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The meaning of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protégé Winstone, Claire Lilian 1985

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THE MEANING OF THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP WHICH FACILITATES TRANSFORMATION OF THE PROTEGE by CLAIRE LILIAN WINSTONE B.A., University of Hull, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1985 90 ® Claire Lilian Winstone, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: JulyJ2S5 ii Abstract This study investigated the question: What is the meaning of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege? This was accomplished using an existential-phenomenological approach. The study included five adult "co-researchers" who had experienced the phenomenon being investigated and were capable of describing their experience to the researcher. The co-researchers were asked to describe their experience of the relationship with their mentor and to validate the analysis within the context of three interviews. The descriptions were tape recorded and transcribed and used as the data for the study. The analysis was conducted according to the method described by Colaizzi (1978). The themes derived from the co-researchers' descriptions were described and woven into an exhaustive phenomenological description of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege. The essential structure derived from the exhaustive description was presented in a condensed statement of the meaning of the experience for the five co-researchers. Twenty-eight themes or dimensions of the experience were identified. The pattern described is a more profound and complete picture of the meaning of the experience of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege than previously available in the literature. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Acknowledgements v CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale for the Study 2 Significance of the Study 3 Definition of Terms 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 The Idea of a Mentor 6 The Role of the Mentor in Adult Development 10 The Mentor in the Occupational Field 16 The Mentor in Educational Settings 21 Summary 22 The Mentor-Protege Relationship 25 The Experience of a Mentor-Protege Relationship 26 Stages of Mentor-Protege Relationships 31 Complementarity 32 Formal and Informal Relationships 33 The Development of the Protege 36 Transformation as an Outcome of Mentor-Protege Relationships 41 Rationale for Further Study 48 Rationale for the Use of an Existential-Phenomenological Approach 51 CHAPTER in: METHOD 56 Co-Researchers 56 Selection of Co-Researchers 57 iv Demographic Information 58 Phenomenological Interview 59 Procedure for Analysis and Interpretation 60 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 1 63 Formulation of Themes 63 Themes 65 Themes of the Experience with Significant Statements 69 Context for Viewing the Exhaustive Description 94 Exhaustive Description 94 Context for Viewing the Essential Structure 99 Essential Structure 100 Case N: A Comparison 102 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION 104 Limitations of the Study 104 Reflection upon the Results 105 Implications for Theory Ill Implications for Future Research 127 Implications for Practice •• 131 SUMMARY 1 134 References 137 APPENDIX A: Protocols 144 APPENDIX B: Letter of Introduction 363 APPENDIX C: Consent Form , 365 V Acknowledgements I wish to acknowledge the assistance of the members of my committee, Drs. Amundson, Cochran and Gray, whose feedback and constructive suggestions were invaluable in the writing of this thesis. My thanks to Norm Amundson for his academic rigour and unfailing cheerfulness, to Bill Gray for his knowledgeable assistance with the literature review and his consistently enthusiastic support for my work, and to my chairperson, Larry Cochran, for his help in clarifying my research question and for giving me the freedom to pursue the answers in a way I could put my heart into. My thanks are extended also to the six people who generously gave me their time and shared with me their experience as proteges to provide the data for this study. I am grateful to them for their conscientious efforts to uncover the meaning of their experience—they have taught me so much. I would like to express my deepest appreciation of the healers—Rob Bedall, Talia Christie, Lynn Davis and Dawn Macaskill—who helped to sustain me in many loving ways throughout this work, and of my friends and fellow students, who did likewise. To elaborate upon how these people showed their caring for me would be a dissertation in itself. Finally, I want to express my love and gratitude to my mentor, Ray Walker, and his family, whose love, wisdom and humour created the context for my own transformation. Without the gift of Ray's presence in my life, this would have been a different thesis entirely. 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION What is the meaning of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege? The first mentor was described in one of the earliest surviving works of Greek literature as a character in Homer's Odyssey, an heroic poem about the mythological age of Greek heroes. In this poem, Mentor is an old friend of Odysseus, entrusted with the care of his household and guardianship of his son while Odysseus is absent in the Trojan wars. It is in Mentor's form that the goddess Athene disguises herself in order to accompany Odysseus's son, Telemachus, on his search for his father and journey toward adulthood, as a way of aiding Odysseus's return to his home. Our understanding of the mentor role, derived from this prototype—now a man, now a goddess—has become, if anything, less clear than Homer's in recent times, despite a burgeoning of interest in the topic since the mid-seventies resulting in a wide variety of studies investigating a range of