UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Themes in adult self-esteem Gilchrist, Phyllis Margaret 1985

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THEMES  IN  ADULT  SELF-ESTEEM  By  PHYLLIS B . S c . N . ,  A  The  THESIS THE  MARGARET  U n i v e r s i t y  SUBMITTED  of  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  GILCHRIST  B r i t i s h  Columbia,  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  OF  THE  OF  ARTS  i n  THE  FACULTY  (Department  We  accept to  THE  OF  of  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  UNIVERSITY  OF  June,  g)  PHYLLIS  STUDIES  C o u n s e l l i n g  t h i s the  GRADUATE  Psychology)  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1985  GILCHRIST,  1985  1977  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It is  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f C ou,v\s-e lt> The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1 9 5 6 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  Qe-r.q,  19^5  T 5 ^ciaoldc^ Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  This  e x p l o r a t o r y  ( F l a n a g a n , a d u l t 24  -  study,  1954),  group  f r o m  from  a  i n t e r v i e w s , i n c i d e n t s . m a r i t a l  a  l a s t i n g  and  T h e s e  i n c i d e n t s .  From  by  Achievement. each  s u b j e c t s . of  a  These  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  s u b j e c t s  from were  were  h a l f  w e r e  u s e d  c a t e g o r i e s  f o r m e d  the  i n d i c e n t s ,  f i v e  i n  of  c o n t r i b u t e d  Comparison  S e c o n d a r y  36  r e p r e s e n t e d  50  y e a r - o l d s i n  the  the  an  study.  and  that no  were  S e n s e  of  each  and  of  the  50%  a c c e p t a b l e the  r e s u l t e d  the low  l e v e l  i n v e s t i g a t o r  b e t w e e n  that  c r i t i c a l  D e f i c i t s ,  l e a s t  i n c i d e n t s  and  sex,  s u b j e c t  i n c i d e n t s  between  i n d i c a t e d  113  c a t e g o r i e s  at  e x a m i n a t i o n  c a t e g o r i e s to  by  27  demonstrated  c a t e g o r i z i n g  and  to  to  i n  S e l f - E s t e e m  O v e r c o m i n g  16  s t u d y  age,  c o m p a r e f r o m  ages  I n c i d e n t  r e c o r d i n g  M u t u a l i t y  c o n t a i n e d  a  r e s u l t e d  b a s i c  O t h e r s ,  S e n s e  as  C r i t i c a l  t o  from  m a l e s ,  R o s e n b e r g  to  by  7  s e l e c t e d  form  the  Technique  d e t r a c t s  and  h o u r s ,  a  c o m p l e t e d  c a t e g o r i e s  30  a  completed  r e l i a b i l i t y .  c o l l e a g u e  came  a l s o  was  a g r e e m e n t .  data  and  a l s o  C a t e g o r i e s  i n t e r j u d g e  and  p o p u l a t i o n .  one  or  f e m a l e s  a d u l t  O t h e r s ,  c a t e g o r y  13  c h u r c h  C o n f i r m a t i o n  A c c e p t a n c e  of  I n c i d e n t  e n h a n c e s  u r b a n  d a t a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  C r i t i c a l  what  s a m p l e  n o r m a l  S u b j e c t s  S c a l e .  f o r m e d :  A  s m a l l  s t a t u s  the  e x a m i n e d  s e l f - e s t e e m . 49,  u s i n g  i n  92%  s u b j e c t  m a j o r i t y  of  s e l f - e s t e e m  i i i  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE LIST  i i  OF OF  CHAPTER  CONTENTS  i i i  TABLES 1  v  INTRODUCTION  AND  REVIEW  1  The  1  Problem of  Review  the  of  Study  Related  D e f i n i t i o n  of  3 L i t e r a t u r e  4  S e l f - e s t e e m  5  Measurement  of  S e l f - e s t e e m  and  C r i t i c a l  S e l f - e s t e e m  R e l i a b i l i t y  of  and  10  Technique  16  I n c i d e n t s  17  V a l i d i t y  19 24  S u b j e c t s  24  C r i t i c a l  I n c i d e n t  A d d i t i o n a l  I n t e r v i e w  Summary  Data  of  Comparison  of  I n t e r v i e w  RESULTS  AND  D e s c r i p t i v e  25  Data  26  C o l l e c t i o n  C a t e g o r i e s  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3  Development  METHODOLOGY  The  CHAPTER  7  S e l f - c o n c e p t  I n c i d e n t  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n  2  RELATED  LITERATURE  Scope  CHAPTER  OF  to  and  Procedures  27  Subject 28  DISCUSSION  30  Data  30  i v  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  D e f i n i t i o n s  and  Examples  R e l i a b i l i t y  and  V a l i d i t y  Independent  Rater  P a r t i c i p a n t  Rate  O p p o s i t i o n a l Content  of  of  the  C a t e g o r i e s  36  R e l i a b i l i t y  Check  37  Reinforcement  38  Check  R e s u l t s  39 with  the  L i t e r a t u r e  Review Comparison  40  of  C a t e g o r i e s  to  Subject  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A d d i t i o n a l CHAPTER  4  32  37  V a l i d i t y  Comparison  ( c o n t ' d )  45  F i n d i n g s  46  CONCLUSIONS  50  L i m i t a t i o n s  50  T h e o r e t i c a l P r a c t i c a l  I m p l i c a t i o n s  53  I m p l i c a t i o n s  I m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r  Future  56 Research  57  Summary  59  REFERENCES  61  APPENDIX  A:  A d d i t i o n a l  APPENDIX  B:  L e t t e r  APPENDIX  C:  Consent  Data  C o l l e c t e d  Requesting  from  S u b j e c t s  P a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n  63  the  Study  64 to  P a r t i c i p a t e  i n  the  Research  65  V  LIST  OF  TABLES  Page Table  1  Table  2  O u t l i n e  of  the  Category  of  Negative  Nature  of  C r i t i c a l  I n c i d e n t of  Table  3  Number  S u b j e c t s  Table  4  Number of S u b j e c t s Negative I n c i d e n t s  by  I n c i d e n t P o s i t i v e  I n t e r v i e w and  31  I n c i d e n t R e p o r t i n g  25  per  Category  R e p o r t i n g P o s i t i v e per Category  38  or 39  1  CHAPTER  I n t r o d u c t i o n  and  Review  The  C o u n s e l l o r s a r e a  of  of  b e h a v i o r i s t i c a p p r o p r i a t e Many the  a d u l t s  s e l f - e s t e e m of  to  t h e o r i e s  w i t h  importance  of  Related  to  f r e q u e n t l y t h e i r  n o t i c e  c l i e n t s . m o d e l s  i m p r o v e  the  a  concern  A l l  but  w o u l d  and  c h i l d  s e l f - e s t e e m  and  i t s  i n  the  the most  c o n s i d e r  c l i e n t ' s  psychotherapy of  L i t e r a t u r e  Problem  c o u n s e l l i n g  a t t e m p t of  ONE  i t  s e l f - e s t e e m .  development  emphasize  c o n t r i b u t i o n  to  mental  h e a l t h . Such A d l e r  p e r s o n a l i t y  have  r e g a r d e d  E a r l i e r  than  W i l l i a m  James  p r o v i d e d not and  a  i n  a  as  f a v o r a b l e  Rogers, s e l f  p s y c h o l o g i s t s  1890  and  l a t e r  a p p r e c i a t i o n  s p e c i f i c  f o r  a t t i t u d e  and  G.H.  Murphy, as  and  f r a m e w o r k  s u c h  C h a r l e s  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  and  i m p o r t a n t .  s o c i o l o g i s t s  Mead  t h e o r e t i c a l  Horney,  but  f o r  as  C o o l e y  they  d i d  d i s c u s s i o n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A  number  a s s o c i a t e d as  a  t h e s e ,  b a s i c  p r o v i d e  t h e o r i s t s  of  w i t h  v a r i o u s  d e p r e s s i o n  anxiety,  s t u d i e s  ( B e c k ,  psychosomatic  (Coopersmith,  have  shown  measures 1967  ;  symptoms,  of  t h a t  low  e m o t i o n a l  R o s e n b e r g , and  s e l f - e s t e e m d i s t u r b a n c e  1 9 6 5 ) ,  s e n s i t i v i t y  to  i s such  m a n i f e s t c r i t i c i s m  1967).  C o o p e r s m i t h  a l s o  found  p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s  w i t h  h i g h  2  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  and  i n d e p e n d e n c e  of  d i s p l a y i n g and  more  l i k e l y  and  to  evoke  c o n c e p t  the  than  T h i s  the  that  esteem  i s  a  d e a l  a  f r e q u e n t l y  In  t o  of  rather  repeatedly Many components or  a l l  t h e  o t h e r  both  a n x i e t y ,  r e s p o n s e s  has  a s p e c t s  i n d i c a t i n g  that  given  to  been of  a r e  i t s  devoted  t h e  s e l f -  r e l e v a n c e  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  i s  r e s e a r c h  based  h a s  on  s o u r c e s  a d u l t a  W e l l s  of  i n  s l i p p e r y and  p r o p e r t i e s  are  r e s u l t i n g s e l f - e s t e e m  i n  l a c k  a  the  or  s e l f - e s t e e m  have  a t t e m p t e d  to t o  t o on  s t a t e  about  weak  a  One  (p. of  as i t  i s  s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t ,  " S e l f -  there  of  t h e  Wylie  s e l f - e s t e e m  i s most  l i t e r a t u r e  5).  t o  has  (1976) s t u d i e s  f i n d i n g s .  have  i n d i c a t e a t  i s  improve  how  which  s e l f - e s t e e m  number  l o o k  to  a g r e e m e n t  as  (1976)  c h a r a c t e r "  r e s e a r c h e r s  of  and  concept  great  n u l l  of  d i s a g r e e m e n t .  of  i n d e t e r m i n a n t  methods  l i t e r a t u r e  M a r w e l l  there  data.  t h e  t h e  and  c o n f u s i o n  there  i n  of  s e l f - e s t e e m  r e v i e w  d e c e p t i v e l y  noted  noted  r a t i n g  and  of  and  t h e i r  r e s e a r c h  l i t e r a t u r e  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ,  has  s t r e s s  when  more  p r o b a b l y  c o n s t i t u t e s  i t s  up  n o v e l t y  l i k e l i h o o d  w i t h  c o u n s e l l i n g  p r o b l e m  i n f l u e n c e d .  been  that  s i g n i f i c a n c e  a d u l t  s e l f - e s t e e m  good  cope  as  d i s t u r b a n c e s .  Despite  what  t o  speak  r e p o r t s  c o m b i n e d ,  i n  d e c r e a s e d  u n a b l e t o  s u c h  anger.  (1974)  e m o t i o n a l  f a c t o r s  j u d g e m e n t ,  b e i n g  s e l f - e s t e e m  lack  o t h e r  w i l l i n g n e s s  W y l i e to  some  chosen an  a  few  o v e r a l l  s e l f - e s t e e m  s p e c i f i c  s e l f - e s t e e m a s  a  u n i t a r y  3  c o n c e p t .  O t h e r s  i n f l u e n c e  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  ( R o s e n b e r g , f o l l o w s  have  1979)  that  found f o r  a c c o u n t  d i f f i c u l t y  d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n  i n  t h e r e  i s  developing  t h i s  l a c k  s t u d y  was  c o n t r i b u t e step  to  C r i t i c a l  on  method,  r e s p o n d e n t s  were  enhanced  or  from  d e f i n e d  f o r  o p i n i o n s  of  assume a  own  d e t r a c t e d the  s i n g l e  t h i s  as  from  of  a d u l t s  can  be  a d u l t  to  seen  was i n  what as  w h i c h  1954).  i t , d i d  a  b a s i c  u s i n g s u b j e c t s  Using  t h i s  i n c i d e n t s  s e l f - e s t e e m . good  to  g a t h e r e d  d e s c r i b e  f e e l i n g  and  s e l f - e s t e e m .  (Flanagan, to  c o n c e p t "  c o n t r i b u t i n g  T e c h n i q u e ,  t h e i r  lead  i t .  " s l i p p e r y  s t u d y  a s k e d  has  It  t h a t  S e l f - e s t e e m or  bad  i n  was t h e i r  themselves.  s t u d y i n g that  a  This  experience  s u b j e c t s  improve  to  s t a t u s  v a r i a b i l i t y .  s e l f - e s t e e m  d i s c o v e r  I n c i d e n t  reported  In  t h e i r  i n  the  f a c t o r s  d e s c r i p t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  F l a n a g a n ' s  been  i n t o  to  assumed  Study  s e l f - e s t e e m . the  of  to  the  has  p l a n n e d  for  of  r e s e a r c h  t h e i r  necessary The  of  l i t t l e  methods  l o n g  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  d e s c r i b i n g  s e l f - e s t e e m  a  f a c t o r s  e x a m p l e ,  f o r  Scope  B e c a u s e  t h a t  an  a d u l t s  a d u l t  are  d e v e l o p m e n t a l  a  s a m p l e ,  homogeneous s t a g e .  i n c i d e n t s  were  c a t e g o r i z e d ,  v a r i o u s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  So the of  i t  i s  i m p o r t a n t  p o p u l a t i o n , i n  t h i s  r e s u l t s t h e  nor  s t u d y , were  not  adulthood a f t e r  c o m p a r e d  s u b j e c t s .  to  the to  T h e s e  A  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s c o r e  as  from on  i s  1965  hoped  a d u l t  a d u l t  age,  m e a s u r e d  (Rosenberg,  It  were  &  by  t h a t  t h i s  w i l l  has  been  s e l f - e s t e e m e s t e e m ,  improve  c h a r a c t e r .  a d u l t  of  s e l f - e s t e e m  n o t e d  t h a t  the  c o n t r i b u t i n g t e c h n i q u e events.  of  and  review  to  w i l l  and  t h a t great  i s  w i l l  r e s e a r c h  be  s e l f - e s t e e m  E s t e e m  S c a l e  e n h a n c e s to  might  d e t r a c t s  knowledge a l s o  t o o l s  be  and  base  used  i n  p l a n n i n g  L i t e r a t u r e  a l t h o u g h deal  s t i l l  of  of  d e s c r i b e  r e s e a r c h l a c k s  as  a i n  t h e r e  are  r e s e a r c h  r a t h e r  of  a r e a .  a  The way  d e f i n i t i o n s It  c r i t i c a l of  s e l f -  i n d e t e r m i n a n t  v a r i e t y the  numerous i n t o  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  s e l f - e s t e e m .  d e s c r i b e d  the  and  s e l f - e s t e e m .  Related  a  some  a d u l t  what  a s s e s s m e n t  l i t e r a t u r e The  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n d i c a t e d  t h e o r i e s  the  and  S e l f  c o n t r i b u t e  The  Review  It  R o s e n b e r g  s t u d y  s e l f - e s t e e m to  s t a t u s ,  1979).  s e l f - e s t e e m .  i n t e r v e n t i o n s  m a r i t a l  t h e  s e l f - e s t e e m  d e v e l o p i n g  sex,  w i l l  of  be  e v e n t s i n c i d e n t  e l i c i t i n g  t h o s e  5  Definitions of Self-Esteem As mentioned there is much disagreement in the literature describing self-esteem.  One area of disagreement i s the  meaning of the term self-esteem,  which has been given  different names and definitions by various theorists.  Wells  (1976) l i s t s a varied assortment of names including self-love, self-confidence, evaluation,  self-respect,  self-acceptance,  s e l f - w o r t h , sense of adequacy,  self-  self-ideal  congruence and ego or ego-strength. Wylie (1974) points out that terms such as the above are not synonymous nor do they have corresponding  operational  definitions and also that the terms are very intertwined and overlapping, making clear d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n impossible.  Some  examples of varying usages that she gives are, self-acceptance as respecting oneself, self-esteem as being proud of oneself, and optimum self-esteem manifested  as a small discrepancy  between s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n and ideal self ratings on specific measuring instruments.  For her own work, she chose the terra  self-regard as a generic term indicating an overall or very general evaluative attitude towards self. Morris Rosenberg, a widely cited self-concept researcher, characterizes a person as having a high self-esteem when, "he has  self-respect,  considers  himself  a person  of worth.  6  A p p r e c i a t i n g .  .  most  .  .  