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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Pressures experienced by adolescents Kowal, Daniel Joseph 1985

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PRESSURES EXPERIENCED BY ADOLESCENTS by DANIEL JOSEPH KOWAL B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1985 © D a n i e l Joseph Kowal, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of *~7 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ^ t e "TTjf^cA n 13.AS! >E-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the types of p r e s s u r e s a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . The f a c t o r s of age and/or gender were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to determine any p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s upon a d o l e s c e n t experienced pressures..The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e d that f i n d i n g s from such a study c o u l d be u s e f u l to high school c o u n s e l l o r s i n both p l a n n i n g f u t u r e Guidance programs f o r a d o l e s c e n t s as w e l l as a i d i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s with t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c l i e n t s . Using a c l u s t e r - s a m p l i n g technique, 505 a d o l e s c e n t s were s e l e c t e d from a Vancouver high s c h o o l . Subjects were chosen with c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the f a c t o r s of age and gender. The r e s e a r c h e r designed an open-form measurement instrument intended to gather a d o l e s c e n t responses to the three g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s they had experienced d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s four months. F o l l o w i n g a p i l o t of the instrument, which was to a i d i n d etermining c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , the survey was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the sample over an e i g h t day t e s t i n g p e r i o d . With the i n i t i a l h e lp of an a s s i s t a n t , responses were content analyzed and i n i t i a l c a t e g o r i e s c o n s t r u c t e d . A l l responses were coded and a s s i g n e d a frequency score to one of eleven mutually e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . The c h i - s q u a r e "Goodness of F i t " t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between or among groups was then a p p l i e d . R e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h at the f a c t o r s of age and/or gender are r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n types of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . Future Pressure was i i i found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e experienced by o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t s . Regardless of gender, age appears to be an important f a c t o r r e l a t e d to who w i l l e xperience Future P r e s s u r e . Female a d o l e s c e n t s experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure than do males. Whether w i t h i n the same age group or w i t h i n a t o t a l female and. a t o t a l male p o p u l a t i o n comparison, t h i s r e s u l t remains c o n s i s t e n t . Younger age a d o l e s c e n t s a l s o i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r gender d i f f e r e n c e s compared with o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t s . Younger age female a d o l e s c e n t s are more l i k e l y to experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure and Peer Pressure w h i l e young male a d o l e s c e n t s are more l i k e l y to experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s found i n t h i s study tend to support the n o t i o n that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth as w e l l as le a r n e d sexual s t e r e o t y p e s are s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n determining such d i f f e r e n c e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS , v i i I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Purpose of the Study 4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 5 Hypotheses 6 Format 6 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 Pressures from School 8 Pressures from Home and Community 11 Age and Developmental D i f f e r e n c e s 13 Gender D i f f e r e n c e s 16 Summary 19 III METHODOLOGY 21 Subjects 21 P o p u l a t i o n 21 Sample 23 Measurement Instrument 24 R e l i a b i l i t y 26 V a l i d i t y 27 Procedure 28 School and E t h i c a l Committee 28 Contact with Parents 29 P i l o t of the Measurement Instrument 29 T r a i n i n g of Survey A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 30 T e s t i n g Session 31 The Research Design 32 Sc o r i n g and Data A n a l y s i s 32 Sc o r i n g 32 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 37 Assignment of Frequency Scores 38 I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y 39 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 44 Response to the Survey 44 R e s u l t s 47 Hypothesis I 47 Hypothesis I I . . . 48 Under 14 Age Group R e s u l t s 50 Age 14 Group R e s u l t s 50 Age 15 Group R e s u l t s 53 Age 16 Group R e s u l t s 53 Over Age 16 Group R e s u l t s 56 V CHAPTER PAGE Hypothesis I I I 56 Hypothesis IV 59 Hypothesis V .61 D i s c u s s i o n 61 S i g n i f i c a n t Age-based R e s u l t s 63 S i g n i f i c a n t Gender-based R e s u l t s . . . . 65 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 72 Purpose of the Study 72 Review of Procedures Used 72 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 73 Main F i n d i n g s and Conclus i o n s 75 Recommendations 77 Suggestions f o r Future Research 79 REFERENCES 81 APPENDIX 85 A Measurement Instrument and Survey A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Information 85 B L e t t e r s of Research Approval and P a r e n t a l Information 89 C Sample Responses to Experienced Pressures 93 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Students In School Pressures 9 2. Students Outside of School Pressures 12 3. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sample (n=505) 22 4. Conversion of T o t a l Code Responses to Frequency Scores 40 5. I n t e r - r a t e r Agreement of Codes Assigned to S u b j e c t s ' Responses 42 6. D e s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s ' Responses to C a t e g o r i e s of Experienced Pressures ..45 7. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test (Age) 49 8. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Under 14 Age (Gender) 51 9. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Age 14 (Gender) 52 10. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Age 15 (Gender) 54 11. Chi-square\"Goodness of F i t " Test For Age 16 \Gender) 55 12. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Over Age 16 (Gender) 57 13. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test (Gender) 58 14. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Males (Age) 60 15. Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test For Females (Age) 62 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Dr. Borgen, c h a i r p e r s o n of my t h e s i s committee, f o r h i s guidance and encouragement throughout the process as w e l l as f o r demonstrating u n f l a p p a b l e empathy towards the r e s e a r c h e r ' s prolonged p e r i o d s of p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . Dr. Amundson, my committee member, f o r making me f e e l t h a t i t was r e a l l y worth i t a l l . Dr. R a t z l a f f , my s t a t i s t i c s member, f o r the a v a i l a b i l i t y of h i s help and the d i l i g e n c e and i n t e r e s t he showed i n improving the f i n a l t h e s i s . Karen Simpson, f o r being a good f r i e n d to knock ideas around with and h e l p i n g tremendously i n the i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g of c a t e g o r i e s process and f o r her work i n h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . The Guidance and E n g l i s h departments at S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l Secondary School i n h e l p i n g to a d m i n i s t e r the survey and the donations of c l a s s time. The 505 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study who come from a l a r g e r super school p o p u l a t i o n ! 1 C H A P T E R I  I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E S T U D Y I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r e s e n t d a y s t a t e o f o u r a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s n o t a n u n c o m m o n p r a c t i c e t o m e a s u r e t h a t p o p u l a t i o n ' s h e a l t h i n t e r m s o f t h e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f m e n t a l a n d / o r p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s o f t e n r e p o r t e d w i d e l y t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a . S t a t i s t i c s a t t e m p t t o p o i n t o u t a d o l e s c e n t d i s t r e s s o r d i s - e a s e i n t e r m s - o f m e a s u r e d , q u a n t i f i a b l e , v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y s h o w a n a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n b e n t o n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n o r s e v e r e m e n t a l / p h y s i c a l m a y h e m a t t h e l e a s t . S t a t i s t i c s ( P e r s p e c t i v e s C a n a d a 1 1 1 , 1 9 8 0 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 6 % o f a l l v i o l e n t d e a t h s ( m o t o r v e h i c l e , s u i c i d e , h o m i c i d e ) i n v o l v e a d o l e s c e n t s f r o m t h e a g e 1 5 t o 1 9 . D e s p i t e a g e n e r a l d o w n w a r d t r e n d i n s u i c i d e r a t e s f o r o l d e r a g e g r o u p s , a d o l e s c e n t r a t e s c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e a t a n a l a r m i n g r a t e . T h e u s e a n d a b u s e o f d r u g s a n d a l c o h o l a r e c i t e d a s e x a m p l e s o f t h i s g e n e r a l t u r m o i l w h i c h o u r a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n m a y b e u n d e r g o i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g h e l p a n d c a r e s e r v i c e s f o r y o u n g p e o p l e o f t e n a c c e n t u a t e a d o l e s c e n t c o n c e r n b y i n d i c a t i n g a n i n c r e a s e i n c a s e l o a d s a n d s e v e r i t y o f d i s o r d e r s . W h e t h e r w e a c k n o w l e d g e a " y o u t h i n c r i s i s " n o t i o n o r s i m p l y a y o u t h u n d e r g o i n g t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t g r o w i n g p a i n s , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f w h a t i m p a c t s o n t o d a y ' s a d o l e s c e n t s m u s t b e o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e . I s t h e r e a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s y m p t o m s o f m e n t a l a n d / o r p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d t h e t y p e s o f p r e s s u r e s 2 or s t r e s s o r s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s ? What are the major p r e s s u r e s or s t r e s s o r s which a d o l e s c e n t s experience i n t h e i r years of d e s c r i b e d "storm and s t r e s s " ? Answers to such q u e s t i o n s remain t e n t a t i v e at best with a need f o r f u r t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n n o v a t i o n s r e q u i r e d to a i d i n expanding r e l i a b l e knowledge on such q u e s t i o n s . Research has r e p o r t e d l y been beset by numerous metho d o l o g i c a l problems. Problems i n d e f i n i n g both type and i n t e n s i t y of s t r e s s o r s or p r e s s u r e s has been a l a r g e r e s e a r c h o b s t a c l e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , r e s e a r c h e r s have been c o n f r o n t e d with i n t e r p r e t i n g how the e f f e c t s of such experiences should or could be documented. Research has depended l a r g e l y upon the i n t e r a c t i o n of one major l i f e event upon the p s y c h i a t r i c h e a l t h of the i n d i v i d u a l (Bowlby 1980; Kliman 1968; Rutter 1966; Dunn 1981; Moore 1975; W a l l e r s t e i n and K e l l y 1980). What c o n s t i t u t e s a p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r and whether that d i s o r d e r should be the s o l e measure of the e f f e c t s of l i f e ' s s t r e s s o r s and p r e s s u r e s remain as q u e s t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h to d e a l w i t h . Researchers f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n whether s t r e s s f u l l i f e events p r e c i p i t a t e f u t u r e p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s o r , c o n v e r s e l y , are s t r e s s f u l l i f e events p e r c e i v e d and/or experienced as being such because of the i n d i v i d u a l s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n towards p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s ? There i s i n c r e a s i n g r e s e a r c h evidence which supports the idea t h at p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s of s u i c i d e , d e p r e s s i v e c o n d i t i o n s , n e u r o t i c d i s o r d e r s and perhaps s c h i z o p h r e n i a are i n a l a r g e p a r t determined by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n s to the p r e s s u r e s presented by day to day l i v i n g . Cohen (1979) has 3 suggested not o n l y the n o t i o n of p o s s i b l e p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s but a l s o the p r e c i p i t a t i o n and maintenance of p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s due to the s t r e s s o r s of d a i l y l i v i n g . Brown and H a r r i s (1978) compared a sample of a d u l t women p a t i e n t s with a diagnosed p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r with that of a c o n t r o l group from the ge n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n not e x p e r i e n c i n g a p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r . Three-quarters of the p a t i e n t s were found to have experienced a "severe l i f e event" weeks p r i o r to the p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r compared to o n e - f i f t h of the c o n t r o l group having experienced a s i m i l a r severe event. In a d u l t s Paykel (1978) documented a s i x times l a r g e r r i s k of s u i c i d e with s u b j e c t s who had experienced a " t h r e a t to s e l f " event s i x months e a r l i e r . The r e s e a r c h e r added that there e x i s t e d a two to f i v e times i n c r e a s e i n the r i s k of d e p r e s s i o n and double the r i s k of s c h i z o p h r e n i a d u r i n g t h i s time. These f i n d i n g s perhaps are not t o t a l l y s u r p r i s i n g except that the i n i t i a t i n g p r e s s u r e s were not the i n t e n s e f a c t o r s of i l l n e s s , bereavement or f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s but r a t h e r p r e s s u r e s such as work problems, r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e j e c t i o n s . S t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n have tended to perhaps support the n o t i o n that s t r e s s o r s and p r e s s u r e s l e a d to m e n t a l / p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s . Hudgens (1974) using a sample composed of a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g medical d i s o r d e r s showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p between severe p e r s o n a l s t r e s s o r s and the onset of d e p r e s s i o n . H e i s e l , et a l , (1973) found that c h i l d r e n diagnosed with p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s experienced more s t r e s s o r s i n t h e i r l i v e s than the ge n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l 4 group. Douglas (1973) concluded that c h i l d r e n who had experienced a high number of s t r e s s f u l events d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t f o u r years of l i f e were more prone to the l a t e r r i s k of e n u r e s i s (bed-wetting). F i n a l l y , Black (1978) noted that l a r g e s c a l e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e s were beginning to l i n k p a r e n t a l l o s s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d to l a t e r p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e p r e s s i o n . Perhaps Rutter (1983; p. 4) best summarizes the c u r r e n t view of the e f f e c t s of today's d a i l y s t r e s s o r s upon the i n d i v i d u a l : Many q u e s t i o n s remain i n co n n e c t i o n with the r o l e of s t r e s s events i n a d u l t d i s o r d e r s , but there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l mass of s t u d i e s p r o v i d i n g e m p i r i c a l evidence i n support of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . In sharp c o n t r a s t , there i s a great p a u c i t y of evidence on the p o s s i b l e importance of s t r e s s f u l l i f e events i n the genesis of p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s i n c h i l d h o o d . Purpose of the Study The main purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y and examine the types of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r day to day l i v e s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to d e s c r i b e any d i f f e r e n c e s i n experienced p r e s s u r e s as r e l a t e d to gender and age . It was hoped that the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study would pro v i d e c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to high school c o u n s e l l o r s as to the p r e s s u r e s which t h e i r c l i e n t s may be e x p e r i e n c i n g . It was a l s o hoped that with such an awareness as to the l i v e s a d o l e s c e n t s l i v e , c o u n s e l l o r s may i n c r e a s e t h e i r a b i l i t y to empower t r o u b l e d a d o l e s c e n t s to e f f e c t i v e l y address o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s and/or concerns. 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms are used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e the c o n s t r u c t of experienced p r e s s u r e s . 1. a d i s c o m f o r t i n g response: r e f e r s to a s t a t e of awareness by an a d o l e s c e n t . It i s a s t a t e which may be e m o t i o n a l l y , p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y or b e h a v i o r a l l y at imbalance with the i n d i v i d u a l organism's experience of homeostasis duri n g moment to moment l i v i n g . 2 . academic s u b d i v i s i o n : r e f e r s to that p a r t of the ad o l e s c e n t ' s t o t a l environment f i e l d which . i s occupied by the demands of high s c h o o l personnel and/or c u r r i c u l u m demands re g a r d i n g academic achievement. 3. p e r s o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n : r e f e r s to that p a r t of the ad o l e s c e n t ' s t o t a l environment f i e l d which i s occupied by the demands made upon being a member of a f a m i l y as w e l l as the demands made i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 4 . s o c i o l o g i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n : r e f e r s to that p a r t of the ad o l e s c e n t ' s t o t a l environment f i e l d which i s occupied by the demands made by membership i n non-family groups or i n s t i t u t i o n s . 5. p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n : r e f e r s to that p a r t of the ad o l e s c e n t ' s t o t a l environment f i e l d which i s occupied by the demands made by the i n t e r n a l , s e l f - p e r c e i v e d needs of the i n d i v i d u a l .• 6. p h y s i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n : r e f e r s to that p a r t of the ad o l e s c e n t ' s t o t a l environment f i e l d which i s occupied by the demands of concern f o r the p h y s i c a l world. 