different aspects of the mentoring relationship. The experience of being in a mentoring relationship appears to happen quite frequently, and is considered to be a highly beneficial one for adults, yet to date, no study has presented more than a partial portrait of what the relationship is about Recent reviews of the literature have pointed out that studies tend to focus upon highly specific aspects of the relationship—predominantly to examine its relationship to success in various occupational fields. No study has, as yet attempted to explicate the meaning of the experience from the perspective of the protege. Studies of mentoring have also not focused on an exploration of the degree to which a person can be affected or changed by what frequently appears to be an intense and deeply personal relationship, regardless of its context The purpose of this thesis is to focus upon the most profound outcome 2 of the mentoring relationship—personal transformation—and to understand the meaning of the experience of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege, The search for the meaning, or the essential structure, of the experience is accomplished by studying descriptions of this experience as it is lived. The methodology suitable for such an investigation is provided by existential-phenomenological psychology. Rationale for the Study The most enriching research on mentoring relationships performed to date has focused not on causes or effects, nor on measurement and comparisons, but upon basic descriptions of the experience. The nature of the existential-phenomenological approach provides one of the most rigorous ways to approach a question of the meaning of experience. It is founded in the experience of the subjects of the study, described as co-researchers, who are the source both of the data for analysis, in the form of verbal descriptions, and of validation of the results of this analysis, which is presented in the form of an essential structure, or meaning, of the experience for the individuals studied. Existential-phenomenological psychology has as its basis a rejection of the dualistic conceptions of the normal scientific paradigm, but rather, takes the position that the individual and his or her world comprise a total, indissoluble unity or interrelationship, with each co- constituting the other. This formulation cannot regard the researcher as an unbiased observer, but expects him or her to be fully present to the phenomenon being studied, with the researcher's bias made inoperative by drawing out and making explicit his or her assumptions. In existential-phenomenological research, researchers work co-operatively with co-researchers to arrive at the meaning of the experience being studied. 3 Significance c-f the Study Counsellors are agents of social change by virtue of their role as members of the human services professions. They need, therefore, to be aware that as their clients change, these changes impinge upon the world of each client in a variety of ways. As members of the same larger society as their clients, one might expect counsellors to be interested in facilitating not only problem-solving, but personal growth, in these clients, to whatever degree they are able and willing to attempt it Personal transformation may be seen as the most profound positive outcome of a mentor-protege relationship, yet only one study (Burton, 1977) is mentioned in all the literature reviewed which examined the role of the therapist as a mentor who facilitated transformation in clients. No description of the study itself could be found. A second study (Hagan, 1971) examined transformation in long-term psychotherapy, but the role of the therapist was touched upon only to mention that it was very important in the process. No study has yet explored this particular dimension of human experience in an holistic way, seeking to uncover the dimensions of the experience in a phenomenological description which is both common to the individuals studied and true to the experience of each protege. Recent literature on the topic of personal transformation suggests that it is both a topic of great personal interest to people in Western culture, and a foundation for social transformation. Burton (1979) suggests that clients may seek out counsellors and others in the human services professions to perform a mentoring role in relationships which facilitate their transformation. It seems likely, therefore, that an understanding of the meaning of the experience for proteges may prove to be useful to counsellors and to their professional and lay colleagues. 4 It is the purpose of this study to provide a description of the meaning of the experience of the mentoring relationship which facilitates transformation of the protege as a way of educating and guiding counsellors in their work, and as a foundation for theory-building and future research on the topic of mentoring relationships and personal transformation. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, a "mentor" was defined as an adult with whom the co-researcher (the "subjects)" in this study) had had a relationship over a period of time which he or she felt had facilitated a transformation in him or her. Any requests for clarification from potential co-researchers were responded to by saying that the mentor could be anyone, other than a parent, in the person's adult life—an employer, friend, therapist, relative or someone they had not previously known. Co-researchers in this study are called "proteges," a protege being a person who has had a relationship with a mentor. This term, derived from the French verb "proteger," meaning "to protect," is the term most commonly used in the literature to describe a person who has been, or is being, mentored. It is for this reason that I elected to use it, although the protective function of the mentor role might not be evident in the findings of my study, and because there was no acceptable alternative in use. "Transformation" was defined as a radical change in the protege which is positive and enduring, and affects the meaning of the protege's life. A "mentor-protege relationship" and a "mentoring relationship" are used here synonymously to refer to a relationship between a mentor and a protege as defined from 5 the point of view of the protege at the time it was occurring, or retrospectively. 