UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploration of the use of metaphor in effective counselling Lee, Simon Yiu-Chuen 1985

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EXPLORATION OF THE USE OF METAPHOR IN EFFECTIVE COUNSELLING by SIMON YIU-CHUEN LEE B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y M.Div., Regent Th.M., Regent of Manitoba, 1972 of Manitoba, 1974 C o l l e g e , 1980 C o l l e g e , 1984 A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s i n The F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology T h i s t h e s i s i s acce p t e d as conforming -to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. (C) Simon Yiu-Chuen Lee, 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advance degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r . e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i s h i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver. B.C. V6T 1Y3 ^im\)r^iu-4#uen ^Lee i i A b s t r a c t T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e t h e u s e o f m e t a p h o r i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . A s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h w a s a d o p t e d f o r t h e r e s e a r c h . T h e m a t e r i a l o f a f a m i l y i n t h e r a p y b y V i r g i n i a S a t i r a s t h e r a p i s t w a s t r a n s c r i b e d v e r b a t i m f r o m t h e a u d i o t a p e s . T h e m e t a p h o r s o f b o t h t h e t h e r a p i s t a n d t h e c l i e n t w e r e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e t r a n s c r i p t . T h e y w e r e t h e n c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t y p e s a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . N e x t t h e p a t t e r n s o f m e t a p h o r i c u s a g e w e r e e x a m i n e d . T h e m o v e m e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g w a s m e a s u r e d u s i n g a s p e c i a l s c a l e . P o i n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t m o v e m e n t i n t h e c l i e n t w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . T h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e u s e s o f t h e m e t a p h o r s a n d t h e c l i e n t ' s p r o g r e s s w a s s t u d i e d . F o r t y - f i v e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e u s e o f m e t a p h o r s b y t h e t h e r a p i s t w e r e r e p o r t e d . B u t m e t a p h o r s w e r e u s e d b y t h e c l i e n t o n l y f i v e t i m e s . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t m e t a p h o r s u s e d b y t h e t h e r a p i s t a l l o c c u r r e d a t p o i n t s w h e r e t h e r e w e r e a l o t o f p r o g r e s s i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g . T h e o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f m e t a p h o r s u s e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d t h e f a c t t h a t m e t a p h o r s c a n b e t h e d i r e c t v e h i c l e o f i n s i g h t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . I n s i g h t s f r o m t h e m e t a p h o r s w e r e n o t d e p e n d e n t o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c l i e n t t o r e c i p r o c a t e i n m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n . S o m e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g u s i n g m e t a p h o r s w e r e s u g g e s t e d a n d s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w e r e o f f e r e d . i i i T a b l e of Contents Page CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 Background of the Problem 1 The Problem . 2 Some D e f i n i t i o n s 3 The Purpose of the Study 4 D e l i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 5 CHAPTER TWO A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 7 Overview 7 Metaphor i n P h i l o s o p h y and L i n g u i s t i c s 8 The Emergence of a Modern Theory . 8 Support f o r B l a c k ' s Theory . . 9 Debate o v e r . B l a c k ' s Theory 12 Recent Developments: Symposiums and A n t h o l o g i e s . . 14 B l a c k ' s F u r t h e r Development of His Theory . . . . 15 C o n t i n u i n g Debate Over B l a c k ' s Theory 16 Metaphor i n Psychology and Psychotherapy 17 A T r a n s i t i o n 17 Metaphor i n Psychology 18 (1) Metaphor as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s . . . . 18 (2) Metaphor as a C o g n i t i v e Process 20 (3) Recent Research . 21 Metaphor i n Psychotherapy . 23 (1) E a r l y A n a l y t i c a l Views 24 i v (2) Sharpe's Extension of the Psychoanalyt ic View 25 (3) The Recent Trend 26 (4) Metaphor i n Family Therapy 32 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 40 The Context 40 Preparing T r a n s c r i p t 40 V e r i f y i n g T r a n s c r i p t 40 D i v i d i n g T r a n s c r i p t in to Excerpts 41 T r a i n i n g Research A s s i s t a n t 41 Conducting a P i l o t Study 41 I d e n t i f y i n g the Metaphors 42 Measuring the Therapeutic Progress 43 Ident i fy ing the Patterns of Metaphoric I n t e r a c t i o n . . 45 Interview with the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r . . . . 45 . CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 46 The pat tern of Metaphoric In terac t ion 56 E f f e c t i v e Uses of Metaphors 61 A Useful C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 61 A H e l p f u l Categor i za t ion . 62 A V e h i c l e of Ins ight 63 A Freedom to Respond 64 From Accommodation to A s s i m i l a t i o n 64 A Non-threatening Climate 65 A Change i n Perspect ive 6 6 An O f f e r i n g of A l t e r n a t i v e s 67 V A Touch of Humour 67 A Matter of P a c i n g 68 S p e c i f i c Comments by the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r . . 69 Genera l Comments by the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r . . 72 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 76 Summary 76 Background 76 R e s u l t s 77 An A n a l y s i s . . . 77 C o n c l u s i o n s 78 Recommendations 79 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . 79 Future Research 80 References 82 v i L i s t of T a b l e s Pacje T a b l e 1: Approach v s . Avoidance of S e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . . . . 44 T a b l e 2: Summary of the A n a l y s i s of the Metaphors 49 T a b l e 2: (Continued) 50-55 v i i Acknowledgements I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Dr. Jo h n Banmen f o r k i n d l i n g my i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t h e s i s t o p i c . H i s g u i d a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t b o t h t h r o u g h o u t my c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g and t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t have been p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y i n v a l u a b l e . I would a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k him f o r so g e n e r o u s l y making a v a i l a b l e t o me S a t i r ' s work on t a p e . Next I w o u l d l i k e t o than k S h e o l l a g h F i t z g e r a l d , my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t , f o r h e l p i n g me i n the i n i t i a l phase of the r e s e a r c h . A s p e c i a l word of a p p r e c i a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o Dr. V i r g i n i a S a t i r f o r p e r s o n a l l y s h a r i n g h e r i n s i g h t s on t h i s t o p i c w i t h me. I t was a tr e m e n d o u s p r i v i l e g e f o r me t o g e t t o know h e r p e r s o n a l l y and t o work w i t h h e r m a t e r i a l . L a s t b u t n o t l e a s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e L y d i a f o r h e r s e l f l e s s s u p p o r t and a b i d i n g f a i t h i n me as I pursued my graduate s t u d i e s . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem The study of metaphors has been done i n many d i v e r s e f i e l d s s u c h as p h i l o s o p h y and l i n g u i s t i c s f o r a l o n g t i m e . However i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y , t h e s t u d y o f m e t a p h o r s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d . One r e s e a r c h e r ( B a r l o w J r . , 1973) in- a s t u d y on 'Metaphor and I n s i g h t i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y ' s u m m a r i z e s t h e s c a n t y l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d u n der t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s : (1) metaphor as a g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s ; (2) metaphor as a s p e c i a l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s - the t h e o r i e s e v o l v i n g from a group of p s y c h o l o g i s t s a t C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y ; a n d (3) m e t a p h o r as a h e u r i s t i c i n problem s o l v i n g . More r e c e n t l y , another r e s e a r c h e r (Gore, 1977) i n a study on ' P s y c h o l o g i c a l F u n c t i o n s of Metaphor' c o n c l u d e s i n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e r e i s as y e t no u n i f y i n g t h e o r y o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f metaphor. One o f t h e l a t e s t s t u d i e s on metaphor and t h e r a p y has been done by A m i r a (1982) who extends the r e s e a r c h t o i n c l u d e f i g u r a t i v e language and metaphor i n both s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l psychotherapy. A more d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e (CHAPTER II) w i l l r e a d i l y show t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r more r e s e a r c h i n t h e whole ar e a of r e l a t i o n s h i p between metaphor and psychology, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of psychotherapy and c o u n s e l l i n g . A l s o most of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on the t o p i c of metaphor are done u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e methodologies. However, because of the n a t u r e of metaphor, i t seems t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s w o u l d p r o v e t o be v a l u a b l e t o o . One s u c h a p p r o a c h i s t h e s i n g l e 2 c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d , t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y c h o s e n f o r o u r s t u d y . T h e g o a l i s t o e x p l o r e t h e u s e o f m e t a p h o r i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g u s i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m o n e s i n g l e c a s e . T h e P r o b l e m I n o r d e r t o s t u d y m e t a p h o r s f r o m a s y s t e m i c p e r s p e c t i v e , o n e c a n i n t e g r a t e s o m e o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f l e a r n i n g o f P i a g e t (1952 ) a n d c o n c e p t s o f S y n e c t i c s o f W . J . J . G o r d o n (1961 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s t a k e n b y J a c q u e s J i m e n e z i n a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d ' P i a g e t a n d S y n e c t i c s ' ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S y n e c t i c s d e a l s w i t h c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f v e r b a l a n a l o g y a n d m e t a p h o r . G o r d o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e m i n d h a s t w o j o b s t o p e r f o r m : ' M a k e t h e S t r a n g e F a m i l i a r ' a n d ' M a k e t h e F a m i l i a r S t r a n g e ' . T h e f o r m e r i s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f n e w f a c t s , e v e n t s , e x p e r i e n c e s , e t c . , i n t o t h e f r a m e w o r k s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d b y p r e v i o u s l y a p p r o p r i a t e d f a c t s , e v e n t s , e x p e r i e n c e s , e t c . T h e l a t t e r i s t h e f r e e i n g o f s o m e t h i n g a l r e a d y k n o w n f r o m o n e ' s s t e r e o t y p e s a n d t h e a l t e r i n g o f o n e ' s a n g l e o f v i s i o n t o m e e t n e w r e a l i t i e s . T h e f i r s t ( e . g . p l a y ) w h i c h G o r d o n c a l l s ' l e a r n i n g ' , P i a g e t c a l l s ' a s s i m i l a t i o n ' . T h e s e c o n d ( e . g . i m i t a t i o n ) w h i c h G o r d o n c a l l s ' i n n o v a t i o n ' , P i a g e t c a l l s ' a c c o m m o d a t i o n 1 . B y p u t t i n g P i a g e t a n d S y n e c t i c s t o g e t h e r , J i m e n e z a r r i v e s a t a t h r e e - w o r d d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e : t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y p r o c e s s e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n , b o t h a c c o m p l i s h e d b y m e a n s o f m e t a p h o r ( J i m e n e z , 1 9 7 6 , p . 1 0 8 ) . A p p l y i n g t h i s t o t h e h u m a n f a m i l y s y s t e m , a s y s t e m i s a m e t a p h o r f o r p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W i t h t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n m i n d , i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e t h e p r o b l e m i n g e n e r a l t e r m . T h e b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n t h a t n e e d s t o 3 be a s k e d i n t h e a r e a o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s y s t e m as metaphor i s - how i s t h e q u a l i t y o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e en t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t r e l a t e d t o e f f e c t i v e psychotherapy? Some D e f i n i t i o n s D a v i d MacDermott (1974) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e word metaphor t r a n s l a t e s l i t e r a l l y from the Greek as 'a c a r r y i n g from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r . ' N o t i n g t h i s , Bunny S. Duhl p r o p o s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g as a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r : A m e t a p h o r i s t h e t r a n s p o s i n g of an image or a s s o c i a t i o n from one s t a t e or arena of meaning t o another, h i g h l i g h t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s and/or a m b i g u i t i e s (Duhl, 1983, p.128). She f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e s by s t a t i n g t h a t metaphor i s t h e l i n k a g e o f meaning - t h a t w h i c h connects any two events, i d e a s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , modes. Through metaphors, an i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s f o r m s e x p e r i e n c e from one mode t o another, from 'outside' s e l f t o ' i n s i d e ' s e l f . By 'metaphoring', one i s e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m a k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , o f c o n n e c t i n g . As humans, we t e n d t o make t h e S t r a n g e F a m i l i a r , make the F a m i l i a r Strange, and t r y to keep the F a m i l i a r F a m i l i a r . Duhl goes on t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t e d concept of d e c e n t r a t i o n : In d e c e n t r a t i o n , or a c h i e v i n g i n t e g r a t e d m u l t i c e n t r i c i t y , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a n o t h e r ' s w o r l d , we need modes of t r a n s l a t i n g or t r a n s f o r m i n g another's words and b e h a v i o r s from " o u t s i d e s e l f " t o " i n s i d e s e l f . " We needs modes of metaphoring, of t r y i n g on and e x p e r i e n -c i n g another's micro and macro world views and c a r r y i n g them from another to o n e s e l f , as a way of both d i f f e r e n t i -a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g them. We need ways of p e r c e i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between events as i f through another's eyes (Duhl, 1983 , p.130) . For Duhl, metaphors are i n v e n t i o n s of the human mind f o r c r e a t i n g 4 o r d e r , i n t e g r a t i o n , and c o h e r e n c e . ' M e t a p h o r i n g i s t h e p r o c e s s o f i n c l u s i o n a nd c o n n e c t i o n , i m p l i c i t l y , i n p r e v e r b a l o r p a r a v e r b a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n n e c t i o n making. M e t a p h o r s a r e t h e e x p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t c o n n e c t i o n of u n i t y i n some symbo l i c , humanly c r e a t e d form: spoken or w r i t t e n words, c r e a t e d o b j e c t s , e x p r e s s i o n s or p a t t e r n s . ' says Duhl (Duhl, 1983, p.131). W i t h i n a ny g i v e n c u l t u r e , t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f me t a p h o r s . M e t a p h o r s o f i d e n t i t y a r e t h e ways by w h i c h p e o p l e know who t h e y a r e , o v e r t i m e . These metaphors a r e u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o sex, r o l e , task and s t a t u s , c a r r y i n g meanings from the o u t s i d e i n . These meanings e v o l v e a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s of o r d e r and s u c c e s s i o n o f the s a i d c u l t u r e . Metaphors of a p p r o x i m a t i o n a r e t h e ways one c a n b e s t i m a g i n e t h e i n t e r n a l w o r l d o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n o r communicate one's own t o a n o t h e r . The m e t a p h o r s o f i d e n t i t y can be used as metaphors of app r o x i m a t i o n . The concept o f empathy i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y t o a p p r o x i m a t e . Both these two types o f metaphors are p a r t of and r e l a t e d t o the m e t a p h o r s o f o r_g_a n_i z_a _t_i o_n , e x p r e s s i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e s and h i e r a r c h i e s o f t h e c u l t u r e , t h e o r d e r i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The o r d e r i n g i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g r o l e s i n p r e s c r i b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l the t h r e e types of metaphors are i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e metaphors o f o p e r a t i o n , e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d p r a c t i c e s , the r o u t i n e s and r i t u a l , the i n t e r a c t i o n s among the s t a n d a r d i z e d r o l e s . The Purpose of the Study The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e m e t a p h o r i n g 5 p r o c e s s o f b o t h t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e t y p e s o f m e t a p h o r s u s e d ; and t o l o o k f o r p a t t e r n s o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t p a r a l l e l the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s of the c l i e n t , as measured by Approach-Avoidance S c a l e t o S e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n developed by Gore (1977) d e s c r i b e d i n CHAPTER I I I . The metaphors of i d e n t i t y , a p p r o x i m a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n our d e f i n i t i o n s e c t i o n above. Then they were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as metaphors t h a t 'Make the F a m i l i a r Strange' ( a s s i m i l a t i o n ) or metaphors t h a t 'Make the Strange F a m i l i a r ' (accommodation). The use of such metaphors by the c l i e n t and the t h e r a p i s t was compared t o note the q u a l i t y of matches and m i s m a t c h e s a t c r i t i c a l p o i n t s o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . An a t t e m p t was made t o d e s c r i b e q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h e p a t t e r n s o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w een t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t which t y p i f y the p o i n t s a t which the t h e r a p i s t i s most e f f e c t i v e . D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study The a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y was t h e s i n g l e c a s e study method. A case study i s a study o f a "bounded system" w i t h a c o n c e p t i o n of u n i t y or t o t a l i t y . The focus i n our study was the use of metaphor by one t h e r a p i s t w i t h one f a m i l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . The m e t h o d o l o g i e s c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o more t h a n one c a s e . But b e c a u s e o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , and a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e s p e c i f i c i t y and p a r t i c u l a r i t y o f t h e use of metaphor i n therapy and c o u n s e l l i n g , a s i n g l e case study approach was c h o s e n . The i n t e n t i o n was t o u n c o v e r t h e s y s t e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n s between the use of metaphor by one t h e r a p i s t , and the o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e f a m i l y i n t h e r a p y . N a t u r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n by the r e s e a r c h e r c o n c e r n i n g the use of metaphor i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g , i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o t h e c a s e , was generated r a t h e r than s c i e n t i f i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The study was done u s i n g the t r a n s c r i p t of a f a m i l y therapy case study done by V i r g i n i a S a t i r i n 1982. The therapy was done at the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c o , C h i c o , C a l i f o r n i a . The f i r s t two of t h e t h r e e n a t u r a l segments o f t h e t a p e d s e s s i o n s were u s e d f o r our r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t segment was the f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p a r e n t s , Jane and Gary, arid the son, Kent. The second segment was the f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Kent's p a r e n t s . W h i l e i t m i g h t be d e s i r a b l e t o examine t h e c o n c e p t of metaphor w i t h more t h a n one t h e r a p i s t , t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g w o u l d take us beyond the p e r i m e t e r of our r e s e a r c h . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n was c o m p e n s a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t we were w o r k i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l o f s u p e r b q u a l i t y . S i n c e t h e s t u d y was done u s i n g m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d by an a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t , we were a b l e t o g a i n new i n s i g h t s t o t h e p r o c e s s of psychotherapy u s i n g a s y s t e m i c view of metaphors. I t i s f u r t h e r hoped t h a t the study w i l l s t i m u l a t e more comprehensive study on the s u b j e c t i n the f u t u r e . 7 CHAPTER TWO A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Overview M a r k J o h n s o n (1981) i n a b o o k c a l l e d " P h i l o s o p h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on M e t a p h o r 1 e d i t e d by him r e m a r k s t h a t we a r e i n t h e m i d s t o f a m e t a p h o r a m a n i a . T h e r e has been a t r e m e n d o u s i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t twenty t o t h i r t y y e a r s . However, as we have n o t e d i n o u r i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e work has been done i n t h e a r e a of p h i l o s o p h y , l i n g u i s t i c s :and the a r t s . R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s are on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t of t h i s f i e l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n orde r t o have a f u l l e r p i c t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t and t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r our p r e s e n t s t u d y , we need t o n o t e n o t o n l y t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t , b u t a l s o some o f t h e more r e c e n t and more s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n s i n a r e a s j u s t beyond t h e f o c u s o f o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u e s t . Warren S h i b l e s (1971) has p u t t o g e t h e r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y and h i s t o r y o f metaphor. T h i s work i n c l u d e s s o u r c e s f r o m d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s i n d i f f e r e n t languages and i s u s e f u l from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t s major l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t i t c o v e r s m a t e r i a l up t o the l a t e 1960s, j u s t b e f o r e t h e c u r r e n t i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t on metaphor. So our r e v i e w c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a l i t t l e u p d a t e on t h i s work. We s h a l l d i v i d e our r e v i e w i n two broad categories:^ f i r s t , l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d s of p h i l o s o p h y and l i n g u i s t i c s ; second, l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d s of psychology and psychotherapy. The review c o v e r s the more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e work i n t h e d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s and i s not. e x h a u s t i v e . 