He  h i s  d o e s n ' t  o t h e r s  makes i t  t o  be  In Sources  h i s of  f o r  an  to  p.  p e r s o n a l i t y  s e 1 f - e v a 1 u a t i o n  w i t h i s  study  a s ,  b e t t e r  of  " t h e  h i m s e l f  the  than worse"  w h i c h  or  of  which  w i t h  approval t h e  antecedents  e v a l u a t i o n  m a i n t a i n s of  f o r w a r d  the  r e g a r d  to  d i s a p p r o v a l ,  i n d i v i d u a l  s u c c e s s f u l ,  t o  (1974),  Rosenberg's  t r a i t  f a u l t s  b e l i e v e s  and  w o r t h y "  5-6).  S e l f - E v a l u a t i o n and  h i s  s i g n i f i c a n t ,  e d i t o r i a l  Coopersmith's  h i m s e l f  c o n s i d e r  a t t i t u d e  e x t e n t  1967,  he  c u s t o m a r i l y  c a p a b l e ,  (Coopersmith,  h i s  c o n s i d e r  s e l f - e s t e e m  and  t h e  r e c o g n i z e s  54).  expresses  i n d i c a t e s  h i m s e l f  p.  d e f i n e s  i n d i v i d u a l  nonetheless  does  Coopersmith,  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  and  n e i t h e r  1979,  Stanley  he  n e c e s s a r i l y  b u t  ( R o s e n b e r g ,  h i m s e l f :  m e r i t s ,  M o r r i s  view  t h e  W e b s t e r  of  t o  s e l f - e s t e e m  t h e  S o b i e z e k ' s  Z e l d i t c h  i n t e r a c t i o n i s t ' s  r e l a t i v e  and  c o n t r a s t s as  a  g l o b a l  c o n c e p t i o n  s t r u c t u r e  of  t h e  t h a t s o c i a l  s i t u a t i o n . A n o t h e r p o i n t e d  o u t  g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n c t and  c o n f u s i o n by  viewed  as  p r o c e s s e s  a f f e c t i o n ,  d i s t i n c t i o n e v a l u a t i o n  W e l l s  two  between or  a  i n  t h e  s e l f - e s t e e m  ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  A l t h o u g h  v a l u a t i o n a l  s u g g e s t e d t e r m s  i n  w h i c h  t r a i t , t h e  i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y  r e f e r s  i s  s e l f - e s t e e m  i s  there  are  l i t e r a t u r e :  a r e  i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y  l i t e r a t u r e  i n t e n d e d  and to  two  quite  e v a l u a t i o n t o  r e f l e c t  e m o t i o n a l i t y . o b s e r v i n g  a  S e l f -  oneself  i n  7  r e l a t i o n  to  a c h i e v i n g  r e w a r d s .  S e 1 f - a f f e c t i o n  e m p h a s i s how  one  One  on  the  f e e l s  e n t i r e l y  a l s o  be  e x i s t e n t i a l  Measurement  the  a  An  of  the  i s  i n  r e f e r s  of  one's  one  s e l f  an  i n  terms  a  to  the  s e 1 f - e v a 1 u a t i o n ;  p e r s o n a l  f i r s t  as  e x a m p l e  of  w o r t h  i s n ' t  u t i l i t a r i a n  sense.  of  i t s  own  moral  or  the  e n l i g h t e n m e n t  i n a n d  to  t h e s e  w h i l e  there  changes f a l l  r e l a t i o n s h i p  v a r i a b l e  f i r s t  the  v a r i a b l e  around  i n t o  two  between  second of  type  i s  an  s e l f - e s t e e m  by  M a r s h a l l  T h e s e  enhanced  M a r s h a l l  s e l f - e s t e e m  s e l f -  category  some  o t h e r  i n t e r e s t .  s o c i a l  low  the  of  measure  of  i n d e p e n d e n t  p r o c e d u r e  markedly  to  Most  examines  the  of  1982b).  e v a l u a t i o n s  a t t e m p t i n g  independent  of  d e f i n i t i o n s  c o n s t r u c t .  v a r i a b l e  m a n a g e m e n t  of  s t u d i e s  The  enhancement ( 1 9 8 2 a ,  and  good  v a r i e t y  s e l f - e s t e e m  dependent  were  a  s e l f - e s t e e m  c a t e g o r i e s .  has  e m o t i o n a l i t y  s o c i a l  S e l f - E s t e e m  w i t h  and  how  e l i c i t i n g  worth.  v a r i e t y  esteem  by  and  c o n c o m i t a n t s  o n e s e l f  v a l u i n g  of  Along are  about  ends  or  e m o t i o n a l  determined  may  v a l u e d  the  s t u d i e s of  the t h i s  d e m o n s t r a t e d  r e p e t i t i o n  s o c i a l  e x p l o r a t i o n  of  s e l f - e s t e e m  the  and  C h r i s t i e  how  a  p o s i t i v e of  of  s e l f s e l f -  s u b j e c t s  who  q u a l i t y .  C h r i s t i e ' s q u e s t i o n  s t u d i e s at  hand  o f f e r  b e c a u s e  m i n i m a l one  c a n n o t  8  i s o l a t e  the  s u b j e c t ' s  s p e c i f i c  s e l f - e s t e e m  s i n g l e - c a s e  made  i n c i d e n t s  s t u d i e s .  t h r e e  to  group  become  f a c t o r  was  or  t h e i r  and  attempted  t r e a t m e n t  c o n c l u s i o n  i n  s t u d i e s  r e s e a r c h e r s w h i c h  e v e n t s  was  w h i c h  A f t e r  i n c r e a s e d  a  s e r i e s  s t u d i e s  i n c r e a s i n g  more  p r o d u c i n g  t h e  i n  a  of  two  w h i c h  the  s p e c i f i c  about  b e n e f i t ,  t h e  that:  t h e c u e i n g p r o c e d u r e . . . and t h e c u r r e n t two r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s t h a t e m p l o y e d e i t h e r l o w frequency p l e a s u r a b l e behaviors or h i g h frequency n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r s a s s u p p o s e d r e i n f o r c e r s , a l l l e d t o i m p r o v e m e n t ' s . . . . None of the o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s produced such marked changes i n behavior although most of the p r o c e d u r e s based on r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r i n c i p l e s d i d improve s u b j e c t s somewhat. (1982b, p. 95)  It  can  i n v o l v e d of  be  i n  seen  t h i s  b e h a v i o r a l  T h i s  i s  t r u e  f r o m  study  were  v a r i a b l e s  of  much  of  t h e s e  subsumed  and  the  c o n c l u s i o n s  t h u s  under  c a n n o t  r e s e a r c h  about  t h a t  the  g e n e r a l now  be  e v e n t s  c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d .  i n f l u e n c e s  on  s e l f -  esteem . The  s e c o n d  t y p e  of  s t u d y  i n d e p e n d e n t  v a r i a b l e .  T h a t  q u e s t i o n  t h i s  which  of  d e p e n d e n t provide  A m e r i c a n  s p e c i f i c  h e l p f u l  There e s t e e m .  on  are The  study  h a s  a p p r o a c h has  c r i t i c a l  s e l f - e s t e e m i s  the  o p p o s i t e  s e l f - e s t e e m i n c i d e n t s  as  as and  the so  of  t h e the  v a r i a b l e does  not  data. no  p u b l i s h e d  s t u d y  I n s t i t u t e  most f o r  c r i t i c a l  s i m i l a r  to  R e s e a r c h ' s  i n c i d e n t the s t u d y  s t u d i e s  p r e s e n t on  one  on  s e l f i s  i m p r o v i n g  the the  q u a l i t y s t u d y  of  l i f e  was  v a r i o u s  the  ( F l a n a g a n , c o l l e c t i o n  q u e s t i o n s  c h a n g e s  i n  t r o u b l e ,  t h e  and  about  1978). of  The  c r i t i c a l  important  q u a l i t y  i n c i d e n t s  of  f i r s t  or  l i f e ,  m a k i n g  p a r t  i n c i d e n t s  s a t i s f y i n g  s o u r c e s  s t r o n g  of  of  t h i s  a n s w e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ,  p l e a s u r e  p o s i t i v e  or  or  n e g a t i v e  impact. T h e s e what  q u e s t i o n s  made  s t u d y  at  p e o p l e hand  At  s i m i l a r i t i e s the  r e s u l t s  s t u d y  were  i n of  found  c r i t e r i a as  for  t h i s  g e n e r a l l y  or  bad  made  t h i s  g e n e r a l  p a r t  of  d e s c r i b e d t h e i r  f e e l  l e v e l ,  the  AIR  t h e r e  s t u d y  under  the  q u a l i t y  and  M a t e r i a l  are  f i v e  of  l i f e  good  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  c a t e g o r i e s  d e f i n i n g  about  p e o p l e  r e s u l t i n g  P h y s i c a l  M a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g Health and p e r s o n a l  2. C. D. E. F.  what  the  15  good  be  for  or  bad  the about  be  some  i n c i d e n t s ,  d e s c r i b e d .  m a j o r  l i f e  a s k i n g  w h i l e  may  of  as  so The  h e a d i n g s  Americans.  as They  f o l l o w s :  1. A. B.  f e e l  a s k s  t h e m s e l v e s .  c o u l d  R H R R  e a e e  3.  R e l a t i o n s l v l l  a t in a t a t  i o g i o i o  with  W e l l - B e i n g  and f i n a n c i a l safety  Other  s e c u r i t y  People  n s with spouse ( g i r l f r i e n d or and r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n n s with p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g , and n s w i t h others  S o c i a l ,  Community,  and  C i v i c  G.  A c t i v i t i e s  r e l a t e d  to  h e l p i n g  H.  A c t i v i t i e s  r e l a t e d  to  l o c a l  or  and  b o y f r i e n d ) other  r e l a t i v e s  A c t i v i t i e s encouraging n a t i o n a l  others  governments  10  4.  P e r s o n a l  Development  and  I. J. K.  I n t e l l e c t u a l development P e r s o n a l understanding and O c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e  L.  C r e a t i v i t y 5.  M.  and  P e r s o n a l  F u l f i l l m e n t  p l a n n i n g  e x p r e s s i o n  R e c r e a t i o n  S o c i a l i z i n g  N. 0.  P a s s i v e and o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s A c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . (Flanagan,  S e l f - E s t e e m  Two  and  s t u d i e s  p r e s e n t  p r o j e c t  developmental and  w i t h a r e  f a c t o r s  C o o p e r s m i t h' s  e s t e e m  c o n c e p t  139-140)  Development  t h e  most  r e l e v a n t  R o s e n b e r g ' s i n v o l v e d  i n  w o r k  r e s e a r c h  on  t h e  s e l f - e s t e e m  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Rosenberg's  f o r m a t i o n ,  i m p o r t a n t  a s p e c t ,  m o t i v a t i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m found  pp.  of  t h e  t o  t h e  s o c i a l  f o r m a t i o n  a n t e c e d e n t s  a n d (1979)  of  s e l f -  on  s e l f -  as  i t s  most  of  t h e  main  (1967).  Although  p r i n c i p l e s  a s  of from  outcomes  he  work  t h e  e v a l u a t i o n work.  s e l f - c o n c e p t others' a  a c t u a l l y  an  i t  was  T h i s  c o u l d  f o r m a t i o n .  m i d - c h i l d h o o d  one  i n d i v i d u a l .  c o m p o n e n t  r e s e a r c h  centred  s e l f - e s t e e m  b e c a u s e  d i r e c t i n g  h i s  w i t h  was  r e g a r d e d  m a i n l y  f o r c e s  t h r o u g h o u t  p r i n c i p l e s  own  S e l f - C o n c e p t  1978,  D i s c u s s i o n  of  s e l f - c o n c e p t  be  s e e n  He  i n  h i s  d e v e l o p e d  and  used  them  to  to  l a t e  a d o l e s c e n c e  of was f o u r  t h e s e  e x p l a i n  h i s  sample.  11 The  f o u r  p r i n c i p l e s  c o m p a r i s o n s ,  s e 1 f - a 11  The  p r i n c i p l e  of  are  d e e p l y  s e l f  and  r e l a t e d  us,  The that  c e r t a i n  c o m p a r i s o n s  l e d  were  c o m p a r i s o n s e c o n d  was  c o n f o r m i t y The  as  n o r m a t i v e defined  p e o p l e  draw  d e s c r i b e d  as  t h e  63).  view  t h r e e  whole  .  S e v e r a l  b e l i e v e  a  .  the  to  i d e a s  they on  v a l u a t i o n s  view  how  by  one  others  to  make  f i r s t  some  p o s i t i v e ,  p r i n c i p l e  c o n c l u s i o n s and  c o n c l u s i o n s " i n d i v i d u a l ' s  a  the  how (p.  71).  s o c i a l  measure of  and  the  d e v i a n c e -  environments. to  t h e i r  t h e y  of  or  s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r  r e f e r r e d  a b o u t  These  n e u t r a l  l i n e s  s o c i a l  the  comparison  c a t e g o r i e s was  on  by  c a t e g o r i e s .  c r i t e r i o n  p a r t i c u l a r  d e s c r i b e d  themselves s o c i a l  c o m p a r i s o n by  (p.  we as  h e l p f u l  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t e n t a t i v e  or  to  Two  s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n  u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r  a  come  comparisons,  evaluate  i n d i v i d u a l s  r e l a t i o n  t o w a r d  These  how  these  s o c i a l  d e s c r i b e d .  i n  of  g r o u p s ,  s e 1 f - r a t i n g s .  comparison  they  .  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n .  and  i n d i v i d u a l s ,  us,  people  o t h e r s  o t h e r s "  c o m m u n i t y  Each  p r i n c i p l e , judge  of  s o c i a l  c e n t r a l i t y .  that  p r i n c i p l e .  view  the  r o l e s .  people  n e g a t i v e  others of  "holds  t i m e ,  by  t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  second  of  a p p r a i s a l s ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a t t i t u d e s  v i e w e d  i n f l u e n c e d  one's  the  the c o u r s e  are  a t t i t u d e s  play  a f f e c t e d  w h i c h  they  and  a p p r a i s a l s  by  the  p a r t i c u l a r  the  should  to  as  how  and  f a c t  i n  i d e a s  were:  r e f l e c t e d  t h a t ,  r e f l e c t e d  r i b u t i on ,  i n f l u e n c e d  t h e m s e l v e s  were  go  "the  own  o b s e r v a t i o n  m o t i v e s  a b o u t  T h i s  bases  or  v e r i f y i n g  was of  on  h i s  f u r t h e r o v e r t  12  behavior about  as  h i s The  that of  inner l a s t  "the .  r e p r e s e n t i n g  .  .  motives,  i s  c o m p o n e n t s  and  R o s e n b e r g  p o i n t e d  s i g n i f i c a n t on  The  the  o u t  l a t t e r  i n c l u d i n g  two are  two s o c i a l  more  are  r e g a r d  H i s  t h a t  h i m s e l f  s u p p o r t e d  f o u r  d e f e n s e s ,  w h i c h  s e l f - e s t e e m .  work  l e a d as  t h i s  p u r e l y  an  (1967)  an  a r e  o r g a n i s a t i o n  h i e r a r c h i c a l l y  c o m p l e x  w a y s "  (p.  75).  was  e s p e c i a l l y  s e l f - c o n c e p t  c o m p o n e n t ' s  a  s t u d e n t w i l l  who not  d o e s n ' t s u f f e r  a  occurs.  r e f l e c t e d r e l a t e d  a p p r a i s a l s to  s o c i a l  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  was  o b j e c t  seen  of  to  w o r t h ? "  s u c c e s s , as  d i r e c t l y  q u e s t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l  f a c t o r s : were  but  h o l d i n g  and  s o c i a l  a s p e c t s  but  a l t h o u g h  s t i l l  a i m e d  s e l f -  f a c t o r s .  r e s e a r c h an  c e n t r a l i t y ,  c l a s s m a t e s  c l e a r l y  more  i n  e x a m p l e ,  when  i n f l u e n c e  i s s u e s .  c o n d i t i o n s  t h e s e  any  by  c o n c l u s i o n s  t r a i t s .  c e n t r a l i t y  p r i n c i p l e s ,  C o o p e r s m i t h ' s e s t e e m  t h a t  l i k e d  drawing  c o l l e c t i o n  t h a t  For  s e l f - e s t e e m  c o m p a r i s o n s ,  a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  b e i n g  f i r s t  or  for  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  not  s e l f - e s t e e m .  of  b a s i s  i n t e r - r e l a t e d  i n  a b o u t  l o w e r i n g  was  s e l f - c o n c e p t  and  c a r e  major s t a t e s ,  p r i n c i p l e  o r g a n i s e d  e f f e c t  a  the  was, v a l u e (p.  v a l u e s ,  at  "What h i m s e l f  v i i ) .  H i s  are and  to  r e s u l t s  a s p i r a t i o n s ,  d e t e r m i n i n g  the  v a r i a b l e s  and of  13 The  s u c c e s s  c o n v e n t i o n a l and  American  s t a t u s  a p p r a i s a l .  f a c t o r  a r e  the  wisdom b a s e s  C o o p e r s m i t h environment  w i t h i n  one  which g i v e n  the  Coopersmith judgements American  a)  found  success  he  i n  the  A c c e p t a n c e  -  the  w e a l t h ,  r e l e v a n t  of  could  These  frame  f r a m e  s t a t e  study  f a v o r a b l e  some  of  s e l f -  reference of  of  success.  