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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social relationships of lesbian and heterosexual feminist women Henderson, Patricia 1986

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SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL FEMINIST WOMEN By P A T R I C I A LYNNE HENDERSON B. N u r s i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a O c t o b e r , 1986 © P a t r i c i a L y n n e H e n d e r s o n , 1986 4> In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of QjG*^^±<JLc~^ ^Z^clu^a^ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ( r-l'O -S^ DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e and f r i e n d s h i p amongst l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. S e v e n t y r e s p o n d e n t s , 35 h e t e r o s e x u a l and 35 l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women b e t w e e n t h e a g e s of 20 and 40 p a r t i c i p a t e d . R e s p o n d e n t s were i n i t i a l l y s c r e e n e d by u s e of t h e F e m i n i s t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R a t i n g S c a l e , and i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y i f t h e y r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a t 7 o r h i g h e r on a s c a l e of 1 t o 10. They were t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t ( L u s t i g , 1 9 8 2 ) , The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e ( F r u m , 1 9 7 9 ) , and t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s was an ex p o s t f a c t o c o m p a r i s o n s t u d y w i t h one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e ) and t w e l v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were t h e t w e l v e s u b s c a l e s on t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d by means of a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and c h i - s q u a r e t e c h n i q u e s . The main c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s t u d y were: 1. T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e q u a l i t i e s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p and s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . 2. T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p and s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . 3. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t women t e n d t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s s i m i l a r l y , r e g a r d l e s s of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . The f i n d i n g s of t h e s t u d y s u p p o r t an a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f r i e n d s h i p s of l e s b i a n women w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l women. The s t u d y t h u s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p r o c e s s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l e s b i a n e x p e r i e n c e . i l l S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES v L I S T OF APPENDICES v i C h a p t e r 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B a c k g r o u n d and P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t 1 O b j e c t i v e s of t h e S t u d y . 4 S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e S t u d y ...4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 5 O v e r v i e w of t h e S t u d y 6 2. L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w . 8 Over v i ew 8 T h e o r i e s of Homosoci a l i t y . ...... .....8 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s of L e s b i a n Women 18 S o c i o - S e x u a l P r e f e r e n c e 18 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . . 19 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s of L e s b i a n and H e t e r o s e x u a l Women...23 R a t i o n a l e f o r I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 26 Summary........... 27 3. M e t h o d o l o g y and R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 29 O v e r v i ew 29 H y p o t h e s e s 29 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . . . . . -31 1. The P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t 31 iv S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 2. The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e 32 D e f i n i t i o n of S u b s c a l e s 32 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 33 3. The S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e . . . . . 34 S c o r i ng 35 D e f i n i t i o n of S u b s c a l e s . . . . 35 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y . 36 Sample S e l e c t i o n 37 D e s c r i p t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s 37 P r o c e d u r e s .....38 D e s i g n and S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 39 D e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e S t u d y 40 4. R e s u l t s 41 D e s c r i p t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s and F r i e n d s 41 R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s 1 48 R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s 2 50 R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s 3 53 5. D i s c u s s i o n and Summary 54 O v e r v i e w 54 P r o f i l e of R e s p o n d e n t s 55 F i n d i n g s of t h e S t u d y 56 Di s c u s s i on 60 M e t h o d o l i g a l L i m i t a t i o n s 62 Summary. 64 R e f e r e n c e s ^ V S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE T a b l e 1 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' M a r i t a l S t a t u s ...43 T a b l e 2 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r C o m m i t t e d R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 43 T a b l e 3 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' O c c u p a t i o n s 45 T a b l e 4 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' Income - 46 T a b l e 5 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' H i g h e s t L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n 47 T a b l e 6 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s of C l o s e n e s s R a t i ngs 49 T a b l e 7 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r CFS S u b s c a l e s 51 T a b l e 8 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h S i x S u b s c a l e s (CFS) 51 T a b l e 9 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r T o t a l and S u b s c a l e S c o r e s (SPS) 52 T a b l e 10 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s W i t h S u b s c a l e s ( S P S ) . . . . 52 v i S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s L I S T OF APPENDICES APPENDIX PASE A. L e t t e r of I n i t i a l C o n t a c t 72 B. A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r V o l u n t e e r R e s p o n d e n t s 74 C. F e m i n i s t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R a t i n g S c a l e 7& D. E t h i c a l A s s u r a n c e s . . . . • 78 E. P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t 80 F. C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e ........83 G. S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e • .....89 1 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION B a c k g r o u n d and P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t Same-sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h p e r v a s i v e , o c c u p y l i t t l e s p a c e i n t h e a n n a l s of h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e , and have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y . A new t r e n d has emerged h o w e v e r , and a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of l i t e r a t u r e has e v o l v e d d e a l i n g w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s of men and women. L i o n e l T i g e r (1970) s p a r k e d t h e r e c e n t e x p l o r a t i o n of same-sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l c l a i m t h a t men's t e n d e n c y t o f o r m a l l - m a l e g r o u p s a r o s e o u t of a " b o n d i n g i n s t i n c t " p r e s e n t i n men b u t no t i n women. H i s work a r o u s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e t o p i c , and soon a f t e r L i p m a n - B l u m e n (1976) and B e r n a r d ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 1 ) s p e a r h e a d e d f u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l work on same-sex s o c i a l i t y , o r " h o m o s o c i a l i t y " . L i p m a n - B l u m e n (1976) d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r y of sex r o l e s w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d T i g e r ' s t h e s i s t h a t men's same-sex b o n d s a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n women's. She q u e s t i o n e d T i g e r ' s c l a i m w h i c h t i e d t h i s t o b i o l o g i c p r e d i s p o s i t i o n h o w e v e r , and s a i d i n s t e a d t h a t c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s have r e s u l t e d i n t h e weak t i e s b e t w e e n women. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s t h e o r y d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o c e s s of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n w h i c h men a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y r a n k e d as b e i n g of more v a l u e t o s o c i e t y and a r e p l a c e d i n more v a l u e d r o l e s t h a n women. S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Women, as a l e s s v a l u e d g r o u p , h a v e d e r i v e d much of t h e i r s t a t u s and a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m a l e s . They h a v e been s e e n as l e s s u s e f u l t o men and t o e a c h o t h e r b e c a u s e of t h e i r p e r c e i v e d (and a c t u a l ) l a c k of a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l t i e s b e t w e e n women have n o t been h i g h l y v a l u e d , n o r ha v e t h e y been s t r o n g and e n d u r i n g . Her v i e w was t h a t women's bonds were i n an i n f a n c y s t a g e and w o u l d be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d o n l y when women's c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n c h a n g e d i n s o c i e t y . B e r n a r d ( 1 9 7 6 , 1981) d i s a g r e e d w i t h L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s t h e s i s , and by t r a c i n g women's r e l a t i o n s h i p s h i s t o r i c a l l y , f o u n d e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t s t r o n g and e n d u r i n g t i e s b e t w e e n women i n t h e 1 8 t h and 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s . T h e s e have weakened as a r e s u l t of an i n c r e a s e d v a l u e p l a c e d on t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l bond a s t h e l o c u s of i n t i m a c y f o r b o t h men and women i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . The s h i f t t o w a r d s women d e p e n d i n g e m o t i o n a l l y on men i n t h i s c e n t u r y l e d t o a c r u c i a l d e c r e a s e i n women's s o c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m o t h e r women. In c o n t r a s t t o T i g e r ' s b i o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d t h e o r y and L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s s o c i o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d t h e o r y w h i c h b o t h i m p l i e d s u p e r i o r b o n d i n g b e t w e e n men, B e r n a r d m a i n t a i n e d t h a t women's t i e s w i t h o t h e r women have h i s t o r i c a l l y been w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d , s t r o n g and s a t i s f y i n g . S i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e t h e o r i e s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h h a s been done i n t h e a r e a of women's same-sex b o n d s . T h i s r e s e a r c h h as t e n d e d t o v a l i d a t e B e r n a r d ' s h y p o t h e s i s . Women's bonds h a v e been shown t o be e n d u r i n g ( F a d e r m a n , 1981; L u s t i g , 1983; S e i d e n and B a r t , 1975) and a f f e c t i v e l y open and i n t i m a t e ( B e l l , 1981; R u b i n , 1973, 1985; W r i g h t , 1 9 0 2 ) . They a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s women's s o c i a l s u p p o r t and m e n t a l h e a l t h ( B e r n a r d , 1976, 1981; D a v i d s o n and P a c k a r d , 1981; L o p a t a and M a i r i e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . The s t u d y of women's same-sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s h as l e d n a t u r a l l y i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l e s b i a n women's same-sex s o c i a l t i e s . Do l e s b i a n women's same-sex s o c i a l b onds d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e of h e t e r o s e x u a l women, and i f s o , how? L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l t i e s b e t w e e n women a r e weak b e c a u s e of t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e d o r m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n . One m i g h t p r e d i c t f r o m t h i s t h a t s o c i a l t i e s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n women may be even weaker due t o t h e i r " d o u b l e m i n o r i t y " p o s i t i o n , b e i n g b o t h women and h o m o s e x u a l . B e r n a r d ' s t h e o r y h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h d e v a l u e d and p e r h a p s d i m i n i s h e d i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , women's bonds a r e and have been r i c h and s t r o n g . L e s b i a n women l i v e i n a m i l i e u where t h e i r p r i m a r y commitment i s t o o t h e r women. I t m i g h t be p r e d i c t e d t h e n , t h a t t h e i r s o c i a l bonds w i t h one a n o t h e r w o u l d be even s t r o n g e r t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l women's b o n d s . T h i s s t u d y t e s t e d b o t h t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h two g r o u p s of f e m i n i s t women. In a d d i t i o n t o w h e t h e r l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women's s o c i a l bonds a r e s t r o n g e r o r weaker t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women's, t h e r e i s a c o m p l e x i t y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o h o m o s o c i a l t h e o r y by t h e o v e r l a p of t h e s o c i a l and s e x u a l a s p e c t s of b o n d i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l of s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t may e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e on f r i e n d s h i p b o n d s . The n a t u r e of t h e i n f l u e n c e of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e on h o m o s o c i a l i t y i s u n c l e a r and has n o t been a d d r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e e f f e c t s of t h i s v s r i s b l e among women. 4 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s O b j e c t i v e s of t h e S t u d y The p r e s e n t s t u d y had as i t s o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of b o t h h o m o s o c i a l i t y and l e s b i a n t h e o r y as t h e y p e r t a i n t o f e m i n i s t women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women's f r i e n d s h i p s d i f f e r , and i f s o , how? 2. Which of t h e two m a j o r t h e o r i e s of h o m o s o c i a l i t y a g r e e s more c l o s e l y w i t h f e m i n i s t women's s e l f - r e p o r t of t h e i r a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e ? S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e S t u d y H o m o s o c i a l i t y t h e o r i e s have t e n d e d t o be vague and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The two m a j o r t h e o r i s t s a p p r o a c h women's same-sex t i e s i n h i g h l y c o n s t r a s t i n g ways, and r e a c h o p p o s i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . L i p m a n - B l u m e n s u g g e s t s t h a t b o n d s b e t w e e n women a r e weak and u n d e v e l o p e d and B e r n a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t women's bonds w i t h e a c h o t h e r a r e s t r o n g and r i c h . C l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed i n a p p l y i n g t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o women's a c t u a l same-sex f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s s t u d y a d d s t o a g r o w i n g body of l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l i n g women's a c t u a l same-sex f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e , and i n so d o i n g , c o n t i n u e s t h e p r o c e s s of c l a r i f y i n g t h e o r y . L i t t l e i s known o r w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s by s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . Some c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i t s r o l e i s u s e f u l i n f u r t h e r i n g an o v e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of women's r e l a t i o n s h i p s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s a d d s t o t h e g r o w i n g body of k n o w l e d g e a b o u t l e s b i a n women's l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s h as f o r many y e a r s been s h r o u d e d i n a " p r o t e c t i v e c l o a k of s e c r e c y " ( P o n s e , 1 9 7 9 ) , and has o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o be i 1 1 u m i n a t e d . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Homosoci a l i t y H o m o s o c i a l i t y h a s been b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as t h e s o c i a l b o n d s t h a t women and men have w i t h t h e i r own sex ( B e r n a r d , 1976; L i p m a n - B l u m e n , 1976; W o o l s e y , i n p r e s s ) . The d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s bonds w i t h f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , n e i g h b o r s , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , and o t h e r s . T h i s s t u d y u s e s a d e f i n i t i o n of h o m o s o c i a l i t y f o c u s i n g on one p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t -f r i e n d s h i p b onds b e t w e e n women. T h i s c o n c e p t c o n c e r n s s o c i a l b o n d s , h e n c e , h o m o s o c i a l i t y d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e e r o t i c i n t e r a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t may u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( L i p m a n - B l u m e n , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h a t i s , h o m o s o c i a l i t y i s n o t h o m o s e x u a l i t y , b u t b o t h h o m o s e x u a l and h e t e r o s e x u a l p e r s o n s h a v e h o m o s o c i a l b o n d s . S e x u a l P r e f e r e n c e A p e r s o n ' s s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e may be a c h o i c e of s e x u a l p a r t n e r of a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r , o r a p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e w h i c h may o r may n o t be a c t e d upon. H e t e r o s e x u a l women (by d e f i n i t i o n ) c h o o s e o p p o s i t e sex p a r t n e r s and l e s b i a n women (by d e f i n i t i o n ) c h o o s e same-sex p a r t n e r s . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s as e i t h e r l e s b i a n o r h e t e r o s e x u a l ( L u s t i g , 1 9 8 2 ) . 6 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s L e s b i a n i s m T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e c r i t i c a l - f e a t u r e i n d e f i n i n g l e s b i a n i s m has been s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Gagnon and S i m o n , 1973; M a s t e r s and J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e a r e a g r o w i n g number of r e s e a r c h e r s , h o w e v e r , whD f i n d t h i s i n a d e q u a t e ( B r o o k s , 1981; C a p l a n , 1981; E t t o r r e , 1980; F a r a d a y , 1976; W o l f f , 1971) and d e f i n e t h e l e s b i a n woman i n t e r m s of i d e n t i t y . Terms s u c h as " h o m o e m o t i o n a l " and " s o c i o - s e x u a l " have been u s e d t o i m p r e s s t h e i d e a t h a t i t i s e m o t i o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n s e x u a l i t y w h i c h i s a t t h e h e a r t of women's l o v e f o r e a c h o t h e r . B r o o k s c o n c l u d e s t h a t d e f i n i t i o n of t h e l e s b i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y and u l t i m a t e l y n e e d s t o r e l y on s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , B r o o k s ' p o s i t i o n was f o l l o w e d and s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n was t h e method u s e d t o i d e n t i f y l e s b i a n women. Femi n i s t A f e m i n i s t i s an i n d i v i d u a l who e s p o u s e s a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t women and men s h o u l d h a v e e q u a l a c c e s s i n e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l r e a l m s . In t h i s s t u d y , a s c a l e was u s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by women a s t o t h e i r l e v e l of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i on. O v e r v i e w of t h e S t u d y T h i s r e p o r t i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . An i n t r o d u c t i o n and r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y has been p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r One. The s t u d y e x p l o r e d same-sex s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l 7 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s women. The c o n c e p t u a l -framework f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i s p r o v i d e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of C h a p t e r Two. The two m a j o r t h e o r i e s of h o m o s o c i a l i t y as w e l l as r e l e v a n t s u p p o r t i n g r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d , C h a p t e r T h r e e p r o v i d e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , m e t h o d o l o g y , and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n of t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r s F o u r and F i v e f o l l o w w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s , a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e f i n d i n g s , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 8 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW O v e r v i e w of O r g a n i z a t i o n The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s o r g a n i z e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s w h i c h b a s i c a l l y a d d r e s s t h e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s of t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e o r i e s o f h o m o s o c i a l i t y w i l l be r e v i e w e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s w i l l be a r e v i e w o f t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g l e s b i a n women and t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e two s u b j e c t a r e a s w i l l t h e n be c o n s i d e r e d . A r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n u s e d and a summary w i l l f o l l o w . T h e o r i e s of H o m o s o c i a l i t y The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n s o p p o s i n g t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g women's h o m o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The two m a j o r t h e o r i e s of L i p m a n - B l u m e n and B e r n a r d , as w e l l as r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . As was m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s o c i a l b o n d i n g of men and women began w i t h t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work of L i o n e l T i g e r (1970) i n w h i c h he t a l k e d a b o u t t h e " m y s t i q u e " of t h e male bond. M a l e s were p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g s t r o n g and s t a b l e bonds and f e m a l e s as h a v i n g n e i t h e r t h e c a p a c i t y n o r t h e p r o p e n s i t y f o r b o n d i n g . He l o o k e d t o g e n e t i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n as w e l l as t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y of men c o - o p e r a t i n g f o r s u r v i v a l as h u n t e r s and w a r r i o r s as t h e b a s i s f o r 9 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s t h i s . The d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e d by s t a t i n g t h a t bonds b e t w e e n men e v o l v e d as t h e y -formed power s t r u c t u r e s - p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l - t o w h i c h a c c e s s by women was p r o h i b i t e d . T h e s e a c t i o n s were r a t i o n a l i s e d by t h e n o t i o n of b i o l o g i c d e t e r m i n i s m w h i c h made cha n g e p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e and l e g i t i m i z e d t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n of women. T i g e r ' s work s t i m u l a t e d b o t h c o n t r o v e r s y and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n s ( B e r n a r d , 1976, 1981; B o o t h , 1972; B o o t h , G i b b s , A u e r b a c h , and F o x , 1980; G i b b s , 1979; H a c k e r , 1981; L i p m a n - B l u m e n , 1976; T r o l l and S t u h l , 1980; W r i g h t , 1 9 8 2 ) . In f a c t , r e s e a r c h e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y p o i n t e d t o women's r e l a t i o n s h i p s as b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y r i c h , s e l f - d i s c 1 o s i n g , s e r v i n g of f u n c t i o n s s u c h a s i n t i m a c y and a s s i s t a n c e , and as h a v i n g t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e . R e s e a r c h i n t o h o m o s o c i a l i t y was f u r t h e r e d g r e a t l y by t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s of L i p m a n - B l u m e n (1976) and B e r n a r d ( 1 9 7 6 ) . B e r n a r d i n p a r t i c u l a r , a c k n o w l e d g e d and l e g i t i m i z e d same-sex f e m a l e b o n d i n g , w h i l e L i p m a n - B l u m e n v i e w e d b o n d i n g b e t w e e n women as b e i n g o n l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s . L i p m a n - B l u m e n , i n h e r h o m o s o c i a l t h e o r y of sex r o l e s , d e f i n e d h o m o s o c i a l i t y as " t h e s e e k i n g , e n j o y m e n t , a n d / o r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e company of t h e same s e x " ( 1976, p . 