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An existential-phenomenological approach to understanding the meaning of grief Claspell, Emily 1984

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AN EXISTENTIAL-PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING MEANING OF GRIEF By  EMILY L E E C L A S P E L L B.S., C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1978 M.S., E a s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department  We  accept to  of C o u n s e l l i n g  this  thesis  the required  STUDIES Psychology  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA APRIL  1984 1 984  THE  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  h i s or  be  her  copying of  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  not  be  Counselling  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  April  17,  19.84  of  Psychology Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t Of  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  ii ABSTRACT  The of  study  investigated  understanding  assumed t o be r e s e a r c h and  Eight from  33  the  meaning  a beginning practice  t o 50  were  of  or  can  individuals,  acquaintances, asked  the  the  interviews  the  with  phenomenon. M e a n i n g which  the  aim  is  theory,  evolve.  f o u r women and  recruited  from  for participation  f o u r men,  a network i n the  grief  w i t h i n the c o n t e x t  were t a p e d ,  of g r i e f  a p l a t f o r m from  to d e s c r i b e a personal  analysis  experience  of  study.  experience  of  three  t r a n s c r i b e d and  ranging friends  and  to  as  the  age  and  Each person  interviews.  used  in  was  validate The  data  for  the  study.  The  meaning of  grief  was  existential-phenomenological descriptive Studies in  methodologies  s t u d i e d by approach.  outlined  in Phenomenological  by  using  The  analysis  Giorgi  Psychology  results  meaning of described  grief? and  description  of  statement  of of  The  woven  address  an  The  and  meaning.  by for  Colaizzi  (1978)  Psychology.  t h e q u e s t i o n : What- i s t h e  exhaustive  essential  description,  grief  the  m a j o r c o n s t i t u e n t s ( o r themes) were  into  grief.  phenomenological definition  directly  followed  (1975) i n Duquesne  I I and  Existential-Phenomenological Alternatives  The  an  was  phenomenological  structure,  i s the  presented  condensed i n an  d e r i v e d from descriptive  unequivocal  the  i i i T A B L E OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT.. LIST  OF  •  TABLES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I.  II.  vi  INTRODUCTION Personal  1  Explication  of Assumptions  5  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW The M e d i c a l G r i e f as G r i e f as Assumptions  i i  12  Model an i l l n e s s o r d i s e a s e a syndrome of the M e d i c a l Model  15 15 18 23  The S t a g e M o d e l o f G r i e f Process versus State Primary Emotions Assumptions of the Stage Model The D e v e l o p m e n t a l M o d e l A Biological Basis L o s s as a D e v e l o p m e n t a l Task Assumptions of the Developmental  24 24 ...28 30  Model  The  S o c i a l Adaptation Model Bio-sociological explanation Assumptions of the S o c i a l Adaptation The P s y c h o a n a l y t i c M o d e l Psychodynamic e x p l a n a t i o n Assumptions of the Psychoanalytic The C u l t u r a l M o d e l Assumptions of the C u l t u r a l  r  Model  Model  Model  3 1 31 34 35 35 36 38 38 39 41 42 44  The E x i s t e n t i a l M o d e l Loss as Meaning Existential Crisis Assumptions of the E x i s t e n t i a l Model  45 46 46 49  The C o g n i t i v e M o d e l Assumptions of the C o g n i t i v e  49 50  Cr it ique  Model  51  iv  III.  METHODOLOGY  58  D e s c r i p t i o n of Co-Researchers Role Select ion Demographic Information.'  63 63 64 67  Procedures Sampling Procedure The I n t e r v i e w Procedure f o r Analysis  67 67 68 71  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . .  I ssues IV.  77 81  RESULTS Researcher's  Experience  Context For Viewing Themes  81  Themes  87 92  •  Context For Viewing the Phenomenological D e s c r i p t i o n and E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e Phenomenological Description E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e of G r i e f V.  102 104 112  DISCUSSION Dialogue Personal Dialogue Implications Implications Implications  115 •  116 116 121  Dialogue with Literature f o r EP R e s e a r c h f o rP r a c t i c e f o rFuture Research  ••  125 126 128  Conclusions  129  BIBLIOGRAPHY  131  APPENDIX A  144  APPENDIX  273  B  V  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table I-. R e l a t i o n  r  Between  Models of G r i e f  Page 13  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  would  stories. this  like  Their  study  as  chairman  His  wisdom less  i s extended  and r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r a n d c o m m e n t s g u i d e d me working  Joan  Bill  clarifying  through sense  my  thinking  Gray  asked  throughout  made  who  served  committee.  t h e s t u d y a n d made  recognition  and w r i t i n g  helpful stimulated  of encouragement,  for their  environment i n  about  Phenomenology and  q u e s t i o n s and suggested the writing  Norm A m u n d s o n c o n t i n u a l l y  h i s words  Cochran  o f my d i s s e r a t i o n  provided a nurturing  ideas which  dissertation.  to Larry  members d e s e r v e  Anderson  t o sharpen  research. of  to the truth  i n the "desert".  My o t h e r c o m m i t t e e  which  o f my c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f o r t h e i r  involvement and d e d i c a t i o n  gratitude  lonely  support.  each  possible.  A special  it  t o thank  showed  ways  in this me h i s s u p p o r t  s u g g e s t i o n s a n d an  unfailing  o f humor. I  am g r a t e f u l  t o my  entire  and  t h e v a l u e o f my w o r k .  and  direction  of these  committee  for believing  This dissertation  special- people  reflects  i n me  the ideas  and i s one I f e e l  very  proud o f . I work would  wish  t o thank  and g i v i n g like  friends  their  t o acknowledge  acknowledge could  me  my  do i t .  my p a r t n e r  f o r taking  wholehearted Sheila  Keith.  an i n t e r e s t  support.  Campbell.  He b r o u g h t  In p a r t i c u l a r , I  Finally, I o u t my  i n my  lovingly  b e s t a n d knew I  1  CHAPTER  1  Introduct ion  What have  i s the meaning  grown  there  significantly  h a s been  Psychology part  viewed  of t h i s .  methods  doctoral  suitable  twenty  to grief  years. of  used  t o study  a consequent  grief.  grief  within  follow the  emphasis  the meaning  upon  of  this  of  grief.  s t r u c t u r e ) of g r i e f i s  experience.  grief  for a large  The p u r p o s e  (or essential  However,  One  methodology  the context  of  lived  i s existential-phenomenology (EP). chapter  the meaning  on t h i s  devoted  assumptions  of t h i s  investigation.  and e x p e c t a n c i e s  presents  highlights  assumptions,  presents  fahe  a n d why  i t i s important  background  i n accordance  with the  approach  in this  a review  used  of the l i t e r a t u r e  approaches  with a critique methodology  used  to  p o r t i o n of the chapter  of t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s  the different  and ends  introduces the problems  The l a t t e r  to the explication  chapter  study  of g r i e f ,  existential-phenomenological  chapter  related  t h e meaning  i s to understand  b y s t u d y i n g human  first  involving  which  about  understanding.  for investigating  The  second  the past  The m e t h o d o l o g i e s  f o r t h e meaning  experience  Studies  a s a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e may a c c o u n t  r a t h e r than  accomplished  is  written  dissertation  search  embark  during  of n a t u r a l science, with  measurement  The  little  of g r i e f ?  to grief  study. on and  The  grief their  of each model.  The  third  in this  The  fourth  study.  2  chapter  presents  context  from  which  descriptions meaning  the  (see  phenomenological  does  not  through the  version  of  The the  with  meaning  theory  dialogue  for  theory,  The  grief  or  key  with  as  of  also  bulk  of  of  alternate  structure  of  results,  practice.  problem,  and  conflicting  the  existing  are  generalities  which  phenomenon.  No  grief  mean?  grief  chapter Instead,  study  is a  i n the  Questions  fully  the  form  chapter  important  is  condensed  providing  fifth  literature  of  what  e x p l a n a t i o n s and and  the  of  an  presents  implications  for  further  posed.  understanding  the  the  with  grief.  this  experience  raising  the  (or e x h a u s t i v e n a r r a t i v e )  of  The  from  f o l l o w e d by  of  description, the  emerged  results  model  the  the  concludes  The  through  e x p l a n a t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s and  clarity  It provides  presents  chapter  grief.  meaning.  r e s e a r c h and  are  the  revealed  aspects  the  and  themes a r e  description  essential  statement  the  does  or  The  and  phenomenological  the  unequivocal  research  of  protocols.  results,  3).  a phenomenological  explicated.  with  a  the  c o n s t i t u e n t (theme) which  description  present  of  the  Chapter  structure  experience  reader  to view  f o r each  units  essential  analysis  one  based  upon  management  grief  of  means.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  concerned  grief,  To grief  versus  compound are  attempted  to  the  understanding  to answer  the  the  often  unsubstantiated assumptions  lend confusion has  is primarily  of  question:  and the What  3  There  are existing  These  a r e based  forth  by e a r l i e r  criteria. in  Yet  to grief  (medical  social  assumptions primarily  meaning  of g r i e f  There regarding other  and  i s no s i n g l e grief  school  relationship  interpretations  and from between  from  begun. their  Many  considered.  I t seems l o g i c a l  justification.  with  "treatment"  question  arises:  Although  these  What d o e s  questions  Theory  as a  reaction framework  theory  construction  researchers  from  borrow  during  and subject that  For example,  animal  before  Practitioners  know  may  sound  t o manage simplistic,  are not  t h e meaning of upon i t s  largely  o r "management" o f g r i e f . one hope  since the  embarking  have  research  The  i n question  one must  from  the psychoanalytic  and progeny.)  phenomenon he o r s h e i s s t u d y i n g  concerned  upon  studies are questionable  of the researcher  theoretical  taken  overlooked. of g r i e f  own p o s i t i o n s .  observations  experiences  the  been  speak  impact  of g r i e f .  a mother  these  has  treatment),  The c o n c e p t u a l  (1960,1961,1963,1970) draws  of thought  have  i f we  observable  research  or  put  practice.  t h e o r i e s t o supplement Bowlby  model).  theory  has h a r d l y  upon  i t as a b i o l o g i c a l  has a s i g n i f i c a n t  research  based  concept  or consider  grief.  and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s  management  of t h i s  (adaptation  to explain  and d i r e c t i o n  (description,  model)  value  construction,  (the  attempt  i t makes a d i f f e r e n c e c o n c e p t u a l l y  with  John  which  of the focus  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  disease  and  prior  researchers  Because  regard  meaning  upon  models  been Again  the  or treat? p s y c h o l o g i s t s do  4  not  know w h a t  the  "A  consequence  is  that  essential structure  of  this  factors  Accordingly,  unless  to  the  of  the  variables  that  research  of and  result will  influence  phenomenon  foundation  i t of  attempts  at  of  grief is.  a  phenomenon  incidentally  i s never  known  is rigorously  for  be  of  a  knowledge that  may  or  1969,  meaning,  p.  the  itself.  identified  experimental  (Colaizzi,  psychological  how  of  sophisticated  something  itself"  of  i t , but  phenomenon  a p p l i c a t i o n to  techniques,  i n terms  influence a  meaning  common m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i t i s known o n l y  concomitant  or  how  a  may  hodge-podge  not  115).  prior  even  be  Without  significance  theoretical justification  the  of  are  quest ionable. The suited meaning  methods df for of  the  existential-phenomenology  study  g r i e f as  of  meaning  1978;  elaborated  further  However, a  brief definition here  for  i t is personally  (Colaizzi,  presented  and  Giorgi,  1970,  in Chapter of  (Valle & King,  Three  of  1978,  p.  cultural  i n a way  which  heritage,  technologism, discipline  as  which  approach  will  be  is free  viewed  of  the  as  that  seeks  to  will  be  events  philosophic of  presuppositions  e s p e c i a l l y philosophical dualism  much a s  be  7):  understand  existence  experienced  existential-phenomenology  discipline  to  the  this dissertation.  can  seeks  and  This  Existential-Phenomenology which  uniquely  understanding  lived  1975).  are  human of  our  and  possible....psychological explicate  the  essence,  structure  5  or  form  of  revealed  grief  essentially  disciplined  grief  as  human e x p e r i e n c e  through  including Because  both  reconstruction  of  description  grief of  was  how  i t was  used  I  find  interest  experiences constant  with  questions  resolution.  to people  shared  our  which to  make  grief,  sense the  This  am  in  an  of  search In  and  attempt  the  an our  I began  r e c e i v e d two  OF- who  the  the explicit  meaning.  beginning  through  my  I have me  of  my  direct  met,  and  the  without life,  have  understanding  or  reasonably  I  have  grieved.  We  of  this  experience  However,  when  attempting  identify  that  which  is  elusive.  f o r meaning  particular,  to  I n my  words.  study  Assumpt i o n s  people  t o me.  a  for this of  to plague  experience  becomes  Since  i t developed  were g r i e v i n g and  provide  question  the  to  careful  exists  t r a c e back  continue  transcend  out  grieving?"  question  who  meaning  questions. "I  to  to  i s a mystery  experiences  seemed  the  phenomenon,  which  Grief  talked  approach  I suppose  the  can  E x p l i c a t i o n of  i t difficult  in grief.  that a  lived  t o answer  Personal  as  techniques  i t i s important  i t is lived.  existential-phenomenologica1 purpose,  behavior  reflecting.  I t i s assumed  how  human  descriptive  i s a human p h e n o m e n o n ,  i t is lived.  