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Attitudes and expectations of counselling : a cross-cultural perspective Madikiza, Dorcas Bongiwe 1984

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ATTITUDES AND EXPECTATIONS OF COUNSELLING: A CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE by DORCAS BONGIWE MADIKIZA B.S.W. U n i v e r s i t y o f Z u l u l a n d S.A., 1975 M. E d . U n i v e r s i t y o f I b a d a n , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1983 @ Dorcas Bongiwe Madiklza, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a vailable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wri t t e n permission. DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e and compare t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g o f two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s ; t h e E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . U s i n g S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s i x g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s d e t e r m i n i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . A n a l y s i s o f d a t a was a c c o m p l i s h e d by u s i n g f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n a nd c h i s q u a r e a n a l y s i s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e re f o u n d b e t w e e n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n e a c h c u l t u r a l g r o u p . D i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o f o u n d when c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s were made b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s o f b o t h g r o u p s . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . i i i Table of Contents Page Abstract . . . . . . . . . . i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . v i Chapter I . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1 Nature of the Problem . . . . . 5 Purpose of the Study . . . . . . 8 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 10 Review of Phase I of the Study . . . 13 Limitations of the Westwood/Massey Study . 15 Why the S.I.Q. . , It-Chapter I I : Review of Relevant Literature . . 2.0 Significance of Cross-Cultural Counselling 20 C l i e n t Attitude Towards Counselling . . 22 C l i e n t Perception of Counsellor Role . . 23 Cultural Differences i n C l i e n t Counselling Expectancy . . . . . . . . 25 Current Research on Counselling Expectancies Involving East Indians i n Canada . . . 27 C l i e n t Preference for Counsellor Characteristics . . . . . . . 28 C l i e n t preference for Counselling Style . 29 E f f e c t s of Clients/Therapist Racial D i s s i m i l a r i t y on Counselling Outcomes . 3 0 Summary of Studies . . . . . . 32 i v Page C h a p t e r I I I : M e t h o d o l o g y 38 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n . . . . . . . 39 P r o c e d u r e . . . . . . . . . 40 D a t a A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . 41 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t . . . . . . 43 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y . . . . . 44 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 45 C h a p t e r IV: F i n d i n g s o f t h e S t u d y . . . . 46 C h a p t e r V: 54 Summary . . . . . . . . . 54 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s . . . . . . 55 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f P r e s e n t S t u d y to t h e P r e d e c e s s o r ' s S t u d y . . . . . . 66 C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . 69 R a t i o n a l e a n d I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s S t u d y . 72 R e f e r e n c e s . . . . . . . . . . 76 A p p e n d i c e s . . . . . . . . . . 85 V L i s t o f T a b l e s Page 1 What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d b e ? . . . . 4 7 2 Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? . . 47 3 Why? 4 8 4 What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r t o b e ? . . . . . . 48 5 I n w h a t ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u h a v e s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d h a v e f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? . . . . . . 48 6 I n y o u r o p i n i o n , how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? . . . . . . 4 9 7 P l e a s e g i v e a n y o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h on a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t . . 4 9 8 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o -E u r o p e a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s on t h e SIQ . . 50 9 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s on t h e SIQ . . 51 10 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o -E u r o p e a n A d o l e s c e n t s a n d E a s t I n d i a n A d o l e s c e n t s on t h e SIQ . . . . . 5 2 11 C h i S q u a r e A n a l y s i s C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d u l t s on t h e SIQ. . 53 v l A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e t h r e e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e : M a r v Westwood, J o h n Banmen and V i n c e n t D ' O y l e y f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n my w o r k , t h e i r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s w o r k a n d f o r f i n a l l y h e l p i n g me p u t i t a l l t o g e t h e r . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Don M a s s e y f o r h i s h e l p a n d t h o u g h t f u l n e s s . 1 C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y c o m p a r e s t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g among two g r o u p s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s ( a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s ) : E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y t h e E a s t I n d i a n s u b j e c t s w e r e f r o m S i k h S e c t o r o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n Commun-i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . The i m m i g r a t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s h a s i n c r e a s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s ( W o l f g a n g 1 9 7 5 ) . I n 1971 and 1972 c l o s e t o a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e i m m i g r a t e d t o Canada and o f t h a t number a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f came f r o m n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s ( W o r l d A l m a n a c 1974 p. 53 9 ) . Today "New C a n a d i a n " s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e r c i t i e s ( L l o y d 1982) a c c o u n t s f o r c l o s e t o h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ; t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t C a n a d a i s b e c o m i n g a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y c o n s i s t i n g o f p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . W i t h s u c h g r o w i n g e t h n i c a w a r e n e s s and d i v e r s i t y o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e , c o u n s e l l o r s c a n p l a y a k e y r o l e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s o f i m m i g r a n t s t u d e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C o u n s e l l i n g i s p e r h a p s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r e a s w h ere e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s g e t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r k d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s ( M a s s e y 1 9 8 2 ) . 2 I t i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r m i n o r i t i e s i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r n e e d s . S t u d i e s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g t e n d t o h a v e f o c u s e d on t h e e f f e c t s o f c u l t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y on t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s (Sue, 1 9 7 7 ; V o n t r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , b a r r i e r s t o e f f e c t i v e c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( V o n t r e s s , 1976; Sue, 1981) , t h e e f f e c t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s on m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s ( P i n e , 1972) and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s i m i l a r i t y o f c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t a f f e c t s t h e c o u n s e l l i n g o u t c o m e s ( A c o s t a and S h e e h a n , 1976; Yamamoto, James and P a l l e y , 1 9 6 9 ) . Numerous o t h e r s t u d i e s p o i n t o u t t h e n e e d f o r c r o s s c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s , e x p e r t i s e and t r a i n i n g (Bloombaum, James a n d Yamamoto, 1968; F u k u h a r a , 1 9 7 3 ; and I v y , 1977) . S t u d i e s o f a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g h a v e been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f e x p e c t a n c i e s on t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p and o u t c o m e , t h e e x p e c t a n c y s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n c l i e n t s and c o u n s e l l o r s and e x p e c t e d p r o b l e m s t h a t c a n be d i s c u s s e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s ( A p p e l , 1959; A r o n s o n , a n d O v e r a l l , 1966; B o r d i n , 1 9 5 5 ; G o l d s t e i n , 1960; a n d S e v e r i n s o n , 1966) . C u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s i s a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t by B o r g e n , D ' O y l e y and Westwood a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e a t t i t u d e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o w a r d d i s t i n c t m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n i n a l l t h e s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d above i s t h a t c l i e n t s ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e who a r e c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r ) h a v e f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g . I t 3 i s a l s o assumed t h a t t h e more s i m i l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n t h e i n t e r -c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f b o t h t h e c l i e n t s a n d c o u n s e l l o r i n r e g a r d t o g o a l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e more e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l b e . E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r t o c o u n s e l l i n g i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p t h a t d e v e l o p s b e t w e e n t h e c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r ( G o o d s t e i n a n d G r i g g , 1 9 5 7 ) . E x p e c t a n c i e s h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s an i m p o r -t a n t f a c t o r i n p e r c e p t i o n , l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d c o u n s e l l i n g ( G i b s o n , 1962) . S i n c e e x p e c t a n c i e s a r e l e a r n e d and m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f l u e n c e s e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o u n s e l -l i n g b o t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t b r i n g i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k -g r o u n d s a nd e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p . C o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n o t a l l c u l t u r a l g r o u p s s h a r e t h e same e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , h a s b e e n f o u n d i n s t u d i e s b y (Bloombaum, James a n d Yamamoto 1968; S e v e r i n s e n > ' . 1966 ; Sue, 1981; a n d V o n t r e s s 1976) . O t h e r s t u d i e s , ( C a l i a , , 1966; P i n e , 1972;. a nd Sue and Sue, 1973) p o i n t o u t t h a t some e t h n i c g r o u p s do n o t make f u l l u s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . Among t h e mos t n o t a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . i s t h e c l i e n t s d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t h e r a p i s t s ' r o l e ; ( c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s t h e r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n c l i e n t s and c o u n s e l l o r s o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s ) . 4 T h i s r e s u l t s i n a d e s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n w h a t t h e c l i e n t e x p e r i e n c e s a n d w h a t h e / s h e e x p e r i e n c e s ( S e v e r i n s e n , 1 9 6 6 ). A r o n s o r i a n d O v e r a l l (196 3) f o u n d t h a t c l i e n t s whose e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e i n c o n g r u e n t w e r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e t u r n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . T ^ i r f t b l e ^ ( 1971) f o u n d t h e ' p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a n d l a c k i n g i n i n f o r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . They d e s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e a s b i a s e d t o w a r d s W h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s a n d t h e r e f o r e may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r some m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . I v e y ( 1977) r e v i e w e d t h e p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t , I t i s b e c o m i n g t r a n s p a r e n t l y c l e a r t h a t t h e t h e o r i e s a n d m e t h o d s o f t h e p a s t a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e many s p e c i a l ( c u l t u r a l a n d r a c i a l ) p o p u l a t i o n s ( p . 48 5);. I n r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e o n m i n o r i t y g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g , P i n e (1972) f o u n d t h e f o l l o w i n g v i e w s t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e h e l d by m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s : ... t h a t i t i s a w a s t e o f t i m e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y s h u n t i n g m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s i n t o d e a d e n d n o n - a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s r e g a r d l e s s o f s t u d e n t s ' •';.... p o t e n t i a l , p r e f e r e n c e o r a m b i t i o n s ... t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s do n o t a c c e p t , . r e s p e c t , a n d u n d e r s t a n d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e a r r o g a n t and c o n t e m p t u o u s a n d t h a t t h e y do n o t know how t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r own ha n g u p s ( p . 3 5 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e i s s u e s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g i n a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y w h ere t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s e x i s t s . The l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s 5 by c o u n s e l l o r s c a n p r e s e n t o b v i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o m i n o r i t y s t a t u s c l i e n t s . The s c o p e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o u n s e l l i n g d e p e n d s upon w h a t t h e c l i e n t t h i n k s t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a n and s h o u l d do ( G i b s o n , 1 9 7 1 ; M a r s h a l l , 1979; a n d W o l f g a n g , 1975) . To r e d u c e t h e gap b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g XAtkinson, M a t s u i a nd Maruyama 1 9 7 8 ; F u k u h a r a , 1 9 7 3 ; Johnson.,.., 1977; Tan, 1 9 6 7 ; and V o n t r e s s , 1970) m a i n t a i n t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o become more s e n s i t i v e t o and l e a r n more a b o u t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i f e s t y l e , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r s . N a t u r e o f t h e P r o b l e m I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o c u s o f t h e i r n e e d s , t o s t u d y c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s - i n c o u n s e l l i n g a n d t o e d u c a t e a nd t r a i n c o u n s e l l o r s f o r w o r k i n g w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . A t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d by m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Dreman, 1977;. Fukuhara,'.:. 1973";.. H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1977; a n d P a t t e r s o n , 1958) a s i m p o r -t a n t f a c t o r s i n p e r c e p t i o n , l e a r n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p s y c h o t h e r a p y a nd c o u n s e l l i n g . 6 S i n c e e x p e c t a n c i e s a n d a t t i t u d e s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d ( V o n t r e s s , 1970) t h e c o u n -s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a c l i e n t f r o m a c u l t u r e w i t h w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s n o t f a m i l i a r may i n v o l v e a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , p r o c e s s a nd o u t c o m e (Sue 1 9 8 1 ) . As c o u n s e l l i n g i s i n c r e a s i n g l y m a t c h i n g p a r t n e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s ( D r a g u n s , L o n n e r a nd P e d e r s o n , 1976;, I v y , 1 9 8 0 ; Sue,, 1 9 8 1 ; and W o l f g a n g , 1975) , t h e r e i s an e v e n i n c r e a s i n g l y demand and n e e d f o r i n t e r c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y r e s e a r c h h a s f a i l e d t o c r e a t e a r e a l i s t i c u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( C a l i a , 1 9 6 6 ; I v y , 1 9 8 0 ; R u s s e l l , 1 9 7 0 ; S m i t h , 1 9 7 7 ; Sue a n d Sue, 1 9 7 5 ; and V o n t r e s s 1 9 7 6 ) . The L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s some m a j o r g a p s ; t h e s e a r e : (1) T h a t t h e p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e s d e p e n d upon t h e o r i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h do n o t a p p l y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s (Ivey# 1 9 7 7 ; V o n t r e s s , 1977) . They a r e h e a v i l y b a s e d o n t h e W e s t e r n f r a m e w o r k a nd l a c k v a l i d a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . 7 (2) The c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g o r d e f i c i e n t i n m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o r a c e and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r -e n c e s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g f o r c u l t u r a l l y c o m p e t e n t c o u n s e l l o r s h a s b e e n f o u n d l a c k i n g (Sue, 1981) . (3) L i t e r a t u r e o n p r o g r a m s and p r a c t i c e s i n i n t e r -r a c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g a r e s c a t t e r e d ; a n d i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e a s y n t h e s i s o f r e s e a r c h done i n t h e a r e a (Sue, 1981) . T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s h a v e s e v e r e l y h i n d e r e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e ( D a v i s , 1978; M a r s e l l a a n d P e d e r s o n , 1977; P i n e , 1 9 72; and Sue,1981) t h e y a l s o s u g g e s t a n e e d f o r more s t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a p p r a i s i n g c l i e n t r e a c t i o n t o c o u n s e l l -i n g has b e e n r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d ( G o o d s t e i n , 1 9 5 7 ; G o l d s t e i n , 19 62) . E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i -t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p s t h e c o u n s e l l o r i d e n t i f y c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and h e e d s o f c l i e n t s ( H i g g i n b o t h a m 1977) . D e s p i t e a number o f s t u d i e s ( A p p e l ; 1 959; Dreman, 1977; F u k u h a r a , 197 3; H a r r i s o n , 1975 ; H e n d e r s o n , 1979; and M a r s h a l l , ' . 1979) i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g a nd c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f 8 c o u n s e l l i n g , f e w s t u d i e s h a v e c o n d u c t e d s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h on c l i e n t a t t i t u d e and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g p r i o r t o c o u n s e l l i n g . I n o r d e r f o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s i n t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u , a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y meet t h e s e n e e d s , r e s e a r c h on c l i e n t e x p e c -t a n c i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . I n d o i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h , v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l be p r o v i d e d . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o : (1) D e t e r m i n e t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t A n g l o - E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s a n d E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s h a v e t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g . (2) To f o c u s o n , a n a l y s e and compare a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n e a c h " c u l t u r a l " g r o u p t o w a r d s c o u n -s e l l i n g , u s i n g t h e S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( S . I . Q . ) . 