UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical incidents study of self esteem Boychuck, Randy David 1985

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A8 B69_3.pdf [ 8.14MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054312.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054312-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054312-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054312-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054312-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054312-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054312-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054312-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054312.ris

Full Text

A CRITICAL INCIDENTS STUDY OF SELF ESTEEM by RANDY DAVID BOYCHUCK B.A., YORK UNIVERSITY, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the recjui^ ed standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1985 © Randy David Boychuck , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date JULY, 1985 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The i n t e n t of t h i s study was tw o f o l d . I t was designed t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an e x p e r i e n t i a l program which' p u r p o r t e d l y enhanced s e l f esteem i n gay men. I n a d d i t i o n , i t aimed t o di s c o v e r what events and human experiences f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. The e i g h t gay male p a r t i c i p a n t s who volunteered f o r the s e l f esteem program were a l s o employed t o o b t a i n data which was used t o d i s c o v e r f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Flanagan's (1954) c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique was used to dis c o v e r what f a c i l i t a t e s and hinders s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . A category system of f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem was induced from c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s data obtained i n a p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w and from a j o u r n a l of s i g n i f i c a n t events which p a r t i c i p a n t s submitted throughout t h e i r involvement i n the program. The program e v a l u a t i o n was based on three sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group of e i g h t gay males on Rosenberg's (1965) Scale of S e l f Esteem both before and a f t e r t h e i r involvement i n the program. They were a l s o s u b j e c t s i n p r e l i m i n a r y and summary, open-ended, i n t e r v i e w s which were designed to assess changes i n s e l f esteem and to d i s c e r n the degree to which i n i t i a l l y s t a t e d goals and expectations were f u l f i l l e d by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. I n a d d i t i o n , c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s questions i n the summary i n t e r v i e w assessed how, and the degree to which, the program in c o r p o r a t e d the f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . The names given to the eighteen c a t e g o r i e s of behaviours, i i i events and/or experiences which were found to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e are as f o l l o w s : a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f i l i a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n , acceptance, honesty, s e l f acceptance, s e l f support, f o r g i v e n e s s , c o n t r i b u t i n g , performance, confidence, accomplishment, sense of progress, overcoming, s e l f c a r e , belonging, s o c i a l comparison, and independence. Given the e x p l o r a t o r y and d e s c r i p t i v e nature of t h i s study, these f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e an i n i t i a l model of what f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem t h a t needs to be t e s t e d using a p p r o p r i a t e methods of v e r i f i c a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w data i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i e n t i a l program f a c i l i t a t e d the s e l f esteem of seven of the program's e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s . One p a r t i c i p a n t reported t h a t s e l f esteem remained unchanged from the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w . P a r t i c i p a n t s described s i x primary types of change: increased s e l f confidence; increased s e l f acceptance; improved c a p a c i t y to engage i n , strengthen and maintain s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; increased s e l f knowledge; improved s e l f d i s c i p l i n e ; and r e s o l u t i o n s t o e x i s t e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , summary i n t e r v i e w data revealed t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to s p e c i f y experiences, a c t i v i t i e s and events o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the context of the program which were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of every f a c i l i t a t i v e category. Moreover, the r e l a t i v e absence of reported h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t of the program on s e l f esteem i s n e g l i g i b l e . Q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s d i d not corroborate the q u a l i t a t i v e evidence f o r increased s e l f esteem. An a n a l y s i s of covariance a p p l i e d t o s e l f esteem scores d i d not produce a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and a c o n t r o l group. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Ab s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables ; v i i i L i s t of Appendices i x Acknowledgements ....x I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 L i t e r a t u r e Review 6 Methodology 23 P a r t i c i c p a n t s 23 S e l e c t i o n 23 Demographic Information .....24 C o n t r o l Group 25 Data Gathering Methods 27 Rosenberg's Scale of S e l f Esteem ...34 Inte r v i e w s 36 S i g n i f i c a n t Events J o u r n a l y...41 Procedure 44 Data A n a l y s i s 47 R e s u l t s One: I n d i v i d u a l and Group Improvement 53 A. Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s 53 B. Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s u l t s 54 Subject One 55 Subject Two 58 Subject Three 59 Subject Four 60 V Subject F i v e 62 Subject S i x 63 Subject Seven. 65 Subject E i g h t 66 Summary of In t e r v i e w R e s u l t s And D e s c r i p t i o n of Primary Themes 68 Res u l t s Two: F a c i l i t a t o r s and Hindrances of S e l f Esteem 71 A. The Category System 71 1. A p p r e c i a t i o n 71 2. A f f i l i a t i o n 72 3. Recognition 73 4. Acceptance 74 5. Honesty 75 6. S e l f Acceptance 76 7. S e l f Support 76 8. Forgiveness 77 9. C o n t r i b u t i n g 77 10. Performance 78 11. Confidence 79 12. Accomplishment. .80 13. Sense of Progress. 81 14. Overcoming 82 15. S e l f Care 83 16. Belonging 83 17. S o c i a l Comparison 84 18. Independence 85 B. The Category System and the Program 87 1. A p p r e c i a t i o n 87 v i 2. A f f i l i a t i o n 88 3. Recognition 89 4. Acceptance 90 5. Honesty 91 6. S e l f Acceptance 91 7. S e l f Support 92 8. Forgiveness 92 9. C o n t r i b u t i n g 93 10. Performance 93 11. Confidence 94 12. Accomplishment 95 13. Sense of Progress 95 14. Overcoming. 96 15. S e l f Care 96 16. Belonging 97 17. S o c i a l Comparison 98 18. Independence 99 R e s u l t s Three: R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Category System 100 R e l i a b i l i t y ....100 Complementary F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering E f f e c t s 100 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate 101 Exhaustiveness 102 Support From P r i o r Research 103 Content V a l i d i t y 104 D i s c u s s i o n • 105 bummary of R e s u l t s 105 L i m i t a t i o n s 106 v i i T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 109 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 119 Research I m p l i c a t i o n s 125 References 129 Appendices 131 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Self Esteem Scores 53 ix • LIST OF APPENDICES A. The Self Esteem Program ..131 Session One 131 Session Two ...137 Session Three 140 Session Four 145 Session Five 147 Session Six 151 Session Seven 15-5 Session Eight ...158 B. Instruments 161 Rosenberg's Scale of Self Esteem... 161 Preliminary and Summary Interview Questions 162 C. Forms and Letters 163 1. Letter of Introduction: Experimental Group 163 2. Subject Consent Form: Experimental Group 164 3. Letter of Introduction: Control Group 166 4. Subject Consent Form: Control Group 167 5. Advertisement 168 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. L a r r y Cochran f o r o f f e r i n g the wealth of h i s research e x p e r t i s e , wisdom, guidance and support throughout the execution of t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Marvin Westwood and Dr. Hal Goodwin f o r t h e i r advice and w i l l i n g n e s s to serve on my committee. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Michael Peterhansel who most generously o f f e r e d h i s time and h i s computer so t h a t t h i s t h e s i s could be processed and p r i n t e d . 1 INTRODUCTION The study of s e l f esteem i s one of the o l d e s t and most important themes i n psychology. W i l l i a m James i d e n t i f i e d s e l f esteem as a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o p i c as e a r l y as 1890 Since t h a t time, the c r i t i c a l r o l e of s e l f esteem i n human l i f e has come to almost u n i v e r s a l r e c o g n i t i o n . Much of A l f r e d A d l e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to modern psychology i s contained i n the no-t i o n t h a t what human beings need the most i s to f e e l secure i n t h e i r s e l f esteem. More r e c e n t l y , Becker(1973) a s s e r t s that the s t r u g g l e to achieve s e l f esteem i s the primary m o t i v a t i o n of human l i f e . Today there i s a l a r g e body of research which has e s t a b l i s h e d the importance of s e l f esteem to i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l w e l l being, c h i l d r e a r i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i s e s , personal development and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l underpinnings f o r t h i s research are embedded i n the major p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s which provide a d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f esteem and suggest a way to enhance i t . Before the s p e c i f i c focus of t h i s study i s o u t l i n e d three of the most a c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to s e l f esteem w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r ibed. Coopersmith (1967) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the experimental approach to the study of s e l f esteem. This p e r s p e c t i v e p o s i t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s come to "have" a c e r t a i n l e v e l of s e l f esteem which can be measured through p s y c h o l o g i c a l instruments. Experimentally v a l i d a t e d techniques and c o n d i t i i o n i n g are purported to increase s e l f esteem. This school emphasizes the behavioural dimension of s e l f esteem. A c o g n i t i v e appraoch to s e l f esteem as propounded by E l l i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) and Burns (1980) holds that s e l f esteem i s a by-2 product or r e s u l t of cognive processes. S e l f esteem i s increased by c o r r e c t i n g i r r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s , f a u l t y perceptions or d i s t o r t i o n s i n the way one views the s e l f and the world. Rogers (1961) views s e l f esteem as an innate human q u a l i t y possessed by a l l people at a l l times. This humanistic approach claims that problems i n s e l f esteem occur when the i n d i v i d u a l l o s e s touch w i t h the inner core of s e l f esteem. C l i e n t centered therapy i s designed t o help the c l i e n t experience h i m s e l f at a deeper l e v e l so t h a t he can become aware of the t r u e and esteemed s e l f . According to Mruk (1981), these schools of thought share three b a s i c understandings i n regards to s e l f esteem. In order to d e f ine i t , they i n c l u d e two necessary components: "competence" (the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the world e f f e c t i v e l y ) and "worthiness" (a sense of b a s i c decency or i n t e g r i t y ) . Brandon's (1980) general d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f esteem captures these two components i n one sentence: " S e l f esteem i s our experience of being competent to l i v e and worthy of l i v i n g . " Secondly, Mruk maintains t h a t there i s general agreement on the dynamic character of s e l f esteem; that i s , s e l f esteem i s not a completely f i x e d psychostructure. Evidence of i t s openness or f l u i d i t y i s derived from i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t f l u c t u a t e s over the course of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e time. The most important p o i n t of agreement i s that the s c i e n t i f i c study of s e l f esteem should l e a d to the discovery of t o o l s t h a t would enhance s e l f esteem at the personal and s o c i e t a l l e v e l s . Despite the consensus on the n e c e s s i t y of f i n d i n g ways to 3 i n c r e a s e i t , there i s a p a u c i t y of research and l i t e r a t u r e concerning the human events and experiences which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Coopersmith (1961), a l e a d i n g expert i n the psychology of s e l f esteem, recognized t h i s s c a r c i t y : "For both p s y c h o l o g i s t s and laymen, " s e l f esteem" has great s i g n i f i c a n c e - p e r s o n a l l y , s o c i a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i s c o n c e r t i n g t h a t so l i t t l e i s known about the c o n d i t i o n s and experiences that enhance i t . " (p. 1) More r e c e n t l y , Mruk (1981) bemoaned the same s h o r t f a l l i n s e l f esteem research. Thus, the purpose of the present study i s to expand our knowledge of the human experiences which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. I t i s an attempt to o f f e r an answer to th a t question which research has neglected: "What events and human experiences f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem?" Mruk (1981) p o i n t s out t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , using methods based on n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , have attempted i n dozens of s t u d i e s t o in c r e a s e our knowledge of s e l f esteem. He claims that the f a i l u r e of these s t u d i e s to break through the impasse stems from methodological and t h e o r e t i c a l problems which beset the e n t i r e f i e l d of the psychology of s e l f esteem. The f i r s t problem i n v o l v e s an e r r o r i n how s e l f esteem i s perceived and de f i n e d . T r a d i t i o n a l n a t u r a l science psychology i n v e s t i g a t e s s e l f esteem as though i t was an a c t u a l phenomenon or t h i n g i n the world. However, s e l f esteem i s an a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t w i t h a d e f i n t i o n t h a t v a r i e s depending on the researcher's t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s . The con s t r u c t " s e l f esteem" does not a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n the world as do the human experiences which enhance one's competence and worthiness. Thus, research has f a l t e r e d because i t has i n v e s t i g a t e d an amorphous con s t r u c t 4 rather than the actual experiences which enhance or lessen one's competence and worthiness at l i v i n g . The other d i f f i c u l t y i s a methodological one. I f actual experiences are to become the target of investigation, t r a d i t i o n a l methods become inadequate because they cannot capture the fullness of meaning of everyday experiences. Moreover, everyday experiences cannot be adequately created, controlled or measured i n a laboratory or experimental s i t u a t i o n without losing that quality which makes them everyday experiences. Mruk (1981) maintains that the methodology problem i s insurmountable and that a different strategy must be found. In his own research he u t i l i z e s a phenomenological approach to study what enhances s e l f esteem. The method employed by the present study i s the c r i t i c a l incidents technique (Flanagan; 1954), another q u a l i t a t i v e approach which s a t i s f i e s Mruk's two requirements for research. He specifies that research should be grounded i n the actual human experiences which enhance or lessen s e l f esteem. The aim of the c r i t i c a l incidents interview i s to e l i c i t these everyday human experiences from respondents. This approach also meets the second requirement for research by specifying an established procedure for c o l l e c t i n g , organizing and analyzing the data of human experience according to the basic rules of science. The research and analysis i s designed so that other researchers can perceive the l o g i c of a l l the methodological steps involved. Moreover, the method makes provision for an independent duplication of r e s u l t s , thereby demonstrating the o b j e c t i v i t y of the approach. 5 Another shortcoming i n the theory and research on s e l f esteem i s t h e i r e x c l u s i v e focus on the development of s e l f esteem i n childhood ( E r i k s o n , 1963; Coopersmith,1967) or adolescence ( B i o s , 1962). This s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o childhood r e f l e c t s the assumption t h a t s e l f esteem i s a phenomenon f i x e d i n e a r l y l i f e and not subj e c t t o s i g n i f i c a n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n adulthood. However,Mruk's (1981) r e s u l t s e x p l i c a t e a common human experience which enhances or lessens s e l f esteem throughout adulthood. The present study i n v e s t i g a t e s the experience of s e l f esteem i n a d u l t s because i t views the a d u l t ' s s e l f esteem as a mutable phenomenon. The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s e l f esteem i s s u b j e c t to f l u c t u a t i o n s throughout the human l i f e span has provided a strong i n c e n t i v e f o r research which aims to d i s c o v e r what enhances s e l f esteem i n adulthood. The r e s u l t s of t h i s research may be employed t o produce p o s i t i v e changes i n s e l f esteem throughout the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e t i m e . The purpose of the present study i s to evaluate and improve a program designed to enhance s e l f esteem i n gay men. The study aims to di s c o v e r the events and experiences which enhance s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . These f i n d i n g s w i l l be used to measure the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o v i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h events and experiences that have enhanced t h e i r s e l f esteem. The same r e s u l t s may be used to suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The study i s a l s o designed so t h a t i t s r e s u l t s could l e a d to the development of instruments t h a t would measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any i n t e r v e n t i o n which purports to i n c r e a s e s e l f esteem. More i m p o r t a n t l y , r e s u l t s from t h i s study could l e a d to the discov e r y of t o o l s t h a t would enhance s e l f esteem. 6 LITERATURE REVIEW A review of the l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d to produce any research which attempts to discern the f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering e f f e c t s of e x p e r i e n t i a l or "growth" groups on s e l f esteem. However, some t h e o r e t i c a l formulations have been offered to explain how s e l f esteem may be increased or decreased; most notably, Rosenberg (1979) has outlined several p r i n c i p l e s of s e l f esteem change. The intent of t h i s chapter i s to delineate my assumptions about how the s e l f esteem program (described i n Appendix A) f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem. I t i s an attempt to answer the following question: "What i s i t about the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' experience i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program which f a c i l i t a t e s h i s s e l f esteem?" For the most part, Rosenberg's (1979) ideas w i l l be u t i l i z e d to elu c i d a t e and supplement the author's views. In addition, Rogers (1980) w i l l be e n l i s t e d to support the author's assumptions regarding the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on s e l f esteem of several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of person-centered r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For the purposes of t h i s review the program i s analyzed from a perspective which presumes that i t works to enhance s e l f esteem. Rosenberg (1979) describes the e f f e c t s of various s o c i a l contexts on s e l f esteem. The s o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y or d i s s i m i l a r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l compared to those who surround him may e f f e c t h i s experience and, i n consequence, h i s s e l f esteem. In a dissonant context, f or example, c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s l i k e race and culture define the i n d i v i d u a l as d i f f e r e n t from the majority. In such a context the i n d i v i d u a l i s designated "deviant" and s u f f e r s from the punitive e f f e c t s of prejudice. According to Rosenberg, entering a dissonant context most often damages s e l f esteem. He provides the example of a c u l t u r a l l y and/or r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t immigrant. In h i s former c u l t u r e he could view him s e l f as a respected conformist, w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d and accepted i n h i s own group. I n c o n t r a s t , i n h i s new, c u l t u r a l l y dissonant environment he may be r e j e c t e d , viewed as abnormal or even despised because of h i s d i f f e r e n c e . Even i n the t o t a l absence of p r e j u d i c e such people may f e e l strange or abnormal. On the other hand, when an i n d i v i d u a l enters a consonant context he i s protected from the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s of p r e j u d i c e from the outside world. Acceptance and belonging r e p l a c e r e j e c t i o n and f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n . S e l f esteem i s p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d when an i n d i v i d u a l enters a context i n which he di s c o v e r s others l i k e h i m s e l f . „ On the b a s i s of these p o s t u l a t i o n s the program under study i n c r e a s e s s e l f esteem by p r o v i d i n g a consonant context f o r homosexual men. As the p a r t i c i p a n t enters the consonant context of the program he leaves behind p o s s i b l e p r e j u d i c e , as w e l l as f e e l i n g s of- i s o l a t i o n and p e c u l i a r i t y , to encounter other homosexual men who provide the opportunity f o r belonging, acceptance and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e of the f i r s t s e s s i o n maximizes t h i s o p portunity by attempting to e s t a b l i s h group cohesion. The f i r s t e x e r c i s e (see INTRODUCTION, Appendix A, page 131) s o l i c i t s the members'commitment to a group c o n t r a c t which s p e c i f i e s ground r u l e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . When each member c o n t r a c t s w i t h every other member i n t h i s f a s h i o n , a form of bonding takes place and a context of belonging i s created. I n the next a c t i v i t y (see PARAPHRASING EXPECTATIONS, Appendix A,page 8 131) i n d i v i d u a l goals and expectations are processed into group goals-"and expectations. Participants become aware that they have similar needs and that they share similar expectations about how the program should address thei r needs. The development of shared goals and awarenesses engenders an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the group based on commonality, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g the fromation of a consonant context. This discussion of contextual dissonance rests on the s o c i a l comparison p r i n c i p l e (Rosenberg, 1979), one of the four prin c i p l e s u t i l i z e d by Rosenberg to explain how s e l f esteem i s affected by interpersonal and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l processes. According to Rosenberg, (1979) people judge and evaluate themselves by comparing themselves to other individuals ("referent individuals") and s o c i a l categories ("referent groups"). Two types of comparisons can be made. A normative comparison involves an evaluation of one's deviance or conformity: "Am I different from everybody else?" An ind i v i d u a l may also judge himself to be better or worse than others i n re l a t i o n to some c r i t e r i a of merit or value. For the most part, gay men experience a s o c i e t a l referent group which i s l i k e l y to foster a negative s e l f evaluation. In a referent group which c l e a r l y devalues homosexuality, the gay man's recognition of his difference or "abnormality" becomes a lingering hindrance to s e l f esteem, especially i f a l l his referent groups are comprised of heterosexuals. In contrast, the consonant context created by the program offers a homosexual referent group which maximizes the opportunity for participants to make esteem enhancing normative comparisons. A "gay po s i t i v e " 9 value system expressed by the program f a c i l i t a t o r and f o s t e r e d by the s t r u c t u r e of the workshop combined w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s awareness t h a t he shares a c r u c i a l i d e n t i t y element w i t h the others c r e a t e s a r e f e r e n t group i n which gay men can experience themselves as the same as others and, hence, as "normal". The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , which formerly r e l e g a t e d the homosexual t o the esteem damaging s t a t u s of "abnormal" or "d e v i a n t " i n the s o c i e t a l r e f e r e n t group, has now become a p o s i t i v e l y valued source of commonality w i t h o t h e r s . In a d d i t i o n to sha r i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t personal i d e n t i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , • members di s c o v e r i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n t h a t they share the same problems and experiences; f o r example PERCEPTION CHECKING (See Appendix A, page 134) examines the "coming out" experience, the d i s c l o s u r e of one's homosexualtiy. The d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n coming out are known to every p a r t i c i p a n t and, t h e r e f o r e , they discover t h e i r "sameness" through s h a r i n g a common dilemma. In a context of shared problems, normative comparisons enhance s e l f esteem. O p p o r t u n i t i e s to discover one's "sameness" or normalcy are a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x e r c i s e s which examine u n i v e r s a l human experiences; f o r example, i n the ANGER a c t i v i t y (see Appendix A, page 155) p a r t i c i p a n t s u s u a l l y d i s c o v e r t h a t they share d i f f i c u l t i e s i n expressing anger. In r e a l i z i n g t h a t one's problems are expreienced by many others the negative s e l f e v a l u a t i o n attached to being the only one with a strange problem i s replaced w i t h the esteem enhancing e f f e c t s of knowing you are not alone. 10 The principles of contextual consonance and social comparison are the basis for two program activities which explore how the participant "fits into" the social contexts of his every day l i f e . The guided fantasy segment of the BELONGING activity (see Appendix A, page 145) allows participants to become aware of how a consonant social context can facilitate self esteem by providing the experiences of belonging, acceptance and identification. In debriefing their fantasies participants are asked to analyze how they could create or choose circumstances which would enable them to feel that they belong in their everyday l i f e . REJECTION (See Appendix A, page I4O) also employs the social comparison principle. When the individual member realizes that every other member has experienced rejection, the experience loses some of its power to hinder self esteem. The participant can no longer view himself as containing some unique quality which sets him apart from the rest and which predisposes him to rejection. In fact, when he discovers the universal nature of the experience he realizes that i t connects him with every other human being. In addition, the activity engages participants in joint ventures to explore how they can create social contexts which would minimize rejection and maximize opportunities for belonging. The effectiveness of the program also rests on the use of self exploration and self awareness. Self awareness i s , in itself, not purported to increase self esteem. However, the activities are structured such that the self knowledge acquired through the experiential component is analyzed for its positive 11 or negative influences on self esteem. When an individual becomes aware of what aspects of himself and his experience hinder or facilitate his self esteem, he is much better equipped to choose situations, behaviours and attitudes which enhance self esteem. The activities focus participants on how they can make choices which would increase their self esteem by utilizing their newly acquired self knowledge. This approach reflects the workshop's underlying philosophy; that i s , the individual occupies the best vantage point from which to discern how his experience of himself and the world determines the level of his self esteem. He is also in the best position to know what kinds of changes are necessary to increase his self esteem and how to make those changes. Thus, the onus is placed on the individual to select the esteem-enhancing directions which have become apparent through the self awareness component of the activities. In this way the program facilitates a movement away from the belief that one's self esteem is determined by factors beyond one's control toward an attitude that self esteem is improved by one's own capacity to make informed choices. By structuring participants' experiences into a series of opportunities to make choices based on self awareness the program encourages them to begin choosing esteem enhancing patterns of behaviour, thought and feeling. As participants reap the benefits of their choices they may begin to see themselves as more effective and competent human beings who have achieved a greater' degree of mastery over their own lives. This result strongly resembles what Rosenberg (1979) defines as "self 12 confidence". I t i s a s e l f p e r c e p t i o n which has a very p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on s e l f esteem. An examination of SELF TALK AND FEELING O.K. (See Appendix A page 148) e x e m p l i f i e s how the concepts described above are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the workshop. In t h i s e x e r c i s e p a r t i c i p a n t s are encouraged to become aware of s e l f - c r i t i c a l thought patt e r n s which lower s e l f esteem. They are then engaged i n an e x p l o r a t i o n of the o r i g i n s of t h e i r own negative s e l f t a l k . The p o s s i b i l i t y of choice i n determining one's s e l f perceptions a r i s e s through an examination of how negative s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s r e s u l t from e a r l y childhood " s c r i p t i n g " . The p a r t i c i p a n t becomes aware th a t i n t r o j e c t e d s o c i e t a l judgements and negative p a r e n t a l messages form the b a s i s of h i s s e l f c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s . Then, he i s given the opportunity to transform these negative s e l f statements i n t o p o s i t i v e ones of h i s own c r e a t i o n . T h i s a c t i v i t y c l e a r s the pathway t o the realm of choice i n s e v e r a l ways. Choice i s encouraged when the p a r t i c i p a n t becomes aware of the e f f e c t s of negative or p o s i t i v e . s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s on s e l f esteem. T h i s discovery suggests that one can choose to t h i n k of h i m s e l f i n ways which would f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Choices of t h i s nature are prompted by the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t one's negative s e l f perceptions have o r i g i n a t e d from a r b i t r a r y a s c r i p t i o n s imposed from e x t e r n a l " a u t h o r i t i e s " . The a c t i v i t y suggests t h a t these esteem damaging i n t r o j e c t s may be replaced by an i n f i n i t e a r r a y of p o s i t i v e s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s chosen and created by the p a r t i c i p a n t . F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s are given the opportunity t o e x e r c i s e t h i s c h o i c e . Rosenberg(1979: 261) attaches great importance t o the r o l e 13 of c h o i c e , or what he terms " s e l e c t i v i t y " , i n determining s e l f esteem. He describes s e l e c t i v i t y , "the motivated choice from among a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s " , as the s i n g l e most powerful mechanism f o r s e l f enhancement. Rosenberg assumes t h a t one's choices are motivated by a motive t o enhance s e l f esteem. Thus, when faced w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s , human beings w i l l always s e l e c t the one that enhances s e l f esteem. According t o Rosenberg, s e l e c t i v i t y f a i l s when there are no other a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s except f o r the one t h a t hinders s e l f esteem; f o r example, we are not f r e e to choose our s e l f perceptions because many are acquired long before we have the opportunity to t e s t them. The program a s s i s t s and supplements the s e l e c t i v i t y mechanism. As described by Rosenberg, i t i s l a r g e l y an unconscious or automatic process. The e x e r c i s e s a s s i s t t h i s process by engendering a conscious awareness of the ways one chooses to t h i n k and behave and the e f f e c t s of these thoughts and behaviours on s e l f esteem. Choices which r e s u l t i n low s e l f esteem, once i d e n t i f i e d , can be replaced w i t h thoughts and a c t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. The program engages p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an e x p l o r a t i o n of ways to t h i n k , behave and express emotion which enhance s e l f esteem. At the same time increased s e l f awareness endows the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h more in f o r m a t i o n about himself so t h a t the s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s more l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e i n producing higher s e l f esteem. Rosenberg i n d i c a t e s t h a t s e l e c t i v i t y f a i l s when there are no other a v a i l a b l e options as i n the case of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s formed i n c h ildhood. The SELF TALK e x e r c i s e described above i s an 14 example of how the program creates an opportunity f o r choice where none e x i s t e d before. I t enables p a r t i c i p a n t s to become aware of d e l e t e r i o u s s e l f perceptions and cr e a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s which enhance s e l f esteem. A gay male f o r example, may have acquired a set of p u n i t i v e and c r i t i c a l s e l f perceptions by i n t r o j e c t i n g the h e t e r o s e x i s t or homophobic values of h i s environment. There are u s u a l l y no other a v a i l a b l e options f o r homosexual c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n heterosexual environments. In the absence of i n s i g h t i n t o the o r i g i n s and e f f e c t s of h i s s e l f -h a t i n g a t t i t u d e s , the gay male remains a v i c t i m t o long standing, automatic thought p a t t e r n s . The e x e r c i s e engages the p a r t i c i p a n t i n an e x p l o r a t i o n of the o r i g i n s of s e l f - c r i t i c a l , s e l f - h a t i n g a t t i t u d e s . When he d i s c o v e r s t h a t they o r i g i n a t e from e x t e r n a l sources, he recognizes t h a t he i s not i n h e r e n t l y worthy of condemnation. In r e a l i z i n g t h a t many of h i s s e l f a t t i t u d e s are a r b i t r a r y and outdated f o r e i g n i n t r o j e c t s , the p a r t i c i p a n t i s given a powerful r a t i o n a l e to formulate s e l f - a t t i t u d e s based on h i s present awareness. Thus, the e x e r c i s e provides the p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h the opportunity to choose and cr e a t e h i s own s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s , ones which would enhance s e l f esteem, r a t h e r than d e t r a c t from i t . The program i n c o r p o r a t e s s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n e x e r c i s e s (e.g. SHOW YOUR STRENGTHS, see Appendix A, page 14^) which a l l o w the p a r t i c i p a n t to i d e n t i f y and appreciate h i s personal a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i t i e s . By enabling the p a r t i c i p a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h and pro c l a i m h i s p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the e x e r c i s e provides him wi t h a source of p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used as a personal resource and source of p r i d e . Rosenberg (1979: 27) 15 s t a t e s t h a t "there i s no v e r i f i a b l e s e l f concept which can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an o b j e c t i v e observer." A b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the s e l f cannot be proven or measured. As a r e s u l t , human beings are prone to c h r o n i c bouts of se l f - d o u b t t h a t hinder s e l f esteem. When p a r t i c i p a n t s decide f o r themselves t h a t they possess a c e r t a i n v a l u a b l e q u a l i t y or a t t r i b u t e , t h e i r o v e r a l l l e v e l of s e l f doubt i s diminished and t h e i r s e l f confidence i n c r e a s e s . Rosenberg (1979: 31) de f i n e s s e l f confidence as "the a n t i c i p a t i o n of s u c c e s s f u l l y mastering challenges or o b s t a c l e s . " Through the e x e r c i s e , the p a r t i c i p a n t becomes aware of personal s t r e n g t h s and t h e i r value i n mastering l i f e ' s c h a l l e n g e s . In a d d i t i o n , Rosenberg (1979: 15) claims t h a t " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s serve as standards f o r s e l f e v a l u a t i o n and a f f e c t how the i n d i v i d u a l comes to p e r c e i v e , judge and f e e l about h i m s e l f " . Thus, when p a r t i c i p a n t s l a b e l themselves w i t h favourable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they are much more l i k e l y to evaluate themsevles p o s i t i v e l y . The s e l f v a l i d a t i o n e x e r c i s e can be seen to d e r i v e i t s b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t by i n c o r p o r a t i n g Rosenberg's p r i n c i p l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y . This p r i n c i p l e suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n t s e l f concept components hold d i f f e r e n t degrees of importance or c e n t r a l i t y to the i n d i v i d u a l . In d e s c r i b i n g how s e l e c t i v i t y operates to enhance s e l f esteem, Rosenberg maintains t h a t we s e l e c t to focus on our ass e t s w h i l e i g n o r i n g or minimizing the importance of our d e f e c t s . On t h i s b a s i s i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t s e l f esteem i s hindered when i n d i v i d u a l s focus on t h e i r d e f e c t s w h i l e minimizing or i g n o r i n g t h e i r a s s e t s . The s e l f v a l i d a t i o n e x e r c i s e counteracts t h i s 16 tendency by encouraging p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make t h e i r p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s more c e n t r a l w h i l e i g n o r i n g negative ones. In t h i s f a s h i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n p r a c t i s e i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own p o s i t i v e -self e v a l u a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y a l s o u n d e r l i e s the concept of " r o l e engulfment" (Rosenberg, 1979: 19) which denotes the "overwhelming prominence t h a t a deviant s o c i a l i d e n t i t y can achieve i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f concept." One's s e l f e v a l u a t i o n can' become extremely negative when a s t i g m a t i z e d , deviant s t a t u s l i k e homosexuality becomes the most s a l i e n t s e l f concept c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The program i s designed t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the negative s a l i e n c e of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s homosexualtiy, thereby e l i m i n a t i n g the harmful impact of r o l e engulfment on s e l f esteem. As described above, the consonant context of the group and the s o c i a l comparison p r i n c i p l e operate to remove the stigma from - homosexuality. In a d d i t i o n , the program encourages a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the meanings attached t o homosexuality. As p a r t i c i p a n t s develop a p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l view of homosexuality, the overblown prominence of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which was obtained by v i r t u e of i t s potent negative connotation i s d e f l a t e d . A concomitant i n c r e a s e i n s e l f esteem i s to be expected when such a major source of shame, g u i l t and s e l f hatred i s removed. The STROKING EXERCISE (see Appendix A, page 159) i s a s t r u c t u r e d example of how the program attempts to use supportive v a l i d a t i o n from others i n the group as a means t o enhance s e l f esteem. Rosenberg's (1979) p r i n c i p l e of " r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s " p o s i t s t h a t other people's judgements have a strong 17 i n f l u e n c e on the way the i n d i v i d u a l sees him s e l f and on h i s s e l f esteem. In f a c t , when given a choice people s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r a c t w i t h those whose views and communication are favourably biased. W i t h i n the group, p a r t i c i p a n t s do not have much of a choice i n who they w i l l i n t e r a c t w i t h . However, the program's s t r u c t u r e captures the s a l u t a r y e f f e c t s of "other v a l i d a t i o n " by f a c i l i t a t i n g the development of v a l i d a t i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and through s t r u c t u r e d e x e r c i s e s l i k e STROKING. When the group acknowledges the strengths and a t t r i b u t e s of one of i t s members, i t ' s power to enhance t h i s member's s e l f esteem i s g r e a t l y augmented by the impact of consensual v a l i d a t i o n . An examination of s o c i a l support networks (see SUPPORT NETWORKS, Appendix A, page 144) enables p a r t i c i p a n t s to assess the degree to which t h e i r s o c i a l contacts f a c i l i t a t e or hinder t h e i r s e l f esteem. I f the v a l i d a t i o n r e c e i v e d from others i s inadequate, the p a r t i c i p a n t can begin to i n v e s t i g a t e ways of o b t a i n i n g the k i n d of support t h a t i s m i s s i n g . I f s o c i a l support i s found to be s u f f i c i e n t , the p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e s a s e l f esteem boost i n d i s c o v e r i n g the value of h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l support network. The e x e r c i s e s which h i g h l i g h t achievement and accomplishment (see ACHIEVEMENT, Appendix A, page 15 1) and DOING THINGS AND FEELING