faithful  and  was  what  facilitated does  talking major  to define grief  through  i t mean when  with  others  responses.  in relation  to  someone  about  The  many says,  this  first  some m o d e l  resulted or  6  approach  (as  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  explanations address  the  followed popular meaning  of  the  acknowledged  resulted  in further questions  literature  looking  (the  confusion  bulk  I became aware  and  about  which  that  the  The  that  i s being Because  gap  found  grief  treatment,  versus  e x p l a i n e d , managed of  my  d e s i r e to  w i t h i n the  is a .significant  and  long  In  order' to  study  grief  and  or  approach  which  would  help  by  people.  The  approach  articles  existential-phenomenological In regard about  line to  the  with  the  phenomenon  reporting and  my  that  the  subject  This  grief  I decided  to  process  of  the  question were  "what  means and  that  of  intent  i t i s "  this  as  i s taken  a  the  I  research.  methodology  i t was  lived is  an  for granted  assumptions  reader  the  3).  investigated.  the  for  criterion  Chapter  making  of  understanding  I wanted  s h o w s how  came  the  question  nothing  of  visible  (co-researcher)  met  (see  i s being  to  treated.  thoughts,  importance  expectancies results.  own  turned  grief  reconstruct grief  one  which  relationship),  neglected  approach,  researcher's  (1968) emphasized background  this  on  understanding  fully  I  response  grief,  address  i t s meaning,  that  didn't  in Medical Journals),  know w h a t  literature,  but  I then  would  or  These  second  surrounding  upon e x p l a i n i n g ( i m p l y i n g a c a u s e - e f f e c t management and  review). grief,  ideas.  i s found  f o r some d e s c r i p t i o n  meaning.  ideas  experience.  received  grief  the  literature  or  in  beliefs  Cicourel  researcher's when d e s c r i b i n g o r  (the  t o make s e n s e  researcher) of  our  7  understanding explicit about the  of g r i e f .  a s p o s s i b l e my  grief.  the process  Phenomenology  takes  into  (Giorgi,  account  1970).  i n f l u e n c e s of c u l t u r a l 1966, 1969).  disconnected  from  of making  This  and  as  thoughts  the researcher i n  By m a k i n g  and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s e x p l i c i t , I  assumptions  (Luijpen,  begin  presuppositions, questions  e n t e r p r i s e of s c i e n c e  distorting  I  Thus,  my  can f i l t e r  out the  and s c i e n t i f i c p r e j u d i c e  does  not assume t h a t  the interview s i t u a t i o n ,  I will I  or that  be  no  longer  a  have  these  others my I As  will  be a b l e  co-researchers, came  Colaizzi  stands present  i t means  that  co-researchers,  is  an u n e n d i n g  Like reflect  the process  someone  which  of  i s said  grief. t o be  f a i t h f u l l y express  assumptions questions  and I w i l l  by  that  by  what  he i s  t o phenomena."  a n d t o c l a r i f y my  process,  the  my  and  as i t i s presented  be t h e p h e n o m e n o n  is fidelity  to generate  my  throughout  may  judgements,  interpretations  h i s statements  of making  serves  and  p . 5 2 ) , "when  him, whatever  to, objectivity  also  my  a s come t o know  judgements  (1978,  The p r o c e s s known  as w e l l  stated  before  can suspend  t o see t h e phenomenon  t o make c e r t a i n  objective,  but I  assumptions,  and  that  thinking  be e n g a g e d  presuppositions I  may about  want t o a s k grief.  in this  It  activity  study.  the people  i n my  a n d d e s c r i b e my  study,  experience  dialogue  w i t h my  thoughts  about  thoughts  through  a dialogue  I have  in detail,  grief.  allows  grieved.  me  Rather  I would  Interacting to reveal  than  like to  with  my  existential  8  dimensions ratified, dialogue  o f my  rejected, centers  experiences approaches grieved that has  life  which  or modifed"  itself  are a part to grief,  of t h i s ;  my  t o u c h e d me  many q u e s t i o n s .  I believe  open  Death  realization  of something  people  i l l , loss  situations.  than  Thus,  which  of  grief  to  understand  may  (death,  pre-determined  who  list,  have  another,  i n my  but that  a s an e x a m p l e ) .  the meaning context  would  of  miscarriage), with  ideal,  or part  rape,  or goal, of body,  l o s s of of another,  I assuming  i t  i s more l i k e l y  t o be o p e n  is  t o occur i n many  t o any  as a s t e r e o t y p i c a l example  Although  of g r i e f ,  and  g r i e f can occur  I wanted  n o t be p r e s e n t e d  a list  and r e j e c t i o n .  i n n o way am grief  "when"  These a r e  the pain  prejudice,  study,  I created  of limb  of g r i e f  dialogue  someone l i v i n g  of body,  that  My  o f an i d e a ,  loss  or part  n o r am. I a s s u m i n g  one i n s t a n c e  situation  abortion  war, d i s a s t e r , w i t n e s s i n g  this  life.  can grieve.  illness,  a v i c t i m of persecution,  definitive, in  of these  missed,  of t h e use of a limb  presenting  people  t o any i n s t a n c e ,  terminal  i s terminally  In  of the d i f f e r e n t  of memories and e x p e r i e n c e s  (to include  s o m e o n e who  being  knowledge with  The  personal  revolves- around  i n which  possessions,  My  The f i r s t  events  separation,  1978, p. 6 9 ) .  my  Being  divorce,  and hence  i n some way d u r i n g  grieve.  here:  my  conversations  people  presented  (Colaizzi,  i n human e v e n t s .  and t h e c u l m i n a t i o n  have  loss  c a n be " i n t e r r o g a t e d ,  my  context  creation  be i n e r r o r .  i s important  of a  I am a s s u m i n g  that  9 1  when a  person  present  to  As mind  me  to  the  loss  of  component that  i s not  of  of  not  actual  so  what  i s something  that  will  meaningful.  or  the  appears  i n the  case  example,  in l i f e  one  does  i s not loss  "gain"  to  of  In the  i s not  not  a  loss  have.  necessary  is stressed I am  through  i s important  my  for  divorce,  loss  literature,  or  to  in separation. For  loss  i n the  "find"  she  necessary  example,  addition, while  what p e o p l e  the  opportunity  that  grief  loss  death  evident.  an  or  experience  Is  For  but  he  s i t u a t i o n s , i t brings  nature  lose  In  the  loss.  cannot  I believe  grieved,  such as  the  missed  one  grieve.  experience  For for  as  a  inclined  to  their  them, w h i c h  has  not  addressed. To  me,  begins.  say  We  feelings  the  no  of  grief longer  a  in a  be  has  an of  evident grief  ended  To  effort  me,  point  i s not  when  preoccupied  person's  maybe an  phenomenon  to  ending  activities.  part  out;  seems  that  are  or  becomes a whiting  there  However,  could  daily.  the  list  some c a s e s  she  makes  concerning  one  that  present,  someone t o  one  that  sense  believe  the  i s permanent,  instances,  critical  or  which  However,  loss  realization  been  In  he  in different instances.  the  several  the  question  occur?  that  upon  i s evident.  death,  me  context  reflect  different  in  the  another  grief loss  I  tells  any  experience,  There  to  is involved.  figure-ground  context.  i s no  As  us  thoughts,  history. forget  suppose  confronting  grief's  like  grief  clear. . I  i t stops  with  grief,  where  the  erasing I  or  perceive  figure,  grief  10  is  present  conscious of  our  of  i t . As  until  again  literature  or  not  to  we  by  views  we  live.  is  important  The  behaviors  emphasis  of  capable  grief of  activities. the  door  Rather it and  To  intent  a primary  dimensions  or  By  their  understand  certain narrow.  one  the  they  in this  way of  that grief  the  grief,  and  I may  make s e n s e  out  figure.  indeed  way  and  that  people  those  people  truly  as  meaning  I come t o  of  r a t h e r than  people  come  another  observable)  affect,  thoughts  individual.while the  existing  projections. i n the  lives  to view  I assume  that people  of  experience  their  closes  experience.  (usually  t o an  we  and  grief  know  and  human b e i n g s ,  over  the  the  don't  I believe  feelings  is  who  expressions  emotion  in  crying  emotional  of  "to  during grief  people  view  makes a d i f f e r e n c e  differently.  backdrop  The  i f I believe  themselves  experiencing grief,  world  issue.  expressions  can  the  i t the  about  r i c h n e s s of  present  are  pre-refleetive  expressed  thoughts,  display  to understand  profiles  believe  grief,  a r r a y of  i n the  we  conversations with others,  example,  for "relevant"  as  Only  and  value  look  grieving.  people.  upon  into  i t ,making  q u e s t i o n whether  i s too  a wide  activities  I  For  to understanding  than  i s my  and  fades  assumptions  e x p r e s s i o n of  anomalies,  grieve.  upon  i n my  and  minds as  residing  s e e m s t o be  our  i n which  as  grief  history,  and  i n our  e v a l u a t e a p p r o p r i a t e emotions  world an  ground,  reflect  the  influenced  are  we  feel"  awareness,  the  In  which  cry  i n our  e x p e r i e n c e s , our  level,  feel  t o us  of  themselves t r y to  and  may  come  11  to  know  themselves  and o t h e r s  T h e s e a r e my From which  this  process,  are a part  continuing  initial I have  better.  thoughts  formulated  some  of the i n t e r v i e w s with  dialogue  I have  with  myself,  phenomenon w i l l  serve  t o pose  clarity  study  i n the search  of t h i s  and assumptions  further  my  general  about  grief.  questions  co-researchers.  with  others  questions  The  and w i t h the  and sharpen t h e  f o r the meaning  of  grief.  12  CHAPTER  2  Literature  review c  To  understand  literature that  begin  to understand  which  greatest  These  and kind  relevancy  a table  that  (Giorgi,  of g r i e f  review.  the basic By  making  presuppositions  holds  one c a n by e a c h o f  presuppositions.  defines  that  the perspective  the area  and a l l o w  or  context  one t o s e e t h e  the findings  The a s s u m p t i o n s  that  grief.  the presuppositions  f o r which  or  overlap.  presented  a t the end of each  of the models  i s some  of g r i e f  circumscribe  1970).  of  the models,  of presuppositions biases  illustrate  within  to clarify  of purposes  the l i t e r a t u r e  and  t o note  different  to grief.  everyone  the findings are v a l i d  are presented  reading  the d e f i n i t i o n  I t i s assumed  t h a t , one t a k e s .  there  preconceptions  and e x p l i c i t l y  The p a t t e r n  situations  and o f f e r  a  particular  model  i s t o uncover  approaches  i t i s important  has.  within  review  of the diverse  models.  model  literature  a  the studies  a particular  to explain grief  implicitly  Therefore,  Instead,  underlying  the assumptions,  contained  is  of g r i e f .  attempt  aim of t h i s  explicit  one  has not f o l l o w e d  area  grief,  I t i s important  o f t h e phenomenon, a l t h o u g h  assumptions  the  in this  t o the approaches  conceptions The  here.  or theories  These models  of the a r t concerning  i s presented  the research  theory add  review  the state  section.  have  of each  The f o l l o w i n g  one c a n r e f e r  to while  I t o u t l i n e s the p o s i t i o n each  13 Table Relation  1  Between Models  of  Grief  Model  D e f i n i t i o n of  Medical  A d i s e a s e or  Stage  A normal process which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t a g e s . These a r e t r a n s i t i o n a l and a r e dependent upon p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s .  Provides a framework f o r viewing grief as a p r o c e s s and from which t o move p e o p l e through.  Developmental  A b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s of i n s t i n c t i v e a t t a c h m e n t and response mechanisms.  E x p l a i n s the a d a p t i ve f u n c t i o n of grief carried over from infancy and attachment to "mother".  Social  A s e r i e s of s t e r e o t y p i c a l responses f o l l o w i n g the l o s s of a s i g n i f i c a n t o b j e c t . A product of biological evolution.  Ensures group cohes i v e n e s s in species where a s o c i a l form of existence i s necessary for survival.  Adaptation  Grief  syndrome.  Implications for t h i s Definition  Emphasizes d i a g n o s i s and treatment (eradicat ion),  Table Relation  1  14  Continued  Between Models  of  of  Grief  Implicat ions for this Def i n i t i o n  Model  Definition  Grief  Psychoanalytic  A sense of l o s s m a n i f e s t e d i n an a c t i v i t y c a l l e d mourning. This i n v o l v e s the r e m o v a l of t h e l i b i d o from the l o s t o b j e c t and t h e s u b s e q u e n t a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e new o b j e c t .  Presents g r i e f a s an intrapsychic process.  Cultural  Behavior a loss.  Compares di f ferences across cultures, in t h e ' way people grieve.  Exi stential  The c o m p l e x o f e m o t i o n s p r e s e n t , d u r i n g and accompanying the process and b e h a v i o r s of m o u r n i n g . I t s n a t u r e i s an e x i s t e n t i a l crisis.  P r o v i d e s an existential aspect to the experience.  Cogn i t i v e  A cognitive disruption resulting in cognitive inadequacy.  E x p l a i ns g r i e f from c o g n i t i ve f r a m e w o r k.  exhibited  after  15  4>  model that  has  in  arise  critique  regard  from  of  to  the  within  each  meaning  of  view.  The  that  grief This  medical  is a  disease  and  diagnosis Grief  as One  that the as  it  a  the  with  primary  Socratic  Engel  dialogue,  be  to  "natural"  refers  i t ' s a states  require  requires  compared "normal" a  burn)  to  (p.  Although  Like  or  (like  response"  3.  the  view  clinical  viewing  a  that features.  grief  as  a  for  of  be  life",  "great  number  medical  to  a  is  written  p o s i t i o n of  in  grief  here: or  infection,  physical  "constitutes state  model,  paper,  wound, b u r n  response  said  be  medical  a  changed  w h i c h may a  the  presented  itself  "the  in his  this  and  a  as  trauma.  pathological  not  to  the  fact  19).  i t may  part  underlying  defended  can  Grief  disease  for  (1961)  1.  --  distinct  assumptions  are  2.  with  d i sease  assumptions  the  upon  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes used  His  This  concludes  Model  arguments  i s a disease.  state".  implications  treatment.  the  grief  not  various  of  a  the  chapter  i s based  disease.  