r e f e r e n c e ,  g e n e r a l  p o p u l a t i o n  the  e f f e c t i v e  a p p r a i s a l s  the  to  e d u c a t i o n ,  i m m e d i a t e  s u b j e c t i v e  h i s  p r e a d o l e s c e n t s . ^  m a t e r i a l  t h a t  was  c o n t r a r y  d e t e r m i n i n g  s u b j e c t i v i t y  s t i l l of  f o r  determined  r e s u l t s  that  found  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  Even  y i e l d e d  of  bases  for  m i d d l e - c l a s s  were:  m a n i f e s t e d  by  p a r e n t a l  c a r e  and  a t t e n t i o n , b)  P o s s i b i l i t i e s m a n i f e s t e d l i m i t s ,  c)  The  the  w e i g h t s  on  t h a t t h o s e  Coopersmith's he  u s u a l l y  open  e x p r e s s i o n  d i s c u s s i o n  performance  members  s e c o n d  h y p o t h e s i s  by  i n d i v i d u a l  and  w i t h i n  d i s s e n t  -  w e l l - d e f i n e d  and  Academic to  of  of  f a c t o r ,  to  one's  of  competence  d i f f e r e d p l a c e  p e r f o r m a n c e  were  by  r e l a t i v e  group.  u s u a l l y  s u b j e c t s  r e f e r s  judged  v a l u e s ,  p e o p l e a r e a s  -  male,  " p e r s o n s "  or  from the  and  the  g r e a t e s t  c a p a c i t y  although  e x p e c t e d  i n  " c h i l d r e n . "  h i s  i n  v a l u e w h i c h  r e s u l t s  14 they  e x c e l .  e s t e e m  tend  worth. the  The to  e m p l o y  These  g e n e r a l  s o c i a l  how  the  same  a p p r a i s a l  of  as  t h e i r  s e l f - v a l u e  j u d g e d  c o m p a r i n g  Boys  who  goals  w i t h  they  o b j e c t i v e l y l i k e l y  to  e x p r e s s i o n probably The  and  b e t t e r  were  i s  was  from  and  s e e n  made.  d e f e n s i v e  i n  T h i s  c o n s i d e r e d  by  c a p a c i t i e s  to  d i d  to  f a v o r a b l e  d e a l  s e l f -  s e l f - e s t e e m  were  l e s s  t h i s  r e s u l t e d  decreased of  such  manner  to  r e s u l t e d  then  showed  l i k e l y  p u b l i c  were  which  r e s u l t s  l e v e l s  i n  that  and  or,  and  a s p i r a t i o n s .  d i f f e r  standards  occur  defenses  a b l e  and  More  low  W o r t h i n e s s  p e r f o r m a n c e  not  g o a l s .  o c c u r r e n c e s  l e s s  f a c t o r .  s e l f - e s t e e m  f a i l u r e  Coopersmith's  were  e m p h a s i z i n g  s t a n d a r d s  w i t h  would  was  were  i n  a c t u a l  higher  Persons  c o n t r i b u t e d  s e l f - e s t e e m  a n x i e t y  o n e ' s  w i t h  success  f a c t o r  s e l f - v a l u e s  s e l f - e s t e e m  p e r s o n a l  a n t i c i p a t e d  f i n a l  d e v a l u a t i o n . h i g h  of  of  t h e i r  as  g o a l s  p r o c e s s  d i f f e r i n g  a s s o c i a t e d  b e l i e v e  t h e s e  p e o p l e ' s  t h i r d  but  obtained.  j u d g e  d i f f e r e n c e s  s e l f - e s t e e m  d i f f e r e n t  were  of  p e r s o n a l  i n  espoused,  m a r k e d l y  a t t i t u d e s  the  one's  d i f f e r e d  r e s u l t e d  of  to  l e v e l s  p r e f e r e n c e s .  was  c a p a c i t i e s  and  p a r t  a l l  group.  w e i g h t i n g a  at  s t a n d a r d s  i n d i v i d u a l  a t t a i n m e n t  more  by  one's  s t a n d a r d s  and  persons  i n t e r n a l i z e d  of  A s p i r a t i o n s was  i n  norms  that  s i m i l a r  are  g o a l s ,  of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  than  v e r y  s h a r e d  C o o p e r s m i t h  showed  standards  A l t h o u g h v a l u i n g  f i n d i n g s  of  that  d i s p l a y  w i t h  i n  an  m o t i v a t i o n  f a i l u r e . responding c h i l d r e n d i s t r e s s  t h r e a t s  when  to  w i t h and t h e y  15  d i d  a r i s e .  t h a t  t h e y  r a t h e r of  A  l i m i t a t i o n  were  than  on  p r o j e c t i v e In  based  on  a d d i t i o n  to  of  these  d i f f e r e n c e s  They  a  d e p e n d e n t  on  s e l f - w o r t h . medium r a n g e  tendency t h e i r This  s e l f - e s t e e m of  T h e r e  of  a r e  a t t i t u d e .  of  The  C o o p e r s m i t h ' s  b e h a v i o r ,  b e i n g  i t  the  of  authors  a l s o  a l t h o u g h  f a c t o r  the  medium  value an  found  p o s i t i o n s ,  be  a m b i g u o u s t h a t ,  an  i n t e r m e d i a t e h a v e  some  s e l f - e s t e e m .  suggest  w e l l  r e s u l t s  c o n c l u s i o n .  Coopersmith  w i t h  s u b j e c t s  However,  same  was  more  s e n s e  r a t h e r p a r t  of than  of  r e f l e c t e d  the t h e  s e l f - a p p r a i s a l .  i n  the  i d e a  success  r e f l e c t e d  and  values  of  o t h e r s of  c o n c l u s i o n s  of  i n f l u e n c e  Rosenberg's  success  of  to  may  p e r f o r m a n c e i n  the  have  m e r e l y  t h i s  m o t h e r s  strong and  u n c e r t a i n  s i g n i f i c a n t  s e l f - j u d g e m e n t s  Both  hold  f o r  t e s t s .  boys  Coopersmith  f a c t o r s  i m p o r t a n c e of  to  R o s e n b e r g ' s  Coopersmith's  v a l u e s  an  the  f a c t o r s ,  the  s i m i l a r i t i e s  r e s e a r c h e r s .  the  i n  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  consequences  of  support  four  p a r e n t s  led  f i n d i n g s  p r o j e c t i v e  g e n e r a l l y  i n t e r e s t i n g showed  the  r e p o r t s  r e s u l t s t e s t s  of  o p i n i o n s ,  on  t h e  o t h e r s s o c i a l  t h e s e  two  a p p r a i s a l s  and  were  of  a l l  based  s t a n d a r d s ,  i n d i v i d u a l ' s was  a l s o  comparison  a  on and  s e l f -  b a s i s  p r i n c i p l e  f o r and  f a c t o r . commented t h e y  d i d  on  how so  one i n  observes  one's  d i f f e r e n t  own  w a y s .  16 Coopersmith's  a s p i r a t i o n s  t h e i r  by  e s t e e m  s t a n d a r d s  c o m p a r i n g  w h i l e  d e s c r i b e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  outcomes.  This  the  by  and  s e l e c t i v i t y  i s  f a c t o r  w h i c h  d e s c r i b e d  a b i l i t y (1967,  to p.  The  r e s i s t 248)  appear  i n  and  of  the  so  p r o t e c t of  o t h e r s  d e t r a c t s  C r i t i c a l  I n c i d e n t  r e s e a r c h  the  C r i t i c a l  set  of  i n  from  s u c h  to  to  own  p r i n c i p l e m o t i v e s  i n  i t s  both  how  s e l f - e s t e e m  and  and  s e l e c t i v e ,  and  i n  Coopersmith's a s ,  i n  i t  was  success  s i t u a t i o n s .  d e v a l u a t i n g  T h i s defenses  " r e p r e s e n t i n g s t i m u l i  and  the  e v e n t s "  s e l f - e s t e e m . t h e s e  the  r e s e a r c h e r s  i m m e d i a t e  s e l f - s t a n d a r d s , the  t h e i r  present  a d u l t  on  e n v i r o n m e n t , are  r e s e a r c h  f a c t o r s  t h e  and that  q u e s t i o n  on may  of  what  s e l f - e s t e e m .  Technique  q u e s t i o n  I n c i d e n t  procedures  i n  to  h i g h l y  d e f e n s e s  b o t h  to  answers  or  b e h a v i o r  r e j e c t  t h e i r  f a i l u r e  s i m i l a r  or  performance  enhances  T h i s  very  e m p h a s e s  s i g n i f i c a n c e comparing  he  was  i n  c a p a c i t y  w i t h  judging  p e r f o r m a n c e  enhances  i t  s e l e c t i v e i n  t h e i r  a t t e n t i o n  p r o t e c t s  s u b j e c t s  p e r f o r m a n c e  d e t e r m i n e  s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n  This  s i t u a t i o n s  who  p a i d  h i s  s e 1 f - a t t r i b u t i o n  o b s e r v i n g  i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e r p r e t e d .  showed  t h e i r  R o s e n b e r g ' s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  what  f a c t o r  for a  was  c o n s i d e r e d  T e c h n i q u e .  T h i s  c o l l e c t i n g  d i r e c t  way  as  to  b e s t  method  a n s w e r e d  c o n s i s t s  o b s e r v a t i o n s  f a c i l i t a t e  t h e i r  of  of  by a  human  p o t e n t i a l  17  u s e f u l n e s s  i n  s o l v i n g  p s y c h o l o g i c a l The  p r i n c i p l e s  t e c h n i q u e P s y c h o l o g y  was  f o r m a l l y  at  the  This  A m e r i c a n  technique  i n c l u d i n g  i n by  I n s t i t u t e been  m e a s u r e s  given  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c o u n s e l l i n g  and  psychotherapy.  o b s e r v a b l e i t s e l f the  to  human  i f  o b s e r v e r  and  to  l i t t l e  p r e s e n t  c r i t i c a l  6 , 5 0 0  .  .  of  i t s  s t u d y ,  of  i n c i d e n t s  Americans of  around l i f e  the  a c t " or  a f f e c t i n g r e s e a r c h American  j o b s ) ,  327). i s  of  F o r c e s .  It  W o r l d of  War  II.  a p p l i c a t i o n s  or  p r o f i c i e n c y ,  j o b  d e s i g n ,  to  and  a s ,  " a n y  c o m p l e t e be  The  made  about  i n c i d e n t  f a i r l y  c l e a r  i n  to  i s the  s u f f i c i e n t l y  i t s  e f f e c t s "  (p.  327).  In  the  to  whom  the  i s  found  what  i n for  f r o m  1978).  the  a r e  I n s t i t u t e  q u e s t i o n  f o r  d e f i n e d  s e l f - e s t e e m i s  broad  p s y c h o l o g i s t s  s u f f i c i e n t l y  c o n t e n t  c o l l e c t e d  ( F l a n a g a n ,  v a r i e t y  (p.  o b s e r v e r  A i r  a f t e r  i s  work  same  p r e d i c t i o n s  c o n c e r n i n g  the  were the  and  i s  c o n s e q u e n c e s  doubt  s i m i l a r  work  q u a l i t y  .  the  p e r f o r m a n c e ( f o r  t h a t  the  p u r p o s e  i n c i d e n t  e x a m p l e recent  " t h e  Army  t e c h n i q u e  i n f e r e n c e s  p e r f o r m i n g  c r i t i c a l  the  t h i s  a c t i v i t y  p e r m i t  p e r s o n  l e a v e  i n  of  broad  t y p i c a l  and  i n c i d e n t  U.S.  R e s e a r c h a  d e v e l o p i n g  F l a n a g a n ' s  some  s e l e c t i o n ,  An  of  the  f o r  and  1954).  out  P r o g r a m  developed  has  problems  (Flanagan,  d e v e l o p e d  A v i a t i o n more  p r a c t i c a l  a  one has  o c c u r r e d .  some  of  b r o a d  r e s u l t s  An  the  R e s e a r c h ,  i n  more which  s p e c t r u m  c o n t r i b u t e d  The  d e f i n i t e  to of  t h e i r t h i s  of own  s t u d y  18 have  been  d e s c r i b e d  The  c r i t i c a l  o b s e r v e r s are  the  that or  q u a l i f i e d  they  can  w o r s e  i n i n  i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t  i n c i d e n t s  s u b j e c t s  r e s u l t s  t h e i r  i n t o a  t y p e  There  a  d i v i d e d c h o i c e  that  i s  t h e  are  a  i n t o the  to  s e v e r a l  of  c r i t i c a l  to  be  c a n  of  d e f i n i t i o n s  c l a s s i f i e d  i n  ways a  made  t h e n  The  these  q u a l i f i e d  them  w o u l d  w i t h  r e s e a r c h  f e e l  by  s o r t i n g  c o n t a i n  i n  better  o b j e c t i v i t y  o b t a i n e d  of the  the  same  o b s e r v e r s .  that  made  of  t a s k , the  the  the  i d e n t i f y c a t e g o r i e s .  are  r e - e x a m i n e d category.  set  i n  of  Flanagan  e x p e r i e n c e t h e  i s  more  attempt  to  t e n t a t i v e  In i n  f o r the  of  to  s t a t e  submit  p l a c e  such  a p p l i e d  s u b j e c t i v e i s  could  remarked  are  p r e s e n t  c a t e g o r i e s  n e e d s  i n c i d e n t s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  data.  and  t a s k  should  i n t o  a  p r i n c i p l e  new  t h a t  i s  i n t e r v i e w s  c o n s i d e r e d  t h e m s e l v e s .  c h e c k i n g  who  i n c i d e n t s  p r o c e s s  by  present  which  judgement,  of  r e v i e w e r s  d e v e l o p m e n t the  of  k n o w l e d g e , way  9.  I n c i d e n t s  i n s i g h t ,  One  are  independent  number  use  They  w h i c h  c a t e g o r i e s ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  T h i s  of  of  the  r e s e a r c h  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  o b j e c t i v e .  of  c a t e g o r i e s  although  to  of  number  i n  i n c i d e n t s  o p i n i o n  page  c o l l e c t e d  r e p o r t ,  d e s c r i b e  t h i s  from  to  on  are  themselves.  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n  be  p r e v i o u s l y ,  of than them  a  s e l e c t i o n  c a t e g o r i e s  provided.  r e d e f i n i t i o n  l i g h t  r e l a t i o n  of to  and  any  c h a n g e s ,  each  i n c i d e n t  19  F l a n a g a n mind  i n  p r o v i d e d  e s t a b l i s h i n g  c r i t i c a l These  (1954)  headings  r e q u i r e m e n t s  are  l i s t e d  1.  The  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  at  for  the  major  areas  s e l e c t e d  l e v e l  to  be  and  kept  i n  of  i n  s t a t i n g  g e n e r a l i t y .  below:  headings  should  i n d i c a t e  a  c l e a r - c u t  and  l o g i c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2.  T i t l e s  3.  The  l i s t  the  headings  be 4.  5.  should of  convey  s t a t e m e n t s  p a r a l l e l  for i n  content  of  l e v e l  importance.  The  a  h e a d i n g s  t e r m s  of  g i v e n  used  them  areas and  t y p e  be  themselves. be or  h o m o g e n e o u s ,  i . e . ,  r e q u i r e m e n t s  should  s t r u c t u r e . s h o u l d  s h o u l d  w i l l  i n  s h o u l d  e i t h e r  H e a d i n g s of  meaning  be  e a s i l y  a l l  s u c h  be  t h a t  a p p l i e d  of  the  same  f i n d i n g s  and  i n  m a x i m a l l y  u s e f u l . 6.  The  l i s t  of  h e a d i n g s  cover  a l l  i n c i d e n t s  R e l i a b i l i t y  and  V a l i d i t y  Andersson  and  of  the  r e l i a b i l i t y  technique. 1800  They  i n c i d e n t s  S w e d i s h  N i l s s o n  g r o c e r y  and  reviewed to  having  (1964)  t h e i r  own  the In  job  t h a t  be  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  s i g n i f i c a n t  have  v a l i d i t y  a n a l y z e  company.  s h o u l d  s t u d i e d  of  the  study of  s t o r e  s t u d y ,  f r e q u e n c i e s .  s e v e r a l  c r i t i c a l which  and  aspects i n c i d e n t  c o l l e c t e d managers  c r i t i c a l  over i n  a  i n c i d e n t s  20  p e r t a i n i n g  to  the  four  - -  s u p e r i o r s ,  groups  Employees  r e c e i v e d  i n t e r v i e w e d . g r o u p i n g s a r e a s . and  of  The  a  86  of  a l l  been  N i l s s o n  of  t h i s  c o l l e c t e d  a s s i s t a n t s , and  of  and  s t u d y  were  a l l  and  b o t h  were  r e s u l t e d  c a t e g o r i e s  c o v e r s  customers.  p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n c i d e n t s 17  from  d a t a  i n  3  i n  major  c o l l e c t i o n  a s p e c t s .  compared  number p e r c e n t 95%  of  One b e t w e e n  number  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  of by  the  86  the  had way  r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a  a  p e r c e n t new  t h a t  too  was  very  i s ,  method  to  which the  g r o u p i n g In  t h i s  when  75%  concluded  the of  that  m i g h t and  of  f i v e  t h a t  way,  i n c r e a s e d  by  to  i n c i d e n t s so  r a p i d l y .  a p p e a r e d  t h e  Andersson  of  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  i n c r e a s e d  stopped  the  t h i s ,  i n c i d e n t s .  