6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Idea of a Mentor The concept and the role of the mentor have their origins in Greek mythology. In the Odyssey, written around 750 or 700 B.C., Homer gives the name "Mentor" to an old friend of Odysseus, King of Ithaca, to whom Odysseus entrusts the care of his household and the guardianship of his son, Telemachus, during his 20-year absence in the Trojan wars. Finley (1977) tells us that "Plato, in his (Republic 606E), stated that there were Greeks who firmly believed that Homer "educated Hellas and that he deserves to be taken up as an instructor in the management and culture of human affairs, and that a man ought to regulate the whole of his life by following this poet" (p. 15). One should, therefore, recognize the significance of this choice of name, which has now entered the English language as a common noun meaning "a close, trusted, and experienced counselor or guide" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1971). Since the Mad and the Odyssey are the earliest surviving works of Greek literature, the significance of the name Mentor has to be discovered by examining the verbal root and the structure of the word. Mentor in fact belongs to a well-known group of proper names, those that are called nomen agentis, the name of a performer or agent This fact implies that the name is formed from a verb-stem plus a suffix. The root from . which Mentor is formed is *men-. (The asterisk indicates that the letters spell only a root not an actual word.) This root appears elsewhere in Homeric Greek, for example, in the verb memona, which means "I think, I think over, I plan to do." The same root appears in other words of other languages related to Greek, for example, in the Latin verb commentor "I devise, I meditate, I think over," and in the Sanskrit words mantar-, "thinker," mantra-, "advice, plan," mantu-, "advice, adviser." This comparative evidence makes it quite certain that the name Mentor means something like "thinker, deviser, adviser." Another name in the Odyssey, Mentes, is perfectly parallel in structure and meaning to Mentor. They differ only in the suffix, which, in this case, does not change the meaning. (H. G. Edinger, personal 7 communication, June 6, 1985) The majority of studies and articles on the concept and role of the mentor allude to the mythological relationship between Mentor and Telemachus, however, "the currency of the word in French and English is derived less from the Odyssey than from Fenelon's romance of Telbmaque, in which the part played by Mentor as a counsellor is made more prominent" (Oxford English Dictionary, 1933). In Les Aventures de Tzfemaque (1699), Francois de Saligniac de la Mothe-Fenelon, the Archbishop of Cambrai, elaborated on the original relationship between Mentor and Telemachus, filling his story with allusions and indirect criticisms of the regime of Louis XIV in such a way that its publication caused him to fall into disgrace (Larousse, 1948). Clawson (1980) cites two plays about Telemachus, also written shortly after the publication of Fenelon's novel, and a number of literary quotations are offered by the Oxford English Dictionary in which the word "mentor" is used, all of which were written after the publication of the Fenelon work. Thus, we are told that Mentor "acted variously as a teacher, coach, task master, confidant, counselor and friend" and that "the relationship that existed between Mentor and Telemachus was a special one characterized by high levels of trust and affection" (Clawson, 1980). In the Odyssey, however, we read relatively little of Mentor himself, because "when Athene, the Olympian goddess, chooses to intervene in affairs on Ithaca she adopts the figure of the human Mentor as a disguise" (H. G. Edinger, personal communication, June 6, 1985). Hence Boston (1976) identified three characteristics of Mentor's role as: a tutor whose function was exercised within the context of a wider range of responsibility, namely, the care of Odysseus's household; a "spiritual guide" and gatekeeper to a larger world beyond, transmitting something that is not exclusively his own, but a tradition or value system to which he has access and for which he is willing to serve as a conduit and speaker; and a companion to his pupil as 8 he moves toward the responsibility of adulthood, offering encouragement, advice, and the wisdom of the adult world. A favourite way for Athene to disguise herself, therefore, is to choose a male whose name means "thinker" or "planner," the name indicating her helpful oversight of Odysseus and his son. She is, among other things, a goddess identified with wisdom and her appearance as Mentes or Mentor are in the nature of temporary exhibitions on the human scale of the quality she possesses as a deity. Her role in the first four books of the Odyssey is the foundation of the modern meanings given to the word "mentor." (H. G. Edinger, personal communication, June 6, 1985) Briefly, then, the meaning of "Mentor" is derived from a human member of Odysseus's household, in whose form a goddess accompanies Telemachus on his search for his father, her main interest being to protect and assist Odysseus because he is her favourite mortal, being, in her eyes, the most like her. Mentor himself is a mature man who knows how society functions, but he does not have a great deal of power, any more than does Telemachus, a young man who is unable to become a true adult until he finds his father (if he is still alive—which Telemachus does not know) and