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An investigation of educators’ attitudes toward physically disabled people in relationship to fear of… Saleski, Rosalene 1984

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AN INVESTIGATION OF EDUCATORS' ATTITUDES TOWARD PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE IN RELATIONSHIP TO FEAR OF DEATH, LOCUS OF CONTROL AND PURPOSE IN LIFE by ROSALENE SALESKI B A U n i v e r s i t y of Winnipeg 1968 B Ed U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba 1970 M Ed U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba 1973 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1984 (cj Rosalene S a l e s k i , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f / ^ C ^ C ^ ^ < L ^ ^ - ^ ^^^^^^-^y^ ty' ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O^^/ J*, 'fry ABSTRACT This exploratory d e s c r i p t i v e study i n v e s t i g a t e d educators' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y disabled people i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e i r purpose i n l i f e , fear of death and locus of c o n t r o l . The sample consisted of 457 subjects from approximately 71 elementary and 42 j u n i o r and senior high schools (226 teachers, 137 administrators and 65 counsellors) i n seven suburban Winnipeg school d i v i s i o n s . Volunteers completed: a demographic question-naire, the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP), the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E), the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r  Fear of Death Scale (FOD), and the Purpose i n L i f e Test (PIL). An ANOVA ca l c u l a t e d f o r the ATDP scores of school administra-tors, counsellors and teachers found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores paired with FOD, PIL and I-E scores obtained by a) educators, b) teachers, c) school administrators, and d) school counsellors. Correlations f o r ATDP scores paired with the FOD, PIL and I-E scores of educators and teachers were a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . ATDP and I-E c o r r e l a t i o n s were s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r administrators; ATDP and FOD scores c o r r e l a -ted s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r counsellors. The ATDP and FOD scores of educators, teachers and counsellors c o r r e l a t e d negatively. Those with the most p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward disabled people tended to have the l e a s t fear of death. ATDP and PIL scores c o r r e l a t e d i i i i i p o s i t i v e l y f o r educators and teachers. Those with a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y disabled people tended to have a stronger purpose i n l i f e . ATDP and I-E scores of educators, teachers, and administrators correlated negatively. Those with a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people tended to see them-selves as more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . ANOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s were made f o r sex, age and number of years employed i n education. The female ATDP scores were s l i g h t l y higher than the male i n a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groupings however the difference was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t only f o r administrators. No s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found f o r age or number of years employed i n education. Elementary school educators demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than those employed i n ju n i o r or senior high schools. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n ATDP scores between elementary and high school a) administrators, b) counsellors, c) teachers. The elementary-high school a t t i t u d e difference was considered to be a s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i -f a c t and not a true s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between disabled and nondisabled educators on ATDP, PIL and FOD scores. Handicapped educators scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( f e l t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n control of t h e i r l i v e s ) on the I-E scale. Both the female and male nondisabled educators' means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i -t i v e than the norms f o r the general female and male nondisabled i v population. The disabled female mean was significantly higher than the norm for the general disabled female population. Educators who were of the opinion that physically disabled students should attend special schools for the disabled had a significantly less positive attitude toward physically disabled people than those who did not choose this programing option. Educators who were of the opinion that physically disabled students should attend regular classes and receive the assistance of special support services had a significantly more positive attitude toward physically disabled people than educators who did not choose this option. Two other options were nonsignificant. The study concluded with a discussion of the s t a t i s t i c a l findings, limitations of the study, implications for further study and a summary. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I extend my deepest gratitude to Dr. William Borgen, Department Head, Counselling Psychology, my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee chairperson and Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f , A s s i s t a n t Professor, Educational Psychology, my s t a t i s t i c s advisor. Their invaluable assistance and continuous encouragement were fundamental to the accomplishment of t h i s research. I am also g r a t e f u l to the D i s s e r t a t i o n Examination Committee members who contributed generously of t h e i r time and expertise: Chairman: Dr. Tor r i e Westermark, Acting Department Head, Language Education U n i v e r s i t y Examiners: Dr. Ron Neufeld, Associate Professor, Director of F i e l d Development, Department of Educational Psychology Dr. Marvin Westwood, Associate Professor, Department of Counselling Psychology External Examiner: Dr. Jim Vargo, Associate Professor, Faculty of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Medicine, U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta A p a r t i c u l a r thanks i s due the greater Winnipeg educators who volunteered t h e i r time to complete the study questionnaires. I wish to g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge my husband, Dr. Gerry S a l e s k i , f o r h i s patience and support during the length of t h i s study. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Acknowledgements v Table of Contents..... v i Chapter I: Introduction 1 Importance of the Present Study 1 Evolution of Mainstreaming i n Manitoba 2 Rationale f o r the Present Study 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Chapter I I : Review of L i t e r a t u r e 11 Attitude Toward Disabled People 11 H i s t o r i c a l and The o r e t i c a l Perspectives 11 Variations i n Attitudes Toward Disabled People.. 12 Demographic Variables.... 15 Attitudes of Educators 19 Attitudes of Other Professionals 20 Attitudes of Handicapped People 22 Internal-External Locus of Control 25 Internal-External Locus of Control - The Construct 26 I-E's Extensive Use 27 I-E and Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 30 I-E and Work Orientation 34 I-E and Minority Groups 37 v i v i i Page Fear of Death and Dying 38 Fear of Death - The Construct 39 Demographic Variables 4-0 Fear of Death and Adult Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 44 Attitudes Toward Death and the Dying 47 Purpose i n L i f e 50 Purpose i n L i f e - The Construct 51 Demographic Variables 55 Commitment to R e l i g i o n and to Other Group Membership 59 Personality Variables.... 60 Summary 62 Chapter I I I : Method 65 Statement of the Problem 65 Statement of Hypotheses.... 65 Population and Sample 66 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedure 67 Instrumentation 67 The Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale 67 Internal-External Locus of Control Scale 69 C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale 72 The Purpose i n L i f e Test 74 Design and S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 77 v i i i Page Chapter IV: R e s u l t s 78 Educators' A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l l y D i s abled People 78 Sex Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores 82 Age Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores 83 ATDP Scores and Number of Years i n Education 8 4 Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School ATDP Comparisons. 8 4 ATDP Scores of Educators With a Handicapped Student i n Th e i r School or Cla s s 86 Personal Contact w i t h P h y s i c a l l y D i s abled People and ATDP Scores 88 Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Educators' Test Scores 90 Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students 93 Chapter V: D i s c u s s i o n and Summary 99 Di s c u s s i o n 99 Sex Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores 104 Age Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores 105 Number of Years i n Education and ATDP Scores 106 Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School ATDP Comparisons 106 ATDP Scores of Educators With a Handicapped Student i n Their School or Class 107 Personal Contact w i t h P h y s i c a l l y D i s abled People and ATDP Scores 108 Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Educators' Test Scores 109 i x Page Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students 110 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 111 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study 112 Summary 113 References 116 Appendicies 14-1 Appendix A Demographic Questionnaire 14-2 Appendix B A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons Scale 14-6 Appendix C I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale 150 Appendix D C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death S c a l e . . . . 154 Appendix E Purpose i n L i f e Test 158 Appendix F Correspondence 162 Appendix G F i g u r e s . . . 181 F i g u r e 1 A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons Scale Frequency Bar Chart 182 F i g u r e 2 I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale Frequency Bar Chart 183 F i g u r e 3 C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale Frequency Bar Chart... 184 F i g u r e 4 Purpose i n L i f e Test Frequency Bar Chart 185 Appendix H Tables 186 Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects.... 187 X Page Table 2 A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons S c a l e , Mean and Standard D e v i a t i o n 188 Table 3 ATDP Comparison of Teachers, Counsellors and Administra-t o r s 189 Table 4A Educators' ATDP Scores -S t a t i s t i c s and C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 190 Table 4-B Teachers* ATDP Scores -S t a t i s t i c s and C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 191 Table AC A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP Scores -S t a t i s t i c s and C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 192 Table 4-D Cou n s e l l o r s ' ATDP Scores -S t a t i s t i c s and C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 193 Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by Sex 194 Table 6A Comparison by Sex of Educators' ATDP Scores 195 Table 6B Comparison by Sex of Teachers' ATDP Scores 196 Table 6C Comparison by Sex of Coun s e l l o r s ' ATDP Scores.... 197 Table 6D Comparison by Sex of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP Scores 198 Table 7A Mean Age of Educators 199 Table 7B D i s t r i b u t i o n of Co u n s e l l o r s , Teachers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s by Age 199 x i Page Table 7C D i s t r i b u t i o n of Elementary and High School Educators by Age 200 Table 7D Age and Sex of Educators.... 200 Table 8 Comparison by Age of Educators' ATDP Scores 201 Table 9A Mean Number of Years Employ-ed i n Education 202 Table 9B Years Employed i n Education and E d u c a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n . . . . 202 Table 9C Sex and Number of Years i n Education 203 Table 10 ATDP Scores and Number of Years i n Education 204 Table 11A Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High Educators' ATDP Scores. 205 Table 11B Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High C o u n s e l l o r s ' ATDP Scores 206 Table 11C Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High Teachers' ATDP Scores.. 207 Table 11D Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High A d m i n i s t r a t o r s * ATDP Scores 208 Table 12A Educators With Handicapped Students i n School or Class 209 Table 12B Elementary and High School Educators With and Without Handicapped Students 209 Table 12C Sex of Educators With and Without Handicapped Students i n School or Class 210 x i i Page Table 12D Co u n s e l l o r s , Teachers and Adm i n i s t r a t o r s With and With-out Handicapped Students i n School or Class 210 Table 12E Frequency of Educators With Student i n School or Class Categorized According to D i s a b i l i t y 211 Table 13A ATDP Comparison f o r Educators With and Without Handicapped Students i n Th e i r School or Class 212 Table 13B ATDP Comparison f o r Coun-s e l l o r s With and Without Handicapped Students i n Thei r School or Class 213 Table 13C ATDP Comparison f o r Teachers With and Without Handicapped Students i n Th e i r School or Class 2 U Table 13D ATDP Comparison f o r Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s With and Without Handicapped Students i n T h e i r School or C l a s s . . . . 215 Table 14A Educators Who Had Personal Contact With A Disabled Person 21 6 Table 14B Elementary and High School Educators and Personal Contact With A Disabled Person 216 Table 14C Sex of Educators and Personal Contact With A Di s a b l e d Person 217 Table 15A Educators' ATDP Scores and Personal Contact With P h y s i c a l l y Disabled People.. 218 x i i i Page Table 15B Teachers' ATDP Scores and Personal Contact With P h y s i c a l l y Disabled People.. 219 Table 15C Counsellors' ATDP Scores and Personal Contact With P h y s i c a l l y Disabled People.. 220 Table 15D A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP Scores and Personal Contact With P h y s i c a l l y Disabled People.. 221 Table 16A ATDP Comparisons f o r Handi-capped and Nonhandicapped Educators 222 Table 16B I-E Comparisons f o r Handi-capped and Nonhandicapped Educators 223 Table 16C PIL Comparisons f o r Handi-capped and Nonhandicapped Educators 2 2 4 Table 16D FOD Comparisons f o r Handi-capped and Nonhandicapped Educators 225 Table 16E Educators' ATDP Scores Compared w i t h ATDP Norms.... 226 Table 17A Educators' Program Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students 227 Table 17B Handicapped and Nonhandi-capped Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students 228 Table 17C Programing Preferences f o r Handicapped Students by Educators Categorized According to Age 229 XIV Page Table 17D C o u n s e l l o r s ' , Teachers' and Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a bled Students 230 Table 17E Elementary and High School Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students 231 Table 17F Programing Preferences f o r Handicapped Students of Educators With and Without Handicapped Students i n Th e i r School or Class 232 Table 17G Programing Preferences f o r Handicapped Students of Educators With and Without Personal Contact With a Di s a b l e d Person 233 Table 18A ATDP Comparisons f o r Educators Who S e l e c t e d Opinion 1 and Those Who Did Not 234 Table 18B ATDP Comparisons f o r Educators Who Se l e c t e d Opinion 2 and Those Who Did Not 235 Table 18C ATDP Comparisons f o r Educators Who Se l e c t e d Opinion 3 and Those Who Did Not 236 Table 18D ATDP Comparisons f o r Educators Who S e l e c t e d Opinion 4- and Those Who Did Not 237 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This e x p l o r a t o r y d e s c r i p t i v e study i n v e s t i g a t e d educators' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to other s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . P h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people are t a k i n g a more prominent place i n s o c i e t y ; t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n an education-a l trend toward mainstreaming handicapped c h i l d r e n wherever p o s s i b l e ( L a t t e r , 1976). For teachers, p r i n c i p a l s and school c o u n s e l l o r s i n v o l v e d i n the education of handicapped c h i l d r e n , i t i s important to understand the a t t i t u d e s toward members of t h i s s p e c i a l needs group and to possess an awareness of f a c t o r s which may a f f e c t educators' a b i l i t y to r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y to handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the p u b l i c school system. Importance of the Present Study I t has long been accepted t h a t students l e a r n a great v a r i e t y of things i n school. "School i s one of the major instruments f o r s o c i a l i z i n g c h i l d r e n i n terms of our c u l t u r a l values, t r a d i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , knowledge and s k i l l s " (Gazda, Asbury, B a l z e r , C h i l d e r s & Walters, 1977, p. 5). I t has long been known that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f a p p r a i s a l a r i s e s out of what others t h i n k and f e e l about him (theory of r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s - Cooley, 1902). Consequently c h i l d r e n develop t h e i r s e l f concepts and sense of s e l f -1-2 worth from the a t t i t u d e s and values h e l d of them by others. The a t t i t u d e of the teacher toward the d i s a b l e d student can s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t ( p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y ) the a t t i t u d e of able-bodied c l a s s -mates as w e l l as the d i s a b l e d student's s e l f concept and a b i l i t y to l e a r n . " I f a c h i l d l e a r n s to a s s o c i a t e e i t h e r the school or the teacher w i t h strong f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y , g u i l t , f r u s t r a t i o n , aggression, inadequacy or worthlessness, then p l a i n l y , that school or teacher i s not e f f e c t i v e " (Gazda, et a l . , 1977, p. 7). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l a i d i n the understanding of educators' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n and consequently may a s s i s t i n making t h e i r shared school experience more p o s i t i v e . E v o l u t i o n of Mainstreaming i n Manitoba P h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d and other s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n are now f r e q u e n t l y found i n r e g u l a r classrooms. Concern about the a t t i t u d e s of teachers toward these c h i l d r e n i s i n c r e a s i n g as government places emphasis on mainstreaming. Before i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a t t i t u d e s of educators toward what now e x i s t s , i t i s h e l p f u l to understand how the p r a c t i c e of mainstreaming handicapped c h i l d r e n evolved i n Manitoba. Retarded c h i l d r e n were one of the e a r l i e s t groups to be recog-n i z e d as needing s p e c i a l i z e d education. S p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r the education of retarded students have been operating i n Manitoba s i n c e 1913 ( C h r i s t i a n s s o n , 1965). Separate c l a s s e s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n have 3 been i n operation, i n Manitoba since the 1890's. G e n e r a l l y , between 1950 and 1967 the emphasis was on segregation ( L a t t e r , 1976). An a r t i c l e i n E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n (Dunn, 1968) s e r i o u s l y questioned the American school p r a c t i c e of t r a n s f e r r i n g " m i s f i t s " out of r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . Dunn viewed the s p e c i a l schools and cl a s s e s as r a i s i n g s e rious educational and c i v i l r i g h t s i s s u e s . (His con-cern was w i t h those c h i l d r e n l a b e l e d as being mentally retarded but the weight of h i s argument was e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to other " s p e c i a l " c h i l d r e n , such as the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.) Several c i v i l s u i t s r e s u l t e d i n a moderate swing toward desegregation of s p e c i a l needs cl a s s e s i n the American school system. A 1967 d e c i s i o n was made agai n s t the t r a c k i n g system i n the D i s t r i c t of Columbia; i n 1968 a s u i t on behalf of Mexican-American parents was won a g a i n s t the Santa Ana U n i f i e d School D i s t r i c t (Dunn, 1968); i n 1972, two s u i t s were won on behalf of retarded c h i l d r e n i n Pennsylvania and the D i s t r i c t of Columbia " e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n may demand and a l l school systems must provide, f r e e education a t p u b l i c ex-pense as a matter of r i g h t " (Benderly, 1980, p. 244)• In 1970, the Manitoba government introduced a resource teacher program whereby grants f o r q u a l i f i e d resource teachers were given to school d i v i s i o n s i n accordance with student populations. This pro-vided a s s i s t a n c e to s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n i n r e g u l a r classrooms and consequently encouraged the move toward mainstrearning. B i l l 58, Se c t i o n 4-65(22) s t i p u l a t e d t h a t : Every school board s h a l l provide or make p r o v i s i o n f o r the education of a l l r e s i -dent persons who have the r i g h t to attend 4 school and who r e q u i r e s p e c i a l programs f o r t h e i r education. ( I n t e r -Departmental Working Group on the Education of C h i l d r e n and Youth w i t h S p e c i a l Needs, 1975, p. 1) The philosophy underlying the government's e f f o r t s was th a t c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t most from the program which i s c l o s e s t to the r e g u l a r school program (Inter-Departmental Working Group on the Education of Ch i l d r e n and Youth w i t h S p e c i a l Needs, 1975). In 1978 high cost, low inc i d e n c e funding was intro d u c e d to a s s i s t school d i v i s i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to mainstream s p e c i a l needs programming and provide s p e c i a l programs as clo s e to the mainstream as p o s s i b l e . In 1981 the M i n i s t r y of Education introduced a three year support program which provided an improved formula f o r funding school d i v i s i o n s f o r s p e c i a l education personnel and a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i c a l funding f o r each s p e c i a l needs student. The changes have been gradual but s i g n i f i c a n t over the years w i t h a move toward i n c r e a s e d a s s i s t a n c e to s p e c i a l needs students combined with com-p l e t e or p a r t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h r e g u l a r students wherever p o s s i b l e . Mainstreaming i s a f a c t of l i f e i n the Manitoba school system. L i t t l e has been done to prepare teachers f o r t h i s gradual i n f l u x of s p e c i a l needs students. Of the 457 educators surveyed f o r t h i s study, 323 i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had a p h y s i c a l l y handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s . I t i s important that research such as t h i s provide i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s of educators toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. 5 Ra t i o n a l e f o r the Present Study Many s t u d i e s have assessed the a t t i t u d e s of various groups of people toward handicapped c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s ( A l e s s i & Anthony, 1969; B e l l , 1962; B e n l i f e r & K i e s l e r , 1972; C h i g i e r & C h i g i e r , 1968; Colman, 1971; Comer & P i l i a v i n , 1972; Cumming, 1977; Donaldson, 1980; Gaier, Linkowski & Jaques, 1968; Harder, 1973; Westwood, Vargo & Vargo, 1981). Those studies which have attempted to i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a t u r e s of these a t t i t u d e s have not i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s ; f e a r of death, purpose i n l i f e and locus of c o n t r o l which may a l l be important c o n t r i b u t i n g dimensions of a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d . Many people avoid those who are dying as a form of safeguard. By keeping t h e i r d i s t ance they avoid a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s (Kavanaugh, 1977). Death i s an i n e v i t a b i l i t y only f o r the o l d , and contact w i t h a young person who i s dying can give a d u l t s a f e e l i n g of g u i l t t h a t a generation has been skipped (Gyulay, 1978). Many a d u l t s f e e l very h e l p l e s s before a c h i l d i n p a i n . I t i s suspec-ted t h a t t h i s f e e l i n g of helplessness i s strongest f o r those i n d i v i d -u a ls w i t h an e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i on. "One of the reasons why we tend to r e j e c t the aged i s that they remind us of death" ( F e i f e l , 1969, p. 66). One of the reasons why we tend to r e j e c t the d i s a b l e d may be that they remind us th a t we too could be d i s a b l e d ("there but f o r the Grace of God go I " ) . P a t t i s o n (1977) described two p r o f e s -s i o n a l d i s t o r t i o n s which he r e f e r r e d to as exaggerated detachment and exaggerated compassion. Teachers who come i n contact w i t h d i s a b l e d 6 c h i l d r e n experience r e a c t i o n s which may be comparable to the exag-gerated detachment and exaggerated compassion described. There i s reasonable evidence to support the s u s p i c i o n tha"t there i s a r e l a t i o n -ship between f e a r of death and a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d students (Schoenberg, et a l . , 1970). Many teachers may demonstrate d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r classrooms than they do toward the other students. Teachers' a t t i t u d e s may c o r r e l a t e w i t h a number of v a r i a b l e s : (a) the way they see t h e i r purpose i n l i f e . People w i t h a strong purpose i n l i f e tend to be i n v o l v e d i n more a c t i v i t i e s and have a stronger s o c i a l conscience ( D o e r r i e s , 1970; F r a n k l , 1966). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they w i l l be l e s s r e s e n t f u l of what may be per-ceived as a d d i t i o n a l expectations and workload created by having a p h y s i c a l l y handicapped student. (b) the degree to which they view t h e i r l i v e s as being c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r n a l l y or e x t e r n a l l y . I n t e r n a l s are b e t t e r informed and more l i k e l y to take the i n i t i a t i v e to solve problems (Davis & Phares, 1967; Seeman, 1963). I n t e r n a l s may be l e s s h e s i t a n t to work w i t h d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n and have more normal expectations of d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n than those w i t h an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . (c) Those w i t h greater f e a r of death may be more l i k e l y to a v o i d contact w i t h d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . (A d i s a b i l i t y can be mourned as a l o s s of no r m a l i t y . ) Studies have shown th a t people withdraw emotionally and p h y s i c a l l y from those who have experienced, or are e x p e r i e n c i n g , profound l o s s by death (Glaser & Str a u s s , 1974, 7 1976). Teachers may a l s o a v o i d contact w i t h the d i s a b l e d students i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , f o r comparable reasons. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are widespread. I t may provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to those who do workshops f o r teachers w i t h handi-capped students i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , and courses i n teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s p e c i a l education departments o f f e r i n g courses f o r resource teachers and others who are t r a i n i n g to work wi t h p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be u s e f u l to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n r e c r u i t i n g s t a f f to work wi t h handicapped students and i n placement of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students w i t h the most supportive teacher, i n the most appropriate classroom environment. Counsellors may f i n d the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s study of a s s i s t a n c e to them i n c o u n s e l l i n g educators to improve t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students i n t h e i r school or c l a s s . The f i n d i n g s may a l s o be of i n t e r e s t to those i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as w e l l as to parents of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n and a l l others i n t e r e s t e d i n understanding and improving a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1. P h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n - i n c l u d e s those who are b l i n d , p a r t i a l l y s i g h t e d , deaf, hard of hearing, speech impaired, orthopedi-c a l l y impaired or have other h e a l t h impairments. James Vargo (1979) s t a t e d t h a t the term " d i s a b l e d " r e f e r r e d to the p h y s i c a l abnormality and t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l was handicapped only when the p h y s i c a l d i s -a b i l i t y l i m i t e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to perform c e r t a i n t a s k s . 8 Consequently, the term d i s a b l e d i s p r e f e r r e d over the term handicap-ped. However, Goffman (1963) r e f e r r e d to the term d i s a b l e d as a "deeply d i s c r e d i t i n g " stigma. Dunham and Dunham (1978) s t a t e d "Most people i n c l u d i n g the d i s a b l e d , do not u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between ' d i s a b i l i t y ' and 'handicap'" (Goldenson, 1978, p. 12). I t appears th a t there i s not t o t a l agreement as to which term i s p r e f e r a b l e . In the many a r t i c l e s reviewed i n Chapter I I the terms were used i n t e r -changably without d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between them. For purposes of t h i s study, the term d i s a b l e d i s used interchangably w i t h the term handi-capped. P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) B l i n d - v i s u a l a c u i t y i n both eyes w i t h proper r e f r a c t i v e l enses i s 20/200 (6/60) or l e s s w i t h S n e l l e n Chart or equ i v a l e n t , or where the g r e a t e s t breadth of the v i s u a l f i e l d i n both eyes i s l e s s than 20 degrees. (b) P a r t i a l l y Sighted - v i s u a l a c u i t y ranges from 20/50 to 20/200 i n the b e t t e r eye a f t e r a l l p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n . (c) Deaf - profound hearing l o s s , more than 75 d e c i b e l s , r e s u l t i n g i n i n a b i l i t y to use hearing to understand language with a need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n not i n v o l v i n g a major use of the sense of hearing. (d) Hard of Hearing - more than a 20 d e c i b e l l o s s but r e t a i n i n g hearing adequate to acquire language s k i l l s . This i n c l u d e s i n d i v i -duals who have l e a r n e d to speak before l o s i n g t h e i r hearing. (e) Speech Impaired - marked communication d i s o r d e r such as s t u t t e r i n g , impaired a r t i c u l a t i o n , a language impairment or a voi c e impairment which adversely a f f e c t s a c h i l d ' s e d ucational performance. 9 ( f ) O r t h o p e d i c a l l y Impaired - r e f e r s to c h i l d r e n w i t h a marked orthopedic defect i n c l u d i n g impairments caused by c o n g e n i t a l anomaly (e.g., c l u b f o o t , absence of some member, e t c . ) , impairments caused by disease (e.g., p o l i o m y e l i t i s , bone t u b e r c u l o s i s , e t c . ) , and impairments from other causes (e.g., f r a c t u r e s or burns which cause c o n t r a c t u r e s , amputation, c e r e b r a l p a l s y , etc.) (g) Other Health Impairments - i n c l u d e l i m i t e d s t r e n g t h , v i t a l i t y or a l e r t n e s s , due to chronic or acute h e a l t h problems such as heart c o n d i t i o n , t u b e r c u l o s i s , rheumatic f e v e r , n e p h r i t i s , asthma, s i c k l e c e l l anemia, hemophilia, e p i l e p s y , l e a d p o i s o n i n g , leukemia or diabetes. (The d e f i n i t i o n s of the various p h y s i c a l handicaps are s i m i l a r to those employed by C h r i s t i a n s o n (1965) and Savage (1977).) 2. Mainstreaming - p e r m i t t i n g and encouraging the i n c l u s i o n of handicapped students i n the mainstream of r e g u l a r c l a s s e s to the maximum degree p o s s i b l e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . 3. Purpose i n L i f e - as defined by Crumbaugh and Maholick's The  Purpose i n L i f e Test (1969) r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t as PIL. 4.. Locus of Co n t r o l - as defined by Rotter's I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l  Locus of C o n t r o l Scale (1966) r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t as I-E. 5. A t t i t u d e toward Handicapped Students - as def i n e d by the A t t i -tude Toward Disabled'Persons Scale by Yuker, Block and Younng (1970) r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t as ATDP. 10 6. Fear of Death - as defined by the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear' of Death  Scale (1969) r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t as FOD. 7. P u b l i c School System - schools which f a l l w i t h i n Department of Education geographic s u b d i v i s i o n s are r e f e r r e d to as School D i v i s i o n s . 8. Educators - r e f e r s to a l l those employees i n the p u b l i c school system commonly r e f e r r e d to as p r i n c i p a l , v i c e p r i n c i p a l , teacher, school c o u n s e l l o r , resource teacher, teacher aide or other educational s p e c i a l i s t . (a) P r i n c i p a l , v i c e p r i n c i p a l , teacher, school c o u n s e l l o r , resource teacher, teacher aide - anyone who was so designated by the employer was considered as such f o r the purpose of t h i s study. 9. School A d m i n i s t r a t o r - anyone who was designated as a p r i n c i p a l or v i c e p r i n c i p a l by the employer was considered a school a d m i n i s t r a -t o r f o r the purposes of t h i s study. 