r e s e a r c h e r s  been  d i f f e r e n t  the of  g r o u p ,  The  not  i n  w h e t h e r  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  a c c o r d i n g  F i v e  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  15th  was  t h a t  d i s c o v e r  grouped  p l a c e d of  u n i t s  To  them.  a l l  the  i n c l u d e d .  data  were  h e r e  s u f f i c i e n t l y  cover.  c o l l e c t e d  how  a s k e d  b e h a v i o r a l  to  c o n t a i n e d  determined  been  i n c i d e n t s  group  groupings  had of  expected  e a c h  q u e s t i o n  d a t a  t y p e s  i n t e r v i e w e r s  were  managers,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i m p o r t a n t  i n c l u d e  and  manager  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  r e v i e w  c o l l e c t i o n  f r o m  s t o r e  C o l l e c t i o n :  The  have  of  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  Data  of  job  20  i t  was  w i t h  the  E i g h t y - o n e f o u r t h  the the  group  i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t i o n  soon. q u e s t i o n e d  c o l l e c t i o n  i n  m e t h o d s :  t h i s  s t u d y  i n t e r v i e w s  was and  21  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , r e s e a r c h e r s number  of  found  and  wanted  to  i n c i d e n t s  i n  numbers  b e t w e e n know  of  c o n t e n t  was  Although  the  c o n c l u d e d  to  was  t h e s e  be  very  i n t e r v i e w e r s . f a c t o r s  were  c o l l e c t e d  p e r s o n n e l  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  content  f i v e  T h e r e  i n c i d e n t s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of  of  i f  c o l l e c t e d .  c e r t a i n  type  the  s i m i l a r  y i e l d e d  s i m i l a r  s t i l l ,  f r o m  e a c h  the  the  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t e r v i e w  but  fewer  to  a f f e c t e d  some by  The  the  f r o m  type  of  i n t e r v i e w e r .  i n c i d e n t s ,  i n t e r v i e w  again  the  m a t e r i a l .  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n :  Another a r e a  of  as  the  r e l i a b i l i t y  to  r e s u l t s  but  when  the  percentage  showed  100  12  c a t e g o r y  p a i r s  b e t w e e n  of  q u i t e  i n  m a j o r  the on  was  around by  the  v a r i o u s  the  agreement  r a t e r s  were  86  s u b c a t e g o r i e s .  the  s u b c a t e g o r i e s ,  c a t e g o r i e s  strong.  c h o s e n  t e s t  i n d e p e n d e n t  each  17  was  s e e n  To  agreement  the  was  s y s t e m  b e e n  d i f f i c u l t .  moderate  agreement  q u e s t i o n  h a s  i n c i d e n t s  only  c o m p a r i s o n  the  and  r a t e r s ,  p l a c e  The  w h i c h  s u b j e c t i v e  v a r i o u s  i n s t r u c t e d  t h a t  of  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  r e s e a r c h e r s b e t w e e n  aspect  The  was  c o n c l u s i o n  p l a u s i b l e  and  not  made, was too  s u b j e c t i v e . The i t s  v a l i d i t y  s u c c e s s  t o p i c  b e i n g  N i l s s o n ' s  at  of  the  i n c l u d i n g  q u e s t i o n e d .  study  i n  two  c r i t i c a l a l l T h i s  ways.  i n c i d e n t  the was  technique  i m p o r t a n t t e s t e d  a s p e c t s i n  r e s t s  on  of  the  A n d e r s s o n  and  22  In  the  t r a i n i n g  f i r s t  the  c a t e g o r i e s some of  and  broad  The a  T h r e e  a  scope  v i e w e d  r a t i n g  form  p o i n t  s c a l e  importance  judges as  groups:  the  the  l i t e r a t u r e  f o r  analyzed  and  compared  to  the  l i t e r a t u r e  had  reviewed  whether  the  86  s u p e r i o r s ,  i t  was  by  c h e c k i n g  w i t h  c o l l e c t e d  were  was  the  i n c i d e n t s  the  s t o r e  to  s t o r e  g e n e r a l l y  manager  e m p l o y e e s ,  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  ( u n i m p o r t a n t )  s t o r e  the  c a t e g o r i e s ,  was  m a i n l y  0  the  v a l i d i t y .  i m p o r t a n t  f r o m  of  A l t h o u g h  a s s i s t  v a l i d i t y  which  for  to  to  j u d g e s ,  i n  was  s u b c a t e g o r i e s .  of  h u n d r e d  c o n t e n t s  managers  way  number  a c t u a l l y  the  e q u i v a l e n t  other  l a r g e  four  s t o r e  m a t e r i a l  too  way,  were  to  5  p o s i t i o n .  f i l l e d  rated  (of The  on  t h e  manager's  work).  managers,  a s s i s t a n t s ,  and  c a t e g o r i e s  had  i n a  a  s i x -  g r e a t e s t  judges  were  i n  psychology  s t u d e n t s . R e s u l t s as  r a t h e r  b e t w e e n  showed  t h a t  u n i m p o r t a n t t h e  by  g r o u p s  s u b c a t e g o r i e s ,  the  technique  r e v e a l e d  for  the  showed be  had  manager's that  f r e q u e n c y u n i t .  f o u r  job.  as  concluded  b e h a v i o r a l  so  c o n t a i n i n g one  m e a s u r e  must of  the  the  u n i t s  be  r a t e d  the  range  t h e r e  w e r e  c r i t i c a l  c o n s i d e r e d  s t u d i e s fewer  been  a l t h o u g h  S i n c e  C o r r e l a t i o n  and a  g r o u p s  6 - 1 5 .  r e s e a r c h e r s  ones  a l o n e  f i v e  a l l  w a s  s u b c a t e g o r i e s  i m p o r t a n t  o n l y  of  i m p o r t a n c e  t h i s  same may  not of  i n c i d e n t important  i n c i d e n t s  c a r e f u l  86  to a  data s t i l l  r e g a r d b e h a v i o r  23  A n d e r s s o n p o s i t i v e  N i l s s o n  i m p r e s s i o n  they  were  that  method  In  of  j u s t i f i e d was  r e s e a r c h e d ,  an i t  c r i t i c a l  c o n c l u d i n g  can  be  i m p o r t a n t i s  c o n c l u d e d  r e l i a b l e  i t  i n f l u e n c i n g  s u b s u m e  the  i n  both  summary,  c o n s i d e r e d  events  and  seen  s p e c i f i c  t h e i r  i n c i d e n t that  m a t e r i a l  c o n c e p t ,  w i d e l y  f i n d  s e l f - e s t e e m .  ' e v e n t '  gave and  a  that  c o l l e c t e d  by  v a l i d .  although  to  s t u d y  method,  that  d i f f i c u l t a d u l t  and  t h a t  c o n c r e t e Most  v a r i a b l e s  s e l f - e s t e e m  i s  d i s c u s s e d  and  d e s c r i p t i o n s r e s e a r c h  u n d e r  tends  of to  a b s t r a c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . To e s t e e m ,  i s o l a t e the  d e v e l o p i n g behavior.  these  s p e c i f i c  c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t  c a t e g o r i e s  based  events  i n f l u e n c i n g  t e c h n i q u e on  the  has  d i r e c t  been  adult  s e l f -  a p p l i e d  o b s e r v a t i o n  to of  24  CHAPTER  TWO  Methodology  In under  t h i s  f i v e  c h a p t e r ,  the  headings,  c o m p a r i s o n  of  s t e p s  c o v e r i n g  of  areas  c a t e g o r i e s  the from  s t u d y  a r e  s u b j e c t  e s t a b l i s h e d  o u t l i n e d  s e l e c t i o n  w i t h  to  s u b j e c t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  S u b j e c t s  V o l u n t e e r a d d r e s s  l i s t  were  s e n t  over  21  s u b j e c t s of  to  an  90  years  were  u r b a n  members  o l d ,  and  r e c r u i t e d  c h u r c h who  (see  f i l l e d  absence  of  l e t t e r  A p p e n d i x  the  a  by  f r o m  L e t t e r s  B).  f o l l o w i n g  mental  the  c r i t e r i a :  d i s o r d e r  or  mental  r e t a r d a t i o n . T h i r t y - s e v e n who  were  group. from  people  a v a i l a b l e The  24  m a r r i e d  group  -  49,  and  for  agreed  the  d i v o r c e d  the  13  were  women  m a j o r i t y  people  p a r t i c i p a t e .  i n t e r v i e w  comprised  w i t h  to  were  and b e i n g  The  chosen 7  men 30  r e p r e s e n t e d .  as  f i r s t the  sample  r a n g i n g -  36.  Nine  20  i n  age  S i n g l e , people  had  c h i l d r e n . Education  ranged  s t u d i e s ,  w i t h  e d u c a t i o n  and  r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e 7  from  m a j o r i t y  having  were  high  s u c h  s c h o o l h a v i n g  p o s t - g r a d u a t e as  l a b o r a t o r y  g r a d u a t i o n some  to  d o c t o r a l  p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  e x p e r i e n c e . t e c h n i c i a n ,  Occupations t h e o l o g y  25  student, A l l  housewife  s u b j e c t s  and  viewed  The  To  a n s w e r  a d u l t s '  l a s t  C r i t i c a l  the  year.  which An  Three  themselves  had  as  the  of  O u t l i n e  Purpose  of  the  of  study:  the  e n h a n c e s  as  i s  i s  on  the  on  what  of  year,  that  w o u l d  s p e c i f i c of  a  l e v e l i n  i n  the  Table  1.  for  t h i s a b o u t  to  s t o r i e s ,  i n c i d e n t s  to  a by  that  or hear f r o m have  us  b a s i c a s k i n g  s p e c i f i c  i n f l u e n c e d  better  on  e s t e e m ,  d o i n g  me  l i k e  i s  d i f f e r e n c e  on  have  s e l f - e s t e e m .  t h e i r  I'm  t e l l  s e l f - e s t e e m  a r e  d e s c r i b e  r e s e a r c h  d e v e l o p  So,  to  i n c i d e n t s  I  a d u l t s '  r e s e a r c h  p e o p l e  What  to  from  I n t e r v i e w  makes  a d u l t s .  t y p e  shown  p r e s e n t  c h i l d r e n  not  a s k e d  I n c i d e n t  of  how  d e t r a c t s  1  s t u d y  Most  or  s e l f - e s t e e m  i n t e r v i e w  C r i t i c a l  My  were  t h e i r  TABLE  unemployed.  Interview  s u b j e c t s  the  were  C h r i s t i a n s .  what  i n f l u e n c e d  o u t l i n e  s u b j e c t s  I n c i d e n t  q u e s t i o n  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  i n c i d e n t s  nurse.  t h e i r  worse. from the made  you l a s t you  26  f e e l of Request  for  r e c a l l :  better  for  Could  you  as  s i t u a t i o n  and  w e l l  as  were  c o l l e c t e d  w i t h  other  c r i t i c a l  your  o p i n i o n  s p e c i f i c  i n c i d e n t  e x a c t l y  you  were  w h a t  back  e x p e r i e n c i n g  the i n  s e x ,  measure  by  f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t  the  for  c r i t i c a l n e s s  Why  was  to  age, the  to  s t r o n g l y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was:  up  i t  did  so  I n t e r v i e w  i n c i d e n t  compare of  the  the  i n  i t  s t a t e m e n t  was  the  a g a i n .  o n l y  i f  u n c l e a r . )  i n c i d e n t ?  i t  a f f e c t  of  the  you?  (test  i n c i d e n t )  h e l p f u l / h a r m f u l ?  Data  i n t e r v i e w , c a t e g o r i e s  s t a t u s ,  to  o t h e r of  The and  S e l f - E s t e e m made  used  was  s u b j e c t s .  m a r i t a l  Rosenberg  were  r e c a l l e d  How  c r i t i c a l  order  q u e s t i o n s  l e d  A d d i t i o n a l  The  a  t e l l  i f  i n c i d e n t  What  as  me  to  h a p p e n e d ,  the  score,  t e l l  T r y  (These  c o l l e c t e d  i n  a d d i t i o n a l  d e t a i l s :  As  worse  y o u r s e l f .  n o w ?  Request  or  d a t a  i n c i d e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n  s e l f - e s t e e m  S c a l e .  s u b j e c t s  f o l l o w i n g  c o l l e c t i o n : F r o m  t h e  i n c i d e n t s  I'm  g o i n g  to  27  e s t a b l i s h d e s c r i b e  v a r i o u s  p e r h a p s  r  t h e m e  as  a  groups  s u c h  as  d e a l i n g A f t e r  I  d e c i d e  t h a t (see  Summary  A f t e r v o l u n t e e r e d i n t e r v i e w . but more  some  Data  i n i t i a l were Most  were  c o n t a c t  i n t e r v i e w s the  by to took  p e o p l e  I've  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to  s t a t u s  f i l l  and  s c a l e  out  now  who  had  Procedures  s u b j e c t s  t i m e  p l a c e  r e s e a r c h e r ' s  to  A).  and  a  going  s e l f - e s t e e m  l e t t e r , s e t  and  d i f f e r e n t  the  you  A p p e n d i x  I'm  m a r i t a l  t h i s  l i k e  C o l l e c t i o n  t e l e p h o n e d  at  I'd  of  a g e ,  on  t h e m e s ,  t o  The  s e x ,  or  i n  when  and the  the  p l a c e  f o r  s u b j e c t s ' s u b j e c t  the homes  found  i t  c o n v e n i e n t . At  and  of  t h o s e  t h e m  i n t e r v i e w e d .  a n s w e r s  i n c i d e n t s ,  f a i l u r e .  i n t e r e s t ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t o  a c h i e v e m e n t  on  secondary  be  of  w i t h  c o m p a r e  w i l l  c a t e g o r i e s  the  s i g n e d ,  Appendix The  C).  i n t e r v i e w , w i t h The  i n t e r v i e w  the  e m p h a s i s purpose was  c o n s e n t p l a c e d and  conducted  uses by  f o r m  was  f i r s t  e x p l a i n e d  on  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y  of  t a p i n g  the  were  r e s e a r c h e r  (see  d e s c r i b e d . f o l l o w i n g  28  the  c r i t i c a l  data  i n c i d e n t  procedures  were  as  o f f e r e d  i n f o r m e d made  a  copy  the  The  were  f i r s t  a b s t r a c t e d f r o m  onto  o t h e r  i d e n t i f y i n g  a l l  d e s c r i b e d  i n  chosen  were  the to  To  meet  s u b j e c t which  of  1965,  were  d i s a g r e e  such  as  end,  and  c o n c l u s i o n s  by  the  was  were  w o u l d  r e s e a r c h e r  i s o l a t i n g  s u b j e c t  s u b j e c t s  the  be  and  c r i t i c a l  a s s i g n e d  a  number  the  F l a n a g a n ' s  Two  i n d e p e n d e n t  r e l i a b i l i t y  to  o b j e c t i v e  to  of  Subject  to  of  c a t e g o r i e s .  c o m p a r i n g t a b l e s  the  were  the  r a t e r s  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  c a t e g o r i e s ,  a c c o r d i n g  g u i d e l i n e s  s e l e c t e d  were  c r e a t e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  age,  sex,  m a r i t a l  being s t a t u s  l e v e l .  (Rosenberg  nature  and  c h a p t e r .  s e c o n d a r y  was  s t r o n g l y  the  q u e s t i o n s  f o l l o w i n g  C a t e g o r i e s  S e l f - e s t e e m  Respondents  ask  c a r d s ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  s e l f - e s t e e m  Scale  f o r m e d  s u b j e c t s  The  to  At  i n t e r v i e w  c o l l e c t e d .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  examined.  5"  p r e v i o u s  the  grouped  d e s c r i b e d .  Each  determine  Comparison  a d d i t i o n a l  t r a n s c r i b e d x  d a t a .  data  C a t e g o r i e s  3"  the  r e s u l t s  request.  event  and  of  upon  t a p e s  and  o p p o r t u n i t y  a v a i l a b l e  t h e n  were  p r e v i o u s l y  the  t h a t  i n t e r v i e w  "I  measured  asked w i t h f e e l  1979) to  which  the i s  s t r o n g l y  the that  w i t h  10 I  a  1 0 - i t e m  agree,  i t e m s  have  Rosenberg  a  Guttman  agree,  w h i c h  number  S e l f - E s t e e m  a r e of  s c a l e .  d i s a g r e e of  good  a  or  g l o b a l  q u a l i t i e s "  29  and of  "I  w i s h  t h e  10  measure  i s  esteem  i t s  such  l i t e r a t u r e  based  . 8 5  and  c o n f i r m i n g d e p r e s s i v e  as  of  r  =  the  on  1974  s u p p o r t e d  and i n  S c a l e  s c o r i n g  The  and  compared  e s t a b l i s h e d M a r w e l l ,  i n  1976).  r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s .  r e l i a b i l i t y  Two  r e s u l t e d  i n  s a m p l e s .  b e e n  s u p p o r t e d  peer-group  s t u d i e s  s e l f -  S c a l e .  