discovers for himself whether he is, as his mother says, his father's son. The appearance of Athene disguised as Mentor takes place when Telemachus is about twenty—it is she who sets the plot in motion by prodding him into embarking on the search for his father and provides him with the guidance and wisdom he requires to accomplish this task, when Odysseus can assume the role of father to the now-mature Telemachus. Mentor/Athene, then, serves as a transitional figure facilitating the figurative and literal journey taken by Telemachus toward adulthood. Meanwhile, Odysseus is being held captive by the goddess Calypso, while his wife Penelope has been attempting to postpone choosing between 108 suitors, all princes, who presume that Odysseus is dead and are feasting and carousing and literally "devouring the assets" of his household in order to pressure Penelope into making a choice. It is not surprising that Telemachus is somewhat reluctant to discover whether his father is dead or alive, since the situation in the household is untenable, for if 9 Odysseus is dead and Penelope marries again and has a son, Telemachus will no longer be the heir to the kingdom. The relationship of Mentor/Athene and Telemachus, therefore, must be viewed as part of a larger scheme of things involving a complex network of relationships between gods, goddesses and mortals. The humanization of the gods was a step of astonishing boldness. To picture supernatural beings not as vague, formless spirits, or as monstrous shapes, half bird, half animal, for instance, but as men and women, with human organs and human passions, demanded the greatest audacity and pride in one's own humanity. Then, having so created his gods, Homeric man called himself godlike. The words "man" and "godlike" must be stressed sharply. On the one hand, Homer never confused "godlike" with "divine"; he never crossed the line between the mortal and the immortal. . . . On the other hand, there were no local, regional or national dividing-lines of genuine consequence among men. Neither in matters of cult nor in any other fundamental aspects of human life did the poet distinguish or classify invidiously. Individuals and classes varied in worth and capacity, but not peoples, neither between Achaeans and others nor among the Achaeans themselves. This universality of Homer's humanity was as bold and remarkable as the humanity of his gods. . . . (Finley, 1977, p. 135) Having lifted the incubus of unintelligible and all-powerful natural forces, man retained a consciousness that there were powers in the universe which he could not control and could not really understand, but he introduced a great self-consciousness, a pride and a confidence in himself, in man and his ways in society. . . . (p. 139) It was . . . (Hesiod) who organized the individual gods into a systematic theogony and made justice into the central problem of existence, human as well as divine. From Hesiod a straight line leads to Aeschylus and the other great tragedians. In those succeeding centuries the miracle that was Greece unfolded. Homer having made the gods into men, man learned to know himself, (p. 141) Before moving, then, to contemporary ideas of the meaning of a mentor, we are faced with the difficulty that the prototype of the mentor-protege relationship is part of an heroic poem created by a Greek poet concerning a mythological heroic age and culture—a culture which is substantially different in morals and values from our own, and probably in some ways also from that of Homer's society. In addition, the original Mentor is actually two separate entities: the man in charge of Odysseus's household, and 10 a goddess. The term "mentor" came into common usage following the publication of the novel by Fenelon, a seventeenth century French mystic at odds with both the Pope and his king, and several plays written about Telemachus in the eighteenth century. It is hardly surprising, then, that contemporary writers have volunteered such a wide variety of definitions and descriptions of the term (Merriam, 1983). The Role of the Mentor in Adult Development A recent burgeoning of interest in the concept of a mentor stems largely from research conducted in the late 1960s by Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson and McKee (1978) who conducted biographical interviews with forty men in four different occupational groups in order to "create a developmental perspective on adulthood in men" and to "set forth a systematic conception of the entire life cycle, while paying primary attention to the major seasons of adulthood" (p. x). From the data collected using this open-ended approach, a number of significant themes emerged. One was the discovery that ". . . the life structure evolves through a relatively orderly sequence during the adult years. The essential character of the sequence is the same for all the men in our study and for the other men whose biographies we examined. It consists of a series of alternating stable (structure-building) periods and transitional (structure-changing) periods. These periods shape the course of adult psycho-social development" (p. 49). A second theme was the idea of the Dream: "Many young men have a Dream of the kind of life they want to lead as adults. The vicissitudes and fate of the Dream have fundamental consequences for adult development" (p. 91). A third theme was the existence of the mentor: "As the novice adult tries to separate from his family and pre-adult world, and to enter an adult world, he must form significant relationships with 11 other adults who will facilitate his work on the Dream. Two of the most important figures in this drama are the "mentor" and the "special woman" (p. 93). Uncovered as an aspect of a study examining comprehensively what could be learned about the lives of adult men, the role of the mentor described by Levinson et al. is one of the most comprehensive to be found in the contemporary