8 Metaphor i n P h i l o s o p h y and L i n g u i s t i c s  The Emergence of a Modern Theory I t was two l e c t u r e s of R i c h a r d s (193 6) on metaphor t h a t were the s e e d s t h a t l a t e r b o r e f r u i t i n t h e work o f Max B l a c k (1954-55), t h e p i o n e e r o£ t h e modern e n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of metaphors. R i c h a r d s saw our w o r l d s t r u c t u r e d i n p a r t by f u n d a m e n t a l m e t a p h o r i c p r o c e s s e s o f e x p e r i e n c e . To him, a metaphor i n v o l v e s 'two thoughts of d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a c t i v e t o g e t h e r and supported by a s i n g l e word, or phrase, whose meaning i s a r e s u l t a n t o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n ' ( R i c h a r d s , 1936, p.93). As the i n t e r a c t i o n of the t h i n g s may be based on d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s as w e l l as s i m i l a r i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e the meaning of a metaphor cannot be reduced to a l i t e r a l statement of s i m i l a r i t y . .Max B l a c k (1954-55) f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d t h e s e n o t i o n s i n h i s ' i n t e r a c t i o n a l ' v i e w o f m e t a p h o r . He r e j e c t e d b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ' s u b s t i t u t i o n ' and ' c o m p a r i s o n ' v i e w s . The f i r s t v i e w h o l d s t h a t metaphor m e r e l y r e p l a c e s e q u i v a l e n t l i t e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The second h o l d s t h a t metaphor p r e s e n t s an analogy or s i m i l a r i t y between the t h i n g s compared. These views o n l y make me t a p h o r s n o t h i n g more t h a n s t y l i s t i c v a r i a n t s . B l a c k s e e s m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning as t h e r e s u l t o f a c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n ( f i l t e r i n g and s c r e e n i n g ) between s y s t e m s o f i m p l i c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e metaphor. T h i s p r o c e s s c a n a c t u a l l y i n d u c e s i m i l a r i t i e s . B l a c k developed t h i s concept f u r t h e r i n r e l a t i o n t o models (1962). H i s work has been expounded by s c h o l a r s l i k e Henle (1958) and has s i n c e f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r much o f t h e modern d i s c u s s i o n on metaphor. 9 Support f o r B l a c k ' s Theory When one adopts an i n t e r a c t i o n a l view of metaphor, one has t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h e t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by t h e two r e f e r e n t s i n any m e t a p h o r i c a l statement. Metaphors t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e new r e a l i t y f o r us. Berggren (1962) p o i n t s t o t h i s use of metaphor and - a t the same t i m e t h e abuse o f metaphor. When a metaphor i s t a k e n l i t e r a l l y , i t i s no lon g e r regarded as a t e n s i o n between the two r e f e r e n t s but r a t h e r a myth. H e r e i n l i e s the abuse of metaphor. W h e e l w r i g h t (1962) r e f e r s t o metaphor as a k i n d o f t e n s i v e language i n v o l v i n g two ki n d s o f a c t i v i t y . One k i n d o f a c t i v i t y he c a l l s 'epiphor' and t h i s i n v o l v e s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a term w i t h a s t a n d a r d meaning t o a n o t h e r o b j e c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . The o t h e r k i n d o f a c t i v i t y he c a l l s ' d i a p h o r ' and t h i s i n v o l v e s the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t h i n g s t o produce new i n s i g h t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g s i m i l a r i t y . S i m i l a r l y , B e a r d s l e y (1962) a r g u e s t h a t i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n s w i t h i n the metaphor r e s u l t i n a term having a c e n t r a l meaning by i t s o r d i n a r y d e s i g n a t i o n a nd a m a r g i n a l m e a n i n g by i t s c o n n o t a t i o n . M e t a p h o r i n d u c e s i n s i g h t by c a l l i n g up o r a c t u a l i z i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t were p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e but not y e t s u r f a c e d . He c a l l s t h i s ' t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l t w i s t ' , t h e y i e l d i n g o f m e t a p h o r i c a l i n s i g h t as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n s o r v e r b a l - o p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e m e t a p h o r . More r e c e n t l y , B e a r d s l e y (1978) f u r t h e r develops t h i s i d e a i n what he c a l l s ' M e t a p h o r i c a l Senses'. He notes t h a t words possess c e r t a i n i n t e n t i o n a l meanings and a l s o a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f ' c r e d e n c e -p r o p e r t i e s ' . A ' c r e d e n c e - p r o p e r t y ' i s an a t t r i b u t e b e l i e v e d by 1 0 the community of speakers t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the word. Through use, t h e ' c r e d e n c e - p r o p e r t i e s ' as a p p l i e d t o t h e e x t e n s i o n s o f words become accep t e d as p a r t of the i n t e n t i o n a l meaning of the w o r d s . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e b o t h a ' l i t e r a l ' s e n s e a nd a 'metaphorical' sense. He t h e r e f o r e a l l o w s f o r the emergence of a ' l i t e r a l ' s e n s e o f metaphor. In so d o i n g he s t i l l q u e s t i o n s t h e adequacy of 'constancy' t h e o r i e s of metaphor (such as comparison t h e o r i e s ) w h i c h i n s i s t t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s c a r r y a t l e a s t one of t h e i r s t a n d a r d meanings even when u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ; and a d h e r e s t o ' c o n v e r s i o n ' t h e o r i e s w h i c h h o l d t h a t a new s e n s e i s a c q u i r e d by the m e t a p h o r i c a l use of an e x p r e s s i o n . E d i e ( 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 ) who s e e s l a n g u a g e as p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , r e c o g n i z e s t h a t metaphor p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h we a r e a b l e t o o r g a n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d our e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as t o communicate i t . Words and meaning a r e d i s t i n c t because w h i l e words may p o i n t t o meanings, they cannot e n c a p s u l a t e t h e c o m p l e t e meaning w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s . Metaphors can be used t o i n t e r p r e t our ex p e r i e n c e more ad e q u a t e l y because t h e r e i s no assumption t h a t words and meanings are lo c k e d i n t o each other. In u s i n g metaphors, words t h a t d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n a s p e c t o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e a r e a p p l i e d a f r e s h t o c o v e r new dimension o f meaning. In t r y i n g t o d e f i n e metaphor and i t s p r o p e r t i e s , I s e n b e r g (1963) p o i n t s o u t t h r e e f a c t o r s t h a t we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r . F i r s t , a l l m e t a p h o r s a r e a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . Second, a l l metaphors are f u l l works of or s t r o k e s o f a r t . T h i r d , m e taphors w i l l p r o d u c e t h e judgment i n t h e r e c i p i e n t as t o the r e l e v a n c e and t r u t h of the metaphor. 11 From a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , B i c k e r t o n (1969) c o n t e n d s t h a t we need a new t h e o r y , o f metaphor t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t meaning e x i s t s n o t i n a vacuum b u t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w een speaker, language, and hearer. Metaphor i n v o l v e s an i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e en marked s i g n s . F o r example 'hardness' i s an a t t r i b u t e o f t h e marked s i g n ' i r o n ' . S i g n s become marked by c o n v e n t i o n , and t h i s s e t s up a n e t w o r k o f o p p o s i t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s . I n metaphor t h e b o u n d a r y i s c r o s s e d by t h e use o f a marked s i g n i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e s i g n g e t s a new meaning w i t h o u t e l i m i n a t i n g the t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by the c a t e g o r y c r o s s i n g . T h i s view i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t proposes a complete model of communication i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of metaphor. However, Matthews (1971) c a s t s doubt on the u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s 'performance' model because of i t s i n a b i l i t y t o be used i n s e p a r a t i n g metaphors from non-metaphors. He proposes i n s t e a d a 'competency' model where a metaphor a c q u i r e s i t s f o r c e f r o m t h e c r e a t i v e l y d e v i a n t way i t bends the r u l e s of grammar. Matthews' view i s f u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e d by P r i c e (1974) who m a i n t a i n s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e h a s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m e t a p h o r s f r o m n o n s e n s e . He f e e l s t h a t metaphors may be more ade q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d by the a t t e n t i o n they draw t o the r e s t r i c t i o n s of grammar and t o the r u l e - c h a n g i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Turbayne (1970) r e c o g n i z e s t h a t metaphor has been one of the c h i e f d e v i c e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g f a c t s , i n d u c i n g a t t i t u d e s , and i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o u r . M etaphor i n v o l v e s t h e p r e t e n s e , i . e . t h e r e p r e s e n t i n g o f t h e f a c t s o f one s o r t as i f t h e y b e l o n g e d t o a n o t h e r s o r t , w h i c h i s u s e f u l f o r i n d u c i n g 1 2 i n s i g h t . However he c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e r r o r o f i t s usage w i t h o u t the awareness of i t s n o n - l i t e r a l n a t u r e . U s i n g Urban's t h e o r y of metaphor (Language and R e a l i t y , 1939) as a b a s i s , S h i b l e s (1971) r e i t e r a t e s t h e v i e w t h a t metaphor s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y . As w i t h Urban, S h i b l e s r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n t u i t i v e and e m o t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f metaphor. He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t the metaphor i t s e l f i n t e r a c t s w i t h and h e l p s t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e t h o u g h t t h a t we e x p r e s s . Thus metaphor may s e r v e t o g i v e us i n s i g h t s or i d e a s . However he f e e l s t h a t Urban's n o t i o n of the 'unconscious' m e t a p h o r i c a l t r a n s f e r of words i s too vague. In i t s p l a c e , he suggests t h a t metaphor may be c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d g r a n t i n g t h a t c o n s c i o u s and unconscious may o v e r l a p . S h i b l e s (1974) f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d h i s v i e w i n a p a p e r , 'The M e t a p h o r i c a l Method 1 i n w h i c h he n o t e s d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f m etaphors i n c l u d i n g s u c h f o r m s as t h e r a p e u t i c ( c a t h a r t i c ) metaphors. He a l s o s u p p orts the n o t i o n t h a t metaphors are a c t i v e and i n d i s p e n s a b l e agents i n the t a s k s of o b s e r v i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , and r e p o r t i n g human e x p e r i e n c e . Debate over B l a c k ' s Theory In s p i t e of a l l these s t u d i e s , the debate over the n a t u r e of metaphor i s a l l but over. Yoos (1971) p o i n t s out t h a t the debate c o n t i n u e s b e c a u s e o f a f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t m e t a p h o r s o p e r a t e a t t h e l e v e l o f t h o u g h t r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e l e v e l o f words. At stake i s Black's b a s i c n o t i o n t h a t a l i t e r a l paraphrase c a n n o t be g i v e n f o r a metaphor w i t h o u t a l o s s of c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t . On one hand t h e r e a r e t h o s e (e.g. S t e w a r t , 1971, 1973) t h a t f e e l s t h a t i t i s u s e l e s s t o t r y and p a r a p h r a s e m e t a p h o r s , and t h a t metaphors sh o u l d be regarded as the b e g i n n i n g s of a new l a n g u a g e t h a t p r o v i d e s t r a n s i e n t and s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, s c h o l a r s l i k e Warner (1973) f e e l s t h a t Black's mistake l i e s i n c l a i m i n g t h a t i n s i g h t s d e r i v e d from t h e use o f metaphor c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d l i t e r a l l y . He s u g g e s t s t h a t we s h o u l d not r e g a r d metaphors as i r r e d u c i b l e a s s e r t i o n s but as i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s t h a t h e l p us see t h i n g s i n new ways. Manns (1975) f e e l s t h a t Warner has misread B l a c k and argues t h a t t h e e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e x t e n t m e t a p h o r s c a n be r e d u c e d t o l i t e r a l p araphrases i s m i s d i r e c t e d . Paraphrases p o i n t us t o the m e t a p h o r s a n d a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y c l e a r e r e x p r e s s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s c h o l a r s a r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f a c t t h a t the use of metaphor does produce new i n s i g h t . C h a r l t o n (1975) f e e l s t h a t B l a c k ' s t h e o r y o f metaphor i s erroneous because c o n t r a r y to Black's c l a i m , i t can be shown t h a t t h e r e i s no s h i f t i n meaning i n t h e use o f m e t a p h o r s . A ' l i v i n g ' m etaphor a c q u i r e s i t s f o r c e f r o m i t s a l i e n c o n t e x t . I t t h e n g r a d u a l l y becomes a c c e p t e d as s e m a n t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d and t h u s becomes a 'dead' metaphor i n common usage. He m a i n t a i n s t h a t meanings r e m a i n f a i r l y c o n s t a n t , a l t h o u g h s u b j e c t t o e x t e n s i o n t h r o u g h m e t a p h o r i c a l use. He f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t B l a c k i s wrong i n c l a i m i n g t h a t a new meaning a r i s e s from the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e t e r m s o f a metaphor, when i n f a c t i t i s an a e s t h e t i c power t h a t emerges. L o e w e n b e r g (1973, 1975, 1978) d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h i s v i e w and f u r t h e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a metaphor i s a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . 'What the maker of a novel metaphor c r e a t e s i s a new v i e w o f a s u b j e c t , e x i s t i n g i n t h e w o r l d a f t e r , b u t n o t b e f o r e , h i s m e t a p h o r i c a l u t t e r a n c e ' (Loewenberg, 1978, p.347). 14 Metaphors h e l p t o express the con t i n u o u s and dynamic nature o f our e x p e r i e n c e s . O r t o n y (1975) e x p l a i n t h a t m e t a p h o r s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r t h r e e reasons. F i r s t , metaphors are compact and a l l o w l o t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be c o m p r e s s e d i n them. Second, metaphors e x p r e s s t h e d y n a m i c e l e m e n t s o f r e a l i t y much b e t t e r t h a n l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e . T h i r d , m e t a p h o r s a r e more v i v i d t h a n l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e . D e s p i t e t h i s e m p h a s i s on m e t a p h o r s , Haynes (1975) c r i t i c i z e s O r t o n y f o r s t i l l a s s u m i n g t h a t metaphor i s comparative i n n a t u r e . Recent Developments; Symposiums and A n t h o l o g i e s The i n t e r e s t i n m e t a p h o r s peaked a t t h e end o f t h e l a s t decade w i t h two major symposiums. One was h e l d i n September 1977 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t Urbana-Champaign. I t was a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n f e r e n c e on metaphors a t t e n d e d by l e a d i n g p h i l o s o p h e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , l i n g u i s t s , and e d u c a t o r s . P a p e r s r e a d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e were p u t t o g e t h e r i n a book c a l l e d 'Metaphor and Thought' e d i t e d by Andrew Ortony (1979). The o t h e r symposium was h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1978, under t h e a u s p i c e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago E x t e n s i o n . Papers from t h a t symposium are c o m p i l e d i n a book c a l l e d 'On Metaphor,' e d i t e d by S h e l d o n S a c k s (1978). O t h e r a n t h o l o g i e s on metaphor g i v e added e v i d e n c e t o t h e c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t . One such work i s e d i t e d by Mark Johnson (1981) c a l l e d ' P h i l o s o p h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Metaphor'. A n o t h e r i s one e d i t e d by David S. M i a l l (1982) c a l l e d 'Metaphor: Problems and P e r s p e c t i v e s . ' 15 Black.'s F u r t h e r Development of H i s Theory F i r s t and f o r e m o s t we s h o u l d note the development of Black's own theory. B l a c k (1977) f o l l o w e d up h i s e a r l i e r a r t i c l e i n a new paper, 'More about Metaphor' i n which he s h i f t s h i s concern from the c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of metaphor t o a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . He h o l d s on t o t h e ' i n t e r a c t i o n a l t h e o r y ' and r e i t e r a t e s t h e c l a i m t h a t metaphors produce a s h i f t o f meaning, but c l a r i f i e s t h a t i t i s o n l y a s h i f t i n t h e s p e a k e r ' s and t h e h e a r e r ' s meaning. He m a i n t a i n s t h a t the use of metaphors r e v e a l i n s i g h t s not o t h e r w i s e a v a i l a b l e . In h i s o p i n i o n , the t r u t h and f a l s i t y o f m e t a p h o r i c a l statements are i r r e l e v a n t t o the f u n c t i o n s of metaphors. The new d i s c u s s i o n o f metaphor has been p i c k e d up by s c h o l a r s l i k e J o h n S e a r l e (1979) and P a u l R i c o e u r (1977, 1978) and has f o c u s e d more on t h e f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s . S e a r l e s e e k s t o show t h a t ' m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning i s a l w a y s s p e a k e r ' s u t t e r a n c e meaning' (p.77) and l a y s o u t t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s w i t h w h i c h t h e h e a r e r seeks out the m e t a p h o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , i n an a r t i c l e , 'The M e t a p h o r i c a l Process as C o g n i t i o n , I m a g i n a t i o n , and F e e l i n g , ' R i c o e u r (1978) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e f a c e t s of the c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y of the m e t a p h o r i c a l p r o c e s s : the s c h e m a t i z i n g of the s y n t h e t i c o p e r a t i o n i n which d i s p a r a t e t h i n g s a r e s e e n as s i m i l a r ; t h e f o r m i n g of an image t o g i v e c o n t e n t t o t h e meaning; and t h e s u s p e n d i n g o f o r d i n a r y r e f e r e n c e t o a l l o w t h e new d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e a l i t y t o emerge. T h e r e a r e t h r e e p a r a l l e l analogous moments of f e e l i n g t o these t h r e e moments of i m a g i n a t i o n , R i c o e u r c l a i m s . T h i s s h i f t h a s b r o u g h t t h e d i s c u s s i o n c l o s e r t o the a f f e c t i v e domain. Cohen (1978) draws a t t e n t i o n beyond t h e c o g n i t i v e and 16 a e s t h e t i c dimensions to the r e l a t i o n a l a s p e c t by f o c u s i n g on the r o l e metaphors p l a y i n the c u l t i v a t i o n of i n t i m a c y . He compares m e t a p h o r s t o j o k e s where b o t h depend on s h a r e d k nowledge, a t t i t u d e s and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e s p e a k e r and t h e h e a r e r . The a p p r e c i a t i o n of the metaphor causes the h e a r e r to draw c l o s e r t o the speaker. C o n t i n u i n g Debate over B l a c k ' s Theory However the debate over whether m e t a p h o r i c a l i n s i g h t s can or cannot be reduced t o l i t e r a l language c o n t i n u e s . On the one hand t h e r e are those t h a t s t i l l f e e l t h a t the o n l y meaning a metaphor has i s i t s l i t e r a l meaning (Davidson, 1978). Others l i k e Johnson (1980) who a c c e p t s both the comparative l e v e l and the i n t e r a c t i v e l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g metaphors m a i n t a i n s t h a t the metaphors a t t h e s e c o n d l e v e l i s n o t r u l e - g o v e r n e d and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t r e d u c i b l e t o l i t e r a l c o n c e p t s o r l a n g u a g e . To t r y and b r e a k t h e deadlock, Johnson and E r i c k s o n (1980) proposes t h a t t h a t metaphor ca n be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a t h e o r y o f 'being' r a t h e r t h a n a t h e o r y o f 'knowledge'. T h i s t h e o r y o f b e i n g d e n i e s t h a t a l l b e i n g i s o b j e c t i v e . M e t a p h o r i s s e e n as a p r o c e s s by w h i c h be i n g s are made o b j e c t i v e . The new f o r m u l a t i o n ' i n v o l v e s a s k i n g how m e t a p h o r s make b e i n g s m e a n i n g f u l i n a manner t h a t a l l o w s concepts t o r e f l e c t t h i s meaning' (p. 296). L a k o f f a n d J o h n s o n (1980a) a r g u e t h a t a l l o u r human e x p e r i e n c e a r e s t r u c t u r e d by m e t a p h o r s . In a f u l l l e n g t h book, 'Metaphor We L i v e By' p u b l i s h e d i n the same year, they e l a b o r a t e on t h i s t h e s i s . Our o r d i n a r y speech i s m e t a p h o r i c a l i n nature. I t i s g e n e rated by more fundamental m e t a p h o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n our 17 t h o u g h t and e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o L a k o f f and Johnson,,some o f our most b a s i c r e a l i t i e s i n o u r l i v e s a r e n o t o b j e c t i v e l y g i v e n , b u t a r e d e f i n e d by t h e met a p h o r s o f our c u l t u r e . T r u t h i s n o t a b s o l u t e b u t i s a l w a y s b a s e d on human und e r s t a n d i n g which i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d . T h i s view g i v e s us a new way of c o n s t r u i n g and p e r c e i v i n g our r e a l i t i e s i n terms o f ' e x p e r i e n t i a l g e s t a l t , 1 i . e . s t r u c t u r e d m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e s w i t h i n e x p e r i e n c e . D e v e l o p i n g what Hester (1966) c a l l e d 'metaphor and a s p e c t seeing,' L a k o f f and Johnson p o s t u l a t e t h a t i n metaphor we understand one k i n d of t h i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e i n terms of another o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . The m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning i s b a s e d on t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f one common g e s t a l t s t r u c t u r e o n t o a n o t h e r . T h a t which emerges i s a new g e s t a l t t h a t r e s t r u c t u r e s a s p e c t s of our e x p e r i e n c e , thought, and language. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t 'metaphor' o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s t o d a y . L a k o f f and J o h n s o n go as f a r a s t o s a y , 'no a c c o u n t o f meaning and t r u t h c a n be a d e q u a t e u n l e s s i t r e c o g n i z e s and d e a l s w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h c o n v e n t i o n a l metaphors s t r u c t u r e our c o n c e p t u a l system' (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, p.486). Metaphor i n Psychology and Psychotherapy A T r a n s i t i o n In our study of metaphor, the t r a n s i t i o n from p h i l o s o p h y t o th e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d s i s a l o g i c a l one. As we have n o t e d i n our above d i s c u s s i o n s , metaphor and i n s i g h t are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . I t has been n o t e d t h a t metaphor a l l o w s one t o l o o k a t h i s behaviour i n v a r i o u s l i g h t s and t h a t i t s e x p l a n a t o r y power l i e s 18 i n i t s p a r a d o x i c a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t c a s e s (Wisdom, 1957). A n o t h e r w r i t e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e use o f metaphor i s an i n t u i t i v e s y m b o l i c way o f k nowing, y i e l d i n g u n i v e r s a l i n s i g h t , one which h e l p s u n i t e psychology w i t h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s (Royce, 1967) . A l l e r s (1955) a r g u e s t h a t modern p s y c h o l o g y needs t o t a k e t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i n t o a c c o u n t . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l l l a n g u a g e s u s e m e t a p h o r t o g r a s p t h e m e n t a l , i d e a l i s t i c , e x t r a s e n s o r y , and the e x t e r n a l w o r l d . Metaphor i s a l m o s t always ambiguous and the same v e r b a l metaphor can r e l a t e i n many ways. He c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e u n c r i t i c a l e x p a n s i o n o f mere metaphors i n t o l a r g e systems such as Freud's psychology, p o i n t i n g out t h a t s u c h s y s t e m s a r e o n l y models o f r e a l i t y and n o t r e a l i t y i t s e l f . M e h r a b i a n (1968) i n a n a l y z i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t m e t a p h o r s d e t e r m i n e t h e o r y and g u i d e o b s e r v a t i o n . The c h o i c e of metaphor i s our p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y and not o b j e c t i v e f a c t i t s e l f . Thus t h e above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be t a k e n i n t o account i n any p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of metaphor. However, most of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d s seem t o f a l l s h o r t on one o r b o t h c o u n t s , namely, an i n a d e q u a t e g r o u n d i n g i n p h i l o s o p h y , and an u n c r i t i c a l b u i l d - u p i n t o models. T h i s can be r e a d i l y seen i n the f o l l o w i n g review. We s h a l l look a t metaphor i n p sychology and psychotherapy i n t u r n . Metaphor i n Psychology (1)Metaphor as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Process In a t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r on 'The P s y c h o l o g y of Metaphor,' 19 A n d e r s o n (1964), a f t e r a s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on metaphor, s u g g e s t s t h a t a m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n i s t h e outcome o f one's a t t e m p t t o s t r u c t u r e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t and t o r e d u c e e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l . However no a c t u a l r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d t o demonstrate h i s t h e s i s . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on metaphor was done by Knapp (1960). A s e v e n p o i n t s c a l e p r e f e r e n c e g r a d a t i o n t e s t was d e v i s e d t o c l a s s i f y m e t a p h o r s a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , c o n s c i e n c e , d e a t h , s u c c e s s , l o v e and s e l f - i m a g e . The r e s u l t was s u p p o s e d t o r e v e a l the s u b j e c t ' s deep-seated a t t i t u d e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the r e s e a r c h e r i n d r a w i n g h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , assumes u n c r i t i c a l l y t h e F r e u d i a n n o t i o n s o f a ' p r i m a r y [dream g o v e r n i n g or d e p t h ] s t r u c t u r e ' and 'secondary [ r e a l i t y coping] p r o c e s s . ' So the r e s u l t s of the study go no f u r t h e r than h i s s t a r t i n g p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s are r e l a t e d t o unconscious p r o c e s s e s and the c o p i n g of r e a l i t y . The u n c r i t i c a l use of F r e u d i a n concepts w i l l be reviewed i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . Here we s h a l l m e r e l y n o t e t h e c a u t i o n s r a i s e d by Nash (1962, 1963). Nash (1962) p o i n t s out t h a t i n F r e u d i a n t h e o r y metaphor n o t o n l y i l l u s t r a t e s b u t a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s the o b j e c t . Freud's metaphors are sometimes c l e a r but o f t e n b l u r r e d and i n c o n s i s t e n t . In another paper (Nash, 1963), he r e c o g n i z e s the r o l e of metaphor i n l i n k i n g a f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a n o v e l one, and t h e r e f o r e metaphor i s a l e g i t i m a t e method of g e n e r a t i n g and g u i d i n g theory. He f u r t h e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t good o p e r a t i o n a l i d e a s o f t e n come from h i g h l y p e r s o n a l metaphors which a r e r e d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y . However, he r e m i n d s us t o be 20 c o n s c i o u s o f o u r m e t a p h o r s and n o t c o n f u s e them w i t h i d e n t i t y (e.g. human behaviour as l i k e animal b e h a v i o u r ) . One of the e a r l i e r attempts to study the metaphor phenomenon s c i e n t i f i c a l l y was done by K a i s e r (1967). He attempts t o conduct a s t a t i s t i c a l , e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n d i d n o t evoke s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t h a n do l i t e r a l f o r m s o f w r i t i n g , f o r t h o s e who understand f i g u r a t i v e language. T h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l study i s i n t e r e s t i n g but does l i t t l e t o enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n c t i o n s of metaphor. Chapman (1971) d i d r e s e a r c h on the p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f metaphor as a f u n c t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l . He e x a m i n e d t h e p a t t e r n o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among these v a r i a b l e s . H i s r e s u l t s o n l y supported the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t h i g h e r IQ s c o r e s p r e d i c t e d h i g h e r metaphor p e r c e p t i o n s c o r e s . However t h i s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h r e s u l t merely c o n f i r m s what we would expect i n t u i t i v e l y . (2)Metaphor as a C o g n i t i v e Process R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o metaphor s p e a r h e a d e d by H e i n z Werner (1957) o f C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y was c e n t r e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f ' p h y s i o g n o m i c p e r c e p t i o n , ' t h a t i s , t h i n k i n g b a s e d on s y m b o l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . An example of these s t u d i e s i s the work of Bernard K a p l a n (1962) who was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Werner and who s u g g e s t e d t h a t language e v o l u t i o n depends on two c o g n i t i v e a c t s : a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y and r a d i c a l m e t a p h o r i z i n g . The former i s the p r o c e s s of g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t form to t h a t which i s f o r m l e s s . The l a t t e r i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t s e r v e s to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n between o b j e c t s 2 1 t h a t have been d e s i g n a t e d by a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . I t i s a s p e c i a l a c t o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y w h i c h b r i n g t h i n g s i n t o an o r d e r . A de m o n s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s a game i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s a re asked t o p a i r e a c h o f t h e words p i n g and pong w i t h e i t h e r e l e p h a n t o r mouse. He f o u n d t h a t i r r e s i s t i b l y p i n g i s p a i r e d w i t h mouse and pong w i t h e l e p h a n t . However one f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o see how such d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e r v e s t o prove the p o i n t o f the r e s e a r c h e r . R u d o l f A r n h e i m (1966) t r i e s t o p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h e o r y o f m e t a p h o r b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f ' p h y s i o g n o m i c p e r c e p t i o n . ' He c l a i m s t h a t metaphoric a c t i v i t y i s an attempt t o c o n n e c t two o r more segments o f r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e medium o f i m a g e r y . The p h y s i o g n o m i c q u a l i t i e s common t o t h e s e segments b r i n g a b o u t a n u n i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T hese a r e i n t e r e s t i n g and h i g h l y a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o demonstrate and o f f e r l i t t l e by way of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . (3)Recent Research The s e a r c h f o r a more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n t h e use o f metaphor c o n t i n u e s . Kortenkamp (1973) concluded from h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t h a t no one had e x p l i c i t l y a t t e m p t e d t o , f i r s t , d e t e r m i n e t h e m e t a p h o r i c d i m e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , and then, t o use these dimensions t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e and v a l i d l y s c a l e the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s he attempted t o do. To d e t e r m i n e t h e m e t a p h o r i c d i m e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , a d i c t i o n a r y and thesaurus were scanned. Every word t h a t seemed a l a b e l f o r a metaphoric (i.e., o b j e c t i v e or p h y s i c a l ) d i mension was noted. A Metaphor C h e c k l i s t c o n s i s t i n g 22 o f 199 b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n s was c o n s t r u c t e d . S u b j e c t s were t h e n asked t o i n d i c a t e the end of each dimension which d e s c r i b e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y and a n g e r , and t o r a t e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f e a c h d i m e n s i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . Using the r e s u l t s of the Metaphoric C h e c k l i s t , those dimensions showing h i g h e s t i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e agreement and r e l e v a n c y were used t o c o n s t r u c t M e t a p h o r R a t i n g S c a l e s and p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s c a l i n g d e v i c e s f o r each of the emotions. The r e s e a r c h e r found t h a t many of h i s hypotheses were v a l i d a t e d . However t h i s r e s e a r c h f a i l s t o c o n s i d e r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f metaphor and seems to l i m i t the unique i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n s t o a s e t o f p r e s c r i b e d v a r i a b l e s and g e n e r a l i z e d c h e c k l i s t . A n o t h e r s t u d y was done by Gore (1977) f o c u s i n g on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s o f metaphor. M e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d as an i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s . M e t a p h o r s a r e v i e w e d as a c o m p r o m i s e f o r m a t i o n w h i c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n c e a l s and r e v e a l s s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r l y i n g f e e l i n g s and impulses. Gore took 45 c l i e n t - t h e r a p i s t p a i r s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e h o u r s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . L i s t s o f a l l m e taphors u s e d i n t h e s e h o u r s were p r e p a r e d and s c o r e d . The f o u r a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e to metaphor usage s t u d i e d were: d e f e n s i v e n e s s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , c r e a t i v i t y , a n d c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . The b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t h i g h q u a l i t y of metaphor ( i . e . o r i g i n a l i t y ) w o u l d p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h s t r o n g a p p r o a c h t e n d e n c i e s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t o r i g i n a l 23 m e t a p h o r s w o u l d be a v e r b a l s i g n o f o t h e r c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l s , and t h a t the meanings u n d e r l y i n g the p a r t i c u l a r metaphors c o u l d be comprehended t h r o u g h v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s . F i n a l l y , i t was expected t h a t the metaphor usage of t h e r a p i s t s and c l i e n t s would h a v e f a c i l i t a t i v e a nd n o n - f a c i 1 i t a t i v e e f f e c t s on t h e t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . B o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e approaches t o data a n a l y s i s were undertaken. Gore c o n c l u d e d f r o m h i s f i n d i n g s t h a t metaphor has some impact as a psychotherapy p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e . In the o p i n i o n of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r , t h i s i s by f a r t h e most s a t i s f y i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g p i e c e o f r e s e a r c h on metaphor done t o d a t e . The b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s was supported t o a r e a s o n a b l e degree. Among the most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s i s t h a t empathic t h e r a p i s t s may respond t o c l i e n t s who use a l o t o f c l i c h e s by e m p l o y i n g more c l i c h e s themselves. Case s t u d i e s suggested other e f f e c t s , i n c l u d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c r e a t i v e m e t a p h o r s s e r v e as o r r e f l e c t a s u c c e s s f u l s u b l i m a t i o n of impulses. Gore f e e l s t h a t metaphor has some i m p a c t as a p s y c h o t h e r a p y p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e and s h o u l d be f u r t h e r s t u d i e d . Metaphor i n Psychotherapy The s t u d y o f t h e p r o c e s s and t h e f u n c t i o n s o f metaphor i n psychotherapy has been dominated by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c views i n the pa s t decades. These views have gone through t h r e e phases. (1) In the e a r l y days of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s metaphor was looked upon as an 'el a b o r a t e d s y m b o l i c d i s g u i s e 1 which reduced a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i b i d i n a l u r g e s . (2) The s e c o n d t r e n d was p i o n e e r e d by Shar p e (1940) who expanded t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t t o i n c l u d e f u r t h e r 24 a n a l y s i s of metaphoric e x p r e s s i o n s . (3) The r e c e n t t r e n d i s much l e s s u n i f i e d and seem t o move t o a much b r o a d e r a p p r o a c h . We s h a l l r e v i e w and c r i t i q u e major works done i n these t h r e e phases. We s h a l l r e v i e w the s c a n t y l i t e r a t u r e on the n o n - p s y c h o a n a l y t i c use of metaphor i n f a m i l y t h e r a p y i n a f o u r t h s e c t i o n . (1) E a r l y A n a l y t i c a l Views F r e u d u s e s m e t a p h o r s t o a n a l y z e dreams and deep m e n t a l (primary) p r o c e s s e s , e.g. 'point* may r e f e r t o b r e a s t w i t h d r a w a l i n i n f a n c y and i n n e r c o n f l i c t . A l t h o u g h F r e u d does n o t s a y so metaphor may be t h o u g h t o f as a d e f e n s e mechanism. F r e u d a l s o u s e s many b o l d m etaphors by means o f w h i c h he p r e s e n t s h i s own t h e o r y , e.g. m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d as t h e f l o w o f f l u i d ( f l o o d i n g , p r e s s u r e , dams, e t c . ) , 'depth' p r o c e s s e s and o t h e r s p a t i a l metaphors. F o l l o w i n g F r e u d , Downey (1919) s e e s m e t a p h o r a b l e o f r e v e a l i n g l a t e n t unconscious thoughts, s u b t l e s t a t e s of mind and e m o t i o n s . F o r him, metaphor i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n p e r c e p t u a l s h i f t s . Muncie (1937) s t u d i e d the use of metaphors by psychopaths and f o c u s e s on t h e i d e a t h a t metaphor i s a ' d i s p l a c e m e n t , ' t r a n s f e r e n c e o f p s y c h i c a l f r o m t h e l a t e n t t o m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t . The psychopath shows metaphor d i s o r d e r and uses i t as escape from r e a l i t y and as a u t i s t i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n . An example g i v e n i s o f a p a t i e n t who wanted t o be an a i r p l a n e p i l o t i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e w o r l d . A n o t h e r w e l l - k n o w n F r e u d i a n , K a r l Abraham (1949), c o n t e n d s t h a t m e t a p h o r s t e n d t o e x p r e s s b e h a v i o u r which i s based on s a d i s t i c impulses. He b e l i e v e s t h a t these metaphors can be t r a c e d back t o a n a l - e r o t i c i n s t i n c t s . 2 5 We can see t h a t t h i s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach i s o f t e n based on a p s y c h o - s e x u a l v i e w o f man. W h i l e i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t man has s e x u a l i n s t i n c t s and d r i v e s , t h i s i s b u t one s i d e o f h u m a n i t y . The use o f j u s t one d i m e n s i o n o f human n a t u r e i n b u i l d i n g a complete system of psychotherapy i s o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c and i n a d e q u a t e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u c h an a p p r o a c h t o t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s i s n o t o n l y u n p r o d u c t i v e b u t a l s o prone t o a l l s o r t of e r r o r s . (2) Sharpe's E x t e n s i o n of the P s y c h o a n a l y t i c View S h a r p e (1940) c l a i m s t h a t metaphor c o n c e a l s i d e a s and e m o t i o n s . She r e g a r d s i t as a t r a n s f e r f r o m t h e p h y s i c a l t o t h e p s y c h i c a l e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , and t h e r e f o r e s e e k s t o l o o k f o r t h e problem of a p a t i e n t i n the p h y s i c a l o r i g i n of h i s metaphor. One o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x a s s u m p t i o n s c a n be u s e d i n l o o k i n g f o r the source of the p a t i e n t ' s problem: (a) M e t a p h o r s d e v e l o p as s e c o n d o r d e r d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e emotions which accompany l i b i d i n a l d i s c h a r g e . (b) Some met a p h o r s a r e e p i t o m e (summary) o f a f o r g o t t e n e x p e r i e n c e . (c) S i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t o f a l l v e r b a l images ( p r e c o n s c i o u s ) are the sounds of words, the p a t i e n t ' s p h o n e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s can be used as c l u e s to h i s problems. (d) Most p a t i e n t s ' m e taphors c e n t e r on p r e - g e n i t a l and O e d i p a l e x p e r i e n c e s . (e) M e t a p h o r g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n s t i n c t u a l t e n s i o n . (f) The t y p e of image d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p a t i e n t ' s m e t a p h o r s 26 i s h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e . Sharpe's i n t e r p r e t a t i v e use o f m e t a p h o r s has been a m a j or i n f l u e n c e among many p s y c h o a n a l y s t s . The s e a r c h f o r c l u e s t o a p a t i e n t ' s problems i n h i s use of metaphors i s an i m p o r t a n t method i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . However t h e method i s o n l y as good as t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . While Sharpe contends t h a t metaphor c o n c e a l s i d e a s and e m o t i o n s , i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e e x a c t o p p o s i t e c a n be e q u a l l y t r u e , t h a t i s , metaphor r e v e a l s i d e a s and emotions o t h e r w i s e d i f f i c u l t t o express. Furthermore, Sharpe's a s s u m p t i o n s a r e h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and w i l l l e n d themselves t o s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . (3) The Recent Trend More r e c e n t l y , the amount of l i t e r a t u r e on metaphor based on a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . Here we can o n l y review some of the more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ones. R o h o v i t (1960) f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e s Freud's v i e w by u s i n g c l i n i c a l t e s t s t o show how p s y c h o t i c p a t i e n t s ' m e t a p h o r s can r e v e a l t h e i r problems by r e v e a l i n g l a t e n t content. He assumes the F r e u d i a n c o n c e p t t h a t i n metaphor one t e r m may be u n c o n s c i o u s l a t e n t c o n t e n t ( v e h i c l e ) , the o t h e r , c o n s c i o u s m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t (tenor). Examples of the mechanisms of metaphor are d i s p l a c e m e n t and c o n d e n s a t i o n . I t r e m a i n s f o r us t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r s u c h an a p p r o a c h i s t o o s i m p l i s t i c . How c a n i t be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a l l of t h e r o o t p r o b l e m s o f a p a t i e n t l i e i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ? F u r t h e r m o r e , how c a n one be s u r e t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t does i n f a c t c o r r e s p o n d t o the unconscious? From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f metaphor i n c r e a t i v e 27 t h i n k i n g and i n v e n t i o n , Mawardi (1961) concludes t h a t metaphor i s a word meaning one t h i n g and u s e d t o i n d i c a t e s o m e t h i n g e l s e on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t y . She f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t i t s t i m u l a t e s and l i b e r a t e s the 'unconscious' t o be c r e a t i v e . Here we w i l l have t o n o t e t h a t t h i s F r e u d i a n a p p r o a c h does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the whole p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n on the n a t u r e of metaphor, and e s p e c i a l l y does n o t g r a p p l e w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l v i e w o f metaphor. A l e k s a n d r o w i c z (1962) a d o p t s a F r e u d i a n a p p r o a c h b u t goes beyond i t , g i v i n g us p r a c t i c a l c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t . He r e g a r d s metaphor as a method of communicating w i t h the p a t i e n t , g e t t i n g a t t h e s o u r c e o f h i s p r o b l e m and a method o f c o r r e c t i n g i t . Metaphors se r v e as a defense which a l l o w s a n x i e t y - l a d e n c o n f l i c t s t o be expressed i n a d i s p l a c e d but y e t i n t e n s e form. P u t t i n g the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s i d e , t h e c o n c e p t o f a l l o w i n g metaphor to put d i s t a n c e between the p a t i e n t and h i s problem so as t o e n a b l e him t o v e r b a l i z e h i s p r o b l e m i s a sound one. T h i s a l s o suggests t o us the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a t h e r a p i s t t o change the metaphor w i t h t h e p a t i e n t as a way o f h e l p i n g him. U s i n g a t e c h n i q u e c a l l e d ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e metaphor, 1 C a i n and Maupin (1961) have sought t o use metaphor t o h e l p c h i l d r e n w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c problems. They r e p o r t a case where a c h i l d i n g r e a t p a n i c because the red p a i n t on h i s canvas began to run was g e n t l y subdued by the t h e r a p i s t who, i n t e r p r e t i n g w i t h t h e metaphor o f t h e r e d b e i n g f i r e , q u i c k l y drew a f i r e e n g i n e on t h e c a n v a s and r e a s s u r e d t h e c h i l d t h a t t h e f i r e w o u l d be p u t out. However they p o i n t out t h a t t h e r a p i s t s o f t e n o v e r e s t i m a t e s or g i v e a s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or o v e r v a l u e every word. They c a u t i o n t h a t c a r e s h o u l d be taken t o p r e v e n t s e r i o u s mental harm. Furthermore, they suggest t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of metaphor should b e g i n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y w i t h t h e p a t i e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n s i n mind. These a d v i c e s need t o be heeded. C a r u t h and E k s t e i n (1966) t a k e t h e ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e metaphor' a s t e p f u r t h e r by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a metaphor may even be a c t e d o u t by t h e p a t i e n t . T h i s i s b a s e d on Sharpe's work and a s s e r t s t h a t metaphor may be used t o e s t a b l i s h communication w i t h s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s s i n c e i t r e t a i n s the needed d i s t a n c e f r o m f a c i n g t h e r e a l p r o b l e m . An example g i v e n i s s e t t i n g f i r e t o s o m e t h i n g as a m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n o f s e x u a l f e e l i n g s . A g a i n we r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h e method, as i n t h e use o f metaphor by A l e k s a n d r o w i c z , i s b a s i c a l l y an u s e f u l one. The p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l t o t h o s e who have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n . However the u l t i m a t e v a l u e of the method l i e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n one put on these e x p r e s s i o n s . A p p r o a c h i n g t h e i s s u e f r o m t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , S a r b i n (1964) has c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n the t r a d i t i o n view of a n x i e t y and c a l l s a n x i e t y t h e r e i f i c a t i o n ( t r e a t i n g as c o n c r e t e s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s a b s t r a c t ) o f a metaphor. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a n x i e t y i s r e g a r d e d as an i n t e r n a l s t a t e o r s t a t e o f mind. However S a r b i n regards a n x i e t y as o r i g i n a t i n g from c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l mistakes o c c a s i o n e d by l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f m e t a p h o r s . A l s o , he suggests t h a t the t h e r a p i s t should f o c u s on the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a p a t i e n t i n c o m i n g t o t e r m w i t h h i s w o r l d . I t i s n o t f o r us t o debate here whether a n x i e t y should be regarded as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t . However can we a c c e p t the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t the l i t e r a l 29 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of metaphors are the reasons f o r a n x i e t i e s ? S i n c e m e t a p h o r s a r e u s e d t o e x p r e s s an i n n e r r e a l i t y w i t h i n a p e r s o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y c a n be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . I f t h e s e m e t a p h o r s a r e g i v e n a s t a t u s and an i d e n t i t y s e p a r a t e and i n d e p e n d e n t t o t h e r e a l i t y t o w h i c h t h e y r e l a t e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they can become new problems i n themselves. However t h i s i s n o t t h e same as s a y i n g t h a t a l l a n x i e t i e s o r i g i n a t e f r o m t h e l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f m e t a p h o r s . R e a l a n x i e t i e s c a n come from a v a r i e t y of r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and e x i s t q u i t e a p a r t from the mediums by which they are expressed. Lenrow (1966) d i s c u s s e s the use of metaphor i n f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r change i n many ways. Some of them a r e : (1) M e t a p h o r s u s e d by a t h e r a p i s t a c t as a model f o r a p a t i e n t t o use new ways t o look a t b e h a v i o u r . (2) M e t a p h o r s c a n be u s e d t o h i g h l i g h t c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f e v e n t s . (3) Metaphors have a h a l f p l a y f u l , h a l f s e r i o u s q u a l i t y t h a t a l l o w s the t h e r a p i s t t o t a l k about the p a t i e n t w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g i n t r u s i v e . T h ese f u n c t i o n s o f m e t a p h o r s a r e u s e f u l ones t o remember. M e t a p h o r s c a n be u s e d n o t o n l y f o r g e t t i n g a t t h e s o u r c e o f t h e problem, but a l s o as i n t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . O t h e r f u n c t i o n s f o r metaphor i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y have been s u g g e s t e d by F i n e , P o l l i o and S i m p k i n s o n (1972). Here we w i l l m e n t i o n j u s t two. F i r s t , a s h i f t t o a m e t a p h o r i c a l l e v e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n a t h e r a p y i n t e r v i e w e n a b l e s a p a t i e n t t o draw upon emotions c u r r e n t l y out of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Second, metaphoric i n t e r a c t i o n s p r o v i d e a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h a 30 s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d i n d i v i d u a l c a n c o m m u n i c a t e t e r r i f y i n g thoughts. These authors a l s o examined o t h e r p o e t i c f u n c t i o n s of m e t a p h o r i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . The a b o v e f u n c t i o n s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d by o t h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t words. The need t o t r y and b r i n g out t h a t which i s temporary out of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the need to p r o v i d e a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g a t m o s p h e r e c a n be s a t i s f i e d by t h e c o r r e c t use of metaphor. P o l l i o and B a r l o w (1973) d i d a b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y u s i n g one s e s s i o n i n a s i n g l e case study. They a r r i v e d a t s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g metaphors. F i r s t , the p r o d u c t i o n of c r e a t i v e metaphors i n therapy a p p e a r s t o be more o r l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e number o f words t h a t p a t i e n t s and t h e r a p i s t produce. T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t n o v e l m e t a p h o r s s e r v e an i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n . Second, t h e p a t i e n t and t h e r a p i s t 'cue i n t o ' each o t h e r s ' c r e a t i v e metaphors as i n l e a r n i n g a l a n g u a g e . T h i r d , t h e t h e r a p i s t ' s r e s p o n s e c a n e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e o r i n h i b i t t h e p a t i e n t ' s p r o d u c t i o n o f n o v e l metaphors. F o u r t h , c r e a t i v e metaphors occur e p i s o d i c a l l y i n the c o u r s e o f t h e r a p y . F i f t h , t h e s e ' b u r s t s ' o f m e t a p h o r s d e l i n e a t e c o herent segments of i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l . S i x t h , t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t o f m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n s seems t o c l a r i f y t h e p r e s e n t i n g symptoms. S e v e n t h , t h e change i n m e t a p h o r i c themes s i g n a l s a change by e i t h e r the p a t i e n t or the t h e r a p i s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of the therapy. These c o n c l u s i o n s are tremendously h e l p f u l guides i n our own study of the use of metaphor i n psychotherapy. F o l l o w i n g up t h i s i n i t i a l s t u d y i n h i s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Barlow (1973) f o c u s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 31 metaphor and i n s i g h t i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . He u s e d f i v e i n t e r v i e w s from a complete and ' s u c c e s s f u l ' p s y c h o a n a l y t i c psychotherapy and d i d a t h r e e - f o l d a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n d t h e m a t i c f e a t u r e s o f n o v e l f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s . The second a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h areas c a l l e d 'regions o f i n s i g h t . ' The t h i r d d e a l s w i t h t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between metaphor and i n s i g h t . We f o c u s here on h i s f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f m e t a p h o r s . F r o m h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , Barlow concludes t h a t the p a t i e n t ' s use of n o v e l f i g u r e s t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e and i n t e r p h a s e w i t h t h e use of s i m i l a r f i g u r e s by the t h e r a p i s t as t h e r a p y p r o g r e s s e s . From the q u a l i t a t i v e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , he f i n d s t h a t the metaphoric themes used by t h e p a t i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t a r e l i m i t e d and a r e c a r r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h ole t h e r a p y i n d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . He a l s o f i n d s t h a t the most f r e q u e n t and dominant themes are i n t r o d u c e d by the p a t i e n t w h i c h a r e t h e n p i c k e d up by t h e t h e r a p i s t . From t h e s t a n d p o i n t of the use of metaphor i n therapy, t h i s i s a v a l u a b l e study. However the f i n d i n g s are e n t i r e l y s u r p r i s i n g . Furthermore, t h e r e s u l t may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h e p a t i e n t a p p e a r t o be q u i t e v e r b a l and e x p r e s s i v e , and by o t h e r f a c t o r s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e p a t i e n t o r t h e t h e r a p i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s and o t h e r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s must be n o t e d ( r e f e r t o t h e r e v i e w by P o l l i o , B a r l o w , F i n e , and P o l l i o , 1977). The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t metaphor f u n c t i o n s as a model of awareness w i t h i n psychotherapy t o e n a b l e t h e e x p l i c a t i n g o f t h e i m p l i c i t o r i n s i g h t . These r e s e a r c h e r s ( P o l l i o , B a r l o w , F i n e , and P o l l i o , 1977) a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s i s one t h a t moves fr o m m e t a p h o r i z a t i o n to l i t e r a l i z a t i o n , the p r o d u c t i o n of i n s i g h t . The 32 q u e s t i o n we have t o ask h e r e i s w h e t h e r i n s i g h t i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i t e r a l . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t metaphor i s a b e t t e r v e h i c l e of i n s i g h t . I f t h i s be so, then the f i n a l g o a l of t h e r a p y does not have t o be the l i t e r a l i z a t i o n of metaphors. Amira (1982) extends these s i n g l e s u c c e s s f u l case s t u d i e s to a study which i n c l u d e s more t h a t one dyad i n both s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l therapy. A t t e n t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n to the metaphoric i n t e r a c t i o n between the t h e r a p i s t and the p a t i e n t . H i s f i n d i n g s do n o t t h e s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t by t h e g r o u p o f r e s e a r c h e r s headed by P o l l i o . Amira concludes t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t any s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w een h i g h n o v e l f i g u r a t i v e f r e q u e n c y and p o s i t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c outcome. A r e we t h e n t o d i s c a r d t h e use o f metaphor as a t o o l i n t h e r a p y ? We f e e l t h a t t h e answer i s 'no.' However i n t h e use o f metaphor, we need t o r e t u r n to the fundamental q u e s t i o n s of the nature of metaphor, and the aim of the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . (4) Metaphor i n F a m i l y Therapy Our l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w thus f a r has r e v e a l e d t h a t the main fo c u s of the study on the use of metaphor i n therapy has been on t h e d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t h e r a p i s t and t h e c l i e n t ( p a t i e n t ) . Furthermore most of the work t h a t has been done i s of a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l n a t u r e . One f i n d s t h a t t h e r e i s n o t t o o much s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h done on t h e use o f metaphor i n t h e r a p y w i t h i n the f a m i l y c o n t e x t . However the l a c k of r e s e a r c h does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t s a r e n o t aware o f t h e v a l u e o f s y m b o l i s m and f i g u r a t i v e language i n therapy. What i s l a c k i n g perhaps may be 33 t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e u s a g e s and s t u d y on t h e s u b j e c t a t t h e a c a d e m i c l e v e l . On t h e s u b j e c t o f s y m b o l i s m , one c a s e t h a t has been documented i s t h a t o f t h e M i l l e r f a m i l y . W i t h t h i s s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y , H u r v i t z ( 1 9 7 5 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach t o f a m i l y therapy. Here a g o a l c o n c e r n i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s i s a g r e e d upon by t h e members o f t h e f a m i l y i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . In s u b s e q u e n t s e s s i o n s , t h e c o u n s e l o r a c t s as t h e r a p i s t , c o n s u l t a n t , and i n t e r m e d i a r y as the members of the f a m i l y b r i n g out t h e i r d i v e r s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s y m b o l i s m i n v o l v e d . T h i s p r o g r a m m a t i c approach i s however a t y p i c a l i n f a m i l y therapy. Most do not have a d e f i n i t e agenda a t the b e g i n n i n g of the r a p y . On a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , B a g a r o z z i a nd A n d e r s o n (1982) e x p l o r e s , among o t h e r f a c t o r s , t h e r o l e o f metaphor i n t h e development o f f a m i l y m y t h o l o g i c a l systems. Here f a m i l y myths are d e f i n e d as b e l i e f s s h a r e d by t h e f a m i l y members t h a t p r e s c r i b e complementary r o l e s and r e f l e c t the way the f a m i l y i s seen by i t s members. F o r example, t h e a u t h o r r e p o r t s a b o u t a woman f r o m a c l o s e l y k n i t p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y who m a r r i e d a man whom her f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s d i s l i k e d . A f t e r h e r d i v o r c e , she t u r n e d t o h e r f a m i l y o f o r i g i n f o r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . She r e f e r r e d t o h e r p e r i o d i c v i s i t s t o her f a m i l y of o r i g i n as "appearing b e f o r e the k n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e . " The "Round T a b l e " was t h e p h r a s e used by the extended f a m i l y members t o d e s c r i b e i m p o r t a n t f a m i l y m e e t i n g s . Such m e t a p h o r i c a l p h r a s e s g i v e t h e t h e r a p i s t c l u e s t o t h e f a m i l y myth. P e t names and n i c k n a m e s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t c l u e s . 34 B a g a r o z z i and A n d e r s o n go on t o d e s c r i b e a n o t h e r t y p e o f metaphor they have observed i n t h e i r work where f a m i l y members d i s c u s s s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a m e t a p h o r i c a l way. Here p r o j e c t i o n and symbolism p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . As an example, t h e a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e a f a m i l y i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s f o u n d i t e x t r e m e l y h a r d t o d i s c u s s p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h i s f a m i l y , t h e v a r i o u s r e a l m s o f t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s were a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f m e t a p h o r s w h i c h s u r f a c e d p e r i o d i c a l l y as r e p e t i t i v e f a m i l y themes. The husband i n t h i s f a m i l y bought an a n t i q u e c a r and s t o r e d i t f o r s e v e n y e a r s and n e v e r g o t r o u n d t o r e s t o r i n g i t . For t h i s f a m i l y , the a n t i q u e c a r was a metaphor f o r the parents' d e t e r i o r a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The h u s b a n d g a v e v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o h i s f a m i l y and h i s w i f e , and spent most of h i s time a t h i s work. The c a r was t h e f o c u s o f many a r g u m e n t s . The w i f e complained t h a t her husband r a r e l y "touched" the c a r and " p a i d no a t t e n t i o n t o i t . " She s a i d she d i d not understand why he "bought i t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e " i f he d i d n o t i n t e n d t o " e n j o y " i t . A n o t h e r metaphor, t h e r e p a i r o f t h e f a m i l y c a r , s e r v e s as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c o u p l e ' s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The husband and w i f e d e a l t w i t h t h e i r sex l i f e by a r g u i n g a b o u t t h e need t o r e p a i r t h e f a m i l y c a r . A l t h o u g h t h e husband " s e r v i c e d " and r e p a i r e d t h e c a r s e v e r a l t i m e s , i t n e v e r " p e r f o r m e d " w e l l enough t o " s a t i s f y " the w i f e . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r f e e l s t h a t the above documentation of t h e use o f metaphor i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . What r e m a i n s u n c l e a r f r o m t h e p a p e r however i s w h e t h e r t h e f a m i l y members use t h e s e m e t a p h o r s t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t a t e o f t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s 35 s u b c o n s c i o u s l y . I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c a r s and t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e u n r e l a t e d ? I f t h a t i s t h e c a s e , a r e t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e c a r s m e r e l y u s e d by t h e f a m i l y members i n t e n t i o n a l l y t o i l l u s t r a t e the f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s ? But whether the m e t a p h o r s a r e u s e d s u b c o n s c i o u s l y o r i n t e n t i o n a l l y , t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t k e y s t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s . They ca n c e r t a i n l y be u s e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t s t o g i v e a p i c t u r e o f t h e problemmatic f a m i l y dynamics t o the f a m i l y members and t o suggest p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Other f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t s are s e e i n g the v a l u e of metaphor i n therapy. For example, B r i n k (1982) d e s c r i b e s the use of metaphors w i t h i n f a m i l y therapy to p r o v i d e i n d i r e c t i n s i g h t and s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e f a m i l y . He p r e s e n t s a model t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d y n a m i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l change and t o p r o v i d e a s t r a t e g y to c r e a t e s u g g e s t i o n s t o f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e changes. B r i n k f i n d s t h a t o f t e n a c l i e n t r e s i s t s the i n s i g h t o f f e r e d by a t h e r a p i s t b e c a u s e o f t h e f e a r o f a need t o change and f e a r o f t h e unknown t h a t l i e s beyond t h e change. W i t h f a m i l y t h e r a p y s u c h f e a r i s much s t r o n g e r , s i n c e i t i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e games and mutual e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f a m i l y . To i n i t i a t e change, B r i n k s o m e t i m e s compared f o l k t a l e s o f t h e E u r o p e a n A m e r i c a n and t h e N a t i v e A m e r i c a n . The f a m i l y ' s f e a r and r e s i s t a n c e t o change i s r e c o g n i z e d as a f e a t u r e o f E u r o p e a n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . T h i s i s c l a r i f i e d by examining t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g f e a t u r e s of the European A m e r i c a n f o l k t a l e s and N a t i v e A m e r i c a n f o l k t a l e s . F i r s t , t h e f o r m e r p r o v i d e m a g i c a l ways, f o r g a i n i n g power and p r e s t i g e whereas t h e l a t t e r t e a c h t h a t w isdom i s g a i n e d by l i s t e n i n g . . 3 6 Second, the former p r e s e n t s good and e v i l as a b s o l u t e whereas the l a t t e r p r e s e n t s good as the p r o c e s s of s e e k i n g the t r u t h . T h i r d , t h e f o r m e r u s e s magic t o a v o i d s u f f e r i n g whereas t h e l a t t e r t e a c h e s t h a t f a c i n g e v i l and l i v i n g t h r o u g h f e a r and p a i n a p e r s o n l e a r n s and grows. The t h e r a p i s t i n r e l a t i n g t h e s e t a l e s c a n c o n s t r u c t m e t a p h o r s t o h e l p t h e f a m i l y o v e r c o m e t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o change. A c l i e n t does n o t need t o d e f e n d a g a i n s t s t o r i e s . These t a l e s p r o v i d e a r e s e r v o i r o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e f a m i l y when i t i s ready to f a c e the unknown of change. In a way s i m i l a r t o t h e m e t a p h o r i c s t o r i e s o f M i l t o n E r i c k s o n ( Z e i g , 1980), B r i n k u s e s a n i m a l s i n s t e a d o f humans as c h a r a c t e r s o f h i s t a l e s . T h i s l i m i t s t h e n u m b e r o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by the f a m i l y c o n c e r n i n g the c h a r a c t e r s , and thus the message h e l d w i t h i n the metaphor i s more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d . I f humans a r e u s e d , t h e f a m i l y may q u i c k l y r e l a t e t h e s t o r y t o p e o p l e t h e y know and add t o t h e s t o r y some e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e t h e r a p i s t may n o t r e c o g n i z e o r have c o n t r o l o v e r . A l s o c e r t a i n c o n n e c t o r s , t h a t i s , f e a t u r e s o f a s t o r y t h a t d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t i e t h e s t o r y t o t h e f a m i l y , a r e u s e d . T h e s e ca n be t h e b a c k g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e metaphor o r names: and words used by t h e f a m i l y . One example o f a s t o r y g i v e n by t h e a u t h o r i s c e n t r e d on w o l v e s . T h i s s t o r y was t o l d t o a c o u p l e where the p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c husband was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r d e p r e s s i o n as a r e s u l t of h i s second wife's d i s t r u s t towards him. The s t o r y was as f o l l o w s : I've been d o i n g some r e a d i n g about wolves. They seem to be the most misunderstood a n i m a l . You know, they r e a l l y are not v i c i o u s and l e c h e r o u s as most people t h i n k of them. Beyond the S t . Lawrence t h i s one f a m i l y of wolves was s t u d i e d f o r a number of y e a r s . The husband would go 37 out h u n t i n g each day and r e t u r n w i t h f o o d to f e e d h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n . Each y e a r more c h i l d r e n were born and the c h i l d r e n from the p r e v i o u s year would b e g i n t o ven-t u r e o f f on t h e i r own to f i n d a mate and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own home. But every so o f t e n these c h i l d r e n would r e t u r n w i t h t h e i r mate t o v i s i t t h e i r p a r e n t s and the p a r e n t s would r e t u r n t h e i r v i s i t . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f a i t h -f u l and l a s t e d f o r y e a r s and a r e p r o b a b l y s t i l l l a s t i n g . I f i n d the f a i t h f u l n e s s of wolves b e a u t i f u l and f e e l s o r r y f o r how misunderstood they a r e . ( B r i n k , 1982, p. 262) The above s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e s v e r y w e l l how metaphors and s t o r i e s can be used i n o f f e r i n g i n s i g h t t o a c l i e n t or a f a m i l y . The w o l f metaphor q u i t e d i r e c t l y suggests t o the w i f e t h a t her f e a r s are u n f o u n d e d . The husband i n t h i s c a s e was d i s c h a r g e d as i m p r o v e d a f t e r o n l y one week i n h o s p i t a l and one t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . B r i n k a l s o w a t c h e s f o r p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s o f shaming, t h r e a t s , r i d i c u l e , and r e j e c t i o n i n the f a m i l i e s . These o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o the dynamics of f a m i l y problems. They a l s o can be used t o determine the c o n t e n t of h i s metaphors. H o f f m a n (1983) i n an a r t i c l e , 'Imagery and metaphor i n c o u p l e s t h e r a p y , ' r e v i e w s r e s e a r c h t h a t p o i n t t o t h e p o t e n c y o f p r i v a t e a n d s h a r e d i m a g e r y i n p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p s y c h o t h e r a p y . He t h e n a p p l i e s t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o c o u p l e s therapy. The most i m p r e s s i v e e f f e c t of these i n t e r v e n t i o n s i s the r e d u c t i o n o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l , d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e s t o w h i c h e a c h p a r t n e r has become accustomed. An example o f t h e use o f metaphor i n F a m i l y t h e r a p y i s d o c u m e n t e d f o r us by R u l e (1983) i n h i s u s e o f t h e ' p i e metaphor.' The ' p i e metaphor' i s u s e f u l i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g f a m i l y c o n c e p t s s u c h a s : p a r t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e whole; t h e ' p i e ' i s n o u r i s h i n g ; v a r y i n g the ' i n g r e d i e n t s ' a f f e c t the outcome; v a r y i n g the 'cooking' (process) a f f e c t s the outcome; the 'crust* can h i d e 38 what i s b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e ; t h e ' p i e ' must be p r e s e r v e d o r i t w i l l p e r i s h ; and the r e c i p e s can be passed on f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . Such an approach t o the use of metaphor i s adopted by David Gordon (1978) i n h i s book ' T h e r a p e u t i c M e t a p h o r s ' w h i c h i s a p r a c t i c a l handbook f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r i n the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n , Gordon r e f e r s t o a l l s t o r i e s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i n g o r a d v i s i n g t h e l i s t e n e r , o r p e r c e i v e d by the l i s t e n e r i n t h i s manner, as metaphors. He quotes f r o m t h e book, 'Guru: M e t a p h o r s f r o m a P s y c h o t h e r a p i s t ' by Sheldon Kopp (1971), who d e f i n e s 'metaphor' as f o l l o w s : G e n e r a l l y , a metaphor i s d e f i n e d as a way of speaki n g i n which one t h i n g i s expressed i n terms of another, whereby t h i s b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r throws new l i g h t on the c h a r a c t e r o f what i s b e i n g d e f i n e d . (Kopp, 1971, p. 17, c i t e d by Gordon, 1978, p. 7) A f t e r an i n t r o d u c t i o n , Gordon d e s c r i b e s the b a s i c metaphor model and p a t t e r n s f o r e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p y . Then i n P a r t I I I , IV, and V, he e x p l a i n s S a t i r c a t e g o r i e s ( p l a c a t e r , b l a m e r , c o m p u t e r and d i s t r a c t e r s ) , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s y s t e m s , and s u b - m o d a l i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Ways of u t i l i z i n g metaphors are d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t V I . The a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d by Gordon draws f r o m many d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f communication. I t i s e c l e c t i c and a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l method of t h e r a p e u t i c communication. Even though we have not used h i s a p p r o a c h f o r o u r r e s e a r c h , h i s work i s w o r t h y o f s p e c i a l mention e s p e c i a l l y from the s t a n d p o i n t of a p r a c t i t i o n e r . T h ese and o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s t u d y i n g t h e use o f metaphor i n a f a m i l y c o n t e x t . Our e n t i r e r e v i e w has a l s o demonstrated the need t o be aware of the complex n a t u r e o f m e t a p h o r a n d be g u i d e d a c c o r d i n g l y i n o u r 39 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f metaphor w i t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c e n t e r p r i s e . W h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e u nder t h e c o n f i n e s o f our r e s e a r c h t o answer a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e use o f m e t a p h o r s r a i s e d i n t h i s r e v i e w , an a t t e m p t i s made t o a d d r e s s t h o s e t h a t r e l a t e t o the m a t e r i a l i n hand. 40 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The Context T h i s s i n g l e case study was done 1 u s i n g m a t e r i a l from a f a m i l y therapy conducted by V i r g i n i a S a t i r a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c o i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1982. The f a m i l y c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e members, t h e f a t h e r , G a r y , t h e mother, J a n e , and t h e i r t e e n a g e son, Kent. The p r e s e n t i n g problem was the son p l a y i n g t r u a n c y and the parents' i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . The s e s s i o n s were b o t h v i d e o - t a p e d and audio-taped. There were a l t o g e t h e r t e n 90-minute a u d i o t a p e s . The t h e r a p y was s t r u c t u r e d i n t h r e e main p o r t i o n s . The f i r s t two o f t h e t h r e e n a t u r a l segments were u s e d f o r o u r a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t segment was the f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w . The second segment was the f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Kent's p a r e n t s . P r e p a r i n g T r a n s c r i p t The m a t e r i a l o f a f a m i l y i n t h e r a p y by V i r g i n i a S a t i r as t h e r a p i s t was t r a n s c r i b e d v e r b a t i m f r o m t h e a u d i o t a p e s . The t r a n s c r i b e d m a t e r i a l was then typed. There were a l t o g e t h e r f o u r hundred and twenty-two pages o f t r a n s c r i p t . The f i r s t two hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t pages were used f o r our r e s e a r c h . V e r i f y i n g T r a n s c r i p t The w r i t t e n v e r s i o n was then p r o o f - r e a d f o r i t s a c c u r a c y by l i s t e n i n g t o the tape again. Any mistakes were then c o r r e c t e d t o p r o d u c e t h e f i n a l w o r k i n g copy o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t . T h i s a l s o helped the r e s e a r c h e r t o become more f a m i l i a r w i t h the case and get a t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 41 D i v i d i n g T r a n s c r i p t i n t o E x c e r p t s The i n t e r a c t i o n s between the t h e r a p i s t and the f a m i l y were markedout i n f o u r minute e x c e r p t s f o r our r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s . These e x c e r p t s formed the b a s i c u n i t s of our study. Each u n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e r v a l o f t h e r a p y w h i c h w i l l be e x a m i n e d t o s e a r c h out the metaphors i t c o n t a i n . Each u n i t w i l l a l s o be r a t e d to determine the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s of the c l i e n t . As i t t u r n e d o u t , e a c h f o u r m i n u t e e x c e r p t was e q u i v a l e n t t o two pages of typed t r a n s c r i p t . T r a i n i n g Research A s s i s t a n t The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r h e l p e d the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s o f metaphor p r e s e n t e d i n CHAPTER I. The purpose was t o enable the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t t o i d e n t i f y the types of metaphors i n the t r a n s c r i p t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t a l s o became f a m i l i a r w i t h the i n s t r u m e n t f o r measuring t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s o f t h e c l i e n t , t h e Approach-Avoidance S c a l e to S e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n developed by Gore (1977). The purpose was t o e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t t o a s s e s s t h e p r o g r e s s o f therapy i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the r e s e a r c h b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r had t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e a s s i s t a n t was a t one w i t h him on t h e c o n c e p t s u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . T h i s was done as o u t l i n e d i n the p i l o t study. Conducting a P i l o t Study The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t was g i v e n a segment o f a n o t h e r t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e work o f V i r g i n i a S a t i r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a p i l o t study. The metaphors used by the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t 4 2 were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e a s s i s t a n t . The d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e f a m i l y a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y r e g a r d e d as t h e c l i e n t i n t h e whole r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The r e s e a r c h e r then checked h i s own f i n d i n g s a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e a s s i s t a n t t o make s u r e t h a t t h e p r o p e r c o n c e p t and p r o c e d u r e were employed. S i m i l a r l y , t h e A p p r o a c h -A v o i d a n c e S c a l e was us e d by t h e a s s i s t a n t and a s s e s s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . When agreement between the r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h e r and the a s s i s t a n t was reached, the a c t u a l r e s e a r c h was launched. T h i s meant t h a t e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a s s i s t a n t a g r e e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Thus t h e p i l o t study ensured t h a t both the r e s e a r c h e r and the a s s i s t a n t were not o n l y i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d , b u t a l s o i n t h e procedures used t o a p p l y t h e s e concepts. I d e n t i f y i n g the Metaphors The r e s e a r c h e r and t h e a s s i s t a n t went t h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e t r a n s c r i p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e m e t a p h o r s . When t h i s was done, t h e r e s e a r c h e r compare d h i s r e s u l t w i t h t h a t of the a s s i s t a n t t o look f o r a g r e e m e n t . The met a p h o r s i d e n t i f i e d by b o t h were r e c o r d e d and t h e met a p h o r s i d e n t i f i e d by o n l y t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t was d i s c a r d e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e . t h a t were d i s c a r d e d r e v e a l e d t h a t most of them had been used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n the p a s t but were now used l i t e r a l l y i n everyday speech. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a fewer number of metaphors f o r the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , b u t i t d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t o f t h e r e s e a r c h . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the metaphors by both the r e s e a r c h e r and h i s a s s i s t a n t were compared. In c a s e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r would r e v i e w the c o n t e x t s of the metaphors 4 3 i n q u e s t i o n and come up w i t h a f i n a l d e c i s i o n as t o t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Measuring the T h e r a p e u t i c P r o g r e s s The t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s o f t h e f a m i l y t h a t went t h r o u g h t h e r a p y was measured by t h e A p p r o a c h - A v o i d a n c e S c a l e t o S e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by Gore (1977). The A p p r o a c h v e r s u s A v o i d a n c e s c a l e (A-A S c a l e ) was u s e d t o r a t e c o n s e c u t i v e f o u r -minute e x c e r p t s throughout the l e n g t h of the therapy. The S c a l e u s e s s i x r a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , p l u s t h e o p t i o n o f r a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l as Not A p p l i c a b l e i n terms of approach-avoidance. The bottom two s c a l e p o i n t s are f o r r a t i n g avoidance, w i t h the lower p o i n t f o r a c t i v e a v o i d a n c e and t h e o t h e r f o r p a s s i v e a v o i d a n c e ; t h e t o p two p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t t e n t a t i v e a p p r o a c h b e h a v i o r and c l e a r approaches; w h i l e the two middle c a t e g o r i e s s c o r e , f i r s t , an absence of e i t h e r approach or avoidance, and second, a mixture o f b o t h , w i t h t h e l a t t e r b e i n g s c o r e d h i g h e r (Gore, 1977, p.68). The r e s e a r c h e r and t h e a s s i s t a n t a g a i n r e v i e w e d t h i s s c o r i n g system used i n the p i l o t study j u s t b e f o r e the a c t u a l r a t i n g . The s c o r i n g system developed by Gore was used t o a s s e s s the movement i n c o u n s e l l i n g . The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t was t h e s o l e i n d e p e n d e n t r a t e r . The S c a l e , as an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e movement of t h e t h e r a p y , was u s e d m a i n l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e h i g h p o i n t s o f t h e t h e r a p y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t u d y i n g t h e ways t h e t h e r a p i s t and t h e c l i e n t u s e d m e taphors t h e r e i n . The r a t i n g h e l p e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e w h e t h e r or n o t t h e t h e r a p e u t i c g r o w t h a t any p o i n t c o r r e s p o n d t o the use of metaphors. The r a t i n g system by Gore i s e l a b o r a t e d here: 44 T a b l e 1 APPROACH VS. AVOIDANCE OF SELF-EXPLORATION 1 — C l e a r - c u t , a c t i v e a v o i d a n c e . E i t h e r a t l e a s t one example of t h i s b e h a v i o u r , or a g e n e r a l stance of non-involvement, e s p e c i a l l y an impersonal n a r r a t i v e . 2 — Tendency t o shy away, t o p a s s i v e l y a v o i d r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . P a y i n g o n l y l i p - s e r v i c e t o t h e r a p i s t ' s attempts t o promote s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . O v e r l y p r o l o n g e d s i t u a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , w i t h p e r s o n a l involvement b e i n g e n t i r e l y s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c or nominal. 3 — No a v oidance, a c t i v e or p a s s i v e , but c e r t a i n l y no approach to s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . C l i e n t s w i l l i n t r o d u c e t o p i c s of l i k e l y s i g n i f i c a n c e , but i t ' s mostly a t a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l . I t i s u n c l e a r whether c l i e n t w i l l d e velop the t o p i c ( s ) i n t o meaningful t h e r a p y work. However, p e r s o n a l involvement i s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t . T h i s c a t e g o r y can be used as a b a s e - l i n e s c o r e f o r any c o n v e r s a t i o n about c o n t e n t areas of p o t e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e . 4 — Mixed approach-avoidance; i n v o l v e s examples of b oth . Ambivalence about p u r s u i n g the t o p i c m e a n i n g f u l l y i s r e v e a l -ed. P o t e n t i a l i s t h e r e f o r f u r t h e r s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . 5 — O v e r a l l approach. S e t t i n g the stage f o r l a t e r , more meaning-f u l s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c i n g . May i n v o l v e l a b e l l i n g problems as such, or d e s c r i b i n g / m e n t i o n i n g f e e l i n g s about p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Can be used as a c a t c h - a l l c a t e g o r y when one g e t s a sense of d i f f u s e , g e n e r a l approach. 6 — C l e a r approach. At l e a s t one good example, not c o n t r a d i c t e d or c a n c e l l e d by a v o i d a n c e s . May i n v o l v e s e l a b o r a t i o n upon f e e l i n g s , i n s i g h t i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s , d e s i r e f o r u n d e r s t a n -d i n g of e x p e r i e n c e , c u r i o s i t y about s e l f , a sense t h a t the c l i e n t i s open t o e x p e r i e n c e , a s t r o n g unambivalent d e s i r e to s o l v e problems. NA— Score "Not A p p l i c a b l e " when t h e r e are no c o n t e n t i s s u e s under d i s c u s s i o n . In o t h e r words, o n l y when c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t are e x c l u s i v e l y d i s c u s s i n g c o n t r a c t i s s u e s and arrangements. I f any c o n t e n t i s d i s c u s s e d i n the e x c e r p t , s c o r e i t o n the 6 - p o i n t s c a l e . Even w i t h i n c o n t r a c t i n g , c l i e n t b e h a v i o r may o c c a s i o n a l l y be s c o r a b l e ; i t i t i s , do so. In o t h e r words, use NA as s p a r i n g l y as p o s s i b l e . 4 5 I d e n t i f y i n g the P a t t e r n s of Metaphoric I n t e r a c t i o n s The use o f me t a p h o r s by b o t h t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t was e x a m i n e d a t c r i t i c a l p o i n t s o f t h e t h e r a p y where g r o w t h or l a c k of growth was i n d i c a t e d . A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s was made to l o o k f o r p a t t e r n s and t o draw some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s where p o s s i b l e . The q u e s t i o n as t o how t h e q u a l i t y o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t r e l a t e s t o e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g was i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e me t a p h o r s t h a t were r e l a t e d t o t h e p i v o t a l p o i n t s of the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . I n t e r v i e w w i t h the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r When the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t was done, an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the t h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r , was conducted. Two i m p o r t a n t segments o f t h e t h e r a p y where p i v o t a l m e t a p h o r s were u s e d were p l a y e d back t o h e r u s i n g an a u d i o t a p e . The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were asked of her: 1. What do you t h i n k t r i g g e r e d t h e use o f a metaphor i n t h i s segment of the i n t e r v i e w ? 2. What was g o i n g t h r o u g h y o u r mind as you were u s i n g t h e metaphor? 3. What were you f e e l i n g a t t h a t p o i n t ? 4 . What was the e f f e c t of the use of the metaphor on the c l i e n t ? Was i t what you had expected? 5. H a v i n g had t h i s h i n d s i g h t , w o u l d you have done a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t l y i f you can s t a r t a l l over again? S a t i r was a l s o g i v e n g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s on the nature and use of metaphor, the h i g h l i g h t s were i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n . 