O.K., Appendix A, page 15 2) r e s t on the assumption t h a t competence, or the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the world e f f e c t i v e l y , i s a primary c o n t r i b u t o r t o s e l f esteem. In other words, s e l f esteem i s t o a l a r g e extent contingent upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n of h i s c a p a c i t y to perform as an e f f e c t i v e agent i n 18 the world. When the i n d i v i d u a l views himself as an e f f e c t i v e agent s e l f esteem i s enhanced. This p o s i t i v e s e l f e v a l u a t i o n i s . , i n t u r n , supported by evidence of personal achievements or e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n meeting l i f e ' s c h a l l e n g e s . These ideas are r e f l e c t e d i n Rosenberg's (1979) p r i n c i p l e of " s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n " which p o s i t s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l comes to conc l u s i o n s about h i m s e l f on the b a s i s of observing h i s own behaviours and t h e i r outcomes; f o r example, a c h i l d who observes evidence of h i s achievement i n school i s more l i k e l y to have a high academic s e l f -esteem. Thus, the ACHIEVEMENT e x e r c i s e e l i c i t s memories of past: accomplishments t o o f f e r p a r t i c i p a n t s proof of t h e i r competence i n the world. The next e x e r c i s e , ' DOING THINGS AND FEELING O.K. u t i l i z e s c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g techniques to enhance p a r t i c i p a n t s a b i l i t i e s to engage i n competent and e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . The technique employs a s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o one's past achievements i n order to i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of success i n the present. The increased confidence acquired by f o c u s i n g on proven areas of competence can be e n l i s t e d t o support one's curr e n t e f f o r t s to achieve. These a c t i v i t i e s enhance s e l f esteem by g i v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s evidence of t h e i r competency and by equipping them w i t h a technique which i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of competency i n the f u t u r e . Moreover, the a c q u i s i t i o n of the technique i s l i k e l y to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem by strengthening the e x p e c t a t i o n of success ( i . e . s e l f c o n f i d e n c e ) . The v a l i d a t i o n and achievement a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e s e v e r a l opportunites f o r favourable comparisons on the b a s i s of some standard of merit or value. Thus, the second v a r i e t y of s o c i a l comparison, a comparison of b e t t e r or worse (Rosenberg, 1979) 19 operates w i t h i n the program to enhance s e l f esteem. The program's s t r u c t u r e makes i t more l i k e l y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l a r r i v e a t a comparison that f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem. In the s e l f v a l i d a t i o n e x e r c i s e , f o r example, every member creates a d i f f e r e n t c o n s t e l l a t i o n of q u a l i t i e s and every member i s q u i e t l y acknowledged f o r h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r r a y of a t t r i b u t e s . This context enables the p a r t i c i p a n t to compare h i s q u a l i t i e s w i t h o t h e r s ' and observe that he holds v a l u a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which others do not have. In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , the s t r o k i n g e x e r c i s e i s s t r u c t u r e d such t h a t compliments r e c e i v e d by others are to be accepted and not discounted. The group acknowledges a unique s et of laudable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r every member. Therefore, every member can c o v e r t l y d i s t i n q u i s h h i m s e l f as s u p e r i o r to the r e s t on the b a s i s of the unique q u a l i t i e s h i g h l i g h t e d by the group. Beginning w i t h communication s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n the program endeavours to s t r u c t u r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s so th a t p a r t i c i p a n t s can b e n e f i t from each other's empathy, c a r i n g and honesty. The i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s of "person-centered" r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y and used throughout the program t o f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Paraphrasing and perc e p t i o n checking (see SESSION ONE, Appendix A, pp 131-135) are taught to c u l t i v a t e empathy between p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s form of communication most e f f e c t i v e l y enables persons t o f e e l understood and accepted by each other. There are a t l e a s t three q u a l i t i e s inherent i n empathic communications which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. According to Rogers (1980: 159), the non-judgemental acceptance of an empathic 20 understanding enhances s e l f esteem: "The non-evaluative and acceptant q u a l i t y of the empathic c l i m a t e enables persons, as we have seen, to take a p r i z i n g , c a r i n g a t t i t u d e toward themselves." Rogers (1980: 152) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t empathy communicates an a p p r e c i a t i o n and c a r i n g which b e n e f i t s the r e c i p i e n t ' s s e l f esteem: A second consequence of empathic understanding i s t h a t the r e c i p i e n t f e e l s valued, cared f o r , accepted as the person he or she i s . . . the message comes through t h a t ''this other i n d i v i d u a l t r u s t s me, t h i n k s I'm worthwhile. Perhaps, I am worth something. Perhaps I could value myself. Perhaps I could care f o r myself. I n a d d i t i o n t o the a p p r e c i a t i o n expressed i n empathic i n t e r a c t i o n s , the program i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s (see MASSAGE, Appendix A, page 159 and FACE PAINTING, Appendix, A, page 156) which engage p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a p h y s i c a l , and perhaps more e x p l i c i t e x pression of care and a p p r e c i a t i o n . The GIFT (see Appendix A, page l60) a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s the b e n e f i t s of a p p r e c i a t i o n . T h i r d l y , the understanding o f f e r e d by empathic communications f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem by d i s s o l v i n g a l i e n a t i o n . The harmful e f f e c t s of experiencing oneself as an i s o l a t e , or as separated from a l l other human beings by v i r t u e of one's d i f f e r e n c e s , have been described above. To be understood e f f e c t i v e l y attenuates one's experience of i s o l a t i o n by f o s t e r i n g an experience of i n t e r p e r s o n a l connection. S e l f esteem i s f a c i l i t a t e d when a l i e n a t i o n i s replaced by an awareness of how one belongs to the human race. Rogers (1980: 151) w r i t e s , Another person has understood, understood my f e e l i n g s even more c l e a r l y than I do. I f someone e l s e knows what I am t a l k i n g about, what I mean, then to t h i s degree I 21 am not so strange, or a l i e n or set a p a r t . I make sense to another human being. So I am i n touch w i t h , even i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h , o t h e r s . I am no longer an i s o l a t e . In a d d i t i o n t o s t i m u l a t i n g a general s e l f acceptance, empathic i n t e r a c t i o n s may a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem by promoting the discovery and i n t e g r a t i o n of formerly disowned and/or denigrated q u a l i t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t r a i t s . The c l i m a t e of non-evaluative acceptance enables i n d i v i d u a l s to acknowledge and accept aspects of themselves t h a t have p r e v i o u s l y been denied awareness and acceptance. Thus, empathy enhances s e l f esteem by m i t i g a t i n g s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n as w e l l as a l i e n a t i o n from other human beings. F i n a l l y , empathy engenders a w i l l i n g n e s s to be open, honest and genuine. These a t t i t u d e s are a l s o c u l t i v a t e d by the t r u s t e x e r c i s e s (see TRUST WALK, Appendix A, page 137 and TRUST GAMES, Appendix A, page 147) which help t o create a " s a f e " and non-threat e n i n g m i l i e u i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l f r e e r t o "be themselves", t o be honest and d i s c l o s i n g , even about p o t e n t i a l l y embarassing or p a i n f u l l m a t e r i a l . I n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt Rogers (1980: 117) d e s c r i b e s how honesty to s e l f and others r e s u l t s from the s e l f p r i z i n g a t t i t u d e f o s t e r e d by empathy: As person's are em p a t h i c a l l y heard, i t becomes p o s s i b l e f o r them t o l i s t e n more c a r e f u l l y t o the f l o w of t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c i n g . But as a person understands and p r i z e s s e l f , the s e l f becomes more congruent w i t h the ex p e r i e n c i n g s . The person becomes more r e a l , more genuine . . . There i s a greater freedom to be the t r u e , whole person. I t i s evident from t h i s excerpt t h a t Rogers b e l i e v e s t h a t a s e l f p r i z i n g a t t i t u d e f o s t e r s honesty. However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s j u s t as e a s i l y reversed; t h a t i s , one's c a p a c i t y to be oneself and to be honest w i t h others can be a source of p r i d e such t h a t 22 the genuineness of one's communications can c o n t r i b u t e to one's s e l f esteem. In summary, Rosenberg's (1979) four p r i n c i p l e s of s e l f esteem change ( r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s , s o c i a l comparison, s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y ) and Roger's (1980) a t t i t u d e of empathy were employed to e x p l a i n how the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and content of the program f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. A r a t i o n a l e based on these t h e o r i e s was provided f o r every i n t e r v e n t i o n , a c t i v i t y and program f e a t u r e examined i n the preceeding review. I t i s evident from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t Rosenberg and Rogers o f f e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y account of the program's presumed e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 25 METHOD  PARTICIPANTS S e l e c t i o n : E i g h t homosexual males were s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s e l f esteem program. Two s e t s of c r i t e r i a were used to s e l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h i s group. In order to be chosen, p r o s p e c t i v e candidates had t o meet the b a s i c requirements of both the s e l f esteem program and the research procedures, described below. The program was designed to f a c i l i t a t e the s e l f esteem of a d u l t (18 years or o l d e r ) homosexual males. Thus, gay men who reported a d i f f i c i e n c y i n s e l f esteem and expressed a d e s i r e to improve were chosen as the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . The program was a d v e r t i s e d as a " S e l f Esteem Workshop f o r Gay Men" i n a u n i v e r s i t y student newspaper, and i n a l o c a l community newspaper w i t h a l a r g e gay r e a d e r s h i p . The advertisement (see Appendix C) contained a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i s s u e s to be covered and i t i n s t r u c t e d those i n t e r e s t e d to phone f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . A l l p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were screened i n the i n i t i a l telephone i n t e r v i e w f o r behaviours or c h a r c t e r i s t i c s which would have made them i n a p p o r p r i a t e f o r an e x p e r i e n t i a l , "growth" group. Candidates whose main concern was not s e l f esteem and/or those who reported or e x h i b i t e d severe a n x i e t y , c l i n i c a l depression or i n a p p r o p r i a t e h o s t i l i t y were d i s q u a l i f i e d . I t was reasoned t h a t these and other m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of severe p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s (e.g. psychoses) would be b e t t e r t r e a t e d i n other s e t t i n g s . Moreover, these behaviours and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s could impede or thwart group development and other members' progress. The program a l s o r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t a "low average" degree of 24 i n t e l l i g e n c e t o absorb the d i d a c t i c component and engage i n the e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s . These s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s were the r e s u l t of the l e a d e r ' s s u b j e c t i v e , c l i n i c a l impressions which were obtained i n the i n i t i a l telephone i n t e r v i e w and i n a face to face pre-program i n t e r v i e w . D i s q u a l i f i e d candidates were r e f e r r e d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l . As a r e s u l t of these s e l e c t i o n procedures the group was comprised of gay males of a t l e a s t average i n t e l l i g e n c e who were f u n c t i o n i n g adequately i n the community. P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s and c a p a c i t y t o engage i n the research component of the program. Those who were s e l e c t e d consented t o be i n t e r v i e w e d regarding t h e i r s e l f esteem. The research approach r e q u i r e d t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t have an understanding of h i s s e l f esteem and an awareness of how i t i s increased or decreased through h i s experiences. I t was a l s o important f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t to be a b l e to communicate th a t understanding and those experiences to the researcher i n a d e t a i l e d i n t e r v i e w . These research s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n and s e l f awareness complemented the program'1 s requirements f o r a t l e a s t an average degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e . F i n a l l y , those p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who were r e c e i v i n g c o u n s e l l i n g or psychotherapy from other mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s were excluded i n order to reduce the confounding e f f e c t s of extraneous i n f l u e n c e s . Demographic Information: I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s e l f esteem i s experienced and 25 manifested d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . Consequently, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program were North Americans or could be described as coming from the "Western C u l t u r e " . A l l were r e s i d e n t s of a l a r g e urban centre i n Western Canada. The program was designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the gay male po p u l a t i o n . However, a s i d e from sex and sexual preference, the study was completed without confinement to other demographic v a r i a b l e s . Age, occupation and socio-economic s t a t u s of the e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s were recorded. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ages were 22, 22, 24, 26, 26, 36, 38, 38. A l l s t a t e d t h a t they were middle c l a s s w i t h the exception of one who s t a t e d he was lower middle c l a s s . A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had obtained a t l e a s t h i g h school education and a m a j o r i t y were e i t h e r a t t e n d i n g a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n or had obtained a post secondary education. Two p a r t i c i p a n t s were students and two were unemployed during the program. An engineer, a m a t e r i a l s a n a l y s t , a nurse and a s m a l l business manager comprised the r e s t of the group. C o n t r o l Group; An a d d i t i o n a l group of e i g h t homosexual males was s e l e c t e d t o comprise the c o n t r o l sample. An attempt was made to draw the c o n t r o l sample from the same po p u l a t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were drawn from. In a d d i t i o n to sex and sexual preference, the c o n t r o l group members were very s i m i l a r to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n terms of t h e i r age ( a range between 22 and 34), education ( a l l had completed high school) and socio-economic s t a t u s (middle c l a s s ) . The sample d i f f e r s from the p a r t i c i p a n t sample i n th a t s i x out of the e i g h t c o n t r o l group members were students a t the 26 time they were i n v o l v e d i n the study. I n a d d i t i o n , they were s e l e c t e d from the researcher's c i r c l e of acquaintances and f r i e n d s most of whom are i n v o l v e d i n the u n i v e r s i t y context. However, when the e d u c a t i o n a l background of most of the workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i s taken i n t o account, the e f f e c t of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s diminished. 0 The same requirements f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment and average i n t e l l i g e n c e were used t o s e l e c t the c o n t r o l group members. 27 DATA GATHERING METHODS The present study employed data gathering methods r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of two paradigms of e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n : the q u a l i t a t i v e and the q u a n t i t a t i v e . Rosenberg's (1965) Scale of S e l f Esteem, a standardized measure, was used to assess outcome i n terms of changes i n s e l f esteem scores. However, the study focused p r i m a r i l y on q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n employing what Patton (1980) terms a "standardized open-ended i n t e r v i e w " and a j o u r n a l of s i g n i f i c a n t events. These procedures uncover the unique experiences of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and explore how the program produces the outcomes t h a t i t does. The r a t i o n a l e f o r using a comination of q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e methods stems from the accumulated wisdom of program e v a l u a t o r s (e.g. P a t t o n , 1978). For example, Shapiro (1973) used a standardized achievement t e s t t o compare two groups of students. One group r e c e i v e d an enriched e d u c a t i o n a l program and the other f u n c t i o n e d as a c o n t r o l group. The t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there were no d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. However, when observations were made of the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r classrooms, Shapiro found s t a r t l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between treatment and c o n t r o l groups. The stan d a r d i z d t e s t f a i l e d to detect a range of important d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were uncovered by systematic o b s e r v a t i o n s . Shapiro suggests t h a t the q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology narrowed the questions being asked and predetermined the s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Shapiro (1973: 527) concluded t h a t "although i t i s important to e x p l a i n the negative t e s t r e s u l t s , i t i s f a r more important to account f o r the 28 d i s p a r i t y between the negative t e s t f i n d i n g s and the c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n the classroom." I n u t i l i z i n g both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e approaches, Shapiro discovered t h a t standardized measures are, by themselves, i n s u f f i c i e n t to conduct a program e v a l u a t i o n . She was a l s o able to d i s c e r n how the two approaches obtained c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s by examining the range and q u a l i t i e s of the phenomena they i n v e s t i g a t e d . The present study a l s o employs the two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of data i n order t o compare the q u a l i t y and u t i l i t y of each i n e v a l u a t i n g the program. The method, however, emphasizes q u a l i t a t i v e measures which are more l i k e l y to r e v e a l how the program works or doesn't work. Patton compares q u a n t i t i a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e methods on a number of dimensions. He underscores the advantages of a q u a l i t a t i v e approach t o program e v a l u a t i o n . He a l s o maintains t h a t i t i s important to match the e v a l u a t i o n methodology to the phenomenon uder study. I n d i s c u s s i n g these dimensions, the value of the q u a l i t a t i v e methodology to the study of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s experience i n the program w i l l be h i g h l i g h t e d . O b j e c t i v i t y i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the achievement t e s t described above which i s h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , has outcomes th a t have been r e p l i c a t e d i n v a r y i n g populations and has w e l l known s t a t i s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . An o b j e c t i v e measure of s e l f esteem has been in c l u d e d i n t h i s study i n order to o b j e c t i v e l y measure p a r t i c i p a n t s ' outcomes by comparing t h e i r improvement i n s e l f esteem scores w i t h t h a t of a c o n t r o l group. However, Patton holds t h a t standardized measures are i n s u f f i c i e n t when the i n t e n t 29 i s to understand the meaning of s p e c i f i c outcomes. Understanding r e q u i r e s s u b j e c t i v i t y ; that i s , the researcher must get c l o s e enough to one s i t u a t i o n to o b t a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the mental s t a t e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus, q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s have been in c l u d e d i n t h i s study i n order to understand as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the unique experience of each p a r t i c i p a n t . The s t a n d a r i z e d t e s t i s only a b l e t o tap a very r e s t r i c t e d range of t h i s experience w h i l e an open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e encourages d e t a i l , d i v e r s i t y and breadth. An o b j e c t i v e instrument n e c e s s i t a t e s d i s t a n c e from the data i n order to guarantee i t s n e u t r a l i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , the q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w r e q u i r e s t h a t the observer get c l o s e t o the data by employing empathy i n a personal encounter w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t so t h a t h i s experience can be f u l l y understood. T h i s study i s s u i t e d t o a more p e r s o n a l i z e d e v a l u a t i o n methodology because the researcher i n h i s r o l e as program f a c i l i t a t o r q u i c k l y develops c l o s e and personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each p a r t i c i p a n t . The q u a l i t a t i v e approach takes advantage of the wealth of meaningful data o f f e r e d by the closeness of the f a c i l i t a t o r - p a r t i c i p a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t r a d i t i o n a l paradigm employs component a n a l y s i s to break r e a l i t y down i n t o s m all component p a r t s i n order t o d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t of each i s o l a t e d p a r t on the whole. However, there are s e r i o u s drawbacks i n a p p l y i n g t h i s approach to the study of f i e l d s e t t i n g s l i k e the one p r e s e n t l y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To i s o l a t e one treatment s p e c i f i c a t i o n would be to s i m p l i f y and d i s t o r t a r e a l i t y which i s f a r more complex. The program c o n s i s t s of a number of i n e r a c t i v e and independent processes. To t r y to 30 separate them out f o r experimental purpopses would misrepresent the t o t a l treatment process. I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t a h o l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s undertaken. The aim of t h i s approach i s to d i s c o v e r and understand the u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem not only i n the context of the whole program but a l s o i n the context of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e . T h i s approach r e f l e c t s Shapiro's (1973) f i n d i n g s t h a t t e s t r e s u l t s c ould not be i n t e r p r e t e d without understanding the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l context i n which the i n d i v i d u a l was s i t u a t e d . Experimental designs are w e l l s u i t e d to the assessment of programs i n which treatments can be i s o l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d as f i x e d v a r i a b l e s . They assume th a t program treatments remain constant and unchanging once they are introduced. However, most programs, i n c l u d i n g the one under study, are not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t a t i c treatments. The program i s o f t e n modified as p r i o r i t i e s are changed depending on the needs of the s p e c i f i c group of p a r t i c i p a n t s . These changes destroy the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r a f i x e d teatment outcome o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s . I n c o n t r a s t , q u a l i t a t i v e procedures acknowledge a dynamic r e a l i t y . The e v a l u a t o r aims to document and understand the day to day r e a l i t y of the s e t t i n g s under study; f o r example, p a r t i c i p a n t s are asked t o keep a j o u r n a l r e c o r d i n g d a i l y events a f f e c t i n g s e l f esteem. The data obtained by t h i s procedure i s not j u s t outcome i n f o r m a t i o n . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s the u n a n t i c i p a t e d consequences of the program as w e l l as an understanding of those p a t t e r n s of experience and a c t i v i t y ( o c curing w i t h i n the program and the 31 p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e ) which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder s e l f esteem. The dominant paradigm focuses on r e l i a b i l i t y , the r e p l i c a b i l i t y and consistency of s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s , whereas the a l t e r n a t i v e emphasizes v a l i d i t y , the meaning and meaningfulness of the data and the instruments employed t o c o l l e c t i t . Shapiro (1973), f o r example, discovered t h a t standardized measures were not v a l i d measures of l e a r n i n g because they f a i l e d t o apprehend a range of student experiences and behaviours which i n d i c a t e d l e a r n i n g had taken p l a c e . The present study i s more concerned w i t h o b t a i n i n g a v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of what i s happening i n the program than w i t h g e t t i n g outcome r e s u l t s t h a t can be e a s i l y r e p l i c a t e d . The dominant paradigm a l s o employs a deductive approach which begins w i t h hypotheses and proceeds t o t e s t them across s i t u a t i o n s w i t h an aim to produce g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . I n e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h i s focus on comparisons and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s d e t r a c t s from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n of important and unique program c h a r t a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n d u c t i v e approach g i v e s a t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l experiences. The procedure employed by t h i s study begins w i t h the i d i o s y n c r a t i c experiences of each p a r t i c i p a n t before attempting to c a t e g o r i z e them. I t s i n t e n t i s to f u l l y e x p lore and understand i n d i v i d u a l cases before they are aggregated to a l l o w f o r the emergence of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . I n Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods Patton (1980) d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n models, each designed to answer d i f f e r e n t questions and o b t a i n . d i f f e r e n t kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n about the program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He proposes t h a t the nature and purpose of the e v a l u a t i o n model (as r e f l e c t e d i n the question 32 i t asks) should be served by s e l e c t i n g the appr o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n methods. Two of the models Patton describes c o n t a i n questions and i n t e n t s which most c l o s e l y resemble those of the present study. According to Patton, these models are a l s o most s u i t e d to q u a l i t a t i v e methods. The i n t e n t of the process model of e v a l u a t i o n i s to e l u c i d a t e and understand the i n t e r n a l dynamics of the program. I t analyzes the processes whereby the program produces i t s outcomes by asking questions l i k e "What are the f a c t o r s t h a t come together t o make t h i s program what i t i s ? " and "What are the streng t h s and weaknesses of the program?". In the present study the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s questions (described below) are designed to uncover the processes ( w i t h i n both the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e and the program) t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and hinder s e l f esteem. The understandings obtained from answers to these questions a l l o w the researcher to a s s e s : t h e extent to which the program i s operating the way i t should be. As w e l l as h i g h l i g h t i n g the strengths of the program, i t i s u s e f u l f o r r e v e a l i n g the areas i n which the program can be improved. Q u a l i t a t i v e methods are most app r o p r i a t e f o r the conduct of process e v a l u a t i o n s . The open-ended i n t e r v i e w approach permits an understanding of the program's unique i n t e r n a l dynamics by a l l o w i n g them to emerge from the i n t e r v i e w data, r a t h e r than "from the e v a l u a t o r ' s t h e o r i e s . This approach a l l o w s the eva l u a t o r to f i n d out "what i s th e r e , r a t h e r than v a l i d a t i n g , c o n f i r m i n g , or r e j e c t i n g preordained hypotheses about program strengths and weaknesses." (Patton, 1980: 61) In c o n t r a s t , a standardized t e s t 33 i s not s u i t e d t o e x p l o r i n g the nature of program processes because they are u s u a l l y too complex and interdependent to be represented by a unidimensional s c a l e . The program under study operates under the assumption of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d outcomes model of e v a l u a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n assumes that program s e r v i c e s are matched to the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s . Thus, each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s outcome w i l l d i f f e r not only along s p e c i f i c common dimensions. D i f f e r e n t outcomes w i l l a l s o i n v o l v e q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t dimensions f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t . The present study attempts to capture the uniqueness of each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s outcome by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a case study approach. In the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w each p a r t i c i p a n t w i l l assess h i s own s e l f esteem and e x p l i c a t e h i s goals and expectations f o r the workshop. These w i l l be reviewed i n the summary i n t e r v i e w thereby enabling the p a r t i c i p a n t to assess h i s own progress (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) and d e s c r i b e how h i s goals and expectations were met (or not met). Standardized measures are not w e l l s u i t e d to t h i s model because they cannot measure q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l outcomes. 34 Rosenberg's S e l f Esteem Scale Rosenberg's (1965) S e l f Esteem Scale was used. Greenberg (1973), Hammersmith and Weinberg (1973), Myrick (1974), and Jacobs and Tedford (1980) a l s o u t i l i z e d t h i s measure w i t h a homosexual p o p u l a t i o n . Rosenberg (1979) de s c r i b e s t h i s measure as a ten item Guttman s c a l e which has s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . He c i t e s S i l b e r and T i p p e t t (1965) who found a two week t e s t r e - t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of r = .85 and r = .88, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; both used small c o l l e g e samples. According to Rosenberg (1965), the Guttman model can i n s u r e t h a t the items on the s c a l e belong to the same dimension. He s t a t e s t h a t there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the items g e n e r a l l y deal w i t h a favourable or unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward o n e s e l f , thereby e s t a b l i s h i n g " l o g i c a l v a l i d a t i o n " or "face v a l i d i t y " . Rosenberg (1979) provides evidence t o e s t a b l i s h the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the RSE by o f f e r i n g h i s f i n d i n g s which i n d i c a t e t h a t those w i t h low scores on the s c a l e appear depressed t o others and express f e e l i n g s of discouragement and unhappiness, manifest symptoms of " n e u r o t i c i s m " or a n x i e t y , hold a low s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s i n the group, are described as commanding l e s s respect than others and f e e l that others have l i t t l e respect f o r them. Rosenberg (1979) again c i t e s S i l b e r and T i p p e t t (1965) and T i p p e t t and S i l b e r (1965) t o provide evidence of both convergent and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y f o r the RSE. These researchers e s t a b l i s h e d convergent v a l i d i t y by c o r r e l a t i n g RSE scores (obtained from 44 c o l l e g e students) w i t h measures of the same concept based on d i f f e r e n t methods; f o r example, the c o r r e l a t i o n s 35 of RSE t o the s e l f i d e a l discrepancy score was r = .67; t o the s e l f image q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r = .83 and to p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s r a t i n g s , r = .56. Evidence f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y was obtained by c o r r e l a t i n g the RSE w i t h measures of c o n s t r u c t s which are r e l a t e d to s e l f esteem and which a l s o d i f f e r from i t to v a r y i n g degrees; f o r example, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f esteem as measures by RSE and s e l f concept s t a b i l i t y as assessed by the s e l f - i d e a l measure, the s e l f image q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s r a t i n g s were r = .40, r = .34, and r = .24, r e s p e c t i v e l y . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the c o r r e l a t i o n s of s e l f esteem measured by d i f f e r e n t methods. D i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y was f u r t h e r evidenced by c o r r e l a t i o n s of near zero between RSE and s t a b i l i t y of views of other people and s t a b i l i t y of perceptual speed. In a d d i t i o n , C r a n d a l l ' s (1973) f i n d i n g t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n of r = .60 between the RSE and the Coopersmith S e l f Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967) provides f u r t h e r evidence of convergent v a l i d i t y . A l l items on the s c a l e have the f o l l o w i n g response c a t e g o r i e s : s t r o n g l y agree, agree, not sure, disagree, s t r o n g l y disagree. Values of one through f i v e were attached t o these c a t e g o r i e s depending on the d i r e c t i o n of the item, so t h a t a higher value i n d i c a t e s higher s e l f esteem. The cumulative value across items represents a person's l e v e l of s e l f esteem. " P o s i t i v e " and "negative" items were presented randomly i n order to reduce the e f f e c t of respondent s e t . A copy of the s c a l e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B.. 36 Interviews As described by Patton (1980) the "standardized open-ended i n t e r v i e w " c o n s i s t s of open-ended questions which are w r i t t e n out i n advance e x a c t l y the way they are to be asked during the i n t e r v i e w . Respondents answer the same questions so t h a t data i s complete f o r each person on the t o p i c s addressed i n the i n t e r v i e w . T h i s format was s e l e c t e d because i t obtains responses t h a t are e a s i l y compared across respondents and, t h e r e f o r e , data a n a l y s i s and o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d . The open-ended q u a l i t y enables p a r t i c i p a n t s to respond i n t h e i r own terms and minimizes the i m p o s i t i o n of predetermined reponses when gathering data. The i n t e r v i e w i n g procedure a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s probing, r e f l e c t i o n and paraphrasing i n order to encourage the respondent to elaborate w h i l e , a t the same time, being very c a r e f u l l not t o bi a s h i s answers i n any d i r e c t i o n . T h i s i n t e r v i e w approach attempts to capture the uniqueness i n each respondent's experience as w e l l as g a i n i n g an understanding of the s i m i l a r i t i e s amongst them. The p r e l i m i n a r y and summary i n t e r v i e w s were composed of two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of questions which access two d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . The questions asking what hinders or f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem are what Patton (1980) terms "experience/behaviour" quest i o n s . T h e i r purpose i s to e l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s of respondents' experiences, behaviours, a c t i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s case the questions were designed to e l i c i t experiences and behaviours which a f f e c t the respondent's s e l f esteem. The exact wording of these questions (and t h e i r numerical p o s i t i o n s i n the 37 i n t e r v i e w s ) i s as f o l l o w s : P r e l i m i n a r y I n t e r v i e w : 3. What f a c i l i t a t e s your s e l f esteem? 4. What hinders your s e l f esteem? Summary Int e r v i e w : 3. In your s i g n i f i c a n t events j o u r n a l you have become aware of events, experiences and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a f f e c t your s e l f esteem i n a p o s i t i v e or negative way.. Since the time of our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w what has happened or what have you done or experienced t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d your s e l f esteem? 4. Since the time of our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w what has happened or what have you done or experienced t h a t hindered your s e l f esteem? I f i n response t o the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w , c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s questions, the p a r t i c i p a n t began by expressing h i s o p i n i o n or theory about s e l f esteem, the researcher explained t h a t he was more i n t e r e s t e d i n concrete events, experiences or a c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s e l f esteem. On a few occasions, i t was necessary to d e f i n e the meaning of " f a c i l i t a t e " by o f f e r i n g such synonyms as "enhance", " i n c r e a s e " , or "improve". This v a r i e t y of "experience/behaviour" question i s an example of the " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique" pioneered by Flanagan (1954). This technique obtains r e p o r t s from people who are i n the best p o s i t i o n to determine the experiences and behaviours which help or hinder the f u n c t i o n i n g of some aim or process. I n t h i s case the respondent i s asked to s e l f observe because he i s i n the best p o s i t i o n to observe a s u b j e c t i v e l y experienced phenomenon l i k e s e l f esteem. In the absence of observable p h y s i o l o g i c a l or behavioural i n d i c a t o r s , s e l f esteem 38 can be measured only on the b a s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f e v a l u a t i v e r e p o r t s . In c r i t i c i z i n g c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used to measure s e l f esteem, Rosenberg (1979:21) describes the value of the s u b j e c t ' s vantage po i n t on the i s s u e : The s u b j e c t h i m s e l f may be as ignorant as the i n v e s t i -gator about how t h i s complex s y n t h e s i s of elements has been achieved, but he i s i n a unique p o s i t i o n t o r e -cognize, as a matter of immediate experience, the f i n a l r e s u l t . He alone can experience whether he has a f f lgen-e r a l l y favourable or unfavourable, p o s i t i v e or negative, pro or con f e e l i n g toward him s e l f as a whole. In one of the i n i t i a l s t u d i e s using a c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s approach, combat veterans were asked to r e p o r t observed i n c i d e n t s of l e a d e r s ' behaviours which were e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g to the accomplishment of the assigned mission (Flanagan, 1954). I n a more recent study which aimed t o d i s c o v e r what f a c i l i t a t e s or hinders " q u a l i t y of l i f e " , Flanagan (1978) modified the technique t o e l i c i t r e p o r t s of the s u b j e c t s ' experiences as w e l l as behaviours. In a d d i t i o n , the s u b j e c t s were asked to s e l f observe as opposed t o d e s c r i b i n g the behaviour of o t h e r s . Flanagan (1978: 138) used the f o l l o w i n g question: "Think of the l a s t time you d i d something very important to you or had an experience t h a t was e s p e c i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g to you. What d i d you do or what happened t h a t was so s a t i s f y i n g t o you?" This c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s approach c l o s e l y resembles t h a t used i n the present study. I n both s t u d i e s the goal i s to e l i c i t s e l f o b servations c o n s i s t i n g of behaviours and experiences . which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder a s u b j e c t i v e l y experienced phenomenon. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique was a l s o used by Herzberg (1959) t o discover the kinds of s i t u a t i o n s or f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to negative or p o s i t i v e worker a t t i t u d e s to the j o b . More r e c e n t l y , 39 Borgen and Amundson (1984) used the technique to o b t a i n concrete i n c i d e n t s t h a t were e i t h e r h i g h p o i n t s or low p o i n t s i n the process of unemployment. A study of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique undertaken by Anderson and N i l s s o n (1964) aimed to determine the job t r a i n i n g requirements of s t o r e managers. They discovered t h a t the category system (obtained by c l a s s i f y i n g the i n c i d e n t s according t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s ) became apparent a f t e r a r e l a t i v e l y s m all number of i n c i d e n t s had been c l a s s i f i e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t the technique provides f o r data c o l l e c t i o n which i s comprehensive enough to i n c l u d e a l l the f a c t o r s (or types of i n c i d e n t s ) t h a t the method may be expected to cover. They found that the number and s t r u c t u r e of the i n c i d e n t s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the method of c o l l e c t i n g the m a t e r i a l or by employing d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v i e w e r s to c o l l e c t the data. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the technique was f u r t h e r supported when i t was found t h a t the s t a b i l i t y of the category system was maintained when students r e c a t e g o r i z e d the i n c i d e n t s . In order t o determine the v a l i d i t y of the technique the researchers analyzed the contents of the l i t e r a t u r e used to t r a i n s t o r e managers. They discovered t h a t the contents of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e could be f i t t e d i n t o the category system. T h i s a n a l y s i s of the t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the method produced a l i s t of c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s which covered a l l the e s s e n t i a l requirements of the s t o r e manager's j o b . In summary the authors w r i t e : "According t o the r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s reported here on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y aspects of the 40 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique, i t would appear j u s t i f i a b l e to conclude t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method i s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . " (p. 402) The i n t e r v i e w s a l s o c o n t a i n what Patton (1980) terms "o p i n i o n / v a l u e " questions. Answers t o these questions r e v e a l what people t h i n k or understand about themselves, the world or some s p e c i f i c program. They a l s o uncover people's goals i n t e n t i o n s , d e s i r e s and va l u e s . The f i r s t q uestion of the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w ("What does s e l f esteem mean to you?") focuses on the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s personal understanding of s e l f esteem. The second question ("Given your understanding of s e l f esteem, how do you f e e l and/or t h i n k about y o u r s e l f ? " ) r e q u i r e s the expression of a s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e o p i n i o n . Together, these two questions encourage the respondent to express a personal understanding of s e l f esteem so t h a t the aim of the subsequent c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s questions i s c l e a r l y d efined and e a s i l y r e f e r r e d t o . Once the meaning of s e l f esteem i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t the onset, the respondent can c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r t o t h i s same d e f i n i t o n while f o r m u l a t i n g answers to the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s q u e s t i o n s . I n t h i s way the s t r u c t u r e of the i n t e r v i e w e s t a b l i s h e s a measure of consistency so t h a t the respondent's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f esteem remains s t a b l e throughout the i n t e r v i e w . The l a s t two questions of the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w are worded i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 5. With regards to your s e l f esteem, what do you want to get out of t h i s workshop? 6. What are your goals and expectations f o r t h i s work-shop . ? 41 These questions attempt to uncover the s p e c i f i c goals or d e s i r e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s expect to o b t a i n or f u l f i l l by v i r t u e of t h e i r involvement i n the program. The " o p i n i o n / v a l u e " questions i n the summary i n t e r v i e w are l i s t e d below: 1. Given your understanding of s e l f esteem, how do you t h i n k and/or f e e l about y o u r s e l f now? 2. Do you t h i n k there's been a change i n your s e l f es-" teem s i n c e our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w ? I f so, how has i t changed? 5. Describe how your goals and expectations f o r the workshop were f u l f i l l e d or not f u l f i l l e d . Questions 1. and 2. r e q u i r e an e v a l u a t i o n of the nature and extent of s e l f esteem change s i n c e the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . The l a s t q uestion asks f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of how w e l l the program f u l f i l l e d p a r t i c i p a n t ' s goals and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The goals and expectations c o l l e c t e d from the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w were read back t o the p a r t i c i p a n t so t h a t he could assess progress or degree of f u l f i l l m e n t by comparing h i s present c o n d i t i o n w i t h some b a s e l i n e data. I t was expected t h a t answers to t h i s question would c o n t a i n some data that would express the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s o p i n i o n of the program's value and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . (For a complete l i s t of p r e l i m i n a r y and summary i n t e r v i e w questions, see Appendix B.) S i g n i f i c a n t Events J o u r n a l C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s data may be obtained through s e v e r a l s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g procedures. In a d d i t i o n to the i n t e r v i e w approach, Flanagan (1954) describes a method r e q u i r i n g s u b j e c t s t o record the d e t a i l s of an i n c i d e n t as they occur on a day to day b a s i s . In the present study p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o keep a personal record of the i n c i d e n t s which hindered or f a c i l i t a t e d 42 s e l f esteem. They were i n s t r u c t e d t o record the i n c i d e n t s as they occurred during the week and informed t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l would be c o l l e c t e d on a weekly b a s i s . The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to the p a r t i c i p a n t : I would l i k e you t o keep a record of the s i g n i f i c a n t events r e l a t e d t o your s e l f esteem. As you go through your d a i l y l i f e take s p e c i a l n o t i c e of the events and experiences which e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e or hinder your s e l f esteem. What happens to f a c i l i t a t e your s e l f esteem and what happens t o hinder i t ? Record each f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t on a separate y e l l o w card and each h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t on a separate blue c a r d . Every p a r t i c i p a n t was given a supply of approximately f i f t e e n y e l l o w and f i f t e e n blue cards per week. I n order to a i d the p a r t i c i p a n t i n the task of record keeping i t was suggested t h a t the r e c o g n i t o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t event could be marked by a b r i e f w r i t t e n note or mental n o t a t i o n u n t i l such time as the p a r t i c i p a n t could record the i n c i d e n t on the card. I t was a l s o suggested t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s designate a f i v e or ten minute p e r i o d of every day during which they could r e f l e c t on the day's events and record anything t h a t had a s i g n i f i c a n t or n o t i c e a b l e impact on s e l f esteem. The i n t e r v i e w procedure r e q u i r e s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e view of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s which may be l i m i t e d by the extent and accuracy of the respondent's memory. The j o u r n a l approach overcomes some of the l i m i t a t i o n s inherent i n the i n t e r v i e w procedure; i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s f a r l e s s l i k e l y t h a t events or experiences a f f e c t i n g s e l f esteem w i l l be l o s t to memory when they are being recorded on a d a i l y or weekly b a s i s . The j o u r n a l a l s o provides a microscopic view of the day to day events and experiences which hinder or f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. The 43 interview i s more li k e l y to engage the respondent i n a long range retrospective view which would predispose him to focus on those events which are most easily remembered. Although i t may produce the most salient incidents, the interview i s probably less l i k e l y to obtain the more common everyday experiences which affect self esteem. Another advantage of the journal procedure i s that i t increases the likelihood that the experience or event has a true and valid influence on self esteem. In keeping a journal the participant becomes sensitized to the experience of self esteem and to what causes i t to fluctuate. The procedure i s based on the participant's present or immediate awareness of his self esteem. When an incident occurs the participant can readily determine i t s significance by referring to his present awareness of self esteem. In contrast, the respondent in an interview must rely on a recollection of an awareness of fluctuation i s self esteem. Thus, the validity of the incident i s more dependent on what may be a limited capacity to recall an awarenes of a subjective experience. 44 PROCEDURE - A f t e r p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were inte r v i e w e d i n the i n i t i a l telephone conversation to assess t h e i r appropriateness f o r the group, an i n t e r v i e w time was arranged. The e i g h t men who were s e l e c t e d were in t e r v i e w e d i n the two weeks preceeding the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the program. Before beginning the i n t e r v i e w , each p a r t i c i p a n t read a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n to the program w r i t t e n by the sponsoring p s y c h o l o g i s t and c o - f a c i l i t a t o r (see Appendix C ) . Each p a r t i c i p a n t then read and agreed to s i g n a consent form (see Subject Consent Form, Appendix C) which describes the nature and purpose of the study and o u t l i n e s the course of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s involvement i n i t . The form a l s o s t i p u l a t e d t h a t an agreement to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l u d e d consent to be tape recorded during the p r e l i m i n a r y and summary i n t e r v i e w s . A f t e r consent was obtained, the s e l f esteem q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered. When t h i s form was completed the i n t e r v i e w e r introduced the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w by informing the p a r t i c i p a n t t h a t he would be questioned regarding h i s s e l f esteem and h i s goals and expec t a t i o n s f o r the workshop. The l e n g t h of time of the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w ranged from f o r t y - f i v e minutes to one hour. When i t was completed the i n t e r v i e w e r gave the p a r t i c i p a n t the oppor t u n i t y to ask questions regarding the i n t e r v i e w , the study or the workshop. Then, he explained the c r i t i c a l events record and provided the p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h a supply of blue and yel l o w cards w i t h which to begin the record i n pr e p a r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t s e s s i o n . These cards were c o l l e c t e d every week a t the beginning of each s e s s i o n and more were dispensed, i f the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s 45" supply was exhausted. The self esteem program was designed by the author who conducted the program on two previous occasions. The program consists of eight sessions, each, three hours in length, which were conducted one evening per week for eight consecutive weeks. The author performed the role of group facilitator. He was assisted by a co-facilitator who functioned as a participant-observer; that i s , he participated in the group exercises but he was also available to lead small group discussions and provide the facilitator with feedback regarding issues of group process and the facilitator's performance. In this case the co-facilitator was a registered psychologist under whose auspices the group was being conducted. The facilitators used a client-centered approach during group discussions and in their interactions with clients. Each session consisted of a number of experiential activities designed to explore and enhance the participant's self esteem. The entire program is outlined in Appendix A which contains a session by session description of each of the experiential activities. All the participants were interviewed in the fourth week . following the last session of the program. Before the interview began the self esteem questionnaire was again administered to each participant and the last set of significant events cards was collected. The summary interviews, like the preliminary ones, were tape recorded. Each interview lasted between sixty and ninety minutes. The self esteem questionnaire was individually administered 46 f o r the f i r s t time to the e i g h t c o n t r o l group p a r t i c i p a n t s during the same week t h a t the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s were being conducted w i t h the program p a r t i c i p a n t s . Before answering the qu e s t i o n n a i r e , the c o n t r o l group su b j e c t s a l s o read a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n from the sponsoring p s y c h o l o g i s t and a consent form (See Appendix C). The qu e s t i o n n a i r e was administered f o r the second and f i n a l time during the week t h a t summary i n t e r v i e w s were being, conducted w i t h the program p a r t i c i p a n t s , approximately twelve weeks f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 4 7 DATA ANALYSIS C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s data was d i v i d e d i n t o two major groups. The f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of data c o n s i s t e d of those experiences and events which hindered or enhance s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . The data f o r t h i s group was c o l l e c t e d from t r a n s c r i p t s of the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w and from the j o u r n a l . The second c o l l e c t i o n of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s c o n s i s t e d of those events or experiences which occurred w i t h i n the context of the program. V i r t u a l l y a l l of the i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d from t r a n s c r i p t s of the summary i n t e r v i e w f e l l i n t o t h i s category. A s m a l l number of j o u r n a l i n c i d e n t s described program experiences which a f f e c t e d s e l f esteem. T h i s data was a l s o used to form the second major group of i n c i d e n t s . The next task i n data a n a l y s i s was t o induce a s e t of c a t e g o r i e s from the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s of the f i r s t major group such t h a t the i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n each category were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a d i s t i n c t and w e l l defined experience or event which f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . Thus, the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o groups on the b a s i s of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . The aim was to o b a t i n groups of concrete i n c i d e n t s which r e f e r r e d t o the same event, a c t i v i t y or experience. A category was formed on the b a s i s of grouping two or more s i m i l a r events or experiences c o l l e c t e d from at l e a s t two p a r t i c i p a n t s . C l a s s i s f i c a t i o n was made e a s i e r by making an i n i t i a l assessment of whether or not the i n c i d e n t responded to the question: "What happened"? This question e l i c i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s 48 of concrete events and experiences. I f the i n c i d e n t answered the q u e s t i o n , i t was i n c l u d e d . I n c i d e n t s which d i d not address t h i s q uestion were l i k e l y to c o n s i s t of an expressed o p i n i o n or an a b s t r a c t theory. This i n f o r m a t i o n was discarded because i t describes the respondent's theory of s e l f esteem r a t h e r than what a c t u a l l y happens to i n f l u e n c e s e l f esteem. When these responses are e l i m i n a t e d , respondent's t h e o r i e s do not i n f l u e n c e the form th a t the c a t e g o r i e s w i l l take. S i m i l a r l y , the researcher was c a r e f u l l not to impose h i s own t h e o r e t i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s on the data. The aim was to adhere to the enent's d e t a i l s to a l l o w them to suggest the c a t e g o r i e s . Patton (1980: 40-41) de s c r i b e s t h i s i n d u c t i v e approach: A q u a l i t a t i v e research s t r a t e g y i s i n d u c t i v e i n t h a t the researcher attempts to make sense of the s i t u a t i o n without imposing p r e e x i s t i n g expectations on the r e -search s e t t i n g . Q u a l i t a t i v e designs begin w i t h s p e c i f i c observations and b u i l d toward general p a t t e r n s . Categor-i e s or dimensions of a n a l y s i s emerge from open-ended observations as the researcher comes to understand o r -g a n i z i n g p a t t e r n s t h a t e x i s t i n the e m p i r i c a l world under study . . . The s t r a t e g y . . . i s to a l l o w the important dimensions to emerge from a n a l y s i s of. cases under study without presupposing i n advance what those important dimensions w i l l be. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by i n i t i a l l y f o c u s i n g on the c l e a r e s t i n c i d e n t s , those most e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s . These i n c i d e n t s became prototypes i n t h a t they captured the key f e a t u r e s of a category and they were, t h e r e f o r e , the key i n s t a n c e s of i t . In c o n t r a s t , most i n c i d e n t s contained only some of the f e a t u r e s of a p a r t i c u l a r category and many contained f e a -t u r e s of more than one category. Hence, there were no r i g i d boundaries between c a t e g o r i e s because the i n c i d e n t s contained w i t h i n them he l d f e a t u r e s t h a t made them e l i g i b l e f o r other 49 c a t e g o r i e s . The d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e an i n c i d e n t i n a category was based on the extent to which i t resembled the prototype of one category as opposed to the prototype of another. During c a t e g o r i z a t i o n the researcher encountered " b o r d e r l i n e i n c i d e n t s " which could e a s i l y f a l l i n t o more than one category. These i n s t a n c e s were s e t a s s i d e u n t i l the r e s t were c l a s s i f i e d . A f t e r a s e t of t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d they were checked f o r i n c i d e n t s which d i d not f i t and reviewed to d i s c e r n whether or not the i n c i d e n t s shared a common resemblance to the prototype. T h i s review prompted m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the category system. Some c a t e g o r i e s were r e d e f i n e d . Some we're c o l l a p s e d to form one category and others were s p l i t apart to form two c a t e g o r i e s . These m o d i f i c a t i o n s were a l s o encouraged by attempts to c l a s s i f y the b o r d e r l i n e cases. A f t e r review and m o d i f i c a t i o n s , each category was defined by for m u l a t i n g a d e s c r i t p i o n of the category's f e a t u r e s . In a d d i t i o n , a l a b e l t h a t captured the essence of the category was a l s o attached. Once the c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s , the h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s of the f i r s t major group were c l a s s i f i e d by l o c a t i n g the f a c i l i t a t i v e category which best represented i t s counterpart. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s f o l l o w e d the same procedures as were employed to create the i n i t i a l s e t of c a t e g o r i e s beginning w i t h a focus on p r o t o t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t s . Once the h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d , the c a t e g o r i e s were defined i n terms of t h e i r e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s . These d e s c r i t p i o n s formed the counterpart or m i r r o r 50 image of the f a c i l i t a t i n g category d e s c r i p t i o n s . The next step i n data a n a l y s i s was t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s . A sample of i n c i d e n t s was s e l e c t e d from each- category: two f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s and two h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . B o r d e r l i n e cases were not s e l e c t e d because they do not adequately represent any one category. Samples contained i n c i d e n t s which i n c l u d e d the key f e a t u r e s of the category from which they were drawn. A r a t e r ( i n t h i s case, a f e l l o w graduate student) was h i r e d to c l a s s i f y the sample. The researcher described the f e a t u r e s of each category to the r a t e r and emphasized the key f e a t u r e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d each category from othes t o which i t h e l d a resemblance. S i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s were described together i n thematic groups so t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between them could be h i g h l i g h t e d . When the r a t e r was engaged i n s o r t i n g the sample, the researcher observed the process so t h a t the r a t e r could l a t e r be questioned regarding her c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . I n uncovering the r a t e r ' s reasonings, i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r l e g i t i m a t e quandaries, or o v e r s i g h t s i n the category system. This i n f o r m a t i o n may be h e l p f u l i n improving the category system. I t was decided i n advance t h a t the c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e i g h t y per cent of the sample would i n d i c a t e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y . At t h i s p o i n t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were determined f o r each category. These were obtained by counting the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s who produced a t l e a s t one i n c i d e n t i n the category under s c r u t i n y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s an i n d i c a t o r of the v a l i d i t y of the category. I f two or more p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e 51 experiences which are s i m i l a r enough such t h a t they can be grouped together to form a category, then the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of t h i s experience has acquired a c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v i t y . I f the i n c i d e n t s i n a category are obtained from only one p a r t i c i p a n t , the category i t s e l f i s suspect. I t should be s c r u t i n i z e d to determine i f i t makes sense, i f i t i s ambiguous or u n c l e a r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would encourage the researcher to p r o j e c t h i s own meanings onto the i n c i d e n t s of the category. In e x c e p t i o n a l cases, i t i s p o s s i b l e to have a category formed by one i n c i d e n t from one s u b j e c t . The i n c i d e n t would have to co n t a i n f e a t u r e s t h a t would make i t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a l l other c a t e g o r i e s . For the most p a r t , however, a category's v a l i d i t y i s more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d by higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . The second major group of i n c i d e n t s described experiences, events and a c t i v i t i e s which occurred w i t h i n the program and which had a f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t on s e l f esteem. An attempt was made to c l a s s i f y t h i s data according to the newly devised category system which o u t l i n e d f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . Thus, the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s was determined by the extent to which p a r t i c i p a n t s ' experiences w i t h i n the program r e f l e c t e d the f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . I t was reasoned t h a t i f the program enabled p a r t i c i p a n t s to experience f a c i l i t a t i v e events and a c t i v i t i e s which represented a l l of the c a t e g o r i e s , then i t s value i n en-hancing s e l f esteem would be s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d . This method as-sesses the extent to which the program provides a comprehenseive 52 range of f a c i l i t a t i n g experiences. I t a l s o o u t l i n e s and describes the nature of those experiences. I n a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were obtained i n order to determine how many p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to experience the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of each i n d i v i d u a l category. T h i s a n a l y s i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the program's c a p a c i t y to provide a range of f a c i l i t a t i v e experiences to a d i v e r s e group of p a r t i c i p a n t s who manifest a spectrum of i n d i v i d u a l needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 5 3 RESULTS ONE: INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP IMPROVEMENT A. QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Table I presents the raw scores on the s c a l e of s e l f esteem obtained a t time one (pre-program) and time two (post-program) f o r both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. Despite the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean scores a t time one between the two groups, a t - t e s t f o r independent means produced n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the two groups are roughly comparable on s e l f esteem. When an a n a l y s i s of covariance was a p p l i e d to t h i s data the program d i d not produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s on the s c a l e of s e l f esteem. TABLE I . S e l f Esteem Scores GROUP A GROUP B (Experimental) ( c o n t r o l ) Subject Time One Time Two Time One Time Two 1. 30 41 48 41 2. 42 44 38 3. 46 46 39 45 4. 41 37 48 48 5. 30 44 33 35 6. 32 38 40 44 7. 39 42 30 32 8. 30 36 47 48 u 290 328 323 338 X 36.25 41 40.4 42.25 54 B. QUALITATIVE RESULTS Recorded responses to the opinion/value questions were used to compile the following case studies. Each of the eight case studies begins with the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s summary interview assessment of the d i r e c t i o n and degree of change i n s e l f esteem since the time of the preliminary interview. The case studies also describe what changes occurred by presenting each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s assessment of the extent to which his i n i t i a l l y stated goals were f u l f i l l e d by h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n the program. I n i t i a l l y stated goals are indicated by the lower case, Roman Numeral ( i ) . These excerpts from the preliminary interview are followed by the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s summary interview assessment of the degree to which the goal was f u l f i l l e d by h i s involvement i n the program. These responses are indicated by the lower case, Roman Numeral ( i i ) . As well as describing what changes took place, - these excerpts also often express what happened to f a c i l i t a t e the change, or how i t (the process) occurred. The changes f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t are numbered and l a b e l l e d with a more succinct d e s c r i p t i o n of the change. 55 SUBJECT ONE Change i n s e l f esteem: "Yes, I b e l i e v e there i s a change. I t h i n k I have improved my s e l f esteem i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t a k i n g your course. I f e e l very p o s i t i v e and upbeat about myself and my own s e l f image. My s e l f image has improved over the l a s t twelve weeks, so I'm on a "high " r i g h t now. I'm going to t r y to push to even greater heights i n the new year." 1. Overcoming Ambivalence to Obtain Focus, C l a r i t y , D i r e c t i o n ( i ) "I'm a b i v a l e n t . I'm not sure. P a r t l y because I've been going through a pe r i o d of s e l f a n a l y s i s . I'm k i n d of i n a quandary because I'm a u n i v e r s a l i s t . I b e l i e v e e v e r y t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s l i f e . Therefore, what do I b e l i e v e i n ? What am I doing? I s i t p o s i t i v e or negative? What i s the meaning or purpose of l i f e ? " ( i i ) " I t ' s a r e a l s t r u g g l e f i n d i n g meaning and purpose i n l i f e . Coping w i t h t h a t i s a s t r u g g l e f o r me because I tend to get very p h i l o s o p h i c a l . What the workshop has helped me to do i s to n a i l i t down i n t o concrete terms; t h a t i s , you're here and now, you've got these problems, you've got these g o a l s , what are you going t o do about them? How are you going about them? Let' s not d i s c u s s the p h i l o s o p h i e s of i t . L e t ' s j u s t get on w i t h the day to day l i v i n g . I f anything, i t was l i k e a k i c k o f f w i t h something I was already s t r u g g l i n g to achieve but never r e a l l y put i n t o concrete terms. L i k e , what to do s p e c i f i c a l l y . What I t h i n k the workshop provided was some ways of e x p e d i t i n g my search. I t gave me the d i r e c t i o n and the techniques." 2. D i s c o v e r i n g a G u i d e l i n e or Standard to L i v e By ( i ) "My only problem i s not having something to l a t c h onto l i k e a r e l i g i o n or a b e l i e f . I know I have f e l t b e t t e r about myself when I have something to b e l i e v e i n , a g u i d e l i n e . " ( i i ) "To sum up, i t s a i d s e l f esteem i s a very important part of my l i f e and i f I don't address i t and look a f t e r i t , i t ' s going to a f f e c t a l l the other t h i n g s I want to do. I t ' s going t o a f f e c t me, my perception of others and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of me." 3. Overcoming P r o c r a s t i n a t i o n ( i ) " I f e e l k i n d of i n the middle. I know th a t there are th i n g s I could be doing, should be doing, but don't get around to doing and I'm mad at myself f o r not doing them." ( i i ) "I've got myself to the p o i n t where I can see i f I'm making progress and i f I'm not I have a mental whip which says *Get i n t o shape. Do th a t page today. Don't slough i t o f f t i l tomorrow because t h i s i s one of your bad h a b i t s you don't l i k e about y o u r s e l f . So, do i t ! ' That's probably the two biggest words the therapy group presented: xDo i t ! Don't wait f o r tomorrow. Do i t now!" 56 4. Acquiring Techniques (i) - Hopefully you can lend some light in helping me improve my self esteem. I'm not saying I'm looking for a miracle. I'm looking for your interpretation. Hopefully you can offer some techniques as an alternative to help improve my self esteem." ( i i ) "I have been able to use some of the techniques your workshop has provided in improving and enhancing my self image. In conjuction with the workshop and the techniques I have moved and advanced in a positive direction from where I was and I have continued to move. It's not just ended after twelve weeks. It's a continuing process of growth." 5. Objectivity (i) "The course may lend a certain objectivity that I can't maybe see in trying to cope with these situations. So, by having someone else make suggestions, or provide alternatives may help." ( i i ) "I think the observations of others were very important. Through the therapy I obsorbed them and used them to improve myself . . . I look at myself as having gained personal experience in being able to look at myself objectively." 6. Discovering Commonality with Others (i) "I want to participate in order to get the experience of working with other people who are also developing their self esteem and whom I believe have many of the same problems that I'm experiencing. I'm probably not the only person in these dilemmas. I want to see how other people are working through. I want to see how its affecting them too, to see whether I'm making strides in comparison with them." ( i i ) "It seemed like everyone had problems at some point in their lives. By seeing that I was not the only one struggling with my self image or what I'm doing with my l i fe made me feel like one of the group rather than an isolated case. They shared with me some of the problems that were hindering their progression and I felt that some of my problems were very small by comparison." 7. Obtaining Information About a Possible Career (i) "I'm looking at i t in terms of a future career as" well because I feel that i t ' s an area I'd like to study because' I'm fascinated by people. ( i i ) "It gave me sort of a preview of what I could-see in my own career aspirations. If Randy could do this as part of his career goals, then that is something I would look very favourably on for myself." 57 8. Sensitivity to Others (i) "Also, to find a technique where I may become more conscious of others' problems and needs too, before I get to the point where I insult them or hurt their feelings. In other words, to be more sensitive." ( i i ) "At the same time as being part of that group I felt an empathy or sympathy with the other people and their problems and how perhaps I could help them . . . I've learned about helping others maintain their self esteem by being more aware of my own. I can be more aware of how I affect them and their self esteem and I ' l l be more carefull to ensure that I'm not hurting them and their self esteem." 9. Improving Interpersonal Relationships (i) "Maybe I can also learn how to better relate with some of the people I live with and work with." ( i i ) "I'm letting myself be myself and I'm not holding back as much as I was. before due to low self esteem. Now I'm more relaxed. Instead of being uptight and worrying about how I come across, I simply let myself be myself and react to people in a positive way. The group gave you more of a strength to try to deal with a stranger because you have the success pattern of being able to relate to a number of other people in the group. By being able to feel more relaxed with a group of people i t sort of softens you up for any one individual." 10. Fulfillment of Initially Unstated Goals ( i i ) "I think I had a lot of goals fulfi l led as a result of the workshop that weren't necessarily there to begin with." Self Understanding; "I didn't know what self esteem was when I first started. What is this ethereal image? I had no idea. Now I know . If anything, that's what your workshop provided, an image I could relate to, or an understanding of my own self esteem and others' and how i t interacts and interferes with others." Self Acceptance: "I'm also being more realistic with myself. I'm not afraid to know what my limitations are anymore. It's not like, xmy God, I can't do this because I'm a dodo.' If I am a dodo, I will be a very happy one. I ' l l have other talents I can enjoy and create." Overcoming Bad Habits: "Physically speaking, too, my desire was to become healthier and stop the smoking atmosphere, drinking, coffee and tea. These were a l l part of i t but reinforced and encouraged and promoted by going to the workshop." 58 SUBJECT TWO Change In Self Esteem: "It [the program] really boosted my self esteem because I felt like I had something to offer and what I was contributing was O.K. It really made me feel that i t was 0. K. to be myself . . . It helped my self esteem because I know I was able to listen . . . It really helped a lot in my relationship, in the way I communicate with T ." 1. Better Communication (i) "Number one: communication. I'd like to be able to try to realize . . . how to go about different ways of communicating with people." ( i i ) "Oh yeah, I've learned how to communicate better. I can't exactly pinpoint i t but probably through listening, participating and probing more. I guess just being in that situation of sharing. 1 talk to you; you talk to me. That was a tool or exercise." 2. Becoming More Understanding and Less Judegmental (i) "Instead of being selfish by saying to myself, xyou don't relate to the way I think', I would like to learn to feel a l i t t l e more for other people and perhaps understand them better." ( i i ) "Yes, by feeling more secure about myself . . . The more secure I feel about myself the more I don't have to find the negative points about the other person or judge and criticize them. Because you feel good about yourself you want to say,xhey, you feel good about yourself too. You have good qualities.'" 3. Dealing With Criticism More Effectively (i) "I want to learn to take good criticism and look at criticism in a positive way, i f I feel its just. But immediately now when someone, T , criticizes or nags me I ' l l become very defensive. I'd like to learn to recognize that and not take i t so hard." ( i i ) "Yeah, I have been able to accept criticism in a way What i t [the group] did was when I went home and T started criticizing me I didn't get defensive. I started listening to what he was saying and realized he was just giving me possiblities, instead of immediately thinking that what he's saying is against me." 4. Reassurance (i) "I'd like some direction. I'd like to know that what I've chosen is right for me." ( i i ) "Definitely, through the final exercise where everybody said, xhey, you're O.K.'" 59 5. Overcoming Fear of Speaking in Groups (i) "I've always had this terror of speaking in front of groups of people. I'd like to overcome that." ( i i ) "I'm s t i l l not comfortable. Maybe I ' l l always be a one to one person but i t ' s not so terrible not being able to speak in front of crowds . . . I used to feel that because I'm not talkative in groups I'm going to lose out. I just learned that that's the way I am. You can learn a lot by listening. You don't put your foot in your mouth as much either." SUBJECT THREE Change in Self Esteem: "It has changed because I'm more rational. Now I'm feeling a lot more confident that I can control my emotions and my actions so that i t doesn't affect my self esteem, so that I'm not such a yoyo in terms of fluctuations. . . I think I have more validation to say why I feel ' better about myself. The self esteem before the workshop was kind of cocky and conceited . . . Now, I have self esteem for very personal reasons; for instance, for xme'. I feel a lot better about *me', just who I am. It doesn't have to do with my career. I'm O.K." 1. Living Authentically in Relationship to Others (i) "Having to deal with these people in my everyday world with the facade of being straight is not real, not honest. It's phoney. I don't like to do i t . What I'd like from the workshop is to be myself as much as I can." ( i i ) "After coming out to my parents which was my objective at the beginning of the workshop, I just felt such an inner peace and I felt really good. I didn't have to hide anymore. There were no more underlying statements like, ^If you only knew. . . ' In that way I feel really good about myself." 2. Self Acceptance (Sexuality) (i) "My goals are at least to raise my self esteem related to my sexuality by getting to know other people, just by talking to them." ( i i ) "My goal was to facilitate my self esteem in terms of being a gay man. They've done i t just by being there because they are a l l gay men. I could identify and share." 3. Fulfillment of Initially Unstated Goals Acquisition ofCommunication Skills: "I have the skills now, better use of communication ski l l s . I have an asset in my personal l i f e . It's a goal I didn't realize I was having but now 60 I'm prepared to use those s k i l l s when I have t o . " Increased Confidence: "Now I'm f e e l i n g a l o t more confident that I can co n t r o l my emotions and my actions so i t doesn't a f f e c t my s e l f esteem, so that I'm not such a yoyo i n terms of f l u c t u a t i o n . That's something I learned from the other people i n the group, that i t ' s important to keep on an even k e e l . " Independence: "I have more sec u r i t y about who and what I am and what I want to do. Before I f e l t weird about myself. Now I f e e l very s p e c i a l about myself and I don't have to prove to anybody else that I'm s p e c i a l rather than weird. Increased Enjoyment of Self and L i f e : "I can have fun now , instead of holding back. There's a new world open to me and I can have fun. I t brings out that part of me that wants to have fun and be f r i s k y . That's something that r e a l l y has changed, that I can be so open." L i f e Planning: " B a s i c a l l y confidence and help to plan each step. In terms of the group, planning my l i f e , period. . . Support and new goals and new ways to approach immediate and f a r reaching goals. Self Awareness and Self Caring: "Keeping myself i n my mind. What are the repercussions going to be on my x f e e l i n g s e l f ' rather than what 's .going to happen on other l e v e l s . Now there's the "inner me'. I 'm more conscious of how that's going to a f f e c t me i n s i d e . Now I'm thinking more about my s e l f esteem and how i t ' s going to a f f e c t i t . " SUBJECT FOUR ' Change i n Self Esteem: "Oh d e f i n i t e l y . The s e l f esteem part i s , the way I see i t , i f you love yourself. I'm f e e l i n g better about myself. I f I didn't, I couldn't pursue the things that I have, so I am d e f i n i t e l y f e e l i n g better about xme'." 1. Obtaining Motivation, Direction,'a Career Goal ( i ) "When you have problems you're s e l f esteem lowers. I f I can get myself going, work out these problems and get them behind me, my s e l f esteem w i l l automatically come up . Getting myself going l i k e I s a i d . " ( i i ) "I f e e l a l o t better about myself because the main reason I came to t h i s program was to get myself a goal i n l i f e and now I've been going stronger and stronger towards nursing. . . I do f e e l better about myself now because of the goal I have. When I came to the workshop I didn't have any career goal. . . I f e e l that my career d i r e c t i o n i s going now." 61 2. Self Acceptance Through Discovering Commonality With Others (i) "Realizing that I'm not the only one out there that maybe has, not exactly the same problems, but problems to work out. ( i i ) "When you feel more comfortable being gay as I do now, obviously your self esteem is going to boost too. If you feel bad about being gay, how can you feel good about yourself? Now I don't feel guilty anymore. I realize that what I'm doing or feeling is natural. There are hundreds of other people, or millions, like me. I'm not the only one. There's a sense of community now." .3. Self Acceptance Through Comparison and Helpful Interaction (i) "Hopefully I ' l l get to know some people, get to know what brings them up or down . . . Maybe I ' l l be able to work on i t with somebody else instead of always working on i t by myself. I think that this would be a lot better: to sit around and talk with a few people. . . I can compare myself with the other people in the group about the way they think about themselves." ( i i ) "One of my main goals was to meet gay people and to see i f gay people are really normal people. I didn't really know how other gay people functioned and lived on a daily basis. Just hearing and talking with them I realized, xhey, we're like everybody else'." There's only one slight difference. By seeing that I've been able to accept myself so much more being gay and that was one of my main goals in the group and i t does help." 4. Fulfillment of Initially Unstated Goals ( i i ) "Everything I got from the group was much more than I thought I would get. I can't say there wasn't any goal that wasn't met because the goals I had were not a l l that high anyway." Learning How to Trust Others: "Trusting people was a goal. You had to trust people in the group because a l l of the exercises required i t . If you don't really trust people you couldn't have done that. Acquiring Capacity to Discriminate According to One's Values: "I'm realizing now what I don't like in the gay community. I go out and I see some of these people are really putting on an act and they make a l l of us look pretty bad. It [the program] clarified that I like people who are themselves . . . I can now pick and choose people I want to be with. I don't necessarily have to be with people I don't like." Learning the Value of Action: "I guess you have to go out and do things like I have been to see whether its right or not right for you. That's with everything. It doesn't matter what you do just go out and do i t . By not doing anything you're not going to get very far. A lot of this stuff resurfaced in the group." 