6 Hypotheses It i s the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study to t e s t the f o l l o w i n g n u l l hypotheses : Hypothesis I - Ho: There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by a d o l e s c e n t s a c r o s s age. Hypothesis II - Ho: There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by male and female a d o l e s c e n t s at the same age l e v e l . Hypothesis I I I - Ho: There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by male and female a d o l e s c e n t s . Hypothesis IV - Ho: There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by males ac r o s s age. Hypothesis V - Ho: There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by females across age. Format The remainder of t h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. The review of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e f o l l o w s i n Chapter I I . In Chapter III the methodology i s o u t l i n e d and d i s c u s s e d . T h i s i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the 7 s u b j e c t s , the measurement instrument, procedure, the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , s c o r i n g and data a n a l y s i s . Chapter IV i n v o l v e s a n a l y z i n g the r e s u l t s of the study and p r e s e n t i n g these r e s u l t s i n terms of the s t a t e d hypotheses. The study concludes i n Chapter V with a b r i e f review of the r e s e a r c h , a look at the l i m i t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the study, a ge n e r a l summary of the f i n d i n g s , and a c o n c l u s i o n . Recommendations are presented and p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s suggested to conclude the study. 8 CHAPTER II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Pressures from School Davis (1964) i n a d i s c u s s i o n paper suggested that p r e s s u r e s experienced i n s c h o o l by students worked a g a i n s t e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . He used p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s to conclude that there were three major sources of student experienced p r e s s u r e s . These o r i g i n s i n c l u d e d automated i n s t r u c t i o n ; p e r s o n a l d r i v e f o r e x c e l l e n c e through academic c o m p e t i t i o n ; and a broadened c u r r i c u l u m . The author d i d not address the need f o r an a d o l e s c e n t ' s view as to what c o n s t i t u t e d s c h o o l p r e s s u r e s but simply wished to i n i t i a t e the i d e a that s c h o o l l i f e was c r e a t i n g pressure to the s t u d e n t . McGuigan (1966) concluded that the e f f e c t s of present day p r e s s u r e s on c h i l d r e n were c u l m i n a t i n g i n mental h e a l t h d i s o r d e r s . The author l i n k e d common c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s s u r e s from c o m p e t i t i o n and c a r e e r c h o i c e to the medical t h e o r i e s of s t r e s s formulated by Dr. Hans Selye (1956). One of the e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h based i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on p r e s s u r e s faced by c h i l d r e n i n school was performed by Moses and Delaney (1969). The s t a t e d purpose f o r the study was to present data based c o n c l u s i o n s to f i l l the r e s e a r c h gap of an o b j e c t i v e view of p r e s s u r e s faced by c h i l d r e n . At the very l e a s t the r e s e a r c h e r s hoped to v e r i f y the l a r g e l y unsupported hypothesis that c h i l d r e n indeed were e x p e r i e n c i n g p r e s s u r e s p e c u l i a r to o n l y themselves. A two-part f a c t o r a n a l y s i s study 9 was designed i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the a d o l e s c e n t s ' experienced world both i n and out of s c h o o l . One hundred and f o r t y - t h r e e graduate students i n Education were chosen to l i s t what they c o n s i d e r e d to be the f i v e g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s experienced by students i n s i d e the sc h o o l environment as w e l l as the f i v e g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s experienced o u t s i d e the sc h o o l environment. These items provided the b a s i s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a 99 item L i k e r t - l i k e s c a l e f o r Students i n School p r e s s u r e s (SIS) and a 94 item L i k e r t - l i k e s c a l e f o r Students o u t s i d e of  School p r e s s u r e s (SOS). These forms were next a d m i n i s t e r e d to an a d d i t i o n a l 63 graduate students under s t a n d a r d i z e d d i r e c t i o n s . Subjects responded to each item on a 4 p o i n t s c a l e from "no p r e s s u r e " to "a severe p r e s s u r e " . F o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the data, f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d f i v e major f a c t o r s f o r both the SIS and the SOS forms. The f i v e major f a c t o r s f o r the SIS are presented i n Table I as w e l l as the three items f o r each f a c t o r which r e c e i v e d the hig h e s t l o a d i n g . TABLE I Students In School Pressures FACTOR 1: SITUATIONAL LIMITATIONS .72 Adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s .68 Expensive work m a t e r i a l s .65 Dancing l e s s o n s . FACTOR 2: ACCEPTANCE BY OTHERS .76 Peer acceptance .74 P o p u l a r i t y .70 Conform to peer conduct FACTOR 3: PROTECTION OF SELF-CONCEPT .72 Need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n .65 Choosing one's mode of behavior .65 F e e l i n g of belonging 10 FACTOR 4: ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT .63 Gaining c o l l e g e admission .60 Pressure to l e a r n .60 Grades, academic success FACTOR 5: NON-ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT .68 Competition i n s p o r t s .67 Do w e l l i n s p o r t s .54 Success i n p h y s i c a l accomplishment The r e s e a r c h e r s concluded that at the very l e a s t the re s e a r c h had c l a r i f i e d e a r l i e r "armchair" o p i n i o n s as to the p o s s i b l e p r e s s u r e s experienced by c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l . The r e s e a r c h of Moses and Delaney, although m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y sound, d i d not u t i l i z e the ado l e s c e n t student as t h e i r base f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . I t may be s t r o n g l y questioned whether a u n i v e r s i t y graduate p o p u l a t i o n i s the a p p r o p r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n from which to draw a sample intended to form the b a s i s f o r understanding p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s or c h i l d r e n . The study a l s o d i d not attempt to p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n as to p o s s i b l e gender or age d i f f e r e n c e s i n response to c h i l d r e n s ' p r e s s u r e s . An attempt to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e student's p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o b l e m a t i c aspects of sc h o o l l i f e was undertaken by Applegate (1981). Seventy-eight secondary students from grades 7 to 12 were s e l e c t e d from 20 randomly s e l e c t e d high s c h o o l s . These students were asked to d e s c r i b e t h e i r b i g g e s t problem each day f o r a f i v e day p e r i o d . A Student Problem C h e c k l i s t composed of 72 problem statements was d e r i v e d from the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s l i s t e d and was admi n i s t e r e d to a f u r t h e r 673 students r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i v e r s e body of secondary s c h o o l 11 s t u d e n t s . Data was c o l l e c t e d to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n as to how o f t e n each item was p e r c e i v e d as being a problem by each s u b j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , respondents were to i n d i c a t e the i n t e n s i t y of the p e r c e i v e d problem. R e s u l t s r e v e a l e d that some seven g e n e r a l areas of concern were expressed. The l a c k of teacher support and the l a c k of independence being the most p r o b l e m a t i c . The r e s e a r c h e r f u r t h e r concludes that the study supports developmental stage theory i n regards to students' p e r c e p t i o n s of the pro b l e m a t i c aspects of sch o o l l i f e . No attempt was made to r e s e a r c h o u t s i d e of sch o o l p r o b l e m a t i c areas or any p o s s i b l e gender d i f f e r e n c e s with such a p o p u l a t i o n . Pressures from Home and Community Heffernan (1966) d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b l e o r i g i n s of c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s s u r e s . He suggested that these p r e s s u r e s were not s o l e l y s c h o o l based but should be s t u d i e d and d i s c u s s e d from w i t h i n the broader t o t a l environment of the c h i l d ' s home and community. Heffernan was concerned as to the outcome of these p r e s s u r e s on c h i l d r e n and concluded that a r e - e v a l u a t i o n should be made with regard to what those components of home and community pres s u r e s were doing to c h i l d r e n . Presented e a r l i e r , Moses and Delany (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d students o u t s i d e of school p r e s s u r e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s f i n d i n g s are presented i n Table 2 with the three items with the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r each of the f i v e main f a c t o r s . 12 TABLE 2 Students Outside Of School Pressures FACTOR 1: SITUATIONAL DEMANDS .67 Music l e s s o n s .66 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Sunday School .65 Gaining approval of r e l a t i v e s FACTOR 2: ACCEPTANCE BY OTHERS .67 Develop and ma i n t a i n f r i e n d s h i p s .66 Adjust to one's p h y s i c a l development and appearance .65 Gain l o v e and acceptance FACTOR 3: EDUCATIONAL-OCCUPATIONAL OBJECTIVES .68 D r a f t .67 O b t a i n i n g a s u i t a b l e job., .64 C o l l e g e admission FACTOR 4: MAINTENANCE OF SELF .62 Ma i n t a i n some autonomy f o r ones l i f e . .58 Understanding human behavior .54 Balance of work, r e s t , and r e c r e a t i o n . FACTOR 5: HOME PROBLEMS .66 Lack of f a m i l y u n i t y due to both parents working .64 I n s e c u r i t y at home .59 Too l e n i e n t p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e House (1980) r e - a s s e r t e d e a r l i e r themes from r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t i n g the l a c k of ado l e s c e n t based data r e g a r d i n g that p o p u l a t i o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of s p e c i f i c concerns or problems. Using 1349 secondary r u r a l students aged 11 to 20 ,^the r e s e a r c h e r wished to survey the aspects of p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l s t a t u s of students' concerns or problems. The study was intended to shed some l i g h t a l s o onto any gender d i f f e r e n c e s . Using a 3 p o i n t s c a l e asking "how o f t e n " an item a p p l i e d to each s u b j e c t , responses were c o l l e c t e d to 19 common p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l concerns and problems. A second p a r t of the survey asked s u b j e c t s to respond to an open-form q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l problems. The r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e n t was to tap a l l p o s s i b l e a d o l e s c e n t responses r a t h e r than to r e s t r i c t those responses to w i t h i n a c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d four major areas of a d o l e s c e n t p e r c e i v e d concerns and problems: 1. Nerves and emotional problems 2. R e l a t i o n s h i p s with parents and peers of both sexes 3. Concerns about p e r s o n a l appearance 4. S e x - r e l a t e d concerns Age and Developmental D i f f e r e n c e s Rutter (1983; p. 19) s t a t e s t h a t , "Age, then, i s an important v a r i a b l e f o r some types of s t r e s s events, but even i n those f o r which i t i s important, the e f f e c t s and the mode of o p e r a t i o n vary a c c o r d i n g to the category of the event." Using the c o n s t r u c t of s t r e s s event, or s t r e s s o r , c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted to i n v e s t i g a t e age i n developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n such events. In doing so, most r e s e a r c h has looked at the end of the s t r e s s event s c a l e which i s g e n e r a l l y accepted as being i n t e n s e to the i n d i v i d u a l . Bowlby (1980), Kliman (1968) and Rutter (1966) a l l examined the e f f e c t s of bereavement as a s t r e s s o r upon young c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that t h i s expected i n t e n s e s t r e s s o r ( p r e s s u r e ) was experienced as such by both groups but d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n the r e a c t i o n to t h i s s t r e s s o r . The younger age group r e a c t e d to that s t r e s s o r f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d of time and with m i l d e r i n t e n s i t y than d i d the adolescent group. Based upon l a t e r p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s , Rutter (1966) suggested that a delayed consequence c o u l d very w e l l be the end r e s u l t of unresolved bereavement as a s t r e s s o r 14 i n the young age group. Dunn (1981) and Moore (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e d the s t r e s s o r of the b i r t h of a s i b l i n g upon both young and o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Based upon " c l i n g i n g " behavior o b s e r v a t i o n s i t was concluded that t h i s s t r e s s o r was l e s s of a t h r e a t to o l d e r c h i l d r e n than to younger. Developmentally, o l d e r c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t was b e l i e v e d to be enhanced with the a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of h e l p i n g i n c a r i n g f o r the new s i b l i n g . Other c o n c l u s i o n s suggested that perhaps o l d e r c h i l d r e n are l e s s dependent upon t h e i r mothers f o r company as t h e i r world expands s o c i a l l y outwards. Along with t h i s i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the b i r t h of a new c h i l d does l i t t l e to e f f e c t d r a s t i c change i n i n t e r a c t i o n s between mother and o l d e r c h i l d . W a l l e r s t e i n and K e l l y (1980) used a l o n g i t u d i n a l study i n v o l v i n g 131 parents and c h i l d r e n from 60 predominately white, m i d d l e - c l a s s , Northern C a l i f o r n i a n f a m i l i e s to i n v e s t i g a t e the s t r e s s o r of d i v o r c e upon d i f f e r e n t aged c h i l d r e n . F o l l o w i n g the sample group f o r 5 years a f t e r the d e c i s i v e m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n the r e s e a r c h e r s concluded that there appeared to be no age d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of v u l n e r a b i l i t y to the e f f e c t s of d i v o r c e upon the c h i l d r e n . Each age group tended to r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y to the s t r e s s o r of d i v o r c e but there was no marked i n c r e a s e or decrease i n the r e a c t i o n i n any s p e c i f i c age group. Studi e s i n v o l v i n g the i s o l a t i o n of an i n t e n s e s t r e s s o r or p r e s s u r e and i t s e f f e c t s upon c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t ages are s t i l l l a r g e l y s p e c u l a t i v e at b e s t . Preceding s t u d i e s attempt to show d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s to the s t r e s s o r at 15 d i f f e r e n t stages i n t h e i r development. Most s t u d i e s have r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n order to c o l l e c t d a t a . The purposes of these s t u d i e s have l a r g e l y o r i e n t e d themselves to ob s e r v i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s to s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s . The s t r e s s o r s themselves were accepted as being i n t e n s e t r i g g e r i n g events i n the l i v e s of people of a l l ages. Throughout the aforementioned s t u d i e s , the r e a c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s by d i f f e r e n t aged c h i l d r e n with regards to the s t r e s s o r s of bereavement, b i r t h of a s i b l i n g , and d i v o r c e must be viewed w i t h i n the l a r g e r framework of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s unique e x i s t e n c e . T h i s e x i s t e n c e i n c l u d e s the t o t a l l i f e e x perience of each c h i l d . Sherhas (1977) attempted to show a developmental p a t t e r n to what he termed a d o l e s c e n t concerns. The r e s e a r c h e r used a sample of 123 a d o l e s c e n t s to form three age c l u s t e r s composed of 40 a d o l e s c e n t s aged 13 and 14; 33 a d o l e s c e n t s aged 15 and 16; and 50 a d o l e s c e n t s aged 17 and 18. S i x open-ended statements were c o n s t r u c t e d to gather data r e g a r d i n g what a d o l e s c e n t s saw as the major concerns i n t h e i r l i v e s . The r e s e a r c h e r i n d i c a t e d that perhaps there were some d i f f e r e n c e s i n concerns across the age groups. Sherhas p o i n t s out that the instrument used was intended to be based upon a d o l e s c e n t s ' responses r a t h e r than to the t h e o r i e s of s c i e n t i s t s . A f u r t h e r p o i n t made i s that the s i x open-ended statements can perhaps be b i a s e d i n terms of l e a d i n g s u b j e c t s to respond to a s t r u c t u r e d statement determined by the author. Yeaworth (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n t e n s i t y of ad o l e s c e n t s t r e s s r a t h e r than the type of pr e s s u r e e x p e r i e n c e d . A 16 prepared Adolescent L i f e Change Event S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 207 male and female s u b j e c t s aged 11 to 18. The r e s e a r c h e r concluded that d i f f e r e n t age groups appeared e i t h e r to p e r c e i v e events as being more s t r e s s f u l than other events or simply experienced g r e a t e r s t r e s s . The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d data from a m o d i f i e d Holmes and Rae L i f e Events S c a l e measurement instrument. The items which appeared on the r e s e a r c h instrument were l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from the o r i g i n a l a d u l t s c a l e . As such, items were r e s t r i c t e d to being s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e events which c o u l d not r e p r e s e n t the t o t a l environmental f i e l d as experienced by the a d o l e s c e n t as w e l l as o r i g i n a t i n g from w i t h i n an a d u l t data base. Gender D i f f e r e n c e s C i t i n g p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by Dunn, et a l , (1981) and Rutter (1970, 1980, 1982) i t appears that c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s i n favour of the hypothesis that boys appear to be more v u l n e r a b l e to most kinds of s t r e s s f u l events than g i r l s . T h i s i s most ev i d e n t i n pre-pubescent c h i l d r e n ( R u t t e r 1970, 1982). Under c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , Dunn, et a l , (1981) concluded that boys were more l i k e l y to demonstrate withdrawal behavior than g i r l s under the s t r e s s o r of the b i r t h of a s i b l i n g . The -r e s e a r c h e r s concluded that no other observable behavior changes o c c u r r e d . S i m i l a r l y , Hetherington (1980) and W a l l e r s t e i n and K e l l y (1980) observed that boys e x h i b i t e d a more severe and prolonged b e h a v i o r a l r e a c t i o n to the s t r e s s o r of d i v o r c e . Rutter (1981) observed g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l change i n boys with regards to the s t r e s s o r of e n t e r i n g day care and 17 Rutter (1982) l i k e w i s e a t t r i b u t e d g r e a t e r a g g r e s s i v e behavior to boys e x p e r i e n c i n g the s t r e s s o r of f a m i l y d i s c o r d and disharmony. C l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s such as those c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t towards gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c s t r e s s o r s . However, these f i n d i n g s must be viewed t e n t a t i v e l y when g e n e r a l i z i n g to the l a