s e l y 119 a c h o i c e f o r combining w i f e and mother r o l e s w i t h a c a r e e r or j o b . P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n Main H y p o t h e s i s The main h y p o t h e s i s examined w i t h r e g a r d t o the p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s was the f o l l o w i n g The p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n o f the two groups, as measured by the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y ( 1974), w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : o l d e r women w i l l s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e ( d e n o t i n g an e x p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n ) than younger women. Younger women w i l l s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e ( d e n o t i n g an i n s t r u m e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n ) than the o l d e r group. R e s u l t s An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s of the BSRI f o r both age groups. R e s u l t s showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of the two groups on e i t h e r the M a s c u l i n i t y or F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s c o r e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t between the p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n o f the two groups was u p h e l d . The f i n d i n g s are r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 8 ( M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e ) and Ta b l e 9 ( F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e ) . 120 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f i t e m s c o r e s f o r the t o t a l sample are found i n Appendix D, T a b l e s IA ( M a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e s ) and IB ( F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s ) . Mean i t e m s c o r e s on the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e ranged between 5.96 ( " s e l f r e l i a n t " , "independent") and 2.00 ( " m a s c u l i n e " ) . On the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e they ranged between 6.395 ( " l o y a l " ) and 2.72 ( " c h i l d l i k e " ) . T a b l e 8 BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s , of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 4. 514 4.562 4. 534 Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 0.601 0. 777 0. 676 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source Between Sum o f Squares df 1 Mean Square S i g . 0.7550 0. 0453 0.0453 0.0980 W i t h i n 36.5238 79 0. 4623 T o t a l 36.5691 80 121 Ta b l e 9 BSRI F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 4.982 4.965 4.975 Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 0.507 0. 528 0. 513 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source Between Sum of Squares df 1 Mean Square F S i g . 0.0058 0.0220 0.8825 0. 0058 W i t h i n T o t a l 21.0048 79 21.0106 80 0.2659 S u b s i d i a r y H y p o t h e s i s The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o women's p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and s c o r e s on the BSRI. R e s u l t s Spearman Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s p a i r e d w i t h 122 e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , income l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s r e s p e c t i v e l y . None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e t a i n e d . F i n d i n g s a re r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 10. T a b l e 10 BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s r — s P n Educat i o n -0.0368 0. 372 81 M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e M a r i t a l Income 0.1254 0.132 81 S t a t u s 0. 0711 0. 264 81 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0. 0025 0. 491 81 F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e Educat i o n Income M a r i t a l S t a t u s P a r e n t a l S t a t u s r n •0.1371 0. I l l 81 •0. 0720 0. 262 81 0.1561 0. 082 81 0.1978 0. 038 81 Secondary A n a l y s i s A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y mean s c a l e s c o r e s broken down by 1) e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , 2) income l e v e l , 3) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and 4) p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the l e v e l s o f demographic v a r i a b l e s on e i t h e r the M a s c u l i n i t y of F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s . The 123 results are reported in Appendix D: Table 2A gives means and standard deviations of the four demographic variables on the Masculinity scale. Table 2B provides similar s t a t i s t i c s for the Femininity scale. Results of the analyses of variance are reported in Appendix D, Tables 3A (education), 3B (income), 3C (marital status), and 3D (parental status). Work Values Main Hypothesis The main research hypothesis examined in regard to pa r t i c i p a n t s ' work values was the following: The work values of the two groups of women w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : the older group w i l l give higher values to scales measuring Surroundings, Associates, Altruism, and Esthetics than the younger women. The younger group w i l l give higher values to scales measuring I n t e l l e c t u a l Stimulation, Independence, Prestige, Variety, and Management than the older group. Results An analysis of variance was calculated for each of the 15 subscales of the Work Values Inventory for both age groups. The findings are reported in Appendix E, Tables 1 through 15. Results showed that no s i g n i f i c a n t differences existed between the groups on any of the 15 1 2 4 s u b s c a l e s . T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o a g e g r o u p s o n t h e n i n e s u b s c a l e s b e i n g e x a m i n e d w a s t h e r e f o r e r e t a i n e d . M e a n s c o r e s f o r t h e y o u n g e r a g e g r o u p r a n g e d b e t w e e n 1 3 . 7 4 5 ( S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s ) a n d 8 . 5 7 5 ( M a n a g e m e n t ) . T a b l e 1 6 , A p p e n d i x E , g i v e s t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f m e a n s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r b o t h a g e g r o u p s . A s t h i s t a b l e s h o w s , t h e r a t i n g s o f m o s t i m p o r t a n t ( S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s , W a y o f L i f e , A c h i e v e m e n t ) a n d l e a s t i m p o r t a n t ( P r e s t i g e , A s s o c i a t e s , E s t h e t i c s , M a n a g e m e n t ) v a r i a b l e s a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r f o r b o t h g r o u p s o f w o m e n S u b s i d i a r y H y p o t h e s i s T h e s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o w o m e n ' s w o r k v a l u e s w a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l i n c o m e , m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s o n t h e W V I . R e s u l t s S p e a r m a n R a n k c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e 1 5 s u b s c a l e m e a n s p a i r e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i n c o m e l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . L o w n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l a n d s c o r e s o n t h e s u b s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g S u r r o u n d i n g s U = - . 2 2 5 9 , p = . 0 2 1 ) a n d A c h i e v e m e n t ( r = - . 2 2 4 2 , p = . 0 2 2 ) . R e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 1 7 A , A p p e n d i x E . S i m i l a r l y s m a l l n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n i n c o m e l e v e l a n d t w o s u b s c a l e s c o r e s : 125 Economic R e t u r n s (r = -.2937, p = .004) and E s t h e t i c s (r = -.2537, p = .011). These r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 17B, Appendix E. The r e s u l t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h m a r i t a l s t a t u s (see Ta b l e 17C, Appendix E) showed two s m a l l n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h s u b s c a l e s measuring P r e s t i g e ( r = -.2115, p = .029) and A s s o c i a t e s (r s s -. 2 0 5 8 , p = .033). P a r e n t a l s t a t u s (see Ta b l e 17D, Appendix E f o r r e s u l t s ) c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i x s u b s c a l e s c o r e s : V a r i e t y (r_ = - . 2 2 6 7 , p = .021), independence (r = -.2177, p = .025), E s t h e t i c s ( r = -.2381, p = .016), S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s (£ = .1830, p .051), Achievement (r_ = .2621 , p = .009), and C r e a t i v i t y ( r = -,2167,p = .026). Secondary A n a l y s i s In o r d e r t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s among the l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n , income, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s , a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the 15 s u b s c a l e s c o r e s broken down by 1) e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , 2) income l e v e l , 3) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and 4) p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . R e s u l t s Educat i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the e d u c a t i o n l e v e l groups and s c o r e s on s u b s c a l e s measuring Independence (p = .0346), S u r r o u n d i n g s (p = .0151), and Achievement (p = .0172). F i n d i n g s a re r e p o r t e d i n summary form i n Appendix E, Tab l e 18A. Duncan's m u l t i p l e comparison p r o c e d u r e was used t o e x p l o r e t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (see 126 Tables 18B, 18C, and 18D, Appendix E f o r a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e and m u l t i p l e comparison r e s u l t s ) . For Independence, the mean score of Le v e l 4 s u b j e c t s (13.035) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of L e v e l 3 (11.500) and L e v e l 5 (11.625) women at the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Women with some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y education p l a c e d a higher value on Independence than women who had taken t e c h n i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and women who were u n i v e r s i t y graduates. R e s u l t s i n regard to Surroundings showed the mean score of L e v e l 5 s u b j e c t s (10.688) to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of Le v e l 4 (12.414) and Le v e l 2 (12.667) p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that women who were u n i v e r s i t y graduates a t t r i b u t e d l e s s importance to Surroundings than women i n the other two education leve]. groups. On the Achievement s u b s c a l e , the mean score of women with L e v e l 5 education (12.063) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of women i n Le v e l 3 (13.313), L e v e l 4 (13.483), and Le v e l 2 (13.500): Women u n i v e r s i t y graduates, on average, rep o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower score f o r Achievement than women with grade 12, t e c h i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g or some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y education. Income. R e s u l t s of the analyses of va r i a n c e f o r subscale scores by income l e v e l r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the f i v e l e v e l s on the C r e a t i v i t y subscale (p = .0222). M u l t i p l e comparison c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that the mean of group 3 (13.000) was 127 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of groups 5 (10.588), 1 (10.667), and 4 (10.692). The f i n d i n g s are r e p o r t e d i n Appendix E, Ta b l e 19A (F r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s f o r the 15 s u b s c a l e s by income l e v e l ) and Table 19B ( a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e comparison t a b l e s f o r the C r e a t i v i t y s u b s c a l e ) . M a r i t a l s t a t u s . A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e o f the s u b s c a l e s c o r e s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s (see Appendix E, Table 20A) r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the f o u r groups w i t h r e g a r d t o S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s (p = .0098). M u l t i p l e comparison p r o c e d u r e s showed t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o l i e between L e v e l 2 ( m a r r i e d women) and L e v e l s 3 (women i n common law r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) and 1 ( s i n g l e women). The mean s c o r e o f L e v e l 2 (14.212) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t of both L e v e l 3 (13.273) and L e v e l 1 (13.375). A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e comparison t a b l e s a re found i n Appendix E, Ta b l e 20 B. P a r e n t a l S t a t u s . R e s u l t s o f the breakdown o f s u b s c a l e s c o r e s by p a r e n t a l s t a t u s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the f o u r l e v e l s on s u b s c a l e s measuring V a r i e t y (p = .0024) and Achievement (p = .0131). A summary of t h e s e r e s u l t s i n g i v e n i n Appendix E, Table 21A. On the V a r i e t y s u b s c a l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were shown t o e x i s t between women w i t h no c h i l d r e n (mean = 12.711) and both women w i t h one c h i l d (11.000) and two c h i l d r e n (11.267). I t would appear t h a t women i n the sample who were c h i l d l e s s gave more importance t o 128 V a r i e t y than women with e i t h e r one or two c h i l d r e n (Table 21B, Appendix E, r e p o r t s a n a l y s i s of va r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e comparison r e s u l t s ) . On the Achievement subscale s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r L e v e l 2 with L e v e l s 1 and 0, and f o r L e v e l 3 with L e v e l s 1 and 0. Both the mean scores of L e v e l 2 (13.800) and Le v e l 3 (14.000) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those of Le v e l 1 (12.300) and L e v e l 0 (12.889). I t seems that women i n the sample who had two or more c h i l d r e n p l a c e d a grea t e r emphasis upon Achievement than women who had only one c h i l d or women who were c h i l d l e s s ( f i n d i n g s are reported i n Appendix E, Table 21C). It should be remembered that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r e n t a l l e v e l s w i t h i n the two age groups was very d i f f e r e n t : 89% of women aged 25-35 had one c h i l d or no c h i l d r e n , as compared to 13% of the mature sample; 62% of women aged 45-55 had two or more c h i l d r e n , as compared to 11% of the younger age group. Item a n a l y s i s . Each of the 15 subscales on the Work Values Inventory i s composed of three i n d i v i d u a l items. The e i g h t s u b s c a l e s , on which s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were shown t o e x i s t among l e v e l s of demographic v a r i a b l e s , were subsequently item analysed. R e s u l t s of these analyses of va r i a n c e are repor t e d i n Appendix E: Table 22A (Independence, Surroundings, and Achievement by e d u c a t i o n ) , Table 22B ( C r e a t i v i t y by income), Table 22C (S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s ) , and Table 22D ( V a r i e t y , Independence, and Achievement by p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ) . 129 A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d W o m e n ' s E m p l o y m e n t  M a i n H y p o t h e s i s The m a i n h y p o t h e s i s e x a m i n e d i n r e g a r d t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t was t h e f o l l o w i n g : A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e P a c e (1970) s c a l e , w i l l be d i f f e r e n t : y o u n g e r women w i l l h o l d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t t h a n o l d e r women. R e s u l t s An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r P a c e s c o r e s o f b o t h age g r o u p s w h i c h s h o w e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e t w o g r o u p s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a g e d 25-35 a n d t h o s e a g e d 45-55 was u p h e l d . The f i n d i n g s a p p e a r i n T a b l e 11. The mean f o r y o u n g e r women was 76.170; f o r m a t u r e women i t was 75.882. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by p a c e ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a s c o r e o f 60 on t h e s c a l e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e c u t - o f f p o i n t f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . I t c a n . t h e r e f o r e be a s s u m e d t h a t b o t h g r o u p s o f women i n t h i s s a m p l e h e l d f a i r l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t . 130 Ta b l e 11 pace S c a l e : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample 47 34 81 Mean 76.170 75.882 76.049 Sta n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 7.853 6.857 7.408 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source Between Sum of Squares df 1 Mean Square S i g . 0. 8642 1.6348 1.6348 0.0294 W i t h i n T o t a l 4388.1677 4389.8025 79 80 55.5464 S u b s i d i a r y H y p o t h e s i s The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s examined was as f o l l o w s : There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , t o t a l income, m a r i t a l / p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and s c o r e s on the Pace s c a l e . Women who have a h i g h e r l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n (more than grade 1 2 ) , or a h i g h e r t o t a l income (over $34,000 per annum), or who have combined m a r r i a g e and parenthood w i t h employment, w i l l have h i g h e r 131 p o s i t i v e s c o r e s on the pace a t t i t u d e s s c a l e . R e s u l t s Spearman Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r Pace s c o r e s p a i r e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , income l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e t a i n e d . R e s u l t s a re r e p o r t e d i n Table 12. T a b l e 12 Pace S c a l e : Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s P n E d u c a t i o n 0.1130 0.315 81 Income 0.1598 0.154 81 . M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.0087 0 = 938 81 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0. 0030 0. 979 81 Secondary A n a l y s i s An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the Pace s c o r e s by 1) e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , 2) income l e v e l , 3) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and 4) p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n (p = .3206), income (p = .1151), m a r i t a l s t a t u s (p = .4512). or p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (p = .9817). For an o u t l i n e o f t h e s e r e s u l t s see Appendix F, Table IA ( e d u c a t i o n ) , T able IB ( i n c o m e ) , Table IC ( m a r i t a l s t a t u s ) , and T a b l e ID ( p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ) . 132 Role P r i o r i t i e s As stated e a r l i e r , hypotheses rel a t i n g to women's role p r i o r i t i e s (as measured by the Role P r i o r i t i e s instrument) were not examined given the low r e l i a b i l i t y of the measure (Hoyt = 0.13). For descriptive purposes means and standard deviations of Pace scores are reported by age group for the six areas included in the scale (namely, Education, Employment, Marriage/ Partnership, Children, Self, and Other). In addition to means and standard deviations, Table 13 also gives F ratios and pr o b a b i l i t y estimates resulting from analysis of variance calc u l a t i o n s . The analysis of variance showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the age groups on any of the six l i f e p r i o r i t y areas at the .05 le v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Readers are reminded, however, that l i t t l e confidence can be placed in these results owing to the low internal consistency of the Role P r i o r i t i e s instrument. The mean scores for Group 1 (25-35 year olds) ranged between 3.064 (Children) and 4.319 (Employment). Group 2 (45-55 year olds) mean scores ranged between 3.118 (Education) and 4.441 (Employment). A rank ordering of women's reported role p r i o r i t i e s , by age group, i s provided in Table 15. 133 T a b l e 13 R o l e P r i o r i t i e s : S t a t i s t i c s a n d F R a t i o s S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e G r o u p n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g . E d u c a t i o n 1 47 3.447 1.017 1. 5193 0.2214 2 34 3.118 1.388 E m p l o y m e n t 1 47 4. 319 0. 783 0. 5448 0.4626 2 34 4.441 0. 660 M a r r i a g e / 1 47 4.149 0.955 3. 6443 0.0599 p a r t n e r s h i p 2 34 3.647 1.412 C h i l d r e n 1 47 3.064 1. 436 2. 7657 0.1003 2 34 3.618 1.538 S e l f 1 47 4. 255 0. 736 0. 1711 0.6802 2 34 4.324 0. 727 O t h e r 1 47 3. 383 0.945 0. 243 6 0.6230 2 34 3 . 500 1.187 R o l e I n v e s t m e n t M a i n a n d s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a n t s r o l e i n v e s t m e n t w e r e n o t e x a m i n e d g i v e n t h e l a c k o f i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e R o l e I n v e s t m e n t m e a s u r e ( H o y t = - 0 . 0 ) . F o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 14. The mean s c o r e s o f y o u n g e r women r a n g e d b e t w e e n .617 ( C h i l d r e n ) a n d 3.745 ( E m p l o y m e n t ) . Mean s c o r e s o f m a t u r e women r a n g e d b e t w e e n .529 ( E d u c a t i o n ) a n d 4.294 ( E m p l o y m e n t ) . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r R o l e I n v e s t m e n t s c o r e s ( s e e T a b l e 14 f o r F r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s ) w h i c h s h o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w i t h r e g a r d t o C h i l d r e n 134 (p = .0033) and Other (p = . 0333). A g a i n , i t must be remembered t h a t the poor r e l i a b i l i t y o f the i n s t r u m e n t p r e v e n t s any c o n f i d e n c e b e i n g p l a c e d i n the s e r e s u l t s . A rank o r d e r i n g o f mean Rol e Investment s c o r e s , by age group, i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 15. Tab l e 14 R o l e Investment: S t a t i s t i c s and F R a t i o s S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e Group n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g . Educat i o n 1 47 0.766 0.813 1. 9424 0.1673 2 34 0. 529 0. 662 Employment 1 47 3.745 1. 343 3. 4596 0.0666 2 34 4 .294 1.268 M a r r i a g e / 1 47 1.915 1. 501 0. 5003 0. 4815 p a r t n e r s h i p 2 34 1.677 1.492 C h i l d r e n 1 47 0.617 1.114 9. 2085 0.0033* 2 34 1 .382 1.129 S e l f 1 47 2.362 1.293 2. 1748 0.1443 2 34 1.941 1.230 Other 1 47 1.723 1.036 4. 6921 0.0333* 2 34 1. 206 1.0 95 * p < 0.05 135 T a b l e 15 R o l e P r i o r i t i e s a n d R o l e : I n v e s t m e n t Rank O r d e r i n g o f Mean S c o r e s by A g e G r o u p R o l e P r i o r i t i e s G r o u p 1 (25-35) G r o u p 2 (45-55) V a r i a b l e Mean V a r i a b l e Mean E m p l o y m e n t 4. 319 E m p l o y m e n t 4. 441 S e l f 4.255 S e l f 4. 324 M a r r i a g e / 4.149 M a r r i a g e / 3. 647 P a r t n e r s h i p P a r t n e r s h i p E d u c a t i o n 3. 447 C h i l d r e n 3. 618 O t h e r 3.383 O t h e r 3. 500 C h i l d r e n 3.064 E d u c a t i o n 3.118 R o l e I n v e s t m e n t G r o u p 1 (25-35) G r o u p 2 (45-55) V a r i a b l e Mean V a r i a b l e Mean E m p l o y m e n t 3. 745 E m p l o y m e n t 4. 294 S e l f 2.362 S e l f 1.941 M a r r i a g e / 1.915 M a r r i a g e / 1. 677 P a r t n e r s h i p P a r t n e r s h i p O t h e r 1. 723 C h i l d r e n 1. 382 E d u c a t i o n 0. 766 O t h e r 1.206 C h i l d r e n 0.617 E d u c a t i o n 0. 529 H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e One o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e u s e o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t s i s t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s o f t h e d e p e n d e n t - v a r i a b l e s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s s a m p l e d a r e e q u a l . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e v a r i a n c e o f u n e q u a l l y s i z e d g r o u p s c a n a f f e c t t h e a l p h a l e v e l a n d ( s h o u l d t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p be 136 greater than that in the larger group) increase the chances of making a Type 1 error ( i . e . , rejecting the n u l l hypothesis when i t should be retained). In the present study the sample size of groups was di f f e r e n t . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent when the two age groups were broken down into subsets according to levels of demographic variables. For example, the size of education l e v e l groupings ranged between n = 2 (less than grade 12) and n = 29 (some co l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y ) . In order to test for s i g n i f i c a n t differences in group variance, the homogeneity of variance (one way) sub-program of SPSS was applied to the data. Appendix G reports Cochran's C (maximum variance/sum of variances) and pr o b a b i l i t y estimates for the five grouping variables used in the study (namely, age, education l e v e l , income l e v e l , marital status and parental status). Tables 1 through 4, Appendix G, provide these s t a t i s t i c s for each of the four dependent-variables used in hypothesis testing ( i . e . , Childhood Experiences, BSRI, WVI, and Pace scal e ) . Five s i g n i f i c a n t differences in group variance were reported for Childhood Experiences scores (see Appendix G, Table 1). No s i g n i f i c a n t differences in variance were found in regard to BSRI and pace scale scores. Findings are reported in Appendix G, Table 2 (BSRI) and Table 4 (Pace sca l e ) . Results for the WVI showed there to be 14 s i g n i f i c a n t differences in the variance among 137 i n d e p e n d e n t - v a r i a b l e g r o u p s . T a b l e 3, A p p e n d i x G , p r o v i d e s a summary o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r WVI s c o r e s . O f t h e 19 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d among g r o u p v a r i a n c e s , o n l y t h r e e a r e o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r : C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s , I t e m 4, by p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (C = .4397, p = .027 a p p r o x . ) ; t h e A c h i e v e m e n t s u b s c a l e o f t h e WVI by e d u c a t i o n l e v e l (C = .4919, p = .000 a p p r o x . ) ; t h e I n d e p e n d e n c e s u b s c a l e o f t h e WVI b y p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (C = .4609, p = .013 a p p r o x . ) . The h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a s s u m p t i o n i s n o t s a t i s f i e d i n t h e s e t h r e e c a s e s w h e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s w e r e r e p o r t e d . A s s u m p t i o n s o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a r e q u i t e r o b u s t a n d c a n s t a n d some d e g r e e o f v i o l a t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , c a u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s t h a t r e l a t e t o I t e m 4 ( C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s ) b y p a r e n t a l s t a t u s , A c h i e v e m e n t (WVI) b y e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , a n d I n d e p e n d e n c e (WVI) b y p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . Q u a l i t a t i v e D a t a I n o r d e r t o h a v e a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e a n i n g b e h i n d w o m e n ' s s c o r e s on t h e R o l e p r i o r i t i e s m e a s u r e , p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d t o comment b r i e f l y u p o n t h e t h i n g s t h a t w e r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f S e l f a n d O t h e r . To a l a r g e d e g r e e t h e d a t a r e f l e c t e d t h e d i f f e r e n t l i f e 138 s t a g e s o f the two groups. Younger v/omen were more apt t o be i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l i z i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s and k e e p - f i t a c t i v i t i e s . Mature women f r e q u e n t l y e p i t o m i z e d what has been c a l l e d the "sandwich g e n e r a t i o n " , d i v i d i n g t h e i r time between teenage c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y p a r e n t s . The s p i l l - o v e r between t h i n g s women d i d f o r themselves and o t h e r l i f e commitments was apparent from the d a t a , and t h e r e f o r e no attempt i s made t o c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e the two c a t e g o r i e s i n the b r i e f summary t h a t f o l l o w s . Younger Women Two areas were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned as t h i n g s t h a t younger women d i d f o r th e m s e l v e s . The f i r s t was p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e - a e r o b i c s c l a s s e s , k e e p - f i t and a wide v a r i e t y o f s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . The second was involve m e n t i n j o b - r e l a t e d p o s t - t r a i n i n g . Many women appeared t o be a c t i v e l y p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e o r g a n i z i n g n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s , s e e k i n g h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s a t work or more g e n e r a l l y w o r k i ng a t " s e l f d i s c o v e r y " . Hobbies t h a t were mentioned spanned a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s : r e a d i n g , s e wing, music, g a r d e n i n g , c o o k i n g , amateur t h e a t r e e t c . . Lazy time was a l s o seen t o be im p o r t a n t and women noted the need f o r " p r i v a t e t i m e " and " p l a n n i n g o f f time t o s u i t me". Community and churc h i n v o l v e m e n t s were area s i n which a number o f women i n v e s t e d t h e i r t i m e . 139 The f a c t o r t h a t p r e d o m i n a t e d i n b o t h t h e a r e a s o f S e l f a n d O t h e r was a c o m m i t m e n t t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Many o f t h e women i n t h i s g r o u p w e r e s i n g l e a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h o t h e r women was o f t e n c i t e d . A s one p a r t i c i p a n t c o m m e n t e d : " K e e p i n g c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h my f e m a l e f r i e n d s a s I am s i n g l e and f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l l y a s i t i s t o u g h t o be t h e s o l e s u p p o r t e r w i t h no p a r t n e r t o d e p e n d o n . My f e m a l e f r i e n d s a r e my ' s u p p o r t g r o u p ' a n d h e l p me t h r o u g h t h e t r y i n g t i m e s " . The i m p o r t a n c e o f f a m i l y t i e s was a c o n t i n u a l t h e m e . Women w r o t e o f " s p e n d i n g t i m e w i t h t h e k i d s - my m a t e " ; " s p e n d i n g t i m e g e t t i n g t o know my f a t h e r a n d b r o t h e r " ; " k e e p i n g v e r y c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h my m o t h e r who i s a s i n g l e p a r e n t " ; " h e l p i n g an a g e d p a r e n t r e s e t t l e i n a new r e s i d e n c e " . The amount o f t i m e women i n v e s t e d i n o t h e r p u r s u i t s was s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . A s k e d wha t s h e d i d f o r h e r s e l f , one woman w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n c o m m e n t e d , "No t i m e - b i k e r i d e t o w o r k " . A n o t h e r w r o t e , " I ' m l u c k y i f I h a v e t i m e t o h a v e a l u x u r i o u s b u b b l e b a t h - r e a d t i m e o n c e a m o n t h ! " . M a t u r e Women The v a r i e t y o f h o b b i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s m e n t i o n e d by m a t u r e women was v e r y b r o a d - a r t s , c r a f t s , m u s i c , t r a v e l e t c . K e e p - f i t a c t i v i t i e s w e r e n o t r e f e r r e d t o as f r e q u e n t l y a s t h e y h a d b e e n b y y o u n g e r women b u t s p o r t s i n v o l v e m e n t 140 was f a i r l y high and varied. Many of the women in thi s age group were very active in community, p o l i t i c a l , church and volunteer groups. A few women reported that they were seeking to increase their employment potential or trying to f i n i s h educational programs. Two women were involved in running their own businesses. Several women noted the importance of having time for themselves away from teenage children. One participant stated that what was important to her was, "the freedom of being able to say 'NO' to others who would take some of my own leisu r e time away from me. I spend more time 'treating' myself to what I want now". As with younger participants the importance of relationships was paramount. Many women had commitments to el d e r l y parents and re l a t i v e s in addition to involvements with husbands and children. The response of one participant exemplified this fact. She l i s t e d among her involvements, " v i s i t and help elderly friends, time spent with grandchild, relationship with s i b l i n g s " . Another woman's response highlights the c o n f l i c t that caring for parents can cause: "I have a commitment to my mother of 80 as I am the only c h i l d and l i v e near her. This takes a lot of time and patience and cuts down on time I would prefer to allocate to myself". Family l i f e was often a focal point. Women wrote about 141 " a s s i s t i n g my h u s b a n d i n h i s b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e " ; " g e t t i n g my s o n l a u n c h e d i n h i s l i f e " ; " b e i n g a g o o d a n d i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t n e r t o my h u s b a n d " ; " t r y i n g h a r d t o s o r t o u t a n d u n d e r s t a n d t e e n a g e r s a n d t h e i r p r o b l e m s " . Women ' s comments h i g h l i g h t e d a s h i f t i n g a n d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d b a l a n c e b e t w e e n e m p l o y m e n t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p r o l e s . P r i o r i t i e s a p p e a r e d t o g r o w o r d i m i n i s h i n i m p o r t a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o l i f e s t a g e a n d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . Some m a t u r e women w e r e i n v e s t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r j o b s , i n s e e k i n g p r o m o t i o n , o r i n r u n n i n g t h e i r own b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s . F o r o t h e r s t h e r o l e o f e m p l o y m e n t was a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e i r l i v e s s e c o n d a r y t o r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u e s . One p a r t i c i p a n t c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d t h e way i n w h i c h p r i o r i t i e s s h i f t i n r e s p o n s e t o l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s : " I h a v e r e c e n t l y s u r v i v e d w i d o w h o o d a n d e n t e r e d a new r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a w i d o w e r a n d h i s t w o t e e n a g e r s . O u r c o m b i n e d p u r p o s e i s t o be s u p p o r t i v e o f e a c h o t h e r a n d l i v e e a c h d a y t o t h e f u l l e s t . Work h a s become s e c o n d a r y , m e r e l y t h e f i n a n c i a l means t o u n d e r t a k e f a m i l y o u t i n g s a n d t r a v e l " . Summary o f H y p o t h e s e s E i g h t n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d . E a c h h y p o t h e s i s ( s t a t e d i n t h e n u l l f o r m ) i s l i s t e d b e l o w a n d i s f o l l o w e d b y i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g . 1 . T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r e p o r t e d s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c l e r k s a n d 142 s e c r e t a r i e s a g e d 25-35 a n d t h a t o f a s i m i l a r g r o u p o f women a g e d 4 5 - 5 5 . ( R e j e c t e d , p <.05). 2. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i n c o m e l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s on t h e C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s m e a s u r e a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o i n t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e o f women c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s . ( R e t a i n e d , p <.05). 3. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o age g r o u p s w i t h r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s o f t h e B S R I . ( R e t a i n e d , p <.05). 4. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i n c o m e l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s on t h e M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s o f t h e B S R I a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o . ( R e t a i n e d , p <.05). 5. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e work v a l u e s o f women c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s a g e d 25-35 a n d t h o s e a g e d 4 5 - 5 5 , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e W V I . ( R e t a i n e d , p <.05). 6. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i n c o m e l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s on t h e 15 s u b s c a l e s o f t h e WVI a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o i n t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e o f c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s . ( R e t a i n e d , p <.05). 143 7. There are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a t t i t u d e s toward married women's employment he l d by p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 25-35 and the a t t i t u d e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45-55 years. (Retained, p <.05). 8. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between education l e v e l , income l e v e l , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a n t s scores on the pace s c a l e are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero. (Retained, p <.05). 144 V. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s Sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n The main h y p o t h e s i s compared the r e p o r t e d sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f the two age groups of women c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s , as r e f l e c t e d by the mean s c o r e s on the C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( ©<. = .05). An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups (p = .0121). The mean scores- of both the younger age group (19.362) and the mature group (21.500) f e l l below the d e s i g n a t e d c ut o f f p o i n t f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a t r a d i t i o n a l and a l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n (a s c o r e of 24 on the measure). Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , however, women who grew up i n the 1970's (25 t o 35 year o l d s ) r e p o r t e d t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as h a v i n g been s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n than t h a t o f women who grew up i n the 1950's (45 t o 55 year o l d s ) . These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g the apparent t r e n d toward a more l i b e r a l sex r o l e i d e o l o g y t h a t t y p i f i e d the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's ( B o u c h i e r , 1983; Deckard, 1975). F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t the r o l e o f p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s was p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between groups. p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the 145 r e s u l t s . The responses of younger women seem to r e f l e c t the more g e n e r a l i z e d acceptance of the worker r o l e f o r women that was a hallmark of the 1970 's i n North America: Parents of younger women were d e s c r i b e d as expecting t h e i r daughters to combine a job or career with marriage and motherhood; the parents of mature women were seen to p l a c e a g r e a t e r emphasis upon m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l r o l e s . S i m i l a r l y , the younger women themselves rep o r t e d that they expected to combine employment and f a m i l y r o l e s more f r e q u e n t l y than mature women d i d . A t h i r d item that d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the groups, r e l a t e d to the amount of time that p a r t i c i p a n t s ' mothers had spent working o u t s i d e the home. Once again r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with Canadian s t a t i s t i c s that note the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of women with c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g the labour f o r c e d u r i n g the 1960's and 1970's: Younger women repor t e d that t h e i r mothers had worked s i g n i f i c a n t l y more during t h e i r c h i l d h o o d than o l d e r women. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the r e s u l t s of the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s with the c u r r e n t work experience of women i n the sample. F u l l y 32% of mature women have worked f o r over 20 yea r s . Even women who expected (and whose parents expected them) to put most of t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n t o being wives and mothers have experienced employment as a c e n t r a l aspect of t h e i r l i v e s . In 1981, 146 Patterson reported that on average Canadian women could expect to spend 34 years in the labour force. Certainly the expectations of combining paid and family work expressed by younger participants reflected the current r e a l i t y of Canadian women's l i v e s . The subsidiary hypothesis considered the relationship between education, income, marital and parental status and mean scores on the Childhood Experiences measure. No s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found between demographic variables and t o t a l Childhood Experiences scores. The implication that early sex role s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences are not d i r e c t l y related to women's current levels of education and income, or to their marital and parental status must, however, be viewed with caution. Women were asked to report their t o t a l household income; i t i s therefore l i k e l y that the inclusion of income provided by spouses, partners and parents confounds any e x p l i c i t examination of the relationship between participant's own current earnings and their sex role s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences. No data were collected with regard to parents' l e v e l of education or income - factors which may have had a bearing upon the re s u l t s . Moreover, although the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Childhood Experiences measure was deemed to be adequate for the present exploratory purposes, i t i s not excellent; some degree of inaccuracy in measurement i s therefore to be expected. 