9 (3) To s u m m a r i z e a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g by t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s u s i n g c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e S.I.Q. o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d by Westwood:.and- M a s s e y (1982) . The S.I.Q. c o n s i s t s o f s i x q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e s u b j e c t ' s a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t : (1) The two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s w o u l d p o s s e s s d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s was b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s i n c e t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e h a v e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , l i f e s t y l e , l a n g u a g e a n d v a l u e s f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y s a m p l e , t h e r e w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s a s w e l l . (2) D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a d u l t s a nd a d o l e s c e n t s w o u l d o c c u r w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p i n t e r m s o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s may h a v e no e x p e r -i e n c e w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g o r g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n s c h o o l s t h e y may h a v e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s a nd a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s who h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s y s t e m s and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . 10. S i n c e c o u n s e l l i n g i n s c h o o l s was i n t r o d u c e d o n l y i n t h e 60s e v e n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( S t a f f o r d 1 9 7 4 ) , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s w o u l d h a v e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o w a r d s b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s ; i . e . , ( E a s t I n d i a n S i k h s and Ango E u r o p e a n Canadians).'. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms A t t i t u d e . A t t i t u d e i s "... t h e sum t o t a l o f a man's i n c l i n a t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s , p r e j u d i c e s o r b i a s , p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s , i d e a s , f e a r s , t h r e a t s and c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t any s p e c i f i c t o p i c ..." (Chave a n d T h u r s t o n e , . 197 9 p. 6 - 7 ) . B r o a d l y s t a t e d a t t i t u d e i s a f r a m e o f m i n d ; i t i s t h e t e n d e n c y o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o h a v e e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n s t o w a r d s c e r t a i n o b j e c t s , i n d i v i d u a l s o r i d e a s . E x p e c t a n c l e s . E x p e c t a n c i e s a r e a " s e t " o f " r e a d i n e s s " o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d l e a r n i n g t h e new e v e n t s o r b e h a v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r way i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n ( T a n , 1 9 6 7 ) . E x p e c t a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n o f w h a t i s l i k e l y t o h a p p e n . 1 1 C o u n s e l l i n g . S t e f f l e r (1970) d e f i n e s c o u n s e l l i n g a s "... a l e a r n i n g - t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e c l i e n t ... t h e c l i e n t l e a r n s a b o u t l i f e s p a c e ... I f h e / s h e i s t o make m e a n i n g f u l and i n f o r m e d c h o i c e s , h e / s h e m u s t know h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f t h e f a c t s o f h i s / h e r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n a nd t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s ... a s w e l l a s m o s t l i k e l y , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e v a r i o u s c h o i c e s . " (p. 2 5 2 ) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , c o u n s e l l i n g i s d e f i n e d a s a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e v o l u n t a r y d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ; b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e and l e a r n i n g new c o n c e p t s , a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s i n o r d e r f o r t h e c l i e n t t o f e e l a n d a c t i n a more p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g manner w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f , o t h e r p e o p l e a n d s o c i e t y . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g . I s t h e a b i l i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e h a r m o n i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n c l i e n t s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s ( S u n d b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s t h e r e f o r e a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a nd c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n c l i e n t s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . M i n o r i t y G r o u p s . A r e t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h h a v e i d e n t i f i e d p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e a nd modes o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t d i f f e r f r o m t h e l a r g e r segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . M i n o r i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , r e m a i n c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y g r o u p o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . D ' O y l e y (1982) d e s c r i b e s t h e C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y a s c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e m a j o r g r o u p s : t h e a b o r i g i n a l s , t h e A n g l o p h o n e s , t h e F r a n c o p h o n e s , t h e l a t e r E u r o p e a n and t h e 12 v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s o f ( A s i a n , E a s t I n d i a n a n d A f r i c a n ) o r i g i n . M a j o r i t y G r o u p s . R e f e r s t o t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n a nd F r a n c o -phone c o m m u n i t i e s . They r e p r e s e n t 8 3% o f t h e m a j o r i t y s t a t u s p o p u l a t i o n ( C a n a d a Y e a r Book 1980 - 1 9 8 1 , H a w k i n s 1 9 7 2 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e m a j o r i t y g r o u p s a m p l e w e r e a l l E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . The 1971 L i b e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ' s p o s i t i o n o n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d i n ( 8 , J a n u a r y 1978 The N a t i o n ' s B u s i n e s s ) b y t h e t h e n M i n i s t e r o f M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Norman C a f i k , w h e r e i n he a f f i r m s t h e p o l i c y on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a s t h e : p r a g m a t i c r e a l i z a t i o n ... t h a t C a n a d a i s more t h a n E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h ( s i n c e ) o v e r a t h i r d o f ( C a n a d i a n s ) ... come f r o m b a c k g r o u n d s a n d o r i g i n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e two f u n d a m e n t a l g r o u p s ( p . 1 ) . meant t h a t a l l C a n a d i a n s ... s h o u l d be f r e e t o be a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e b e s t o f t h e i r p a s t so t h a t t h e y c a n f u l l y d e v e l o p t h e m s e l v e s a s i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s i n a f r e e s o c i e t y ... (and) t o be a b l e t o s h a r e t h o s e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s w i t h a l l C a n a d i a n s i n an i n t e g r a t e d s o c i e t y ( p . 1 ) . d e c r e e d t h a t e v e r y p o l i c y o f g o v e r n m e n t t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f o u r c o u n t r y . I n m a t t e r s o f e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s ... i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f i m m i g r a t i o n ... i n t h e s u b j e c t o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s ; o r i n c i t i z e n s h i p — t h a t t h o s e v e r y l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n s o f a t h i r d o f o u r p e o p l e , a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t b y t h e c a b i n e t when t h e y make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s ... ( S h a p s o n e t a l , p. 1 2 0 ) . i:3 R e v i e w o f P h a s e I o f t h e S t u d y S i n c e t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Westwood. and .-Massey, a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e i r s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . W.es-^wood:.:inc[: :Ma'S'sey (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s b e t w e e n two c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s : t h e E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s a nd t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . C o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made b e t w e e n G r o u p I ( E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s ) a nd G r o u p I I ( A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s ) . C o m p a r i s o n s w e r e a l s o made w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g e ; ( a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s ) . S t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s w e r e made u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . To m e a s u r e s a m p l e p e r c e p t i o n s , . a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s I n d e x (PCSI) was u s e d . T h i s i s an i n s t r u m e n t b a s e d on t h e f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e a n d c o n s i s t s o f 45 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s u b t e s t s : C a r e e r / V o c a t i o n a l ; P e r s o n a l / S o c i a l ; F a m i l y I n v o l v e m e n t ; R o l e ; C u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e P C S I s u b t e s t s was c a l c u l a t e d b o t h a c r o s s a n d w i t h i n g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e P C S I y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a d u l t s i n G r o u p I ( E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s ) a n d a d u l t s i n G r o u p I I (Anglo E u r o p e a n a d u l t s ) ; + (1,151) = 3.48 P .05. 14 A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e P C S I was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n G r o u p I and t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n G r o u p I I ; _F (1,166) = 1.11, _P .05. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n G r o u p I ; _F (1,166) = 1.11, _P .05. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n G r o u p I I ; _F (1,153) = 4.66, JP .05. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d u l t s a c r o s s t h e two c u l t u r e s d i d n o t d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i l e t h e a d o l e s c e n t s a c r o s s t h e two c u l t u r e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The E a s t I n d i a n s h e l d s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i l e t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s seemed t o d i f f e r i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e was more a g r e e m e n t on t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s t h a n was h y p o t h e s i z e d . D i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s when c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made oh s p e c i f i c s u b t e s t s . F o r e x a m p l e , w h i l e t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s e x p e c t e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e t o be b o t h t h a t o f a t e a c h e r a n d c o u n s e l l o r , Anglo E u r o p e a n , a d u l t s p e r c e i v e d c o u n s e l l i n g a s a s e p a r a t e p r o f e s s i o n f r o m t e a c h i n g . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o be a w a r e o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and n e e d s , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s w e r e more c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s . By c o n t r a s t , b o t h a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n g r o u p t e n d e d 15 t o r e s p o n d w i t h an " u n d e c i d e d " r e s p o n s e on t h i s s u b j e c t . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y seem t o i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two d i s s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . Where d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d t h e y t e n d e d t o be i n d e g r e e r a t h e r t h a n k i n d . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r t o .Westwpod: .and M a s s e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Westwood/Massey S t u d y The s t r o n g e s t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e Westwood/Massey s t u d y r e l a t e s t o t h e amount o f k n o w l e d g e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d a b o u t c o u n s e l l i n g p r i o r t o t h e s u r v e y . The s t u d y d i d n o t c o n t r o l f o r t h e amount a n d t y p e o f c o n t a c t ( i f any) p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g . L a c k o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t c o u n s e l l i n g , u n e q u a l amounts o f e x p o s u r e t o c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g may h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r a t i n g on t h e P C S I was a f f e c t e d by t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d f a c t o r s i s o p e n t o q u e s t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e P C S ! i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o n d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a ; i . e . , a g e , s e x , o c c u p a t i o n , b i r t h p l a c e , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n ; s u c h d a t a was h o w e v e r n o t s u m m a r i z e d o r a n a l y z e d . Westwood a n d M a s s e y s t a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h b o t h G r o u p I ( E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s ) a n d G r o u p I I ( A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s ) w e r e d r a w n f r o m t h e same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , -and t h a t t h e a d u l t s 16 a c r o s s b o t h g r o u p s f r o m s i m i l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e o f a d u l t s h a d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o v e r a l l t h a n d i d t h e a d u l t s i n t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e ; d a t a p r o v i d i n g c o m p a r i s o n s on l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n was h o w e v e r n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s t u d y . The s t u d y i s n o t o n l y l i m i t e d i n t e r m s o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s b u t a l s o E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s b e l o n g i n g t o o t h e r r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s ( o t h e r t h a n S i k h i s m ) . N a i d o o (1980) s u r v e y e d a s a m p l e o f E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s i n O n t a r i o a n d f o u n d them t o b e l o n g t o s e v e n d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s : t h e S i k h s , H i n d u s , M u s l e m s , I s m a l i a , J a i n , I t h n a -A s h e r i a n d C h r i s t i a n s . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i g i o u s b a c k -g r o u n d s w e r e a l s o f o u n d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e a s w e l l . Wood (1980) s t u d i e d t h e H i n d u E a s t I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y i n V a n c o u v e r a n d f o u n d t h a t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y , t h e H i n d u E a s t I n d i a n s d i d n o t b e h a v e as much as a "community o f t h e i r own" as t h e S i k h s . They w e r e f e w e r i n numbers c o m p a r e d t o t h e S i k h s , s c a t t e r e d o v e r a w i d e r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a and t e n d e d t o a d a p t ' e a s i e r t o t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e ' e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s s t u d y c a n o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n b e l o n g i n g t o t h e S i k h r e l i g i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Westwood and J-lassey- s t u d y c a n h a r d l y p r o v i d e d a t a f o r t h e o r i z i n g a b o u t o t h e r s u b g r o u p s f r o m t h e E a s t I n d i a n c o n t i n e n t who may h a v e d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s , 17 v a l u e s , l i f e s t y l e s , f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and c u l t u r e . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e i r s t u d y c a n n o t be t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . B o t h t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e a n d t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e had a l a r g e r number o f f e m a l e s t h a n m a l e s . The E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e h a d 78-.males and.. 90 f e m a l e s w h e r e a s t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e h a d 64 m a l e s a n d 101 f e m a l e s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e x b i a s a n d u n e q u a l numbers o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n b o t h g r o u p s m i g h t h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e t e s t r e s u l t s i s o p e n t o q u e s t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h e s t u d y was t h e P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s I n d e x , w h i c h i s a 45 i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e b a s e d o n a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e . The L i k e r t S c a l e i s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t u s e d i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s . I t i s d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c l o s e d f o r m a l l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t q u a n t i f i c a t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s m e t h o d , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t i t r e d u c e s t h e s c o p e o f p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s a n d i t d o e s n o t c h e c k f o r s u b j e c t s , who may r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , h a v i n g l i t t l e o r no k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g i t s c o n t e n t . The i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t u s i n g a L i k e r t S c a l e seems b e s t a d a p t e d t o e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h s e e k i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h w h i c h r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . Open e n d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l l o w f o r a w i d e r and d e e p e r s c o p e o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l l t h e i t e m s i n t h e P C S I w e r e i n t h e p o s i t i v e f o r m . T h i s l i m i t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o c h e c k f o r a r e s p o n s e 18 s e t o r p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e b i a s . The P C S I d i d n o t c o n t a i n a b s o l u t e l y i d e n t i c a l i t e m s f o r ;. t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e a n d t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e . A t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e P C S I was u s e d w i t h t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e ; t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s may h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s o p e n t o q u e s t i o n . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y c o n c e r n s t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f P C S I . S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r e d i c t i v e a n d c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y w e r e n o t u n d e r t a k e n . The i n s t r u m e n t was h o w e v e r f o u n d t o h a v e f a c e and c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . M a s s e y (1982) i n a l a t e r s t u d y , c o n s t r u c t e d a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f P C S I c a l l e d t h e E t h n i c P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l i n g I n d e x . The i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f 30 i t e m s , 2 0 o f w h i c h w e r e t a k e n f r o m t h e P C S I . Ten new i t e m s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e n e g a t i v e f o r m . The v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e new i n s t r u m e n t was t h e n i n v e s t i g a t e d . Why t h e S.I.Q. Due t o t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e P C S I , t h e S.I.Q. was d e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o t a p t h o s e a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h c o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d by t h e PCSI...::, The S.I.Q. i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e P C S I i n t h a t i t i s a n o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h u s p r o v i d e s a w i d e r and b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . 19 A l t h o u g h t h e S.I.Q. was a d m i n i s t e r e d by Westwood a n d M a s s e y (1982) t h e y h o w e v e r d i d n o t a n a l y z e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e i r s t u d y o n t h e S.I.Q. T h i s r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e s P h a s e I I o f t h e p r e d e c e s s o r s ' S t u d y , w h i c h i s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e S.I.Q. 2 0 C h a p t e r I I  R e v i e w o f R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f c o u n s e l -l o r r o l e , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and c l i e n t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r a c e a n d c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . T h i s c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s among t h e v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g The i n c r e a s e i n w o r l d m o b i l i t y and g r o w t h o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e -n e s s a nd s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t d r a m a t i c c h a n g e i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y (Sue 1 9 8 1 , W o l f g a n g - 1 9 : 7 5 ) . T h i s ; : s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n h a s o c c a s i o n e d an e x p e c t a t i o n o f e q u a l i t y among n a t i o n s , r a c e s , s e x e s a nd g e n e r a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s a nd t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n f r o n t i n g c o u n s e l l o r s and c h a l l e n g e t h e i r b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e s p a r k e d a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and l i f e s t y l e s , and g i v e n r i s e t o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r more a w a r e n e s s a nd e d u c a t i o n i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . 21 The o u t c o m e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g h a s b e e n f o u n d t o be h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e t h e r a p i s t t o f o r m a f a c i l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a c l i e n t , a nd t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l i n g ( t h e r a p y ) w h i c h i s c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s ( G o t h , Yamamoto and S i l v e r m a n , 1 9 6 5 ) . I n t h e i r u n i q u e s t u d y , A r o n s o n and O v e r a l l (1966) f o u n d t h a t c l i e n t s whose e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e i n a c c u r a t e w e r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e t u r n f o r t r e a t m e n t . I t seems c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t h e r a p i s t n e e d s t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a m e a n i n g f u l c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( I v e y , 1977; V o n t r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h i s was f u r t h e r e n d o r s e d by t h e V a i l C o n f e r e n c e on C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y w h i c h c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h o u t c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y , k n o w l e d g e o r a w a r e n e s s i s n o t j u s t a p r o b l e m b u t an u n e t h i c a l a c t ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , K orman, 1 9 7 4 ) . T h u s , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g h a s become a m a t t e r o f d i r e c t and p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s a n d o t h e r s i n t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n ( F u k u h a r a , 1973; M a r s e l l a and P e d e r s o n , 1981) . Few i n v e s t i g a t o r s o t h e r t h a n F orm (1953) a n d Westwood and M a s s e y (1982) d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n e d s t u d e n t s o n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . B e c a u s e c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e f o r c l i e n t u s e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h e r e f o r e , t o d e t e r m i n e what c l i e n t o p i n i o n , a t t i t u d e a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g a r e . My s t u d y ( s e e C h a p t e r I I I ) i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r e d e c e s s o r ' s r e s e a r c h . I t i n v e s t i g a t e s c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s 2 2 and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g u s i n g a n o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C l i e n t A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s C o u n s e l l i n g S t u d i e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t n o t a l l c u l t u r a l g r o u p s s h a r e t h e same a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c o u n s e l -l i n g ( K i r k arid Sue 1 9 7 5 ; T r i m b l e , 1 9 7 6 ; V o n t r e s s 1 9 7 6 ) . S n y d e r , H i l l . ' , a n d D e r k s e n (1972) s u r v e y e d 250 s t u d e n t s and f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h some h a d n o t made u s e o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , a l l t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y e f f e c t i v e and t e n s i o n r e l e a s i n g . T h i s was c o n t r a r y t o R u s s e l l ' s (1970) f i n d i n g s . He f o u n d t h a t B l a c k s t u d e n t s v i e w c o u n s e l l o r s a s i n s t r u m e n t s o f o p p r e s s i o n and a s s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s a r o u n d w h i c h t h e y m u s t somehow m a n o e u v r e , i f t h e i r a m b i t i o n a n d a s p i r a t i o n s do n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e t h a t t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them. J o h n s o n (1977) s u r v e y e d 377 s t u d e n t s a t a p r e d o m i n a n t l y B l a c k u n i v e r s i t y a n d f o u n d n o t h i n g i n h i s s t u d y t o i n d i c a t e s u c h s t r o n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g . S i m i l a r l y , S i m e r v i l l e (1961) f o u n d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g among m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s . On e x a m i n i n g p a t t e r n s o f c l i n i c a l u s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , S u e, A l l e n a n d Goriaway (1975) f o u n d t h a t B l a c k s t e r m i -n a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r o n l y one c o n t a c t a t a r a t e o f a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 50%. T h i s was i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e 30% r a t e f o r A n g l o c l i e n t s . 23 M a r s e l l a , K i n z i e a n d G o r d o n (1964) f o u n d t h a t A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t e n d t o a v o i d u s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . I f p r o b l e m s a r i s e , much e f f o r t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y i s e x p e n d e d t o w a r d h i d i n g i t f r o m p u b l i c v i e w . T h e r e i s a s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o b e i n g i n n e e d o f p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p , i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shame, l o s s o f s t a t u s and r e j e c t i o n by t h e f a m i l y . T h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o s e e k p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c h e l p was e v e n s t r o n g e r among men. Sue and K i r k (1975) f o u n d t h a t more C h i n e s e women made u s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t h a n C h i n e s e men, a l t h o u g h i t was c o n s i d e r e d a s a l a s t r e s o r t . I t seems c l e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c l i e n t a n d t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p o s u r e t o c o u n s e l l i n g ( p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n ) . I n r e l a t i o n t o e x p e c t a n c i e s , A r o n s o n a nd O v e r a l l (1966) f o u n d t h a t c l i e n t s whose e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e r e i n c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g d i d n o t r e t u r n f o r t r e a t m e n t . A p p e l , (1959) a nd B o r d i n , (1955) a l s o f o u n d t h a t c l i e n t s w e r e h e l p more when t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e r a p y t h a t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . C l i e n t P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l o r R o l e The f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t e n d t o p o i n t o u t t h a t s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e a c o u n s e l l o r a s an a d v i c e g i v e r , a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p l a y i n g a more d i r e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s ( B o r d i n , 1 955; and G r a n t 1 9 5 4 ) . The 24 s t u d e n t s w e r e f o u n d t o c o n s i d e r v o c a t i o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f a c o u n s e l l o r ( H e i l f r o n , 1960) . I n h i s s t u d y , i t s e l f an e a r l y w o r k i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n , G r a n t (1954) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d n o t p e r c e i v e c o u n s e l l o r s as b e i n g a b l e t o g i v e a c c e p t a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p e r s o n a l a n d e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . G i b s o n (1962) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e r o l e o f c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t t o be t h a t o f an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n a n d an a c t i v i t y d i r e c t o r o r p a r t - t i m e l i b r a r i a n . M o s t s t u d e n t s i n G r a n t ' s s t u d y d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g f u n c t i o n a s a m a j o r d u t y o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . S t u d i e s by R u s t and. D a v i e (1961) a n d Warman (1960) a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e was t o d i s c u s s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e a n d s c h o o l - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . S o c i a l p r o b l e m s a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r . T h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s w e r e a l s o f o u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y among A s i a n A m e r i c a n s (Sue, 1 9 8 1 ) . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , F u k u h a r a (1973) f o u n d t h a t J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e r c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g f o r o n l y v o c a t i o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ; t h e y saw c o u n s e l l o r s r o l e s a s i n v o l v i n g e m o t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a s w e l l . T h e s e s t u d i e s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g f u n c t i o n h a v e n o t k e p t up w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e f i e l d o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . 25 C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n C l i e n t  C o u n s e l l i n g E x p e c t a n c y The r e a c t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s t o c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d e s a r i c h s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l -l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . Sue: and K i r k (1975) a n d Tan (1967) s u r v e y e d t h e c o u n s e l l i n g i d e a s o f A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . C o n f o r m i n g w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e A s i a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a u t h o r i -t a r i a n , t h e s e a u t h o r s f o u n d a v i e w o f t h e r a p y among A s i a n s m a r k e d by i t s a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e n e s s , s u b m i s s i o n a n d n u r t u r a n c e . The t h e r a p i s t i s assumed t o be a " t e a c h e r " who g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a d v i c e o n a s p e c i f i c c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . A s i a n s d i d n o t e x p e c t o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e f o r s o l v i n g i n t e r n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1 9 7 7 ) . R a t h e r , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t e r n a l a d j u s t m e n t s h o u l d be w o r k e d o u t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r f o c u s o f t h e r a p y i s away f r o m p s y c h o d y n a m i c s and e x p l o r a t i o n o f f e e l i n g s ; i n s t e a d t h e y b e l i e v e m e n t a l h e a l t h i s e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h e x e r c i s i n g w i l l p o w e r , a v o i d i n g u n p l e a s a n t t h o u g h t s a n d o c c u p y i n g o n e s e l f w i t h p l e a s a n t t h o u g h t s ( A r k o f f , T h a v e r a n d E l k i n d 1 9 6 6 ) . C a u d i l l (1959) s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e s u b j e c t s and f o u n d s i m i l a r e x p e c t a n c i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g a s t h e a b o v e s t u d i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a b o v e s t u d i e s , F u k u h a r a (1973) f o u n d t h a t J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s e e c o u n s e l l i n g a s o n l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l / v o c a t i o n a l 26 p r o b l e m s b u t saw i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e m o t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s t o o . S t u d y i n g t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n h e a l i n g s i t u a t i o n among E a s t I n d i a n s i n n o r t h e r n p a r t o f I n d i a , M a r r i o t t (1955) f o u n d t h e h e a l e r was e x p e c t e d t o be someone w i t h r e p u t a b l e k n o w l e d g e , someone t h e y c o u l d t r u s t , c o n f i d e i n a n d d e p e n d o n . He i s s e e n as t h e p o w e r f u l p e r s o n t h a t c a n a d v i s e h i s c l i e n t s . T r i m b l e (1976) f o u n d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y when w h i t e s w o r k w i t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n c l i e n t s . Sue (1981) f o u n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t w e s t e r n v a l u e s a n d t h e r a p e u t i c a p p r o a c h e s a r e a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e I n d i a n v a l u e r s y s t e m . I n d i a n c l i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y r e a c t w i t h d i s g u s t , f e a r o r b e w i l d e r m e n t a t i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e h i g h l y v e r b a l a n d s t r e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t e n u s e d by c o u n s e l l o r s . T r i m b l e (1976) s t a t e s t h a t n a t i v e A m e r i c a n s v i e w t h e p e r s o n a s h a r m o n i o u s w i t h n a t u r e and t h a t m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d a c t i v e m a s t e r y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s n o t d e s i r a b l e . Tan (1967) c o m p a r e d c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s b e t w e e n A s i a n , E n g l i s h a n d A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . I n c o n t r a s t t o A s i a n s t u d e n t s , A m e r i c a n a nd E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s e e a c o u n s e l l o r a s an a u t h o r i t a t i a n i n d i v i d u a l b u t r a t h e r e x p e c t e d a c o u n s e l l o r t o be someone e a s y t o t a l k t o , a g o o d l i s t e n e r , a n d d i r e c t i v e i n a p p r o a c h . I n a s t u d y c o m p a r i n g l o w e r c l a s s c l i e n t s w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s c l i e n t s A r o n s o n a n d O v e r a l l (1966) f o u n d t h a t l o w e r c l a s s c l i e n t s 27 w e r e more d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t r e a t m e n t t h a t was m e d i c a l l y o r i e n t e d , d i r e c t i v e , s u p p o r t i v e a n d i n w h i c h t h e c l i e n t a ssumed t h e r o l e o f p a s s i v e l i s t e n e r . L o r i o n (1974) h o w e v e r f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f c o u n s e l l -i n g . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be s c a t t e r e d y e t c o n s i s t e n t e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h on C o u n s e l l i n g E x p e c t a n c i e s  I n v o l v i n g E a s t I n d i a n s i n C a nada D e s p i t e t h e number o f s t u d i e s on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g and c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , few s t u d i e s h a v e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e s e a r c h e d c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g i n C a n a d a . E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h o n p e o p l e o f A s i a n and E a s t I n d i a n o r i g i n l i v i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t h a s emerged o n l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s ; p r o b a b l y b e g i n n i n g w i t h . ( M a r s h a l l , . . 1979? N a i d o o , .1980; and R a j , 198.0). A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t r e s e a r c h on t h e E a s t I n d i a n c u l t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y m e a g r e , a l t h o u g h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s i n C a nada d a t e s b a c k t o 1899, when t h e f i r s t E a s t I n d i a n s l a n d e d i n V i c t o r i a a n d V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( R a j , 1 9 8 0 ) . C o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h i s c u l t u r e and t h e d o m i n a n t N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e a r e s c a t t e r e d . 28 I n t h e i r p a p e r s N a i d o o (1980) and R a j (1980) d i s c u s s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n p e o p l e i n C a n a d a , t h e i r s t r u g g l e s t o g a i n a d m i s s i o n i n C a n a d a , t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o k e e p Canada o p e n t o . t h e E a s t I n d i a n p e o p l e , as i v e l l as; t o g a i n p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e and t h e i r a d j u s t -m e nts o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Westwood and Massey. (1982) no s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n done t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e E a s t I n d i a n c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n C a n a d a . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o r e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o f b o t h E a s t I n d i a n a n d m a j o r i t y A n g l o c l i e n t s . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two c u l t u r e s i s a l s o made. C l i e n t P r e f e r e n c e f o r C o u n s e l l o r  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s and o u t c o m e ( C a r s o n and H e i n e , 1962,;, I v e y , 1962) . " B o r d i n (1955) f o u n d t h a t c l i e n t s , w i t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g s e t , t e n d t o a s s i g n no i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r . T h i s a t t i t u d e c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h o s e c l i e n t s who e x p e c t e d t o t a l k a b o u t p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . R o s e n (1967) f o u n d t h a t a g e , s e x a n d m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . S m i t h (1974) f o u n d t h a t i n g e n e r a l , s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d a c o u n s e l l o r o f s i m i l a r a g e , 29 s e x , s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d a nd r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , t o t h e i r s . F e i f e l and E e l l i s ( 1 9 6 3 ) , h o w e v e r , f o u n d s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r s t u d y . The t h r e e i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t seem t o h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s w e r e f o u n d t o be e x p e r t n e s s , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s a n d t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s ( S t r o n g a n d S c h m i d t , 197 0 ) . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , when p e r c e i v e d by t h e c l i e n t , may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e h i m / h e r ( G o l d s t e i n , 1966) . C l i e n t P r e f e r e n c e f o r C o u n s e l l i n g S t y l e P r e f e r e n c e f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e was f o u n d t o d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d f o t h e c l i e n t s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1958) . F u k u h a r a (1973) f o u n d t h a t A s i a n A m e r i c a n s r e s p o n d e d more f a v o u r a b l y t o l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l a n d s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h e s t o c o u n s e l l i n g r a t h e r t h a n t o w a r d s a f f e c t i v e , r e f l e c t i v e a n d n o n - d i r e c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . A t k i n s o n e t a l (1978) a l s o f o u n d t h a t A s i a n A m e r i c a n c l i e n t s r a t e d d i r e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s a s more c r e d i b l e and a p p r o a c h a b l e . I n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , H i g g i n b o t h a m (1977) f o u n d t h a t many m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s e x p e c t e d an a c t i v e , a u t h o r i t a r i a n r o l e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p i s t . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w e r e o b t a i n a b l e i n A r o n s o n 1 s a n d O v e r a l l ' s (1966) r e s e a r c h w h i c h 30 s t u d i e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g b e t w e e n m i d d l e and l o w e r c l a s s p a t i e n t s . The l o w e r c l a s s g r o u p more o f t e n e x p e c t e d t h e t h e r a p i s t t o be s u p p o r t i v e and d i r e c t i v e t h a n d i d t h e m i d d l e c l a s s p a t i e n t s . M o s t s t u d i e s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c l i e n t s p r e f e r c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e n o t c l i e n t - c e n t r e d o r n o n d i r e c t i v e i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s . G o o d s t e i n and G r i g g (1959) f o u n d t h a t t h o s e c l i e n t s who s e e t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s as t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e , m a k i n g s u g g e s t i o n s and h e l p i n g c l i e n t s t o r e s o l v e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s a r e more l i k e l y t o r e p o r t a f a v o u r a b l e o u t c o m e f o r t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h o s e who s e e t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s a s p a s s i v e . E f f e c t s o f C l i e n t s / T h e r a p i s t R a c i a l  D i s s i m i l a r i t y on C o u n s e l l i n g Outcomes I n h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , P e o p l e s (1975) f o u n d some c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s s e r t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o b a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w h i t e c o u n s e l l o r s c o u n s e l l i n g b l a c k c l i e n t s . C i m b o l i c (1972) f o u n d t h a t a t t r i b u t e d e x p e r t n e s s and com-p e t e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r were f a r more e f f e c t i v e t h a n s i m i l a r i t y i n r a c e b e t w e e n c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t . S i m i l a r l y ( M e r l u z z i , 1977; C i m b o l i c , 1972; Woods and Zimmer, 1975) f o u n d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r r a c e was n o t t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e c l i e n t - c o u n s e l l o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . On t h e c o n t r a r y , V o n t r e s s (1969, 1970, 1971 and 1972) a r g u e s t h a t c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s make t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s u c c e s s f u l 31 c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e . C a r k h u f f and P i e r c e ( 1 9 6 7 ) , W o I k o n , M o r i w a k i and W i l l i a m s (1973) a l s o f o u n d r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s t o a f f e c t c o u n -s e l l i n g o u t c o m e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e s e a u t h o r s r e p o r t t h a t " B l a c k s " p r e f e r b l a c k t h e r a p i s t s , show more c h a n g e when m a t c h e d w i t h same r a c e t h e r a p i s t s a n d t e n d t o d r o p o u t e a r l y o r do p o o r l y w i t h c e r t a i n w h i t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c o n -c u r r e d w i t h H e f f e r n o n and B r u e h l (1971) a n d S a t t l e r 1 s (1970) who f o u n d t h a t o v e r h a l f o f t h e b l a c k c l i e n t s f a i l e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e r a p y a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t s e s s i o n b u t t h e r a t e i n c r e a s e d when b l a c k c l i e n t s w e r e c o u n s e l l e d by b l a c k t h e r a p i s t s . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e t h a t b l a c k c l i e n t s t e n d t o p r e f e r b l a c k t h e r a p i s t s . H i g g i n b o t h a m (1977) i s , h o w e v e r , l e s s c e r t a i n o n t h i s i s s u e . I n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e he p o i n t s o u t A c o s t a ' s and S h e e h a n ' s (1979) s t u d y , w h i c h f o u n d t h a t M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s h a d a h i g h e r r e g a r d f o r A n g l o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a n t h o s e f r o m t h e i r own e t h n i c b a c k g o u n d . Gamboa, T o s i and R i c c i o (1979) a l s o f o u n d t h a t w h i t e d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s p r e f e r r e d a b l a c k c o u n s e l l o r f o r d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . L i t t l e a g r e e m e n t seems t o e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f r a c e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r , o n c o u n s e l l i n g . I n t h e i r r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , A r b u c k l e (1972) and C i m b o l i c (1972) c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t r a c e by i t s e l f may n o t be o f i m p o r t a n c e f o r many A m e r i c a n s i n a p p r o a c h i n g a c o u n s e l l o r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e . 32. Summary o f S t u d i e s C o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s a r e c r i t i c a l i n a n y c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n h a s b e e n e n d o r s e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . C o u n s e l l o r s a n d c l i e n t s a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by ; a t t i t u d e s , a v a l u e s a n d ' l i f e s t y l e s , and by t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . The c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l l y a c q u i r e d b e l i e f s y s t e m a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f c o u n s e l l i n g p l a y s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e c o u r s e a n d o u t c o m e o f t h e r a p y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s s e s s t h e r o l e e x p e c t a n c y b e t w e e n c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r b e f o r e e n g a g i n g i n t h e r a p y . The more s i m i l a r t h e e x p e c t a n c i e s c o n c e r n i n g g o a l s i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r , t h e more e f f e c t i v e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l b e. I n c o n g r u i t y b e t w e e n c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g l e a d s t o an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o u n s e l l i n g o u t c o m e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be e n h a n c e d by c o u n s e l l o r s e n s i t i v i t y t o c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and n e e d s o f c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s a n d t r a i n i n g o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n w o r k i n g w i t h c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c l e i n t s was f o u n d t o be one o f t h e m a j o r b a r r i e r s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . A l l c l i e n t s e x p e c t a c o u n s e l l o r who shows e x p e r t i s e a n d s e n s i t i v i t y . I t seems o b v i o u s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c l i e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g be c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e c o u n s e l l o r s e n s i t i v i t y a n d a w a r e n e s s o f c u l t u r a l 33 d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . On r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : (1) T h e r e seems t o be a gap b e t w e e n c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g and t h e p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e c l i e n t i s f r o m a c u l t u r a l b a c k -g r o u n d t h a t i s d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r (Sue, 1977; a n d P i n e , 1972) . (2) E x p e c t a n c i e s h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p e r c e p t i o n , l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g ( G i b s o n , 1962) . E x p e c t a n c i e s v a r y a s c u l t u r e s v a r y ( F u k u h a r a , 1973; and Sue, 1981) . Some c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s o n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t n o t a l l c u l t u r a l g r o u p s s h a r e t h e same e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g (Bloombaum, James a n d Yamamoto, 1968 ; H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1 9 7 7 ; and P e d e r s o n , 1976) . (3) S t u d i e s i n t h e a r e a o f c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s i n C a n ada a r e i n t h e m i n o r i t y ( M a r s h a l l , 1 9 7 9 ; Ramcharan, 1970; and W o l f g a n g , 1975) , (.4) C o u n s e l l o r s a r e n o t t r a i n e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s f r o m m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s ( P i n e , 1972;; R u s s e l l , 1970; and Sue, 1981) . C o u r s e s on m i n o r i t y i s s u e s a r e e i t h e r o p t i o n a l o r n o t a v a i l a b l e i n c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programmes i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s (Sue, 1 9 8 1 ) . 34 I n C a n a d a t h e r e a r e v e r y f ew programmes t h a t t r a i n c o u n s e l l o r s t o wo r k w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . One s u c h p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d by C h r i s t e n s e n (1980) a t t h e M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . (5) S u c h l a c k o f t r a i n i n g o f c o u n s e l l o r s t o w o r k w i t h m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s h a s r e s u l t e d i n many m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s r e f r a i n i n g f r o m u s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( P i n e 197/2, R u s s e l l , 197 0; and Sue e t a l . 1 9 7 4 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e o b t a i n e d i n s t u d i e s done i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (6) I n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e a s a c o u n s e l l o r , i t i s n e c e s s -a r y t o be a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a t r u s t i n g and w o r k a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u r c l i e n t a t an e a r l y s t a g e ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 5 8 ) ; t o a c h i e v e t h i s t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r m u s t know a nd be p e r c e i v e d a s k n o w i n g a b o u t t h e c l i e n t s ' p e r s o n a l e x p e r -i e n c e s a n d t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f t h e c l i e n t s ' p r o b l e m s (Westwood. and' .Massey 1 9 8 2 ) . (7) I n 1971 a n d 1972 a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e i m m i -g r a t e d t o C a n a d a ; o f t h a t number a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f came f r o m n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s ( W o r l d A l m a n a c 1974 page 5 3 9 ) . S u c h a n i n c r e a s e i n i m m i g r a n t s l i v i n g i n Ca n a d a s u g g e s t s a n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e a ware a n d s e n s i t i v e t o t h e n e e d s o f s u c h c l i e n t s . (8) T h e r e i s a g r e a t n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g o f c o u n s e l l o r s t o wor k w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . 35 T h e r e i s a l s o a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g e f f e c t i v e ways o f c o u n s e l l i n g m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . I n v e s -t i g a t i n g c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s one s t e p t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s e f f e c t i v e l y and m e e t i n g t h e i r n e e d s . S u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w o u l d p r o v i d e d a t a t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e c o u n s e l l o r s t o e x a m i n e t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c l i e n t s ' e x p e c -t a t i o n s ; s u c h d a t a w o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a -t i o n t h a t w o u l d be u s e f u l i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . (9) The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e seems t o i n d i c a t e some c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s : S t u d i e s o n s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r w e r e i n c o n c l u s i v e . R u s t ;and D a v i e ( 1 9 6 1 ) , a n d Warman (1960),found t h a t s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h e r o l e o f c o u n s e l l o r a s someone t o d i s c u s s v o c a t i o n a l and s c h o o l r e l a t e d i s s u e s w i t h ; d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s was c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n t r a r y t o F u k u h a r a ' s (1973) s t u d y on b o t h J a p a n e s e and A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s ; h i s s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s e e c o u n s e l l i n g a s o n l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ; t h e y saw t h e f u n c t i o n o f a c o u n s e l l o r a s i n v o l v i n g e m o t i o n a l - p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a s w e l l . C o n t r a d i c t o r y a s s e r t i o n s w e r e f o u n d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o b a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r a c e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r on t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Wo Ikon., .'.Moriwaki .and 36 W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 7 3 ) , R u s s e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a n d V o n t r e s s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , f o u n d t h a t r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t a f f e c t c o u n s e l l i n g o u t c o m e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t some m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s t e n d t o d r o p o u t e a r l y o r do p o o r l y w i t h c e r t a i n w h i t e p r o -f e s s i o n a l s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n t r a r y t o A c o s t a a n d S h e e h a n ' s (1976) s t u d y w h i c h f o u n d t h a t M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d an A n g l o p r o f e s s i o n a l t h a n t h e i r own. Gamboa e t a l . (197 9) a l s o f o u n d t h a t w h i t e d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s p r e f e r r e d a b l a c k c o u n -s e l l o r f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . The l i t e r a t u r e seems t o be i n c o n c l u s i v e o n t h i s i s s u e t h u s s u g g e s t i n g t h e r e c o u l d be i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e s . The s t u d i e s a l s o s u g g e s t t h e r e c o u l d be o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e c o u n s e l l o r e x p e r t n e s s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t c o u n s e l l i n g o u t c o m e o t h e r t h a n r a c e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r . S t u d i e s b y ( I v e y , 1980; R u s s e l l , 1970; and S u e , 1981) seem t o d e f i n e b l a c k s a s h a v i n g s t r o n g n e g a t i v e a t t i -t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g ; t h e y v i e w c o u n s e l l o r s as i n s t r u m e n t s o f o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h t h e y m u s t a v o i d o r t r y t o m a n e u v e r a r o u n d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e n o t f o u n d i n J o h n s o n (1977) a n d S i m m e r v i l l e (1961) s t u d i e s . They s t u d i e d s t u d e n t s i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y b l a c k u n i v e r s i t i e s and f o u n d n o t h i n g i n t h e i r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g s u c h s t r o n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g among b l a c k s . 37 Such inconclusive and contradictory findings i n the l i t e r a t u r e suggests a need for more extensive studies and research i n the area of counselling expectancies. The f i e l d of i n t e r c u l t u r a l counselling i s f a i r l y new and there i s much yet to be studied and understood. 33 C h a p t e r I I I  M e t h o d o l o g y T h i s s t u d y i s t h e P h a s e I I o f t h e Westwood .and. M a s s e y (1982) S t u d y . W h i l e t h e i r s t u d y u s e d t h e P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s I n d e x (PCSI). t o d e t e r m i n e a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t E a s t I n d i a n and A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s h a v e t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g , t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g u s i n g t h e S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( S . I . Q . ) . Westwood:,and-Massey a d m i n i s t e r e d b o t h t h e P C S I a n d t h e S.I.Q. T h e i r s t u d y d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , e x a m i n e , a n a l y z e o r i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s p o n s e s o n t h e S.I.Q. and t h i s f o r m s t h e m a j o r f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . The S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s i s t o f s i x b a s i c q u e s t i o n s : (1) What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? (2) Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Why? (3) What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r t o be? (4) I n w h a t ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u h a v e s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d h a v e f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? (5) I n y o u r o p i n i o n , how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r . (6) P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h o n a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t . 3 9 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n T h i s r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y u s i n g f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n a nd C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s t o compare t h e two g r o u p s . No t r e a t m e n t s w e r e g i v e n a n d no c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e n e c e s s a r y . S a m p l e . The t o t a l s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 32 3 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s . G r o u p I c o n s i s t e d o f 168 E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s d i v i d e d i n t o 79 a d u l t s (40 m a l e s , 39 f e m a l e s ) and 89 a d o l e s c e n t s (38 m a l e s , 51 f e m a l e s ) . A l l t h e s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p I w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a v o t i n g l i s t c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e P u n j a b i s p e a k i n g ( S i k h ) c o m m u n i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . S i n c e i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y i n C a n a d a may a f f e c t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g , s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p I w e r e a l s o s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o C a n a d a . Y e a r s 1968 - 1978 w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h a t was t h e p e a k i m m i g r a t i o n p e r i o d f o r E a s t I n d i a n s i n C a n a d a . G r o u p I I c o n t a i n e d 155 A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s d i v i d e d i n t o 74 a d u l t s (21 m a l e s , 53 f e m a l e s ) a n d 81 a d o l e s c e n t s (33 m a l e s , 48 f e m a l e s ) . A l l s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p I I w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e e n r o l l m e n t l i s t o f s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n a s G r o u p I . A l l s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p I I w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s A n g l o E u r o p e a n a n d w e r e e i t h e r f i r s t a n d s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n C a n a d i a n s . G r o u p I , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i s t s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m i n o r i t y s a m p l e o f E a s t 4 G -I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s i n V a n c o u v e r s i n c e m o s t o f t h e c i t y ' s E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f t h o s e E a s t I n d i a n s whose n a t i v e l a n g u a g e i s P u n j a b i a n d b e l o n g t o t h e S i k h r e l i g i o n . G r o u p I I c o n s t i t u t e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . T h e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y a s a c o m p a r a t i v e g r o u p who l i v e d i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n :'. a s s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p I . I t c a n be assumed t h a t m o s t a d o l e s c e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s w e r e p r o b a b l y a t t e n d i n g t h e same s c h o o l s . The g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f b o t h s a m p l e s was i n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . T h i s i s a l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r . The N o r t h - S o u t h b o u n d a