w e l l  s c a l a b i l i t y  d i s c r i m i n a n t s e v e r a l  scores  g l o b a l  i n t e r n a l  e m p i r i c a l and  s c a l e .  and  i s  W e l l s  c o l l e g e  e x p e c t e d  7 - p o i n t  m e a s u r e d  t e s t - r e t e s t  h a s  The  S e l f - C o n c e p t  and  and  s m a l l  anxiety  i t  s a t i s f a c t o r y  v a l i d i t y  a f f e c t ,  a  myself".  A.  b e c a u s e  S e l f - E s t e e m  . 8 8  y i e l d  Tennessee  two-week  t h e  t o  f o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  r e p o r t s  of  C o n v e r g e n t  1979.  c h o s e n  r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y t e s t s  r e s p e c t  Appendix  ( W y l i e ,  C o n s t r u c t  b e i n g  i n  ease  (1979)  on  separate =  f o r  more  c o m b i n e d  was  R o s e n b e r g  R o s e n b e r g  r  a r e  s c a l e  measures  the  have  reproduced  and  The  could  i t e m s  T h i s  to  I  by  s t u d i e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h  r e p u t a t i o n .  v a l i d i t y  a r e  d e s c r i b e d  i n  r e p o r t e d  as  R o s e n b e r g ,  30  CHAPTER  THREE  R e s u l t s  For  t h i s  d e t r a c t s and  from  a d u l t  e x a m p l e s  v a l i d i t y s t u d y , Two  c r i t i c a l  a d d i t i o n a l  The  are  c a t e g o r i e s  s t u d y  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  g i v e n .  checks  i n c i d e n t  f i v e  r e s u l t s  d i s c u s s e d . a r e  c o m p a r e d  f i n d i n g s  of  note  are  the  20  v o l u n t e e r  c o l l e c t e d ,  a v e r a g i n g  c o n t r i b u t e d  1  between  need  4  and  -  2  or  10  -  r e l i a b i l i t y focus  of  and t h i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Data  113  usable  s u b j e c t .  11  d e s c r i b e d  i n c i d e n t s  S e v e r a l  i n c i d e n t s  a l t h o u g h  were  s u b j e c t s most  gave  8.  The  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  for  s u b - c a t e g o r i e s .  The  p e r  or  i n c l u d e d .  s u b j e c t s ,  6  e n h a n c e s are  secondary  s u b j e c t  D e s c r i p t i v e  From  v a r i o u s  the to  what  c a t e g o r i e s  of  As  on  produced The  major  c a t e g o r i e s  c a t e g o r i e s  1.  C o n f i r m a t i o n  2.  Overcoming  3.  Acceptance  4.  Sense  of  M u t u a l i t y  5.  Sense  of  Achievement  c a t e g o r i e s  by  5  5  w i t h  no  are:  Others  D e f i c i t s by  Others  c o n t a i n e d  a  range  of  16  -  27  c r i t i c a l  31  i n c i d e n t s  each,  w i t h  i n d i c a t e s  the  number  i n t o  p o s i t i v e  d e t r a c t i n g i n c i d e n t s  and  the of  each  two  having  i n c i d e n t s  n e g a t i v e  i n c i d e n t s . for  f i r s t  i n  e a c h  r e s p o n s e s ,  Shown  grouping  a l s o  are  and  the  TABLE  2  27  i n  sum  Table  c a t e g o r y ,  t h a t the  each.  i s ,  d i v i d e d  e n h a n c i n g  percentage  of  a l l  2  of  i n c i d e n t s  and t o t a l i n  a  c a t e g o r y .  Category  of  I n c i d e n t  Negative  Others  5.  of  I n c i d e n t Negative % No.  %  T o t a l No.  17  8.8  10  23.8  27  15.9  18  8.0  9  23.8  27  10.6  12  8.8  10  19.4  22  M u t u a l i t y  13.3  15  5.3  6  18.6  21  Sense of Achievement  10.6  12  3.5  4  14.1  16  TOTAL  65.4  74  34.4  Overcoming  Acceptance by  4.  and  15.0  D e f i c i t s 3.  P o s i t i v e I n c i d e n t  C o n f i r m a t i o n by  2.  by of  Nature P o s i t i v e % No.  Category 1.  Nature  Others  Sense  of  Table o r d e r e d spread  by i s  2  a l s o  t o t a l  demonstrates number  observed.  of  that  the  i n c i d e n t s  i n  c a t e g o r i e s e a c h .  113  100  39  A  were  rank  f a i r l y  even  32  D e f i n i t i o n s  T h i s sample  s e c t i o n  i n c i d e n t s  Category  a  s p e c i f i c  r e l a t e d c h u r c h  l e a d e r s h i p  of  a  of  the  c a t e g o r i e s  of  each  and  category.  sources  o u t s i d e  the  s e l f  performance. a  number  c o n t a i n e d  f u n c t i o n s  q u a l i t i e s  Examples  a l s o  C a t e g o r i e s  c o n t e n t s  from  or  i n c l u d e d but  the  Others  s k i l l ,  c a t e g o r y  i n c i d e n t s  a f f i r m i n g  by  the  C o n f i r m a t i o n t r a i t ,  of  d e s c r i p t i o n s  i l l u s t r a t e  C o n f i r m a t i o n  1:  T h i s  Examples  p r e s e n t s to  D e f i n i t i o n : of  and  and  I  got  j o b -  or  r e f e r e n c e s  even  p e r s o n a l i t y  Enhancing:  of  one  p r o f e s s i o n -  to  p a r e n t i n g ,  i n c i d e n t  on  the  t e s t . p r a i s e  and  encouragement  about t e a c h i n g i n church, both b e f o r e and a f t e r I d i d i t . T h i s i n c r e a s e d my s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . D e t r a c t i n g :  Category  2:  Overcoming  D e f i n i t i o n : i s t i c ,  b r e a k i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p . S u b j e c t s to  t h e i r  My b o s s c o m p l i m e n t e d c o n f e r e n c e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e n b e l i t t l e d i t ' i n t e r e s t i n g t r i v i a ' .  D e f i c i t s  O v e r c o m i n g a  bad  s e l f - e s t e e m  i n to  a  n e g a t i v e  h a b i t .  Overcoming r e p o r t e d  my and a s  W o r k i n g  adverse t h i s change  p e r s o n a l to  c h a r a c t e r -  i m p r o v e  a  poor  c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  category b e h a v i o r s  that  i t  such  was as  enhancing  nervousness,  33  t h i n k i n g  n e g a t i v e l y ,  I m p r o v i n g o t h e r s about  o v e r a l l  was  a l s o  r e p e a t i n g  e x p r e s s i o n  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i m p o r t a n t . known  anger  Examples:  Category  Three:  o r ,  i n  s p i t e  acceptance, T h i s o t h e r s God  but  was  of  b e h a v i o r s  such  as  were  o f t e n  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  D e t r a c t i n g :  I e x p r e s s e d anger t o w a r d s my h u s b a n d b e c a u s e he w a s n ' t h e l p i n g me w i t h the c h i l d r e n . I know t h a t h u r t s h i m and I know I d i d n ' t d e a l w i t h my i r r i t a t i o n p r o p e r l y . I t ' s something I've done a number of t i m e s and w i s h I hadn't done a g a i n .  A the  c e r t a i n  by  by  g e n e r a l s e l f ,  c a t e g o r y  and  not  Others  a c c e p t a n c e based  b e h a v i o r .  a c q u a i n t a n c e s m e n t i o n e d  e x p e r i e n c e d  on  of  a  p e r s o n  p a r t i c u l a r  I n c l u d e s  from  b e h a v i o r s  e x p r e s s i o n s  of  support.  d e m o n s t r a t e s  f r e q u e n t l y  a f f i r m a t i o n ,  i n c i d e n t s  w i t h  T h r o u g h a w e i g h t c l i n i c , I've r e c e n t l y l o s t 30 p o u n d s and l e a r n e d how my emotions a f f e c t my e a t i n g . I f e e l good about how I l o o k and my a b i l i t y to avoid o v e r e a t i n g .  a f f e c t i o n  a l s o  a t t i t u d e s  s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .  Acceptance  o u t s i d e  e g o c e n t r i c i t y .  s p e c i f i c  D e t r a c t i n g  negative  or  or  and  Enhancing:  D e f i n i t i o n : s o u r c e s  p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n  i n  a  a c c e p t a n c e i n as  a  by  v a r i e t y a  v a r i e t y  s o u r c e of  s i g n i f i c a n t  of  s i t u a t i o n s . of  ways.  l o v e T h a t  and the  34  c a t e g o r y  c o n t a i n e d  i n c i d e n t s , r e j e c t i o n  p e r h a p s and  Four:  h i g h e s t  i n d i c a t e s  c r i t i c i s m  Examples:  Category  the  to  p r o p o r t i o n the  of  s t r o n g  d e t r a c t i n g  s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e .  Enhancing  When my c h i l d was bad i n f r o n t o f my f a t h e r , h e s u r p r i s e d me by r e a c t i n g w i t h s y m p a t h y to both of us. I f e l t l o v e d , a c c e p t e d and supported.  D e t r a c t i n g  In a c l a s s I c r i t i c i z e d t h e o t h e r s ' a p p r o a c h to the t o p i c . L a t e r I r e a l i z e d t h a t a l l I'd done was a l i e n a t e them and so they r e j e c t e d me.  Sense  D e f i n i t i o n :  An  of  M u t u a l i t y  e x p e r i e n c i n g  of  s i m i l a r i t y ,  c l o s e n e s s  or  b e l o n g i n g . A  number  of  m u t u a l i t y  w i t h  i n c i d e n t s  were  as  j e a l o u s y T h i s  i n  of  b e t w e e n  S t i l l ,  a  ones a  A  or  p o i n t i n g  and s e n s e  or  acceptance  were  f r i e n d s out  A c c e p t a n c e of  was being  s e l e c t i o n  or  of  based the  e x p e r i e n c e s  God.  The  of  d e t r a c t i n g  from  others  such  estrangement. by  O t h e r s  m u t u a l i t y of  about  a l i e n a t i o n  c u l t u r a l  a c c e p t a n c e  c a t e g o r i e s  s m a l l  h e r e  members,  f r i e n d  g e n e r a l the  m u t u a l i t y  f a m i l y  c a t e g o r y  r e l a t i o n s h i p . d e g r e e  i n c i d e n t s  the  n e c e s s a r i l y  e a c h on  have  o t h e r . the  most  i n c i d e n t s  i n c l u d e s  a  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  s u b j e c t ' s  c r i t i c a l were  c l o s e s t  r e p o r t  esteem  found  to  of  f a c t o r . i n c l u d e  35  e q u a l  a s p e c t s  category i s :  of  both  t o t a l s .  An  c a t e g o r i e s  example  of  an  and  so  were  i n c i d e n t  not  from  i n c l u d e d t h i s  i n  category  D u r i n g a v i s i t by my p a r e n t s , f r o m out of t o w n , they a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t my h o m e was now h e r e , they saw why I l i k e d i t , and they approved of my f r i e n d s . We w e r e able to enjoy one a n o t h e r as a d u l t s . Examples  of  the  Enhancing:  Sense  of  M u t u a l i t y  Category  I g a v e a s p e e c h a b o u t C h r i s t i a n because I f e l t  how I b e c a m e a God wanted me to.  B e c a u s e I o b e y e d , my s p e a k i n g w a s S p i r i t l e d , not e g o - l e d . The s e n s e of w a l k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h God made me f e e l good about m y s e l f . D e t r a c t i n g :  Category  F i v e :  I j and of and i s o b e t r e d  Sense  D e f i n i t i o n : or  an  area  of  s e t t i n g s :  of  Achievement  I d e n t i f y i n g  for  o n e s e l f  a  s k i l l  w e l l  done  accomplishment.  Achievements of  u s t moved back f r o m 11 y e a r s i n E u r o p e A f r i c a . I'm e x p e r i e n c i n g a l a r g e sense l o s s of f r i e n d s h i p s , s u p p o r t s y s t e m s , p l a c e s . N o t h i n g i s f a m i l i a r , I f e e l l a t e d and i n s e c u r e w i t h no r e l a t i o n s h i p w e e n my p a s t and f u t u r e . I need to e f i n e myself.  or  home,  f a i l u r e s j o b s ,  here  s c h o o l i n g ,  o c c u r r e d  i n  f r i e n d s h i p s  a  wide and  v a r i e t y volunteer  work. Examples:  Enhancing:  I'm p r o u d of my p a r e n t i n g a b i l i t y ; how I do t o g e t h e r w i t h my w i f e and how my c h i l d i s i n t e r m s of who she i s and what I've taught her.  36  D e t r a c t i n g :  In l e a d i n g a c h u r c h s e r v i c e , I f e l t w e l l o r g a n i z e d but a l s o t h a t I h a d n ' t had enough t i m e to t h i n k t h r o u g h my i d e a s on i t . I was d i s a p p o i n t e d i n m y s e l f , -that I c o u l d have done b e t t e r .  R e l i a b i l i t y  F l a n a g a n  o b s e r v e d  o b s e r v a t i o n  can  o b j e c t i v i t y  of  t e n d e n c y same  f o r  r e p o r t " T h i s  t h e s i s  by  c h e c k e d  t h i s a  number  (1954,  means.  h a v i n g  c o n t r i b u t e d  i n d e p e n d e n t  c o m p a r i s o n  l i t e r a t u r e .  how  i s  o b s e r v e r s  o b j e c t i v i t y  l o o k e d  each  were  the  w e l l  range  t h i s  of  to  f o r  by  r e p o r t e d on  the  meant  the  make  the  of  f a c t o r s  d i f f e r e n t s t u d y  form  w i t h  r e - c l a s s i f y  the  how  the  many  d e t r a c t i n g  each  c a t e g o r i e s  v a l i d i t y c i t e d  and  category  c o n t r i b u t i n g of  i n was  c h e c k i n g  i n  t h e  r e v i e w e d  c a t e g o r i e s  whether  r e p r e s e n t e d f e l t  was  the  r a t e r s  category,  j u d g e s  s l i g h t l y of  a  p r i m a r i l y  o b j e c t i v i t y  i n d e p e n d e n t  to  w h e t h e r  A  By  w h i c h  depends  R e l i a b i l i t y  was  i n c i d e n t s  s e l f - e s t e e m .  f a c t  i n d e p e n d e n t  show  two  V a l i d i t y  of  a  to  p . 3 3 5 ) .  enhancing  the  of  s e v e r a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  as  V a l i d i t y  e x t e n t  o b s e r v a t i o n .  w i l l  by  " t h e  accepted  s e c t i o n  i n c i d e n t s . s u b j e c t s  be  t h a t  and  to i s  and w e r e a d u l t  seen  i n  s e l f - e s t e e m  37  Independent  Two  Rater  r a t e r s  R e l i a b i l i t y  (A  i n d e p e n d e n t l y . c a t e g o r i e s  and  i n c i d e n t s  to  c l a s s i f i e d r a t e r  R a t e r  A  were  s e l e c t e d  was  p r o v i d e d  d e f i n i t i o n s  c l a s s i f y .  by  the  a c h i e v e d  the  B)  t h e i r  a  need  70%  The f o r  d e f i n i t i o n s  to  l e v e l  procedure  f o r  a  perform  w i t h  a  random  s a m p l e  the  i n  a  of  the of  of  50  w e r e  method.  This  r e s e a r c h e r ' s  p i l o t  s e v e r a l  l i s t  check  i n c i d e n t s  a g r e e m e n t as  t h i s  s e l e c t i o n  the  acted  a d d e d  to  demonstrate  of  i m p r o v e m e n t  and  and  S e v e r a l  r e s e a r c h e r  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . out  and  Checks  study  p o i n t i n g  the  c a t e g o r y ' s  of  d e t r a c t o r  d e s c r i p t i o n s  c a t e g o r i e s . The  improved  cards  were  a  a g r e e m e n t  92%  strong  presented  Another  Table  w i t h  Rater  the  B.  most This  of  the  f i n a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  same  s o r t  i n c i d e n t  r e s u l t e d  s y s t e m ,  i n  i n d i c a t i n g  Rate  way  r e v i e w i n g  each  to  and  r e l i a b i l i t y .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n  by  d e s c r i p t i o n s  c a t e g o r y . 3.  the  of  d e t e r m i n i n g  number The  of  r a t e s  o b j e c t i v i t y  s u b j e c t s of  i n  t h i s  r e p o r t i n g  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a r e  study  was  i n c i d e n t s  i n  r e p o r t e d  i n  38  TABLE Number  of  S u b j e c t s  R e p o r t i n g  C o n f i r m a t i o n  4.  5.  Number of S u b j e c t s  65  13  80  16  Others  55  11  Sense of M u t u a l i t y  50  10  Sense of Achievement  55  11  Overcoming D e f i c i t s  3.  Category  by  Others 2.  per  Percent of T o t a l S u b j e c t s  Category  1.  3  Acceptance  by  More  than  c a t e g o r y .  The  s u b j e c t s  h a l f  of  r a n k  r e p o r t i n g  e s t a b l i s h e d  r a n k  the  s u b j e c t s  o r d e r i n g per  o r d e r  of  the  c a t e g o r y by  r e p o r t e d  c a t e g o r i e s  i s  number  i n c i d e n t s  of  s i m i l a r  to  i n c i d e n t s  by  i n  each  number  the  of  a l r e a d y  r e p o r t e d  per  c a t e g o r y .  