147 Secondary a n a l y s i s examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of demographic v a r i a b l e s and scores on the Childhood Experiences q u e s t i o n n a i r e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were repo r t e d i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l s cores on the instrument. Item a n a l y s i s r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the va r i o u s l e v e l s : Of i n t e r e s t are the d i f f e r e n c e s found between l e v e l s of education groups with regard to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the importance t h e i r parents gave to scho o l achievement. Women with t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g saw t h e i r mothers as p l a c i n g l e s s importance on t h e i r s c h o o l i n g than women i n both lower (grade 12) and higher ( c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y attendance or completion) l e v e l s of education. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e s u l t c o u l d be that women who had pursued t e c h n i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g may, at one time, have a s p i r e d to c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . Not f u l f i l l i n g these ambitions may have been r e l a t e d to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the support t h e i r mothers gave to e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. Obviously such reasoning i s h y p o t h e t i c a l and no assumptions can be made about the nature of the c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e p t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l outcome w i t h i n the framework of the present d e s i g n . Current evidence suggests that environmental support systems have a stro n g impact upon young women's career a s p i r a t i o n s (Farmer, 1985; Go t t f r e d s o n , 1981). It would be v a l u a b l e to expand on the present research by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p 148 between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a s p i r a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s o f s u p p o r t , and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s . The importance t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f a t h e r s a t t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l achievement appeared t o have a s t r o n g e f f e c t on women w i t h l e s s than grade 12 s c h o o l i n g . Women i n t h i s group p e r c e i v e d t h e i r f a t h e r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n v e s t e d i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l achievement than women i n a l l of the o t h e r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l g r o u p i n g s . The r o l e of f a t h e r s ' encouragement has been l i n k e d i n the pa s t t o h i g h a c h i e v i n g women and t o women e n t e r i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d out w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r o l e t h a t f a t h e r s p l a y i n the a s p i r a t i o n s o f women e n t e r i n g v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l female j o b s . A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s must be viewed w i t h some c a u t i o n owing t o the s m a l l s i z e of the L e v e l 1 e d u c a t i o n group (n = 2 ) , they do suggest the m e r i t o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n The main h y p o t h e s i s compared the c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n of both age groups o f women as measured by the BSRI ( M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s ) . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two age groups (c* = .05). The M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e of the BSRI i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e w i t h e x p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y 149 i n d i c a t e t h a t , d e s p i t e marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e ve r y s i m i l a r w i t h r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , a comparison o f t h e mean s c o r e s f o r M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y w i t h i n each group s u g g e s t s t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i s f a i r l y even - women who are c u r r e n t l y employed as c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s d e s c r i b e themselves as showing both m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t has o f t e n been assumed i n the pa s t t h a t b i o l o g i c a l and/or sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s a l o n e determined the development o f a woman's p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s l i n e of r e a s o n i n g would l e a d one t o expect t h a t women who had been s o c i a l i z e d d i f f e r e n t l y would a l s o show d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n . An a l t e r n a t i v e argument from a s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e (and the one used t o e s t a b l i s h the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h hypotheses) would a l s o suggest t h a t , as the o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s o f the 1950's and 1970's were v e r y d i f f e r e n t , the p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the two age c o h o r t s would be d i f f e r e n t . Women i n t h i s sample, however, r e p o r t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n t o be s i m i l a r , i n s p i t e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s noted i n t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . Such f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t s o c i o - s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s may have l e d o l d e r women t o modify e a r l i e r , more t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e ( e x p r e s s i v e ) , o r i e n t a t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y , the l a c k o f a base l i n e measurement ( t a k e n f o r example a t age 18) p r e v e n t s c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e b e i n g drawn about changes 150 i n p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n o v e r t i m e . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y a l s o p r e c l u d e s a n y d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t c a u s a l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s u l t s do a p p e a r t o l e n d i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t f o r A s t i n ' s (1984) a r g u m e n t i n f a v o u r o f t h e i m p a c t o f c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s upon w o m e n ' s w o r k b e h a v i o u r . The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s e x a m i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d s c o r e s on t h e B S R I M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n d t o e x i s t ( oC = . 0 5 ) . R e s u l t s o f s e c o n d a r y a n a l y s i s , w h i c h e x a m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , i n c o m e , m a r i t a l a n d p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s on t h e t w o s c a l e s , w e r e a l s o n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . S u c h f i n d i n g s w e r e n o t u n e x p e c t e d : The i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i e t a l s e x r o l e no rms a n d s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ( A s t i n , 1984; F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e r e i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n a r e o f t e n t h e r e s u l t o f s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e t h a t a r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n n a t u r e ( D e a u x , 1984; F a l k , 1975; K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , t a k e n o u t o f c o n t e x t , h a v e a n y d i r e c t b e a r i n g u p o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o r e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 151 Work v a l u e s The m a i n h y p o t h e s i s e x a m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o age g r o u p s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r c u r r e n t w o r k v a l u e s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e 15 s u b s c a l e s o f t h e WVI w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e t w o g r o u p s . The s i m i l a r i t y o f w o m e n ' s work v a l u e s a c r o s s age g r o u p s i s , o n c e m o r e , s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e i m p a c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s ( A s t i n , 1984). Women i n t h i s s a m p l e , w o r k i n g i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , h o l d v e r y s i m i l a r work v a l u e s r e g a r d l e s s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n age o r s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . S u c h f i n d i n g s seem t o c o r r o b o r a t e R a n t e r ' s (1982) p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t o f t h e w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p r e s s e d v a l u e s shows t h a t t h o s e v a l u e s r a n k e d h i g h e s t a n d l o w e s t i n e a c h g r o u p w e r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e r a n k i n g s i n t h e l i g h t o f b o t h S u p e r ' s (1968) comment s a n d g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s made a b o u t w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t v a l u e s : The f a c t t h a t S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s h a d t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e r a t i n g i n b o t h g r o u p s w a s , t o a l a r g e d e g r e e , p r e d i c t a b l e . The c l o s e n e s s i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e c r e t a r y - b o s s r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s o f t e n b e e n l i k e n e d t o t h a t o f t h e h u s b a n d - w i f e 152 p a r t n e r s h i p . Moreover, women c l e r k s and s e c r e t a r i e s are f r e q u e n t l y dependent upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r boss f o r p r e s t i g e , power, pay i n c r e a s e s and p r o m o t i o n . The h i g h v a l u e p l a c e d on Way o f L i f e was more s u r p r i s i n g . Super (1968) commented t h a t few of the o c c u p a t i o n a l groups s u r v e y e d d u r i n g the v a l i d a t i o n o f the WVI a t t r i b u t e d much importance t o t h i s v a r i a b l e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t women i n t h i s sample a re r e f l e c t i n g the re c e n t t r e n d i n No r t h American s o c i e t y toward p l a c i n g g r e a t e r emphasis upon q u a l i t y o f l i f e s t y l e . The r o l e of worker i s d i m i n i s h i n g i n c e n t r a l i t y i n the c u r r e n t r e c e s s i o n a r y c l i m a t e (Young, 1984b) and m u l t i p l e r o l e s f o r men and women are now both more a c c e p t a b l e and more n e c e s s a r y ( P l e c k , 1982). I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i n s t r e s s i n g t he v a l u e o f Way o f L i f e , women a r e e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e t o b l e n d the r o l e o f worker w i t h o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h r e a d s i n t h e i r l i v e s . I f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , i t u n d e r l i n e s the v a l u e o f a d o p t i n g a l i f e s t y l e , d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach t o women's c a r e e r s ( B i e l b y & B i e l b y , 1984; D a r l e y , 1976), and o f v i e w i n g c a r e e r from a m u l t i f a c e t e d p e r s p e c t i v e (Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980; Super, 1980; Young, 1984a). Achievement was another v a l u e t h a t was r a t e d h i g h l y by p a r t i c i p a n t s ; i t i s a l s o a v a l u e t h a t i s not g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o women workers - c e r t a i n l y not t o those i n ver y t r a d i t i o n a l female j o b s . T h i s r e s u l t appears t o c o n f i r m F i t z g e r a l d and B e t z ' s (1983) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t 153 women i n t r a d i t i o n a l j o b s c a n be j u s t a s m o t i v a t e d a s t h o s e i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t r e f u t e s t h e n o t i o n t h a t w o m e n ' s m a i n f o c u s a t w o r k i s u p o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s ( t h e mean v a l u e g i v e n t o A s s o c i a t e s w a s , i n f a c t , r e m a r k a b l y l o w i n b o t h age g r o u p s ) . R e s e a r c h f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n i n m o t i v a t i o n h a s r e s u l t e d i n a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f work a c h i e v e m e n t . D i s t i n c t i o n s a r e now b e i n g made b e t w e e n a s e n s e o f m a s t e r y , c o n t r i b u t i o n , p l e a s u r e a n d e f f o r t a s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h work ( A s t i n , 1984; B a r u c h , B a r n e t & R i v e r s , 1983; H e l m r e i c h & S p e n c e , 1978). The A c h i e v e m e n t s c a l e o f t h e WVI makes no s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n s , b u t a more n e w l y d e v e l o p e d i n s t r u m e n t , t h e Work a n d F a m i l y O r i e n t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (WOFO) ( H e l m r e i c h & S p e n c e , 1978), o f f e r s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e a s u r i n g w o m e n ' s w o r k o r i e n t a t i o n a l o n g f o u r d i m e n s i o n s : w o r k , m a s t e r y , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s a n d p e r s o n a l u n c o n c e r n . G i v e n t h e h i g h v a l u e a c c o r d e d t o A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o f o l l o w up t h i s r e s e a r c h by c o m p a r i n g age g r o u p s c o r e s on t h e WOFO w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e W V I . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t S e c u r i t y a n d E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s w o u l d be r a t e d v e r y h i g h l y g i v e n t h e c u r r e n t r e c e s s i o n a r y c l i m a t e . T h i s was n o t t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e s e n t s a m p l e . S u c h a f i n d i n g i s p u z z l i n g i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s a t UBC h a v e r e c e n t l y f e l t t h e i m p a c t o f r e c e s s i o n ( J . D u r a n t , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 154 J u l y , 1985). I t mus t be r e m e m b e r e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e v o l u n t e e r s . An e f f o r t was made t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s a m p l e was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e t h a t l e v e l s o f j o b s e c u r i t y a n d e c o n o m i c s a t i s f a c t i o n w e r e h i g h e r among v o l u n t e e r s t h a n t h e y m i g h t h a v e b e e n h a d a l l women c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s a t UBC b e e n s u r v e y e d . The t w o age g r o u p s d i f f e r e d i n t h e v a l u e s t h e y p l a c e d u p o n E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s a n d S e c u r i t y ( a l t h o u g h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ) : Y o u n g e r women r a t e d E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s more h i g h l y t h a n o l d e r women (12.340 a s c o m p a r e d t o 11.677). M a t u r e women r a t e d S e c u r i t y more h i g h l y t h a n 25 t o 35 y e a r o l d s (11.882 a s c o m p a r e d t o 10.936). One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s i s t h a t y o u n g e r women a r e l e s s i n v e s t e d i n S e c u r i t y b e c a u s e t h e y p e r c e i v e more p o t e n t i a l f o r j o b c h a n g e / j o b p r o m o t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d u p o n p o s t - t r a i n i n g a n d u p g r a d i n g c o u r s e s b y t h e y o u n g e r s u b s e t , a n d many o f t h e m c o u l d a l r e a d y be c o n s i d e r e d a s o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n s (18% h a v i n g some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , a n d 13% b e i n g u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s ) . M a t u r e women, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e p r o b a b l y more i n v e s t e d i n S e c u r i t y t h a n E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s due t o t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e d u c e d p o t e n t i a l f o r f i n d i n g o t h e r p o s i t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y e x p e r i e n c e d by m a t u r e women s e e k i n g work i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a w e l l - n o t e d f a c t , a n d i s no d o u b t c o m p o u n d e d i n t h i s f i e l d b y e n d u r i n g m e d i a i m a g e s o f t h e g l a m o r o u s , y o u n g s e c r e t a r y . 155 The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s e x a m i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , l e v e l o f i n c o m e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d s c o r e s on t h e 15 s u b s c a l e s o f t h e W V I . E d u c a t i o n l e v e l c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h S u r r o u n d i n g s (-.2359) a n d A c h i e v e m e n t (-.2242). I ncome l e v e l c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s (-.2937) a n d E s t h e t i c s (-.2537). M a r i t a l s t a t u s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h P r e s t i g e (-.2115) a n d A s s o c i a t e s (-.2058). S i x c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n s u b s c a l e mean s c o r e s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s : V a r i e t y (-.2267), I n d e p e n d e n c e (-.2177), E s t h e t i c s (-.2381), S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s (.1830), A c h i e v e m e n t (.2621) a n d C r e a t i v i t y (-.2167). Many o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t one w o u l d e x p e c t : f o r e x a m p l e , t h e n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n c o m e l e v e l a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s ; t h e i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ( i . e . , number o f c h i l d r e n ) a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f A s s o c i a t e s . O t h e r s , s u c h a s t h e n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l a n d A c h i e v e m e n t , a r e more p u z z l i n g . The l a t t e r may p e r h a p s be due t o t h e t r u n c a t e d j o b l a d d e r t h a t e x i s t s i n c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k . A l l o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e , h o w e v e r , l o w a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e g r e a t e r s t a t i s t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . A t mos t 9% o f t h e v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d ( i n c o m e w i t h E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s ) . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b s c a l e s c o r e s s h o w i n g no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s was n o t a b l y l a r g e r t h a n t h a t 156 where s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e p o r t e d . For the s e r e a s o n s , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between demographic v a r i a b l e s and s c o r e s on the 15 s u b s c a l e s of the WVI were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from z e r o ) was r e t a i n e d . Secondary a n a l y s i s examined d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s of demographic v a r i a b l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o mean s u b s c a l e s c o r e s . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were not e d . One i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t was the d i f f e r e n c e found on the Achievement s u b s c a l e between women w i t h the h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n l e v e l ( u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s ) and women w i t h grade 12, t e c h n i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g or some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean s c o r e o f gr a d u a t e s on Achievement c o r r o b o r a t e s the n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t was found t o e x i s t between e d u c a t i o n l e v e l and Achievement i n e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s . Research has noted the impact o f o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s on worker a t t i t u d e s (Armstrong, 1984; Deaux & Ull m a n , 1983; G u r i n , 1974). G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) a l s o remarked upon the way t h a t men a d j u s t t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and ex p r e s s e d v a l u e s t o f i t the job t h a t they h o l d . In the past i t might have been r e a d i l y assumed t h a t the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d women are somewhat d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n Achievement. In the l i g h t of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s more l i k e l y : women who are p o t e n t i a l l y o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r the job t hey h o l d a r e , r e a l i s t i c a l l y , l e s s i n v e s t e d i n achievement on t h a t j o b . Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s 157 r e s u l t must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h c a u t i o n as assumptions of homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e were not s a t i s f i e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . R e p l i c a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s would be im p o r t a n t and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h o f a ph e n o m e n o l o g i c a l n a t u r e would be v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g t o examine the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found between l e v e l s of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s appeared i n some cases t o c o n f i r m n o t i o n s about the i n t e r p l a y between work and f a m i l y l i f e v a r i a b l e s . In o t h e r s they were more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t women who a re c h i l d l e s s p l a c e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r v a l u e on V a r i e t y than women who have one or two c h i l d r e n . More d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t i s the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t was found t o e x i s t on the Achievement s u b s c a l e between women who are c h i l d l e s s , or have o n l y one c h i l d , and women who have two or more c h i l d r e n . Women w i t h l a r g e r f a m i l i e s p l a c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r v a l u e on Achievement than women who were c h i l d l e s s or had o n l y one c h i l d . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f women w i t h l a r g e r f a m i l i e s were i n the mature age group. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has suggested t h a t women at m i d - l i f e tend t o become more a g e n t i c and concerned w i t h t h e i r own p e r s o n a l accomplishments o u t s i d e of the f a m i l y s p here. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s does n o t , however, account f o r the f a c t t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two age groups on the Achievement s u b s c a l e . O b v i o u s l y f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed f o r 158 t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d on t h i s s u b s c a l e . A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s ( b o t h i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e o f t h e w o r k p l a c e ) a n d w o m e n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t v a l u e s w o u l d g r e a t l y e n h a n c e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d W o m e n ' s E m p l o y m e n t . The m a i n h y p o t h e s i s c o m p a r e d t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t o f b o t h age g r o u p s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . B o t h women a g e d 25 t o 35 (mean = 76.170) a n d t h o s e a g e d 45 t o 55 (mean = 75.882) e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f m a r r i e d women. G i v e n t h e r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t w o g r o u p s ( n o t a b l y t h e l o w e r i n c i d e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' m o t h e r s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n t h e m a t u r e g r o u p ) , one c o u l d h a v e p r e d i c t e d t h a t m a t u r e women w o u l d be l e s s f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o m a r r i e d women w o r k i n g t h a n y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . H o w e v e r , a l l o f t h e women i n t h e s a m p l e w e r e c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d a n d mos t o f t h e m h a d e i t h e r c o m b i n e d f a m i l y a n d e m p l o y m e n t r o l e s f o r a number o f y e a r s o r p l a n n e d t o do s o i n t h e f u t u r e . P a c e e s t a b l i s h e d h e r a t t i t u d e s s c a l e i n 1970. B e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1981 t h e number o f women i n t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r f o r c e i n c r e a s e d b y 69%. D e s p i t e t h e r e c e n t r e - e m p h a s i s u p o n f a m i l y r o l e s t h a t i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e m e d i a a n d i n 159 t h e e m e r g e n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s R e a l Women, t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a r r i e d women i n N o r t h A m e r i c a do work (49.4% o f t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e r e p o r t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h e m a i n e a r n e r i n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s ) . T h e r e i s no way o f k n o w i n g w h e t h e r m a t u r e women h a v e m o d i f i e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s s i n c e l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l . What d o e s seem c l e a r , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t women i n t h i s s a m p l e a r e r e f l e c t i n g b o t h t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e i r own l i v e s a n d t h e g e n e r a l l y more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t h a t now e x i s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y t o w a r d t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f m a r r i e d women. The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i n c o m e l e v e l , m a r i t a l a n d p a r e n t a l s t a t u s a n d mean s c o r e s on t h e p a c e s c a l e . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n d (oC = .05) a n d t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e t a i n e d . D u r i n g v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e s c a l e , P a c e (1970) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n h i g h s c a l e s c o r e s ( i . e . , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s ) a n d l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , i n c o m e a n d p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . None o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n f i r m e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e p o s s i b l y f o u r - f o l d : F i r s t , m a r r i e d women a r e now a more common a n d a c c e p t e d p a r t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n l a b o u r f o r c e t h a n t h e y w e r e i n 1970. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t may h a v e e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y b e t w e e n women o f d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n o r i n c o m e l e v e l s , a r e w a s h e d o u t i n a more g e n e r a l i z e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m a r r i e d w o m e n ' s e m p l o y m e n t . S e c o n d , a l l o f t h e 160 women i n t h i s s a m p l e w e r e c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d w h i c h was n o t t h e c a s e i n P a c e ' s o r i g i n a l s t u d y . M o s t o f t h e women h a d c o m b i n e d w o r k a n d m a r r i a g e o r p l a n n e d t o do s o i n t h e f u t u r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t a n d m a r r i a g e ( w h i c h P a c e r e p o r t e d as b e i n g s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h s c o r e s on t h e s c a l e ) w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o mask a n y more f i n e l y g r a d e d d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i r d , a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , i t i s n o t e x c e l l e n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e u s e o f a more a c c u r a t e i n s t r u m e n t may h a v e a l t e r e d t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . F o u r t h , t h e s u b j e c t s i n P a c e ' s o r i g i n a l s t u d y w e r e A m e r i c a n . P o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n s a m p l e s s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . R o l e P r i o r i t i e s H y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e R o l e P r i o r i t i e s m e a s u r e w e r e n o t e x a m i n e d a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t p r o v e d t o h a v e i n a d e q u a t e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . H o w e v e r , a c o m p a r i s o n o f mean s c o r e s ( r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s i x l i f e a r e a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e m e a s u r e ) i s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f s c o r e s s h o w s t h a t f o r b o t h g r o u p s E m p l o y m e n t was g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , f o l l o w e d by S e l f , a n d t h e n M a r r i a g e / p a r t n e r s h i p . The mean s c o r e s f o r E m p l o y m e n t a n d S e l f w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r i n b o t h g r o u p s ; t h e mean f o r M a r r i a g e / P a r t n e r s h i p was somewhat h i g h e r f o r m a t u r e 161 women (4.149) than i t was f o r younger women (3.647). These f i n d i n g s appear t o c o n f i r m Rand and M i l l e r ' s (1972) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t women nowadays d e s i r e both m a r r i a g e and a c a r e e r . The c e n t r a l i t y o f the work r o l e i s apparent i n the h i g h s c o r e s g i v e n t o Employment by both age groups.' The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h d e s i g n does n o t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the meaning t h a t l i e s b ehind t h e s e s c o r e s . One p a r t i c i p a n t d i d comment t h a t f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons she r a t e d Employment as 5 ("very i m p o r t a n t " ) , but t h a t were she t o c o n s i d e r the i n t r i n s i c meaning t h a t work had i n her l i f e , i t would r a t e o n l y as 0 or 1 ("not at a l l i m p o r t a n t " or " o n l y s l i g h t l y i m p o r t a n t " ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h of a ph e n o m e n o l o g i c a l n a t u r e i s needed t o c l a r i f y t he q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . A s t i n ' s (1984) model d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h r e e work m o t i v a t i o n s : s u r v i v a l , p l e a s u r e , and c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d e s i g n a stu d y t h a t c o u l d t a p i n t o t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s and e l u c i d a t e the meaning work has i n women's l i v e s . The importance t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s g i v e t o r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e v i d e n t not o n l y i n the s c o r e s r e p o r t e d f o r M a r r i a g e / P a r t n e r s h i p , but a l s o i n the w r i t t e n comments women p r o v i d e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Time and ag a i n women s t r e s s e d the importance of r e l a t i o n s h i p -w i t h p a r t n e r s , f r i e n d s , c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e s . F r i e d a n (1982) has r e c e n t l y commented upon the renewed need t h a t 162 women are e x p e r i e n c i n g f o r c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The women's l i b e r a t i o n movement encouraged women t o s t r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n ; F r i e d a n s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the second s t a g e o f t h i s movement women are r e d i s c o v e r i n g the fundamental importance o f connectedness. The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y c e r t a i n l y appear t o c o r r o b o r a t e F r i e d a n ' s i m p r e s s i o n s . The h i g h v a l u e t h a t both age groups p l a c e d upon the ar e a of S e l f was somewhat s u r p r i s i n g . Women are t r a d i t i o n a l l y noted f o r t h e i r s e l f l e s s n e s s and n u r t u r a n c e o f o t h e r s ( o f t e n at the expense o f t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g ) . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s would suggest t h a t the impact o f the women's movement, w i t h i t s s t r e s s upon s e l f - n u r t u r a n c e f o r women, has not been r e s t r i c t e d t o media image "super women". The women i n t h i s sample, employed i n the most t r a d i t i o n a l o f female o c c u p a t i o n s , were not a f r a i d t o s t a t e t h a t they p l a c e d a h i g h p r i o r i t y on t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . G i l l i g a n (1982) d e s c r i b e d the p a t t e r n o f women's moral development u s i n g the metaphor o f a web. R e l a t i o n s h i p and c a r i n g f o r o t h e r s dominated women's e a r l y y e a r s , and i t was not u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e i r l i v e s t h a t they p l a c e d themselves f i r m l y among t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s o f c a r i n g . G i l l i g a n c o n s i d e r e d t h i s b l e n d i n g o f c a r e f o r o t h e r s and f o r s e l f t o be a s i g n o f m a t u r i t y i n women (and a l s o i n men). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r the R o l e P r i o r i t i e s r e s u l t s i n t he l i g h t o f G i l l i g a n ' s work. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may 163 wish t o expand on t h i s s t u d y by a d o p t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t combines p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n the ar e a of c a r e e r development w i t h G i l l i g a n ' s (1982) model and S p r i c e r ' s (1981) work on women's l i f e p a t t e r n s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c a l c u l a t e d f o r the R o l e P r i o r i t i e s measure r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between age group means. D i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t i n the means and rank o r d e r i n g o f the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e l i f e a r e a s ( C h i l d r e n , E d u c a t i o n , Other) a r e , however, worth n o t i n g . The mean s c o r e g i v e n t o C h i l d r e n was h i g h e r i n the mature group (3.618) than i n the younger group (3.064). T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g when one c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of c h i l d l e s s women i n the 25 t o 35 year age group. The f a c t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s s m a l l s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n are g i v e n a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r i o r i t y , even by women who are themselves c h i l d l e s s (38% o f the younger sample). Younger women p l a c e d somewhat more emphasis on E d u c a t i o n than o l d e r women ( t h e mean s c o r e s were 3.447 and 3.118 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l sample (78%) r e p o r t e d t a k i n g p o s t - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , but women i n the younger age group were more l i k e l y t o r e f e r t o j o b - r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s when asked t o comment upon the t h i n g s they d i d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The r a n k i n g g i v e n t o Other was the same i n both groups, and the mean s c o r e s were s i m i l a r . A l t h o u g h women's 164 comments about o t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t s i n t h e i r l i v e s spanned a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s ( s p o r t s , h o b b i e s , r e l i g i o u s and community a f f i l i a t i o n s ) t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t emphasis upon i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e v e r a l women ( n o t a b l y t h o s e who were s i n g l e ) commented upon the im p o r t a n t r o l e t h a t f r i e n d s h i p w i t h o t h e r women p l a y e d i n t h e i r l i v e s ; a l a r g e number o f mature women r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r commitment t o aged p a r e n t s or t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h teenage c h i l d r e n . Having time t o spend w i t h one's p a r t n e r was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by many o f the women. One p a r t i c i p a n t , when asked t o comment upon the in v o l v e m e n t s t h a t were i m p o r t a n t t o her i n her l i f e , s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d , "My mate"! R o l e investment Hypotheses r e l a t i n g t o the R o l e investment measure were not examined owing t o the l a c k o f i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f the i n s t r u m e n t . I t i s n o n e t h e l e s s v a l u a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the d a t a t h a t were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the s t u d y . The mean s c o r e r a n k i n g s g i v e n t o the s i x l i f e a r e a s on the R o l e Investment s c a l e were v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o those r e p o r t e d f o r Rol e P r i o r i t i e s . Employment, S e l f , and M a r r i a g e / p a r t n e r s h i p were the t h r e e a r e a s i n which women i n v e s t e d most o f t h e i r t i m e . The mean Employment s c o r e s (3.745 f o r the younger group; 4.294 f o r mature women) were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the mean s c o r e s o f ot h e r l i f e a r e a s . N e a r l y a l l o f the women i n t h i s 165 sample were employed f u l l time, and the great m a j o r i t y of them (almost 90%) worked between 31 and 40 hours per week . The low mean score given to C h i l d r e n by younger women (.617) i s understandable: T h i r t y - s e v e n women out of the fo r t y - s e v e n i n t h i s subsample had no c h i l d r e n . Although many of them had repor t e d that c h i l d r e n were important i n t h e i r l i v e s , they were not yet p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . The mean Education scores appear on the s u r f a c e to be s u r p r i s i n g l y low (.766 f o r younger women and .529 f o r old e r women). Younger women i n p a r t i c u l a r had appeared to p l a c e a r e l a t i v e l y high p r i o r i t y on t h i s aspect of t h e i r l i v e s . i t must be remembered, however, that data were c o l l e c t e d during the summer time (mainly i n August) when c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y courses were not i n s e s s i o n . S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s commented upon t h i s f a c t when completing the Role Investment p i e c h a r t . Women were asked to complete the p i e cha r t f o r the prev i o u s month, and i t i s p o s s i b l e that the timing of data c o l l e c t i o n may have a f f e c t e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores i n other areas to some degree. A few women added comments to e x p l a i n that the way t h e i r time was apportioned was e x c e p t i o n a l , and was the r e s u l t of t h e i r own, or t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s , v a c a t i o n p e r i o d . Obviously mean group scores cannot a t t e s t to the wide v a r i e t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h a t e x i s t e d w i t h i n each 166 group: The comments women wrote f o l l o w i n g the Rol e P r i o r i t i e s measure r e v e a l e d t h a t women's time investment o u t s i d e o f the work p l a c e depended t o a l a r g e degree upon t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i f e s t y l e s . Some women l i s t e d a wide v a r i e t y o f p u r s u i t s and i n t e r e s t s ; o t h e r s ( e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h young c h i l d r e n ) had l i t t l e time t o i n v e s t o u t s i d e o f the home and work. The response of one p a r t i c i p a n t , who had two c h i l d r e n under the age of 12, i s r e v e a l i n g : When asked about t h i n g s she d i d f o r h e r s e l f , she commented, "No time - b i k e r i d e t o work". T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s A l t h o u g h no d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h s t u d y , the f i n d i n g s appear t o supp o r t A s t i n ' s (1984) assumption t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f the environment p l a y s a major r o l e i n the development of women's work b e h a v i o u r . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t women i n the 45 t o 55 year age range r e p o r t e d t h e i r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i b e r a l than t h a t o f women aged 25 t o 35, the c u r r e n t work be h a v i o u r o f the two groups was s i m i l a r on the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s s t u d i e d (namely, P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n , Work V a l u e s , and A t t i t u d e s Toward M a r r i e d Women's Employment). Such r e s u l t s suggest t h a t mature women may have m o d i f i e d e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s l e a r n e d d u r i n g sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , and have c u r r e n t l y adopted b e h a v i o u r s t h a t a re comparable t o those of a co h o r t of women born 10 t o 20 y e a r s l a t e r than t h e m s e l v e s . 