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Adolescents’ career aspirations and expectations : the influence of gender, grade, and locus of control McNulty, William Brian 1983

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ADOLESCENTS* CAREER ASPIRATIONS AND EXPECTATIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER, GRADE, AND LOCUS OF CONTROL by WILLIAM BRIAN McNULTY B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 M.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1983 <g> W i l l i a m B r i a n McNulty, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 18, 1983 DE-6 (.3/81) Abstract This study explored the agreement i n occupational f i e l d between adolescents' career aspirations and career expectations and the influence of gender, grade, and locus of control on this agreement. In addition, the reasons for occupational choice with regard to career aspiration and career expectation were examined. An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed l i t t l e current research on the relationship between career aspirations and expectations when examined together or on the various factors which influence.adolescent career choice. The l i t e r a t u r e does indicate that, when considering s p e c i f i c factors, career choice was p o s i t i v e l y related to grade and gender. However, despite the importance of psychological constructs i n career choice, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research on the relationship between locus of control and career choice has been published to date. In this study, i t was hypothesized that there would be a difference between the f i e l d of subjects' id e a l occupational choices and r e a l occupational choices regardless of gender, grade, or locus of control, and that there would be a difference i n the subjects' reasons for ideal occupational choices and r e a l occupational choices regardless of gender, grade, or locus of control. The study was conducted with 500 randomly selected grade eight to twelve students attending a secondary school chosen by the Superintendent of the cooperating school d i s t r i c t i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l the subjects, except those i n grade nine, were taking some form of a career education program. The results of the study supported the research hypotheses and indicated that there was l i t t l e agreement i n occupational f i e l d between career aspiration and expectation, and that there was no grade, gender, or locus of control influence. Si m i l a r l y , there was no differences between the reasons for id e a l and r e a l occupational choices. It was found, however, that reasons for occupational choice varied across grades. The r e s u l t s of the study have implications for both counsellor and career guidance programs at the secondary school l e v e l . i v T a b l e o f Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f Contents i v L i s t o f T a b l e s i x Acknowledgements x i I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Development and T h e o r e t i c a l Bases o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 Nature o f the Problem 4 Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 9 Overview o f the Study 11 I I . Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e 13 C a r e e r A s p i r a t i o n and C a r e e r E x p e c t a t i o n 13 C a r e e r E x p e c t a t i o n 22 Locus o f C o n t r o l 24 C o g n i t i v e R e a c t i o n s 27 L e v e l o f A s p i r a t i o n 30 O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 32 R e s e a r c h Hypotheses 38 I I I . Methodology 44 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 44 Measurement o f I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 44 V Page Measurement o f P r o b a b i l i t y o f A t t a i n i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 46 Measurement o f Reasons f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 46 Measurement o f Locus o f C o n t r o l 46 Measurement o f Socio-economic S t a t u s 51 G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n 52 P r o c e d u r e 53 Sample 53 C o l l e c t i o n o f Data 54 Coding and P r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Data 55 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Data f o r I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 55 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 56 C l a s s i f i c i a t i o n o f Reason f o r C a r e e r C h o i c e 57 Data A n a l y s i s 58 Item A n a l y s i s 58 O c c u p a t i o n a l Agreement 59 A n a l y s i s 59 IV. The P r e s e n t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f Data 61 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample 61 R e s u l t s o f R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e 65 R e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g F i e l d o f O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 67 T e s t o f Hypotheses 71 v i Page R e s u l t s o f E s t i m a t e d Chances 73 P r o b a b i l i t y o f Stu d e n t s O b t a i n i n g T h e i r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 73 P r o b a b i l i t y o f Stu d e n t s O b t a i n i n g T h e i r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 74 A n a l y s i s o f Responses t o Items i n D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Reasons f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 79 Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 85 Summary o f Reasons 88 V. D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s 91 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 91 P r a c t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e 92 T h e o r e t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e 95 S u b s i d i a r y Q u e s t i o n s 97 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 98 Re f e r e n c e s 103 Appendix A - G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 125 Appendix B - C a r e e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 126 Appendix C - C e l l Means f o r Grade, Gender, Locus o f C o n t r o l 129 Appendix D - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Gender 131 v i i Page Appendix E - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice by Gender 133 Appendix F - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by Stu d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice by Grade 135 Appendix G - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Grade 137 Appendix H - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l 139 Appendix I - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l 142 Appendix J - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l and Gender 145 Appendix K - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r E x t e r n a l R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l and Gender 148 Appendix L - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r I n t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade 151 Appendix M - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r I n t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade 154 V l l l Page Appendix N - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice f o r E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade 157 Appendix 0 - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade 160 Appendix P - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice f o r Gender and Grade 163 Appendix Q - Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice f o r Gender and Grade 166 i x L i s t of. T a b l e s Page 1. T o t a l S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n and Sample by Grade and Gender 62 2. Mean Age o f S u b j e c t s 63 3. P e r c e n t a g e and C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r e n t a l O c c u p a t i o n s o f S u b j e c t s as Measured on B l e s h e n s ' Socio-economic S c a l e ; C o r r e s p o n d i n g F i g u r e s f o r Labour F o r c e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada 64 4. P e r c e n t a g e (Number) o f Locus o f C o n t r o l by Gender and Grade 66 5. P e r c e n t a g e (Number) o f S u b j e c t s A c c o r d i n g t o Agreement Between I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice f o r : a) Grade b) Gender c) Locus o f C o n t r o l 69 6. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Agreement Between C a r e e r A s p i r a t i o n and C a r e e r E x p e c t a t i o n by Grade by Gender by Locus o f C o n t r o l 72 7. P r o b a b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s O b t a i n i n g T h e i r I d e a l ( I ) and R e a l (R) O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by: a) Grade X Page b) Gender c) Locus of C o n t r o l 75 8. S i g n i f i c a n t F R a t i o s (.05 l e v e l ) from A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e on Each Reason f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 81 9. S i g n i f i c a n t F R a t i o s (.05 l e v e l ) from A n a l y s i s of Variance on Each Reason f o r Real O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 83 10. Summary of T o t a l Reasons Given by Students f o r T h e i r I d e a l and Real O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice 87 x i Acknowledgements No project of thi s type can be successfully completed without the assistance of many people. The author would l i k e to thank a l l the students who participated i n the study and those who assisted with various other aspects of i t . In p a r t i c u l a r , the author would l i k e to extend appreciation to the following: Dr. B i l l Borgen, my fac u l t y advisor and thesis chairperson, has f a c i l i t a t e d a growthful environment throughout my masters program. I am deeply i n debt to him for his teachings, counsel, and g i f t of friendship. Dr. Larry Cochran has made valuable contributions to my growth as a counsellor. I am gratef u l for his warm support, i n t e l l e c t u a l aliveness, and guidance. Dr. Todd Rogers' enthusiastic encouragement, suggestions, and sharing of knowledge has been of immeasurable assistance i n the preparation of the thesis. Dr. Dallas Hinton's assistance for acting as a resource i n running the computer program. Special mention must be made of the support offered by the Vancouver School Board, who allowed the study to be conducted i n a Vancouver school. This study was completed with the f i n a n c i a l assistance of a research grant from the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia (ERIBC), for which the author i s gra t e f u l . 1 Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n Development and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s o f the Problem E x p l a n a t o r y models o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e have g e n e r a l l y a n a l y z e d the o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n terms o f m u l t i p l e i n f l u e n c e s emanating from s o c i o c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s o u r c e s and from the s i t u a t i o n a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t ( G i n z b e r g , G i n z b e r g , A x e l r a d , and Herma, 1951; S e w e l l and Armer, 1966; Slocum, 1956). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s has f r e q u e n t l y been c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f s t a g e s o f development o r as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence i n w h i c h the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f d e c i s i o n s made over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , r a t h e r t h a n an a c c i d e n t a l d e c i s i o n stemming from a s i n g l e e p i s o d e ( B l a u , J e s s o r , P a r n e s , and W i l c o c k , 1956; G i n z b e r g e t a l . , 1951; Musgrave, 1967). A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o r i e n t a t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a l i s t i c as the a d o l e s c e n t p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . G i n z b e r g , G i n z b u r g , A x e l r a d , and Herma (1951) r e f e r r e d t o t h i s " r e a l i s t i c s t a g e o f development" as one o f compromise i n w h i c h i n t e r e s t s , c a p a c i t i e s , v a l u e s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B l a u e t a l . , (1956) suggested t h a t r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s emerge as i n d i v i d u a l s compromise t h e i r i d e a l 2 p r e f e r e n c e w i t h a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . As a d o l e s c e n t s advance t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , many w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o g n i z a n t o f v a r i o u s b a r r i e r s t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and w i l l b e g i n t o a d j u s t t h o s e a s p i r a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . B r i n k e r h o f f and Kunz (1972) f o r example, d e s c r i b e d p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i n terms o f age, sex, grade, r a c e , a b i l i t y , number o f p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , s o c i a l c l a s s and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e . K u v l e s k y and O h l e n d o r f (1968) s u g g e s t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, s e l f - i m a g e , p a r e n t a l encouragement, and peer s u p p o r t as c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the compromise p r o c e s s when d e f l e c t i n g from i d e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n t i c i p a t e d d e f l e c t i o n from i d e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s o c i a l c l a s s o r i g i n o f the y o u n g s t e r (Caro and P i h l b a l d , 1964; Cosby and P i c o u , 1971; Speery and K i v e t t , 1964; Stephenson, 1957). The meaning o f t h i s compromise o f an i d e a l f o r a more r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . E a r l y s t u d i e s by B l a u e t a l , , (1956), G l i c k (1964), and Stephenson (1957) v e r i f y the f a c t t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s o f t e n d i s t i n g u i s h between o c c u p a t i o n s t h e y d e s i r e t o have and o c c u p a t i o n s t h e y e x p e c t t o e n t e r . 3 Kuvlesky and B e a l e r (196.6) have noted that r e s e a r c h e r s i n the area of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e should r e c o g n i z e the f a c t t h a t a d olescents d i s t i n g u i s h between o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ( d e s i r e d occupations) and o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ( a n t i c i p a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ) . I n v e s t i g a t o r s have i n c r e a s i n g l y taken note of the i n c o n g r u i t i e s between the ki n d s of c a r e e r s students would l i k e to achieve and the ones they a c t u a l l y expect to enter ( C r i t e s , 1969). D i s c r e p a n c i e s i n l e v e l or f i e l d of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , or a n t i c i p a t e d c a r e e r goal d e f l e c t i o n s , have been noted i n the e a r l i e r stages of ca r e e r p l a n n i n g . Cosby and P i c o u (1971) i n examining l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l choice r e p o r t e d t h a t from t h i r t y to f i f t y percent of the students i n v a r i o u s study groups they reviewed a n t i c i p a t e d d e f l e c t i o n from i d e a l i s t i c c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Breton (1972) found t h a t t h i r t y f o u r percent of secondary s c h o o l students i n Canada were without a c a r e e r c h o i c e . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d by A n i s e f (1975) and R u s s e l l and Warrach (1976). Since the t u r n of the century the concept of v o c a t i o n a l or c a r e e r development has undergone a great d e a l of change. The t h e o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l developmental psychology presented by such t h e o r i s t s as Ginzberg (1951) and Super (1953) have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to our understanding of c a r e e r development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of c a r e e r c h o i c e . Former s i m p l i s t i c 4 v iews o f c a r e e r c h o i c e , a l t h o u g h perhaps adequate i n the p a s t , a r e no l o n g e r a c c e p t a b l e i n our h i g h l y complex, m o b i l e s o c i e t y (Warnath, 1975). V o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s who p r e v i o u s l y a t t e m p t e d t o match a p e r s o n ' s o v e r t a p t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a j o b now v i e w the s e l e c t i o n o f a c a r e e r i n a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t way (Osipow, 1973). A l l f a c e t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x i s t e n c e must be u n d e r s t o o d , f o r a c a r e e r encompasses n o t o n l y the work a p e r s o n does, but a l s o h i s / h e r t o t a l l i f e s t y l e . (Gysbers and Moore, 1975; Warnath, 1975). N a t u r e o f the Problem The main q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t when a d o l e s c e n t s a n t i c i p a t e d e f l e c t i o n from an i d e a l c a r e e r c h o i c e , do t h e y form more r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s i n the same f i e l d ? The l i t e r a t u r e ( r e v i e w e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter I I ) r e v e a l s a p l e t h o r a o f s t u d i e s on l e v e l o f c a r e e r c h o i c e w i t h e i t h e r i d e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n o r r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n but r a r e l y b o t h . No s t u d i e s were found t o g e t h e r u s i n g o n l y o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s the d i s c r e p a n c y between i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e has shown t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y i n f i e l d o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e has not been 5 e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . I n one s t u d y Hamburger (1957) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f n i n t h grade boys i n h i s sample. Stephenson (1958) found t h a t the w i s h e s ( o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ) and the p l a n s ( o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ) o f most o f h i s 1000 n i n t h grade boys and g i r l s were d i f f e r e n t . S t u d i e s on t h e s e two components have produced mixed and i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , few s t u d i e s have t a k e n i n t o a ccount a grade s p r e a d , sex d i f f e r e n c e s o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l d i f f e r e n c e s . C a r e e r development t h e o r y assumes t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s c a r e e r c h o i c e s become more r e a l i s t i c and c r y s t a l l i z e d as one approaches t h e i r s e n i o r y e a r i n s c h o o l ( G i n z b e r g e t a l . , 1951). As w e l l , females a r e supposed t o be more d e c i s i v e i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f c a r e e r s than males. However, f a c t o r s l i k e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l have n o t r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n i n the a r e a o f c a r e e r c h o i c e ( B u r l i n , 1976). A l s o o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s the p a r t t h a t r e a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e s p l a y i n the s e l e c t i o n o f b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . O ' N e i l , Ohlde, T o l l e f s o n , Burke, P e g g o t t and Watts (1980), s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s i n c o m p l e t e and i n c o n c l u s i v e d a t a on t h e many re a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e i n terms o f gender and grade l e v e l . I n one s t u d y , Borgen and Young (1982) examined the c a r e e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s i n grades 5 t o 12 and o f f e r e d 6 some support for a developmental perspective of the ways i n which adolescents process pertinent career information. However, i t appears that there i s l i t t l e research to date r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c reasons for both id e a l and r e a l occupational choices of adolescent students. Another aspect shared by the majority of the published studies i n the area of career choice i s that samples were drawn mainly from s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l groups. As w i l l be noted i n the next chapter, the subjects were adolescents i n s p e c i f i c grades. Furthermore, the subjects comprise on the whole f a i r l y homogeneous.groups, with middle class background, average a b i l i t y , and average educational opportunities. Few investigations have been conducted i n Canada. In summary, no studies were found that (a) examined discrepancies i n f i e l d between i d e a l and r e a l occupational choice, and (b) examined the nature of those discrepancies across grade, gender, and locus of control. It was the purpose of this investigation to address these items. Statement of the Problem This study was designed to investigate the extent of agreement i n occupational f i e l d between career aspiration and career expectation of adolescents and to ascertain whether or 7 not t h i s agreement i n f i e l d was i n f l u e n c e d by grade, gender, or locus of c o n t r o l c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y and together. A secondary purpose was to examine the reasons f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l choice r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and ca r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n , and to determine i f such reasons were i n f l u e n c e d by grade, gender, or locus of c o n t r o l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study was designed to p r o v i d e data r e l a t i v e to the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t main and two s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s : Main Questions 1. Are there d i f f e r e n c e s between o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l choices of ad o l e s c e n t students? 2. Are there d i f f e r e n c e s between o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l choices f o r male and female adolescent students? 3. Are there d i f f e r e n c e s between o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l choices of adolescent students across grade? 4 . Are there d i f f e r e n c e s between o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l choices of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l adolescent students? 8 5. Are there differences between the occupational f i e l d s for the ide a l and r e a l occupational choices of male and female adolescent students across grade? 6 . Are there differences between the occupational f i e l d s for the ide a l and r e a l occupational choices of in t e r n a l and external adolescent students across grade level? 7. Are there differences between the occupational f i e l d s for the i d e a l and r e a l occupational choices of adolescent students when comparing gender and locus of control? 8. Are there differences between the occupational f i e l d s for i d e a l and real.,.occupational choices of adolescent students when comparing grade, gender, and locus of control together? Subsidiary Questions 1. Are there differences between the reasons for i d e a l and r e a l occupational choices of adolescent students? 2. Are there differences between the reasons for ide a l and r e a l occupational choices of adolescent students according to: •1. grade 2. gender 3. locus of control 9 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were adopted f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y : An a d o l e s c e n t was an i n d i v i d u a l aged 13 y e a r s t h r o u g h 19 y e a r s a t the time o f t h e st u d y . Agreement between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e was d e f i n e d as the agreement i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r two o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . (That i s , when t h e i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a r e i d e n t i c a l i n f a m i l y and u n i t group as c l a s s i f i e d by the Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f Occ u p a t i o n s - CCDO). S p e c i f i c a l l y each o c c u p a t i o n was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a seven d i g i t code number t a k e n from the CCDO. When the f i r s t t h r e e d i g i t s o f t h e code number f o r b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e matched e x a c t l y t h e n t h e r e was o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement. When one o r more o f the f i r s t t h r e e d i g i t s d i d n o t match then t h e r e was no o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement. O c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o the s e l e c t i o n o f an o c c u p a t i o n from the a l t e r n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f i e l d o f awareness. F i e l d o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i n c l u d e d the s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i n d i c a t e d by s u b j e c t s on t h e I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B ) , c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n the framework o f the 10 Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f Occupations. a. I d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was the choice of occup a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l makes giv e n o p t i m a l l y s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , e.g., no r e s t r a i n t s i n a b i l i t y , economics, t a l e n t , or o p p o r t u n i t i e s to o b t a i n f u r t h e r necessary edu c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . b. Real o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was the ch o i c e of occup a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l makes giv e n a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , e.g., r e s t r a i n t s i n a b i l i t y , economics, t a l e n t , or o p p o r t u n i t i e s to o b t a i n f u r t h e r necessary edu c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . The d e f i n i t i o n f o r Locus of c o n t r o l approved by R o t t e r (1966) was adopted. Locus of c o n t r o l g e n e r a l l y , r e f e r s to whether an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s h i s / h e r behaviors and thought p a t t e r n s as c a u s a l l y l i n k e d to consequences ( c o n t r o l ) or not c a u s a l l y l i n k e d to consequences (chance). R e s p e c t i v e l y , these two c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f y that the " l o c u s of c o n t r o l " l i e s e i t h e r w i t h i n or o u t s i d e of the power of the i n d i v i d u a l . I n t e r n a l  c o n t r o l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the person p e r c e i v e s that he/she i s i n c o n t r o l of h i s / h e r f a t e and t h a t e f f o r t and reward w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d , w h i l e e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the person p e r c e i v e s that powerful others or "the system" determine how w e l l he/she can do, and that rewards are d i s t r i b u t e d by others i n a random f a s h i o n (Rotter, 1966). 0 c cup at ion. wa s d e f i n e d as a c o l l e c t i o n o f jobs s u f f i c i e n t l y 11 s i m i l a r i n t h e i r main task to be grouped under a common t i t l e f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes. The Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  Dictionary, o f .Occupations (CCDO) r e f e r s to a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i n which the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t of the k i n d o f work performed, but to c l a r i f y f u r t h e r the nature of the occupations, other f a c t o r s are taken i n t o account, such as m a t e r i a l s or equipment used or produced, standards met, education or t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d , working environment, s e r v i c e s rendered and r e l a t i o n s h i p to other workers. V o c a t i o n was d e f i n e d as a s p e c i f i c work r o l e ( T o l b e r t , 1974). Overview of the Study The balance o f t h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n fo u r chapters. Relevant, t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e are reviewed i n Chapter .11. T h i s review p e r t a i n s t o : (a) o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of a d o l e s c e n t s , and (b) loc u s of c o n t r o l , and concludes w i t h p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h hypotheses corresponding to the r e s e a r c h questions asked i n the present chapter and drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e review. The r e s e a r c h methodology i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I . Th i s i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h design, instruments used, sample, as w e l l as data c o l l e c t i o n and data analyses 12 procedures. The results presented i n Chapter IV are organized i n terms of the research hypothesis i n i t i a l l y presented i n Chapter I I . F i n a l l y , conclusions, implications, and suggestions for further research are discussed i n Chapter V. 13 Chapter I I Review of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e In t h i s chapter t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s from two major areas o f the l i t e r a t u r e are examined, and each i s r e l a t e d to the primary i s s u e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The areas examined a r e : (a) c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and ca r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n i n a d o l e s c e n t s , and (b) loc u s of c o n t r o l . C a r e e r . A s p i r a t i o n and Career E x p e c t a t i o n Although t h i s study was concerned w i t h f i e l d of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on f i e l d o f c h o i c e . Most of the s t u d i e s measure l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i n terms of s t a t u s . A few of the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d on l e v e l may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s h i f t s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d ; these s t u d i e s are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s review. The d i f f e r e n c e s between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s or p r e f e r e n c e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . Many have attempted to o f f e r reasons f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s such as socio-economic s t a t u s , gender, and e t h n i c i t y . Kuvlesky and B e a l e r (1966) suggested the use of the terms " a s p i r a t i o n " and " e x p e c t a t i o n " to i d e n t i f y these 14 two components or dimensions of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . H a l l e r (1968) contended that " i d e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s " and " r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s " are l e s s c o n f u s i n g terms and are more closely-l i n k e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l usage i n s o c i a l psychology. Deosaran (1975) o f f e r s a d e f i n i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two concepts: In the f i r s t p l a c e , students' a s p i r a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d more w i d e l y and s u b j e c t e d to more i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h than e x p e c t a t i o n s . T e c h n i c a l l y , w h i l e " a s p i r a t i o n " r e f e r s to what a student would l i k e to do, or the g o a l which he would l i k e to a t t a i n , " e x p e c t a t i o n " i s viewed as a more " r e a l i s t i c " c h o i ce of a c t i o n or g o a l . (p. 9) Regardless of how one chooses to s o l v e the l a b e l l i n g problem, i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n c r e a s i n g l y have taken note of the i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l between the k i n d s of occupations a d o l e s c e n t s would l i k e t o enter and the ones they a c t u a l l y expect to enter (Bogie, 1977). Such d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l , or a n t i c i p a t e d c a r e e r g o a l d e f l e c t i o n s , have been noted i n e a r l i e r stages of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and among h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r (Cosby and Picou, 1971; G l i c k , 1964; Stephenson, 1957). Furthermore, e a r l y s t u d i e s by Blau et a l . , 1956; G l i c k , 1964; and Stephenson, 1957, v e r i f y the f a c t t h a t adolescents o f t e n d i s t i n g u i s h between occupations they d e s i r e 15 to have and occupations they expect to e n t e r . T h i s study i s concerned w i t h the c a r e e r plans of the respondents, t h a t i s , w i t h those c a r e e r s that adolescents d e s i r e or a s p i r e to and those they expect to enter or a n t i c i p a t e e n t e r i n g i n the f u t u r e . E x p l a n a t o r y models of o c c u p a t i o n a l c hoice have g e n e r a l l y analyzed the o c c u p a t i o n a l decision-making process i n terms of m u l t i p l e i n f l u e n c e emanating from s o c i o c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l sources and from the s i t u a t i o n a l or environmental context (Ginzberg et a l . , 1951; Sewell and Armer, 1966; Slocum, 1959). Furthermore, t h i s d e c i s i o n making process has f r e q u e n t l y been c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r i n terms of stages o f development or as a developmental sequence i n which the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c hoice r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s of d e c i s i o n s made over a p e r i o d of years r a t h e r than an a c c i d e n t a l d e c i s i o n stemming from a s i n g l e episode (Blau et a l . , 1956; Ginzberg et a l . , 1951; Musgrave, 1967; and Rogers, 1966). A c c o r d i n g to t h i s conception, o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o r i e n t a t i o n s become i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a l i s t i c as the adolescents progress through v a r i o u s stages of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . Ginzberg et a l . , (1951) r e f e r r e d to t h i s " r e a l i s t i c stage of development" as one of compromise i n which i n t e r e s t s , c a p a c i t i e s , v a l u e s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the t r a n s i t i o n from the t e n t a t i v e 16 to the r e a l i s t i c s t a g e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s e n i o r y e a r i n h i g h s c h o o l ) i s a t r a n s i t i o n from i d e a l i s t i c t o r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e ( G i n z b e r g , 1951). Super (1953) e l a b o r a t e d on the r e a l i s t i c n a t u r e o f compromise i n the development o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , s a y i n g t h a t the c r u x o f the problem l i e s w i t h i n the n a t u r e o f the compromise between s e l f and r e a l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , B e i l i n (1955) r e f e r r e d t o the s h i f t from e g o c e n t r i c t o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r where he p o s i t s an i n c r e a s e o f r e a l i s m w i t h age i n t h a t , the i n d i v i d u a l t a k e s the s o c i a l r e a l i t y more i n t o account i n making a c h o i c e and presumably the c h o i c e s themselves become more r e a l i s t i c . Thus, d u r i n g the r e a l i s t i c s t a g e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , the a d o l e s c e n t n o t o n l y s e l e c t s a f u t u r e c a r e e r but makes d e c i s i o n s t h a t s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r placement. B l a u e t a l . , (1956) s t a t e d t h a t : Each d e c i s i o n i s governed by the way i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l compromises h i s i d e a l p r e f e r e n c e and h i s a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b e i n g a b l e t o e n t e r a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n , the l a t t e r b e i n g c o n d i t i o n e d by p r e v i o u s r e j e c t i o n s and o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s . (p. 536) F u r t h e r m o r e , a d o l e s c e n t s become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o g n i z a n t o f the p r e r e q u i s i t e s and means f o r placement i n s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s as they approach h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n (Cosby and P i c o u 1971). 