1 6 ) . Her t h e o r y i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t men a r e a t t r a c t e d t o , s t i m u l a t e d b y , and i n t e r e s t e d i n , o t h e r men. T h i s r e s u l t s f r o m a p r o c e s s begun e a r l y i n c h i l d h o o d and e n c o u r a g e d by s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s - t h e f a m i l y , t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t , a t h l e t i c s , t h e j u d i c i a r y s y s t e m , t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , s e x u a l i t y -w h i c h " a l l a c t i n an i n t e g r a t e d and r e i n f o r c i n g way t o m a i n t a i n a male 10 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s h o m o s o c i a l w o r l d i n w h i c h o n l y men a r e i n c l u d e d and a l l o w e d a c c e s s t o t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s of a s o c i e t y " ( 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 4 ) . T h i s i n e q u a l i t y of a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s l e a d s m a l e s t o r e c o g n i s e t h e power h e l d by t h e i r m a le p e e r s and t o - f i n d one a n o t h e r e x c i t i n g , p r o d u c t i v e , and i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o v i r t u a l l y a l l a s p e c t s of one a n o t h e r ' s l i v e s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . In h e r t h e o r y , L i p m a n - B l u m e n s u g g e s t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n b o n d i n g and power s u c h t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n of power i n a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t e s p o s i t i v e l y t o same-sex b o n d i n g among m a l e s . As n o t e d by K r o f t ( 1 9 8 6 ) , L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s c o n c e p t of power seems t o p e r t a i n t o p o s i t i o n , i n f l u e n c e , s t a t u s , a c c e s s t o o r c o n t r o l of a c t u a l r e s o u r c e s i n a s o c i e t y . Women hav e l i t t l e of t h i s k i n d of p o w e r , and s o i n L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , t h e y a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e male w o r l d , f o u n d l e s s u s e f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g , and a c k n o w l e d g e d most o f t e n i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o m a l e s . L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s t h e o r y p e r t a i n s t o male h o m o s o c i a l b o n d s and women's bo n d s w i t h e a c h o t h e r a r e i m p l i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e . The w o r l d of women's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r w h i c h has been a t t e s t e d t o by numerous a u t h o r s , ( C o t t , 1979; F a d e r m a n , 1981; Lenz and M y e r h o f f , 1985; S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g , 1 9 7 5 ) , r e m a i n s h a z y and u n d e r v a l u e d i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n . The s t r e n g t h of h e r work l i e s i n h e r c l a r i t y and a c c u r a c y i n d e s c r i b i n g r e a l i t y i n t h i s s o c i e t y as w e l l as i n c h a l l e n g i n g T i g e r ' s n o t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m . She s u b s t i t u t e d i n s t e a d t h e i d e a of c u l t u r a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t as e x p l a i n i n g b onds b e t w e e n men and ( h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f ) t h e l a c k of bonds b e t w e e n women. An i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n o f L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s w o r k , i n t h i s w r i t e r ' s 11 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o p i n i o n , l i e s i n h e r c o n t i n u a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l d e v a l u a t i o n of women and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as a c e r t a i n s e n s e of women's bonds o c c u r r i n g t h r o u g h d e f a u l t and as a r e s u l t of e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e " p o w e r f u l " m ale w o r l d . As a r e s u l t , h e r work i s u s e f u l i n f u r t h e r i n g o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of male b o n d i n g , b u t o f l i m i t e d v a l u e i n e n l i g h t e n i n g us a b o u t women's a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of same-sex b o n d i n g . C a p l a n (1981) a n a l y z e d t h e e f f e c t of p a t r i a r c h i a l d e v a l u a t i o n on r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n women, and i n d o i n g so c a r r i e d one s t e p f u r t h e r L i p m a n - B l u m e n 's i d e a s r e l a t i n g t o s e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . She began w i t h t h e p r e m i s e t h a t o u r s i s a s o c i e t y w h i c h " s e t s women up a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r and e n c o u r a g e s p e o p l e of b o t h s e x e s t o r e g a r d women as i n f e r i o r " ( 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 2 5 ) . A number of b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n women have r e s u l t e d s u c h as t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of more n u r t u r a n c e and p a t i e n c e f r o m o t h e r women, i n c r e a s e d v a l u e a t t r i b u t e d t o men's a p p r o v a l and a t t e n t i o n , f e a r o f b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y d r a i n e d by o t h e r women. C a p l a n r e l a t e d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of more n u r t u r a n c e and p a t i e n c e f r o m women t o p o s s i b l e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . M o t h e r s a r e g i v e n t h e t a s k by s o c i e t y Df t e a c h i n g d a u g h t e r s t o be n u r t u r a n t and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g a s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s were (and a r e ) s u p p o s e d t o be. As an o u t g r o w t h of t h i s , d a u g h t e r s a r e t a u g h t t o meet t h e i r m o t h e r ' s n e e d s . I n s o f a r as t h e d a u g h t e r meets t h e s e n e e d s , t o t h a t e x t e n t c o u l d h e r own n e e d s f o r n u r t u r a n c e go unmet. R u b i n (1985) a l s o l o o k e d t o t h e e a r l y m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , and f u r t h e r e d C a p l a n ' s i d e a s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t an a d u l t woman's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r woman may r e a w a k e n o l d f a n t a s i e s and f e e l i n g s t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d t h i s f i r s t woman t o woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . E n v y , t h e w i s h t o c o m p e t e , t h e 12 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s c o m b i n a t i o n of t r i u m p h and f e a r a t t h e p r o s p e c t of w i n n i n g , may a l l s t e m f r o m t h e p r i m a r y m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t of c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r women i n a d u l t h o o d . The b a r r i e r c r e a t e d by women g i v i n g a h i g h e r v a l u e t o men's r a t h e r t h a n women's a p p r o v a l , r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s (1976) t h e o r y of women's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h men as r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s , and w i t h R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r ' s (1977) d i s c u s s i o n of i n t r o p u n i t i v e ego d e f e n s e s o p e r a t i o n a l i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s . I f a woman v i e w s o t h e r women as v a l u e d and i m p o r t a n t ( R i n d e r , 1 9 5 4 ) , t h e n i t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t h e r bo n d s w i t h t h i s g r o u p w o u l d be s t r o n g and s a t i s f y i n g . Her need f o r and r e s p o n s e t o male a t t e n t i o n and a p p r o v a l m i g h t be l e s s t h a n a woman who i d e n t i f i e s l e s s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h e r g r o u p . The f e a r of b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y d r a i n e d by o n e ' s women f r i e n d s p a r a l l e l s R u b i n ' s s e n s e of d i s t a n c e c r e a t e d b e t w e e n woman f r i e n d s as a r e s u l t of c o m p e t i t i v e f e e l i n g s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . Two women i n an e m o t i o n a l l y p o w e r f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d e a c h become a n x i o u s t h a t , i n t h e f a c e of t h i s o t h e r e m o t i o n a l p e r s o n , h e r own n e e d s w i l l be n e g l e c t e d ( C a p l a n , 1 9 8 1 ) , These f e e l i n g s a r e , i n R u b i n ' s o p i n i o n , t o o o f t e n c o v e r e d - o v e r w i t h a s m i l e or a v e n e e r of warmth and f r i e n d l i n e s s t h a t b o d e s i l l f o r t h e k i n d of t r u s t a f r i e n d s h i p r e q u i r e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r (1977) e x p l o r e d s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s of p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o women's p s y c h o l o g y . I n so d o i n g , t h e y a p p l i e d A l l p o r t ' s (1954) m i n o r i t y g r o u p t h e o r y w h i c h was b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s 13 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t m i n o r i t y p e r s o n s who were s u b j e c t t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n d e v e l o p e d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ego d e f e n s e s ( f t l l p o r t , 1 9 5 4 ) . C a r t e r (1974) had p r e v i o u s l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n ego d e f e n s e s o b s e r v e d i n m i n o r i t y g r o u p s and ego d e f e n s e s e x h i b i t e d by women as f o l l o w s : d e n i a l of m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e d i s p a r a g e d g r o u p ; w i t h d r a w a l and p a s s i v i t y a s a means of s u r v i v a l , ( o f t e n r e w a r d e d by m a l e s w i t h p r o t e c t i o n ) ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; s l y n e s s and c u n n i n g as a means of a v o i d i n g s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m , p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s o l a t i o n , e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p and s e l f - h a t e . "Women i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e o u t l o o k and p r e j u d i c e o f t h e male c u l t u r e t o w a r d women" ( 1977, p . 1 8 ) , and a c c e p t t h e i r i n f e r i o r s t a t u s as n a t u r a l . T h e s e came t o be i d e n t i f i e d a s " i n t r o p u n i t i v e " ego d e f e n s e s and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n women a r e c l e a r . R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r went on t o d i s c u s s two of d e f e n s e p a t t e r n s o p e r a t i v e i n women - i n t r o p u n i t i v e and e x t r o p u n i t i v e . They t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l women e x h i b i t i n t r o p u n i t i v e d e f e n s e s s u c h as o u t l i n e d a b o v e , w i t h i n t h e i r own g r o u p as w e l l as w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t male s o c i e t y . F e m i n i s t women, t h e y s u g g e s t e d , t e n d t o e x h i b i t e x t r o p u n i t i v e d e f e n s e s s u c h as o b s e s s i v e c o n c e r n and s u s p i c i o n ; s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n - g r o u p t i e s t h r o u g h s u p p o r t g r o u p s , s e l f - h e l p c o l l e c t i v e s , p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ; p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t o t h e r g r o u p s i e . a n g e r t o w a r d s men; a g g r e s s i o n i e . r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m , d i v o r c e , e n h a n c e d s t r i v i ng. A l t h o u g h R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r d i d n ' t d e a l w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e d e f e n s e p a t t e r n s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r women, i t i s e a s y t o e x t r a p o l a t e f r o m t h e e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y of 14 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h i s m i n o r i t y g r o u p . F o r i n s t a n c e , a woman who i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p i n t e r m s of t h e i r o u t l o o k and p r e j u d i c e s t o w a r d s women, w o u l d i n t h i s a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , h a v e l i t t l e p r o p e n s i t y and f i n d l i t t l e v a l u e i n s e e k i n g bonds w i t h o t h e r members of h e r m i n o r i t y g r o u p . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a woman who i d e n t i f i e s w i t h o t h e r women w o u l d s e e k t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e bonds t h r o u g h s u p p o r t g r o u p s o r u t i l i z a t i o n of o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . In R a w l i n g s ' and C a r t e r ' s w o r k , women's d e f e n s e p a t t e r n s were v i e w e d more as r e s u l t i n g f r o m o p p r e s s i o n and m i n o r i t y g r o u p s t a t u s t h a n as an e x p r e s s i o n of i n n a t e o r b i o l o g i c a l l y f i x e d a t t r i b u t e s . As s u c h , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r g r o w t h and c h a n g e i s i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r , as s e e n i n t h e o n g o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t of f e m i n i s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A p r o b l e m w i t h t h e i r work i s t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e bonds of t r a d i t i o n a l women as weak. T h i s seems i n a c c u r a t e i n t h e l i g h t of g r o w i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n , ( B e r n i k o w , 1979; C o t t , 1979; Fad e r r o a n , 1981; R u b i n , 1935; S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g , 1 9 7 5 ) , i m p l y i n g s t r o n g , r i c h , and r e w a r d i n g bonds b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l women. B e r n a r d ' s t h e o r y of h o m o s o c i a l i t y h a s t o do w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t men and women r e l a t e t o t h e i r own s e x . As has been w e l 1 - d o c u m e n t e d , men's s o c i a l b o n d s t e n d t o i n v o l v e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , t a s k - o r i e n t a t i o n ( W r i g h t , 1 9 8 2 ) , s e p a r a t i o n ( B a r d w i c k , 1 9 7 4 ) , a c t i v i t y - s h a r i n g ( C a l d w e l l and P e p l a u , 1 9 8 2 ) , low i n t i m a c y m o t i v a t i o n , low s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e (Mark and A l p e r , 1 9 8 0 ) , and low e m o t i o n a l s h a r i n g ( C a l d w e l l and P e p l a u , 1 9 8 2 ) . Women's way of b e i n g s o c i a l , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t e n d s t o i n v o l v e a f f i l i a t i o n and a t t a c h m e n t ( M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ) , h i g h s e l f - d i s c 1 o s u r e and e m o t i o n a l s h a r i n g ( C a l d w e l l and 15 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s P e p l a u , 1 9 8 2 ) , and communion ( B a r d w i c k , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s f e m a l e way of b e i n g s o c i a l r e n d e r s women more v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e s t r e s s e s of t h e d e p r i v a t i o n of s u c h t i e s w h i c h m i g h t be c r e a t e d by c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . B e r n a r d drew on S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g (1975) and C o t t (1977) t o t r a c e t h e movement and c h a n g e s i n women's r e l a t i o n a l w o r l d , f r o m t h e m i d - 1 8 t h c e n t u r y t o t h e p r e s e n t . S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of t i m e w h i c h may hav e p e r m i t t e d women t o f o r m a v a r i e t y of c l o s e e m o t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r women: r i g i d g e n d e r r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y and s o c i e t y l e a d i n g t o e m o t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n of women and men; s u b t l e s h a d i n g of mot h e r and d a u g h t e r r o l e s i n t o one a n o t h e r ; b i o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s of p r e g n a n c i e s , c h i l d b i r t h , n u r s i n g , and menopause w h i c h bound women t o g e t h e r i n p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y . B e r n a r d added women's r e v u l s i o n t o w a r d s man's c a r n a l n a t u r e , sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , as a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e c u l t u r e a t t h a t t i m e . W i t h i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k , s u p p o r t i v e n e t w o r k s d e v e l o p e d w h i c h were " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s o r r i t u a l s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d v i r t u a l l y e v e r y i m p o r t a n t e v e n t i n a women's l i f e , f r o m b i r t h t o d e a t h " ( 1 9 7 5 , p . 2 5 0 ) . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s u p p o r t e d by s e v e r e s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n t i m a c y b e t w e e n young men and women. Two s e p a r a t e s p h e r e s e x i s t e d f o r men and women, w h i c h d i f f e r e d i n t e r m s of v a l L I E S i B A p e c t a t i o n s , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Women's s p h e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g , had an i n t e g r i t y and a d i g n i t y of i t s own t h a t grew o u t of women's s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e s and m u t u a l a f f e c t i o n 16 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A p r o u d s o l i d a r i t y grew as i n t e n s e v a l u e was a t t r i b u t e d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l t i e s of s i s t e r h o o d ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A c o n s c i o u s n e s s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and t h e e x p e r i e n c e of e q u a l i t y among p e e r s o u t s i d e t h e d o m e s t i c r e a l m i n c r e a s e d t h e i r r e l i a n c e on e a c h o t h e r and c o n f i r m e d t h e v a l u e of t h e i r new " g r o u p c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( C o t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . B e r n a r d n o t e d a number of t r e n d s w h i c h a l l b u t o b l i t e r a t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d of women t o w a r d s t h e end of t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y : t h e e f f e c t of i n c r e a s e d g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; t h e t w o f o l d i m p a c t of p s y c h i a t r y w h i c h c h a n g e d r e l a t i o n s h i p norms by c a s t i n g a p a l l of s e x u a l s u s p i c i o n on t h e s t r o n g bonds of a f f e c t i o n p e r m i t t e d and e n c o u r a g e d among women i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , and t h e d i s c o u r a g e m e n t of c o n f i d i n g i n f r i e n d s a b o u t p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . The f e m i n i s t movement ( S a h l i , 1978) may a l s o have h a s t e n e d t h e d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y i n i t s f o c u s on women e m u l a t i n g of male v a l u e s of r a t i o n a l i t y and autonomy. As n o t e d a b o v e , women were a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e m o t i o n a l d e p e n d e n c e on men ( S e i d e n and B a r t , 1 9 7 6 ) . Men, h o w e v e r , had n o t been s o c i a l i z e d t o p r o v i d e t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t t h a t women f r i e n d s had s u p p l i e d i n t h e p a s t ( B e r n a r d , 1976, 1981; W e i s s , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h i s c l i m a t e e n c o u r a g e d h e t e r o s o c i a l i t y , and t h e m a r r i a g e bond came t o be s e e n as t h e l o c u s f o r i n t i m a c y and e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t ( B e r n a r d , 1 9 8 1 ) . E x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d f o r m a r r i e d women t o p e r f o r m t h e " m e n t a l h y g i e n e f u n c t i o n of m a r r i a g e " ( B l o o d and W o l f e , 1 9 6 0 ) , even t h o u g h t h e y were t o do t h i s i n t h e c o n t e x t of a c r u c i a l " r e l a t i o n a l d e f i c i t " . f i l l t h i s , s a y s B e r n a r d , has l e d t o t h e h i g h r a t i o of d e p r e s s e d women i n s o c i e t y i n t h i s c e n t u r y . 