10. Student - any person e n r o l l e d i n the p u b l i c schools i n c l u d e d i n the study, a t the time of the study. This i s a d e s c r i p t i v e e x p l o r a t o r y study which surveyed school personnel to i n v e s t i g a t e a t t i t u d e s toward the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d , i n r e l a t i o n to f e a r of death, purpose i n l i f e , and locus of c o n t r o l . The review of l i t e r a t u r e found i n Chapter II c o n s i s t s of f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t to the above v a r i a b l e s f o l l o w e d by a statement of the major hypotheses, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the instruments used, method of o b t a i n i n g the sample, data c o l l e c t i o n and data a n a l y s i s i n Chapter I I I . Chapter IV and V i n c l u d e r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled People H i s t o r i c a l and T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s The Masai Indians murdered t h e i r d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n ; the Azand t r i b e l o v e d and pr o t e c t e d t h e i r s . The Chagga of East A f r i c a used t h e i r d i s a b l e d to ward o f f e v i l ; the Jukun of the Sudan f e l t t hat they were the work of e v i l s p i r i t s and abandoned them to d i e . The Sem Ang of Malaysia used t h e i r c r i p p l e d as wise men to s e t t l e t r i b a l d i s p u t e s ; the Balanese made them a s o c i e t a l "taboo". The an c i e n t Hebrew saw i l l n e s s and p h y s i c a l defects as a mark of the s i n n e r ; the Nordics made them Gods. During the Middle Ages, the mentally and p h y s i c a l l y d i s -abled were o f t e n seen as being possessed by the D e v i l , and thus, burned as witches; during the Renaissance many i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h these same impairments were seen as unfortunate and were h o s p i t a l i z e d and t r e a t e d w i t h care. ( B u s c a g l i a , 1975, p. 171). A t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d and t h e i r treatment by the non-d i s a b l e d v a r i e d among c u l t u r e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n times past and i n modern s o c i e t y . At present, two-thirds of the world has no s p e c i a l medical or educational f a c i l i t i e s f o r the d i s a b l e d . In much of the other t h i r d , they are l a b e l e d and segregated from the remainder of the po p u l a t i o n ( B u s c a g l i a , 1975). -11-12 In some instances p e r s o n a l i t y theory has been employed to ex p l a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s of the able-bodied toward the d i s -abled ( E n g l i s h , 1971; McDaniel, 1969). According to psy c h o a n a l y t i c theory a nondisabled person w i t h a p r e j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people i s "a r e l a t i v e l y immature i n d i v i d u a l w i t h unexpress-ed h o s t i l i t i e s and a need to f e e l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s u p e r i o r " ( E n g l i s h , 1971, p. 36). A d l e r i a n psychology i n t e r p r e t s p r e j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e s of the able-bodied toward the d i s a b l e d as p a r t of the l i f e s t y l e to achieve s u p e r i o r i t y , even a t the expense of others. The body image theory maintains t h a t those f o r whom body image i s important have a more negative a t t i t u d e toward the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d than those f o r whom p h y s i c a l appearance i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Research f i n d i n g s have provided support f o r t h i s theory ( E n g l i s h , 1971). Role theory on the other hand maintains t h a t people r e l a t e to one another i n terms of t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d r o l e s ; d i s a b i l i t y d i s r u p t s e s t a b l i s h e d r o l e p a t t e r n s and leads to a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of r o l e s . Consequently i n d i v i d u a l psychopathology expressed by a d i s a b l e d person i s d i r e c t -l y r e l a t e d to the s e v e r i t y of the d i s a b i l i t y ( E n g l i s h i s of the opinion t h a t research does not support t h i s t h e o r y . ) . V a r i a t i o n s i n A t t i t u d e s Toward Disabled People A t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d are more complex, than simply p o s i t i v e or negative. J u s t as i n other a t t i t u d e formations, there are many v a r i a t i o n s i n the a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d . 13 Disabled people are f r e q u e n t l y r e l e g a t e d to a m i n o r i t y status by able-bodied peers. Research by Szuhay (1961) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the f o u r t h and s i x t h grades h e l d s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s toward Negroes and p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. Chesler (1965) a l s o found that among c o l l e g e students a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people p a r a l l e l -l e d p r e j u d i c e toward m i n o r i t y groups i n general. Tenny (1953) was of the op i n i o n t h a t the nonhandicapped g e n e r a l l y placed the handi-capped i n a m i n o r i t y status comparable to th a t of other commonly i d e n t i f i e d m i n o r i t y groups. Se v e r a l s t u d i e s (Richardson & Green, 1971; Richardson & Royce, 1968) have found that p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y i s such a powerful cue i n e s t a b l i s h i n g preference t h a t i t masks preferences based on s k i n c o l o u r . Research has i n d i c a t e d t h a t nondisabled people o f t e n r e p o r t t h a t they are uncomfortable and u n c e r t a i n when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s (Richardson, Goodman, Hastorf & Dornbusch, 1961). Kleck, Ono and Hastorf (1966) using psycho-ga l v a n i c s k i n response found s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater change when being questioned by a researcher i n a wheelchair than by the same i n d i v i -dual when he presented h i m s e l f as being able-bodied. Goffman (1963) contended t h a t the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a stigma g e n e r a l l y tend to spread. As a r e s u l t , the nonhandicapped " w i l l tend to avoi d any long-term r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the handicapped l e s t the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the l a t t e r ' s stigma spread to them" (p. 425-26). The uneasiness experienced by nonhandicapped people i n the presence of handicapped has been i d e n t i f i e d as a strong f a c t o r i n u the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of negative a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons (Evans, 1976). Langer, F i s k e , T a y l o r and-Chanowitz (1976) i n three experiments supported t h e i r hypothesis t h a t nondisabled people avoid contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people because of discomfort created over a c o n f l i c t between a d e s i r e to stare and a d e s i r e to adhere to c u l t u r a l norms aga i n s t s t a r i n g . They found that s t a r i n g (unobserved by the r e c i p i e n t ) increased when the r e c i p i e n t ' s appearance was more unusual, and t h a t when the nonhandicapped were given a chance to partake i n sanctioned s t a r i n g p r i o r to contact, the "avoidances" of contact were s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced. T e l f o r d and Sawrey (1967) p o i n t out th a t s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s toward e x c e p t i o n a l people are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the v i s i b i l i t y or i d e n t i f i a b i l i t y of the d e v i a t i o n . High v i s i b i l i t y of the defect helps to focus a t t e n t i o n on the problem and may act as a source of f e e l i n g s of av e r s i o n toward the a f f l i c t e d i n d i v i -duals. Several s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t those d i s a b i l i t i e s having the l e a s t cosmetic and f u n c t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s were al s o those reacted to most f a v o r a b l y and those subjects w i t h more obvious d i s a b i l i t i e s were viewed more n e g a t i v e l y (Shontz, 1964; S i l l e r , 1963; Smits, 1964). Sev e r a l s t u d i e s (Mussen & Barker, 1944; Ray, 1946; Strong, 1931) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n response to overt q u e s t i o n i n g nondisabled people responded mostly p o s i t i v e l y . They saw the d i s a b l e d as being a l e r t , f r i e n d l y , s e l f - r e l i e n t , p e r s i s t e n t and brave. However, when covert measures were used, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they p i t i e d the 15 d i s a b l e d , had fewer expectations, p r e d i c t e d greater p a i n and had l e s s hope f o r them than f o r the able-bodied. Opinions about the d i s a b l e d are sometimes exaggerated i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ; some people a t t r i b u t e s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s to the handicapped. There are those who b e l i e v e t h a t deaf people have b e t t e r v i s u a l a c u i t y , b l i n d people have greater a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n and t h a t those who have s u f f e r e d a d i s a b i l i t y have a greater depth of understanding and tolerance of l i f e ' s t r i b u l a t i o n s ( B u s c a g l i a , 1975). Demographic V a r i a b l e s Numerous s t u d i e s have been conducted to determine i f demographic v a r i a b l e s such as the age and sex of the able-bodied a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. Age: Richardson (1970) demonstrated t h a t between the ages of s i x and eighteen, young people's values s h i f t toward the values of t h e i r parents; by age eighteen the values of f a t h e r s and sons and of mothers and daughters are almost i d e n t i c a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s was a cross age study and not l o n g i t u d i n a l . Consequently d i f f e r e n c e s between the age groups may have r e s u l t e d from h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g both the c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . I t cannot be assumed th a t i t was the parents' a t t i t u d e s which were the so l e change f a c t o r . S i l l e r (1963) i n v e s t i g a t e d the a t t i t u d e s of c o l l e g e , high school and j u n i o r h i g h school students toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people and found t h a t c o l l e g e students were c o n s i s t e n t l y more accepting i n 16 t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d than were high school and j u n i o r high students (the l a t t e r two were q u i t e s i m i l a r ) . McDaniel (1969) s t a t e d t h a t research i n d i c a t e d t h a t the degree of acceptance of d i s a b l e d persons v a r i e d w i t h sex, age, maturity, and p o s s i b l y , l e v e l of education and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n as w e l l . Yuker, Block and Younng (1970) pointed out the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n research i n v e s t i g a t i n g age as a v a r i a b l e f a c t o r i n a t t i t u d e toward the d i s a b l e d by r e f e r r i n g to f i v e s tudies which reported an age c o r r e l a t i o n (Auvenshine, 1962; Lukoff 6 Whiteman, 1963; S i l l e r , 1964; Simmons, 1949; Wilson, .1963) and f o u r which d i d not ( B e l l , 1962; G i l l i l a n d , 1965; S i l l e r , 1963; 1964; S i l l e r & Chipman, 1965). Le v e l of Education: Other s t u d i e s have found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between educational l e v e l and a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons ( K n i t t e l , 1963; Roeher, 1959; S i l l e r , 1964). However, B e l l (1962) and Tutaj (1964) both i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s only a small amount of evidence to support the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons and the l e v e l of education of a d u l t s . Horowitz, Rees and Horowitz (1965) found c o l l e g e students to have a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the deaf than e i t h e r high school s t u -dents or s i x t h graders. Also Parent Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n members were more f a v o r a b l e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s than the s i x t h graders, suggesting to the authors t h a t l e v e l of education may w e l l be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the development of a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the handicapped. 17 Sex: Several s t u d i e s have found women to show a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped than men (Chesler, 1965; F e r k e t i c , 1964.; F i s c h b e i n , 1964; Freed, 1964; Maglione, 1965; S i l l e r , 1963; Yuker, Block & Campbell, 1960). As has been found w i t h other v a r i a b l e s , a comparable number of studies have found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes: B e l l (1962), F e l t y (1965), F i s h b e i n (1962), S i l l e r and Chipman (1965) using a d u l t samples, and Coggin (1964), Freed (1964), K n i t t e l (1963) and S i l l e r (1964) using c o l l e g e and high school students. M a r i t a l S t a t u s : B e l l (1962) and Yuker, Block and Campbell (1960) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between married and nonmarried able-bodied people i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people. C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s : Despite the f a c t that s t u d i e s have shown that s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s toward the handicapped have improved over the years, (Shakespeare (1975) made reference to the years 1949 to 1964], c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s remain. U t i l i z i n g the ATDP s c a l e , a study of a t t i t u d e s of nondisabled students from Denmark, Greece and the United States was conducted (Jaques, Linkowski & Sieka, 1970). S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n e - t h i r d of the variance of ATDP scores could be accounted f o r by c u l t u r e . Most p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were found i n the United S t a t e s , f o l l o w e d by Denmark and Greece. In the United S t a t e s , there was no observed d i f f e r e n c e between males and females, i n Denmark males were more p o s i t i v e than females, and i n Greece, females were more p o s i t i v e than males. 18 A study of able-bodied b l a c k , white and Puerto Rican American c h i l d r e n (Richardson, Goodman, Hasto r f & Dornbusch, 1961) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . A l l groups ranked t h e i r order of preference as: (a) a c h i l d w i t h no p h y s i c a l handicap, (b) a c h i l d w i t h crutches and a brace, (c) a c h i l d s i t t i n g i n a wheelchair, (d) a c h i l d w i t h a hand missing, (e) a c h i l d w i t h a f a c i a l disfigurement on the side of the mouth, ( f ) an obese c h i l d . A l a t e r study showed t h a t a d u l t s d i s -played the same preference p a t t e r n toward the various d i s a b i l i t i e s (Goodman, Richardson, Dornbusch & H a s t o r f , 1963). They a l s o found t h a t Jewish c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d the f a c i a l l y d i s f i g u r e d and the obese c h i l d to a greater degree than d i d c h i l d r e n i n the normative group. I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d the f a c i a l l y d i s f i g u r e d c h i l d to any of the other handicapped c h i l d r e n , however, the obese c h i l d remained conspicuously l a s t . C h i g i e r and C h i g i e r (1968) repeated the same study i n I s r a e l and found the preference p a t t e r n to be i d e n t i c a l to tha t of the Jewish American c h i l d r e n (no d i s a b i l i t y , f a c i a l p a l s y , hand m i s s i n g , obese, l e g i n brace, i n w h e e l c h a i r ) . Yuker (1983) c r i t i c i z e d the p i c t u r e ranking method used by Richardson and h i s a s s o c i a t e s on the grounds t h a t : d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s y i e l d d i f f e r -ent r e s u l t s , some rankings are s i t u a t i o n dependent, and the source of comparative e v a l u a t i o n s are unknown ( c e r t a i n types of contact may l e a d to changes i n the preference h i e r a r c h y ) . He maintained t h a t the r e s u l t s of P i c t u r e Ranking Tasks should not be g e n e r a l i z e d . A l e s s i and Anthony (1969) a l s o questioned the methodology and considered the r e s u l t s u n g e n e r a l i z a b l e . 19 Cowen and Cowen (1963) indicated that attitudes of American students were significantly more favorable toward blind persons than were those of French college students. Social Class; Several studies have found no differences between the attitudes of middle and lower class people toward people with physical handicaps (Dow, 1965; Lukoff & Whiteman, 1964). There are indications that people who feel confident and secure in their relation to others w i l l be more acceptingly positive toward disabled persons ( S i l l e r , 1963; Yuker, Block & Younng, 1970). Attitudes of Educators It has been recognized that labels such as "handicapped" and "disabled" have an effect on how the individual i s viewed by society. In reference to educators, Dunn (1968) stated: "We must expect that labeling a child 'handicapped' reduces the teacher's expectancy for him to succeed" (p. 9). Comparable sentiments were expressed by Reynolds and Balow (1972). Parish and his associates (Green, Kappes & Parish, 1979; Parish 6 Copeland, 1978; Parish, Dyck & Kappes, 1979; Parish, Eads, Reece & P i s c i t e l l o , 1977) have conducted a number of studies which indicated that teachers and student teachers generally perceive handicapped children more negatively than nonhandicapped children. Normal child-ren were evaluated most favorably; followed in descending order by physically handicapped, learning disabled and emotionally disturbed. There were no differences for sex, age or educational background of the teachers (Parish, Dyck 6 Kappes, 1979). The ranking was the same 2 0 f o r teachers, aides and a n c i l l a r y personnel; there was no d i f f e r e n c e between i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p u b l i c school teachers (Green, Kappes & P a r i s h , 1979). In a study of education students, s p e c i a l education majors were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r pre- and post-course evaluations than other education students ( P a r i s h , Eads, Reece & P i s c i t e l l o , 1977). Murphy ( 1960) had teachers rank e i g h t types of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d -ren w i t h respect to t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as p u p i l s . The emotionally d i s t u r b e d were r a t e d l a s t and the b l i n d second l a s t . Kvaraceus ( 1 9 5 6 ) found t h a t graduate students would p r e f e r to teach the p h y s i c a l l y , handicapped r a t h e r than deaf or b l i n d students. Murphy, D i c k s t e i n and Dripps ( 1 9 6 0 ) found t h a t education students would a l s o p r e f e r to teach the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped r a t h e r than the hearing impaired. However, Warren, Turner, and Brody ( 1 9 6 4 ) found education students would pre-f e r to teach the hearing impaired and the v i s u a l l y impaired r a t h e r than the b r a i n - i n j u r e d . In a study by R i c k a r d , T r i a n d i s and Patterson ( 1 9 6 3 ) school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ranked d i s a b l e d people i n the f o l l o w i n g order of pre-ference as p o t e n t i a l employees: e x - t u b e r c u l a r , wheelchair handicapped, deaf, e p i l e p t i c . In a comparable study by N i k o l o f f ( 1 9 6 2 ) p r i n c i p a l s ranked d i s a b i l i t i e s as to t h e i r e m p l o y a b i l i t y as teachers as f o l l o w s : a r t i f i c i a l l e g or crutches, speech handicap, b l i n d or deaf. A t t i t u d e s of Other P r o f e s s i o n a l s Educators are s i m i l a r to other p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n many ways. They are r e q u i r e d i n some i n s t a n c e s to work w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d peers 21 and to teach p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students. Much research has been done i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a t t i t u d e s of other p r o f e s s i o n a l s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. F i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s may a i d i n understanding the a t t i t u d e s h e l d by educators. K a r l S e i f e r t (1979) surveyed almost 2,000 working people (blue and white c o l l a r ) regarding t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d people. H i s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t general knowledge about d i s a b i l i t i e s (occurence, causes, chances of recovery) were very l i m i t e d . Most respondents viewed the d i s a b l e d as emotionally d i f f e r e n t and at l e a s t p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own d i s a b i l i t y ; most requested p a r t i a l or complete segregation of the d i s a b l e d ; most b e l i e v e d t h a t employers p r e f e r r e d nondisabled (when e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d ) . Most saw the d i s a b l e d as being l e s s capable v o c a t i o n -a l l y and prone to more acci d e n t s and absenteeism. A l s o , emotional r e a c t i o n s tended toward a f f e c t i v e negativism ( i n s e c u r i t y , f e a r of becoming d i s a b l e d o n e s e l f ) or toward p i t y and readiness to help. In summary, the r e s u l t s showed wisespread negative and d i s c r i m i n a -t i n g a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons. B e l l (1962) administered the ATDP to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n workers, h o s p i t a l employees who had a f r i e n d or f a m i l y member who was d i s a b l e d , and h o s p i t a l employees w i t h no personal contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people. He found t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n workers were not s i g -n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of h o s p i t a l employees w i t h no personal contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people. H o s p i t a l employees w i t h a personal f r i e n d or f a m i l y member who was d i s a b l e d had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more 22 p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the d i s a b l e d than e i t h e r of the other two groups. A r n h o l t e r (1963) reported t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s t a f f working w i t h d i s a b l e d people a t Goodwill I n d u s t r i e s demonstrated a s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e (as measured by the ATDP scale) than d i d the d i s a b l e d themselves. A t t i t u d e s of Handicapped People The present study i n v e s t i g a t e d the a t t i t u d e s of educators on s e v e r a l s c a l e s . Some educators i d e n t i f i e d themselves as being phy-s i c a l l y handicapped; t e s t r e s u l t s of handicapped educators were compared w i t h those of nonhandicapped educators. Numerous researchers have s t u d i e d the a t t i t u d e s of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people, both students and a d u l t s , i n various walks of l i f e . A l e s s i and Anthony (1969) r e p l i c a t e d the study by Richardson, Goodman, H a s t o r f and Dornbusch (1961) r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r . They showed the same p i c t u r e s to p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n and found the rank order preference to be the same (no p h y s i c a l handicaps, crutches and brace, wheelchair, hand missing, f a c i a l disfigurement, obese). The r e s u l t s were questioned, however, since no c h i l d chose t h i s p a r t i c u l a r rank order (rank r e s u l t s represented the group means). Richardson, H a s t o r f and Dornbusch (1964.) s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n ' s (handicapped and nonhandicapped) s e l f concepts through the use of 23 i n d i v i d u a l open ended i n t e r v i e w s the content of which was analyzed. I t was found t h a t handicapped c h i l d r e n t a l k e d more about "handicap", l e s s about s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n , l e s s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s i b l i n g s , l e s s about membership i n a s p e c i f i c c o l l e c t i v e , and more about con-cern w i t h the past. There were i n d i c a t i o n s that handicapped c h i l d r e n shared and accepted the value of t h e i r able-bodied peers which emphasized p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Handicapped c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d a higher degree of e g o c e n t r i c i t y and lower percentage of references to others which the authors suggested was a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r s o c i a l impoverishment. Handicapped c h i l d r e n made a higher p r o p o r t i o n of negative statements about themselves. Linkowski and Dunn (1974) s t u d i e d d i s a b l e d a d u l t s ( u n i v e r s i t y students) and a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between self-esteem and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The f i n d i n g s "suggest that the manner i n which people view d i s a b i l i t y ( c o l l e g e student w i t h p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y i n t h i s i n s t a n c e ) bears a r e l a t i o n s h i p to how they view themselves i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h others" (p. 31). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s not d i f f e r e n t from the f e e l i n g s of t h e i r able-bodied peers. I t i s unfortunate t h a t a c o n t r o l group of non-d i s a b l e d peers was not u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. Weinberg-Asher (1976) measured d i s a b l e d and nondisabled persons' s e l f r a t i n g s on a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and a t t i t u d e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s a b l e d persons perceived themselves i n much the same way as able-bodied persons. I t was found that whether the subjects were.male or 24 female had a gr e a t e r impact on s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n than whether the person was able-bodied or d i s a b l e d . On the other hand, P a r i s h , Baker, Arheart and Adamchack (1980) and P a r i s h and Copeland (1978) found t h a t both normal and e x c e p t i o n a l elementary school c h i l d r e n tended to evaluate e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n more n e g a t i v e l y than normal c h i l d r e n . Smits ( 1964) a l s o compared the handicapped and the non-handicapped on a v a r i e t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures. I t was found th a t the handicapped subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer than the nonhandicapped a t p r e d i c t i n g s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e behavior. Both the handicapped and nonhandicapped were b e t t e r at p r e d i c t i n g the s o c i a l behavior of the nonhandicapped group than of the handicap-ped. The nonhandicapped d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t preference f o r nonhandicapped f r i e n d s ; the handicapped a l s o p r e f e r r e d nonhandicapped f r i e n d s but t h i s preference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Comer and P i l i a v i n (1972) found t h a t both p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d and p h y s i c a l l y able subjects gave o f f nonverbal cues of "discomfort" i n a normal-handicapped i n t e r a c t i o n (terminated the i n t e r a c t i o n sooner, showed greater motor i n h i b i t i o n , e x h i b i t e d l e s s s m i l i n g behavior, l e s s eye contact and admitted to f e e l i n g l e s s comfortable) than they d i d i n a normal-normal and handicapped-handicapped i n t e r -view. A study of twenty o r t h o p e d i c a l l y d i s a b l e d h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s (Colman, 1971) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s e v e r e l y d i s a b l e d were more s e l f -a ccepting and l e s s n e u r o t i c than the m a r g i n a l l y d i s a b l e d s u b j e c t s . Smits ( 1964) found the opposite to be t r u e . In h i s study, severely 25 d i s a b l e d adolescents had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s e l f - c o n c e p t than adolescents whose p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s were m i l d . He a l s o found th a t p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y had i t s most negative (and most s i g n i f i c a n t ) e f f e c t on s e v e r e l y d i s a b l e d females. Cameron, Gnadinger, K o s t i n & K o s t i n (1973) found t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped and nonhandicapped subjects r a t e d t h e i r l i v e s as being e q u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g . There are i n d i c a t i o n s (Cameron et a l , 1973; Weinberg & W i l l i a m s , 1978) t h a t only a small percentage of d i s a b l e d people t h i n k t h e i r d i s a b i l i t y i s a t e r r i b l e t h i n g or the worst t h i n g that ever happened to them, r a t h e r , most view i t as a f a c t of l i f e . Wright (i960) and Yuker, Block and Younng (1970) were of the o p i n i o n t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s and s e l f esteem v a r i a b l e s p l a y the major r o l e i n how the d i s a b l e d p e r c e i v e t h e i r p h y s i c a l handicap. I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l A l l subjects i n t h i s study were asked to complete the I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale i n a d d i t i o n to three other a t t i t u d e s c a l e s and a demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l i t y - e x t e r n a l i t y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s -abled people. A review of l i t e r a t u r e which i n v e s t i g a t e d or employed the I-E Scale was conducted. I t i s h e l p f u l to understand the c o n s t r u c t , and the s c a l e ' s v a r i o u s uses i n order to develop a b a s i s f o r understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I-E and ATDP scal e r e s u l t s f o r educators. 