r g e r scope of c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s s u r e s and s t r e s s o r s experienced on a d a i l y b a s i s . R u tter (1983; p. 20) s t a t e s : the reasons f o r t h i s g e n e r a l sex d i f f e r e n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s to s t r e s s events or indeed to changed s i t u a t i o n s of any type remain u n c l e a r . . . The author concludes t h a t : we l a c k evidence on which to base a c h o i c e between these (and o t h e r ) a l t e r n a t i v e s and i t i s not at a l l c e r t a i n whether the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the sex d i f f e r e n c e w i l l prove to be the same or d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t types of s t r e s s o r s . N o n - c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h has looked at a number of a d o l e s c e n t based p r e s s u r e s . Burke and Weir (1976) s t u d i e d the sources and r e p o r t e d i n t e n s i t y of s t r e s s i n the day to day l i v e s of a d o l e s c e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s ' purpose was to i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way males and females experienced the causes of s t r e s s and the i n t e n s i t y to which they experienced that s t r e s s . Using the c o n s t r u c t of "experienced s t r e s s and p r e s s u r e s " 274 a d o l e s c e n t s aged 13 to 20 chosen from three m e t r o p o l i t a n high s c h o o l s were requested to respond to a 26 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Items were chosen from what was c o n s i d e r e d to be recent academic and popular l i t e r a t u r e . Subjects responded to each item on a f i v e p o i n t 18 L i k e r t - l i k e s c a l e . R e s u l t s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d . Seven major f a c t o r s emerged. Females r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r experienced s t r e s s and p r e s s u r e s on four of the seven f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e d : peer acceptance, i s o l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s with p a r e n t s , and o p p o s i t e sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e s e a r c h e r s conclude that female a d o l e s c e n t s appear to be under g r e a t e r s t r e s s and are l i k e l y e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l s t r a i n . The r e s e a r c h e r s make an attempt to i n d i c a t e that both type and i n t e n s i t y of s t r e s s and p r e s s u r e s appear to d i f f e r between the sexes. However, the instrument used was d e r i v e d from items gathered from what the authors c o n s i d e r e d to be r e c e n t , popular l i t e r a t u r e . As such, the instrument used c o l l e c t e d data on a r e s t r i c t e d number of p o s s i b l e a d o l e s c e n t responses. P o s s i b l e gender d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g a d o l e s c e n t problems were i n v e s t i g a t e d by Eme (1979). Using 240 randomly s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s aged 13 to 17, the r e s e a r c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d a 14 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g a d o l e s c e n t problems. Subjects responded on a 4 p o i n t "no concern" to "severe concern" s c a l e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that females responded s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than males on p h y s i c a l appearance, grades and f u t u r e s c h o o l i n g . As with e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h (Burke and Weir 1976; Sherhas 1977), the r e s e a r c h e r s ' measurement instrument r e s t r i c t s a d o l e s c e n t s ' p o t e n t i a l responses to 14 r e s e a r c h e r chosen items. The f i n d i n g s must t h e r e f o r e be understood w i t h i n the framework of these 14 problem items. House (1980), c i t e d e a r l i e r , i n d i c a t e d that females responded more f r e q u e n t l y than males to concerns of p e r s o n a l 19 appearance, r e l a t i o n s h i p with p a r e n t s , emotional s t r e s s and s e x - r e l a t e d problems. As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , the r e s e a r c h e r u t i l i z e d a sample p o p u l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s obtained from a r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from any f i n d i n g s must be c o n f i n e d to a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s . It i s most probable that r u r a l a d o l e s c e n t concerns may d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those of an urban adolescent p o p u l a t i o n . Summary Based upon p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d l i t e r a t u r e , there appear to be both l i m i t a t i o n s and u n c e r t a i n t y i n r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s today. N o n - c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h has l a r g e l y been r e s t r i c t e d to s u r v e y i n g a d o l e s c e n t s with p r e - s e l e c t e d , l i m i t e d item q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Burke and Weir 1976; Sherhas 1977; Eme 1979; Yeaworth 1980; House 1980). These same studie-s i n d i c a t e some age or developmental p a t t e r n s to the researched c o n s t r u c t s but c o n c l u s i o n s must be r e s t r i c t e d to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . C l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s have i n v e s t i g a t e d both gender and age d i f f e r e n c e s , p r i m a r i l y with younger c h i l d r e n being compared to o l d e r c h i l d r e n (not a d o l e s c e n t s ) on a number of i n t e n s e s t r e s s o r s . F i n d i n g s seem to i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s based on gender and age. However, c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s with c h i l d r e n appear to d i f f e r with n o n - c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h on a d o l e s c e n t s based on gender. Whereas younger male boys appear to r e a c t more and appear to be more v u l n e r a b l e to s p e c i f i c i n t e n s e s t r e s s o r s , a d o l e s c e n t , n o n - c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h seems to i n d i c a t e a gender b i a s towards females with regards to 20 e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r day to day, p r e s s u r e s , problems, s t r e s s o r s , and concerns. It i s important f o r c o u n s e l l o r s , d e a l i n g with a d o l e s c e n t s , to be able to r e c o g n i z e the important p r e s s u r e s which t h e i r c l i e n t s may be e x p e r i e n c i n g . It i s the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study to add some f u r t h e r knowledge onto the world of a d o l e s c e n t s and the p r e s s u r e s they experience i n t h e i r day to day l i v e s . 21 CHAPTER III  METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l i d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s t h e s u r v e y s u b j e c t s , measurement i n s t r u m e n t , r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , s c o r i n g and d a t a a n a l y s i s , t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f f r e q u e n c y s c o r e s and t h e p r o c e s s f o r o b t a i n i n g i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Subj e c t s P o p u l a t i o n The sample f o r t h i s s t u d y was s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g a l o c a l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e 1983-84 s c h o o l y e a r . The s c h o o l ' s p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1350 m a l e s and f e m a l e s between t h e ages o f 12 and 19 who were e n r o l l e d i n g r a d e s 8 t o 12. A l l members o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n were on a s c h o o l p r o g r a m l e a d i n g t o h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n i s a p r e d o m i n a t e l y m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 55% o f t h e s c h o o l s ' s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i s composed o f members f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . A f i r s t and s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n C h i n e s e e t h n i c g r o u p a c c o u n t s f o r some 80% o f t h i s g r o u p . O t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e p o p u l a t i o n . A summary o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e sample d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e LAWKO S u r v e y i s p r e s e n t e d i n TABLE 3. 22 TABLE 3 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sample (n=505) A. Gender % Female 48.9 Male 49.9 No Response 1.2 B. Age Under 14 19.8 14 19.0 15 14.7 16 19.6 Over 16 25.7 No Response 1.2 C. F i r s t Language E n g l i s h 44.6 Chinese 33.3 Punjabi 6.7 Other O r i e n t a l 4.2 French 3.4 Other European 6.1 No Response 1.7 D. P o s i t i o n i n Family % Only C h i l d 7.3 E l d e s t 28.7 Middle 21.8 Youngest 39.6 No Response 2.6 E. Number of Schools Attended 1-2 3-4 More than 4 30.1 47.5 22.4 Number of C h i l d r e n i n  Family 1-2 38.2 3-4 45.3 More than 4 14.5 No Response 2.0 Grade i n School 8 22.6 9 21.0 10 16.1 11 20.3 12 19.8 No Response 0.2 23 Sample In order to o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n while a l s o o b t a i n i n g a s u f f i c i e n t number of s u b j e c t s f o r each r e q u i r e d group, i t was thought that an adequate sample should not number l e s s than 500. Since a maximum of f i v e groups were to be analyzed f o r any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at any given time, the r e s e a r c h e r r e q u i r e d a s u f f i c i e n t number of s u b j e c t s f o r each group. Since groups would be analyzed a c c o r d i n g to age and/or gender approximately 50 s u b j e c t s of each age and gender would be made a v a i l a b l e . T h i s number would present a s u f f i c i e n t sample to produce data deemed to be a more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure of the p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . Students were s e l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. A l l students are r e q u i r e d to e n r o l l i n Guidance through grade 11 i n order to meet p r o v i n c i a l g r a d u a t i o n requirements. Students were placed by a computer i n t o a b l o c k of g r a d e - a p p r o p r i a t e Guidance i n June 1983. A l l students r e g i s t e r e d i n grade 8 through grade 11 were a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n to the sample. Since Guidance c l a s s e s at C h u r c h i l l are generated based on grade and gender, i t was necessary to c o n s t r u c t uniform, s e l e c t i o n cards which re p r e s e n t e d each p o s s i b l e b l o c k of boys Guidance and each b l o c k of g i r l s Guidance. I d e n t i c a l computer cards were used f o r t h i s purpose. A member of the o f f i c e s t a f f was asked to s e l e c t cards which had p r e v i o u s l y been coded with r e s p e c t to gender, grade, c l a s s s i z e and c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . These cards had been randomly ordered p r i o r to s e l e c t i o n . When 24 a sample of approximately 50 s u b j e c t s had been obtained f o r each grade and gender, the r o u t i n e was repeated u n t i l a l l grades from 8 to 11 had been sampled. Grade 12 s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were s e l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r way. A l l students e n r o l l e d i n grade 12 are r e q u i r e d to e n r o l l i n E n g l i s h 12 i n order to meet p r o v i n c i a l g r a d u a t i o n requirements. A computer p l a c e d students i n t o an E n g l i s h 12 c l a s s i n June. Since Winston C h u r c h i l l has a number of E n g l i s h c l a s s e s which are recog n i z e d as meeting the E n g l i s h 12 requirement, these placements are made i n accordance with each i n d i v i d u a l student's r e q u e s t . A l l E n g l i s h 12 c l a s s e s are co n s t r u c t e d c o - e d u c a t i o n a l l y . A l l c l a s s e s were coded f o r gender, s i z e and c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . An o f f i c e s t a f f member selected.randomly ordered computer cards u n t i l the r e q u i r e d sample number was reached. A t o t a l of 14 students r e g i s t e r e d i n grade 12 but not ta k i n g a g r a d e - a p p r o p r i a t e E n g l i s h 12 c l a s s were omitted from p o s s i b l e s e l e c t i o n to that sample group. Also omitted from p o s s i b l e s e l e c t i o n to the sample were two E n g l i s h as a Second Language c l a s s e s comprising 29 students as w e l l as 10 v o l u n t e e r s s e l e c t e d to p i l o t the measurement instrument. Measurement Instrument M o d i f i e d from an e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n by David Mechanic, experienced pr e s s u r e s was o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as a d i s c o m f o r t i n g response by an ado l e s c e n t to academic, p e r s o n a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s of the environmental f i e l d . The " d i s c o m f o r t i n g " component of t h i s 25 d e f i n i t i o n r e l e g a t e s experienced p r e s s u r e s to p e r s o n a l i z e d i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . These m a n i f e s t a t i o n s l i e i n a f f e c t i v e , p h y s i c a l and b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e s . It i s experienced e m o t i o n a l l y , p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y or b e h a v i o r a l l y . It i s a s t a t e w i t h i n the a d o l e s c e n t ' s awareness and a s t a t e away from the emotional, p h y s i o l o g i c a l , b e h a v i o r a l homeostasis of moment to moment l i v i n g . As such, i t i s termed d i s c o m f o r t i n g and i s an experienced p r e s s u r e . F u r t h e r , i t i s the awareness of t h i s s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e which i s c o n s i d e r e d i n determining adolescent experienced p r e s s u r e . It should be understood t h a t t h i s d i s c o m f o r t i n g s t a t e may be the r e s u l t of both p o s i t i v e or negative s u b - d i v i s i o n s of the t o t a l environmental f i e l d . The LAWKO Survey of Adolescent Experienced Pressures i s a s e l f - r e p o r t measurement instrument designed to e l i c i t w r i t t e n responses r e g a r d i n g p r e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . It i s a s u b j e c t i v e type instrument which i s intended to survey the wide range and v a r i a t i o n of pr e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . It i s an open form instrument which allows each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t to d e s c r i b e h i s / h e r present world i n terms of p e r s o n a l i z e d experienced pressures.. The instrument i s intended to c o l l e c t data which may be content analyzed by independent r a t e r s . The LAWKO Survey i s s t a n d a r d i z e d i n terms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and time f o r completion. It i s a survey intended f o r use i n e i t h e r s m a l l or l a r g e groups. The survey i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by having three main s e c t i o n s . A b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the survey. The sub j e c t i s asked to o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n with regards to gender, age, grade, s i z e of f a m i l y , rank i n age w i t h i n f a m i l y , number 26 of s c h o o l s attended, and language f i r s t l e a r n e d . A s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n to the survey f o l l o w s and secures the v o l u n t a r y and c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of the assessment. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of experienced p r e s s u r e s i s given along with a number of examples which correspond to the major components of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . In the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the LAWKO  Survey, s u b j e c t s are asked to respond i n w r i t i n g to the preceding i n s t r u c t i o n s . The instrument i n c l u d e s a l i n e d page f o r each s u b j e c t ' s w r i t t e n responses. R e l i a b i l i t y Borg and G a l l (1979; p. 217) s t a t e t h a t , " R e l i a b i l i t y , as a p p l i e d to e d u c a t i o n a l measurements, may be d e f i n e d as the l e v e l of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y or s t a b i l i t y of the measuring device over time." The LAWKO Survey asks s u b j e c t s to respond to experienced p r e s s u r e s from a p a s t - p r e s e n t time o r i e n t a t i o n . Because of i t s open-form as w e l l as i t s time-bound o r i e n t a t i o n , determining r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the measurement instrument was i m p r a c t i c a l u sing t r a d i t i o n a l methods. The t e s t - r e t e s t method was i m p r a c t i c a l because i n order to do so would r e q u i r e a l t e r i n g the time o r i e n t a t i o n to a d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d of time. As a r e s u l t t h i s would i n v a r i a b l y i n t r o d u c e a new s et of data r e f l e c t i n g the change i n time. S i m i l a r l y , both p a r a l l e l - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y as w e l l as s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o u ld not be used because of the open-form, s u b j e c t i v e s t y l e of the instrument. Thus r e l i a b i l i t y i n such a time-bound measurement instrument was not of major importance d u r i n g the design of such an instrument. A much more important type of 27 r e l i a b i l i t y , i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n to t h i s c h a p t e r . V a l i d i t y C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was e s s e n t i a l f o r g a t h e r i n g data with regards to what a d o l e s c e n t s experienced as t h e i r g r e a t e s t d a i l y p r e s s u r e s over a d e f i n e d time p e r i o d . In order to h e l p e s t a b l i s h c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y p r i o r to a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n , a p i l o t of the measurement instrument was performed. As i s to be more c a r e f u l l y r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n t h i s c hapter, v o l u n t e e r s f o r the p i l o t study i n d i c a t e d both v e r b a l l y and i n w r i t i n g , a c l e a r understanding of the c o n s t r u c t "experienced p r e s s u r e s . " With the o p p o r t u n i t y to respond three times i n w r i t i n g to the d i r e c t i o n s of the survey, a l l v o l u n t e e r s d e s c r i b e d p r e s s u r e s i n t h e i r l i v e s which f e l l w i t h i n the g e n e r a l boundaries of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . When v o l u n t e e r s were d e - b r i e f e d at the c o n c l u s i o n of the survey they i n d i c a t e d , v e r b a l l y , a c l e a r understanding of the c o n s t r u c t being measured. A d d i t i o n a l l y , v e r b a l responses i n d i c a t e d that examples used i n the survey i n s t r u c t i o n s aided the s u b j e c t s i n f u r t h e r understanding the c o n s t r u c t of experienced p r e s s u r e s . It should be noted that a l l examples used to d e s c r i b e the major c o n s t r u c t a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to the v a r i o u s s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and were presented i n a way which gave equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the s u b d i v i s i o n s . 