O p p o s i t i o n a l  As  w e l l  Reinforcement  as  number  c a t e g o r y ,  v a l i d i t y  e n h a n c i n g  and  g i v e n raw  per  numbers  c a n  s u b j e c t s a l s o  d e t r a c t i n g  i n c i d e n t and  of  as  i n a  T a b l e  be  r e p o r t i n g  d e m o n s t r a t e d  i n c i d e n t s 2  percentage  any  per  i n c i d e n t  by  the  c a t e g o r y .  and  per  s u b j e c t  of  the  t o t a l  i n  a  r a t e  of  T h i s  i s  T a b l e  sample.  i n  4,  as  39  TABLE Number  of  S u b j e c t s  Negative  A  R e p o r t i n g  I n c i d e n t s  per  P o s i t i v e  or  Category S u b j e c t s  R e p o r t i n g  P o s i t i v e Category 1.  %  C o n f i r m a t i o n  11  AO  8  60  12  35  7  AO  8  AO  8  M u t u a l i t y  AO  8  20  A  Sense of Achievement  A5  9  20  A  Overcoming  Acceptance  by  Others A.  5.  No.  55  D e f i c i t s 3.  %  by  Others 2.  Negative  No.  Sense  A l l  c a t e g o r i e s  e n h a n c i n g the  of  and  the  esteem  Content  s u b j e c t s .  j u s t  V a l i d i t y  C o n t e n t checked  a r e  e s t e e m  l e v e l  by  v a l i d  f a c t o r as  an  had  by  i n c i d e n t s . i n  t h a t  has  a  a  r e p o r t i n g  both  T h i s  d e m o n s t r a t e s  t h a t  l a c k  of,  s u b j e c t s  s i g n i f i c a n t  enhancing  i n c i d e n t  or e f f e c t  d e t r a c t i o n on  s e l f -  does.  Check  v a l i d i t y  having A l l  supported  d e t r a c t i n g  c a t e g o r i e s  f r o m ,  are  the  f o r  the  category  c o n f i r m i n g  c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n i t i o n s  comments  to  c h o s e n  was  a l s o  reviewed  by  three  make  such  as,  "Those  AO  c a t e g o r i e s  seem  make  and  the  sense  to  f i t  there  the  seem  to  w i t h  the  t h i n g s  be  I  t o l d  d i s t i n c t  y o u , "  and  d i f f e r e n c e s  "They  between  c a t e g o r i e s . "  Comparison  In r e v i e w  of  R e s u l t s  A n d e r s s o n of  the  and  l i t e r a t u r e  w h i c h  c o m p a r e  to  study.  As  has  been and  knowledge  r e l a t e  However, with  i d e a s  w o u l d  presented  a p p e a r  q u e s t i o n s  w i t h  the  i m p o r t a n t  p l e a s u r e ,  and  l i k e l y  or  r e p o r t  s e l f - e s t e e m .  of  one  t h i s  the  on  or  the  H i s  s t r o n g  s i g n i f i c a n t number  to of  the  w i t h  p r e s e n t i s  often  body  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  review. of  l i f e  p r e s e n t of  s u b j e c t s  impact.  some were  Since  w h a t  i s  i n d i v i d u a l ,  i n c i d e n t s  t h a t  i s o l a t e d  s t u d y .  e x p e r i e n c e s ,  of an  i n  some  s i m i l a r i t y  d e t e r m i n a n t  a  show  the  s a t i s f y i n g w i t h  manuals  d e f i n i t i v e  q u a l i t y  to  hand.  f a i r l y  study.  study  the  so  a  l i t e r a t u r e  no  l i t e r a t u r e  g i v e n  not  v a l i d i t y  was  t r a i n i n g  i s  i s  and  there  s e l f - e s t e e m  present  i n  at  job  T h i s  p a r a l l e l s  i n c i d e n t s  i m p o r t a n t  to  the  r e l i a b i l i t y  t h e r e  (1978)  l o g i c a l  w i t h  p l e a s u r a b l e ,  i n  s t u d y  d e s c r i b e  an  to  so  c a t e g o r i e s  c a t e g o r i e s  form  the  Review  t e c h n i q u e ,  r e s u l t s .  vague  F l a n a g a n ' s some  the  noted,  c o n f l i c t i n g to  i n c i d e n t  i n  the  L i t e r a t u r e  N i l s s o n ' s  c r i t i c a l  c o n c r e t e  i s  w i t h  T h i s of  h i s  a s k e d  to  s o u r c e s  of  s e l f - e s t e e m s a t i s f y i n g ,  s u b j e c t s e n h a n c e d  were t h e i r  41  T h r e e  of  the  o t h e r - r e l a t e d , o u t s i d e by  the  and  i n f o r m a t i o n m a j o r  l i s t e d .  i s  seen  h e a d i n g s  two  of  and  m e n t i o n s  the  i n c l u d e :  m a t e r i a l  ( f i t n e s s ) , encouraging  A c t i v i t i e s ,  d e s c r i b e d  i n  one's  a s s e t s  p e r s o n a l  and  as,  and  i n f l u e n c e  the  c o u r s e  people,  major  e x p e r i e n c e s  or  a p p r o a c h e d  and  one's  (1967)  and  l i f e  a r i s e s (p. and  r e s e a r c h  p r e s e n t  s t u d y ,  a l s o  have s t u d y  c a t e g o r i e s  w h i c h  s e c u r i t y ,  h e a l t h  to  h e l p i n g  and  w i t h  c a t e g o r y  w h i c h  i n t o  and  o c c u p a t i o n a l  s i m i l a r i t y  the i s  and  acceptance  of  and  a w a r e n e s s  of  r e a l i z i n g  the  s i g n i f i c a n 1 1 y . . .  from  P e o p l e ,  F l a n a g a n ' s  e x p e r i e n c i n g  development, of  the  development,  p l a n n i n g  of  c a t e g o r i e s  O t h e r  r e l a t e d  much  three  R e c r e a t i o n .  the  a c t i v i t i e s  i n s i g h t  i n  15  w i t h  f i n a n c i a l  has  Acceptance  D e f i c i t s  of  f r o m  o t h e r - r e l a t e d  the  s t u d y .  number  " g a i n i n g  a c t i v i t i e s "  t h e i r  a  and  component  C o o p e r s m i t h  L i f e  l i m i t a t i o n s ,  growth  a  of  D e f i c i t s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n  a r e  s o u r c e s  Survey  and  O v e r c o m i n g  under  p e r s o n a l  part  c a t e g o r i e s  s t u d y  Others,  R e l a t i o n s  i n t e l l e c t u a l  O v e r c o m i n g  by  of  C i v i c  c h i l d r e n ,  o t h e r s ,  8  a r e  w e l l - b e i n g  r a i s i n g  e s t e e m  L i f e  a r e a s  Q u a l i t y  a c h i e v e m e n t  of  i n c l u d e  and  p r e s e n t  P a r a l l e l  Q u a l i t y  s e l f - r e l a t e d  i n  to  M u t u a l i t y .  w h i c h  m a j o r  the  C o n f i r m a t i o n  the  A c h i e v e m e n t  p a r a l l e l s  r o l e .  of  i n  of  r e f e r r i n g  i n c l u d i n g  Community  The  c a t e g o r i e s  i s ,  Sense  These  S o c i a l ,  Sense  t h a t  s e l f ,  O t h e r s ,  i t s  f i v e  r e l i g i o u s  or  a b i l i t y .For  to  some  s p i r i t u a l  139). R o s e n b e r g  f r o m  the  (1965  s o c i a l  and  1979)  both  s e l f - p e r s p e c t i v e  42  a l t h o u g h  they  d i d  f i n d  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y e f f e c t h i s  on  r e s u l t s  t h a t  f i n d i n g s  There the  are  a r e  r e s e a r c h ' s  few  For  t h a t  come  p e o p l e  o t h e r s ,  and  o t h e r s .  about  R o s e n b e r g  i s  to  i n c i d e n t p e r s o n , which  s t u d y  s i m i l a r (1967)  to no  of  of  i n  one's w i t h b e i n g  w i t h  a  way  c a n  study  be at  r e s e a r c h  methods  the  t h a t  that  i n  hand.  by  comparison  to  of  m u t u a l i t y , a  p e r s o n  t h i s  i s  the but goes  c r i t i c a l  i n f l u e n c e i n  the p l a c e  s e l f - e s t e e m .  b e t w e e n For  s t a t e  v i e w e d  p r o c e s s  i m p a c t s  s e e n  a r e  where t h a t  a  Rosenberg's  i m p o r t a n c e  p r o c e s s  e v e n t s  t h i s  p r i n c i p l e s  and  s e l f  r e s u l t s ,  among  and  they  the  the  the  a s s u m p t i o n i n  as  s u p p o r t  the  authors  f a c t o r s  c o n f i r m a t i o n ,  on  these  c o n f i r m a t i o n s  themselves  e v a l u a t e  p a r a l l e l the  i t s  congruent  b e t w e e n  Rosenberg's  e v a l u a t e  and  events  t h a t  between  c o n f l i c t s  g e n e r a l l y  the  to  c a t e g o r i e s  d i f f e r i n g  t h e m s e l v e s  c o n c e r n e d  and  the  two  f o c u s e s on  of  emphasizes  i s i s  t h r e e  C o o p e r s m i t h ' s  a c c e p t a n c e ,  c o n c e i v e  b a s e d  r e s e a r c h  a r e  people  more  e v a l u a t e s A  due  v i e w  w o u l d  c a t e g o r i e s  of  u n c o n d i t i o n a l  to  This  t e r m s  r e l a t i o n  group  c o m p a r a b i l i t y  example,  that  T h i s  through  to  c a t e g o r i e s ,  p r i n c i p l e s .  i n  i n  s e l f - e s t e e m .  r e s e a r c h  a l s o  v i e w  e s p e c i a l l y  s o c i a l  p r e v i o u s l y  t h e r e  t h i s  f a c t o r  environment.  of  l i m i t s  A l t h o u g h  t h e r e  i m p o r t a n t  sources  on  C o o p e r s m i t h  m e n t i o n e d  present  u s e d .  the  l i m i t s  s p e c i f i c  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  o t h e r - r e l a t e d  and  any  s e l f - e s t e e m .  immediate the  of  some  h i s  C o o p e r s m i t h ' s success  f a c t o r  A3 he  d i s c u s s e s  t h e  i n t e r p e r s o n a l success study as  and  f a i l u r e . i n  s k i l l ,  s a i d  to  e v a l u a t e d event  i t s e l f  c o n f i r m i n g c r i t i c a l  s a i d  as  the  source  between  process  The  same  Coopersmith's  f r i e n d s ,  s u c c e s s and  event  type  of  values  f o u n d  s i g n i f i c a n t .  t h o s e  e x p e r i e n c e d  young  s u b j e c t s .  were  valued  m a i n l y  f r o m  d e t e r m i n e d hold  as The  as  t h i s  As  h o m e ,  important  and  and  the  w o r k s t u d y  i n  from the  i f  p e e r the  of  the  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  of  the  of  the  the  Sense  m a j o r i t y  the  i s  t h a t and  supported i s  e x i s t s  b e t w e e n  i n c i d e n t  s u b j e c t s  peer  f a c t o r ,  or  be  tenuous.  v a l u e s  i n  could  comparison  somewhat  v a l u e s  of  It  category  a r o s e  g r o u p s  of  i n c i d e n t s t h i s  g r o u p s .  c h i l d h o o d  as  i n f l u e n c e  the  s e l f - e s t e e m  and  could  the  c r i t i c a l  s u c c e s s  to  has  a g a i n ,  s c h o o l  s p e c i f i c that  c o l l e a g u e s .  s a i d  defined  e x p e r i e n c e s  p a r a l l e l  the  t h i s  on  t h a t  but  a  i n  of  f o c u s e d  than  t h e r e f o r e  home,  w i t h  arose  s t u d y  the  of  i n c i d e n t s  f a i l u r e  and  t e n t a t i v e  f a c t o r  t h i s  i n c i d e n t s  s e e n  f a c t o r ,  the  o n e s e l f  c o n f i r m a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t  f r o m  and  C o o p e r s m i t h i n  Others  perhaps  f a m i l y  standards  category,  r a t h e r  be  of  by  r e v i e w i n g  can  i m m e d i a t e  c o l l e c t e d  p r e s e n t  by  i t  that  Coopersmith's  are  enhancer but  i n v o l v e  t e n t a t i v e l y  The  p e r s o n ' s  i n c i d e n t s  o u t s i d e  s u c c e s s  o t h e r s .  a  determinant  c r i t i c a l  performance,  i n c i d e n t s  i n c i d e n t s  the  s o u r c e s  d e s c r i b e by  of  C o n f i r m a t i o n  f r o m  or  as  The  the  c o n f i r m a t i o n  be  by  environment  f a l l i n g  t r a i t ,  i m p o r t a n c e  t h a t c u r r e n t  study  I t  c a n n o t  s u b j e c t s  f r o m h i s t h a t came be now  s o u r c e s .  A c h i e v e m e n t  c a t e g o r y  44  support b a s e d  Coopersmith's so  s t a t u s  much as  on  on  and  of  i n  success  the  i n  p e r f o r m a n c e , church  11  r e l a t e d  v o c a t i o n a l  d i s t i n c t i o n  m a t e r i a l  of the  made  between of  t h e s e  ends  r e w a r d s ,  s o c i a l  A c h i e v e m e n t  and  e m o t i o n a l i t y  i n  o n e s e l f  c a t e g o r i e s the  Others  e d u c a t i o n  and  c h u r c h  a c t i v i t i e s  and  remainder  a  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  s t a t u s .  of a r e  P e r h a p s  of  category,  i n c i d e n t s the  not  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  importance  c o n f i r m a t i o n 27  was  C a t e g o r y .  wealth  t o of  the  e v a l u a t i o n i s  another  t r a i t s , a l s o  are  measure  s k i l l s  f r i e n d ,  mainly  s e l f - e s t e e m  not  b a s e d  m o r a l  or  Acceptance mode  i s  and  a r e i n  seen  or  f a m i l y  r e l a t e d  s e e n  the  by  a  the to  to  E m o t i o n a l i t y v i e w  e x i s t e n t i a l  w o r t h  by  Sense  i n c l u d e d  s h o r t c o m i n g s  but  yet  and  and  v i e w i n g being  s t u d y .  or  s e e n  Sense  of  w i t h  f e e l i n g s o f t e n  i n  i n  t h e  M u t u a l i t y .  In  o n e s e l f able  valued  m i x e d  but  i s of  of  the  ( W e l l s ,  p r e s e n t  c a t e g o r i e s  u t i l i t a r i a n  Others  i s  a c h i e v i n g  O t h e r s ,  D e f i c i t s . on  l i t e r a t u r e  e m o t i o n a l i t y  r e l a t i o n i n  C o n f i r m a t i o n Overcoming  e m o t i o n a l i t y  acknowledging  i n  f a c t o r s  or,  r e l a t i o n  o n e ' s  and  i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y  I n s t r u m e n t a l i t y  about  by  w h i l e  p o i n t  B o t h  and  by  the  success  achievements.  Another  1976).  d e f i n e d  of  w e a l t h ,  A c h i e v e m e n t  over  of  sense  m a t e r i a l  enhanced  t e r m s  a  f r i e n d s  C o n f i r m a t i o n  s u c c e s s  and  t h e  environment  church In  as  F a m i l y ,  p r e d o m i n a t e d  that  a t t a i n i n g  s u c c e s s  e n v i r o n m e n t .  C h r i s t i a n  f i n d i n g  to  honestly l i v e  and  h a p p i l y  45  and  c r e a t i v e l y .  D e f i c i t s  c a t e g o r y  a c c e p t i n g about  This  to  Comparison  The  of  the  g r o u p i n g  the  a the  y i e l d e d  s p e c i a l  age  c o n t r i b u t e d c o n f i r m i n g  the that  a  p o s i t i v e  be  changed.  r e l a t e  enough  for  to  a t t i t u d e  comparison  s e l f - e s t e e m s t a t u s  to  age  was  the  g r e a t e s t  s c o r e .  d e l e t e d  t a b l e s  were A f t e r  due  to  s t u d y ,  the  examines  set  30  to  36  i n c i d e n t s mainly  a  up  b e i n g  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  d e m o n s t r a t e d  the of  were  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  i n c i d e n t  but  number  study  the  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h i s  Overcoming  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  s e l e c t e d  a c c o r d i n g  i n  the  i n c i d e n t s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  s u b j e c t  g r o u p i n g  by  sample.  other  s u b j e c t s  of  Subject  and  m a r i t a l  s m a l l  C o m p a r i n g  m a j o r  to  s t a t u s ,  e x a m i n e d . no  can  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n  evaluate  having  they  s u b j e c t s ,  v a r i a t i o n To  yet  i l l u s t r a t e d  m a j o r i t y  C a t e g o r i e s  m a r i t a l  r e v i e w i n g  i s  the  b e l i e v e  s u b j e c t  s e x ,  wide  where  s h o r t c o m i n g s  o n e s e l f  age,  aspect  t h a t  the  y e a r - o l d s ,  per  s u b j e c t ,  middle  adulthood  group. The few  comparison  m a l e s  r e p o r t e d  c a t e g o r y  w h i l e  i n c i d e n t s  i n  The h a v i n g group  of  of  had  a  s u b j e c t  13  i n  the  f e m a l e s  to  category  showed  C o n f i r m a t i o n  e a c h  c o n t r i b u t e d  by  that  O t h e r s s e v e r a l  c a t e g o r y .  