r y w o u l d e x t e n d f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 t h A venue t o S o u t h W est M a r i n e D r i v e and E a s t - W e s t t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y V i c t o r i a D r i v e . P r o c e d u r e The p r o c e d u r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p h a s e s ; P r o c e d u r e 1 d e s c r i b e s t h e Westwood and M a s s e y p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y . P r o c e d u r e 2 d e s c r i b e s t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y . Procedure-..! (Westwood a n d M a s s e y p h a s e ) . Westwood and M a s s e y f i r s t s a m p l e d a n d s u m m a r i z e d r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s ; t h e n t h e y s u r v e y e d t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s a m p l e . G e n e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a was g a t h e r e d on e a c h s u b j e c t ; t h i s i i n c l u d e d p l a c e o f b i r t h , s e x , a g e , o c c u p a t i o n and l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The P C S I a n d SIQ w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o a l l t h e s u b j e c t s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e s t u d y - I n o r d e r t o b u i l d r a p p o r t and t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s , a l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e homes o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s by q u a l i f i e d i n t e r v i e w e r s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same c u l t u r a l g r o u p a s t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s . The E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e was r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a v o t i n g l i s t c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e P u n j a b i s p e a k i n g ( S i k h ) c o m m u n i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . The A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e was r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m v t h e ; e n r o l m e n t l i s t - o f t h e s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s a s t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e . P r o c e d u r e 2 ( M a d i k i z a p h a s e ) . The S.I.Q. w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l t h e 323 s u b j e c t s . I n t e r v i e w e r s : ; p x e s e n t e d . t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. e i t h e r i n E n g l i s h o r P u n j a b i . R e s p o n s e s w e r e d i r e c t l y t r a n s l a t e d i n w r i t t e n f o r m ( E n g l i s h ) by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s . R e s p o n s e s on t h e S.I.Q. w e r e c o n t e n t a n a l y z e d by t h r e e i n -d e p e n d e n t j u d g e s . The i n t e r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was (.93). R e s p o n s e s on e a c h o f t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d c o d e s , ( s e e A p p e n d i x V ) . C o d e s a r e i n f o r m a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n i n t o w h i c h r e s p o n s e s w e r e p l a c e d . D a t a A n a l y s i s D a t a f r o m t h e S.I.Q. was a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e (UBC SPSS LERTAP) c o m p u t e r p a c k a g e c a p a b l e o f g e n e r a t i n g C h i S q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n 42 f o r each category. Sample frequency and Chi Square a n a l y s i s was used t o compare the two groups w i t h i n and across c u l t u r e s . Sample f r e q u e n c i e s were used to compare o v e r a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s of coun-s e l l i n g between East Indian sample and Anglo European sample. Chi Square a n a l y s i s was used to compare a d u l t s and ado l e s c e n t s w i t h i n each c u l t u r a l group. C r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons between the East Indian (adults and adolescents) and Anglo European (adults and adolescents) were a l s o made us i n g the Chi Square a n a l y s i s . The Chi Square i s a nonparametric s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t used when the r e s e a r c h data are i n the form of frequency counts (Shaw 1967). I t i s a means of answering q u e s t i o n s : q u e s t i o n s about data e x i s t i n g i n the form of frequency r a t h e r than as scores or measurements along a s c a l e ( S i e g e l . 1956). Frequencies r e f e r to c a t e g o r i e s with which we have c l a s s i -f i e d data (Shaw 1967). T y p i c a l l y the ques t i o n s we want answered when we have frequency data i s whether the frequency observed i n the sample d e v i a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from some t h e o r e t i c a l or ex-pected p o p u l a t i o n frequency ( S i e g e l .19.56) . T h i s study summarizes c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s by conducting a frequency count. Using two judges the responses were f u r t h e r summarized i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . Data was then content analyzed by u s i n g Chi Square a n a l y s i s . 43 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t The S.I.Q. i s an o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d t o s u r v e y s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m e a s u r e o f g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c i e s . Though t h i s i n s t r u m e n t h a s n o t b e e n u s e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , i t was t h e b e l i e f o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a t w h i l e P S C I i s a d e s i r -a b l e i n s t r u m e n t b e c a u s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c l o s e d f o r m ( e . g . L i k e r t S c a l e ) a l l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , a f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g u s i n g o p e n e n d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w o u l d p r o v i d e w i d e r and d e e p e r r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The S.I.Q. was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e c e r t a i n f e e l i n g s o r a t t i t u d e s n o t s u r v e y e d b y t h e P C S I . The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e S.I.Q. h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y e l a b o r a t e d . The S.I.Q. was f o u n d t o h a v e c o n t e n t a n d f a c e v a l i d i t y . E v i d e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was f o u n d i n Westwood..and--Massey (1982) s t u d y f o r i t showed d i f -f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n s a m p l e s . I n r e f e r e n c e t o r e l i a b i l i t y h o w e v e r , t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e o f i t was t h e r e l i a b i l i t y f o u n d t o e x i s t among t h e t h r e e r a t o r s ( i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y = . 9 3 ) . No r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y o r c o n s i s t e n c y h a v e b e e n c a l c u l a t e d . 44 Limitations of t h i s Study Data used i n t h i s study was col l e c t e d from the same sample using the same procedure and interviewers as i n westwood;..and.^Mas-sey'.- Study. I t can therefore be said that the l i m i t a t i o n s found i n Westwood:. and' Massey. Study apply to t h i s study as well. Another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s that although the questionnaires appear to have content and face v a l i d i t y ; however, s t a t i s t i c a l procedures for determining predictive or construct v a l i d i t y were not taken. The sample i n t h i s study was representative only of the East Indian (Sikh) population of Vancouver. The study cannot, therefore, be generalized to other East Indians nor other minority Groups i n Vancouver. The sample of t h i s study consists of a larger number of women than men. The degree to which t h i s may have affected the results i s open to question. A further l i m i t a t i o n of the study l i e s i n the process by which data was analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to the participants, responses were then content analyzed and coded into predetermined categories. For the purpose of t h i s study a code refers to the categories created by the researchers with which each of the responses were l a b e l l e d (see Appendix V). In using content analysis, some important information from individuals i s l o s t . 45 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s H y p o t h e s i s 1. The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o n t h e c o n t e n t c a t e g o r i e s b e t w e e n t h e E a s t I n d i a n a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r o v e r a l l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o n t h e S.I.Q. H y p o t h e s i s 2. T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o n a l l t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. H y p o t h e s i s 3. T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s on t h e S.I.Q. H y p o t h e s i s 4. A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s a nd A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o n t h e S.I.Q. H y p o t h e s i s 5. A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s w i l l show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e S.I.Q. 46 C h a p t e r I V  F i n d i n g s o f t h e S t u d y I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s . C l i e n t r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e a n a l y z e d u s i n g f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o n t h e c o n t e n t c a t e g o r i e s ... b e t w e e n t h e E a s t I n d i a n and A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r o v e r a l l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c -t a n c i e s on t h e S.I.Q. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l i e n t r e s p o n s e s on t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s , t h e r e w e r e ' s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r o v e r a l l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . A g r e e m e n t s o c c u r r e d when c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made on t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a n s w e r f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n on t h e S.I.Q. ( T a b l e s 1 - 7 , pp. 47.- 4 9 ) . The f r e q u e n c y d i s -t r i b u t i o n r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s and E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c -t a n c i e s ; t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s a n d was r e j e c t e d . 47 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E a s t I n d i a n and  A n g l o E u r o p e a n Sample R e s p o n s e s oh t h e S.I.Q, Question 1: Table 1 What do you t h i n k the main job of school c o u n s e l l o r should be? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R e l a t i v e East I n d i a n Frequency 3 8.3 1.8 4.8 0.6 10.1 0.6 14.3 25.0 31.0 Sample N = 168 R e l a t i v e - Anglo Sample Frequency 0 3.9 1.3 4.5 0 4.5 2.6 14.2 21.9 47.1 ',.N= 155 Question 2: Table 2 Do you t h i n k the c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n the school i s d i f f e r e n t from the teacher's job? Codes R e l a t i v e Frequency 0.6 4.2 85.1 10.1 R e l a t i v e Frequency 0 3.2 92.3 4.5 East Indian Canadians N = 168 Anglo European Canadians N = 155 -48 Table 3 Question 2(b): Why? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R e l a t i v e East I n d i a n Frequency 14.3 10.7 34.5 5.4 4.2 10.7 19.0 0 1.2 0 Sample N = 168 R e l a t i v e Anglo Sample Frequency 0 12.9 36.8 25.2 4.5 9.7 11.0 0 0 0 N = 155 Table 4 Question 3: What type o f person would you l i k e a good c o u n s e l l o r t o be? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R e l a t i v e Frequency 1.80 4.2 4.2 3.0 4.2 10.1 8.9 1.8 61.9 0 East I n d i a n Sample N = 168 R e l a t i v e Frequency 0 5.2 4.5 1.3 1.9 5.2 23.2 2.6 56.1 0 Anglo Sample N = 155 Table 5 Question 4: In what ways do you t h i n k the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s you have seen o r contacted have f a i l e d t o meet your needs? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R e l a t i v e East Indian Frequency 6 2.5 21.4 3.6 7.1 0.6 10.7 7.7 13.1 4.8 Sample N = 168 R e l a t i v e Anglo Sample Frequency 0 7.7 29.7 7.7 0 0 31.0 1..3 21.9 0.6 N = 155 4 9 Table 6 Question 5: I n your o p i n i o n , how c o u l d these o r other c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be changed t o help serve you b e t t e r ? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R e l a t i v e East I n d i a n Frequency 8 . 3 3 1 . 0 5 . 4 6 . 0 3 . 6 4 . 8 0 . 6 6 . 0 2 1 . 4 1 3 . 1 Sample N. = 168 R e l a t i v e Anglo Sample Frequency 0 2 3 . 9 3 . 9 3 . 9 0 0 0 . 6 1 1 . 0 3 6 . 1 2 0 . 6 N = 155 Table 7 Question 6 : Please g i v e any other o p i n i o n o r comment you wish on anything we have t a l k e d about. Codes R e l a t i v e Frequency 1 7 . 3 6 0 . 7 1 .8 9 . 5 0 . 6 1 .8 F a s t Indian 6 . 0 1 .2 0 . 6 0 . 6 Sample N = 168 R e l a t i v e Frequency 8 1 . 9 5 . 8 0 Anglo Sample 3 . 2 2 . 6 5 . 8 0 . 6 N = 155 50 H y p o t h e s i s 2 T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o - E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s on a l l s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. A C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o compare A n g l o - E u r o p e a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s t h e C h i S q u a r e , t h e d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l a n d r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t . A p p e n d i x I i n d i c a t e s a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on a l l s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r e s a n d b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n e a c h c u l t u r a l g r o u p o n t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. T a b l e 8 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o - E u r o p e a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s o n t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n s 1 2 2 ( b ) : 3 4 5 6 C h i S q u a r e 21". 58 6.549 9749 19.19 19.06 30. 37 4.868 D e g r e e o f F r e e d o m 7 2 5 7 6 6 5 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l 0. 003 0.037 0.09.1* 0. 007 0.004 0.000 0.432* 51 H y p o t h e s i s 3 T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s on t h e S.I.Q. The C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s was c a l c u l a t e d t o compare t h e two g r o u p s . The C h i S q u a r e , d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m , l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d r e s u l t s w e r e t a b u l a t e d ( s e e T a b l e 9 ) . A f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on a l l s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. was t a b u l a t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) . The t e s t r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s on t h e S.I.Q. T h e r e f o r e , t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s a n d was r e j e c t e d . T a b l e 9 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s o n t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n s 1 2 2 ( b ) 3 4 5 6 C h i S q u a r e 20.72 9.06 17.69 16.72 37.18 31.65 30.73 D e g r e e o f F r e e d o m 9 3 7 8 9 9 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l 0.0139 0.028 0.0134 0.033 0.000 0.002 0.0003 52 H y p o t h e s i s 4 A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e S.I.Q. U s i n g a C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s , c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . T a b l e 10 t a b u l a t e s t h e C h i S q u a r e , d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m , l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d r e s u l t s o f t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. A p p e n d i x I I I s u m m a r i z e s t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s -p o n s e s on a l l t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s w e re f o u n d i n t h e t e s t r e s u l t s . The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d by t h e r e s u l t s . T a b l e 10 C h i S q u a r e D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d o l e s c e n t s and E a s t I n d i a n A d o l e s c e n t s on t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n s 1 2 2 ( b ) 3 4 5 6 C h i S q u a r e 14.703 1.828 ,38.205 12.835 37.49 29.93 45.01 D e g r e e o f F r e e d o m 7 2 7 8 8 9 8 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l 0.04 0.04* 0.000 0.1176* 0.000 0.0005 0.000 53 H y p o t h e s i s 5 A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s w i l l show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s o n t h e S.I.Q. The C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e -t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . T a b l e 11 i n d i c a t e s a summary o f r e s u l t s o f t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. A p p e n d i x I V i s a f r e q u e n c y d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. The N u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d by t h e t e s t r e s u l t s . T a b l e 11 C h i S q u a r e A n a l y s i s C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d u l t s o n t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n s 1 2 2 ( b ) 3 4 5 6 42.25 19.97 23.10 9 9 9 0.000 0.018 0.006 C h i S q u a r e 18.51 3.84 14.95 11.94 D e g r e e o f F r e e d o m 8 2 6 8 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l 0.017 0.146* 0.02 0.153* C h a p t e r V Summary The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o c ompare a n d e x p l o r e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o f two d i s s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . The H y p o t h e s e s w e r e p r o p o s e d : (1) The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e c o n t e n t c a t e g o r i e s b e t w e e n t h e E a s t I n d i a n and A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r o v e r a l l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o n t h e S I Q . (2) T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o n a l l s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e SIQ. (3) T h e r e w i l l be no s t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s o n t h e S I Q . (4) A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d o -l e s c e n t s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e SIQ. (5) A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s w i l l show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o . g r o u p s on t h e SIQ. The s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s . A t o t a l number o f 323 a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s c o m p r i s e d t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e w e re 168 E a s t I n d i a n s and 155 A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s -c e n t s . A n a l y s i s o f d a t a was p e r f o r m e d by u s i n g a C h i - S q u a r e a n a l y s i s and f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n . 55 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r g r o u p s , t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . A f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n a n d a c r o s s t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s w o u l d n o t d i f f e r i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s w o u l d n o t h a v e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g t o t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w e r e f o u n d . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h b o t h a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s a r e f r o m t h e same c u l t u r e a n d have b e e n e x p o s e d t o t h e same c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s s t i l l e x i s t e d . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s c h o o l s i s a new c o n c e p t ( S t a f f o r d , 1974) e v e n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r i t s t a r t e d i n t h e 60s a n d t h e r e f o r e some p a r e n t s may n o t h a v e h a d c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 56 The following i s a discussion of the findings of thi s study according to the six questions of the S.I.Q. Question 1: What do you think the main job of a school  counsellor should be? On inspecting the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses on t h i s question (Table 1) there seems to be more agreement than disagreement between the two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i -l a r groups on what they consider the main jobs of the school counsellor to be. The most preferred responses by both groups were that a school counsellor's job i s educational, vocational, personal counselling and problem solving. Differences between the two c u l t u r a l groups were that a greater number of East Indian subjects saw the role of counsellor as advice giver and d i s c i p l i n a r i a n compared to the Anglo European sample (see .:• Table 1 ) . The Chi Square analysis comparing East Indian Canadians (adults and adolescents) showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two groups. A greater number of East Indian adults compared to t h e i r adolescents expected the ro l e of the counsellor to be that of an advice giver, a l i a i s o n between the home and the school, i n additions to providing vocational, educational, personal and career counselling (see Appendix 1 ) . Adults i n both groups expected the counsellor to be a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , an advice giver and l i a i s o n between the school and the home (see Appendix IV). Adolescents in both groups did not 57 r e s p o n d t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s be a l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e home ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I ) . W h i l e t h e r e was b a s i c a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s on what t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r t o b e , d i f f e r e n c e s h o w e v e r e x i s t e d i n t h a t a g r e a t e r number o f E a s t I n d i a n s saw t h e r o l e o f c o u n s e l l o r a l s o i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s a s w e l l a s p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f d i s c i p l i n a r i a n ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I a n d A p p e n d i x I V ) . Q u e s t i o n 2: Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l  i s d i f f e r e n t fr.om t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Why? T a b l e 2 i n C h a p t e r I V shows f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n c o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s o n t h i s q u e s t i o n . B o t h g r o u p s a g r e e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ! j o b i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f a c o u n s e l l o r ; . c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e a n d t h e y w o r k w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i l e t e a c h e r s do n o t . D i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y t h o u g h t t h e t w o j o b s w e r e d i f f e r e n t . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s on t h i s q u e s t i o n w e r e m i n o r ( s e e A p p e n d i x I ) . M ore a d u l t s f o u n d " s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e " t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r m a k i n g t h e two j o b s d i f f e r e n t . A d o l e s c e n t s on t h e o t h e r h a n d e m p h a s i z e d t h e r e s p o n s e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i l e t e a c h e r s do n o t . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w e r e f o u n d on t h i s q u e s t i o n . 58 A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ("see T a b l e 10 and T a b l e 1 1 , C h a p t e r IV) . W h i l e b o t h A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s and E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e two j o b s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s t e a c h and c o u n s e l l o r s c o u n s e l , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r number o f A n g l o a d o l e s c e n t s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t e a c h e r s w o r k w i t h g r o u p s and c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p a r e d t o E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I ) . More E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and t e a c h e r s do n o t , c o m p a r e d t o A n g l o a d o l e s c e n t s . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f b o t h E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s d e f i n e d t h e j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r a s t h a t o f someone w o r k i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s o f c l i e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I & I V ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s t e n d t o v i e w s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r i m a r i l y f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n v o c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g > n o t f o r p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( B o r d i n , 1955; G r a n t , 1954; R u s s . e l L 197 0; and Sue and Sue, 1981) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s t e n d t o c o n c u r w i t h F u k u h a r a ' s (1973) s t u d i e s . He w o r k e d among J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s a n d f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d n o t p e r c e i v e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g t o be o n l y f o r v o c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . They saw t h e r o l e o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n v o l v i n g e m o t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a s w e l l . B o t h g r o u p s seem t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e t e a c h e r 1 s r o l e a nd c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e c l e a r l y . T h i s was c o n t r a r y t o t h e commonly h e l d v i e w t h a t m i n o r i t y g r o u p s s e e t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s a s 59 h a v i n g some t y p e o f a d u a l r o l e and t h a t i n m o s t m i n o r i t y c o u n t r i e s t h e c o u n s e l l o r / t e a c h e r d i c h o t o m y i s n o t y e t s e e n i n t h e same d e g r e e a s s e e n i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 197;7>; W o l f g a n g , 1975) . Q u e s t i o n 3; What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a g ood  c o u n s e l l o r t o b e ? B o t h E a s t I n d i a n and A n g l o s a m p l e s p r e f e r r e d a c o u n s e l l o r t h a t i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a b l e t o l i s t e n t o p r o b l e m s . I t w o u l d seem t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e most: i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o u n s e l l i n g i s f o r t h e c l i e n t t o f e e l u n d e r s t o o d ( s e e T a b l e 4) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s t e n d . ; t o a g r e e w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by S c h m i d t a n d S t r o n g (1971) and C i m b o l i c (1972) who f o u n d a t t r i b u t e d e x p e r t n e s s and c o m p e t e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r , w e r e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s t h a t l e a d t o a m e a n i n g f u l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . E x p e r t n e s s and c o m p e t e n c e i n t h i s c o n t e x t means a c o u n s e l l o r t h a t i s n o t o n l y t r a i n e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s b u t someone t h a t i s a l s o a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e e m p a t h y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c a r i n g f o r t h e c l i e n t . The t h r e e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r f o r E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s w e r e a s f o l l o w s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I V ) : (.1) someone t h a t i s w e l l e d u c a t e d and h a s s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , (2) someone t h a t i s m a t u r e and h a s r i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , (3) a n d a b o v e a l l , someone t h a t i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a b l e t o l i s t e n t o p r o b l e m s . The e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and t r a i n i n g o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r was n o t a s i m p o r t a n t f o r A n g l o a d u l t s . . 60 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s on t h i s q u e s t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . A l t h o u g h b o t h g r o u p s p r e f e r a c o u n s e l l o r t h a t i s a b l e t o l i s t e n t o p r o b l e m s and i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r was n o t a s i m p o r t a n t f o r E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . , ( s e e A p p e n d i x I ) . A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a l s o d i f f e r e d f r o m A n g l o a d o l e s c e n t s on t h i s q u e s t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r number o f a d u l t s c o n s i d e r e d r i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and m a t u r i t y t o be an i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t y o f a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r c o m p a r e d t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) . I t was a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s e x o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r was more o f a c o n c e r n among a d o l e s c e n t s t h a n a d u l t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I & I I ) a l t h o u g h e v e n among a d o l e s c e n t s o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e (7%) r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r was more i m p o r t a n t t o A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d E a s t I n d a i n a d u l t s t h a n t o a d o l e s c e n t s o f b o t h c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and A n g l o a d u l t s y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s and t h i s q u e s t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) . B o t h g r o u p s f o u n d r i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , m a t u r i t y and b e i n g a b l e t o l i s t e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s 1 p r o b l e m s a s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s a c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d h a v e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e A n g l o a d o l e s c e n t s and E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s ( s e e T a b l e 10) on t h i s q u e s t i o n . 61 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o n l y a s m a l l number o f E a s t I n d i a n and A n g l o a d u l t s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e " e t h n i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " a s one o f t h e q u a l i t i e s t h a t make a good c o u n s e l l o r ( s e e A p p e n d i x I V ) . I t seems t h e r e f o r e t h a t among t h e m a j o r i t y o f b o t h c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , t h e e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d o f a c o u n s e l l o r i s n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t a f a c t o r i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p a s t h e s k i l l s a n d e x p e r t i s e t h a t a c o u n s e l l o r b r i n g s i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Q u e s t i o n 4: I n w h a t way do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g  s e r v i c e s y o u h a v e s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d h a v e f a i l e d t o meet y o u r  h e e d s ? A h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f b o t h E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s (21%) an d A n g l o C a n a d i a n s (2.9%) h a d p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a l t h o u g h s u c h p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e m o s t p r e v e l e n t among A n g l o E u r o p e a n s r e s p o n d e n t s ( s e e T a b l e 5 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s o n t h i s q u e s t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . F o r a d u l t s , l a c k o f c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y , l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e home, f a i l u r e t o make t h e .x?lli.erit v :. :feel'. u n d e r s t o o d a nd i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l i n g w e r e t h e f o u r , m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t ways c o u n s e l l i n g h a d f a i l e d them ( A p p e n d i x I ) . - F o r E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s , a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s seemed t o be one s i g n i f i c a n t way i n w h i c h c o u n s e l l i n g h a s f a i l e d them. None o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o c o m m u n i c a t e more w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d t h e home; w h i l e a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f a d u l t s (8%) e x p r e s s e d s u c h n e e d . 62 A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s , l i k e E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s f o u n d t h e l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e home a s one way c o u n s e l l i n g h a s f a i l e d them. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s w e r e f o u n d . More a d u l t s 1 5 % c o m p a r e d t o a d o l e s c e n t s 1% f e l t i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e home a n d t h e c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d be a b e t t e r way o f m e e t i n g t h e i r n e e d s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . A l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f a d o l e s c e n t s (30%) f o u n d i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s a s one way c o u n s e l l i n g h a s f a i l e d them c o m p a r e d t o 12% a d u l t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) . A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s ( T a b l e I I ) . E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s f o u n d t h a t t h e l a c k o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f c o u n -s e l l o r s l e d t o c l i e n t s n o t f e e l i n g u n d e r s t o o d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r . None o f t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e i s s u e s . A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s r e s p o n d e d more t o l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f c o u n s e l l o r a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l i n g a s t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s . I t was a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t more t h a n 1 5 % E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s h a d n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f e l t i t was n o t h e l p f u l a t a l l t o them c o m p a r e d t o o n l y 2% A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s ( A p p e n d i c e s I a n d I I ) . The f i n d i n g s c o n c u r w i t h Sue e t a l . (1974) I v e y ( 1 9 7 7 ) , f i n d -i n g s w h i c h f o u n d t h a t 50% o f m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s d i d n o t r e t u r n f o r 63 counselling because they did not f e e l t h e i r needs met. Ivey concluded that present theories methods of counselling appear to be inadequate i n meeting the needs of minority c l i e n t from d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l backgrounds. These findings have s i g n i f i c a n t implications for counsellors i n the Canadian setting; they suggest a need for counsellors that have c u l t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y , and also able to communicate that understanding and caring to t h e i r c l i e n t s . A further c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison between East Indian adolescents and Anglo European adolescents showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two groups. For Anglo European adoles-cents, inappropriate counselling and i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of counsellors were two major ways counselling has f a i l e d them. East Indian adolescents found lack of c u l t u r a l awareness of consellors high. Nine percent of East Indian adolescents had negative experience with counselling compared to 1% Anglo adolescents. I t was observed that a greater number of East Indian adults found the lack of c u l t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y among coun-s e l l o r s compared to adolescents. The low response from East Indian adolescents on t h i s issue may suggest that ethnic awareness issues are not as s i g n i f i c a n t a matter of concern among East Indian adolescents. Similar findings were observed i n the West-wood and Massey (1982) study. I t i s possible that East Indian adolescents are try i n g to i d e n t i f y themselves more with the majority culture than are t h e i r parents. I t was observed that 64 none o f t h e A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s r e s p o n d e d t o l a c k o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s s u e s . I t w o u l d seem t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e " m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e " g r o u p r e f l e c t s a n a t t i t u d e o f i g n o r a n c e o r i n d i f f e r e n c e a b o u t t h e n e e d s and c o n -c e r n s o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t more t h a n 3 0% o f E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I ) . T h i s may h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s r e s p o n s e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t c o u l d be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s i n c e t h i s q u e s t i o n i s a s k i n g f o r some c r i t i -c i s m o r n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k , t h e r e seems t o be a r e l u c t a n c e o r f e a r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s t o g i v e n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k t o a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . T h i s c o u l d be b a s e d on t h e c u l -t u r a l i n f l u e n c e w h i c h demands r e s p e c t and o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and d i s c o u r a g e c r i t i c i s m s . S t u d i e s s u p p o r t i n g t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n h a v e h o w e v e r n o t b e e n d o n e . Q u e s t i o n 5: I n y o u r o p i n i o n how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r  c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? B o t h E a s t I n d i a n a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e s r e s p o n d e d t o i m p r o v e m e n t o f c a r e e r , v o c a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a s w e l l a s a v a i l a b i l i t y a nd a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s a s some o f t h e ways c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s c o u l d be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e them b e t t e r . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s on t h i s q u e s t i o n y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two ( A p p e n d i x I ) . More E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s r e s p o n d e d t o c u l t u r a l 65 a w a r e n e s s i s s u e s a n d e t h n i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o m p a r e d t o a d o l e s -c e n t s . A l s o a g r e a t e r number o f a d u l t s e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r more c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e home c o m p a r e d t o a d o l e s c e n t s . F o r a d o l e s -c e n t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s was t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . On c o m p a r i n g A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s w i t h A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s i t was f o u n d t h a t more A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r more c o m m u n c i a t i o n w i t h t h e home c o m p a r e d t o a d o l e s -c e n t s . A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s l i k e E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s r e s p o n d e d more t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s a s one o f t h e ways c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d s e r v e them b e t t e r . Q u e s t i o n 6: P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u  w i s h o n a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t more t h a n 80% o f E a s t I n d i a n a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e s d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h a t t h e p a r t i c i -p a n t s f e l t t h e y h a d s a i d a l l t h e r e was t o s a y and d i d n o t n e e d t o make f u r t h e r comments. The n e e d f o r more p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g was e x p r e s s e d more among A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s c o m p a r e d t o t h e E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e . E a s t I n d i a n s e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r more e t h n i c c o u n s e l l o r s ; t h i s was n o t a n i s s u e f o r A n g l o E u r o p e a n s a m p l e ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s I a n d I I ) . 