literature. It is worth including this definition here because it was Levinson et al.'s research that provided the impetus for a wide variety of subsequent studies of the phenomena of mentoring: The mentor relationship is one of the most complex, and developmentally important, a man can have in early adulthood. The mentor is ordinarily several years older, a person of greater experience and seniority in the world the young man is entering. No word currently in use is adequate to convey the nature of the relationship we have in mind here. Words such as "counselor" or "guru" suggest the more subtle meanings, but they have other connotations that would be misleading. The term "mentor" is generally used in a much narrower sense, to mean teacher, adviser or sponsor. As we use the term, it means all these things, and more. . . . (P- 97) Commenting that mentoring may take place in a work setting or evolve informally with a friend, neighbour or relative, Levinson points out that: "Mentoring is defined not in terms of formal roles but in terms of the character of the relationship and the functions it serves" (p. 98). He adds that the mentor: may act as a teacher to enhance the young man's skills and intellectual development Serving as sponsor, he may use his influence to facilitate the young man's entry and advancement He may be a host and guide, welcoming the initiate into a new occupational and social world and acquainting him with its values, customs, resources and cast of characters. Through his own virtues, achievements and way of living, the mentor may be an exemplar that the protege can admire and seek to emulate. He may provide counsel and moral support in time of stress. The mentor has another function, and this is developmentally the most crucial one: to support and facilitate the realization of the Dream. The true mentor, in the meaning intended here, serves as an analogue in adulthood of the "good enough" parent for the child. He fosters the young adult's development by believing in him, sharing the youthful Dream and giving it his blessing, helping to define the newly emerging self in its newly discovered world, and creating a space in which the young man can work on a reasonably satisfactory life structure that contains the Dream. 12 The mentor is not a parent or crypto-parent. His primary function is to be a transitional figure. . . . The mentor represents a mixture of parent and peer; he must be both and not purely either one. (pp. 98-99) Levinson's findings concerning the importance of the mentor in adult development were supported by a longitudinal study begun in 1938 of 95 Harvard graduates to discover how some of the nation's outstanding men coped with the major events and stresses of their lives (Vaillant, 1977). The men Vaillant judged to be the "best outcomes" had had mentors, described as master craftsmen and father figures, who were relinquished by age 40, at which time they became mentors themselves. Consistent with the underlying premise of the study—based on Freud's definition of maturity as the capacity to work and to love—these men were capable of "sustained relationships with loving people" in both career and personal life (p. 337), while those considered to be the "worst outcomes" had not had mentors and were "least clearly willing to assume responsibility for other adults . . . They were able to give less to their children . . . . Finally, to the extent it can be measured in dollars and cents, they gave less of themselves back to the world" (p. 350). Concerned that most research on adult development was being conducted by men studying men and, like Levinson, motivated by a need to understand her own experience, Sheehy (1976) began by seeking guidance from him. She then collected 115 life stories of men and women, many of whom were couples and all of whom were members of "America's 'pacesetter group'—healthy, motivated people who either began in or have entered the middle class" (p. 23). She saw these people as the "carriers of our social values" and "the exporters to other classes of new life patterns and attitudes" (p. 24). Sheehy's goals were to understand the inner changes of adults, to compare the developmental rhythms of men and women, and to examine the "predictable crises" or "passages" for couples. Sheehy found that women, like the men in Levinson's study, 13 considered mentors to be important, but when she first raised the question of mentors, "most of them didn't know what I was talking about" (p. 189). She found female mentors to be particularly scarce, and felt that "when a man becomes interested in guiding and advising a younger woman, there is usually an erotic interest that goes along with it" (p. 190). Sheehy concluded that: "career women who haven't had a mentor relationship miss it, even if they don't know what to call it" (p. 190) because of the difficulty of career advancement when one is not connected into the grapevine or informal structure of the mentor system. Those women who were successful in their careers, she found, were almost all at some point nurtured by a mentor. In a study of men and women between the ages of thirty and forty, defined as the transition to young adulthood, Burton (1977), a psychoanalyst, described a new set of adult peer experiences which he. felt were highly significant to adult fulfillment and individuation. He reported that those individuals who had a mentor were "more confirmed in their adulthood, . . . more symptom free, and . . . generally more content with life." They were also "better able to accept success and failure" (p. 117). He found that "the total absence of a mentor is associated with an existential vacuum in clients and a neurotic search for meaning in life" and concluded that "adult adjustment, therefore, not only depends upon a proper mother/child relationship base but a proper peer development in young adulthood* of which mentoring is an important component" (p. 117). In a related (1979) article, Burton claimed that most middle-aged people (approximately 35 to 45) seek or have sought "a charismatic person who can help with difficult life transitions and transformations in a manner different from the average" (p. 509). He contended that "children are raised in a world of inhibition and that developmental mastery constitutes the freedom and approval to proceed to whatever adult behavior is indicated" and that, therefore, "we all overtly or covertly seek permission to 14 be adults and to experience freely the adult world. It has therefore seemed to us that the mentee seeks a ' meta-blessing', which we may define as the permission to proceed into full creativity, that is, to love and to work, and to have fun" (Burton, 1977, p. 118). Burton's definition of a mentor departs somewhat from Levinson's, being "a person with a phenomenological presence" whose "mentoring influence is never merely the sum of his biology and psychology." He is clearly older, more experienced, more powerful, more creatively productive, more intuitive, more sexual and charismatic. He is obviously a "comer" or has already achieved success, and he is either a master of the symbol, of words and images, or of persuasive action of some kind. But above all, on the unconscious and preconscious level, the mentor is psychologically dissociated from the Father, the relationship cannot be Oedipal, and Jung's wise-old-man archetype does not describe him. The mentor is an adult companion who stands as the model not of rebellion but of a socially useful and fully creative life . . . (1977, pp. 117-118) Burton (1979) claims that people seek mentors first among friends and lovers, then among famous people (which seems to suggest some confusion with role models, with whom, unlike mentors, one need not have a personal relationship). They are also sought often in universities and churches and, "finally, among those who offer themselves as healers" (p. 509). He believes that psychotherapy contains an indigenous mentoring component which has been overlooked; that "when the analytic work of therapy is mostly over but the treatment not yet completed, a new form of relationship succeeds the transferential one; mentoring describes it better than any other model heretofore available" (p. 515). In a review of the literature, Merriam (1983) points out the apparent paradox in the findings of the above studies: that mentoring is both crucial to healthy adult development and relatively rare. This would suggest that one must conclude that few adults develop, which would be inconsistent with other findings of Levinson, Sheehy and others. Merriam adds that even Vaillant's unmentored "worst outcomes" were nevertheless 15 very successful men by most people's standards. It seems appropriate to suggest here that perhaps "most people's standards," as exemplified by the literature on mentoring research, may, in fact, have somewhat more to do with material achievement than with the qualities Vaillant claimed for his mentored "best outcomes." A further comment on the role of the mentor in adult development is that a large number of writers (Kram, 1980; Levinson et al., 1978; Sheehy, 1976; Taylor, 1984; Vance, 1982) consider that becoming a mentor is one way in which mature adults address the issue of Generativity vs. Stagnation in the stages of adult life proposed by Erikson (1950), whether they feel they can advance no further in their own career development or, more broadly, because they simply wish to pass on the accumulated wisdom and experience of their maturity to the upcoming generation. Across a wide, variety of studies, individuals who have had mentors claim either to be mentors to others, or wish to be. In order to obtain an understanding of the range of different conceptualizations of the mentor which exist in recent studies, I reviewed. an annotated bibliography on the topic (Noller & Frey, 1983). The studies described could quite easily be divided, with few exceptions, into two broad areas: mentors in the occupational field, and mentors in educational settings, with some studies, generally those focusing on mentors for high school and college students, combining aspects of both. Underlying virtually all of these studies is an understanding that, in addition to what the mentor and the protege actually do together, the relationship itself will have significant effects on the protege, and likely on the mentor as well. Of interest in these studies is the source of the mentors: some studies simply ask respondents to identify individuals in their lives who have served as mentors. Others, either by choice (in an informal mentoring relationship) or by definition (in a formal relationship), declare mentors to be a specifically designated group of people, 16 for example, senior managers in business, clinical supervisors for marriage counsellors, faculty members for college students, university students or professors for gifted/talented elementary and high school students, or successful business women for re-entry women at community college. Studies of the former type, those which ask respondents to identify who their mentors are, seem to be performed more in the spirit of Levinson and others. These see almost any adult in an individual's world as being a possible mentor and view his or her impact on the individual in terms of adult development in general. The latter type of studies, wherein the source of the mentor is formally designated, appear, particularly in the business literature, to have been designed more on the understanding that having a mentor facilitates success. In these, the populations of proteges chosen suggest that, if the outcome of mentoring is success, then we should explore the phenomenon by studying successful people. The problem is that it is far from clear whether career success is the direct outcome of a mentoring relationship, or a by-product of a more profound and comprehensive change in