167 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y add t o r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e which s t r e s s e s the i m p o r t a n t impact t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s can have upon women's c a r e e r c h o i c e and work be h a v i o u r ( A s t i n , 1984; Farmer, 1985; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). They a l s o s e r v e as a reminder o f the n e c e s s i t y of t a k i n g i n t o account the dynamic q u a l i t y of s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t p e o p l e are r e s p o n s i v e t o change ( G a s k e l l , 1985). Mature women i n t h i s sample, who were s o c i a l i z e d i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l way appear, i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time span, t o have adopted work o r i e n t a t i o n s and v a l u e s t h a t a re d e c i d e d l y l i b e r a l i n n a t u r e . The t h r u s t o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r development i s toward a d o p t i n g a more h o l i s t i c , e c o l o g i c a l framework (Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980; Super, 1980; Young, 1984a). The v a l u e o f such an approach can o n l y be r e i t e r a t e d i n the l i g h t o f the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . R e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s i m p l y t h a t c u r r e n t c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s may p l a y a g r e a t e r r o l e i n the development o f women's work b e h a v i o u r than e i t h e r sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s or p a s t environment. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a , g a t h e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o women's r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and r o l e i n v e s t m e n t , p r o v i d e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the c l o s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t between women's m u l t i p l e r o l e s i n work, f a m i l y , and s o c i a l l i f e . 1 6 8 I t i s now g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t w o r k e r s come i n t w o g e n d e r s . The c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t women i n t h i s s t u d y g a v e t o p a i d e m p l o y m e n t r e f u t e s a n y n o t i o n o f t h e s e women a s u n c o m m i t e d o r p a s s i v e members o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e i n v o l v e m e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o j o b - r e l a t e d p o s t - t r a i n i n g c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e p r o a c t i v i t y o f women ( A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 8 4 ) , a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l c a r e e r c o m m i t m e n t o f women i n t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e p r o f e s s i o n s ( F i t z g e r a l d & B e t z , 1 9 8 3 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was g r o u n d e d i n t h e s o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o d e l o f c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d w o r k b e h a v i o u r o u t l i n e d b y A s t i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d work b e h a v i o u r a p p e a r t o c o n f i r m s e v e r a l o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d b y A s t i n . F i r s t , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f work i n w o m e n ' s l i v e s . S e c o n d , t h e d y n a m i c q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . T h i r d , t h e i m p a c t t h a t s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s c a n h a v e u p o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f w o m e n ' s w o r k b e h a v i o u r . P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s I n t h e p a s t c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g h a s f r e q u e n t l y f a i l e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o m p l e x , h o l i s t i c n a t u r e o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . R e l y i n g l a r g e l y u p o n t r a i t a n d f a c t o r a p p r o a c h e s , c a r e e r g u i d a n c e h a s a t w o r s t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t o n l y p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s ; a t b e s t i t h a s c o u p l e d 169 a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of job c o n d i t i o n s ( f o r example, pay, h o u r s , n o i s e l e v e l ) . N o t i n g such d e f i c i e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h i n the f i e l d a r e now c a l l i n g f o r g r e a t e r emphasis t o be g i v e n t o the changing n a t u r e of the environment and the i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t i e s o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s (Farmer, 1980a; Young, 1984b). Data c o l l e c t e d from women c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l workers i n t h i s sample u n d e r l i n e s the need f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o adopt a l i f e s t y l e approach t o c a r e e r g u i d a n c e : p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d a c l e a r d e s i r e t o combine employment w i t h f a m i l y and s o c i a l r o l e s ; the dynamic t e n s i o n e x i s t i n g between work and r e l a t i o n s h i p was a c o n s t a n t theme o f the s t u d y . I f c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r s a re t o r e s p e c t the w e b - l i k e p a t t e r n -of most women's l i v e s ( G i l l i g a n , 1982) they w i l l need t o a v o i d r e s t r i c t e d , j o b - f o c u s e d models o f gu i d a n c e . i t i s suggested t h a t a b r o a d l y based model, such as t h a t proposed by Amundson (1984), i s more s u i t e d t o the c o m p l e x i t y of women's c u r r e n t l i f e s t y l e s . Amundson's model t a k e s i n t o account the impact o f the p r i m a r y group upon c a r e e r d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . I n view o f the s t r o n g e f f e c t s t h a t p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s appear t o have had on the sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s sample, t h i s broader p e r s p e c t i v e i s most v a l u a b l e , i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o f a m i l y l i f e p l a n n i n g are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r e f e r a b l e t o those which a re e x c l u s i v e l y job o r i e n t e d . The WOFO (H e l m r e i c h 170 & s p e n c e , 1978) i s an e x a m p l e o f an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t o f f e r s t h i s a d d e d p o t e n t i a l . L i f e s t y l e c o u n s e l l i n g u n d o u b t e d l y demands i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t on t h e p a r t o f b o t h c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e c h o i c e s i s , h o w e v e r , g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d . F o r women i n p a r t i c u l a r , a d o p t i n g a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e a f f o r d s c o u n s e l l o r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v a l i d a t e w o m e n ' s m u l t i p l e r o l e s , t o e n c o u r a g e p r o a c t i v i t y , a n d t o empower t h e i r f e m a l e c l i e n t s i n a way t h a t h a s b e e n l a c k i n g i n t h e p a s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o r r o b o r a t e e a r l i e r e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e d y n a m i c q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s , a n d h i g h l i g h t t h e n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o be a w a r e o f c h a n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s (Harmon & F a r m e r , 1983; Y o u n g , 1984b). R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e n o t e d t h e i m p a c t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n h a s on w o m e n ' s c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s ( L a w s , 1976, 1979; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). A s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s a m p l e h a d n o t r e c e i v e d c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g a t h i g h s c h o o l , y e t , f o r a l l o f t h e m , e m p l o y m e n t was a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s . G i v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d b y many o f t h e y o u n g e r women, a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n u p g r a d i n g t h e i r s k i l l s , i t s eems p e r t i n e n t t o a s k w h e t h e r t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s h a d n o t b e e n f o r e s h o r t e n e d by l a c k o f a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f m a r r i e d women. F a r m e r (1985) 171 n o t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S u p p o r t f o r Women W o r k i n g s c a l e on t h e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f y o u n g women i n h e r s a m p l e . I n v i e w o f t h e s e f a c t s i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e d a u g h t e r s o f women i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l be s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . I n a p e r i o d o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e a n d e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n , c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l j o b s no l o n g e r a f f o r d women t h e s e c u r e f a l l b a c k p o s i t i o n t h e y o n c e d i d . I t c a n o n l y be h o p e d t h a t a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a new g e n e r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n women a s t h e y move i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y T h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y . S u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y ; a l t h o u g h e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s a m p l e was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o know a b o u t t h e work b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e women who c h o s e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i r l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y r e f l e c t e d e i t h e r a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t c w o r k i n g e n e r a l , o r was t h e r e s u l t o f h e a v y work c o m m i t m e n t a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d . i n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y may h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d w e r e n o n - v o l u n t e e r s i n c l u d e d . The t i m i n g o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n n o t o n l y a d d e d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n t a c t i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number o f m a t u r e women, b u t a l s o h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i n f l u e n c e s c o r e s on t h e R o l e I n v e s t m e n t m e a s u r e . 1 7 2 The i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d w e r e o f a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l n a t u r e a n d w e r e n o t , t h e r e f o r e , e n t i r e l y p r e c i s e i n t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g was s a t i s f a c t o r y , i t was n o t o u t s t a n d i n g i n two c a s e s ( C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s a n d P a c e s c a l e ) . The l a c k o f i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t w o o f t h e o r i g i n a l m e a s u r e s p r e c l u d e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g t o R o l e P r i o r i t i e s a n d R o l e I n v e s t m e n t . A l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s e c r e t a r i a l / c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s i n o t h e r l a r g e C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e no g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h i s i s s o . F i n a l l y , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t o be made a b o u t t h e c a u s a l n a t u r e o f o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h I t w o u l d be o f v a l u e f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y w i t h o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s ( f o r e x a m p l e , c l e r i c a l / s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s i n a l a r g e c o m m e r c i a l c o m p a n y / p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t , o r women i n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s ) . i t w o u l d a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t t o c o m p a r e s i m i l a r age c o h o r t s o f wcmen c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d 173 i n t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupations with women who have chosen to work i n the home. The r e s u l t s of such a study wculd enable r e s e a r c h e r s to e l u c i d a t e the impact that involvement i n the paid labour f o r c e has upon women's work a t t i t u d e s and behaviour. I t would moreover i n c r e a s e our understanding of the i n t e r a c t i o n between wcrk experiences and sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . Future i n v e s t i g a t o r s may wish to f o l l o w the development of women i n t h i s sample and cou l d c o n s i d e r the merits of gat h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the teenage daughters of cu r r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . Studies i n the f u t u r e that take a developmental approach tc women's career p a t t e r n s could u s e f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e the work of G i l l i g a n (1982) i n t o e x i s t i n g models c f career development The r e s u l t s found i n r e l a t i o n to the Work Values Inventory (Super, 1968) suggest the importance of a more i n t e n s i v e study of women's employment values using a v a r i e t y c f measures. An e x p l o r a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between mastery and work proposed by Helmreich and Spence (1978) would supplement the present f i n d i n g s . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s that c o u l d t r a c k the development of women's work values over time would enable r e s e a r c h e r s to c l a r i f y the. dynamic impact of s a l i e n t f a c t o r s i n the immediate wcrk environment ( B i e l b y & B i e l b y , 1984; 174 S p i t z e & W a i t e , 1 9 8 0 ; T i n s l e y & F a u n c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . Where r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e t h e b e n e f i t o f i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s ( w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h t i m e a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ) t h e u s e o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o r l a r g e s c a l e d e s i g n s , u s i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l s e t m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n and p a t h a n a l y s i s , w o u l d e n a b l e more c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t o be d r a w n . The m o d e l s p r o p o s e d b y A s t i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) a n d F a r m e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e d e s i g n o f s u c h s t u d i e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x a m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e c o n t e x t . R a t h e r t h a n s e e k i n g c a u s a l i t y o r t h e w e i g h t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t i a l i m p a c t s , r e s e a r c h e r s c o u l d u s e f u l l y a d o p t e c o l o g i c a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s ( e . g . , b i o g r a p h i c a l a n d h e r m e n e u t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s ) w h i c h s e e k t o e l u c i d a t e t h e i n t e r f i t t e d n e s s t h a n e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t . Summary T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y , d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y e x a m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r e p o r t e d s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u r r e n t w o r k b e h a v i o u r o f two age g r o u p s o f s e c r e t a r i a l / c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e p o r t e d s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t w o age g r o u p s : t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f y o u n g e r women b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l / e g a l i t a r i a n t h a n 175 t h a t o f o l d e r women. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s on t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f work b e h a v i o u r ( P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n , Work V a l u e s , a n d A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d M a r r i e d Women ' s E m p l o y m e n t ) . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a g a t h e r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w o m e n ' s r o l e p r i o r i t i e s a n d r o l e i n v e s t m e n t a l s o s h o w e d s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e i n t h e two g r o u p s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s t r u c t u r e o f o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s h a v e a m a r k e d i m p a c t u p o n t h e work b e h a v i o u r o f women ( A s t i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e y a l s o i m p l y t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d on e a r l y s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s a r e o p e n t o m o d i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s o c i o - s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s ( A s t i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y may be u s e f u l t o t h o s e who p r o v i d e c a r e e r g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s t o women c l i e n t s . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d may a s s i s t c o u n s e l l o r s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m u l t i f a c e t e d a n d d y n a m i c n a t u r e o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The s t u d y h a s i n g e n e r a l h e l p e d t o d e e p e n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o m e n ' s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s . I t h a s a l s o h e l p e d , i n some d e g r e e , t o r e m e d y t h e p a u c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g women c l e r k s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s . Harmon a n d F a r m e r (1983) a c c u s e v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s o f e m p h a s i z i n g r e s e a r c h o v e r t h e o r y b u i l d i n g a n d p r a c t i c e . The c u r r e n t p a p e r c o n f i r m s t h e v a l u e o f r e c e n t a t t e m p t s a t d e s i g n i n g a 1 7 6 comprehensive theory of career development ( A s t i n , 1984; Farmer, 1985). I t a l s o encourages c o u n s e l l o r s to view women and men as e q u a l l y and a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r l i f e c a r e e r s . 177 REFERENCES A b e l l a , R . S . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E q u a l i t y i n e m p l o y m e n t . 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H o i b e r g ( E d . ) , Women a n d t h e w o r l d o f work ( p p . 1 2 9 - 1 5 3 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . A r m s t r o n g , P . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . L a b o u r p a i n s : w o m e n ' s work i n c r i s i s . T o r o n t o : Women ' s E d u c a t i o n a l P r e s s . A s t i n , H . S . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . P a t t e r n s o f w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n s , i n J . A . S h e r m a n & F . I . Denmark ( E d s . ) , The p s y c h o l o g y o f  women: F u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h ( p p . 2 5 7 - 2 8 5 ) . New Y o r k : P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i m e n s i o n s I n c . . A s t i n , H . S . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The m e a n i n g o f work i n w o m e n ' s l i v e s : A s o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o d e l o f c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d work b e h a v i o u r . The C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1 2 ( 4 ) , 117-126. A v e r y , D . M . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 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M a s c u l i n i t y and  f e m i n i n i t y : T h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s , c o r r e l a t e s  and a n t e c e d e n t s ^ A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas p r e s s . Spence, J.T. & H e l m r e i c h , R.L. (1980). M a s c u l i n e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y and female e x p r e s s i v e n e s s : T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 5, 147-153. S p i t z e , G.D. & Huber, J . (1980). Changing a t t i t u d e s toward women's n o n - f a m i l y r o l e s . S o c i o l o g y of Work and  O c c u p a t i o n s , ]_( 3) , 317-335. S p i t z e , G.D. & Wa i t e , L . J . (1980). Labor f o r c e and work a t t i t u d e s : Young women's e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s . S o c i o l o g y of  Work and O c c u p a t i o n s , 7 ( 1 ) , 3-32. SPSS i n c . ( 1983). SPSS- User's Guide. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l BOok Company. 