62 Learning the Value of Genuineness In Self and Others; "When I was in Medicine Hat I wasn't myself there but I'm realizing, xBe yourself!' That's what the group did. Everybody in the group was themself. They weren't putting on no front or anything. That's what I gained from the group too. Just because you're gay doesn't mean you have to change your whole being. You're s t i l l yourself." SUBJECT FIVE Change in Self Esteem: "There has been a change^in my self esteem. It has definitely increased and i t 's become much more natural for me to think well of myself and to be kind to myself than I was before." 1. Emotional Maturity: Independence in Relationship (i) "I see this workshop as a new thing focused specifically on what's concerning me at this point, emotional maturity in a gay reltionship. What I hope to achieve is a greater emotional maturity . . . When i t gets right down to i t emotional maturity is being in a relationship and feeling good without feeling scared a l l the time that you are fucking up. It means that I can be an effective lover, that I won't be a childlike lover were I want to cling and think that this is my prince charming. I want to be on a level where I can see myself in a really positive viewpoint in a relationship." ( i i ) "They [my goals] were met. Definitely. What I consider emotionally immature and what I was having such a dreadfull time dealing with was this l i fe time habit of placing my happiness with other people, making them reponsible for my happiness. I knew I couldn't expect a miracle cure, but I received so much support, affection.and confirmation to be %F , the individual' that I was able to achieve my goal of XF the individual whose happiness is affected daily by other people but i t is dependent on F ' . I felt more worthy in that group than I ever felt before and i t 's a lasting worthiness so there was a development of myself in that group. I l ie here now and I say I've got the maturity that I've wanted. I got out of i t exactly what I wanted and that set the graph of self esteem much higher." 2. Acquiring New Perspectives and Insights (i) "I'm really interested in learning how other people feel about things . . . Through group discussion and group dynamics learning new ideas about how to see myself, a new and probably refreshing outlook on improving my self esteem." ( i i ) "I was given a lot of challenging ideas on how to deal with various things that I've had trouble with; that is , anger and how i t affects my self esteem, self flagellation and how i t affects my self esteem, self love and how i t affects my self esteem." 63 3. Fulfillment of Initially Unstated Goals Self Acceptance: Accepting One's Attributes; "I used to get bothered that I was so sincere. I used to think you had to be cool. I was able to accept my trait towards sincerity more fully because in that group my sensitivity was appreciated and talked about in such a positive way. It just helped to throw out anoter old quirk about men are not supposed to be sensitive." Self Acceptance: Sexuality: "Learning how not to make being gay an issue makes being gay more natural. I'm much easier with my sexuality. It isn't as difficult to disclose as i t used to be. I'm just F . I'm not NF the gay' or F^ the fag'. I'm just XF ' . I've finally seen being gay as just one aspect of a person's character. Therefore, i t 's no longer an issue. Developing a Self Caring Attitude: "My self esteem has definitely increased. . . It has become more natural for me to treat myself more emotionally; that is , not flagellate myself whereas before I started the course i t was a concerted effort not to flagellate myself . . . Before, I would always catch myself putting myself down whereas now I am much kinder to myself." Acquisition of Communication Skills: "On a practical level I got a lot of experience in communicating my ideas . . . I developed a much better style of basic communication with people. I find i t much easier to express my thoughts and feelings without being overcome with shyness or without thinking that other people are going to think I'm stupid or talking through my hat." SUBJECT SIX Change in Self Esteem: "Yeah, I would say *yes'. I would think that a greater awareness of having similar problems, similar feelings, has taken away the feeling of isolation. I think i t 's an increase in self esteem." 1. Recovering from a Broken Relationship (i) "I'm hoping that i t will help to resovle some of the patchy feelings that I have as a result of the last relationship, and that i t will snap me back into a plateau of more relaxedness with myself so I can start moving ahead without feeling that every action is an effort which has been the case." ( i i ) "It did because I was able to express some of my feelings to the group in some of the sessions. What they gave me back was understanding. Ultimately I was able to rebuild my self esteem on ground that had become shaky. This relationship had really shattered my values but getting the validation back from the group, that I am a valid person and really valuable in a 64 relationship really helped." 2. Learning How to Increase Capacity For Physical Stress (i) "Some of my circuits jammed too generally because of my break-up with J . . . There's also that underlying question about the family disease. It's a spook that keeps coming up to rear its ugly head whenever you're performing a new task. You're under a lot of stess. You never really have enough recovery energy. Increasing my self esteem will increase my recovery energy." ( i i) "I was pissed off with myself that I was becoming a worm ball in terms of my energy level. What I've done is the opposite. I've said, "Fine, you're tired. Relax and enjoy i t ! ' The ultimate effect will increase my energy again." 3. Obtaining Awareness of Resources in the Gay Community (i) "I think there's more that I could do to accept the resources that are available in the gay community." ( i i ) "There's been an awareness of the resources and what they stand for and what they don't stand for. It may not be one hundred per cent of what you want but i t 's there. People are getting something out of the community." 4. Recognition of One's Assets (Support Network) (i) "I would be much happier in an environment that gave me more of a sense of family, and belonging and long term support. This difficulty in finding this kind of support has an adverse effect on my self esteem." ( i i ) "The exercise we did with diagramming out support network: again, i t really came through very strong that I have a lot of support network. I was saying, xwhy do you feel so deprived? Look at everybody else's. Your's is ten times more. It was very good'." 5. Self Acceptance, Better Communication, and Less Negativism (i) "I hope at the end of eight weeks I ' l l feel much more relaxed with myself, that I ' l l have learned more about being able to communicate in a healthier fashion, that I ' l l have less negativism and more energy to accomplish the other things I have, to accomplish. ( i i ) Self Acceptance: "Yeah, I think that ultimately is the result too. Again, just recognizing through the validation that we went through about relaxing with yourself, be yourself, don't put too many expectations on yourself and don't expect as much from other people." 65 Communication: "Yeah, that's the result because we have this gamut of experience to talk about and i t generalizes to your relationships in the community." Less Negativism: "Yeah, again i t was the result of feedback I got from other people, the validation again about who I am, what I am, what I have to offer. And being less uptight about myself and being less threatened there's less reason to be negative about others. You can be more generous." SUBJECT SEVEN Change in Self Esteem: "I don't know i f i t 's really changed. I sometimes feel really high in self esteem. I feel real good about myself and then I go right back into a bit of depression. It's hard to say, ''yeah, i t ' s changed'. I think i t 's stayed the same." 1. Self Knowledge and Self Expression in Relationship (i) "There are s t i l l a number of things I'd like to do. One of them is to get closer to myself so I can understand me, so I could relate better to other people, partially for my job, partially for my self esteem." ( i i ) "I think I became a l i t t l e clearer on who I was in a small way by experiencing a l l those things with a l l those people. I feel that I've imporved some. Within the course I- think I participated and I communicated some interesting ideas and expressions of me. I gues I improved in that area . . . My friend has been expressing to me for the last month or so how easy I am to talk to, how more considerate I am." 2. Self Discipline: Improving Health and Exercise Habits (i) "The main thing I want to do is to build my discipline . . . When I talk about discipline I think of my health. You know I smoke too much. I have a bit of a gut. I don't do any exercise. It's not very good for my self esteem." ( i i ) "I am on the right track and I feel strongly that i t 's going to pick up better and better. Unfortunately, there are setbacks from time to time." 3. Self Acceptance: Sexuality (i) "I'm not one hundred per cent comfortable with being gay. I didn't realize i t until about two or three months ago when the issue came up. It sort of put me on the spot. I react with embarassment. I'm not happy with that. I'd rather have i t out in the open and live with i t ." ( i i) "I don't think I've come to ful l grips with i t . I guess I'm s t i l l a l i t t l e shy about i t , a l i t t l e nervous. I guess I 66 picked up a l i t t l e from the group, just talking to other people and their situations. I really don't feel as guilty as I used to about being gay. Sometimes there are setbacks but they don't happen that often." 4. Overcoming Interpersonal Anxiety (i) "I want to let more people into my l i fe . I have a real hard time with that. Even when I go into the bars I can't really deal with i t . When I go in there I feel naked. I feel really self conscious." ( i i ) "I never really had much opportunity to experience that one lately. I don't really know because I haven't experienced any new people other than those in the group." SUBJECT EIGHT Change in Self Esteem: "I think my self esteem has grown or imporoved and so has my self confidence. I think generally I just feel more positive about myself compared to when I started the group. 1. Self Confidence/Independence (i) "The key thing I'd like to do is to increase my overall level of self confidence . . . so that i t can't be knocked down so easily. If I'm rejected or i f I don't conform to someone else's expectations, not to feel so bad about myself." ( i i) "Maybe that's a bit of a change . . . It was much more important to me what other people thought. . . Now I don't care what they think. I made a decision. It was a worthwhile decision and I'm glad I made i t . I don't feel as much a need to make everything that's desirable to me, desirable to everyone else. 2. Discovering One's Value as a Useful Person (i) "I like to help other - people a lot and I like to get involved in groups for that." ( i i ) "I guess I know I am a usefull person and have positive things to offer people but you can sort of get lost and need to hear i t again. That's what the group provided." 3. Utilizing Criticism in a Positive Manner (i) "I want to be in a situation where I don't take negative feedback such that I automatically think that I'm wrong." ( i i) "There's sort of positive criticism and negative criticsm and before I tended to give myself negative criticism. . . Now If I get some feedback from somebody about the way I act in a 67 situation and I don't like i t I recognize, *yeah, I don't like that about myself either, I want to get rid of that,' but I don't approach i t like I'm not a good person . . . I listen to what I-don't like about myself and try to provide a positive room for change as opposed to just putting myself down." 4. Global Self Acceptance (i) "My main goal would be to pick myself up and gain a l i t t l e more self respect, self acceptance." ( i i ) "I guess I just sort of accept myself more. I'm not so concerned with what other people think about me. . .1 know I got a fair bit out of the group in terms of inner strength or a sense of well being. It went in and f i l led a lot of the cracks where self worth had flown out and gone dry." 5. Self Acceptance: Sexuality (i) "I think i t 's really important, too, when dealing with my sexuality to be able to accept myself." ( i i ) "Other than the repercussions, I almost have no qualms about telling my parents I'm gay. I feel like, at least I've accepted i t . That's the key thing. At least I've accepted i t to the point where i t 's not a trauma anymore. I don't have this great self doubt about i t anymore. I think right now i f I was put in a group and some straight guy asked me to talk about being gay, I would. I wouldn't feel a l l shaky and worried about i t ." 6. Fulfillment of Initially Unstated Goals Learning from Others' Ideas, Perspectives: "Other people throwing out a l l those various ideas and stuff opened up different perspectives and exposed me to different situations which I would never have come to so easily or thought of in that particular way." Self Knowledge: "I think I wanted to find out more about myself and that was definitely fulf i l led. We talked quite a lot about situations and emotions. Other people talked about the way they thought and acted and that made me think about the way I thought and acted." 68 Summary of Interview Results and Description of Primary Themes A l l but one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s unequivocally indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n s e l f esteem due to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. Subject seven reported that h i s s e l f esteem remained unchanged from the time of the preliminary interview. The seven p a r t i c i p a n t s who indicated an increase also reported that i n i t i a l l y s p e c i f i e d goals and expectations f o r personal growth or change were f u l f i l l e d through t h e i r experiences i n the program. These p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to specify i n d e t a i l the nature of the changes which had taken place and how they f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f esteem. Moreover, a majority described unexpected changes which also enhanced s e l f esteem. Again, subject seven i s the exception to t h i s trend. Of the four goals which he i n i t i a l l y s p e c i f i e d , two remained u n f u l f i l l e d and the remainder were only p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d . What follows i s a de s c r i p t i o n of s i x primary types of change as described by the pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the summary interview.' P a r t i c i p a n t s experienced an increase i n s e l f acceptance. This trend was revealed i n responses which expressed enhanced s e l f appreciation, s e l f respect and s e l f caring behaviours and a t t i t u d e s . At the same time, p a r t i c i p a n t s reported decreases i n s e l f hate and s e l f f l a g e l l a t i n g behaviours and a t t i t u d e s . S e l f acceptance was also r e f l e c t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' improved capacity not to expect too much from themselves. In addition to "global s e l f acceptance", several p a r t i c i p a n t s indicated that they achieved a much greater acceptance of t h e i r sexuality and other formerly denied or denigrated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Enhanced Self Confidence was another strong theme. I t was 69 manifested i n reports of diminished s e l f doubt concomitant with heightened a n t i c i p a t i o n of success i n managing l i f e ' s challenges. S e l f confidence was also shown i n an increased independence of thought and ac t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s reported that they r e l i e d l e s s on others f o r approval, for personal happiness or for determining how they should think, f e e l or act. Consequently, p a r t i c i p a n t s noticed an increased capacity to withstand others' c r i t i c i s m s and u t i l i z e them i n ways which could f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem rather than hinder i t . P a r t i c i p a n t s reported marked improvement i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s to engage i n , strengthen and maintain s a t i s f y i n g interpersonal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . According to t h e i r responses, t h i s r e s u l t was obtained through the a c q u i s i t i o n and/or enhancement of a vari e t y of s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s necessary for successful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Several members remarked on the benefits of improved communication s k i l l s and the value of a more understanding and s e n s i t i v e ( l e s s c r i t i c a l and judgemental) a t t i t u d e toward the other. In addition to these changes, p a r t i c i p a n t s stated that they acquired a greater capacity to t r u s t others and to express themselves i n a genuine and unguarded fashion; that i s , to "be themselves" with others. F i n a l l y , members described that t h e i r experience of i s o l a t i o n or a l i e n a t i o n was supplanted by an experience of belonging, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and community with others. The a c q u i s i t i o n of Self ..Knowledge surfaced as an important theme. P a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned that they discovered, often through t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with others i n the group, formerly 70 obscured q u a l i t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and personal strengths. The valuable contribution of the others' ideas, suggestions and o b j e c t i v i t y was underscored as a means to v a l i d a t e and acquire s e l f knowledge. The behavioural changes which were reported contained a unifying theme of improved S e l f D i s c i p l i n e . Unhealthy patterns of behaviour (e.g. smoking, drinking) were discontinued or mitigated and replaced with h e a l t h f u l a c t i v i t i e s l i k e exercise. P a r t i c i p a n t s also reported increased motivation .and a diminished tendency to procrastinate. A few p a r t i c i p a n t s indicated that the program helped them f i n d some Answers to E x i s t e n t i a l Questions; f o r example, some obtained d i r e c t i o n through the establishment of career objectives while others c l a r i f i e d or a l t e r e d persoal values or b e l i e f systems. 71 RESULTS TWO: FACILITATORS AND HINDRANCES OF SELF ESTEEM A. THE CATEGORY SYSTEM Three-hundred-sixty-one facilitating incidents and two-hundred-eighty three hindering incidents were collected from the significant events journal and the preliminary interview to induce a system of eighteen categories describing experiences, events, behaviours and activities which affect self esteem in everyday l i f e . , What follows is a presentation of the eighteen categories. Each category is titled and defined first in terms of its facilitating effect. The number of incidents comprising the category and the participation rate (as indicated by a number out of eight and its corresponding percentage conversion) are provided. The category's range is delineated and i t is illustrated by providing a sample incident from the collected data. In addition, number, participation rate, definition and illustration are presented for each counterpart hindrance to self esteem. 1. APPRECIATION Experiencing oneself as desired, wanted, loved or cared for, usually by significant others; receiving evidence of others' love, caring or desire; discovering or having a relationship of reciprocal appreciation. (Number*: 21, Participation Rate: 7 or 88%) Range: Appreciation occurs most often in the context of intimate relationships or relationships of special significance (involving significant others). The effect of the experience on self esteem 72 increases with the magnitude of the appreciation that the experiencer has for the s i g n i f i c a n t other and with the magnitude of appreciation expressed by the other. In order to q u a l i f y as appreciation, the experiencer must be aware of, or receive some evidence of the other's love, caring or desire. The evidence i s manifested i n a great d i v e r s i t y of forms inc l u d i n g verbal expressions, physical a f f e c t i o n and tokens or g i f t s . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I guess the biggest thing was meeting S. because i t was one of the f i r s t times that I r e a l l y l i k e d someone and I r e a l l y thought they were s p e c i a l and I got the feedback that he thought the same of me. I t r e a l l y gave me the f e e l i n g that I was d e s i r a b l e . I t r e a l l y b u i l t my s e l f esteem." Hindrance: Experiencing oneself as undesired, unwanted, unloved, or uncared f o r , e s p e c i a l l y by s i g n i f i c a n t others; r e c e i v i n g evidence of others' lack or absence of appreciation; experiencing a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which one's appreciation i s unrequited. (Number: 9, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 63%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I would sort of f e e l unloved or undesired. I'd come home from work and I would want someone to want to do something with me. I'd phone around and no one's home and I'd think no one wants to be with me." 2. AFFILIATION: Experiencing a mutual t r u s t , understanding or knowledge of another person; the enjoyment of being with another; f e e l i n g p h y s i c a l l y and/or emotionally close to another; a mutually s a t i s f y i n g exchange of a f f e c t i o n , t r u s t and understanding. (Number: 25, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) Range: A f f i l i a t i o n i s an experience which, l i k e appreciation, occurs only i n the context of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, r e c i p r o c i t y i s much more i n t e g r a l to the d e f i n i t i o n of a f f i l i a t i o n than that of appreciation. The incidents i n t h i s 73 category take many forms but a l l of them express an awareness of one's bonds or "connectedness" with other human beings. Thus, incidents range from statements describing the enjoyment of sharing fun activities with a companion to the perhaps more intense experiencing of mutual understanding and trust in a meaningful conversation with a close friend. Illustration: "I have this one friend back in C. His name is M. We can talk just about everything. We hadn't seen each other for two years and this year we went out for a couple of drinks. It was just like yesterday. It felt really good to be with probably the closest person in my l i fe ." Hindrance: Experiencing distrust, misunderstanding and distance from others; lacking or missing the company of others; loneliness: not having anyone to be with or to do things with. (Number: 20, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Illustration: "This g ir l I was really close to has moved away. She doesn't have a telephone so I sort of miss that. She really had a good sense of humour. Our personalities really clicked. There's really nobody now who provides that sense of humour." 3. RECOGNITION: Receiving compliments, positive acknowledgements and praise from others. (Number: 34, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Range: Incidents in this category include descritpions of compliments from others and acknowledgements like awards and positive evaluations. Recognition differs from appreciation in that the other expresses a positive evaluation of the experiencer's specific qualities, traits attributes, performances or achievements while appreciation expresses a feeling of attraction, desire or love toward the whole person. In other words, appreciation is much more similar to unconditional 74 p o s i t i v e regard while recognition i s contingent upon the experiencer's t r a i t s or capacity to manifest p a r t i c u l a r merits. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I received a compliment from a supervisor at work. He t o l d me to keep up the good work that I've been doing i n the department." Hindrance: Receiving c r i t i c i s m , r i d i c u l e , condemnation or punishment from others; being overlooked or discounted. (Number: 8, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) ° I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I got negative reactions to some of the things I do at work; for example, i f I introduce something new at work, I can hear people grumbling i n the background. I t makes me f e e l a l i t t l e bad." 4. ACCEPTANCE: Receiving understanding and acceptance, support or assistance from others. (Number: 25, P a r t i c p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) Range: Incidents depict experiences i n which the experiencer becomes aware that the other understands and accepts h i s key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The potency of t h i s factor increases whith the other's s i g n i f i c a n c e and with the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to the experiencer. Acceptance d i f f e r s from recognition i n that the approval i t o f f e r s does not have a s p e c i f i c a l l y complimentary nature. I t d i f f e r s from appreciation i n that i t consists primarily of the other's a t t i t u d e rather than h i s expression of f e e l i n g . I t ' s key feature i s that the experiencer i s aware that the other's a t t i t u d e toward him i s one of "I understand you and I think you're O.K." Another, l e s s c e n t r a l , feature consists of r e c e i v i n g the kind of support or assistance from others that would indi c a t e t h e i r understanding and approval. Incidents range from the report of the other's acceptance of one's homosexuality to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the 75 support offered by a friend in times of need. Illustration: "I wrote to one of my closest friends to to te l l him I was gay. He phoned me today from Toronto and we talked for forty-five minutes. He accepts my homosexuality. He offered me support and a place to stay in Toronto i f things got too heated here in Vancouver." Hindrance: Experiencing rejection, a lack of understanding, a lack of support or assistance. (Number: 13, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%). Illustration: "My mom said that my uncles and aunts would not understand my homosexuality. She said that she didn't understand i t . She said that she may never understand i t ." 5. HONESTY: Being honest or genuine with others and oneself ("being oneself"); the act of self disclosure or sharing. (Number: 28, Participation Rate: 6 or 75 %) Range: The key feature in this category is experiencing oneself as genuine in relationship to others. This characteristic manifests itself in descriptions of a capactiy to be oneself with others; that is , a willingness to freely express one's thoughts and feelings. Other incidents described the actual experience of sharing information about oneself to others; for example, disclosing one's gay identity. Illustration: "Coming out was very good for my self esteem. Telling my sister and my straight friends that I really cared about. I look back on i t and feel good. It's an ongoing positive contribution to my self esteem." Hindrance: Lying, being phoney, not being oneself, or covering up; holding back or withholding meaningful information about oneself. (Number: 16, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%) Illustration: "Other times I can't be myself. I guess at work, for example. I get a lot of questions about family, my social 76 l i f e . I feel very awkward because I don't like to l ie ." 6. SELF ACCEPTANCE: Acknowledging or approving of oneself or one's attributes, traits or characteristics; knowing one's limitations and not expecting too much of oneself. (Number: 12, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%) Range: Self acceptance differs from acceptance in that the atttitude of approval originates from oneself rather than from an external source. Participants described the acceptance of a range of characteristics including homosexuality, sensitivity, attractiveness and naivete. This category also includes an attitude of acceptance toward one's own limitations, downfalls and shortcomings. Illustration: "I slowly accepted being gay. I came to terms with myself, almost like releasing a burden, throwing i t away. I felt really positive about myself." Hindrance: Disapproval of one's own characteristics, traits; failing to meet the expectations one sets for oneself. (Number: 16, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Illustration: "I looked into some store window and saw my reflection. I remind myself of a Neanderthal sometimes. At least my profile does look ^apish' at times." 7. SELF SUPPORT: Encouraging or supporting oneself through self praise or positive self-talk. (Number: 3, Participation Rate: 2 or 25%) Range: Incidents in this category differ from those in self acceptance in that they describe an experience of self talk or subvocal verbalizations. In addition, the key feature of this category is that these self statements consist of compliments, praise, and encouragement rather than approval. 77 I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I f a c i l i t a t e my own s e l f esteem by l e t t i n g myself know I'm doing a good job. I say "Hey, you're doing f i n e . Don't l e t anybody get you down'." Hindrance: S e l f t a l k ar an at t i t u d e toward oneself which expresses s e l f hatred, s e l f c r i t i c i s m , s e l f persecution or s e l f punishment. (Number: 12, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 63%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I'm looking at my personal s e l f now f i n a l l y at the old age of 22 and I'm saying, "look at yourself, you're a mess 1." 8. FORGIVENESS: Accepting or f o r g i v i n g others; being non-judgemental. (Number: 2, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 25%) Range: The act or at t i t u d e of accepting or f o r g i v i n g others was reported to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. the incidents i n t h i s category d i f f e r e d primarily i n terms of who was reported to be the r e c i p i e n t of forgiveness (e.g. a f r i e n d , s i g n i f i c a n t other or other people i n general). I l l u s t r a t i o n : "When I look at my parents with compassion rather than, "how could you do t h i s ? ' " Hindrance: Being judgemental, punitive or c r i t i c a l of others. (Number: 2, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 25%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "When I make judgements about other people I f e e l bad about myself." 9. CONTRIBUTING: Supporting, caring f o r or helping other people; knowing or discovering that you are us e f u l , that you have a l o t to o f f e r , that you can contribute to the welfare of others. (Number: 18, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) Range: This category's key feature consists of one's awareness 78 of, or experience of, being useful or capable of making a con t r i b u t i o n . Incidents include descriptions of the experiencer obtaining evidence of h i s usefulness, the experiencer's h e l p f u l acts or a c t i v i t i e s and h i s discoveries of how much he has to o f f e r . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "What r e a l l y makes me f e e l good i s when I do things that help other people, e s p e c i a l l y when they don't know that i t ' s me. I just f e e l good about that." Hindrance: Not helping; not contributing to others' welfare; not knowing how to help or support others; experiencing oneself as useless to others. (Number: 4, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 38%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I didn't say much at the meeting because I f e e l so inexperienced, l i k e a baby again, j u s t learning to walk. I f e e l so helpless to myself and to the group." 10. PERFORMANCE: Doing things well or c o r r e c t l y ; experiencing s a t i s f a c t i o n or pride from a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n , a c t i v i t y or behaviour. (Number: 34, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) Range: In order to q u a l i f y for t h i s category the incident must contain two key elements. I t must describe an a c t i v i t y , task, performance or behaviour executed by the experiencer. Secondly, these actions must be described i n a p o s i t i v e fashion; f o r example an adjective i n d i c a t i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s a t i s f a c t i o n or approval must be attached to the performance. Many of the incidents described the experiencer's pride i n response to h i s performance. Many d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s were described; for instance, work (doing well on the job), physical and.leisure a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. sports, hobbies, play), s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (doing the r i g h t thing i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to others) and decision 79 making. A few incidents evaluated the a c t i v i t y i n terms of whether i t was " r i g h t " or "wrong" on the basis of the-experiencer' s moral or e t h i c a l standards. Incidents depicting a p o s i t i v e e t h i c a l evaluation f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f esteem and those which concluded a negative evaluation hindered s e l f esteem. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I'm involved i n a number of physical things and performing them well gives me s a t i s f a c t i o n . " Hindrance: Doing things poorly or i n c o r r e c t l y ; doing something that causes g u i l t or shame. (Number: 46, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I had a good looking 19 year old student i n for hi s f i r s t vocal lesson: much touching and close physical contact during the breathing exercises. I was becoming aroused and I'm not happy with myself. I can't c o n t r o l my sexual thoughts and f e e l i n g s while teaching him." 11. CONFIDENCE: Knowing how or being able to perform a s k i l l , task or behaviour; approaching a task, challenge or performance a n t i c i p a t i n g success or with an a t t i t u d e of s e l f assurance; looking to the future with hope, a n t i c i p a t i n g success. (Number: 19, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 6 or 75%) Range: Confidence d i f f e r s from performance i n that i t ' s key feature expresses the knowledge or a b i l i t y to do something rather than the a c t u a l "doing " i t s e l f . I t i s the experiencer's knowledge how to do something, or h i s s e l f assurance about h i s own c a p a c i t i e s , which enables him to approach a task or the future a n t i c i p a t i n g success. Confidence also d i f f e r s from performance i n that i t depicts an o p t i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward a prospective a c t i v i t y rather than describing the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . 80 However, one's confidence i n r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y "can be based on p r i o r success i n performing that a c t i v i t y . Incidents depicted confidence about repondents' diverse work and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others and t h e i r personal " l i f e challenges". In addition, other incidents r e l f e c t e d the repondent's optimism f o r the future." I l l u s t r a t i o n : "1985 w i l l be f i l l e d with excitement, love and new and wonderful things. I f e e l as i f I'm going to be doing things I never dreamt of doing t h i s year. I r e a l l y f e e l good about myself and what I can do. A l l the years of working so hard are r e a l l y paying o f f . " Hindrance: Not knowing how to do something or being unable to perform a s k i l l , task or behaviour; experiencing s e l f doubt or s e l f consciousness; a n t i c i p a t i n g f a i l u r e ( or a fear of f a i l u r e ) . (Number: 30, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I f e e l that my co-ordination i s very low. Someone w i l l t a l k me in t o playing f o o t b a l l and I ' l l have t h i s fear the whole time and I ' l l t ry to make some excuse not to go to the game. Or when I get out i n the f i e l d I have t h i s t o t a l lack of confidence that i f the b a l l comes, I'm not going to be able to catch i t and: everyone's going to be looking at me. 12. ACCOMPLISHMENT: Reaching a goal; obtaining a desired status,, p o s i t i o n , r e s u l t , object or reward either through one's own e f f o r t s or through f o r t u i t o u s circumstances which work i n one's favour. (Number: 57, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100 %) Range: Accomplishment d i f f e r s from performance i n t h a t " i t ' s key feature emphasizes r e s u l t s , the f i n a l goal or a successful end as opposed to the a c t i v i t i e s which may have led up to that desired endpoint. In f a c t , one can derive an increase i n s e l f esteem from performing the a c t i v i t i e s i n pursuit of an accomplishment 81 (the means) and, then, suffer a decrease in self esteem when the end is not obtained. A varied array of accomplishments was depicted; for example, landing a job, getting a promotion, finishing school, passing exams, completing a difficult, challenging or arduous task, resolving personal and interpersonal problems. Illustration: "When I really like myself is when I'm achieving my goals, like when I finished college in April I felt the best I ever felt in my l i fe ." Hindrance: Not reaching a goal; not obtaining a desired status, position, result, object or reward through either personal failure or unfavourable external conditions. (Number: 19, Participation Rate: 5 or 63 %) Illustration: "I got a letter from the restaurant saying, Nthanks but the job has been f i l l ed ' ." 13. SENSE OF PROGRESS: Seeing achievements from a retrospective view; becoming aware of personal progress over time; seeing movement in a positive direction toward some desired goal or state. (Number: 10, Participation Rate: 4 or 50%) Range: Sense of progress differs from accomplishment in that its key feature consists of the experiencer's assessment, awareness or discovery of whether or not he has accomplished enough or progressed enough. In this category i t is not the accomplishment which facilitates self esteem but, rather, i t is the individual's awareness or discovery from a retrospective view that he has accomplished a lot or made significant progress. Participants reported progress in their psychological and/or emotional well being, their capacities to be effective in relationships and 82 other s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g work, l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I'm r e a l i z i n g how f a r I've come emotionally, mentally and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n the past two years. I look at the way I l i v e d two years ago and I can't believe i t i n terms of the way I l i v e r i g h t now and that's very encouraging. That makes me f e e l very good." Hindrance: Seeing an absence of progress from a retrospective view; seeing l i t t l e or no movement toward s e l f improvement or desired goals ( e s p e c i a l l y due to p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n ) . (Number: 23, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "In my emotional maturity I am behind. My adolescence was a period of stagnation and I'm s t i l l at a point where I'm u n s a t i s f i e d with my emotional development." 14. OVERCOMING: Overcoming a personal d e f i c i t , bad habit or problem. (Number: 14, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 63%) Range: Incidents i n t h i s category are s p e c i a l cases of accomplishments i n that the goal i s obtained s p e c i f i c a l l y by overcoming a personal d e f i c i t or problem. The category has two key features: the incident must describe a personal d e f i c i t or problem and i t must i n d i c a t e that the experiencer has overcome them (or i s i n the process of overcoming). P a r t i c i p a n t s decribed overcoming a va r i e t y of problems or s e l f destructive habits inc l u d i n g promiscuity, drinking and smoking. Other incidents described overcoming fears and personal i n s e c u r i t i e s . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I have overcome my fear about my drinking habits. I haven't had any booze or coffee for one week and two days." Hindrance: Being unable to overcome a personal d e f i c i t , bad habit or problem. (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 38%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I f e l t a sense of inadequacy when I was unable to overcome my anxiety and phoned my doctor for help." 83 15.SELF CARE: Performing healthy routines, disciplines or self care habits; taking care of oneself; performing an action that fu l f i l l s one's needs, protects or enhances oneself. (Number: 31, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%) Range: Self care's key feature consists of actions, activities or behaviours which enhance or nurture one's physical and emotional self. In this way i t is distinguished from self support which consists of nurturing self talk (thoughts) and from self acceptance which is an attitude of approval toward oneself. Incidents included healthy routines or habits (e.g. regular exercise and relaxation, taking vitamins), performing domestic chores on a regular basis, establishing a more productive or positive lifestyle by becoming better orgainized or more disciplined and taking actions which f u l f i l l one's needs (e.g. being assertive with others). Illustration: "Getting my hair cut, getting a tooth ache taken care of, cleaning my nails, keeping my apartment clean, keeping my socks washed, keeping good food in the fridge, going for walks . . . they a l l make me feel better about myself." Hindrance: Engaging in unhealthy routines, bad habits or self defeating behaviour; lack of self discipline; not taking care of oneself. -(Number: 18, Participation Rate: 5 or 68%) Illustration: "I don't like my drinking and I don't like what happens when I get drunk. I'm not a very nice person. I'd rather not do that because i t 's not helping me any way at a l l . " 16. BELONGING: Discovering similarities with others; experiencing oneself as part of a pair, group, community; experiencing oneself as not 84 alone, as normal or as fitting in. (Number: 9, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%) Range: The incidents within this category were distinct making i t one of the more circumscribed categories. It's key feature is the experiencer's discovery of important similarities or commonalities with others. This identification most often results in a change of self perception from seeing oneself as alone or outside the range of normalcy to seeing oneself as normal and as part of a group or community. Incidents depicted the discovery of similarites in sexual orientation, problems and feelings (e.g. feeling anxious and lonely). Illustration: "I found that talking to other gay people who have similar problems is a big help. I feel like, "wow! I'm not the only one in the world who has these kind of problems'. I guess you get this feeling like you're not alone. It doesn't solve your problem but on the other hand i t gives you a feeling of reassurance." Hindrance: Experiencing oneself as an outsider, alone, different or set apart from the rest; experiencing oneself as marginal, abnormal. (Number: 11, Participation Rate: 5 or 68%) Illustration: "I find that that's hindering my esteem when I feel like I'm not normal. I sort of feel alone in that maybe I should be thinking the way they think." 