28 Procedure  School and E t h i c a l Committee I n i t i a l l y , v e r b a l p e r m i s s i o n was obtained from the p r i n c i p a l to proceed with g a i n i n g f u r t h e r s t a f f c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the study being undertaken. Both Guidance and E n g l i s h department heads were approached and b r i e f l y informed of the re s e a r c h being done. T h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n were requested as was that of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e departments. At a Guidance department meeting the r e s e a r c h e r b r i e f e d the s t a f f on the proposed study. S t a f f were informed of the need f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g to ad m i n i s t e r the measurement instrument to c e r t a i n Guidance and E n g l i s h 12 c l a s s e s as w e l l as g i v i n g up some of t h e i r Guidance c l a s s time. Guidance teachers were f u r t h e r informed of the need f o r an i n s t r u c t i o n a l meeting where the " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Information f o r the LAWKO Adolescent Experienced Pressures Survey" would be presented . At an E n g l i s h department meeting, the department head asked f o r the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the E n g l i s h 12 teachers i n g i v i n g up approximately 20 minutes of c l a s s time to enable a Guidance teacher to a d m i n i s t e r the survey. Once approval was t e n t a t i v e l y obtained at the s c h o o l l e v e l an " A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Permission to Conduct Research i n Vancouver Schools" form was sent to the Co - o r d i n a t o r of E v a l u a t i o n and Research S e r v i c e s at the Vancouver School Board. Approval from t h i s department was ob t a i n e d i n w r i t i n g on January 20. Approval to conduct the study was then obtained from the U.B.C. E t h i c s Review 29 Committee. Contact with Parents In the f i r s t week of February 1984, a l e t t e r was given to each student i n the sample to take home to h i s / h e r p a r e n t s . This l e t t e r b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d the purpose of the study as w e l l as the c o n f i d e n t i a l and v o l u n t a r y nature of the study being undertaken. Parents were informed that the f a i l u r e to p a r t i c i p a t e as s u b j e c t s i n the study would not j e o p a r d i z e the student's s u b j e c t c l a s s s t a n d i n g i n any way. A " r i g h t to r e f u s e " was presented to these parents and they were i n v i t e d to c o n t a c t the r e s e a r c h e r at school i f they had any f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . The a c t u a l dates f o r the survey p r e s e n t a t i o n were not i n c l u d e d . P i l o t of the Measurement Instrument In the second week of February, a sc h o o l announcement was made i n order to r e c r u i t 10 v o l u n t e e r s , male and female, from grades 8 to 12. From the i n i t i a l group of v o l u n t e e r s , 10 s u b j e c t s were accepted as being s u i t a b l e f o r p i l o t i n g the measurement instrument. It was d e s i r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r to have a p i l o t group which would appear to be s i m i l a r to the major sample group i n f a c t o r s of age and gender. V o l u n t e e r s a l s o c o u l d not be members of the sample group s e l e c t e d e a r l i e r . Based on age, gender, and absence from sample group s e l e c t i o n , four males and s i x females from age 13 to 17 were i n c l u d e d i n the p i l o t group. T h i s group a d d i t i o n a l l y r e p resented a grade 8 through 12 grade range. 30 P r i o r to p i l o t i n g the instrument, the r e s e a r c h e r asked four C h u r c h i l l E n g l i s h teachers who taught a range of E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , to e v a l u a t e the survey i n terms of read i n g l e v e l , and grammatical s t r u c t u r e . The survey was amended with r e s p e c t to i n d i v i d u a l suggestions from these E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s . The readi n g comprehension l e v e l was s t a t e d as being w e l l w i t h i n the l e v e l of a grade 8 s t u d e n t . At a lunch meeting, the 10 s u b j e c t s p i l o t i n g the instrument were asked to v e r b a l l y respond to any c o n f u s i o n s , misunderstandings or terminology which they thought arose while working through the survey. The r e s e a r c h e r read out the d i r e c t i o n s of the survey while group members f o l l o w e d on t h e i r own c o p i e s . At the c u l m i n a t i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s , the v o l u n t e e r s were asked to respond to the g e n e r a l r e a d i n g l e v e l of the survey as w e l l as responding to the term "experienced p r e s s u r e s " . The p i l o t of the measurement instrument r e v e a l e d no d i f f i c u l t y by the v o l u n t e e r s i n understanding the c o n s t r u c t of "experienced p r e s s u r e s " . A l l v o l u n t e e r s responded to t h e i r three g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s i n w r i t t e n form. Content a n a l y s i s of the responses i n d i c a t e d that c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , a c c o r d i n g to the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , would be present i n the measurement instrument. T r a i n i n g of Survey A d m i n i s t r a t o r s At a meeting of a l l Guidance teac h e r s who would be a d m i n i s t e r i n g the LAWKO Survey, the r e s e a r c h e r presented a 12 p o i n t Survey A d m i n i s t r a t i o n sheet. Emphasized were time s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and g e n e r a l survey a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 31 T e s t i n g S e s s i o n Guidance teachers a d m i n i s t e r e d the LAWKO Survey to the sample group duri n g the l a s t e i g h t s c h o o l days i n February. Survey a d m i n i s t r a t o r s began the s e s s i o n by re a d i n g an i n t r o d u c t i o n which r e - a s s e r t e d the v o l u n t a r y - c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of the survey. Information r e g a r d i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l data was c l a r i f i e d . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r then read through the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the survey a l l o w i n g any v o l u n t a r y withdrawals to occur when that o p t i o n was p r e s e n t e d . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s were a v a i l a b l e f o r c l a r i f y i n g what was expected from the s u b j e c t s d u r i n g the assessment but c o u l d not o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n with regards to terminology or con c e p t s . A l l s u b j e c t s then turned to a l i n e d page where they were gi v e n three minutes to respond i n w r i t i n g to an "experienced p r e s s u r e " . At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s time p e r i o d a l l s u b j e c t s were asked to s t o p . T h i s process was repeated twice more. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the survey, s u b j e c t s were thanked f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and data was c o l l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s u n i t s . No v o l u n t a r y withdrawals o c c u r r e d . The o n l y s u b j e c t s omitted from the data c o l l e c t i o n were those absent dur i n g the survey time. No attempt was made to r e - c l a i m these s u b j e c t s . 32 The Research Design C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l Survey - Non e q u i v a l e n t Group Design There were 10 p o s s i b l e groups i n t h i s d e s i g n . Each group was d e f i n e d with r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r age (5 groups) and to t h e i r gender. A l l assessment was done d u r i n g s c h o o l time. C l a s s e s i n Guidance 8 to 11 and E n g l i s h 12 were s e l e c t e d to meet the d e s i r e d sample number at each age/gender group. S e l e c t i n g groups cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as d e s i r e a b l e as choosing i n d i v i d u a l s randomly. The l a r g e sample d e s i r e d i n t h i s study and the r e a l i t y of a s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d to choosing s t r a t i f i e d c l u s t e r s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s . Although s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n adminstering the instrument was p r e s e n t , the assessment p e r i o d extended over e i g h t f u l l s c h o o l days. Survey a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was presented both i n v e r b a l and w r i t t e n form to reduce the requirement of having to r e c o g n i z e survey requirements e n t i r e l y v i a the w r i t t e n word. Sc o r i n g and Data A n a l y s i s S c o r i n g The LAWKO Survey i s an open form measurement instrument. It permits each member of the sample p o p u l a t i o n to d e s c r i b e p e r s o n a l l y experienced p r e s s u r e s . It i s intended to present the r e s e a r c h e r with a f a c t u a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e view of the a d o l e s c e n t ' s world over a four month p e r i o d . Each s u b j e c t ' s data was to undergo content a n a l y s i s . T h i s a n a l y s i s would see 33 the emergence of a number of common f a c t o r s or c a t e g o r i e s . To begin the process of category b u i l d i n g i t was necessary to i n i t i a l l y a nalyze a s m a l l e r c r o s s s e c t i o n of the e n t i r e sample group. It was assumed that a l l 10 groups based on age and gender should be r e p r e s e n t e d i f responses were to be i n i t i a l l y content analyzed and c a t e g o r i e s developed. A l l s u b j e c t s ' data belonging to the same age and gender group were d e p o s i t e d i n t o a l a r g e box and s h u f f l e d . An independent a s s i s t a n t then reached i n t o the box and chose s i x members. Th i s process was repeated f o r a l l 10 groups. A t o t a l of 60 s u b j e c t s , e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the 10 age/gender groups became the i n i t i a l group f o r content a n a l y s i s and category development. I t was the r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumption t h a t a g r e a t e r range of age/gender responses would produce a v a r i e d and comprehensive range of c a t e g o r i e s . Along with the r e s e a r c h e r an a s s i s t a n t was t r a i n e d with regards to understanding the c o n s t r u c t of "experienced p r e s s u r e s " . The a s s i s t a n t became f a m i l i a r with the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t and was to be used i n both a i d i n g the r e s e a r c h e r i n developing the i n i t i a l response c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as a c t i n g as a secondary r a t e r i n developing i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Both r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t c o l l a b o r a t e d on the c a t e g o r i z i n g of the i n i t i a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sub-group w r i t t e n responses. The g u i d e l i n e s governing t h i s i n i t i a l c a t e g o r y - b u i l d i n g content a n a l y s i s were: 1. Does the w r i t t e n response f a l l w i t h i n the boundaries of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ? 34 2 . Which p a r t of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n does the w r i t t e n response most apply to? 3. Can a category be e s t a b l i s h e d which f i t s w i t h i n the broader component of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ? 4. Which name best d e s c r i b e s t h i s s p e c i f i c category w i t h i n the g e n e r a l , broader component of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ? No w r i t t e n responses were c a t e g o r i z e d d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . P o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s emerged and were l i s t e d along with a c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n . Throughout t h i s i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t d e f i n e d and r e - d e f i n e d apparent c a t e g o r i e s . A l l s u b j e c t s used i n the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s were r e t u r n e d to the sample group. In an endeavour to content analyze without r e c e i v i n g data i n any age/gender group, the data was entered i n t o a l a r g e b a r r e l where i t was s h u f f l e d and randomly o r d e r e d . The d e s i r e by the r e s e a r c h e r was to l e s s e n the chances of p o s s i b l e r a t e r b i a s by knowing the age/gender group being content a n a l y z e d . A l l b i o g r a p h i c a l data was kept face down to exclude knowledge of the s u b j e c t being a n a l y z e d . Sc o r i n g data simply became a matter of a s s i g n i n g a code number of 1 to 11 f o r each response (or non-response) made by s u b j e c t s . Content a n a l y s i s of the w r i t t e n responses produced the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s along with the c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . 1. Peer Group Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from some member(s) of the a d o l e s c e n t ' s peer group. Sometimes when you want something your f r i e n d s want to do another so you must s t i c k 35 with them. I have f r i e n d s who are A and B s t u d e n t s , I'm a B student and once I had a C on my r e p o r t c a r d and d i d n ' t make i t on the honour r o l e , so they c a l l e d me s t u p i d because the o t h e r s made i t and I d i d n ' t . 2. Family Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from some member(s) of the a d o l e s c e n t ' s f a m i l y . Parents are a b i g p r e s s u r e f o r me because they want me to succeed with s c h o o l , piano and theory l e s s o n s , f r i e n d s , g e t t i n g a j o b , e t c . They never seem to a p p r e c i a t e the good t h i n g s I do but they always n o t i c e the bad t h i n g s . I f e e l as i f I have d i s a p p o i n t e d them. 3 . Academic Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from the academic demands of high s c h o o l personnel and/or c u r r i c u l u m demands. W r i t i n g essays are a b i g p r e s s u r e because I f e e l o b l i g e d to do r e a l l y w e l l i n o r d e r to keep up to the standards I have s e t f o r myself. E n g l i s h has been one of my good s u b j e c t s and o b v i o u s l y I want to continue doing w e l l . I get f r u s t r a t e d because i t takes a long time to get i d e a s on paper i n a way I l i k e . 4 . S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from the a d o l e s c e n t ' s involvement and/or awareness i n new, d i s c o m f o r t i n g or t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . A c o m p e t i t i o n i n an i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s event such as swimming, d i v i n g , gymnastics. You have no one to blame but y o u r s e l f i f you do p o o r l y . The p r e s s u r e i s on you by your coach to do w e l l or e l s e . 5 . Time Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from the press of demands with a d e f i n e d p e r i o d of time. Sometimes I have to study s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s a l l at once and I get so confused and worried my stomach s t a r t s to h u r t . What do I do f i r s t ? What s u b j e c t s get f i r s t p r i o r i t y ? 6. I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from the i n t e r n a l , s e l f - p e r c e i v e d needs of the a d o l e s c e n t . Coming back to s c h o o l to face the 36 problems of l a s t y e a r . I f e l t a l o t of a n x i e t y and was extremely nervous. I f I l e t i t get to me too much I would l o s e c o n f i d e n c e i n myself. I was a f r a i d everyone would hate me and I'd be l e f t by myself. L i k e I was watching e v e r y t h i n g through a g l a s s window. I d i d n ' t want to be accepted by a l l , but by the people I cared about. 7. I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from a r e l a t i o n s h i p with a non-family member. Problems with e x - b o y f r i e n d s . What do you do when they s t i l l h a s s l e you? When they t e l l you they s t i l l r e a l l y l o v e you a l o t and why can't you l o v e them back. Mixed emotions come about. I f e e l s i c k to my stomach. I get upset and don't e a t . Some guys are j u s t a b i g h a s s l e i n one's l i f e . 8. Future Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from some u n c e r t a i n , f u t u r e c o n c e r n ( s ) . Meeting s o c i e t y ' s / p a r e n t s ' / o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s i s the p r e s s u r e t h a t I f e e l . I'm having t r o u b l e d e c i d i n g on a c a r e e r and my parents would l i k e me to become a c h a r t e r e d accountant. I worry about t h i s everyday, wondering i f I can cope with seven years of s t u d y i n g , i f that c a r e e r w i l l p l e a s e me f i f t e e n years from now and whether or not I ' l l be s u c c e s s f u l i n becoming an accountant. 9. M u l t i p l e Pressure - the source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) o r i g i n a t e s from two or more pr e s s u r e sources and cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n importance. The g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e I f e e l i s s c h o o l . My parents decided to move to Canada because they wanted us to have a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n . For t h i s reason, I f e e l i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t I do w e l l i n a l l my c o u r s e s . I do not want to d i s a p p o i n t them. Most of a l l I don't want to d i s a p p o i n t myself. 10. No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - no source of experienced p r e s s u r e ( s ) i s i d e n t i f i a b l e although a w r i t t e n reponse i s g i v e n . There i s no event that I can t h i n k of r i g h t now. 11. No Response - no w r i t t e n response i s g i v e n . 37 Emergence of the preceding e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s were l a r g e l y the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . P r e ssures i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l were d i s c u s s e d by Davis (1964) and by McGuigan (1966). The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s study used by Moses and Delaney (1969) r e l i e d upon an i n i t i a l open-form instrument. This instrument l e d to the formation of major c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r f o r both i n - s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l p r e s s u r e s . Applegate (1981) used a s i m i l a r open-form, c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s instrument i n order to determine seven major c a t e g o r i e s of s c h o o l - r e l a t e d problems. These problems i n c l u d e d both academic and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l problems. Pressures from home l i f e and community involvement were presented by Heffernan (1966) and House (1980). C a t e g o r i e s i n v o l v i n g concerns with f a m i l y members, with peers as w e l l as i n t r a - p e r s o n a l problems were a d d i t i o n a l l y p r e s e n t e d . F o l l o w i n g content a n a l y s i s and code assignment, a l l data was key punched along with p e r t i n e n t b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and entered i n t o the computer. A frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n was obtained on each of the 11 v a r i a b l e s as they p e r t a i n e d to the sample groups. A l l data underwent s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s A l i m i t e d number of s t a t i s t i c s are s u i t a b l e f o r use with frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s . K i r k (1978) s t a t e s that the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i s one of the more u s e f u l s t a t i s t i c s i n working with non-parametric a n a l y s i s . T h i s study d e a l s with 38 frequency data and compares a maximum of f i v e sample groups at one time based on age and/or gender with e l e v e n v a r i a b l e s o b t a i n e d through content a n a l y s i s . A comparison a l s o i s made between two groups based on age and gender. Other requirements which help i n making the "Goodness of F i t " t e s t a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l u d e the need f o r a l a r g e sample, an i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n of each response and the mutually e x c l u s i v e membership of o b s e r v a t i o n s ( s u b j e c t s ' responses) i n t o one c a t e g o r y . The present study p r e s e n t s a l a r g e sample (n = 505), an i n d i v i d u a l and independent o b s e r v a t i o n of three responses and d e s i g n a t i o n of those responses i n t o one, and o n l y one, c a t e g o r y . F u r t h e r , the l a r g e sample s i z e ensures that expected f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l be adequate f o r each of the p r e s s u r e c a t e g o r i e s . The use of the "Goodness of F i t " t e s t r e q u e sts that a minimum expected frequency of f i v e counts should be a v a i l a b l e f o r each category when the degrees of freedom are g r e a t e r than one. A l l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s with regards to the "Goodness of F i t " t e s t were c a r r i e d out at a .