26 I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l - the Construct According to Prociuk (1976) i n h i s summary of R o t t e r ' s theory, there are three b a s i c concepts employed i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior. Each takes two forms - one used when p r e d i c t i n g s p e c i f i c behavior, and the other more g l o b a l form used when p r e d i c t i n g a set of behaviors: when i n t e r e s t i s focused on p r e d i c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r behavior i n a given s i t u a -t i o n , behavior p o t e n t i a l ( i . e . , the p o t e n t i a l i t y of a behavior to occur i n a given s i t u a t i o n as c a l c u l a t e d r e l a -t i v e to the a v a i l a b l e reinforcements) i s a f u n c t i o n of the reinforcement value of the goal and the expectancy t h a t the behavior, i n the given s i t u a t i o n , w i l l r e s u l t i n the attainment of the d e s i r e d outcome. When p r e d i c t i n g a set of behaviors, the more g l o b a l forms f o r behavior p o t e n t i a l , reinforcement value and expectancy are employed, i . e . , need p o t e n t i a l , need value and freedom of movement, r e s p e c t i v e l y The mean expectancy f o r o b t a i n i n g p o s i t i v e r e i n -forcements i s a f u n c t i o n of a combination of s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l i z e d expectancies. g e n e r a l i z e d expectancies are develop-ed from long time experiences w i t h s i m i l a r behavior-reinforcement sequences, i . e . , the i n d i v i d u a l g e n e r a l i z e d to the present from h i s past experiences i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , (p. 20 - 21) S o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory i s an i n t e g r a t i o n of two p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s - reinforcement (stimulus-response) theory and c o g n i t i v e ( f i e l d t h e o r y ) . I t i s hypothesized i n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory t h a t when an organism perceives two s i t u a t i o n s as s i m i l a r , then h i s expectancies f o r a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of reinforcement, or c l a s s of r e i n f o r c e -ments w i l l g e n e r a l i z e from one s i t u a t i o n to another. ( R o t t e r , 1975, p. 57) 27 The i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l construct s p e c i f i e s the l o c a t i o n of those causal f o r c e s a person b e l i e v e s to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s reinforcements. An i n t e r n a l i s an i n d i v i d u a l who has a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy t h a t reinforcements are contingent upon h i s own a b i l i t y , e f f o r t or c a p a c i t y . An e x t e r n a l perceives r e i n f o r c e -ments as under the c o n t r o l of powerful others, l u c k , chance or f a t e . In summary, the l o c u s of c o n t r o l construct i s a measure of g e n e r a l i z -ed expectancy f o r reinforcements across a wide v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s and represents one's expectation of having c o n t r o l over the r e i n -forcement consequences of one's behavior (Rotter, 1966). Cone (1971) proposed t h a t locus of c o n t r o l and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y are c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d , however, a study by Schreiber (1980) using the methods provided by s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n theory, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s i s not the case ( c o r r e l a t i o n .07). I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale's Extensive Use This study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between educators' I-E and ATDP scores. Although t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p does not appear to have been p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the I-E s c a l e has been widely used i n a great v a r i e t y of t e s t s i t u a t i o n s . Prociuk (1976) c i t e d l i t e r a t u r e reviews and research b i b l i o g r a p h i e s which i n d i c a t e d t h a t over 1500 s t u d i e s on l o c u s of c o n t r o l had been reported during the p e r i o d from 1966 to 1975. A p e r u s a l of more recent l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a con-tinued i n t e r e s t i n employing t h i s c o nstruct i n research. I n t e r n a l -28 e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l has been shown to r e l a t e to a wide v a r i e t y of v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r n a l i t y has been p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h greater a t t a i n -ment of i n f o r m a t i o n and understanding of t h e i r own disease by t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s (Seeman & Evans, 1963), c r e a t i v i t y among Mexican c o l l e g e students (Richmond & de l a Serna, 1980), p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward computers (Coovert & G o l d s t e i n , 1980), higher l e v e l s of p o l i t i -c a l commitment (Abramowitz, 1973), preference f o r c e r t a i n consumer products (Rudnick & Deni, 1980), l e a r n e d helplessness ( H i r o t o , 1974-)» d i s b e l i e f i n supernatural phenomena (Scheidt, 1973) and f a i t h i n one-s e l f (Tipton, H a r r i s o n & Mahoney, 1980). C a t h o l i c s were found to be more e x t e r n a l than P r o t e s t a n t s (Geist & Bangham, 1980), but c e r t a i n t y of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f d i d not r e l a t e to I-E scores (Sexton, Leak & Toenies, 1980). Maqsud (1980A) found t h a t v i n d i v i d u a l s a t Stage 3 of Kohlberg's moral reasoning tended to e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r n a l i t y than those at Stages 1, 2 and 4. Adams-Webber's study (1969) suggested that i n t e r n a l s have a more developed sense of " r i g h t " and "wrong" than do e x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s . Johnson and Gormly (1972) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s i s t a n c e to temptation and i n t e r n a l i t y , while M i d l a r s k y (1971) found i n t e r n a l s to be more l i k e l y to help another i n d i v i d u a l than e x t e r n a l s . In unmarried subjects i t was found (MacDonald, 1970) t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher r a t e of b i r t h c o n t r o l was p r a c t i c e d by i n t e r n a l s than e x t e r n a l s . Segal and Du Cette (1973) found that white, middle-29 c l a s s pregnant g i r l s tended to score e x t e r n a l l y and nonpregnant g i r l s tended to score i n t e r n a l l y ; black, l o w e r - c l a s s pregnant g i r l s tended toward i n t e r n a l ! t y and non-pregnant toward e x t e r n a l i t y . The researchers maintained t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t e d values t h a t made pregnan undesirable to the white middle-class and d e s i r a b l e to black lower-c l a s s females. I n t e r n a l i t y has been found to c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h r e a l i s t i c and cautious b e t t i n g behavior ( L i v e r a n t & Scodel, 1960). Crown and L i v e r a n t found t h a t when given money to bet, the e x t e r n a l s y i e l d e d to the m a j o r i t y much more o f t e n than d i d i n t e r n a l s (Rotter, 1971). E x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d c o l l e g e students were more l i k e l y to gamble at a c t i v i t i e s i n which chance played a l a r g e r o l e and l e s s l i k e l y to gamble a t a c t i v i t i e s i n which s k i l l and judgement played a l a r g e r o l e ( L e s t e r , 1980). Indians who l i v e on reserves scored more i n t e r n a l l y than those l i v i n g o u t s ide of the res e r v e s ; a l s o heavy d r i n k e r s were more i n t e r n a l than l i g h t d r i n k e r s (Whitley, 1980). He c i t e d a number of stud i e s supporting the view t h a t i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d persons are more prone to become a l c o h o l i c s than e x t e r n a l scorers (Butts & Chotios, 1973; Distefano, Pryor & G a r r i s o n , 1972; G o z a l i & Sloan, 1971; Gross & Neviano, 1972). Other s t u d i e s support the opposing view t h a t a l c o h o l i c s may l e a r n to d r i n k i n order to cope w i t h s i t u a t i o n s over which they have no c o n t r o l ( e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n ) (Hamburg, 1975; K r a f t , 1971; M a r l a t t , 1976; M i l l e r , Hersen, E i s l e r & Hilsman, 1974; O'Leary, O'Leary & Donovan, 1976; S e l l s , 1970; Walker, Van Ryn, F r e d e r i c k , Reynolds & O'Leary, 1980). 30 Gerson (1975) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c u s of con-t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n of smokers and the obese. However, Phares (Rotter, 1971) and Berman (1973) found t h a t nonsmokers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y -more i n t e r n a l than smokers, and male smokers who q u i t were more i n t e r n a l than male smokers who d i d not. I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l and P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I t may be assumed t h a t w e l l adjusted people have a more p o s i -t i v e a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people. I t i s a l s o a commonly h e l d b e l i e f t h a t w e l l adjusted i n d i v i d u a l s are b e t t e r teachers and w e l l adjusted c h i l d r e n are more s u c c e s s f u l students. The I-E s c a l e has been u t i l i z e d i n a v a r i e t y of personal adjustments s t u d i e s . Johnson and Sarason (1978) concluded t h a t i n t e r n a l s cope b e t t e r w i t h s t r e s s than e x t e r n a l s . S c h i l l , Toves and Ramanaiah (1980) reporte d t h a t e x t e r n a l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a f f e c t e d by l o n e l i n e s s than i n t e r n a l s . Severely handicapped c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y f i n d themselves i s o l a t e d from t h e i r peers, suggesting t h a t handicapped c h i l d r e n w i t h an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n would f e e l l e s s a f f e c t e d by being l e f t out. Warehime and Foulds (1971) found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r females, between i n t e r n a l i t y and personal adjustment as measured by the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory. Harrow and F e r r a n t e (1969) administered the I-E s c a l e to p s y c h i -a t r i c p a t i e n t s and found t h a t the o v e r a l l sample scores were w i t h i n the average range f o r nonpatients. Schizophrenics were more e x t e r n a l 31 than nonschizophrenics, o l d e r p a t i e n t s were more i n t e r n a l , and p a t i e n t s w i t h greater psychopathology and fewer s o c i a l s k i l l s were more e x t e r n a l . A l s o , I-E scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h scores on s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and f r u s t r a t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n s between a s s e r t i o n and i n t e r n a l i t y have a l s o been found (Hartwig, Dickson & Anderson, 1980; Replogle, O'Bannon, McCullough & Cashion, 1980). Some researchers have found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s more i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d are higher performers under s t r e s s (Houston, 1972; Watson & Baumel, 1967) however r e p e t i t i o n of Houston's study ( M o l i n a r i & Khanna, 1980) d i d not r e i t e r a t e these r e s u l t s . Nowack and Sassenrath (1980) found support, f o r the theory that h i g h - r i s k coronary-prone i n d i v i d u a l s are more l i k e l y to possess high e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and high a n x i e t y p r o f i l e s . They found t h a t e x t e r n a l s tended to be more impa t i e n t , time urgent, tense and r e s t l e s s suggesting t h a t e x t e r n a l teachers may have more d i f f i c u l t y d e a l i n g w i t h handicapped c h i l d r e n who may be p h y s i c a l l y slower or r e q u i r e more r e p e t i t i o n s , e t c . A review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e and study by Naditch, Gargan & Michael (1975) i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of a n x i e t y and locus of c o n t r o l i n accounting f o r the variance i n depression. Gupton (1972) found i n t e r n a l s to be more responsive to s o c i a l l y cued a n x i e t y than e x t e r n a l s . I t has a l s o been found t h a t e x t e r n a l s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anxious than i n t e r n a l s (Strassberg, 1973; Strassberg and Hartman, 1973). Lower expectations of achievement are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both higher l e v e l s of a n x i e t y and greater extern-32 a l i t y (Strassberg, 1973). Bandt (1967) found e x t e r n a l s to be r e l a -t i v e l y anxious, i n f l e x i b l e , l a c k i n g i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , w i t h low needs f o r s o c i a l approval and l a c k i n g i n r e p r e s s i v e defense mechanisms. I n t e r n a l s scored as being more s e l f - a s s u r e d w i t h greater c a p a c i t i e s to a v o i d overt a n x i e t y through r e p r e s s i v e defenses and s o c i a l conform-i t y . S everal i n v e s t i g a t o r s have presented evidence which suggests th a t the I-E s c a l e i s not unidimensional but multidimensional i n nature and taps a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hersch and Scheibe (1967) found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who score low i n the I-E s c a l e ( i n t e r n a l s ) scored more homogeneously on a v a r i e t y of other p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s than e x t e r n a l s , which may suggest a d i v e r s i t y on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning of e x t e r n a l i t y . They suggested t h a t the extent to which a person considers e x t e r n a l f o r c e s to be benevolent as opposed to malevolent may be an important f a c t o r to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C o l l i n s (1974-) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e x t e r n a l component of R o t t e r ' s I-E s c a l e i d e n t i f y i n g f o u r component subscales. The respondent may score e x t e r n a l l y because he b e l i e v e s : the world i s d i f f i c u l t , the world i s u n j u s t , the world i s governed by l u c k or the world i s p o l i t i c a l l y unresponsive. Gurin, Gurin, Lao and B e a t t i e (1969) and Sanger and Walker (1972) reported two f a c t o r s (personal c o n t r o l and c o n t r o l ideology) while M i r e l s (1970) and C h e r l i n and Bourque (1974-) i s o l a t e d two d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s (general c o n t r o l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l ) . Schneider and Parsons (1970) reported t h a t f i v e 33 categories (general l u c k , respect, p o l i t i c s , l e a d e r s h i p and success) could be s u c c e s s f u l l y derived from t r a d i t i o n a l I-E responses. Phares (1976), however, concluded t h a t research addressing multidimension-a l i t y of the lo c u s of c o n t r o l construct p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t s e i t h e r v a r i a t i o n s i n methodology or popu l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and consequently i s open to c r i t i c i s m . Subjects w i t h an i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n have been found to be more w i l l i n g to engage i n e f f o r t s to change t h e i r behavior i n order to deal w i t h personal problems (Phares, R i t c h i e & Davis, 1968) and were su p e r i o r to e x t e r n a l s i n a c t i v e l y seeking (Davis & Phares, 1967) and l e a r n i n g (Seeman, 1963) inf o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to problem s o l u t i o n . By i m p l i c a t i o n , teachers who are i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d may be b e t t e r informed about how best to help the d i s a b l e d c h i l d i n t h e i r classrooms (as w e l l as about the d i s a b i l i t y ) . MacDonald and H a l l (1969) found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and r a t i n g s of the seriousness of emotional d i s o r d e r s . I n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects viewed p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s as l e s s d e b i l i t a t i n g than, emotional d i s o r d e r s , while e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects d i d not. MacDonald and H a l l d i d not d i r e c t l y address the question of a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d people, however, t h e i r f i n d i n g s l e n d crendence to the contention t h a t i n t e r n a l s w i l l respond more favourably toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than w i l l e x t e r n a l s . These f i n d i n g s , l i k e those of the other s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o , support the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between educators' ATDP and I-E scores. 34 R o t t e r (1971) s t a t e d that research had shown th a t average scores on the I-E scale had v a r i e d as s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s changed. Studies i n v o l v i n g l a r g e numbers of c o l l e g e students i n numerous l o c a l e s showed th a t between 1962 and 1971 there was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n e x t e r n a l i t y on c o l l e g e campuses, i . e . , c o l l e g e students f e l t more powerless to change the world and c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s i n the 70's than they d i d ten years e a r l i e r . C l e a r l y the I-E s c a l e i s complex and s e n s i t i v e to community and the more g l o b a l s i t u a t i o n s as seen through the eyes of the respondent. I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l and Work O r i e n t a t i o n Educators vary i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward work j u s t as they do i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. The I-E s c a l e has been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n employment r e l a t e d and work a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . Since educating c h i l d r e n (some of whom are p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d ) i s the work of educators i t may be u s e f u l to review the l i t e r a t u r e on the I-E s c a l e as i t r e l a t e s to work o r i e n t a t i o n . For example, B a t l i s (1978) found t h a t locus of c o n t r o l c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h perceptions of effort-performance expectancies w i t h i n the academic work s e t t i n g . Handicapped c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y are considered to r e q u i r e more e f f o r t (both by the teacher and the student) to achieve r e s u l t s comparable to that of nonhandicapped students. Consequently, i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d teachers may have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward mainstreaming handicapped c h i l d r e n and toward the c h i l d r e n themselves. However, i n a l a t e r study, B a t l i s (1980) found no c o r r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n nor between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and i n d i v i d u a l outcomes. Runyon (1973) found job involvement to be r e l a t e d d i r e c t -l y to employee i n t e r n a l i t y . In a study by Dai l e y (1980) those subjects w i t h greater i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n perceived greater job involvement, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , job mo t i v a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth s a t i s f a c t i o n , task d i f f i c u l t y and task v a r i a b i l i t y than i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h greater e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Those w i t h greater i n t e r n a l i t y d i d not perceive the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and work a t t i t u d e s d i f f e r e n t l y than the e x t e r n a l s . I n t e r n a l subjects (from a management course) perceived the more i n f o r m a l sources of feedback, i . e . , s e l f , co-worker, as more u s e f u l p r o v i d e r s of i n f o r m a t i o n than the formal sources of feedback, i . e . , su p e r v i s o r , company newspaper. A l t e r n a t e l y , e x t e r n a l subjects per-ceived formal feedback sources as more u s e f u l than i n f o r m a l sources ( Q u a g l i e r i , 1980). This suggests t h a t i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d teachers w i t h handicapped students who give p o s i t i v e feedback w i l l f i n d the experience to be rewarding while e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d teachers w i l l a ppreciate more the p o s i t i v e strokes of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and of students' parents. In other employment r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , women over 65 who had worked f u l l time u n t i l a t l e a s t age 50 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r n a l (they were comparable to men w i t h s i m i l a r age and work h i s t o r y ) than women who had never worked (Teski, A r c u r i & L e s t e r , 1980). E i c h l e r (1980) found t h a t subjects who were i n c l o s e l y supervised occupations 36 performing r o u t i n e and non-complex tasks scored e x t e r n a l l y while sub-j e c t s whose occupations were r e l a t i v e l y complex and had l i t t l e c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n and r o u t i n e tended to score i n t e r n a l l y r e l a t i v e to the former group. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n i f t h i s i s a causal or merely c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , however, i t suggests t h a t educators may tend to score i n t e r n a l l y . In a Navy sample, i t was found t h a t i n t e r n a l s reported b e t t e r h e a l t h , greater general s a t i s f a c t i o n and higher l e v e l s of f a m i l y s t r a i n due to separation ( B u t l e r & Burr, 1980). However, a m i l i t a r y and corporate business i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Rothberg, 1980) suggested t h a t a sense of e x t e r n a l i t y does not prevent attainment of p o s i t i o n s of power and i n f l u e n c e but i t does a f f e c t behavior. This suggests t h a t e x t e r n a l s may be found among school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s but they may behave d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h a t r o l e than t h e i r i n t e r n a l counter-p a r t s . This was supported i n a study by Durand and Shea (1974) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c t i v i t y scores of i n t e r n a l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those of e x t e r n a l s . I n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a high need to achieve were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e than a l l others. I t was i n f e r r e d t h a t thoughts are more s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n when the i n d i v i d u a l p e rceives h i m s e l f as being i n c o n t r o l of h i s f a t e and recognizes steps t h a t are i n s t r u m e n t a l i n reaching g o a l s . There was a l s o a weak c o r r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and achievement m o t i v a t i o n . By i m p l i c a t i o n i n t e r n a l educators may be more motivated and more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n teach-i n g the mainstreamed handicapped student. 37 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n was found to be a f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n between s u p e r v i s i o n s t y l e and employee i n t e r n a l i t y , (Runyon, 1973), i . e . , employees who tended toward i n t e r n a l i t y pre-f e r r e d p a r t i c i p a t i v e management while those who tended toward e x t e r n a l i t y p r e f e r r e d more d i r e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l and M i n o r i t y Groups Disabled c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s c o n s t i t u t e a m i n o r i t y group i n s o c i e t y . Frequently the s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s expressed toward phy-s i c a l l y handicapped people are comparable to those expressed toward other m i n o r i t y groups. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to review the perceptions m i n o r i t y groups have of t h e i r c o n t r o l over t h e i r own l i v e s versus the c o n t r o l s exerted upon them (I-E locus of c o n t r o l ) . R e s u l t s of a study by L u s s i e r (1976) d i d not y i e l d any I-E d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e n s i t y . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between A f r i c a n , European and Indian nurses (who were matched f o r age, sex, education, l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s ) . A l s o , the mean scores were very s i m i l a r to mean scores of two other A f r i c a n female groups of students t e s t e d (Furnham & Henry, 1980). H a l p i n and H a l p i n (1981) upon t e s t i n g American Indians and whites found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n lo c u s of c o n t r o l as measured by the I n t e l l e c t u a l  Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Questionnaire; however, the whites had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e view of the s e l f than d i d the American Indians. L e f c o u r t and Ladwig found t h a t among young p r i s o n e r s , blacks were more e x t e r n a l than whites (Rotter, 1971). Also i n t e r n -38 a l i t y was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the commitments of Southern black c o l l e g e students to take a c t i o n toward i n t e g r a t i o n (Gore & R o t t e r , 1963). Locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s and socioeconomic status have been shown to be r e l a t e d i n a number of s t u d i e s (Rabinowitz, 1978; Stephens & Delys, 1973; Zytkowskee, S t r i c k l a n d & Watson, 1971). Navarre and Minton (1977) asked employees to evaluate the job performance of f e l l o w employees who were d i s a b l e d . I n t e r n a l l y o r i e n -ted s u b jects d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between d i s a b l e d and nondisabled employees; e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects tended to evaluate d i s a b l e d employees more p o s i t i v e l y than nondisabled. Fear of Death and Dying A p l e t h o r a of s t u d i e s have been conducted on almost every aspect of human behavior, but research by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n the area of death and dying has only r e c e n t l y come i n t o i t s own. Herman F e i f e l (1959) and others before him (Faunce 6 F u l t o n , 1958) recognized the n e c e s s i t y f o r research i n t h i s area but i t b e f e l l E l i z a b e t h Kulber-Ross (1969, 1974, 1975, 1981, 1983) to p o p u l a r i z e the no t i o n of t a l k -i n g w i t h the dying and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n order to study t h e i r f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , e t c . F e i f e l (1959, 1976) s t r e s s e d t h a t one's concept of death i s a determining f a c t o r as to how an i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s h i s l i f e . Death represents a b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l event which i n f l u e n c e s one's l i f e behavior. One's a t t i t u d e toward one's own death and the death of others may w e l l p a r a l l e l one's a t t i t u d e toward the d i s a b l e d . I t was hypothesized i n t h i s study t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s -ted between the Fear of Death and A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons scores of educators. 39 Fear of Death - The Construct A number of standardized t e s t s have been developed to measure a t t i t u d e s toward death, among them i s the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of  Death Scale ( C o l l e t t & L e s t e r , 1969) which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d among f o u r f e a r s . The d i s t i n c t i o n made was between f e a r of death and dying and between these two f e a r s as they r e l a t e d to s e l f and others. In t h e i r i n i t i a l s t u d i e s they found low i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n among the fou r f e a r s . Dying of others was l e a s t f e a r e d and f e a r of death was s i g n i f i c a n t l y stronger than f e a r of dying. Fear was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater when the r e f e r e n t was the s e l f r a t h e r than others. A study by L e s t e r and B l u s t e i n (1980) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward f u n e r a l s c o n s t i t u t e d an independent component of a t t i t u d e s toward death and dying. Handal (1969) administered both a death a n x i e t y and a general a n x i e t y s c a l e to the same group of subj e c t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n although s i g n i f i c a n t was very low suggesting that the two have l i t t l e common vari a n c e and appear to tap d i f f e r e n t aspects of a n x i e t y . Shrut (1958) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d three concepts of death as seen by a d u l t s : (a) death as a t o o l w i t h which to attempt to achieve c e r t a i n goals and s a t i s f a c t i o n s from the environment as i n a t h r e a t of s u i c i d e ; (b) death as a passage to another l i f e , which may be seen as gruesome or glamorous and which may be awaited calmly or i n f e a r ; and (c) death as a f i n a l end. F e i f e l found t h a t death can be viewed as the n a t u r a l end process of l i f e or the d i s s o l u t i o n of b o d i l y l i f e and the begin-ning of a new l i f e (1959, 1969) and as a r e l i e f from p a i n or as 40 peaceful sleep (1956). Death can a l s o be seen as: punishment, a separation (from lo v e d ones on e a r t h ) , a reunion (with those i n Heaven) or as not r e a l (as i n the thoughts of c h i l d r e n ) (Caprio, 1950), u l t i m a t e power over which we have no c o n t r o l (Bowlby, 1960; Chadwick, 1929; Jones, 1957), or a blow to the self-esteem (Diggory & Rothman, 1961). Kastenbaum and Aisenberg (1972) viewed the con-cept of death as being r e l a t i v e l y complex i n nature and d e t a i l e d s i x aspects i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n . The concept of death: (a) i s r e l a t i v e to one's l e v e l of development, (b) i s exceedingly complex and not i n t e r n -a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , (c) can change w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l , (d) has develop-mental goals (a mature concept) which are vague and ambiguous, (e) i s i n f l u e n c e d by s i t u a t i o n a l contexts and ( f ) i n f l u e n c e s one's behavior i n remote and complex ways. Some researchers and t h a n a t o l o g i s t s (Alexander & A d l e r s t e i n , 1976; F e i f e l , 1969; Kubler-Ross, 1969, 1975; P a t t i s o n . 1977) proposed t h a t c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t one's view of death. These s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the concept of death and subse-quent a t t i t u d e s toward death and dying are complex and a f f e c t e d by numerous f a c t o r s . Demographic V a r i a b l e s This study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e a r of death and a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d persons. ATDP scores were a l s o compared f o r v a r i o u s demographic v a r i a b l e s . Although the main focus of the study was i n the area of the ATDP, i t was a l s o r e l e v a n t to review demographic s t u d i e s i n the f e a r of death area. 41 Sex: I t was found t h a t females thought about t h e i r own death more and f e a r e d death more than males (Middleton, 1936); a l s o females feared d i s s o l u t i o n of the body more than males (Diggory Sc Rothman, 1961). However, a study by Handal (1969) i n d i c a t e d males to be more defensive about death than females. Sanders, Poole and Rivero (1980) reported e l d e r l y white females to have a higher death a n x i e t y than males. Young and Daniels (1980) found female high school students to have a higher death a n x i e t y than males. In f e a r of death s t u d i e s no sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found, i n e l d e r l y p s y c h i -a t r i c p a t i e n t s ( C h r i s t , 1961), i n normal e l d e r l y subjects (Rhudick & Dibner, 1961; Swenson, 1961), and i n preoccupation w i t h death among c o l l e g e students (Selvey, 1973). D i c k s t e i n (1978) administered four d i f f e r e n t death a t t i t u d e s c a l e s and found no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s among them. Age: Most researchers agree t h a t age i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i -able i n r e l a t i o n to f e a r of death among a d u l t s ( C h r i s t , 1961; F e i f e l , 1959; Klemmack, Durand & Roff, 1980; Nehrke, 1977; Rhudick & Dibner, 1961; Swenson, 1961; Templer, Ruff & Franks, 1971). However, Corey (1961) found through a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s that young a d u l t s tended to show acceptance of death and n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of a f f e c t w h i l e o l d e r a d u l t s tended to av o i d t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F e i f e l and Branscomb (1973) found t h a t o l d e r dying people feared death l e s s than younger dying people. A t t i t u d e s toward death and concepts of death among c h i l d r e n vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h age, i n r e l a t i o n to l e v e l s of mental m a t u r i t y (Dunton, 1970; Gyulay, 1978; 42 Nagy, 1938, 1948; Natterson & Knudson, 1960; P e r e t z , 1970; P o r t z , 1965; S a f i e r , 1964; S c h i l d e r & Wechsler, 1934). Among a d u l t s , however, l i f e experience and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s may be more impor-t a n t determiners of a t t i t u d e toward death than age. L e s t e r , Monfredo and Hummel (1979) found s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and c o l l e g e s t u -dents to be e q u a l l y p o s i t i v e about t h e i r current l i f e but the senior c i t i z e n s expressed much l e s s f e a r of aging. L e s t e r (1967b) reported higher f e a r of death by e l d e r l y subjects w i t h more i n c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e s toward death. Klemmack, Durand and Roff (1980) repeated p a r t of the Leste r et a l (1979) study and found no c o r r e l a t i o n between age and f e a r of aging. I t was a l s o discovered that i n d i v i d u a l s over 60 had lower f e a r of death scores than other age groups t e s t e d (adolescents and youth, young a d u l t s , and middle-aged a d u l t s ) (Stevens, Cooper & Thomas, 1980). Education: Swenson (1958, 1961) found c o l l e g e educated a d u l t s to f e a r death l e s s than those w i t h l e s s education. Nehrke (1977) found t h a t years of education were not r e l a t e d to death a n x i e t y among the e l d e r l y . C h r i s t (1961) and Rhudick and Dibner (1961) d i d not f i n d amount of education to be a r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e . Occupation; Occupational status was a l s o not a r e l e v a n t v a r i -able (Swenson, 1958). This suggests t h a t there i s not l i k e l y to be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between teachers' and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' f e a r of death scores. However, F a r l y (1971) found t h a t high death a n x i e t y persons tended to be of higher socioeconomic s t a t u s than those who expressed l e s s death a n x i e t y . 43 Health: Rhudick and Dibner (1961) found that among older people those w i t h the strongest h e a l t h concerns (both p h y s i c a l and mental) had the g r e a t e s t f e a r of death. Templer (1970) found no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n death a n x i e t y among smokers, ex-smokers and nonsmokers; however, among smokers there was a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between death a n x i e t y and the number of c i g a r e t t e s smoked. Berman (1973) found no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the amount smoked by smokers and death a n x i e t y . Nowack and Sassenrath (1980) reported t h a t coronary prone i n d i v i d u a l s tended to be gener-a l l y more anxious than the normal p o p u l a t i o n . Race: Davis and Martin (1978), Osborne (1976), Sanders, Poole and Rivero (1980) and Young and Daniels (1980) a l l found blacks to have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f e a r of death than whites. R e l i g i o n : Some stu d i e s have found t h a t r e l i g i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s tend to be more a f r a i d of death than n o n r e l i g i o u s (Alexander & A d l e r s t e i n , 1960; Faunce & F u l t o n , 1958; F e i f e l , 1959, 1969). Others have found n o n r e l i g i o u s subjects to be more f e a r f u l of death than r e l i g i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s ( F e i f e l & Branscomb, 1973; J e f f e r s , N i c h o l s & E i s d o r f e r , 1961; Martin & Wrightsman, 1965; Swenson, 1961; Young & D a n i e l s , 1980). Yet others have found no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s commitment and f e a r of death ( F e i f e l , 1965; K a l i s h , 1966; Templer & Dotson, 1970). I t i s suggested t h a t the extensive range of d e f i n i t i o n s and v a r i e t y of measurement instruments of both r e l i g i o u s n e s s and f e a r of death have c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . 44 Fear of Death and Adult P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s This study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Fear of  Death and A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons scores of a d u l t s (educators). At a conscious l e v e l people of Western s o c i e t y do not appear to be s e r i o u s l y concerned w i t h thoughts of death. How-ever, s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d a concern a t the unconscious l e v e l (Alexander & A d l e r s t e i n , 1976; Caprio, 1946; C h r i s t , 1961; Meissner, 1958). Despite claims of i n d i f f e r e n c e to thoughts of death by l a r g e numbers of people, i t appears t h a t unconsciously i t represents a v i a b l e concern. F a r l e y (1971) found t h a t high death a n x i e t y i n d i v i d u a l s were lower i n the sense of competence than moderate or 1 ow death a n x i e t y s u b j e c t s , and Vargo and B a t s e l (1981) found low f e a r of death to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a greater acceptance of s e l f and a more p o s i t i v e view of human nature. On the other hand, B l a k e l y (1977) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n death a n x i e t y between high self-esteem and low self-esteem chronic r e n a l f a i l u r e p a t i e n t s . Several s t u d i e s have found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between death a n x i e t y and general a n x i e t y ( D i c k s t e i n , 1972, 1975; F a r l e y , 1971; Handal, 1969; Handal & Rychlak, 1971; Lucas, 1972; Nogas, Schweitzer Sc Grumet, 1974; Templer, 1970, 1973; Templer, Leste r & Ruff, 1974). Nevertheless, i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed ( F a r l e y , 1971; Handal, 1969; B l a k e l y , 1977 and authors of death a n x i e t y s c a l e s such as Templer 45 and L e s t e r ) t h a t death a n x i e t y s c a l e s measure a more s p e c i f i c a n x i e t y than do general a n x i e t y s c a l e s and tap f e e l i n g s t h a t are unique to the f e a r of death alone. Studies have i n d i c a t e d t h a t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , obsessive-compulsives, and depressed persons have a high l e v e l of death anx-i e t y r e l a t i v e to that of the normal p o p u l a t i o n (Brodman, Erdmann & Wolff, 1956; Templer, 1970; Templer, Ruff & Franks, 1971). Greenberg (1964) found no c o r r e l a t i o n between death a n x i e t y and ego stre n g t h i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . There was a f f e c t a r o u s a l i n female sub-j e c t s when they spoke about death but not i n male s u b j e c t s . S c h i l d e r (1936) found t h a t murderers w i t h psychopathic and p s y c h o t i c tenden-c i e s were more preoccupied w i t h thoughts of death than those without p s y c h o t i c tendencies. Rhudick and Dibner (1961) found high death concern to c o r r e l a t e w i t h high scores on the hypochondriasis, h y s t e r i a , dependency and i m p u l s i v i t y subscales of the MMPI. However, Selvey (1973) found no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between death concerns and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as dependency, g u i l t or h o s t i l i t y . F e i f e l (1959) found t h a t few normal people v i s u a l i z e themselves as dying by means of an accident while a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of mentally i l l p a t i e n t s saw themselves as dying by "crashing i n a plane", "being run over by a t r a c t o r " , e t c . On the other hand, he found t h a t the degree of mental disturbance had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p a t i e n t s ' over-a l l a t t i t u d e s toward death. Attempts have been made to reduce f e a r of death through counsel-l i n g , group d i s c u s s i o n s and workshops. McClam (1980) found no 46 s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n . t h e f e a r of death of i n d i v i d u a l s i n h e a l t h care and h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s who had taken p a r t i n a two-day death education workshop. Durlak (1978) found t h a t e x p e r i e n t i a l l y o r i e n t e d death education reduced death f e a r scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y when compared w i t h those of the c o n t r o l or d i d a c t i c group. Boyd (1977) found t h a t a d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l death education pro-gram of three sessions s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' (elementary school teachers) f e a r of death. The f a c t t h a t McClam's workshop l a c k e d an e x p e r i e n t i a l component may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The. major component appears to be contact w i t h one's f e e l i n g s about death. I f f e a r of death p a r a l l e l s one's a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d , i t suggests that workshops on mainstreaming d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should a l s o have a major experien-t i a l component, p r o v i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an opportunity to contact t h e i r own f e e l i n g s toward d i s a b l e d people and t h e i r f e e l i n g s about what i t would be l i k e to be d i s a b l e d . H o f l i n g (1975) s t a t e d t h a t an ac c i d e n t or near a c c i d e n t arouses the a n x i e t y of death; Schoenberg and Carr (1970) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l o s s of a body p a r t or f u n c t i o n can be viewed as a p a r t i a l death of an i n d i v i d u a l . Johnson (1980) found t h a t the death a n x i e t y scores of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s and d i s a b l e d a d u l t s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those of the general p o p u l a t i o n . There were no i n d i c a t i o n s i n the study of how much personal contact and involvement there was between the c o u n s e l l o r s and d i s a b l e d people. The r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of having graduated 47 from a Masters degree program i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g . There was nothing to i n d i c a t e i f these graduates were employed i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n nor was there a statement concerning the amount of contact ( i f any) w i t h d i s a b l e d people. A t t i t u d e s Toward Death and the Dying One of Freud's e a r l i e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the c l i n i c a l problem of mourning was "the process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l o s t o b j e c t " (Bowlby, 1980, p. 29). Disabled c h i l d r e n are f r e q u e n t l y viewed as having s u f f e r e d a l o s s ( l o s s of the a b i l i t y to be l i k e o t h e r ' c h i l d r e n ) and consequently i t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n process w i l l occur and r e s u l t i n comparable mourning; hence the i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e toward death and dying and a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people of t h i s study. Dying people l a c k a s o c i a l r o l e ; they l o s e t h e i r s t a tus and former value. People g e n e r a l l y withdraw emotionally and p h y s i c a l l y from the dying and avoid i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h them (Bowers, Jackson, Knight & LeShan, 1975; Glaser & Strauss, 1974, 1976). A pretense of normalcy i s sometimes c a r r i e d on; no one t a l k s about the impend-i n g death. This can r e s u l t i n the p a t i e n t f e e l i n g t h a t he/she i s cloaked i n deception. People may view the d i s a b l e d as l a c k i n g i n s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and respond w i t h a t t i t u d e s s i m i l a r to those h e l d toward the dying. What seems to occur w i t h i n our c u l t u r e , i s the placement of the t e r m i n a l l y i l l i n t o a separate category, much as the b l i n d or c r i p p l e d are s i m i l a r l y 48 st i g m a t i z e d F u n c t i o n a l l y t h i s serves to ease the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the dying. (Epley & McCaghy, 1978, p. 381) Comparable observations have been made by others (Goffman, 1963; Katz, 1975; Quint, 1965). The dying and the d i s a b l e d are g e n e r a l l y not viewed as capable economic c o n t r i b u t o r s and consequently the work e t h i c o r i e n t e d Western s o c i e t y tends to place l e s s value on t h e i r i n t r i n s i c worth as human beings. K a l i s h (1966) stud i e d the a t t i t u d e s of c o l l e g e students toward the dying and found a c l e a r l y expressed d e s i r e (strongest among females) to avoid contact w i t h a person dying from an i n c u r a b l e disease. "The s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of the dying i s a very r e a l occur-ence" (p. 154-). Epley and McCaghy (1978) found dying people to be viewed more n e g a t i v e l y than e i t h e r healthy or i l l i n d i v i d u a l s . "Simply put, i f one wants to be viewed p o s i t i v e l y by others, stay healthy, or i f necessary become i l l , but never run the r i s k of being l a b e l e d as dying" (p. 391). This i s comparable to d i s a b l e d people's apparent d e s i r e to be seen as normal r a t h e r than handicapped due to the conscious or i n t u i t i v e knowledge th a t normal people are more h i g h l y valued than are handicapped. Le s t e r (1967b) reported t h a t people w i t h more i n c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e s toward death had a higher f e a r of death than those who were l e s s i n c o n s i s t e n t . As a r e s u l t of a l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( L e s t e r , 1972) he concluded t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n was v a l i d but q u i t e weak. 49 There i s an i m p l i e d b e l i e f t h a t i f we do not t a l k about i t , death can be discouraged or even banished (Weisman, 1970). To t a l k to and work w i t h dying people evokes a v a r i e t y of personal f e e l i n g s , among them " e x t i n c t i o n , h e l p l e s s n e s s , abandonment, disfigurement, and l o s s of self-esteem" ( P a t t i s o n , 1977, p. 13). P a t t i s o n s t a t e d t h a t because a posture of compassionate detachment i s d i f f i c u l t to a t t a i n and maintain, two major d i s t o r t i o n s have emerged on the p a r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work w i t h the dying. The f i r s t i s "exaggerated detachment" (p. 14). This i s achieved through p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , where death i s t r e a t e d l i k e a disease and th e r e f o r e becomes an impersonal e x t e r n a l problem r a t h e r than a s u b j e c t i v e experience. The second d i s t o r t i o n i s "exaggerated compassion" (p. I 4 ) . This occurs when the p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the dying person to the extent t h a t he seeks to work through h i s own death a n t i c i p a t i o n needs. This i s a form of defence i n the sense t h a t when the p a t i e n t has died the p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s t i l l a l i v e and has "beaten death". P a t t i s o n a l s o pointed out, as have others (Quint, 1965; Kubler-Ross, 1969) t h a t many p r o f e s s i o n a l s deny death by avo i d i n g the dying p a t i e n t s . These r e a c t i o n s by p r o f e s s i o n a l s toward the dying may p a r a l l e l the treatment d i s a b l e d people r e c e i v e from some p r o f e s s i o n -a l s . They are sometimes overindulged or avoided, and the reasons may be the same. Many of the a t t i t u d e s , misgivings and apprehensions of the dying p a t i e n t are acquired from doctors, other medical s t a f f and f a m i l y members (Weisman, 1970). S i m i l a r i l y , the se l f - c o n c e p t s of the d i s -50 abled persons may be acquired from s o c i e t y i n general and s i g n i f i -cant people i n t h e i r l i v e s (which most l i k e l y i n c l u d e school personnel). F e i f e l (1969) s t a t e d t h a t many ho p e l e s s l y s i c k people f e e l g u i l t y because they: (a) f e e l t h a t somehow t h e i r i l l n e s s i s t h e i r own f a u l t , (b) are dependent on t h e i r f a m i l y , (c) envy those who are a l i v e and unconsciously may wish someone e l s e to die i n t h e i r place and (d) are f o r c i n g those c l o s e s t to them to face death. Shrut (1958) found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( f o r e l d e r l y females) between degree of independence i n l i v i n g arrangements and l a c k of f e a r of death. There were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the more inde-pendent l i v i n g arrangements prompted greater s o c i a l a l e r t n e s s , and greater p r o d u c t i v i t y . I f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s to other age groups can be made from t h i s study, the i m p l i c a t i o n s support the concept of mainstreaming f o r handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s . I t suggests t h a t those i n the mainstream of s o c i e t y (both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c schools) are more l i k e l y to be productive and s o c i a l l y a l e r t than those who are i s o l a t e d from the mainstream i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Purpose In L i f e This study hypothesized t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d f o r A t t i t u d e Toward D i s a b l e d Person scores and Purpose In  L i f e scores of educators surveyed i n the greater Winnipeg area. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t people's outlook on l i f e (the sense of meaning or purpose) would r e l a t e to t h e i r f e e l i n g s about, and a t t i t u d e toward, p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. 51 Purpose i n L i f e - The Construct V i k t o r F r a n k l (1946, 1966, 1967, 1969) maintained t h a t people have an inherent need f o r meaning and values i n t h e i r l i v e s - a " w i l l to meaning". His logotherapy was an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n -c i p l e s of e x i s t e n t i a l philosophy to c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . He was of the o p i n i o n t h a t most neuroses arose as a response to a sense of complete emptiness, a l a c k of purpose i n l i f e , an " e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum". E x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n was created by a vacuum of per-ceived meaning i n personal existence and manifest by the symptoms of boredom. He c a l l e d the new type of neu r o s i s , noogenic n e u r o s i s . He maintained t h a t h a l f of Western s o c i e t y knew t h i s experience of inner emptiness ( F r a n k l , 194-6). The concept of purpose i n l i f e was very a p t l y explained by B a t t i s t a and Almond (1973): Thus when an i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s that h i s l i f e i s meaningful, he i m p l i e s (1) that he i s p o s i t i v e l y committed to some concept of the meaning of l i f e ; (2) that t h i s concept of the meaning of l i f e provides him w i t h some framework or goal from which to view h i s l i f e ; (3) t h a t he perceives h i s l i f e as r e l a t e d to or f u l f i l l i n g t h i s concept of l i f e ; (4) t h a t he experiences t h i s f u l f i l l m e n t as a f e e l i n g of i n t e g r a t i o n , r e l a t e d n e s s , or s i g n i f i c a n c e . (p. 410) Based on F r a n k l ' s theory, Crumbaugh and Maholick developed the Purpose In L i f e Test (PIL) which l e n t support to the concept of noogenic neurosis (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1963, 1964). The PIL i s an a t t i t u d e s c a l e designed to measure the degree to which an 52 i n d i v i d u a l experiences a sense of meaning and purpose i n l i f e . Studies which have reported on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the PIL (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964, 1981; Meir & Edwards, 1974; Reker, 1977; Reker & Cousins, 1979) have shown i t to be a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instrument (Crumbaugh a l s o developed the Seeking of Noetic  Goals Test which i s an a t t i t u d e s c a l e designed to measure the s t r e n g t h of the m o t i v a t i o n to f i n d meaning and purpose i n l i f e (Crumbaugh, 1977).). Reker and Cousins (1979) found t h a t greater incongruency i n a t t i t u d e s between present and f u t u r e l i f e was r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to meaning and purpose i n l i f e and a strong d e s i r e to search f o r meaning and purpose. Purpose i n l i f e was a l s o s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e experiences and p o s i t i v e f u t u r e expectations. Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964) and Crumbaugh (1968) found t h a t the PIL d i s t i n g u i s h e d very s i g n i f i c a n t l y between normal and p s y c h i -a t r i c o u t p a t i e n t s . C o r r e l a t i o n s between the PIL and the Minnesota M u l t i v a r i a t e P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory s c a l e s revealed one r e l a t i o n s h i p which remained constant over the two s t u d i e s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Depression s c a l e of the MMPI and the PIL. I t may be concluded t h a t the PIL does not measure the usual forms of pathology, except t h a t i t may tap some aspects of depression. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of c o r r e l a t i o n s of the PIL w i t h s e v e r a l other s c a l e s have been undertaken. The PIL d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y w i t h the A t t i t u d i n a l Values Scale (Dansart, 1974) i n d i c a t i n g 53 that they measure d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s (the AVS was designed to measure F r a n k l ' s construct of a t t i t u d i n a l values toward g u i l t and death) • The c o r r e l a t i o n between the PIL and the S r o l e Anomia Scale (Crumbaugh, 1968) was moderate, suggesting that although an overlap between the concept of e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum and anomia may e x i s t , they are not i d e n t i c a l (The S r o l e Anomia Scale was designed to measure the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of s o c i a l cohesion or " s e l f - t o - o t h e r s " a l i e n a t i o n . ) . G a r f i e l d (1973) administered the PIL and two anomia t e s t s ( S r o le Anomia Scale and McClosky-Schaar Anomia Scale) to f i v e d i v e r s e groups of subjects and found no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He a l s o concluded t h a t the anomia sc a l e s and the PIL were not measur-i n g the same a t t r i b u t e . G a r f i e l d a l s o found no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n -ship between the PIL and any of the s c a l e s of the C a l i f o r n i a  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory which purports to measure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s important f o r ordinary s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n c ategorized as (1) p o i s e , ascendancy and s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , (2) s o c i a l i z a t i o n , m aturity and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , (3) achievement p o t e n t i a l , (4) I n t e l l e c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y . Sharpe and Viney (1973) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the PIL and aspects of the Weltanschauung or world view of s u b j e c t s . As was hypothesized, subjects w i t h low PIL scores showed t h e i r experienced l a c k of purpose i n that t h e i r "world views were more negative than p o s i t i v e , l a c k e d purpose and lacked transcendent goals" (p. 491), 54 Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964) found no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the PIL and the s i x values assessed by the Alport-Vernon-Lindzey Scale of Values. C r a n d a l l and Rasmussen (1975) found low PIL scores to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h values of pleasure, excitement and comfort on the Rokeach Value Survey. The value of s a l v a t i o n was as s o c i a t e d w i t h high scores on the PIL. These f i n d i n g s support F r a n k l ' s contentions t h a t a h e d o n i s t i c approach to l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s to an e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum and th a t an i n t r i n s i c r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n may help to f o s t e r a greater perceived purpose i n l i f e . A study by Simmons (1980) suggested t h a t a sense of purpose i n l i f e i s r e f l e c t e d i n current s a t i s f a c t i o n s and f u t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s but i s independent of the q u a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s past l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s (as measured by C a n t r i l ' s Self-Anchoring S t r i v i n g S c a l e ) . However, there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Hartman  Value P r o f i l e suggesting that a high score on the PIL i s r e l a t e d to a ca p a c i t y f o r e v a l u a t i n g what i s important about being a person but i s u n r e l a t e d to the c a p a c i t y f o r judging what i s more or l e s s important i n the environment. G a r f i e l d (1973) administered the PIL to f i v e d i f f e r e n t s o c i o -economic groups a f t e r which s e v e r a l subjects from each group were int e r v i e w e d regarding some of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of some of the items. I t was found that i n the PIL there e x i s t s "some s p e c i f i c assumptions grounded i n white, middle c l a s s , c a p i t a l i s t e s t a b l i s h -mentarianism" (p. 4O2). Since i t can be assumed that a very l a r g e m a j o r i t y of Canadian educators are e i t h e r p a r t of the white middle c l a s s or a t l e a s t understand middle c l a s s values and id e a s , t h i s aspect of the scale represents no s p e c i f i c concern f o r purposes of t h i s study. Demographic V a r i a b l e s Various demographic v a r i a b l e s have been s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n v e s t i -gated i n r e l a t i o n to the ATDP s c a l e . These comparisons were not made f o r the PIL since the main focus of t h i s study was to explore and describe the a t t i t u d e s of educators toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people i n r e l a t i o n to s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . However, a review of the l i t e r a t u r e which i n v e s t i g a t e d the PIL s c a l e i n r e l a t i o n to various demographic v a r i a b l e s may increase the understanding of the dimen-sions of the PIL s c a l e . Sex: For both p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s and nonpatients there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964.), however, female scores were more v a r i a b l e than male scores. Numerous stu d i e s have found no s i g n i f i c a n t PIL d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes ( B u t l e r & Carr, 1968; Jacobson, R i t t e r & Mu e l l e r , 1977; Matteson, 1974; Meier & Edwards, 1974; Murphy, 1967; Roberts, 1978; S a l l e e & C a s c i a n i , 1976; Sharpe & Viney, 1973). Crumbaugh (1968) found sex d i f f e r e n c e s but suggested t h a t they may have been a func-t i o n of uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female subjects among the groups used. Doerries (1970) a l s o reported sex d i f f e r e n c e s but he f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e i f sex d i s t r i b u t i o n among h i s groups was uniform. 56 Among 4 I 6 grade ten students, P a d e l f o r d (1974) found females to have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y stronger purpose i n l i f e score. C o f f i e l d (1981) t e s t e d u n i v e r s i t y students and a l s o found females to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher PIL scores. Pearson and S h e f f i e l d (1975) t e s t e d p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s and found females to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y weaker scores than males. Although, i n general, i t appears t h a t sex i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to PIL scores, the evidence i s not c o n c l u s i v e . Age: Murphy (1967)-who grouped subjects according to age, found s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s , however, Cavanagh (1966), Crumbaugh (1968), Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964) and Y a r n e l l (1971) d i d not group t h e i r subjects and found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Pearson and S h e f f i e l d (1974) and Reker (1977) d i d not group subjects according to age and found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h age. F r a n k l s t a t e d t h a t people discover t h e i r purpose i n l i f e r a t h e r than have i t given to them, which i s i n d i r e c t l y supportive of an age c o r r e l a t e . McGowan (1977) grouped c e l i b a t e and noncelibate C a t h o l i c females and found no c o r r e l a t i o n between age and sense of meaning i n l i f e . C o f f i e l d (1981) a l s o placed h i s subjects i n age groupings and found no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Meir and Edwards (1974) found no s i g n i f i c a n t age-sex i n t e r a c -t i o n , but C o f f i e l d (1981) d i d (under 21 year o l d females found a greater amount of meaning i n l i f e than d i d t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s ) . 57 IQ and Education: Crumbaugh and Maholick (1981) reported no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between IQ and PIL. Y a r n e l l (1971) f a i l e d to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between IQ and PIL score f o r both normals and s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Reker (1977) found a very moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between IQ and PIL which he a t t r i b u t e d to a very l a r g e IQ range among h i s su b j e c t s . In general, IQ does not appear to c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to PIL scores. The education v a r i a b l e has been found to be n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r inmates and normal populations (Reker, 1977) and f o r p s y c h i a t r i c and n o n p s y c h i a t r i c subjects as w e l l (Crumbaugh, 1968). Occupation: Reker (1977) found t h a t occupation had no e f f e c t on PIL scores f o r the normal p o p u l a t i o n nor f o r inmates. Employment status at the time of a r r e s t and type of offence were not r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to PIL scores. However, Matteson (1974-) found PIL p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to having made a v o c a t i o n a l choice as w e l l as to involvement i n hobbies or s p o r t s . Socioeconomic status was not found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to PIL (Crumbaugh, 1968; Matteson, 1974; Nyholm, 1966). Lewis (1974) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a c t i v e and r e t i r e d counterparts of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p r o f e s s o r s or c l e r g y . I t appears t h a t occupation per se does not a f f e c t PIL scores. However, plans f o r the f u t u r e i n the form of making a v o c a t i o n a l choice may give the i n d i v i d u a l a sense of purpose. 58 N a t i o n a l i t y : Several s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d PIL d i f f e r e n c e s among et h n i c groups. Sharpe and Viney (1973) found a wider spread and g e n e r a l l y lower scores f o r a sample of American students than f o r a comparable sample of A u s t r a l i a n students. P a d e l f o r d (1974) found purpose i n l i f e to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher among Anglo-American grade ten students than among t h e i r peers of Mexican-American descent. P h i l b r i c k (1980) found extremely low norms f o r subjects i n East A f r i c a . B u t l e r and Carr (1968). administered the PIL to 195 students from one high school and two c o l l e g e s i n a southern U.S. s t a t e and found that blacks scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the PIL than d i d the whites. Although e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s do emerge, no c l e a r cut patterns appear. I t may be necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e the p a r t i c u l a r s of each group s t u d i e d i n order to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t . I t may be found t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to f a c t o r s other than e t h n i c background. Although handicapped people are f r e q u e n t l y r e l e g a t e d to ethnic m i n o r i t y group s t a t u s , PIL r e s u l t s of d i s a b l e d people may or may not be comparable to those of other m i n o r i t y groups. Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s : I t has been found t h a t number of s i b l i n g s and m a r i t a l status were not r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to PIL scores (Reker, 1977). However, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n of high PIL scores w i t h reported " c l o s e to normal" f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggesting t h a t a healthy f a m i l y bond i s an important antecedent to a greater purpose i n l i f e . P a d e l f o r d (1974) found that PIL was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r students who had a strong f a t h e r image as opposed to students w i t h a weak f a t h e r image. Commitment to R e l i g i o n and to Other Group Memberships S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found to e x i s t between member-ship i n organized groups and purpose i n l i f e (Matteson, 1974). Level of commitment to e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p o i n t s of view were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to purpose i n l i f e . I t i s conceivable that teachers and other educators w i t h a commitment to the educa-t i o n of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students may a l s o have a strong sense of purpose i n l i f e . McGowan (1977) found that c e l i b a t e C a t h o l i c women (nuns) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e l y than no n c e l i b a t e C a t h o l i c women on sense of purpose i n l i f e . R e t i r e d clergymen scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n purpose i n l i f e than r e t i r e d p r o f e s s o r s (Acuff, 1967). However, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a c t i v e and r e t i r e d c l e r g y (Lewis, 1972). Stones (1980) showed th a t i n t e g r a t i o n of South A f r i c a n Caucasian subjects into s o c i a l l y active r e l i g i o u s communities r e s u l t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' l i v e s t a k i n g on greater purpose and mean-in g . Stones and P h i l b r i c k (1980) administered the PIL to 100 South A f r i c a n Caucasians who had recently undergone r e l i g i o u s conversion (or i n the case of C a t h o l i c s , newly i n i t i a t e d i n t o study f o r the priesthood) and again four months l a t e r . They found t h a t the Hare Krishanas had the lowest i n i t i a l mean scores, and made the grea t e s t 60 gain. The C a t h o l i c group had the h i g h e s t mean, both i n i t i a l l y and a f t e r f o u r months had elapsed. In general, r e s u l t s supported other f i n d i n g s (Stone, 1980) that i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a r e l i g i o u s group r e s u l t e d i n a greater sense of purpose i n the l i v e s of the s u b j e c t s . The PIL scores of Dominican nuns i n t r a i n i n g were comparable to those of motivated business and p r o f e s s i o n a l people (Crumbaugh, Raphael & Shrader, 1970). There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the s i s t e r s ' PIL scores and t h e i r success i n t r a i n i n g . Soderstrom and Wright (1977) administered the PIL and other q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to 4.26 c o l l e g e students i n s i x c o l l e g e s . The r e -s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated s u b j e c t s , committed subjects and "true b e l i e v e r s " had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher PIL mean t e s t scores than d i d e x t r i n s i c a l l y motivated s u b j e c t s , uncommitted subjects and nonbelievers. C r a n d a l l and Rasmussen (1975) admini-stered the I n t r i n s i c - E x t r i n s i c R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n Scale to 71 psychology students and found that purpose i n l i f e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an i n t r i n s i c r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n but not an e x t r i n s i c o r i e n t a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s support F r a n k l ' s n o t i o n t h a t r e l i g i o u s commit-ment provides i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h meaning i n l i f e (1946). P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e s Purpose i n l i f e may be viewed as a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s i m i l a r to a t t i t u d e toward such things as d i s a b l e d people. The PIL has been administered i n conjunction w i t h a number of other p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . Some st u d i e s have found c o r r e l a t i o n s , while others have not. 61 F r a n k l s t a t e d t h a t l a c k of purpose i n l i f e r e s u l t e d i n noogenic n e u r o s i s . The PIL t e s t s u c c e s s f u l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p s y c h i a t r i c o u t p a t i e n t s and nonpatients (Crumbaugh, 1968; Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964-) J there was a l s o a progressive d e c l i n e i n mean scores w i t h degree of pathology. In a study of out p a t i e n t n e u r o t i c s , Pearson and S h e f f i e l d (1974) found t h a t p a t i e n t s w i t h a higher purpose i n l i f e were l e s s n e u r o t i c and more s o c i a b l e than those w i t h a low purpose i n l i f e . In a l a t e r study (1975), they t e s t e d p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s and found t h a t f o r males, purpose i n l i f e r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y to conservatism, i d e a l i s m , r e l i g i o n - p u r i t a n i s m and anti-hedonism but only to i d e a l i s m and a n t i -hedonism f o r females. Y a r n e l l (1971) stud i e d A i r Force servicemen and h o s p i t a l i z e d male schizophrenics and found that PIL was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to an x i e t y and a n x i e t y proneness. Reker (1977) administered s e v e r a l t e s t s to a group of inmates i n a L i f e S k i l l s program and found PIL to be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h general s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h present l i f e experience and an enjoyment of planning and o r g a n i z i n g t h i n g s and events. Goodman (1980) t e s t e d women who were members of a r e l i g i o u s congregation t h a t encouraged t a k i n g personal i n i t i a t i v e f o r one's l i f e . She found t h a t s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and openminded-ness c o n t r i b u t e d to the p r e d i c t i o n of sense of meaning i n l i f e . The dimension of time-competence a l s o r e l a t e d to sense of meaning. This supports F r a n k l ' s theory t h a t meaningfulness i n l i f e i s r e l a t e d to a sense of w e l l being about'the present, and confidence i n plans f o r the f u t u r e . 