17 B l a u e t a l . , (1956) s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s emerge as i n d i v i d u a l s compromise t h e i r i d e a l p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Thus, as y o u n g s t e r s advance t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , many w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o g n i z a n t o f v a r i o u s b a r r i e r s t o t h e i r i d e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , and a c c o r d i n g l y , w i l l b e g i n t o a d j u s t t h o s e a s p i r a t i o n s . These a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s are thought t o become more r e a l i s t i c and more f o c u s e d w i t h age and grade. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a n a r r o w i n g o f the range o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r s a c c e p t a b l e w h i l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s commitment t o a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l o r g o a l s tends t o i n c r e a s e . B r i n k e r h o f f and Kunz (1972), f o r example, d e s c r i b e p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n terms o f age, sex, r a c e , a b i l i t y , number o f p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e . They found t h a t when a p e r s o n reduces h i s / h e r a s p i r a t i o n ( o r a l t e r s i t ) he/she i s c o n s i d e r i n g the b a r r i e r s t o the o c c u p a t i o n and n o t the p r e s t i g e o f the o c c u p a t i o n . K u v l e s k y and O h l e n d o r f (1968) i n e x amining o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f negro boys s u g g e s t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l e v e l s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, s e l f image, p a r e n t a l encouragement and peer s u p p o r t as c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the compromise p r o c e s s when s e l e c t i n g an o c c u p a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , 18 r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n t i c i p a t e d d e f l e c t i o n from i d e a l i s t i c c h o i c e can be p r e d i c t e d from socioeconomic background and i n t e l l i g e n c e of the youngster (Caro and P i h l b a l d , 1964; Speery and K i v e t t , 1964; and Stephenson, 1957). Cosby and P i c o u (1971) used l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice and r e p o r t e d t h a t from t h i r t y to f i f t y percent of the a d o l e s c e n t s i n v a r i o u s study groups they reviewed a n t i c i p a t e d d e f l e c t i o n from i d e a l i s t i c c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Bogie (1976) examined the extent of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n - e x p e c t a t i o n d i s c r e p a n c i e s among h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s . He a d m i n i s t e r e d an open ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 1835 Kentucky h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s (920 males and 915 females) i n the s p r i n g of t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n year. The p o p u l a t i o n i n Bogie's study was drawn from 15 non-metropolitan county h i g h s c h o o l i n three d i f f e r e n t socioeconomic areas of the s t a t e . Included were a r e l a t i v e l y d e p r i v e d economic area, a s t a b l e area and a s e m i - r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z e d area i n Kentucky. The c a t e g o r i e s of occupations were s i m i l a r to those of Cosby and P i c o u (1971). The r e s u l t s of the study showed t h a t almost f o r t y percent (n = 267) of the students w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s a c t u a l l y expected to enter occupations somewhat lower i n s t a t u s . For males, the b u l k o f those c l a s s i f i e d as d e f l e c t i n g (n = 137) expected to enter s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d occupations (66.4 percent) and white c o l l a r occupations (28.5 19 p e r c e n t ) . F o r f e m a l e s , the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e i n d i c a t i n g a l o w e r i n g o f a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s (n = 130) a n t i c i p a t e d e n t r a n c e i n t o w h i t e c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s (58.8 p e r c e n t ) ; s l i g h t l y more than 28 p e r c e n t e x p e c t e d t o become housewives. The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d w i t h l e s s f r e q u e n c y f o r males t h a n females (35.7 p e r c e n t t o 44.7 p e r c e n t ) . F o r males a s p i r a t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n d i s c r e p a n c i e s v a r i e d i n v e r s e l y w i t h f a m i l y s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , m e n t a l a b i l i t y , and s c h o l a s t i c performance. The o n l y v a r i a b l e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a s p i r a t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n d i s c r e p a n c i e s f o r females was f a m i l y s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . G l a z e (1979) examined t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d c a r e e r c h o i c e and f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f f e m a l e s . She sampled 1,167 g i r l s from grades 11, 12, and 13 i n b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e h i g h s c h o o l s i n O n t a r i o . G l a z e found t h a t almost h a l f o f the g i r l s a s p i r e d t o upper c l a s s o c c u p a t i o n s w h i l e two out o f f i v e a s p i r e d t o n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . L ess than a t h i r d o f the g i r l s , however, e x p e c t e d t o have upper c l a s s o c c u p a t i o n s ; one g i r l i n f o u r e x p e c t e d t o have a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n . G l a z e (1979) s u g g e s t e d t h a t among females t h e r e a r e d i s p a r i t i e s between e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s , s t a t u s , gender, and e t h n i c i t y . S i n c l a i r , Crouch, and M i l l e r (1974) s t u d i e d the l e v e l o f 20 o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n - e x p e c t a t i o n o f A u s t r a l i a n t e e n a g e r s , e x amining t h e v a r i a b l e s o f sex, s o c i a l c l a s s , grade l e v e l and p a r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . They a d m i n i s t e r e d an open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o 435 boys and 441 g i r l s r a n g i n g from y e a r 6 to y e a r 12. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were c l e a r sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s ' c h o i c e s were found t o c l u s t e r t o a l a r g e e x t e n t around what are c o n s i d e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l female o c c u p a t i o n s . The a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s were found t o be no more v o c a t i o n a l l y d e c i s i v e than the boys, however, and d e c i s i v e n e s s i n c r e a s e d w i t h grade l e v e l f o r b o t h se x e s . T h i s s t u d y a l s o p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e r a c t w i t h s o c i a l c l a s s and p a r e n t a l f a c t o r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . There was f a i r l y c l o s e agreement on l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e between s t u d e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n and a s p i r a t i o n : the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o the glamour o c c u p a t i o n s (model, p o p - s t a r , a i r h o s t e s s , a s t r o n a u t ) . Twenty-nine p e r c e n t o f the boys and t w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f the g i r l s a s p i r e d t o glamour o c c u p a t i o n s w h i l e o n l y t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f b o t h sexes e x p e c t e d them. There was e v i d e n c e t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s become somewhat more r e a l i s t i c o v e r t i m e . B u r l i n (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r e n t a l 21 education, maternal work, and occupational status to the occupational aspirations ( c l a s s i f i e d as Innovative, Moderate, and Traditional) of adolescent females. Innovative occupations are those i n which fewer than t h i r t y percent of the workers are women. Moderate occupations are those i n which t h i r t y to f i f t y percent of the workers are women. Tr a d i t i o n a l occupations are those i n which more than f i f t y percent of the workers are women. Innovative choices were made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more often as an id e a l aspiration than as a r e a l aspiration, and, r e c i p r o c a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l occupations were chosen less often as an ide a l aspiration than as a r e a l aspiration. S i g n i f i c a n t association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status ( t r a d i t i o n a l or non t r a d i t i o n a l ) . In summary, exis t i n g research has dealt more with a s h i f t i n l e v e l of occupational choice rather than f i e l d of occupational choice. The resu l t s from s h i f t i n l e v e l of occupational choice may have some implication to s h i f t i n f i e l d of occupational choice, but f i e l d requires examination on i t s own. 22 C a r e e r E x p e c t a t i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d toward e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n w h i c h a d o l e s c e n t s a n t i c i p a t e e n t e r i n g j o b s ( K u v l e s k y , 1966). Cosby and P i c o u (1971) s t u d i e d the v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a d o l e s c e n t w h i t e s and non-whites i n s o u t h e r n s t a t e s . They sampled 8082 t e n t h grade s t u d e n t s i n Alabama, G e o r g i a , M i s s i s s i p p i , and South C a r o l i n a . "What k i n d o f j o b s do you r e a l l y e x p e c t t o have most o f y o u r l i f e ? " was the open ended q u e s t i o n the r e s e a r c h e r s used t o e l i c i t o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n r e s p o n s e s . They c l a s s i f i e d the r e s p o n s e s a c c o r d i n t o t h r e e b r o a d g o a l - l e v e l c a t e g o r i e s : p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l m a n a g e r i a l , and glamour r e s p o n s e s were c l a s s i f i e d as " h i g h -l e v e l " o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; " i n t e r m e d i a t e " o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d c l e r i c a l , s a l e s , c r a f t s m e n , f a r m e r s , and o t h e r s k i l l e d w o r k e r s ; " l o w - l e v e l " e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f o p e r a t i v e , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s , l a b o u r , and u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . T h e i r r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l sample gave re s p o n s e s i n d i c a t i n g " h i g h l e v e l " v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n among the more d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s was a l s o found t o be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h ; f o r example, f o r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the non-white r e s p o n d e n t s 23 and f o r t y - f i v e percent of the r u r a l respondents manifested h i g h l e v e l v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n . A d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed between the l e v e l of v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n and s i z e of the community ( H a r r i s o n , 1969; Sewell and O r i e n s t e i n , 1965). They a l s o found t h a t students whose f a t h e r s worked i n h i g h l e v e l occupations had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s than o t h e r s . L i k e w i s e , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of respondents whose f a t h e r had h i g h l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment were found to have h i g h v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . In summary, r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n the area of c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n have shown t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c a r e e r s and c a r e e r c h o i c e i s a very p e r s o n a l i z e d and complex p r o c e s s . I n d i c a t i o n s from r e s e a r c h are t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s gather and process a great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r s i n r e l a t i o n to s e l f . They have an i n c r e a s e d knowledge about themselves and the world of work. Adolescents tend to develop more complex i n f o r m a t i o n search s t r a t e g i e s and a more e l a b o r a t e r a t i o n a l e s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e s . There i s a l s o evidence of a developmental p a t t e r n i n c a r e e r p e r c e p t i o n from adolescence through adulthood. At each l e v e l of development a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e s s e l e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n i n a unique way. T h i s process of c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n may f o l l o w the i d e n t i f i e d stages of 24 c o g n i t i v e and p s y c h o s o c i a l development as o u t l i n e d by P i a g e t (1948) and E r i c k s o n (1954). I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e e x e r t s a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the v o c a t i o n a l development o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t , s i n c e i t i s t i e d n o t o n l y t o f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r p l a n s but a l s o t o the s t u d e n t ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . I t a l s o seems e v i d e n t t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i e t a l , f a m i l i a l , s o c i o e c o n o m i c , s i t u a t i o n a l and p s y c h o s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s and t h a t any st u d y o f c a r e e r c h o i c e must ta k e a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o a ccount ( O ' N e i l e t a l . , 1980). One o f t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i s f o c u s e d on s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s s t u d y i s l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Locus o f C o n t r o l The t h e o r i s t who i n i t i a l l y gave d i r e c t i o n t o the concept o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l was A l f r e d A d l e r ( L e f c o u r t , 1970). H i s con c e r n was f o r p e o p l e t o become more e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l w o r l d s (Ansbacher and Ansbacher, 1956). Phares (1957) d e v e l o p e d the f i r s t s c a l e f o r measuring I n t e r n a l i t y -E x t e r n a l i t - y . Locus o f c o n t r o l , as p o s t u l a t e d by R o t t e r (1966), r e f e r s t o t he degree t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e t h a t they have 6 25 c o n t r o l over t h e i r environment. In g e n e r a l , i t has been observed that i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f locu s of c o n t r o l . I n d i v i d u a l s at one end of the continuum, i n t e r n a l s , tend to p e r c e i v e an outcome of t h e i r b ehavior to be a consequence of t h e i r own a c t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s at the other extreme, e x t e r n a l s , - tend to p e r c e i v e that b e h a v i o r a l outcome i s more l i k e l y t o be due to f a t e , l u c k , and/or powerful o t h e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , R o t t e r (1966) has d e s c r i b e d a dimension of c o n t r o l o f rei n f o r c e m e n t . He remarked t h a t : When a reinforcement i s p e r c e i v e d by the s u b j e c t as f o l l o w i n g some a c t i o n of h i s own but not being e n t i r e l y c o ntingent upon h i s a c t i o n , then, i n our c u l t u r e , i t i s t y p i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d as the r e s u l t o f lu c k , chance, f a t e , as under the c o n t r o l of powerful o t h e r s , or as u n p r e d i c a t a b l e because o f the gre a t complexity o f the f o r c e s surrounding him. When the event i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s way by an i n d i v i d u a l , we have l a b e l e d t h i s a b e l i e f i n e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l . I f the person p e r c e i v e s that the event i s contingent upon h i s own behavior or h i s own r e l a t i v e l y permanent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we have termed t h i s a b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . (p. 1) Most locu s of c o n t r o l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been conducted w i t h c o l l e g e student samples, while some s t u d i e s have used samples o f c h i l d r e n , the e l d e r l y , and c l i n i c a l groups 26 ( L e f c o u r t 1976). A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e has shown t h a t o n l y n i n e s t u d i e s have i n v o l v e d a d o l e s c e n t s as s u b j e c t s . R e s e a r c h i n the a r e a o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l has l a r g e l y f o c u s e d upon the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r c e p t i o n o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s , a t t i t u d e s , and/or p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( J o e , 1971; L e f c o u r t , 1966; P h a r e s , 1975; R o t t e r , 1966). The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e u sed