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Assignment of Frequency Scores To i n v e s t i g a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between or among groups, the c h i - s q u a r e "Goodness of F i t " t e s t employs frequency counts i n mutually e x c l u s i v e c e l l s . A l l data content analyzed was assigned membership to one of eleven p o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s . Since each s u b j e c t was asked to respond three times to the survey and s i n c e type of pr e s s u r e and not the i n t e n s i t y of experienced p r e s s u r e was d e s i r e d , 39 frequency s c o r e s were as s i g n e d i n a p r e s c r i b e d manner. I f a s u b j e c t ' s three responses were assig n e d to the same p r e s s u r e category a l l three times, one frequency score was assig n e d to t h a t c a t e g o r y . I f a s u b j e c t ' s responses were assigned one time to category A and two times to category B, category A r e c e i v e d one frequency score and category B r e c e i v e d one frequency s c o r e . I f a s u b j e c t ' s responses were assig n e d to three d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , a l l three c a t e g o r i e s r e c e i v e d one frequency s c o r e . R e s u l t s of s u b j e c t s ' i n i t i a l a s s i g n e d c a t e g o r i e s along with d i s t r i b u t i o n of frequency s c o r e s are presented i n TABLE 4. I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y A s s i g n i n g s u b j e c t ' s i n i t i a l responses to one of the eleven mutually e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e d e s t a b l i s h i n g a process f o r o b t a i n i n g i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . The r e s e a r c h e r , along with an a s s i s t a n t , worked together i n a s s i g n i n g c a t e g o r i e s to the i n i t i a l 60 s u b j e c t s (180 responses) content a n a l y z e d . During t h i s i n i t i a l c ategory assignment s e s s i o n , both r a t e r s c o n j o i n t l y assigned codes l a b e l l e d from one to e l e v e n . F u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n of the eleven c a t e g o r i e s r e s u l t e d as both r a t e r s f u r t h e r developed a mutual and f u l l e r understanding as to i n d i v i d u a l category boundaries. T h i s s e s s i o n was intended to e s t a b l i s h w i t h i n each r a t e r the b a s i s f o r subsequent item response category assignment. F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l c o - o p e r a t i v e , mutual agreement categor y assignment s e s s i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r independently TABLE 4 Conversion of T o t a l Code Responses  to Frequency Scores Category Code T o t a l Responses Assigned Frequency Scores 1 60 56 2 262 211 3 338 277 4 262 202 5 49 47 6 88 75 7 121 106 8 114 98 9 81 74 10 46 38 11 94 64 T o t a l s 1515 1248 41 content analyzed a f u r t h e r 100 s u b j e c t s (300 responses) and assigned I n d i v i d u a l codes. These codes were recorded s o l e l y on a separate s c o r i n g sheet so as to ensure that items were not marked or scored i n any v i s i b l e manner which c o u l d l a t e r a i d the second r a t e r . Only an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number was a t t a c h e d to the f i r s t page of the survey to a i d i n l a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Upon the completion of t h i s p r o c e s s , the r e s e a r c h e r removed every f i f t h s u b j e c t analyzed and presented the survey to the second r a t e r to be r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Percentage s c o r e s were then c a l c u l a t e d to determine the percentage of agreement between r a t e r s on the items a n a l y z e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , both r a t e r s reviewed the items of non-agreement i n assigned codes. It was decided by the r e s e a r c h e r that such a review would continue to help to c l a r i f y the boundaries by which each r a t e r d e f i n e d t h e i r understanding of the eleven c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s process was repeated u n t i l a l l 505 s u b j e c t s (1515 responses) had been assigned i n i t i a l c ategory codes. Responses where i n t e r - r a t e r disagreement o c c u r r e d were r e - r a t e d a second time d u r i n g the review s e s s i o n . The r e s u l t s of i n t e r - r a t e r category assignment agreement are summarized i n TABLE 5. As presented i n TABLE 5, i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y on every f i f t h s u b j e c t was an o v e r a l l average 80.28%. I n t e r - r a t e r agreement on category assignment i n c r e a s e d from an i n i t i a l 76.19% to 84.62% f o r the f i n a l sample of 26 s u b j e c t s (78 r e s p o n s e s ) . T h i s improvement i n i n t e r - r a t e r agreement was no doubt aided by the review s e s s i o n s which fo l l o w e d each round of independent r a t i n g s . Both r a t e r s TABLE 5 I n t e r - r a t e r Agreement of Codes Assigned to S u b j e c t s ' Responses Subject ID Sample T o t a l I n t e r - r a t e r % of Numbers S i z e Responses Response I n t e r - r a t e r Coded Agreement Agreement #65 to #165 21 63 48 76.19% #170 to #270 21 63 50 79.37% #275 to #375 21 63 51 80.95% #380 to #505 26 78 66 84.62% T o t a l s 89 267 215 80.28% 43 i n c r e a s e d t h e i r understanding of the boundaries d e f i n e d by the e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s i n a mutual d i r e c t i o n . The 89 s u b j e c t s (267 responses) which were r a t e d twice independently, r e p r e s e n t 20% of the t o t a l sample used i n the study. 44 CHAPTER IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The main purpose of t h i s study was to determine the types of p r e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s experienced i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . A second purpose was to d i s c o v e r whether gender or age were important f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the types of p r e s s u r e s a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d . Using the b a s i c u n i t of a hi g h s c h o o l Guidance and E n g l i s h c l a s s , f i v e hundred and f i v e s u b j e c t s were c l u s t e r - s a m p l e d from w i t h i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of a l o c a l h igh s c h o o l . The s u b j e c t s were asked to respond i n w r i t i n g to an open-form, s e l f - r e p o r t survey as to the three g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s which they had experienced d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s f o u r months. Responses were content analyzed and were assig n e d to any one of eleven mutually e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . These coded responses were converted to frequency scores and s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed f o r s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e "Goodness of F i t " t e s t . A l l s t a t i s t i c a l work was c a r r i e d out at the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Response to the Survey As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s study were asked to respond a maximum of three times to the g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s which they had r e c e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d . R e s u l t s of these responses are presented i n Table 6. From a d e s c r i p t i v e view of the types of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s , 45 TABLE 6 D e s c r i p t i o n o f S u b j e c t s ' Responses to C a t e g o r i e s  of Experienced Pressures Category D e s c r i p t i o n Absolute R e l a t i v e Rank Code Frequency Frequency Scores (PCT) 1 Peer Pressure 56 11.1% 9 2 Family Pressure 211 41.8% 2 3 Academic Pressure 277 54.9% 1 4 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 202 40.0% 3 5 Time Pressure 47 9.3% 10 6 I n t r a - P e r s o n a l Pressure 75 14.9% 6 7 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 106 21.0% 4 8 Future Pressure 98 19.4% 5 9 M u l t i p l e Pressure 74 14.7% 7 10 No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 38 7.5% 11 11 No Response 64 12.7% 8 46 Academic Pressure ranks f i r s t as some 54.9% of the sample p o p u l a t i o n responded to that c a t e g o r y . Family Pressure (41.8%) and S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure (40%) rank second and t h i r d r e s p e c t i v e l y . Responses which c o u l d not be coded i n any category (No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) ranked e l e v e n t h with 7.5% of the t o t a l sample responding. The assignment to t h i s code was done a c c o r d i n g to a number of r a t e r - a s s i g n e d f a c t o r s . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n understanding the w r i t t e n E n g l i s h , poor h a n d w r i t i n g , one-word responses, and a l a c k of a r e c o g n i z a b l e experienced p r e s s u r e due to an i n s u f f i c i e n t d e s c r i p t i o n or because of a "rambling" n o n - d i r e c t e d d e s c r i p t i o n . F a c t o r s such as these account f o r the assignment of frequency s c o r e s to the category o f "No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n may be found i n the composition of the 38 frequency scores assigned to t h i s c a t e g o r y . A t o t a l o f 30 frequency scores were assig n e d to responses b e l o n g i n g to s u b j e c t s f o r whom E n g l i s h was not the f i r s t language. Only e i g h t frequency scores were assig n e d to t h i s category from s u b j e c t s f o r whom E n g l i s h was the f i r s t language. F o l l o w i n g are the r e s u l t s of the "No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " frequency s c o r e assignment as based on language: Chinese 16, Punjabi 5, E n g l i s h 8, Other O r i e n t a l 4, French 1, Other European 4. The "No Response" category accounted f o r 64 frequency s c o r e s . From the data, i t s i m i l a r l y appears that the f a c t o r of f i r s t language played an important r o l e i n determining that c a t e g o r y ' s frequency s c o r e . Of the 64 frequency scores assigned to the "No Response" category, 43 scores were obtained from a sample f o r whom E n g l i s h was not a f i r s t 47 language. The frequency scores f o r "No Response" were ob t a i n e d from the f o l l o w i n g sample p o p u l a t i o n : Chinese 24, Punjabi 4, E n g l i s h 21, Other O r i e n t a l 7, French 2, Other European 6. Using the "Goodness of F i t " t e s t to compare a c o l l a p s e d "non-English as a f i r s t language" group with an " E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language" group, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the groups at the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e f o r both the "No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " and "No Response" c a t e g o r i e s . Language appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n determining membership i n the two "non-pressure" c a t e g o r i e s . F u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s a l s o supported the n o t i o n that gender d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d with regards to the "No Response" c a t e g o r y . Males chose to not respond s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than females. R e s u l t s For the purpose of p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, i t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n to l i m i t the r e s u l t s to the nine c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d as being experienced p r e s s u r e s . Hypothesis I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by a d o l e s c e n t s a c r o s s age. The i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study was whether age was r e l a t e d to the type of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . Do the types of p r e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s experience change as they progress through the years of being a teenager? The f i v e groups s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed c o n s i s t e d 48 of 100 a d o l e s c e n t s under age 14, 96 aged 14, 74 aged 15, 99 aged 16, and 130 over age 16. The r e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s are summarized i n Table 7. As presented, there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the Future Pressure category which a d o l e s c e n t s across age e x p e r i e n c e . I t appears t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s experience g r e a t e r Future Pressure as they grow i n t o t h e i r l a t e r teenage y e a r s . The over 16 age group experiences the g r e a t e s t Future Pressure c a t e g o r y . As regards the categor y o f Future P r e s s u r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . Age does appear to be a f a c t o r r e l a t e d to who experiences Future P r e s s u r e . For the remaining e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. For these c a t e g o r i e s , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d . Age does not appear to be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r r e l a t e d to which a d o l e s c e n t s experience those e i g h t p r e s s u r e c a t e g o r i e s . Hypothesis II There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types o f experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by male and female a d o l e s c e n t s at the same age l e v e l . The second q u e s t i o n which t h i s study examined was whether gender d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by a d o l e s c e n t s at the same age l e v e l . Since f i v e age groups were analyzed f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g gender, each age group w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . 49 TABLE 7 Chi-square "Goodness of F i t " Test (Age) (Percentage Values) Pressure Under Over % of Sig . Category 14 14 15 16 16 T o t a l L e v e l Peer 10.8 12 .17 14.9 , , 10.0 9.2 11.1 .7794 Family 46.1 47 .5 36.5 47.0 33.1 41.8 .0874 Academic 60 .8 58 .6 51 .4 55.0 49 .2 54.9 .4016 S i t u a t i o n a l 50.0 37 .4 40.5 38.0 33.8 39.6 .1496 Time 6.9 5 .1 10.8 11.0 12.3 9.3 .3115 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l 8.8 20 .2 20.3 16.0 11 .5 14.9 .0872 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l 18.6 16 .2 29.7 23.0 20.0 21.0 .2429 Future 11.8 12 .1 14.9 19.0 33 .8 19 .4 .0000 M u l t i p l e 10.8 11 .1 9.5 20.0 19.2 14.7 .0820 • S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 50 Under 14 Age Group R e s u l t s A t o t a l of 47 males and 53 females composed the under 14 age group. The r e s u l t s y i e l d e d are presented i n Table 8. As the data r e v e a l s , males and females appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a number of experienced p r e s s u r e s . Females d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from males i n experienced Family P r e s s u r e . I t appears t h a t Family Pressure i s of g r e a t e r concern to a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s under the age of 14 than a d o l e s c e n t boys of the same age. S i m i l a r l y , the data r e v e a l s that females are more l i k e l y to experience I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure than males. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appear i n the c a t e g o r i e s of S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure and Time Pre s s u r e , with males r e p o r t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p r e s s u r e s than females from those two s o u r c e s . The n u l l h y p o thesis was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d f o r the c a t e g o r i e s of Family P r e s s u r e , I n t e r - p e r s o n a l P r e s s u r e , S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure and Time P r e s s u r e . In these four c a t e g o r i e s there appears to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e based on gender f o r a d o l e s c e n t s under age 14. For the remaining f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. Age 14 Group R e s u l t s A t o t a l of 51 males and 45 females composed the age 14 sample group. As d e s c r i b e d i n Table 9, s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n three of the nine c a t e g o r i e s . Females at age 14 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from males i n Peer P r e s s u r e , Family Pressure and S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . It appears 51 TABLE 8 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test  f o r Under 14 Age (Gender) Category Male Female % of S i g . (n=47) (n=53) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 8.5% 13.2% 11.0% .4537 * Family Pressure 31.9 60.4% 47 .0% .0044 Academic Pressure 57.4% 64.2% 61.0% .4927 * S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 63 .8% 35 .8% 49.0% .0052 * Time Pressure 12.8% 0.0% 6.0% .0073 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 6.4% 11.3% 9.0% .3892 * I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 6.4% 30.2% 19.0% .0025 Future Pressure 6.4% 15.1% 11.0% .1647 M u l t i p l e Pressure 12.8% 9.4% 11.0% .5951 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e TABLE 9 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test f o r Age 14 (Gender) Category Male Female % of S i g . - (n=41) (n=45) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 2.0% 24.4% 12.3% .0009 Family Pressure 37.3% 62.2% 49.0% .0146 Academic Pressure 52 .9% 66.7% 59.4% .1718 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 47.1% 24.4% 36.5% .0216 Time Pressure 7.8% 2.2% 5.2% .2161 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 25.5% 15.6% 20.8% .2317 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 15.7% 17.8% 16.7% .7838 Future Pressure 15.7% 8.9% 12.5% .3149 M u l t i p l e Pressure 7.8% 15.6% 11.5% .2365 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 53 that both Peer and Family Pressures are more of a concern to g i r l s at t h i s age than to boys. S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure i s of a g r e a t e r concern to males. The n u l l h y p o thesis was r e j e c t e d f o r the c a t e g o r i e s of Peer P r e s s u r e , Family Pressure and S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . The n u l l h y p o thesis was not r e j e c t e d f o r the remaining s i x c a t e g o r i e s . Age 15 Group R e s u l t s T h i s age group c o n s i s t e d of 38 males and 36 females. R e s u l t s are presented i n Table 10. S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was found i n one c a t e g o r y . It appears that females at age 15 experience s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r Family Pressure than s i m i l a r l y aged males. The n u l l h y p o thesis was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d f o r the category of Family P r e s s u r e . For the remaining e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s the n u l l h y p o thesis was not r e j e c t e d . Age 16 Group R e s u l t s A sample group of 41 males and 58 females comprised t h i s age group. Table 11 summarizes the r e s u l t s . The category of Family Pressure appears to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of gender at age 16. Females at age 16 appear to experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure than do males. The n u l l h ypothesis was r e j e c t e d f o r t h i s category of experienced p r e s s u r e . For a l l remaining c a t e g o r i e s , the n u l l h y p o thesis was not r e j e c t e d . Males and females do not appear to s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r on e i g h t of the experienced p r e s s u r e s c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE 10 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test f o r Age 15 (Gender) Category Male Female % of S i g . (n=38) (n=36) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 15.8% 13.9% 14.9% .8183 Family Pressure 21.1% 52 .8% 36.5% .0046 Academic Pressure 57.9% 44.4% 51.4% .2473 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 50 .0% 30 .6% 40 .5% .0886 Time Pressure 10.5% 11.1% 10.8% .9355 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 15.8% 25.0% 20.3% .3246 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 26.3% 33.3% 29.7% .5092 Future Pressure 10.5% 19.4% 14.9% .2811 M u l t i p l e Pressure 5.3% 13.9% 9.5% .2051 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e TABLE 11 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test f o r Age 16 (Gender) Category Male Female % of S i g . (n=41) (n=58) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 7.3% 12.1% 10.1% .4396 Family Pressure 34.1% 56.9% 47.5% .0256 Academic Pressure 58.5% 51.7% 54.5% .5025 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 41.5% 34.5% 37.4% .4795 Time Pressure 7.3% 13.8% 11.1% .3125 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 9.