62 C r a n d a l l (1975) developed a s c a l e to measure Adler's concept of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t ( S o c i a l I n t e r e s t Scale) which he found c o r r e l a -ted p o s i t i v e l y w i t h PIL r e s u l t s ; t h i s s o c i a l i n t e r e s t " i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to an a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e and being i n harmony wi t h the u n i v e r s e " (p. 193). The f i n d i n g (that a commitment to other people i s b e n e f i c i a l to f i n d i n g meaning i n l i f e ) lends support to the view t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a strong purpose i n l i f e w i l l a l s o have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. Doerries (1970) administered the PIL to 122 c o l l e g e undergradu-ates and found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h high PIL scores were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having more meaning and d i r e c t i o n , b e t t e r defined goals and o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as greater s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e than subjects i n the low PIL category. Summary The main focus of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the a t t i t u d e s of educators toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. Previous s t u d i e s ( B u s c a g l i a , 1975; Goffman, 1963; Mussen & Barker, 19445 Richardson, Goodman, Hastorf & Dornbusch, 1961; Richardson & Green, 1971; Szuhay, 1961; T e l f o r d & Sawrey, 1967) have i n v e s t i g a t e d various a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. I t was found t h a t d i s a b l e d people are f r e q u e n t l y r e l e g a t e d to a s t a t u s comparable to t h a t of ethnic m i n o r i t y groups (Chesler, 1965; Richardson & Green, 1971; Szuhay, 1961; Tenny, 1953), t h a t nonhandi-capped people tend to avoid long-term r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h handicapped people because of discomfort (Langer, F i s k e , Taylor & Chanowitz, 63 1976) and f e a r of stigma (Goffman, 1963), and that a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d are a f f e c t e d by the v i s i b i l i t y of the handicap (Shontz, 1964; Smits, 1964). The current e x p l o r a t o r y study i n v e s t i g a t e d d i f f e r e n t aspects of a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d people - i n c l u d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d and f e a r of death, purpose i n l i f e , and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . A t t i t u d e toward death i s a complex concept (Kastenbaum & Aisenberg, 1972). I t i s r e l a t i v e to one's l e v e l of development, i s not i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , can change w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l , can be seen as u l t i m a t e power over which there i s no c o n t r o l (Bowlby, 1960) or a blow to the self-esteem (Diggory & Rothman, 1961).. Many of the same things can be s a i d of a t t i t u d e s toward the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d and hence the search f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people does not appear to have been p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . Adams-Webber (1969) suggested t h a t i n t e r n a l s have a more developed sense of " r i g h t " and "wrong" than do people w i t h an e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d l o c u s of c o n t r o l , and M i d l a r s k y (1971) found i n t e r n a l s to be more l i k e l y to help others than were e x t e r n a l s . These studies imply t h a t i n t e r n a l s may have a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people, and consequently the quest f o r a c o r r e l a -t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . C r a n d a l l (1975) found t h a t a commitment to other people i s b e n e f i c i a l to f i n d i n g meaning i n l i f e , suggesting that i n d i v i d u a l s 64 w i t h a strong purpose i n l i f e w i l l a l s o have a greater commitment to humanity, and a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. This suggestion l e d to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the c o r r e l a -t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d peo-p l e and purpose i n l i f e . A t t i t u d e s h e l d toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people r e l a t e to one's views of l i f e , death, and sense of c o n t r o l over events i n one's l i f e . This leads d i r e c t l y to the research q u e s t i o n : What are the a t t i t u d e s of educators toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people, and how do those a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e to the educators' purpose i n l i f e , l o c u s of c o n t r o l and f e a r of death? CHAPTER I I I METHOD Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the a t t i t u d e of school personnel toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people and the r e l a t i o n -ship of t h i s v a r i a b l e to three other v a r i a b l e s : f e a r of death, locus of c o n t r o l and purpose i n l i f e . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons scores w i l l c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y w i t h the Fear of Death scores and the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of  Co n t r o l scores and p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the Purpose i n L i f e scores. Statement of Hypotheses To achieve the study's purpose, the f o l l o w i n g n u l l hypotheses were t e s t e d a t the<s< = .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1. A t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d persons as r e f l e c t e d by the mean score on the A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons Scale are i n -v a r i e n t among teachers, school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and school c o u n s e l l o r s . 2. There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r e d Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons Scale scores and the scores of the three other s c a l e s (Fear of Death S c a l e , Purpose i n L i f e Test and I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale) obtained by a) educators, b) teachers, c) school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and d) c o u n s e l l o r s . -65-66 Population and Sample Po p u l a t i o n was defined as Canadian urban educators. For purposes of t h i s study the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg educators was u t i l i z e d . There was no apparent evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t subjects drawn from t h i s group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from other Canadian urban educators. L e t t e r s were sent to the school superintendents of the nine greater Winnipeg surburban school d i v i s i o n s e x p l a i n i n g the purpose and procedure of the study and requesting permission to survey school personnel i n t h e i r d i v i s i o n (See Appendix F ) . Seven responded p o s i -t i v e l y and each provided the researcher w i t h a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n to school p r i n c i p a l s (See Appendix F f o r superintendents' responses). School p r i n c i p a l s i n the seven consenting school d i v i s i o n s were then contacted. The purpose and procedure of the survey were explained and arrangements made f o r the researcher to v i s i t the schools on an agreed upon date to d i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Subject p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the survey was v o l u n t a r y and s u b j e c t s ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity was assured. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 4-57 subjects from approximately 71 e l e -mentary and 4-2 j u n i o r and senior high schools - 226 teachers (116 j u n i o r - s e n i o r high and 110 elementary), 137 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (52 j u n i o r -s enior high and 85 elementary) and 65 c o u n s e l l o r s (55 j u n i o r - s e n i o r high and 10 elementary) completed the questionnaires d i s t r i b u t e d (See Appendix H, Table 1). The 4-57 subjects who completed and returned the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s represented approximately 75% of the educators s o l i -c i t e d . 67 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedure Upon r e c e i p t of permission from school superintendents and p r i n -c i p a l s , the b a t t e r y of f i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus  of C o n t r o l Scale (Appendix C), Purpose i n L i f e Test (Appendix E ) , C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale (Appendix D), the A t t i t u d e Toward  Disabled Persons Scale (Form A) (Appendix B) and the demographic ques-t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A) were d i s t r i b u t e d to school personnel i n t h e i r home schools. Subjects were informed of the purpose of the study and were assured t h a t a l l r e s u l t s would remain anonymous and c o n f i d e n t i a l . Educators who volunteered were i n s t r u c t e d to complete the question-n a i r e s i n d i v i d u a l l y without c o n s u l t a t i o n . I t took approximately one h a l f hour f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to complete the b a t t e r y . Questionnaires were c o l l e c t e d from the schools and l a t e completions were mailed to the researcher. A f t e r data c o l l e c t i o n i n each school d i v i s i o n was complete, l e t t e r s of thanks were sent to school superintendents, p r i n c i p a l s and s t a f f of schools which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the survey (See Appendix F ) . Instrumentation The A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons. Scale (Form A). (Appendix B) The A t t i t u d e Toward D i s a b l e d Persons Scale (ATDP) was developed by Harold E. Yuker, J.R. Block and Janey H. Younng a t the Human Resources Centre, A l b e r t s o n , New York, i n 1959 (Yuker, Block & Younng, 1970). Three forms of ATDP (0, A and B) were developed to measure the a t t i -tudes of both d i s a b l e d and able-bodied.people toward those who are d i s a b l e d . Form 0 has 20 items, Form A and B have 30 items (Form A 68 has been used i n the current study). The subjects use a s i x p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e (from +3: I agree very much to -3: I disagree very much) to respond to each item. When the respondent perceives d i s a b l e d per-sons to be q u i t e s i m i l a r to nondisabled persons the r e s u l t a n t score on the t e s t i s higher; t h i s i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . When the pe r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s are hi g h , the respondent perceives d i s -abled persons as being d i f f e r e n t from able-bodied persons. Yuker et a l , (1970) contended t h a t a strong perceived d i f f e r e n c e has negative connotations. The r e s u l t i n g low score r e f l e c t s a per c e p t i o n of the d i s a b l e d person as.being disadvantaged or i n f e r i o r to some degree. Consequently, a high score on the ATDP t e s t i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e w h i le a low score i n d i c a t e s a negative a t t i t u d e . Studies of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the ATDP scal e (Yuker et a l , 1970) suggest a degree of r e l i a b i l i t y comparable to other a t t i t u d e s c a l e s of s i m i l a r l e n g t h . E i g h t s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Form 0 range from .66 to .89 w i t h a median of approximately .73. The s i n g l e es-timate f o r Form A i s .78 while the two values f o r Form B are .71 and .81. Time i n t e r v a l s range from two weeks to 18 months. In terms of ATDP v a l i d a t i o n , numerous st u d i e s c o r r e l a t e d ATDP scores w i t h scores on other measures of a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons. K n i t t e l (1963) c o r r e l a t e d ATDP scores (Form 0) w i t h scores on Auvenshine's A t t i t u d e s Toward Severely Disabled Students s c a l e (1962) and obtained s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n of +.64 f o r 50 eighth graders and +.52 f o r 58 eleventh and t w e l f t h graders. (Yuker et a l , 1970, p. 71). 69 Using a sample of 65 a d u l t s and adolescents c l a s s i f i e d as having predominantly a v e r s i v e a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons, S i l l e r and Chipman (1965) found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .55 ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ) between ATDP-0 and a composite measure of general acceptance of the d i s a b l e d (GA-1) (Yuker et a l , 1970). Parametric s t a t i s t i c s were used i n a l l ATDP t e s t r e s u l t c a l c u l a t i o n s . The ATDP scores were d i s t r i b u t e d normally (See Appendix G, F i g u r e 1) and the ATDP t e s t was considered to be a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . Based on the argument presented by Gardner (1975) parametric s t a t i s t i c s were considered to be a p p r o p r i a t e . The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Co n t r o l Scale. (Appendix C) The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Cont r o l (I-E) Scale was developed by J u l i a n R o t t e r i n 1966. The v a r i a b l e s xrere defined as f o l l o w s : When a reinforcement i s perceived by the subject as f o l l o w i n g some a c t i o n of h i s own but not being e n t i r e l y c o n t i n -gent upon h i s a c t i o n , then, i n our c u l t u r e , i t i s t y p i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d as the r e s u l t of l u c k , chance, f a t e , as under the c o n t r o l of powerful others, or as unp r e d i c t a b l e because of the great complexity of the f o r c e s surrounding him. When the event i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s way by an i n d i v i d u a l , we have l a b e l e d t h i s a b e l i e f i n e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l . I f the person perceives t h a t the event i s contingent upon h i s own behavior or h i s own r e l a t i v e l y permanent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we have termed t h i s a b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . ( R o t t e r , 1966, p. 1) The I-E s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 29 p a i r s ' of statements. Respondents are requested to s e l e c t one of each p a i r which they mostly b e l i e v e to be t r u e . On the ba s i s of t h e i r responses, subjects are c l a s s i -f i e d as being e i t h e r i n t e r n a l l y or e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d . The scores 70 range from zero (the c o n s i s t e n t b e l i e f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s can i n f l u e n c e the environment - th a t rewards come from i n t e r n a l f o r c e s ) to 23 (the b e l i e f that a l l rewards come from e x t e r n a l f o r c e s ) (Rotter, 1971). R o t t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t as s o c i e t a l changes occur (greater or fewer s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , freedoms, etc.) so do the way people score on the I-E s c a l e . In 1971, the norm appeared to have been i n the v i c i n i t y of eleven (Rotter, 1971). I n i t i a l data on the psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the I-E scale were reported by R o t t e r (1966). B i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t o t a l score, w i t h the item removed, were c a l c u l a t e d f o r samples of 200 males, 200 females and f o r the combined group. The values ranged from .52 to .004 f o r males, from .44 to .13 f o r females, and from .48 to .11 f o r the combined group. R o t t e r (1966) concluded t h a t these c o r r e l a t i o n s "are moderate but c o n s i s t e n t " (p. 10). The t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y values reported by R o t t e r (1966) f o r d i f f e r e n t subject samples and i n t e r v e n i n g time p e r i o d s , from one or two months, ranged between .48 and .84 f o r a two-month i n t e r v a l . In these st u d i e s of t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , the scal e means on the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were t y p i c a l l y one p o i n t lower, i n d i c a t i n g a s l i g h t r e t e s t s h i f t toward i n t e r n a l i t y . Employing p s y c h i a t r i c s u b j e c t s , Harrow and Ferrante (1969) found, over a six-week p e r i o d , a t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .75 which i s s i m i l a r to the values obtained using normal samples. F i n a l l y , i n t e r n a l consistency estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y r e p o r t e d by Rot t e r (1966) ranged from .65 to .79, w i t h most values greater than .70. 71 A number of s t u d i e s have been conducted which l e n d support to the v a l i d i t y of the I-E s c a l e . Adams-Webber (1969) compared the forced-choice I-E scores w i t h scores from a story-completion t e s t . The 103 subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o groups based on the number of e x t e r n a l endings f o r the three s t o r y completions. A n a l y s i s of Variance i n d i c a t e d a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the groups (p<.001). Ca r d i (1962) developed a measure of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l from a semistructured i n t e r v i e w . She obtained a b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of .61 (p<.002) f o r her 25 subjects between subjects r a t e d high or low from the i n t e r v i e w data and I-E s c a l e scores. In summary, the t e s t (I-E s c a l e ) shows reasonable homogeneity or i n t e r n a l consistency, p a r t i c u l a r l y when one takes i n t o account t h a t many of the items are sampling a broadly g e n e r a l i z e d charac-t e r i s t i c over a number of s p e c i f i c or d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h such t e s t v a r i a b l e s as adjustment, s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y or need f o r approval, and i n t e l l i g e n c e are low f o r samples st u d i e d and i n d i c a t e good d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . ( R o t t e r , 1966, p. 17) The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale has been t r a n s l a -ted i n t o s i x languages and f o u r c h i l d r e n ' s versions of the s c a l e have been developed (Rotter, 1971). For purposes of t h i s study, i t i s assumed th a t t h i s i s a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e a l l o w i n g the employment of parametric s t a t i s t i c s i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure (based on the r a t i o n a l pre-sented by Gardner, 1975). (See Appendix G, F i g u r e 2, f o r frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e s t r e s u l t s ) . 72 C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death S c a l e . (Appendix D) The C o l l e t t -L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale was developed by Lora Jean C o l l e t t and David L e s t e r i n 1969 ( C o l l e t t & L e s t e r , 1969). I t c o n s i s t s of 36 statements w i t h a 6 p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e response (+3 strong agreement to -3 strong disagreement). There are f o u r separate subscales: f e a r of death of o n e s e l f , f e a r of death of others, f e a r of dying of one-s e l f , and f e a r of dying of others. Of the 36 items 20 are keyed p o s i t i v e l y and 16 n e g a t i v e l y . The higher the score, the stronger the f e a r of death. There are no e s t a b l i s h e d norms. Vargo (1980) found the Templer Death Anxiety Scale and the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale to c o r r e l a t e moderately ("product-momemt c o r r e l a t i o n s were l a r g e s t f o r scores between the Templer  Death Anxiety Scale and the Fear of Death of S e l f (r = .609), f o l l o w -ed by the Fear of Death and Dying of S e l f ( r = .524), Fear of Death of Others (r = .434), and Fear of Dying of Others (r = .396) sub-s c a l e s " (Vargo, 1980, p. 561).). C o l l e t t and L e s t e r (1969) developed f o u r subscales to measure f e a r of death of s e l f , f e a r of death of others, f e a r of dying of s e l f and f e a r of dying of others. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between the f o u r subscales ranged from .03 to .58 and were e s p e c i a l l y low where the type of f e a r and the r e f e r e n t of the f e a r d i f f e r e d . From the various s t u d i e s reviewed, the i n t e r n a l consistency of the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death Scale appears to be r e s p e c t a b l e . 73 Durlak (1972) examined f o u r d i f f e r e n t psychometric sc a l e s that assess f e a r s and a n x i e t i e s about death: sc a l e s developed by L e s t e r , Boyar, Sarnoff and Corwin, Taylor and C o l l e t t and L e s t e r . The s c a l e s a l l c o r r e l a t e d moderately a t the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The med-i a n c o r r e l a t i o n among the sca l e s was .515. This study o f f e r e d evidence t h a t sup-p o r t s the concurrent v a l i d i t y of four d i f f e r e n t measures of death f e a r or an x i e t y c u r r e n t l y i n use. Analyses i n d i c a t e d that the death s c a l e s were c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , had no sub-s t a n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response parameters, and seemed more prominently to measure a t t i t u d e s toward personal death and dying r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z e d f e a r s and f e e l i n g s about death. (Durlak, 1972, p. 547). D i c k s t e i n (1978) administered s i x death sc a l e s i n c l u d i n g the Fear of Death Scale. For females, c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged between .181 and .521 w i t h a median c o r r e l a t i o n of .362. S i x of the twelve c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t w h i le two more approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . For males, c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged between .034- and .761 w i t h a median c o r r e l a t i o n of .422. Seven of the c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t while three approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . For females, three of the s i x i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t and the median c o r r e l a t i o n was .522. There was no c o r r e l a t i o n between responses on the Fear of Death  Scale and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . ( D i c k s t e i n , 1978; Durlak, 1972). The c o r r e l a t i o n a l studies c i t e d i n d i c a t e the C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear  of Death Scale to possess adequate construct v a l i d i t y . 74 The greater Winnipeg educators' C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of Death  Scale r e s u l t s were d i s t r i b u t e d normally (See Appendix G, F i g u r e 3). Also the t e s t was considered to be a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . Based on Gardner's p r e s e n t a t i o n (1975) parametric s t a t i s t i c s were deemed to be a p p r o p r i a t e . The Purpose i n L i f e Test.(Appendix E) The Purpose i n L i f e Test was developed by James C. Crumbaugh and Leonard T. Maholick i n 1969. I t i s based on V i c t o r F r a n k l ' s logotherapy concepts: Man i s not f r e e from c o n d i t i o n s , be they b i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l i n nature. But he i s , and always remains, f r e e to take a stand toward these c o n d i t i o n s , he always r e t a i n s the freedom to choose h i s a t t i t u d e toward them. ( F r a n k l , 1967, p. 3) Based on the n o t i o n that people develop t h e i r own purpose i n l i f e , Crumbaugh and Maholick developed a t e s t designed to measure the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s have developed a purpose i n l i f e . The twenty-item a t t i t u d e s c a l e i s designed to evoke responses which r e -l a t e the degree of purpose i n l i f e experienced by i n d i v i d u a l s . The t e s t items are r a t e d on a seven-point s c a l e w i t h a high score (6 to 7) i n d i c a t i v e of a c l e a r meaning and purpose, an intermediate score (3 to 5) i n d i c a t i v e of i n d e c i s i o n , and a low score (1 to 2) i n d i c a -t i v e of a c l e a r l a c k of meaning and purpose i n l i f e . The s c a l e ' s measures of a t t i t u d e are i n d i r e c t , i n that a t t i t u d e s are measured by having the subjects respond to statements about t h e i r l i v e s . Although s i m i l a r to the L i k e r t method, the q u a n t i t a t i v e extremes of each item are set by d e s c r i p t i v e phrases. The score i s 75 determined by summing the i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s assigned to each item. Items 6, 11, 15, 16 of the t e s t are based on F r a n k l ' s contention t h a t a t t i t u d i n a l values can c o n t r i b u t e to a greater meaning i n l i f e , or th a t an i n d i v i d u a l can experience meaning i n death, s u f f e r i n g , e t c . Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d the existence of F r a n k l ' s no'ogenic neurosis - breakdown due t o " e x i s t e n t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n " or l a c k of perc e i v e d meaning or "purpose" i n l i f e . The Purpose i n  L i f e Test was administered to 225 subjects s e l e c t e d from f i v e sub-po p u l a t i o n s . I t demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between p a t i e n t s and nonpatients.. . Pearson r's between the t o t a l score and the score on each item (N = 225) revealed a c o r r e l a t i o n range of from -.06 (item 19) to .82 (item 9 ) . Seventeen items were above ..50 and 20 above . 4O. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the PIL r e v i s e d t o t a l score, determined by the odd-even method (Pearson r , N = 225) was .81. Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t e d to .90. The norms f o r the PIL (means, rounded to the nearest whole number) are: nonpatients 119, p a t i e n t s 99, females 111, males 107. The scores of p a t i e n t s were found to be more v a r i a b l e than those of nonpatients. A p a r t i a l concurrent v a l i d a t i o n of the PIL r e v i s e d t o t a l score a g a i n s t one type of c r i t e r i o n , r a t i n g s assigned by p a t i e n t s ' t h e r a -p i s t s of each PIL item as the t h e r a p i s t s thought the p a t i e n t s should have r a t e d themselves i n order to be accurate, y i e l d e d an r of .27 (Pearson product-moment, N = 3 9 ) . The t o t a l score of the F r a n k l  Questionnaire was found to c o r r e l a t e .68 (Pearson product-moment, 76 N = 136) w i t h the t o t a l score of the PIL. The K ( V a l i d i t y ) and D (Depression) scores of the MMPI showed a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the PIL ( r e s p e c t i v e l y .39 and -.30, Pearson product-moment, N = 4-5). Meier and Edwards (1974-) administered the PIL and the F r a n k l Questionnaire (FQ) (which was used as a c r i t e r i o n to assess the v a l i d i t y of the PIL) twice, one week apart, to 57 s u b j e c t s . A t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .83 (p<.0l) was obtained f o r the PIL and of .66 (p<.01) f o r the FQ. Cavanagh (1966) and Murphy (1967) made comparable f i n d i n g s . The v a l i d i t y study of the PIL which used FQ (Meier & Edwards, 1974-) y i e l d e d a Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .56 (p<.01). This compares w i t h the .59 reported by Murphy (1967). However, Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964-) and Cavanagh (1966) reported a c o r r e l a t i o n of .68. Reker (1977) e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the v a l i d i t y and r e l i -a b i l i t y of the PIL and found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the PIL and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s on the concepts L i f e a t Present and L i f e i n the Future w i t h a tendency f o r the PIL to be r e l a t e d i n v e r s e l y to Present-Future L i f e discrepancy scores. The research c i t e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Purpose In L i f e Test main-t a i n s r e spectable r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y as an a t t i t u d e survey. I t i s apparent t h a t t h i s i s a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l s c a l e and paramet-r i c s t a t i s t i c s may be employed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure based on the r a t i o n a l s t a t e d by Gardner (1975) (See Appendix G, Fi g u r e 4, f o r frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of PIL r e s u l t s . ) . 77 Design and S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s . T o t a l s as w e l l as means (where a p p l i -cable) were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l demographic v a r i a b l e s : age, sex, number of years employed i n the f i e l d of education, e d u c a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n (teacher, c o u n s e l l o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) , handicapped student i n s u b j e c t s ' school or c l a s s , contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people by s u b j e c t s , opinion regarding placement of p h y s i c a l l y handi-capped c h i l d r e n i n the school system. Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP, I-E, FOD, and PIL scores f o r a) a l l educators, b) school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c) school c o u n s e l l o r s , and d) school teachers. Appendix H p o r t r a y s the r e s u l t s i n t a b l e forms. I n f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c s . To t e s t Hypothesis 1, an A n a l y s i s of Variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons  Scale scores of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers. To t e s t Hypothesis 2, i n regard to c o r r e l a t i o n s between the A t t i t u d e Toward D i s a b l e d Persons Scale and the other three s c a l e s : I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Co n t r o l Scale, C o l l e t t - L e s t e r Fear of  Death Scale, and the Purpose i n L i f e Test, a Pearson r was c a l c u l a t e d : a) f o r educators, b) f o r teachers, c) f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and d) f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . A d d i t i o n a l comparisons were c a l c u l a t e d f o r s e l e c t e d demographic v a r i a b l e s . CHAPTER IV RESULTS Four a t t i t u d e scales were completed by educators w i t h i n the greater Winnipeg p u b l i c school system. This chapter presents the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s performed to t e s t the hypotheses as w e l l as the r e s u l t s of other s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Educators' A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d People Hypothesis 1: A t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d persons as r e f l e c t e d by the mean score on the A t t i t u d e Toward Di s a b l e d Persons Scale are i n v a r i e n t among school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers (=<= .05). In seven greater Winnipeg school d i v i s i o n s , 457 educators completed the t e s t b a t t e r y . Of these, 137 were a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 65 co u n s e l l o r s and 226 teachers (See Appendix H, Table 1). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers which showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the means of the three groups (Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s are found i n Appendix H, Table 2). The n u l l hypothesis t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d among the a t t i t u d e s of these three p r o f e s s i o n a l groups toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people was upheld. The f i n d i n g s appear i n Appendix H, Table 3. The mean f o r school -78-79 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was 130.91, f o r teachers 130.18, and f o r school c o u n s e l l o r s 127.27. Hypothesis 2: There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r e d c o r r e l a t i o n s (<=><= .05) between the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons  Scale and each of the other three measures: Fear of Death Scale, Purpose i n L i f e Test and the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Co n t r o l  Scale, f o r scores obtained by a) educators, b) teachers, c) admini-s t r a t o r s , d) c o u n s e l l o r s . a) A Pearson r was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores p a i r e d w i t h the FOD, PIL and I-E scores of educators (Table 4A, Appendix H). A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s (ATDP and FOD, r = -0.24; ATDP and PIL, r = 0.18; ATDP and I-E, r = -0.20) were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = .0001) r e s u l t i n g i n a r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The ATDP and FOD sca l e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y ( r = -0.24.) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the educators w i t h a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people tended to have l e s s f e a r of death while those w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handi-capped people had a greater f e a r of death. The ATDP and PIL scores c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y (r = 0.18). Educators who had a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people tended a l s o to f e e l they had a stronger purpose i n l i f e , and i n v e r s e l y , those who saw l e s s purpose i n t h e i r l i v e s tended to have a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. The ATDP and I-E c o r r e l a t i o n was negative (r = -0.20); educators who had a more p o s i t i v e view of p h y s i c a l l y 80 handicapped people tended to see themselves as more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d w h i l e those w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i -c a l l y handicapped people tended to see themselves as more e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . b) A Pearson r was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores p a i r e d w i t h FOD, PIL and I-E scores of teachers (Appendix H, Table 4-B). A l l c o r r e l a -t i o n s (ATDP and FOD, r = -0.37, p = 0.0001; ATDP and PIL, r = 0.20, p = 0.0043; ATDP and I-E, r = -0.21, p = 0.003A) were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Consequently the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . The ATDP and FOD sc a l e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y (r = -0.37) suggesting t h a t the teachers who viewed p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people more p o s i t i v e l y tended not to f e a r death as g r e a t l y as those with a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. The ATDP and PIL scores c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y ( r = 0.20). Those teachers w i t h a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people were of the opinion t h a t t h e i r l i v e s h e l d more purpose and meaning than d i d those teachers who h e l d l e s s p o s i t i v e views of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. The ATDP and I-E c o r r e l a t i o n was negative (r = -0.21) i n d i -c a t i n g t h a t teachers who he l d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people tended to see themselves as more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d while those w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people viewed themselves as more e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . c) Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l -ated f o r ATDP scores p a i r e d w i t h FOD, PIL and I-E scores f o r admini-s t r a t o r s (See Appendix H, Table 4-C f o r r e s u l t s ) . 81 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP scores d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r FOD scores ( r = -0.08; p = 0.36.) nor with t h e i r PIL scores (r = 0.13; p = 0.15); the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d . The ATDP and I-E c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t and the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d (r = -0.21; p = 0.02) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( l i k e teachers) who were more p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people saw themselves as more i n t e r n a l l y con-t r o l l e d than those w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e (Table 4-C, Appendix H). d) Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a -ted f o r ATDP scores p a i r e d w i t h FOD, PIL and I-E scores f o r counsel-l o r s (See Appendix H, Table 4D f o r r e s u l t s ) . The ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the FOD scores (r = -0.26; p = 0.05) and the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . Counsellors w i t h a more p o s i -t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people tended to f e a r death l e s s than c o u n s e l l o r s who had a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. C o u n s e l l o r s ' ATDP scores d i d not corre-l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h PIL (r = 0.17; p = 0.12) nor w i t h the I-E scores (r = -0.04; p = 0.76) and the n u l l hypotheses f o r these c o r r e l a t i o n s were not r e j e c t e d . (Table 4D, Appendix H). ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p(0.05) w i t h the FOD, PIL and I-E t e s t scores f o r a l l educators i n the study and f o r teachers. School c o u n s e l l o r s ' ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h FOD, and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r I-E scores. 82 Sex Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores There were 268 male and 186 female educators who completed the survey. Of these, 137 were a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (118 male and 19 female), 65 c o u n s e l l o r s (34- male and 31 female) and 226 teachers (107 male and 119 female (Table 5, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores of the 254 male and 176 female educators surveyed (Results are found i n Table 6A, Appendix H). There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ference between the s l i g h t l y higher female mean (131.56) and the male mean (128.94-) (p = 0.1 5). ATDP scores f o r 99 male and 109 female teachers were a l s o com-pared by an a n a l y s i s of variance (Table 6B, Appendix H). Again, the female mean score (131.04-) was s l i g h t l y higher than the male mean score (129.23), but the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.49 ). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores of the 33 male and 30 female c o u n s e l l o r s surveyed (Table 6C, Appendix H). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s l i g h t l y higher f e -male mean (127.97) and the male mean (126.64) (p = 0.75). A comparison of the ATDP scores of the 19 female and 112 male school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was made (Table 6D, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i r mean group scores. The female mean ATDP score (139.11) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the male mean score (129.52). 83 In a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groupings, the female scores i n t h i s sample were higher than the male, and f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s the d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance. Age Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores Subjects were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r ages by checking one of f i v e age c a t e g o r i e s : under 29 years, 30 to 39 years, 4-0 to 4-9 years, 50 to 59 years, 60 to 69 years. The mid-point of each category was taken to be the subject's age and used to c a l c u l a t e mean ages f o r each p r o f e s s i o n a l group (See Table 7A, Appendix H). Tables were a l s o constructed to demonstrate the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the age group-ings according to school p o s i t i o n ( c o u n s e l l o r , teacher, a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) , (Table 7B), elementary and high school educators (Table 7C) and sex (Table 7D, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d to compare the ATDP scores of the f i v e age groups i n the sample (See Table 8, Appendix H, f o r ANOVA r e s u l t s ) . The mean ATDP scores f o r each age group were as f o l l o w s : under 29 years, mean = 130.56; 30 to 39 years, mean = 130.88; 4.0 to 49 years, mean = 129.76; 50 to 59 years, mean = 127.4-6; 60 to 69 years, mean = 127.78. The d i f f e r e n c e s among the means were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.83) at the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 84 ATDP Scores and Number of Years i n Education Subjects were asked to i n d i c a t e the number of years they had worked i n the f i e l d of education by checking one of s i x c a t e g o r i e s : 0 to 5 years, 6 to 10 years, 11 to 15 years, 16 to 20 years, 21 to 25 years, 26 or more years. The mid-point of each category was taken to be the number of years employed i n education f o r that subject and was used to c a l c u l a t e the mean number of years employed i n education f o r each p r o f e s s i o n a l group (See Table 9A, Appendix H). Tables were a l s o constructed to demonstrate the d i s t r i b u t i o n of years employed i n education by c o u n s e l l o r s , teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (Table 9B) and males and females (Table 90, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the ATDP scores of educators c a t e g o r i z e d according to the number of years they had worked i n the f i e l d of education (See Table 10, Appendix H). The mean ATDP scores v a r i e d from group to group (3 years i n education, mean = 129.64; 8 years i n education, mean = 130.21; 13 years i n education, mean = 131.26; 18 years i n education, mean = 134.22; 23 years i n education, mean = 125.33; 30 years i n education, mean = 126 . 9 2 ) , however, none of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n ATDP mean scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.15) a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i -cance. Elementary and J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School ATDP Comparisons Of the educators who completed the ATDP qu e s t i o n n a i r e , 213 worked i n elementary schools and 217 i n j u n i o r or senior high schools (Table 11 A, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d to compare the ATDP scores of elementary educators (mean = 132.14) and j u n i o r - s e n i o r high school educators (mean = 127.93). There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two (p = 0.02); the elementary educators had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i -c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than d i d high school educators (Table 11 A, Appendix H). Elementary school c o u n s e l l o r s had a s l i g h t l y lower mean ATDP score (122.70) than d i d high school c o u n s e l l o r s (128.13) however the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.35) (Table 11B, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d to compare the mean ATDP scores of the elementary (mean = 131.85) and j u n i o r - s e n i o r high school (mean = 128.53) teachers. Although the elementary teachers appeared to demonstrate a s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.21) (Table 11C, Appendix H). Elementary school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had a l a r g e r mean ATDP score (mean = 133.06) than d i d high school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (mean = 127.31), however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.09) (Table 11D, Appendix H). Elementary educators' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e than those of educators who worked i n 86 the j u n i o r or s e n i o r high school s e t t i n g . Although elementary t e a -chers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s achieved stronger ATDP scores than d i d t h e i r h i g h school counterparts, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t . The opposite h e l d t r u e f o r c o u n s e l l o r s ; those working i n high schools had a more p o s i t i v e mean score although, again, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t appears t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between high school and elemen-t a r y educators i s not a t t r i b u t a b l e to any one p r o f e s s i o n a l group. A two-way a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d to determine i f there was an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between the p r o f e s s i o n a l group f a c t o r (admini-s t r a t o r s , teachers, c o u n s e l l o r s ) and l e v e l of education f a c t o r (elementary, secondary). No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was found (p = .30). Furt h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , u s i n g B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t f o r homogeneity of vari a n c e s , revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the variances f o r 2 the s i x c e l l s of the 3 x 2 , two-way ANOVA r e f e r r e d to above (x =2.68; p>.05). Hence, the apparent s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between elementary and secondary educators, but not f o r any one of the component groups, remains unexplained. The r e s u l t i s l i k e l y a s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i f a c t a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n t e r p l a y of means, variances and sample s i z e s . ATDP Scores of Educators With a Handicapped Student i n Their School  or Class Subjects responded to the que s t i o n : Do you have a handicapped student: a) i n your school No Yes b) i n your c l a s s ( e s ) No Yes 87 Of the 457 educators who volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, 323 i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had handicapped students i n t h e i r school or i n t h e i r c l a s s (Table 12A, Appendix H). Of these, 155 worked i n elementary schools and 168 i n high schools (Table 12B, Appendix H). More male educators (195) than female (128) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had handicapped students i n t h e i r school or c l a s s (See Table 12C, Appendix H). Of those educators i n v o l v e d i n the study, 56 c o u n s e l l o r s 128 teachers, and 102 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t they had a p h y s i c a l l y handicapped student i n t h e i r c l a s s or school (Table 12D, Appendix H). Educators who s t a t e d t h a t they had a handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s were asked to i n d i c a t e the nature of the handi-cap by checking one or more of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s provided. The responses were as f o l l o w s : 85 had b l i n d or p a r t i a l l y s i g h t e d students i n t h e i r school or c l a s s , 180 had deaf or hard of hearing students, 115 had o r t h o p e d i c a l l y handicapped students, 132 had speech impaired and 129 had students w i t h other h e a l t h impairments (See Table 12E, Appendix H). To compare the mean ATDP scores of educators who had a handi-capped student i n c l a s s w i t h those who d i d not, an a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p = 0.69) between the mean ATDP scores of educators w i t h a handicapped student i n school or c l a s s (mean = 130.24), and those w i t h none (mean = 129*45) although the former's mean score was s l i g h t l y higher (Table 13A, Appendix H). ATDP scores f o r c o u n s e l l o r s who had a p h y s i c a l l y handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s and c o u n s e l l o r s who had none were compared by means of an a n a l y s i s of variance c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i r 88 mean group scores (Table 13B, Appendix H). Those w i t h a handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s had a s l i g h t l y higher mean ATDP score (127.52) than those without (mean = 125.29), however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.74)• A comparison of the a t t i t u d e s (toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people) of teachers who had a handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s w i t h those who d i d not was made by c a l c u l a t i n g an a n a l y s i s of variance of t h e i r ATDP scores (See Table 13C, Appendix H). There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p = 0.74) between the s l i g h t l y higher mean of those w i t h handicapped students (mean = 130.52) than those without (mean = 129.63). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the ATDP scores of the 102 school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who had handicapped students i n t h e i r school (mean = 131.13) and the 29 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (mean = 130.14) who d i d not (See Table 13D, Appendix H). Although those w i t h handicapped students i n t h e i r schools had a s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e mean score, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.80). A l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groups w i t h a handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s had higher mean ATDP scores than d i d t h e i r counter-p a r t s without the contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students, however, i n no i n s t a n c e was the d i f f e r e n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Personal Contact w i t h P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d People and ATDP Scores Subjects were asked i f they had personal contact w i t h a p h y s i -c a l l y handicapped c h i l d or a d u l t a) a t school, b) outside of school, 89 or c) w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y . Of those educators who responded, 336 i n d i c a t e d some form of contact and 121 s t a t e d t h a t they had no per-sonal contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people (Table I4B, Appendix H). One hundred and fourteen a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 58 c o u n s e l l o r s and 14O teachers s t a t e d t h a t they had personal contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people (See Table I4A, Appendix H). Of these, 170 worked i n elemen-t a r y schools and 166 i n high schools (See Table I4B); 128 were female and 208 were male (See Table I4C, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d to compare the mean ATDP scores of educators w i t h personal contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people and those without (See Table 15A, Appendix H f o r ANOVA r e s u l t s ) . Although the mean f o r those w i t h personal contact (130.69) was s l i g h t l y higher than those w i t h no personal contact (mean = 128.17) the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.21.) a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . ATDP scores f o r teachers w i t h personal contact (127 subjects) and teachers w i t h no personal contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d peo-p l e (81 subjects) were compared by an a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e . Those w i t h personal contact had a s l i g h t l y higher mean ATDP score (130.64) than those without personal contact (129.46), however, the d i f f e r e n c e a l s o was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.67) (See Table 15B, Appendix H). An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores of the 57 school c o u n s e l l o r s who had personal contact w i t h someone who was p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d and the 6 school c o u n s e l l o r s who d i d not (See 90 Table 15C, Appendix H). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s l i g h t l y higher mean of those c o u n s e l l o r s who had contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people (mean = 127.4-0) and those who had no personal contact (mean = 126.00) (p - 0.85). A comparison of the ATDP scores of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h (108 s u b j e c t s ) and without (23 subjects) personal contact was made by an a n a l y s i s of variance of t h e i r ATDP scores (See Table 15D, Appendix H). The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who had personal contact w i t h a p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d person had a mean ATDP score (131.70) which was s l i g h t l y higher than the mean score (127.17) of those w i t h no personal contact w i t h d i s a b l e d people, however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i -cant (p = 0.29). A l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups w i t h personal contact w i t h p h y s i -c a l l y d i s a b l e d people had higher ATDP mean scores than those w i t h no personal contact although none of the d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Educators' Test Scores Of the educators who v o l u n t a r i l y agreed to complete the ques-t i o n n a i r e s , 15 i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had a p h y s i c a l handicap. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean ATDP scores of handicapped educators and nonhandicapped educators as a r e s u l t of an a n a l y s i s of variance c a l c u l a t e d f o r these two groups (Table 16A, Appendix H), although the handicapped group mean (133.80) was s l i g h t l y higher than the nonhandicapped mean (129.73). 91 The handicapped and nonhandicapped educators d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y on the I-E sc a l e (Table 16B, Appendix H) as i n d i c a t e d by a n a l y s i s of variance c a l c u l a t i o n s . The nonhandicapped group mean (8.00) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the mean f o r the handicapped (mean = 5.80) (p = 0.05), i n d i c a t i n g that the handicapped subjects f e l t somewhat more i n c o n t r o l o f . t h e i r l i v e s than d i d the nonhandi-capped educators. An a n a l y s i s of variance was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the PIL scores of handicapped (mean = 119.27) and nonhandicapped (mean = 112.11) educators (Table 16C, Appendix H). The mean Purpose i n L i f e score of the handicapped group was s l i g h t l y stronger than t h a t of the non-handicapped, however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant (p = 0.09). (The Manual of I n s t r u c t i o n f o r The Purpose i n L i f e Test s t a t e s : "scores above 112 i n d i c a t e the presence of d e f i n i t e purpose and meaning i n l i f e " . I t appears that both handicapped and nonhandicapped educators i n t h i s study had a sense of meaning and purpose i n t h e i r l i v e s . ) The nonhandicapped educators had a s l i g h t l y higher f e a r of death score (mean FOD = -5.90) than d i d handicapped educators (mean FOD = -15.57). However, based on the a n a l y s i s of variance c a l c u l a t e d , the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.16) (Table 16D, Appendix H). Yuker, Block and Younng, the authors of the A t t i t u d e Toward  Disabled Persons Scale have done considerable research using t h e i r s c a l e and have developed a set of standardized norms. The ATDP was 92 administered to 1035 d i s a b l e d and nondisabled males and females by the Human Resources Centre, New York. The norms were developed from these t e s t r e s u l t s and from t e s t data submitted by approximate-\ l y 15 other t e s t users. The ATDP r e s u l t s of t h i s study were compared w i t h the norms and two t a i l e d t t e s t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r sex and d i s a b i l i t y groupings (Table 16E, Appendix H). The female, nondisabled educators' mean (131.K) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p<0.001) than the norm (114.18) f o r the general female nondisabled p o p u l a t i o n . The male nondisabled educators' mean (128.74) was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p^0.001) than the norm (106.65) f o r the general male nondisabled p o p u l a t i o n . A two t a i l e d t t e s t was c a l c u l a t e d to compare the ATDP scores of the d i s a b l e d educators w i t h the ATDP norms f o r d i s a b l e d people, however, the numbers of d i s a b l e d people i n the sample (6 females, 9 males) was so l i m i t e d as to make the s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons f o r i n f e r e n t i a l value tenuous. The r e s u l t s , however, are of i n t e r e s t as an i n d i c a t i o n of the trends of the a t t i t u d e s of the d i s a b l e d educa-t o r s ( i n t h i s study) toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people, when compared wi t h the a t t i t u d e s of the general p o p u l a t i o n of d i s a b l e d people. The d i s a b l e d female mean (14-3.83) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p<0.05) than the norm (123.58) f o r the general d i s a b l e d female p o p u l a t i o n . The d i s a b l e d male mean (127.11) was higher than the norm (120.43) f o r the general d i s a b l e d male p o p u l a t i o n , however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 93 In general, both the d i s a b l e d and nondisabled educators i n t h i s study had a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people than d i d t h e i r general p o p u l a t i o n counterparts. Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y Disabled Students Question 10 of the que s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d to educators i n greater Winnipeg s t a t e d : In your o p i n i o n , p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should: attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d (e.g., Manitoba School f o r the Deaf) atten d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c schools a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s -tance of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s other ( s p e c i f y ) The numbers of p o s i t i v e responses along w i t h percentages are reported i n Table 17A, Appendix H. Most educators (325 or 71.12?) were of the opi n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s , 38 or 8.32% were of the o p i n i o n that p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools (by i m p l i c a t i o n , without s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s ) . Of those who responded, 59 or 12.91? f e l t t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should a t t e n d s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d , and 68 or 1^.88% i n d i c a t e d that they should a t t e n d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r d i s a b l e d students i n the p u b l i c schools. 94 The-opinion option "other" was s e l e c t e d by 51 or 11.16? of- the respondents. The explanations f e l l i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s : some respondents chose more than one option ( g e n e r a l l y s p e c i a l schools and r e g u l a r school c l a s s e s w i t h s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , depending upon the needs of the c h i l d ) ; a number of others s t a t e d that they were unable to choose from among the options provided since planning f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n must be done on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Tables were generated which d e t a i l e d the opinions of educators based on: d i s a b l e d and nondisabled educators (Table 17B), age (Table 17C), educational p o s i t i o n (Table 17D), elementary and high school educators (Table 17E), handicapped students i n school or c l a s s (Table 17F) and personal contact w i t h a d i s a b l e d person (Table 17G, Appendix H). Most handicapped (73.33?) and nonhandicapped educators (71.4-3?) were of the o p i n i o n that p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support ser-v i c e s (Table 17B, Appendix H). The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n opinion was i n regard to Opinion 3; 33.33? of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped educators were of the o p i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools (without s p e c i a l help) while only 7.49? of the nonhandicapped educators s e l e c t e d t h i s programing o p t i o n . In a l l age groups, the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of educators chose the f o u r t h programing option f o r p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students which s t a t e d t h a t they should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s (Table 17C, Appendix H ) . By f a r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of each p r o f e s s i o n (73.85? of co u n s e l l o r s , 61.95? of teachers and 83.21? of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) i n d i -cated a preference f o r p l a c i n g p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students i n re g u l a r c l a s s e s and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s (See Table 17D, Appendix H). The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d option chosen by teachers was to place students i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s (without support s e r v i c e s ) , while the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n of cou n s e l l o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was to place p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students i n s p e c i a l schools f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. P l a c i n g p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of support s e r v i c e s was the most p r e f e r r e d programing op t i o n of both high school (67.95? of subjects) and elementary school (74-. 44? of subjects) educators (Table 17E, Appendix H). The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e of both groups was to have students a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c school (by i m p l i c a -t i o n , without s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s ) although fewer elementary (4.93? of subjects) than high school educators (11.54? of subjects) s e l e c t e d t h i s o p t i o n . The general p a t t e r n of programing preferences f o r elementary and high school, educators were very s i m i l a r . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of educators (74-61? of subjects) w i t h a p h y s i c a l l y handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s p r e f e r r e d handicapped students to atten d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and be provided w i t h s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s . Twenty-nine or 8.98? were of the op i n i o n that handicapped students should a t t e n d s p e c i a l schools f o r the di s a b l e d , 29 or 8.98? f e l t they should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n 96 p u b l i c schools, and 4O or 12.38? thought they should attend s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools (Table 17F, Appendix H). Most of the edu-cators without a p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s (84 or 62.89? of subjects) a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s -abled students should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s . However, more educators w i t h handicapped students (29 or 8.98? of subjects) than w i t h no handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s (9 or 6.72? of subjects) .believed t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s (without s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s ) . Approximately the same number but a much smaller p r o p o r t i o n of educators w i t h a handicapped student (29 subjects or 8.98? of subjects) and those without (30 subjects or 22.39? of subjects) b e l i e v e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students should attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d . Most subjects who have had personal contact w i t h a p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d person (at school, outside of school, or w i t h i n the f a m i l y ) s t a t e d that p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s a s s i s t a n c e (75.89? or 255 educators). T h i r t y - f o u r or 10.12? f e l t they should a t t e n d s p e c i a l schools f o r the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d , 42 or 12.50? thought they should attend s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c schools, and 27 or 8.04? b e l i e v e d they should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools. Of those educators w i t h no personal contact w i t h a p h y s i -c a l l y d i s a b l e d person, most (70 subjects or 57.85?) s t a t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e 97 the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s w h i l e the fewest (11 sub-j e c t s or 9.09?), w i t h no contact, b e l i e v e d t h a t they should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c school (presumably without s p e c i a l a s s i s -tance) (Table 17G, Appendix H). Four one-way analyses of variance were c a l c u l a t e d to compare the ATDP scores of those who s e l e c t e d and those who d i d not s e l e c t each of the f o u r programing options (Table 18, Appendix H). S i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r the f i r s t and f o u r t h o p t i o n , but not f o r the second and t h i r d (Table 18, Appendix H). Those educators who were of the op i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students should attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d (Opinion 1, mean = 125.19) had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than those who d i d not s e l e c t t h i s option (mean = 130.89) (p = 0.03) (Table 18A). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p = 0.90) between the s l i g h t l y lower mean scores of educators who i n d i c a t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n should attend s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c schools (Opinion 2, mean = 129.89) and those who d i d not choose t h i s o p t i o n (mean = 130.21) (Table 18B). Educators who had i n d i c a t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c school (Opinion 3) had a higher mean ATDP score (132.59) than educators who d i d not s e l e c t t h i s option (mean = 129.95), however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.4-3) (Table 18C). Those educators who were of the op i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n should a t t e n d r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s (Opinion 4 , mean = 132.00) had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people (p = .0007) than those who d i d not s e l e c t t h i s o p t i o n (mean = 125.19) (Table 18D). CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY This chapter presents a d i s c u s s i o n of the research r e s u l t s , l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study, and a summary. Dis c u s s i o n Hypothesis 1 The f i r s t hypothesis compared the a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d persons as r e f l e c t e d by the mean scores on the A t t i t u d e Toward  Dis a b l e d Persons Scale of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and teachers («K= .05). An a n a l y s i s of variance showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the three groups. Although teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and co u n s e l l o r s have d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n the education-a l system, d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h students and some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a i n i n g , i t i s hot s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n ATDP scores are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . P r i n c i p a l s , teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s g e n e r a l l y have s i m i l a r educational back-grounds and most had spent a number of years i n the teaching p r o f e s -s i o n . They g e n e r a l l y began as teachers before becoming c o u n s e l l o r s -99-100 or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( i n some i n s t a n c e s , teachers become c o u n s e l l o r s and then a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) . Consequently i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the a t t i t u d e s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers toward p h y s i c a l l y handi-capped people. Educators, i n general, tend to come from middle c l a s s s o c i e t y . Consequently i t i s expected that a t t i t u d e s among educators would be s i m i l a r . F i n d i n g s of Yuker, Block and Younng (1970) support the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study. A comparison of the ATDP scores of 14-5 nurses and those of 263 other subjects who were at t e n d i n g various academic courses i n non h e a l t h - r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Also a t - t e s t a n a l y s i s of ATDP scores of educators and other academic majors found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . F e l t y (1965) found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the ATDP scores of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n workers and those of spe-c i a l educators. Hypothesis 2 The Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d f o r ATDP scores p a i r e d w i t h the FOD, PIL and I-E scores of educators and teachers were a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . ATDP and I-E c o r r e l a t i o n s were s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; ATDP and FOD scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r c o u n s e l l o r s (°< = .05). The ATDP and FOD sc a l e s of educators, teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y . Those w i t h the most p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward 101 disabled people tended to have the l e a s t fear of death,, while those who had the l e a s t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y disabled people tended to fear death more. Because d i s a b i l i t y and death are both experienced as profound l o s s , i n d i v i d u a l s may react to them i n a s i m i l a r fashion (Vargo, 1979). Schoenberg and Carr (1970) i n d i c a -ted that the l o s s of a body part or function can be viewed as a p a r t i a l death of an i n d i v i d u a l . Those who fear death, may also fear becoming disabled. They may s i m i l a r l y avoid contact with the d i s -abled and the dying. The disabled are sometimes viewed as responsible f o r t h e i r own d i s a b i l i t y and the dying are sometimes viewed as having been the cause of (or could have prevented) t h e i r own death. Several authors (Fried, 1967; Kastenbaum, 1969, 1975, 1977; LeShan, 1973) r e f e r to the "pecking order of death" i n d i c a t i n g that most people view death as occuring i n l o g i c a l sequence with the oldest generation dying f i r s t . When someone dies out of order, i t can be very disturbing because i t upsets the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i m p l i c i t pecking order making one l e s s "safe" from death's grasp. S i m i l a r l y , people can be disturbed by encounters with disabled c h i l d r e n . Children are supposed to have the opportunity to grow up normally. I f t h i s could happen to a c h i l d , then i t could also happen to the adult observer. There may also be some g u i l t experienced by the able-bodied, i n as much as they have escaped d i s a b i l i t y (or death) while the disabled (or dying) i n d i v i d u a l has not. Those close to the disabled person may experience sympathy and overprotection mixed with resentment and g u i l t (Vargo, 1979). The same experiences can occur f o r those close to dying people. 