17. SOCIAL COMPARISON: Experiencing oneself as superior by comparing oneself to others on some standard of merit or value. (Number: 8, Participation Rate: 3 or 38%) Range: The defining feature consists of an assessment or awareness of oneself as superior to others. The incidents varied in terms of what standard of merit or value was used to make the 85 comparison. These standards included the ability to perform, work effectively, get the job done. Others described a comparison of l i fe situations, maturity or psychological adjustment. Lastly, a few incidents consisted of a global comparison where the standard was not specified. Illustration: "I felt fantastic because the first year transfers are such duds while I'm able to sail through the classroom practicum." ., Hindrance: Experiencing oneself as inferior by comparing oneself to others on some standard of merit or value." (Number: 5, Participation Rate: 4 or 50%) Illustration: "I felt inadequate when I compared myself to someone very attractive." 18. INDEPENDENCE: Acquiring or having independence; obtaining control over one's l i fe or having security. (Number: 11, Participation Rate: 4 or 50%) Range: This category consists of two related key features: having security and the experience, or acquisition, of control over one's l i f e . In some cases security in the form of a good job or a steady income implied that financial security provided more freedom or greater control over decisions affecting one's l i f e . Other incidents focused on the experiencer's capacity to make his own decisions or to be free from the influence of external agents or those factors over which one has no control (e.g. disease). Illustration: "Moving here to Vancouver I have greater control over myself. I make my own decisions. No one makes them for me. It makes me feel better about myself." Hindrance: Experiencing dependence; a lack of, or inability to 86 c o n t r o l one's l i f e ; experiencing i n s e c u r i t y . (Number: 8, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 63%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I was down and out and not able to pay the rent. I t made me f e e l inadequate f o r not being able to support myself." 87 B. THE CATEGORY SYSTEM AND THE PROGRAM Three-hundred-seven incidents were c o l l e c t e d which described f a c i l i t a t i n g experiences, events and a c t i v i t i e s occurring within (or as a r e s u l t of) the program. These incidents were c l a s s i f i e d according to the category system outlined i n the previous se c t i o n . What follows i s a presentation of how each f a c i l i t a t i n g f a ctor was manifested i n the program. Number of incidents and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate are provided as well as an i l l u s t r a t i o n . The incidents.comprising the categories were studied to determine how each f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r was evidenced i n the program. For the most part, p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to specify s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t a t i n g experiences, events and a c t i v i t i e s within each category. Thus, t h i s information was u t i l i z e d to formulate a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the means whereby each factor f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f esteem i n the program. I t o f f e r s an answer to the question: "How does the program work?" or "What happened to make i t work?" It should be noted that eleven hindering incidents were c o l l e c t e d from three p a r t i c i p a n t s . More than h a l f of these were obtained from one i n d i v i d u a l who described various ways i n which he f e l t d i f f e r e n t from the other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the group. Testimony^ to the n e g l i g i b l e impact of t h i s small number of hindering experiences i s provided by the f a c t that the three p a r t i c i p a n t s who submitted them a l l reported a d e f i n i t e increase i n s e l f esteem. APPRECIATION Appreciation was experienced throughout the program i n the context of one to one i n t e r a c t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s reported that 88 the other's concern and caring was evidenced by a willingness to r e a l l y l i s t e n , empathy and compassion. Other p a r t i c i p a n t s reported that the exchange of g i f t s (see THE GIFT, Appendix A, page 160) i n the l a s t session showed that the others wanted them to be there and that t h e i r presence i n the group was appreciated. The physical a f f e c t i o n expressed i n FACE PAINTING (see Appendix A, page 156) was mentioned as a sign of the other's appreciation. F i n a l l y , the exchange of compliments i n the STROKING exercise (see Appendix A, page 159) was described as revealing others' appreciation. (Number: 12, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "The night where we gave a l o t of g i f t s . That was a r e a l boost i n terms of s e l f esteem. I r e a l l y f e l t l i k e the group wanted me to be there, that I was appreciated." 2. AFFILIATION: According to the data, the key features of a f f i l i a t i o n were experienced i n a number of program a c t i v i t i e s . Respondents reported that FACE PAINTING (see Appendix A, page 156) allowed a mutually s a t i s f y i n g expression of a f f e c t i o n and enabled p a r t i c i p a n t s to f e e l close to one another. This a c t i v i t y also engendered a tr u s t by v i r t u e of i t s physical closeness and r i s k taking component. Communication s k i l l s were depicted as fo s t e r i n g t r u s t by f a c i l i t a t i n g r e c i p r o c a l sharing of thoughts, f e e l i n g s and personal information. TRUST GAMES (See Appendix A, Page 147) engaged p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a physical closeness which was described as opening up the channels of communication and encouraging t r u s t . Exercises l i k e the TRUST WALK (See Appendix A, page 137) which required p a r t i c i p a n t s to take r i s k s by becoming p h y s i c a l l y dependent fostered t r u s t . Respondents 89 indicated that the several opportunities f o r one to one in t e r a c t i o n s made i t easier to share personal information and get to know the other members. The SUPPORT NETWORK ana l y s i s (See Appendix A, page 144) was mentioned as being h e l p f u l i n analyzing patterns of a f f i l i a t i o n i n everyday l i f e . (Number: 20, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I r e a l l y enjoyed the face painting. After I did i t I f e l t very close to the person I did i t with, much closer than I would have ever f e l t . There was that basic t r u s t i n having someone run t h e i r f i n g e r s over your face.and t a l k to you i n a very soothing voice. I w i l l always f e e l very warm toward that person and always think of him as a f r i e n d . I f e l t very good about that." 3. RECOGNITION The v a l i d a t i o n received by i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s from other group members i n one to one i n t e r a c t i o n s and i n group a c t i v i t i e s was reported to be a s i g n i f i c a n t s e l f esteem f a c i l i t a t o r . Several incidents described how praise, compliments and acknowledgements received i n the program enabled p a r t i c i p a n t s to discover or r e a f f i r m a host of t a l e n t s , strengths, a t t r i b u t e s , c a p a c i t i e s and s k i l l s . The potency of the recognition was augmented by v i r u t e of the consensual v a l i d a t i o n offered i n the group; that i s , the e f f e c t was strengthened by the combined recognition of several or a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In some cases an i n i t i a l ambivalence about one's strengths and a t t r i b u t e s was supplanted by a c e r t a i n t y obtained when other p a r t i c i p a n t s acknowledged and confirmed those same strengths and a t t r i b u t e s . This reinforcement from others also counteracted a tendency toward discounting or minimizing personal strengths and a t t r i b u t e s . The STROKING exercise (see Appendix A, page 15 9) a n d 90 the GIFT (see Appendix A, page 1 60) were described to be p a r t i c u l a r l y potent sources of recognition. Several incidents noted that the a c t i v i t y ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s to avoid discounting others' compliments enhanced the e f f e c t of received recognition. (Number: 19, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "When you have a whole l o t of people almost simultaneously t e l l i n g you the same thing, that you're b a s i c a l l y the kind person you thought you were, a good person, i t ' s hard not to believe i t . That v a l i d a t i o n reinforced my f e e l i n g s i n a very p o s i t i v e and powerful way." 4. ACCEPTANCE: Several p a r t i c i p a n t s described the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of r e c e i v i n g other members' acceptance, understanding and assistance. The r e c e i p t of constructive c r i t i c i s m and h e l p f u l suggestions from other members surfaced as a strong theme i n the incidents of t h i s category. Members depicted s p e c i f i c instances of r e c e i v i n g acceptance or help i n working out a problem or personal issue. The comfortable surrounding of the group and i t ' s climate of "safety" were i d e n t i f i e d as f o s t e r i n g an a t t i t u d e of acceptance. In addition, p a r t i c i p a n t s noted that the d i v e r s i t y of members' backgrounds and p e r s o n a l i t i e s created the opportunity to experience acceptance from a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s thereby strenthening the o v e r a l l e f f e c t . This same d i v e r s i t y enhanced the e f f e c t of the obtained assistance because i t allowed for the a c q u i s i t i o n of a v a r i e t y of unique approaches or perspectives on personal problems or issues. I t was noted that the f a c i l i t a t o r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s assured that every member worked with every other member thereby maximizing the p o t e n t i a l benefits of d i v e r s i t y . (Number: 17, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 7 or 88%) 91 Illustration: "I was able to express some of my feelings to the group. What they gave me back was understanding and support". Ultimately, I was able to rebuild my self esteem on ground that had become shaky." 5. HONESTY Several incidents described the self disclosure of personal information, thoughts and feelings to other participants. They emphasized the benefits derived from disclosing one's weaknesses and potentially embarassing information. The positive, accepting responses of other members facilitated self disclosure both within the group and in everyday l i f e . Incidents revealed that members' capacities to be disclosing and genuine with each other generalized to interpersonal relations outside the group. Members reported that they were encouraged to be genuine in response to other members' self disclosures and sincerity of expression which establised a group norm to "be yourself". Illustration: "When I was in M. I wasn't myself but I'm realizing: "Be yourself!" That's what the group did. Everybody in the group was themself. They weren't putting on a front or anything. Just because you're gay doesn't mean you have to change your whole image of yourself. That's what I gained from the group." 6. SELF ACCEPTANCE Participants reported that the group enabled them to accept a variety of positive and negative characteristics, physical traits and key identity elements like sexual orientation. They also noted an increased measure of patience in regard to themselves and a diminished tendency to expect too much of themselves. Incidents indicated that these changes resulted from activities which afforded the opportunity for self examination while, at the same time, fostering a non-judgemental attitude of 92 acceptance toward oneself. Members described discovering or examining personal traits from a perspective which discouraged criticism and encouraged acceptance. (Number: 31, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Illustration: "I accepted myself by looking at myself and just accepting what I saw. Don't agrue with i t , run i t down, dispute i t or disclaim i t , as you suggested. Here I am. This is the way I am. That acceptance was a major step." 7. SELF SUPPORT Participants described a transition from negative self talk characterized by self criticism and self denigration to positive self talk characterized by self praise and self encouragement. They suggested that messages to replace self criticism with positive thinking obtained in exercises like SELF TALK AND FEELING O.K. (see Appendix A, page 148) were responsibe for this change. Others conceived the program as a tool to organize one's thoughts in a. positive, creative and productive fashion; for example, in keeping track of positive and negative reactions on a daily basis participants could also monitor their self talk and intervene to replace negative self talk with positive self talk. (Number: 21, Participation Rate: 6 or 75%) Illustration: "It's helped me to look within myself and to recognize my good points and to say "You're not such a bad fellow after a l l . 'You do have some good points'." 8. FORGIVENESS Instances depicted participants accepting or forgiving other participants and their perceived weaknesses. According to participant reports, these experiences were fostered by the guidelines for interpersonal communication within the group; for 93 example, incidents described the use of l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , probing for further information and f e e l i n g s and constructive suggestions as opposed to c r i t i c a l judgements. (Number: 7, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 4 or 50%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "After awhile instead of being c r i t i c a l r i g h t away and snubbing him I learned to accept him more and probe a b i t more and t r y to get at what he f e e l s . I t made me f e e l good about myself that I allowed that to happen. Things l i k e that helped my s e l f esteem." 9. CONTRIBUTING The program was described as o f f e r i n g a context i n which one could contribute to the welfare of the group or i n d i v i d u a l members. One to one i n t e r a c t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive to t h i s experience, e s p e c i a l l y those i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s were involved i n a mutual e f f o r t to work on personal issues or problems. These experiences enabled p a r t i c i p a n t s to perceive themselves as worthwhile and useful because they were able to help other members through suggestions, encouragement, empathy, advice or information. The experience was reinforced by other members' acknowledgements of one's c o n t r i b u t i o n . (Number: 9, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 63%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : " I t ' s nice to be i n an environment where everybody puts t h e i r l i t t l e piece into something. I was a part, a piece of the puzzle. I t r e a l l y boosted my s e l f esteem because I f e l t I had something to offer-and that what I was contributing was O.K." 10. PERFORMANCE: The program manifests the performance factor i n two ways. F i r s t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s obtained s a t i s f a c t i o n and pride by executing the program's tasks and a c t i v i t i e s i n an e f f e c t i v e or e f f i c i e n t fashion. They described the performance of a va r i e t y -94 of communication s k i l l s and took s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r enhanced c a p a c i t i e s for l i s t e n i n g to and perceiving others i n the group. In addition, p a r t i c i p a n t s described the s a t i s f a c t i o n obtained when they used the program's s e l f image enhancing techniques (e.g. accentuating p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and transforming s e l f - t a l k ) . Moreover, the a c q u i s i t i o n of these s k i l l s , a greater s e l f awareness and a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s e l f and others combined to enhance a va r i e t y of performances i n everyday l i f e ; f o r example, the use of communication s k i l l s i n the program f a c i l i t a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s with others outside the group. (Number: 38, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 8 or 100%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : . "After each course I practised the s k i l l during the week and I was refreshed every Tuesday. When I came back I'd s t a r t p r a c t i s i n g i t again with the people i n the group. The practise was sensational. I t was a very p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g f o r me." 11. CONFIDENCE Participants- reported that the program f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f confidence by equipping them with to o l s , techniques and str a t e g i e s which better prepared them to deal with l i f e ' s tasks and challenges. Some of the st r a t e g i e s were obtained i n the form of advice from other members and some of them were incorporated into the program (see DOING THINGS AND FEELING O.K., Appendix A, page 152). What was learned i n the program enhanced p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e l f confidence by contributing to t h e i r knowledge of how to deal with a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s i t u a t i o n (e.g. how to deal with anger: see ANGER, Appendix A, page 155). An accurate awareness of strengths, c a p a c i t i e s and a t t r i b u t e s (see SHOW YOUR STREGTHS, Appendix A, page 146) further equipped p a r t i c i p a n t s to 95 deal with the world in an effective fashion and, consequently, heightened their expectations for success. Finally, the group provided the opportunity for members to obtain a history of success in utilizing some of the newly acquired strategies; for example, some members indicated an increase in self confidence regarding . interpersonal interactions ' as a result of their satisfying and successful interactions with a variety of individuals in the group. (Number: 29, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Illustration: "It [the program] gave you a better sense of being able to deal with someone else even outside of the group because you have this experience in dealing with so many other people with a wide scattering of personalities and l i fe problems. It gave you more of a strength to deal with a stranger or someone you don't know very well because you have the success pattern of being able to relate with a number of other people. 12. ACCOMPLISHMENT Accomplishment was obtained in the context of the program when participants reached the goals they had established for themselves at the beginning of the program. Participants described obtaining such desired ends as emotional maturity, a goal or direction in l i fe , and a greater self understanding and awareness. (Number 14, Participation Rate: 5 or 63%) Illustration: "I got out of i t exactly what I wanted and that sent the graph of self esteem much higher. I realized I'm a pretty healthy person emotionally because I worked so hard to get where I am." 13. SENSE OF PROGRESS The program enabled participants to obtain a sense of progress by providing the opportunity to take stock of past achievements. The ACHIEVEMENT exercuse (see Appendix A, page 151) 96 was highlighted as fostering a heightened awareness of one's accomplishments. Other members indicated that their significant events journal enabled them to recognize gains in self esteem over the course of the program. (Number: 14, Participation Rate: 5 or 63%) Illustration: "Every so often you stop to take stock of what you've done, how far you've come. I made these realizations because the group heightened my awareness of how good I'm doing. It's kind of like the group gave me an opportunity to realize how hard I'm working and how well I'm doing. It's an awareness of my acheivements." 14. OVERCOMING The program helpled members overcome self defeating behaviours by giving them the opportunity to identify and examine them in exercises like SELF ESTEEM ANALYSIS (see Appendix A, page 138). In discovering their negative impact on self esteem participants noted that they were given an incentive to change these behaviours. They were assisted by the encouragement and support of other participants. Moreover, others offered suggestions on how to overcome bad habits and functioned as models by giving personal accounts of how they overcame self destructive or self defeating behaviours like excessive drinking or procrastination. (Number: 6, Participation Rate: 5 or 63%) Illustration: "I learned a lot from everybody else. It's starting to make me feel a l i t t l e better about myself to think of things now that I used to pass off and ignore a few months ago. I was the biggest procrastinator. Now I'm not so much anymore. That helps my self esteem." 15. SELF CARE Participants reported that the program afforded them the opportunity to analyze their behaviour patterns and discover the 97 b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of healthy r o u t i n e s and a c t i v i t i e s on s e l f esteem as w e l l as the harmful i n f l u e n c e s of s e l f d e s t r u c t i v e h a b i t s . These r e a l i z a t i o n s surfaced i n a c t i v i t i e s l i k e SELF ESTEEM ANALYSIS (See Appendix A, page 138) and i n the s i g n i f i c a n t events j o u r n a l . A few members i n d i c a t e d t h a t they learned about the advantages of va r i o u s forms of s e l f care through the personal accounts and examples of other, members. P a r t i c i p a n t s reported t h a t they began to implement patte r n s of s e l f care i n t h e i r everyday l i v e s on the b a s i s of the i n s t r u c t i v e awareness they obtained from the program. Examples and suggestions from other p a r t i c i p a n t s f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s implementation. (Number: 12, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 38%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "Taking stock, s e t t i n g a t i m e t a b l e , forming r e a l i s t i c g o a l s . I t h i n k t h a t ' s one part of the therapy t h a t I r e a l l y have b i t t e n i n t o and made a part of my l i f e . Keeping a d i a r y i s good, g e t t i n g my b i r t h d a y s and a n n i v e r s a r i e s on a calendar so I don't f o r g e t them. Things l i k e t h a t . I know i f I don't do them my s e l f esteem w i l l drop." 16. BELONGING Shared sexual o r i e n t a t i o n was reported more o f t e n by more p a r t i c i p a n t s to be the key f a c t o r which f o s t e r e d the experience of belonging i n the group. They noted t h a t because they shared t h i s p i v o t a l i d e n t i t y element w i t h the r e s t of the group they f e l t t h a t they were "normal", t h a t they were accepted and t h a t they could genuinely p a r t i c i p a t e as part of the group. P a r t i c i p a n t s o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d the group experience w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n which they were the only homosexual i n a group. These circumstances were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n , a f e a r of r e j e c t i o n and a s e l f p e r c e p t i o n as abnormal or 98 anomalous. A few participants reported that, their involvement in the group eliminated their isolation, reduced their fear of rejection and transformed their self perception from "abnormal" to "normal". In addition to sexual orientation, many participants reported discovering similarities of thoughts, feelings and personal difficulties with other participants. Again, these discoveries ameliorated the negative^effeet of being abnormal or being the "only one with a strange problem." A few incidents indicated that some participants' overall sense of belonging was heightened by the BELONGING GUIDED FANTASY (see Appendix A, page 143) amd by the social support analysis in SUPPORT NETWORKS (see Appendix A, page 144). In both activities, individuals either experienced or became aware of a flourishing sense of belonging maintained by their present involvement with other people and other social contexts. (Number: 26, Participation Rate: 8 or 100%) Illustration: "I found that the things that are bothering them are the things that are bothering me and that it's normal to think that way, that it's not only myself that feels this way but it's everybody else. It's like I'm normal. I'm not so different from anyone else. That helped my self esteem." 17. SOCIAL COMPARISON Throughout the program there were a multitude of opportunities for participants to compare themselves to other participants on the basis of some standard or dimension of experience. Several participants described themselves as superior to (or more fortunate than) others on the basis of discovering that their problmes, challenges or deficits were less severe than those of others. A few participants recounted 99 d i s c o v e r i n g a greater awareness, c a p a b i l i t y , m aturity or mastery of l i f e ' s challenges r e l a t i v e to other p a r t i c i p a n t s . (Number: 8, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 6 or 75%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : " I was saying to myself, yvhj do you f e e l so • deprived? Look at everybody e l s e ' s diagram. Your s o c i a l support network i s ten times g r e a t e r ' . That was very good f o r my s e l f esteem." 18. INDEPENDENCE P a r t i c i p a n t s reported t h a t the program gave them the opportunity .and encouraged them to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s regarding personal g o a l s , values and l i f e d i r e c t i o n s . They noted t h a t d e c i s i o n s made i n the context of the program o r i g i n a t e d from personal wants and values as opposed t o the d i c t a t e s or i n f l u e n c e s of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . Some mentioned t h a t they began to see themselves as capable of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own l i v e s because the program engendered a f u l l e r awareness of themselves, t h e i r strengths and t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . One p a r t i c i p a n t , f o r example, discovered t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r him to grow and develop as a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l without the support of a l o v e r . (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 4 or 50%) I l l u s t r a t i o n : "Through the group my s e l f esteem developed to a much greater extent so t h a t I could see th a t F. the i n d i v i d u a l was r e a l l y blossoming without a l o v e r . I was surpassing who I had ever been and I was doing i t s i n g l e . I was doing i t on my own. I t j u s t means t h a t my growth doesn't depend on a long term r e l a t i o n s h i p because I grew so much more through t h a t group as a s i n g l e man." ieo RESULTS THREE; RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE CATEGORY SYSTEM  R e l i a b i l i t y Once the c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d by o b t a i n i n g the co-operation of a f e l l o w graduate student who was given the task of c l a s s i f y i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of i n c i d e n t s according t o the given category system. Two f a c i l i t a t i n g and two h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were s e l e c t e d from each category so t h a t the sample was comprised of a t o t a l of seventy-two i n c i d e n t s . (For a f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s procedure, see Data A n a l y s i s , page 47.) The r a t e r c o r r e c t l y s o r t e d a l l seventy-two i n c i d e n t s thereby o b t a i n i n g one hundred per cent agreement w i t h the category system. This r e s u l t i s a strong i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the category system. The f a c t t h a t an o b j e c t i v e observer could e a s i l y place the i n c i d e n t s i n the category system suggests t h a t i t i s an obvious one and t h a t f a c t o r s l i k e researcher's s u b j e c t i v i t y , a r b i t r a r i n e s s and chance have been e f f e c t i v e l y minimized. Complementary F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering E f f e c t s I t i s l o g i c a l to assume th a t i f a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i e t y of experience or behaviour f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem, then the absence o f , the opposite o f , or the counterpart to t h a t experience or behaviour w i l l hinder s e l f esteem. I f a counterpart h i n d e r i n g experience cannot be induced from the data o r , i f the counterpart experience i s found t o be n e u t r a l or even f a c i l i t a t i n g , then the v a l i d i t y of the experience's e f f e c t on s e l f esteem i s c a l l e d i n t o q u estion. I n t h i s study a system of 101 eighteen f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s of experience and/or behaviour were induced from the data. The v a l i d i t y of these c a t e g o r i e s was s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d by the discovery of counterpart h i n d e r i n g experiences or behaviours f o r each of the eighteen c a t e g o r i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate As described i n Data A n a l y s i s (see page 50), p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s another i n d i c a t i o n of the category's v a l i d i t y O f the eighteen c a t e g o r i e s induced from the f i r s t major group of i n c i d e n t s , ten ( a f f i l i a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n , acceptance, honesty, s e l f acceptance, c o n t r i b u t i n g , performance, confidence, accomplishment and sense of progress) obtained a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 100 per cent; that i s , a l l e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s produced a t l e a s t one f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t i n each of these ten c a t e g o r i e s . I n seven of the remaining e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s between f i v e and seven p a r t i c i p a n t s were represented; t h a t i s , these c a t e g o r i e s manifested p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s between 63 and 88 per cent. These c a t e g o r i e s and the corresponding number of p a r t i c p a n t s i n each are as f o l l o w s : a p p r e c i a t i o n ( 7 ) , s e l f care ( 7 ) , independence ( 7 ) , belonging ( 6 ) , overcoming ( 6 ) , s e l f support ( 5 ) , s o c i a l comparison ( 5 ) . Only one category obtained a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of lower than 50 per cent: f o r g i v e n e s s was based on i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d from three p a r t i c i p a n t s ( 3 8 % ) . Thus, the v a l i d i t y of the category system i s s t r o n g l y supported on the b a s i s of 100% p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r more than h a l f of the c a t e g o r i e s and very high ( g r e a t e r than 60 per cent) p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r n e a r l y a l l of the remaining c a t e g o r i e s . The v a l i d i t y of the category system was f u r t h e r 102 s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s obtained from an a n a l y s i s of the second major group of i n c i d e n t s . In t h i s case, s i x c a t e g o r i e s ( a f f i l i a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n , s e l f acceptance, performance, confidence and belonging) obtained 100 per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . Eleven c a t e g o r i e s obtained p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s between 50 and 88 per cent. These c a t e g o r i e s and the corresponding number of p a r t i c i p a n t s represented i n each are as f o l l o w s : a p p r e c i a t i o n ( 7 ) , acceptance ( 7 ) , honesty ( 7 ) , s e l f support ( 6 ) , c o n t r i b u t i n g ( 5 ) , accomplishment ( 5 ) , sense of progress ( 5 ) , overcoming ( 5 ) , f o r g i v e n e s s ( 4 ) , independence ( 4 ) . Only one category, s e l f care ( 3 ) , obtained a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e lower than 50 per cent. The s l i g h t l y lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s obtained from t h i s grouping are most l i k e l y a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t i t contained about one h a l f of the number of i n c i d e n t s which comprised the f i r s t major group. Exhaustiveness Exhaustiveness r e f e r s to whether or not the data c o l l e c t i o n has been s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive to i n c l u d e a l l the v a r i e t i e s of behaviour and/or experience t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique may be expected to cover. In t h i s study the category sytera was induced from the f i r s t major group of i n c i d e n t s (see Data A n a l y s i s , page 47). Exhaustiveness was assessed by attempting to c l a s s i f y the i n c i d e n t s of the second major group according to the category system. I t was found t h a t a l l of the i n c i d e n t s from the second grouping could be placed i n the c a t e g o r i e s which had already been estabished. No new c a t e g o r i e s 103 were r e q u i r e d . This r e s u l t provides evidence f o r the exhaustiveness of the category system obtained i n t h i s study. ~'-Support From P r i o r Research Of the eighteen f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s e l f esteem only one of these, overcoming, has been s c r u t i n i z e d i n p r i o r r e s e a r c h . Mruk (1981: 141) s e l e c t e d f o r study the experience of "coming to break through a longstanding personal d i f f i c u l t y , l i m i t a t i o n or o b s t a c l e . " He i d e n t i f i e d the converse of t h i s experience to be " f a i l i n g to break through". These d e f i n i t i o n s bear a remarkable resemblance to those of the f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t s of the category overcoming. Mruk employed t w e n t y - f i v e s u b j e c t s t o provide d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s experience. Each of these personal accounts or s t o r i e s was submitted to phenomenological a n a l y s i s . In t h i s manner he was able to provide a d e t a i l e d a r t i c u l a t i o n of two general s t r u c t u r e s ; one a r t i c u l a t e s what i t i s and means to break through a personal l i m i t a t i o n and the other captures what happens when an i n d i v i d u a l i s faced w i t h such an opportunity and f a i l s . Mruk o u t l i n e d a s i x step process f o r each s t r u c t u r e which c l e a r l y showed one way to i n c r e a s e or decrease s e l f esteem. U t i l i z i n g these r e s u l t s Mruk developed an e m p i r i c a l l y based, t h r e e - s t e p , i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y designed to a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l to overcome, or break through, h i s personal l i m i t a t i o n s . He described the i n t e r v e n t i o n as a t o o l which could be a p p l i e d to such experiences w i t h the o v e r a l l goal of enhancing s e l f esteem. Mruk's research f i n d i n g s support the v a l i d i t y of the category overcoming by using e m p i r i c a l data to c o n s t r u c t a 104 d e t a i l e d d e l i n e a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s experience. Such research evidence f o r the remaining seventeen f a c t o r s does not yet e x i s t . Content V a l i d i t y The eighteen c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s were s t u d i e d t o determine t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y as f a c i l i t a t o r s and hindrances of s e l f esteem. On the b a s i s of t h i s review the e f f e c t of each f a c t o r on s e l f esteem was c l e a r l y p l a u s i b l e . Thus, support f o r the content v a l i d i t y of the category system has been e s t a b l i s h e d . I n a d d i t i o n , the category system was presented to the p s y c h o l o g i s t who sponsored the program to o b t a i n an e v a l u a t i o n of i t s c r e d i b i l i t y from a c l i n i c a l viewpoint; t h a t i s , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l whose c l i n c i a l e x p e r t i s e i n c l u d e s the treatment of low s e l f esteem. The p s y c h o l o g i s t was i n s t r u c t e d t o determine f o r each category whether , or not i t s presence would f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem and whether or not i t s absence or counterpart would hinder. s e l f esteem. He concluded t h a t the presence of each f a c t o r would f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem and t h a t t h e i r counterparts and/or absences would hinder s e l f esteem. Thus, a measure of judgemental v a l i d i t y has been provided f o r the category system. 105 DISCUSSION Summary of R e s u l t s R e s u l t s from q u a l i t a t i v e data show th a t the s e l f esteem program f a c i l i t a t e d b e n e f i c i a l changes i n seven of the program's e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s . Seven p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f esteem w h i l e one reported t h a t l e v e l of s e l f esteem remained unchanged from the p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w . Those p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s e s were able to s p e c i f y i n d e t a i l the nature of the changes w h i c h . f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f esteem. A s y n t h e s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of s i x primary types of change: increased s e l f confidence; increased s e l f acceptance; improved c a p a c i t y to engage i n , strengthen and maintain s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; i n creased s e l f knowledge; improved s e l f d i s c i p l i n e ; and r e s o l u t i o n s to e x i s t e n t i a l questions. Q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s d i d not corroborate the q u a l i t a t i v e evidence f o r increased s e l f esteem. A s c a l e of s e l f esteem was a p p l i e d t o experimental and c o n t r o l groups before and a f t e r the program. An a n a l y s i s of covariance a p p l i e d to t h i s data d i d not y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . A system of eighteen c a t e g o r i e s was developed such t h a t each category defined a behaviour, a c t i v i t y and/or experience which f a c i l i t a t e d s e l f esteem. I t was a l s o discovered t h a t the absence or opposite of each f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r hindered s e l f esteem. Evidence f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the category system was provided. In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s were able to s p e c i f y experiences, a c t i v i t i e s and events o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the context 106 of the program which were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of every f a c i l i t a t i v e category. T h i s r e s u l t allowed f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of aspects of the program which were p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e of s e l f esteem. The f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of the program was f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e l a t i v e absence of reporte d h i n d e r i n g experiences. T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t of the program on s e l f esteem i s n e g l i g i b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s The s i g n i f i c a n c e and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the composition of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The study was conducted u s i n g only e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group. Although the data c o l l e c t e d from i n d i v i d u a l s i n the experimental group was d e t a i l e d and e x t e n s i v e , i t may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the general (North American) p o p u l a t i o n because i t was obtained from a sample which was q u i t e s m a l l . I n a d d i t i o n , the sample was composed e n t i r e l y of gay men. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t experiences a f f e c t i n g s e l f esteem may d i f f e r s l i g h t l y depending on one's sex and/or sexual o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s con c e i v a b l e , f o r example, t h a t due to d i f f e r i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n the r e l a t i o n s h i p f a c t o r s may be much more s a l i e n t e f f e c t s on s e l f esteem f o r women while the pe r f o r m a n c e / a c t i v i t y c a t e g o r i e s may be more important f o r men. Therefore, the category system may not g e n e r a l i z e to het e r s e x u a l male or female p o p u l a t i o n s . Several other v a r i a b l e s have made the sample i n t h i s study d i s t i n c t i v e and, consequently, have l i m i t e d the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t f y of i t s f i n d i n g s . S e v e r a l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were students and, 107 i n terms of t h e i r age, they may a l l be described as "young a d u l t s " . The sample was a l s o d i s t i n c t i v e i n terms of i t s s o c i o -economic s t a t u s ( e x c l u s i v e l y middle c l a s s ) , and education ( a t l e a s t high s c h o o l ) . One must be p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l not to assume th a t the category system would apply to i n d i v i d u a l s from c u l t u r a l backgrounds o u t s i d e of the mainstream North American c u l t u r e , jThe s e l f esteem of the o r i e n t a l i n d i v i d u a l , f o r example, may be much more i n f l u e n c e d by the worthiness or the performance of h i s f a m i l y and community than by h i s own experience of success. I n c o n t r a s t , the category system obtained i n t h i s study i s i n f l u e n c e d by a t y p i c a l l y North American emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the s e l f as an independent agent i n a competitive s o c i a l context. In a d d i t i o n to the l i m i t a t i o n s described above, the q u a n t i t a t i v e component of the program e v a l u a t i o n was hampered by the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g a comparative c o n t r o l group. A v a l i d comparison would be based on two samples drawn from the same p o p u l a t i o n . However, i n t h i s study the c o n r o l group was comprised p r i m a r i l y of a b e t t e r educated student p o p u l a t i o n whereas the experimental group was s l i g h t l y l e s s educated and more v a r i e d i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' occupations. More i m p o r t a n t l y , members of the c o n t r o l group volunteered f o r the study w h i l e experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v o l v e d i n a s e l e c t i o n process i n which one of the c r i t e r i a was reported problems i n s e l f esteem. T h i s c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n was not a p p l i e d t o the c o n t r o l group. As a r e s u l t , there i s a strong l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the two samples were drawn from d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . 108 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i n d i n g s i s somewhat diminished by the discrepancy between q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . I n searching f o r the o r i g i n s of t h i s discrepancy one may p o i n t t o the r e l a t i v e i n a b i l i t y of the Rosenberg Scale of S e l f Esteem to measure s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s i n s e l f esteem. Since the s c a l e c o n s i s t s of only ten items, i t taps a range of experience which i s l i m i t e d i n terms of number and content. The t e s t was a l s o l i m i t e d by a " c e i l i n g e f f e c t " . H a l f of the s u b j e c t s employed i n the experimental group scored at l e a s t i n the upper q u a r t i l e when the t e s t was f i r s t a dministered. Thus, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the t e s t showing a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e upon second a d m i n i s t r t a t i o n was diminished because s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s had already obtained scores which approached the maximum value f o r the t e s t i n the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who reported low s e l f esteem scored so hi g h before treatment provides good cause t o question the t e s t ' s v a l i d i t y . I n c o n t r a s t to the standardized t e s t , responses to the open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f l e c t e d s u b t l e as w e l l as gross changes i n s e l f esteem because i t encouraged d e t a i l , d i v e r s i t y and breadth; f o r example, the reported * i n c r e a s e s i n s e l f esteem were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by lengthy, i n depth d e s c r i t p i o n s of what aspects of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s experience changed and how they changed. Given the l i m i t a t i o n s described above, the f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r theory, p r a c t i s e and research should be considered. 109 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s obtained i n the present study provide a more comprehensive and s p e c i f i c understanding of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s e l f esteem than t h a t contained i n the t h e o r i e s of e i t h e r Rosenberg (1979) or Rogers (1980). While con f i r m i n g the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s on s e l f esteem of Rosenberg's fo u r p r i n c i p l e s and Rogers' a t t i t u d e of empathy, . the eighteen f a c t o r s d e l i n e a t e d i n R e s u l t s Two encompass a greater range of human experience and behaviour and c o n t a i n greater s p e c i f i c i t y regarding the process whereby s e l f esteem i s f a c i l i t a t e d . What f o l l o w s i s a review of the two t h e o r i e s i n l i g h t of the present f i n d i n g s . The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of Rosenberg's (1979: 63) p r i n c i p l e of r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s i s t h a t "people, as s o c i a l animals, are deeply i n f l u e n c e d by the a t t i t u d e s of others toward the s e l f and i n the course of time they come to view themselves as others view them." On the b a s i s of t h i s p r i n c i p l e Rosenberg proposes t h a t o t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s may a f f e c t one's s e l f esteem. He expands on t h i s statement somewhat by c l a i m i n g t h a t s e l f concept and s e l f esteem are l a r g e l y shaped by the perceived reponses and judgements of o t h e r s . In h i s chapter on s e l e c t i v i t y Rosenberg s t a t e s t h a t s e l f esteem i s enhanced when an i n d i v i d u a l s e l e c t s t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h those who t h i n k w e l l of them and avoids those who d i s l i k e them. However, the s p e c i f i c content of others' favourable a t t i t u d e s are not defined or described. The category system expands on Rosenberg's p r i n c i p l e of r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s by p r e s e n t i n g a much more s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the kinds of a t t i t u d e s , responses and judgements which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. 110 With appreciation self esteem is facilitated by the other's attitude and manifestation of love, caring and desire. In recognition the other's favourable response is communicated by compliments, praise and acknowledgements. Acceptance enhances self esteem by an attitude of approval sometimes revealed by support and assistance. In addition, manifestations of the other's trust, affection and enjoyment are characteristics of affiliation which reveal the other's favourable attitude. The absence or opposite of each of these four categories hinders self esteem. The description of each additional factor expands on Rosenberg's principle of reflected appraisals by defining another process or mechanism through which the principle is manifested. The impact on self esteem of one's attitude toward oneself is also incorporated in the principle of reflected appraisals According to Rosenberg, one's attitude toward oneself is actually the internalized attidude of the other. Persons internalize others' views and attitudes and, then, they judge themselves according to introjected standards of this "generalized other." Rosenberg (1979: 278) suggests that self esteem is hindered when an individual does not live up to these standards. Conversely, self esteem is maintained or enhanced by meeting these standards. The ideas in the following excerpt suggest that the way to maintain or enhance self esteem is to obtain the approval of significant others by living in adherence to introjected standards: At an early age the child learns what is right or wrong, important or unimportant, for him, and these ideas are internalized in his value system. In addition, as he grows up, he finds himself judged by 111 these c r i t e r i a , so that i f he desires the approval of his group, he must seek to excel i n terms of their values, not his own. True, he may momentarily enhance his self esteem by abandoning their values, but this act i s l i k e l y to c a l l down on him the disapproval of his significant others, which would counterbalance any rise i n self esteem. The findings of the present study depart from Rosenberg's perspective by indicating that one's attitude toward oneself may be independent of the other's attitude toward oneself and that both of these factors may exert an independent influence on self esteem. The category system contains the four factors described above which propose that self esteem may be enhanced by varying manifestations of the other's attitude. However, i t also contains factors which expand on, and contradict, Rosenberg's notions by positing that self esteem i s increased by one's approval of oneself regardless of the standards of others. The self acceptance category indicates that self esteem i s enhanced when one comes to accept or approve of his own characteristics. Several of the incidents in this category described the participant's acceptance of his homosexuality which remains an unacceptable way of l i f e in the eyes of the "generalized other". Thus, in contrast to the ideas expressed in Rosenberg's statement, self esteem may be more than just temporarily enhanced when an individual approves of his own key identity elements, even though such approval transgresses the standards of the generalized other and may e l i c i t others' disapproval. Self acceptance goes further by stating that self esteem i s fac i l i t a t e d when the individual accepts his own limitations and downfalls. This proposal contains the idea that self esteem i s increased when the individual establishes his own standards and 1 1 2 c a p a c i t y to approve of h i m s e l f . These ideas are a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the category independence which proposes t h a t s e l f esteem i s increased when one o b t a i n s c o n t r o l over one's l i f e . I n a d d i t i o n t o p o s i t i n g a process of s e l f a pproval, the category system i n c l u d e s another f a c t o r which d e s c r i b e s how encouraging or supporting o n e s e l f through p o s i t i v e s e l f - t a l k enhances s e l f esteem. S e l f support adds to Rosenberg's theory i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t of s e l f acceptance; t h a t i s , r e g a r d l e s s of the support or r e c o g n i t i o n obtained from o t h e r s , the i n d i v i d u a l can i n c r e a s e h i s own s e l f esteem by supporting and p r a i s i n g h i m s e l f . The category f o r g i v e n e s s d e f i n e s another experience f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem which i s not found i n Rosenberg's theory. I n a d d i t i o n to one's a t t i t u d e toward one s e l f and the other's a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f , t h i s category proposes t h a t s e l f esteem may be f a c i l i t a t e d by one's a t t i t u d e toward o t h e r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was found t h a t i f one expressed or experienced an a t t i t u d e of approval, acceptance or f o r g i v e n e s s toward another person, one experienced a concomitant increase i n s e l f esteem. Rosenberg's p r i n c i p l e of r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s holds t h a t s e l f esteem i s i n f l u e n c e d only by the other's a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f . I n c o n t r a s t to the present f i n d i n g s , i t does not i n c o r p o r a t e the independent e f f e c t s on s e l f esteem of one's a t t i t u d e toward one s e l f and one's a t t i t u d e toward o t h e r s . Of the four p r i n c i p l e s d escribed by Rosenberg, the s o c i a l comparison p r i n c i p l e was most f u l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e s u l t s of the present study. Rosenberg o u t l i n e d two forms of s o c i a l 113 comparison which could f a c i l i t a t e or hinder s e l f esteem. The d e f i n i t i o n of the s o c i a l ^ comparison category i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o Rosenberg's statement t h a t people judge themselves as s u p e r i o r or i n f e r i o r to others as a r e s u l t of a comparison on some c r i t e r i a of merit or value . The d e f i n i t i o n of the belonging f a c t o r i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the second type of s o c i a l comparison described by Rosenberg. Both the p r i n c i p l e and the category d e f i n e a normative comparison i n which i n d i v i d u a l s compare themselves w i t h others to d i s c o v e r whether they are the same or d i f f e r e n t ; t h a t i s , whether they d e v i a t e or conform. The p r i n c i p l e of s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n s t a t e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l comes to conc l u s i o n s about h i m s e l f on the b a s i s of observing h i s own behaviour and i t s outcomes. Rosenberg maintains t h a t s e l f esteem i s e i t h e r enhanced or hindered depending on how the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t s , evaluated or l a b e l s h i s behaviour. E s s e n t i a l l y , Rosenberg d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n t o f o u r c o g n i t i v e processes each d i s c r i b i n g a d i f f e r e n t way i n which behaviour and i t s outcomes may be evaluated to maintain or enhance s e l f esteem. The category system o f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l support f o r the e f f e c t of behaviour and i t s outcomes on s e l f esteem. However, i t augments Rosenberg's t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g not only i n terms of the kinds of e v a l u a t i o n a p p l i e d t o behaviour and outcome but a l s o i n terms of the v a r i e t i e s of behaviour and outcome themselves. The category system manifests gr e a t e r s p e c i f i c i t y and d e t a i l by making d i s t i n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i v e f e a t u r e s of va r i o u s types of behaviours and outcome experiences. In the category system e v a l u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms 114 of i t ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l r e s u l t and i t ' s o b j e c t . I t i s the p o s i t i v e or negative (favourable or unfavourable) q u a l i t y of the e v a l u a t i o n which determines whether the r e s u l t i n g experience w i l l be a f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r . I n the performance category, f o r example, behaviours, a c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s are the ob j e c t s of e v a l u a t i o n . A favourable e v a l u a t i o n produces an experience of p r i d e or s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i l e a negative one e l i c i t s g u i l t or shame. Sense of progress e n t a i l s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of e v a l u a t i o n . In t h i s case outcomes or accomplishments are the ob j e c t s of assessment and s e l f esteem i s f a c i l i t a t e d when the e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n an awareness of improvement or progress over time. Confidence i s a t h i r d category which o b t a i n s i t s e f f e c t from an e v a l u a t i o n of behaviour and outcome: the p o s i t i v e a p p r a i s a l of past performances and outcomes r e s u l t s i n an o p t i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e and/or a n t i c i p a t i o n of success. Rosenberg's theory of s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n supplements and compliments the category system by d e l i n e a t i n g a set of c o g n i t i v e processes whereby p o s i t i v e and negative e v a l u a t i o n s are obtained. He d e f i n e s , f o r example, s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o f a c t s as the "human being's propensity to search f o r items of evidence l e a d i n g to congenial c o n c l u s i o n s about the s e l f , attempting a t the same time to overlook or ignore those items of evidence which do not." (1979: 271) T h i s process supplements the category system by o f f e r i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r how p o s i t i v e and negative e v a l u a t i o n s occur t o produce r e s u l t s l i k e confidence. When t h i s process i s a p p l i e d to sense of progress, f o r example, one may deduce t h a t a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s from a search f o r past achievements 115 w h i l e f a i l u r e s are overlooked. While Rosenberg adds t o our understanding by d e f i n i n g c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e processes which f a c i l i t a t e a p o s i t i v e s e l f e v a l u a t i o n , the category system's c o n t r i b u t i o n l i e s i n i t ' s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of behaviours and outcomes which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. At the same time, the e v a l u a t i o n component i s i n t e g r a l t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the three c a t e g o r i e s described above (performance, sense of progress and c o n f i d e n c e ) . However, w h i l e sense of progress and confidence o b t a i n t h e i r e f f e c t from an e v a l u a t i o n of outcomes, the e f f e c t s of the c a t e g o r i e s accomplishment and overcoming are obtained by v i r t u e of the outcomes themselves. I t i s the experiencer's awareness, r a t h e r than h i s e v a l u a t i o n , of having obtained a d e s i r e d r e s u l t or of overcoming a personal d i f f i c u l t y which produces the enhanced s e l f esteem. S i m i l a r l y , although performance d e r i v e s i t s f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t from an e v a l u a t i o n of behaviour, s e v e r a l other c a t e g o r i e s have been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s of the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of the behaviour i t s e l f . Behaviours or a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t i n g of f o r g i v e n e s s , honesty, c o n t r i b u t i n g and s e l f care were e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one another and were a l l found to enhance s e l f esteem. The p r i n c i p l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y holds t h a t c e r t a i n i d e n t i t y elements o b t a i n a greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than o t h e r s . Rosenberg maintins t h a t each person can judge him s e l f favourably as long as he s e l e c t s h i s own c r i t e r i a f o r judgement; t h a t i s , as long as he focuses on the q u a l i t i e s at which he e x c e l s he i s s u p e r i o r to the r e s t . As described above, the c a p a c t i y to s e l e c t 116 one's own standards i s i m p l i c i t i n the s e l f acceptance category. Moreover, f e a t u r e s of the independence category s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c a p a c t i y by suggesting t h a t s e l f esteem i s f a c i l i t a t e d when i n d i v i d u a l s make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . F i n a l l y , the s o c i a l comparison category (or p r i n c i p l e ) i s an i n t e g r a l component of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y : c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n because they a l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l t o perceive h i m s e l f as s u p e r i o r compared to o t h e r s . Thus, although the p r i n c i p l e was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r category, i t i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a combination of f e a t u r e s from three c a t e g o r i e s . However, the category s e l f acceptance cont a i n s f e a t u r e s which a l s o c o n t r a d i c t the p r i n c i p l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y . S e l f acceptance i n d i c a t e s the s e l f esteem may be enhanced when the i n d i v i d u a l f u l l y acknowledges and accepts h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s , downfalls and shortcomings. The p r i n c i p l e , on the other hand, holds t h a t s e l f esteem i s enhanced only when such i d e n t i t y elements are denied, minimized or re l e g a t e d t o the periphery of awareness so th a t p o s i t v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are always maintained i n the foreground of consciousness. The r e s u l t s of the present study s t r o n g l y support the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of empathy on s e l f esteem. Rogers (1980) o u t l i n e s three q u a l i t i e s inherent i n an empathic a t t i t u d e which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Each of these three q u a l i t i e s was found t o be a d i f i n i t i v e f e a t u r e of three c a t e g o r i e s which in c o r p o r a t e d the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of the other's a t t i t u d e . The non-judgemental acceptance of an empathic understanding was found to be a d e f i n i t i v e f e a t u r e of the category acceptance. 117 A p p r e c i a t i o n and c a r i n g are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t r i n s i c to empathy which were found to be the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of the category a p p r e c i a t i o n . As described i n Chapter F i v e a f f i l i a t i o n c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of the experience of " i n t e r p e r s o n a l connectedness" r e s u l t i n g from being f u l l y understood by another human being. Thus, a f f i l i a t i o n i s defined by the t h i r d f e a t u r e of empathy: an understanding which d i s s o l v e s the r e c i p i e n t ' s a l i e n a t i o n . Rogers' theory of empathy a l s o proposes t h a t i t ' s q u a l i t i e s enhance s e l f esteem by engendering s e l f acceptance and by f o s t e r i n g openness, honesty or genuineness. The category system does d e f i n e the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of s e l f acceptance and honesty. Thus, although i t agrees w i t h Rogers' co n t e n t i o n t h a t s e l f acceptance and honesty f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem, the system does not show t h a t these two c a t e g o r i e s are caused by the presence of the c a t e g o r i e s which embody the three q u a l i t i e s of empathy. In summary, w h i l e the category system i n c o r p o r a t e s the t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s propounded by Rogers and Rosenberg, i t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s these p r i n c i p l e s and proposes a d d i t i o n a l ones. The system's comprehensiveness i s evidenced by the range of experiences and events r e f l e c t e d i n i t ' s c a t e g o r i e s . They i n c o r p o r a t e .behaviours (e.g. s e l f c a r e ) , c o g n i t i o n s (e.g. s e l f s u p p o r t ) , a t t i t u d e s toward the other (e.g. f o r g i v e n e s s ) , a t t i t u d e s toward the s e l f (e.g. s e l f acceptance), a t t i t u d e s of the other (e.g. acceptance), s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s (e.g. sense of p r o g r e s s ) , others' e v a l u a t i o n s (e.g. r e c o g n i t i o n ) and the experience of p o s i t i v e outcomes (e.g. accomplishment). I n c o n t r a s t , i n h i s e x c l u s i v e focus on empathy Rogers looks only to 118 the a t t i t u d e of the other to e x p l a i n what f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem. Rosenberg's theory does i n c l u d e more of the above l i s t e d experiences, events and c o n d i t i o n s . However, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s he underscores the other's a t t i t u d e w h i l e not addressing the e f f e c t of one's a t t i t u d e toward o n e s e l f or toward o t h e r s . Moreover, t h i s same p r i n c i p l e was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s each one r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the other's a t t i t u d e or e v a l u a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n emphasizes the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n of h i s own behaviour and i t s outcomes but i t does not acknowledge the e f f e c t of the behaviour or outcome experiences themselves. The category system adds to the theory of s e l f esteem by d e s c r i b i n g two c l a s s e s of p o s i t i v e outcomes and four c l a s s e s of behaviour which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. F i n a l l y the category system i d e n t i f i e s a s p e c i f i c c l a s s of c o g n i t i o n s ( s e l f support) not found by the other t h e o r i e s . The value of the category system discovered and d e l i n e a t e d i n the present study i s t h a t i t o f f e r s a comprehensive s e t of experiences and behaviours which c o n s t i t u t e a t e s t a b l e theory of what f a c i l i t a t e s and hinders s e l f esteem. Thus, i t o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d answer t o the question posed by Coopersmith (1961) and Mruk (1981) i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n : "What events and human experiences enhance s e l f esteem?" I n a d d i t i o n , the program e v a l u a t i o n component of the study provided evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of the category system. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the program was s u c c e s s f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem because ' i t i n c o r p o r a t e d experiences and events from each of the eighteen 119 c a t e g o r i e s . Every one of the f a c i l i t a t i n g events or c o n d i t i o n s experienced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the context of the program was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of at l e a s t one of the eighteen f a c t o r s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u b s t a n t i a t e s not only the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of each of the c a t e g o r i e s but i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t as a theory of what f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem the category system i s comprehensive enough t o ) e x p l a i n and account f o r the wide range and great volume of e x p e r i e n t i a l data provided by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study's f i n d i n g s are revealed through an examination of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' accounts regarding the f a c i l i t a t i n g aspects of the s e l f esteem program. Close s c r u t i n y , of t h i s data i n d i c a t e s t h a t the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s t s on i t s c a p a c i t y to e f f e c t p o s i t i v e change i n three fundamental and i n t e r r e l a t e d realms of human experience. The program provided the means and the s t r u c t u r e i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s modified thoughts and behaviour i n order to enhance s e l f esteem. I t a l s o u t i l i z e d f a c i l i t a t i n g experiences which occur only i n the context of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s or i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . The f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n kinds of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were generated by the manner i n which these i n t e r a c t i o n s were s t r u c t u r e d w i t h i n the program. I n the f i r s t s e s s i o n the establishment of g u i d e l i n e s f o r e f f e c t i v e communication and the i n s t r u c t i o n i n person-centered s k i l l s allowed f o r the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of empathy ( i . e . a f f i l i a t i o n , acceptance and a p p r e c i a t i o n ) to be experienced 120 throughout the program. Most of the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the program in c o r p o r a t e d one t o one i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s could experience the a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f i l i a t i o n , acceptance and r e c o g n i t i o n of every other p a r t i c i p a n t . Moreover, i t was w i t h i n these dyads th a t the p a r t i c i p a n t was most l i k e l y t o experience the s a l u t a r y e f f e c t s of honesty because the a c t i v i t i e s most o f t e n asked f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of s e l f d i s c l o s u r e . The a t t i t u d e of non-judgemental acceptance f o s t e r e d by the establishment of a person-centered approach to communication o f t e n manifested i t s e l f i n accounts of fo r g i v e n e s s a l s o o c c u r r i n g p r i m a r i l y i n the dyads. The dyads and sm a l l task groups a l s o created a context f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n which was s t i m u l a t e d by a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o work together and a s s i s t each other toward some goal or p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o reported t h a t they experienced these f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the group as a whole. A c t i v i t i e s l i k e TRUST GAMES and MASSAGE increased the i n d i v i d u a l member's t r u s t i n the group thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g to h i s experience of a f f i l i a t i o n . The TRUST WALK, on the other hand, was e f f e c t i v e because i t f o s t e r e d t r u s t development between i n d i v i d u a l s . S i m i l a r l y , THE GIFT and STROKING allowed p a r t i c i p a n t s t o experience the a p p r e c i a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance of the group as a whole w h i l e FACE PAINTING engendered these experiences on a one t o one l e v e l . A l l of these a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e d to the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s by p r o v i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h the experience of the above-mentioned aspects of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. 121 The program was a l s o e f f e c t i v e because i t created the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the experience of belonging. The composition of the group provided a consonant context f o r gay men i n which they could experience an important and fundamental i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h each other and w i t h the group. T h i s experience of belonging was f u r t h e r enhanced by a c t i v i t i e s which underscored commonalities amongst members (e.g. PARAPHRASING EXPECTATIONS and the BELONGING FANTASY). Another important source of the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s based on i t s c o g n i t i v e component as manifested i n a c t i v i t i e s which r e q u i r e d a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of thought and behaviour p a t t e r n s . These a c t i v i t i e s provided the opp o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f examination which o f t e n l e d t o an expanded s e l f awareness and p o s i t i v e changes i n one's s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s . A few examples should c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t . SELF TALK engaged p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a examination of i n t e r n a l thought processes, e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t e d to key i d e n t i t y elements. I n a n a l y z i n g how they thought about these elements p a r t i c i p a n t s became aware t h a t a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s e l f and an acceptance of one's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem. As a r e s u l t t h i s a c t i v i t y engendered a great d e a l of s e l f acceptance. I n a d d i t i o n , i t provided the t o o l s whereby negative s e l f t a l k c ould be transformed i n t o p o s i t i v e s e l f t a l k and, thus, was a primary source or another category: s e l f support. The expanded awareness of one's st r e n g t h s , a t t r i b u t e s and t a l e n t s provided by SHOW YOUR STRENGTHS f o s t e r e d the development of a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward one's a b i l i t y to master l i f e ' s t a s k s and challenges ( i . e . c o n f i d e n c e ) . DOING THINGS a l s o enhanced confidence by a n a l y z i n g the thoughts 122 and a t t i t u d e s one experiences when approaching a task.- The a c t i v i t y aimed toward transforming negative thought p a t t e r n s i n t o ones which would i n c r e a s e the a n t i c i p a t i o n of success. S i m i l a r l y , ACHIEVEMENT o f f e r e d a sense of progress by f a c i l i t a t i n g an awareness of one's past accomplishments. I t i s a l s o probable t h a t the expanded awareness of oneself and one's stren g t h s enabled p a r t i c i p a n t s to see themselves as capable of making t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s ( i . e . independence). Moreover, the heightened awareness of one's m e r i t s , t a l e n t s and achievements would enable p a r t i c i p a n t s t o see themselves as s u p e r i o r to the others a t some time during the workshop ( i . e . s o c i a l comparison). These examples i l l u s t r a t e that s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n c o r p o r a t e d or produced c o g n i t i v e transformations and e f f e c t s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. The t h i r d fundamental source of the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s c o n s i s t s of i t s focus on the impact of behaviour on s e l f esteem. S e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d a performance component p r o v i d i n g the opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o experience p r i d e or s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h behaviours which occurred during the s e s s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , the new s k i l l s and behviours acquired i n the program (e.g. communication s k i l l s ) were used t o improve performances i n everyday l i f e . Behaviours were analyzed i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. SELF ESTEEM ANALYSIS, ANGER, DOING THINGS) to determine t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s on s e l f esteem. The a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d s e l f d e f e a t i n g behaviours and provided .a r a t i o n a l e f o r making changes. Equipped w i t h t h i s new awareness and motivated by the support and examples of other p a r t i c i p a n t s 123 some members a l t e r e d t h e i r behaviour by overcoming s e l f d e f e a t i n g h a b i t s (overcoming) and others i n i t i a t e d healthy ones ( s e l f c a r e ) . Although the r e s u l t s do not i n d i c a t e which s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or program f e a t u r e s were most f a c i l i t a t i v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o conclude t h a t the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s t s on i t s a b i l i t y to cr e a t e the kinds of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and c o g n i t i v e or behavioural changes described above. Thus, i t i s recommended t h a t s e l f esteem programs be designed w i t h the aim of c r e a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r these k i n d s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and c o g n i t i v e - b e h a v i o u r a l changes. The f e a t u r e s and a c t i v i t i e s described above were found t o produce these f a c i l i t a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and they are o f f e r e d as a combination of appro p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s to enhance s e l f esteem i n a group context. I t i s recommended t h a t the g u i d e l i n e s f o r communication and the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n each e x e r c i s e be maintained r e g a r d l e s s of the s e t t i n g or pop u l a t i o n because these a l l o w f o r f a c i l i t a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s . However, f l e x i b i l i t y i n terms of a c t i v i t y s e l e c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . One a c t i v i t y may be replaced w i t h another as long as the new a c t i v i t y f o s t e r s the same k i n d of experience or change; f o r example, s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t kinds of t r u s t e x e r c i s e s could be u t i l i z e d i n s t e a d of the TRUST WALK or TRUST GAMES as long as the new a c t i v i t y f a c i l i t a t e s the experience of t r u s t (and a f f i l i a t i o n ) . I t i s a l s o expected t h a t the content of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s be modified depending on the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n ; f o r example, those a c t i v i t i e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g references or tasks r e l e v a n t to a gay po p u l a t i o n should be r e v i s e d according to the 124 needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pop u l a t i o n f o r which the program i s being adapted. The r e s u l t s of the present study have a wider a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h a t the category system c o n s t i t u t e s a comprehensive approach to f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem accross a wide v a r i e t y of t h e r a p e u t i c or e d u c a t i o n a l contexts from the classroom to the group home. An i n d i v i d u a l i n any of these s e t t i n g s may be assessed i n terms of which h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s are predominant i n h i s l i f e . The r e s u l t i n g p r o f i l e of s e l f esteem stengths and d e f i c i t s would i n d i c a t e treatment plans and g o a l s . The p r o f i l e could d i r e c t the p r a c t i t i o n e r t o focus on m i t i g a t i n g the h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s w h i l e strengthening the f a c i l i t a t i n g ones. I n e f f e c t , the category system could e a s i l y be transformed i n t o a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l which would o f f e r an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n or b l u e p r i n t f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem. P r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e measures can only o f f e r a g l o b a l s e l f esteem score. T h e i r value as d i a g n o s t i c t o o l s f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r i s l i m i t e d because a s i n g l e score can only i n d i c a t e whether or not there i s an o v e r a l l s e l f esteem d e f i c i t . I t says nothing about what has created t h a t d e f i c i t or how to t r e a t i t . In c o n t r a s t , -the category system, i f transformed i n t o a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l , could conceivably produce t h i r t y - s i x d i f f e r e n t scores each one r e p r e s e n t i n g the extent t o which the respondent experiences e i t h e r the h i n d e r i n g or the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of a p a r t i c u l a r category. Thus, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would not only provide a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of what has created the s e l f esteem d e f i c i t , but i t would a l s o be capable of t a r g e t i n g f o r treatment 125 the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s , experiences, thoughts and behaviours which have produced the d e f i c i t . I f i t was d i s c o v e r e d , f o r example, t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l commonly experiences both the h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g components of s e l f c a r e , the p r a c t i t i o n e r would be d i r e c t e d toward i n t e r v e n t i o n s which would i d e n t i f y and d i m i n i s h the s e l f - d e f e a t i n g behaviour w h i l e , a t the same time, she could work to i d e n t i f y , acknowledge and support the already e x i s t i n g healthy behaviour. I n t h i s way the category system may be a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l instrument because i t i s capable of s p e c i f y i n g c l i e n t s trengths (as w e l l as weaknesses) so t h a t they may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the treatment p l a n . Research I m p l i c a t i o n s S e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e research are generated by the present study. I n terms of e v a l u a t i n g the- e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f esteem program the study could be r e p l i c a t e d using a c o n t r o l group drawn from a w a i t i n g l i s t of i n d i v i d u a l s seeking treatment f o r low s e l f esteem. I n t h i s way the c o n t r o l and experimental groups would be comparable i n terms of reported s e l f esteem d e f i c i t s thereby overcoming the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between groups apparent i n the present study. The program could be e a s i l y adapted t o other populations (e.g. adolescents, women) and evaluated by the procedures o u t l i n e d i n the present study t o assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and content across contexts and groups. I n a d d i t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e measures of s e l f esteem could be u t i l i z e d i n f u t u r e experimental designs. To determine the v a l i d i t y of the category system the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s component of the study could be a p p l i e d to a 126 much l a r g e r number of people ( i . e . a t l e a s t twenty repondents) who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the general (North American) p o p u l a t i o n . The study could be r e p l i c a t e d u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t p opulations to determine i f the same p a t t e r n of f a c t o r s operates t o i n f l u e n c e s e l f esteem across v a r y i n g c a t e g o r i e s of race, c u l t u r e , socio-economic s t a t u s , age, sex and mental h e a l t h s t a t u s . Mruk's (1981) research provides a prototype f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o each of the eighteen c a t e g o r i e s . He used a phenomenological approach t o d e l i n e a t e the s t r u c t u r e of an experience v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to overcoming. An i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y which f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s "break through" process was r e a d i l y obtained from these r e s u l t s . I t i s suggested t h a t phenomenological research of t h i s nature could be conducted on each of the c a t e g o r i e s to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r v a l i d i t y through f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n based on e m p i r i c a l data. Such research would a l s o aim to d e r i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s designed to a s s i s t the f a c i l i t a t i v e process of each category. These s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d , i n t u r n , become the o b j e c t s of study and e v a l u a t i o n . Another s i g n i f i c a n t realm of f u r t h e r endeavour and research c o n s i s t s of transforming the category system i n t o a d i a g n o s t i c instrument. Presumably each of the f a c t o r s could be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s e r i e s of stimulus statements r e f l e c t i n g the experience, event or c o n d i t i o n of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r . I n t h i s way a q u a n t i t a t i v e , standardized measure could be constructed such t h a t a c e r t a i n numerical value would be obtained f o r each category depending on the way i n which the t e s t taker responded to the 127 statements. The scores would represent the extent to which the respondent experiences the h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of each category. In developing t h i s instrument each of the f a c t o r s would have to be t e s t e d t o determine i t s usefulness as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l . A s e r i e s of c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s and an o v e r a l l s e l f esteem score could be obtained to determine the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of each f a c t o r . I n a d d i t i o n , each f a c t o r could be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h every other f a c t o r t o o b t a i n a greater understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c t o r s . Summary The i n t e n t of t h i s study was tw o f o l d . I t was designed t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an e x p e r i e n t i a l program which purportedly enhanced s e l f esteem i n gay men. I n a d d i t i o n , i t aimed t o di s c o v e r what events and human experiences f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. The ei g h t gay male p a r t i c i p a n t s who volunteered f o r the s e l f esteem program were a l s o employed to o b t a i n data which was used to di s c o v e r f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem. Flanagan's (1954) c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique was used to disc o v e r what f a c i l i t a t e s and hinders s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . A category system of f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f esteem was induced from c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s data obtained i n a p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w and from a j o u r n a l of s i g n i f i c a n t events which p a r t i c i p a n t s submitted throughout t h e i r involvement i n the program. The program e v a l u a t i o n was based on three sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group 128 of eight gay men on Rosenberg's (1965) Scale of Self Esteem both before and after t h e i r involvement i n the program. They were also subjects i n preliminary and summary, open-ended interviews which were designed to assess changes i n s e l f esteem and to discern the degree to which i n i t i a l l y stated goals and expectations were f u l f i l l e d by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. In addition, c r i t i c a l incidents questions i n the summary interview assessed how, and the degree to which the program incorporated the factors which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . Eighteen categories of behaviours events and/or experiences were found to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f esteem i n everyday l i f e . These factors constitute an i n i t i a l model of what f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f esteem that needs to be tested and explored i n further research. The s e l f esteem program was found to enhance s e l f esteem i n seven of the program's eight participants and to produce s i x di f f e r e n t types of b e n e f i c i a l changes. However, an analysis of covariance applied to s e l f esteem scores did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between a control group and the program participants. 