is a  grief  approach  present  i l l n e s s or  of  Medical  syndrome  an  However,  of  or  will  and  grief form  model  disease  section  and  model. The  The  grief  the  of  "everyone  same may  common t o  attention.  attention  that  man  disease  apply (p.  to  relevant  whether to  other  19).  processes,"  "Besides,  i s not  experiences  the  a  .grief  may  condition  judgement  as  1.6  to  whether 4.  discover  i t i s to  are  the  from  framework A  necessary  even  5.  T h e r e may  other 6.  diseases Grief  "uncomplicated  found  The  8.  before  other  parts  Blau  may  i s Conroy (similar  with  disabled"  (p.  of be  theorist  or  in a  with  systematic  grief  grief and  wiil  ordered  or  denies  as  a causative  statistical  Engel  prefers  who  the  agent  sense, the  but  not  so  term  the more  30).  He  by  s t a t e of  of  which  compared  "more o r  impaired" stated  that  illness  (p.  that  i t as  a  from  to  the  are  less  any healthy,  20).  normal  which  be  At  grief  i t disturbs  some p e o p l e grief  i t is is  must  a disease.  be  perceived but  as  health.  organization  less  explicitly  i t i s an  and  a  b o d y may or  in grief,  reparative process  is considered  to E n g e l ) ,  scars  i s found  I f the  levels  ( 1 9 7 7 ) who  (1975) b e l i e v e s  recover  objective  death.  re-achieves  a condition  while  loss  make  witholds  reparation  a l l systems  some p a r t s  a  only  health.  patient  time,  to  his  between  disease.  given  illness  can  observers  19).  link  of  other  the  Another  subjective until  is familiar  sometimes  total  element  Not  impaired  and  who  19).  (p.  grief".  in every  successful,  a  disease"  they  patient  (p.  i s normal  when c o n s i d e r i n g  7.  be  a  which  through  i f the  information"  as  considered  "physician  i t s occurrence  observations,  and  regarded  Many d i s e a s e s  observations. recognize  be  is  an  response  function.  "most  people  severely  common c o l d  in  that  17  it  i s "rarely  stress  fatal  and  and a l t e r a t i o n  universally  experienced,  in function to consider  there  i t an  i s enough  illness"  (p.  30). The illness  advantages  and  are set forth  implications for considering  by  Engel  (1961).  These  grief  as  an  are o u t l i n e d  below: 1.  Grief  becomes a  study  by m e d i c a l  place  an e q u a l  grief  as  stated that  scientists"  amount of  grief  (p. 20).  importance  i t w o u l d on h e l p i n g  that  an  " l e g i t i m a t e and proper  those  In e f f e c t ,  on h e l p i n g with  other  i s "so w e l l documented"  investigation  need  subject for  n o t be w h o l l y  research  "sufferers" disorders.  i n animal dependent  must of Engel  research, upon  human  subjects. 2.  Grief  diseases  can  coincidental kind has  of  a  until  and  classed  or during  "passed  data  to other  phenomena  exists  between  noxa  d i s t u r b s the t o t a l  However,  before  anyone  subjected  grief  and  other  or same  examination The  that  possibility  diseases  is a  20-21).  aetiologic  l o s s of an  adjustment  can pass  of  to the  other  f a c t o r may  ( p h y s i c a l agents,  i f the " a c t u a l or threatened  consistently  irrelevant  or disease.  (pp.  identifiable  major  been  the course  e x p l o r a t i o n and  factor for research"  other  o f f as  have  systematic  G r i e f as an with  before  be  such  relationship  3.  21).  longer  applied  significant  etc.)  no  rigorous  been  that  occurring  be  microorganisms, object  of the organism"  judgement  as  to the  (p.  18  importance knowledge  of  this  i n the  psychological such  an  be,  must  (p.  attention that  of  i s an  "Whatever  they  (CNS)"  area  first  21). to  the be  Engel  the  aspects  of  pathogenesis 6.  of  considered  of as  "supporting  psychic  Many syndrome Parkes as  a  a  the  dismiss  prejudice." object  man  and  his  system  as  the  grief  may  system  to  pay  more  possibility  diseases  actually  well.  environment  they  and  scientists  consider  external  loss  c e n t r a l nervous  and  that  To  play  no  must  role  be  kept  in  in  22).  is a  or  p o t e n t i a l s t r e s s , then  replacement  variables  The  of  objects  in sustaining  physician  can  assume  the  must  be  health this  and  r o l e as  a  object."  Syndrome t h e o r i s t s adopting  with  (1965)  identifiable stated  diagnostic  psychopathology diagnosis  of  nervous  loss  important  (p.  as  CNS  proved  objects  adjustment"  Grief  the  and  disease.  "If object  maintenance  in  more  i s needed.  encourages medical  components  be  of  the  5.  i t can  losses  initiated  the  unless  such  of  include  The  of  states,  physiological  consequences  r o l e of  psychological  disease  biochemical,  "expression  h a v e come t o  view  in causing  consequences  inquiry  4.  factor  that  group, and  i s seldom  a medical symptoms or  i f "we  accept  distinguished  symptomatology difficult  to  by  from  make"  model  perceive  clinical  g r i e f as  features.  g r i e f and  i t s variants  aetiology, other (p.  illnesses,  23).  The  the  theorists  a  who to  perceive build a  disorders  g r i e f as  list or  of  features  across  which  groups.  stand  However,  researchers  group have  and  out  from  these  across  attempted other  categories  various  and  groupings  "griefs". Lindemann  syndrome 141).  with  In  analyzed in  key  special diagnostic  diagnostic  symptoms d i f f e r of  a  his  his  study,  The  first  points  interviews records  status" he  to  take  division  made up  "morbid  grief"  (p.  144).  grief  reactions".  weeks  (brief  ("surface included  There  to  of  he  of  of  an  and  deceased.  Five  delay  of  for  From each. or  Somatic  deceased,  guilt,  and  sometimes  The  second  Lindemann  within  reaction  distorted  unresolved  changes  features  d i s t o r t i o n s of found  he  interviews.  reactions".  (b)  and  grief": the  (p.  patients,  symptoms  conduct  factors  (a)  years),  (1965) approached First,  "normal  the  two  These were  101  grief".  represent  were  of  s e r i e s of  image  grief  classification  view.  the  patterns  "morbid  symptomatology"  d i v i s i o n s with  of  is a definite  symptoms r e p o r t e d  the  traits  grief  groups  "normal  reactions  delay)  nine  two  of  manifestations  Parkes different  over  grief  of  over  with  loss  the  somatic  characterized  preoccupation  reactions,  "acute  four  terms  concerned  which  tendency  that  with  established  emerged  hostile  in  that and  observed  grouping  distress,  stated  psychological  his  "mental  (1944)  a  stated  normal "morbid  (from  10  reactions  grief reaction")  which  descriptions. the  classification  subdivided  bereavement  of  grief  from  reactions  a  into  20  (a)  stress-specific  non-specific building  nature have  since  This  which  type  be no m o r e  its variants, paved  existing type  and the p e c u l i a r  i n the l a t t e r may  and  division  " i n the former  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  the loss  response  and r e c l a s s i f y i n g  of the loss  whereas and  responses.  onto  aetiology,  grief  other than  t h e way f o r  symptomatology  of r e a c t i o n  factors  which  t o be will  and  i t i s the  significance  are likely  and (b)  this  may  important, probably  a precipitating  be  factor"  found (p.  13). Parkes which  (1965)  introduced I.  The  II.  further  new  concepts  f o r each d i v i s i o n  and  its  concepts  illustrating  these  by p r e s e n t i n g  of which  came  settings).  Parke's  grief  which  he c a l l e d  Marris'  (1954)  (approximately  from  (1965)  by l i s t i n g brief  psychiatric focus  was  "pathological  interviews  two y e a r s  provided  variants.  grief  conditions  these  spouses)  -- g r i e f  scheme  (p. 14):  N o n - s p e c i f i c and mixed reactions. 1) P s y c h o s o m a t i c r e a c t i o n s 2) P s y c h o n e u r o t i c r e a c t i o n s 3) A f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r s n o t r e s e m b l i n g  described  majority  a classification  stress-specific reaction 1) T y p i c a l grief 2) C h r o n i c g r i e f 3) I n h i b i t e d grief 4) D e l a y e d g r i e f  4) O t h e r He  developed  after  f o r the f i r s t  with  more  symptoms  case  histories  or  and (the  institutional  primarily  on t h e a b s e n c e o f  grief". 72 E a s t  experiencing time,  London  widows  the death  frequencies  of  of  their  occurrence  21  of  grief  used of  as  symptoms. a  yardstick  "normal  grief"  depression presence  Ten  or of  features  among  associated  with  difficulty  in accepting  1965;  (b)  deceased,  identified  researchers  (Parkes,  anxiety,  were  (e)  deceased,  (g)  loss,  of  (c)  1977).  (d)  of  self,  picture (a)  ideas  of  (f)  acts  presence,  reminders  ( i ) blames  a  often  These are  insomnia,  physical  avoids  are  formulating  Solomon,  apathy, sense  in  and  deceased,  and  (j)  (h)  blames  others. Bugen of  (1977) p r e s e n t e d  grief.  belief  The  that  purpose  the  1969)  of  Bugen  proposed  of  "stage  this  a model  grief  value,  (c)  and  model  theory"  grieving contains  consequent  a model composed  of  stemmed  (Kavanaugh,  weaknesses  and  from  1972;  (a)  links  pivotal  reactions,  (b)  which  allows  guidelines  for  dimensions  the  author's  Kubler-Ross,  inconsistencies.  that  provides  two  determinants for  with  predictive  constructive  intervention. Bugen and  worked w i t h  dimensions: C e n t r a l i t y - p e r i p h e r a l i t y  preventability-nonpreventabi1ity.  presented  grief  where a p e r s o n There  were  were:  (a)  introduced are  two  known  acute  reactions i s along  four  grief  "intense by by  lack  psychological  the  grief  of  their  which  reactions", (1944);  (b)  "significant  distress");  (c)  these  symptoms w h i c h  continuum  reactions  Lindemann a  and  From  of  the  dimensions  characterize  dimension  were d e s c r i b e d . characterized  "mild  grief  he  by  matrix. These symptoms  reactions"  which  physiological stress  or  "prolonged  which  duration"  22  includes  m e d i c a l d i s e a s e s and  appearing  beyond  "extricate"  a  himself  proliferation"  t o have a  and  "brief  go  grief  cancer),  characterize  of  from  "absence"  of  deceased. outcomes  prolonged,  by  (b)  and  emotions  by  1974;  grief  occur  p r o c e s s of  the  and  i n the case due  may  but  function  reflect  an  and  the  possible  process  (c) m i l d  to  the  four  reactions:  of  "extricating  serve  predicted  a  environment;  survivor  grieving  brief,  the  to  "helplessness  deterioration  between  the aforementioned  who  features  of  (Bornstein, 1975;  & Crisp,  "griefs"  adopt  attempt  grief to  as  other  (a)  itself, intense  prolonged,  and and  into  "mental  Clayton,  Herjanic,  further  also  grief  disorders",  Halikas,  but  syndrome  with  from  other  T h i s p r o c e s s not  Clayton,  1973),  a  isolate  symptomatologies.  i n terms  & Smith,  different  may  e x p r e s s i o n ) and  the  comparing  Priest  with  w a k e s may  describe  but  the mourner  brief.  clinical  Briscoe  (Irish  Bugen  other theorists  depression  slow  model,  intense  distinct  defines  this  would  which  a painful  of  of  the deceased,  interaction  ( c a s e s of  form  failure  without the deceased)  e m o t i o n a l bond  Using  characterized  The  this  an  which  (d) m i l d  loss  the deceased"  encouraging  from  reactions"  the  oneself  on  rewarding  anticipating may  interval,  or h e r s e l f  (I c a n ' t  failure (d)  six-month  p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c symptoms  Maurice Murphy  f o r example  & Robins, &  1973;  Woodruff,  serves to break  classification  only  down  schemes.  the  23  Apart  from  "maladjusted" Simpson,  (Krupp,  1979;  "unresolved",  1944;  1. the  of  Grief  essence occur,  the M e d i c a l  are  1969),  (Anderson,  (Wahl,  Clayton,  1949;  1970),  "normal", and  be  "exaggerated",  "delayed" 1969;  Lindemann,  Model t h e o r y of  i s a d i s e a s e or mental to p h y s i c a l  something  2.  Physical  3.  Grief  If this  i s wrong  achieves a and  natural  with  sense  disorder.  or p s y c h i a t r i c  or p s y c h i a t r i c  scientific  grief,  the  highlighted.  is pathological.  the  "neurotic"  the m e d i c a l model  response  then  within  1970),  & Winokur,1968;  assumptions  natural  "pathological"  g r i e f ,can  1965).  r e v i e w of  following  earlier,  "abbreviated", "inhibited",  Parkes,  In  described  (Knight & Herter,  Desmarais  Assumptions  1972),  Volkan,  "anticipatory"  (Clayton,  the c a t e g o r i e s  the  trauma of  Although  i t is  trauma, i t s  response  does  not  person. stems  legitimacy  m e d i c a l community  from or  a  loss.  importance  i f perceived  as  an  illness. 4.  Because  grief  i s an  illness,  identifiable  (observable) features  a  From  syndrome.  Grief  these  is attributed  reinforces 5.  the view  Grief  descriptions  i s not  which  symptoms,  symptoms, a d i a g n o s i s  with of  or  i t i s accompanied  an  identity  grief only  as  a unique  classified  illustrate  or  the  by  which  can  be  by constitute  made.  " t h i n g n e s s " which "entity". symptoms,  observable  (and  but  also  through  by  inference grief"  and " i n h i b i t e d  6. own  s e t o f symptoms a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  criteria.  These  exist  across  researchers  some o v e r l a p .  The  grief  stage  places  theorists  value  explaining  model  Process  versus  The  stage  Greenblatt "grieving  particular  and t h e stage  culture.  model  model i s  of G r i e f  model  of g r i e f .  there  disease.  upon  the relation  section will  emotions  although  i n the medical  as a  i s based  This  schemes and d e s c r i p t i o n s  present  For example,  over  of  the  and t h e emphasis  upon h i s o r h e r m o d e l .  that  some  others  a s a way o f  The v a r i a t i o n  between t h e  i s also  each  described.  State or phase  theorists  (1978) d e s c r i b e d i s not a steady  gradually into  greatly  Model  of the stage  the process  medical  fading  or phases.  proponents  theorist  of g r i e f  Stage  each with i t s  or t h e o r i s t s ,  The e m p h a s i s  model a p p r o a c h  to stages  leading  down  features, classification  d i a g n o s i s and treatment  The  "chronic  grief". "griefs",  not uniform  also  For example,  into  does on  phenomena.  G r i e f c a n be b r o k e n  7. are  nonobservable)  this  state;  another.  