46 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e t h e r a p i s t i n o u r s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y u s e d an a b u n d a n c e o f m e t a p h o r s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s . A number o f i n c i d e n c e s of the use of metaphor by the t h e r a p i s t was excluded f r o m our a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e y were e i t h e r n o t s e l e c t e d by t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t . W h i l e t h i s was a l o s s , i t d i d not a f f e c t the r e s u l t s i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way. Some metaphors a r e u s e d so o f t e n t h a t t h e y have p a s s e d i n t o common usage and may not be r e c o g n i z e d as metaphors. Q u i t e n a t u r a l l y these metaphors tend to be bypassed by e i t h e r one or both the persons i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The r e s u l t was t h a t o n l y n o v e l m e t a p h o r s were i d e n t i f i e d . However t h e r e remained seventeen o c c u r r e n c e s i n the f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w segment, and t w e n t y - e i g h t i n the second segment which c o n t a i n e d the f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n of the therapy. As mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w d e a l t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e f a m i l y members, Gary, J a n e , and t h e i r son, Kent; and t h e f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n d e a l t w i t h t r a c i n g the r o o t s of Kent's p a r e n t s . In the f i r s t segment, the most s i g n i f i c a n t uses of metaphor by t h e t h e r a p i s t were t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e images o f t h e t o a d s t o o l and the plumber's l i c e n s e s . They were found i n c o n t e x t s of h i g h degree of approach t o s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n by the c l i e n t . In t h e s e c o n d segment, t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t o f t h e r a p e u t i c g r o w t h was when t h e t h e r a p i s t i n t r o d u c e d t h e metaphor o f t h e b l a c k s h e e p t o w h i c h t h e c l i e n t r e s p o n d e d i n k i n d . T h e s e 47 metaphors,along w i t h o t h e r s used by the c l i e n t , were a n a l y z e d by the r e s e a r c h e r and r e c o r d e d i n t h i s chapter. In c o n t r a s t , o u r c l i e n t was f o u n d t o be q u i t e i m p o v e r i s h e d i n metaphoric e x p r e s s i o n s . In the f i r s t segment, t h e r e was found o n l y 2 i n c i d e n c e s where t h e c l i e n t u s e d m e t a p h o r s . In e a c h i n c i d e n c e the c l i e n t was e x p l a i n i n g h i s f e e l i n g s of b e i n g i n the t h e r a p y . They were u n r e l a t e d t o t h e m e t a p h o r s s u g g e s t e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t and u n r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s . In t h e s e c o n d segment, t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e i n c i d e n c e s o f m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n by t h e c l i e n t . However, t h e f i r s t two o c c u r r e d a t p o i n t s where the c l i e n t showed h i g h degree of approach t o s e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n which was an i n d i c a t o r of t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f t h e t h i r d i n c i d e n c e when t h e c l i e n t a c t u a l l y r e s p o n d e d t o t h e metaphor o f t h e b l a c k sheep s u g g e s t e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t . We p r e s e n t i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r f i r s t a summary o f a l l t h e metaphors found. The metaphors were arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , and t h e p o i n t s a t w h i c h t h e y o c c u r r e d were r e c o r d e d . The n u m b e r i n g s y s t e m f o l l o w s t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e m e taphors o c c u r r e d and d e s i g n a t e d 'T' i f t h e metaphor came f r o m t h e t h e r a p i s t and 'C i f i t came f r o m t h e c l i e n t . E a c h metaphor had been i d e n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s t y p e . The t y p e s were t h o s e d e f i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , namely, metaphor o f i d e n t i t y ( I ) , metaphor of a p p r o x i m a t i o n (A), metaphor of o r g a n i z a t i o n (Or), and metaphor of o p e r a t i o n (Op). M e t a p h o r s o f i d e n t i t y (I) a r e t h e ways by w h i c h people know who they are, over time. Metaphors of a p p r o x i m a t i o n (A) are the ways one can c o n c e p t u a l i z e the i n n e r w o r l d of o n e s e l f o r of a n o t h e r . M e t a p h o r s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n (Or) a r e t h e ways 48 r e l a t i o n s h i p s are ordered s o c i a l l y . Metaphors of o p e r a t i o n (Op) are the p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The n e x t s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e ' d i r e c t i o n , ' r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e n t o f t h e use o f t h e metaphor by t h e s p e a k e r . T h i s i n v o l v e d e i t h e r making the str a n g e f a m i l i a r (S/F), or making the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e (F/S), o r making the f a m i l i a r f a m i l i a r (F/F). By t h i s p r o c e s s o f t h e use o f metaphor, one i s engaged i n t h e p r o c e s s o f making r e l a t i o n s h i p , o f c o n n e c t i n g . The t a s k o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r was t o u n c o v e r t h i s p r o c e s s and make e x p l i c i t t h e dynamics of the t h e r a p i s t - c l i e n t communication. The r a t i n g o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s o f t h e c l i e n t was done by means o f t h e A p p r o a c h Vs. A v o i d a n c e S c a l e o f S e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n which has the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s : 1 — C l e a r - c u t , a c t i v e avoidance. 2 — Tendency t o shy away. 3 — No avoidance, but no approach t o s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . 4 — Mixed approach-avoidance. 5 — O v e r a l l approach. 6 — C l e a r approach. NA— Not a p p l i c a b l e . A l l t h e above r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o r m o f a t a b l e . P a r t I p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w . A t t h e end of t h e f i r s t n i n e t y m i n u t e s , t h e f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w t e r m i n a t e d . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by commentary g i v e n by the t h e r a p i s t . P a r t II p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h was done i n two s e s s i o n s . The f i r s t s e s s i o n was o v e r s i x t y m i n u t e s long w h i l e the second was over n i n e t y minutes long. 4 9 T a b l e 2 SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE METAPHORS P a r t I. The Fam i l y I n t e r v i e w Mins. Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 1 T l Even the cameras are f r i e n d s Or F/S 2 1 T2 l i k e you're going t o be a s t a r A S/F 2 1 C2 I t ' s l i k e g o i ng t o the d e n t i s t A F/F 2 1 C3 got the p i t i n your stomach A F/F 2 2 T3 do p i t s i n your stomach A F/F 2 6 T4 You got to be a s t a r A S/F 3 8 T5 Now I want t o make a map Or F/F 3 16 T6 I want t o t r y t o g e t a p i c t u r e Or F/F 4 18 T7 how t o cover up f o r y o u r s e l f I F/F 4 18 T8 would you t u r n a sumersault A S/F 4 50 T a b l e 2 (Continued) Mins v NOS . P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 46 T9 i s n ' t s e e i n g the whole p i c t u r e Or F/F . 4 52 T10 I ' l l t e l l you a p i c t u r e I had. Do you know what a t o a d s t o o l looks l i k e ? A F/F 6 52 T i l I saw a g r e a t , b i g t o a d s t o o l and you were s i t t i n g under i t : and you wanted t o have e x c i t e -ment and i n t e r e s t and so on. And you d i d n ' t n o t i c e t h a t around the edges were funny t h i n g s and so on. Does t h a t say an y t h i n g t o you? Op F/S 6 52 , T12 g e t t i n g plumber's l i c e n s e s I F/F 6 54 T13 A l o t of us here got our plum-ber's l i c e n s e s out here and then we f o r g o t about the plumbing a f t e r w a r d on purpose. They might not l i k e t h a t f o r me t o say t h a t , but t h a t ' s one of the; t h i n g s t h a t happens. Do you want plum-ber's l i c e n s e s ? Op F/S 5 54 A make-believe c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by the t h e r a p i s t 58 T14 I t s p a r k l e s a l l over your eyes. A S/F 5 68 S c u l p t i n g and game metaphor i n t r o d u c e d by the^ t h e r a p i s t here 51 Table 3 (Continued) Mins . Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 70 T15 I take e v e r y t h i n g I f i n d and compost i t . Op F/F 5 80 T16 the t h i n g s you want t o b u i l d Op F/F 4 86 S c u l p t i n g and game metaphor r e -i n t r o d u c e d by the t h e r a p i s t here 88 T17 i f you make t h a t i n t o a dance Or F/F 5 The end of P a r t I . The Family I n t e r v i e w P a r t I I . The Family R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Mins. Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 1 T l R i g h t i n the l i m e l i g h t A F/F 3 4 T2 I make a g o l d s t a r of our drama I F/F 3 4 T3 He was a guinea p i g I F/S 3 52 Table 2 (Continued) Mins. Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 20 T4 g e t t i n g ready the c a s t of c h a r a c t e r s •Op F/F 3 24 T5 you're the sandwich Or F/F 3 44 T6 you're the d i r e c t o r I F/F 4 48 T7 you're the a r c h i t e c t , you're the producer I F/F 4 58 T8 b r i n g t h i s out of the c l o s e t Or F/F 3 62 T9 sugar and cream a l l the time Op F/F 3 End of f i r s t h a l f of P a r t II P a r t I I . (Second H a l f ) 1 T l what bubbled f o r you a f t e r y e s t e r d a y A F/F 5 2 CI W e l l , I f e l t v e r y open l a s t n i g h t . I t j u s t s o r t of came out of me A F/F 5 2 T2 Your j u i c e s were f l o w i n g A F/F 5 53 Table 2 (Continued) Mins. Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 2 T3 A n y t h i n g bubble f o r you Jane? A F/F 5 6 T4 When I say tape i t ' s k i n d of a c o n c l u s i o n A S/F 4 40 T5 One c h i l d . I'm l o o k i n g f o r b l a c k sheep, because t h e r e ought to be b l a c k sheep as w e l l . I F/S 4 40 T6 B l a c k sheep. Now I w i l l t e l l you why you have to have b l a c k sheep, and you look f o r i t . A b l a c k sheep i s somebody i n the f a m i l y where the messages are such you don't count and the b l a c k sheep goes out and shows the w o r l d what aw-f u l people they a r e . . . I F/S 4 42 T7 ...The b l a c k sheep g e t s a l l k i n d s of a t t e n t i o n , because the b l a c k sheep i s the one t h a t keeps the f a m i l y a l i v e . I f you don't have a b l a c k sheep i n a f a m i l y t h a t i s so r i g i d , then i t takes a l o t t o r a i s e the dead, I w i l l t e l l you. That's what the b l a c k sheep does, t h a t ' s t h e i r f u n c t i o n . . . Now how d i d t h a t b l a c k sheep t u r n out? I F/S 4 72 T8 I t (a value) i s one of those t h i n g s you can use Op F/S 6 72 C9 I t c o u l d be a t o o l Op F/S 6 T a b l e 2 (Continued) Mins. N O S . P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 72 T9 A t o o l l E x a c t l y . A t o o l , marvel-l o u s . Your f a t h e r d i d n ' t use i t as a t o o l , he used i t as p a r t of h i s l i f e . Op F/F 6 72 T10 s h i n e i n a l l the b r i g h t n e s s A F/F 6 72 T i l So you've got your l i g h t t u r n e d low. A S/F 6 73 T12 These are a l l g i f t s from h i s f a m i l y . Op F/S 6 78 T13 look a t them i n terms of your g i f t g i v e r s Op F/S 5 78 T14 But now I'd a l s o l i k e t o show you some oth e r t h i n g s you got. You got...knowing how to be a b l a c k sheep... I F/F 5 78 C14 Being a b l a c k sheep can be p o s i t i v e i f you want t o get out of s i t u a t i o n s I F/F 5 78 T15 I s n ' t i t m a r v e l l o u s ? ...So y e s t e r d a y , i t ' d be t e r r i b l e . You'd a v o i d b e i n g a b l a c k sheep. But today b e i n g a b l a c k sheep, used p r o p e r l y , i s going t o get you l o t s o f p l a c e s , r i g h t ? I F/F 5 55 T a b l e 2 (Continued) Mins. Nos. P a r t i c u l a r Type D i r e c t i o n S c a l e 80 T16 The s e r v a n t p a r t of y o u r s e l f . I F/F 5 82 T17 w i t h the syrup t h a t f o l l o w e d l a t e r Op F/F 5 84 T18 B l a c k sheep i s e x c i t i n g , but anybody who i s a b l a c k sheep i n your f a m i l y on one l e v e l always got punished... I F/F 6 84 T19 p e r f o r m i n g a s e r v a n t a c t I F/F 6 The end of P a r t I I . The Fam i l y R e c o n s t r u c t i o n I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the t h e r a p i s t used metaphors o f i d e n t i t y f i f t e e n t i m e s , metaphor o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h i r t e e n t i m e s , m e t a p h o r s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n 6 t i m e s , and me t a p h o r s o f o p e r a t i o n e l e v e n times.Of these 6 of them were t o make something s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r , t e n of them were t o make s o m e t h i n g f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e , and twenty-nine of them were t o make something f a m i l i a r more f a m i l i a r . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d n o t d i s c e r n any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the types of metaphors used. However t h e number o f me t a p h o r s t h a t f e l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f 'making t h e f a m i l i a r f a m i l i a r ' i s w o r t h n o t i n g . On c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t many o f t h e s e 56 metaphors were t h e more commonplace m e t a p h o r s t h a t had become p a r t of the t h e r a p i s t ' s p i c t u r e s q u e language. Sometimes they were us e d t o v a r y e x p r e s s i o n s , e.g. 'now I want t o make a map' and 'I want t o t r y and g e t a p i c t u r e . ' O t h e r t i m e s t h e y were used t o h e l p t h e c l i e n t a s s u m e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s , e.g. 'you're t h e s a n d w i c h , ' 'you're t h e d i r e c t o r , ' 'you're t h e a r c h i t e c t , ' and 'you're t h e p r o d u c e r . ' These were by no means v e r y s p e c i a l u s e s o f metaphor, b u t t h e y h e l p e d t o c r e a t e a more l i v e l y c o n t e x t i n which movement i n c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d take p l a c e . As f o r t h e c l i e n t , t h r e e o f t h e f i v e m e t aphors used were metaphors of a p p r o x i m a t i o n , one was a metaphor of o p e r a t i o n and t h e r e m a i n i n g one a metaphor o f i d e n t i t y . F o u r o f t h e s e were used t o make the f a m i l i a r more f a m i l i a r , and the r e m a i n i n g was to make the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e . No obvious p a t t e r n c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d . The .Pattern of Metaphoric I n t e r a c t i o n The t h e r a p i s t began w i t h two metaphors a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e t h e r a p y t o t r y and p u t t h e c l i e n t a t e a s e . The c l i e n t r e s p o n d e d w i t h two of h i s own to d e s c r i b e h i s f e e l i n g s of b e i n g there. The t h e r a p i s t t r i e d t o p i c k up on t h e c l i e n t ' s metaphor, b u t t h e c l i e n t d i d n o t f o l l o w t h r o u g h . A t t h a t p o i n t , t h e t h e r a p i s t r e t u r n e d t o one of the metaphors w i t h which she s t a r t e d . Most of t h e m e t a p h o r s u s e d h e r e were metaphors o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n w h i c h were a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r a p y . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n t h e f i r s t s i x m i n u t e s of t h e t h e r a p y . No d i s c e r n a b l e p a t t e r n however c o u l d be observed. At t h i s p o i n t , the c l i e n t moved from the tendency to shy away t o the p o i n t where he was not a v o i d i n g the s u g g e s t i o n s of the t h e r a p i s t . 57 M o v i n g f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r a p y , t h e n e x t ' b u r s t ' o f metaphors by the t h e r a p i s t o c c u r r e d a t about s i x t e e n t o e i g h t e e n m i n u t e s i n t o t h e s e s s i o n . The t h e r a p i s t was t r y i n g t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e f o r the c l i e n t u s i n g d i f f e r e n t types of metaphor. However th e c l i e n t d i d n o t r e s p o n d i n k i n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c l i e n t i s showing the f i r s t s i g n s of mixed approach-avoidance behaviour. The t h e r a p e u t i c movement i n the c l i e n t came t o a peak round a b o u t f i f t y - t w o t o f i f t y - f o u r m i n u t e s i n t o t h e s e s s i o n . The t h e r a p i s t i n t r o d u c e d the metaphor of the t o a d s t o o l . Even though the c l i e n t d i d not use a metaphoric e x p r e s s i o n i n response, i t i s c l e a r t h a t he was engaged i n s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . To the metaphor of him s i t t i n g under the t o a d s t o o l , he r e p l i e d : ' M a y be t h a t I'm not l o o k i n g out f a r enough. I'm not k i n d of expanding enough, l o o k i n g out f a r enough i n t o the f u t u r e t o see what's going t o happen.' On f u r t h e r p l o d d i n g by the t h e r a p i s t , he went on t o say, 'Looking... May be I s h o u l d go o u t and l o o k f o r more i d e a s and more t h i n g s t o do.' A t t h i s p o i n t t h e t h e r a p i s t must have s e n s e d t h a t t h e c l i e n t was on t o s o m e t h i n g and so she v e r y q u i c k l y a p p l i e d t h e i n s i g h t t h e c l i e n t g a i n e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t r u a n c y t h a t he was f a c i n g . She i n t r o d u c e d the f e e l i n g of e x c i t e m e n t a t s c h o o l when one g e t s up i n t h e m o r n i n g and a s k e d t h e c l i e n t t o s u g g e s t one t h i n g t h a t would appeal to him.The c l i e n t r e p l i e d , 'Well, may be e x p e c t i n g t o do something... on a f i e l d t r i p o r s e e i n g . . . d o i n g something i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t I l i k e . ' T h i s exchange Is a p r i m e example o f a s k i l l f u l use o f metaphor by t h e t h e r a p i s t . A metaphor of o p e r a t i o n was u s e d t o make t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e . The t h e r a p i s t was s u c c e s s f u l i n 58 i n t r o d u c i n g a n o v e l s u g g e s t i o n u s i n g a f a m i l i a r o b j e c t and a c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e p r o m p t n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e t h e r a p i s t d i r e c t e d the i n s i g h t g a i ned by the c l i e n t t o the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t he was f a c i n g l e d t o a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e c l i e n t . T h i s response would o t h e r w i s e have been d i f f i c u l t t o e l i c i t . E v e n t h o u g h t h e above use of metaphor was an o b v i o u s s u c c e s s , t h e t h e r a p i s t d i d n o t o v e r d o i t . She d i d n o t p r e s s on and q u e s t i o n t h e c l i e n t as t o why he d i d n o t a c t on what he thought c o u l d be e x c i t i n g . Rather, she posed the s i t u a t i o n as 'a r e a l dilemma' and went s t r a i g h t i n t o a n o t h e r metaphor, t h a t of g e t t i n g plumber's l i c e n s e s . She i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n o f one g e t t i n g a plumber's l i c e n s e and then f o r g e t t i n g the purpose of i t a l l . The o b v i o u s l u d i c r o u s n a t u r e o f t h e metaphor p r o m p t e d t h e c l i e n t t o r e p l y p o s i t i v e l y and w i t h humour, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t may be he s h o u l d f i n d c l a s s e s t h a t a r e more i n t e r e s t i n g f o r him a t s c h o o l . The metaphor i s a metaphor of i d e n t i t y , something t h a t the c l i e n t c o u l d i d e n t i f y or sympathize w i t h , and something t h a t i s f a m i l i a r t o him. A g a i n t h e metaphor had h e l p e d t h e c l i e n t i n d e e p e r s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . Note however t h e t h e r a p i s t a g a i n moved r a p i d l y i n t o s o m e t h i n g new. T h i s t i m e she f o c u s e d on t h e f e e l i n g s o f r e s e n t m e n t t h a t t h e c l i e n t s had t o h i s p a r e n t s on t h e whole matter. The t h e r a p i s t i n t e r j e c t e d a make-believe c o n v e r s a t i o n here. She f o l l o w e d t h i s up w i t h s c u l p t i n g o r game metaphor where t h e c l i e n t s were a s k e d t o assume p o s t u r e s t h a t e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s . The i n s i g h t g a i n e d by t h i s e x e r c i s e was s h a r e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s e l a s t t h i r t y m i n u t e s i n p a r t one o f t h e t h e r a p y , t h e c l i e n t m a i n t a i n e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f a p p r o a c h t o 59 s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . In p a r t two, t h e t h e r a p i s t a g a i n began w i t h a s e r i e s o f metaphors of a p p r o x i m a t i o n and i d e n t i t y . . I t t o o k l e s s t i m e t o make the c l i e n t f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e about b e i n g i n the r a p y a t t h i s second segment. In the f i r s t hour of t h i s segment, the t h e r a p i s t h e l p e d the c l i e n t t o a c t out i n h i s mind d i f f e r e n t r o l e s t h a t he c o u l d p l a y . The metaphors used by the t h e r a p i s t a re of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s b u t a r e a l l f a m i l i a r t o t h e c l i e n t . They were m e t a p h o r s a b o u t b e i n g a d i r e c t o r , o r an a r c h i t e c t , o r a p r o d u c e r . The c l i e n t d i d n o t r e s p o n d i n k i n d b u t r e m a i n e d open t o change throughout t h i s p e r i o d , s c o r i n g 4 and 3 on the s c a l e of approach vs. avoidance t o s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . The c l i e n t c a r r i e d the same openness i n t o the second h a l f of p a r t two, s h o w i n g an o v e r a l l w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e - e x a m i n e h i s p r o b l e m . S e v e r a l m etaphors o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n were exchanged between the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t . An example of such exchange i s when t h e t h e r a p i s t a s k e d , 'What b u b b l e d f o r y o u a f t e r y e s t e r d a y ? ' To t h i s t h e c l i e n t r e p l i e d , ' W e l l , I f e l t v e r y open l a s t n i g h t . I t j u s t s o r t o f came o u t o f me.' However no new i n s i g h t was brought out i n t h i s i n i t i a l exchange. The therapy came a l i v e w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the metaphor of t h e b l a c k sheep a t a b o u t t h e f o r t i e t h m i n u t e o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f of p a r t two. T h i s metaphor was used r e p e a t e d l y throughout the r e s t of the therapy. The t h e r a p i s t seemed t o hang on t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r metaphor and i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c l i e n t was c a t c h i n g on as w e l l . I t d r e w l a u g h t e r when i t was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d and t h e mood became l i g h t . The t h e r a p i s t d w e l l e d on 60 s o m e l e n g t h y e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e b l a c k s h e e p i n t h e f a m i l y . A s a m e t a p h o r , i t was c l a s s i f i e d a s m e t a p h o r o f i d e n t i t y t h a t made t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e . A f t e r a n i n i t i a l b u r s t o f t h e u s e o f t h i s m e t a p h o r , t h e r e w a s a g a p o f o v e r t h i r t y m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e t h e r a p i s t a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o i t . W h e n s h e d i d s o , s h e a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e c l i e n t h a d h a d a c h a n g e o f v i e w c o n c e r n i n g t h e b l a c k s h e e p . T o t h i s t h e c l i e n t r e p l i e d , ' B e i n g a b l a c k s h e e p c a n b e p o s i t i v e i f y o u w a n t t o g e t o u t o f s i t u a t i o n s . ' T h i s r e p l y e v i d e n t l y g a v e r i s e t o a n o u t b u r s t o f d e l i g h t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p i s t . S h e r e m a r k e d , ' I s n ' t i t m a r v e l l o u s ? . . . S o y e s t e r d a y , i t ' d b e t e r r i b l e . Y o u ' d a v o i d b e i n g a b l a c k s h e e p . B u t t o d a y b e i n g a b l a c k s h e e p , u s e d p r o p e r l y , i s g o i n g t o g e t y o u l o t s o f p l a c e s . " T h i s c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c l i e n t c o u l d b e d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e m e t a p h o r o f b e i n g t h e b l a c k s h e e p . T h e t h e r a p i s t w a s d e l i g h t e d t h a t t h e c l i e n t was a b l e t o s e e t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e a s w e l l a s t h e n e g a t i v e s i d e . T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e s e s s i o n h o w e v e r , t h e t h e r a p i s t c a m e b a c k t o b a l a n c e t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f b e i n g a b l a c k s h e e p w i t h t h e p u n i t i v e a s p e c t o f b e i n g a b l a c k s h e e p . C o n t r a r y t o w h a t we f o u n d i n p a r t o n e , we f i n d t h e t h e r a p i s t d w e l l e d a t l e n g t h o n a p a r t i c u l a r m e t a p h o r h e r e , b r i n g i n g o u t d i f f e r e n t s h a d e s o f m e a n i n g , a n d b o t h t h e p o s i t i v e a n d t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . T h e b l a c k s h e e p i s h o w e v e r n o t t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t m e t a p h o r i n t h i s s e g m e n t . T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e s e g m e n t , t h e t h e r a p i s t t a l k e d a b o u t c e r t a i n a b i d i n g v a l u e i n t h e f a m i l y t h a t c a n b e u s e f u l i f c o r r e c t l y a p p l i e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e c l i e n t i n t r o d u c e d t h e m e t a p h o r o f a t o o l . T h e t h e r a p i s t r e s p o n d e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o t h i s n o v e l m e t a p h o r f r e e l