129 REFERENCES Anderson, Bengt-Erik and N i l s o n , Stig-Goran (1964). Studies i n the R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Tech-nique. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 48 ( 6 ) : 398-403. Becker, E r n e s t , (1973). The D e n i a l of Death. New York: The Free P r e s s . B i o s , P. (1962). On Adolescence. New York: MacMillan. Borgen, W., and Amundson, N., (1984). The Experience of Unemploy- ment. Scarborough, O n t a r i o : Nelson Canada. Brandon, N., (1980). The Psychology of S e l f Esteem: Psychology  Today Casse t t e . New York, N.Y.: Z i f f - D a v i s P u b l i s h i n g Co. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The Antecedents Of S e l f Esteem. San F r a n c i s c o : Frieman. C r a n d a l l , R., (1973). The Measurement of S e l f Esteem and Related Co n s t r u c t s , pp. 45-168. In T.P. Robinson and P.R. Shaver, eds. Measures Of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l A t t i t u d e s : Revised E d i t i o n . Ann Arbor, Michigan: I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research. E r i k s o n , E., (1963). Childhood and S o c i e t y . New York: Norton. Flanagan, J.C., (1954). The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 51(4): 327-356. Flanagan, J.C., (1978). A Research Approach to Improving Our Q u a l i t y Of L i f e . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 33: 138-148. Greenberg, J.S.A., (1973). A Study of the S e l f Esteem and A l i e n a t i o n of Homosexuals. J o u r n a l of Psychology, 83: 137-143. Hammersmith, S.K. and Weinberg, M.S., (1973). Homosexual I d e n t i t y : Commitment, Adjustment and S i g n i f i c a n t Others. Sociometry, 36: 56-79. Herzberg, R., Mauser, B. and Snyderman, B., (1959). The M o t i v a t i o n  To Work, Second E d i t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons. Jacobs, J.A. and Tedford, W.H., (1980). F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the S e l f Esteem of the Homosexual I n d i v i d u a l . J o u r n a l of Homosexuality 5( 4 ) : 373-382. James, W., (1978). P r i n c i p l e s of Psychology. New York: B a l l a n t i n e . Mruk, C , (1981). Toward a Phenomenology of S e l f Esteem, pp. 137-149. I n A. G i o r g i , W. F i s c h e r and R. VonEckartsberg ( e d s . ) , Duquesne Studies I n Phenomenological Psychology: Volume Four P i t t s b u r g : Duquesne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 130 Myrick, F.L., J r . , (1974). A t t i t u d n a l D i f f e r e n c e s Between Hetero-s e x u a l l y and Home-sexually Oriented Males and Between Covert and Overt Homosexuals. J o u r n a l of Abnormal Psychology, 83: 137-143. Patt o n , M., (1978). U t i l i z t i o n Focused E v a l u a t i o n . Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . Pa t t o n , M., (1980). Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods. Bever l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s I nc. Rogers, C , (1961). On Becoming A Person. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Rogers, C., (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Rosenberg, M., (1965). S o c i e t y and the Adolescent S e l f Image. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Rosenberg, M., (1979). Conceiving the S e l f . New York: B a s i c Books. Schutz, W., (1973). Elements of Encounter. B i g Sur, C a l i f o r n i a : Joy P r e s s . Shapiro, Edna, (1973). E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : Rethinking the C r i t e r i a of Competence. School Review, November: 523-549. S i l b e r , E. and T i p p e t t , J.S., (1965). S e l f Esteem: C l i n i c a l Assessment and Measurement V a l i d a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 16: 1017-1071. T i p p e t t , J.S. and S i l b e r , E., (1965). S e l f Image S t a b i l i t y : The Problem of V a l i d a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 17: 323-329. 131 APPENDIX A: THE SELF ESTEEM PROGRAM SESSION # ONE 1. INTRODUCTION (40 mins.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures a/ When a l l members are seated i n a c i r c l e , the leader can begin w i t h the f o l l o w i n g remarks: " I ' d " l i k e to welcome you here t o n i g h t . ,Some or maybe a l l of you are probably f e e l i n g a l i t t l e nervous r i g h t now. I'm a l i t t l e nervous myself. T h i s i s a n a t u r a l response to • being i n a new s i t u a t i o n w i t h people you don't know. Perhaps i t took you a l o t of time t o gather the courage t o make the d e c i s i o n to come here t o n i g h t . The best way to deal w i t h f i r s t n i g h t nervousness i s to f i n d out more about who you're w i t h . So, w e ' l l begin by doing t h a t . " b/ D i v i d e the group i n t o p a i r s on a random b a s i s and i n s t r u c t the p a i r s to f i n d a vacant area of the room. c/ Give the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Now I'd l i k e you to spend a few minutes g e t t i n g to know each other. Share whatever you f e e l comfortable s h a r i n g . Try to l i s t e n to your partner as best as you can because when we reconvene i n the l a r g e r group you're going to be i n t r o d u c i n g him to the r e s t of the group. Make sure •that j u s t before r e t u r n i n g you check w i t h your partner to see i f i t ' s O.K. to t e l l the r e s t of the' group what he's t o l d you. He may only want you to t e l l some of what he's t o l d you. That i s up to him." Ask f o r questions and repeat i n s t r u c t i o n s . (15 mins.) d/ P a i r s are c a l l e d back i n t o the group and one p a i r i s s e l e c t e d to begin the i n t r o d u c t i o n s . A f t e r a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s have been introduced the co-leaders i n t r o d u c e each other. (15 mins.) e/ The group c o n t r a c t i s described i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "One of the g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h a t i n t r o d u c t i o n e x e r c i s e i n v o l v e d your partner's r i g h t not t o l e t the whole group know something t h a t he t o l d you i n your dyad. T h i s i s one of the ground r u l e s or norms t h a t work most e f f e c t i v e l y i n groups. I t i s s i m i l a r to a c o n t r a c t t h a t every member has to make w i t h every other member of the group so th a t we can get the most out of t h i s experience. Now I ' l l go over the other ground r u l e s f o r the group. I f you don't understand them, or i f you want to t a l k about them, then f e e l f r e e to b r i n g i t to my a t t e n t i o n : ( i ) When I f i r s t spoke to each of you i n d i v i d u a l l y I mentioned the importance of a t t e n d i n g every s e s s i o n . I f , a f t e r t h i s f i r s t s e s s i o n and a f t e r knowing a b i t more about the group, you decide t h a t i t i s not r i g h t f o r you r i g h t now, then you can l e t me know i n p r i v a t e . However, i f I don't here from you, I w i l l assume tha t y o u ' l l do your best to attend a l l the s e s s i o n s . ( i i ) E v e r y t h ing t h a t the members of the group say here i n t h i s room i s to be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and the membership of the group 132 w i l l be known only to us. You can t a l k about the s k i l l s t h a t you w i l l be l e a r n i n g here to " o u t s i d e r s " but nothing can be s a i d about the content of our exchanges. ( i i i ) A l l the members have the r i g h t not to speak i f you don't want to speak and t h i s i n c l u d e s the r i g h t not to f i n i s h what you s t a r t e d to say. ( i v ) Every member has the r i g h t to f i n i s h what he s t a r t e d to say without i n t e r r u p t i o n from other members. (v) L a s t l y , there w i l l be no smoking during the s e s s i o n , except during breaks. Before we move i n t o our next a c t i v i t y I would l i k e to encourage you to b r i n g up anything about these ground r u l e s t h a t you are not c l e a r on or don't understand." (10 mins.) R a t i o n a l e - l i s t e n i n g / a t t e n d i n g s k i l l s : members w i l l be able to compare how e f f e c t i v e l y they communicated i n t h i s e x e r c i s e w i t h t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the next a c t i v i t y which i n c o r p o r a t e s paraphrasing. -some s e l f d i s c l o s u r e and r i s k t a k i n g i s r e q u i r e d . -member's c u r i o s i t y about each other i s s a t i s f i e d and a n x i e t y i s decreased. - c o n t r i b u t e s t o Schutz's (1973) f i r s t stage of group development, i n c l u s i o n , i n t h a t members r i s k s e l f d i s c l o s u r e i n the group and know more about each other. - d i s c u s s i o n of c o n t r a c t e s t a b l i s h e s ground r u l e s and norms f o r the group (e.g. c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ) -norms e s t a b l i s h a " s a f e " c l i m a t e i n which members are allowed to take r i s k s a t t h e i r own pace. -norms i n c r e a s e members' commitment to the group: d e c i s i o n to belong i s made e a s i e r knowing t h a t you are not going to be pressured t o take r i s k s ( a l l o w s members to b u i l d t r u s t on t h e i r own t i m e ) . 2.PARAPHRASING EXPECTATIONS (60 mins.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures a/ I n t r o d u c t i o n : "A l o t of you have expectations f o r t h i s group. Some of them may be the same as those of other members and some of them may not be the same. Now you are going t o have the opportunity to d i s c u s s these expectations w i t h a partner and l e a r n a new communication s k i l l w h i l e you're doing so." b/ E x p l a i n paraphrasing and provide one or two examples. Ask f o r questions. (5 mins.) c/ D i v i d e group i n t o dyads. d/ I n s t r u c t one person i n each p a i r to t a l k about h i s expectations by d e s c r i b i n g two or three of them w h i l e the other l i s t e n s and paraphrases u n t i l h i s partner f e e l s t h a t he's been 133 understood. Then the r o l e s are to be reversed. e/ Repeat i n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g. what are two t h i n g s you hope to get out of coming to t h i s group?) and s o l i c i t q u e s t i o n s . Inform members t h a t they are t o make the r e v e r s a l when they are ready to and t h a t they w i l l have about f i f t e e n minutes f o r the t a s k . (15 mins.) f / The group i s reconvened f o r d e b r i e f i n g . Questions to f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n : -Did you f e e l comfortable paraphrasing? -Were you understood? -How d i d i t d i f f e r from the f i r s t e x e r c i s e when you were j u s t asked t o l i s t e n ? -Were your expectations the same or d i f f e r e n t from your patner's? (Allow 10 mins. f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ) g/ Ask each i n d i v i d u a l member what he expects to get out of the group. Paraphrase each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s expectations and h i g h l i g h t common themes. h/ Use a chalk board or l a r g e paper to l i s t the f i v e or s i x most common goals or expectations making sure t h a t a t l e a s t one of every member's expectations i s represented. T h i s can be accomplished by a s k i n g : "What were some of the expectations we j u s t d iscussed?" and " I s there anything e l s e t h a t you would l i k e to get from t h i s group?" i / A f t e r the l i s t i s produced the leader must t a l k about the group's ex p e c t a t i o n s / g o a l s i n terms of h i s own and what he knows about what the group experience can provide. Refinements to the l i s t may be necessary. At t h i s p o i n t the l e a d e r a l s o p r i o r i z e s the l i s t by asking the group to show which goals are most important w i t h a show of hands a f t e r each goal i s read aloud. j / To enhance a f e e l i n g of i n c l u s i o n the leader can ask the members i f they f e e l that they have something i n common; t h a t i s , share s i m i l a r goals w i t h a t l e a s t one other member. ("Without having to say who i t i s , do you f e e l t h a t you share something i n common w i t h a t l e a s t one other person here?") k/ At t h i s p o i n t the leader can again leave open the o p t i o n of not r e t u r n i n g t o the group: " I f you f e e l t h a t you don't have anything i n common w i t h anyone e l s e i n the group or t h a t you don't share any of the same goals or e x p e c t a t i o n s , then, perhaps you should t h i n k about your d e c i s i o n to commit y o u r s e l f to the group. You may decide not to come back next week. I f you f e e l t h a t way you can approach me a f t e r the s e s s i o n or get i n touch w i t h me between now and next week." 1/ " I s there anything anyone would l i k e to say about being i n the group at t h i s p o i n t ? " (Allow 30 mins. f o r p a r t s "g" to "1" i n c l u s i v e ) . 134 R a t i o n a l e T h i s e x e r c i s e c o n t r i b u t e s to the development of i n c l u s i o n i n s e v e r a l ways: -new data i s generated about members, i n c r e a s i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r t r u s t development. - s e l f d i s c l o s u r e and r i s k t a k i n g i n v o l v e d i n s h a r i n g goals and expectations a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to t r u s t development. -answers members' questions: "Do I belong?";"Am I needed?"; Do I share the same goals and expectations as the o t h e r s ? " ; and "Do I f i t i n ? " (The e x e r c i s e provides the maximum p o t e n t i a l f o r members to o b t a i n a f f i r m a t i v e repsonses to these questions.) -sense of belonging e s t a b l i s h e d through members' pe r c e p t i o n t h a t they share something i n common w i t h others and that the group w i l l meet some of t h e i r needs. - e s t a b l i s h e s emotional commitment and involvement, -decreases a n x i e t y by h i g h l i g h t i n g commonality amongst members, - b u i l d s the norm that people can speak i n the group and take some r i s k a t s e l f d i s c l o s u r e : they can speak on t h e i r own a u t h o r i t y . PERCEPTION CHECKING (60 mins.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures a/ Provide a b r i e f l e c t u r e t t e on r i s k t a k i n g ( s e l f d i s c l o s u r e ) and t r u s t development and how these underly understanding and in t i m a c y . The primary p o i n t of the l e c t u r e t t e i s that e f f e c t i v e communication f a c i l i t a t e s t r u s t development, understanding and in t i m a c y . Communication s k i l l s make i t e a s i e r to understand the other person and help the other to understand you. b/ Ask f o r questions and comments to a l l o w f o r d i s c u s s i o n of these i d e a s . (Allow 15 mins. f o r "a" and "b") c/ E x p l a i n t h a t today we are l e a r n i n g s k i l l s which help you to understand another person. One of them, paraphrasing, has already been p r a c t i s e d . I t helps you understand the i d e a s , i n f o r m a t i o n and suggestions of another person. The other s k i l l , p e r c e p t i o n checking, w i l l be introduced now. I t c o n s i s t s of making sure one understands the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s . Give an e x p l a n a t i o n of perception checking u t i l i z i n g examples. Ask f o r questions (5 mins.) d/ D i v i d e the group i n t o p a i r s making sure that the p a i r s are d i f f e r e n t from those of the previous e x e r c i s e . Disperse the p a i r s throughout the room. e/ I n s t r u c t i o n s : One person (partner # 1 ) w i l l begin by responding to the question: "How d i d you f e e l when you t o l d your parents or someone very c l o s e to you t h a t you were gay?" A l t e r n a t i v e l y : "What do you imagine y o u r s e l f f e e l i n g a t t h a t time?" You can describe the circumstances or s i t u a t i o n but focus on the way you were or would be f e e l i n g . The other partner (partner # 2) w i l l use p e r c e p t i o n checks to make sure t h a t he 135 understands these f e e l i n g s . When partner # 1 f e e l s understood the r o l e s w i l l be reversed so th a t partner # 2 has a chance to respond to the same question and partner # 1 has a chance to do some perception checking. Advise the members that they w i l l have about 20 minutes f o r the whole a c t i v i t y . Repeat i n s t r u c t i o n s and ask f o r questions. (20 mins.) f / Group i s reconvened f o r d e b r i e f i n g : Questions f o r d i s c u s s i o n : -What d i d i t f e e l l i k e to engage i n t h i s k i n d of communication? -How d i d i t d i f f e r from your more everyday s t y l e of t a l k i n g about f e e l i n g s ? -Do you f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y now about your partner than before the exe r c i s e ? -Did you f i n d t h a t you shared s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s w i t h your partner? -What d i d you d i s c o v e r about y o u r s e l f i n t h i s e x e r c i s e which you hadn't p r e v i o u s l y known? R a t i o n a l e -members become aware of how t r u s t develops through r i s k t a k i n g ( s e l f d i s c l o s u r e ) ; the connection between i n t i m a c y , understanding and e f f e c t i v e communication s k i l l s - t o become aware of the range of p o s s i b l e emotions and r e s u l t s a r i s i n g from a s e l f d i s c l o s u r e which a l l gay men have e i t h e r experienced or imagined. -a more personal s e l f d i s c l o s u r e of emotional content c o n t i b u t e s to t r u s t development. - d i s c u s s i n g an important, p o s s i b l y a p i v o t a l , s e l f d i s c l o s u r e which a l l members have faced or contemplated f a c i n g f a c i l i t a t e s a f e e l i n g of belonging ( i n c l u s i o n ) . -awareness of commonality decreases members' a n x i e t y , - l e c t u r e t t e on communication s k i l l s and the a c t i v i t y ' s relevance to the p e r s o n a l , everyday l i v e s of members i n c r e a s e s t h e i r commitment to s k i l l s a c q u i s i t i o n . - d e b r i e f i n g questions and d i s c u s s i o n c o n s o l i d a t e l e a r n i n g and awareness and decrease a n x i e t y by r e v e a l i n g commonality amongst members. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (15 mins.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures a/ Summary/Evaluation d i s c u s s i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g questions: - I s there anything t h a t you became aware of or learned t h i s evening t h a t you were not aware of or di d n ' t know before? -Was i t v a l u a b l e or r e l e v a n t to you? -Were your expectations f o r what would happen i n the group d i f f e r e n t from what a c t u a l l y happened? -Were they the same or j u s t p a r t i a l l y the same? -Are there t h i n g s about the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you l i k e d or enjoyed? -Are there t h i n g s t h a t you would have l i k e d to have done d i f f e r e n t l y ? 136 b/ A f t e r a ten minute d i s c u s s i o n the s e s s i o n can be cl o s e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g homework assignment: "In the previous e x e r c i s e we became aware of the importance of s e l f d i s c l o s u r e and how i t r e l a t e s to t r u s t , understanding and inti m a c y . We focused on a s e l f d i s c l o s u r e which i s very important to us as gay people; t h a t i s , to t e l l another t h a t we're gay. To prepare f o r next week's s e s s i o n I would l i k e you t o t h i n k about a l l the times you made that s e l f d i s c l o s u r e and ask y o u r s e l f the f o l l o w i n g questions: How d i d i t a f f e c t your r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h those you d i s c l o s e d to? Did i t i n c r e a s e or decrease your l e v e l of t r u s t and intimacy? Was communication between you b e t t e r or worse? Did you understand each other b e t t e r ? I f you have yet t o make such a d i s c l o s u r e imaging how you t h i n k you would answer these questions; f o r example, what do you t h i n k would happen t o your communication?" c/ Go over the homework i n s t u c t i o n s again and ask f o r questions. Suggest to the members t h a t when they are t h i n k i n g back over t h e i r s e l f d i s c l o s u r e s they may want to w r i t e a few t h i n g s down. R a t i o n a l e • -members are r e q u i r e d t o summarize and evaluate l e a r n i n g , c o n c e p t u a l i z e and communicate new awareness or i n s i g h t , and express t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s i n the group -homework r e q u i r e s members to t r a n s f e r learning/awareness to t h e i r l i v e s o u t s ide the group: a b i l i t y to make the connection between what was learned to everyday l i f e . - e s t a b l i s h e s norm th a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n provides i n f o r m a t i o n to the leader which can i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n of the group, - g i v e s members opportunity to a s s e r t some i n f l u e n c e on the group (begins t o answer Schutz's (1973) c o n t r o l phase question: How much i n f l u e n c e do I have?) - t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y i n c r e a s e s commitment and sense of belonging, -homework f a c i l i t a t e s c o n t i n u i t y and cohesiveness from one se s s i o n t o the next by preparing members f o r the next s e s s i o n and p r o v i d i n g a meaningful task a l l o w i n g them to focus on the group during the week. 137 SESSION TWO 1. REACTIONS (20 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Open the session by asking participants what they felt and thought in response to the first session. What experiences, activities or events stood out the most for them? What did they think and feel about their experiences during the week? What do they think about them now? Spend some time responding to each reaction and try to solicit a response from every participant. Rationale -the first session is a pivotal one, often evoking strong emotional reactions and experiences - these must be aired, debriefed and processed before the program can proceeed. -the sharing contributes to trust level, increases participants' knowledge of each other. -provides opportunity for participants to affirm their commitment to the group, increases group cohesion. -consolidates learning and awareness acquired from the first session. 2. TRUST WALK (40 mins.) . . . Administrative Procedures a/ Form dyads by asking members to pair off with someone they have not worked with before. b/Distribute one blindfold to each pair and provide the following instructions: "One member of each pair should volunteer to be blindfolded. You are about to go on a trust walk. The member who is not blindfolded will lead his partner around the room. Try to lead your partner over, under and around things and let him explore the area. It is important that there be a lot of interaction between you during the walk. The partner who is leading may help the blindfolded partner by giving helpful instructions and answering any of his questions. The blindfolded partner should ask questions. Feel free to share your feelings with each other as you go through the experience. After ten minutes I will ask you to exchange roles." Ask for questions and repeat instructions. (25 mins.) c/ Reconvene the group for discussion: -What did you learn from the experience? -How did you feel about your partner while he was leading you? -How did you feel about being led? -Did you find being led or leading the most meaningfull to you? -How does the issue of who leads and who follows have relevance 138 in a group such as this one? -How does this activity relate to the development of trust in your own lives? (15 mins.) Rationale -to develop an awareness of what i t feels like to be vulnerable, dependent as well as what i t feels like to be in control, leading and in some way responsible for another person. -to be aware of the necessity for trust in a relationship. -to be aware of one's capacity to trust ("How readily do I trust another person?") -to be aware of one's level of comfort and feelings when taking the role of follower or leader. -to facilitate self disclosure and non-verbal (physical) risk taking (physical risk taking may generalize to psychological risk taking, i.e. self disclosure). -to enhance member relationships by making the level of trust amongst members more explicit and by demonstrating members' capacity to trust. -leads to a discussion of contol phase issues involving influenceability: "How much power and control do I have in my relationships?" "Do I prefer to lead or to follow?" -movement, activity, sense of adventure and fun raise the level of energy, involvement and participation. 3. SELF ESTEEM ANALYSIS (105 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Instructions: ."Self esteem fluctuates dramatically, even during the course of the same day. These fluctuations are due to a great number of factors many of which you were able to describe in our first interview. What I'd like you to do now is to focus on two different states of self esteem. I'd like, you to take the piece of paper which I will distribute and split i t down the middle. On one side write about the way you think, feel and act when your self esteem is at a peak, when you're really feeling good about yourself. On the other side write about the way you think, feel and act when your self esteem is low. When you are finished writing examine what you have written and try to conceptualize these two self esteem moods as two parts of yourself. Use your imagination to attach a name to each personality, one which summarizes or.symbolizes them." (20 mins.) b/ Divide the group into two smaller groups of four or five. Each subgroup will be facilitated by one of the co-leaders who will request that each member share what they have written. (20 mins.) c/ After each member has had the opportunity to share, the leaders can provide the following instructions: "Now I'd like you to study the significant events cards which you brought in this week. What situations, experiences, events or activities 139 c o n t r i b u t e to your low s e l f esteem mood? What do your yellow cards say about the events which c o n t r i b u t e t o your high s e l f esteem mood?" On the b a s i s of what each p a r t i c i p a n t has "~just discovered the f a c i l i t a t o r s can begin a brainstorming s e s s i o n on ways f o r each person to i n c r e a s e h i s s e l f esteem. (45 mins.) d/ Group D e b r i e f i n g : -What d i d you dis c o v e r about y o u r s e l f t h a t you di d n ' t know before? -What were the most common i n c i d e n t s which increased or decreased s e l f esteem? -Did you d i s c o v e r anything t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l or u s e f u l to you? (20 mins.) R a t i o n a l e - t o help p a r t i c i p a n t s become aware of the f l u c t u a t i n g nature of s e l f esteem. - t o enable p a r t i c i p a n t s to i d e n t i f y t h e i r own moods of high and low s e l f esteem. - t o i d e n t i f y t r i g g e r s or ca u s a t i v e circumstances which tend to b r i n g on moods of high or low s e l f esteem. - c o n t r i b u t e s t o t r u s t and cohesion as members engage i n s e l f d i s c l o s u r e and work together to a s s i s t each other i n a common endeavour. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (15 mins.) See E x e r c i s e 1., SESSION # ONE f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures and R a t i o n a l e . Homework Assisgnment: "In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r next week I'd l i k e you t o t h i n k about the times when you have been r e j e c t e d . What were the circumstances? How d i d you know you were r e j e c t e d ? What d i d i t f e e l l i k e ? What e f f e c t d i d the r e j e c t i o n have on your s e l f esteem? You may want to b r i e f l y w r i t e something about one or two of these experiences." 140 SESSION THREE 1. HOW ARE YOU? (15 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ To introduce t h i s a c t i v i t y : "Every one of us brings our tensions, concerns, moods and f e e l i n g s from the day into these sessions. I t i s often h e l p f u l l at the beginning of the session for each of us to l e t the group know what's.happening f o r us at the moment and i n the past day or week. So I would l i k e to take some time now to request that each of us ask one other member how they are f e e l i n g or what they bring with them to the ' group tonight." This process w i l l be complete when every member has had a chance to respond to the question. (15 mins.) Rationale -to prepare for what happens i n the session by allowing members to express t h e i r present concerns and preoccupations, -acknowledgement of members' concerns by other members f o s t e r s a f e e l i n g of being valued, accepted by the group. -recognizes that one's concerns and state of being are important and deserve expression/recognition. -contributes to here and now focus, members' involvement and cohesion. 2. REJECTION/KILLER STATEMENTS (100 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Introduce the a c t i v i t y with a b r i e f t a l k on r e j e c t i o n . E s t a b l i s h i t ' s universal nature and describe i t ' s myriad forms. Give examples (e.g. turned down from a job, r e j e c t i o n by other people, lovers, f r i e n d s ) . Explain that the tools of r e j e c t i o n are the judgements and evaluations that we a l l make of each other. These k i l l e r statements, or put downs are experienced as attacks and can have a very negative impact on our s e l f esteem. (5 mins.) b/ E n l i s t the group's help to make a l i s t of common k i l l e r statements. (Use a chalkboard or display on a large piece of paper.) Stimulate ideas with the following questions: -What are some of the k i l l e r statements used against gay people? -What are some of the put downs gays use against other gays? -What k i l l e r statements do we use to i n v a l i d a t e a person for a new idea, an innovation, or attempt to do something new? -What put downs do we use to i n v a l i d a t e someone for r i s k i n g a personal statement or for disp l a y i n g an emotion? (10 mins.) c/ Form dyads by i n s t r u c t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to f i n d a partner they 141 have not yet worked with. d/ "I'd l i k e you to take turns discussing a time when you used any or a l l of these put downs against someone e l s e . In p a r t i c u l a r , focus on how you f e l t when using them and how the putdown affe c t e d your s e l f esteem." (15 mins.) e/ "Now take turns discussing a time when any of these put downs were used against you. Again, focus on how you f e l t and how i t affected your s e l f esteem? (15 mins.) f / Form groups of four or f i v e . "Discuss some of the k i l l e r statements and gestures you experienced during your growing up years,- childhood, and adolescence. What e f f e c t s did these have on you, on the way you thought and f e l t about yourself?"(20 mins.) g/ "Discuss or brainstorm ways of dealing with r e j e c t i o n or k i l l e r statements. What would be some of the ways to handle r e j e c t i o n so that s e l f esteem could be maintained or enhanced? (20 mins.) h/ Large Group Debriefing: -New insights? awarenesses? experiences? -What did you discover about yourself that you didn't know before? -Do you think you w i l l be able to use what you learned from t h i s a c t i v i t y i n your everyday l i f e ? How do you think you w i l l go about doing that? (20 mins.) Rationale -to i n s t i l the awareness that the p a r t i c i p a n t i s both a user and a v i c t i m of putdowns/rejection. -to assess impact of putdowns/rejection on s e l f esteem -to conceptualize and analyze r e j e c t i o n and to r e l a t e t h i s understanding to one's own l i f e experiences with r e j e c t i o n . -to learn ways of coping with r e j e c t i o n . -to discover the u n i v e r s a l i t y of r e j e c t i o n . -sharing a common p a i n f u l l experience contributes to belonging and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the group. 3. CONTROL EXERCISE (45 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Instruct members to pair o f f with someone approximately the same s i z e and/or weight. b/ Find an area of the room which i s clear of f u r n i t u r e . c/ Inform members that they w i l l be engaging i n a physical a c t i v i t y with t h e i r partners; one i n which the object i s to throw 142 the other partner o f f balance. Demonstrate the a c t i v i t y with the co^leader or another p a r t i c i p a n t as you explain i t . Stand side by side with your partner facing i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Join hands i n between. By moving your partner's arm t r y to throw him o f f balance. (15 mins.) d/ Debriefing i n p a i r s : -Did you use a l l your power? -How did you use i t : d i r e c t l y ? with cunning? -What was your experience of your partner during the task? -Has your experience of him changed? -What f e e l i n g s did you experience? -What was i t l i k e for you to win/lose? -What i s your everyday response to winning/being beaten? Do you f e e l better or worse about yourself? More or les s s e l f confident? (15 mins.) e/ Questions for debriefing i n the group: -How i s power or influence manifested i n our group? -How do you respond to power i n t h i s group? -How do you respond to power i n everyday l i f e ? -Suggest ' ways i n which these issues of power/control/influence a f f e c t the way you f e e l about your s e l f or your s e l f esteem. Rationale -to engender an awareness of one's response to power, force and attempts to c o n t r o l . -to h i g h l i g h t the e f f e c t s of these issues on the member's s e l f confidence and s e l f esteem. -to develop an awareness of how one t y p i c a l l y uses power and influence i n attempts to co n t r o l and get what one wants i n everyday l i f e and i n the group. -to make e x p l i c i t and to discuss the members perception of how power and influence i s shared i n the group. -thus, t h i s a c t i v i t y d i r e c t l y addresses the control phase issues of who has the most/least influence i n the group and i n what way do they c o n t r o l . SUM UP AND HOMEWORK (10 mins.) For Administrative Procedures and Rationale See SESSION # ONE Homework "To prepare for next week's session I would l i k e you to think about times you f e l t a sense of belonging, times when you r e a l l y f e l t a part of something or some group, times when you knew you belonged and were accepted. Perhaps i t was belonging to a group, a c i r c l e of f r i e n d s , a cause, your family. Think about where you belong now as well as i n the past. Focus on the feelings'you have when you know you belong. How has belonging affected your s e l f esteem? 143 SESSION FOUR 1. GUIDED FANTASY - BELONGING (50 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Once members are seated in a circle request that they take comfortable positions in their chairs and close their eyes to prepare for a guided fantasy or relaxation exercise. Have the members focus on or imaginge the following: -sounds from outside the building -sounds from inside the building -sounds from within the room - i f your attention wanders, just let i t go, i t will come back when you are ready -become aware of the sound of your breathing -become aware of the support you have for your body from the chair -support for your feet from the floor -become aware of how your body feels -locate any area of tension in your body and just notice how your body feels in that area -now go back to the time just before you arrived here this evening -just as you were entering the building -imagine your approach to the door -what did you see as you approached the door . . . what were you feeling . . . thinking? .-this time as you go toward the door you see a large garbage bin -you can now relieve yourself of a l l of the day's worries, concerns and tensions -just empty them into the bin - i t will hold the cares and tensions and anything that you don't need while you are here -you can retrieve them when you leave but for now just deposit them in the bin -right beside this bin there is an even larger treasure chest - i t contains a l l the things you need to have for your time here -you may want to replenish yourself with energy -you may want to obtain some calm relaxation -whatever i t is that you need, reach into the chest and take i t -now return to the door and enter the building -as you step inside enter into a time and a place when you felt a deep -sense of belonging -a time when you felt very much a part of things, part of a group perhaps, or a cause - i t can be a recent time, or a time long ago, any time you want -recreate the circumstances of belonging -where does i t occur? -who are the people who provide this feeling of belonging? -maybe something happened which made you feel like you belonged -what does i t feel like to belong? -when you have this situation clearly imagined slowly return to the room -you may want to count backwards from ten or imagine the people 144 i n the room as you prepare to come back to the room -take your time and return when you are ready. (10 mins.) b/ Divide the group into pairs by asking members to choose someone they have not yet worked with. c/ Disperse pairs throughout the room and i n s t r u c t them to share what they imagined and f e l t about belonging during the r e l a x a t i o n : What was the s i t u a t i o n and what kind of f e e l i n g s were experienced? How does belonging a f f e c t your s e l f esteem?(20 mins.) d/ Reconvene the group to discuss the following questions: -What did you discover about yourself that you didn't know before? -How do we f e e l about ourselves when we f e e l accepted and a sense of belonging? -What are the obstacles to obtaining these f e e l i n g s i n our l i v e s ? -Are there any obstacles making i t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r gay men to obtain t h i s f e e l i n g of belonging? -What circumstances can we choose or create that w i l l allow us to f e e l that we belong? (20 mins.) Rationale - r e l a x a t i o n decreases anxiety. -focuses the members on the "here and now". -leads into the f i r s t d iscussion. -provides continuity between sessions and h i g h l i g h t s relevance of homework assignment from SESSION THREE. -f o s t e r s body awareness, capacity to relax and obtain proprioceptive feedback. -requires use of imagination and imaging capacity. - s e l f d i s c l o s u r e of f e e l i n g s and s i g n i f i c a n t events increases a sense of belonging ( i n c l u s i o n ) . - f o s t e r s awareness of the contrasting e f f e c t s of belonging and acceptance versus r e j e c t i o n on s e l f esteem. -awareness of one's f e e l i n g s of belonging, i n what context do they occur, and what can* one do to minimize obstacles to belonging and maximize circumstances which produce belonging. 2.- SUPPORT NETWORKS (60 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ A b r i e f l e c t u r e t t e on how groups function to provide a context for belonging and acceptance. Underline the notion that belonging i s a function of i n t e r a c t i o n between group and i n d i v i d u a l . Thus, i t i s dependent on one's behaviour i n the group (e.g. withdrawn, over s o c i a l , dependent, counterdependent, following, leading). Introduce the idea of the Support Network. Define and provide examples. (10 mins.) 145 b/ Distribute a sheet of blank paper and a pen to every member c/ Instruct the members in the following manner while demonstrating with a diagram on the blackboard: -write your name in the center of the paper, -draw spokes outward from your name. -at the end of each spoke write the name of a friend, social group or any other important relationship in your l i fe , -draw as many spokes as you like. -on one side of the spoke write in the kind of support you give to that group/friend/social setting. -on the other side write in the kind of support you receive from that source.(10 mins.) d/ Find a partner and share your external support networks.(10 mins.) e/ Write the following question on the blackboard: "Does your external support network include people who will support you in the following ways?" A. to depend on in a crisis? B. with whom to feel close to? C. from whom you can borrow money? D. who make you feel competent and valued? E. who can give you important information? F. with whom you can share fun times, celebrations? G. with whom you can share good news and feelings? f/ Instruct the members to discuss the question listed above with their partner. g/Reconvene Group. . Possible questions for debriefing: -Did you find that you seem to be giving more support than receiving? -Are you satisfied with your support network as i t now exists? -Were there any forms of support that you would like to receive that were noticeably missing from your diagram? -How do you think you can obtain the support you would like to receive? -How do you think that your typical way of belonging in a group affects the quality and kind of support you receive? (20 mins.) Rationale -to in s t i l l the awareness of the importance of support networks in fostering self acceptance and self esteem. -to provide information about how one's typical style of behaving in a group affects the support obtained from the group and degree of belonging/acceptance in the group. -to develop an awareness of one's own support network, its advantages, defficiencies, what i t consists of, contributions to self esteem. -this analysis/understanding will suggest possibilities for improvement and/or revision (e.g. f i l l ing in the gaps), -further self disclosure increases group cohesion and trust. 146 3. SHOW YOUR STRENGTHS (60 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ D i s t r i b u t e a large sheet of newsprint (2* X 4') and a f e l t pen to every member. b/ Instructions: "The object of t h i s a c t i v i t y i s to write out a l i s t of your a t t r i b u t e s , t a l e n t s or p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s . In large printed l e t t e r s write out the f i r s t ten q u a l i t i e s that you can think of. (20 mins.) c/ D i s t r i b u t e masking tape. Instructions: ^"Tape the l i s t s to the front of your bodies so that they hang down from your shoulders. Now m i l l around and read each other's l i s t s . Try to observe the q u a l i t i e s , strengths and a t t r i b u t e s i n the person's face as you read h i s l i s t . (10 mins.) d/ Debriefing with a partner: -Did you f i n d i t easy or d i f f i c u l t to come up with your l i s t ? -How did you f e e l during the observation stage? -What was the experience l i k e for you? -Describe your l i s t i n more d e t a i l . (15 mins.) e/ Debriefing i n the group: -What do iyou know about yourself now that you didn't know before? -Did anyone discover new strengths or talents? -Why do you suppose some of us f i n d i t so d i f f i c u l t to t a l k about, reveal or r e a l i z e our own p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s and talents? (15 mins.) Rationale -to help p a r t i c i p a n t s make an assessment of t h e i r strengths and recognize t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and t a l e n t s . -to encourage.participants to v a l i d a t e themselves p u b l i c l y , -to obtain the deserved esteem of others. -to sharpen one's perspective on h i s own p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s , -to b u i l d s e l f confidence. -to develop an awareness of how and why we depreciate, avoid or overlook our own strengths, a t t r i b u t e s . -to become aware of the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s to s e l f esteem achieved through an accurate perception of one's strenghts and i n t e r n a l resources. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (10 mins.) See Exercise 4., SESSION ONE for administrative procedures and r a t i o n a l e . 147 SESSION FIVE 1. HOW ARE YOU (15 mins.) For administrative procedures and r a t i o n a l e , see Exercise 1;, SESSION THREE. 