view  position  i t takes  highly variable"  process.  when he s t a t e d one  phase  F o r m a n d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s may  t o move  (p.44).  as a  i t i s a process,  as a f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n , The time  grief  personality, rituals from  one p h a s e  vary  and  to another  i s  25  There  a r e many  stage/process this  view  passes or  her loss  (1972)  or " r e s o l u t i o n " proponents  that  cope  stages  which  anger,  bargaining,  "goodbye"  with  of the stage  this  be  added  theorists. early  (1944), Parkes  this  stages),  identification  symptoms.  which  grief  proponents worry  as  helps the The  are denial,  and a  and E n g e l  (1961)  an emphasis  upon  of g r i e f .  o r shock  General  to the other  and i n t e n s i t y .  themes  can which  stage during  anger,  a recovery period  a n d some  "Process" i n this  regard  are characterized  symptoms c a n t h e n  reactions.  (particularly  disturbances, guilt,  the deceased,  also  the process of g r i e f  are similar  be d e n i a l  the stages which These  gift"  by b o t h  within  picture  somatic  with  of duration  contains  may  h e r model  i n h i s or her l i f e .  (1972)  i s found  orientation  There  of h i s  stage.  to the c l i n i c a l  from  (who b a s e d  i l l ) defined  depression, panic, guilt,  whatever  individual  t h e o r y a r e Kavanaugh  a "God-given  as a p r o c e s s , but with  view,  an  "acceptance"  Kubler-Ross  delineated  or acceptance  grief  In  been  adopt  grief.  the endless losses  have  Lindemann  sense  of  who  l e d to the  that  to a final  (1969).  i s natural,  person  the  t o come  of g r i e f )  T h i s view  on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e t e r m i n a l l y  emotion  viewed  o t h e r models  stages o r phases  i n order  leading  ( s o m e o f whom i n c o r p o r a t e t h e  as a p r o c e s s .  and Kubler-Ross  chiefly  arise  within  of s p e c i f i c  through  Two  an  approach  of g r i e f  development  theorists  by  be a t t r i b u t e d  specific to the various  "griefs"  described  All  of these  acceptance" the that  earlier. stages  is likely  g r i e f process. encompassed  stemming  from  incorporates  t o be v i e w e d  a growth  phases  that  awareness  potential that  grief  include  so t h a t  a s an o p t i m a l  However, S c h n e i d e r  his belief  transpersonal phases  of g r i e f a r e ordered  "peaceful  end-product of  (1980) p o s t u l a t e d  a  model  i n the r e s o l u t i o n of  grief,  i s multidimensional.  It  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and  as a part  of the g r i e f process.  These  are (p.342): 1.  first of  Initial  becomes a r e a l i t y  balance, 2.  holding the  awareness.  lowered  Strategies  grief  Awareness  grieving extent  when a  to the grieving  person  (shock,  to  loss  loss.  These  loss  phases of  the adaptive  i s a threat  rather  i n models  than  defense of actuality.  of a n t i c i p a t o r y  loss. of l o s s .  i s the extensive  The p u r p o s e  and i n t e n s i v e  of the l o s s and i t s immediate  implications  loss  infection).  go r e p r e s e n t  t o be m o r e p r o m i n e n t  or ambiguous 3.  occurs  t o overcome  on a n d l e t t i n g  tends  phase  resistance  i n d i v i d u a l when  This  This  (i.e.,  and  of t h i s  phase of  exploration  of the  present  loneliness, helplessness,  exhaustion,  etc . ) . 4. separable Its  Complet i o n s . functions:  purpose  This  Healing,  i s to free  phase  of g r i e v i n g  acceptance  the bereaved  from  has  three  and r e s o l u t i o n . the energy  invested  i n the  5. sense he  Empowerinq  of s e l f .  o f p e r s o n a l power  i f persons  commitment, that  growth  lost  personal  vulnerability.  capacity  of the i n d i v i d u a l  Attitude  an  to extend  and wholeness  instrument,  Scale  (TEAIAS),  His results  were  intended  already  set out i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e TEASIAS  13 a n d 2 6 .  acceptance,  These  stages  t o new  discrepant subsumed  in  grief,  life.  to support  of the stages Equal-Appearing  attitudes  toward  the stage  stages  were  the results  within  t o 692 s u b j e c t s b e t w e e n  were  model).  Here  the ages  (a) s h o c k / d e n i a l , (b)  i s another  of s t u d i e s a r e , even  the context  theory  identified  ( c ) p s e u d o - r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , (d) d e p r e s s i o n  reorganization/acceptance..  stage  beyond  the Thurston  Five  of the  to assess  death.  by t h e power  i s to develop  1978, 1979) i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  used  activities  represents the  no l o n g e r  Hardt  Interval  of  phase  balance,  (1975,  and  to r e c t i f y areas  I t s purpose  For  commitment.  commitments,  bereavement,  from  This  where  occurred.  to explore  and  t o be b o u n d  o r by a t t e m p t s  i n an a r e a  the loss  likely  the loss.  of the i n d i v i d u a l  what was  more  enhances the  responsibility  in responsibility  Transcending  phase  before  overemphasized  a r e now  are limited 6.  of  they  This  of the i n d i v i d u a l  o r s h e was o u t o f b a l a n c e  example,  of  loss.  example though  o f t h e same a p p r o a c h  of  false  and (e) how  they are  (inthis  case,  28  With  a l l the  dimension may  of  remain  Silverman  the  (1975)  over  giving  the  difference  and  as or  stage can  Pr imary  be  time  of  the The  a  process the  grief  stages  as  are  to occur.  a  loss  a  theorist,  a  to a  that  and  to  also  of  make appears  necessary  to  in order  intensity  be  a  (1979) proposed  e x p e r i e n c e d a t a peak  may  the_ f u n c t i o n  s t a g e s makes  Simos  person  year.  sequence  serves  of  t o be  weeks  There  sequence  a l l the  the  few  process  adjustments. the  appears  upon  within  to accept  social  t o be  for that  before  resolution.  Emot i o n s  Reviewing tend  upon  years.  whether  has  from  to whether  "resolution"  there  looked  time  Depending  stage  bereaved  some d e b a t e  each  a  several  psychological  theorists,  process.  within  extend  the  stage  t o be  the  process  similarities  the  stages proposed  and  depression are  consistently  by  referred  range  of  responses  every  emotion  pointed  out  "normal  range"  of  that  an  a  the  of  the  a human anger  emotions  emotions  has  concepts (1981) to loss  i s capable" and  and/or  theorists.  Headington  individual  guilt,  described earlier,  different  few  to.  which  of  grief  amongst the  but  of  fear  are  e x p e r i e n c e d by  reactions  Anger,  which  and  just those  guilt  that  grief  338). a  "the includes  Headington  sample  who  of  the  are  grieving. However, "primary  some t h e o r i s t s  emotions"  as  keys  have  attempted  to explaining  to  grief.  in  are  stated  (p.  there  emphasize Conroy  (1977)  29  stated  that  Heikkinen task  of  grief  is a  sensation  (1981) viewed  the  childhood  the  e m e r g e s when  "we  t r y to cope  existence  or  our  supply  Heikkinen  stated  that  depression  i s a l l the  loss.  other  The  depression about  the  --  Another  seem d i r e c t l y  primary  viewed  grief  causes  separation  motivates anxiety the  as  the  a profound  into  anxiety. of  separated self.  This the  of  The  the from  The  mother  during  important  evidence  self-reports  prototype  from  who  saw  no  two  are  believed  he  people  and  d i f f e r e n c e between to  be  of  the  327). mild  in reaction  guilt  The  and  to  intense of  fear  hinder  When  the  support  as  his  the  loss and  the  concept  stems  of  from  the  emotionally a  threat  statements  testimony  from  grief  and  separation  same  form  and  (1977)  r e s o l u t i o n of  anxiety Being  of  normal"  elaborated this  Kedz  sense  i s "not  is perceived to  our  through  process.  childhood.  provided  clients  for  (p.  is anxiety.  anxiety  (1970)  fear  threaten  intensity  loss.  mourning  Switzer  early  327).  emphasized  sense  primary  this  through  the  afraid.  the  from  sadness  go  (p.  becomes p a t h o l o g i c a l , i t can  as  absence  to  r e l a t e d to  anxiety.  person  that  d e n i a l , anger,  emotion  as  nourishment"  need  separation"  grieving process.  grief  we  fear  adulthood,  r e s o l u t i o n of  grief  being  stems  losses  emotional  "the  of  fear In  with  f e e l i n g s --  prospect  This  experiences.  of  f e a r , of  r e s o l u t i o n of  grieving process.  separation  like  other  to  the  were  therapists anxiety.  purpose.  The  30  Assumpt i o n s of In  the  Stage  r e v i e w -of t h e  assumptions  are  stage  Grief  i s a process  2.  Specific the  theory  of  grief,  the  following  highlighted.  1.  illustrate  Model  stages  process  which  have  been  i n which  an  may  vary  across  developed  individuals.  i n order  individual  moves  to  while  grieving. 3.  The  reactions 4.  have The  acceptance do  not  of  6.  are  loss  is a  the  9.  so  loss,  with  although  or  optimal end-product.  emotion",  specific  grief.  that resolution  definable beginning  i s a process,  or  which  final  The  stages  end. can  have,  across  etc.), upon  category,  this  makes  although  i t difficult  fairly  easy  to  to " f i t "  stages. to  the can  and the  be  a dimension  i t is variable  number of  Grief  depending  i s the  grief  although  The  variable  ordered  "natural  Time appears  8.  the  synonomously  a diagnostic  into  theorists,  reactions to  used  clearly  Because  7.  are  reactions.  i t into  guilt,  the  Grief  "unnatural"  people  been  stages  have a  5.  fit  stages  stages  stage be  and  are  theorist.  viewed  by a l l  in.duration. the  importance  theorists.  d e s c r i b e d by  these  considered  each  is  also  ^  other as  of  emotions  "normal"  or  (anger,  fear,  "abnormal"  31  10.  Grief  repertoire 11.  of  can  a  Fear  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  "every  emotion"  in  the  person. and  early-childhood  anxiety  are  experiences  similar  and  are  in that  perceived  each as  a  arises threat  from to  "self". The The that  developmental  grief  is a  function. this  and  biological  This  basis  for grief  there  exists the  will  be  presented  stage  psychodynamic  and  with  has  will  adaptive  stages  upon and  the  the  In the  be  with  the  view  adaptive  described the  he  within  stage,  or  theoretical  models  biological framework,  previously  and  with  literature  presented  a model  review  --  which  the  orientation is basically  assumes  value  grief  instinctive  this  models,  o u t l i n e d by  biological  response  an  Bowlby's  however,  The  three  upon  an  grief  proposing  in this  B o w l b y ' s a n a l y s i s of  focused  that  some o v e r l a p  medical  later  one,  value.  attachment  upon  models.  explanation.  psychoanalytic  primarily  of  Bowlby.  some o v e r l a p  as  latter  has  theorist i s John  such  the  phenomenon  i s based  Basis  leading  adaptive  view  Model  approach  value  psychoanalytic  Biological The  model  adaptive  section.  medical A  The  Developmental  of  that grief  Bowlby  (i960,  mechanisms.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of  His the  has  an  is described  (i960,  1961,  processes  grief  1961,  1963)  within 1963).  rested  instinctive  studies mother  have and  a  mainly her  3'2  progeny. mother  Bowlby  and  (1961) h y p o t h e s i z e d  child  " i s mediated  response  systems which  man"  332).  (p.  around  the  part  conceived  same g e n e r a l  terminates stops  He  are  certain  a n x i e t y and  by  that  the  a number of  the  bond  of  instinctive searching  on  For  inherited  repertoire  as  example,  being  the  response  systems  the  of  part  the  instinctive  a l l relationships  pattern.  between  the  of  built  mother  (her  presence  child.)  She  also 4  provides may  activating  reinforce  loneliness  reactions  into  these  and  instinctive  stimuli when  anxiety  Like  the  four  stages  by  stage  they  i n an  responses."  outlined  which  he  This  object". anger. the  Crying  mother  that Anger  two  this  333-334). absences  serves  returns response  serves  directed  main  the  against The  can  as  bereavement,  the  these  be  "ancient  seen  "the  last urge  an  adaptive her.  an as  to  this  out  in  the  phase  It  "adaptive  f u n c t i o n of  the  object  the  are  i s Bowlby's  period a  (Bowlby,  useful during won't  be  of  week.  the  The  lost  weeping  and  child  --  contention  grieving  aggression  itself"  absences  Parkes  f u n c t i o n f o r the  i s a c t i v a t e d i n the  that  as  recover  system  be  and  long  or  can  reactions  initial  t o him  loved  grief  Bowlby  being  may  f e a t u r e s of as  set  phases.  stage  as  aggression  (ensures  Bowlby  stage  is described  The  and  evokes  responses  calls  shock  stage  systems  Bowlby.  first  second  During  individual  theorists,  numbness.  instinctive  occur.  These  (1970) d e s c r i b e d the and  for other  adult.  when  i t is  1961,  pp.  temporary  repeated,)  but  in  33  permanent occur  losses  i t ceases  and a t a high Phase  three  t o be u s e f u l ,  although  i t may  intensity.  i s described means  This  becomes an  indispensable p r e r e q u i s i t e to adaptation.  grief  presented  capacity  the  of t h i s  disorganization  Only  This when  up"  concept  organized  object  of the lost  patterns or goal  object  lack of  patterns of that depression i s s t a t e of  as a r e s u l t which  The  the d e s c r i p t i o n s of  of the  i s consequent  on  i n the external world"  i s important  of behavior  ones,  of t h i s  arises  of depression  " p o s s i b l e f o r new  i n Bowlby's  (p. view.  associated with the  or goal  adapted  are broken  t o new  down,  i s  o b j e c t s , t o be  i t built  (p.335). The  fourth in  i n with  (1961) a s s e r t e d  of "behaviour  the patterns  interaction then  Bowlby  adaptive  of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n  ( 1 9 4 4 ) a s "a p a i n f u l  The d e p r e s s i o n  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  335).  fits  of the s u b j e c t i v e aspect  disorganization.  loss  stage  and m a i n t a i n  (p. 142).  essence  the process  by L i n d e m a n n  to initiate  behaviour"  that  as " d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n as  process".  