i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was deve l o p e d by R o t t e r , Seeman, and L e v i r a n t i n 1962. O r i g i n a l l y , i t c o n s i s t e d o f 100 f o r c e d c h o i c e items c o n c e r n i n g th e s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g p e r c e i v e d " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " . A f t e r a s e r i e s o f f a c t o r and i t e m a n a l y s e s , the s c a l e was reduced t o 23 i t e m s , each o f w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h b e h a v i o r a l p r e d i c t o r s , p l u s s i x f i l l e r i t e m s ( L e f c o u r t , 1970). Locus o f c o n t r o l has been found t o be r e l a t e d t o a number o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . F o r example, t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h appear t o be r e l a t e d t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . H e r s c h and Sc h e i b e (1967) compared s c o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y (Gough, 1964), (a measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ) , t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c o r e s . I n t e r n a l s were seen as dominant i n d i v i d u a l s , t o l e r a n t o f o t h e r s , making good i m p r e s s i o n s , s o c i a b l e , i n t e l l i g e n t , a s s e r t i v e , independent, i n d u s t r i o u s , h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t , and achievement m o t i v a t e d . Other s t u d i e s seem t o show t h a t i n t e r n a l s a r e r e p r e s s o r s , 27 i . e . they f o r g e t t h e i r f a i l u r e s , w h i l e e x t e r n a l s are s e n s i t i z e r s , the i m p l i c a t i o n being t h a t e x t e r n a l s have accepted t h e i r f a i l u r e s as being caused by occurrences o u t s i d e themselves and have no need, t h e r e f o r e , to r e p r e s s these i n c i d e n t s ( E f r a n , 1964; T o l o r and R e z n i k o f f , 1967). Many e t h n i c and s o c i a l c l a s s v a r i a b l e s have a l s o been r e l a t e d to locus of c o n t r o l s c o r e s . S t u d i e s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t that b l a c k s have a h i g h e r r a t e o f e x t e r n a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s than whites ( B a t t l e and R o t t e r , 1963; L e f c o u r t , 1965). Ducette and Wolk (1973) found t h a t " i n t e r n a l " b l a c k a d o l e s c e n t s have lower o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and c o g n i t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s than " i n t e r n a l " white a d o l e s c e n t s . In a study comparing "hard-core" unemployed males of v a r i o u s e t h n i c o r i g i n s , S c o t t and Phelen (1969) noted that unemployed whites were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d than unemployed Blacks or Mexican-Americans. Furthermore, these unemployed males tended to be more e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d than white middle c l a s s c o l l e g e students. C o g n i t i v e Reactions Some measures of locus o f c o n t r o l are r e l a t e d to achievement and they would tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t s would be more d e c i s i v e i n academic d e c i s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n p e r c e p t i o n o f locus of c o n t r o l tends to be l i n k e d 28 with different, cognitive reactions. Individuals who believe that they can influence t h e i r environment w i l l a c t i v e l y seek ways to control that environment when control can be instrumental i n the attainment of t h e i r goals. In order to manipulate the environment e f f e c t i v e l y , individuals must be able to c o l l e c t and use relevant information. In career selection, for example, the a b i l i t y to c o l l e c t and use information implies that the i n d i v i d u a l pays attention to i t , i s able to distinguish relevant from irr e l e v a n t information, i s able to extract information e f f i c i e n t l y even from ambiguous situations, and i s capable of organizing and u t i l i z i n g the c o l l e c t e d information. I f we assume that i n t e r n a l individuals possess the aforementioned a b i l i t i e s to a greater extent than do externals, then we may expect that success-motivated internals w i l l tend to engage more vigorously i n the c o l l e c t i o n and processing of information which can help them during the pursuit of a career. Conversely, we may expect that external individuals, who believe that they cannot influence the environment, do not see as much u t i l i t y i n c o l l e c t i n g task-oriented information i n order to change t h e i r own performance within a career selection context. A series of studies have focused upon patterns of cognitive reactions displayed by internals and externals. 29 Seeman (1963) found t h a t i n t e r n a l s a re s u p e r i o r t o e x t e r n a l s i n r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was r e l e v a n t t o the a t t a i n m e n t o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s . Davis- and Phares (1967) found t h a t i n t e r n a l s n o t o n l y r e c a l l more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n e x t e r n a l s , but a l s o a c t i v e l y engage i n s e e k i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o an ambiguous s i t u a t i o n . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y , C r a n d a l l and Lacey (1972) n o t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l s , e s p e c i a l l y g i r l s , p e r f o r m b e t t e r and more e f f i c i e n t l y on the Embedded F i g u r e T e s t , w h i c h r e q u i r e s c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o s t i m u l u s cues, s o r t i n g o f r e l e v a n t from i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , and a n a l y t i c use o f t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . I n the same v e i n , Du C e t t e and Wolk (1973) s u p p o r t e d the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t s a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o t a s k - o r i e n t e d s t i m u l i . They o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t e r n a l s a r e s u p e r i o r t o e x t e r n a l s i n u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o improve c u r r e n t p erformance, i n the r e c a l l o f s u c c e s s e s f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f feedback, and i n f o r m i n g a s u c c e s s f u l problem-s o l v i n g s t r a t e g y the s o l u t i o n o f w h i c h depended on u t i l i z a t i o n o f s u b t l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l cues. I n summary, i n t e r n a l s e x t r a c t e d , r e c a l l e d , and u t i l i z e d t a s k l i n k e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s u p e r i o r f a s h i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a s t u d y by B o t t i n e l l i and Weizmann (1973) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t e r n a l s u t i l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y than e x t e r n a l s w i t h i n a t a s k o r i e n t e d framework. G o z a l i , C l e a r y , W a l l s t e r and G o z a l i (1973) n o t e d t h a t 30 i n t e r n a l s use s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i a b l e t e s t making " s t r a t e g i e s that r e s u l t i n h i g h achievement s c o r e s . Pines and J u l i a n (1972) le n d a d d i t i o n a l support to G o z a l i ' s f i n d i n g s . They observed t h a t w h i l e i n t e r n a l s appear to focus on task requirements as a way of maximizing i n f o r m a t i o n pursuant to s u c c e s s f u l task performance, e x t e r n a l s appear to be l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n t a s k - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and more concerned about a s c e r t a i n i n g and complying w i t h the s o c i a l demands of the s i t u a t i o n . In summary there seems to be evidence from the l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h that locus of c o n t r o l might be a f a c t o r which would i n f l u e n c e the d i s c r e p a n c y between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n . Only one study, u s i n g grade ele v e n g i r l s , ( B u r l i n , 1976), was found i n the l i t e r a t u r e which r e l a t e d the d i s c r e p a n c y i n l e v e l f o r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n and how t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y v a r i e d on i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s . No s t u d i e s were found l i n k i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e to a d i s c r e p a n c y i n f i e l d between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n . L e v e l of A s p i r a t i o n P e r c e p t i o n of l o c u s of c o n t r o l has a l s o been found to be r e l a t e d to l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n . Gurin, Gurin, Lao, and B e a t t i e (1969), and Lao (1970), f o r example, observed that 31 s t u d e n t s whose o r i e n t a t i o n was i n t e r n a l were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by-h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s t h a n were s t u d e n t s w h o s e : o r i e n t a t i o n was e x t e r n a l . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e t h a t t hey can c o n t r o l t h e i r own environment a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t , s i n c e s u c c e s s depends on them, they can a c h i e v e more than e x t e r n a l s who b e l i e v e t h a t t hey a r e dependent on t h e whim and d e s i r e s o f o t h e r p e o p l e o r e v e n t s . D o u c e t t e and Wolk (1972) found t h a t i n t e r n a l w h i t e females had h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s t h a n d i d e x t e r n a l w h i t e f e m a l e s . B a r - T a l , K f i r , Bar-Zohar and Chen (1980), h e l d the i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s c o n s t a n t and i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and academic achievement, a n x i e t y , and l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n . They sampled 2438 n i n t h grade I s r a e l - J e w i s h s t u d e n t s whose f a t h e r s ' e x t r a c t i o n was A s i a n , A f r i c a n , European, American o r I s r a e l i . They found t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , i n t e r n a l s t e n d t o a t t a i n g r e a t e r academic achievement, t o e x p r e s s l e s s a n x i e t y , and t o have h i g h e r l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n , and the p e r c e p t i o n o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l appears t o be a c c e n t u a t e d among s t u d e n t s o f A s i a n o r A f r i c a n o r i g i n t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n among s t u d e n t s o f European, Ame r i c a n , o r I s r a e l i o r i g i n . 32 Occupational Choice Bur l i n (1976) investigated the relationship of locus of control to ide a l and r e a l occupational aspirations of adolescent females. The results show that those who were c l a s s i f i e d as internals aspired to an innovative occupation (those i n which fewer than t h i r t y percent of the workers are women) fif t y - o n e percent of the time i n th e i r i d e a l choice. In t h e i r r e a l choice the same females aspired to an innovative occupation only thirty-two percent of the time. There was a strong relationship found between externality and aspiring to a moderate occupation (those i n which t h i r t y to f i f t y percent of the workers are women) i n the ideal choice. Many more externals than internals aspired to a moderate occupation. Internals tended to aspire either to an innovative or t r a d i t i o n a l occupation (those i n which more than f i f t y percent of the workers are women) whereas externals were di s t r i b u t e d more or less equally among the three categories. A s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was found between i n t e r n a l -external control and the presence or absence of discrepancy between id e a l and r e a l choices. Two associations stood out i n the analysis of this data: (a) more internals than externals aspired to an innovative occupation i n both t h e i r i d e a l and rea l selections and (b) many more externals than internals 33 moved from a moderate o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . I n summary, l o c u s o f c o n t r o l appears t o be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y , e t h n i c , s o c i a l , and adjustment v a r i a b l e s ; however, i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s e x i s t i n terms o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o female achievement and/or a s p i r a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t from the s t u d i e s on c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l r e g a r d i n g l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e r e may be a d i s c r e p a n c y between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s . Locus o f c o n t r o l may account f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y i n l e v e l as w e l l as f i e l d a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s Most s t u d i e s comparing c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r 0 e x p e c t a t i o n l o o k a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l between the two. No s t u d i e s were found comparing c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n t o g e t h e r u s i n g o n l y o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d . The hypotheses g e n e r a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y r e f l e c t an attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e s h i f t s i n f i e l d when comparing c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n f o r a d o l e s c e n t s r a n g i n g i n age from 13 t o 19. 34 H y p o t h e s i s 1 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . Based on the l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d t h e r e was some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e would be d i s c r e p a n c y i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . C o o l e y and Lohnes (1968), p r e s e n t e d d a t a t h a t showed w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s a t h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l y o u n g s t e r s more o f t e n s h i f t between f i e l d s a t the same l e v e l r a t h e r than moving up o r down w i t h i n a f i e l d . G o t t f r e d s o n (1979), r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a re l a r g e s h i f t s i n a s p i r a t i o n s f o r f i e l d o f work o c c u r i n g among males ages 15 and 29. T h i s i d e a i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by K e l s o (1975). G o t t f r e d s o n (1981), m a i n t a i n e d t h a t when put i n a p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o be r e a l i s t i c p e o p l e w i l l t e n d t o s a c r i f i c e i n t e r e s t i n f i e l d o f work t o m a i n t a i n s e x t y p e and p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y , G o t t f r e d s o n and B e c k e r , (1981) i n d i c a t e d t h a t men change t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r f i e l d o f work t o match j o b s they h o l d more o f t e n t h a n they change t h e i r j o b s t o match a s p i r a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r 35 t h e i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f male and female a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . I t seems t h a t t h e r e would be a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r males, but n o t f o r f e m a l e s . The l i t e r a t u r e examined i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y i n l e v e l and f i e l d between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y f o r males ( S i n c l a i r e t a l . , 1971; Stephenson, 1957). I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t more a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s were v o c a t i o n a l l y d e c i s i v e compared t o boys ( H o l l e n d e r , 1971). One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s was t h a t a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s , i n t h e i r r o l e as s o c i a l i z e d f e m a l e s , had fewer r e a l v o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o them, and thus were a b l e t o be more d e c i s i v e . The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t females p e r c e i v e g r e a t e r b a r r i e r s t o an o c c u p a t i o n than do males i n the achievement o f s o c i e t y ' s most p r e s t i g i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s ( B r i n k e r h o f f and Kunz, 1972). H y p o t h e s i s 3 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s a c r o s s grade. Based on the l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d on l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h e r e was some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t a t the s e n i o r 36 grades t h e r e would be l e s s d i s c r e p a n c y i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h a n a t the j u n i o r g r a des. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i v e n e s s i n c r e a s e d w i t h grade l e v e l ( H o l l e n d e r , 1971). S i n c l a i r e t a l . , (1972), i n d i c a t e d t h a t the match between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e was more f r e q u e n t a t grade 10 and 12. G i n z b e r g (1951) p o i n t e d out t h a t the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e r e a l i s t i c s t a g e f o r a d o l e s c e n c e was i n t h e s e n i o r y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l . Super (1953) and B e i l e n (1955) a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e concept o f a d o l e s c e n t s becoming more r e a l i s t i c i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e d u r i n g the s e n i o r y e a r s . H y p o t h e s i s 4 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . I t appears t h a t t o date o n l y one s t u d y has been done r e l a t i n g i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . However, on t h e b a s i s o f o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d , i t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s who had an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l would have a c l o s e r match i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n s than 37 a d o l e s c e n t s who had an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . B u r l i n (1976) found t h a t f o r a d o l e s c e n t females t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and the pr e s e n c e o r absence o f d i s c r e p a n c y between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . I t would seem t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , when c h o o s i n g an o c c u p a t i o n , a r e a b l e t o f r e e themselves from e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s and be more r e a l i s t i c and d e c i s i v e i n c h o o s i n g t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . H y p o t h e s i s 5 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between, the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f male and female a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s a c r o s s grade. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e would be l e s s d i s c r e p a n c y i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n s a t the 'senior l e v e l f o r b o t h males and females t h a n a t the j u n i o r l e v e l . There was r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e males would have a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s t h a t when m a t c h i n g i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e than f e m a l e s . The l i t e r a t u r e on l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was a l a c k o f r e a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n i n the j u n i o r grades and thus o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s would n o t match when examining i d e a l and 38 o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . D i l l a r d and P e r r i n (1980) s u g g e s t e d t h a t as a d o l e s c e n t s move up the grade l a d d e r t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e a t t i t u d e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y change and approach c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n as d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s were enc o u n t e r e d . G i n z b e r g e t a l . , (1951) s u g g e s t e d t h a t as a d o l e s c e n t s move from s t a g e t o s t a g e , t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s were thought t o become more r e a l i s t i c and more f o c u s e d . H y p o t h e s i s 6 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s a c r o s s grade. I t appears t h a t t h e r e has been no r e s e a r c h done r e l a t i n g the match i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d o f i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a t each grade l e v e l . However, i t would appear t h a t i n t e r n a l s a t t h e s e n i o r l e v e l w o u l d match o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s more f r e q u e n t l y than i n t e r n a l s o r e x t e r n a l s a t the j u n i o r l e v e l . The s e n i o r s would be more r e a l i s t i c and f o c u s e d i n c a r e e r c h o i c e as th e y would t e n d t o make an adjustment o f t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s w i t h p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , s e n i o r e x t e r n a l s would be l e s s r e a l i s t i c t han i n t e r n a l s a t the j u n i o r l e v e l s . 39 H y p o t h e s i s 7 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s when comparing gender and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . From the l i t e r a t u r e , i t seems t h a t male i n t e r n a l s may match o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i n f i e l d more f r e q u e n t l y than male e x t e r n a l s and e i t h e r i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l f e m a l e s . B u r l i n (1976) suggested t h a t a l t h o u g h females may a s p i r e t o g r e a t e r h e i g h t s t h e i r chances o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n a r e a f f e c t e d by many d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . H y p o t h e s i s 8 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s when comparing gender, grade, and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l t o g e t h e r . There appeared t o be no r e s e a r c h i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d r e l a t i n g the match o f i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , grade, and gender. However, based on the l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d , i t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t the f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the match i n f i e l d o f i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . When c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t o r s i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e 40 r e s u l t s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . S u b s i d i a r y Q u e s t i o n 1 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the r e a s o n s f o r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . I t appears t h a t t h e r e has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t o date r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s f o r b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t the r e a s o n s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e would r e f l e c t t h e i r f a n t a s y a s p i r a t i o n s . The r e a s o n s f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e c o u l d i n f a c t r e f l e c t v e r y c o n c r e t e r e a l i s t i c r e a s o n s w h i c h i n t u r n may r e f l e c t the a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s and r e s t r i c t i o n s t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . S u b s i d i a r y Q u e s t i o n 2 There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the r e a s o n s f o r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o : 1. grade 2. gender 3. l o c u s o f c o n t r o l 4. grade/gender 41 5. g e n d e r / l o c u s o f c o n t r o l 6. g r a d e / l o c u s o f c o n t r o l 7. g r a d e / g e n d e r / l o c u s o f c o n t r o l I t appeared t h a t t o date no s t u d i e s had been done r e l a t i n g r e asons f o r b o t h i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t o t h e above f a c t o r s . However, on the b a s i s o f the v o c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e would be a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e between males and f e m a l e s . I t was e v i d e n t from the l i t e r a t u r e on v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h a t t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l awareness i n the r e sponse o f females r e g a r d i n g v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I n a d d i t i o n , females a r e more v o c a t i o n a l l y d e c i s i v e and t h u s , may be d e c i s i v e i n r e a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e ( H o l l e n d e r , 1971; S i n c l a i r e t a l . , 1977). I t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e would be a s t r o n g a p p r o x i m a t i o n between the s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n v o c a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n as s t u d e n t s mature and move t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . As a d o l e s c e n t s approach h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e b e l i e v e d t o approach r e a l i s m and become c r y s t a l l i z e d and s p e c i f i c ( D i l l a r d and P e r r i n , 1980). A s t u d y by Borgen and Young (1980) r e g a r d i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t a l components o f c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , showed that, r e s p o n s e s w h i c h were i n d i c a t i v e o f the s t u d e n t s ' knowledge o f i n t e r e s t , a p t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s peaked i n grade 42 10, but c o n t i n u e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y i m p o r t a n t i n grades 11 and 12. Thus, i t may be suggested t h a t more r e a l i s t i c r e a s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e would be g i v e n a t the s e n i o r grades by b o t h males and f e m a l e s . On t h e b a s i s o f l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d , i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the re a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e . S i n c e i n t e r n a l s p e r c e i v e an a b i l i t y t o have c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r e nvironment, one might assume t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l who had an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n w ould be more d e c i s i v e i n c h o o s i n g a c a r e e r . As w e l l , i n t e r n a l s may have more i n t r i n s i c r e a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e t h a n e x t e r n a l s . I t seemed l i k e l y t h a t male and female a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e s e n i o r grades would be more d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h a n male and female a d o l e s c e n t s a t the j u n i o r l e v e l . The re a s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e a t the s e n i o r l e v e l would be i n t e n s i v e as they a r e more r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r c h o i c e s t h a n t h o s e a t the j u n i o r l e v e l . The a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e j u n i o r grades would o f f e r e x t r i n s i c r e s p o n s e s as t h e y a r e l e s s aware o f t h e i r m o t i v e s f o r s e l e c t i n g v o c a t i o n s . P o w e l l and Bloom (1962) suggest t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s a r e n o t aware o f the m o t i v e s f o r s e l e c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and cannot r e c o g n i z e the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f m o t i v e and a b i l i t y . I t seems t h a t g i r l s a t t h e s e n i o r l e v e l would choose rea s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e based on s o c i a l awareness. 43 It seems that i n t e r n a l males at the senior grades would give more i n t r i n s i c reasons for occupational selection than i n t e r n a l females or external males and females. Externals would tend to indicate reasons that were more e x t r i n s i c . The junior grades would lack a r e a l i t y orientation of responses and give e x t r i n s i c reasons. There was some reason to believe that i n t e r n a l males would o f f e r responses d i f f e r e n t than those of external males or in t e r n a l or external females. Futhermore, i t seems that external males and females would o f f e r responses that were e x t r i n s i c i n nature. Based on the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed, there was some reason to believe that the factors of locus of control, grade, and gender, conducted together influence the reasons for id e a l and r e a l occupational choice. Although, to date no s p e c i f i c study has examined these three factors, O'Neil et a l . , (1980) suggested that a l l factors are taken into account when making a career decision. 44 Chapter I I I Methodology T h i s c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . The second p a r t d e s c r i b e s t h e sample and the p r o c e d u r e f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h d a t a . The l a s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f the d a t a . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  Measurement o f I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice The q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y r e q u i r e d the c h o i c e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t p e r m i t t e d comparison between c h o i c e o f p r o b a b l e (expected) o c c u p a t i o n and i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t had t o be f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and easy t o a d m i n i s t e r t o groups o f s t u d e n t s i n grades 8 t o 12. Many r e s e a r c h e r s o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e p r o c e s s frame t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n i n terms o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o r d i m e n s i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s (e.g. B u r l i n , 1976; C h i u , 1976; Cosby and P i c o u , 1973; D i l l a r d and P e r r i n , 1980; K u v l e s k y and B e a l e r , 1966; K u v l e s k y and R e y n o l d s , 1970; 45 M i l l e r and H a l l e r , 1963, 1964; Stephenson, 1957). A l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s v a r y , the two dimensions o f a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n have been w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d and u t i l i z e d i n e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . I t was thought t h a t r a t h e r than u s i n g open-ended q u e s t i o n s such as t h o s e found i n the l i t e r a t u r e i t would be b e t t e r t o c o n s t r u c t s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s more s u i t e d t o t h e g o a l s o f t h i s s t u d y . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was asked t o s t a t e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n answer t o the f o l l o w i n g : (a) " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o t h i n k about the o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h would be most d e s i r a b l e t o you, w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o c o n s i d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s such as money, a b i l i t y . a n d t a l e n t , o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , e t c e t e r a . T h i s may sound i m p o s s i b l e , but i f you were c o m p l e t e l y f r e e t o choose, what would be your i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n ? Be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e " , and (b) "What o c c u p a t i o n a r e you most l i k e l y t o e n t e r ? That i s , l o o k i n g ahead i n t o the f u t u r e from where you are now and what you are d o i n g i n s c h o o l now, what o c c u p a t i o n do you t h i n k you a r e most l i k e l y t o t a k e up a f t e r you have completed your e d u c a t i o n ? Be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e " . These two q u e s t i o n s , p h r a s e d as s t a t e d , were the o n l y two q u e s t i o n s asked i n o b t a i n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f the s u b j e c t s . The f i r s t o f the d i m e n s i o n s , i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , r e f e r r e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e o f an o c c u p a t i o n he/she 46 d e s i r e d o r w i s h e d t o e n t e r . The second d i m e n s i o n , r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , r e f e r r e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o i c e o f an o c c u p a t i o n he/she e x p e c t e d o r a n t i c i p a t e d e n t e r i n g when he/she completed h i s / h e r e d u c a t i o n . Measurement o f P r o b a b i l i t y o f A t t a i n i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e I n o r d e r t o r e a f f i r m the c o n c r e t e n e s s o f the s u b j e c t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s the s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e on a s c a l e from 1 t o 10 an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y o f ever o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Measurement o f Reasons f o r C a r e e r C h o i c e A f t e r the s t u d e n t s had i n d i c a t e d the p r o b a b i l i t y o f a t t a i n i n g t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e , t h e y were asked t o g i v e r e a s o n s why t h e y thought t h e i r chances were h i g h o r low o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Measurement o f Locus o f C o n t r o l The c o n s t r u c t o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l was measured u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d by R o t t e r (1966). The dichotomy t h a t i s made i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l t h e o r y i s between i n t e r n a l and 47 e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l , t h a t i s , the degree o f c o n t o l one p e r c e i v e s i n r e g a r d t o the consequences o f h i s / h e r b e h a v i o r ( D u c e t t e and Wolk, 1972). The p e r s o n a t the " i n t e r n a l " end o f the continuum p e r c e i v e s outcomes t o be c o n t i n g e n t upon h i s / h e r own b e h a v i o r , c a p a c i t i e s , o r a t t r i b u t e s . The p e r s o n a t the " e x t e r n a l " p o l e b e l i e v e s the outcomes a r e n o t under h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l but r a t h e r under the c o n t r o l o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s , l u c k , chance, and f a t e . ( G o z a l i e t a l . , 1973). O r i g i n a l l y , the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f 100 f o r c e d c h o i c e i t e m s . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d by L i v e r a n t (1964) on the s c a l e w h i c h y i e l d e d two major f a c t o r s , one a c c o u n t i n g f o r f i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e t e s t v a r i a n c e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , the i t e m number was reduced t o 60. I t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t the s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h t h e Marlow-Crowned S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e (Crowne and Marlow, 1964) and t h a t the s u b s c a l e s were n o t g e n e r a t i n g independent p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s was c o r r e c t e d by means o f a s e r i e s o f i t e m a n a l y s e s , f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g t h e s c a l e t o 23 i t e m s , each o f w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h b e h a v i o r a l p r e d i c t i o n s . The f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Marlow-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e was r e p o r t e d t o be between -.07 and -.35 ( R o t t e r , 1966, p. 10). The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n c l u d e d the 23 items mentioned above p l u s s i x f i l l e r 48 i t e m s . The f i l l e r i t e m s a r e i n t e n d e d t o make the purpose o f the t e s t somewhat more ambiguous ( R o t t e r , 1966). Each i t e m c o n s i s t e d o f two statements o f w h i c h the examinee must s e l e c t the one he/she b e l i e v e s t o be more t r u e . W i t h s i x f i l l e r items i n c l u d e d , the maximum s c o r e i s 23. The h i g h e r the raw s c o r e , the g r e a t e r the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o r rewards i n l i f e g e n e r a l l y a r e e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . R e l i a b i l i t y measures r e p o r t e d f o r the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l  ( I - E ) C o n t r o l S c a l e a r e c o n s i s t e n t and a c c e p t a b l e . R e p o r t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s range between .49 and .83 f o r v a r y i n g samples and i n t e r v e n i n g time p e r i o d s ( H e r s c h and S c h e i b e , 1967; J o e , 1971, L e f c o u r t , 1966; R o t t e r , 1966). The a b i l i t y o f the t e s t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n as measured by the I-E s c a l e i s good. H e r s c h and S c h e i b e (1967) found n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l t o t a l s c o r e s and t h r e e measures o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; M i n t o n (1967) r e p o r t e d t h a t the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l s c o r e s o f s i x t y - n i n e males were u n r e l a t e d t o p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m o r c o n s e r v a t i s m , " l e f t v e r s u s r i g h t " i d e o l o g y o r a t t i t u d e s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y f o r the s c a l e i s h i g h . The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e c o r r e l a t e s between .55 and .60 w i t h the James-Phares L i k e r t type s c a l e o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l (Blackman, 1962). I t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the Adams-Webber (1963) S t o r y C o m p l e t i o n T e s t and a l s o 49 w i t h the C a r d i (1962) measure o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l from a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w where l o c u s o f c o n t r o l was r e c o r d e d on the b a s i s o f j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , D i e s (1968) found t h a t i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l r a t i n g a s c e r t a i n e d from t h e p r o j e c t i v e use o f the Thematic A p p r e c i a t i o n T e s t c o r r e l a t e d 0.8 w i t h the R o t t e r s c a l e . Recent f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y have been, c o n t r a d i c t o r y . S t r i c k l a n d (1967) and T o l e r and J a l o w i e c (1968) found n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the I n t e r n a 1 - E x t erna1  C o n t r o l S c a l e and t h e Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e (MC-SDS), w h i l e F e a t h e r (1967) and A l t r o c c h i , Palmer, Hellman, and D a v i s (1968) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l s c o r e s and MC-SDS s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , B e r z i n s , Ross and Cohen (1970) r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f -.23 between the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e and Edwards' S o c i a l  D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e . These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the I-E s c a l e i s n o t t o t a l l y f r e e o f the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s e t as c l a i m e d by R o t t e r (1966). A l t h o u g h R o t t e r (1966) s t a t e d t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l s c a l e among c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s appear t o be m i n i m a l , a l a t e r s t u d y by F e a t h e r (1967) showed t h a t females earned s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e x t e r n a l s c o r e s t h a t males a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f En g l a n d . T h i s l a t t e r f i n d i n g 50 i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the one case i n w h i c h sex d i f f e r e n c e s on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e were n o t e d by R o t t e r . D i s t e f a n o , P r y e r , and Smith (1971) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between I-E s c o r e s and age f o r f o u r a d o l e s c e n t age groups. Mean e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s c o r e s f o r the 8 t h , 9 t h , 10t h , and 1 1 t h grades were 10.7, 9.2, 9.4, and 7.8. r e s p e c t i v e l y . No sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found. The d a t a suggested t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n o f rewards as b e i n g e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d d e c r e a s e d a c r o s s the i n c r e a s i n g age l e v e l s . The mean s c o r e s f o r i n t e r n a l males on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l  C o n t r o l S c a l e r e p o r t e d by R o t t e r (1966) range from 6.06 t o 10.0. The mean s c o r e s f o r i n t e r n a l females r e p o r t e d t o range from 5.48 t o 9.62. The l o w e s t i n t e r n a l s c o r e s r e p o r t e d b e l o n g t o Peace Corps v o l u n t e e r s and the h i g h e s t i n t e r n a l s c o r e s r e p o r t e d b e l o n g t o e l e m e n t a r y p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . F r a n k l i n (1963) sampled 1000 male and female a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 10, 11, and 12 and r e p o r t e d a combined i n t e r n a l mean s c o r e o f 8.50. W i t h few o t h e r e x c e p t i o n s (Buck, 1971; Fergu s o n , 1974; and M a r t i n , 1975), the r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e s have i g n o r e d the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . The a d u l t s c a l e s have p r i m a r i l y been used f o r c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n s and the c h i l d r e n ' s s c a l e s have been used on e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n ( B i a l e r , 1961). Grade 8 and grade 12 s t u d e n t s have r e c e i v e d 51 the most a t t e n t i o n from t h e s e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l measures and t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f s t u d i e s from grade 9 t h r o u g h 11. Measurement o f Socio-economic S t a t u s The B l i s h e n Socio-economic I n d i x f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada (1976, 1978) was used i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f SES f o r the s u b j e c t s ' f a t h e r s ' and mothers' c a r e e r s . The i n d e x i s based on Canadian d a t a and t a k e s i n t o account the e d u c a t i o n and s a l a r i e s o f p e o p l e i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . B l i s h e n ' s 1976 s c a l e was based on the 1971 census d a t a o f the male l a b o u r f o r c e . B l i s h e n j u d g e d the i n d e x as r e l i a b l e by comparing i t w i t h h i s 1961 s c a l e ( r = .97, p_ .01) and v a l i d due t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i t s r a n k e d s c o r e s w i t h the P i n e o and P o r t e r (1967) p r e s t i g e s c o r e s f o r 102 Canadian o c c u p a t i o n s . The r e s u l t was an i n d e x w h i c h l i s t e d an i n d i v i d u a l i n d e x s c o r e aid r a n k e d each o f 480 o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s ( B l i s h e n and McRoberts, 1976). B l i s h e n ' s 1978 s c a l e was based on the 1971 census d a t a o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e and c o r r e l a t e d .84 w i t h the 1976 s c a l e ( B l i s h e n and C a r r o l l , 1978). B l i s h e n s u g g e s t e d a breakdown o f the Index i n t o s i x c l a s s e s such t h a t : 6 r e p r e s e n t s 70 and above ( i n d e x e d s c o r e s ) H i g h SES 52 5 r e p r e s e n t s 60.0 t o 69.9 4 r e p r e s e n t s 50.0 t o 59.9 3 r e p r e s e n t s 40.0 t o 49.9 2 r e p r e s e n t s 30.0 t o 39.9 1 r e p r e s e n t s below 30 Low SES T h i s s i x p o i n t r a t i n g was used t o s c o r e the p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the 1976 male i n d e x was used t o a s s i g n SES r a t i n g s t o the f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n when he was the main wage e a r n e r . When the mother o f t h e f a m i l y was the main wage e a r n e r the 1978 female i n d e x was used. B l i s h e n d i d n o t have a c a t e g o r y f o r housewives, but h i s 1978 s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d r = .90 w i t h P i n e o and P o r t e r ' s (1967) p r e s t i g e s c a l e , w h i c h i n t u r n c o r r e l a t e d r = .98 w i t h E i c h l e r s (1975) p r e s t i g e s c a l e w h i c h d i d i n c l u d e a s c o r i n g f o r the o c c u p a t i o n o f h o u s e w i f e . T h e r e f o r e , the i n d e x e d s c o r e t h a t E i c h l e r o b t a i n e d f o r ho u s e w i f e o f .46 was used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y and was c o n v e r t e d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e s c o r e (3) on the s h o r t r a t i n g form o f B l i s h e n ' s s c a l e ( S a y e r , 1980). G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n A s h o r t one page q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o each s t u d e n t t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about age, grade, gender, and f a t h e r ' s and mother's o c c u p a t i o n . 53 P r o c e d u r e Sample The sample f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 500 s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g a secondary s c h o o l l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, B. C. The s c h o o l i s a modern, w e l l equipped secondary s c h o o l l o c a t e d i n a h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f Vancouver. The s c h o o l was a t t e n d e d by 973 s t u d e n t s and had a r t s and s c i e n c e academic programmes and c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and community s e r v i c e non-academic programmes. The s c h o o l had f i v e c o u n s e l l o r s , one o f whom was a f u l l time c o u n s e l l o r . A c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n program was i n e f f e c t but was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o grade n i n e s t u d e n t s . The grade n i n e s t u d e n t s spent most of t h e i r g u idance time l e a r n i n g f i r s t a i d . At t h e time o f t h i s s t u d y the grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s had n o t y e t been exposed t o a c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n program. F i f t y males and f i f t y f emales from each o f grades e i g h t t o t w e l v e took p a r t i n the s t u d y . The age o f the s t u d e n t s ranged from t h i r t e e n y e a r s o l d i n grade 8 t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d i n grade 12. A l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct t h i s r e s e a r c h was s e n t t o the d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l . When p e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d , t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l were i n f o r m e d o f the c a r e e r p r o j e c t and were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e 54 on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . When s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d t hemselves as w a n t i n g t o t a k e p a r t i n the s t u d y , l e t t e r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e st u d y and r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r son o r daughter t o p a r t i c i p a t e were sent home t o p a r e n t s . C o l l e c t i o n o f Data The measuring i n s t r u m e n t s and g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n s were group a d m i n i s t e r e d . A l l m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d t o s u b j e c t s i n a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l hour d u r i n g g uidance c l a s s e s . These c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e d o f s m a l l groups o f 8 t o 15 s t u d e n t s w h i c h met once each s i x s c h o o l days. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s u b j e c t s i n a one hour s e s s i o n . A l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s , w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r a s k i n g them t o answer some q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s and c h o i c e s . They were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e r e were no r i g h t o r wrong answers t o the q u e s t i o n s and t h a t t h e ? q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would n o t be marked o r graded. S t u d e n t s d i d not w r i t e t h e i r names on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; a numbering system was used f o r c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . They were t o l d t h a t 55 the q u e s t i o n n a i r e they were f i l l i n g out was p a r t o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t e x p l o r i n g the c a r e e r c h o i c e o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r o f f e r e d t o come back t o each c l a s s to d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s w i t h the s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l groups. Coding and P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Data C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Data f o r I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice The Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n s , (1971) was used t o c a t e g o r i z e the s u b j e c t s i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . The CCDO p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h a l l o c c u p a t i o n s i n the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n can be c a t e g o r i z e d . The s t r u c t u r e c omprises a s e r i e s o f 23 major groups, 81 minor groups, and 498 u n i t g roups, i n t o w h i c h over 14,300 o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n i n c r e a s i n g l y b r o a d e r f i e l d s o f work. Of t h e s e , more th a n 6,700 o c c u p a t i o n s a re d e f i n e d base t i t l e s (commonly o c c u r r i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ) , o v e r 3,000 a r e a l t e r n a t e t i t l e s and about 4,600 a r e g i v e n as examples o f r e l a t e d t i t l e s . Each m a j o r , minor and u n i t group o f o c c u p a t i o n s i s s e p a r a t e l y coded, t i t l e d and d e f i n e d . O c c u p a t i o n s a re the n a r r o w e s t c a t e g o r y s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, and the d e f i n i t i o n s 56 f o r the i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t groups w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Thus, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e has f o u r l e v e l s t o e n a b l e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n s u c c e s s i v e l y f i n e r d e t a i l . A seven d i g i t number i s used t o r e p r e s e n t each o c c u p a t i o n , t h e f i r s t two d i g i t s d e l i n e a t e the f a m i l y t o w h i c h th e c a r e e r b e l o n g s , the t h i r d r e p r e s e n t s t h e minor group, the f o u r t h r e p r e s e n t s t h e u n i t group, and the l a s t t h r e e d i g i t s p r o v i d e a unique code number w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e f o r each o c c u p a t i o n . (see Volume I , CCDO). Each s u b j e c t s ' i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s were coded u s i n g t h i s numbering system. Data P r e p a r a t i o n . R a t i n g was completed by f o u r . f e m a l e grade 12 s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . To check th e c o n s i s t e n c y t h e r e s e a r c h e r coded th e o c c u p a t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The check i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were f o u r e r r o r s i n one thousand r e s p o n s e s . Thus, 99.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e r esponses were r a t e d a c c u r a t e l y by the r a t e r s . The d a t a were th e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o a F o r t r a n Coding Form by the r a t e r s , a g a i n t h e c o d i n g was v e r i f i e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . A l l s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were checked f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s , hand coded, and the c o d i n g 57 checked f o r a c c u r a c y . None o f the s u b j e c t s d a t a were r e j e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . The d a t a were th e n keypunched w i t h 100 p e r c e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n . The e r r o r r a t e was l e s s than two p e r c e n t . The few e r r o r s w h i c h were found were c o r r e c t e d . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Reasons f o r C a r e e r Choice The r e a s o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e were c a t e g o r i z e d under n i n e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s . These headings were adapted from a s t u d y by Borgen and Young (1982) who examined c a r e e r p e r c e p t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n grades 5 t o 12. The re s p o n s e s were d i v i d e d i n t o r a t e a b l e u n i t s on the b a s i s t h a t any independent c l a u s e o r i t e m i n an independent c l a u s e j o i n e d by a c o n j u n c t i o n , s t a t e d or i m p l i e d , counted as one response u n i t . Each u n i t was a s s i g n e d t o one o f the n i n e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w . 