102 In Western s o c i e t y the work e t h i c i s strong and people are valued i n accordance w i t h t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . The d i s a b l e d ( l i k e the e l d e r l y or dying) are f r e q u e n t l y unemployed and are not viewed as c o n t r i b u t i n g c i t i z e n s and consequently are considered of l e s s value. Naus (1973) found t h a t males w i t h a high f e a r of death, r e l a t i v e l y l e s s contact w i t h the e l d e r l y and parents of f a i r l y high socioeconomic status were somewhat p r e d i c t i v e of viewing o l d e r men as i n e f f e c t i v e . Vargo and Basel (1981) found low f e a r of death to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a greater acceptance of s e l f and a more p o s i t i v e view of human nature. This may a l s o i n c l u d e a more p o s i t i v e view of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. The ATDP and PIL scores c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y f o r educators and teachers. Those w i t h a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s -abled people tended, a l s o , to have a strong purpose i n l i f e . Subjects w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e view of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people had l e s s of a sense of purpose to t h e i r l i v e s . Reker (1977) found PIL to be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h general s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e experience and an enjoyment of planning and o r g a n i z i n g things and events. Perhaps educators who are g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e and enjoy planning (having a s p e c i a l needs c h i l d i n one's c l a s s can r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l planning) have a more p o s i t i v e view of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than do those who view l i f e l e s s p o s i t i v e l y . They are content w i t h l i f e and do not see p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people as d i s r u p t i v e . This i s supported by C r a n d a l l ' s study (1975) which i d e n t i f i e d a c o r r e l a t i o n between PIL r e s u l t s and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t 103 (defined as "an a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e and being i n harmony wi t h the un i v e r s e " p. 193). I t appears t h a t people w i t h a strong purpose i n l i f e have a commitment to people. In t h i s study, t h i s commitment i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward handicapped people. ATDP and I-E scores of educators, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h i s study c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y . Those w i t h a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people tended to see themselves as more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d w h i le those w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people tended to see themselves as more extern-a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Phares, R i t c h i e and Davis (1968) found t h a t subjects w i t h an i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n were more w i l l i n g to engage i n e f f o r t s to change t h e i r behavior i n order to deal w i t h personal problems. I n t e r n a l s have been found to be super i o r to e x t e r n a l s i n a c t i v e l y seek-i n g (Davis & Phares, 1967) and l e a r n i n g (Seeman, 1963) in f o r m a t i o n r e l e -vant to problem s o l v i n g . By i m p l i c a t i o n i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d educators may be more knowledgable about d i s a b i l i t i e s and more w i l l i n g to l e a r n how to help the d i s a b l e d students. They may see being d i s a b l e d as hav-i n g a d d i t i o n a l problems and w i t h a p o s i t i v e view toward problem s o l v i n g they are l e s s l i k e l y to view p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s n e g a t i v e l y . M i d l a r s k y (1971) found t h a t i n t e r n a l s were more l i k e l y to help another i n d i v i d u a l than were e x t e r n a l s ; t h i s may p a r t i a l l y account f o r t h e i r more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. Navarre and Minton (1977) found t h a t i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the j ob performance of d i s a b l e d and nondisabled f e l l o w employees. Ex-t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects tended to evaluate d i s a b l e d employees more 104 p o s i t i v e l y than nondisabled. These f i n d i n g s are supportive of the current study; i n t e r n a l s tended to see d i s a b l e d people as being more s i m i l a r to nondisabled than d i d e x t e r n a l s . A study by MacDonald and H a l l (1969) found that i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects viewed p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s as l e s s d e b i l i t a t i n g than emotional d i s o r d e r s while e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d subjects d i d not. In the current study i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d educators were more p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than e x t e r n a l s ; they saw them as being more l i k e able-bodied people than d i d the e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d people. Handicapped people are a m i n o r i t y group and consequently are some-times viewed as second, c l a s s c i t i z e n s . E x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d people are more concerned about what others t h i n k and the r e f o r e are l e s s l i k e l y to choose to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. E x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s see themselves as being c o n t r o l l e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s (God, l u c k , chance, f a t e , etc.) and may be f e a r f u l of a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h handicapped people because of the strong reminder t h a t t h i s could a l s o happen to them, t h a t such occurances may be out of t h e i r c o n t r o l . Sex Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores The female ATDP scores were s l i g h t l y higher than the male i n a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groupings however the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , except i n the case of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . There i s no e v i -dence to i n d i c a t e t h a t male and female educators come from d i s s i m i l a r backgrounds and. they g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e comparable education. The 105 r e s u l t s of t h i s study support the f i n d i n g s of previous s t u d i e s which have found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes ( B e l l , 1962; F e l t y , 1965; F i s c h b e i n , 1962; S i l l e r & Chipman, 1965) and those which have found t h a t women showed a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people (Chesler, 1965; F e r k e t i c , 1964; F i s h b e i n , 1964; Freed, 1964; Maglione, 1965; S i l l e r , 1963; Yuker, Block & Campbell, 1960). Cloerkes (1979) reviewed 300 s t u d i e s and st a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y secured c o r r e l a t i o n s were found f o r the sex v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t i n g women to be more ready to accept d i s -abled people than were men. Previous s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s or found females to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y strong-er ATDP scores than males; none appear to have found males to have stronger ATDP scores. The trend of t h i s study p a r a l l e l s t h a t of previous s t u d i e s . Age Comparisons f o r ATDP Scores The subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e age categories and a compari-son of t h e i r scores was made. In general, the younger age groups had stronger ATDP scores; however, the d i f f e r e n c e s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The small s i z e of the age categories ( f i v e years) may have been a f a c t o r . Previous s t u d i e s of age c o r r e l a t i o n s tend to be i n c o n c l u s i v e . Yuker, Block and Younng (1970) c i t e d f i v e s t u d i e s which reported a s i g n i f i c a n t age c o r r e l a t i o n (Auvenshine, 1962; Lukoff & Whiteman, 1963; S i l l e r , 1964; Simmons, 1949; Wilson, 1963) and fou r which d i d not ( B e l l , 1962; G i l l i l a n d , 1965; S i l l e r , 1963; 1964; S i l l e r Sc Chipman, 1965). However, Giinther Cloerkes (1979) i n h i s review of 106 300 s t u d i e s s t a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y secured c o r r e l a -t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s could be found f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and a t t i t u d e s toward the d i s a b l e d - o l d e r people tend to have more negative a t t i -tudes than younger people. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study do not p a r a l l e l Cloerke's f i n d i n g s but the trend i s i n th a t d i r e c t i o n . Number of Years i n Education and ATDP Scores Subjects were categorized according to the number of years they had worked i n the f i e l d of education, and t h e i r ATDP scores were com-pared. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t f i n d i n g s would p a r a l l e l the ATDP scores f o r the age comparisons since subjects w i t h more years of teaching experience tend to be older.. T h i s , however, was not the case. This suggests t h a t working i n the f i e l d of education over an extended p e r i o d of time does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change one's a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. The changes t h a t occur i n educators as a r e s u l t of teaching f o r a number of years do not appear to change t h e i r views of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people. Elementary and Junior-Senior. High School ATDP Comparisons Educators employed i n elementary schools demonstrated s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than those employed i n j u n i o r or senior high schools. Although elementary teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s achieved stronger ATDP scores than d i d t h e i r high school counterparts, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g -s 107 n i f i c a n t . High school c o u n s e l l o r s had a more p o s i t i v e mean score than elementary c o u n s e l l o r s , however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i -cant. These r e s u l t s are somewhat unusual, and may appear to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n th a t the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between elementary and high school educators does not appear w i t h i n any of the three p r o f e s s i o n a l groups. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d elementary educators to have a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than high school educators. T r a d i t i o n a l l y elementary school educators have been more i n v o l v e d i n the development of the whole c h i l d . They have t i e d shoe l a c e s , wiped noses and checked to see tha t the c h i l d -ren are e a t i n g proper lunches. Elementary educators' greater i n v o l v e -ment i n the day to day l i v e s of c h i l d r e n w i t h various p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s may have r e s u l t e d i n more normal expectations f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n . The t r a i n i n g and t h i n k i n g of high school educators may be more subject o r i e n t e d ; the t r a i n i n g and t h i n k i n g of the elementary educator more c h i l d centred. I t i s unusual, however, that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s not evident w i t h i n the three p r o f e s s i o n a l groups. The very l a r g e number of educators (n = 4-30) may have caused a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e to appear s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s (two-way ANOVA), and a l l of the assumptions r e -qu i r e d f o r a v a l i d a n a l y s i s of variance of the data had been met. ATDP Scores of Educators With a Handicapped.Student i n The i r School or Class A l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groups (educators, teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 108 and c o u n s e l l o r s ) w i t h handicapped students i n t h e i r school or c l a s s had a s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than those who had none, however, the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Research has shown th a t contact w i t h , or knowledge of, p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people i n one's d a i l y environment i s not s u f f i c i e n t to r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i -t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people (Donaldson, 1980). Personal Contact w i t h P h y s i c a l l y D i s abled People and ATDP Scores The mean ATDP score f o r educators w i t h personal contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people (130.69) was s l i g h t l y higher than the mean ATDP score of educators who had no contact (128.17). The same he l d true f o r a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groups surveyed (teachers, admini-s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s ) , although the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r any p r o f e s s i o n a l group. Studies have i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o c i a l contact i s not enough to s i g n i f i c a n t l y change people's a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. The contact should be between people of equal status (or the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d person should have s u p e r i o r s t a t u s ) i n a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r a c t i o n which provides i n f o r m a t i o n about d i s a b i l i t i e s and the d i s a b l e d person's f e e l i n g s (Donaldson, 1980; Donaldson & Martinson, 1977; Evans, 1976; Langer, F i s k , Taylor & Chanowitz, 1976; Lazar, Gensley & Orpet, 1971; Marsh & Friedman, 1972; S a d l i c k & Penta, 1975; Shakespeare, 1975; Yuker, Block & Younng, 1970). Since t h i s i s f r e q u e n t l y not the case i n community and f a m i l y contact i t may 109 e x p l a i n why subjects w i t h contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e than those without. Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Educators' Test Scores Of the 4-57 educators who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 15 i n d i -cated they had a p h y s i c a l handicap. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on three of the fo u r t e s t s administered. I t appears t h a t the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d educators i n t h i s study were not very d i f f e r e n t from the able-bodied educators i n the area of a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d persons, f e a r of death, and purpose i n l i f e . The handicapped educators f e l t s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s than d i d the nonhandicapped educators. Perhaps having p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s has caused them to consciously take greater c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s . The ATDP r e s u l t s from t h i s study were compared w i t h the norms provided by Yuker, Block and Younng (1970). The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of handicapped educators i n t h i s study were more s i m i l a r to those of t h e i r nonhandicapped counterparts than they were to the handicapped norming p o p u l a t i o n . Both groups had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than the norms produced by Yuker, Block and Younng (1970). Educators are g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r educated than the general p o p u l a t i o n which may, i n p a r t , account f o r t h e i r more accepting a t t i t u d e . A l s o , educators' t r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y geared toward teaching s e l f help and educating f o r independence. Westwood, Vargo 110 and Vargo (1981) maintain that the a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d people seem to be more a f u n c t i o n of the perc e p t i o n of s e l f , degree of self-acceptance and perception of the d i s a b i l i t y by others, than a f u n c t i o n of the d i s a b i l i t y . Educators' Programing Preferences f o r P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d Students Educators who were of the op i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students should attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d had a s i g -n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than those who d i d not choose t h i s programing o p t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r programing choice are r e j e c t i o n i s t i c i n nature, suggesting t h a t they p r e f e r t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students not be a p a r t of the educational mainstream.. Their l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i -tude i m p l i e s a comparable a t t i t u d e of e i t h e r r e j e c t i o n or of viewing p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people as being l e s s capable of being p a r t of the s o c i e t a l mainstream. Educators who were of the op i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l s u p p o r t ' s e r v i c e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i -tude toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than educators who d i d not choose t h i s o p t i o n . This choice suggests t h a t educators who chose t h i s o p t i o n had a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people, were w i l l i n g to have them i n t h e i r schools and c l a s s e s , and wanted them to be provided w i t h any s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e they might need. 111 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study There were s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. Subject p a r t i c i -p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y and although most of the educators approached completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i t was not p o s s i b l e to know the opinions of those who chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . I t may have been f o r l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the concerns of d i s a b l e d people, which might have changed the f i n d i n g s of the study. Some subject groups had a very small n which may have l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to the general p o p u l a t i o n . Had a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n been a v a i l a b l e i t would have been p o s s i b l e to conduct a m u l t i v a r i a t e study t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n age, sex, e t c . i n each p r o f e s s i o n a l group surveyed. School d i v i s i o n superintendents provided the researcher w i t h l e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n to school p r i n c i p a l s . This may have r e s u l t e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s responding more p o s i t i v e l y on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s than they would have had they been approached through a nonsupervis-ory source. A l l of the subjects were Winnipeg educators who when approached volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. I t i s assumed t h a t they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of other Canadian educators ( s i m i l a r education, t r a i n i n g requirements, working c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . ) ; however, -there are no guarantees t h a t t h i s i s so. The instruments used were of a q u a s i - i n t e r v a l nature and, t h e r e f o r e , were not e n t i r e l y p r e c i s e i n the measurement of d i f f e r -112 ences. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments was s a t i s f a c t o r y but not outstanding and consequently not t o t a l l y p r e c i s e . The t e s t s were hand scored a l l o w i n g f o r some p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r . There was a l s o a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r i n t r a n s c r i b i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n to the F o r t r a n Coding Forms and i n keypunching. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest the merits of a d d i t i o n a l research. v The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people and the other v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d ( f e a r of death, purpose i n l i f e and l o c u s of c o n t r o l ) r a i s e ques-t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study. I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s study be r e p l i -cated w i t h other populations (other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, the general p u b l i c , e t c . ) . I t may be t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s unique to people i n the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s , educators, s o c i a l workers, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , medical personnel, e t c . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s merit more i n t e n s i v e study using a v a r i e t y of instruments i n order to determine the source of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A r e p l i c a t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of high school versus elemen-t a r y educators a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people i s warranted. An i n t e r e s t i n g sequel would be a r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study tak-i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the a d u l t l i f e stages of the s u b j e c t s . A 113 study employing a l a r g e r sample of handicapped educators and a l a r -ger sample of c o u n s e l l o r s would a l l o w f o r i n f e r e n t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Future s t u d i e s could i n c l u d e students and compare t h e i r r e s u l t s w i t h those of t h e i r teachers and parents. Summary This e x p l o r a t o r y d e s c r i p t i v e study i n v e s t i g a t e d educators' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to other v a r i a b l e s ( f e a r of death, purpose i n l i f e and l o c u s of c o n t r o l ) . Hypothesis 1 compared the a t t i t u d e s of teachers, c o u n s e l l o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people and found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among them. Hypothesis 2 t e s t e d the p a i r e d c o r r e l a t i o n s between ATDP scores and each of the other three measures f o r educators, teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s . ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the FOD, PIL and I-E t e s t scores f o r educators i n the study and f o r teachers. School c o u n s e l l o r s ' ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y w i t h FOD scores and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ATDP scores c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r I-E scores. N e i t h e r sex nor age d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the subj e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people. The number of years the subjects had worked i n the f i e l d of education d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicap-ped people. Elementary educators demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y more 1 U p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than d i d j u n i o r and s e n i o r high school educators; however, these r e s u l t s are questionable. A l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groups w i t h a handicapped student i n t h e i r school or c l a s s and a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l groups w i t h personal contact w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people had higher ATDP scores but none of the d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between handicapped and nonhandicapped educators i n a t t i t u d e toward d i s a b l e d people, f e a r of death and purpose i n l i f e . D i s a b l e d people saw themselves as more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d than d i d nondisabled people. Disabled female and nondisabled male and female educators demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people than t h e i r general p o p u l a t i o n counterparts. For d i s a b l e d males the d i f f e r e n c e was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . Educators who were of the o p i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students should attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d had a s i g n i f i -c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than those who d i d not choose t h i s programing o p t i o n . However, educators who were of the o p i n i o n t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d students should attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i -c a l l y d i s a b l e d people than educators who d i d not choose t h i s o p t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be u s e f u l to those who provide t r a i n i n g to educators w i t h p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r 115 c l a s s e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n may a s s i s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n s t a f f r e c r u i t -ment and d i s a b l e d student placement and may be of i n t e r e s t to those i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , parents of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , and d i s a b l e d people. This study has helped i n deepening the understanding of a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people i n general. 116 REFERENCES 117 REFERENCES Abramowitz, S.I. I n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m : A t e s t d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of R o t t e r ' s i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l s c a l e . J o u r n a l of Con s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1973, 40, (2), 196-201. Acuff, F.G. Retirement, meaning and adjustment: the emeritus  p r o f e s s o r and r e t i r e d c l e r g y of a southwestern s t a t e . 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J o u r n a l of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 1978, 3, 31-33. Weinberg-Asher, N. The e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y on s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Counseling B u l l e t i n , 1976, 20 ( 1 ) , 15-20. 1 4.0 Weisman, A.D. M i s g i v i n g s and misconceptions i n the p s y c h i a t r i c care of the te r m i n a l p a t i e n t . P s y c h i a t r y , 1970, 33, 67-81. Westwood, M.J., Vargo, J.W., Sc Vargo, F. Methods f o r promoting a t t i t u d e change toward and among p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d persons. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n s e l l i n g , 1981, 1_2, 220-2 2 4 - -Whitley, G.P. Reservation versus non-reservation American Indians l o c i of c o n t r o l and consumption of a l c o h o l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1980, 4_6, 431-34. Wilson, L. Pers o n a l communication, 1963. C i t e d by H.E. Yuker, J.R. Block and J.H. Younng, The measurement of a t t i t u d e toward  d i s a b l e d persons. A l b e r t s o n , New York: Human Resource Centre, 1970. Wright, B.A. P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y - A p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach. New York: Harper & Row. 1960. Y a r n e l l , T.D. P u r p o s e - i n - l i f e : f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t e s . J o u r n a l of  I n d i v i d u a l Psychology, 1971, 27, 76-79. Young, M., St D a n i e l s , S. Born again status as a f a c t o r i n death a n x i e t y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1980, 4J7, 367-370. Yuker, H.E. The l a c k of a s t a b l e order of preference f o r d i s a b i l i t i e s : a response of Richardson and Ronald. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Psychology, 1983, 28 ( 2 ) , 93-103-Yuker, H.E., Block, J.R., & Campbell, W.J. A sc a l e to measure  a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons: Human Resources Study  Number 5. A l b e r t s o n , N.Y.: Human Resources, 1960. Yuker, H.E., Block, J.R., Sc Younng, J.H. The measurement of  a t t i t u d e s toward d i s a b l e d persons. A l b e r t s o n , New York: Human Resources Centre, 1970. Zytkowskee, A., S t r i c k l a n d , B., Sc Watson, J . Delay of g r a t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r n a l versus e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l among adolescents of low socioeconomic s t a t u s . Developmental Psychology, 1971, 4_, 93-98. 141 APPENDICIES APPENDIX A DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE U 3 TO QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS: The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the dimensions of views held about handicapped children and adults. It is anticipated that information which you and others provide w i l l help in developing programs and workshops for those in the helping professions who work with handicapped people. Following are five questionnaires. Please complete a l l questions to the best of your a b i l i t y . With the exception of the Demographic Questionnaire, a l l others ask for your opinions, feelings and views on various topics. There are no right or wrong answers. No one answer is superior or worse than any other. There are only individual differences. If you have d i f f i c u l t y understanding the written instructions or do not understand a question, please ask me. I w i l l be pleased to help you since i t is important that the responses are as accurate as possible. Please complete the questionnaires individually; do not discuss the questions or your responses with others. Please be assured that your responses w i l l remain anonymous and confidential. Participation in this survey i s voluntary. Should you choose not to participate please return the unanswered questionnaires to the researcher. You are free to withdraw at any time or to refuse to answer any questions without prejudice. Time required for completion of the questionnaire is approximately \ hour. Thank you very much for helping me with my study, the effort and time you have taken to assist me. I appreciate 1 U DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE Please check the appropriate responses. 1. I am a: male .female 2. My age i s : Under 29 years 30 to 39 years 40 to 49 years 50 to 59 years 60 to 69 years 3. I have worked i n the f i e l d of education f o r : 0 to 5 years 6 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years 21 to 25 years 26 or more years other (specify) 4. I spend at least % of my school time as a: p r i n c i p a l v i c e p r i n c i p a l school counsellor teacher resource teacher teacher aide other (specify) 5. At present, I teach, counsel, or administrate the following grade l e v e l ( s ) : K 4 8 12 1 5 9 Other (Specify) 2 6 10 3 7 11 U 5 For purposes of this study the following definitions of physical handicaps w i l l be used: a) blind or partially sighted - visual acuity of 20/200 or less after a l l possible corrections. b) deaf or hard of hearing - more than a 20 decibel loss (require a hearing aid). c) speech impaired - marked communication disorder. d) orthopedically impaired - marked orthopedic defect. e) other health impairments - limited strength, v i t a l i t y or alertness due to health problems. 