R o s e n b e r g m o d e r a t e  of  i n c i d e n t s  10  t h i s  sex  to  S e l f - E s t e e m h i g h  g r e a t e r  S c a l e  g l o b a l  p r o p o r t i o n  r a t e d  a l l  s e l f - e s t e e m . of  n e g a t i v e  s u b j e c t s  as  The  m o d e r a t e  to  p o s i t i v e  46  i n c i d e n t s  [11:15]  than  the  high  s e l f - e s t e e m  A d d i t i o n a l  Since d i s c r e t e of  the  and  e v e n t s  b e c a u s e are  of  s u b j e c t  d a y s  l e a r n i n g I t ' s  A  d e s c r i b e d  i n c i d e n t w i t h the  the  the  these  r e s e a r c h e r  t h i s  I to  has  to  keep  been  i s  a  at  i n  group  c r i t i c a l seen  These the  change  to yet  e v e n t s  time  they  h a v i n g  an  s e l f - w o r t h .  w e l l ,  s a y i n g ,  "Most  i n f l u e n c e s through  g o i n g ,  events  c l e a r l y  method.  p e r s o n a l  work  there v e r y  s e l f - e s t e e m  of  up  as  not  r e s e a r c h  n e g a t i v e can  t h e s e  to  i t  i s  i n c i d e n t s  c a t e g o r y  e i t h e r  e v e n t ,  which  the  j u s t  D e f i c i t s  and  which  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  summed  of  as  a p p e a r e d  r e c o r d s  t h i n g s  have  the  s i t u a t i o n s  but  p a r t  that  of  screwed  p e r s e v e r a n c e  overcome."  n u m b e r  O v e r c o m i n g  c o m p l e x  on  i m p o r t a n t to  t h a t  p r o c e s s  growing.  s t r e n g t h  c a t e g o r i e s ,  of  a  a r e n ' t  and  negative  d e t r a c t i n g  to  e f f e c t  One  and  are  l e a d  technique  but  [ 1 7 : 3 6 ] .  F i n d i n g s  i n c i d e n t  s t u d y  n a t u r e  which  enhancing  up.  the  but  t h e s e  t h i s  or  s e l f - e s t e e m  ones  o c c u r  p o s i t i v e  i n  s u b j e c t s '  c r i t i c a l  group  a l t h o u g h  e n h a n c i n g d i v i d e d  negative change  or  i n t o  one.  s u c h  were  e v e n t s  they  a r e  d e t r a c t i n g  b o t h  Since  i n c i d e n t s  b e l i e v e s  o b v i o u s l y  the the t o l d a r e  f a l l of  were  o r ,  and  w i t h  a  c r i t i c a l emphasis  q u i t e  c r i t i c a l  t h e  n e c e s s i t y  p o s i t i v e a f f e c t  i n  s t r o n g , to  a d u l t  47 s e l f - e s t e e m . as  a  c a s e  Because  s t u d y .  of  The  t h i s ,  one  i n c i d e n t  t r a n s c r i p t i o n  w i l l  w i l l be  be  presented  f o l l o w e d  by  a  d i s c u s s i o n . I've had a d i f f i c u l t work s i t u a t i o n i n the l a s t year. I was promoted to a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n . But some p r o b l e m s a r o s e a n d my s u p e r v i s o r s d i d n ' t see me a s t r u s t w o r t h y or s u p p o r t i n g of them. I was l a b e l l e d to my f a c e a r e b e l , because they thought I was u n d e r m i n i n g t h e m . T h e r e were some t h i n g s I d i d n ' t agree w i t h but my i n t e n t was not to knowingly u n d e r m i n e t h e m . B e c a u s e I see my most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i was d e c i m i n t r o s p e c t w i t h them  s u a h s  s t i c a t i n i v e but  s as l o y a l t y and t r u g to me. I was w i t h because I was c h a l l e g e n e r a l l y blamed my  s t w o r t h i n e s s , t h i s d r a w n , l o n e l y and n g e d . I was angry self.  But by l a t e i n t h e y e a r I w a s s e e i n g ome l e a d e r s h i p t h i n g s t h a t I d i d n h e l p f u l to t h o s e under me. I had l e b o u t how my a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s . a d n ' t r e a l i z e d my p o w e r and i n f l u u p e r v i s o r .  By t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a had i n i t i a t i m p r o v e d i n t h i n g s were and w i l l i n g  f o r m y s e l f t h a t w e r e a r n e d more P e r h a p s I e n c e as a  end of t h e y e a r I was l a b e l l e d t h l l e a d e r , meaning that i n r e l a t i o n s h i p e d , e n h a n c e d , and m o d e l e d . I a l s d e l e g a t i o n and s i m i l a r s k i l l s . Whe b e t t e r I was e x t r o v e r t e d , f u n ; l i v e l to take on e x t r a t h i n g s .  e I o n y  When I l e f t the j o b at the end of t h a t d i f f i c u l t y e a r , h a v i n g w o r k e d i n the p l a c e f o r o v e r t h r e e y e a r s , a number of p e o p l e t o l d me t h e y l i k e d me, t h a t they l i k e d my w o r k w i t h the c l i e n t s , and t h e y e n j o y e d w o r k i n g w i t h me. T h e y m e n t i o n e d my s e n s e of humor and o t h e r t h i n g s . T h i s was good f o r me, e s p e c i a l l y b e c a u s e the l a s t y e a r h a d b e e n my f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e ever of people wondering about me i n such a n e g a t i v e way.  I t to  the  i s  c l e a r  s u b j e c t ' s  t h a t  much  of  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  t h i s  e x p e r i e n c e  e s p e c i a l l y  as  i t  was was  d e t r a c t i n g i n i t i a l l y  48  i n c o n g r u e n t p e r i o d  of he  u n h e l p f u l  he  became  by  now,  l e f t .  to  i n t o  a  leave  type  d e f e n s i v e n e s s of  c o n t r o l .  o n e ' s  end  of  one.  and  a l s o  may  be  A n o t h e r s a m p l e  b e i n g  i n  l o n g  w o n d e r f u l ,  as  able  to  drawn t h a t  14 I  of  remember  then  other  God people  the  to  a  be  and  r e s e a r c h e d g l o b a l  s t u d y , i s  the  w i t h  me, l i k e  on  the  without  e v e n t and  one's  e f f o r t  a  l o c u s  to  I t as  a b i l i t y e x c e s s i v e  w i t h i n  to  change  w o u l d  way  the  i n  be  w h i c h  p o p u l a t i o n  a l t e r n a t e  God  can me  subject  behavior  s o u r c e  b r i n g s .  summarized I  was  s e l f - e s t e e m .  due  s u b j e c t s  can  of  c o - w o r k e r s .  based  i s  the  d e t r a c t i n g  s u s t a i n e d  t h e i r  l o v e s  many  e v e n t  w i t h  of  change  c h u r c h ,  Two  by  p o s i t i o n  n e g a t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n c i d e n t s .  and  remains  number  means  t h i s a  valued  e x p e r i e n c e s  p r o c e s s  f r o m a  a  that  improve  f i n d i n g  s e l f - e s t e e m evident  t h i s  and  understanding  seems  or  h e l p f u l  p o s i t i v e l y  a  s t i l l  by  b e l i e v e  h i s  s t r o n g e r  say  hurt  negative  i t  see  to  i n  and  time.  but  e x p e r i e n c e  to  much  e x t e n d e d  c o n c e r n  o b v i o u s l y  v i e w e d  a  Some  was  an  much  c l e a r l y  He  t h i s  develop  analyze  to  more  i n  over  p r o b a b l y  and  l e f t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a d u l t s  "As  h i m  a p p r e c i a t e d  Often  i n t e r e s t i n g  see  l a t e r ,  to  of  and  and  s u p e r f i c i a l  months  f e e l i n g  accept  the  p o s i t i v e  leader  H o w e v e r ,  b e h a v i o r s .  was  be  a  e i g h t  This to  at  to  under  He  w o u l d  enabled  a b l e  t h o s e  s e l f - k n o w l e d g e  turned  s e l f - v i e w .  l e a d e r s h i p  r e s p e c t e d  I t  h i s  s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n ,  t h o u g h t ,  when  w i t h  t h i n k  too,"  and  T h i s  i t of  t h i s m y s e l f  "God  i s  of was way: as the  49  one  who  and  a c c e p t s  even-  g i v e s me  b e t t e r " .  e s t e e m  becomes  enhancing  s e l f - e s t e e m . as  I  am,  These l e s s  and  He  shows  t h e n  s t a t e m e n t s s u b j e c t  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  to  me  how  e n c o u r a g e s t y p i f y n e g a t i v e  the  much me  he  loves  to  change  v i e w  t h a t  e v e n t s  t h r o u g h  me  to  be  s e l f t h i s  50  CHAPTER  FOUR  C o n c l u s i o n s  The  f i n d i n g s  r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n ,  i n  t h i s  "What  s t u d y  s u g g e s t  some  enhances  or  d e t r a c t s  i n c i d e n t  t e c h n i q u e  a n s w e r s from  to  the  s e l f - e s t e e m  a d u l t h o o d " . U s i n g  f i v e  the  50%  c r i t i c a l  c a t e g o r i e s  i n c i d e n t s ;  of  of  of  74  the  16  to  were were  p o s i t i v e  s u b j e c t s  27  p r o d u c e d  i n  was  i m p r o v e d a  Twenty  and  c o n t r i b u t e d  i n c i d e n t s  R e l i a b i l i t y  a c h i e v e d  d i s c o v e r e d .  39  to  each  category.  t e s t e d .  R e s u l t s  c a t e g o r y  r e l i a b i l t i y  of  s u b j e c t s  were  each  ( F l a n a g a n ,  category,  the  d e f i n i t i o n .  . 9 2 ,  provided  n e g a t i v e .  of  s u g g e s t i n g  1954),  At  w i t h  113 l e a s t  a  range  i n i t i a l  r a t e r  s e c o n d  r a t e r  A  r e l i a b i l i t y  of  the  study  and  data. ^ T h i s the  c h a p t e r  i m p l i c a t i o n s  r e s e a r c h .  The  c o n s i d e r s i n  the  r e l a t i o n  chapter  ends  l i m i t a t i o n s  to  t h e o r y ,  with  a  summary  of  the  p r a c t i c e of  the  and  f u t u r e  r e s e a r c h .  L i m i t a t i o n s  A f r o m the  c l e a r  t h i s  l i m i t a t i o n  s t u d y  s a m p l e .  The  d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  i s  seen 20  to i n  the the  s u b j e c t s  e v a n g e l i c a l  g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y r e s t r i c t e d a r e  n a t u r e  v o l u n t e e r s  c h u r c h .  and  V o l u n t e e r s  of and f r o m may  f i n d i n g s s i z e a  of n o n -  d i f f e r  51  g r e a t l y  f r o m  p o s s i b l e the  n o n - r e s p o n d i n g  b i a s e s  r e s e a r c h e r  s e n t did  t h e not  hard  want  to  f o r  be  non-response s c o r e s .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  1 9 7 9 ) .  c a t e g o r i e s t h a t  i s  o u t s i d e would  t h i s  s e l f .  e x t e r n a l t h e  r e p o r t e d f e m a l e s t h e  20  been  sources  c o n t r i b u t i n g r e s t r i c t e d  to  of  7  of  l i m i t a t i o n  i s  the  w i t h  a p p r o v a l  low t h e  (Borg  and  i n c i d e n t s  be  a  s i m i l a r  h a v e  a n d  o t h e r - d i r e c t e d , f r o m  s e l f - e s t e e m  s t i l l  they  through  between  i n f o r m a t i o n  were  the  may  have  m a l e .  number  c e r t a i n  s i z e  t h a t  s u b j e c t s  to  were  s o u r c e s  l i t e r a t u r e been  skewed  r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  o n l y  between  of  noted  who  going  c r i t i c a l  r e s u l t s  of  s u b j e c t s ,  d i f f e r e n c e s  much  view,  those  were  two  F i r s t l y ,  s t a t i n g  s o c i a l  of  s t u d y ,  v o l u n t e e r s  f o r  m a j o r i t y  a  l e t t e r  absence  need  Although  from  correspondence  the  have  t h i s  o c c u r r e d .  they  s e l f - e n h a n c i n g  such  have  S e c o n d l y ,  study  r e c e i v i n g  because  and  In  responses  come  higher  The  support  Of  to  i n  the  towards  s e v e r a l  may  a  may  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  s e l f - e s t e e m  G a l l ,  f i n d i n g s  p a r t i c i p a t e  There  f o r  t h e  r e c e i v e d  r e q u e s t  time.  reasons  i n  s u b j e c t s .  of  T h e r e  i n c i d e n t s  c a t e g o r i e s .  t h e  s e x  were  s a m p l e s  This or  some  males may  to  and  be  due  s e x - t y p e d  r e p o r t i n g . Another t h a t  memory  a d v a n c e took way  them that  what a  f o r  i n c i d e n t s  was  to  w h i l e  to  answered  be  the  based  on  i m p r o v e d  r e m e m b e r e d .  begin  Flanagan's  t h i n k i n g  r e s e a r c h  i f  o b s e r v e r s  S u b j e c t s of  q u e s t i o n  comment  t h e i r and  o f t e n  knew  i n  found  e x p e r i e n c e s s e v e r a l  (1954)  said  i t  i n  a  they  52  would  have  l i k e d  began  r e p o r t i n g  m o r e  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n c i d e n t s s u b j e c t s The  to  t h e  g i v e  been  advance of  about  the  i n  a  t h a n  advance.  number t i m e  c o l l e c t e d  knowledge  of  s a m p l e  t o t a l w i t h  c a t e g o r i e s  d e f i n i t e  i n  the  of  p o s s i b l e  Once  found  s u b j e c t s  that  they  had  a l l o w e d .  the  l i m i t e d  had M o r e  t i m e  i f  q u e s t i o n .  and  n u m b e r  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and  i t  i n c i d e n t s ,  have  s i z e  a f f e c t e d  think  t h e i r  may had  to  l i m i t e d - t i m e  i n c i d e n t s i n f l u e n c e  i n f l u e n c e  a v a i l a b l e on  on  i n t e r v i e w  the  t h e  f o r  number  l a c k  of  of s u b -  c a t e g o r i e s . T h e s e l e a v i n g  c a t e g o r i e s  open  the  were  p o s s i b i l i t y  a s s i s t e d  i n  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  r e s u l t i n g  i n  a  r e l i a b i l i t y  S e l f - r e p o r t s r e s p o n s e - s e t has  been  t h e s e T h i s s t y l e  i s  e f f e c t s b i a s  may  of  t h i s  r e s e a r c h e r negative  the  may  been  make of  to  of  s e v e r a l  e a c h  and  s o c i a l  types  s u p p o r t  o t h e r by  r a t e r s  c h e c k s ,  the  s e c o n d  b i a s .  need  (Borg  and  a f f e c t  the  p e r s o n a l  t h a t  and  v a l i d i t y the  One  i t  r e s u l t s . i n t e r v i e w  s k i l l s  of  w i l l  the  r e v e a l  1979).  checks  f i n d i n g s  as  of  a p p r o v a l ,  the  s u b j e c t s  G a l l ,  type  and  s o c i a l  i n t e r v i e w i n g  l i k e l y  of of  Two  d e s i r a b i l i t y  o f t e n  the  more s e l f  r e s e a r c h e r  b i a s .  p e r s o n a l  r e d u c e d  i t  the  p e r s o n a l  one  92%.  open  enhance  r e s e a r c h  d e m o n s t r a t i n g  of  are  by  r e l i a b i l i t y  v o l u n t e e r s  have  a s p e c t s  of  d i r e c t i o n  t h a t  which  Although as  a l s o  n o t e d  f o r m u l a t e d  i n  were the  d e s c r i b e d r e s u l t s ,  a  53  d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t s t r y i n g  was  to to  p r e s e n t  some  of  r e l a t e  a d o l e s c e n t s l i m i t a t i o n  the  s t y l e  and  on of  the  than  l i t e r a t u r e , c o n g r u e n c e w i t h  the  the  p a r a l l e l s w i t h  s o c i a l of i s  r e m a i n s  seen  d i f f e r  the  compared In category the  r o l e  p o s i t i v e have  to the of of  survey  how  two  the  s t u d i e s ,  c h i l d r e n  f a c t o r s  and  c o n s t i t u t e  f i n d i n g s .  on  T h e s e  a d u l t s ,  i m p o r t a n c e  the  c o n c e r n i n g  d e m o n s t r a t e d  i n t e r n a l i z i n g  of  to  of  s o c i a l  w h i c h  s u g g e s t  p a r a l l e l s ,  suggest i n  the  a l o n g  that  s o c i a l  a d u l t h o o d .  v a l u e s  and  e n v i r o n m e n t  It  s t a n d a r d s on  a d u l t s  c h i l d r e n . area  of  working  Overcoming  to  a r e l e s s  to  D e f i c i t s  d e t r a c t i n g  r e c e i v e d  d e s e r v e .  been  o n g o i n g  i n f l u e n c e  change  i m p o r t a n c e  of  on  the  p r o b l e m  same  l i m i t a t i o n s  s e l f - t h e o r y .  L i f e  r e i n f o r c e m e n t be  have  the  s e l f - e s t e e m  a l s o  the  r e l a t e  I m p l i c a t i o n s  a f o r e m e n t i o n e d  Q u a l i t y  to  of  was  of  These  v a l i d i t y  to  T h e s e  w e r e  a d u l t s .  c h e c k i n g  T h i s  r e s e a r c h .  