y i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e c l i e n t . S h e 61 commented t h a t t h e c l i e n t ' s f a t h e r d i d n ' t use 'the v a l u e ' as a ' t o o l . ' I t became p a r t o f h i s l i f e . T h e r e i n l i e d h i s p r o b l e m , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the c l i e n t c o u l d do d i f f e r e n t l y . T h i s metaphor of o p e r a t i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h v e r y c l e a r approach t o s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n on the p a r t of the c l i e n t . F o l l o w i n g a t t h e h e e l o f t h e metaphor o f t h e t o o l was t h e metaphor of l i g h t . U s i n g t h i s metaphor, the t h e r a p i s t was a b l e t o show t h a t t h e c l i e n t was n o t l i v i n g up t o h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . T h i s was a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e c l i e n t . The t h e r a p y ended w i t h t h e c l i e n t h o l d i n g a v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . Even t h o u g h t h e c l i e n t d i d n o t c o m m u n i c a t e i n an e x t e n s i v e way by means of m e t a p h o r s , t h e m e t a p h o r s u s e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t had been s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t v i e w h i s s i t u a t i o n f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . The h i g h marks o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c g r o w t h o f t h e c l i e n t c o r r e s p o n d e d c l o s e l y t o i n c i d e n c e s of s i g n i f i c a n t use of metaphors by the t h e r a p i s t . E f f e c t i v e Uses of Metaphors A U s e f u l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n We have a t t e m p t e d t o examine i n a q u a l i t a t i v e manner t h e r e s u l t s o f our s t u d y . The t h e r a p i s t e m p l o y e d d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of metaphors t o t r y and get a more complete p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the metaphors i n t o m e t a p h o r s o f i d e n t i t y , a p p r o x i m a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and o p e r a t i o n , was f o u n d t o be a v e r y f u n c t i o n a l t o o l i n t e r m of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r o l e s t h e m e t a p h o r s p l a y e d . F o r example, metaphors o f i d e n t i t y l i k e ' g e t t i n g plumber's l i c e n s e s ' o r 'a 62 g o l d s t a r o f o u r drama 1 p r o j e c t e d a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y o n t o t h e c l i e n t . A l s o m e t a p h o r s o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n s u c h as ' l i k e g o i n g t o t h e d e n t i s t ' o r 'got t h e p i t i n y o u r stomach' were u s e f u l i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i n n e r f e e l i n g o f t h e c l i e n t . An example of a metaphor o f o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d were 'you're t h e s a n d w i c h , ' s h o w i n g t h e o r d e r i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c l i e n t . F i n a l l y , d e s c r i b i n g 'value' as a ' t o o l ' e x e m p l i f i e d a good use of a metaphor of o p e r a t i o n which p o r t r a y e d the g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e behind a r e l a t i o n s h i p . These examples a l l show t h a t these types a r e u s e f u l a n d p r a c t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f m e t a p h o r s . A c o u n s e l l o r who i s aware o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be more c r e a t i v e i n the use of metaphors i n the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . A H e l p f u l C a t e g o r i z a t i o n In g e n e r a l , the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of metaphors i n t o metaphors t h a t make t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r and m e taphors t h a t make t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e was f o u n d t o be a v e r y h e l p f u l c o n c e p t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n t h e use o f m e t a p h o r s . In our d i s c u s s i o n , we have a l r e a d y seen some good examples of how the t h e r a p i s t used metaphors t h a t make the f a m i l i a r more f a m i l i a r and thereby p r o v i d e d a b e t t e r c o n t e x t f o r t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s . H e r e we s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e two o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . The metaphor o f t h e ' t o a d s t o o l ' when i t was f i r s t m e n t i o n e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t was a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e t o t h e c l i e n t . The t h e r a p i s t t u r n e d i t i n t o a metaphor of accommodation t h a t made the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e by e m b e l l i s h i n g i t w i t h new f e a t u r e s , e n a b l i n g the c l i e n t t o draw new i n s i g h t . The t h e r a p i s t c o u l d a l s o do t h e o p p o s i t e and t u r n s o m e t h i n g s t r a n g e i n t o s o m e t h i n g 63 f a m i l i a r as i n 'you g o t t o be a s t a r , ' h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t t o assume new r o l e s . Our l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w shows t h a t f o r a l o n g t i m e p h i l o s o p h e r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s a l i k e have s t r u g g l e d t o a r r i v e a t a more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f metaphors. I t seems t o the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r t h a t the types and c a t e g o r i e s used i n our study were v e r y d e s c r i p t i v e o f what r e a l l y went on i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e c l i e n t . T h ese c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s seem t o be a b l e t o move beyond t h e s t a t i c d e f i n i t i o n s o f m e t a p h o r s a n d i n t r o d u c e a d y n a m i c way t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e metaphors. They h e l p c o u n s e l l o r s u s i n g metaphors i n c o u n s e l l i n g t o f o c u s on t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s and n o t j u s t on the c o n t e n t . A V e h i c l e o f I n s i g h t We had asked the q u e s t i o n i n our l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w whether i n s i g h t i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i t e r a l . Some r e s e a r c h e r s a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s i s one t h a t moves f r o m m e t a p h o r i z a t i o n t o l i t e r a l i z a t i o n t o p r o d u c e i n s i g h t . When we exam i n e d o u r own f i n d i n g s , we have f o u n d t h a t t h e met a p h o r s e i t h e r d i d n o t e l i c i t any r e s p o n s e , o r e l i c i t e d an i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e met a p h o r s o f t h e t o a d s t o o l , t h e plumber's l i c e n s e , and t h e b l a c k sheep. No a p p a r e n t p r o c e s s o f l i t e r a l i z a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . The t h e r a p i s t d i d n o t go i n t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o r t r a n s l a t i o n o f any o f t h e me t a p h o r s . In a c t u a l f a c t , i n the case o f our f i r s t two examples, the t h e r a p i s t moved ver y q u i c k l y from one t o the other. The metaphors themselves were t h e v e h i c l e s o f t h e i n s i g h t s . However, b e c a u s e our d a t a a r e l i m i t e d , we c a n o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y s ay t h a t i n our c a s e s t u d y , 64 i n s i g h t was not d e r i v e d from a l a t e r a l i z a t i o n of the metaphors. A Freedom t o Respond We i n t e n d e d t o uncover the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the use of metaphors by the t h e r a p i s t and the use by the c l i e n t . S i n c e the c l i e n t i n our s i n g l e case study d i d not express h i m s e l f o f t e n i n m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e . i t was not p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n any o v e r a l l p a t t e r n . T h i s p o i n t s t-o a p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p y need not be accompanied by c o r r e s p o n d i n g metaphors from a c l i e n t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e m e t a p h o r s f r o m a t h e r a p i s t . The e f f e c t i v e use o f m e t a p h o r s by a t h e r a p i s t s h o u l d h e l p p r o d u c e i n s i g h t f o r a c l i e n t who may express the i n s i g h t g a ined i n v e r b a l or non-verbal ways, and i n f i g u r a t i v e or n o n - f i g u r a t i v e language. In our case, Kent, the son was much more p o s i t i v e towards s c h o o l a t t h e end o f t h e f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w . The f a m i l y as a w h ole was e v i d e n t l y c l o s e r a t the end of the f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . One can s a f e l y s a y t h a t t h e u s e o f m e t a p h o r s was a t l e a s t p a r t l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g these t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s . The use of m e t a p h o r s , u n l i k e o t h e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s s u c h as q u e s t i o n i n g , a l l o w e d t h e c l i e n t t h e f r e e d o m t o r e s p o n d or n o t t o r e s p o n d . I t a l s o a l l o w e d t h e c l i e n t t h e f r e e d o m t o r e s p o n d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. From Accommodation to A s s i m i l a t i o n Even t h o u g h an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n s c o u l d not be d e t e c t e d , an i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the t h r e e key m e t a p h o r s , t h e t o a d s t o o l , t h e plumber's l i c e n s e , and the b l a c k sheep r can be made. When they were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by the t h e r a p i s t , they were a l l used t o made the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e 65 or i n o t h e r words, i n ac c o m m o d a t i o n . They were t h e n f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y or s h o r t l y a f t e r by metaphors t h a t made the stra n g e f a m i l i a r o r i n o t h e r words, i n a s s i m i l a t i o n . The f i r s t p r o c e s s was one t h a t s u g g e s t e d new and i n n o v a t i v e ways o f m e e t i n g r e a l i t i e s . Once t h i s was done, the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g f o l l o w e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e c o u l d h a v e b e e n a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g . M e t a p h o r s o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n make t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e , j a l t e r i n g a p e r s o n ' s s t e r e o t y p i c a l v i e w p o i n t s . I f f o l l o w e d by me t a p h o r s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n t h a t make the s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r , the new i n s i g h t g a ined i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g t h o u g h t p a t t e r n o r v a l u e s y s t e m . T h i s s e q u e n c e o f m o v i n g f r o m a c c o m m o d a t i o n t o a s s i m i l a t i o n h a s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the p r a c t i c e of c o u n s e l l i n g and th e r a p y . A N o n - t h r e a t e n i n g C l i m a t e The s k i l l f u l use o f met a p h o r s by t h e t h e r a p i s t on s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s h e l p e d the c l i e n t t o s e l f - e x p l o r e i n a non-threatened way. To borrow the t e r m i n o l o g y of T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s , the use of a p p r o p r i a t e m e t a p h o r s e l i m i n a t e d t h e need f o r p a r e n t - c h i l d t r a n s a c t i o n s , and p u t i n t h e i r p l a c e a d u l t - a d u l t t r a n s a c t i o n s . P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e son Kent f a c e d was t h e p r e s s u r e he f e l t f r o m h i s p a r e n t s who wanted him t o go t o s c h o o l . T h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e m e t a p h o r o f t h e ' t o a d s t o o l ' a nd t h e ' p l u m b e r ' s l i c e n s e , 1 the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t c o u l d t o g e t h e r look a t the i s s u e of going t o sc h o o l as i f both were on l o o k e r s . The t h e r a p i s t was t h e r e f o r e n o t v i e w e d as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e n o r as a o v e r p o w e r i n g a d u l t . The medium o f t h e metaphor a l l o w e d t h e t h e r a p i s t and t h e c l i e n t t o l e v e l w i t h each o t h e r . The c l i e n t 66 c o u l d a l s o c l a i m as h i s own any i n s i g h t t h a t was g a i n e d through the use of metaphor. A Change i n P e r s p e c t i v e We have seen t h e a d v a n t a g e o f d i s t a n c i n g i n t h e use o f m e t a p h o r s o b s e r v e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . Two d i s t a n c i n g a r e i n v o l v e d h e r e . F i r s t t h e c l i e n t c a n d i s t a n c e ' h i m s e I f f r o m t h e p r o b l e m and t h u s o b t a i n a more o b j e c t i v e v i e w o f r e a l i t y . He i s f r e e t o a p p r o a c h o r a v o i d t h e p r o b l e m t h a t he i s f a c i n g . T h e r e f o r e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s i s a s e l f - p a c e d p r o c e s s on t h e p a r t of the c l i e n t . Such an atmosphere removes the p r e s s u r e t h a t the c l i e n t n o r m a l l y f a c e s i n c o p i n g w i t h h i s problem. Second the c l i e n t c a n d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e t h e r a p i s t . No l o n g e r i s he i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a change agent t h a t demands compliance. Rather he i s f a c e d w i t h a c h a n g e a g e n t t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s c h a n g e . The t h e r a p i s t can a l s o h e l p the c l i e n t change h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Furthermore t h e r e i s a l s o advantage f o r the t h e r a p i s t who can be t e n t a t i v e i n h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e c l i e n t and h i s p r o b l e m s . As he t r i e s t o e n t e r t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f t h e c l i e n t , t h e use o f metaphor i s open-ended and n o n - j u d g m e n t a l . He f r e e s t h e c l i e n t t o a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s own. T h i s phenomenon was q u i t e c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d a t s e v e r a l p i v o t a l p o i n t s o f t h e t h e r a p y a t w h i c h t h e t h e r a p i s t e m p l o y e d t h e use o f m e t a p h o r s . An example o f t h i s i s when the t h e r a p i s t s a i d , 'But now I'd a l s o l i k e you some o t h e r t h i n g s you g o t . You got... k n o w i n g how t o be a b l a c k sheep.' To t h i s the c l i e n t r e p l i e d , 'Being a b l a c k sheep can be p o s i t i v e i f you want t o g e t o u t o f s i t u a t i o n s . ' 'Knowing how t o be a b l a c k sheep' was a n o n - j u d g m e n t a 1 and open-ended s t a t e m e n t . T h i s 67 e l i c i t e d a p o s i t i v e response from the c l i e n t . An O f f e r i n g o f A l t e r n a t i v e s We c a n a l s o see t h a t t h e use o f metaphor h e l p e d t h e c l i e n t i m p r o v e h i s p r o c e s s o f t h i n k i n g . F o r example, t h e c l i e n t ' s p a r e n t s wanted him t o go t o s c h o o l ; t h e c l i e n t d i d n o t l i k e t o go; and t h e r e f o r e he disobe y e d h i s par e n t s by ru n n i n g away from s c h o o l . T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y l i n e a r t h i n k i n g . The t h e r a p i s t opened up t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f some e x c i t e m e n t i n s c h o o l h e r e - t o - f o r e m i s s e d by t h e c l i e n t , u s i n g t h e metaphor o f t h e t o a d s t o o l . The c l i e n t was t h e n no l o n g e r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f h i s pa r e n t s , but l o o k i n g a t the s c h o o l l i f e i t s e l f . The s k i l l f u l use of t h e metaphor by t h e t h e r a p i s t h e l p e d i n f u s e t h e s e n s e o f adventure and f u n . A l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d or suggested t o the c l i e n t through the use of metaphor i n c o u n s e l l i n g . A Touch of Humour T u r n i n g t o t h e a s p e c t o f f u n , t h e use o f metaphor 'added j u i c e ' t o t h e whole c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . The t h e r a p i s t c o u l d i n t r o d u c e novel i d e a s and stra n g e n o t i o n i n a h a l f - s e r i o u s and a h a l f - j o k i n g manner. The presence of humour a l l o w e d the c l i e n t t o f e e l more a t ea s e . The c l i e n t c o u l d e ven l a u g h a t h i m s e l f as i n the c a s e o f t h e metaphor o f t h e b l a c k sheep i n t r o d u c e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t . B o t h t h e l i g h t and t h e s e r i o u s s i d e s o f a s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by t r a n s f e r r i n g t o the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s i d e s of a metaphor. Humour and the use of metaphor t o g e t h e r can h e l p a c o u n s e l l o r s u g g e s t i n s i g h t t o a c l i e n t i n a f o r m t h a t he can r e c e i v e more r e a d i l y . 6 8 A Matter of P a c i n g In t h e f i r s t segment o f t h e t h e r a p y , t h e t h e r a p i s t moved v e r y r a p i d l y f r o m one s u c c e s s f u l use o f a metaphor t o t h e n e x t . In t h e s e c o n d segment, she d w e l l e d a t l e n g t h w i t h one metaphor and. r e t u r n e d t o i t t i m e and a g a i n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t h e r a p y . C o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s and an i n t u i t i v e s e n s e o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e t h e r a p y seemed t o g o v e r n t h e c o n t i n u a l use or d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of a metaphor. Another o b s e r v a t i o n i s the e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e s d i s p l a y e d by the t h e r a p i s t a t p o i n t s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f a metaphor o r i n s i g h t f u l s t a t e m e n t by t h e c l i e n t . Such responses r e i n f o r c e d g r e a t l y t h e s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c l i e n t as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t ' s r e s p o n s e a f t e r t h e p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t a b o u t b e i n g a ' b l a c k sheep,' r e s u l t i n g i n ongoing p a t t e r n o f s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . The s y s t e m i c use o f t h e metaphor o f t h e b l a c k sheep seems t o be v e r y a p t and f r u i t f u l i n t h e c o n t e x t o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y . The f a m i l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c l i e n t was g r e a t l y enhanced by the use of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r metaphor. T h i s e x p l a i n s why the t h e r a p i s t put i t t o e x t e n s i v e use i n the second segment when she d i s c o v e r e d i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . Thus t h e s u c c e s s f u l use o f metaphor i n c o u n s e l l i n g i s n o t o n l y a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e s o f a p p r o p r i a t e m e t a p h o r s and an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d . I t i s a l s o a m a t t e r o f p a c i n g . The c o u n s e l l o r needs t o s e n s e when t o move on and when t o d w e l l on a p a r t i c u l a r metaphor. The r e a d i n e s s of the c l i e n t must be c o n s i d e r e d as w e l l . 69 S p e c i f i c Comments by the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r The r e s e a r c h e r spent an evening w i t h the t h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r , a t t h e end o f t h e above a n a l y s i s . The p u r p o s e was t o g e t f i r s t hand h e r r e m a r k s c o n c e r n i n g h e r v i e w s o f t h e use o f metaphor i n t h e r a p y i n g e n e r a l , as w e l l as h e r r e a c t i o n s t o h e a r i n g h e r own use o f c e r t a i n m e t a p h o r s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . B e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d t i m e a v a i l a b l e , o n l y two s u c h e x c e r p t s were p l a y e d back t o h e r . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e e x c e r p t f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h V i r g i n i a S a t i r t h a t p e r t a i n s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the metaphors of the t o a d s t o o l and the plumber's l i c e n s e . S a t i r ' s comments f o l l o w e a c h r e p l a y i n g o f t h e two s e c t i o n s of the audio tapes. R e s p o n d i n g t o s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g t h e f i r s t metaphor, t h e t o a d s t o o l , V i r g i n i a S a t i r s a i d , 'What i s e x c i t i n g h e r e i s t h a t I want t o s w i t c h i t [ t h e i s s u e o f Kent g o i n g t o s c h o o l ] f r o m a blame t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s g o i n g t o be e x c i t i n g . ' S a t i r " went on t o s a y s t h a t as a r e s u l t o f u s i n g t h e m e t a p h o r o f t h e t o a d s t o o l , t h e c l i e n t t o l d h e r what e x c i t i n g t h i n g c a n happen. She s a i d , 'But now we a r e n o t on how bad he i s f o r n o t g o i n g t o s c h o o l . We a r e i n t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I have s w i t c h e d t h e c o n t e x t e n t i r e l y . ' S a t i r was a l s o s e n s i t i v e t o t h e f a m i l y c o n t e x t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . She wanted t o r a i s e t h e f a m i l y ' s a w a r e n e s s on t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of s c h o o l i n g f o r the c l i e n t . To t h i s e f f e c t , she s a i d , 'I wanted t o r a i s e t h e f a m i l y ' s a w a r e n e s s and p u t i n some o f t h e s e t h i n g s b e c a u s e a l o t o f l i t t l e t h i n g s l i k e t h a t a r e d r a m a t i c and t h e y i n t r o d u c e a n o t e t h a t I t h i n k i s a m u s i c a l n o t e 70 o f some s o r t i n t o s o mething.' She a l s o went on t o add, 'The i d e a I can s t a r t p l a y i n g w i t h p i c t u r e s i n t r o d u c e something; t h a t a l s o goes i n t o t h e i n t u i t i v e p a r t ^ o f t h e person.' G e t t i n g t h e c l i e n t o u t of t h e l i n e a r t h i n k i n g mode i s one o f the main purpose of the t h e r a p i s t . When she f i r s t s t a r t e d therapy w i t h the c l i e n t , the c l i e n t was not l o o k i n g i n t o the f u t u r e . But as t h e t h e r a p y p r o g r e s s e d a l o n g , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e metaphor o f t h e t o a d s t o o l a t t h e p i v o t a l p o i n t , t h e c l i e n t was l o o k i n g i n t o a l l s o r t s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s . S a t i r had t h i s t o say, 'The metaphor took him out of t h a t [being a p l e a s e r ] b e c a u s e t h a t was s o m e t h i n g he p u t i n t o i t h i m s e l f . And I had a l l t h e c l u e s i n i t . "I am n o t l o o k i n g f a r enough." "The f u t u r e i s out there." And you would n o t i c e t h a t those were themes t h a t I p i c k e d up.' I n r e s p o n s e t o w h e t h e r s h e w o u l d h a v e done a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t l y a f t e r h a v i n g heard the tape a g a i n , S a t i r s a i d no. She added t h a t a metaphor i s chosen always because of the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r opening, t h a t i s , f o r go i n g somewhere. Furthermore metaphors can be p i c k e d up a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , and t h e t h e r a p i s t i s t o l i s t e n t o how and where they a re p i c k e d up by the c l i e n t . S a t i r a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t m e t a p h o r s g e n e r a t e f o r h e r t h e v o c a b u l a r y needed f o r t h e t h e r a p y . The c l i e n t b r o u g h t o u t t h e m a t e r i a l and the fo c u s about the f u t u r e , the c e n t r a l concern f o r th e f a m i l y . Up t o t h i s p o i n t o f t h e t h e r a p y , t h e f o c u s had been on the s u r f a c e problem of truancy. The metaphor l e d to the h e a r t of the problem which was the w o r r i e s about Kent's f u t u r e . T u r n i n g t o t h e n e x t metaphor, t h e plumber's l i c e n s e , w h i c h f o l l o w e d r i g h t a f t e r t h e metaphor o f t h e t o a d s t o o l , S a t i r was 71 asked why she moved so q u i c k l y from one metaphor to the next. To t h i s she r e p l i e d v e r y s p e c i f i c a l l y , 'I've got some v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s - g o ing i n t o the f u t u r e . Now p a r t of g o i n g i n t o the f u t u r e i s g e t t i n g y o u r s e l f p r e p a r e d . So what I was l o o k i n g f o r was a way t o p u t i n s o m e t h i n g t h a t was humorous. And s o m e t h i n g t h a t h i s p a r e n t s w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d . ' So r e l e v a n c e , h u m o u r , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y are t h r e e f a c t o r s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the c h o i c e of metaphor. S a t i r went on t o add, 'What i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t w i t h y o u r work w i t h a g r o u p i s t o have s o m e t h i n g t h a t moves t h e g r o u p a l o n g . I c o u l d have s a i d d i p l o m a b u t t h a t wouldn't be o f i n t e r e s t . The plumber's l i c e n s e - h i s f a t h e r knew about t h a t , h i s mother knew about t h a t , and that's j u s t t a l k everybody understands.' T h e r e i s a l s o t h e a s p e c t o f humour. S a t i r s a i d , ' I t ' s a l s o t a l k t h a t has a k i n d o f a c o m i c t o i t t o o . You w o u l d n o t i c e t h a t s o m e t i m e s I make a c o m i c t h i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s . T h i s t i m e t h e comic p a r t was they a l l got t h e i r plumber's l i c e n s e . ' The humour i s weaved i n t o t h e metaphor t o add t o i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r t h e t h e r a p e u t i c growth of the c l i e n t . On t h i s a s p e c t of weaving i n her work, S a t i r commented, 'So t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n e l e m e n t o f w e a v i n g t h a t goes on i n my work. The w e a v i n g o f a p i e c e o f f a c t w i t h a f a n t a s y , a metaphor w i t h s o m e t h i n g e l s e . T h e r e i s a l o t o f w e a v i n g t h a t goes on t o t r y t o a c t i v a t e a l l the p a r t s of the person and o t h e r people t h a t I can. The c o l o u r o f i t , t h e sound o f i t , t h e f u n o f i t and a l l t h e r e s t of t h a t . ' When asked why she went from the metaphor of the plumber's l i c e n s e t o the make-believe c o n v e r s a t i o n , S a t i r r e p l i e d t h a t she was t r y i n g t o remove t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b a r r i e r t h a t e x i s t e d b etween t h e members o f t h e f a m i l y . The p a r e n t s were e a g e r t o h e l p , b u t t h e y d i d n o t know how. The b o y was w a n t i n g t o communicate h i s w i s h e s t o h i s p a r e n t s , b u t he d i d n o t how e i t h e r . B e s i d e s he d i d not f e e l h i s p a r e n t s c o u l d understand. So S a t i r u s e d t h e m a k e - b e l i e v e c o n v e r s a t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e t h i n g s t h a t came up f r o m t h e two m e t a p h o r s t h a t she had us e d . She s a i d , 'I need t o t a k e t h e meaning and t h e c l u e s t h a t I g e t f r o m t h e response t h a t I get t o the metaphor i n t o the next t h i n g . ' G eneral Comments by the T h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r A p a r t from commenting on the two s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of the use o f m e t a p h o r s , S a t i r a l s o s h a r e d some o f h e r o t h e r i n s i g h t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e o f m e t a p h o r s . The f o l l o w i n g a r e some h i g h l i g h t s . On h e r i n t e n t i o n a l use o f metaphor i n t h e r a p y , S a t i r had t h i s t o s a y , 'There a r e so many t h i n g s t h a t have t o do w i t h meanings i n t e r m s o f b e i n g human t h a t t h e r e i s no good l a n g u a g e f o r . And what I do i s t o g e t t h e meaning o v e r so t h a t i s when I w i l l b r i n g i n a metaphor.' T h e r e a r e two t h i n g s t h a t one s h o u l d n o t e . F i r s t , t h e r e i s t h e meaning t h a t t h e t h e r a p i s t wants t o convey. Second, t h e r e i s the space between the t h e r a p i s t and the metaphor t h a t t h e t h e r a p i s t wants t o m a i n t a i n . She went on t o say, 'By u s i n g a metaphor, I can make a space between whatever i t i s I am t r y i n g t o g e t a c r o s s , and a l m o s t make a metaphor an a d j u n c t i v e t h e r a p i s t . ' The t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t can a l s o look a t t h e metaphor f r o m a d i s t a n c e and g e t a l l t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e 73 meaning. T h i s e n a b l e s t h e c l i e n t t o move o u t o f h i s s y s t e m and look a t h i s problem from the o u t s i d e . S a t i r r e v e a l e d t h a t metaphor has been one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t ways f o r her t o t e a c h i n languages and c o u n t r i e s where t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e i s n o t E n g l i s h . M e t a p h o r i s f o u n d t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e means of c a r r y i n g meaning. On t h e use o f t h e r i g h t and l e f t b r a i n s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m e t a p h o r i c l a n g u a g e , S a t i r s a i d , ' I t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o know t h a t b o t h b r a i n s c a n do t h e same t h i n g s . In t h e r i g h t b r a i n , t h e i n t u i t i v e i s out f a r t h e r , but t h e r e i s s t i l l l o g i c back t h e r e . In t h e l e f t b r a i n , t h e l o g i c i s o u t , b u t t h e r e i s s t i l l t h e i n t u i t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y . ' S a t i r p o i n t e d out t h a t a l l the metaphors she u s e s a r e a i m e d a t a c t i v a t i n g t h e s e n s e s , t h e s e e i n g , t h e h e a r i n g , the t o u c h i n g and so on. S a t i r p o i n t e d o u t m o s t t h e r a p y i s c o n d u c t e d as an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e . She t h i n k s t h a t when people ask how do you f e e l , o f t e n i t i s how you t h i n k t h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n . She b e l i e v e s f e e l i n g s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the senses. She s a i d , 'My t herapy i s f u l l of a l l k i n d s of v i s u a l t h i n g s - of s c u l p t i n g , of m e t a p h o r s , o f p i c t u r e s and e x e r c i s e s and a l l t h a t . Those a l l a c t i v a t e the r i g h t b r a i n a c t i v i t i e s . So we get a whole message.' S a t i r c l a s s i f i e s her metaphor f u n c t i o n a l l y . Some metaphors are used to p repare a c l i e n t , t h a t i s , to put a d i s t a n c e between what a t h e r a p i s t says and the c l i e n t . Other metaphors are used to e l i c i t the i n n e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a c l i e n t has. A t h i r d use of metaphors i s to awaken - to draw the p r o c e s s out of a metaphor -f o r the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t . Yet o t h e r metaphors can be used t o l e s s e n t h e t h r e a t o f c e r t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e t h e r a p i s t , a 74 s o f t e n i n g , and l a y i n g the groundwork. A f i f t h use of metaphors i s t o i n t r o d u c e c e r t a i n p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g o r c l u s t e r o f t h o u g h t . L a s t l y m e t a p h o r s c a n be u s e d t o e x t e n d and i n c r e a s e a l t e r n a t i v e s . So the use of metaphor extends i n t o s t o r y - t e l l i n g . T h e s e a r e a l l v e r y h e l p f u l ways o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a b o u t metaphors. Metaphors h e l p people go beyond l i n e a r t h i n k i n g i n t o b e t t e r ways o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . M e t a p h o r i s l i k e m u s i c f o r t h e r a p y . M e t a p h o r s a r e t h e j u i c e o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f s e n s i n g . S a t i r s a y s , 'The metaphor i s t h e h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n g u a g e a b o u t f e e l i n g , and p i c t u r e s , and sounds. A metaphor makes i t p o s s i b l e t o g e t a new sound and a new s i g h t , a new t o u c h and a new f e e l , and a new t h o u g h t a b o u t s o m e t h i n g . And t h a t ' s what c r e a t e the change.' M e t a p h o r h e l p s p e o p l e change p e r s p e c t i v e . The change i n p e r s p e c t i v e t h e n r e s h a p e one's b e l i e f . Sometimes S a t i r w o u l d i n v e n t m e t a p h o r s a b o u t be 1 i e f - c h a n g i n g . She s a i d , 'Metaphor i s t h e most h e l p f u l t h i n g I know t o b e g i n t o ask p e o p l e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t l y a t t h e i r b e l i e f s , and t h e n t o see a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . ' A metaphor i s v e r s a t i l e and not s t a t i c . I t can be adapted to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , background and c u l t u r e s . S a t i r f e e l s t h a t t h e r a p i s t s need t o be a l e r t t o these d i f f e r e n c e s . She added t h a t sometimes jokes can be used as a metaphor. S a t i r b e l i e v e s t h a t a well-done metaphor does not preach -i t o n l y o p e n s up a l l k i n d s o f new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s a m a g n i f i c i e n t way o f h e l p i n g us i n t o t h e a b s u r d i t i e s o f our t h i n k i n g . She f e e l s t h a t metaphor c a n l e t us g e t i n t o u c h w i t h , 75 or awaken, the i n n e r wisdom w i t h i n us. The r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t m e t a p h o r s a r e l i k e p i c t u r e s where people b r i n g i n t o or b r i n g out t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , S a t i r c o n c u r r e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . The use o f metaphor i s l i k e a guided imagery. I t can be c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d or p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d . S a t i r b e l i e v e s t h a t a proper use of metaphor i s p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d . She s a y s , 'I c a n p u t o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t seems t o have some r e l a t e d n e s s t o what's g o i n g on. I f t h e r e i s any v i b r a t i o n a l t u n i n g , i t w i l l come back j u s t l i k e i t was w i t h t h e c l i e n t i n such a b e a u t i f u l way.' 76 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In t h i s c h a p t e r , we w i l l b r i e f l y s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n c h a p t e r F o u r . I n a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be drawn. F i n a l l y , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h stemming f r o m t h e pr e s e n t study w i l l be e x p l o r e d . Summary Background We s t a r t e d our r e s e a r c h by a d o p t i n g a way of un d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e usage o f metaphor i n t e r m s o f 'making t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r ' ( a s s i m i l a t i o n ) a nd 'making t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e ' ( a ccommodation). M e t a p h o r s were d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o i d e n t i t y , a p p r o x i m a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n o r o p e r a t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o examine t h e m e t a p h o r i n g p r o c e s s o f b o t h t h e c l i e n t and t h e t h e r a p i s t . T h i s was done by f i r s t c l a s s i f y i n g t h e metaphors u s i n g t h e above c a t e g o r i e s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Then t h e p a t t e r n s o f m e t a p h o r i c use and i n t e r a c t i o n were examined. A measure of the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s o f t h e c l i e n t , t h e A p p r o a c h - A v o i d a n c e S c a l e t o S e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n , was u s e d t o f i n d o u t p o i n t s where t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t movements i n t h e t h e r a p y . We t h e n e x a m i n e d w h e t h e r the use of metaphor corresponded t o some of these h i g h p o i n t s i n th e t h e r a p y . A t t h e end of t h e a n a l y s i s , an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e t h e r a p i s t , V i r g i n i a S a t i r , was a l s o conducted. 77 R e s u l t s In t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t we examined, a t o t a l o f f o r t y - f i v e i n s t a n c e s of the use of metaphors by the t h e r a p i s t was r e p o r t e d . B u t o n l y f i v e s u c h u s e s by t h e c l i e n t w e r e f o u n d . Of t h e m e t a p h o r s u s e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t , f i f t e e n w e r e r e l a t e d t o i d e n t i t y , t h i r t e e n t o a p p r o x i m a t i o n , s i x t o o r g a n i z a t i o n , and e l e v e n t o o p e r a t i o n . S i x o f t h e s e were t o make t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r , t e n t o make t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e , and t w e n t y - n i n e t o make t h e f a m i l i a r more f a m i l i a r . The h i g h number i n t h i s l a s t c a t e g o r y was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e m e t a p h o r s f o u n d h e r e were many o f t h e more common metaphors t h a t had been a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the t h e r a p i s t ' s everyday language. They added a p i c t u r e s q u e q u a l i t y t o t h e t h e r a p e u t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h e t h e r a p i s t . As f o r t h e f i v e m e t a p h o r s used by t h e c l i e n t , t h r e e were r e l a t e d t o a p p r o x i m a t i o n , one t o i d e n t i t y and one t o o p e r a t i o n . F o u r o f t h e s e were metaphors u s e d t o make t h e f a m i l i a r more f a m i l i a r , and t h e f i f t h u s e d t o make t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e . No obvious p a t t e r n c o u l d be found. An A n a l y s i s We found t h a t throughout the e n t i r e therapy, the t h e r a p i s t u s e d an abundance o f metaphors t o e i t h e r t r y and e n t e r i n t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e c l i e n t o r s u g g e s t new ways o f t h i n k i n g . In t h e f i r s t segment, t h e metaphors o f 'the t o a d s t o o l ' and 'the plumber's l i c e n s e ' were t h e h i g h p o i n t s o f t h e use o f metaphors by t h e t h e r a p i s t . They a l s o c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e peak of t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s i n t h i s f i r s t s e g m e n t . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e two 78 metaphors, the c l i e n t was l o o k i n g p o s i t i v e l y i n t o the f u t u r e . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t , t h e t h e r a p i s t u s e d a v a r i e t y o f metaphors t o m a i n t a i n a h i g h degree of s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n p a t t e r n . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i d n o f t h e metaphor o f t h e ' b l a c k sheep,' t h e therapy came a l i v e towards the second h a l f of t h i s p o r t i o n of the therapy. The t h e r a p i s t used t h i s metaphor e x t e n s i v e l y . The f a m i l y was much more c o h e s i v e a t the end of t h i s s e s s i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s Our r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p o i n t t o c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t we can draw. F i r s t , t h e many ex a m p l e s o f t h e u s e s o f metaphor i n t h i s case and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the types and c a t e g o r i e s which we have a d o p t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h show t h a t we have a w o r k a b l e model of u n d e r s t a n d i n g metaphors and how they f u n c t i o n . Metaphors c a n f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d as t o t h e i r t y p e s ( i d e n t i t y , a p p r o x i m a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n o r o p e r a t i o n ) and t h e n f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r usage (making t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r , the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e , or the f a m i l i a r f a m i l i a r ) . T h i s method o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g m e taphors goes beyond t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f metaphors. S e c o n d , t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s o f a c l i e n t i s n o t de p e n d e n t on t h e amount o f m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n s . R a t h e r , i n s i g h t o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e use o f metaphors by a c l i e n t may be expressed i n n o n - f i g u r a t i v e ways or non-verbal means. Thus t h e r e may n o t be a p a t t e r n o f m e t a p h o r i c i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s . T h i r d , t h e i n s i g h t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e metaphors came d i r e c t l y t o the c l i e n t . In no i n s t a n c e d i d the t h e r a p i s t have t o 79 make t h e met a p h o r s more l i t e r a l i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c l i e n t c a n r e c e i e v e t h e i n s i g h t . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n o u r c a s e , and g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t o u r c l i e n t s h o w e d no d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e metaphors u s e d , metaphors do n o t have t o be 1 l i t e r a l i z e d i n or d e r t h a t i n s i g h t s can be d e r i v e d . F o u r t h , i n our c a s e s t u d y , t h e t h r e e p i v o t a l m e t a p h o r s i n the p r o c e s s of c o u n s e l l i n g were a l l i n t r o d u c e d by the t h e r a p i s t as metaphors t h a t make the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e (accommodation). They were t h e n f o l l o w e d by me t a p h o r s t h a t make t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r ( a s s i m i l a t i o n ) . H a v i n g p r o v i d e d new i d e a s f o r t h e c l i e n t , t h e t h e r a p i s t then he l p e d the c l i e n t i n c o r p o r a t e them. T h i s procedure c o n t r i b u t e d t o the o v e r a l l success of the therapy. Recommendations P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s Our r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s have r e v e a l e d metaphor can be a u s e f u l method o f t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . As p o i n t e d o u t by many a u t h o r s i n o u r l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , and a l s o i n o u r own f i n d i n g s , metaphor h e l p s the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t t o be more p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d and l e s s c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d . I t h e l p s t h e t h e r a p i s t and th e c l i e n t t o b r e a k o u t o f t h e l i n e a r t h i n k i n g mode. A l s o i t enables the t h e r a p i s t t o i n t r o d u c e a change i n p e r s p e c t i v e . I t c r e a t e s a h e a l t h y d i s t a n c e b e t ween t h e t h e r a p i s t and t h e c l i e n t w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e t h e r a p i s t t o be more t e n t a t i v e w i t h h i s s u g g e s t i o n s a nd t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n and judgmental. The c l i e n t i s open t o move a t h i s own pace and c l a i m the i n s i g h t from the metaphor as h i s own. Metaphor h e l p s p r o v i d e 8 0 the c l i e n t w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s . Metaphor can a l s o be combined w i t h humour i n c o u n s e l l i n g . These and o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e use o f metaphors make metaphor an i m p o r t a n t t o o l i n therapy. There i s an o l d C h i n e s e s a y i n g t h a t s t a t e s , 'A p i c t u r e i s w o r t h a t h o u s a n d words.' Metaphors are p i c t u r e s t h a t can be used e f f e c t i v e l y by a t h e r a p i s t i n a v a r i e t y of ways to h e l p a c l i e n t . F u t ure Research Our r e s e a r c h has been done u s i n g one s i n g l e case study. Many o f t h e f i n d i n g s a r e t h e r e f o r e s p e c i f i c t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . The c o n s i s t e n c y and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the concepts of metaphor a d o p t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t we have a workable model. However t h i s needs f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n by more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h u s i n g more t h a t one c a s e s t u d y and w i t h a v a r i e t y of t h e r a p i s t s and c l i e n t s . Furthermore i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t of metaphoric i n t e r a c t i o n s between the t h e r a p i s t and the c l i e n t on t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s , c l i e n t s who u s e s more f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n t h e i r communication can be s e l e c t e d f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . T h i s c o u l d not be a c h i e v e d i n our r e s e a r c h because such a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s d i d not take p l a c e p r i o r to the therapy nor the r e s e a r c h phase. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f moving from accommodation to a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the use of metaphors was a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o movement i n the c o u n s e l l i n g . Whether t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e can be the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . We have a l s o f o u n d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t metaphors were the d i r e c t v e h i c l e s of i n s i g h t . However because of t h e l i m i t e d d a t a , we c a n n o t g e n e r a l i z e . Would a p r o c e s s o f 81 l i t e r a l i z a t i o n be n e c e s s a r y i n o t h e r c a s e s ? T h i s needs t o be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d . F i n a l l y i n view of the amount of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , f u t u r e c o n t r o l l e d study can be done t o v a r i f y the e f f i c a c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach of the use of metaphor v e r s u s the n o n - p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach of the use of metaphor. T h i s t h e s i s i s b u t a p r i m e r t o t h e enormous p o t e n t i a l i n metaphors. There i s a l o t of room f o r f u r t h e r and more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h . 82 References Abraham, K. (1949). S e l e c t e d Papers of K a r l Abraham. London: Hogarth P r e s s , 429. A l e k s a n d r o w i c z , D. R. (1962). The Meaning of Metaphor. Menninger  C l i n i c B u l l e t i n , 26, 92-101. A l l e r s , R. Von. (1955). Vom Nutzen und den Gefahren der Metapher i n der P s y c h o l o g i e . Jahrbuch f u r P s y c h o l o g i e und Psycho- t h e r a p i e , 3_, 3-15. Amira, S. A. (1982). 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