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A l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . J o u r n a l o f v o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 13, 282-298. S u p e r , D.E. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f work: M o d e l s and m e a s u r e s f o r m e a n i n g f u l d a t a . The C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1 0 ( 4 ) , 95-103. T a n g r i , S.S. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . D e t e r m i n a n t s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i n n o v a t i o n amoung c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l i s s u e s , 28, 177-199. T a y l o r , M.C. & H a l l , J.A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y : T h e o r i e s , m e t h o d s , and c o n c l u s i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 92, 347-366. T e t e n b a u m , T. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y :  S e p a r a t e b u t e q u a l ? p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 8 7 t h a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . A u g u s t . San F r a n c i s c o . T i n s l e y , D.J. & F a u n c e , P.S. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . E n a b l i n g , f a c i l i t a t i n g , and p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women's c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o r , 1 3 , 327-337. 1 9 1 T i t t l e , C . K . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C a r e e r s a n d f a m i l y : S e x - r o l e s a n d  a d o l e s c e n t l i f e p l a n s . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C A : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s . W a l s h , W . B . & O s i p o w , S . K . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . H a n d b o o k o f  v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 1 , F o u n d a t i o n s : V o l . 2  A p p l i c a t i o n s . N e w J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s I n c . . U n g e r , R . K . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e p o l i t i c s o f g e n d e r : A r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . I n J . A . S h e r m a n & F . L . D e n m a r k ( E d s . ) , T h e p s y c h o l o g y o f w o m e n : F u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n  r e s e a r c h ( p p . 4 6 1 - 5 1 9 ) . N e w Y o r k : P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i m e n s i o n s I n c . . U n g e r , R . K . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . F e m a l e a n d m a l e : P s y c h o l o g i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e s . N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w . V e r o f f , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n L . M . T a m i r ( E d . ) , M e n i n t h e i r  f o r t i e s : T h e t r a n s i t i o n t o m i d d l e a g e ( p p . v i i , v i i i ) . N e w Y o r k : S p r i n g e r . W a l k e r , K. & W o o d s , M . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T i m e u s e : A m e a s u r e o f  h o u s e h o l d p r o d u c t i o n o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . W a s h i n g t o n , D C : A m e r i c a n H o m e E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n . W a r r , P . & P a r r y , G . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P a i d e m p l o y m e n t a n d w o m e n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 9 1 , 4 9 8 - 5 1 6 . W o m e n ' s B u r e a u L a b o u r C a n a d a ( 1 9 8 3 ) . W o m e n i n t h e l a b o u r  f o r c e . O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s . Y o u n g , R . A . ( 1 9 8 4 a ) . T o w a r d a n e c o l o g y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 1 _ 8 ( 4 ) , 1 5 2 - 1 5 9 . Y o u n g , R . A . ( 1 9 8 4 b , J u l y ) . V o c a t i o n a s r e l a t i o n s h i p . C o u n s e l i n g a n d V a l u e s , 1 6 9 - 1 7 8 . Y u e n , R . K . W . , T i n s l e y , D . J . , & T i n s l e y , H . E . A . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e v o c a t i o n a l n e e d s a n d b a c k g r o u n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h o m e m a k e r - o r i e n t e d w o m e n a n d c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d w o m e n . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 2 8 , 2 5 0 - 2 5 6 . 192 Z y t o w s k i , D . G . (1969) . Toward a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development o f women. P e r s o n n e l and Guidance J o u r n a l , 47, 660-664. 193 APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D E M O G R A P H I C I N F O R M A T I O N Please place the number of the appropriate response in the box on the 1. Which of the following age groups do you belong to? 1. 25 to 35 2. 36 to 44 3. 45 to 55 2. What is your marital status? 1. Never married 2. Married 3. Common Law 4. Separated, divorced, widowed 3. What ethnic designation would you give yourself? 1. Anglo-European/Canadian 2. Chinese/Canadian 3. East Indian/Canadian 4. French/Canadian 5. Native Indian/Canadian 6. Other (Please specify below) Excluding children, are you presently? 1. Living alone 2. Living with your husband/partner 3. Living with you parents 4. Living with another/other friend(s) 5. How many children do you have? 0. No children 1. One child 2. Two children 3. Three or more children Of the children that are living with you, how many are? A . Age 5 and under 6. B Age 6 to 12 C . Age 13 to 18 D. Over 18 years old J2 3 J2 7. What would you estimate your total household income to be? 1. Less than $18,000 a year 2. $18,000 to $24,999 a year 3. $25,000 to $33,999 a year 4. $34,000 to $43,000 a year 5. Over $43,000 a year 8. Are you the main earner in your household? Yes No 9. What is the highest level of formal education that you have completed? 1. Less than grade 12 2. Completed grade 12 3. Technical/vocational training 4. Some college/university 5. Graduate from university 6. Other (please specify below) 10. Since you finished your formal schooling/training and started working, have you taken (or are you taking) any other educational or training course(s)? 1. Yes 2. No If you answered "yes" to this question, please specify the course(s): 11. How many years total work experience do you have, including part time and voluntary work? 1. Less than 5 years 2. 5 to 10 years 3. 11 to 20 years 4. 21 to 30 years 5. More than 30 years 12. How many years have you worked in clerical/secretarial positions? 1. Less than 5 years 2. 5 to 10 years 3. 11 to 20 years (f. 21 to 30 years 5. More than 30 years 13. What is the average number of hours per week that you devote to your current job? 1. Less than 20 hours 2. 20 to 25 hours 3. 26 to 30 hours <f. 31 to 35 hours 5. 36 to W hours 6. More than 40 hours 14. Please check any of the following career guidance services that you have used: A . Career counselling at high school B . Career counselling at college or University C . Employment and Immigration centres D . Women's Employment Counselling Unit (Broadway) E . Women's Resources Centre (Robson Street) F . Private Career counselling service M 3 CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES How important was it to your mother/female guardien that you do well in school? 1. Very important 2. Important 3. Somewhat important 4. Unimportant 5. Very unimportant How important was it to your father/male guardian that you do well in school? 1. Very important 2. Important 3. Somewhat important 4. Unimportant 5. Very unimportant How much encouragement did you receive from teachers to do well? 1. A great deal 2. A fair amount 3. Some 4. Very little 5. None How much did your mother/female guardian work outside the home during your childhood? 1. A l l my growing up years 2. Most of my growing up years 3. Only part 4. Very little 5. None How often did your father/male guardian help with housework? 1. Very often 2. Often 3. Sometimes 4. Very little 5. Never How often was your brother(s) expected to help out with housework? 1. Very often 2. Often 3. Sometimes 4. Very little 5. Never 6. I did not have a brother(s) What do you think your parents' expectations were for your future life roles when you were growing up? 1. To only have a career/job 2. To mainly have a career/job | 3. To combine wife/mother role with a career/job 4. To mainly be a wife and mother 5. To only be a wife/mother What were your own expectations for your future life roles when you were in your last years of high school? 1. To only have a career/job 2. To mainly have a career/job 3. To combine wife/mother role with a career/job 4. To mainly be a wife and mother 5. To only be a wife/mother 198 Here are some statements about women and work. Using the scale below, please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. There are no right or wrong answers - the only important thing is how Y O U feel about it. Please make a selection for every statement and put the number you choose in the box on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 1. A woman's place is in the home. 2. Working outside the home tends to improve one's morale. 3. A wife should work only if the family needs the money. 4. Having a job improves one's status. 3 3 3 3 5. The married woman who works has as high a regard for her family as does] ~~J the non-working wife. I 6. Working away from home lessens one's interest in one's home and family. 7. Women should decide whether they want marriage or a career. 8. Having a job makes a woman feel she's worth something. 9. Most women manage to work and keep house too if they want to. 10. It is better to try to extend the budget by cutting down on living expenses than for the wife to enter employment. 3 3 11. Staying home all day is boring. 12. Homemaking has few of the feelings of success and achievement that the business world offers. 13. Performing household tasks is not very challenging. 14. Much of the unrest among todays youth is caused by mothers working away from home. 15. It's good to work in that you are with other people. 16. Most men tend to resent their wives working. 17. It is not fair to one's husband for a wife to take a job outside the home. 18. A wife cannot be a good companion to her husband and work outside the home. 19. The working wife usually learns to manage her time so she gets her housework done. 20. Married women who work desert their home for a career. Jul 3 3 3 JO a 3 199 Now I would like you to show me how much TIME you invested in each of the 6 life areas - E D U C A T I O N , E M P L O Y M E N T , M A R R I A G E / P A R T N E R S H I P , C H I L D R E N , S E L F , O T H E R - during the last month. Imagining that the circle below represents a pie. It has 20 segments. Divide it up to show approximately how much time you invested in each area during the last month. Use abbreviations to label the segments you make (e.g. E D , E M P , M A R R , C H D , S E L , OTH). 200 For each of the following life areas — education, employment, marriage/partnership, children, self, other — choose the number from the scale below that corresponds most closely to how important each area is in your life at the present time. Put the number you choose in the box on the right. 1 2 3 K 5 Not at all Only slightly Somewhat Important Very important important important important E D U C A T I O N E M P L O Y M E N T M A R R I A G E / P A R T N E R S H I P C H I L D R E N S E L F (taking care of and doing things for yourself hobbies, sports, lazy time etc.) O T H E R (community or political involvements, commitments to parents, relatives etc.) 3 3 a a 3 "Sel f What are some of the things that you do for yourself that are important to you at this time? "Other" What are some of the commitments/involvements that are important in your life now? 201 Here are a large number of personality characteristics. I would like you to use these characteristics to describe yourself. That is, indicate on a scale from 1 to 7 how true of you each of the various characteristics are. Be as open and honest with yourself as you can. Please do not leave any characteristics unmarked. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Never or Usually Sometimes Occasion- Often Usually Always or almost not true but ally true true almost never true infrequently true always true true Self reliant Yielding Helpful Defends own beliefs Cheerful Moody Independent Shy Conscientious Athletic Affectionate Theatrical Assertive Flatterable Happy Strong personality Loyal Unpredictable Forceful Feminine 3 3 3 3 a 3 a M M M Reliable Analytical Sympathetic Jealous Has leadership abilities Sensitive to the needs of others Truthful Willing to take risks Understanding Secretive Makes decisions easily Compassionate Sincere Self-sufficient Eager to soothe hurt feelings Conceited Dominant Soft spoken Likeable Masculine M M 3 3 3 3 M 3 3 M 3 _d 3 Warm Solem Willing to take a stand Tender Friendly Aggressive Gullible Inefficient Acts as a leader Childlike Adaptable Individualistic Does not use harsh language Unsystematic Competitive Loves children Tactful Ambitious Gentle Conventional 3 3 3 3 3 3 JE 3 JS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 a 202 The statements below represent values which people consider important in their work. These are satisfactions which people often seek in their jobs or as a result of their jobs. They are not all considered equally important; some are very important to some people, but of little importance to others. Read each statement carefully and indicate how important it is for you. Use the scale below to select the number that most closely represents how important each statement is for you. Put the number you select in the box on the right. Please do not leave any of the statements unmarked. 1 2 3 4 5 Unimportant Of little Moderately Important importance important WORK IN WHICH Y O U 1. have to keep solving new problems. 2. help others. 3. can get a raise. 4. look forward to changes in your job. 5. have freedom in your own area. 6. gain prestige in your field. 7. need to have artistic ability. 8. are one of the gang. 9. know your job will last. 10. can be the kind of person you would like to be. 11. have a boss who gives you a square deal. 12. like the setting in which your job is done. 13. get the feeling of having done a good days work. 14. have authority over others! 15. try out new ideas and suggestions. 16. create something new. 17.. know by the results when you've done a good job. 18. have a boss who is reasonable. 19. are sure of always having a job. 20. add beauty to the world. 21. make your own decisions. Very important 3 3 Jm 3 M 3 M M 203 3 Unimportant Of little Moderately Important Very importance important important WORK IN WHICH Y O U 22. Have pay increases that keep up with the cost of living. 23. are mentally challenged. 24. use leadership abilities. 25. have adequate lounge, toilet, and other facilities. 26. have a way of life, while not on the job, that you like. 27. form friendships with your fellow employees. 28. know that others consider your work important. 29. do not do the same thing all the time. 30. feel you have helped another person. . 31. add to the well-being of other people. 32. do many different things. 33. are looked up to by others. 34. have contacts with fellow workers. 35. lead the kind of life you most enjoy. 37. plan and organize the work of others. 38. need to be mentally alert. 39. are paid enough to live right. 40. are your own boss. 41. make attractive products. 42. are sure of another job in the company if your present job ends. 43. have a superior who is considerate. 44. see the results of your efforts. 45. contribute new ideas. jig 3 3 3 3 3 3 j g 3 3 3 36. have a good place in which to work (good lighting, quiet, clean, enough space, etc.) | [iu 3 3 3 3 3 3 M 3 3 204 YOU'VE FINISHED T H E QUESTIONNAIRE ! ! ! P L E A S E T A K E A C O U P L E OF MINUTES T O L O O K OVER Y O U R ANSWERS A N D C H E C K T H A T Y O U H A V E NOT L E F T A N Y QUESTIONS U N M A R K E D . If you wish to receive a summary of the results of this study or if you are interested in participating in further studies on women and work, please complete the appropriate sections of the form below. Please tear off and return this form separately, in the small envelope provided, to ensure your anonymity. WOMEN'S WORK B E H A V I O U R 1 WISH T O R E C E I V E A S U M M A R Y O F T H E RESULTS O F THIS S T U D Y I A M I N T E R E S T E D IN PARTICIPATING IN F U R T H E R STUDIES ON WOMEN A N D WORK Name: Address: 205 APPENDIX B P s y c h o m e t r i c Data f o r the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y Norms Normative d a t a was c o l l e c t e d from 444 male and 279 female s t u d e n t s at S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y and 117 male and 77 female v o l u n t e e r s a t F o o t h i l l J u n i o r C o l l e g e i n the w i n t e r and s p r i n g of 1973. R e s u l t s showed t h a t males s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than females on the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e and females s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than males on the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s t e r e o t y p e s d e f i n e d f o r men and women i n g e n e r a l were s h a r e d by p e o p l e i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h i s t r e n d was borne out by sex d i f f e r e n c e s on the Androgny s c o r e , w i t h males s c o r i n g on the m a s c u l i n e s i d e of z e r o and females on the f e m i n i n e s i d e . R e l i a b i l i t y I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y . C o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a computed t o e s t i m a t e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y showed the r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e of the s c a l e s f o r the two norm groups t o be: S t a n f o r d F o o t h i l l M a s c u l i n i t y . 86 .86 F e m i n i n i t y .80 .82 Androgyny .85 . 86 S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y .75 .70 206 T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w ere c o m p u t e d u s i n g an i n t e r v a l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r w eeks. The r e s u l t s f o r 28 m a l e s and 28 f e m a l e s f r o m t h e S t a n f o r d n o r m a t i v e s a m p l e w e r e : M a s c u l i n i t y .90 F e m i n i n i t y .90 A n d r o g y n y .93 S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y .89 V a l i d i t y C o n c u r r e n t . C o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e M a s c u l i n i t y / F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y ( C P I ) and t h e G u i l d f o r d - z i m m e r m a n s c a l e s w i t h t h e M a s c u l i n i t y , F e m i n i n i t y and A n d r o g y n y s c a l e s o f t h e BSRI a r e as f o l l o w s : C PI G u i l d f o r d - z i m m e r m a n M a l e s F e m a l e s M a l e s F e m a l e s BSRI M a s c u l i n e -.42 -.25 .11 .15 BSRI F e m i n i n e .27 .25 .04 -.06 BSRI A n d r o g y n y .50 .30 -.04 -.06 T h e s e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e u n i q u e q u a l i t y o f t h e BSRI w h i c h m e a s u r e s m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a s i n d e p e n d e n t c o n c e p t s r a t h e r t h a n a s o p p o s i n g p o l e s o f a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n . The r e s u l t s , e m p h a s i z e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y f o r a t e s t w h i c h s e t s o u t t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f f r o m p r e v i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s . Bern (1974) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e BSRI 207 measures an as p e c t o f sex r o l e s which i s not d i r e c t l y tapped by measures such as the CPI and the Guildford-zimmerman. C o n s t r u c t . V a l i d i t y f o r the c o n s t r u c t "Androgyny" as the b a l a n c e between the two sex r o l e s has been demonstrated by Sandra Bern's b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s (1975). S u b j e c t s who s c o r e d "androgynous" on the BSRI c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d a wider range of b e h a v i o u r s r e l a t e d t o both sex r o l e s than d i d e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e or f e m i n i n e sex typed s u b j e c t s . The f l e x i b i l i t y of the concept i m p l i e d was borne out by the ease w i t h which androgynous men and women d i s p l a y e d t y p i c a l l y m a s c u l i n e or f e m i n i n e b e h a v i o u r s , a c c o r d i n g t o the s i t u a t i o n . Bern (1974) commented t h a t a l t h o u g h the M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s do not c o r r e l a t e w i t h o t h e r measures, they a re c a p a b l e of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g males from females as are the o t h e r s c a l e s . T h i s s u g gests t h a t commonly h e l d s t e r e o t y p e s are indeed d e s c r i p t i v e of men and women t o d i f f e r e n t d egrees. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s A f a c t o r a n a l y t i c approach t o . t h e BSRI has been taken by Gaudreau (1977) and Tetenbaum (1977) among o t h e r s . Gaudreau's st u d y y i e l d e d f o u r f a c t o r s : F e m i n i n i t y , M a s c u l i n i t y , Sex o f S u b j e c t and N e u t r a l M a t u r i t y . Tetenbaum a l s o found f o u r f a c t o r s which he l a b e l l e d A s s e r t i v e n e s s , A f f e c t i v e E x p r e s s i o n , S e l f S u f f i c i e n c y and Gender I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 208 P s y c h o m e t r i c Data f o r the Work V a l u e s I n v e n t o r y Norms Norms f o r the WVI were developed on a n a t i o n a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of 10,083 American s t u d e n t s i n grades 7 t o 12. Sampling p r o c e d u r e s developed f o r the P r o j e c t T a l e n t s u r v e y were f o l l o w e d and norms were a d j u s t e d t o account f o r d i f f e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s i n the f i n a l 84 c e l l s . Norms are p r o v i d e d f o r grades 7 t o 12. As the grade d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h i s range are not marked and work v a l u e s do not appear t o change o v e r a l l w i t h age t o any g r e a t degree, the i n s t r u m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u i t a b l e f o r use w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t and a d u l t s (Super, 1968). R e l i a b i l i t y C o n s i s t e n c y of forms. S e l e c t i o n of new items f o r the c u r r e n t form was a c h i e v e d by s o r t i n g a scrambled p o o l o f o r i g i n a l and new i t e m s . The f r e q u e n c i e s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each o f two a d d i t i o n a l items a s s e s s i n g a g i v e n v a l u e w i t h the o r i g i n a l , r e t a i n e d i t e m were as f o l l o w s : S i z e of c o r r e l a t i o n Frequency p e r c e n t 0.43 - 0.59 17 28 0.60 - 0.69 24 40 0.70 - 0.79 15 25 0.80 and g r e a t e r 4 7 The median c o r r e l a t i o n was .65 209 I n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s c a l e s . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e WVI s c a l e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e m anual f o r n a t i o n a l s a m p l e s o f 1 2 t h and 7 t h g r a d e b o y s and g i r l s . F o r 1 2 t h g r a d e b o y s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e b e t w e e n -.07 ( C r e a t i v i t y - E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s ) t o .66 ( E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s - S e c u r i t y ) . F i f t y o f t h e 105 c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e e q u a l t o o r a b o v e .30 and s i x a r e e q u a l t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n .50, t h e h i g h e s t b e i n g t h o s e l o a d i n g on t h e M a t e r i a l f a c t o r s c a l e s . I n 7 t h g r a d e b o y s t h e r e a r e no c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n .50. R e s u l t s f o r g i r l s i n t h e two g r a d e l e v e l s a r e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e b o y s . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w ere c o m p u t e d u s i n g an i n t e r v a l o f two w e eks. The r e s u l t s f o r 51 m ale and 48 f e m a l e 1 0 t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s r a n g e d b e t w e e n r = .74 and r = .88. The m e d i a n was .83. V a l i d i t y C o n s t r u c t . C o r r e l a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d b e t w e e n t h e WVI and t h e S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t B l a n k , t h e K u d e r P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d ( V o c a t i o n a l ) and t h e A l l p o r t -V e r n o n - L i n d z e y S t u d y o f V a l u e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s a r e q u i t e l o w and S u p e r ( 1968) c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e y may be u n d e r e s t i m a t e s b e c a u s e " a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d , w h e t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , a r e n e c e s s a r i l y somewhat l o w e r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i p s a t i v e n a t u r e o f e i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s e m p l o y e d " ( p . 3 5 ) . 210 C o n t e n t . S t a t e m e n t s u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e 15 v a l u e s were f i e l d t e s t e d t o e n s u r e t h e i r a d e q u a c y and c l a r i t y : s o r t i n g , i n t e r v i e w s , e s s a y r e s p o n s e s , i t e m a n a l y s i s , f o r c e d c h o i c e , r a n k o r d e r i n g and t h e p r e s e n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . S u p e r (1968) b a s e s t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e WVI on " t h e p h r a s i n g o f i t e m s on t h e b a s i s o f a s t u d y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on v a l u e s , and on a r e v a m p i n g o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n by t e e n a g e r s and young a d u l t s ( p . 3 9 ) . C o n c u r r e n t . S u p e r (1968) r e p o r t s t h a t c u r r i c u l a r , g r a d e and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g t h e WVI a r e s l i g h t . C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e s t s m a i n l y on i t s a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . D a t a f r o m d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e m a n u a l b a s e d on e a r l i e r f o r m s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . No d a t a i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c u r r e n t f o r m o f t h e WVI. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s U s i n g an e a r l i e r f o r m o f t h e WVI, O'Connor and K i n n a n e (1961) i d e n t i f i e d s i x f i r s t o r d e r f a c t o r s : S e c u r i t y - E c o n o m i c - M a t e r i a l ; S o c i a l - A r t i s t i c ; Work C o n d i t i o n s and A s s o c i a t e s ; H e u r i s t i c - C r e a t i v e ; A c h i e v e m e n t - P r e s t i g e ; I n d e p e n d e n c e V a r i e t y . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s b a s e d on t h e 10th g r a d e r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y ( u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t f o r m o f t h e WVI) y i e l d e d f o u r 211 dimensions f o r each of the sex groups. For the men the s e were l a b e l l e d M a t e r i a l , Goodness o f L i f e , S e l f E x p r e s s i o n and Behaviour C o n t r o l . For women t h e r e were s l i g h t but not major d i f f e r e n c e s , the f i r s t t h r e e f a c t o r s b e i n g s i m i l a r f o r both s e x e s . Super (1968) notes t h a t where f o r men Way o f L i f e remains f i x e d i n the e x t r i n s i c domain, f o r women i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s or e i t h e r s e p a r a t e s i t s e l f out c o m p l e t e l y . 212 APPENDIX C T a b l e 1 C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : Item A n a l y s i s by Age Group St a n d a r d Item Age Group n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g . 1 1 (25- 35) 47 2.064 0. 734 0. 432 0. 5128 2 ( 45-55) 34 2.177 0. 797 2 1 47 2.149 0.932 0. 155 0.6952 2 34 2.059 1.127 3 1 47 2. 447 0. 904 0 . 061 0.8053 2 34 2 . 500 1.023 4 1 47 3. 447 1.457 5. 787 ' 1 0.0185* 2 34 4.206 1.321 5 1 47 3. 426 1.058 0. 136 0.7136 2 34 3 . 529 1.481 6 1 47 2.809 1. 778 2. 007 0.1605 2 34 2.177 2.236 7 1 47 3.043 0. 690 27. 2719 0.0000* 2 34 3.826 0 . 626 8 1 47 2.787 0. 750 4. 756 0.0322* 2 34 3 . 206 0.978 * p <0.05 213 Table 2A C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a n d a r d E d u c a t i o n L e v e l n Mean D e v i a t i o n 1 ( l e s s than grade 12) 2 25.000 0.000 2 (grade 12) 18 20.444 4.260 3 ( t e c h n i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l ) 16 21.500 2.733 4 (some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y ) 29 19.655 3.488 5 ( u n i v e r s i t y g raduate) 16 19.313 4.571 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 95.222 4 23.781 1.682 0.1629 W i t h i n 1074.434 76 14.137 T o t a l 1169.556 80 214 Tab l e 2B C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : Item A n a l y s i s by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l E d u c a t i o n S t a n d a r d Item L e v e l n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g . 1 1 2 3.000 0.006 3. 306 0.0149* 2 18 1.944 0. 649 3 16 2. 562 0. 629 4 29 2 .069 0. 752 5 16 1.812 0.834 2 1 2 4.000 0.000 2. 492 0.0500* 2 18 1.889 1.023 3 16 2.375 0.957 4 29 2.035 0.944 5 16 2 .000 1.033 3 1 2 4.000 0.000 1. 772 0.1432 2 18 2.333 0.908 3 16 2. 688 0.947 4 29 2.379 0.903 5 16 2.375 1.025 4 1 2 3.500 2 .121 0. 617 0.6517 2 18 4.056 1.259 3 16 3.938 1.436 4 29 3. 448 1.549 5 16 3.875 .1.455 5 1 2 5.000 0.000 0. 797 0.5307 2 18 3.500 1. 339 3 16 3. 375 1.258 4 29 3.448 1.241 ' 5 16 3. 375 1. 204 6 1 2 5.000 0.000 1.842 0.1294 2 18 1.667 1. 749 3 16 2.813 2.040 4 29 2.724 1.907 5 16 2.625 2.217 7 1 2 3 . 50 0 0.707 1. 353 0.2583 2 18 3.556 0. 984 3 16 3.500 0. 633 4 29 3.379 0. 728 5 1'6 3.000 0. 633 8 1 2 2.000 1.414 0.989 0.4189 2 18 3. 167 0.985 3 16 3.063 0. 929 4 29 2.897 0.860 5 16 2.875 0. 619 * p <0.05 215 T a b l e 2C C h i l r i h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s Item_1 by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between ' 6.8185 4 1.7046 3.3064 0.0149 W i t h i n 39.1815 76 0.5155 T o t a l 46.000 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 5 2 4 3 1 Group Group 5 2 4 3 * * * 1 Mean 1.813 1.944 2 .069 2.563 3.000 216 T a b l e 2D C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s Item 2 by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 9.5067 4 2.3767 2.4916 0.0500 W i t h i n 72.4933 76 0.9539 T o t a l 82.0000 80 Duncan s M u l t i p l e Comparison 2 5 4 3 1 Group Mean Group 1.889 2.000 2.035 2.375 4.000 217 T a b l e 3A C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s by Income L e v e l : S t a t i s t i c s and Ana1y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a n d a r d E d u c a t i o n L e v e l n Mean D e v i a t i o n 1 ( l e s s than $ 1 8 , 0 0 0 ) 15 2 1 . 200 3 . 385 2 ( $ 1 8 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 4 , 9 9 9 ) 26 1 9 . 769 3 . 548 3 ( $ 2 5 , 0 0 - $ 3 3 , 9 9 9 ) 10 2 1 . 700 3 . 831 4 ( $ 3 4 , 0 0 0 - $ 4 3 , 0 0 0 ) 13 20 . 154 4. 947 5 ( g r e a t e r than $ 4 3 , 0 0 0 ) 17 1 9 . 412 3 . 675 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 5 2 . 6 3 0 2 4 1 3 . 1 5 7 6 0 . 8 9 5 3 0 . 4 7 1 1 W i t h i n 1 1 1 6 . 9 2 5 3 76 1 4 . 6 9 6 4 T o t a l 1 1 6 9 . 5 5 5 5 80 218 T a b l e 3B C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : Item A n a l y s i s by Income L e v e l Income Sta n d a r d Item L e v e l n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g . • 1 1 15 2. 333 0. 8997 0.5469 0-. 7018 2 26 2.076 0. 688 3 10 2.100 0.738 4 13 2.153 0. 689 5 17 1.941 0.827 •2 1 15 2.267 1.280 0.1242 0.9733 2 26 2.078 0.935 3 10 2.000 0. 667 4 13 2.077 1.188 5 17 2.118 0.993 3 1 15 2. 867 0.743 1.9169 0.1162 2 26 2.192 0. 849 3 10 2. 900 0. 568 4 13 2.308 1. 378 5 17 2.412 0.939 4 1 15 3.733 1.486 0.4093 0.8014 2 26 3.846 1. 434 3 10 4.200 1.135 4 13 3. 462 1. 391 5 17 3 .647 1.693 5 1 15 3.667 1. 291 0.8674 0.4875 2 26 3 .500 1.140 3 10 3.900 0.994 4 13 3 . 385 1.325 5 17 3.059 1.435 6 1 15 3.267 1.831 1.3977 0.2429 2 26 2.192 2.060 3 10 3 .000 1.767 4 13 2. 539 1. 942 5 17 2.000 2 .092 7 1 15 3. 400 0.828 0.6337 0.6400 2 26 3.231 0. 765 3 10 3. 600 0.966 4 13 3.539 0. 660 5 17 3. 294 0. 686 8 1 15 2.933 0.799 0.4217 0.7925 2 26 2.846 0.925 3 10 3.000 1.155 4 • 13 3.231 0.832 5 17 2.941 0. 748 219 Table 4A C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e M a r i t a l S t a t u s n Mean Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 (never m a r r i e d ) 2 ( m a r r i e d ) 3 (common-law) 4 ( s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , widowed) 24 33 11 13 19.792 20.515 18.546 21. 923 3. 203 4.251 3. 560 3.570 A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares d f Square S i g . 0.1587 Between 75.7044 25.2348 1.7764 W i t h i n 1093.8511 77 14.2059 T o t a l 1169.5555 80 220 T a b l e 4B C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : Item A n a l y s i s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s M a r i t a l S t a n d a r d Item S t a t u s n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g 1 1 24 2.125 0. 680 0.7632 0.5181 2 33 2.030 0. 770 3 11 2.000 0. 894 4 13 2 . 385 0. 768 2 1 24 2.125 0.797 0.1999 0.8961 2 33 2.182 1.014 3 11 1.909 1.136 4 13 2.077 1.321 3 1 24 2.417 0.881 0.1263 0.9442 2 33 2 .455 0.938 3 11 2.455 1.293 4 13 2 . 615 0. 870 4 1 24 3.833 1. 404 0.7601 0.5199 2 33 3.727 1.587 3 11 3. 273 1.272 4 13 4.154 1.281 5 1 24 3.375 0.875 1.179 0.3234 2 33 3.606 1.298 3 11 2.909 1.221 4 13 3 . 769 1.641 6 1 24 2.958 1.853 0.8213 0.4861 2 33 2.576 2.001 3 11 1.909 1.921 4 13 2.231 2.315 7 1 24 3. 250 0. 676 1.4860 0.2250 2 33 3.303 0 . 883 3 11 3. 364 0. 505 4 13 3.769 0. 725 8 1 24 2. 667 0.817 2.704- 0.0512 2 33 3.212 0. 820 3 11 2.636 0.924 4 13 3.154 0.899 221 Ta b l e 5A C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s by p a r e n t a l S t a t u s : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e P a r e n t a l S t a t u s n Mean St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 0 (no c h i l d r e n ) 45 19.533 1 (one c h i l d ) 10 21.900 2 (two c h i l d r e n ) 15 21.000 3 ( t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n ) 11 20.727 3.145 2 .923 5. 372 4.384 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square S i g . 0. 2437 Between 61.2737 20.4246 1.4194 W i t h i n 1108.2818 77 14.3933 T o t a l 1169.5555 80 222 T a b l e 5B C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s : I t e m A n a l y s i s by p a r e n t a l S t a t u s p a r e n t a l S t a n d a r d I t e m S t a t u s n Mean D e v i a t i o n F S i g 1 0 45 2.067 0.720 2.7044 0.0512 1 10 2.100 0. 738 2 15 2. 533 0.834 3 11 1.727 0. 647 2 0 45 2.178 0. 806 0.6221 0.6029 1 10 2.100 1.101 2 15 2. 200 1. 320 3 11 1. 727 1.272 3 0 45 2.422 0.965 0. 2936 0.8299 1 10 2.500 0. 850 2 15 2. 667 1.047 3 11 2.364 0.924 4 0 45 3. 689 1. 328 2.9913 0.0360* 1 10 4 . 600 0. 699 2 15 3.067 1.831 3 11 4.273 1.421 5 0 45 3. 467 1. 036 0.6236 0.6019 1 10 3.900 0.876 2 15 3. 200 1. 521 3 11 3.455 1.864 6 0 45 2.689 1.881 0.2780 0.8411 1 10 2.300 1.889 2 15 2. 200 2.305 3 11 2.636 2.292 7 0 45 3.089 0. 633 6.0148 0.0100* 1 10 3.500 0. 850 2 15 3. 733 0. 884 3 11 3.909 0. 539 8 0 45 2 . 622 0.747 6.9194 0.0003* 1 10 3.200 0. 789 2 15 3. 600 0.828 3 11 3.273 0. 905 * p <0.05 223 T a b l e 5C C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s Item 4 by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s  of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 17.3836 3 5.7945 2.9913 0.0360 W i t h i n 149.1596 77 1.9371 T o t a l 166.5432 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e comparison Mean 3.067 3.689 4 . 273 4.600 2 0 3 1 Group Group 2 * * 0 3 1 224 Table 5D C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s Item 7 by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s  of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e Sum o f Source Squares df 8.9020 3 Mean Square F S i g . 2.9673 6.0148 0.0010 Between W i t h i n 37.9869 77 0.4933 T o t a l 46.8889 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison Mean 3.089 3.500 3.733 3.909 0 1 2 3 Group Group 0 1 2 3 * * 225 Ta b l e 5E C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s Item 8 by p a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s  of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 12.9293 3 4.3098 6.9194 0.0003 W i t h i n 47.9596 77 0.6229 T o t a l 60.8889 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 0 1 2 3 Group Mean Group 2.622 0 * * * 3.200 1 3.273 2 3.600 3 226 APPENDIX D T a b l e I A BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e : I t e m S t a t i s t i c s S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e Mean D e v i a t i o n S e l f - r e l i a n t 5. 96 0. 90 D e f e n d s own b e l i e f s 5. 74 1. 15 I n d e p e n d e n t 5. 96 1. 12 A t h l e t i c 3. 99 1. 73 A s s e r t i v e 4. 49 1. 29 S t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y 5 . 06 1. 65 F o r c e f u l 3. 64 1. 55 A n a l y t i c a l 4. 99 1. 49 Has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s 4. 48 1. 51 W i l l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s 4. 30 1. 28 Makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y 4. 54 1. 35 S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t 5. 80 1. 19 Dom i n a n t 3. 68 1. 52 M a s c u l i n e 2. 00 1. 18 W i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t a n d 4. 86 1. 0 7 A g g r e s s i v e 3. 63 1. 31 A c t s as a l e a d e r 4. 04 1. 35 I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c 5. 17 1. 20 Compet i t i v e 3. 73 1. 43 A m b i t i o u s 4. 60 1. 44 227 T a b l e I B BSRI F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e : I t e m S t a t i s t i c s S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e Mean D e v i a t i o n Y i e l d i n g 4. 70 1.04 C h e e r f u l 5. 63 0.86 Shy 3. 63 1.48 A f f e c t i o n a t e 5. 75 1.09 F l a t t e r a b l e 3. 86 1.51 L o y a l 6. 40 0.90 F e m i n i n e 5. 30 1.23 S y m p a t h e t i c 5. 69 0.94 S e n s i t i v e t o t h e n e e d s 5 . 62 0.90 o f o t h e r s U n d e r s t a n d i n g 5. 74 0.80 C o m p a s s i o n a t e 5. 59 0.86 E a g e r t o s o o t h e h u r t f e e l i n g s 5. 44 1.11 S o f t - s p o k e n 5. 85 1.71 Warm 5. 58 0.85 T e n d e r 5. 11 1.07 G u l l i b l e 3. 36 1.54 C h i l d l i k e 2 . 72 1.51 Does n o t use h a r s h l a n g u a g e 4. 75 1.79 L o v e s c h i l d r e n 5 . 49 1. 52 G e n t l e 5. 27 1.07 228 T a b l e 2A B S R I M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l , I n c o m e L e v e l , M a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d P a r e n t a l S t a t u s S t a t i s t i c s V a r i a b l e L e v e l Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E d u c a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 2 18 16 29 16 4.450 4.508 4.513 4.657 4.372 0 . 566 0. 703 0.810 0. 552 0.757 I n c o m e 1 2 3 4 5 15 26 10 13 17 4. 447 4.517 4.525 4.531 4.644 0. 774 0. 469 0. 701 0. 697 0. 892 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 1 2 3 24 33 11 13 4 4 4 4 483 567 505 569 0. 514 0. 757 0. 745 0.736 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0 1 2 3 45 10 15 11 4, 4, 4, 4 531 735 507 499 0. 554 0. 768 0.787 0.920 229 T a b l e 2B BSRI F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l , Income L e v e l , M a r i t a l S t a t u s and P a r e n t a l S t a t u s S t a t i s t i e s V a r i a b l e L e v e l n Mean Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n Educat i o n 1 2 3 4 5 2 18 16 29 16 5. 625 5.069 4.978 4.897 4.925 0. 530 0. 524 0. 405 0. 552 0. 506 Income 1 2 3 4 5 15 26 10 13 17 5 .050 4.931 4.965 5.039 4.932 0. 487 0. 525 0.604 0. 525 0. 499 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 1 2 3 4 24 33 11 13 4 4 4 5. 869 992 841 239 0. 614 0.455 0. 318 0. 526 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0 1 2 3 45 10 15 11 887 965 990 323 0. 540 0.401 0. 380 0. 551 230 Table 3A BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e s by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s e s of V a r i a n c e M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 0.8919 4 0.2230 0.4750 0.7539 W i t h i n 35.6772 76 0.4694 T o t a l 36.5691 80 F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 1.2242 4 0.3060 1.1755 0.3284 W i t h i n 19.7864 76 0.2603 T o t a l 21.0106 80 231 T a b l e 3B BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e s by Income L e v e l : A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 0.3287 4 0.0822 0.1723 0.9519 W i t h i n 36.2404 76 0.4768 T o t a l 36.5691 80 F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 2.1950 4 0.0549 0.2006 0.9373 W i t h i n 20.7911 76 0.2736 T o t a l 21.0106 80 232 T a b l e 3C BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 0.1225 3 0.0408 0.0863 0.9674 W i t h i n 36.4466 77 0.4733 T o t a l 36.5691 80 F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 1.3811 3 0.4604 1.8058 0.1531 W i t h i n 19.6295 77 0.2549 T o t a l 21.0106 80 233 T a b l e 3D BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e s by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 0.6131 3 0.2044 0.4377 0.7267 W i t h i n 35.9560 77 0.4670 T o t a l 36.5691 80 F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e F S i g . Between 1.6855 3 0.5618 2.2387 0.0904 W i t h i n 19.3251 77 0.2510 T o t a l 21.0106 80 234 A P P E N D I X E T a b l e 1 WVI: I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n , C o m p a r i s o n by Age G r o u p  S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s Age G r o u p n Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 ( 2 5 - 3 5 ) 2 ( 4 5 - 5 5 ) T o t a l Sample 47 34 81 12.213 11.677 11.988 1.693 1.934 1.806 A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e Between 5. 6741 5.6741 1.7557 S i g . 0.1890 W i t h i n 255.3135 79 3. 2318 T o t a l 260.9876 80 235 T a b l e 2 WVI: A l t r u i s m , C o m p a r i s o n by Age G r o u p S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age G r o u p 1 ( 2 5 - 3 5 ) 2 ( 4 5 - 5 5 ) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 11.447 11.912 11.642 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 2.155 1.897 2.051 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e S i g . 0.3171 Between 4.2650 4.2650 1.0138 W i t h i n 332.3523 79 4.2070 T o t a l 336.6173 80 236 T a b l e 3 WVI: E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s , C o m p a r i s o n by Age G r o u p S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age G r o u p 1 ( 2 5 - 3 5 ) 2 ( 4 5 - 5 5 ) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 12.340 11.677 12.062 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1. 672 1.934 1.805 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S o u r c e B e t ween Sum o f S q u a r e s d f 1 Mean S q u a r e F 2. 7265 S i g . 0.1027 8.6970 8.6970 W i t h i n 251.9944 79 3.1898 T o t a l 260.6914 80 237 T a b l e 4 WVI: V a r i e t y , C o m p a r i s o n by Age G r o u p S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age G r o u p n Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 ( 2 5 - 3 5 ) 2 ( 4 5 - 5 5 ) T o t a l Sample 47 34 81 12.447 11.735 12.148 1. 