1. I n t e r e s t : - a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t , a b i l i t i e s and temperaments i n v o l v e d i n the o c c u p a t i o n . 2. B e h a v i o r : a c t i v i t i e s and b e h a v i o r s i n v o l v e d i n the o c c u p a t i o n . 3. Outcomes: s a l a r y , f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , and o t h e r n o n - o c c u p a t i o n a l outcomes. 4. C a r e e r P r o g r e s s : - s t e p s f o r e n t r y i n t o , p r o g r e s s 58 5. S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n : 6. O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : 7. S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e : 8. M i s i n f o r m a t i o n : 9. C h o i c e : t h r o u g h and e x i t i n g an o c c u p a t i o n . - r e s p o n s e s w h i c h f o c u s p r i m a r i on the s e l f r a t h e r t h a n the o c c u p a t i o n . - a s i m p l e e v a l u a t i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n . - the meaning w h i c h the o c c u p a t i o n has f o r s o c i e t y . - b l a t e n t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what the o c c u p a t i o n i n v o l v e s . - a d e f i n i t e statement r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Data A n a l y s i s Item A n a l y s i s The l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c o r e s were i t e m a n a l y z e d u s i n g the computer program ( L a b o r a t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h T e s t  Package) (LERTAP)(Nelson, 1974). The LERTAP o u t p u t o f t o t a l s c o r e s was used as i n p u t i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between each i t e m and t h e t o t a l i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l s c o r e were examined t o determine i f a l l items c o r r e l a t e d i n 59 the c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n . As w e l l , t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was f u r t h e r checked by computing a Hoyt (1941) e s t i m a t e o f the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the f u l l t e s t . O c c u p a t i o n a l Agreement The CCDO numbers f o r b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were t h e n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e computer. The f i r s t t h r e e d i g i t s o f t h e seven d i g i t numbers a s s i g n e d f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were s u b t r a c t e d from the f i r s t t h r e e d i g i t s o f the seven d i g i t numbers a s s i g n e d f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I f the d i f f e r e n c e was e q u a l t o "0", t h e r e s u l t was c a t e g o r i z e d as a " h i t " o r a " m i s s " where t h e d i f f e r e n c e was o t h e r t h a n "0". T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o measure t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d o f c h o i c e o f the s u b j e c t . A n a l y s i s S c ores f o r a l l measures and f o r the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n s were t a b u l a t e d and f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s produced. Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d . A 2 x 5 x 2 (g e n d e r - b y - g r a d e - b y - l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was computed t o compare t h e dependent v a r i a b l e (match o f i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ) t o the 60 independent v a r i a b l e grade ( a l l g r a d e s ) , gender, and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . F o r t h e purpose o f d a t a a n a l y s e s f o r the l o c u s o f c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e a median s p l i t was used t o d i v i d e t h e sample. E i g h t e e n 2 x 5 x 2 ( g e n d e r - b y - g r a d e - b y - l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) a n a l y s i s were conducted t o compare the dependent v a r i a b l e ( r e a s o n f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ) t o the independent v a r i a b l e s , grade, gender, and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I t was d e c i d e d t o use the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d u s i n g the ANOVA sub-program o f S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s v e r s i o n 9 ( K i t k a , 1980). A l l o f t h e computer a n a l y s e s were conducted a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computer C e n t e r on the Amdahl 470 V/8 computer, o p e r a t i n g under the M i c h i g a n T e r m i n a l System (MTS). 61 Chapter IV T h e . P r e s e n t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f Data T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f d a t a and d i s c u s s e s them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e hypotheses d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I . Data were g a t h e r e d , t a b u l a t e d , and a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . Frequency t a b l e s were produced f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s ; means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s . Each h y p o t h e s i s and s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n i s r e s t a t e d and the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d . D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample The sample used i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 500 a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . Two hundred and f i f t y - t w o males and two hundred and f o r t y - e i g h t females p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A breakdown o f the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n by grade and gender p l u s the number o f s u b j e c t s used i s shown i n T a b l e 1. 62 T a b l e 1 T o t a l S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n and Sample by Grade and Gender P o p u l a t i o n Sample Grade Males Females T o t a l Males Females T o t a l 8 90 74 164 50 50 100 9 88 103 191 51 49 100 10 116 97 213 ' 51 49 100 11 87 107 194 50 " 50 100 12 101 110 211 50 50 100 T o t a l 482 491 973 252 248 500 S t u d e n t s ' ages ranged from t h i r t e e n y e a r s o l d a t grade 8 t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s seven months a t grade 12. The mean age o f the s u b j e c t s i s shown i n T a b l e 2. 63 T a b l e 2 Mean Age o f S u b j e c t s Grade Gender 8 9 10 11 12 Males 13.8 14.8 15.9 16.6 17.6 Females 13.8 14.7 15.6 16.7 17.7 The p e r c e n t a g e and p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a t h e r s o r mothers o c c u p a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s , as measured on t h e B l i s h e n (1976, 1978) Socio-economic Index, a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 t o g e t h e r w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s f o r the l a b o u r f o r c e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. As can be seen the sample h i g h l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t s the h i g h e r income group and u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t s the l o w e r income groups as compared w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n . F a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s were measured on the 1976 B l i s h e n i n d e x w h i l e mothers' o c c u p a t i o n s were measured on the 1978 i n d e x . I n each c a s e , the h i g h e r o f the two s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c e s were used as t h e measure o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h i s sample f o r t h i s s t u d y . Table 3 Percentage and Cumulative P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r e n t a l Occupations o f S u b j e c t s as Measured on B l i s h e n ' s Socio-economic S c a l e ; C o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s f o r Labour Force f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada S o c i o - No. o f sample B.C. Canada economic Occupations % % % 7o % % Index N = 500 P e r c e n t Cumulative P e r c e n t C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 70.00+ . 162 32.4 32.4 4.0 4. 0 4.0 4.0 60.00-69.99 212 42.4 74.8 4.0 8. 0 4.0 8.0 50.00-59.99 92 18.4 93.2 9.0 17. 0 9.0 17.0 40.00-49.99 34 6.8 100.0 19.0 36. 0 20.0 37.0 30.00-39.99 0 0.0 0.0 31.0 67. 0 32.0 69.0 Below-30.00 0 0.0 0.0 33.0 100. 0 31.0 100.0 65 R e s u l t s o f R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e Items a n a l y s i s o f R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were more s u b j e c t s i n t h i s sample w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l than s u b j e c t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . (see T a b l e 4 ) . There were 140 male s u b j e c t s (55.6 p e r c e n t o f the male p o p u l a t i o n ) w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , and 132 female s u b j e c t s (53.2 p e r c e n t o f the female p o p u l a t i o n ) w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . The raw s c o r e s r anged from 0 t o 22 w i t h a mean s c o r e o f 9.86 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 4.06 f o r the s t u d y . The median o f the sample was 10.077. A Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was computed on the f u l l t e s t . The r e s u l t was 0.72. 66 T a b l e 4 P e r c e n t a g e (Number) o f Locus o f C o n t r o l Gender by Grade Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l Locus o f C o n t r o l / G e n d e r I n t e r n a l Male 46.0 47.0 68.6 54.0 62.0 55.5 (.23) (24) (35) (27) (31) (140) Female 62.0 51.0 35.2 60.0 56.0 53.2 (31) (25) (18) (30) (28) (132) T o t a l 54.0 49.0 53.0 57.0 59.0 54.3 (54) (49) (53) (57) (59) (272) E x t e r n a l Male 54.0 53.0 31.2 46.0 38.0 44.5 (.27) (27) (16) (23) (19) (112) Female 38.0 49.0 64.8 40.0 44.0 46.8 (19) (24) (31) (20) (22) (116) T o t a l 46.0 51.0 47.0 43.0 41.6 45.6 (46) (51) (47) (43) (41) (228) 67 R e s u l t s C o n c e r n i n g F i e l d o f O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e The main purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e x t e n t o f agreement i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n and t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h i s agreement was i n f l u e n c e d by grade, gender, o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y o r t o g e t h e r . T a b l e 5 summarizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s as r e v e a l e d by t h e r e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e f r e q u e n c i e s . As may be seen i n T a b l e 5, 35.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s had o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement, w h i l e 64.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s d i d n o t agree. A l t h o u g h n o t shown i n T a b l e 5, t h e grand mean i n d i c a t e d a t the .05 l e v e l t h e r e was a l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e between the m a t c h i n g o f i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and grade, gender, o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . T a b l e 5 a l s o shows t h a t 43.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 11 s t u d e n t s and 39.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 12 s t u d e n t s had t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s agree. The grade 9 s t u d e n t s had the l e a s t p e r c e n t a g e agreement w i t h 29.0 p e r c e n t . I n e xamining gender, 32.1 p e r c e n t o f the male s u b j e c t s and 39.5 p e r c e n t o f the female s u b j e c t s had o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement. W i t h r e s p e c t t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l 38.9 p e r c e n t o f the male and female s u b j e c t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l had t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n s agree, w h i l e 32.0 p e r c e n t o f the male and 68 female s u b j e c t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l had t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n s agree. I n examining grade and gender, 48.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 11 males had o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement w h i l e 46.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 8 females and 42.0 p e r c e n t o f grade 12 females had o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement. The male and female p e r c e n t a g e s were 19.4 and 23.0 f o r s u b j e c t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . S u b j e c t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l had p e r c e n t a g e s o f 12.7 and 16.5 f o r males and females r e s p e c t i v e l y . 69 Table 5 Percentage (Number) of Subjects According to Agreement Between Ideal and Real Occupational Choice for 1. Grade 2. Gender 3. Locus of Control Grade 8 9 10 11 12 Total Occupational Agreement Internal Male 10.0 13.7 17.5 32.0 24.0 19.4 (5) (7) (9) (16) (12) (49) Female 36.0 18.3 10.4 28.0 22.0 23.0 (18) (9) (5) (14) (ID (57) Total 8.4 5.9 5.1 11.0 8.4 38.9 (23) (16) (14) (30) (23) (106) External Male 16.0 10.0 10.0 16.0 12.0 12.7 (8) (5) (5) (8) (6) (32) Female 10.0 16.4 26.7 10.0 20.0 16.5 (5) (8) (13) (5) (10) (41) 70 T a b l e 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l T o t a l 5.7 5.7 7.9 5.7 7.0 32.0 (13) (13) (17) (13) (16) (73) T o t a l Agreement Male 26.0 23.5 27.5 48.0 36.0 32.1 (13) (12) (14) (24) '(18) (81) T o t a l Agreement Female 46.0 34.7 36.7 38.0 42.0 39.5 (23) (17) (18) (19) (21) (98) Grand T o t a l Agreement 36.0 29.0 32.0 43.0 39.0 35.8 (36) (29) (.32) (43) (39) (179) 71 T e s t s o f Hypotheses The q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s o f h y p o t h e s i s one i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f a d o l e s c e n c e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t 64.2 p e r c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s d i d n o t have o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement a c c o r d i n g t o f i e l d . Only 35.8 p e r c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s had o c c u p a t i o n a l agreement hence, the h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d . The r e s u l t s o f the 2 x 5 x 2 ( l o c u s o f c o n t r o l - b y - g r a d e -by-gender) a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f the d a t a a r e i n T a b l e 6. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g means and c e l l s i z e s a r e i n Appendix C and D. A l l t e s t s were conducted a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e As can be seen from T a b l e 6, t h e h y p o t h e s i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each o f t h e F r a t i o s were n o t s u p p o r t e d . There appears t o be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e x t e n t o f agreement between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s by a d o l e s c e n t s a t t r i b u t e d t o l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , grade, and gender when c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y (main e f f e c t s ) and t o g e t h e r ( i n t e r - a c t i o n s ) . S i n c e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n c e found no p o s t hoc a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t . 72 T a b l e 6 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Agreement Between C a r e e r A s p i r a t i o n and C a r e e r E x p e c t a t i o n by Grade by Gender by Locus o f C o n t r o l Source o f V a r i a t i o n df MS F P Main E f f e c t s Lc 1 0.669 2. 954 0. 086 Gr 4 0.275 1. 215 0. 304 Ge 1 0.696 3. 072 0. 080 2-Way I n t e r a c t i o n s Lc x Gr 4 0.336 1. 483 0. 206 Lc x Ge 1 0.125 0. 550 0. 459 Gr x Ge 4 0.299 1. 321 0. 261 3-Way I n t e r a c t i o n s Lc x Gr x Ge 4 0.234 0. 031 0. 391 R e s i d u a l 480 0.227 73 R e s u l t s o f E s t i m a t e d Chances P r o b a b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s O b t a i n i n g T h e i r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l  C h o i c e T a b l e 7 shows the p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f chances suggested by s t u d e n t s o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s (59.4 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y thought t h e i r chances were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , 49.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s thought t h e i r chances were 70 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . As can be seen i n T a b l e 7, 66.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e females and 51.9 p e r c e n t o f the males thought t h e i r chances were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l (65.1 p e r c e n t ) thought t h e i r chances were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Only 48.5 p e r c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l thought t h a t t h e i r chances o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r . 74 P r o b a b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s O b t a i n i n g T h e i r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e T a b l e 7 a l s o shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f chances by t h e s t u d e n t s o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . From the t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t 87.8 p e r c e n t o f the sample thought t h a t t h e i r chances o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 79.2 p e r c e n t o f the sample thought t h e i r chances were 70 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . From T a b l e 7, i t can be seen t h a t 96.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 12 s u b j e c t s and 92.0 p e r c e n t o f the grade 11 s u b j e c t s thought t h e i r chances o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r . The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 7 show t h a t 88.2 p e r c e n t o f the males and 87.4 p e r c e n t o f the females thought t h e i r chances were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I n a d d i t i o n , T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 91.