6. Do you have a handicapped student: a) in your school no yes About how many? b) in your class (es) no yes About how many? 7. If you have answered "yes" to either part of question 6, check the following. Is this child (children): blind or partially sighted deaf or hard of hearing orthopedically handicapped speech impaired other health impairment 8. Do you have personal contact with a child or adult who has a physical handicap? a) At school yes no b) Outside of school yes no c) Within your family yes no 9. Do you have a physical handicap? yes no 10. In your opinion physically disabled children should: attend special schools for the disabled (e.g., Manitoba School for the Deaf) attend special classes for disabled children in public schools attend regular classes in public schools attend regular classes and receive the assistance of special support services other (specify) APPENDIX B ATTITUDE TOWARD DISABLED PERSONS SCALE U 7 ATDP SCALE Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the statements about disabled people. Put an "X" through the appropri-ate number from -3 to +3, depending on how you feel in each case. -3: I Disagree Very Much -2: I Disagree Pretty Much -1: I Disagree A L i t t l e +1: I Agree A L i t t l e +2: I Agree Pretty Much +3: I Agree Very Much PLEASE ANSWER EVERY ITEM DVM PPM DL AL APM AVM 1. Disabled people are often unfriendly. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 2. Disabled people should not have to compete for jobs with physically normal persons. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 3. Disabled people are more emotional than other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 4. Most disabled persons are more self-conscious than other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 5. We should expect just as much from disabled as from non-disabled persons.-3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 6. Disabled workers cannot be as success-f u l as other workers. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 7. Disabled people usually do not make much of a contribution to society. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 8. Most non-disabled people would not want to marry anyone who is physically disabled. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 9. Disabled people show as much enthusiasm as other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 10. Disabled persons are usually more sensitive than other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 11. Severely disabled persons are usually untidy. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 U 8 DVM PPM DL AL APM AVM 12. Most disabled people feel that they are as good as other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 13. The driving test given to a disabled person should be more severe than the one given to the non-disabled. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 14. Disabled people are usually sociable. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 15. Disabled persons usually are not as conscientious as physically normal persons. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 16. Severely disabled persons probably worry more about their health than those who have minor d i s a b i l i t i e s . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 17. Most disabled persons are not dissatisfied with themselves. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 18. There are more misfits among disabled persons than among non-disabled persons. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 19. Most disabled persons do not get discouraged easily. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 20. Most disabled persons resent physically normal people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 21. Disabled children should compete with physically normal children. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 22. Most disabled persons can take care of themselves. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 23. It would be best i f disabled persons would live and work with non-disabled persons. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 24. Most severely disabled people are just as ambitious as physically normal persons. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 25. Disabled people are just as self-confident as other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 26. Most disabled persons want more affection and praise than other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 27. P h y s i c a l l y disabled persons are often less i n t e l l i g e n t than non-disabled ones. U 9 DVM DPM DL AL APM AVM -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 28. Most disabled persons are d i f f e r e n t from non-disabled people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 •29. Disabled persons don't want any more sympathy than other people. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 30. The way disabled people act i s i r r i t a t i n g . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 APPENDIX C INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL SCALE 151 I-E Scale This is a questionnaire to find out the way in which certain important events in our society affect different people. Each item consists of a pair of alternatives lettered a and b. Please select the one statement of each pair (and only one) which you more strongly believe to be the case as far as you are concerned. Be sure to select the one you actually believe to be more true than the one you think you should choose or the one you would like to be true. This is a measure of personal belief: obviously there are no right or wrong answers. Also, try to respond to each item independently when making your choice. Do not be influenced by your previous choices. Put an "X" on either (a) or (b). 1. (a) Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much. (b) The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them. 2. (a) Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck. (b) People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. 3. (a) One of the major reasons why we have wars is because people don't take enough interest in p o l i t i c s , (b) There w i l l always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them. 4. (a) In the long run people get the respect they deserve in this world. (b) Unfortunately, an individual's worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries. 5. (a) The idea that teachers are unfair to students is nonsense, (b) Most students don't realize the extent to which their grades are influenced by accidental happenings. 6. (a) Without the right breaks one cannot be an effective leader, (b) Capable people who f a i l to become leaders have not taken advantage of their opportunities. 7. (a) No matter how hard you try some people just don't like you. (b) People who can't get others to like them don't understand how to get along with others. 1 52 8. (a) Heredity plays a major role in determining one's personality, (b) It is one's experiences in l i f e which determine what they're like. 9. (a) I have often found that what is going to happen w i l l happen, (b) Trusting to fate has never turned out as well for me as making a decision to take a definite course of action. 10. (a) In the case of the well prepared student there is rarely, i f ever, such a thing as an unfair test, (b) Many times exam questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying is really useless. 11. (a) Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . (b) Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time. 12. (a) The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions. (b) This world is run by the few people in power, and there is not much the l i t t l e guy can do about i t . 13. (a) When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can make them work. (b) It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow. 14. (a) There are certain people who are just no good, (b) , There is some good in everybody. 15. (a) In my case getting what I want has l i t t l e or nothing to do with luck. (b) Many times we might just as well decide what to do by flipping a coin. 16. (a) Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be in the right place f i r s t , (b) Getting people to do the right thing depends upon a b i l i t y , luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 17. (a) As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are the victims of forces we can neither understand nor control, (b) By taking an active part in p o l i t i c a l and social affairs the people can control world events. 18. (a (b Most people don't realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by accidental happenings. There really is no such thing as "luck". 153 19. (a) One should always be willing to admit mistakes, (b) It i s usually best to cover up one's mistakes. 20. (a) It is hard to know whether or not a person really likes you. (b) How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are. 21. (a) In the long run, the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones, (b) Most misfortunes are the result of lack of a b i l i t y , ignorance, laziness, or a l l three. 22. (a) With enough effort we can wipe out p o l i t i c a l corruption, (b) It i s d i f f i c u l t for people to have much control over the things politicians do in office. 23. (a) Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give. (b) There is a direct connection between how hard I study and the grades I get. 24. (a) A good leader expects people to decide for themselves what they should do. (b) A good leader makes i t clear to everybody what their jobs are. 25. (a) Many times I feel that I have l i t t l e influence over the things that happen to me. (b) It is impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays an important role in my l i f e . 26. (a) People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly. (b) There's not much use in trying too hard to please people, i f they like you, they like you. 27. (a) There is too much emphasis on athletics in high school, (b) Team sports are an excellent way to build character. 28. (a) What happens to me is my own doing. (b) Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction my l i f e is taking. 29. (a) Most of the time I can't understand why politicians behave the way they do. (b) In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national as well as on a local level. APPENDIX D COLLETT-LESTER FEAR OF DEATH SCALE 155 THE FoD SCALE Here i s a series of general statements. You are to indicate how much you agree or disagree with them. Record your opinion by putting an "X" on the corresponding number to the right of each item according to the following scale: -3 strong disagreement +1 slight agreement -2 moderate disagreement +2 moderate agreement -1 slight disagreement +3 strong agreement Read each item and decide quickly how you feel about i t ; then record the extent of your agreement or disagreement. Put down your f i r s t impressions. Please answer every item. StD MP SID S1A MA StA 1. I would avoid death at a l l costs. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 2. I would experience a great loss i f someone close to me died. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 3. I would not feel anxious in the presence of someone I knew was dying.-3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 4. The total isolation of death frightens me. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 5. I am disturbed by the physical degeneration involved in a slow death. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 6. I would not mind dying young. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 7. I accept the death of others as the end of their l i f e on earth. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 8. I would not mind v i s i t i n g a senile friend. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 9. I would easily adjust after the death of someone close to me. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 10. If I had a choice as to whether or not a friend should be informed he/ she i s dying, I would t e l l him/her. -3 - 2 - 1 +1 +2 +3 11. I would avoid a friend who was dying.-3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 156 S t D MD S I D S1A MA S t A 12. D y i n g might be an i n t e r e s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . -3 -2 -13. I would l i k e t o be a b l e t o communi-c a t e w i t h the s p i r i t o f a f r i e n d who has d i e d . -3 -2 14. I v i e w d e a t h as a r e l e a s e from e a r t h l y s u f f e r i n g . -3 -2 15. The p a i n i n v o l v e d i n d y i n g f r i g h t e n s me. -3 -2 16. I would want t o know i f a f r i e n d were d y i n g . -3 -2 17. I am d i s t u r b e d by t h e s h o r t n e s s o f l i f e . -3 -2 -18. I would n o t mind h a v i n g t o i d e n t i f y the c o r p s e o f someone I knew. -3 -2 19. I would n e v e r g e t o v e r t h e d e a t h o f someone c l o s e t o me. -3 -2 20. The f e e l i n g t h a t I might be m i s s i n g out on so much a f t e r I d i e b o t h e r s me. -3 -2 21. I do n o t t h i n k o f dead p e o p l e as hav-i n g an e x i s t e n c e o f some k i n d . -3 -2 -22. I wou l d f e e l uneasy i f someone t a l k e d t o me about t h e a p p r o a c h i n g d e a t h o f a common f r i e n d . -3 -2 -23. Not knowing what i t f e e l s l i k e t o be dead does not b o t h e r me. -3 -2 -24. I f I had a f a t a l d i s e a s e , I would l i k e t o be t o l d . -3 -2 25. I wou l d v i s i t a f r i e n d on h i s / h e r d e a t h b e d . -3 -2 -26. The i d e a o f n e v e r t h i n k i n g o r e x p e r i e n c i n g a g a i n a f t e r I d i e does n o t b o t h e r me. -3 -2 -+1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 +1 +2 +3 157 StD MP SID S1A MA StA 27. If someone close to me died I would miss him/her very much. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 28. I am not disturbed by death being the end of l i f e as I know i t . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 29. I would feel anxious i f someone who was dying talked to me about i t . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 30. The intellectual degeneration of old age disturbs me. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 31. If a friend were dying I would not want to be told. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 32. I could not accept the f i n a l i t y of the death of a friend. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 33. It would upset me to have to see someone who was dead. -3 - 2 - 1 +1 +2 +3 34. If I knew a friend were dying, I would not know what to say to him/her. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 35. I would not like to see the physical degeneration of a friend who was dying. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 36. I am disturbed by the thought that my a b i l i t i e s w i l l be limited while I l i e dying. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 APPENDIX E PURPOSE IN LIFE TEST 159 P I L Form A For each of the f o l l o w i n g statements, c i r c l e the number that would be most n e a r l y true f o r you. Note that the numbers always extend from one extreme f e e l i n g to i t s opposite k i n d of f e e l i n g . " N e u t r a l " i m p l i e s no judgement e i t h e r way; t r y to use t h i s r a t i n g as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e . I am u s u a l l y : 1 2 completely bored (neu t r a l ) 6 7 exuberant, e n t h u s i a s t i c L i f e to me seems: 7 6 always e x c i t i n g ( n e u t r a l ) 2 1 completely r o u t i n e In l i f e I have: 1 2 no goals or aims at a l l ( n e u t r a l ) 6 7 very c l e a r goals and aims +. My personal existence i s : 1 2 3 4 U t t e r l y meaningless (ne u t r a l ) without purpose 6 7 very purposeful and meaningful 5 . Every day i s : 7 6 c o n s t a n t l y new 5 4 ( n e u t r a l ) 2 1 e x a c t l y the same I f I could choose, I would: 1 2 3 4 p r e f e r never to ( n e u t r a l ) have been born 6 7 L i k e nine more l i v e s j u s t l i k e t h i s one A f t e r r e t i r i n g , I would: 7 6 5 4 do some of the ( n e u t r a l ) e x c i t i n g things I have always wanted to 2 1 l o a f completely the r e s t of my l i f e 160 8. In achieving l i f e goals I have: 1 2 made no progress whatever 3 4 (neutral) 6 7 progressed to complete fulfillment My l i f e i s : 1 2 empty, f i l l e d only with despair 3. 4 (neutral) 10. 11, 12. 13. 14, 6 7 running over with exciting good things If I should die today, I would feel that my l i f e has been: 7 very worthwhile 5 4 (neutral) In thinking of my l i f e , I: 1 2 3 4 often wonder (neutral) why I exist 2 1 completely worthless 6 7 always see a reason for my being here As I view the world in relation to my l i f e , the world: 1 2 completely confuses me I am a: 1 2 very irresponsible person 3 4 5 (neutral) 3 4 5 (neutral) b 7 f i t s meaningfully with my l i f e 7 very responsible person Concerning man's freedom to make his own choices, I believe man i s : 5 4 3 (neutral) 7 6 absolutely free to make a l l l i f e choices 2 1 completely bound by limitations of heredity and environment 15. With regard to death, I am: 7 6 5 4 prepared and (neutral) unafraid 2 1 unprepared and frightened 161 16. With regard to suicide, I have: 1 2 3 4 5 thought of (neutral) i t seriously as a way out 6 7 never given i t a second thought 17. I regard my a b i l i t y to find a meaning, purpose, or mission in l i f e as: 5 4 3 (neutral) 7 6 very great 2 1 practically none 18. My l i f e i s : 7 6 in my hands and I am in control of i t 5 4 (neutral) 2 1 out of my hands and controlled by external factors 19. Facing my daily tasks i s : 7 6 5 4 a source of (neutral) pleasure and satisfaction 2 1 a painful and boring experience 20. 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Between Wit h i n 583.63 291.82 0.85 136979.73 399 343.31 0.4282 T o t a l 137563.36 401 190 TABLE 4A EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES t STATISTICS AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS STATISTICS N MEAN STD. DEV. MINIMUM MAXIMUM ATDP 430 130.01 18.51 80.00 177.00 FOD 443 - 6 .25 25.34 -77.00 67.00 PIL 453 112.36 15.91 11.00 U0.00 I-E 426 7.91 4.26 0.00 22.00 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOD PIL I - E ATDP -0.24 0.18 -0.20 p .0001 .0001 .0001 N 420 427 408 191 TABLE 4B TEACHERS' ATDP SCORES : STATISTICS AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS STATISTICS N MEAN STD. DEV. MINIMUM MAXIMUM ATDP 208 130.18 18.94 81.00 174.00 FOD 218 - 3.82 24.81 -77.00 57.00 PIL 225 110.17 15.87 11.00 U0.00 I-E 212 8.59 4-25 0.00 22.00 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOD PIL I-E ATDP -0.37 0.20 -0.21 P 0.0001 0.0043 0.0034 N 203 207 200 192 TABLE 4C ADMINISTRATORS' ATDP SCORES: STATISTICS AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS STATISTICS MEAN STD. DEV. MINIMUM MAXIMUM ATDP 131 130.91 18.70 80.00 177.00 FOD 133 -10.16 24.62 -70.00 67.00 PIL 135 1U-36 18.37 11.00 139.00 I-E 130 6.69 4.25 0.00 21.00 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOD PIL I-E ATDP -0.08 0.13 -0.21 P ' O.364 0.151 0.017 N 128 130 125 193 TABLE 4D COUNSELLORS' ATDP SCORES. STATISTICS AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS STATISTICS N MEAN STD. DEV. MINIMUM MAXIMUM ATDP 63 127.27 16.68 88.00 162.00 FOD 63 - 5.95 28.11 -66.00 72.00 PIL 64 114.56 10.79 80.00 138.00 I-E 59 7.97 3.96 2.00 19.00 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOD PIL I-E ATDP -0.26 0.17 -O.O4 P 0.045 0.120 0.755 N 61 62 58 194 TABLE $ DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY SEX PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL N MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE Educators 268 1l Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s 118 J u n i o r - S e n i o r High 46 Elementary 71 Counsellors 34 J u n i o r - S e n i o r High 30 Elementary 4 6 Teachers 107 119 J u n i o r - S e n i o r High 76 40 Elementary 31 79 19 5 14 31 25 25.99 7.49 4-19 6.83 23.57 26.21 Other 11 1! 195 TABLE 6A COMPARISON BY SEX OF EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES SEX Male Female N 254 176 MEAN 128.94 131.56 STANDARD DEVIATION 19.04 17.65 SOURCE OF VARIATION ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between Wit h i n 714.49 146231.43 714 . 4 9 2 . 0 9 428 34.1.66 0 . 1 4 8 9 T o t a l 1 4 6 9 4 5 . 9 2 429 196 TABLE 6B COMPARISON BY SEX OF TEACHERS' ATDP SCORES SEX MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Male Female 99 109 129.23 131.04 20.19 17.79 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between Wit h i n 168.91 1 74105.51 206 168.91 359.74 0.47 0.4940 T o t a l 74274.42 207 197 TABLE 6C COMPARISON BY SEX OF COUNSELLORS' ATDP SCORES SEX N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Male Female 33 30 126 . 6 4 127.97 17.92 15 . 4 6 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF SUM OF MEAN VARIATION SQUARES, df SQUARE F PROB. Between 27.81 27.81 0 . 1 0 0 . 7 5 4 6 W i t h i n 17212.60 61 282.17 T o t a l 17240.41 62 198 TABLE 6D COMPARISON BY SEX OF ADMINISTRATORS' ATDP SCORES SEX N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Male Female 112 19 129.52 139.11 18.74 16.63 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between U93.15 U93.15 4-38 0.0383 Wit h i n 43971.75 129 340.87 T o t a l 45464.90 130 199 TABLE 7A MEAN AGE OF EDUCATORS ELEMENTARY JUNIOR-SENIOR SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 44.76 44.23 Counsellors 36.00 40.37 Teachers 35.09 35.95 TABLE 7B DISTRIBUTION OF COUNSELLORS, TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS BY AGE AGE MIDPOINT COUNSELLORS TEACHERS ADMINISTRATORS 25 4 56 1 35 37 116 40 45 U 40 62 55 7 11 30 65 2 2 3 200 TABLE 7C DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL. EDUCATORS BY AGE AGE ELEMENTARY JUNIOR-SENIOR MIDPOINT SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL 25 38 28 35 94 114 45 60 60 55 23 27 65 6 3 TABLE 7D SEX AND AGE OF EDUCATORS AGE MIDPOINT FEMALE MALE 25 47 19 35 80 128 45 38 81 55 12 38 65 7 2 2C1 TABLE 8 COMPARISON BY AGE OF EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES AGE MIDPOINT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 25 35 45 55 65 63 194 115 46 9 130.56 130.88 129.76 127 . 4 6 127.78 14.25 18.27 20.07 19.78 24.66 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 515.08 128.77 0.37 0.8280 Wi t h i n 145727.98 422 3 4 5 . 3 3 T o t a l 146243.06 426 202 TABLE 9A MEAN NUMBER OF YEARS EMPLOYED IN EDUCATION ELEMENTARY JUNIOR-SENIOR SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL Adm i n i s t r a t o r s 21.58 20.52 Counsellors 11 .50 13.64 Teachers 11.50 11.39 TABLE 9B YEARS EMPLOYED IN EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL POSITION YEARS IN EDUCATION MIDPOINT COUNSELLORS TEACHERS ADMINISTRATORS 3 5 37 1 8 17 83 4 13 26 62 32 18 16 21 26 23 2 12 35 30 5 10 39 203 TABLE 9C DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATORS BY  SEX AND NUMBER OF YEARS EMPLOYED IN EDUCATION YEARS IN EDUCATION MIDPOINT FEMALE MALE TOTAL 3 35 12 47 8 59 51 110 13 52 81 133 18 15 44 59 23 14 . 36 50 30 11 45 56 204 TABLE 10 ATDP SCORES AND NUMBER OF YEARS IN EDUCATION YEARS IN EDUCATION N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 13 18 23 30 45 103 124 58 46 53 129.64 130.21 131.26 134.22 125.33 126.92 11.80 18.71 17.65 18 . 3 4 21.78 21 . 0 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 2745.79 549.16 1.62 0.1530 Wi t h i n 143669.25 423 339.64 T o t a l -146415.04 428 205 TABLE 11A ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH- SCHOOL EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Elementary High School 213 217 132.U 127.93 18.49 18.33 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 1909.32 1909-32 5.63 0.0181 Wit h i n 145036.59 428 338.87 T o t a l 146945-92 429 206 TABLE 11B ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELLORS' ATDP SCORES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Elementary High School 10 53 122.70 128.13 13.09 17.24 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 248.24 248.24 0.89 0.3489 Wit h i n 16992.18 61 278.56 T o t a l 17240.41 62 207 TABLE 11C ELEMENTARY AND.JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATDP SCORES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Elementary High School 103 105 131.85 128.53 18.83 18.10 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 573.47 573.47 1.60 0.2069 With i n 73700.95 206 357.77 T o t a l 74274.42 207 208 TABLE 11D ELEMENTARY•AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS' ATDP SCORES MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Elementary High School 82 49 133.06 127.31 18.85 18.06 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. 5 ewe en 1015.80 1015.80 2.95 0.0884 Wit h i n 44449.10 129 344.57 T o t a l 45464-90 130 209 TABLE 12A EDUCATORS WITH HANDICAPPED STUDENT IN SCHOOL OR CLASS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TOTAL Admini s t r a t o r s Counsellors Teachers Educators 66 9 65 42 48 73 108 57 138 323 TABLE 12B ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATORS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS' NO HANDICAPPED STUDENTS WITH HANDICAPPED STUDENTS Elementary School J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School T o t a l 66 134 155 168 323 210 TABLE 12C SEX OF EDUCATORS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN SCHOOL OR CLASS NO HANDICAPPED WITH HANDICAPPED STUDENTS STUDENTS Female 59 128 Male 75 195 T o t a l 134 323 TABLE 12D COUNSELLORS, TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN SCHOOL OR CLASS NO HANDICAPPED WITH HANDICAPPED STUDENTS STUDENTS Counsellors 7 56 Teachers 80 128 Adm i n i s t r a t o r s 29 102 211 TABLE 12E FREQUENCY OF EDUCATORS WITH STUDENT IN SCHOOL OR CLASS  CATEGORIZED ACCORDING TO DISABILITY NUMBER OF EDUCATORS TYPE OF DISABILITY OF STUDENT 85 B l i n d or p a r t i a l l y s i g h t e d 180 Deaf or hard of hearing 115 O r t h o p e d i c a l l y handicapped 132 Speech impaired 129 Other h e a l t h impairment 212 TABLE 13A ATDP COMPARISON FOR EDUCATORS WITH AND WITHOUT  HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN THEIR SCHOOL OR CLASS STANDARD N MEAN DEVIATION No Handicapped Students 124 129.45 19.19 With Handicapped Students 306 130.24 18.25 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE F PROB. Between 55.10 1 55.10 0.16 0.6888 Wit h i n 146890.81 428 343.20 T o t a l 1 46945.91 429 213 TABLE 13B ATDP COMPARISON FOR COUNSELLORS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN THEIR SCHOOL OR CLASS MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION No Handicapped Students 125.29 17.82 With Handicapped Students 56 127.52 16.68 ANALYSIS.OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 31.00 31.00 0.11 0.74U Wi t h i n 17209.41 61 282.12 T o t a l 17240.41 62 2 U TABLE 13C ATDP COMPARISON FOR TEACHERS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN THEIR SCHOOL OR CLASS N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION No Handicapped Students 80 129.63 20.47 With Handicapped Students 128 130.52 18.00 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF SUM OF MEAN VARIATION SQUARES df SQUARE F PROB. Between 39.74 39.74 0.11 0 . 7 4 0 2 W i t h i n 74234-68 206 360.36 T o t a l 74274.4-2 207 215 TABLE 13D ATDP COMPARISON FOR ADMINISTRATORS WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN THEIR SCHOOL OR CLASS N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION No Handicapped Students 29 130. U 16.89 With Handicapped Students 102 131.13 19.26 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 22.11 22.11 0.06 0.8026 Wi t h i n 45442.80 129 352.27 T o t a l 45464.90 130 216 TABLE U A EDUCATORS WHO HAD PERSONAL CONTACT WITH A DISABLED PERSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TOTAL Adm i n i s t r a t o r s Counsellors Teachers 73 9 71 41 49 69 114 58 uo TABLE U B ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATORS AND PERSONAL CONTACT WITH A DISABLED PERSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TOTAL No Personal Contact Personal Contact 53 170 68 166 121 336 217 TABLE U C SEX OF EDUCATORS AND PERSONAL CONTACT WITH DISABLED PERSON SEX FEMALE MALE TOTAL No Personal 59 62 121 Contact Personal 128 208 336 Contact 218 TABLE 15A EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES AND PERSONAL CONTACT  WITH PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE PERSONAL CONTACT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Yes No 315 115 130.69 128.17 18.15 19.43 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 531.51 531.51 1.55 0.2133 Wit h i n 14 6 4 I 4 .41 428 342.09 T o t a l 146945.92 429 219 TABLE 15B TEACHERS' ATDP SCORES AND PERSONAL CONTACT WITH PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE PERSONAL CONTACT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Yes No 127 81 1 3 0 . 6 4 1 2 9 . 4 6 17.93 20.53 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 68.98 68.98 0.19 0.6621 Wi t h i n 74205.44 206 360.22 T o t a l 74274.42 207 220 TABLE 15C COUNSELLORS' ATDP SCORES AND PERSONAL CONTACT WITH PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE PERSONAL CONTACT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Yes No 57 6 127.40 126.00 17 . 0 9 13.25 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 10.69 10 . 6 9 0.04 O .8464 W i t h i n 17229.72 61 282.45 T o t a l 17240.41 62 221 TABLE 15D ADMINISTRATORS' ATDP SCORES AND PERSONAL CONTACT WITH PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE PERSONAL CONTACT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Yes No 108 23 131.70 127.17 18.92 17.56 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 389.08 389.08 1.11 0.2933 Within 45075.82 129 349.42 T o t a l 4 5 4 6 4 . 9 0 130 222 TABLE 16A ATDP COMPARISONS FOR HANDICAPPED AND NONHANDICAPPED EDUCATORS MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Handicapped 15 Nonhandi capped 4-03 133.80 129.73 20.82 I 8 . 4 8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE F PROB. Between 239.03 239.03 0.69 0.4054 Wi t h i n U3330.99 416 344.55 T o t a l 1 43570.02 417 223 TABLE 16B I-E COMPARISONS FOR HANDICAPPED AND NONHANDICAPPED EDUCATORS STANDARD N MEAN DEVIATION Handicapped 15 5.80 4.59 Nonhandicapped 401 8 . 0 0 4.26 SOURCE OF SUM OF VARIATION SQUARES Between 70.30 Wit h i n 7562.39 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE MEAN df SQUARE 1 70.30 414 18.27 F PROB. 3.85 0.0505 T o t a l 7 6 3 2 . 6 9 415 224 TABLE 16C PIL COMPARISONS FOR HANDICAPPED AND NONHANDICAPPED EDUCATORS MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Handicapped 15 Nonhandicapped 426 119.27 112.11 10.88 16.13 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 742.56 1 742.56 2.90 0.0891 Wit h i n 112275.97 439 255.75 T o t a l 113018.52 44O 225 TABLE 16D FOD COMPARISONS FOR HANDICAPPED AND NONHANDICAPPED EDUCATORS MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Handicapped U Nonhandicapped 4 I 8 •15.57 • 5.90 17.80 25.63 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 1267.83 1 1267.83 1.96 0.1622 Wi t h i n 278134-01 430 646.82 T o t a l 279401.83 431 226 TABLE 16E EDUCATORS' ATDP SCORES COMPARED WITH ATDP NORMS SEX NONDISABLED OR DISABLED N df MEAN STD. DEV. NORM VALUE PROB Female Nondisabled 167 166 131 . U Male Nondisabled 236 235 128.74 17.72 1 U . 1 8 12.38 0.001 18.97 106.65 17.96 0.001 Female Male Di s a b l e d D i s a b l e d 6 9 5 U 3 . 8 3 8 127.11 13.32 123.58 22.85 120.43 3.72 0.050 0.88 0.500 227 TABLE 17A EDUCATORS' PROGRAM PREFERENCES FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED STUDENTS In your o p i n i o n , p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n should: RESPONDED OPINION POSITIVELY' PERCENTAGE 1 attend s p e c i a l schools f o r the d i s a b l e d (e.g., Manitoba School f o r the Deaf) 59 12.91 attend s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c schools 68 I 4 . 8 8 attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n p u b l i c schools 38 8.36 attend r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and re c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i a l support s e r v i c e s 325 71.12 5 other ( s p e c i f y ) 51 11.16 TABLE 17B HANDICAPPED AND NONHANDICAPPED EDUCATORS' PROGRAMING PREFERENCES  FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED STUDENTS OPINION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Handicapped 15 3 3 5 11 3 Educators 20.00? 20.00? 3 3 . 3 3 ? 7 3 . 3 3 ? 20.00? Nonhandicapped 442 54 62 32 Educators 1 2 . 6 5 ? U - 5 2 ? 7. 305 71.43? 45 10.54? 229 TABLE 17C PROGRAMING PREFERENCES FOR HANDICAPPED STUDENTS BY EDUCATORS CATEGORIZED ACCORDING TO AGE OPINION AGE MIDPOINT 1 2 3 4 5 25 4 17 4 43 8 35 38 31 16 145 26 45 10 11 13 95 7 55 4 7 5 35 9 65 2 1 0 6 1 230 TABLE 17D COUNSELLORS', TEACHERS1, AND ADMINISTRATORS'  PROGRAMING PREFERENCES FOR  PHYSICALLY DISABLED STUDENTS OPINION FREQUENCY N 1 2 3 5 Counsellors 65 7 9 8 48 10 10.77? 13.85? 12.31? 73.85? 15.38? Teachers 226 45 44 15 n o 27 19.91? 19.47? 6 . 6 4 ? 61.95? 11.95? A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 137 5 12 13 114 U 3.65? 8.76? 9.49? 83.21? 10.22? 231 TABLE 17E ELEMENTARY AMD HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATORS' PROGRAMING PREFERENCES FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED STUDENTS OPINION Elementary 223 27 38 11 166 23 Educators 12.11? 17 . 0 4 ? 4-93? 74.44? 10.31? High School 234 32 30 27 159 28 Educators 13.68? 12.82? 11.54? 67.95? 11. 232 TABLE 17F PROGRAMING PREFERENCES FOR HANDICAPPED STUDENTS OF EDUCATORS  WITH AND WITHOUT HANDICAPPED STUDENTS IN THEIR SCHOOL OR CLASS OPINION N 5' Handicapped Student i n School or Class 323 29 8.98? 40 12. 29 241 44 74.61? 13.62? No Handicapped Student i n School or Class 134 30 22.39? 28 2 0 . 9 0 ? 9 6.72? 84 62.89? 7 5.22? 233 TABLE 17G PROGRAMING PREFERENCES FOR HANDICAPPED STUDENTS OF EDUCATORS  WITH AND WITHOUT PERSONAL CONTACT WITH A DISABLED PERSON OPINION FREQUENCE No Personal 121 25 26 11 70 7 Contact 20.66? 21.49? 9.09? 57.85? 5.79? Personal 336 34 42 27 255 44 Contact 10.12? 12.50? 8.04? 75.89? 13.10? 234 TABLE 18A ATDP COMPARISONS FOR EDUCATORS WHO SELECTED OPINION 1 AND THOSE WHO DID NOT MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Responded P o s i t i v e l y 54 125.19 2 0 . 6 4 Did Not Respond P o s i t i v e l y 372 130.89 18.02 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 1533 .09 1 5 3 3 . 0 9 4.54 0.0336 Wit h i n 143067.41 424 337.42 T o t a l 1446OO.50 425 235 TABLE 18B ATDP COMPARISONS FOR EDUCATORS  WHO SELECTED OPINION 2 AND THOSE WHO DID NOT MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Responded P o s i t i v e l y 63 129.89 17.71 Did Not Respond P o s i t i v e l y 363 130.21 18.59 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 5.61 5.61 0.02 0.8980 Within 144594-89 424 341.03 T o t a l 144600.50 425 236 TABLE 18C ATDP COMPARISONS FOR EDUCATORS  WHO SELECTED OPINION 3 AND THOSE WHO DID NOT N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Responded P o s i t i v e l y 34 132.59 18.18 Did Not Respond P o s i t i v e l y 392 129.95 I 8 . 4 8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 217.09 217.09 O .64 0.4251 Wi t h i n 144383.41 424 340.53 T o t a l U4600.50 4-25 237 TABLE 18D ATDP COMPARISONS FOR'"EDUCATORS  WHO SELECTED OPINION 4 AND THOSE WHO DID NOT MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Responded P o s i t i v e l y 311 132.00 17.47 Did Not Respond P o s i t i v e l y 115 125.19 20.10 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES df MEAN SQUARE PROB. Between 3895.71 3895.71 11.74 0.0007 Wi t h i n 140704.79 424 331.85 T o t a l 1446OO.50 425 

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