characterization  still  second  phase  and t h i r d  of mourning.  t h e f o u r t h phase  emphasis clearly  phases That  retained"  appropriate  (p.337).  characterize the  i s , elements  from  of " r e o r g a n i z a t i o n " , however  on t h e " d i s c r i m i n a t i o n no l o n g e r  together  between  and those  patterns  each there  are  found  i s an  that are  t h a t c a n be  reasonably  34  Bowlby and  stated  c h i l d r e n over  described and  from  h i s theory  phases,  (b)Protest,  t h e o r i s t s who a l s o this  i s applicable  s i xmonths of age.  by h i s f o u r  Numbness,  Other  that  theoretical  Condensing  Bowlby  labelled  (c) Despair, explained  view  to both what  adults  was  them a s (a) Shock  and (d) Detachment.  grief  are Jacobson  reactions  similarly  (1957) and Parkes  (1972). Loss  as a Developmental Kastenbaum  in  Bowlby's  conception what  when The  and A i s e n b e r g  theory, of l o s s  The c h i l d t h e mother  authors  between  leaves,  there  that  many  by t h e i n f a n t  unimportant  to our adult  child  partial time  experiences  losses  sense  of s e l f  so t h a t  becomes p o s s i b l e occurs  a growth  the c h i l d  separations  and young  a self-loss.  eventually  and p r o v i d e s i n mastery  of future  vision,  so  return."  losses and  yet in principle, development  by a g r o w t h  for trust.  these  i n the future  return"  of the environment  of  time,  are t r i v i a l  t h e "she w i l l a basis  However,  of "she w i l l  In healthy  a r e accompanied  t o those  a conception  and object  child  retrospective  children.  develops  i s no s e n s e  points  to the early  n o t have a c o n c e p t i o n  experienced  the  i n regard  mothers and t h e i r  i s that  does  stated  (1972) had s i m i l a r  particularly  i s significant  time.  Task  belief  There  also  and i n  independence. Cassem for  growth.  (1975) c o n t e n d e d From  that  the perspective  many  losses  of the  are  indispensable  mother-child  relationship,  the attachment  must  be  ruptured  f o r growth  to  occur. Assumptions 1.  of  the Developmental  Grief  is a biological  Model  phenomenon  that  has  an a d a p t i v e  value. 2.  The  attachment  and  illustrated 3.  biological  processes l i e primarily  response mechanisms.  by  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  D u r i n g bereavement,  The  between  "ancient  with  overall a mother  instinctive  system and  instinctive  is  progeny.  responses" are  act ivated. 4. and  healthy 5.  in  The  emotional expression part  This  and  to the medical  to adapt  be  t o new  independent The  In model  this  biological and  section,  approach  cohesiveness  and  normal  or  stages which  are  similar  i n h i s or her  f o r an  w o r l d or  to  t h e world'. Adaptat ion that  the view  occurring  context.  by m a k i n g  psychologically  within  i t i s shown  evolution,  is a  i s necessary in order  objects  upon  loss  model.  loss  Soc i a l  i s based  psychological  or  a  behavior.  have phases  Disorganization  individual grow  instinctual  m o d e l may  description 6.  of  following  within  Grief  separation  Model  the that  social grief  adaptation i s a product  a biological,  s e r v e s t o promote from  physiologically.  the group  of  cultural group  stressful,  both  36  Bio-sociological Averill series of  of  which  views  explanation  (1968) d e s c r i b e d  responses there  grief  are  from  f o l l o w i n g the two  a cultural,  His  major  He  the  adaptive  that  cohesi.veness necessary  within  a  assumed  the  Lindemann, and  the  that  sensory  be.,  are  no  Averill  potential  any  Averill's  a  physiologically. bonds  to mediate  only  when  with  a  729)  grief.  i n the  He  oriented.  "ensure  existence  as  i s of  simple  group  is  occurring  by  latter  (p.  that  the  of  the  He  1961;  three  stages  emphasized  sensations  environment  both  he  biological  or  726).  Rather  stimulus question which  species  for should  i s of and  which  Group cohesiveness  making  separation  (in  from  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and  significance upon  (Engel,  stimulus"  grief?"  event  based  "behavior"  However,  survival  i s ensured  are  i s to of  Bowlby's  grief  f o r the  stressful  these  form  suggested  information  Grief  grief  n a t u r a l or  r e a c t i o n such  extremely  grief.  psychological  theorists  "physical energies,  hypothesis)  object,  psychological context.  medical  e v o l u t i o n of  significance  induce  g r o u p an  the  p.  and  r e f e r s to  and  concurred  (1968,  significant  sociologically  social  grief  what c o n s t i t u t e s a  " i s there  might  and  receptors  ask  grief,  1944)  of  complex  and  as  729).  biological  validity  biological  there  than  stressed that  cultural,  was  f u n c t i o n of  (p.  a  a  mourning  biological  where a  for survival"  Averill  --  hypothesis  in species  behavior  l o s s of  components  perspective. posed  bereavement  in maintaining  individual  social  recognition  and  37  attachment.  In  (deafen),  biological  run. of the  the  Averill  this  cases  stage.  establishment  follows a)  Bowlby  the  new  e x t i n g u i s h e d as  those  which  f e a t u r e s of  (Averill,  1961,  p.  i n c l u d e s such  symptoms as loss  of  imagined  loss  of  a  resolved  when new  a l l ties  should  with  be  grief  eradicated.  may  be  summarized  but  stereotyped  response  fatigue,  situation,  significant object  by  a  namely,  object  relations  the  (or  are  i t i s an  psychologically grief  i s often  relations, spite  above,  of  the  the  and  well,  extremely  real  hence  the  to  and  a biological  model  holds  of  new by  that  phenomenon whose  8  in  i t  appears  higher  emotion,  yet  c o n t r a d i c t i o n posed  adaptation  and  behavior  establishment  alleviation  i t is  e s t a b l i s h e d ; c)  stressful  the  or  r o l e ) and  especially  physiologically  antithetical  apparent  social  fundamentally  and  as  and  rather  other  species  pattern  sleep disturbances  in  d)  as  physiological  a u b i q u i t o u s p h e n o m e n o n a m o n g human b e i n g s  primates;  the  the  is  social  with  a p r e c o n d i t i o n of  i t is elicited  stimulus  not  744):  withdrawal,  well-defined  be  similar descriptions  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  a p p e t i t e ; b)  avoided  r e a c t i o n must  interfere  relationships  i s a complex  be  stated that  major  Grief  grief  ( 1 9 6 1 ) had  the  which  In  be  Only  of  Overall,  of  However, A v e r i l l  o b j e c t must  recovery  s e p a r a t i o n cannot  course  (1961) and  course.  lost  where  of  both during new  stress. the  grief  last  point  is  significance  goes  38  beyond  the  well-being  Assumpt ions 1.  of  Grief  stereotyped cultural 2. in  the  set  of  the  Soc i a l  product  of  behaviors  psychological  The  function where a  of  individual.  Adaptat ion  is a  and  species,  single  of  Model  biological evolution  which  occurs  within  and  a  a biological,  context. grief  i s to  s o c i a l form  of  ensure  group  existence  cohesiveness  i s necessary  for  survival. 3.  Grief  i s both  psychologically  and  physiologically  stressful. 4.  In  biological  the  case  course  of  death,  ( s i m i l a r to  5.  Grief  can  be  6.  Grief  is elicited  grief the  theory  characterized by  a  runs  by  its  "natural"  posed  by  symptoms  Bowlby,  1961).  (medical  significant loss  (real  model)."  or  imagined). 7.  The  individual, 8.  significance  of  grief  predetermined  by  biological  Although  displayed  grief  ensures  i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to  goes  well  beyond  evolution.  group cohesiveness,  forming  the  and  the  establishing  behavior  social  relationships. The This grief.  It  processes object.  section  Psychoanalyt ic  presents  i s t h i s model of  The  an  that  individual  intrapsychic  the  in  Model  psychoanalytic first  emphasized  r e l a t i o n to  processes  model  of  the  the loss  mourning  are  approach  to  intrapsychic of  a  love  discussed  39  within  this  section.  Psychodynamic The grief the  psychoanalytic  from  an  mourner  object the  from This  object's  a lost  amounts  Wolfenstein  unreadiness  child  children  needs  (specifically, Adolescence  the  a parent),  stage, loss.  decathexis  from  with  adolescence  reality  this  of the parents,  saw  to a  new  or  of the  i s persuaded 1957).  to  Mourning  object. i n the  research  to developmental Instead  of  hypercathect. with  able  That i s ,  the deceased developmentally. to grieve.  as a p a r t  provides  He  i t s sum o f  the lost  f o r being  As t h e a d o l e s c e n t  lost  o f e a c h memory  t o advance  the parents,  to a  the removal of  (Freud,  a relationship  i n order  described  attachment  alive  children).  and a d o l e s c e n t s  to continue  of s e p a r a t i n g  experiencing  with  (1957)  was n o t f o u n d  He a t t r i b u t e d  i s the precondition  developmental  object  of d e c a t h e c t i n g  (specifically  decathecting,  being  "decathecting"  explore  h i s or her love.  t h e ego, from from  to  goodbye  the stark  to the lost  (1966).  says  concerned  with  satisfactions"  process  Freud  by t h e m e e t i n g  Thus,  to a piece-meal  model  and i t s subsequent  of expectancy",  nonexistence.  This  as being  object  i t s attachment  virtue  internally  i s accomplished  "narcissistic  the  the f i r s t  intrapsychic perspective.  of mourning  "situations  by  was  o n whom he o r s h e h a d b e s t o w e d  libido  sever  model  a s s o m e o n e who  process  one.  Explanations  of  By  this  the process f o r  g r a d u a l l y moves  he o r s h e i s b e i n g  through  initiated  into  40  the  realm  of  Freud  mourning.  (1957) emphasized  individual's various  psychic apparatus.  defense  "necessary") The  mechanisms  used  f u n c t i o n of  to  the  or  deceased.  saintly  Kedz  which  death  within  investigated  d e s c r i b e d as  balance  and  occurred  ( 1 9 7 7)  she  the  ideas about  "Regression"  "enshrinement"  Kedz  (which  to maintain  our  "introjection". the  conflicts  i n the  occurs  stated that  the  and  self".  through  "repression" together  qualities  the  "normal"  "inner  the  manifest  the  mourner  attributes  best  defense  mechanism  is  "sublimation". Melanie mainly  from  focused This  Klein  s t u d i e s of  upon  the  victim  mediated  the  depressive  I f the  "fear"  and  anxieties.  Grief The  manic-depressive  to  and  adult  and  her  from  being  mother  the  manages  and  a defense child  the  is  against left  i s no  The  loss  as  early  "modified  to overcome  she  progeny.  longer  child  responsible for  reactivates a  grief  L i k e Bowlby,  loved object.  through  on  a n x i e t y which  experiences  travels  state"  the  i s gone,  the  in adulthood  position  g e n e r a l l y as  h i s or  "guilt"  disappearance,  punishment.  between  mother  attachment  her  illness.  interpreted  i n f l u e n c e of  through  experiences mother's  was  anxiety.  to  formulated  relationship  relationship  paranoid  (1948)  the  personal  psychotic transitory  i t , (Klein,  1948). The here  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c concept  (Averill,  1968,  p.  729):  of  grief  i s summarized  briefly  41  In  the process  or  cathected to important  cathected broken. first of  object This  libidinal  persons  i s lost,  the l i b i d i n a l  i s a painful  denial  that the loss  this  position  that  t h e e g o n o t be o v e r w h e l m e d  often  piece-meal.  with  the a i d of i n t r o j e c t i o n ,  relationship  with  the lost  relationship  i s thus  ties  actively 2. mourning, 3.  painful  i n which  the  i s internalized.  while  t h e many  The  libidinal  of the P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Model  Grief  i s a sense  i n the process The emphasis versus  help of  of loss,  of t h i s  ties  and t h i s  which  manifests  itself  of mourning.  the nature  Libidinal  (decathected),  4.  and i n order  a r e abandoned.  Assumptions 1.  makes  This i s  accomplished  preserved  i sat  i n t h e form  however, of  be  which  testing  by a f l o o d  object  must  task  Reality  untenable,  decathexis proceeds  i s attached If a  ties  and d i f f i c u l t  i s real.  increasingly  energy  or' o b j e c t s .  met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e ,  feeling,  the  of development,  model  of  i s p l a c e d on t h e p r o c e s s o f  grief.  to the lost  o b j e c t must  takes  i n a piece-meal  place  be  broken fashion with  introjection.  Some  theorists  assume  precondition  t o mourning.  adolescence,  i s hypercathected  developmentally.  During  that adolescence  A loss  experienced  i n order  adolescence,  i s a  by a p e r s o n  f o r growth  decathexis  t o take occurs  before place  42  naturally  with  serves  an  as  5.  the  p a r e n t s "as  initiation  Other  of  theorists  the  how  place  an  (similar  to Bowlby,  relationship  inhibits  and  responses  experienced a  loss.  being  again  transitory  "paranoid  this  manic-depressive  behavior Averill  model and  (1968)  ritualistic define  how  the  stated that of  situations  exhibited. behavior  i t varies  In  may  fact,  be  This  state"  (Klein,  Cultural  Model  concerned cultures  "society  in which  not  one  of  anxiety is  a child) a  experiences  "modified  and  1948).  with  bereavement  and  societies.  only  behavior,  such  mother-child  mother-child  The  longer  the  responses,  resembles  bereavement  under  certain  (no  across  upon  The  anxiety".  is specifically  aspects  1961).  experience  The This  emphasis  activates  when a p e r s o n  However,  matures.  to-mourn.  relationship  the  adolescent  behavior  prescribes i t also  the  helps  should  be  appropriate conditions, nearly  interpreted  as  a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of  at  rituals  grief"  any (p.  722 ) . Several in  theorists  various cultures  influences Averill,  or  and  determines  1968),  successful  look  or  make h y p o t h e s e s the  whether  resolution  of  i t a i d s or  the  1973;  mourning  Miller  & Schoenfeld,  (1973)  studied "pathological  process  Steele, grief  and as  customs  to whether  process  (Masamba  culture  with  and  among  1965;  the  & Kalish,  Miller  reactions"  grieving  (Anderson,  interferes  1977).  of  1976; Schoenfeld  Navajo  Indians.  