17 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e r n a r d ' s t h e o r y o f h o m o s o c i a l i t y a d d r e s s e s t h e c r u c i a l r o l e p l a y e d by women's f r i e n d s h i p s . She s e e s t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as b e i n g s o c i a l s u p p o r t , a f f i r m a t i o n of a common and v a l i d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , and a c o n f i d e n c e i n (women's) own a f f i l i a t i v e s t y l e and j u d g e m e n t s ( B e r n a r d , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s l e g i t i m i z a t i o n and v a l u i n g o f bonds b e t w e e n women i s a s t r e n g t h of B e r n a r d ' s work. In a r e c e n t (1985) s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g h o m o s o c i a l ( o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as f r i e n d s h i p ) p r e f e r e n c e s of 90 young a d u l t s , Rose c o n t r a d i c t e d L i p m a n - B l u m e n 's ( 1 9 7 6 ) ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t m a l e s a r e more h o m o s o c i a l t h a n f e m a l e s . She c o n c l u d e d i n s t e a d t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y s a m p l e , "a h o m o s o c i a l norm of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s was more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of women t h a n of men, w i t h a m a j o r i t y of women and o n l y a b o u t o n e - h a l f as many men p r e f e r r i n g same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s t o c r o s s - s e x o n e s " ( 1 9 8 5 , p . 7 1 ) . She l o o k e d t o t h e r e p o r t e d f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by f r i e n d s h i p s as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g and i n so d o i n g s u p p o r t e d B e r n a r d ' s h y p o t h e s i s of " r e l a t i o n a l d e f i c i t " . She f o u n d t h a t o n l y men r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a c c e p t a n c e , i n t i m a c y , and c o m p a n i o n s h i p f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d t o t h e same e x t e n t by b o t h same and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . Women's e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r f r i e n d s h i p do n o t seem t o be f u l f i l l e d t o t h e same e x t e n t by men f r i e n d s as by women f r i e n d s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s of L e s b i a n Women A. S o c i o - S e x u a l P r e f e r e n c e 18 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g a d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of l e s b i a n women, a d i g r e s s i o n w i l l be made t o f o c u s f i r s t on t h e n o t i o n of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . W i t h i n t h e f e m i n i s t movement t h e r e i s a g r o u p w h i c h p e r c e i v e s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n men and women as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e u n e q u a l power d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n them. H e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s a r e s e e n as s u p p o r t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o p p r e s s i o n of women by men. The b e l i e f h as grown i n t h i s g r o u p t h a t h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y f o r women means c o - o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i r own o p p r e s s i o n . L e s b i a n i s m h as come t o be c o n s i d e r e d amongst them as t h e a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h p r o m o t e s women's i n t e r e s t s . I t has become t h o u g h t of as t h e p r a c t i c e f o r t h e t h e o r y of f e m i n i s m ( R a d i c a l e s b i a n , 1 9 7 0 ) , and as s u c h has d e f i n e d i t s e l f b a s e d more on p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y t h a n i n n a t e d e s i r e . T h i s v i e w , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e v i e w s e t f o r w a r d by t h e women's movement as a w h o l e , b u t r a t h e r by a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p w i t h i n t h e movement. I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of l e s b i a n i s m , w h i c h i s i n a s e n s e a s e x u a l , d i f f e r s f r o m t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n of l e s b i a n i s m r e f l e c t i n g s e x u a l o b j e c t c h o i c e and i n n a t e d e s i r e . Though more c l o s e l y a l l i g n e d w i t h t h e f e m i n i s t v i e w of l e s b i a n i s m b e i n g a s o c i o - s e x u a l c h o i c e h a v i n g t o do w i t h i d e n t i t y ( of w h i c h s e x u a l i t y i s a p a r t ) , t h i s v i e w r e p r e s e n t s a more r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n and s u g g e s t s a c h o i c e of l e s b i a n i s m b a s e d on p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o, p o s s i b l y d i s t i n c t g r o u p s of l e s b i a n women, and t h i s may r e p r e s e n t a p o t e n t i a l s a m p l i n g p r o b l e m i n t h i s s t u d y . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s of L e s b i a n Women 19 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s The s e c o n d and t h i r d h y p o t h e s e s of t h i s s t u d y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h c l a r i f y i n g t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g f e m i n i s t l e s b i a n women and t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A number of w r i t e r s h a v e i d e n t i f i e d u n i q u e f e a t u r e s of l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women's f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d now. Wolf (1979) d e s c r i b e d t h e t e x t u r e of l i f e i n a c o n t e m p o r a r y l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y and f o c u s e d on a c t u a l b e h a v o i r s , a t t i t u d e s , m y t h o l o g y , and f u t u r e g o a l s of a g r o u p of women. T h r o u g h a two y e a r p e r i o d as p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r , she f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was an i d e a l t o w h i c h members of t h e c o m m u n i t y a s p i r e d , t h e more p e r m a n e n t and s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were bet w e e n c l o s e f r i e n d s who were n o t l o v e r s t h o u g h t h e y may ha v e been l o v e r s a t one t i m e . T h e s e c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e co m m u n i t y f u n c t i o n e d as " k i n " r e l a t i o n s h i p s . "The c l o s e f r i e n d i s t h e s i s t e r who w i l l s t i c k w i t h one t h r o u g h o u t t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e and t o whom one c a n t o a t any t i m e f o r s u p p o r t , a d v i c e , money, o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 4 8 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s k i n s h i p f u n c t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s i n t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y i s a t t e s t e d t o by numerous a u t h o r s . L o w e n s t e i n (1979) f o u n d t h a t f r i e n d s h i p s i n a l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y s u b s t i t u t e f o r k i n s h i p n e t w o r k s of ' s t r a i g h t ' women. E d w a r d s and Hoov e r (1973) saw t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s as p a r a l l e l i n g f a m i l y , t h o u g h b a s e d on r e a l p r e f e r e n c e , s h a r e d i n t e r e s t , and g e n u i n e a f f e c t i o n . C h a f e t z (1974) s p o k e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst l e s b i a n s as " f a m i l y a s s o c i a t i o n u n i t s " i m p l y i n g a s e n s e of l o y a l t y and d e p e n d a b i l i t y . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e k i n s h i p p r o v i s i o n s of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o l e s b i a n women as a r e s u l t of e i t h e r d i s a p p r o v a l and 20 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n f r o m f a m i l y of o r i g i n ( P a r l e e , 19795 , o r a s F'onse w o u l d s a y , a f r e e d o m t o be and be known w i t h i n t h e p r o t e c t i v e c l o a k of s e c r e c y of t h e c o m m u n i t y . W i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , f r i e n d s h i p s f o r m t h e c o r e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t g r o u p . As s u c h , t h e y s e r v e a c r u c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . F'onse ( 1978) s t u d i e d bonds be t w e e n l e s b i a n women f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e b o n d s t o i d e n t i t y , and saw s e c r e c y as t h e c o n t e x t o f b o t h c o m m u n i t y and i d e n t i t y . As w e l l as d o m i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e l e s b i a n and ' s t r a i g h t ' w o r 1 d s , s e c r e c y a l s o , s a i d P o n s e , a f f e c t s t h e c h a r a c t e r of l i f e w i t h i n t h e l e s b i a n w o r l d . " W i t h i n t h e s u b c u l t u r e , t h e b o n d i n g n a t u r e of s e c r e c y i s e v i d e n c e d i n t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h f r i e n d s h i p s , a t l e a s t on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , a r e f o r m e d " ( 1 9 7 8 , p . 7 8 ) . S e c r e c y t e n d s a l s o t o i n t e n s i f y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e gay s u b c u l t u r e and t h e s t r a i g h t w o r l d and t o p r o m o t e c o h e s i o n i n t h e s u b g r o u p . The s u b g r o u p becomes a p r o t e c t i v e f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t o i n i t i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r l e s b i a n women. In i t s f u n c t i o n o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n - g r o u p t i e s s e c r e c y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an e x t r o p u n i t i v e d e f e n s e a c c o r d i n g t o R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r ' s f o r m u l a t i o n . D r a w i n g on G e o r g S i m m e l ' s s o c i o l o g y , P o n s e u n d e r l i n e d t h e r e s u l t i n g p r e s s u r e t o s t a y on good t e r m s w i t h o t h e r members of t h e " s e c r e t s o c i e t y " , i n w h i c h i n - g r o u p t i e s a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d by e x c l u d i n g t h o s e n o t e x p l i c i t e l y i n c l u d e d i n " t h e s e c r e t " . R e s u l t i n g b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n p e o p l e w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e g r o u p p r o m o t e a k i n d of m y s t i f i c a t i o n of b o t h w o r l d s . P o n s e ' s work c o n t r i b u t e s t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a c t u a l s o c i a l bonds i n i d e n t i f y i n g s e c r e c y as a 21 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e v a l e n t o p e r a t i v e v a r i a b l e i n i n c r e a s i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g c o h e s i o n w i t h i n t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y . B r o o k s (1981) s t u d i e d t h e r o l e and s t a t u s of l e s b i a n women i n s o c i e t y t o d a y , and d e s c r i b e d t h e i r m i n o r i t y c o n d i t i o n . In o r d e r t o do t h i s s h e e x a m i n e d t h e c o n c e p t of m i n o r i t y s t r e s s and i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e o u t c o m e s of s t r e s s among l e s b i a n women. In d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s s h e i d e n t i f i e d m a j o r s t r e s s - m e d i a t i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r l e s b i a n women as b e i n g : p o s i t i v e g r o u p i d e n t i t y , s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and s o c i a l d i s c l o s u r e of on e ' s s o c i o - s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y and i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r , she s a i d t h a t l e s b i a n women who i n t h e m i d s t of s t r e s s v i e w o t h e r women (and i n p a r t i c u l a r o t h e r l e s b i a n women) as a r e f e r e n c e g r o u p , w i l l e v i d e n c e l e s s d y s f u n c t i o n t h a n t h o s e w i t h a n e g a t i v e v i e w of women o r of l e s b i a n women ( 1 9 8 1 ) . She t a l k e d of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n - g r o u p i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e l a t e d t h i s a g a i n t o s e l f - i m a g e a g a i n i n g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h R a w l i n g s and C a r t e r t h a t a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o n e ' s own g r o u p - o r a f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - d e c r e a s e s s t r e s s , i m p r o v e s s e l f image and e n h a n c e s s o c i a l r e l a t e d n e s s i n t h e g r o u p . F e m i n i s t e x p o s u r e and p o s i t i v e m i n o r i t y g r o u p i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l b o n d i n g w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . B r o o k s ' work i s s t r o n g i n i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s as w e l l as a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y t o c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t w i t h m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . Her p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g s t r e s s - m e d i a t i n g r e s o u r c e s , makes h e r i d e a s u s e f u l f o r c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s K r i e g e r (1983) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y t o e x p l o r e i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y i n a women's c o m m u n i t y p r i m a r i l y composed of l e s b i a n women. Her f i n d i n g s were b a s e d on a one y e a r p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d , c o m b i n e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . The c o m m u n i t y s h e s t u d i e d f u n c t i o n e d t o g i v e members a g r o u p i d e n t i t y , s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , a s e n s e of s e c u r i t y , a f f i r m a t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e n o t a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e , a ha v e n f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e c r u c i a l f e e l i n g s t h e y had a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s as l e s b i a n s , f e m i n i s t s , and women. A l b r o and T u l l y (1979) a l l u d e d t o a f u n c t i o n s e r v e d by t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t when l e s b i a n women f e e l i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l m a c r o - c u l t u r e t h e y t u r n t o t h e h o m o s e x u a l m i c r o - c u l t u r e , f o r f r i e n d s , f o r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e i r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . The c o s t of t h i s a f f i r m a t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e K r i e g e r (1983) f o u n d t D be t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of a h i g h d e g r e e of i n t i m a c y and c o h e s i v e n e s s . One woman s a i d t h a t i n o r d e r t o know a n y b o d y , "you had t o g i v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of what i n o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s c o u l d be k e p t p r i v a t e " ( 1 9 8 3 , p . 9 8 ) . T h i s demand f o r i n t i m a c y i n v o l v e d a s e x u a l t e n s i o n w h i c h was c l e a r i n a n o t h e r woman's s t a t e m e n t t h a t , " b e c a u s e you had t o r e l a t e some i n t i m a t e d e t a i l s t o g e t a l o n g , t h e r e was a l w a y s t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r you w a n t e d t o be i n t i m a t e w i t h t h e p e r s o n you were t a l k i n g t o o r w h e t h e r t h e s h a r i n g meant you want e d t o go t o bed w i t h them" ( 1 9 8 3 , p . 9 9 ) . K r i e g e r s e e s t h i s c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n b e t w e e n merger and s e p a r a t i o n as t h e c e n t r a l c o n f l i c t a r e a i n l e s b i a n women's r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s r e l a t e s t o K r e s t a n and B e p k o ' s (1980) n o t i o n of a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s f u s i o n i n l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h K r e s t a n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Bepko a r e s p e a k i n g of e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e c o n c e p t a p p l i e s t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l b e c a u s e of a p o s s i b l e t e n d e n c y i n some l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t i e s f o r t h e b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n r o m a n t i c a t t a c h m e n t s and f r i e n d s h i p s t o be l e s s w e l l d e f i n e d ( B r i s t o w and P e r n , 1 9 B 4 ) . As w e l l as b o t h t h e p o s s i b l e p r e s e n c e of e n f o r c e d i n t i m a c y and t h e p u l l t o w a r d s f u s i o n , K r i e g e r saw a n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n t h e c o m m u n i t y as b e i n g i t s i n t o l e r a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . In h e r v i e w , d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t v a l u e d and i n d i v i d u a l s ' u n i q u e i d e n t i t i e s were g i v e n l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n . S a n d o v a l ( 1 9 8 4 ! c r i t i q u e d K r i e g e r ' s work and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n t o l e r a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s - or o p p r e s s i v e b e h a v o i r - had more t o do w i t h t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y b e i n g a m a r g i n a l i s e d g r o u p t h a n w i t h i t b e i n g a t e n d e n c y t o f u s e due t o s e x - r o l e c o n d i t i o n i n g o r b e i n g a c o m m u n i t y o f l i k e n e s s . B r i s t o w and P e r n (1984) on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t of f u s i o n i s a h e t e r o s e x i s t c o n c e p t w h i c h has l i t t l e t o do w i t h l e s b i a n i d e n t i t y . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f L e s b i a n and H e t e r o s e x u a l F e m i n i s t Women W e i s s ' t y p o l o g y of t h e p r o v i s i o n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and L u s t i g ' s (1982) f i n d i n g s i n v o l v e b o t h l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women, and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . W e i s s d e v e l o p e d a t y p o l o g y of p r o v i s i o n s s u p p l i e d by s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s : a t t a c h m e n t , i n t i m a c y , e m o t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n u r t u r i n g o t h e r s ; r e a s s u r a n c e of p e r s o n a l w o r t h ; a s e n s e of r e l i a b l e a l l i a n c e ; o b t a i n i n g h e l p and g u i d a n c e . S u f f i c i e n t amounts of t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e a s e n s e of w e l l - b e i n g and a d e q u a t e l i f e 24 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n s u f f i c i e n t a m o u n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e p r o v i s i o n s of e m o t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n l o n e l i n e s s . W e i s s d e s c r i b e d e m o t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n - o r a t t a c h m e n t - as o c c u r r i n g i n o u r s o c i e t y m a i n l y w i t h i n t h e m a r r i a g e bond. However, r a t h e r t h a n m a r r i a g e p e r s e , t h e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of t h i s p r o v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o W e i s s i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n s u c h t h a t t h e mere p r o x i m i t y of t h e o t h e r p e r s o n c a n p r o m o t e f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y and w e l l - b e i n g ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s p e r s o n i s f e l t t o be of u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e (1983) and may be p e r c e i v e d as a s o u r c e of s t r e n g t h o r as f o s t e r i n g t h e a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s own c a p a c i t y f o r m a s t e r i n g c h a l l e n g e . A t t a c h m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o W e i s s , i s o f t e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a f i g u r e w i t h whom a s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t s . As w e l l as b e i n g f o u n d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c e n t r a l e m o t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , W e i s s s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a t t a c h m e n t bonds a l s o o c c u r r i n g w i t h a s m a l l , c o h e s i v e , r e l i a b l e , and a c c e p t i n g g r o u p of p e e r s (1982) r a t h e r t h a n w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l . The g r o u p i t s e l f f o s t e r s f e e l i n g s of c o m f o r t and i t s l o s s i s c r i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e l o s s of any i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e g r o u p . A l t h o u g h W e i s s made no c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s and m i n o r i t y g r o u p s p e r s e , t h i s may be an i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n when c o n s i d e r i n g b o n d s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n women. S o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h o u g h s t i l l o f c r i t i c a l e m o t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s f r i e n d s , k i n , c o - w o r k e r s , and i s v i e w e d more as a f f i l i a t i o n . Bonds of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s s o c i a t i o n s i n w h i c h s h a r e d i n t e r e s t s and s i m i l a r i t y of c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r m u t u a l l o y a l t y and a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y ( 1 9 8 2 ) . W e i s s a d d r e s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t men and women a c h i e v e s o c i a l 25 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e g r a t i o n . Men, he s a i d , l o o k more t o t h e i r work f o r t h i s p r o v i s i o n w h i l e women t y p i c a l l y l o o k t o t h e i r r o l e s as f r i e n d s , k i n , n e i g h b o r s . B o t h p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r a s e n s e of s e l f and a r e a s s u r a n c e o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h ( R u s s e l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . S o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m one a n o t h e r and n e i t h e r can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e o t h e r . In h e r s t u d y t i t l e d " I n t i m a t e F r i e n d s h i p s of F e m i n i s t Women", ( 1 9 8 2 ) , L u s t i g e x p l o r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p amongst t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e , f r i e n d s h i p t y p e , and l e v e l of i n t i m a c y of f e m i n i s t women. To me a s u r e t h e d e g r e e of i n t i m a c y i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p she c h o s e t o u s e Frum's C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , and m o d i f i e d i t w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l d a t a s h e e t , an i n t i m a c y r a t i n g , a c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g , and a r a t i n g of t h e s u b j e c t ' s and f r i e n d ' s l e v e l of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Frum d e v e l o p e d h e r i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e of d e f i n i n g and m e a s u r i n g t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p ( 1 9 7 9 ) . L u s t i g ' s a i m i n h e r s t u d y was t o measure i n t i m a c y b a s e d on Frum's s i x p a r a m e t e r s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p : n a t u r a l n e s s , s t a b l e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i t y , p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e g a r d . L u s t i g h y p o t h e s i z e d i n h e r s t u d y t h a t l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t s w o u l d r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t i m a c y t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t s i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d by L u s t i g who f o u n d t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t s as t o t h e l e v e l of i n t i m a c y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s . She p r e s e n t e d two p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s r e s u l t b e i n g e i t h e r t h a t t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d p r e v i o u s e v i d e n c e t h a t l e s b i a n s and h e t e r o s e x u a l women may be s i m i l a r i n t h e way t h e y 26 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s s e e k t o s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t i m a c y n e e d s t h r o u g h t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s ( O b e r s t o n e and S u k o n e k , 1976; R o s e n , 1974; Simon and B a g n o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , o r p o s s i b l e i n s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t . R a t i o n a l e f o r I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n T h i s a u t h o r was u n a b l e t o l o c a t e an i n s t r u m e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d as a m e a s u r e of h o m o s o c i a l i t y . B e c a u s e f r i e n d s h i p i s one i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of h o m o s o c i a l i t y , i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o s t u d y f r i e n d s h i p were n e x t c o n s i d e r e d . W r i g h t ( 1 9 6 9 ! was t h e f i r s t t o d e v e l o p an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h w h i c h he c o u l d e x p l o r e s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He d e v e l o p e d t h e A c q u a i n t a n c e D e s c r i p t i o n Form, w h i c h m e a s u r e d t h r e e p o s i t i v e v a l u e s o r r e w a r d s w h i c h m i g h t be d e r i v e d f r o m a f r i e n d s h i p : s t i m u l a t i o n v a l u e , u t i l i t y v a l u e , and ego s u p p o r t v a l u e . A l t h o u g h W r i g h t ' s was a f i r s t s t e p i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h w h i c h t o s t u d y f r i e n d s h i p , t h i s i n s t r u m e n t p r o v i d e d a l i m i t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p and w o u l d f o r t h a t r e a s o n n o t be u s e f u l f o r t h i s s t u d y . M e r r i l l (1975) d e v e l o p e d a n o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t t o s t u d y f r i e n d s h i p , c a l l e d t h e F r i e n d s h i p I n v e n t o r y . T h i s i n v e n t o r y was d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s , and d i d so by m e a s u r i n g s i x f r i e n d s h i p c r i t e r i a d e v i s e d by M e r r i l l . I t was d e s i g n e d i n i t i a l l y , h o w e v e r , t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t and c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p . T h i s s t u d y d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , so M e r r i l l ' s i n s t r u m e n t was n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u s e . An i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h c o u l d c l e a r l y and a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e a woman's a c t u a l e x a p e r i e n c e of and f e e l i n g s a b o u t h e r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a 27 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s t a r g e t - f r i e n d was n e e d e d . Frum (1979) d e v e l o p e d s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t and c a l l e d i t The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e . T h i s i s a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s c a l e ( r e f e r t o C h a p t e r T h r e e ) w h i c h m e a s u r e s p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n s i x p a r a m e t e r s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p . As w e l l as an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h m e a s u r e d s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two s t u d y g r o u p s i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , an i n s t r u m e n t was needed w h i c h w o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o what t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d o r w o u l d n o t p r o v i d e i n a woman's l i f e . As n o t e d a b o v e , t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t f e m i n i s t l e s b i a n women may e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n f e m i n i s t h e t e r o s e x u a l women i n t e r m s of what t h e y a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . W r i g h t ' s A c q u a i n t a n c e D e s c r i p t i o n Form does e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b u t d o e s s o i n a somewhat vague and n o n - s p e c i f i c way. C u r t o n a (1982) d e v e l o p e d an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t W e i s s ' t y p o l o g y of t h e s i x p r o v i s i o n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R a t h e r t h a n f o c u s i n g on one p a r t i c u l a r f r i e n d s h i p , as d o e s t h e C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , t h i s s c a l e a s k s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o c o n s i d e r h e r c u r r e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r women i n g e n e r a l , as t o what t h e y s u p p l y . The S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e t e s t s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e , f e e l i n g s , and a t t i t u d e s more s p e c i f i c a l l y , and was u s e f u l i n t h i s s t u d y . Summary The 1esb i a n l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o h o m o s o c i a l i t y and t o f r i e n d s h i p s of and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women i n p a r t i c u l a r , h as been 28 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s C h a p t e r . We have s e e n t h a t f o l l o w i n g T i g e r , two m a j o r t h e o r i e s of women's same-sex bonds were d e v e l o p e d . B o t h t h e o r i s t s a g r e e t h a t i n t h i s c e n t u r y women's bonds w i t h one a n o t h e r h a v e been l i m i t e d . Where t h e t h e o r i s t s d i f f e r , i s a t t h e p o i n t where L i p m a n - B l u m e n s a y s t h a t women's h o m o s o c i a l bonds a r e p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o men's w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d a l l - m a l e g r o u p s . B e r n a r d b e l i e v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h women's bonds a r e s u f f e r i n g a c u r r e n t d e v a l u a t i o n and d i m i n i s h m e n t , t h e y have been h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d and r i t u a l i z e d i n women's l i v e s o v e r t i m e , and have a l i f e and i n t e g r i t y of t h e i r own. L e s b i a n women's s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s have a l s o m a i n t a i n e d a l i f e of t h e i r own, t h o u g h t h e y have f u n c t i o n e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y m a i n l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of s e c r e c y . ft number of a u t h o r s have h y p o t h e s i z e d ways i n w h i c h l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women may e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n do h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r e d b o t h of t h e a b o v e - s t a t e d p r o b l e m s and a t t e m p t e d t o b o t h c l a r i f y m a j o r h o m o s o c i a l t h e o r y a b o u t women's f r i e n d s h i p s , and t o d e s c r i b e l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t woemn's a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e as c o n t r a s t e d t o t h a t of h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. The m e t h o d o l o g y f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 29 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY O v e r v i e w T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and m e t h o d o l o g y of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s i o n s of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , d e s i g n of t h e r e s e a r c h , r e s p o n d e n t s e l e c t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y . H y p o t h e s e s As we have s e e n , two main t h e o r i e s of h o m o s o c i a l i t y h a v e d e v e l o p e d . The two t h e o r i s t s , B e r n a r d a n s L i p m a n - B l u m e n , a p p r o a c h t h e c o n s t r u c t i n d i f f e r e n t ways and r e a c h d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g women's s o c i a l t i e s w i t h one a n o t h e r . As a r e s u l t , p r e d i c t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i r t h e o r i e s d i f f e r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e on f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n women. L u s t i g (1982) t h r o u g h h e r f i n d i n g s , p r e s e n t s a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h i s v a r i a b l e . T h r e e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r i s e : 1. B e r n a r d ' s t h e o r y of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i t y i m p l i e s t h a t l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women m i g h t h a v e s t r o n g e r s o c i a l b onds t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women; w h e r e a s , 30 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 2. L i p m a n - B l u m e n ' s t h e o r y of s e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w o u l d have weaker h o m o s o c i a l bonds t h a n w o u l d h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. 3. L u s t i g t h o u g h , f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women as t o t h e l e v e l of i n t i m a c y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The l i t e r a t u r e t e n d s t o s u p p o r t B e r n a r d ' s p o i n t of v i e w ( B a r d w i c k , 1974; B e l l , 1981; D a v i d s o n and P a c k a r d , 1981; R u b i n , 1973, 1 9 8 5 ) , and so f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , h y p o t h e s i s £1 i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. L e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean t o t a l and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s on t h e C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e and on t h e C l o s e n e s s R a t i n g , t h a n w i l l h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. 2. Two p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d numerous t i m e s as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and d e s c r i p t i v e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i k p s of l e s b i a n women - t h a t of a s t r o n g " k i n " q u a l i t y of f r i e n d s h i p s ( W o l f , 1 9 7 9 ) , and an e x p e c t a t i o n of m u t u a l demands b e i n g made i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( K r i e g e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e s e q u a l i t i e s p a r a l l e l Frum's d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e " S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community" and " M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i l i t y " s u b s c a l e s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e s t h e r e f o r e t h a t l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean s c o r e s t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women on t h e C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e s u b s c a l e s of S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community and M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i 1 i t y . 3. In a d d i t i o n t o r e f l e c t i n g s t r o n g k i n s h i p and m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y q u a l i t i e s , b o n d s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women seem t o p r o v i d e a 31 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s s e n s e of s e c u r i t y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ( E d w a r d s and H o o v e r , 1973; L o w e n s t e i n , 1979; W o l f , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e s e p r o v i s i o n s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e s u b s c a l e s of "a S e n s e of R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e " and " A t t a c h m e n t " . I t i s h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on t h e A t t a c h m e n t and S e n s e of R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e s u b s c a l e s of t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e , t h a n w i l l h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n T h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were u s e d t o c o n d u c t t h i s s t u d y . The P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t ( L u s t i g , 1 9 8 2 ) , The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e ( F r u m , 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e ( C u t r o n a , 1 9 8 2 ) . A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a l o n g w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y d a t a , w i l l f o l l o w . 1. P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t (PDS) - L u s t i g u s e d Frum's CFS i n h e r 1982 s t u d y of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e , f r i e n d s h i p t y p e , and l e v e l of i n t i m a c y of f e m i n i s t women. She m o d i f i e d Frum's o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t by c a l l i n g h e r d e m o g r a p h i a c i n f o r m a t i o n a s e p a r a t e i n s t r u m e n t -The P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t - and a d d i n g t o i t q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n c o m e , c h i l d r e n of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , w h e t h e r or n o t r e s p o n d e n t i s p r e s e n t l y i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man o r a woman. L u s t i g added a s w e l l , an i n t i m a c y r a t i n g and a r a t i n g of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e PDS was u s e d and m o d i f i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y . The i n t i m a c y r a t i n g was n o t i n c l u d e d ( a s t h i s i s n o t a s t u d y S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n t i m a c y ) , and q u e s t i o n s added i n c l u d e d h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , and p r e v i o u s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d . 2. The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d t h e CFS) - Frum, 1979 T h i s s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d by Frum t o a s s e s s and measure t h e p a r a m e t e r s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , i t s q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n men's and women's same and o t h e r - s e x s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p were f i r s t d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n and p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . S i x p a r a m e t e r s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p were t h e n e s t a b l i s h e d : n a t u r a l n e s s , s t a b l e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i t y , p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e g a r d . B a s e d on t h e s e s i x p a r a m e t e r s , s c a l e i t e m s were o b t a i n e d f r o m s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d i n s t r u m e n t s , and e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The 210 i t e m s d e v e l o p e d were r a t e d by t h r e e e x p e r t j u d g e s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h i n one of t h e s i x p a r a m e t e r s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n of t h e CFS c o n s i s t s of B8 i t e m s w i t h a 6 - p o i n t L i k e r t s t y l e r e s p o n s e s e t . As w e l l , 13 d e m o g r a p h i c and q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d and a c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g was a d d e d , (where 1 was c o m p l e t e l a c k of c l o s e n e s s w i t h t h e t a r g e t f r i e n d , and 10 was as c l o s e as a p e r s o n c o u l d be t o a n o t h e r . D e f i n i t i o n of t h e S u b s c a l e s (N) N a t u r a l n e s s - R e l a t i v e s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e 33 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s l a c k of i n h i b i t i o n and w i t h t h e f r e e d o m t o be t o t a l l y o n e s e l f , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e " n a t u r a l n e s s " component of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p . (MA) M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i l i t y - The i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s component of c l o s e f r i e n d h s i p r e f l e c t a s e n s e of s e c u r i t y t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m f e e l i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l who can be r e l i e d upon. ( P I E ) P o s i t i v e I n t e r a c t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e - T h i s component of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s c o p e of s h a r e d a c t i v i t i e s and t h o u g h t s , i n a s e n s e of m u t u a l i t y , i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e o t h e r when p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e d i s p o s i t i o n t o e n t e r s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t o numerous a c i t v i t i e s w i t h one a n o t h e r . (SPC) S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community - T h i s f r i e n d s h i p component i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s e n s e of b e i n g i n c o m m u n i t y w i t h a n o t h e r . I n c l u d e d i s t h e s e n s e of i m p o r t a n c e i n one a n o t h e r ' s l i f e , c a r i n g , and i n h a v i n g a h i s t o r y and f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . (PU) P e r s o n a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g - I t e m s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e f l e c t e d t h e e a s e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y t o b e i n g a b l e t o p r e d i c t e a c h o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e w i t h n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h r e f l e c t s h o r t c u t s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and f e e l i n g s of b e i n g on t h e same " w a v e l e n g t h " . (UR) U n c o n d i t i o n a l R e g a r d - T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e n o n j u d g e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e w h i c h i s f r e e of t h e d e s i r e t o c h a n g e t h e o t h e r . U n c o n d i t i o n a l r e g a r d i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t t h e f r i e n d w h e r e v e r s h e i s a t any p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Odd-even r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were 34 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s p e r f o r m e d on t h e s i x s u b s c a l e s and t o t a l s c o r e s of t h e CFS. C r o n b a c h ' s (1951) c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a and P e a r s o n ' s r were t h e s t a t i s t i c s u s e d . The o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e CFS was .98. The r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s of t h e s i x s u b s c a l e s of t h e CFS r a n g e d f r o m .85 f o r women i n t h e p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s u b s c a l e , t o .94 f o r t h e p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s u b s c a l e . The s u b s c a l e s showed p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r r a n g i n g f r o m .49 f o r t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n on t h e N ( n a t u r a l n e s s ) and P I E ( p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ) s u b s c a l e s f o r b o t h s e x e s t o .74 f o r women on t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of MA ( m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y ) and SPC ( s t a b l e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i t y ) . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s m e a s u r e p o s s e s s e s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and i s h i g h l y r e l i a b l e . 3. S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d t h e SPS) - The t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e ( C u t r o n a , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s s c a l e was d e s i g n e d by C u t r o n a t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s of W e i s s ' (1974) t y p o l o g y of r e l a t i o n a l n e e d s s u p p l i e d by s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B a s e d on h i s work w i t h g r o u p s l a c k i n g i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e i r s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , W e i s s d e v e l o p e d a t y p o l o g y of t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s : A t t a c h m e n t , i n t i m a c y , and e m o t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n u r t u r i n g o t h e r s ; r e a s s u r a n c e of p e r s o n a l w o r t h ; a s e n s e of r e l i a b l e a l l i a n c e ; o b t a i n i n g h e l p and g u i d a n c e . W e i s s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o v i s i o n of t h e s e g i v e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l an a d e q u a t e l i f e o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e n s e o f w e l l b e i n g . D e f i c i t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g n e e d s f o r a t t a c h m e n t and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n l o n e l i n e s s . 