-8% 19.0% 15 .2% .2081 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 19 .5% 25.9% 23.2% .4612 Future Pressure 22.0% 17.2% 19.2% .5578 M u l t i p l e Pressure 19.5% 20 .7% 20.2% .8857 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 56 Over Age 16 Group R e s u l t s A t o t a l of 70 males and 60 females comprised the over 16 age group. As Table 12 summarizes, s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s appear f o r two c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s . Females appear to experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure as w e l l as Time Pressure than do t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d with regards to these two c a t e g o r i e s . For the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s , the n u l l h y p o thesis was not r e j e c t e d . There appears to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females over age 16 i n regards to the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s . Hypothesis I I I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by male and female a d o l e s c e n t s . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n s t u d i e d i n the present r e s e a r c h was to determine whether male and female a d o l e s c e n t s experienced d i f f e r e n t types of p r e s s u r e s . The sample group c o n s i s t e d of 247 males and 252 females. The r e s u l t s of the f i n d i n g s are presented i n Table 13. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n three of the nine c a t e g o r i e s . Adolescent females r e p o r t a g r e a t e r experienced p r e s s u r e with regards to Peer Pressure and Family P r e s s u r e . Adolescent males appear to experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure than do a d o l e s c e n t females. As a r e s u l t , the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d i n the c a t e g o r i e s of Peer P r e s s u r e , Family 57 TABLE 12 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test  f o r Over Age 16 (Gender) Category Male Female % of S i g . (n=70) (n=60) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 7.1% 11.7% 9.2% .3744 Family Pressure 20.0% 48.3% 33.1% .0006 Academic Pressure 50.0% 48.3% 49.2% .8497 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 38 .6% 28.3% 33.8% .2188 Time Pressure 5.7% 20.0% 12 .3% .0134 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 10.0% 12.2% 11.5% .5532 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 22.9% 16.7% 20.0% .3790 Future Pressure 35.7% 31.7% 33.8% .6268 M u l t i p l e Pressure 14.3% 25.0% 19.2% .1223 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e TABLE 13 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test (Gender) Category Male Female % of Sig . (n=247) (n=252) Sample L e v e l Peer Pressure 7.7% 14.7% 11.2% .0134 Family Pressure 28.3% 56.0% 42.3% .0000 Academic Pressure 54 .7% 55.2% 54.9% .9101 S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure 47 .4% 31.0% 39.1% .0002 Time Pressure 8.5% 9.9% 9.2% .5839 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure 13 .4% 16.3% 14.8% .3605 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure 18.2% 24.2% 21.2% .1021 Future Pressure 19.8% 19.0% 19.4% .8235 M u l t i p l e Pressure 12.1% 17.5% 14.8% .0949 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 59 P r e s s u r e , and S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . Males and females do appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n those three c a t e g o r i e s . The n u l l h y p o thesis was not r e j e c t e d f o r the remaining s i x c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s . Hypothesis IV There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by males a c r o s s age. The f o u r t h q u e s t i o n which t h i s study undertook to examine was whether male a d o l e s c e n t s a c r o s s age would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n types of p r e s s u r e s which they e x p e r i e n c e . The groups analyzed were composed of 47 males under age 14, 51 males age 14, 38 males age 15, 41 males age 16 and 70 males over age 16. R e s u l t s of the data are summarized i n Table 14. Males appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s i n both I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure as w e l l as Future P r e s s u r e . Males age 14 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from other age male a d o l e s c e n t s i n terms of e x p e r i e n c i n g I n t r a - p e r s o n a l P r e s s u r e . Males over the age of 16 experience g r e a t e r Future Pressure than do younger male a d o l e s c e n t s . Males do appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n regards to these types of experienced p r e s s u r e s . The n u l l h ypothesis was not r e j e c t e d f o r the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s . Adolescent males a c r o s s age appear to experience s i m i l a r p r e s s u r e s as regards to the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s . 60 TABLE 14 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test f o r Males (Age) (Percentage Values) Pressure Under Over % of L e v e l C a t e g o r i e s 14 14 15 16 16 Sample of S i g Peer 8.5 2.0 15.8 7 .3 7.1 7.7 .2029 Family 31.9 37.3 21 .1 34 .1 20,0 28.3 .1736 Academic 57 .4 52.9 57.9 58 .5 50.0 54.7 .8731 S i t u a t i o n a l 63.8 47.1 50.0 41 .5 38.6 47.4 .0930 Time 12.8 7.8 10.5 7 .3 5.7 8.5 .7173 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l 6.4 25.5 15.8 9 .8 10.0 13.4 .0440 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l 6.4 15.7 26.3 19 .5 22.9 18. ,2 .1177 Future 6.4 15.7 10.5 22 .0 35.7 19.8 .0007 M u l t i p l e 12.8 7.8 5.3 19 .5 14.3 12.1 .2900 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 61 Hypothesis V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by females a c r o s s age. The f i n a l q u e s t i o n asked i n t h i s study was whether females a c r o s s age would d i f f e r i n the types of p r e s s u r e s which they e x p e r i e n c e . The groups analyzed c o n s i s t e d of 53 females under age 14, 45 females age 14, 36 females age 15, 58 females age 16 and 60 females over age 16. Table 15 summarizes the data a n a l y s i s . Females over the age of 16 experience g r e a t e r Time Pressure as w e l l as Future Pressure than do younger adolescent females. As a r e s u l t of these f i n d i n g s , the n u l l h y p o thesis was r e j e c t e d with regards to the c a t e g o r i e s of Time Pressure and Future P r e s s u r e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d i n terms of the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s . Adolescent females at v a r i o u s ages do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on seven c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s . D i s c u s s i o n The present r e s e a r c h examined the f a c t o r s of age and/or gender with nine c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s . The p r e v i o u s l y presented r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t both age and/or gender are r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n types of p r e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . 62 TABLE 15 Chi-Square "Goodness of F i t " Test f o r Females (Age) (Percentage Values) Pressure Under Over % of L e v e l C a t e g o r i e s 14 14 15 16 16 Sample of S i g . Peer 13.2 24 .4 13.9 12.1 11.7 14.7 .3688 Family 60.4 62 .2 52.8 56.9 48.3 56.0 .6057 Academic 64.2 66 .7 44.4 51.7 48.3 55 .2 .1247 S i t u a t i o n a l 35 .8 24 .4 30.6 34.5 28.3 31.0 .7321 Time 0.0 2 .2 11.1 13.8 20.0 9.9 .0022 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l 11 .3 15 .6 25 .0 19.0 13.3 16.3 .4521 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l 30.2 17 .8 33.3 25.9 16.7 24.2 .2287 Future 15.1 8 .9 19.4 17.2 31.1 19.0 .0426 M u l t i p l e 9.4 15 .6 13.9 20.7 25 .0 17.5 .2321 * S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l of con f i d e n c e 63 S i g n i f i c a n t Age-based R e s u l t s One age r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n examined i n t h i s study was whether a d o l e s c e n t s at d i f f e r e n t ages experienced d i f f e r e n t p r e s s u r e s . Sherhas (1977) and Yeaworth (1980) concluded that perhaps d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n terms of the concerns or types of p r e s s u r e s a d o l e s c e n t s i n v a r i o u s age goups ex p e r i e n c e d . Research conducted by Bowlby (1980), Kliman (1968) and Rutter (1966) demonstrated that age d i f f e r e n c e s between young c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s tended to demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n how those age groups r e a c t e d to an i n t e n s e s t r e s s o r . Dunn (1981) and Moore (1975) concluded that the p r e s s u r e of b i r t h of a new s i b l i n g was l e s s of a t h r e a t to o l d e r c h i l d r e n than to younger c h i l d r e n . A review of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r Hypothesis I shows that one category, Future Pressure, d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of age. The n u l l h y p o thesis was r e j e c t e d f o r t h i s category of experienced p r e s s u r e . As the adolescent moves towards o l d e r adolescence, the f u t u r e begins to h o l d more meaning i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i o n . The f i v e age groups analyzed demonstrated an i n c r e a s e i n response to Future P r e s s u r e . The o l d e s t group analyzed, over age 16, demonstrated the g r e a t e s t response to such a p r e s s u r e . Such a f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with a present day understanding of a d o l e s c e n t s . During l a t e adolescence, the f u t u r e begins to hold a g r e a t e r concern i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x i s t e n c e . The a d o l e s c e n t c o g n i t i v e l y begins the process of s t r u c t u r i n g a f u t u r e . These thoughts extend 64 to p l ans i n regards to f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n , a p o s s i b l e c a r e e r , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a f u t u r e l i f e s t y l e . The harsh f a c t t h a t the l a t e a d o lescent w i l l soon be l e a v i n g the "nest" of high s c h o o l l i f e and e n t e r i n g i n t o a "new" world begins to become more r e l e v a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l . Perhaps an a d d i t i o n a l reason f o r t h i s experienced Future Pressure may be found i n the c u r r e n t s t a t e of today's w o r l d . Whereas younger age a d o l e s c e n t s may have a few years l e f t i n having to face the f u t u r e , the o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t i s almost d a i l y made abundantly aware of the c o n d i t i o n of the present day world. Issues i n v o l v i n g unemployment, i n f l a t i o n , the world's arms ra c e , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r u n i v e r s i t y and post-secondary education amongst o t h e r s , may be adding to the o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the f u t u r e . S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r Hypotheses IV and V s i m i l a r l y r e i n f o r c e the f a c t o r which age p l a y s i n e x p e r i e n c i n g Future P r e s s u r e . Males ac r o s s age r e f l e c t the f i n d i n g t h a t o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t s are more l i k e l y to experience t h i s category of p r e s s u r e than are younger age a d o l e s c e n t s . L i k e w i s e , females a c r o s s age s i m i l a r l y back up the importance of age i n e x p e r i e n c i n g Future P r e s s u r e . F u r t h e r , although not a major focus of t h i s study, a d d i t i o n a l data r e v e a l s that r e l a t i n g Future Pressure to o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t s appears to c r o s s c u l t u r a l l i n e s . Age again appears to p r e c l u d e c u l t u r e i n p r e d i c t i n g who experiences Future P r e s s u r e . Older age female a d o l e s c e n t s are more apt to experience Time Pressure than younger age a d o l e s c e n t s . The n u l l h y pothesis was r e j e c t e d f o r t h i s experienced p r e s s u r e . I t 65 appears t h a t as the female adolescent grows i n age the demands on her i n c r e a s e . Perhaps along with the time demands made at home the o l d e r female a d o l e s c e n t begins to f e e l the a d d i t i o n a l time c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon her by a m u l t i t u d e of i n t e r e s t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , job demands, as w e l l as sch o o l demands. There i s an attempt to t r y many new a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s l a t e r adolescence p e r i o d . Whereas younger females perhaps are more concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r - p e r s o n a l and peer group a s s o c i a t i o n s , the o l d e r female a d o l e s c e n t begins to focus upon i n d i v i d u a l time commitments with regards to a host of c h a l l e n g e s . A g r e a t e r f e e l i n g of s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and independence now enter s i n t o the a d o l e s c e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of being s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t s . The f e e l i n g of being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r whatever i s attempted becomes a strong d r i v i n g p o i n t i n the o l d e r female a d o l e s c e n t s ' growth towards a d u l t m a t u r i t y . T h i s sense of purpose begins to a s s e r t i t s e l f s t r o n g e r i n the o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t age group. S i g n i f i c a n t Gender-based R e s u l t s The gender-based q u e s t i o n r e f e r r i n g to Hypothesis II was whether gender d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d w i t h i n the same age group. G e n e r a l l y , the s t a t i s t i c a l data supports the n o t i o n that l a r g e r gender d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between younger age ado l e s c e n t s than o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t s . Four c a t e g o r i e s of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e were found i n the under 14 age group, three c a t e g o r i e s f o r the 14 age group, one category i n the 66 15 age group, one category i n the 16 age group, and two c a t e g o r i e s i n the over 16 age group. L i t t l e present day r e s e a r c h e x i s t s matching l i k e - a g e males and females to experienced p r e s s u r e s . S t u d i e s have tended to examine gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e n e r a l (Burke and Weir 1976; Eme 1979; House 1980) or l a r g e r age groupings. Perhaps the g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t h a t g r e a t e r gender d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between younger age a d o l e s c e n t s can best be understood through e a r l y l i f e sex r o l e l e a r n i n g as w e l l as gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth. The young c h i l d , male and female, takes on and i n t e r a c t s with the world i n l a r g e l y p a r e n t a l l y determined ways. Stereotypes are developed which p r e c o n d i t i o n the c h i l d to act/behave i n a p r e s c r i b e d manner. In young a d o l e s c e n t s male and female d i f f e r e n c e s are accentuated with the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h y s i c a l growth r a t e . G i r l s appear to bound ahead of boys i n e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t development and i n doing so i n c r e a s e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes. Young a d o l e s c e n t males l a r g e l y c ontinue to behave and a c t as p r e v i o u s l y while the r a p i d p h y s i c a l growth of the female along with p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d s t e r e o p t y p e s r e g a r d i n g what being female i m p l i e s begins to separate the sexes. As a d o l e s c e n t s grow, p h y s i c a l and mental d i f f e r e n c e s d ecrease. Along with u n l e a r n i n g p r e v i o u s l y h e l d gender s t e r e o t y p e s , the a d o l e s c e n t begins to see s i m i l a r i t i e s i n sex r o l e s r a t h e r than d i s - s i m i l a r i t i e s . This c o n t r i b u t e s to l e s s e n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female a d o l e s c e n t s . Within each of the f i v e age groups s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the sexes i n the 67 c a t e g o r y of Family P r e s s u r e . Within each age group, females d e s c r i b e d g r e a t e r experienced Family Pressure than males. Burke and Weir (1976) although not age s p e c i f i c support the f i n d i n g by c o n c l u d i n g that female a d o l e s c e n t s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from males i n the category of " d i f f e r e n c e s with p a r e n t s " . S i m i l a r l y House (1980) i n d i c a t e d t h a t females responded more f r e q u e n t l y than males to the concern of " r e l a t i o n s h i p with p a r e n t s " . Parents, perhaps, continue to hold d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands towards both t h e i r sons and daughters. Males are perhaps s t i l l t r e a t e d with g r e a t e r l e n i e n c y , g r e a t e r freedom and a male set of e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands. Females, perhaps, are s t i l l l a r g e l y t r e a t e d by parents as needing protection,' l e a r n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e "female" s k i l l s and a female set of e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands. Males and females under age 14 and age 14 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n e x p e r i e n c i n g S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . Males i n these age l e v e l s through t h e i r involvement i n an awareness of new, d i s c o m f o r t i n g or t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . Rutter (1981) u s i n g the s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e of e n t e r i n g day c a r e , observed that males demonstrated g r e a t e r behavior change than females. Moses and Delaney (1969) found that " s i t u a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s " were an important p a r t of the a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . The authors, however, d i d not r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n s i m i l a r age groups. Perhaps a t e n t a t i v e reason as to why young male ad o l e s c e n t s experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure than 68 t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s may be e x p l a i n e d through l e a r n e d gender r o l e s . Males t r a d i t i o n a l l y are t r a i n e d to be tough, to withhold "unmasculine" f e e l i n g s and to act l i k e a man. Females are t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e p i c t e d as being emotional under s t r e s s , and ready to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . The gender d i f f e r e n c e i n regards to S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure perhaps r e f l e c t the f e e l i n g s which males may f e e l h e s i t a n t to d i s c u s s or express openly. Whereas females are d e s c r i b e d as being open with regards to t h e i r f e e l i n g s , males perhaps s t i l l r e t a i n a guarded and d e f e n s i v e approach i n terms of what they f e e l can be openly r e v e a l e d . Male responses to S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e , w i t h i n the younger male a d o l e s c e n t , may i n f a c t r e f l e c t the male b e l i e f t h a t f e e l i n g s of f e a r , doubt or worry are i n a p p r o p r i a t e to d i s c u s s or express openly. It may be e a s i e r f o r the young male a d o l e s c e n t to respond i n w r i t i n g to S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure than to present i t openly i n day to day c o n v e r s a t i o n s . Perhaps a secondary e x p l a n a t i o n may be that younger male a d o l e s c e n t s do i n f a c t l i v e a l i f e which i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of f a c i n g new, d i s c o m f o r t i n g or t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Perhaps f u r t h e r gender s t e r e o t y p i n g encourages young males to take g r e a t e r r i s k s i n terms of events i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e . Females perhaps are s t i l l p a r e n t a l l y d i r e c t e d towards a v o i d i n g r i s k y or t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . At age 15 gender d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure are not s i g n i f i c a n t and remain so throughout the o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t age groups. 