66 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f P r e s e n t S t u d y t o  t h e P r e d e c e s s o r ' s S t u d y On c o m p a r i n g f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h p r e d e c e s s o r ' s s t u d y , some b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s w e r e f o u n d ; d i f f e r e n c e s w e re a l s o o b s e r v e d . E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a nd E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . A one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e P . C . S . I , y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a n d a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e p r e d e c e s s o r ' s s t u d y ( s e e p a g e 1 3 ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t , d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. ( s e e page 4 6 ) . W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s a g r e e t h a t a good c o u n s e l l o r i s someone a b l e t o l i s t e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d c l i e n t s ' p r o -b l e m s , a d u l t s seemed t o h a v e more e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f a c o u n s e l l o r t h a n a d o l e s c e n t s . E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s p r e f e r r e d a c o u n s e l l o r w i t h r i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , e x p e c t e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f d i s c i p l i n a r i a n a n d t o a c t a s l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e home. E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e a d u l t s o n t h e a b o v e p o i n t s ; f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t s a c c e s s i -b i l i t y a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s was more i m p o r t a n t . A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a nd a d o l e s c e n t s . Westwood a n d M a s s e y (1982) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a d u l t s and a d o l e s -e n t s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w e r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ( s e e page 5 0 ) . I t was f o u n d t h a t 67 a d u l t s p r e f e r r e d a c o u n s e l l o r t h a t i s m a t u r e , t h a t h a s s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a b l e t o be a g o o d l i s t e n e r . F o r a d o l e s c e n t s t h e s e x o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r and t h e a b i l i t y t o l i s t e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d c l i e n t s ' p r o b l e m s w e r e t h e two s i g n i f i c a n t ways c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t none o f t h e A n g l o s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d e d t o c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s i s s u e i n b o t h s t u d i e s . E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s . No s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s and A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d u l t s by .Westwood a n d M a s s e y (1982) s t u d y . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s w e r e h o w e v e r f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . .The b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s w e r e t h a t b o t h g r o u p s f o u n d r i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , m a t u r i t y a n d b e i n g a b l e t o l i s t e n a nd u n d e r s t a n d t h e c l i e n t s ' p r o b l e m s as t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s o f a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r . B o t h g r o u p s a g r e e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' j o b i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f a c o u n -s e l l o r ; d i f f e r e n c e s h o w e v e r e x i s t e d i n t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y t h i n k t h e s e j o b s a r e d i f f e r e n t . E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s seemed t o empha-s i z e t h a t t h e two j o b s d i f f e r b e c a u s e c o u n s e l l o r s work w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i l e t e a c h e r s d o n ' t ; f o r A n g l o a d u l t s t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two was t h a t t e a c h e r s w o rk w i t h g r o u p s w h i l e c o u n s e l l o r w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s . W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s a g r e e d t h a t t h e m a i n j o b o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i s t o p r o v i d e c a r e e r , v o c a t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s e x p e c t e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b t o be t h a t o f a n a d v i c e g i v e r a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r a s w e l l . The n e e d f o r more c u i -68 t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y was a concern expressed only among East Indian adults; similar observations were found i n the Westwood: and' ..Massey study. Anglo European adolescents and East Indian adolescents. The findings of t h i s study were similar to Westwood, andr.Massey: (1982) study; a s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between East Indian adolescents and Anglo European adolescents. While both groups agree on what the role of counsellor and what a good counsellor should be, differences however existed i n th e i r experiences with counselling and ways counselling could be improved to best meet t h e i r needs. A higher percentage of East Indian adolescents (9%) had negative experience with counselling compared to (1%) Anglo adolescents. A small minority of East Indian adolescents expressed a need for counsellors with c u l t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y (4%) none of the Anglo adolescents responded to t h i s issue. Both groups found that more a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of counsellors i s one s i g n i f i c a n t way counselling could be improved. The o v e r a l l conclusion that can be derived from the comparison of the two studies i s : 1. Both studies found s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the following groups: a) Anglo European adolescents and East Indian adoles-cents b) Anglo European adults and Anglo European adolescents 2. Differences between the two studies existed when the 69 f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made: a) The P . C . S . I , f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s a n d E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s ; d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d when u s i n g t h e S.I.Q. S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w e r e o b s e r v e d when c o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and A n g l o a d u l t s . I t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t , s i n c e t h e S.I.Q. p r o v i d e s d e e p e r a n d w i d e r s c o p e o f r e s p o n s e s , t h e C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s m i g h t h a v e b r o u g h t o u t d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be o t h e r w i s e b r o u g h t o u t by t h e o n e way a n a l y s i s o f t h e P . C . S . I . C o n c l u s i o n s The m o s t e v i d e n t c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c a n be i n f e r e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t a l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e r e w e r e h o w e v e r some b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s as w e l l . A C h i S q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n showed s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s on t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. A f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s o n e a c h o f t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. a l s o i n d i c a t e s b a s i c a g r e e m e n t s o n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s a s w e l l as some d i f f e r e n c e s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d u l t s a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n a d o l e s c e n t s w e re f o u n d i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s 70 i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g and t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g i n s c h o o l s was i n t r o d u c e d o n l y i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s ( S t a f f o r d , 1974) and t h a t p a r e n t s may n o t h a v e h a d a much e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g i n s c h o o l s a s t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a d . D i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o f o u n d b e t w e e n E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s a nd E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t p a r e n t s o f E a s t I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s may n o t h a v e had t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n Canada a n d h a v e t h e r e f o r e a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s who h a v e a b e t t e r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n S c h o o l S y s t e m . A d u l t s i n b o t h c u l t u r a l g r o u p s seemed t o h a v e a h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f c o u n s e l l o r t o be a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , a n a d v i c e g i v e r a n d l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e home a n d s c h o o l . A d o l e s c e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s d i d n o t h a v e s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l o r s . The d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. e.g. 3 0% o f E a s t I n d i a n s a m p l e d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n f i v e ( s e e page 4 9 ) . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s m i g h t h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s n o t known. A l t h o u g h a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f E a s t I n d i a n ' s r e s p o n d e d t o m i n o r i t y i s s u e s ( s e e Appendix.IV)'it seems i t i s s t i l l an i s s u e o f c o n c e r n p a r t i c u l a r l y among E a s t I n d i a n a d u l t s . T h i s seems t o s u g g e s t a n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t h a t h a v e b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g a nd a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a nd s e n s i t i v i t y t o m i n o r i t y g r o u p s c o n c e r n s . S u c h n e e d f o r c o u n - .. s e l l o r s t r a i n i n g i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d by Rihe,,( 1972) and Sue, .(L9.82) . 71 As t h i s i s an exploratory study, one can only conclude that this investigation has provided information on both s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n .counselling expectancies of East Indian Canadians and Anglo European Canadians. It i s noted that more than 30% of the East Indian adolescents did not answer questions concerning ways in which counselling has f a i l e d them. However a small number of respondents were d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r wish, to see the counsellor as being c u l t u r a l l y sensitive and informed. This suggests that others may f e e l likewise and th i s should be examined. Minority concerns. Having reviewed the findings, i t seems safe to conclude that the major concerns of t h i s d i s t i n c t minority group about counselling are: (1) The need for more a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of coun-sellors.;, coupled with ithe .desire for more opportunity to see the counsellor. (2) The race of the counsellor was not as important as the need for the c l i e n t to f e e l understood; t h i s means that counsellors need to learn and understand a great -deal about, the d i s t i c t c u l t u r a l groups they are serving. (3) Adults tend to want counsellors to have more contact with the home; suggesting the need for parents to be more informed about the problems their- children might be having. (4) Adolescents on the other hand tend to discourage coun-s e l l o r s from contacting parents whenever there are pro-blems. Adolescents tend to value more the f e e l i n g of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and t r u s t i n their counsellors. (5) Min o r i t i e s have a high regard for counsellors. They s e e them a s h a v i n g " s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e " a n d h i g h l y t r a i n e d i n t h e i r j o b s ; t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f a c o u n s e l l o r a r e t h e r e f o r e h i g h . (61 When a s k e d how b e s t c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d be c h a n g e d t o meet t h e i r n e e d s , t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p i n t h i s s t u d y e x p r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f c a r e e r , v o c a t i o n -a l , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s n e e d t o l e a r n more and f i n d o u t how b e s t t o meet t h e i r c l i e n t s ' n e e d s . R a t i o n a l e a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s S t u d y S i n c e 1971 t h e r e h a s b e e n b o t h f e d e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t C a n ada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and an o f f i c i a l commitment t o e n h a n c e m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m h a s b e e n made. A l t h o u g h t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t i s c o m m i t t e d t o d i v e r s i t y and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s p r e s e n t l y l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g done t o p r e p a r e c o u n s e l -l o r s f o r e n h a n c i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a n d w o r k i n g w i t h i m m i g r a n t s t u d e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s (da Costa,.. 1976) . Few s t u d i e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i -g a t e c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , m o s t o f : t h e s t u d i e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g h a v e b e e n done i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h u s l i m i t i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . C o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s and the.domi-n a n t c u l t u r e i n C a n a d a a r e l i m i t e d . I d e n t i f y i n g and c o m p a r i n g t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ' s a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g a r e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s f o r e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( A p p e l , 1 9 5 9 ) . 73 A t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n u n i t y and m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i s m , t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g h a s become an i s s u e o f u r g e n t d i m e n s i o n (Ramcharan, 1970 ; a n d W o l f g a n g , 197 5) . R e s e a r c h e x a m i n i n g c l i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d e n h a n c e b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l i e n t n e e d s , e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g and b e t t e r p r e p a r e c o u n s e l l o r s f o r w o r k i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The p r e s e n t c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y p r o v i d e s a n enormous c h a l l e n g e f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s , e x p e r t i s e and t e c h n i q u e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s . As t h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y m ust be c o n s i d e r e d p r e l i m i n a r y . More e x t e n s i v e . s t u d i e s o n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e s o f v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l g r o u p s n e e d t o be d one b e f o r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s fare. made. As more s t u d i e s c o m p a r i n g d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s a r e d o n e , more b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e m o d e l s a n d t h e o r i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w o u l d be p r o v i d e d . A l s o , s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d b e t t e r e q u i p c o u n s e l l o r s t o w o r k w i t h c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c l i e n t s and t h u s p o s s i b l y r e d u c e t h e 50% t e r m i n a t i o n r a t e f o r m i n o r i t y s t a t u s c l i e n t s ( c o m p a r e d t o 30% r a t e o f m a j o r i t y c l i e n t s ) r e p o r t e d b y Sue ( 1 9 8 1 ) . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . What seems t o come o u t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l o r s who'", a r e a ware o f , s e n s i t i v e t o , and a r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f . ' m i n o r i t y , - c o n c e r n s . T h i s s u g g e s t s a n e e d f o r 7 4 t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1) T r a i n i n g o f c o u n s e l l o r s a t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t o b e t t e r p r e p a r e them f o r w o r k i n g w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . (2) F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s i n t h e i r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; e . g . , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l com-m u n i c a t i o n . Sue (1981) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s . (3.) M ore r e s e a r c h a n d s t u d y o f t h e p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s , t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h e l p i n g m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . (4) M ore p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g w i t h m i n o r i t i e s h e l p s c o u n s e l l o r s b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d n e e d s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s . (5) More s t u d i e s on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s o n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . A n t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r my f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The r e s e a r c h e r h a d p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i s t i n c t m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a nd w o u l d e q u i p t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e t t e r f o r h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s i n A f r i c a . 75 H a v i n g s t u d i e d and g a i n e d c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n C a n a d a , t h e r e s e a r c h e r , an A f r i c a n , p l a n s t o r e t u r n and w o r k i n Zimbabwe as a c o u n s e l l o r i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . T h e r e , t h e c h a n g e s i n g o v e r n m e n t h a v e s i n c e b r o u g h t a b o u t m a j o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n p o l i c i e s a n d o p e r a t i o n s . I n s t e a d o f s e p a r a t e g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s and u n e q u a l and p r e f e r e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s , t h e r e a r e now u n i v e r s a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s , c a t e r i n g f o r a l l c i t i z e n s o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . T h i s means, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Zimbabwe, t h e r e i s a g r e a t n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n s c h o o l s , h e a l t h a n d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r w o r k w i t h c l i e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The g o v e r n m e n t i s p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g t h e p e o p l e t o a p p l y t h e new n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f u l l y . The r e s e a r c h n o t e s t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e and c a n n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s a n d c o n t e x t s ; y e t t h i s s t u d y h a s p r o v i d e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h : (1) B a s i c s k i l l s i n r e s e a r c h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s . (2 ) B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m r e s e a r c h o n t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be u s e f u l b o t h f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g and f o r p o l i c y m a k i n g i n Zimbabwe. 76 R e f e r e n c e s A c o s t a , F. & S h e e h a n , J.G. P r e f e r e n c e s T o w a r d M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n and A n g l o A m e r i c a n P s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g  and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 9 , 44, 277 - 279. A t k i n s o n , D.R., M a r u j a m a , J . , M a t s u i , S. E f f e c t s o f C o u n s e l o r R a c e and C o u n s e l i n g A p p r o a c h on A s i a n A m e r i c a n s ' P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l o r C r e d i b i l i t y a nd U t i l i t y . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 8 , 2_5, 76 - 83. A t k i n s o n , D., M o r t e n , G. & S u e , D.W. C o u n s e l i n g A m e r i c a n M i n o r i t i e s : A C r o s s - C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e . Dubuque, Aowa: W i l l i a m C. B rown Company, 197 9. A p p e l , H.V. C l i e n t E x p e c t a t i o n s A b o u t C o u n s e l i n g i n a U n i v e r s i t y C o u n s e l i n g C e n t r e . U n p u b l i s h e d D i s s e r t a t i o n , O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. A r b u c k l e , D.S. The C o u n s e l o r : Who? What? P e r s o n n e l and  G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 2 , 50, 785 - 790. A r o n s o n , H. & O v e r a l l , B. T r e a t m e n t E x p e c t a t i o n s o f P a t i e n t s i n Two S o c i a l C l a s s e s , S o c i a l Work, 1966, 1_1, 35 - 4 1 . A r k o f f , A., T h a v e r , F. & E l k i n d , L. M e n t a l H e a l t h and C o u n s e l i n g I d e a s o f A s i a n and A m e r i c a n S t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 1 3 , 219 - 223. Berman, J . C o u n s e l i n g S k i l l s U s e d B l a c k and W h i t e F e m a l e C o u n s e l o r s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1975, 26, 509 - 516. B o r d i n , E.S. The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f C l i e n t E x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e C o u n s e l i n g P r o c e s s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 5 , 2, 17 - 2 1 . Bloombaum, M., Yamamoto, J . & J a mes, Q. C u l t u r a l S t e r i o t y p i n g Among P s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 8 , 3_2, 99 - 110. C a l i a , V.F. The C u l t u r a l l y D e p r i v e d C l i e n t . A R e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C o u n s e l o r R o l e . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , 13_, 100 - 105. C a r k h u f f , R.R. & P i e r c e , R. D i f f e r e n t i a l E f f e c t s o f T h e r a p i s t R a c e and S o c i a l C l a s s Upon D e p t h o f S e l f E x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e I n i t i a l C l i n i c a l I n t e r v i e w . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1962 , 26, 38 - 4 3 . 77 C a r s o n , R.C. & H e i n e , R.W. S i m i l a r i t y a nd S u c c e s s i n T h e r a p e u t i c D y a d s , J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 2 , 26, 38 - 43. C h r i s t e n s e n , C.C. E f f e c t s o f D i s s i m i l a r i t y i n I n i t i a l I n t e r v i e w s : An E x p e r i m e n t a l E v a l u a t i o n o f C r o s s - C u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g . U n p u b l i s h e d D i s s e r t a t i o n M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1980. C a u d i l l , W. O b s e r v a t i o n s o n t h e C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t o f J a p a n e s e P s y c h i a t r y . I n M.K. O p l e r (Ed), C u l t u r e and M e n t a l H e a l t h . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1959. C i m b o l i c , P.T. C o u n s e l o r R a c e and E x p e r i e n c e E f f e c t s o n B l a c k C l i e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 3_9, 328 - 332. d a C o s t a , G.A. C o u n s e l l i n g and t h e B l a c k C h i l d . 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P a t i e n t s and T h e r a p i s t A s s e s s t h e Same P s y c h o t h e r a p y . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , 27, 310 - 318. F orm, A.L. M e a s u r e m e n t o f S t u d e n t ' s A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s C o u n s e l l . -i n g S e r v i c e s . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 5 3 , 32, 84 - 87. F u k u h a r a , M. S t u d e n t E x p e c t a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l i n g : A C r o s s -C u l t u r a l S t u d y . J a p a n e s e P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 3 , 1 5 , 179 - 1 9 3 . Gamboa, A.M., T o s i , D.J. and R i c c i o , A.C. Race and C o u n s e l o r C l i m a t e i n t h e C o u n s e l o r P r e f e r e n c e o f D e l i n q u e n t G i r l s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 9 , 2_3, 160 - 162. G i b s o n , R.L. P u p i l O p i n i o n s o f H i g h S c h o o l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s . 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How S t u d e n t s P e r c e i v e t h e C o u n s e l o r ' s R o l e . P e r s o n n e l a nd G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1954, 3_2, 386 - 392. H a r r i s o n , I.K. Race a s a C o u n s e l o r C l i e n t V a r i a b l e i n C o u n s e l i n g and P s y c h o t h e r a p y . The C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s , 1 9 7 5 , 5_, 124 - 1 3 3 . H a w k i n s , F. C a n a d a and I m m i g r a t i o n P u b l i c P o l i c y a n d P u b l i c C o n c e r n . M c G i l l Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 . H e f f e r n o n , A. & B r u e h l , D. Some E f f e c t s o f Race o f t h e C o u n s e l o r o f B l a c k J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 9, 35 - 37. H e i l f r o n , M. The F u n c t i o n o f C o u n s e l i n g a s P e r c e i v e d b y H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1960, 39, 133 - 136. 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C u l t u r a l B a r r i e r s i n C o u n s e l l i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 9 , 4j8, 11 - 17. V o n t r e s s , C E . R a c i a l D i f f e r e n c e s : I m p e d i m e n t s t o R a p p o r t . J o u r n a l d f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 18_, 7 - 15. Warman, R.E. D i f f e r e n t i a l P e r c e p t i o n s o f C o u n s e l i n g R o l e . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 7, 270 - 274. Westwood, M. & M a s s e y , D. E a s t I n d i a n P e r c e p t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l i n g . I n D ' O y l e y , V. ( E d ) , V i s i b l e M i n o r i t y P e r s p e c t i v e s o f C a n a d i a n  E d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 4 , ( i n P r e s s ) . Westwood, M. & M a s s e y , D. E x p e c t a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l i n g : A C r o s s -C u l t u r a l C o m p a r i s o n o f E a s t I n d i a n a n d A n g l o E u r o p e a n C a n a d i a n s . U n p u b l i s h e d R e s e a r c h R e p o r t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982. W o l d , P. & S t e g e r , J . S o c i a l C l a s s a n d G r o u p T h e r a p y i n a W o r k i n g C l a s s P o p u l a t i o n . Community M e n t a l H e a l t h J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 6 , 12_, 335 - 3 4 1 . W o l k o n , C , M o r i w a k i , S. & W i l l i a m s , K. Race a n d S o c i a l C l a s s a s F a c t o r s i n t h e O r i e n t a t i o n T o w a r d P s y c h o t h e r a p y . J o u r n a l  o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 3 , 20, 312 - 316. W o l f g a n g , A. B a s i c I s s u e s a n d P l a u s i b l e A n s w e r s i n C o u n s e l l i n g New C a n a d i a n s . I n M. A s h w o r t h ( E d ) , I m m i g r a n t C h i l d r e n a n d  C a n a d i a n S c h o o l s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r d , 1 9 7 5 . Wood, R.M. H i n d u i s m i n V a n c o u v e r : A d j u s t m e n t i n t h e Home, t h e Te m p l e a n d t h e Community. I n U j i m o t o , V., H i r a b a y a s h i , G. V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , A s i a n s i n C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h , 1 980. Woods, E. & Zimmer, J . R a c i a l E f f e c t s i n C o u n s e l i n g L i k e I n t e r -v i e w s : An E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l o g u e . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 5 , 26, 337 - 366. 84 W y a t t , J . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m f o r C u r r i c u l u m . I n S h a p s o n , S., D ' O y l e y , V. & L l o y d , A. ( E d s ) , B i l i n g u a l i s m a nd  M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n C a n a d a E d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982. Yamamoto, J . , J a m e s , Q.C. & P a l l e y , N. C u l t u r a l P r o b l e m s i n P s y c h i a t r i c T h e r a p y . A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 , 45 - 49. 85 A P P E N D I C E S 86 A p p e n d i x I F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s o n E a c h o f t h e S i x Q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n 1: What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? Codes Row A d u l t s Percentage 0 12.7 2.5 6.3 1.3 13.9 1.3 17.7 24.1 20.3 N = 79 Row Adolescents Percentage 5.6 4.5 1.1 3.4 0 6.7 0 11.2 25.8 41.6 N = 89 Q u e s t i o n 2 Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s ? Codes Row Percentage 0 8.9 81.0 10.1 Row Percentage 1.1 0 88.8 10.1 A d u l t s N ~ .79 Adolescents N = 89 Q u e s t i o n 2 ( b ) : Why? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 Row A d u l t s Percentage 11.4 13.9 30.4 8.9 6.3 16.5 12.7 12.7 0 N = 79 Row Percentage 16.9 7.9 38.2 2.2 2.2 5.6 24.7 24.7 2.2 Adolescents N = 89 87 Question 3: What type of person would you l i k e a good counsellor to be? Codes Row Adults Percentage 1.3 1.3 2.5 3.8 5.1 15.2 15.2 1.3 54.4 N = 79 Row Adolescents Percentage 2.2 6.7 5.6 2.2 3.4 5.6 3.4 2.2 68.5 N = 89 Question 4: In what ways do you think counselling services you have seen or contacted have f a i l e d to meet your needs? Codes Row Adults Percentage 1.3 26.6 20.3 7.6 11.4 1.3 13.9 6 . 3 . 2.5 8.9 N = 79 Row Adolescents Percentage 10.1 23.6 22.5 0 3.4 0 7.9 9.0 22.5 1.1 N = 89 Question 5: In your opinion how could these or other counselling services be changed? Codes Row Adults Percentage 1.3 26.6 8.9 5.1 6.3 8.9 0 10.1 25.3 7.6 N = 79 Row Adolescents Percentage 14.6 34.8 2.2 6.7 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.2 18.0 18.0 N = 89 88 Q u e s t i o n 6: P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h o n a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t ? Codes Row A d u l t s Percentage 1.3 67.1 1.3 15.2 1.3 1.3 8.9 2.5 1.3 0 N = 79 Row Adolescents Percentage 30.3 55.1 2.2 5.6 0 2.2 3.4 0 0 1.1 N = 89 89 A p p e n d i x I I F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d u l t s a n d A d o l e s c e n t s o n t h e S i x Q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n 1: What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? Codes Row Percentage Row Percentage 8.1 2.7 1.4 0 0 7.4 A d u l t s 6.8. 5.4 8.1 21.6 45.9 N = 74 Adolescents 2.5 0 19.8 22.2 48.1 N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 2: Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Codes Row Percentage Row Percentage 6.8 90.5 2.7 0 93.8 6.2 A d u l t s N = 74 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 2 (b)": Why? Codes Row Percentage Row Percentage 17.6 35.1 .21.6 4.1 14.9 6.8 8.6 38.3 28.4 4.9 4.9 14.8 A d u l t s N = 74 Adolescents N = 81 90 Q u e s t i o n 3: What type o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r t o be? Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Row Percentage 5.4 1.4 2.7 1.4 9.5 32.4 2.7 44.6 Row Percentage 4.9 7.4 0 2.5 1.2 14.8 2.5 66.7 Q u e s t i o n 4: I n w h a t ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u h a v e s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d h a v e f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? Codes 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 Row Percentage 6.8 36.5 14.9 28.4 1.4 12.2 0 A d u l t s N = 74 Row Percentage 8.6 23.5 1.2 33.3 1.2 30.9 1.2 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 5: I n y o u r o p i n i o n how c o u l d t h e s e o r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o y o u b e t t e r ? o t h e r h e l p Codes 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 Row Percentage 25.7 8.1 1.4 1.4 21.6 27.0 14.9 A d u l t s N = 74 Row Percentage 22.2 0 6.2 0 1.2 44.4 25.9 Adolescents N = 81 A d u l t s N = 74 Adolescents N = 81 91 Q u e s t i o n 6 P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h o n a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t ? Codes ROw Percentage 82.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 8.1 1.4 A d u l t s N = 74 Row Percentage 81.5 8.6 3.7 2.5 3.7 Adolescents N = 81 92 A p p e n d i x I I I F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g A n g l o E u r o p e a n A d o l e s c e n t s a n d E a s t I n d i a n A d o l e s c e n t s o n t h e S i x Q u e s t i o n s o n t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n 1: What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? Codes 2 3 Row Percentage 5.6 Row Percentage 4.5 1.1 3.4 0 7.4 6.7 2.5 East I n d i a n 11.2 25.8 41.6 Adolescents N = 89 Anglo European 19.8 22.2 48.1 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 2: Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Codes Row East I n d i a n Percentage 1.1 88.8 10.1 Adolescents N = 89 Row Percentage 0 93.8 6.2 Anglo European Adolescents N = 81 93 Q u e s t i o n 2 ( b ) : Why? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Row East I n d i a n Percentage 16.9 7.938.2 2.2 2.2 5.6 24.7 2.2 Adolescents N = 89 Row Anglo European Percentage 0 8.6 38.3 28.4 4.9 4.9 14.8 0 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 3: What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r t o be? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Row East I n d i a n Percentage 2.2 6.7 5.6 2.2 3.4 5.6 3.4 2.2 68.5 Adolescents N = 89 Row Anglo European Percentage 0 4.9 7.4 0 2.5 1.2 14.8 2.5 66.7 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 4: I n w h a t ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u h a v e s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d h a v e f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 Row East I n d i a n Percentages 10.1 23.6 22.5 0 3.4 7.9 9.0 22.5 1.1 Adolescents N = 89 Row Anglo European Percentages 0 8.6 23.5 1.2 0 33.3 1.2 30.9 1.2 Adolescents N = 81 94 Q u e s t i o n 5: I n y o u r o p i n i o n how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row East I n d i a n Percentages 14.6 34.8 2.2 6.7" 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.2 18.0 18.0 Adolescents N = 89 Row Anglo European Percentages 0 22.2 0 6.2 0 0 0 1.2 44.4 25.9 Adolescents N = 81 Q u e s t i o n 6: P l e a s e g i v e a n y o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h o n a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t ? Codes Row E a s t I n d i a n Percentages 30.3 55.1 2.2 5.6 2.2 3.4 0 0 1.1 Adolescents N = 89 Row Anglo European Percentages 0 81.5 8.6 0 0 3.7 2.5 3.7 0 Adolescents N = 81 95 A p p e n d i x I V F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n C o m p a r i n g E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s a n d A n g l o  E u r o p e a n A d u l t s o n E a c h o f t h e S i x Q u e s t i o n s on t h e S.I.Q. Q u e s t i o n 1: What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row Eas t I n d i a n Percentage 12.7 2.5 6.3 1.3 1-JL3.-9 1.3 17.7 24.1 20.3 ..Adults . N = 79 Row Anglo European Percentage 8.1 2.7 1.4 0 6.8 5.4 8.1 21.6 45.9 . A d u l t s N = 74 Q u e s t i o n 2: Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Codes 1 2 3 Row East I n d i a n Percentages 8.9 81.0 10.0 A d u l t s N = 79 Row Anglo European Percentages 6.8 90.5 2.7 A d u l t s N = 74 96 Question 2 (b) : Why? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Row Percentage 11.4 13.9 30.4 8.9 6.3 16.5 12.7 East Indian Adults N = 79 Row Percentage 0 17.6 35.1 21.6 4.1 14.9 6.8 Anglo European Adults N = 74 Question 3: What type of person would you good counsellor to be? l i k e a Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Row Percentages 1.3 1.3 2.5 3.8 5.1 15.2 15.2 1.3 54.4 East Indian Adults N = 79 Row Percentages 0 5.4 1.4 2.7 1.4 9.5 32.4 2.7 44.6 Anglo European Adults N - 74 Question 4: In what ways do you think the counselling services you have seen or contacted have f a i l e d to meet your needs? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row East Indian Percentages 1.3 26.6 20.3 7.6 11.4 1.3 13.9 6.3 2.5 8.9 Adults N = 79 Row Anglo European Percentages 0 6.8 36.5 14.9 0 0 28.4 1.4 12.2 0 Adults N = 74 97 Q u e s t i o n 5 I n y o u r o p i n i o n how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s by c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row Percentage 1.3 26.6 8.9 5.1 6.3 8.9 0 10.1 25.3 7.6 E a s t I n d i a n A d u l t s N = 79 Row Percentage 0 25.7 8.1 1.4 0 0 1.4 21.6 27.0 14.9 Anglo European A d u l t s N = 74 Q u e s t i o n 6: P l e a s e g i v e a n y o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h on a n y t h i n g we h a v e t a l k e d a b o u t ? Codes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row Percentage 1.3 67.1 1.3 15.2 1.3 1.3 8.9 2.5 1.3 0 East Indian A d u l t s N = 79 Row Anglo European Percentage 0 82.4 2.7 0 0 0 2.7 2.7 8.1 1.4 A d u l t s N = 74 98 A p p e n d i x V S.I.Q. Code D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n 1: What do y o u t h i n k t h e m a i n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o s h o u l d be? Code: 1. Do n o t know / No a p p l i c a b l e 2. D i s c i p l i n a r i a n 3. T i m e t a b l i n g / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s 4. A t t e n d t o and r e c o g n i z e c u l t u r a l i s s u e s 5. G i v i n g a d v i c e 6. P a r e n t / home / s c h o o l / l i a i s o n 7. E d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 8. C a r e e r / v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 9. P e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g / p r o b l e m s o l v i n g Q u e s t i o n 2: Do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Why? Code: 1. Do n o t know / N o t a p p l i c a b l e 2. Y e s 3. No Q u e s t i o n 2 (b) : Why? Code: 1. Do n o t know / N o t a p p l i c a b l e 2. T e a c h e r s t e a c h C o u n s e l l o r s c o u n s e l 3. T e a c h e r s work w i t h g r o u p s / C o u n s e l l o r s w o r k w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s 4. P r o b l e m s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s 5. S p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e 6. C o u n s e l l o r s w o r k w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i l e t e a c h e r s d o n ' t Q u e s t i o n 3: What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u . l i k e a g o o d c o u n s e l l o r t o b e ? Code: 1. Do n o t know / N o t a p p l i c a b l e 2. S p e c i f i c s e x 3 . S p e c i f i c e t h i n i c g r o u p 4. A b l e t o g i v e s p e c i f i e d a d v i c e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n 5. W e l l e d u c a t e d / s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , e t c . 6. R i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e / M a t u r i t y 7. A c c e s s i b i l i t y / a v a i l a b i l i t y ( e a s y t o s e e , e t c . 8. U n d e r s t a n d i n g . / a b l e t o l i s t e n t o p r o b l e m s 99 Q u e s t i o n 4: I n what ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u have s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d have f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? Code: 1. Do n o t know / N o t a p p l i c a b l e 2 . P o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e (no pr o b l e m ) 3. L a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( w i t h l a n g u a g e / h o m e , e t c . ) 4. L a c k o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s o f i s s u e s 5. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( e t h n i c , r a c i a l , S.E.S., i s s u e s ) 6. I n a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l i n g ( l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . ) 7. N e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e (no h e l p a t a l l , e t c . ) 8. A c c e s s i b i l i t y / a v a i l a b i l i t y " D o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d me p e r s o n a l l y " Q u e s t i o n 5: I n y o u r o p i n i o n , how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? Code: 1. Do n o t know / Not a p p l i c a b l e 2 . P o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e (no pr o b l e m ) and t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e 3. More a d v i c e , i n f o r m a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n 4. C o u n s e l l o r s - be aware o f c u l t u r a l i s s u e s and f a c t o r s - e t h n i c g r o u p r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (my e t h . gp.) 5. C o u n s e l l o r s - be aware o f S.E.S. f a c t o r s i n c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s 6. More c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h home o r p a r e n t s 7. Improve c a r e e r / v o c a t i o n a l / e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 8. More a v a i l a b i l i t y / a c c e s s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n 6: P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h on a n y t h i n g we have t a l k e d a b o u t . Code: 1. Do n o t know / N o t . a p p l i c a b l e 2 . P o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e (no pr o b l e m ) 3. E t h n i c c o u n s e l l o r s 4. E q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i s s u e s 5. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n / r a c i s m i s s u e s 6. Mere p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 7. V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 100 A p p e n d i x V I  P e r c e p t i o n o f C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s I n d e x S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w P l e a s e do n o t p u t y o u r name on t h i s p a p e r . The i n f o r m a t i o n y o u w i l l g i v e i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . You a r e f r e e t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h i s i n t e r v i e w a t any t i m e y o u may w i s h . T h r o u g h y o u r o p i n i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s we hope t o be a l b e t o b e t t e r p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s w h i c h meet y o u r n e e d s . Y o u r h e l p i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . 1. What do y o u t h i n k t h e mai n j o b o f a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be? 2. Do y o u t h i n k , t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s j o b i n t h e s c h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b ? Why? 3. What t y p e o f p e r s o n w o u l d y o u l i k e a good c o u n s e l l o r t o be? 4. I n what ways do y o u t h i n k t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s y o u have s e e n o r c o n t a c t e d have f a i l e d t o meet y o u r n e e d s ? 5. I n y o u r o p i n i o n , how c o u l d t h e s e o r o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s be c h a n g e d t o h e l p s e r v e y o u b e t t e r ? 6. P l e a s e g i v e any o t h e r o p i n i o n o r comment y o u w i s h on a n y t h i n g we have t a l k e d a b o u t . 

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