35 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s The SPS c o n t a i n s 24 i t e m s , w i t h f o u r i t e m s k e y e d on e a c h p r o v i s i o n , two i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n and two i n a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s a n s w e r e d e a c h q u e s t i o n on a 4 - p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m s t r o n g l y a g r e e t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . S c o r i ng A s c o r e f o r e a c h p r o v i s i o n c a n be d e r i v e d s e p a r a t e l y s u c h t h a t a h i g h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s r e c e i v i n g t h a t p r o v i s i o n . N e g a t i v e l y k e y e d i t e m s were r e v e r s e d b e f o r e s c o r i n g . The maximum s c o r e w h i c h c o u l d be o b t a i n e d was 16, t h e minimum s c o r e was 4. A t o t a l of s i x s e p a r a t e s c o r e s (one f o r e a c h p r o v i s i o n ) as w e l l as a c o m p o s i t e s c o r e w i t h maximum v a l u e s of 84 and minimum v a l u e s of 16 were o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t . D e f i n i t i o n of S u b s c a l e s (A) A t t a c h m e n t - p r o v i d e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n r e c e i v e s a s e n s e of s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y . ( S I ) S o c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n - p r o v i d e d by a n e t w o r k of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r e i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s . (NU) O p p o r t u n i t y f o r N u r t u r a n c e - d e r i v e d f r o m r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n f e e l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g of a n o t h e r . (RW) R e a s s u r a n c e of Worth - p r o v i d e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n ' s s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d . (RA) R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e - d e r i v e d f r o m r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n can c o u n t on a s s i s t a n c e u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . (G) G u i d a n c e - p r o v i d e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t r u s t w o r t h y and 36 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s who can p r o v i d e a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y T e s t - r e t e s t and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were d e r i v e d f r o m two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n d u c t e d by C u t r o n a , R u s s e l and Rose (1984) i n v o l v e d a p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d y of s t r e s s and s o c i a l s u p p o r t among a s a m p l e of 100 c o m m u n i t y e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . The SPS was a d m i n i s t e r e d t w i c e o v e r a f o u r t o s i x month p e r i o d . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l p r o v i s i o n s were a l l a b o v e .70. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were n o t as h i g h and r a n g e d f r o m .36 t o .66. H o wever, " g i v e n t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n s t a n t o v e r t i m e , t h e s e low t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t t h e s c a l e i s u n r e l i a b l e " ( R u s s e l l and C u t r o n a , 1984, p . 6 ) . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s b a s e d on a s e c o n d s t u d y of 300 t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t e d by R u s s e l l , A l t m i e r and Van V e l z e n (1984) on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l s u p p o r t and t e a c h e r b u r n o u t , f o u n d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .60. In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t , a c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s b a s e d on t h e d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s t u d y was u s e d . An o b l i q u e s i x f a c t o r model was t e s t e d u s i n g t h e L i s r e l VI p r o g r a m , w i t h e a c h of t h e f a c t o r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s i x s o c i a l p r o v i s i o n s . The f a c t o r l o a d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a " f a i r l y good f i t t o t h e d a t a " ( 1 9 8 4 , p . 6 ) . The G o o d n e s s of F i t Index was .857. C u t r o n a ( i n p r o c e s s ) f o u n d i n a s t u d y of f i r s t - t i m e m o t h e r s t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s of r e l i a b l e a l l i a n c e , r e a s s u r a n c e of w o r t h , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and g u i d a n c e were p r e d i c t i v e of p o s t p a r t u m d e p r e s s i o n . 37 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Women who l a c k e d t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s d u r i n g p r e g n a n c y were more l i k e l y t o become d e p r e s s e d a f t e r t h e b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d ( R u s s e l l e t a l . , 1984, p . 1 3 1 5 ) . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e SPS i s a (1982) s t u d y by C u t r o n a of f i r s t y e a r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , i n w h i c h s h e f o u n d t h a t t h e s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , r e a s s u r a n c e o f w o r t h , and g u i d a n c e p r o v i s i o n s were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s c o r e s on t h e UCLA L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e . S a m p l e S e l e c t i o n R e s p o n d e n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of f e m i n i s t women, t h a t i s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , t h o s e women who p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s a t 7 o r h i g h e r ( b e t w e e n 1 and 10) of t h e F e m i n i s t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n S c a l e . F e m i n i s t women were s e l e c t e d o u t of t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of women i n o r d e r t o more c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e a p r e v i o u s s t u d y ( L u s t i g , 1 9 8 2 ) , and b e c a u s e of an assumed c o m m i t t m e n t t o o t h e r women. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a c k a g e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o women u n t i l 35 h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women and 35 l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women who f i t t h e c r i t e r i a , c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n was s o l i c i t e d i n f e m i n i s t b o o k s t o r e s , m e e t i n g s , g a t h e r i n g s , u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h f r i e n d s h i p p y r a m i d i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s In o r d e r t o p l a c e l i m i t s a r o u n d t h e s t u d y , r e s p o n d e n t s met t h e 38 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s f o11owi ng c r i t e r i a : 1. 20 - 40 y e a r s of age 2. s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d f e m i n i s t P r o c e d u r e s R e s p o n d e n t s were i n i t i a l l y g i v e n a page d e s c r i b i n g c o n c e p t s c e n t r a l t o f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . They were t h e n a s k e d t o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s on a s c a l e of 1 t o 10 as t o t h e i r l e v e l of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e y were a s k e d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l a r g e r s t u d y of f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n women. I f t h e y i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e and had r a t e d t h e m s e l f a t 7 o r a b o v e on t h e r a t i n g s c a l e , t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a p a c k a g e c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s - The P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t , The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , and The S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e . R e s p o n d e n t s were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . O r a l and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n r e g a r d i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A c o p y of i n s t r u c t i o n s may be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x The o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e CFS were m o d i f i e d t o i n c l u d e t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s and t o e l i m i n a t e t h e r e f e r e n c e t o an o t h e r - s e x as w e l l as same-sex c l o s e f r i e n d . D e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d by Frum on t h e o r i g i n a l CFS was m o d i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: D e l e t e : R e l a t i o n s h i p , Y o u r sex I n s e r t : 1. Number of c h i l d r e n - r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d 2. S e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e - r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d 39 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 3. Income - r e s p o n d e n t and - f r i e n d 4. A r e you i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p ? 5. H i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n - r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d 6. P r e v i o u s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d ? Yes o r No. 7. F e m i n i s t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n S c a l e R e s p o n d e n t s were n o t i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y were g r o u p e d by s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was a s s u r e d a n o n y m i t y . The f i n a l r e s u l t s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e upon r e q u e s t . D e s i g n and S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s T h i s s t u d y was an ex p o s t f a c t o c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n two g r o u p s where t h e p r e - e x i s t i n g s o u r c e of v a r i a t i o n was s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . To t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d , d a t a was a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e g o a l of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h r e e a r e a s : a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s a m p l e , r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e CFS and SPS, and a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e same-sex bonds of h e t e r o s e x u a l and l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t s . A c o d i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t a b l e ( s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by L u s t i g and Frum) was d e v e l o p e d f o r d e m o g r a p h i c i t e m s . Means were t a b u l a t e d f o r a l l i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . B l a n k s l e f t i n t h e r e s p o n s e c o l u m n were g i v e n a n e u t r a l s c o r e . S c o r e s f o r n e g a t i v e l y p h r a s e d i t e m s were r e v e r s e d . D a t a c o l l e c t e d r e l a t i v e t o s o c i a l b o n d s of t h e two g r o u p s of women was a n a l y z e d u s i n g H o t e l l i n g ' s t 2 (a s p e c i a l c a s e of m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s f o r u s e when t h e r e i s one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) . The one 40 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e ; t h e t w e l v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s i x s u b s c a l e s on e a c h i n s t r u m e n t : n a t u r a l n e s s , s t a b l e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i t y , m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e g a r d , a t t a c h m e n t , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n u r t u r i n g o t h e r s , r e a s s u r a n c e of p e r s o n a l w o r t h , a s e n s e of r e l i a b l e a l l i a n c e , and o b t a i n i n g h e l p and g u i d a n c e . Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e t w e l v e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was s e t a t . 05. D e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y was d e l i m i t e d by t h i s a u t h o r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. The s t u d y was r e s t r i c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t o r e s p o n d e n t s l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C., and B e l l i n g h a m , Wa.. 2. R e s p o n d e n t age was r e s t r i c t e d t o a g e s 20 t o 40 y e a r s , t h u s l i m i t i n g t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of r e s u l t s t o e i t h e r y o u n g e r o r o l d e r women. 3. R e s p o n d e n t s were r e s t r i c t e d t o women s e l f - r e p o r t i n g a f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of 7 o r more on t h e F e m i n i s t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n S c a l e , t h e r e f o r e l i m i t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of r e s u l t s t o a n o n - f e m i n i s t p o p u l a t i o n of women. 41 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS O v e r v i ew T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e o r g a n i s e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e , a) D e s c r i p t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s and F r i e n d s , b) R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s £1, c ) R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s £2, d) R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s £3. H o t e l l i n g ' s t 2 m u l i t v a r i a t e t e s t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was us e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e b e c a u s e of i t s s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n when t h e r e i s o n l y one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w h i c h i s i n t h i s s t u d y , s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . T h i s t e s t was us e d i n a n a l y s i s of t o t a l CFS and SPS s c o r e means. U n i v a r i a t e F t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of e a c h of t h e t w e l v e s u b s c a l e s . C h i - s q u a r e s were c o m p u t e d t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t h e c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g as w e l l as i n c o m e and o c c u p a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s . D e s c r i p t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s and F r i e n d s To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s p e c i f i c r e s p o n d e n t , f r i e n d , and r e l a t i o n s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d a t a was o b t a i n e d f r o m e a c h of t h e 70 r e s p o n d e n t s , 35 l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women and 35 h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t 42 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s women. R e s p o n d e n t s and f r i e n d s ' e t h n i c i t y was p r e d o m i n a n t l y C a u c a s i a n , w i t h 95.77. of r e s p o n d e n t s and 97.17. of f r i e n d s r e p o r t i n g t h i s . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a t 7 o r h i g h e r on a s c a l e of f r o m 1 t o 10 m e a s u r i n g t h e i r l e v e l of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s ' a g e s r a n g e d f r o m 22 t o 40 (M=32). F r i e n d s ' a g e s r a n g e d f r o m 24 t o 52 (M=33). A m a j o r i t y of b o t h r e s p o n d e n t s and f r i e n d s were n o t m a r r i e d , 61.4'/. and 54.37. r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y h o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h 827. of t h e l e s b i a n r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d b e i n g u n m a r r i e d , 747. a l s o r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r woman. Of t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l g r o u p , 407. r e p o r t e d b e i n g u n m a r r i e d and p r e d i c t a b l y , 607. r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t may be t h a t a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g " m a r i t a l s t a t u s " i s c o n f u s i n g o r p r e s e n t s a d i l e m m a f o r l e s b i a n women who a r e i n c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a n o t h e r woman. H a v i n g no s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d l a b e l f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e y may o r may n o t c a l l i t a " m a r r i a g e " . The d a t a r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p may g i v e a t r u e r p i c t u r e of t h e l e s b i a n g r o u p f o r t h i s r e a s o n . (See T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) . S e v e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s and 62.97. of f r i e n d s had no c h i l d r e n . Of t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p , 887. of l e s b i a n women and 657. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women had no c h i l d r e n . Of t h e i r f r i e n d s , 827. of l e s b i a n women and 427. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women were w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s r e s p o n d e n t s ' and f r i e n d s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . S i x t y -p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s and 54.37. of f r i e n d s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Of t h e two r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s , 62.87. of l e s b i a n s and 57.17. of h e t e r o s e x u a l s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h e r e were a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of 43 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 1 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' M a r i t a l S t a t u s R e s p o n d e n t s F r i e n d s S i n g l e M a r r i ed S e p a r a t e d Di v o r c e d 43 (61.47.) 18 ( 2 5 . 77.) 3.0 ( 4 . 3'/.) 6.0 (8.67.) 38 (54.37.) 24 (34. 37.) 3.0 (4.37.) 5.0 (7.17.) S i n g l e M a r r i ed S e p a r a t e d Di v o r c e d L e s b i ans 29 (827.) 4.0 (11.47.) 1.0 (2.87.) 1.0 (2.87.) H e t e r o s e x u a l s 14 (407.) 14 (407.) 2.0 (5.77.) 5.0 (7.17.) N o t e . P e r c e n t a g e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s T a b l e 2 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s f o r C o m m i t t e d R e l a t i o n s h i p s R e s p o n d e n t s Yes 47 ( 6 7 . 17.) No 22 (31 . 47.) L e s b i a n s H e t e r o s e x u a l s Yes 26 (74.37.) 21 (607.) No 9 ( 2 . 57.) 13 ( 3 7 . 17.) 44 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s l e s b i a n t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l women i n b o t h t h e s e m i - o r u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r c a t e g o r y , 11.47. t o 2,87. r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h e e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l c a t e g o r y , 57. t o 07. r e s p e c t i v e l y . A c h i - s q u a r e was computed t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . No s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l women were f o u n d . (See T a b l e 3 ) . E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s ' and 81.57. of f r i e n d s ' i n c o m e s were a b o v e $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . In t e r m s of t h e two r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s , 45.77. of l e s b i a n and 487. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women had i n c o m e s b e t w e e n $10,000 and $20,0 0 0 . F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of l e s b i a n and 25.77. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women had i n c o m e s a b o v e $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . A c h i - s q u a r e was computed t o a s c e r t a i n i n c o m e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . No s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o m e d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l women. (See T a b l e 4 ) . D a t a c o n c e r n i n g l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n showed t h a t 75.77. of r e s p o n d e n t s and 62.97. of f r i e n d s had c o m p l e t e d a b a s i c u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e . In t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s 42.8"/ of l e s b i a n and 257. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women had c o m p l e t e d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Twenty p e r c e n t of l e s b i a n r e s p o n d e n t s ' f r i e n d s and 207. of h e t e r o s e x u a l r e s p o n d e n t s ' f r i e n d s had c o m p l e t e d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . (See T a b l e 5 ) . L e n g t h o f f r i e n d s h i p s r a n g e d f r o m 0 t o o v e r 20 y e a r s (11=3.9). N i n e t y p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d f r i e n d s h i p s of f r o m 0 t o 15 y e a r s d u r a t i o n , 72. 97. b e i n g f r o m 0 t o 10 y e a r s . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e c a t e g o r y was f r o m 6 t o 10 y e a r s , a t 32.97.. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o t h i n k of t h e i r c l o s e s t f e m a l e f r i e n d , and t h a t t h e mean l e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c h o s e n f r i e n d was o n l y S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i T a b l e 3 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s of R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' O c c u p a t i o n s O c c u p a t i on E x e c . / M a n a g e r i a l P r o f e s s i o n a l C l e r i c a l S k i l l e d S e m i / U n - s k i l l e d S t u d e n t M i l i t a r y Homemaker O t h e r R e s p o n d e n t s 2 (2.97.) 42 (607.) 5 (7.17.) 2 (2.97.) 5 (7.17.) 10 (14.37.) 1 (1.47.) 1 (1.47.) 2 (2.97.) F r i e n d s 2 ( 2 . 9 % ) 38 (54.37.) 4 (5.77.) 5 (7.17.) 7 (107.) 6 (8.67.) 1 (1.47.) 4 (5.77.) 1 (1.47.) E x e c . / M a n a g e r i a l P r o f e s s i o n a l C l e r i c a l S k i l l e d S e m i / U n - s k i 1 l e d S t u d e n t Mi 1 i t a r y O t h e r L e s b i ans 2 (5.07.) 22 (62. B7.) 1 (1.47.) 1 (1.47.) 4 (5.77.) 3 (4.37.) 1 (1.47.) 1 (1.47.) H e t e r o s e x u a l s 20 ( 5 7 . 17.) 4 (5.77.) 1 (1.47.) 1 (1.47.) 7 (107.) 1 (1.47.) X 2 ( 8 , N=70) = 9.295, p_<. 05 46 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 4 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s of R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' Income Income Under $10^000 $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - * 2 0 , 0 0 0 Above $20,000 N/A R e s p o n d e n t s 12 ( 1 7 . I X ) 33 (47.17.) 25 (3 5 . 77.) F r i e n d s 12 (17.17.) 27 (38.67.) 1 (1.47.) 1 ( 1 . 4 % ) Income Under $10,000 * 1 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 Above $20,000 L e s b i a ns 3 (8.57.) 16 ( 4 5 . 77.) 16 ( 4 5 . 77.) H e t e r o s e x u a l s 9 (25.77.) 17 (48.57.) 9 ( 2 5 . 77.) X 2 ( 2 , N=70) = 4.99, p<.05 47 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 5 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s of R e s p o n d e n t s ' and F r i e n d s ' H i g h e s t L e v e l  of E d u c a t i o n H i g h e s t L e v e l 1 0 t h B r a d e H i g h S c h o o l T e c h . S c h o o l Uni v e r s i t y S r a d . S c h o o l R e s p o n d e n t s 2 (2.97.) 14 (207.) 1 (1.47.) 29 (41 . 47.) 24 (34. 37.) F r i ends 3 (4.37.) 18 ( 2 5 . 77.) 5 (7.17.) 30 (42. 97.) 14 (20.07.) H i g h e s t L e v e l 1 0 t h G r a d e H i g h S c h o o l T e c h . S c h o o l U n i v e r s i t y G r a d . S c h o o l L e s b i ans 1 (1.47.) 6 (177.) 1 (1.47.) 12 (34. 27.) 15 (42.87.) H e t e r o s e x u a l s 1 (1.47.) 8 (227.) 17 (48. 57.) 9 (257.) 48 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 3.9 y e a r s . T h i s may ha v e had t o do w i t h f a c t o r s s u c h as B e r n a r d i d e n t i f i e d , f o r i n s t a n c e i n c r e a s e d g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of women i n t h e work f o r c e , as w e l l as w i t h t h e age and d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s of t h e r e s p o n d e n t age g r o u p . Of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 207. of l e s b i a n women's f r i e n d s h i p s and 2.87. of h e t e r o s e x u a l women's f r i e n d s h i p s had had a p r e v i o u s s e x u a l c omponent. The f a c t t h a t 62.87. of l e s b i a n r e s p o n d e n t s c h o s e l e s b i a n f r i e n d s and o n l y 207. r e p o r t e d a p r e v i o u s s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t w o u l d a p p e a r t o q u e s t i o n r e c e n t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n s o c i a l and e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i l l d e f i n e d ( B r i s t o w and P e r n , 1 9 8 4 ) . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p on a s c a l e of 1 t o 10 as t o t h e d e g r e e of c l o s e n e s s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h t h e f r i e n d . R e s p o n s e s r a n g e d f r o m 3 t o 10 (M=7.5), c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g L u s t i g ' s (1982) mean c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g of 7.24. S i x t y p e r c e n t of l e s b i a n r e s p o n d e n t s and 85.77. of h e t e r o s e x u a l r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e c l o s e n e s s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a t 7 or a b o v e . (See T a b l e 6 ) . R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s e s £1: H y p o t h e s i s 1 s t a t e s : (a) L e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r t o t a l and s u b s c a l e mean s c o r e s on t h e CFS as w e l l as h i g h e r c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g s , t h a n w i l l h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. T a b l e 7 shows mean t o t a l and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s on t h e CFS. T a b l e 8 shows u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s f o r s u b s c a l e s as w e l l as a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t t 2 v a l u e of .817, p<.05. T h i s i n d i c a t e s 49 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 6 F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s of C l o s e n e s s R a t i n g s R a t i n g R e s p o n d e n t s 3 1 (1.47.) 4 1 (1.47.) 5 6 ( 8 . 77.) 6 8 ( 1 1.47.) 7 12 (17.17.) 8 26 (37.17.) 9 11 (15.77.) 10 5 ( 7 . 1 7 . ) 11= 7.514 S.D.= 1.49 R a t i n g L e s b i a n s H e t e r o s e x u a l s 3 1 (1.47.) 4 1 (1.47.) 5 5 (7.17.) 1 ( 1 . 47.) 6 4 ( 5 . 77.) 4 ( 5 . 77.) 7 5 (7.17.) 7 ( 107.) 8 12 (34.27.) 14 (207.) 9 5 ( 7 . 17.) 6 ( 8 . 67.) 10 2 ( 2 . 97.) 3 ( 4 . 37.) 50 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l c l o s e n e s s l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women p e r c e i v e and r e p o r t i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . T a b l e 6 (p. 51) shows mean r a t i n g s of t h e c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g s c a l e . A c h i - s q u a r e c o m p u t e d r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s i n t h e s e r a t i n g s . H y p o t h e s i s i ( c ) was t h e r e f o r e s u p p o r t e d , and no e v i d e n c e f o u n d t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . On b o t h t h e c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g s c a l e and t h e CFS l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women r e p o r t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c l o s e n e s s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a t a r g e t f r i e n d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s r e p l i c a t e t h o s e of L u s t i g ( 1 9 8 2 ) . R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s £2 H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e s : L e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r mean s c o r e s t h a n h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women on t h e s u b s c a l e s of S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community and M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i l i t y . R e f e r t o T a b l e 7 f o r mean s c o r e s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e s u b s c a l e s . F v a l u e s f o r t h e s e s u b s c a l e s f o l l o w i n T a b l e 8. The F v a l u e f o r t h e S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community s u b s c a l e i s . 0 0 1 , p<.05. The F v a l u e f o r t h e M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i l i t y s u b s c a l e i s .256, p<.05. B o t h F v a l u e s a r e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women on t h e i r r e p o r t s of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t a b l e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i t y and m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 i s r e j e c t e d . No e v i d e n c e was f o u n d w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w t h e r e j e c t i o n of t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . S o c i a l 51 R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 7 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r CFS S u b s c a l e s and T o t a l S c o r e s Sub s e a l e Mean L e s b i a n H e t e r o s e x u a l S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n L e s b i a n H e t e r o s e x u a l N 74.08 76.80 9.78 9.01 MA 82.17 83.25 9.53 8.36 SPC 59.65 59.71 7.00 7.06 P I E 49.17 49.51 7.43 6.96 PU 92.86 94.80 15.75 11.41 UR 61.20 61.48 5.74 6.69 Mean T o t a l 419.13 425.56 S c o r e T a b l e 8 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s W i t h S i x S u b s c a l e s S u b s c a l e F N 1.45 MA .256 SPC .001 P I E .039 PU .349 UR .036 H o t e l l i n g s t 2 = .817 52 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T a b l e 9 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r S u b s c a l e s and T o t a l S c o r e s of The SPS S u b s c a l e A SI NU RW RA G Mean T o t a l S c o r e Mean L e s b i a n 14.26 14.28 11.28 14.37 15.22 15.05 84.45 H e t e r o s e x u a l 14.97 14.54 11.57 14.48 15.31 15. 40 86. 27 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n L e s b i a n H e t e r o s e x u a l 2.58 2.06 2.95 2.04 1.45 1.60 1.52 1.85 2.63 1.44 1.54 1.21 T a b l e 10 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s W i t h S u b s c a l e s S u b s c a l e F A 1.98 SI .300 NU .182 RW .073 RA .056 G 1.01 H o t e l l i n g s t 2 = .883 53 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s £3 H y p o t h e s i s 3 s t a t e s : L e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women w i l l o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on t h e A t t a c h m e n t and S e n s e of R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e s u b s c a l e s of t h e SPS, t h a n w i l l h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. T a b l e s 9 and 10 show means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and F v a l u e s f o r t h e s i x s u b s c l a e s of t h e SPS. The F v a l u e s f o r t h e A t t a c h m e n t and S e n s e of R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e s u b s c a l e s a r e 1.98, p<.05, and . 0 5 , p<.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y , b o t h n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h i s d a t a t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s on mean s c o r e s of t h e s e two s u b s c a l e s . H y p o t h e s i s 3 i s r e j e c t e d . D i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of Type I I e r r o r r e s u l t i n g i n n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 54 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s CHAPTER F I V E DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY O v e r v i ew T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d one p a r t i c u l a r a r e a w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t o f h o m o s o c i a l i t y , t h a t of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p b o n d s b e t w e e n women. The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e s t u d y were t o a d d r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women's f r i e n d s h i p s d i f f e r , and i f s o , how? 2. Which of t h e two m a j o r t h e o r i e s of h o m o s o c i a l i t y a g r e e s more c l o s e l y w i t h women's s e l f - r e p o r t of t h e i r a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e ? These o b j e c t i v e s were a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s t o c o n s i d e r b o t h t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e s p o n d e n t s who q u a l i f i e d ( t h r o u g h r a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s a t 7 o r h i g h e r on a s c a l e of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) were g i v e n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a c k a g e c o n t a i n i n g a P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t , The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , and The S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e , a l o n g w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o how t o c o m p l e t e them. 55 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s P r o f i l e of R e s p o n d e n t s The a v e r a g e r e s p o n d e n t was a C a u c a s i a n , s i n g l e , f e m i n i s t woman, a b o u t 33 y e a r s of age. She had no c h i l d r e n . She had c o m p l e t e d a t l e a s t one u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e and was most l i k e l y a p r o f e s s i o n a l e a r n i n g b e t w e e n $10,000 and $20, 0 0 0 . The l e n g t h of h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r t a r g e t f r i e n d was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 y e a r s and t h e y had p r o b a b l y met e i t h e r a t work o r t h r o u g h m u t u a l f r i e n d s . I f t h e r e s p o n d e n t was a l e s b i a n woman s h e l i k e l y c h o s e a l e s b i a n f r i e n d (62.87.), and i f she was a h e t e r o s e x u a l woman she w i t h one e x c e p t i o n c h o s e a h e t e r o s e x u a l t a r g e t f r i e n d (98.67.). The f r i e n d s h i p s were g e n e r a l l y f e l t t o be c l o s e (M=7.5) and s a t i s f y i f y i n g . L u s t i g (1982) r a i s e d a number of q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y by a d d i t i o n s t o t h e " P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t " . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s a s u g g e s t i o n by h e r t h a t t h e r e may be i m p o r t a n t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h e t e r o s e x u a l women and l e s b i a n women ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 1 4 9 ) . A q u e s t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n was added t o t h a t of o c c u p a t i o n . C h i - s q u a r e s c o m p u t e d on b o t h r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , and p r o v i d e no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . As L u s t i g s t a t e s h o w e v e r , a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t s ' h i g h e s t i n c o m e m i g h t be u s e f u l i n i t s p o s s i b l e r e f l e c t i o n o f c l a s s l e v e l of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s . L u s t i g was a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y Df p l a t o n i c f r i e n d s h i p s h a v i n g had a p r e v i o u s s e x u a l c o m p o n e n t , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s was i d i o s y n c r a t i c , and what e f f e c t i t c o u l d have on t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l of i n t i m a c y i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p . T h i s s t u d y a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n d i r e c t l y and f o u n d t h a t 207. of l e s b i a n 56 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s p o n d e n t s and 1,47. of h e t e r o s e x u a l r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g had a p r e v i o u s l y s e x u a l component i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r t a r g e t f r i e n d . T h i s r e s p o n s e s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s an i d i o s y n c r a t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l g r o u p , b u t l e s s so i n t h e l e s b i a n g r o u p . The e f f e c t of t h i s on t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l of i n t i m a c y was n o t d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y and w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o e x p l o r e . F i n d i n g s of t h e S t u d y H y p o t h e s i s £1. R e s u l t : T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women on t h e c l o s e n e s s t h e y r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 ( c ) i s a c c e p t e d and t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d . H y p o t h e s e s 1(a) and 1(b) a r e n o t s u p p o r t e d . P i s c u s s i on: The p o s s i b i l i t y of Type I I e r r o r must be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e f i n d i n g s of n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e . A number of f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r o d u c e a l a c k of power i n t h e t e s t . T h e s e i n c l u d e s a m p l i n g b i a s ( t h e i n f l u e n c e of f e m i n i s m ) , s a m p l e s i z e and an i n s e n s i t i v e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s s t u d y has a s a m p l i n g b i a s w h i c h may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r u i t m e n t methods r e s u l t i n g i n e x t r e m e s of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . T h i s c o u l d l e a d t o h o m o g e n e i t y i n t h e s a m p l e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y h o w e v e r , q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s an a c t u a l s a m p l i n g b i a s r e s u l t i n g i n h o m o g e n e i t y , g i v e n t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of t h e s c o r e s a r e as g r e a t as t h e y a r e . 57 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y w h i c h c o u l d h e l p e x p l a i n t h e l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be t h e u s e of an i n s e n s i t i v e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t . The CFS and SPS as d e v e l o p e d have been shown t o be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e s of t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p and of t h e p r o v i s i o n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t may be t h a t u s e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r way, t h e y a r e n o t s e n s i t i v e t o s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . T h i s may be a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d y of t h i s c o n s t r u c t . I t may be t h a t w i t h an N of 35 i n e a c h g r o u p , t h e t e s t l a c k e d power. However, w i t h s u c h a s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mean s c o r e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g s m a l l e f f e c t s i z e , an u n m a n a g e a b l y l a r g e s a m p l e w o u l d be needed t o p o s s i b l y i l l u m i n a t e any e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s ( C o h e n , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h u s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t s a m p l e s i z e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e f i n d i n g of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . In any c a s e , i f s u c h an e x t r e m e l y l a r g e s a m p l e were t o f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e , i t p r o b a b l y w o u l d be of t h e k i n d r e f e r r e d t o as s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u t p r a c t i c a l l y t r i v i a l . H y p o t h e s i s £2. R e s u l t : T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s of " S t a b l e P e r s o n a l Community" and " M u t u a l A c c e s s i b i l i t y " i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 i s r e j e c t e d , and no e v i d e n c e i s f o u n d t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . H y p o t h e s i s £3. R e s u l t : L e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women e x p e r i e n c e and r e p o r t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e 58 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i s i o n s of " A t t a c h m e n t " and "Sense of R e l i a b l e A l l i a n c e " i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e s u f f i c i e n t t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . P i s c u s s i on: F r i e n d s h i p s of l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n v o l v i n g a " l e v e l of c a r i n g ( w h i c h ) p r o v i d e s f o r a s t a b l e f a m i l y - l i k e commitment t o one a n o t h e r " (Frum, 1979, p . 4 3 ) , s u p p o r t and a s e n s e of s e c u r i t y i n k n o w i n g t h e f r i e n d c a n be r e l i e d upo"n, a s e n s e of s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y , t h e f r e e d o m t o c o u n t on a s s i s t a n c e u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( W e i s s , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s o b v i o u s i n - g r o u p i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( B r o o k s , 1981) o p e r a t e s w i t h i n a c o n t e x t of s e c r e c y w h i c h seems t o f a c i l i t a t e a r a p i d f o r m a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s . T h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s t e n d t o e x p r e s s b o t h a f a m i l y - l i k e commitment and an e x p e c t a t i o n of m u t u a l s u p p o r t and a v a i l a b i l i t y . Why t h e n t h e f i n d i n g s of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n f r i e n d s h i p s of l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women? Much of t h e d a t a r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l e s b i a n women has been o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n o r p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n of a c t u a l l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . I t may be t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s of l e s b i a n women d e s c r i b e d by t h e s e w r i t e r s - s u c h as t h e k i n q u a l i t y , m u t u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , s e n s e of a t t a c h m e n t , and s e n s e of r e l i a b l e a l l i a n c e - have more t o do w i t h c o m m u n i t y l i v i n g ( p e r h a p s i n t e n s i f i e d by b e i n g a m a r g i n a l i z e d c o m m u n i t y ! t h a n w i t h s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . I t may a l s o be t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , due t o o b s e r v e r b i a s . The l e s b i a n women i n t h i s s t u d y were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l i v i n g i n c o m m u n i t y , t h u s t h e f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s may n o t a p p l y . 59 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Age may be a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . W i t h a mean age of 3 2 , r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d t e n d t o have r e s o l v e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k of i n t i m a c y v e r s u s i s o l a t i o n ( E r i c k s o n , 1 9 5 0 ) , and w h e t h e r p r e s e n t l y w i t h p a r t n e r s or n o t , w o u l d t e n d t o have a t l e a s t made some d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e r o l e t h i s w i l l p l a y i n t h e i r l i v e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e y t e n d t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e of g e n e r a t i v i t y v e r s u s s t a g n a t i o n , p a r t of w h i c h i s b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g f r i e n d s h i p s . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o e x p l o r e c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s of women i n o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . Women i n e a r l y a d u l t h o o d as w e l l as o l d e r women have been e x p o s e d t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a n t h i s r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p , one of w h i c h i s t h e d i f f e r e n t t i m e i n e a c h g r o u p ' s l i f e t h a t t h e y were a f f e c t e d by t h e women's movement. T h i s may o r may no t p r e d i c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l b o n d i n g . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t s p e c i f y s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e of t h e t a r g e t f r i e n d . " S i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t of l e s b i a n s c h o s e l e s b i a n f r i e n d s , w h i l e 98.67. of h e t e r o s e x u a l s c h o s e h e t e r o s e x u a l f r i e n d s . O n l y one h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t woman c h o s e a l e s b i a n f r i e n d . I t may be t h a t t h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n of l e s b i a n women i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , t o p r o x i m i t y , o r t o p e r h a p s u n r e s o l v e d h o m o p h o b i c f e e l i n g s amongst t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t r e s p o n d e n t s . C a p l a n (1981) p o i n t s o u t t h a t d e s p i t e t h e e f f e c t s of t h e women's wovement and a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n s o c i e t a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e h o m o s e x u a l l i f e s t y l e , h o m o p h o b i a r e m a i n s a b a r r i e r b e t w e e n women. The n o n - s p e c i f i c a t i o n of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e of t h e t a r g e t f r i e n d may a l s o h a v e o b s c u r r e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l e s b i a n " s e p a r a t i s t s " and " i n t e g r a t i o n i s t s " . 60 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n One o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s h o w e v e r , t o e x p l a i n t h e f i n d i n g s of n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h a t i s t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s a r e an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of r e a l i t y . They s u g g e s t , and i t may be, t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women i n t h e d e g r e e of c l o s e n e s s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h o t h e r women. I t may be t h a t f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , t h e same p o p u l a t i o n was t e s t e d . Or, i n o t h e r w o r d s , w i t h o u t t h e v a r i a b l e of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o have e x e r t e d l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e , t h e p o p u l a t i o n s may have been homogeneous ( f e m i n i s t women). H y p o t h e s i s 1 f i n d i n g s do s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s e v i d e n c e of L u s t i g ( 1 9 8 2 ) , and s u g g e s t i o n s of Simon and Gagnon ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and O b e r s t o n e and Sukonek ( 1 9 7 6 ) , t h a t l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l women may e x p e r i e n c e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r i n t i m a c y n e e d s i n f r i e n d s h i p i n s i m i l a r ways. One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t n e e d s f o r i n t i m a c y c o u l d d i f f e r d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r o r n o t an i n d i v i d u a l was i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was computed w i t h r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s f o r t h e e f f e c t of a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p on c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p . U s i n g t h i s s t u d y ' s i n s t r u m e n t s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n women i n c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r n o t i n c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The e v i d e n c e seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t w h e t h e r o r n o t i n c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f e m i n i s t women t e n d t o meet t h e i r n e e d s i n c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s i n s i m i l a r ways. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e h o w e v e r , t h a t f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a c k a g e s were r e t u r n e d i n c o m p l e t e by l e s b i a n 61 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e y r e a l l y had no c l o s e woman f r i e n d o t h e r t h a n t h e i r p a r t n e r . Two o t h e r l e s b i a n r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a c k a g e b u t s t a t e d t h e y had d i f f i c u l t y b e c a u s e t h e y were u n a b l e t o u s e t h e i r p a r t n e r f o r t h e CFS. I t has been shown t h a t a t t h e l e v e l of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p e v i d e n c e d o e s n o t s u p p o r t a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p a p p e a r t o r e l a t e more t o women as a g r o u p and t h e i r a f f i l i a t i v e s t y l e of r e l a t i n g , and t e n d n o t t o be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e on t h e b a s i s of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . R u b i n drew on Chodorow (1985) t o p o i n t o u t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o w e r f u l m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and a d u l t women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . P e p l a u and Amaro (1982) s e e c h i l d h o o d s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s of g i r l s i n t h i s c u l t u r e as e m p h a s i z i n g e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and l o v e as c e n t r a l t o women's c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e themes can be s e e n , t h e y s u g g e s t , i n a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s of b o t h l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l women ( C o c h r a n and P e p l a u , 1 9 7 9 ) . The women's movement of t h e 1960's has done much t o r e - l e g i t i m i z e and v a l u e women's bonds w i t h one a n o t h e r . R a w l i n g s ' and C a r t e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n of a number of e x t r o p u n i t i v e d e f e n s e p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by f e m i n i s t women i s r e l e v a n t . C o n c e r n s w i t h b u i l d i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r g r o u p t h r o u g h c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h e r e w a r d s of t h e " a f f i r m a t i o n of a common and v a l i d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as c o n f i d e n c e i n (women's) own a f f i l i a t i v e s t y l e " ( B e r n a r d , 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 3 3 ) , o r a f e m i n i s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s , may o v e r r i d e c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t B e r n a r d ' s t h e s i s of hi S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s women's bonds b e i n g r i c h and s a t i s f y i n g . R e g a r d l e s s of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e f e m i n i s t women i n t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s i m i l a r s u p p l i e s of t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s a r e v i e w e d as c l o s e and i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v i n g . One w o u l d assume t h i s t o be t h e c a s e when s t u d y i n g f e m i n i s t women, and t h i s a t t e s t s t o t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s of h o m o s o c i a l bonds i n women's l i v e s and t o t h e r e l u c t a n c e of women t o l i v e w i t h an a b s e n c e of them. One s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y was t o f u r t h e r t h e p r o c e s s o f d e m y s t i f y i n g t h e l e s b i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h r e p o r t i n g a c t u a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . The i n t e n t i o n was t o c o n t i n u e t h e movement away f r o m c a u s e and e f f e c t t h i n k i n g and i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of r e c o r d i n g b e h a v o i r s and p e r c e p t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y o v e r w h e l m i n g l y s u p p o r t a f o c u s on how l e s b i a n women a r e s i m i l a r i n v a l u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s t o o t h e r women, r a t h e r t h a n t o how t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t . I n t h e s e t i m e s of c h a n g i n g r o l e s and v a l u e s , i t w o u l d seem a d v a n t a g e o u s t o c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s , common g r o u n d , u n i f y i n g f a c t o r s , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h f a c t i o n s and d i v i s i v e n e s s . Women's f r i e n d s h i p s may be, as v i e w e d by Lens and M y e r h o f f (1985) "a p o s s i b l e a n t i d o t e t o t h e a l i e n a t i n g , d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g e f f e c t s of t h e d o m i n a n t , m a l e - c o n t r o l l e d c u l t u r e " ( 1 9 8 5 , p . 3 7 ) , and as s u c h m a i n t a i n a c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n women's l i v e s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l L i m i t a t i o n s An ex p o s t f a c t o c o m p a r i s o n d e s i g n was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The u s u a l l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s d e s i g n e x i s t s w h i c h i s t h a t one c a n n o t 63 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f e r c a u s e and e f f e c t . R a t h e r , one c a n o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s . In t h i s s t u d y one can i n f e r t h a t t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e and c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e f o r f e m i n i s t women. As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e a r e a number of p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y ' s h y p o t h e s e s . A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s n o t e w o r t h y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s a m p l e . T h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a c k a g e s were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s a m p l e p o o l b e c a u s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t a s s i g n t h e m s e l v e s t o one of t h e two s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e c a t e g o r i e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y c r e a t e d a t h i r d , t h a t of " b i s e x u a l " , and l o c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e . F o u r r e s p o n d e n t s who were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e p o o l a l s o c r e a t e d t h e c a t e g o r y of " b i s e x u a l " and commented t h a t t h e y may have l o c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e i f t h e c h o i c e had been g i v e n . E a c h of t h e s e women d i d , h o w e v e r , r e s p o n d t o t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n by p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n one of t h e two c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t b i s e x u a l women ha v e i n a d v e r t e n t l y been i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e , w h i c h may p o s s i b l y mask s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h e t e r o s e x u a l and l e s b i a n women. A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n of t h e method c h o s e n i s t h a t o n l y f e m i n i s t women were s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s assumes a c e r t a i n c o m m i t t m e n t t o women and t o a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r women, t h i s a l s o l i m i t s t h e g e n e r a l i s a b i 1 i t y of t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y . The r e s u l t s a r e l i m i t e d t o f e m i n i s t women, b e t w e e n t h e a g e s of 20 and 40. A f i n a l p o s s i b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y may hav e been t h e a c t u a l method c h o s e n . G r e a t e r d e p t h and t h e a b i l i t y t o 64 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s make use of i m m e d i a t e f e e d b a c k may h a v e been s a c r i f i c e d i n u s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Use of t h e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e may h a v e , w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r and w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , e l i c i t e d a g r e a t e r r i c h n e s s t h a n was a l l o w e d by a L i k e r t - s t y l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Summary T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e and c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p amongst l e s b i a n and h e t e r o s e x u a l f e m i n i s t women. In o r d e r t o do t h i s , t h e C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , t h e S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e , and t h e P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t were c h o s e n f o r u s e . The P e r s o n a l D a t a S h e e t was m o d i f i e d f r o m i t s f o r m on t h e o r i g i n a l C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e t o i n c l u d e : number of c h i l d r e n of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , i n c o m e of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , w h e t h e r r e s p o n d e n t was i n v o l v e d i n a c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p , h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e had been a p r e v i o u s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t and f r i e n d , a f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c a l e . To be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y , r e s p o n d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s a t 7 o r h i g h e r on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 10, m e a s u r i n g f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S e v e n t y r e s p o n d e n t s , 35 h e t e r o s e x u a l and 35 l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t women were r e c r u i t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h f r i e n d s h i p p y r a m i d i n g ( B o x l e y , 1973; Thompson e t a l . , 1 9 7 1 ) , u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s , m e e t i n g s , and g a t h e r i n g s of women. The d a t a was a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h c o m p u t i n g an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r t o t a l and s u b s c a l e mean s c o r e s f o r b o t h t h e CFS and t h e SPS. 65 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s C h i - s q u a r e s were c o m p u t e d t o a n a l y z e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . MANOVAs were a l s o c omputed f o r c o m m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The main c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e q u a l i t i e s o f c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p and s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . 2. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i s i o n s of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p and s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . 3. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e w h i c h w o u l d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t a l l women t e n d t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s s i m i l a r l y , r e g a r d l e s s of s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e . 4. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t B e r n a r d ' s t h e s i s of women's h o m o s o c i a l b onds as s t r o n g , w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d , and e n d u r i n g . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h REFERENCES A c k e r , J . , B a r r y , K. , & E s s w e l d , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F e m i n i s m , -female f r i e n d s and t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n t i m a c y . R e s e a r c h i n t h e I n t e r w e a v e of S o c i a l R o l e s ; F r i e n d s h i p . 2_, 75- 1 0 8 . A l b r o , J . C . , 2< T u l l y , C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A s t u d y of l e s b i a n l i f e s t y l e s i n t h h o m o s e x u a l m i c r o - c u l t u r e and t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l m a c r o - c u l t u r e . J o u r n a l of H o m o s e x u a l i t y . 4_(4) , 3 3 1 - 3 4 3 . A r m s t r o n g , J.C. P e r c e i v e d i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s h i p as a q u a s i - t h e r a p e u t i c a g e n t . J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . 16, 2, 137-141. B e l l , R.R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F r i e n d s h i p s of women and of men. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y . 5, 402-417. B e r n a r d , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . H o m o s o c i a l i t y and f e m a l e d e p r e s s i o n . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . 3 2 , 21 3 - 2 3 8 . B e r n a r d , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The F e m a l e W o r l d . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s . B e r n i k o w , L. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Among women. New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row. B r i s t o w , A.R. & P e a r n , P.L. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Comment on K r i e g e r ' s " L e s b i a n i d e n t i t y and c o m m u n i t y : r e c e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e " . S i g n s : J o u r n a l of Women i n C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y . 9_, 4, 729 - 7 3 2 . B r i t t a i n , V, ( 1 9 4 0 ) . T e s t a m e n t of F r i e n d s h i p . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n . B r o o k s , V. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . M i n o r i t y s t r e s s and l e s b i a n women. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D.C. H e a t h and Co.. Brown, B.B. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A l i f e - s p a n a p p r o a c h t o f r i e n d s h i p : a g e - r e l a t e d S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s d i m e n s i o n s of an a g e l e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . R e s e a r c h i n t h e I n t e r w e a v e of S o c i a l R o l e s : F r i e n d s h i p . 2, 23-50. C a l d w e l l , M.A. & P e p l a u , L.A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The b a l a n c e of power i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Sex R o l e s . 10, 7/8, 58 7 - 5 9 9 . C a n d y , S.G., T r o l l , L.G., & L e v y , S.G. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x p l o r a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p f u n c t i o n s i n women. P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y . 5, 4 5 6 - 4 7 1 . C a p l a n , P . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B a r r i e r s b e t w e e n women. New Y o r k : S p e c t r u m . C a p l a n , P . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Between women: l o w e r i n g t h e b a r r i e r s . T o r o n t o : P e r s o n a l L i b r a r y . C h a f e t z , J . S . , Sampson, P., B e c k , P., & West, J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A s t u d y of h o m o s e x u a l women. S o c i a l Work. Nov., 71 4 - 7 2 3 . C o b b s , S. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S o c i a l s u p p o r t as a m o d e r a t o r of l i f e s t r e s s . P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e . 38_, 300-314. C o t t , N.F. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The Bonds of Womanhood. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . C o t t , N. & P l e c k , E. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A h e r i t a g e of h e r own. New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r . D a v i d s o n , S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The f e l t c o n n e c t i o n : f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n women. A s s o c i a t i o n of Women i n P s y c h o l o g y , S e a t t l e . D a v i d s o n , S. , S< P a c k a r d , T. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e of f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n women. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y . 5_, 495 - 5 1 0 . E l l i o t , P. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L e s b i a n i d e n t i t y and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . R e s o u r c e s  f o r F e m i n i s t R e s e a r c h / D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The L e s b i a n I s s u e . 1 2 ( 1 ) , 5 1 - 5 3 . E t t o r r e , B. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Sappho r e v i s i t e d : a new l o o k a t l e s b i a n i s m . 68 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Women's S t u d i e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Q u a r t e r l y . 3_, 41 5 - 4 2 8 . F a d e r m a n , L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S u r p a s s i n g t h e l o v e of men. New Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow. F a r a d a y , A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . L i b e r a t i n g l e s b i a n r e s e a r c h . In K. Plummer ( E d . ) , H o m o s e x u a l i t y . (pp. 112-129) G r e a t B r i t a i n : The A n c h o r P r e s s . Frum, J . L . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s c a l e and e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t e d t o a p e r s o n ' s s e l f . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of M a r y l a n d . G i b b s , M. , A u e r b a c h , D. , V. F o x , M. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n of male and f e m a l e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Women's S t u d i e s . 3_, 261 - 2 7 2 . H a c k e r , H.M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B l a b b e r m o u t h s and c l a m s : sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f - d i s c 1 o s u r e i n same-sex and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p d y a d s . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y . 5_, 3 8 5 - 4 0 1 . K n a p p , C.W., & Harwood, B.H. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . F a c t o r s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of i n t i m a t e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p . J o u r n a l of G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y . 1 31, 83-90 . K r i e g e r , S. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . L e s b i a n i d e n t i t y and c o m m u n i t y : r e c e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e . S i g n s : J o u r n a l of Women i n C u l t u r e and  S o c i e t y . 8 ( 1 ) , 9 1 - 1 0 8 . K r i e g e r , S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The m i r r o r d a n c e . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s L i p m a n - B l u m e n , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Toward a h o m o s o c i a l t h e o r y of sex r o l e s : an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e sex s e g r e g a t i o n of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In B. Reagan k M. B l a x a l l ( E d s . ) , Women and t h e W o r k p l a c e . C h i c a g o : 69 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s . L e a r y , R.L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o c i a l s u p p o r t and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r : a r e v i e w . J o u r n a l of Community P s y c h o l o g y . 11, 3-21. L e n z , E. 8< l i y e r h o f f , B. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The f e m i n i z a t i o n of a m e r i c a . L o s A n g e l e s : J e r e m y P. T a r c h e r , I n c . L o w e n s t e i n , S.F. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g l e s b i a n women. S o c i a l C a s e w o r k : The J o u r n a l of C o n t e m p o r a r y S o c i a l Work. 29-38. L o p a t a , H. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . L o n e l i n e s s : Forms and c o m p o n e n t s . In R.S. W e i s s ( E d . ) , L o n e l i n e s s : The e x p e r i e n c e of e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i on. C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: MIT P r e s s . L u s t i g , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) , I n t i m a t e f r i e n d s h i p s of f e m i n i s t women. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . W r i g h t I n s t i t u t e : L o s A n g e l e s . O b e r s t o n e , A. & S u k o n e c k , H. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t and l i f e s t y l e of s i n g l e l e s b i a n and s i n g l e h e t e r o s e x u a l women. P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y . 1.(2), 172-188. P a r l e e , M.B. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The f r i e n d s h i p bond. P s y c h o l o g y Today. O c t . , 43-54. P e p l a u , L.A. & Amaro, H. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In W. P a u l e t a l ( E d s . ) , H o m o s e x u a l i t y : S o c i a l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l , and B i o l o g i c a l I s s u e s . ( p p . 2 3 3 - 2 4 7 ) . P o n s e , B. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I d e n t i t i e s i n t h e l e s b i a n w o r l d . W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s Q u i n l a n , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e s o u r c e s f o r F e m i n i s t  R e s e a r c h / D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The L e s b i a n I s s u e . V2A 1) , 5 0 - 5 1 . R a w l i n g s , E . I . & C a r t e r , D.K. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . V a l u e s and v l a u e c h a n g e i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . In E . I . R a w l i n g s and D.K. C a r t e r ( E d s . ) , 70 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s P s y c h o t h e r a p y f o r women. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas. R i c h e y , M.H. ?! R i c h e y , H.W. ( 1 9 B 0 ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of b e s t - f r i e n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a d o l e s c e n c e . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s . 17, 536-54 0 . R o s e , S.M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e p s y c h o l o g y of h o m o s o c i a l i t y . Sex R o l e s . 12.(1/2), 6 3 - 7 5. R u b i n , L. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . J u s t f r i e n d s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row R u b i n , Z. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . L i k i n g and l o v i n g . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n . R u s s e l , D. , C u t r o n a , C.E., R o s e , J . , & Y u r k o , K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l l o n e l i n e s s : an e x a m i n a t i o n of W e i s s ' t y p o l o g y of l o n e l i n e s s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 4 6 ( 6 ) , 1 3 1 3 - 1 3 2 1 . S a f i 1 i o s - R o t h s c h i 1 d , C. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Toward a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y . 