69 Females under age 14 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from same age males i n r e l a t i o n to I n t e r - p e r s o n a l P r e s s u r e . Burke and Weir (1976) and House (1980) concluded that gender d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o u r i n g females e x i s t e d i n the p r e s s u r e s from o p p o s i t e sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s . No d i s t i n c t i o n was made with regards to age. Moses and Delariey (1969), although n e i t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g gender nor age, concluded that acceptance by o t h e r s was a major p r e s s u r e experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . Perhaps an e x p l a n a t i o n as to p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s , with regards to I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure w i t h i n the under 14 age group, l i e s i n the d i f f e r e n c e i n p h y s i c a l growth between the sexes. Younger female a d o l e s c e n t s reach puberty at an e a r l i e r age than do males. G e n e r a l l y , males under age 14 to not demonstrate as wide a v a r i e t y i n p h y s i c a l growth as do females. With p h y s i c a l changes o c c u r r i n g r a p i d l y , the female can experience a host of f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g her p h y s i c a l appearance. Eme (1979) found that a d o l e s c e n t females responded s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than males on the importance of a p h y s i c a l appearance f a c t o r . A d e s i r e to be accepted amongst r a p i d p h y s i c a l change may c o n t r i b u t e to the i n c r e a s e d need by the young female a d o l e s c e n t to make and maintain meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e shows females age 14 e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r Peer Pressure than do males at the same age. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that data f o r the age 14 group now i n d i c a t e s males responding more o f t e n than females as e x p e r i e n c i n g I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure (although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) . Females at t h i s age now 70 experience g r e a t e r Peer P r e s s u r e . Burke and Weir (1976) conclude that females experience s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e s from peer acceptance than do males. No data r e g a r d i n g age was r e p o r t e d . P r o g r e s s i n g from the need to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s at a younger a d o l e s c e n t age, females now form a l l i a n c e s i n terms of belon g i n g to a group. The need to belong to a group, with behavior p a t t e r n s conforming to that group, begins to appear during t h i s time. This age group conforms to the common o b s e r v a t i o n made by teachers who now begin to witness the presence of strong " c l i q u e s " and sub-groups. The need to expand s o c i a l l y outwards c o n t i n u e s to grow. A f i n a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n the same age group was found r e g a r d i n g Time P r e s s u r e . Females over age 16 experience s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r Time Pressure than do males over age 16. A t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n may appear i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n who responded to t h i s p r e s s u r e . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of over age 16 females who responded to Time Pressure (78%) were from a non-English as a f i r s t language group. The over age 16 male p o p u l a t i o n d i d not r e f l e c t as l a r g e a d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of language. There i s a st r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y that c u l t u r e perhaps p l a y s an important r o l e i n the experienced p r e s s u r e of Time P r e s s u r e . T r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s with regards to f a m i l y and home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s along with changing n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s o u t s i d e of the home perhaps combine to account f o r t h i s gender d i f f e r e n c e . The l a r g e n on-English as a f i r s t language female response group 71 f e e l s the day to day time p r e s s u r e s of being an o l d e r age a d o l e s c e n t as w e l l as having to meet the a d d i t i o n a l demands of a t r a d i t i o n a l female sex r o l e . D i s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c age groups, male and female a d o l e s c e n t s i n g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n three types of p r e s s u r e s which they e x p e r i e n c e . Females experience g r e a t e r Peer Pressure and Family Pressure than do males while males experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . I t appears that the e f f e c t s of l e a r n e d sex r o l e s as w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l growth, as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , c o n t r i b u t e to not o n l y gender d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the same age group but appear to c r o s s a l l a d o l e s c e n t age groups. 72 CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of t h i s f i n a l chapter i s to present a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the study. F o l l o w i n g a restatement of the purpose of the study, a shor t d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedures used, the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, the major f i n d i n g s and recommendations, t e n t a t i v e suggestions f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l conclude t h i s t h e s i s . Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the types of pre s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . The present r e s e a r c h looked at p o s s i b l e gender and/or age d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t i n terms of the pres s u r e s a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . Review of Procedures Used A t o t a l of 505 high school students comprised the sample used i n t h i s study. The s u b j e c t s became members of one of f i v e p o s s i b l e age groups and a l s o were s u b - d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to gender. The f i v e age groups i n c l u d e d an under 14 age group, an age 14 group, an age 15 group, an age 16 group, and an over age 16 group. A s t r a t i f i e d c l u s t e r - s a m p l i n g technique was used i n s e l e c t i n g s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study. A s e l f - r e p o r t measurement instrument was designed to gather data r e g a r d i n g what a d o l e s c e n t s c o n s i d e r e d to be the three g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s they experienced i n day to day l i v i n g . P r i o r to a d m i n i s t e r i n g 73 the survey a p i l o t of the measurement instrument was c a r r i e d o u t . The p i l o t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n order to determine a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s as w e l l as t e n t a t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . Using a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t , an i n i t i a l number of s u b j e c t s ' responses were content a n a l y z e d . Eleven mutually e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d to which a l l s u b j e c t s ' responses c o u l d be given e x c l u s i v e membership. Of the e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d , two c a t e g o r i e s represented "No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " and "No Reponse" while nine c a t e g o r i e s represented adolescent experienced p r e s s u r e s . Category response codes were then converted to frequency s c o r e s . Using the c h i - s q u a r e "Goodness of F i t " t e s t group data was . s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 1. The s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s study were surveyed i n s c h o o l , d u r i n g school hours. Although there i s no evidence to support that t h i s environmental f a c t o r i n f l u e n c e d responses to academic or s c h o o l r e l a t e d p r e s s u r e s , such a p o s s i b i l i t y should not be e n t i r e l y d i s m i s s e d . 2. By sampling a p o p u l a t i o n of high s c h o o l students i t was necessary to use a s t r a t i f i e d c l u s t e r - s a m p l e r a t h e r than a random sample of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Although a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d , i t should be acknowledged that a random sample i s p r e f e r a b l e when such a s e l e c t i o n technique i s p o s s i b l e to use. 74 3. The survey was admi n i s t e r e d and the data c o l l e c t e d over an e i g h t day p e r i o d . It would have been p r e f e r a b l e to reduce the amount of time taken to conclude the survey. Although the a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the survey was done under s t a n d a r d i z e d c o n d i t i o n s , groups surveyed towards the end of the t e s t i n g p e r i o d c o u l d have been made t e s t - w i s e i n terms of the demands of the survey. The r e s e a r c h e r wished to survey each group e q u a l l y i n terms of being prepared to respond to the survey. Groups surveyed l a t e r c o u l d have had p r i o r knowledge as to what the survey asked. However, there i s no evidence to suggest that t h i s was the case. 4. The sample p o p u l a t i o n was from a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom E n g l i s h was not the f i r s t language. Some 55.4% of the sample i n d i c a t e d t hat E n g l i s h was t h e i r second languge. Although p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n supports the r o l e language played i n determining response membership to the "No Response" and "No C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " c a t e g o r i e s , l i t t l e evidence was presented or data analyzed to support a f u r t h e r r o l e language perhaps played with regards to the nine experienced p r e s s u r e c a t e g o r i e s . When i n t e r p r e t i n g or a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s of -this study to another adolescent p o p u l a t i o n , i t should be done with an understanding of the f i r s t language of the sample p o p u l a t i o n used. 5. The measurement instrument used i n t h i s study was of a s u b j e c t i v e , open-form type. Being such, i t i s s u b j e c t to c e r t a i n disadvantages or l i m i t a t i o n s . Subjects responding to such an instrument can respond i n a b i a s e d way. F a i l u r e to r e c a l l important i n f o r m a t i o n and the l a c k of p o s s i b l e honesty 75 i n responding to such a survey are f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s of such an instrument. Given the anonymity and the v o l u n t a r y nature secured by the survey, these l i m i t a t i o n s perhaps have been kept to a minimum. Main F i n d i n g s and Co n c l u s i o n s S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r Hypothesis I was to determine whether age was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r r e l a t e d to the type of pre s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . The f i v e age groups analyzed d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on e i g h t experienced p r e s s u r e s c a t e g o r i e s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the category of Future P r e s s u r e . Adolescents are more l i k e l y to experience Future Pressure as they advance i n age. The over age 16 group i s more l i k e l y than any ot h e r age group to experience t h i s p r e s s u r e . The second Hypothesis examined whether male and female a d o l e s c e n t s i n the same age group d i f f e r e d i n the pr e s s u r e s which they e x p e r i e n c e d . The under 14 age group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n four c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s . Females under age 14 experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure and I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Pressure than do under age 14 males. Males experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure and Time Pressure than do females. Males and females age 14 d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on three c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e . Females age 14 are more l i k e l y to experience Peer Pressure and Family Pressure than are age 14 males. Males age 14 appear to experience g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . In the age 15 group one category of experienced pressure d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Females at 76 t h i s age experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure than do males. S i m i l a r l y , age 16 females experience Family Pressure s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than do age 16 males. In the over 16 age group, two c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Females experience g r e a t e r Family Pressure as w e l l as Time Pressure than do t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . Hypothesis I I I examined the types of experienced p r e s s u r e s d e s c r i b e d by male and female a d o l e s c e n t s . The t o t a l male adolescent sample group was compared with the t o t a l female adolescent group. Three c a t e g o r i e s of experienced p r e s s u r e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Female a d o l e s c e n t s were found to experience g r e a t e r Peer Pressure and Family Pressure than do a d o l e s c e n t males. Males experienced s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r S i t u a t i o n a l P r e s s u r e . Hypothesis IV of t h i s study examined p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s i n males with the p r e s s u r e s they e x p e r i e n c e d . Two c a t e g o r i e s of p r e s s u r e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of males ac r o s s age. Males at age 14 experience s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r I n t r a - p e r s o n a l Pressure than do other age male a d o l e s c e n t s . Males over age 16 experience s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r Future Pressure than do younger male a d o l e s c e n t s . Hypothesis V of t h i s study examined p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the experienced p r e s s u r e s of females a c r o s s age. Females d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on two c a t e g o r i e s of p r e s s u r e s . Females over age 16 experience g r e a t e r Time Pressure and Future Pressure than do younger age females. 77 Recommendations The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h at gender and/or age do p l a y a r o l e i n determining c e r t a i n types of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . For high s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s an awareness of the p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n both i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as f u t u r e Guidance program development. 1. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s found i n t h i s study tend to support the g e n e r a l n o t i o n that sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g c o n t i n u e s to be a major f a c t o r i n determining a d o l e s c e n t sexual development. Within Guidance programs o f f e r e d i n high s c h o o l s , a continued e f f o r t should remain i n p r e s e n t i n g human s e x u a l i t y w i t h i n the broader scope of sex r o l e development. Programs should continue to be developed and designed i n such a way as to a l l o w a d o l e s c e n t s to become aware of the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of male and female r o l e s . Programs should continue to aim at reducing s t e r e o t y p e s r e g a r d i n g sexual r o l e s as w e l l as r e s p e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l value systems w i t h i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . 2. The p r e s s u r e experienced by o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e must be addresed. With the u n c e r t a i n t i e s c l o u d i n g present day employment, c a r e e r c h o i c e and f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n , amongst o t h e r s , programs w i t h i n the s c h o o l must be d i r e c t e d towards p r e p a r i n g the o l d e r adolescent to enter a world that i s r a p i d l y changing. No longer should the emphasis be p l a c e d upon d i r e c t i n g the adolescent towards a s p e c i f i c c a r e e r c h o i c e or i n f u r t h e r emphasizing the r o l e work must p l a y i n f u t u r e 78 l i f e . U n c e r t a i n t y , change and the 40 hour work week must become the major themes f o r Guidance programs i n the f u t u r e . A r e - d i r e c t i o n from a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r focus, with regards to Guidance programs, to one promoting and f o c u s i n g on a d o l e s c e n t f l e x i b i l i t y must become the a l t e r n a t i v e . I n d i v i d u a l s must be d i r e c t e d towards f e e l i n g worth and success from w i t h i n a non-career o r i e n t a t i o n . Program development should begin to a s s e r t a focus towards the p o s i t i v e use of g r e a t e r f r e e time as w e l l as s e l f - f u l l f i l l m e n t through a l t e r n a t i v e means r a t h e r than by the e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i based on the economy. Programs must be developed which i n c o r p o r a t e change as i t s major theme. 