the individual facilitated by the relationship. The Mentor in the Occupational Field Much of the excitement about mentoring stems from a study conducted by Roche (1979) surveying 4,000 top executives listed in the "Who's News" column of the Wall Street Journal. The executives were asked: "At any stage of your career, have you had a relationship with a person who took a personal interest in your career and who guided or sponsored you?" (p. 19) Of the 1,250 executives who responded (only a 31% response rate, of whom less than 1% were women), two-thirds reported having had such a 17 relationship and one-third had had two or more. Compared with executives who were not mentored, Roche found that those with mentors earned more money at a younger age, were better educated, were more likely to follow a career plan, sponsored more proteges, reported being happier with their career progress and derived somewhat greater pleasure from their work. In 1977, the publication of Hennig's study (Hennig & Jardim, 1977) of 25 top-level women executives stressed the importance of mentors to women in business, although the word "mentor" was not actually used. Hennig found, through in-depth interviews, that all of her subjects had had a mentor, in each case, a male boss. Each woman developed a deep friendship with the man for whom she worked, likening him to her father as supporter, encourager, teacher and strength in the company, while she acted as his student, helper and admirer. He used his reputation to develop hers and his support to help develop her confidence and to reinforce her own sense of the importance of competence. Kanter (1977), in her book Men and Women of the Corporation reported that those women who rose to the top of the corporate world were aided by high-level sponsors she described as "rabbis" or "godfathers." This study is illustrative of the gradual shift of research focus from the intimate, emotional and intense mentor-protege relationship to the less personal sponsors acting as teachers or coaches. Similarly, Alleman (1982) comments that "recent career advice books and articles urge ambitious occupational entrants to find a mentor as a method of career advancement . . . and impute to mentors an almost magical quality. Like the Magi of old, these powerful beings confer rich gifts on the young future rulers" (p. 1). It is perhaps worth commenting here that in Mentor's relationship with Telemachus, and in a number of other well-known mentor-protege pairs, it is the protege who rises to "stardom," while the mentor's name is hardly known at all. 18 Shapiro, Haseltine, and Rowe (1978) proposed a continuum of advisory/support relationships which facilitate access to positions of leadership, authority and power for women in traditionally male professions. On one end of the continuum is the "peer-pal" relationship which is egalitarian, accessible and responsive to need, and on the other are "mentors"—defined as "the most intense and ' paternalistic' " (p. 55) in which an individual takes on the role of both teacher and advocate. "It is intense and usually charged with emotion and has a basically parental dynamic structure. . . Describing the end points of the continuum of patron relationships in bold strokes, the mentor-protege relationship is restrictive, comes with strings attached, and, in the final analysis, can result in the greatest boost toward success" (p. 56). On the continuum between "peer-pal" and "mentor" are "guides," "sponsors" and "patrons," each with an increasing degree of power to promote and shape the protege's career. Viewing mentoring from a somewhat different perspective, Dalton, Thompson and Price (1977) proposed a model of career stages which arose from a need for ways to guide the career development of employees, and was developed from interviews with over 1,000 individuals. The four-stage model begins with apprenticeship, a dependent stage in which the apprentice works with a mentor to learn the system, performance expectations and specific skills. Stage II sees the employee as an independent colleague who develops a specialty and becomes a competent, contributing employee. In Stage III the employee is a mentor who provides guidance and assistance to others as he or she is broadening his or her own capabilities, and the fourth stage is that of the sponsor, who influences policy and direction in the organization. In an article which takes Dalton, Thompson and Price's research a step further, Collin (1979) proposes that the mentor's role must "derive from the performance of the manager's task and, indeed, is integral to it . . . It is strictly functional and when its 19 function no longer exists, it ceases" (p. 12). Stating that the role is by definition a one-to-one relationship between a more experienced person and an inexperienced person until the latter reaches maturity, Collin suggests that "the role of mentor serves to match the needs of the individual with those of the organization . . . . the mentor acts as the leading edge in the process of socialization in which the individual adapts to the needs and ambiance of the company, whilst retaining his own individuality and, thereby, achieves his own style of managerial development" (p. 12). Collin claims that "it is the mentor who personifies the company's 1 psychostructure' and acts the midwife in the process of socialization" (p. 13). Collin's understanding of the mentor's role raises the question of whether an individual functioning in the way she describes is, indeed, a mentor, or simply a good supervisor. From the 1970s on, a large number of studies were published, almost all of which focused on successful people in the researcher's own occupational field or in one of interest to him or her. The purpose of many of these studies was simply to discover whether mentoring took place in a particular occupation (e.g. Alleman, 1982, on organizations; Fagan & Fagan, 1983, on nursing; Moore, 1982; Queralt, 