5_, 377-3 8 3 . S a n d o v a l , C. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Comment on K r i e g e r ' s " L e s b i a n i d e n t i t y and c o m m u n i t y : r e c e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e " . S i g n s : J o u r n a l of Women i n C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y . 9 ( 4 ) , 7 2 5 - 7 2 9 . S e i d e n , A. & B a r t , P. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Woman t o woman: i s s i s t e r h o o d p o w e r f u l ? In N. G l a z e r ( E d . ) , O l d f a m i l y / n e w f a m i l y . New Y o r k : D. Van N o s t r a n d . S i m o n , W. & Gagnon, J . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . F e m i n i t y i n t h e l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y . S o c i a l P r o b l e m s . 14_, 2 1 2 - 2 2 1 . S m i t h - R o s e n b e r g , C. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The f e m a l e w o r l d of l o v e and r i t u a l : r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n women i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a m e r i c a . S i g n s : J o u r n a l of Women i n C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y . 1_, 1-29. 71 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s T i g e r , L. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Men i n g r o u p s . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s . W e i s s , R.S. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . L o n e l i n e s s : t h e e x p e r i e n c e of e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: MIT P r e s s . W olf,D.G. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The l e s b i a n c o m m u n i t y . B e r k e l y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s W o l f f , C. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . L o v e b e t w e e n women. L o n d o n : G e r a l d D u c k w o r t h &Co L t d . . W o o l s e y , L.K. ( i n p r e s s a . ) . Bonds b e t w e e n women and b e t w e e n men, p a r t 1: a r e v i e w of t h e o r y . A t l a n t i s : A Women's S t u d i e s J o u r n a l . W o o l s e y , L.K. ( i n p r e s s b . ) . Bonds b e t w e e n women and b e t w e e n men, p a r t 2: a r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h . A t l a n t i s : A Women's S t u d i e s  J o u r n a l . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p APPENDIX A LETTER OF I N I T I A L CONTACT S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i APPENDIX B ADVERTISEMENT FOR VOLUNTEER RESPONDENTS S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i APPENDIX C FEMINIST I D E N T I F I C A T I O N RATING SCALE 77 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s FEMINIST I D E N T I F I C A T I O N RATING SCALE C e n t r a l t o f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s : 1. Women s h o u l d h a v e b o t h t h e f r e e d o m and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d i r e c t a l l i m p o r t a n t a r e a s of t h e i r l i v e s - e m o t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , e c o n o m i c , and s e x u a l . 2. Women must d e f i n e t h e m s e l v e s as i n d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n s , s e p a r a t e and a p a r t f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , be t h e y h u s b a n d s , p a r e n t s , c h i l d r e n , o r l o v e r s . 3. F e m i n i s m h o l d s t h a t , i n t h e o r y , a l l r o l e d a r e open t o a l l p e o p l e ; t h a t e v e r y p e r s o n i s e n t i t l e d t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p h e r / h i s p o t e n t i a l t o t h e f u l l e s t . 4. F e m i n i s m assumes t h a t where d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n men and women e x i s t , t h e y can no l o n g e r be s e e n i n t e r m s of " i n f e r i o r i t y " and " s u p e r i o r i t y " . 5. F e m i n i s m s t r i v e s t o e q u a l i z e p e r s o n a l power b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s . Power i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s an e n a b l i n g f o r c e u s e d f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r o n e ' s l i f e r a t h e r t h a n as a v i o l e n t , c o e r c i v e , and d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e a g a i n s t o t h e r s . I m a g i n e a s c a l e o f f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r a n g i n g f r o m 0 t o 10, where 0 i s no f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and 10 i s c o m p l e t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a f e m i n i s t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d a b o v e , r a t e y o u r l e v e l of f e m i n i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . R a t i n g T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . I f you w o u l d now be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l a r g e r s t u d y e x p l o r i n g women's f r i e n d s h i p s - w h i c h w o u l d r e q u i r e a n o t h e r 30 m i n u t e s of y o u r t i m e - p l e a s e l e t me know by w r i t i n g y o u r name and t e l e p h o n e number b e l o w . I w i l l c o n t a c t you t o a r r a n g e an a p p o i n t m e n t . P a t H e n d e r s o n 78 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s APPENDIX D ETHICAL ASSURANCES S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s ETHICAL ASSURANCES I am aware t h a t my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y . I am aware t h a t I may d e c l i n e t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r d i s c o n t i n u e mu p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I have been i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of my t e s t r e s u l t s w i l l be h o n o r e d . I am aware t h a t I c a n o b t a i n a d e b r i e f i n g as t o t h e n a t u r e and p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i f I so r e q u e s t . My s i g n a t u r e b e l o w s i g n i f i e s t h a t I have r e a d t h e e t h i c a l a s s u r a n c e s l i s t e d a b a o v e and t h a t I a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y w i t h f u l l y i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t . Name D a t e 80 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s APPENDIX E PERSONAL DATA SHEET 81 S o c i a l Relationships PERSONAL DATA SHEET P e o p l e f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some f r i e n d s t h a n t h e y do a b o u t o t h e r s . The two f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s a r e aimed a t e x p l o r i n g t h e ways you f e e l and r e a c t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o y o u r women f r i e n d s . The f i r s t i n v e n t o r y i s c a l l e d The C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e , and i n o r d e r t o f i l l i t o u t p l e a s e t h i n k of y o u r c u r r e n t c l o s e s t woman f r i e n d who i s not an i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y member o r yo u r p a r t e n e r . The s t a t e m e n t s i n t h i s i n v e n t o r y d e s c r i b e a v a r i e t y of ways t h a t you may f e e l a b o u t y o u r f r i e n d , or ways t h a t you may a c t t o w a r d y o u r f r i e n d , and h e r t o you. C o n s i d e r each s t a t e m e n t c a r e f u l l y and d e c i d e t o what d e g r e e i t i s r e f l e c t i v e of y o u r p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u r f r i e n d . T h e r e a r e , of c o u r s e , no r i g h t or wrong a n s w e r s ; each p e r s o n has h e r own i d e a s . Sometimes p e o p l e t e n d t o answer q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e s e i n t e r m s of what t h e y t h i n k a p e r s o n s h o u l d be l i k e . T h i s i s n o t what i s wanted h e r e . We would l i k e t o know how you a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some i t e m s may seem s i m i l a r t o o h t h e r s ; h o w e v e r , each i t e m i s d i f f e r e n t . So, p l e a s e answer each one w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r s . I f p o s s i b l e , p l e a s e a v o i d l e a v i n g any b l a n k s p a c e s . B e f o r e a n s w e r i n g t h e i t e m s , be s u r e t o f i l l i n c o m p l e t e l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c a l l e d f o r b e l o w . Remember, a l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be k e p t i n c o m p l e t e c o n f i d e n c e . . Your i n i t i a l s : Your age: Your m a r i t a l s t a t u s : s i n g l e m a r r i ed s e p a r a t e d d i v o r c e d Number of c h i l d r e n : You a r e : A s i a n W h i t e B l a c k O t h e r Your s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e : H e t e r o s e x u a l L e s b i a n Your o c c u p a t i o n : Your income: Under $10,000 $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 Above $20,000 F r i e n d ' s age: F r i e n d ' s m a r i t a l s t a t u s : s i n g l e m a r r i ed s e p a r a t e d d i v o r c e d Number of F r i e n d ' s c h i l d r e n : F r i e n d i s : A s i a n W h i t e B l a c k _ _ _ 0 t h e r ~ . ~ _ F r i e n d ' s s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e : H e t e r o s e x u a l L e s b i a n Fr.i end's o c c u p a t i o n : F r i e n d ' s i n c o m e : Under $10,000 $ 10 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 Above $20,000 H i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n f o r You F r i e n d 82 S o c i a l Relationships Number of y e a r s i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p : How d i d you meet? Was t h e r e a p r e v i o u s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between you and y o u r f r i e n d ? A r e you p r e s e n t l y i n a c o m m i t t e d re-1 a t i o n s h i p? W i t h a woman? W i t h a man? C l o s e n e s s r a t i n g : I m a g i n e a s c a l e of c l o s e n e s s r a n g i n g f r o m 0 t o 10, where 0 i s as d i s t a n t as you can be t o an i n d i v i d u a l you know, and 10 as c l o s e as you can p o s s i b l y be. Then r a t e y o u r f r i e n d on t h e d e g r e e of c l o s e n e s s you f e e l t o w a r d s h e r . 83 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s APPENDIX F CLOSE FRIENDSHIP SCALE 84-S o c l a l Relationships CLOSE FRIENDSHIP SCALE In c o m p l e t i n g t h i s s c a l e p l e a s e keep i n mind y o u r c l o s e s t f e m a l e f r i e n d who i s not an i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y member o r y o u r p a r t e n e r . Mark each s t a t e m e n t i n t h e l e f t m a r g i n , a c c o r d i n g t o how s t r o n g l y you f e e l t h a t i t i s t r u e o r not t r u e i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . W r i t e i n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, t o s t a n d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g a n s w e r s : 1 def i n i t e not t r u e n o t t r u e 3 4 t e n d s t o be t r u e J t r u e e s p e c i a l l y t r u e 3 9 10 11 i 2. 13. I go o u t of my way t o i n c l u d e h e r i n t h i n g s t h a t she w i l l e n j o y . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t h a t I c a n ' t f a l k a b o u t w i t h h e r . She i s l i k e a f a m i l y member. My f r i e n d w o u l d l o a n me a n y t h i n g she h a s . I f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c l o s e my r e a l s e l f t o h e r . She u n d e r s t a n d s my words but does n o t know how I f e e l . I w ould j o i n h e r i n an a c t i v i t y j u s t t o be w i t h h e r . She can r e a d me l i k e a book. The d e s i r e f o r c o n t a c t i s r e c i p r o c a t e d . I d o n ' t have t o watch what I s a y or do when I am a r o u n d h e r . She seems t o h o l d t h i n g s b a c k , r a t h e r t h a n t e l l me what she r e a l l y t h i n k s . My f r i e n d seems t o e n j o y d o i n g t h i n g s w i t h me. Th e r e a r e t i m e s when I do n ' t have t o s p e a k ; she knows how I f e e l . 14. Sometimes I f e e l t h a t what she s a y s t o me i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e way she r e a l l y f e e l s . 15. I f s o m e t h i n g were t o go wrong, I would t u r n t o her f o r h e l p or j u s t t o be a l i s t e n i n g e a r . 85 S o c i a l Relationships T h e r e i s an a c c e p t a n c e of our own d i f f e r e n c e s . She a l m o s t a l w a y s seems c o n c e r n e d a b o u t me. She u n d e r s t a n d s me enough t o be a b l e t o say t h i n g s t h a t can h e l p me o u t . I d o n ' t t h i n k she r e a l l y c a r e s i f I l i v e or d i e . I can u s u a l l y c o u n t on h e r t o t e l l me what she r e a l l y t h i n k s or f e e l s . I can c a l l h e r when I am r e a l l y needy. I w o u l d f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e r e q u e s t i n g t h a t she spend t i m e w i t h me. I am a b l e t o be me w i t h a l l my w a r t s , w i t h o u t her making me f e e l u g l y . I am a c c e p t e d w i t h w h a t e v e r r a n g e of f e e l i n g s I have when I s ee h e r . I f e e l a t t i m e s t h a t she can r e a d my mind. I am o p e n l y m y s e l f i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p . We a r e o f t e n on t h e same w a v e l e n g t h . She seems t o be a b l e t o p r e d i c t my t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . I g e t a f e e l i n g of l o v e and c o m p a n i o n s h i p when I am w i t h h e r . N o t h i n g she can do would change how I f e e l a b o u t h e r . Her t i m e i s a v a i l a b l e t o me. I can t a k e s h o r t c u t s w i t h her and s a v e l e n g t h i l y e x p l a n a t i o n s . I t r u s t t h a t she w i l l r e s p o n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o me when I t u r n t o h e r . I have gone t o her f o r s u p p o r t a n d / o r t o have someone t o c r y w i t h . T h e r e seems t o be an a c u t e s e n s e of p e r c e p t i v e n e s s between us. I t r u s t t h a t she won't l o o k a t me i n d i s g u s t . 86 S o c i a l Relationships 37. Her r e s p o n s e s t o me r e f l e c t a r e a l i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of me. 33. She i s someone I f e e l t h a t I can s h a r e a l m o s t a l l os me w i t h . 39. We have a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 40. She seems t o e a s i l y p i c k up on how I am f e e l i n g a b o u t m y s e l f . 41. She i n c l u d e s me i n e v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s . 42. I f I needed s o m e t h i n g , I c o u l d ask h e r f o r i t . 43. T h e r e i s a m u t u a l r e s p e c t f o r t h e ways we l i v e o ur l i v e s . 44. I can p i c k up i n h e r v o i c e when she i s f e e l i n g u p s e t . 45. Our r e l a t i o n s h i p can w i t h s t a n d p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n . 46. I a p p r e c i a t e e x a c t l y how t h e t h i n g s she e x p e r i e n c e s f e e l t o h e r . 47. I f s o m e t h i n g c a t a s t r o p h i c h a p p e n e d , she would be one of t h e f i r s t p e o p l e I would c o n t a c t . 43. I f e e l t h a t she p u t s on a r o l e or f r o n t w i t h me. 49. T h e r e i s a f e e l i n g of commitment t o each o t h e r . 50. I can c o n f r o n t h e r w i t h what b o t h e r s me about her w i t h o u t h e r f e a r i n g l o s s of my f r i e n d s h i p . 51. She would h e l p me d u r i n g t i m e of c r i s i s or d e p r e s s i o n . 52. I t r u s t t h a t o ur r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l a l w a y s be t h e r e . 53. Though t h e r e a r e h i g h s and l o w s i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e r e i s much s t a b i l i t y . 54. I s h a r e i m p o r t a n t common i n t e r e s t s w i t h h e r . 55. Not much c o u l d happen t h a t would t u r n h e r a g a i n s t me. 56. She would be a v a i l a b l e f o r me i n a l m o s t any way i f I woul d ask f o r i t c l e a r l y and d i r e c t l y . 57. She has t a s t e s i n common w i t h me w h i c h o t h e r s do not s h a r e . 58. Gur r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b a s e d on r e a l g e n u i n e a u t h e n t i c c o n c e r n f o r each o t h e r . 59. When I am w i t h h e r , she seems t o r e l a x and be h e r s e l f , and not t h i n k of t h e i m p r e s s i o n she i s c r e a t i n g . 8? S o c i a l Relationships 60. I f I were s i c k or h u r t , I c o u l d c o u n t on her t o do t h i n g s t h a t would make i t e a s i e r t o t a k e . 61. I wo u l d do a l m o s t a n y t h i n g -for h e r . 62. I speak f r e e l y and e a s i l y w i t h h e r . 63. When she p l a n s f o r l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , she makes i t a p o i n t t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h me t o see i f we can a r r a n g e t o do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . 64. I d o n ' t have t o go i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l f o r h e r t o be a b l e t o s e n s e t h e who l e of what I mean. 65. T h e r e i s a s e n s e of h i s t o r y and c o n n e c t e d n e s s i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p . 66. I f I were s h o r t of c a s h and needed money i n a h u r r y , I c o u l d c o u n t on her t o be w i l l i n g t o l e n d i t t o me. 67. She a c c e p t s me f o r who I am. 68. She i s w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s w h a t e v e r i s a c t u a l l y on h e r mind w i t h me, i n c l u d i n g any f e e l i n g s abour h e r s e l f or me. 69. She a c c e p t s me f o r what I am b u i l d i n g i n my l i f e . 70. She knows t h e t r u t h of my f e e l i n g s even when I w i l l n ot own up t o them. 71. I do not h i d e any p a r t of m y s e l f f r o m her t h a t I do not a l s o h i d e f r o m m y s e l f . 72. She might u n d e r s t a n d my w o r d s , b u t she does not see t h e way I f e e l . 73. I have t h e s e n s e t h a t she i s a c o n s t a n t p a r t n e r even when we a r e a p a r t . 74. Whether t h e i d e a s and f e e l i n g s I e x p r e s s a r e "good" or "bad" seems t o make no d i f f e r e n c e t o h e r f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s me. 75. I c a r e f o r her even when she does t h i n g s t h a t u p s e t or annoy me. 76. She f e e l s deep a f f e c t i o n f o r me. 77. I do n ' t know i f she would come t o my a i d i f I needed h e r . 78. Whether I am f e e l i n g happy o r unhappy w i t h m y s e l f makes no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e way she f e e l s a b o u t me. 79. I can r e a d h e r g e s t u r e s and mood 88 S o c i a l Relationships 30. I -feel t h a t she i s r e a l and g e n u i n e w i t h me. 81. I l i k e s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h h e r . 82. T h e r e a r e t i m e s when we seem t o know what each o t h e r w ants w i t h o u t words. 33. T h i s f r i e n d seems t o be a r o u n d when I need h e r . 84. She u n d e r s t a n d s e x a c t l y how I see t h i n g s . 85. I f e e l I have t o a c t when I am a r o u n d h e r . 36. We can m u t u a l l y e n j o y p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s . 87. I can r e a d between t h e l i n e s of what she i s s a y i n g . 38. I can p r e d i c t how she would r e a c t t o a s i t u a t i o n . Thank you v e r y much f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i n f i l l i n g o u t t h e C l o s e F r i e n d s h i p S c a l e . I f you would l i k e a summary of t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s c a l e , p l e a s e i n c l u d e y o u r name and a d d r e s s . Name: A d d r e s s : 89 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s APPENDIX G SOCIAL PROVISIONS SCALE 90 S o c i a l Relationships SOCIAL PROVISIONS SCALE • In a n s w e r i n g t h e n e x t s e t of q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e t h i n k a b o u t y o u r c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women f r i e n d s ( e x c l u d i n g y o u r p a r t e n e r and i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y members). P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what e x t e n t you a g r e e t h a t each s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s y o u r c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. Use t h e s c a l e 1 t o 4 ( s e e below) t o g i v e y o u r o p i n i o n . So, f o r e x a m p l e , i f you f e e l a s t a t e m e n t i n v e r y t r u e of y o u r c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women, you would c i r c l e #4 " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " . I f you f e e l a s t a t e m e n t c l e a r l y does not d e s c r i b e y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women, you would c i r c l e #1 " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " . A f t e r you r e s p o n d , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e number of women you a r e t h i n k i n g of when you answer t h e q u e s t i o n . A s p a c e i s p r o v i d e d where a p p r o p r i a t e . i = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 2 = D i s a g r e e 3=Aqrse 4 = S t r o n g l y A g r e e D i s a g r e e A g r e e No. of Women 1. T h e r e a r e women I can depend on t o h e l p me i f I r e a l l y need i t . 1 2 3 4 2. I f e e l t h a t I do n o t have c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. 1 2 3 4 3. T h e r e i s no woman I can t u r n t o t o r g u i d a n c e i n t i m e s of s t r e s s . 1 2 3 4 4. T h e r e a r e women who depend on me f o r h e l p . 1 2 3 4 5. T h e r e a r s women who e n j o y t h e same s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s I do. 1 2 3 4 91 S o c i a l Relationships D i s a g r e e A g r e e No. of Women O t h e r women do n o t v i e w me as c o m p e t e n t . 1 2 3 4 I f e e l p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g of a woman. 1 2 3 4 I f e e l p a r t of a g r o u p of women who s h a r e my a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . 1 2 3 4 I do n o t t h i n k t h a t women r e s p e c t my s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 I f s o m e t h i n g went wrong, t h e r e i s no woman who would come t o my a s s i s t a n c e . 1 2 3 4 I have c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women t h a t p r o v i d e me w i t h a s e n s e of e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and. w e l l - b e i n g . 1 2 3 4 Th e r e a r e women I can t a l k t o a b o u t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s i n my l i f e . 1 2 3 4 I have r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women where my co m p e t e n c e and s k i l l a r e r e c o g n i z e d . 1 2 3 4 Th e r e a r e no women who s h a r e my i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s . 1 2 3 4 Ther e i s no woman who r e l i e s on me f o r her w e l l - b e i n g . 1 2 3 4 Ther e a r e t r u s t w o r t h y women i n my l i f e I c o u l d t u r n t o f o r a d v i c e i f 92 S o c i a l Relationships D i s a g r e e A g r e e No. of Women I were h a v i n g p r o b l e m s . 17. I f e e l a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l bond w i t h a t l e a s t one o t h e r woman. 1 2 18. T h e r e i s no woman I can depend on f o r a i d i f I r e a l l y need i t . 1 2 19. T h e r e i s no woman I f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t a l k i n g a b o u t my p r o b l e m s . 1 2 20. T h e r e a r e women who a d m i r e my t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s . 1 2 21. T h e r e i s no woman who l i k e s t o do t h e t h i n g s I do-. 1 2 22. I l a c k a f e e l i n g of i n t i m a c y w i t h o t h e r women. 1 2 23. T h e r e a r e women I can c o u n t on i n an emergency. 1 2 24. No woman needs me t o c a r e f o r h e r . 1 2 

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