3. Female a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h i s study appear to experience g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e s than do male a d o l e s c e n t s . T h i s tendency occurs w i t h i n the same age group or a c r o s s age. In e i g h t of the eleven cases where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g gender was found, females r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e than males. Family Pressure i s by f a r the g r e a t e s t gender-based pr e s s u r e i n which females d i f f e r from males. In c o u n s e l l i n g female a d o l e s c e n t c l i e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s should be aware that perhaps sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r that may be i n f l u e n c i n g f a m i l y based p r e s s u r e s . Self-awareness with female a d o l e s c e n t s should continue to e x p l o r e the bases by which female r o l e s have been i n d i v i d u a l l y accepted. It appears that a l a r g e number of r e p o r t e d f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s continue to be the r e s u l t of t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . 79 Suggestions f o r Future Research The r e s e a r c h completed i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e s that some types of pr e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s d i f f e r as a r e s u l t of gender and/or age f a c t o r s . C e r t a i n types of pr e s s u r e s are more l i k e l y to be experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s as a r e s u l t of gender while other p r e s s u r e s are more s p e c i f i c to p a r t i c u l a r a d o lescent age groups. The e f f e c t s of c u l t u r e upon the types of p r e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . As presented i n t h i s study, the sample p o p u l a t i o n contained a m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s f o r whom E n g l i s h was not the f i r s t l e a r n e d language. Do a d o l e s c e n t s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s d i f f e r i n the types of pr e s s u r e s they experience? Do the major c a t e g o r i e s which c o n s t i t u t e a d o l e s c e n t p r e s s u r e s c r o s s c u l t u r a l boundaries? F u r t h e r , does gender and/or age continue to be a f a c t o r r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n types of pr e s s u r e s experienced w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s ? A f u r t h e r study should be undertaken to examine why female a d o l e s c e n t s experience g r e a t e r f a m i l y p r e s s u r e than do males. Although sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s b e l i e v e d to be a major c o n t r i b u t o r f o r such a gender d i f f e r e n c e , are th e r e other s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s which can a l s o be c o n t r i b u t i n g to the r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p ressure? Another study c o u l d be undertaken to determine whether ad o l e s c e n t s from a s i n g l e parent f a m i l y experience d i f f e r e n t types of pres s u r e s from those of a two parent f a m i l y . In a d d i t i o n age and/or gender d i f f e r e n c e s could be examined. 80 A f i n a l study c o u l d be designed to examine the e f f e c t s of school or f a m i l y m o b i l i t y upon the p r e s s u r e s which a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the types of pre s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s who have moved or changed s c h o o l s a number of times with those who have remained s t a b l e ? S t a b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y perhaps a l s o a f f e c t the pr e s s u r e s experienced by a d o l e s c e n t s . 81 REFERENCES Alden, V.R. (1966). "What kind of e x c e l l e n c e ? In R.C. D o l l and R.S. Fleming ( E d s . ) , C h i l d r e n Under P r e s s u r e . 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S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l Development and Response to S t r e s s o r s . In N. Garmezy and M. Rutter ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s , Coping and Development i n C h i l d r e n . New York: McGraw-Hill. McGuigan, R.A. (1966). C h i l d r e n under P r e s s u r e . In R.C. D o l l and R.S. Fleming (Eds.) C h i l d r e n Under P r e s s u r e . Columbus, Ohio: M e r r i l l . Mechanic, David. (1962). Students Under S t r e s s . New York: Free Press of Glencoe. Moore, T. (1975). S t r e s s i n normal c h i l d h o o d . In L. L e v i (Ed.) S o c i e t y , s t r e s s and d i s e a s e : Childhood and adolescence. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 83 M e t c a l f , Alban, Robert, J . , Dobson, C l i f f o r d B., Cook, Ann, and Michaurd, Ann. (1982). The C o n s t r u c t i o n , r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of a s t r e s s i n v e n t o r y f o r c h i l d r e n . E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 2, 59-71. Moses, H.A., and Delaney, D.J. (1969). Graduate Students' P e r c e p t i o n s of the Dimensions of Pressures Faced by C h i l d r e n : A Fa c t o r A n a l y t i c Study. Measurement and  E v a l u a t i o n i n Guidance, 2, 101-109. Paykel, E.S. (1978). C o n t r i b u t i o n of l i f e events to c a u s a t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Medicine, 8, 245-254. R u t t e r , M. (1966). C h i l d r e n of s i c k p a r e n t s : An environmental and p s y c h i a t r i c study. I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h i a t r y Maudsley  Monographs No. 16. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R u t t e r , M. (1970). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s responses to f a m i l y s t r e s s . In E . J . Anthony and C. Koupernik ( E d s . ) , The c h i l d i n h i s f a m i l y . New York: Wiley. R u t t e r , M. (1980). The long-term e f f e c t s of e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e . Developmental Medicine and C h i l d Neurology, 22, 800-815. R u t t e r , M. (1981). S o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l consequences of day care f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . American J o u r n a l of  O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 51, 4-28. Rut t e r , M. (1982). E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l - l o n g i t u d i n a l approaches to the study of development. In W.A. C o l l i n s ( E d . ) , The  concept o f development: Minnesota symposia on c h i l d  psychology. H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : Lawrence Erlbaum. R u t t e r , M. (1983). S t r e s s , Coping and Development: Some Issues and Some Questions. In N. Garmezy and M. Rutter ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s , Coping and Development i n C h i l d r e n . New York: McGraw-Hill. Selye, Hans. (1956). The S t r e s s of L i f e . New York: McGraw-Hill. Sherhas, Peter L. (1977). Adolescents on Adolescence: A Survey  of Important Issues f o r A d o l e s c e n t s . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 146 484). Wolff, S. (1973). C h i l d r e n Under S t r e s s . Bungay, England: Penguin P r e s s . W a l l e r s t e i n , J.S. & K e l l y , J.B. (1980). S u r v i v i n g the break-up: How c h i l d r e n and parents cope with d i v o r c e . New York: Bas i c Books. 84 Yeaworth, R.C. and o t h e r s . (1980). The Development of an Adolescent L i f e Change Event S c a l e . Adolescence, 15, 91-98. APPENDIX A MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT AND SURVEY INFORMATION 86 Lawko Survey of Adolescent Experienced Pressures Please c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e response f o r each q u e s t i o n . 1. Male Female 2. Present age: Under 13 13 14 15 16 17 over 17 3. Present grade l e v e l : 8 9 10 11 12 4. Number of c h i l d r e n i n your f a m i l y ? 5. What i s your rank i n age compared to other c h i l d r e n i n your f a m i l y ? 6. How many sc h o o l s have you attended s i n c e Grade one? 7. Is E n g l i s h your f i r s t l e a r n e d language? Yes No If your answer i s no p l e a s e i n d i c a t e your f i r s t l e a r n e d language The f o l l o w i n g i s a survey intended to study what teenagers experience as the g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s survey i s v o l u n t a r y but would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . You are c e r t a i n l y not o b l i g a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n which you may o f f e r w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous. Please do not w r i t e your name on t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Teenagers l i v e i n a world of many p r e s s u r e s . An examination at s c h o o l , a f a i l i n g grade, a h a s s l e from another person, a disagreement with your p a r e n t ( s ) , your f r i e n d s l e a v i n g you out of t h i n g s , being l e f t o f f the s p o r t s team, your d e s i r e to succeed i n a f u t u r e c a r e e r , not knowing what the f u t u r e holds f o r you, the noise of t r a f f i c keeping you awake at n i g h t or the smelly a i r being l e t out by a f a c t o r y downtown. These are examples of where these p r e s s u r e s might come from. Most people experience p r e s s u r e s i n many ways duri n g t h e i r l i v e s . You may have become aware of c e r t a i n messages which t e l l you that you are e x p e r i e n c i n g p r e s s u r e s . These might i n c l u d e sweaty hands, an upset stomach or t i g h t neck muscles. You may be aware of f e e l i n g s such as anger, f r u s t r a t i o n or sadness. Or you may become aware of c e r t a i n changes i n behaviour such as o v e r e a t i n g / u n d e r e a t i n g , t w i t c h i n g eyes, or the i n a b i l i t y to stay seated f o r a lengthy p e r i o d of time. A l l of these are ways i n which pre s s u r e s are e x p e r i e n c e d . In the f o l l o w i n g survey you w i l l be asked to t h i n k about your d a i l y l i f e d uring the l a s t four months. In the spaces p r o v i d e d , d e s c r i b e the three g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s which you can r e c a l l having experienced d u r i n g that time. The order i n which you l i s t your 3 p r e s s u r e s i s not important. You w i l l be g i v e n 3 minutes to t h i n k about each p r e s s u r e and then to w r i t e a 87 short d e s c r i p t i o n of that p r e s s u r e . Try to use the f u l l 3 minutes to r e c a l l and w r i t e your d e s c r i p t i o n but do not continue on to the next p r e s s u r e u n t i l l you are i n s t r u c t e d to do so . Perhaps to help you i d e n t i f y what a pr e s s u r e i s , t r y to remember how you f e l t or behaved when you were under p r e s s u r e . Try to r e c a l l how o f t e n t h i s p r e s s u r e o c c u r s . Does i t appear q u i t e o f t e n ? In your d e s c r i p t i o n , t r y to d e s c r i b e the reason(s) why t h i s i s a pr e s s u r e i n your l i f e . EXAMPLE: "Math exams are a b i g pr e s s u r e to me because I have never done w e l l i n Math. If I want to become an a i r - l i n e p i l o t Math i s important. I have thought about t h i s c a r e e r f o r some time and r e a l l y want to go f o r i t . ! " 88 ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION FOR LAWKO ADOLESCENT  EXPERIENCED PRESSURES SURVEY 1. Before d i s t r i b u t i n g Survey, announce: "You are a p a r t of a l a r g e group of f e l l o w students s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a survey r e g a r d i n g what a d o l e s c e n t s experience as the g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s i s an anonymous survey to ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be much a p p r e c i a t e d . You w i l l r e q u i r e approximately 15 minutes to complete t h i s survey. You r e q u i r e o n l y a pen or p e n c i l to respond ." 2. D i s t r i b u t e survey. 3. Read i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n r e g a r d i n g "no names". 4. Read through and e x p l a i n c e r t a i n b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . #1 - male or female #2 - todays age i n years #3 - homeroom c l a s s - i f none i n d i c a t e N/C #4 - how many c h i l d r e n do you c o n s i d e r as p a r t of your f a m i l y i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f #5 - your rank i n age compared to those c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d i n #4 #6 - from Grade 1 to the present - p u b l i c or p r i v a t e #7 - a) the f i r s t language you l e a r n e d as a c h i l d b) i f NO - what was that language? 5. Begin to read through the survey. Allow any v o l u n t a r y withdrawals i f they o c c u r . 6. Complete read i n g of q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Ask i f there are any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o n f u s i o n to the i n s t r u c t i o n s . Do not g i v e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g experienced p r e s s u r e or t r y to d e f i n e words, concepts, e t c . 7. Re-emphasize using the f u l l 3 minutes to t h i n k and w r i t e about that p r e s s u r e . Remember to l i m i t the t h i n k i n g to the l a s t 4 months (beginning of October to end of J a n u a r y ) . 8. Please "STOP" when requested to - even i f not f i n i s h e d . 9. Rest f o r 30 seconds between Response ffl and Response #2 and then s t a t e "Now you have another 3 minutes to t h i n k and w r i t e about another of your g r e a t e s t experienced p r e s s u r e s over the l a s t 4 months." Begin. 10. "STOP" and repeat 30 second r e s t s t a t i n g "Now you have 3 minutes to w r i t e and d e c r i b e a t h i r d great pressure you experienced i n the l a s t 4 months". 11. "STOP"! 12. Thank students f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o l l e c t survey. APPENDIX B LETTERS OF RESEARCH APPROVAL AND PARENTAL INFORMATION APPENDIX C SAMPLE RESPONSES TO EXPERIENCED PRESSURES 94 Peer Pressure Another s t r e s s f o r me i s when your f r i e n d s ask you to p l a y with them and you r e a l l y have to do your homework and they're g i v i n g you the " b u s i n e s s " . G i r l s . Everyone i s g e t t i n g a g i r l f r i e n d but I don't want to r i g h t now. It seems l i k e I'm being pushed i n t o g e t t i n g one or i f I must speak with a g i r l people get the wrong i d e a . I mean I don't mind having them as f r i e n d s and o n l y f r i e n d s , nothing more so why i s i t that I have to make more of i t ? I wish those guys would j u s t l e a v e me alone.-Family Pressure One t h i n g that bothered me was t h a t my dad expected me to be e i t h e r a doctor or something r e l a t e d to t h a t . Since my b r o t h e r and s i s t e r both decided not to become d o c t o r s , my f a t h e r wanted me to be one. But I am not i n t e r e s t e d i n the medical p r o f e s s i o n . I t h i n k my parents are too s t r i c t on me. A l l my f r i e n d s can go downtown ev e r y p l a c e but no, not me. Locked i n the house on Saturdays and Sundays. I know my parents t r y to p r o t e c t me but sometimes they're too o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e . I can't even t a l k on the phone f o r more than h a l f an hour and they scream at me. Sometimes I j u s t want to run out of the house. Academic Pressure P h y s i c s t e s t s always put a r e a l l y l i k e t h i s s u b j e c t a l o t . l o t of p r e s s u r e on me. I I enjoy the c l a s s e s and i t i s 95 very important to me that I do w e l l . In many of my c l a s s e s I have f a l l e n a b i t behind. That has made me kind of edgy sometimes. S i t u a t i o n a l Pressure I t h i n k the b i g g e s t p r e s s u r e of my l i f e was my grade 7 piano exam. I had skipped grade 6 because I had done q u i t e w e l l i n grade 5. My teacher was onl y an amateur and d i d not teach me w e l l . I always got so f r u s t r a t e d when I c o u l d n ' t p l a y my songs p r o p e r l y . Just b e f o r e the exam I broke down and c r i e d . At the exam, I f o r g o t e v e r y t h i n g because I was so nervous. Then, a f t e r w a r d s , I c r i e d a g a i n . I wish not to take showers a f t e r P.E. That g i v e s me a l o t of p r e s s u r e . Time Pressure Within the l a s t couple of days I had so much pre s s u r e on me. There were so many assignments to hand i n durin g the week. Teachers were on my back. I had to s k i p out of c l a s s e s to have my assignments completed. I f e e l p r essure q u i t e o f t e n because o u t s i d e of sc h o o l I am engaged i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . As w e l l , I have music l e s s o n s three times a week and I do v o l u n t e e r work once a week. In s c h o o l , a l l my s u b j e c t s are academic except P.E. and so I have t e s t s p r a c t i c a l l y everyday. 9 6 I n t r a - p e r s o n a l P r e s s u r e B e i n g a b l e t o f i t i n s o c i a l l y w a s a l w a y s a b i g w o r r y f o r m e . M y p a r e n t s d o n ' t h a v e a l o t o f m o n e y s o m y c l o t h e s a r e n ' t a l w a y s i n f a s h i o n . I ' v e a l w a y s b e e n s l i g h t l y s h y u n t i l t h i s y e a r w h e n I l e a r n e d t o c o n t r o l m y f e e l i n g s a n d i n s t e a d a c t i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f s t r a n g e r s . S o m e t i m e s I w o n d e r i f I w i l l e v e r h a v e t o b r e a k o u t o f m y s h e l l a n d w h a t I ' l l d o . I g u e s s t h i s m a y s o u n d d u m b b u t i t ' s v e r y t r u e . I h a v e n ' t h a d a b o y f r i e n d a s o f y e t a n d a t t i m e s I g e t v e r y d e p r e s s e d t h a t I d o n ' t . I ' l l b e 17 t h i s y e a r a n d e v e r s i n c e I ' v e b e e n l i t t l e , I ' v e b a r e l y w a i t e d f o r t h e t i m e I c a n g o o u t . I t m a k e s m e w o n d e r w h a t ' s w r o n g w i t h m e . I k n o w I ' m n o t g o r g e o u s - b u t s t i l l ? M y f r i e n d s h a v e g o n e o u t m a n y t i m e s e x c e p t f o r o n e w h o ' s i n a r u t l i k e m e . S h e t e l l s m e I ' m s k i n n y a n d t h a t s h e ' s f a t . W e l l , a l o t o f g o o d b e i n g s k i n n y h a s d o n e m e . I n t e r - p e r s o n a l P r e s s u r e T h e t h i r d b i g p r e s s u r e I h a v e a r e f r i e n d s b e c a u s e I l o s t m y b e s t f r i e n d a n d I d o n ' t e v e n k n o w w h y h e g o t m a d a t m e l i k e t h a t . I f I w a n t t o b e a f r i e n d w i t h h i m a s u s u a l I h a v e t o s a y s o r r y t o h i m f i r s t . A g o o d f r i e n d o f m i n e . . . w e s e e m t o b e d r i f t i n g a w a y f r o m e a c h o t h e r . W e n e v e r g o a n y w h e r e t o g e t h e r . F u t u r e P r e s s u r e I s o m e t i m e s w o n d e r w h a t t h e f u t u r e h o l d s f o r m e . W i l l I g e t t h e l o v e a n d r o m a n c e I w a n t ? W i l l I g e t t h e t y p e o f j o b I 97 w a n t ? W i l l I h a v e s u f f i c i e n t f r i e n d s . . . e d u c a t i o n ? A l l t h e s e t h o u g h t s h a v e s e t d o u b t t o my m i n d . A l l I r e a l l y want i s h a p p i n e s s , b u t w i l l I r e c e i v e t h a t f r o m t h e f u t u r e ? My s e c o n d p r o b l e m i s t h a t I want t o be a d o c t o r when I'm o l d e r . I 'm p l a n n i n g on b e i n g an o n t o l o g i s t b u t t h e s t a n d a r d s h a v e g o n e up t o g e t i n t o u n i v e r s i t y . I g o t a " B " i n s c i e n c e b u t I 'm n o t d o i n g as w e l l t h i s t e r m and I 'm a f r a i d I w o n ' t make i t t o u n i v e r s i t y . M u l t i p l e P r e s s u r e The amount o f homework h a s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y t h i s y e a r . In o r d e r f o r me t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y I must m a i n t a i n my " B " a v e r a g e . I f I s h o u l d e v e r b r i n g home a bad r e p o r t w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f any " C " s t h e r o o f o f my h o u s e w i l l r i s e . W o r r y a b o u t g e t t i n g b a c k t o s c h o o l . W h i c h t e a c h e r s I g e t , i f I h a v e a c o n f l i c t i n my t i m e t a b l e , i f I g e t any c l a s s e s w i t h my f r i e n d s and i f I l i k e where my l o c k e r i s . I w o r r y i f I p i c k e d t h e r i g h t c o u r s e . 

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