T h e o r e t i c a l  D e s p i t e  a t t e m p t i n g  process  R o s e n b e r g ,  r a t h e r on  i n  l i t e r a t u r e .  r e s e a r c h  e v e n t s  C o o p e r s m i t h  a  d e m o n s t r a t e d  improve and  i n c i d e n t s  a d u l t  the i n  a d d i t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i n g  l o g i c a l l y  i m p o r t a n t  a t t e n t i o n  i n  s u b j e c t s  i n  t h i s  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  the s t u d y  a r e a s  but  l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d  the  f i n d i n g  of  l o n g - t e r m a p p e a r t h a n  s u g g e s t  to  t h e i r they  54  In add!tion to the comparison of the results of this study  to the l i t e r a t u r e  chapter,  this study  review  presented  in the previous  can be seen to lend some support to  psychological theories which include discussion of some aspect of self-esteem. In c1ient-centered therapy,  Rogers s t a t e s that an  individual's need for positive regard can only be met by others.  Because adults, especially parents, rarely provide  unconditional positive regard, children grow up learning to devalue  some part of their experience because significant  others have done so (Corsini, 1973, p. 130-131). c 1 i e n t - c e n t e r e d psychotherapy  i s meant  With adults,  to provide an  atmosphere of unconditional positive regard to enable a client to once again accept, without devaluation, a l l of his s e l f experiencing . This unconditional positive regard, defined as acceptance of a person's  individuality  (Corsini,  p. 127), i s quite  similar to this researcher's category of Acceptance by Others and once again emphasizes the significance of other-re1ated categories. The  devaluing of experience  that affects the child's  self-worth continues to affect i t in adulthood as can be seen in the negative  incidents contributing especially  to the  categories of Sense of Achievement, Overcoming Deficits, and Confirmation by Others, as described in this study.  55  In Gestalt theory i t i s postulated that children are taught  to mistake  approval  for acknowledgement.  Since  acknowledgement is necessary to survival, the child creates an acceptable  social  face,  a self-image,  to gain  approval  (Corsini, p. 264). Because a l l of the self cannot now be accepted,  parts of the personality refuse to accept other  parts and symptoms of a conflicted personality can occur.  In  therapy, the goal is for the conflicting personality parts to appreciate one another.  This results in cessation of conflict  which leads to a combining of the parts into a more integrated whole person (Corsini, p. 269). A somewhat similar process i s seen in this researcher's report on additional findings.  A number of subjects gained a  strong esteem benefit from overcoming d e f i c i t s , necessarily  which i s  based on facing and accepting less desirable  personality aspects. Subjects also benefited from their whole selves being accepted by others. receiving  In Gestalt terms this would be called  acknowledgement  performance.  rather than  approval  based on  According to Gestalt theory, people learn to  seek approval rather than acknowledgement.  The adults in the  present study demonstrated the importance of this approval from others in the Confirmation by Others category, and from themselves in the Sense of Achievement category.  56  Practical Counsellors in  several  could  ways.  checklist  to  benefit  The  areas  receiving  self-esteem  similarly  used  benefit  by  detracting  is  by  Others  the  just  as  more  emphasis  a  this,  of  specific  on  by  the  strength  this  be  are  used  or  in  which  incidents  as  are  Categories  areas  study a  not  could  clients  be may  or  avoiding  insights  for  practice.  general  acceptance  important. but  traits  the  or  subjects.  The  study  also  shows  was  Counsellors and  the  Acceptance  abilities  confrontation  of  by that  mentioned  could  provide  a f f i r m a t i o n on  the  this. Deficits  contributed.  incident,  the  the  was For  contribution  indicate  goal-setting  The  that  supports  subjects  motivate  of  could  adults  provide  is  frequently  may  also  counsellor  Overcoming  This  of  enhancing  cateogries  category  of  overall  where  suggestions  understood  confirmation  basis  results  ones.  widely  client  the  reinforcement.  e l i c i t i n g  Particular It  from  categories  assess  as  Implications  in  for  the  a  category  clients to  course  of  which  reporting  self-esteem  counsellors  to  the  was  a  to  of  positive  quite  importance  counselling  80%  strong. of  encourage  early and  client.  Sense  of  Mutuality  category  reinforces  the  57  s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  a l s o  the  need  and  s p i r i t u a l . In  number  for  people  c o l l e c t i n g of  s i m i l a r  i n  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i n c i d e n t s ,  the  e n c o u r a g e d  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  to  t h e i r  s e l f - e s t e e m .  be  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and  a r e a s  used  i n  sources  t h a t  c o u l d  on  or  i n  a  r e v i e w i n g  s i t u a t i o n s  s e l f - e s t e e m ,  f o c u s e d  found  P e r h a p s  c o u n s e l l i n g  of  be  by  and  p e r s o n a l  r e s e a r c h e r  q u i t e  c o u l d  c l i e n t  both  be  an  them,  be  c o u n s e l l o r  to  technique  determine  between  to  the  s u b j e c t s  p o s i t i v e  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  a to  l a c k  r e i n f o r c i n g  s e l f - e s t e e m . In  c o g n i t i v e  myths  or  t h e y  a r e  and  m i s b e l i e f s t a k e n  t e c h n i q u e which  of  which  on  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  as  t r u t h s .  g e n e r a l i z e d  c r i t i c a l  r e s u l t i n g c o n s i d e r e d w i t h  a  as  5 an  l a r g e r  c o n f i r m i n g p e r h a p s  i n  the  a l l o w  t h e s e  r e p o r t i n g  f o r  s e l f - a t t i t u d e s  m i g h t  be  c o u n t e r e d  a r e  c r i t i c a l  on when  o v e r by  the  i n c i d e n t s  s e l f - v i e w s .  f r o m study.  Research  of 113  more  s u b c a t e g o r i e s .  a d u l t  T h i s  i s  w o u l d  w i d e l y A  s e l f - e s t e e m  i n c i d e n t s  R e p l i c a t i o n  s a m p l e . as  f o c u s  t h e s e  s t u d y  c a t e g o r i e s  a  of  i n c i d e n t  b r o a d e r  i s  Many  Future  e x p l o r a t o r y and  a f f e c t  for  c a t e g o r i e s  t h e r e  p o s i t i v e  negative  I m p l i c a t i o n s  T h i s  t h e r a p y  a d v e r s e l y  P e r h a p s  c l i e n t s  r e f u t e  A d l e r i a n  l a r g e r  c o u l d  be  suggested a s s i s t  a p p l i c a b l e s a m p l e  i n and  c o u l d  58 compare which of  male  was  ratio  also  for  of  behavioral Subjects  to  This  have  twice  in  as  or  low  objects  problem  a low  et  al.  during  second  group,  reinforcement  and  to  subjects  reporting  which  such  were  who  non-  the  subjects enhancing  been  also  be  to  were  following  had  study  feeling combined  assist  treatment  the  effects.  incidents  could  Marshall's  determining  they  of  subjects  contacting  lead  incidents  Henry  (1982b)  that  researcher  in  John  of  with  1982b).  phases  effect  or  and  related  various  study  might  combined  (1982a  or  the  checking  self-esteem  measures  Comparison  self-esteem  interestingly  Hawthorne  a  reporting  study.  esteem  evaluating  the  as  of  treatment  esteem  Incident  of  with  be  what  Such c o n t a c t s  in  present  Marshall  in  sex-typed  incidents.  could as  for  the  sources  friend  well  isolated.  the  in  Marshall's  as  weekly.  socially  their  help  a relative  self-esteem  with  their  variables  protocol  made  be a s k e d  could  example,  the  such  influencing  in  positive  study  studies  treatment For  to  of  could  study.  be  differences  type  sub-groups  visible  could  negative  This  were  female  minimally  results  looking  and  with  was  most  contain  vague  effective. Since and  self-esteem  c o n f l i c t i n g  ideas,  descriptions  resulting  could  be l i n k e d  this  somehow  researcher  has  theory  been  perhaps  from to  has  studies  other  described  as  types  the  seen  specific  s u c h as of  to  the  esteem  contributing  to  behavior  present  studies  one which  a -description  59  of  the  adult  process  of  self-evaluation.  self-esteem  behavioral  and  would  The  probably  best  arise  cognitive-affective  understanding  of  combinations  of  from  research.  Summary This Technique from ages  (Flanagan,  adult 24  exploratory  self-esteem.  -  represent  49,  recording  from  a normal  Critical resulted  1954)  in  113  age,  Self-Esteem  characteristics  urban  interviews  marital  Incident  enhances  or  13 f e m a l e s  and  church  lasting  Subjects status  which  to  of  Critical  were  detracts 7  males,  chosen  to  group.  incidents.  Scale,  the  what  sample  small  adult  sex,  using  examines The  a  Incident  study  also  and  were  and  to  formed  a half  completed  including  used  categories  one  the  a  form  Rosenberg  compare from  hours  subject  the  critical  incidents. Five  basic  Confirmation Others, Categories was  by  Sense  contained to  were  Overcoming  Mutuality  and  16  to  27  by  at  least  an  acceptable  demonstrated  Secondary categories  Others, of  contributed  categories  c a t e g o r i e s  comparisons  demonstrated  the  found  Deficits, Sense  incidents 50%  between the  as  of  each the  level  subject  majority  of  f o l l o w s :  Acceptance  by  of  Achievement.  and  each  subjects. of  category These  reliability.  characteristics data  came  from  and 30  60  to  36  y e a r - o l d s  represented  i n  A d d i t i o n a l have  p o s i t i v e  e n h a n c i n g provided  and the  R e s u l t s s e l f - c h a n g e  were  l o n g - t e r m  enduring  low  s e l f - e s t e e m  a l s o  source the on  that  b e n e f i t s  and  suggest e f f o r t s  no  s u b j e c t s  were  study.  f i n d i n g s  e s t e e m , an  t h a t  of  i n  t h a t  d e t r a c t i n g promoting a  s e l f - e s t e e m .  s e l f - c h a n g e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s e l f - e s t e e m  importance  i n c i d e n t s  of  w i t h  could and God  enhancement.  s o c i a l  i n f l u e n c e s  and  61  REFERENCES  Andersson,  B-E  &  N i l s s o n ,  S-G.  (1964).  S t u d i e s  i n  the  r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y of t h e c r i t i c a l t e c h n i q u e . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 48, Borg,  W. New  & G a l l , York:  Coopersmith, S. F r a n c i s c o :  M. (1979). Longman/nc.  E d u c a t i o n a l  Research  (1967). The Antecedents of W.H. Freeman & C o . , 1967.  Flanagan, J.C. (1954). The c r i t i c a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 4_, 3 2 7 Flanagan, J.C. (1978). q u a l i t y of l i f e . 147. *  i n c i d e n t 398-403.  (3rd  e d . ) .  S e l f - e s t e e m .  i n c i d e n t - 358.  San  technique.  A r e s e a r c h approach to i m p r o v i n g American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 3 3 , 138 -  M a r s h a l l , W.L. & C h r i s t i e , s o c i a l s e l f - e s t e e m ' . 89.  our  M.M. (1982). The enhancement Canadian Counselor, 16, No. 2,  of 8 2 -  M a r s h a l l , W . L . , C h r i s t i e , M . M . , L a n t h i e r , R.D. & C r u c h l e y , J . (1982). T h e . n a t u r e of the r e i n f o r c e r i n the enhancement of s o c i a l s e l f - e s t e e m . C a n a d i a n Counselor, 16, No. 2, 90 96. Rosenberg, M. (1965). S o c i e t y and the P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Rosenberg, Books  M. (1979). I n c .  C o n c e i v i n g  the  Adolescent P r e s s .  Self.  New  Webster, M. & Sobieszek, B. (1974). Sources A Formal Theory of S i g n i f i c a n t Others & New Y o r k : John Wiley & Sons, I n c . W e l l s , L.E. & M a r w e l l , C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s  S e l f - i m a g e .  York:  B a s i c  of S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n : S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e .  G. (1976). S e l f - e s t e e m : and measurement. Beverly I n c .  I t s H i l l s :  W y l i e , R. (1974) The S e l f - c o n c e p t : r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , V o l 1, Review of M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and Measuring Instruments. L i n c o l n , Nebraska: U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s .  A  62  W y l i e ,  R.  Theory  (1978). and  U n i v e r s i t y  The  Research of  S e l f - c o n c e p t : s e l e c t e d  Nebraska  P r e s s .  r e v i s e d  t o p i c s .  e d i t i o n ,  L i n c o l n ,  Vol  2,  Nebraska:  63  APPENDIX ADDITIONAL  THEMES I N A.  ADULT  DATA C O L L E C T E D  SELF-ESTEEM  ROSENBERG S E L F  ESTEEM  -  the whole,  2.  At  times  3.  I  feel  4.  I  am a b l e  5.  I  feel  6.  I  certainly  feel  7.  I  feel  I'm a person  equal 8.  I  wish  9.  All  I  am n o g o o d  have  a number  do n o t have  plane I  I  t o do t h i n g s  that  with  could  in a l l , I  SA  A  D  SD  at a l l .  SA  A  D  SD  good  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  SA  A  D  SD  am s a t i s f i e d w i t h  think I  DATA  SCALE  On  that  FROM S U B J E C T S  ADDITIONAL  1.  I  I  A  of  as well  myself.  qualities.  a s most  other  t o o much t o be p r o u d  useless  at  B.  I  Sex  take  of worth,  at  least  F  M  Age Marital  Status  on an  others.  have  more  respect  am i n c l i n e d  a positive  of.  times.  to feel  for that  myself. I  failure. 10.  people.  attitude  toward  myself.  am a  APPENDIX C O N S E N T TO P A R T I C I P A T E  Consent  to  participate conducted  I  have  been  informed  of  C IN  THE  RESEARCH  i n t h e r e s e a r c h f o r "Themes by D r .  L.  Cochran  the following  i n Adult  and P h y l l i s  aspects  of  this  Self-Esteem,"  Gilchrist  research:  -  The i n t e r v i e w w i l l i n c l u d e d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h have enhanced o r d e t r a c t e d f r o m my s e l f - e s t e e m a n d r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e R o s e n b e r g Self-Esteem Scale.  -  The i n t e r v i e w Gilchrist.  -  An a n o n y m o u s t r a n s c r i p t i o n w i l l be made o f purposes. The t a p e w i l l t h e n be e r a s e d .  will  be a u d i o t a p e d  and heard  The i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t a b o u t t w o h o u r s . questions concerning the research before I  may w i t h d r a w  from  the research at  Knowing t h e above and having r e c e i v e d participate i n this research.  Subject  only  the tape  L.  Cochran  t o be used  for  and P h y l l i s  research  The i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l answer and a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w .  any time  a copy  by Dr.  of  during  this  the  consent  Interviewer  project.  form,  I  agree  to  

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