Although  concept,  they  did  not  e x p l a i n what  d i d emphasize  the  interaction  m e c h a n i s m s and condition. which were  cultural  predisposed (a)  the  and  (c)  there  exists  aggression.  The  believe,  be  can  be  specialist a  to  do  person  a  This  model  was  external  the  who  of  process", cultural  advice  presented  bereavement  here  behavior  but  to  and  these)  grief  i s the  for expression  and they  to  others  (dress, hair, A  (created by  and etc.  ritual by  the  providing  throughout are. o f t e n  label of  grief  loss  things  loss.  in apparel  is  an to  the  G r i e f may  represents  social and  the synonomous  applied  mourning  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  f u n e r a l s , changes  primary  assistance.  because  while  days,  aggression,  anger  w e l l as  needs  These  four  aggression,  (1968) argument,  loss,  than  specialists.  and  factors  dead.  marking  and  mourning  ritual  determined  Thus,  or  pathologic  investigated  as  thei  reactions.  grief:  and  mourner  satisfied  following Averill's  culturally  anger  isolating  source  u n i v e r s a l response  loss.  of  of  reduce dependent  object  being  "internal  (1972)  components  to  by  Walsh  the  cultural  anger the  m e a n t by  psychodynamic  longer  of  f e a r of  introducing ritual  and  However,  two  harmful  help  or  and  of  to pathologic mourning  general  expression  or  may  literature,  the  on  controlled  bereaved,  of  a  they  l e d to  three  expressions  Jackson  focusing  were  individual  against  Rosenblatt,  should  an  there  culture prohibits  i t sanctions  emotions,  i n f l u e n c e s which  Specifically,  (b)  the  they  expression  limitations  be the of of  44  activity  a r e mourning  question  as t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  particularly to  However,  when t h e l i t e r a t u r e  determine, The  behaviors.  diagnose,  bereavement  i n a Samoan c o m m u n i t y  Iwasaki  by L i n d e m a n n  and Yosh imura worship  Buddhism  are prevalent.  i n many  Asian This  Wood  Mexican  (1976)  Ablon  mourning  process.  emotions  viewed  The r i t u a l s  (1971)  (1944).  practice  stages observed  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  the  Okonogi,  the adaptive  opposes  of the  studied  Yamamoto,  (the stage  eight  grief, criteria  i n terms  and d i d not observe  s t u d i e d the importance  c u l t u r e and found  observable  c o u n t r i e s , where  " l e t t i n g g o " .of t h e d e c e a s e d  and  a r e mixed  (1969) d e s c r i b e d  ancestor  a  models.  and  some  grief.  model  of the other  remains  mourning  emphasizes  assumptions  syndrome d e s c r i b e d  between  or e x p l a i n  studies within this  there  f u n c t i o n of  Shintoism those  advocating  theorists).  of r i t u a l s  and  Anguilar  within the  which described the resolved  the major  -- g u i l t , h o s t i l i t y a n d  depression. Assumpt i o n s 1.  of the C u l t u r a l  The e m p h a s i s  behavior,  which  Model  of t h i s  model  i s upon  i s influenced or determined  bereavement by c u l t u r e a n d  soc i e t y . 2.  C u l t u r e determines  situations 3. mourning  where  such  Depending may  behavior  upon  be a i d e d  ritualistic  aspects  of behavior  and  the process  of  i s appropriate.  the c u l t u r e or society,  or hindered,  according  t o some  4 5  predetermined similar model  to  criteria.  the  final  acceptance  resolution is a  stage  presented  by  concept the  stage  approach. 4.  Theorists  working  assumptions  which  stem  considering  anger  and  a  Successful  5. versus  Jackson  Culture grief  from  upon  other  the  & Walsh,  concerns  (internal  existential  model  presented  lies  p r o p o s i t i o n of- t h e grief  upon  questions  the are  posed  present,  behavior  of  and  has  here.  i n support and  m o u r n i n g ) and one's purpose  meaning  based  quest ionable.  or  and  inhibition  placing of  (external  upon p r i o r  from  these  ritual)  of  meaning  accompanying to  focus  i s not  studies  the upon  Within  position,  the  refuted, found  that  model  (through  this  this of  fundamental  paradigm).  in l i f e .  nature  position in  existential  serve  existential-phenomenological existential  emotions  Model  This  scientific  during  grief's  example,  mourning  perspective  been d i s c o v e r e d  natural  emotions  crisi.s  with  Existential  a different  based  expression  definite  process).  has  of  For  primary  existential-phenomenological  i n the  have  1972).  dissertation  meaning  model  models: as  itself  The The  this  aggression  v a l u a t i v e judgement  (Rosenblatt,  with  the  difference  that  the  methodologies Existential (the  complex  process an  of  and  existential  the value but  within  of  the the  discovering assertion  of  literature  is  46  Loss  as Meaning Many  loss. of  theorists  Solomon  (1977)  the attachment  lost  upon  quality  the meaning  Schneider grief  needs  individuals, is  experienced.  is  predictable,  Meaning  of the l o s s  of the s i g n i f i c a n c e  the quality individual into  e x p l a n a t i o n of  and i n t e n s i t y  account  of  intensity the  i n order  to  grief.  of g r i e f  t o an  and  has toward  appear  t o be  individual.  of g r i e f  may  dependent  F r e a r s and  t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t  The p r o c e s s  but t h i s  that  t o be t a k e n  (1981) proposed  response.  i n terms  the bereaved  a satisfactory  The  grief  suggested  that  object/person  provide  view  loss  vary  leads  to a  across  i s the f u n c t i o n of the " k i n d of l o s s "  Senour  (1981 ) s t a t e d t h a t  depending  again  here  i s assumed  from  the  personal  investment  within  the  personal  investment,  upon  t h e d u r a t i o n of  the meaning  the kind of loss that  t h e more  loss.  time  of the  grief  loss.  experienced  That  that  and  i s , the greater  i s needed  to resolve the  grief. Ex i s t e n t i a l C r i s i s White nature  (1974) attempted  a s an e x i s t e n t i a l  included  the following  Grief:  The c o m p l e x  accompanying, Mourning:  crisis.  (pp.  i n terms  of  ofi t s  definitions  12-13):  the process  from  grief  His list  of emotions  The p r o c e s s  disengagement  to analyze  present,  and b e h a v i o r  and behavior  the relationship  d u r i n g and of mourning.  of s o c i a l with  and  emotional  the deceased  and  the  r e i n v e s t m e n t of  self  i n new  relationships  and  activities. Acute  Conjugal Grief:  period  of  bereavement  symptomatic  particular  The  point  grief  with the  self,  of d e a t h ,  and  induced  i n which  significant threat  identified  being,  They  White  aspect of inner  three  of  one's  own  life  and  one's  stated  that  the  to death at  following  i n which  e x p e r i e n c e d as with  a  the  loss  term  i n which  of  one's  anxieties  and  is a  being,  of  his life  of purpose,  finitude  and  situation  and  or  which  in  the  t o o t h e r s and  separation  which  reevaluation impact  d e a t h , and  grief  h i s own  is felt  i s confronted  meanings  h i s sense  crisis  one  to  ultimate  variously loss  of  a  results  in  self.  (a) t h e  of  due  interchangeably  including  there  (b) t h e e f f e c t s  feelings plan  are  intense  the period  ontological  existential  to the  t h e most  loss  subjectively  A crisis  his perception  The  crisis.  used  of  of h i s b e i n g i n r e l a t i o n  death.  spouse,  discussion.)  Crisis:  authenticity  fact  i n time and  the q u e s t i o n s of face  with  a  grief.  historical  is also  i n White's  Existential  White  of  d e a t h c o n t i n u e s t o be  (bereavement  the death of  associated  features  Bereavement:  the  Following  relations must  influence  of v a l u e and  o f d e a t h upon (c) a  be  viewed  existential purpose  thoughts  reassessment  to other people  always  the  and  i n the  of to  of  and  the  total  self.  light  of  48  personal of  the  meanings  i t has  for  assumed  that  self.  He  person  toward  personal  self.  Thus,  therapy  as  grief  w e l l as  White's grief  over  around He  the  existential  growth  --  play  significant  a  life  and  anxiety  strengthening  propels  and  part  integrity a  enlarging  i n the  the  process  of  in a l l interpersonal situations.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  another's  three  framed  can  sustaining  death  points.  questions  The  understanding  as  an  first  which  an  existential of  these  illustrated  crisis,  was  this  individual's revolved  " l o s s of  point  meaning".  as  follows  any  other  (p.  62) : He  was  of  value?  The  Did  it  by  me?  of  the  it  ever  second  by  could  is  dead.  last  I  am  the  left  bereavement  there,  really  have  I  life  too  been  shall  been  the  me.  will  (p.  meaning  without i s my  attributed  to  meaning?  In  light  life  or  will  now,  essence  of  "nonbeing"  which  is  statements: Why  die.  was  i t not  I will  not  again  me? be  Something (p.  in  63).  illustrated  by  the  63):  to  be  shall  in White's due' t o  the  die,  is "responsibility",  alone  i s there,  significance?  following  i s empty;  emphasis  was  his  any  I too  question  which  has  captures  have  point  me,  life  that of  point  It  following  The  be  to  his Or  fact  illustrated  The  value  death  fully  responsible  i t remain  study  is in  in terms  f o r my  own  i t s examination  of  life,  empty?  of. i t s e x i s t e n t i a l  nature  as  me  "self-loss". extension sense,  of oneself  1.  o f t h e Ex i s t e n t i a l  significance There  perceiving of  self  grief,  of s e l f  The  model  event  and e x p l a i n i n g suggests  i s upon  Cognitive  to  events  (persons, and which  some c o m p r e h e n s i b l e  various  dimensions distortion,  to life  when  and the  sense  clarified.)  a cognitive the "acute  model  grief" impact  conceptual (1974,  places, things, permit  f o r understanding, process  and outcome.  of a sudden  death  frame-of-reference.  p. 4) a s " r e f e r r i n g  and c a t e g o r i e s which  the i n d i v i d u a l  occurrences)  that  to the applies  he  him t o o r g a n i z e h i s e x p e r i e n c e s  into  form."  model,  symptoms,  pathological)  by  Cognit i v e Model  the survivor's  Schor's  i s determined  nature.  that the primary  meanings  encounters  In  was n o t  i s d e f i n e d by S c h o r  conceptual  of g r i e f  in relation  h a s an e x i s t e n t i a l  (1974) proposed  describing  1974).  upon p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g s  particularly  The Schor  i s in this  Model  and " i n t e n s i t y "  i s an emphasis  Grief  (White,  which  of the l o s s .  (the concept  3.  i n bereavement,  of the s e l f  The " q u a l i t y "  2.  o f a l o v e o b j e c t p e r c e i v e d t o be a n  results  the decimation  Assumptions  the  The l o s s  a cognitive  matrix  s i g n s and determinants  i s p o s t u l a t e d and of g r i e f  a r e e x p l a i n e d u s i n g h i s framework.  t h a t he i n v e s t i g a t e d  were c o n f u s i o n ,  d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and p r e o c c u p a t i o n  (normal  versus  Some o f t h e denial, with the  50  deceased. In  h i s study,  developed,  and  development. (1964), a  The  authors  (i960),  experiences  cognitive the  previously  the  routine encounters  her  particular  terms  of  proposed to  upon  explain  previously  of  leaves  living.  behind  discussed theorists  he the  of were  Kelly or  cognitive Dabrowski  (1963).  she  When  experiences  individual  without with  Thus,  is  The  an  these the  this  inadequacy  individual  individual  functioning  Using  rules  is  categories for coping  between  matrix.  matrix  h i s work  another,  cognitive  cognitive  rationale  the  (1968) and  death  (1974).  to  influenced  interaction  her  Schor the  of  cognitive  h i s or by  The  a cognitive  event  Mehrabian  available  the  who  a death  inadequacy.  dependent  d e s c r i b e d how  compares a death  Piaget  person  Schor  along  criteria,  with his  regresses certain  (particularly  within  in  criteria  Schor  symptoms p r o p o s e d  or  attempted by  the  the medical  model. ) Assumpt i ons 1. the  People  The  Coqn i t i v e M o d e l  create cognitive  basic  development  adaptive to  the  matrices  in order  to  understand  world. 2.  the  of  and  interact  (Dabrowski,  function  living  o f man's c o g n i t i v e  survival with  of  function  increasingly  1964) .  organisms  sphere  since complex  has  an  i t enables  is survival,  and  important the  environmental  individual impingements  51  3. the  The  primary  impact  survivor's conceptual 4.  Death  cognitive 5. which  t o make s e n s e  be  (specifically  death)  i s upon  frame-of-reference.  a cognitive disruption  I n d i v i d u a l s are  6.  loss  resulting  in  inadequacy.  cognitively  can  creates  of  along  out  left of  certain  the  by  death  using  cognitive categories event,  dimensions  D i f f e r e n c e s between explained  without  so  outlined  "normal"  and  they by  in  regress  Schor  (1974).  "pathological"  grief  a c o g n i t i v e model. Cr i t i q u e  The However,  process from  literature philosophic  of  the  making  i t is clear  p o s i t i o n s and  the  literature  the  positions outlined  grief.  The  serves  that  two  purposes,  w i t h i n each  purpose  C e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s and  the  but  researcher's  how  these  the  This being  the  assumptions and  of  critique to  meaning of  of  summarize  focusing  problem  background  were d e r i v e d  a diversity  models, to  the  upon  of drawing  expectancies  are  w e r e made w i t h i n on  what  grounds,  unclear. The  medical  emphasizes as  the  illustrates  not  is  of  first  inconsistencies in regard  second  approach,  the  continuous.  in  exists  1  when  each  there  is  here,  approaches to g r i e f .  conclusions known.  explicit  presuppositions outlined  review,  weaknesses and  assumptions  grief  model  has  as  observable  an  i f i t were a d i s e a s e ,  dominated  the  research  phenomenon, and  depression,  anxiety, etc.  on  grief.  studies The  It grief  52  advantages way  point  its  own  it  this  right.  becomes entity  normality also  Only  label  With  studying i n  the label  intensively. model  one c o u l d s e e  Disease  connotes  emphasizes the  ( i nregard  to i n i t i a l  grief  i s present  (linear  i t i s "unhealthy"  does  of disease,  a loss  once  in this  of "disease"  seems a s t h o u g h  the medical  after  grief  i s not worth  the attached  one l o o k e d  implies that  inferred),  Grief  I t almost  Although  of grief  f o r viewing  f o r research.  