1982, on academic administration; Runkel, 1982, on the ministry) and if so, to what extent, together with attempts to identify stages of mentoring relationships, roles and functions of mentors (e.g. Kram, 1980; Phillips, 1977), how to attract a mentor and other clarifying data. Intermingled with these interests were a number of studies exploring mentoring as a way to assist the career development of women, particularly in traditionally male occupations (Missirian, 1980; Phillips, 1977; Vanzant, 1980). Some studies examined and compared cross-gender aspects of mentoring (Quinn, 1980; Stein, 1981). Phillips (1977) identified six different mentor roles that might be played for a protege: traditional mentors; supportive bosses; organization sponsors; professional career 20 mentors; patrons; and invisible godparents. She divided them into primary and secondary mentors, primary mentors being those individuals who provide a number of mentoring functions for generally altruistic reasons, and secondary mentors being those who provide only a few functions and essentially act as instrumental aid to career advancement Similarly, Clawson (1980) speaks of "life mentors" and "career mentors," the difference being in the degree of comprehensiveness of the role. Clawson considers life mentors to be rather rare and writes of "quasi-mentors" who are career mentors. Taylor (1984) considers that secondary mentors and quasi-mentors simply are not mentors—you either are or you aren't a mentor, and sees the features of a true mentor-protege relationship as defined by Clawson (1980)—comprehensiveness and mutuality—as essential to the definition of the role. Both Phillips (1977) and Kram (1980) identified a number of functions which comprise the role of the mentor, and a comparison of the two lists by Alleman (1982) demonstrates that their findings were almost identical. Kram was the first writer to demonstrate clearly that mentors in the occupational field performed functions which could be divided into career functions, or aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement, and psychosocial functions, or aspects of the relationship that enhance sense of competence, clarity of identity, and effectiveness in the managerial role. The career functions were listed as sponsorship; exposure and visibility; coaching; protection; and challenging assignments. The psycho-social functions were identified as role modeling; acceptance and confirmation; counseling; and friendship. 21 The Mentor in Educational Settings The research on mentors in educational settings is roughly divided between mentors for college and university students, and mentors for gifted/talented/creative students in elementary and secondary schools. Research on mentors for academic faculty and administrators is considered to be primarily occupational mentoring and would be classified as such. Unlike the occupational field, where formal mentor programs are still the exception rather than the rule, (although some companies have been using them for many years), mentoring in educational settings almost always appears to have a formal structure of some sort Programs such as Gray's (1982, 1984) in which student teachers are matched with elementary and secondary school pupils and Bradt's (1981), in which professionals in a student's area of interest are selected for students in grades 9-12, are typical in that the mentor-protege pairs are focused upon some task or project intended to enhance the student's learning and, to a greater or lesser degree depending on the approach of the program, there is an expectation that the relationship itself will benefit the student, and perhaps the mentor too. There is a tendency for programs like Gray's, for gifted/talented/creative students, to be more highly structured than those in higher education settings, primarily because the mentors are trained to work with younger proteges who often need more structure than adult proteges. At the college level, mentors described in the literature begin to look suspiciously like the tutors of the traditional Oxford/Cambridge collegiate system. Grabiner (1975) and Seidel (1975) describe independent study programs in which mentors act as guides, advisors and sympathetic listeners as well as tutors, helping students to cope with the world of scholarship and assisting them in accomplishing their learning goals. In both 22 cases, faculty members are assigned to be mentors. At both high school and college level, students are paired with mentors, who can assist them with career planning through a "shadowing" experience in which the student follows a university professor about his or her work (Borman, 1978), or who, as alumni, act as resources for career information, listen, and offer guidance in work related matters (Gillespie, 1981). The role of the mentor in the educational setting varies. He or she may be a supportive "big brother"—in a paper offering guidelines for foreign student advisors and suggesting that newly-arrived Middle Eastern students could benefit from a mentor from his or her own culture (Parker et al., 1976). Or the mentor could be "anyone (judge, novelist, engineer, orchestra conductor, etc.) who might serve as a model in a one-to-one relationship with the student . . . The mentor is the ' expert' who guides the student toward independent learning, away from teacher 'telling', with the intent that the model will continue to be useful in ' lifelong learning' " (Bean, 1980). Or the mentor might be part of an educational brokering service operating out of Cornell University called the Learning Web, which matches "apprentices" with mentors who are generally adults who have a skill the apprentices wish to learn, while the apprentices are mostly junior and high school students, together with a few adults and secondary school drop-outs (Hamilton, 1980). Summary It would seem that the only thing that is clear about the definition of a mentor is that