2. TRUST GAMES (40 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Inform members that they are going to be engaging i n a nonverbal t r u s t experience. Remind them that even i f they have performed- these exercises before they w i l l derive a d i f f e r e n t experience now because they are i n another s e t t i n g , another time and with a d i f f e r e n t group. b/ Have members form a c i r c l e (including the c o - f a c i l i t a t o r s ) facing inward toward each other. c/ Explain that the member who volunteers w i l l step i n s i d e the c i r c l e , close h i s eyes and be passed around the i n s i d e perimeter of the c i r c l e by the other members. Inform the members that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary and everyone w i l l have an opportunity to be the focus person. Also, the p a r t i c i p a n t can choose to discontinue at any time. Ask for the f i r s t volunteer. (15 mins.) d/ After a l l the volunteers have p a r t i c i p a t e d inform the members that the next exercise requires that the group become t i g h t e r by moving closer toward the centre. e/ Explain that the person who volunteers w i l l stand i n the centre of the c i r c l e , close h i s eyes and f a l l backward or forward to be supported by the members of the c i r c l e . The statements regarding p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be repeated. (10 mins.) f/ Reconvene the group for d e b r i e f i n g : -What was your experience of the t r u s t exercises? -What r o l e did you f i n d most enjoyable or comfortable: p a r t i c i p a t i n g ? guiding i n the f i r s t exercise? supporting i n the second? -Any new awarenesses about what i t f e e l s l i k e to be p h y s i c a l l y vulnerable? about your capacity to t r u s t others? about what i t i s l i k e to guide or support another? -In what ways are these t r u s t exercises relevant to our discussions on r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? (15 mins.) Rationale -the physical a c t i v i t y , sense of adventure and shared fun r a i s e the l e v e l of energy, increase involvement and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b u i l d cohesivesness amongst the members. 148 -requires non-verbal (physical) r i s k taking which may generalize to psychological r i s k taking (e.g. s e l f disclosure) -to develop an awareness of what i t f e e l s l i k e to be supported, guided, by the group and i n some way vulnerable to the group. -to develop an awareness of what i t f e e l s l i k e to support, guide. -the exercises contribute to the development of intimacy (Schutz, 19 73) by making the l e v e l of t r u s t i n the group more e x p l i c i t and by demonstrating members' capacity to t r u s t the group. -provides another example of the importance of t r u s t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3. SELF TALK AND FEELING O.K. (115 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Provide a b r i e f l e c t u r e t t e on t r a n s a c t i o n a l analysis concepts of parental injunctions, early decisions, l i f e s c r i p t s and how these influence s e l f perception as O.K. or NOT O.K. Explain how these influences are manifested i n the things we t e l l ourselves. Use the example of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s c r i p t for homosexuality: how i t i s possible to develop a NOT O.K. s e l f perception based on s o c i e t a l and parental s c r i p t i n g for homosexuality which transmits the message, "Homosexuals are s i c k , perverted, e v i l , or immoral". The message i s internalized•and i t appears i n the things we t e l l ourselves ( s e l f t a l k ) ; for example, "I can never have a meaningfull, intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p because a l l gay people are inherently neurotic." (15 mins.) b/ D i s t r i b u t e small note cards and p e n c i l s . c/ Form two small groups of four or f i v e . d/ Instruct the members to think about the things that they t e l l themselves which make them f e e l that they are NOT O.K.: "Write two of these i n a statement form on the card". The leader can provide a personal example: "For instance, I don't f e e l O.K. when I t e l l myself that L'm unattractive because I'm short". e/ "Share your statements i n the group and discuss where they originated from. Parents? Society? Peers? For example, i n my case, our culture values t a l l n e s s i n men and t h i s idea was transmitted to me as a c h i l d when my elders and peers highlighted and devalued my short stature. Adults would show concern about my lack of growth and peers would sin g l e me out as the "smallest i n the c l a s s ' " . (Repeat i n s t r u c t i o n s and allow 30 mins. for parts "d" and "e".) f/ As an introduction to the next part of t h i s task explain the a r b i t r a r y nature of c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s : how they vary from one culture to the next so that what i s devalued or condemned i n our culture i s accepted or celebrated i n another (e.g. homosexuality). Explain that most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t r a i t s (e.g. smallness, homosexuality) are not inherently good or bad. They do not produce the NOT O.K. s e l f perception. I t i s what people, our 149 culture, our parents say about the t r a i t which leads to a NOT O.K. s e l f perception. But we have the power to accept or re j e c t what people say about the t r a i t . For example, i t i s not the fac t that I'm short which makes me f e e l NOt O.K. I t i s what I have learned and i n t e r n a l i z e d from the culture about what i t means to be short. The same holds true for being gay. We can accept the c u l t u r a l meaning attached to being gay or we can r e j e c t i t . g/ Instructions: "Now I would l i k e you to take each of the two statements and decide whether or not the meaning attached to whatever i t i s that makes you f e e l NOT O.K. i s yours. Or does i t belong to someone or something else? I f i t ' s not yours you can r e j e c t i t and substitute a statement about yourself that r e f l e c t s your own se l f - c r e a t e d meaning and makes you f e e l O.K. For example, I know that i t i s our c u l t u r a l value f o r bigness and t a l l n e s s which makes me f e l NOT O.K. about being short. So, I can r e j e c t that meaning or value and substitute my own value or meaning i n being s h o r t l . lean say X I f e e l O.K. about being short because small people are usually better proportioned, l i v e longer, use l e s s energy and always f i t into small sports cars.' If you can't think of a way to attach a p o s i t i v e meaning to whatever i t i s that makes you f e e l NOT O.K. then substitute something else which i s rela t e d to i t that does make you f e e l O.K. For example, I can say X I f e e l O.K. about the way I look because I have b e a u t i f u l blue eyes. Both being short and the colour of my eyes have something to do with the way I look and physical a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . Now I would l i k e you to transform your own negative s e l f statements i n the same manner and then share these with your group. Discuss the a l t e r n a t i v e s with them." (Allow 40 mins f or " f " and "g") h/ Reconvene group for discussion (20 mins) -What did you learn about yourself as a r e s u l t of t h i s exercise? -How d i f f i c u l t or easy was i t for you to come up with and transform your NOT O.K. s e l f statements? -Do you think that you can use t h i s process to recognize and transform your negative s e l f t a l k outside of t h i s group i n everyday l i f e ? -In what s i t u a t i o n s or i n what context can you see yourself using i t ? Rationale -to be aware of how i n t r o j e c t e d p a r e n t a l / s o c i e t a l values pertaining to homosexuality can hinder the development of a p o s i t i v e s e l f image. -to be aware of how other p a r e n t a l / s o c i e t a l i n j u c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and values are i n t e r n a l i z e d and how these can also diminish s e l f esteem. -to understand how these a t t i t u d e s and values manifest themselves i n s e l f concept through " s e l f t a l k . " -to be able to i d e n t i f y and di s c l o s e private s e l f perceptions which may be p a i n f u l l , or perceived as a weakness, f o i b l e , defect or f a u l t . 150 -to be able to analyze these self perceptions to discern therir origin, development and meaning. -to be aware of one's choice in accepting or rejecting an external meaning or label as part of one's self perception. -to be able to identify introjected self perceptions which contribute to a global "I'm NOT O.K." self concept. -to be able to reject and transform these self perceptions so that they enhance self concept. -to be able to share these positive self perceptions with the group -disclosure of potentially painfull or embarassing information fosters trust development, cohesion. -discussion of the socio-cultural script for homosexuality is especially relevant to gay men, providing a focus for members' identification with the group and enhancing a sense of belonging, -engaging in a task to improve self perceptions provides a common goal and focus for the group fostering cohesion and co-operation, -disclosure of transformed positive self perceptions . increases commitment to the group and involvement by communicating the achievement (success) of a group effort. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (10 mins.) See Exercise 4., SESSION ONE for Administration and Rationale. Homework Assignment "In the last exercise we worked with the thoughts we have about ourselves which make us feel NOT O.K. During the week as preparation for the- next session I would like you to think about the things that you do which make you feel NOT O.K. You could even write two of these down in a statement form (e.g. Whenever I do such and such I feel NOT O.K.). Then, I would like you to l i s t at least twice as many things which you do which make you feel good about yourself." SESSION SIX 151 1. HOW ARE YOU? (15 mins.) See Exercise 1., SESSION FOUR 2. GUIDED FANTASY - ACHIEVEMENT (45 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Instruct members to get in t o comfortable p o s i t i o n s , close t h e i r eyes i n preparation for a guided fantasy. b/ In a slow, even paced, somewhat sonorous tone read out the following: -become aware of the support you have f or your body, from the chair, from the f l o o r -become aware of your breathing, i f you need more a i r , take i t -notice the rhythm of your breathing -notice how your body f e e l s -you may notice sounds and your awareness may d r i f t away - that's O.K., ju s t l e t i t go - i t w i l l come back when you are ready -you don't even have to l i s t e n to the sound of my voice -now take some time to remember something pleasant - a time when you r e a l l y f e l t that you achieved something -maybe you f e l t very good about yourself because of something you were able to do, or able to accomplish -maybe i t was something you were able to be - l e t that memory come to you -perhaps i t happened 5, 10 or 15 years ago -perhaps i t was a s p e c i a l occasion -imagine that time - the sights and sounds associated with i t -recreate how you were f e e l i n g at that time -you may want to learn from that experience -perhaps you can use your experience i n the present - apply that learning to your l i f e now -go over your experience and f i n i s h i t -give yourself some appreciation f o r that time -know that i t was your accomplishment, your achievement -use i t to do something worthwhile for yourself -and when you f e e l that i t i s time to return to t h i s room you can do that i n your own way -take a l l the time you need -as you come back you can take the things you want from the experience -you can f e e l even more refreshed, relaxed and confident. (15 mins.) b/Debriefing i n p a i r s : -Share your experience with a partner. -What was the accomplishment that you imagined? -What were the most s a l i e n t d e t a i l s ? -How did i t make you feel ? -How did i t make you f e e l about yourself i n terms of your l e v e l 152 of self confidence and self esteem? (15 mins.) cl Debriefing in the group: -New discoveries, awarenesses, information, or experiences? -How can we use our past accomplishments to help us to do the things we want to do now or to meet the challenges of the present? -Are you able to acknowledge your past achievements and use them to bolster your self confidence? (20 mins.) Rationale -to engender a perception of self as one who can achieve or be successful. -to develop an appreciation for oneself through a recognition and sharing of one's achievements. -to underscore the positive effects of achievements on self confidence and self esteem. -sharing achievements in the group elicits validation from the others and provides positive reinforcement for past achievements and the perception of self as an achiever. -to ins t i l the notion that the confidence gained and the learnings obtained from past achievements can be utilized to achieve now. -sharing accomplishments augments the group's morale, cohesiveness. 3. DOING THINGS AND FEELING O.K. (100 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ A brief lecturette on how one can utilize one's internal support system (e.g. known strengths, personal resources, positive self statements) to accomplish or perform the things we need to do when we are faced with a goal, challenge, obstacle, problem. Point out the common tendency to ignore one's past successes, strengths and potentials while getting stuck on one's weaknesses, past failures; that is , "short circuiting" the internal support system, through self criticism or "negative self talk". When confronted with an unfulfilled need or challenge which requires some action, attitude may be more important than the actual approach. A shift in attitude from self criticism to supportive self talk can maximize the probability of successful action and goal attainment. Thus, when engaging in an action which will bring us closer to our goals we can enlist the support of our past achievements and known strengths/talents/abilities via supportive self talk. These ideas will be further expanded and an example will be used to translate the theory into a concrete situation relevant to the participants; for example, many of the members expressed an unfulfilled need for a companion/lover. My example will focus on how this technique can be used to support one's efforts in obtaining such a relationship. (15 mins.) 153 b/ Request questions on the l e c t u r e t t e from members. Is i t clear? Does i t make sense to you? (5 mins.) c/ Pass out note cards and pens. d/ Instruct members to write at l e a s t two items on the cards. These items can be: -a challenge you presently face -an u n f u l f i l l e d need -an obstacle or problem -a goal you want to achieve (write t h i s l i s t on the blackboard) (10 mins.) e/ Instructions: "Find a partner and share the items with your partner. Then, discuss the things that you can do to meet the challenge, f u l f i l l the need etc. Try to think of actions or approaches that you have not already taken. (15 mins.) f/ Now think of the s e l f c r i t i c i s m s you engage i n as part of your a t t i t u d e to these issues i n your l i f e . What are some of the things you t e l l yourself which prevent you from being e f f e c t i v e i n your approach. Write these on the note cards and share them with your partner. (15 mins.) g/ Now discuss with your partner the stengths and past successes which r e l a t e to the things that you can do to accomplish your goal. Phrase these stengths and successes into supportive s e l f statements. Try to come up with at l e a s t two statements per item. A c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t w i l l probably be quite h e l p f u l l " . (20 mins.) h/ Questions for group d e b r i e f i n g : -Were you able to perform the tasks of t h i s exercise? D i f f i c u l t i e s ? -What are some of the benefits to using t h i s technique to your s e l f esteem? -Can you think of any problems or d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n using t h i s approach i n r e a l l i f e ? -Can you see yourself using t h i s technique i n everyday l i f e ? -In what sit u a t i o n s ? How? (20 mins.) Rationale -to learn a simple cognitive r e s t r u c t u r i n g technique which can be applied i n a wide var i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s to f a c i l i t a t e successful behaviour and f o s t e r the development of a more positive, s e l f image. -to become aware of one's s e l f defeating a t t i t u d e s , s e l f c r i t i c i s m s and i n t e r n a l i z e d obstacles to achievement, -to become aware of how one's strengths and resources can be used as part of one's i n t e r n a l support system to increase the chances of successful action and goal attainment. -to have the opportunity to p r a c t i s e with t h i s technique, test i t on one's r e a l l i f e issues. 154 —to become aware that one has untapped resources and potentials which can be used to obtain what one wants. -to inst i l an awareness of the degree to which one chooses a particular attitude toward oneself and l ife's challenges (i .e. to highlight the notion that the self image is to a large extent self-created and the we have the power to change i t . ) , -engaging the members in a common task fosters cohesion and co-operation. -disclosure of self-supportive statements enhances development of group intimacy through shared success and reinforces the individual member for success in this particular task. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (10 mins.) See Exercise 4., SESSION ONE for administration and rationale. Homework: "For next week I would like you to think of a common human emotion, anger. I would like you to think of times when you are angry. What are the circumstances? How do you express your anger? How does your anger and the way you express i t affect your self esteem? You may want to notice what happens to make you angry in the upcoming week, what happens when you express i t or don't express i t and how you feel about yourself afterwards." 155 SESSION SEVEN 1. HOW ARE YOU? (15 mins.) See Exercise 1., SESSION FOUR. 2. ANGER (85 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ To introduce this discussion of"anger begin with an exercise in "naming" anger: "Anger comes disguised in a variety of forms. An indication of this diversity is the number of different names we have for anger. What names do we give for anger?" Write the names on the blackboard. (10 mins.) b/ Instructions: "Pick a partner. Work with someone you haven't worked with before. Discuss the last time you felt angry. Describe the circumstances and/or the people involved. What happened? Also, discuss what you did with your anger. Did you express it? How? What was the end result of this experience in terms of the way you felt about yourself, your self esteem?" (20 mins.) c/Reconvene the group to discuss how we treat anger. Ask the members what they did with their anger and write their responses on the board. Provide a conceptual framework for what we do with our anger: -swallow i t (Produces self hared-, self blame) -put i t off ("gunny sacking") -dump i t (on someone who its not intended for) -project i t (blame someone else) -dilute i t ("oh, its allright, i t doesn't matter") -work i t off (jogging, scrubbing the floor) (20 mins.) d/ Provide a short explanation of certain helpful ways to deal with anger: -"Own" your anger, that is , recognize that its yours instead of diverting i t through projection, swallowing, avoiding etc. -verbalize your anger and take responsiblity for i t : instead of saying "YOU make be angry". You can say: "I_ am angry because you -. . . ( f i l l in the blank with the anger producing behaviour) -by saying "I" you accept that you are reponsible for your own emotion and behaviour, not someone else (you control your own anger). -secondly, by declaring that you are angry at someone's behaviour and not the person, you've let the person know in a more specific way what you are angry about. -they are then in a much better position to do something about i t . (15 mins.) e/ Debriefing Questions: -How does the way you deal with your anger affect the way you 156 f e e l about yourself, your s e l f esteem? -What do you think would be the best way to deal with your anger so that your s e l f esteem and the s e l f esteem of others would be maximized -Does the method of dealing with anger that I just described make sense to you? -Do you think you could use i t ? (25 mins.) Rationale -to develop an awareness of the d i f f e r e n t manifestations of anger and d i f f e r e n t ways of dealing with anger/ -to understand how one deals with one's own anger. -to know how one's own preferred method and other methods of handling anger enhance or diminish s e l f acceptance and s e l f esteem. -to o f f e r the choice of a method of expression which maximizes the p o t e n t i a l to preserve or enhance s e l f esteem. 3. FACE PAINTING (60 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Introduce t h i s a c t i v i t y with the following comments: "Now I'd l i k e you to engage i n an a c t i v i t y which may be appropriate for you to get to know each other i n another way." b/This a c t i v i t y requires a demonstration. Demonstrate by gently t r a c i n g out some of the features of the co-leader's face while describing what you are doing: ."Now I'm painting your nose . . " c/ Instruct the members to form pairs and request that they decide how they're .going to go about t h i s a c t i v i t y . F i r s t of a l l decide who i s going to do the painting and who w i l l be painted. Inform the p a r t i c i p a n t s that they should reverse t h e i r r o l e s a f t e r about ten minutes. (20 mins.) d/Debriefing i n the Group: -What did you discover about yourself that you d i d ' t know before? -New awarenesses, insights? -What implications does t h i s a c t i v i t y have for s e l f esteem? -How does your a b i l i t y to give and receive a f f e c t i o n a f f e c t the way you f e e l about yourself? (20 mins.) Rationale -to contribute to the development of intimacy amongst the members through a r i s k taking a c t i v i t y and exchange of physical a f f e c t i o n . -to discover how one responds to a more intimate kind of touching and close interpersonal proximity. -non-verbal r i s k taking may generalize to. more intimate 157 ("personal") s e l f d i s c l o s u r e s . -to introduce the exploration of another f a c t o r which may influence s e l f esteem: one's a b i l i t y to give and receive physical a f f e c t i o n and appreciation. 4. SUM UP AND EVALUATION (15 mins.) See Exercise 4., SESSION ONE. " Homework a/ "Nex week w i l l be your:last chance to speak to the group as i t now e x i s t s . So, over the next week you may think of things that you wanted to say to the group but didn't f o r whatever reason. I f you have any of t h i s "unfinished business", keep track of i t and you w i l l have the opportunity next week to inform us about i t . " b/ "Since i t i s our l a s t session next week, I would l i k e you to think of a "going away g i f t " for each p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s group. The g i f t can be anything at a l l : something concrete or symbolic, tangible or int a n g i b l e , but i n some way rela t e d to what you know about the person i t s intended f o r . You may want to write out a l i s t to help you remember what you've chosen as g i f t s . " 158 SESSION EIGHT 1. UNFINISHED BUSINESS (15 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Give member's the opportunity to disclose something that they have been keeping from the group, or have not had a chance to express. b/ If a member has no unfinished business request that they let the group know what they are bringing with them to the session, (e.g. mood, concerns, new awarenesses etc.) Rationale -to begin the process of leaving the group by first dealing with issues which have been collected and buried over the last seven weeks. -to provide an opportunity for an unstructured form of self disclosure. -to prepare for the session by dealing with left over concerns which may hinder the process of saying good-bye. 2. WISE OLD PERSON FANTASY (30 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Facilitator explains that this exercise is a guided fantasy in which participants will be able to call upon their own higher wisdom. b/ Ask participants to sit back, relax, take a few deep breaths to center within themselves, and close their eyes. Facilitator then instructs the members to picture themselves in their imagination to be in a large, open beautiful meadow: "Look around the meadow and see the trees and grass and flowers. Smell the aroma of the meadow. Now walk toward a mountain beyond the meadow, and slowly ascend the mountain. At the top you see a building in which there is a large elevated throne with a wise old person sitting on i t . Slowly you approach the wise old person and ask this question: What do I need to raise my self esteem? (Pause for a few minutes for participants to hear their response). When you have heard your reply, turn around, realizing that you can always return, walk down the mountain, back through the meadow, and when you are ready, come back to this room and open your eyes." (5 mins.) c/ "Share in small groups of four the answers given by the wise old person." (15 mins.) d/ A few volunteers may share their replies with the entire group. (10 mins.) •159 Rationale -to enable participants to reach into their inner wisdom, or "higher self", to find ways to raise their self esteem, -to encourage participants to take responsibility for their own personal growth in the area of self esteem. 3. STROKING (60 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Explain "stroking" to the group; that is , the rest of the group will compliment the focus person by describing what they have observed of his strengths, attributes, talents throughout the workshop. Everyone is entitled to provide as many compliments as they can think of and they can also follow their hunches about the person's hidden strengths and potentials. . b/ Encourage the focus person to accept the positive feedback; to "drink in" the feedback and to be carefull not to deny, discount, minimize or qualify the strokes. c/ Each person will take his turn to be the focus person: the one to be "stroked". Each person will receive a maximum of five minutes of stroking. d/ After the five minutes has expired the focus person will be asked to provide a summary of the positive feedback he has received. (Allow 50 mins. for "a" through "d") e/ Group debriefing: -Did you discover anything new about yourself? -How did you respond to the positive feedback about yourself? -Were you able to accept the feedback or did you feel an urge to deny it? (10 mins.) Rationale -to help a person recognize his strengths, capabilities and potential. -to experience deserved positive feedback from the group. -to help participants become accustomed to accepting praise and compliments, rather than discounting them. -to practise validating others. -to experience heightened self esteem through group validation, -exchange of positive feedback encourages an atmosphere of warmth and affection in the group: Schutz's (1973) stage of intimacy. 4. GROUP MASSAGE (30 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ Divide the group into two smaller groups of four or five. 160 b/ One focus person will be massaged by the rest of the group. The focus person will choose how he wants to be massaged. He should instruct the rest of the group on where and how he wants to be massaged. Every member will have the opportunity to be massaged for about five minutes. Participation is voluntary. (20 mins.) c/ Debriefing: -How did you feel during the massage? -How are you feeling now? -How do massage and other forms of physical affection affect the way you feel about yourself? (10 mins.) Rationale -to experience group affection, touch and caring, -to express affection, touch and caring. -to let oneself be nurtured by the group and to note effects on self esteem. -to observe effects of massage/physical affection on one's body, self esteem. 5. THE GIFT (45 mins.) Administrative Procedures a/ The introduction will describe some of the feelings and thoughts the participants may by having over the prospect of saying good-bye. Introduce the idea of a symbolic gift as a way in which we can validate each other and our experiences here. When we remember the gifts that we received we will be reminded of the people we have come to know, our experience here and our own self worth. b/ Explain the procedure: "One member will be the focus person who will receive the gifts from the rest of the group. The others will describe their gifts to this person who only has to accept them. Every person will have the opportunity to receive gifts from the rest of the group. Afterwards, 'they can respond to the group i f they so desire." (45 mins.) Rationale -to create an opportunity for an appropriate closure, -to conclude the workshop with an experience related to important theme in the workshop: the effect of validation self esteem. -to provide a context in which the members can say good-bye one another. -to leave the members with reminders of their own self worth. an on to 161 APPENDIX B: INSTRUMENTS 1. Rosenberg's Scale Of S e l f Esteem: The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a s e r i e s of ten statements. Each represents a way i n which you may view y o u r s e l f . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n the extent t o which you agree or disagree t h a t the statement i s a way i n which YOU view y o u r s e l f . Read . each statement. Then, i n d i c a t e the extent to which you agree or disagree by c i r c l i n g a number UNDER each statement. The numbers and t h e i r meaning are i n d i c a t e d below. I f you agree s t r o n g l y c i r c l e 1 I f you agree c i r c l e 2 I f you are not sure . . . c i r c l e 3 I f you disagree . . . c i r c l e 4 I f you disagree s t r o n g l y c i r c l e 5 Be sure to answer every statement. I f you f i n d t h a t the numbers to be used i n answering do not adequately i n d i c a t e you own view of y o u r s e l f , use the one which i s c l o s e s t to the way you f e e l . Please do not d i s c u s s your responses w i t h anyone. (1) I f e e l t h a t I'm a person of worth, a t l e a s t on an equal plane w i t h o t h e r s . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) I f e e l t h a t I have a number of good q u a l i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 (3) A l l i n a l l , I am i n c l i n e d to f e e l t h a t I am a f a i l u r e . 1 2 3 4 5 (4) I am a b l e to do t h i n g s as w e l l as most other people. 1 2 3 4 5 (5) I f e e l I do not have much to be proud o f . 1 2 3 4 5 (6) I take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward myself. 1 2 3 4 5 (7) On the whole, I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h myself. 1 2 3 4 5 (8) I wish I could have more respect f o r myself. 1 2 3 4 5 (9) I c e r t a i n l y f e e l u s e l e s s at times. 1 2 3 4 5 (10) At times I t h i n k I am no good at a l l . 1 2 3 4 5 2 . P r e l i m i n a r y and Summary I n t e r v i e w Questions: 162 P r e l i m i n a r y I n t e r v i e w 1. What does s e l f esteem mean to you? 2 . Given your understanding of s e l f esteem, how do you f e e l and/or t h i n k about y o u r s e l f now? 3. What f a c i l i t a t e s your s e l f esteem? 4 . What hinde r s your s e l f esteem? 5. With regards t o your s e l f esteem, what do you want t o get out of t h i s workshop? 6 . What are your goals and expectations f o r t h i s workshop? Summary I n t e r v i e w 1. Given your understanding of s e l f esteem, how do you t h i n k and/or f e e l about y o u r s e l f now? 2 . Do you t h i n k there's been a change i n your s e l f esteem s i n c e our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w ? I f so, how has i t changed? 3. I n your s i g n i f i c a n t events j o u r n a l you have become aware of events, experiences and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a f f e c t your s e l f esteem i n a p o s i t i v e or negative way. Since the time of our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w what has happened or what have you done or experienced t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d your s e l f esteem? 4 . Since the time of our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w what has happened or what have you done or experienced t h a t hindered your s e l f esteem? 5. Describe how your goals and expectations f o r the workshop were f u l f i l l e d or not f u l f i l l e d . 163 APPENDIX C; FORMS AND LETTERS 1. L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n : Experimental Group; Dear : I am w r i t i n g to inform you of a program which you may be i n t e r e s t e d i n . I am sponsoring a workshop i n s e l f esteem to be conducted by Mr. R. Boychuck, M.A. candidate i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology a t U.B.C. The program c o n s i s t s of e i g h t weelky seminars of approximately three hours d u r a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s program who w i l l comprise a group of between e i g h t and ten members w i l l engage i n group d i s c u s s i o n s and e x p e r i e n t i a l e x e r c i s e s designed to explore and enhance s e l f esteem. In a d d i t i o n , Mr. Boychuck w i l l be conducting i n t e r v i e w s before and a f t e r the workshop t o assess i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . He w i l l a l s o request t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s submit an ongoing j o u r n a l of s i g n i f i c a n t events r e l a t e d to s e l f esteem. The data from the i n t e r v i e w s and the j o u r n a l w i l l be analyzed by Mr. Boychuck f o r the purposes of h i s M.A. t h e s i s requirements. The anonymity of those who decide to p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l be assured. The data w i l l be seen only by Mr. Boychuck and h i s a d v i s o r , Dr. L. Cochran, of the U.B.C. C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department. The data w i l l be coded to p r o t e c t the i d e n t i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s workshop i s completely v o l u n t a r y . Those who decide t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s workshop are accorded the r i g h t to determine the extent of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the r i g h t to withdraw a t any time. Under no circumstances w i l l withdrawal or r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e j e o p a r d i z e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perogative to seek f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s from me or from any agency w i t h which I am i n v o l v e d . I f you have any questions regarding the contents of t h i s l e t t e r and/or you are i n t e r e s t e d i n the workshop please contact me, Richard Dopson, a t your convenience. I f you should decide t o p a r t i c i p a t e , I w i l l then r e f e r you to Mr. Boychuck. S i n c e r e l y Yours, Richard Dopson, P s y c h o l o g i s t 164 2. Subject Consent Form; Experimental Group: SUBJECT CONSENT FORM A l l i n d i v i d u a l s who decide to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d " D i s c o v e r i n g Support i n Y o u r s e l f and Others, A S e l f Esteem Workshop", are r e q u i r e d to read and s i g n t h i s consent form. Data c o l l e c t e d from your involvement i n the program w i l l be used by the workshop f a c i l i t a t o r , Mr. Randy Boychuck, to meet the requirements of an M.A. t h e s i s . H i s t h e s i s a d v i s o r i s Dr. L a r r y Cochran, Dept. o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, U.B.C. Mr. Boychuck w i l l aso be working under the sponsorship of Rich a r d Dopson, r e g i s t e r e d p s y c h o l o g i s t . The purpose of the study i s t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a program designed by Mr. Boychuck to enhance s e l f esteem. By studying p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses t o the program we hope t o disc o v e r those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the design and implementation of the program which c o n t r i b u t e to improved s e l f esteem. I f you decide to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s program, you w i l l f i r s t be i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of your personal goals and expectations f o r the workshop. You w i l l be requested a t t h i s time to respond to a short q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The workshop i t s e l f c o n s i s t s of e i g h t weekly s e s s i o n s , each approximately three hours i n l e n g t h . During these sessions you w i l l be asked to engage i n group d i s c u s s i o n s and e x p e r i e n t i a l . a c t i v i t i e s designed to explore and enhance s e l f esteem. Throughout the e i g h t weeks you w i l l be asked to keep a record of s i g n i f i c a n t events r e l a t e d to your s e l f esteem. T h i s record w i l l be submitted to Mr. Boychuck to be used as par t of h i s e v a l u a t i o n of the workshop. A summary i n t e r v i e w w i l l be conducted i n order t o o b t a i n your e v a l u a t i o n of the workshop and to re-a d m i n i s t e r the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . The two i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be tape recorded. Your consent f o r t h i s tape r e c o r d i n g w i l l be assumed i f you decide to s i g n t h i s consent form. The t o t a l amount of time r e q u i r e d of each p a r t i c i p a n t should not exceed t h i r t y hours over a ten week p e r i o d . The i d e n t i t y of those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study w i l l , be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l except to the other members of the group a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. A l l data from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , tape recordings and s i g n i f i c a n t events records w i l l be pro p e r l y coded to ensure anonymity. P a r t i c i p a n t s ' names w i l l not be attached to any piece of data. A f t e r completing the a n a l y s i s of the data the tape r e c o r d i n g s , w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l , and qu e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be destroyed. 165 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s workshop i s completely v o l u n t a r y . Those who decide to p a r t i c i p a t e are accorded the r i g h t to determine the extent of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the r i g h t to withdraw a t any time. 'Under no circumstances w i l l withdrawal or r e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e j e o p a r d i z e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perogative to seek f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s from Mr. Dopson or Mr. Boychuck. I f you have any questions regarding the procedures o u t l i n e d above, please f e e l f r e e t o i n q u i r e . Mr. Boychuck w i l l respond to any of your questions and he w i l l a l s o provide an opportunity to d e b r i e f you regarding h i s f i n d i n g s as summarized i n h i s t h e s i s . I , , hereby consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the above mentioned research p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d " D i s c o v e r i n g Support i n Y o u r s e l f and Others, A S e l f Esteem Workshop", and I have r e c e i v e d one copy of t h i s consent form. 166 3. L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n : C o n t r o l Group; Dear : I am w r i t i n g to request your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a research p r o j e c t w i t h which I am i n v o l v e d . I t i s a study of s e l f esteem which w i l l be conducted by Mr. Randy Boychuck, M.A. candidate i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I f you decide t o p a r t i c i p a t e you w i l l be requested t o complete a ten item q u e s t i o n n a i r e on two separate occasions. The i n t e r i m p e r i o d between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s w i l l be approximately e i g h t weeks. The t e s t i t s e l f w i l l r e q u i r e approximately ten minutes to complete. Those who complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the two occasions s p e c i f e d w i l l l a t e r have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be d e b r i e f e d by Mr. Boychuck regarding the f i n d i n g s of h i s research on s e l f esteem. The anonymity of those who decide t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l be assured. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study by completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y . Those who decide to p a r t i c i p a t e have the f i g h t t o withdraw at any time. Under no circumstances w i l l r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e or withdrawal j e o p a r d i z e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perogative to seek f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s from me of from any agency' w i t h which I am i n v o l v e d . Should you have any questions regarding the contents of t h i s l e t t e r and/or you are i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g please contact me, Richard Dopsbn a t your convenience. Thank you f o r your time. S i n c e r e l y Yours, Richard Dopson, P s y c h o l o g i s t . 0 167 4. Subject Consent Form: __Control_Group: INTRODUCTION TO QUESTIONNAIRE I would l i k e to request your co-operation i n f i l l i n g out the attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s par t of a research p r o j e c t t h a t I , Randy Boychuck, am conducting t o f u l f i l l the requirements f o r my M.A. t h e s i s i n the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of the p r o j e c t i s t o study the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a program designed to explore and enhance s e l f esteem. I f you should decide to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , you w i l l have an opportunity to d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s of t h i s research w i t h me a f t e r I have completed the t h e s i s w r i t e - u p . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s of ten items t o which you w i l l be requested to respond. I t should take no longer than ten minutes to complete. You w i l l a l s o be asked to respond t o t h i s same que s t i o n n a i r e aproximately ten weeks from now. Thus, the maximum time r e q u i r e d should not exceed one h a l f hour. I f you decide to complete the qu e s t i o n n a i r e do not w r i t e your name on any par t of i t . I f the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i s completed i t w i l l be assumed t h a t you have given your consent to use the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e as data f o r the purposes of t h i s present research endeavour. The i d e n t i t y of those who complete the que s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l through the use of a coding system. A f t e r the research has been completed the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be destroyed. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study by completing t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s completely v o l u n t a r y . Under no circumstances w i l l withdrawal or r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e j e o p a r d i z e your perogative to seek a s s i s t a n c e from e i t h e r Mr. Boychuck or Mr. Richard Dopson. 168 5. Newspaper Advertisement PSYCHOFDUCATIONAL CONSULTANTS INC. presents "DISCOVERING SUPPORT IN YOURSELF AND OTHERS" AN EXPERIENTIAL WORKSHOP FOR GAY MEN P r o v i d i n g a context to explore i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g SELF ESTEEM and SELF CONFIDENCE: S e l f image, coming out, i n t i m a c y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s anger, l o n e l i n e s s , e f f e c t i v e communication, support networks, e t c . Sponsored by Richard Dopson, r e g i s t e r e d p s y c h o l o g i s t . Workshop f a c i l i t a t o r , Randy Boychuck, M.A. candidate. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054312/manifest

Comment

Related Items