779 2.340 2 .050 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S o u r c e B e t w e e n Sum o f S q u a r e s d f 1 Mean S q u a r e S i g . 0.1239 9. 9876 9.9876 2.4186 W i t h i n 326.2347 79 4. 1296 T o t a l 336.2223 80 238 Table 5 WVI: Independence, Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of Variance Stat i s t i e s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 12.277 12.000 12.161 Standard Deviat ion 1. 790 2.243 1.984 A n a l y s i s of Variance Source Between Sum of Squares df 1.5093 1 Mean Square S i g . 0.5391 1.5093 0.3805 Within 313.4943 79 3.9671 T o t a l 314.9136 80 2 3 9 T a b l e 6 W V I : P r e s t i g e , C o m p a r i s o n b y A g e G r o u p S t a t i s t i c s a n d A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s A g e G r o u p n M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 ( 2 5 - 3 5 ) 2 ( 4 5 - 5 5 ) T o t a l S a m p l e 4 7 3 4 8 1 1 0 . 7 0 2 1 0 . 2 0 6 1 0 . 4 9 4 1 . 9 2 1 2 . 0 8 6 1 . 9 9 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S u m o f M e a n S o u r c e S q u a r e s d f S q u a r e S i g . 0 . 2 7 1 8 B e t w e e n 4 . 8 5 8 3 4 . 8 5 8 3 1 . 2 2 4 7 W i t h i n 3 1 3 . 3 8 8 6 7 9 3 . 9 6 6 9 T o t a l 3 1 8 . 2 4 6 9 8 0 240 T a b l e 7 WVI: E s t h e t i c s , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group n Mean Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l sample 4 7 34 81 9.000 8.059 8. 605 2.116 2.774 2.443 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square S i g . 0.0871 Between 17.4757 17.4757 3.0020 W i t h i n 459.8824 79 5.8213 T o t a l 477.3581 80 241 Table 8 WVI: A s s o c i a t e s , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 10.085 9. 647 9. 901 Sta n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1.998 2 . 214 2.089 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . 1 3.7856 0.8658 0.3550 Between 3.7856 W i t h i n 345.4243 79 4.3725 T o t a l 349.2099 80 242 Table 9 WVI: S e c u r i t y , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of Variance S t a t i s t i c s Age Group n Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample 47 34 81 10.936 11.882 11.333 2. 557 2.804 2.688 A n a l y s i s of Variance Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F Between 17.6621 17.6621 2.4901 S i g . 0.1186 Within 560.3379 79 7.0929 T o t a l 578.0000 80 243 Table 10 WVI: Way of L i f e , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 13.489 13.353 13.432 St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1.458 1.475 1.457 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source Between Sum of Squares df 1 Mean Square S i g . 0.6802 0.3672 0.3672 0.1711 W i t h i n 169.5094 79 2.1457 T o t a l 169.8766 80 244 Table 11 WVI: Supervisory Relations, Comparison by Age Group  S t a t i s t i c s and Analysis of Variance Stat i s t ies Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) Total Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 13.745 13.912 13.815 Standard Deviation 1.093 1.190 1.130 Analysis of Variance Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F Sig. 1 0.5508 0.4279 0.5149 Between 0.5508 Within 101.6715 79 1.2870 Total 102.2223 80 245 Table 12 WVI: S u r r o u n d i n g s , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 11.936 12 . 059 11.988 Standard D e v i a t i o n 1. 774 2 .088 1. 901 A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e Source Between Sum of Squares df 0.2968 1 Mean Square S i g . 0.7764 0.2968 0.0812 W i t h i n 288.6909 79 3.6543 T o t a l 288.9877 80 246 Table 13 WVI: Achievement, Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group n Mean Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample 47 34 81 12.872 13.500 13.136 1.498 1.542 1.539 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F Between 7.7721 1 7.7721 3.3786 S i g . 0.0698 W i t h i n 181.7340 79 2.3004 T o t a l 189.5061 80 247 Table 14 WVI: Management, Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 8. 575 7.971 8.321 Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 2. 310 2.263 2. 296 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . 7.1944 1.3713 0.2451 Between 7.1944 W i t h i n 414.4599 79 5.2463 T o t a l 421.6543 80 248 Ta b l e 15 WVI: C r e a t i v i t y , Comparison by Age Group S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s Age Group 1 (25-35) 2 (45-55) T o t a l Sample n 47 34 81 Mean 11.383 11.029 11.235 Sta n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1.776 2.552 2.129 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . 1 2.4662 0.5411 0.4642 Between 2.4662 W i t h i n 360.0770 79 4.5579 T o t a l 362.5432 80 249 T a b l e 16 WVI Rank O r d e r i n g of Mean S u b s c a l e Scores by Age Group Group 1 (25-35) Group 2 (45-55) V a r i a b l e Mean Var i a b l e Mean S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 13. 745 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 13. 912 Way of L i f e 13. 489 Achievement 13. 500 Achievement 12. 872 Way o f L i f e 13. 3 53 Var i e t y 12. 447 S u r r o u n d i n g s 12. 059 Economic Re t u r n s 12. 340 Independence 12. 000 Independence 12. 277 A l t r u i s m 11. 912 I n t e l l e c t u a l St i m u l a t i o n 12. 213 S e c u r i t y 11. 882 S u r r o u n d i n g s 11. 936 V a r i e t y 11. 735 A l t r u i s m 11. 447 I n t e l l e c t u a l St i m u l a t i o n 11. 677 C r e a t i v i t y 11. 383 Economic Re t u r n s 11. 677 S e c u r i t y 10. 936 C r e a t i v i t y 11. 029 P r e s t i g e 10. 702 P r e s t i g e 10. 206 A s s o c i a t e s 10. 085 A s s o c i a t e s 9. 647 E s t h e t i c s 9. 000 E s t h e t i c s 8. 059 Management 8. 575 Management 7. 971 250 Table 17A WVI Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n s EDUCATION V a r i a b l e n r —s P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 81 0. 1481 0. 093 A l t r u i s m 81 0. 0425 0. 353 Economic Re t u r n s 81 -0. 0290 0. 398 V a r i e t y 81 0. 0914 0. 209 Independence 81 0. 0472 0. 338 P r e s t i g e 81 0. 0335 0. 383 E s t h e t i c s 81 -0. 0330 0. 385 A s s o c i a t e s 81 -0. 1052 0. 175 S e c u r i t y 81 -0. 1328 0. 119 Way of L i f e 81 -0. 1658 0 . 070 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 81 -0. 0407 0. 359 S u r r o u n d i n g s 81 -0. 2259 0. 021* Achievement 81 -0. 2242 0 . 022* Management 81 0. 1332 0. 118 C r e a t i v i t y 81 -0. 0155 0. 446 * p < 0.05 251 Table 17B WVI Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n s INCOME V a r i a b l e n ^s P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 81 -0. .0047 0. ,483 A l t r u i s m 81 0. . 1435 0. , 101 Economic Re t u r n s 81 -0. ,2937 0, .004* Var i e t y 81 -0. ,0645 0. . 284 Independence 81 -0. , 1118 0. . 160 P r e s t i g e 81 0. , 1112 0. . 161 E s t h e t i c s 81 -0, .2537 0, .011* A s s o c i a t e s 81 0. ,0662 0. . 279 S e c u r i t y 81 -0. .0398 0. . 362 Way of L i f e 81 -0. .0132 0. . 454 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 81 -0. . 0155 0. ,445 S u r r o u n d i n g s 81 -0. . 1017 0. . 183 Achievement 81 0, .0255 0, . 410 Management 81 0, . 0924 0, . 206 C r e a t i v i t y 81 -0, .0674 0, .275 * p < 0.05 252 T a b l e 17C WVI Spearman Rank c o r r e l a t i o n s MARITAL STATUS V a r i a b l e n r — s P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 81 -0. .0339 0. , 382 A l t r u i s m 81 0. .0240 0. . 416 E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s 81 -0. .0547 0. . 314 V a r i e t y 81 -0. , 1798 0. .054 I n d e p e n d e n c e 81 -0. . 1177 0. . 148 P r e s t i g e 81 -0. . 2115 0. .029* E s t h e t i c s 81 -0. .0365 0. . 373 A s s o c i a t e s 81 -0. , 2058 0. ,033* S e c u r i t y 81 0. .0920 0. . 207 Way o f L i f e 81 -0. . 0098 0. . 466 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 81 0. . 1283 0. .127 S u r r o u n d i n g s 81 0. , 0742 0. . 255 A c h i e v e m e n t 81 0. . 1600 0. .077 Management 81 -0. . 1259 0. . 131 C r e a t i v i t y 81 -0. .0500 0. . 329 * p < 0.05 253 Ta b l e 17D WVI Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n s PARENTAL STATUS V a r i a b l e n r •s P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 81 -0. 2121 0.029* A l t r u i s m 81 0. 1938 0.041 Economic R e t u r n s 81 -0. 0188 0. 434 V a r i e t y 81 -0. 2267 0.021* Independence 81 -0. 2177 0.025* P r e s t i g e 81 -0. 0613 0. 293 E s t h e t i c s 81 -0. 2381 0.016* A s s o c i a t e s 81 -0. 0 671 0.276 S e c u r i t y 81 0. 1453 0.098 Way o f L i f e 81 0. 0261 0. 409 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 81 0. 1830 0.051* S u r r o u n d i n g s 81 0. 1783 0.056 Achievement 81 0. 2621 0.009* Management 81 -0. 1588 0.078 C r e a t i v i t y 81 -0. 2167 0.026* * p < 0.05 254 Table 18A WVI S u b s c a l e Scores by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l V a r i a b l e F P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 1. . 2022 0. , 3169 A l t r u i s m 0. . 4673 0. , 7595 Economic R e t u r n s 1. , 4221 0. ,2348 V a r i e t y 1. . 7179 0 . ,1547 Independence 2. . 7406 0. ,0346* P r e s t i g e 0. , 3285 0. , 8580 E s t h e t i c s 1. . 5593 0. ,1938 A s s o c i a t e s 0. . 4645 0. ,7616 S e c u r i t y 1, . 5932 0. , 1848 Way o f L i f e 1. , 6277 0. . 1760 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 0, . 7249 0. , 5776 S u r r o u n d i n g s 3. . 3001 0. .0151* Achievement 3. . 2101 0, .0172* Management 1, . 1211 0. . 3529 C r e a t i v i t y 0. . 4745 0. . 7543 * p < 0.05 255 Table 18B WVI Independence by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of. V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 39.6981 4 9.9245 2.7406 0.0346 W i t h i n 275.2155 76 3.6213 T o t a l 314.9136 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 1 3 5 2 4 Group Mean Group 10.500 1 11.500 3 11.625 5 12.000 2 13.035 4 256 Table 18C WVI Surroundings by Education L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of Variance Source Between Sum of Squares df 4 Mean Square S i g . 0.0151 42.7657 10.6914 3.3001 Within T o t a l 246.2220 76 288.9877 80 3.2398 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison Mean 10.688 11.000 11.875 12.414 12.667 5 1 3 4 2 Group 5 1 3 4 2 Group * * 257 Table 18D WVI Achievement by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 27.3898 4 6.8474 3.2101 0.0172 W i t h i n 162.1164 76 2.1331 T o t a l 189.5062 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e comparison 1 5 3 4 2 Group Mean Group 12.000 1 * * * 12.063 5 13.313 3 13.483 4 13.500 2 258 T a b l e 19A WVI S u b s c a l e S c o r e s by Income L e v e l V a r i a b l e F P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 0. . 6134 0. . 6543 A l t r u i s m 1. . 1534 0. . 3382 E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s 2. . 3490 0, .0618 V a r i e t y 0. . 1345 0. .9692 I n d e p e n d e n c e 1. . 2169 0. , 3107 P r e s t i g e 0. , 6771 0. . 6099 E s t h e t i c s 2. . 1558 0. .0820 A s s o c i a t e s 0, , 5040 0. .7329 S e c u r i t y 0. . 4961 0. . 7386 Way o f L i f e 1. , 0065 0. . 4095 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 2 , . 1974 0. .0772 S u r r o u n d i n g s 0. . 7164 0. . 5833 A c h i e v e m e n t 0. . 1107 0. .9784 Management 1. .0564 0. . 3840 C r e a t i v i t y 3. .0379 0. . 0222* * p < 0.05 259 Table 19B WVI C r e a t i v i t y by income L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 49.9768 4 12.4942 3.0379 0.0222 W i t h i n 312.5664 76 4.1127 T o t a l 362.5432 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 5 1 4 2 3 Group Mean Group 10.588 5 10.667 1 10.692 4 11.577 2 13.000 3 * * * 260 Table 20A WVI S u b s c a l e Scores by M a r i t a l S t a t u s V a r i a b l e F P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 0. , 1197 0. ,9483 A l t r u i s m 0. . 9056 0. , 4424 Economic R e t u r n s 1. , 3755 0, ,2566 V a r i e t y 0. ,7848 0. , 5060 Independence 0. , 5744 0. ,6335 P r e s t i g e 1. , 8497 0. , 1452 E s t h e t i c s 2. , 1065 0. , 1063 A s s o c i a t e s 1. . 3452 0. , 2660 S e c u r i t y 0. , 3901 0. , 7605 Way of L i f e 0. , 6384 0. , 5926 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 4. ,0654 0. , 0098* S u r r o u n d i n g s 1. . 8935 0. , 1377 Achievement 1. , 4355 0, ,2389 Management 0. ,9670 0. . 4127 C r e a t i v i t y 0. , 3162 0, ,8136 * p < 0.05 261 Table 20B WVI S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 13.9772 3 4.6591 4.0654 0.0098 W i t h i n 88.2450 77 1.1460 T o t a l 102.2222 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e comparison 3 1 4 2 Group Mean Group 13.2727 3 13.3750 1 14.0769 4 14.2121 2 * * 262 Ta b l e 21A WVI S u b s c a l e Scores by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s V a r i a b l e F P I n t e l l e c t u a l S t i m u l a t i o n 1. .8139 0. .1516 A l t r u i s m 1. . 1259 0. . 3439 Economic R e t u r n s 0. . 3239 0. .8081 V a r i e t y 3. , 3811 0. ,0024* Independence 2. .7119 0. .0507 P r e s t i g e 1. . 2616 0. , 2935 E s t h e t i c s 1. .0373 0. .3809 A s s o c i a t e s 0. , 2948 0. , 8290 S e c u r i t y 0. . 7159 0. . 5455 Way of L i f e 1. , 3026 0. . 2797 S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s 1. . 1481 0. . 3352 S u r r o u n d i n g s 1. . 2445 0, . 2995 Achievement 3. .8220 0. .0131* Management 0. . 3876 0. . 7623 C r e a t i v i t y 1. . 5157 0. . 2171 * p < 0.05 263 Table 21B WVI V a r i e t y by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 39.1354 3 13.0451 3.3811 0.0224 W i t h i n 297.0869 77 3.8583 T o t a l 336.2222 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 1 2 3 0 Group Mean Group 11.000 1 11.267 2 12.091 3 12.711 0 * * 264 Table 21C WVI Achievement by p a r e n t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s of Variance and M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s of Variance Sum of Mean Source Squares df Square F S i g . Between 24.5617 3 8.1872 3.8220 0.0131 Within 164.9444 77 2.1421 T o t a l . 189.5062 80 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison 1 0 2 3 Group Mean Group 12.300 1 12.889 0 13.800 2 * * 14.000 3 * * 265 Table 22A WVI Item A n a l y s i s of Independence, S u r r o u n d i n g s and  Achievement S u b s c a l e s by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . Independence Item 5. have freedom i n .your own a r e a 21. make your own d e c i s i o n s 40. are your own boss 2.8497 2.2750 2.5034 0.0294* 0.0689 0.0492* S u r r o u n d i n g s Item 12. l i k e the s e t t i n g i n 2.1058 which your job i s done 25. have adequate lounge, 2.5975 t o i l e t and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s 36. have a good p l a c e i n which 1.4730 t o work (good l i g h t i n g , q u i e t , c l e a n , enough space) 0.0883 0.0428* 0.2187 Achievement Item 13. get the f e e l i n g of h a v i n g done a good days work 17. know by the r e s u l t s when you've done a good job 44. see the r e s u l t s of your e f f o r t s F 4.7609 0.8514 1.7090 0.0018* 0.4971 0.1567 p < 0.05 266 Table 22B WVI Item A n a l y s i s of C r e a t i v i t y S u b s c a l e by Income  L e v e l : A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s C r e a t i v i t y Item 15. t r y out new i d e a s and s u g g e s t i o n s 16. c r e a t e something new 45. c o n t r i b u t e new i d e a s 0.7900 2.5684 4.3272 0.5353 0.0447* 0.0033* Table 22C WVI Item A n a l y s i s of S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s S u b s c a l e by  M a r i t a l S t a t u s : A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . S u p e r v i s o r y R e l a t i o n s Item 11. have a boss who g i v e s you a square d e a l 18. have a boss who i s r e a s o n a b l e 43. have a s u p e r i o r who i s c o n s i d e r a t e F 0.5938 1.4838 5.8301 P 0.6209 0.2256 0.0012* * p < 0.05 267 T a b l e 22D WVI I t e m A n a l y s i s o f V a r i e t y , I n d e p e n d e n c e and  A c h i e v e m e n t S u b s c a l e s by P a r e n t a l s t a t u s : A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e . V a r i e t y I t e m 4. l o o k f o r w a r d t o c h a n g e s i n y o u r j o b 29. do n o t do t h e same t h i n g a l l t h e t i m e 32. do many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s 1.8945 1.8761 4.0124 0.1375 0.1406 0.0104* A c h i e v e m e n t I t e m 13. g e t t h e f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g 2.8891 done a good d a y s work 17. know by t h e r e s u l t s when 2.9851 y o u ' v e done a good j o b 44. s e e t h e r e s u l t s o f y o u r 1.3998 e f f o r t s 0.0408* 0.0363* 0.2493 * p < 0.05 268 APPENDIX F T a b l e IA pace S c a l e by E d u c a t i o n L e v e l : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of Var i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l n Mean St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 2 3 2 18 16 29 16 77.000 76.111 72.688 76.690 78.063 5.657 8. 798 6.610 7.493 6.082 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square S i g . 0.3206 Between 259.4428 64.8607 1.1935 W i t h i n 4130.3597 76 54.3468 T o t a l 4389.8025 80 269 Tab l e IB Pace S c a l e by Income L e v e l : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 15 26 10 13 17 73.800 76.615 80.100 78.923 75.647 8.529 7.721 6.333 7.477 5. 279 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Mean Source Squares df Square F Between 403.5432 100.8858 1.9234 S i g . 0.1151 W i t h i n 3986.2593 76 52.4508 T o t a l 4389.8025 80 270 Ta b l e IC Pace S c a l e by M a r i t a l S t a t u s : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i e s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l Mean Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 2 3 4 24 33 11 13 74.417 77.333 77.091 74.423 8.021 6 . 850 6. 978 8. 036 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Sum o f Source Squares d f Mean Square F S i g . 48.9345 0.8880 0.4512 Between 146.8036 W i t h i n 4242.9988 77 55.1039 T o t a l 4389.8024 80 271 T a b l e ID P a c e S c a l e by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s : S t a t i s t i c s and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S t a t i s t i c s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 0 1 2 3 45 10 15 11 75.889 76.800 76.200 75. 818 8.043 7.743 6. 270 6 . 676 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S o u r c e Between Sum o f S q u a r e s d f 3 Mean S q u a r e S i g . 0.9871 7.7217 2.5739 0.0452 W i t h i n 4382.0808 77 56.9101 T o t a l 4389.8025 80 272 APPENDIX G T a b l e 1 H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e : C h i l d h o o d E x p e r i e n c e s G r o u p i n g C o c h r a n ' s I t e m V a r i a b l e C p ( a p p r o x 1 Age 0.5406 0.609 E d u c a t i o n 0.3367 0.138 Income 0.2711 0.695 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.3273 0. 548 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3195 0.640 2 Age 0.5937 0. 235 E d u c a t i o n 0.2721 0. 681 Income 0.3061 0. 311 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.3711 0.201 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3338 0. 479 3 Age 0.5611 0. 441 E d u c a t i o n 0.2929 0. 428 Income 0.4336 0.005* M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.4095 0. 070 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3040 0.855 4 Age 0.5489 0. 538 E d u c a t i o n 0.3554 0.080 Income 0.2769 0. 615 M a r i t a l s t a t u s 0.3249 0. 575 P a r e n t a l s t a t u s 0.4397 0. 027* 5 Age 0.6624 0.036* E d u c a t i o n 0.2817 0. 553 Income 0.2649 0.790 M a r i t a l s t a t u s 0.4059 0. 078 P a r e n t a l s t a t u s 0.4554 0 . 016* 6 Age 0.6128 0. 151 E d u c a t i o n 0.3117 0.270 Income 0.2320 1.000 M a r i t a l s t a t u s 0.3251 0. 572 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3007 0.905 7 Age 0.5485 0. 541 E d u c a t i o n 0.3459 0. 106 Income 0.3001 0. 360 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.3869 0.133 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3558 0.293 273 Table 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Age 0.6297 0.097 E d u c a t i o n 0.4036 0.016* income 0.3270 0.180 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.2847 1.000 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3048 0.843 * p < 0.05 274 Table 2 M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e G r o u p i n g V a r i a b l e Age E d u c a t i o n Income M a r i t a l S t a t u s P a r e n t a l S t a t u s C o c h r a n ' s C 0.6252 0.2794 0.3124 0.2966 0.3579 p ( a p p r o x ) 0.110 0. 582 0.265 0.970 0.278 G r o u p i n g V a r i a b l e Age E d u c a t i o n Income M a r i t a l S t a t u s P a r e n t a l S t a t u s F e m i n i n i t y S c a l e C o c h r a n ' s C_ 0.5208 0.2378 0.2602 0.3916 0.3369 p ( a p p r o x ) 0.793 1.000 0.868 0.117 0. 447 275 T a b l e 3 G r o u p i n g C o c h r a n ' s V a r i a b l e S u b s c a l e c P (appr< Age C r e a t i v i t y 0. 6737 0 . 024* E d u c a t i o n E c o n o m i c 0. 3875 0 . 028* R e t u r n s E s t h e t i c s 0. 3908 0 .025* A s s o c i a t e s 0. 3932 0 . 023* A c h i e v e m e n t 0. 4919 0 .000* Income A s s o c i a t e s 0. 4034 0 . 016* M a r i t a l S t a t u s I n t e l l e c t u a l 0. 4809 0 . 006* S t i m u l a t i o n I n d e p e n d e n c e 0. 4348 0 .032* E s t h e t i c s 0. 4830 0 . 006* C r e a t i v i t y 0. 4222 0 .047* P a r e n t a l E c o n o m i c 0. 4316 0 . 035* S t a t u s R e t u r n s I n d e p e n d e n c e 0. 4609 0 . 013* P r e s t i g e 0. 4441 0 .023* Management 0. 4338 0 . 033* * p < 0.05 276 Ta b l e 4 Homogeneity of V a r i a n c e : Pace S c a l e G r o u ping Cochran's V a r i a b l e C p (approx) Age 0.5674 0.395 E d u c a t i o n 0.3143 0.252 Income 0.2839 0.526 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 0.2876 1.000 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 0.3102 0.763 

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