reified.  i f only  (1961)  belief:  with  significant  abnormality.  it  by E n g e l  t o a prominent  become  grief  outlined  and t h e next  step  response),  causality  i s to eradicate  it.  have  Through  i n t e r v i e w s , both  created  f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of g r i e f .  emphasizing categories behavior the  and l a b e l s  observed.  person's  know w h a t How  t h e meaning  does  .Aside  from  justification, comparing are  views  labels  "mental  h a s p r e s c r i b e d more  grief  f u r t h e r away  about.  "normal  from  grief"?  r e a c t i o n (Bugen,  without  are studies  Like grief,  and a n x i e t y .  widening  1977)?  meaningful  the research  disorders".  of depression  c o n t r i b u t e s t o the ever  we a r e t a l k i n g  than  t o make c l e a r e r t h e  versus  a grief  f u r t h e r confounds  to other  many d i f f e r e n t  example what  grief  grief"  observing  c r e a t i n g new what  takes  Rather  (1965)  F o r 'how d o we d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n a n d  by " t y p i c a l  one go a b o u t  each  are intended  procedure  experience.  i s meant  (1945) and Parkes  of the concept,  which  This  Lindemann  gap of  there  This  understanding  The  stage  Kubler-Ross with  (1969).  terminally  adapted model,  Although  her  studies  patients,  the  stages  the  stage  model assumes g r i e f  response  loss.  of  the  stages,  theorists  in stages  Grief  This  "takes  for without  do  not  assumed  experience,  and  example,  agree  of  between  Stages  stages?  categorization,  but  is  r e a l l y one  of  to  know w h i c h  stage  toward  griever. not  One  achieve  grief?  these  on  as  the  been  work  developed  "normal"  of  primarily have  U n l i k e the and  been  medical  a  do  not  an  because  never  wonders  or chooses  of  label  the  of  somewhat  or  the  descriptions do  not  the  number  of  stage  descriptions  light, the  of  used.  the  appear  inadequate.  person's  meaning.  For  what  the  experience  purpose  i s a value  been d e m o n s t r a t e d  The  what  becomes of  the  not  to achieve  this  the  does  issue  i t serve  t o gauge  how  e x p e c t a t i o n of  belonging as  to  Perhaps  i s i n , except  acceptance.  The  grief  simplistic solution  address  acceptance  stages  What b e c o m e s o f a  remains  the  totality  this  individual  is final  resolution  labels,  the  sequence  meaning  illuminate  offer  "acceptance"  has  she  grief.  final  the  manageability.  f a r away  model which  on"  within  "denial"  experience/world  or  toward  t o encompass  regarded  does  as  have  ( t h e number and  poses a problem,  who  are  such  from  loss.  w i t h a movement  the  exist.  to  occurs  of  moving  became p o p u l a r  phenomena,  debatable)  close  grief  other  Grief  labels  i l l  of  to  healthy  For  theory  to  "true"  the to  individual  stage  the who  i m p l i c i t goal?  does What  54  becomes of The model  i n the  the  sense  model  who  does not  model  in stages.  i t shares  reactions are  Here,  the  meaning  and  other  concerned  with  the  physical physical  as  of  grief  f u n c t i o n s of  physical  processes  behaviors.  Grief  specific  reaction  serves  triggered  in adulthood.  behaviors  through  substantiating.  In  the  continually  rather  what  The model,  soc i a l  but  versus  causes,  this  using  developmental  cases  the  of  the  lost  in  many t h e o r i e s  person,  what of  person)  which  the  a  occurs when  purpose  of  the  without  infant-mother observations, they  "think"  function  i s viewed  The  model,  which  is similar  social  emphasis  environmental  model  and  they  see  see.  grief  this  with  observations  model assumes  d e s c r i b e what  meaning.  time  becomes  same a d a p t a t i o n a l v a l u e  a d a p t a t i o n model  model,  purpose  researcher  they  emphasizes  developmental  The  or  i s p o r t r a y e d by  observation, inferring,  researchers than  the  medical  biological  Like  the  through  i n f a n c y and  to the  stimuli-reactions,  i s inferred  during  stage?  positively  manifestations.  (inherent within  any  some s i m i l a r i t y  happens e x p e r i e n t i a l l y and  a  viewed  c a u s a l - m e c h a n i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s of  instincts  into  linked  i s regarded  However,  in that  "fit"  is closely  that grief  phenomenon.  stage  framed  individual  developmental  physical the  the  from  cites  further  of  cloud  the  developmentalLike  the  p e r s p e c t i v e of  in searching  Averill  findings  the  grief.  the  lies  ones.  to  (1968),  from  the  meaning  for a  primary  medical of  grief.  and  55  Averill  points out that  p a t t e r n s . . However,  grief  possesses  the implication  stereotypical  here  i s that  observable,  but not n e c e s s a r i l y experienced.  the  context  i n which  how  grief  shows  responses  is  most  occur  from  i n regard  defense  ties,  The  cultural  behavior,  this  directly,  model,  but f o r  activity  (which  the phraseology  c a n be  the experience  hypercathexis,  concerns  grief  synonomously.  understanding  stereotypical  of  grief;  combination  of  and so on.  model  although  of  not c l a r i f y  context.  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to understanding  mechanisms,  the multitude  i s not addressed  from  decathexis,  but does  stresses  proposes p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Grief  Within  grief i s  Averill  occur,  w i t h i n t h e same  i s inferred  mourning).  libidinal  used  apart  of g r i e f .  part,  called  vague  responses  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c model  explanations the  itself  w h i c h may  The  these  response  grief  itself  and t h i s  Behavior  behavior  appears  within this  with  bereavement  (mourning) a r e often  t o be t h e k e y t o  model.  What  people  do i n  various  c u l t u r e s i s the primary  focus  of the s t u d i e s w i t h i n  model.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what  these  behaviors  people and  i n v o l v e d a r e based  theoretical  determining The However, says:  what  stance.  I am  Values  upon  to the  the researcher's  a r e a major  position  factor in  i s "valid".  existential this  solely  mean  this  model  model does  grieving.  presents  not address  Grief  a different what  i s fragmented  view  of  i t m e a n s when i n terms  of  grief. someone  quality  56  and  intensity  not  clear.  likens  (quantity).  White  i t t o an  or  interviews  with  which  with  the  p e r s p e c t i v e , he  clarifying  the  o t h e r s , he  and  interpretation  of  and  incomplete  does not  the  "the  complex  accompanying, The Grief  i s presented  framework  reference"  l i v e d . • The  the  connection The  the  of  meaning  of  studied.  approaches  offer  a  the  of  to  review One  the  f o l l o w the  the  concerned  individual  p o i n t s out  an  significant  l i e i n the the  to  approach  exception  experimental  of  and are  a to  From  the  method  uses.)  (p.  An  13) grief.  elaborate  grief  reactions.  not.  "Frame  of  grief  as  of  explanation,  i t and  lost. gap  concerning  f o r the  absence  in which  existential of  This  of  for viewing  evident  way  sketchy  and  with is  his  points  definition  meaning  reason or  he  mourning"  framework  upon  his analysis  during  assumptions  anything  from  grief.  concepts  sentence  behavior  is entirely  grief  With  the  focuses  in regard  a c o g n i t i v e phenomenon.  grief. may  grief  is  and  interviews are  present,  presents  but  model  literature  understanding been  not  and  White  However,  i n the  clarify  of  "what"  grief  existential  for explaining grief  i s new,  does  three  grief.  emotions  coqn it i v e model as  experience  of  of  f a r enough  i n h i s one  process  i s perceived  system The  the  of  go  content  i l l u s t r a t e d poignantly  grief,  is  (he  nature  nature  Although  captures  the  q u a n t i t y of  to approach  does not  understanding  and  the  crisis.  intent  encompasses  is  quality  (1974) d i s c u s s e s  existential  human e x p e r i e n c e meaning  The  cause  of  grief  has  model,  most  and  effect.  57  It  i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as  most large  to whether  r e l e v a n t or a p p r o p r i a t e approach number o f  concerning  studies in this  meaning.  I t i s my  directly  experienced more  fully  account i t . what  the meaning  In t h i s i s meant  way, by  and  approach,  s t r e s s e s the meaning  into  area,  to g r i e f ,  intention  existential-phenomenological  takes  the experimental  of  our  grief  to study for this  i t might grief.  from be  based  lack  a phenomenon as  of  method  i s the  upon  of  the  knowledge  grief  using  an  approach lived.  t h o s e who  possible to  It have  understand  CHAPTER 3 Methodology  Existential-Phenomenology philosophical the  disciplines.  human c o n d i t i o n  lived  situations"  (founded contact them"  Existentialism  as i t manifests  (Valle  (Valle  understand  the events  o f human  structure,  behavior  as r e v e a l e d through  Any  disciplined methodology  (Luijpen,  1966).  history  psychology tenets The  chapter  i s devoted  allows  us t o  experience  together, which  seeks  descriptive & King,  to  a n d human techniques  1 9 7 8 , p. 7 ) .  philosophy  of  reality of  of existential-phenomenologica1  within  study), the basic  the approach method  will  are presented be p r e s e n t e d  with a basic understanding  to understanding  Phenomenology  an e x t e n s i v e o v e r v i e w  i s not the aim of t h i s  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  relation  (Valle  provide  underlying this  the reader  i n our concrete,  human e x p e r i e n c e  essentially  than  and development  assumptions  of both  c o n t a i n s an i m p l i c i t  Rather  (which  Joined  understand  existence; to "explicate the  reflection"  of the philosophy  provide and  o r form  to  them o u t a n d  i s a discipline  essence,  including  live  1978, p. 7 ) .  & King,  itself  i s a "method which  p h e n o m e n a a s we a c t u a l l y  of two  "seeks  1 9 7 8 , p. 6 ) .  & King,  by Edmund H u s s e r l )  existential-phenomenology  the  (EP) i s a b l e n d i n g  view  concerning  the experience  to the methodology  here.  to  of the philosophy,  i t s application in of g r i e f .  of the study,  As  this  sections  59  describing the  co-researchers  collection,  issues  with in  the  relevant to  The  first  the  view  nature,  are  a n a l y s i s and  not  of  but  or  people.  are  individual  and  the  world  world  partly  no  are  determination  implied by  the  world  lived  point  of  the  by  which  an  view  (and  the  individual  and  "Lebenswelt"  the  person  and  or  but  this  from  way  instead then,  An  objects people  the  the  of  from  law  world  individual.  1978).  of  Instead,  the  Each  Existence  implies that one  EP  another.  approach of  presents h i s or  to  foundation  Lebenswelt  does  and  is  not  people  making  choices  them..  This  world  "life-world".  a  Each  Instead,  her  There  people  mechanistic  people.  i t possesses the  concerned  "being-in-the-world"  nor  i s the  existential-phenomenology.  "In  under  o b l i g a t i o n ) of  world  not  operate  with  freedom  the  are  is  Because  & King,  passive.  and  cause-and-effect.)  is actually  total  approach  existence apart  (Valle  freedom"  of  life-world,  nature.  of  situation  concept  not  in a dialogue  concerning  u n i t y of  do  data,  world.  "Being-in-the-world"  partly  "situational a  other  always and  their  (mainly  h a v e an  being  1962).  active  within  they  view,  existence apart  the  embrace a p o s i t i o n  have  not  implies that  (Heidegger, the  people  in unity with  does  "co-constitutes" always  In  this  the  involving  included. EP  in nature,  has  are  of  u n d e r l y i n g an  physical science  the  procedures  interpretation  approach  assumption  objects  objects  the  (subjects),  is described  This or  is  the  starting  i s nothing  prior  to  pre-reflective i s both  independent.  60  of  knowledge  being  derived  from  'pre-reflective'  indispensable  ground  &  p.  King, A  1978,  (before  or  strives  the  the  of  the  exist  independently  soon  seek  those  out  to  be  laws  i n t e r p r e t i n g our  natural  from  the  interdependency  "transcendental  preconceptions  and  of  this  attitude"  concepts  or  phenomenon  "natural  the  (see  i t i s given.  constructions)  That  & King, with  In  process  Explanations that than  to of  give  from  what a p p e a r s ,  are  in achieve one's  explicit  the  The to  (theory, or  to  making  which  reasons  phenomenal  suspend  one.  to  The  i t exists  1 ) , moves one  from  certain  explaining  pure  order  i t i s necessary  context  i s , the  1978).  the  "transcendental"  the  people  i t i s important  individual.  Chapter a  that  function along  objectified,  This  from  attitude"  assumes them.  Thus,  (Valle  being  assumptions.  toward  life  i s concerned  with  i n terms other  or  differs  categorizing, organizing,  world  a t t i t u d e provides  phenomenon as  (Valle  the  This  around  laws.  attitude",  one's p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s "natural  objects  perceptions  of  the  the  through  realm.  1962).  as  "natural attitude"  discovered  attitude"  total  yet,  the  f o r a l l knowledge"  scientist  in everyday  "transcendental Instead  and  i t is also  i s r e f e r r e d to  (Husserl,  The  encounter  known o r  or  the  f o l l o w i n g way:  p h e n o m e n a we  point  processes,  existential-phenomenological  to adopt  attitude"  in  reflection),  starting  "transcendental perspective  thought  11).  p o s i t i o n which  psychologist  reflective  adoption  view  the  ideas,  accounts  for  eliminated  the in  61  order  to establish  a field  of p u r e l y p r e s e n t  experience  (Ihde,  1977). Another which  o f " something.  brings  (Husserl,  into  focus  1962).  experience. Zaner  We  i s the "experience  Through However,  by p o i n t i n g  Movement  goes  consciousness,  (Zaner,  "consciousing")  themselves, indissoluble  1970).  "Without  which  they  found  characterized  c a n show  noeisis. ("intended").  i s revealed or  there  revealing  They  by t h e i r  (as  themselves,  objects  the  form  mutual  an intentionality"  1970, p. 1 3 4 ) .  the purely objective  i n psychology. By  to the  a consciousness  without  Existential-phenomenological between  something.  (the objective,  t h e noema  i s no c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  unity  of"  shape of  o u t two p o l e s : N o e t i c ( t h e  from  Similarly,  there  consciousness,  o b j e c t s a r e made p r e s e n t  through  no o b j e c t s .  h a s an o b j e c t .  consciousness  i t i s by o b j e c t s t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s  elucidated  (Zaner,  of  t h e p e r c e i v i n g ) and noematic  perceived).  of  in  c o n s c i o u s , but  i s the d i r e c t i o n a l  (1970) d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o c e s s  subjective,  always  the " i n t e n t i o n a l i t y "  A l l experience  i s a forum  are not merely  Consciousness  Intentionality  ("consciousing")  are  i s that consciousness  phenomena a r e r e v e a l e d .  "conscious This  assumption  treating  objective  Valle  psychology  finds  and p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e and King  (1978)  p e r c e p t i o n as i n t e n t i o n a l  and s u b j e c t i v e  a r e seen  stated  itself approaches that:  i n nature, the  a s i n s e p a r a b l e , one  62  unable  to exist  solely  subjective  i s viewed,  i n scope  and as d o i n g ,  limited  essential In  other  totally it  nature  words, an a p p r o a c h subjective confuses  final  tenet  change  the concept  therefore,  which  within  cause  T h e same a p p l i e s  (Merleau-Ponty,  fact  1962).  hypothesis-formation groups, etc.)  The is  goal  to describe  investigation. rather  Since  than  essential  another  linear  ( p. 1 4 ) .  chapter,  concerns the  of s t u d y i n g  approach  forces.  that A  sequences  of  events  and a f f e c t s . psychic  "The  fact"  causality i s rejected,  and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  independent-dependent  a s a way  phenomena  to determine c a u s a l i t y  to thoughts  i s never  (control-experimental  variables,o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ,  the individual  are also  of the e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l  rejected. psychologist  t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e phenomenon This  involves asking  "what"  i s the meaning  under  t h e phenomenon  explaining, p r e d i c t i n g or c o n t r o l l i n g  structure  unity.  i n r e v e a l i n g the  At best,  but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  of a psychic  the very  describe  a n d d i r e c t e d by e x t e r n a l  to the  objective or  c a u s a l i t y and the b e l i e f  I t i s meaningless.  them.  injustice  is totally  this  life-world.  from  an  and d i s t o r t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s no p l a c e  be d e s c r i b e d ,  as n e c e s s a r i l y  in fact,  cause-effect  may  which i s  The e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l of l i n e a r  is initiated  Any a p p r o a c h  t o e x p l a i n and/or  addressed  of c a u s a l i t y .  rejects  the other.  of the i n d i s s o l u b l e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t  s i n c e r e l y seeks  The notion  without  i t .  of t h e phenomenon  means  The  which i s  63  revealed many the  (in this  situations. commonality  "what" this  study  first  grief)  Although  as i t i s p e r c e i v e d  grief  may  occur  in a l l i t s different  of g r i e f  meaning.  i s i t s structure.  As C o l a i z z i  disclosing  (1973,  Thus,  c a n b e made c o n c e r n i n g  c a n be t a k e n  towards  time  and  variations,  manifestations  or the  the primary  p. 28) s t a t e d ,  the foundations  over  i n many  i s t o d i s c l o s e t h e s t r u c t u r e of * g r i e f  whatsoever step  case,  task  within  i n the form of  "without  thereby  o f a p h e n o m e n a , no  progress  i t , not even  i t , by s c i e n c e  a first  faltering  o r by a n y o t h e r  kind of  cognition." Description  of  Co-Researchers  Role Unlike  traditional  empirical researchers,  existential-phenomenological his  or her data  participation invited  be c o n t a m i n a t e d  co-researchers  from  which  brings the of  the dialogue  co-researcher this  phenomenon  "Dialogal  research  research  can proceed  to the co-researcher  takes  1970).  i s trust.  Together,  they  profiles  The  The  of  basis  researcher  f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  for sharing  h i s or her l i f e among  full  1966).  t h e phenomenon  place  that  "subjects" are  is dialogal.  assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through  by t h e  out of the v a r y i n g  r e f e r r e d t o (Kockelmans,  Existential-phenomenological  not b e l i e v e  Instead,  (Friere,  a n d t r y t o make s e n s e  phenomenon  does  or biased  of h i s or her " s u b j e c t s " .  t o become  collaborate the  will  psychologist  the  the meaning  experience(s).  persons  on e q u a l  levels  64  without  d i v i s i v e n e s s of  (Colaizzi,  1978,  co-researchers clarify  and  research  p.  articulate  69).  strive  the  upon  or  professional  Working  to  redevelop  (based  social  uncover  the the  together, personal  existential  the  researcher  and  presuppositions,  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n human  inter-relatedness  essential structure  stratifications"  for  the  of  the  dialogue),  phenomenon  and  under  study. Select ion The  underlying  assumption  co-researchers  was  knowledge  experts)  The  (the  people  This  selected  who  that  phenomenon  a  (even  1966,  i f that  be  p.  44).  The  1.  finding the  them  adolescent  study  the  i n order for  of  be  simply  manage t h e  I selected the of  have  source the  phenomenon.  i t i s not  study  grief. of  necessary  identically  i t s e s s e n t i a l -theme  manifestations," however,  of  population  duplicated that  my  experienced  the  sciences,  s e l e c t i n g the  had  i n the  to  be  most I  co-researchers  (Giorgi,  relevant decided  here:  find  people  seemed more or  to  i t s varying  co-researchers to  had  restrictions, to  are  understanding  human  but  when  grieve  investigated  through  presented  important  the  were p o s s i b l e )  criteria  The  the  me  representatives  be  Certain  who  for  "For to  identified  upon a r e  was  for  grieve.  acknowledged way.  people  made t h e m c u l t u r a l  people  can  that  guiding  child  selected who  had  were a d u l t s . grieved,  likely  i n the  groups.  Aside  adult from a  the age  Because  i t  p r o b a b i l i t y of bracket  higher  versus  probability  65  K of  finding  reflect  people  upon  individual detailed  their  The  to  a person  rationale have  midst  are  able  to provide  this  that  We  i n terms  must  understand  upon and  upon and draw  to include, in this versus  I t i s assumed are' a b l e  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  the  is lived.  Schutz  of a m e a n i n g f u l those  i s the  t h e one h a n d , w i t h  on  are not i n fully  and  p i c t u r e of g r i e f .  It  past,  and e l a p s e d ,  n o t by This  living  more  that  reflects  63)  addressed  He  in  shade  on t h e o t h e r .  through  is crucial  p.  which  those  who  are presently  who  experience.  and  extent  people  who  people  (1970,  experiences  h i s 'or  h i s or her  study,  to reflect  another,  attention.  about  This  those  that  are undifferentiated  apprehend  upon  their  involved  talk  i s important.  the experience  contrast  in a  s e l e c t e d as  the meaning of g r i e f ,  running-off  already  a d u l t s were  to  f o r the  the researcher  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e  t h e phenomenon point  important  the individual  to reflect  of the e x p e r i e n c e  assumed  how  able  grief.  able  required to describe  that  of the e x p e r i e n c e  through  the  were  can r e f l e c t  through  also  and were  study.  for deciding  lived  living  To  i t was  reasons,  important  was  experience.  understanding  is  f o r my  the study  which  For these  I t was  grief  t o communicate w i t h  co-researchers  experiences.  her  experiences,  interview.  2.  have e x p e r i e n c e d  t o be a b l e  co-researchers  within  who  stated:  their into  one  are  discrete,  The  latter  we  t h e m b u t by an a c t o f  f o r the topic  we  are  pursuing:  66  Because  the  concept  presupposes  that  predicated that is,  for further  of  m e a n i n g may relation single  my  I began of  study  data  in grief,  many p e o p l e a  but  glance  that as  i s merely  only  Americans  or  Culture".  of  an  becomes  culture.  i t  was  to  be be  that  particularly  stay  an  the  possibility  groups,  decision  may  within  The  could  This  study,  grief  cultural  within  list  of  were  s e l e c t e d from  my  When  I  talking  I was  wanting  collection  (see  the  co-researchers  beginning  of  the  list  and  to  share  in  a  their  by  starting when  1967).  the  of  to  others  myself  stories  with  for help at  Procedure.)  only  (Glaser & Strauss,  network  find  began a s k i n g  began  stopping  began  s u r p r i s e d to  Sampling  of  saturated  first  c o n t a c t s and  selection  appeared  meaningful,  however  for this  meaning  American  acquaintances.  by  "Western  i n f l u e n c e d my  i n my  interest  approached  clear  group.  people and  becomes q u i t e  called  which  is  glance.  embedded w i t h i n  cultural  friends  the  the  North  to g r i e f ,  The  from  meaning  retrospective  were N o r t h  exploration,  the  be  the  be  always  w i t h . . . f o r meaning  reflective  to understand  boundaries  point  coming  which  i t now  can  intentionality,  co-researchers  as  to  done  3.  important  me.  and  to the  The  one,  experience  visible  described  about  of  experience  experience, of  i s present  finished  operation  area  past  that  already  the  meaningful  is a discrete  only a one  of  The at  the  interviews  Saturation  the  67  occurred being the This  when  i t became a p p a r e n t  received.  The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  same t h i n g a f t e r w a s my  that  the seventh  rationale  n o new  a l l appeared  individual  f o r stopping  i n f o r m a t i o n was t o be  saying  was i n t e r v i e w e d .  the interviews with  eight  people. Demographic The  study  variables. Appendix  In format ion was c o m p l e t e d  without  However, as a supplement  A ) , i t may b e o f i n t e r e s t  community  confinement  t o know m o r e a b o u t Therefore,  study.  (in  h i sor her self-assessment)  co-researchers.  There  t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t s (See  t o the reader  the people  the  I recorded  These  men a n d f o u r  women.  were  50.  exception the  A l l stated that  they  o f o n e who s t a r t e d  co-researchers  Counsellor,  Bakery  eight 33(2),  were M i d d l e  Foreman and R e a l  Estate  who  37, 40, 41, 42, 46,  Class  students.  class  w e r e made u p o f f o u r  with the  s h e was L o w e r - M i d d l e  were g r a d u a t e  within  o f a l l my  of e i g h t people  w i t h i n the study.  and  research  who p a r t i c i p a t e d  and occupation  participated  ages  and/or  sex, age, socio-economic  were a t o t a l  Their  t o demographic  Class.  The o t h e r s  Five of were a  Agent.  Procedures Sampling The  Procedure process  theoretical sampling  of data  sampling  accounts  co-researchers  collection  was b a s e d  (Glaser & Strauss,  f o r not having  and a l l o w s  1967).  in principle  upon  Theoretical  a p r e - r e q u i r e d number o f  the researcher  w i t h more  flexibility  68  to The  gain  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n as  procedure  analyzing block and  There see  the  on,  similar  already  The  process  when o n e  which  leads  time  to  can  continues  data be  the  i n tandem  likened  i s completed,  ( s a t u r a t i o n ) when  the  researcher over  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  structure  varied of  the  stories  building  another  relevant  meanings  i s added  saturation.  and  begins  over  picture  are  study.  with  to a  and  r i c h n e s s of  growing  she  systematic  procedure,  the  or the  analysis  d e s c r i p t i o n s and/or  this  emerges as  again.  of  added  to  grief  to  the  each  of  phenomenon.  Interview This  eight  study  incorporated three  co-researchers.  description interview  of  was  descriptions My  data.  comes a  Through  The  involved collecting  approach;  so  he  the  interview,  and  primarily  validation  co-researchers  much d e t a i l  and  and  as  talk  meaning  would  had  been  was  "true"  The  third with  captured  the  the  of  units  and  grief  the  of  grief.  dialogue  to capture  (see  to to  the  experience  of  experience  of  the  again,  grief,  the  in  as  second the  transpired of  of  that point.  essential  determine  second  for Analysis  experience the  to  the  initial  expansion  impressions  t h a t what  share  The  the  Procedure  the  and  up  During  general  verify  co-researcher  individual's  story  i n v o l v e d the  for c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  about  interview served  these  possible.  Interpretation), written  of  or  I strived  clarity  we' w o u l d  transcripts  first  experience  used and  The  interviews with  for  and  and  what  person.  structure  of  whether i t validation  69  purposes. Depending varied.  upon  Each  the i n d i v i d u a l ,  ranged  from  45 m i n u t e s  interviews  occurred within  and  interviews,  second  information The  questions,  slightly The  interviews  which  were  related  f r o m my  consistent  f o r everyone.  appears  situations, asking  is  First,  life  this  middle.  how  like  i t ended  individual.  your  grief.  about pause  I would  that  I will  be  own e x p e r i e n c e o f  (leave  a time i n until  like  person  you t o  as p o s s i b l e ,  i s , how  ( i f i t h a s ) , and what  Do y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s ?  of  ways a n d i n d i f f e r e n t  you t o think  a story;  remained  initial  one of t h e s e .  grieving  by a f e w  the literature)  the meaning  e x p e r i e n c e i n a s much d e t a i l me  tailored  i n the tran