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l thought t h e i r chances were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . On t h e o t h e r hand 83.2 p e r c e n t o f th o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l thought t h e i r chances o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e were 60 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r . Table 7 P r o b a b i l i t y o f Students O b t a i n i n g T h e i r I d e a l ( I ) and R e a l (R) O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by 1. Grade 2. Gender 3. Locus o f C o n t r o l 1. Grade: Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l P r o b a b i l i t y I R I R I R I R I R I R 10 6.0 1.0 5.0 6.0 7. .0 6.0 6.0 1.0 5. 0 2. 0 5.8 3.2 20 9.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 4. .0 0.0 9.0 0.0 6. 0 0. 0 6.4 0.4 30 7.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 6. .0 0.0 10.0 0.0 4. 0 0. 0 6.0 0.8 40 5.0 3.0 9.0 2.0 10. .0 0.0 8.0 0.0 5. 0 0. 0 7.4 1.0 50 21.0 14.0 14.0 8.0 13. ,0 3.0 13.0 7.0 14. 0 2. 0 15.0 6.8 T a b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 1. Grade: Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l P r o b a b i l i t y I R I R I R I R I R I R 60 15, .0 15. ,0 11. .0 7. ,0 10. 0 9. ,0 9. .0 6. .0 6. ,0 6. 0 10 .2 8. ,6 70 12. .0 14. ,0 17, .0 21. ,0 12. 0 15. ,0 17. ,0 25. ,0 17. .0 14. 0 15 .0 17. ,8 80 17, .0 26. ,0 23. ,0 29. ,0 20. 0 27. ,0 12. ,0 29. ,0 20. ,0 32. 0 18 .4 28. ,6 90 5, .0 14. .0 12. ,0 16. ,0 11. 0 24. 0 6. ,0 19. ,0 15. ,0 26. 0 9 .8 19. ,8 100 3. .0 8. ,0 2. .0 10. 0 7. 0 16. ,0 10. ,0 13. ,0 8. ,0 18. 0 6 ,0 13. ,0 2. Gender Ta b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender Male Female P r o b a b i l i t y I R I R 10 7.9 3.1 3.6 3.2 20 8.3 0.0 4.4 0.8 30 7.9 1.2 4.4 0.4 40 8.7 0.4 6.0 1.6 50 15.1 7.1 14.9 6.5 60 8.3 11.0 12.1 5.2 70 12.3 17.9 17.7 17.7 80 16.3 28.2 20.6 29.0 90 8.7 18.3 10.9 21.4 100 6.3 11.9 5.6 14.1 3. Locus o f C o n t r o l T a ble 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Locus o f C o n t r o l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l P r o b a b i l i t y I R I R 10 5.5 2.9 5.6 3.5 20 5.9 0.0 6.5 0.8 30 6.9 0.4 4.4 1.3 40 5.5 0.7 8.9 1.3 50 11.0 4.4 18.1 9.6 60 11.0 6.9 8.5 10.5 70 16.2 18.0 12.5 17.5 80 18.4 29.4 16.0 27.6 90 12.1 21.7 6.5 17.5 100 7.4 15.4 4.0 10.1 79 A n a l y s i s o f Responses t o Items i n D e t e r m i n i n g the Reasons f o r  0c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i ce A secondary purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o examine the r e a s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n , and t o d etermine i f such r e a s o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by grade, gender, o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . The r e a s o n s were c a t e g o r i z e d under n i n e h e a d i n g s . These headings were as f o l l o w s : i n t e r e s t s , b e h a v i o r s , outcomes, c a r e e r p r o g r e s s , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l - e v a l u a t i o n , s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e , m i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and c h o i c e . E i g h t e e n 2 x 5 x 2 (grade by gender by l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were performed u s i n g r e a s o n as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e and the f a c t o r s grade, gender, and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as the independent v a r i a b l e . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were c a r r i e d out f o r main e f f e c t s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Summaries o f the a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r each r e a s o n c o n c e r n i n g i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e are g i v e n i n T a b l e s 8 and 9. The d a t a f o r the s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s were f u r t h e r examined u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . The d a t a were c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t a g e s . These p e r c e n t a g e s were c a l c u l a t e d on the t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s g i v e n . T h i s i s n o t meant t o i m p l y t h a t the same i n d i v i d u a l s gave the t o t a l r e s p o n s e s . The p e r c e n t a g e s a r e o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l r e s p o n s e s g i v e n . The r e s u l t s 80. of the detailed analyses of the data with respect to i d e a l and r e a l occupational choice are presented i n the Appendices. No further post hoc analyses were carried out. 81 T a b l e 8 S i g n i f i c a n t F R a t i o s (.05 l e v e l ) from A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e on Each Reason f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice Source o f V a r i a t i o n Reason Main 2 Way 3 Way F E f f e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r e s t Gr 4.293 B e h a v i o r Gr 15.322 Lc 4.037 Gr/Ge 6.022 Outcomes Gr 28.093 Ge 21.838 Gr/Ge 12.562 Ca r e e r P r o g r e s s -S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gr 11.458 Ge 4.943 Gr/Lc 3.808 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gr 7.034 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gr 15.876 82 T a b l e 8 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Source o f V a r i a t i o n Reason Main 2 Way 3 Way F E f f e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n s M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gr 3.645 Choice Gr/Lc 2.551 83 T a b l e 9 S i g n i f i c a n t F R a t i o s (.05 l e v e l ) from A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e  on Each Reason f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e Source o f V a r i a t i o n Reason Main 2 Way 3 Way F E f f e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r e s t - -B e h a v i o r Gr 5.594 Gr/Ge ' 5.167 Gr/Ge/Lc 2.563 Outcomes Gr 22.640 Ge 19.621 Gr/Ge 11.143 Ca r e e r P r o g r e s s -S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gr 1.875 Ge 1.799 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gr 8.348 Ge 5.982 8.4 T a b l e 9 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Source o f V a r i a t i o n Reason Main 2 Way 3 Way F E f f e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n s S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gr 9.610 Gr/Lc 3.516 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n - -C h o i c e Gr/Ge 4.094 85 Reasons G i v e n by St u d e n t s f o r I d e a l and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e As can be seen i n T a b l e 10, s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d from t h e i r r e s p o n s e s on the C a r e e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i n t e r e s t was an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a l c a r e e r c h o i c e . As shown i n T a b l e 10, 55.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n were i n t h e i n t e r e s t group, 52.4 p e r c e n t were i n t h e s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s group and 28.2 p e r c e n t i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n group. Outcomes r e s p o n s e s , and b e h a v i o r r e s p o n s e s were grouped as 22.8 and 20.2 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . S o c i a l r e l e v a n c e , c h o i c e and c a r e e r p r o g r e s s d i d n o t seem as i m p o r t a n t i n the s t u d e n t s p r i o r i t i e s when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , as the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y were 5.2, 2.0, and 1.8 p e r c e n t . T a b l e 10 g i v e s the f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e a s o n s from the s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s on t h e i r c a r e e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n g i v i n g t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t s were an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 58.4 p e r c e n t o f the re s p o n s e s were p l a c e d i n the i n t e r e s t group. 50.2 p e r c e n t were p l a c e d i n the s e l f e v a l u a t i o n group. 25.0 p e r c e n t were i n o c c u p a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n group and 20.2 were i n t h e outcomes group. I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e (4.0 p e r c e n t ) , c h o i c e (3.0 p e r c e n t ) , and c a r e e r p r o g r e s s (1.6 86 percent) were least important to them. The results indicated that there are no differences i n the reasons given for id e a l and r e a l occupational choices. 87 T a b l e 10 Summary o f T o t a l Reasons G i v e n by St u d e n t s f o r T h e i r I d e a l  and R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e 1. I n t e r e s t 2. B e h a v i o r 3. Outcomes 4. C a r e e r P r o g r e s s 5. S e l f E v a l u a t i o n 6. O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n 7. S o c i a l R elevance 8. M i s i n f o r m a t i o n 9. C h o i c e I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e Gave No Gave Gave No Gave Reason Reasons Reasons Reasons Reasons ( p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l r e s p o n s e s ) 44.6 55.4 41.6 58.4 79.2 20.8 80.4 19.6 77.2 22.8 79.8 20.2 98.2 1.8 98.4 1.6 47.6 52.4 50.8 50.2 71.2 28.8 75.0 25.0 94.8 5.2 96.0 4.0 99.2 0.8 99.2 0.8 98.0 2.0 96.8 3.2 88 Summary of Reasons The results of the S t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the data with respect to the reasons for occupational choice are presented i n the following section. Interest: The subjects responses i n the interest category for id e a l occupational choice were s i g n i f i c a n t for grade. There was no significance for grade for r e a l occupational choice. Behavior: Responses for this category for id e a l occupational choice indicated that grade, locus of control, and grade/gender were s i g n i f i c a n t . Responses for r e a l occupational choice indicated significance for grade, grade/gender, and grade/gender/locus of control. Outcomes: The re s u l t s showed that grade, gender, and grade/gender were s i g n i f i c a n t for both i d e a l and r e a l occupational choice. Career progress: The re s u l t s indicated that none of the variables were s i g n i f i c a n t for either i d e a l or r e a l occupational choice. Self-evaluation: The subjects responses for i d e a l occupational choice were s i g n i f i c a n t for grade, gender, and grade/locus of control. The subjects responses for r e a l occupational choice were 89 s i g n i f i c a n t f o r grade and gender. O c c u p a t i o n a l - e v a l u a t i o n : I n b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e grade was s i g n i f i c a n t . S o c i a l r e l e v a n c e : The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t grade was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , grade, and g r a d e / l o c u s o f c o n t r o l were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . M i s i n f o r m a t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e was found f o r grade f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . There was no s i g n i f i c a n c e r e g a r d i n g the v a r i a b l e s f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . C h o i c e : The r e a s o n s f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e v e a l e d a grade/ l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n t e r a c t i o n . The reas o n s f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e v e a l e d a grade/gender i n t e r a c t i o n . I n summary i t appears t h a t grade was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r seven o f the n i n e c a t e g o r i e s f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Grade was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t f o r f i v e o f the n i n e c a t e g o r i e s f o r r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Gender was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r t h e c a t e g o r y o f outcomes and s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . Locus o f c o n t r o l was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the c a t e g o r y o f b e h a v i o r f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . A 2-way i n t e r a c t i o n o f grade/gender was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the c a t e g o r y 90 behavior and outcomes for both i d e a l and r e a l occupational choice. An inte r a c t i o n existed for r e a l occupational choice for the category choice. A grade/locus of control i n t e r a c t i o n existed for i d e a l and occupational choice for self-evaluation and choice. This i n t e r a c t i o n also existed for the category s o c i a l relevance for r e a l occupational choice. A 3-way inter a c t i o n was found for the category behavior for r e a l occupational choice. Thus the results indicate that grade was a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the reasons for occupational choice. 91 Chapter V Discussions and Conclusions The r e s u l t s demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t tendency for students to change occupational f i e l d s when stating i d e a l i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c occupational choices. However, differences could not be attributed to differences i n gender, grade or locus of control. In each case, hypotheses received no empirical support. Limitations' of the Study Several l i m i t a t i o n s should be recognized i n evaluating the results and conclusions of the study. F i r s t , true random sampling was not possible i n selecting students to take part i n the study. The sample of subjects included 50 male and 50 female volunteers i n each of f i v e grade l e v e l s , from one suburban school d i s t r i c t within a single geographic area. Second, the sample used i n this study was skewed to one end of the continuum. The subjects comprised on the whole a f a i r l y homogeneous group. The sample had an upper middle class background, above average a b i l i t y , and better than average educational opportunities. Consequently, the r e s u l t s can only 92 be g e n e r a l i z e d t o the s c h o o l and s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r e a . P r a c t i c a1 S i g h 1 f 1 c a h c e C o u n s e l l i n g and c a r e e r guidance programs i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s can have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l and l i f e c h o i c e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y p o i n t t o the importance o f examining b o t h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s i n c a r e e r g u i d a n c e . The f a c t t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s t e n d n o t t o agree may i n d i c a t e a t l e a s t t h r e e t h i n g s . F i r s t , a d o l e s c e n t s do n o t seem t o have p r o c e s s e d enough c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o have an e f f e c t i v e framework f o r making a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . Second, a d o l e s c e n t s may be u n c l e a r as t o t h e i r own a m b i t i o n s , v a l u e s and a b i l i t i e s . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s a r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y f i g u r i n g out what t h e y l i k e o r what t h e y can do w h i c h makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r some o f them t o d e c i d e w h i c h o c c u p a t i o n t o pursue. T h i r d , t h e y may be a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e s e r v e o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l a t t h e expense o f f i e l d . Thus, d i s c r e p a n c y i n c a r e e r c h o i c e may have come about by p r e s s u r e t o be more r e a l i s t i c . As a r e s u l t o f b e i n g r e a l i s t i c a gap o f t e n appears between an i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n and an e x p e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n . The f i e l d o f c h o i c e s e l e c t e d may be a compromise between d e s i r e d and e x p e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s based on r e a l i t y ( G i n z b e r g , 1951). The l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d 93 t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' r e a l i s m o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n c r e a s e s j u s t b e f o r e they e n t e r the j o b market ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). The d i s c r e p a n c y may have o c c u r r e d as a s h i f t between f i e l d s a t the same l e v e l r a t h e r than moving up o r down w i t h i n a f i e l d . From the l i t e r a t u r e , v o c a t i o n a l t h e o r y has l i t t l e t o say about what compromises i n d i v i d u a l s f a c e i n t h e i r c a r e e r s and how they cope w i t h them ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). P e o p l e seek c a r e e r s t h a t conform b o t h t o t h e i r images o f themselves and t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e f l e c t s what a p e r s o n wants t o become and p o s i t i v e s e l f image. R e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e f l e c t s t h e c a r e e r t h a t i s l e s s than i d e a l but t h a t may be e n t e r e d . What s i g n i f i c a n c e does t h i s have f o r the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ? C o u n s e l l o r s may have t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e problem o f how t o i n t e r p r e t a s s e s s e d a s p i r a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s and how t o ensure the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c l i e n t s . One can use t h e s e r e s u l t s as a c o u n s e l l i n g t o o l t o h e l p a d o l e s c e n t s t o make v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g s t u d e n t s s t u d y s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s i n guid a n c e . The c o u n s e l l o r may be i n t e r e s t e d t o f i n d out i f t h e r e a r e any o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the d i s c r e p a n c y i n f i e l d . By a s k i n g s t u d e n t s b o t h t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n , the c o u n s e l l o r can f i n d out t h r o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s 94 seek i n a r e a l o c c u p a t i o n . As w e l l , the c o u n s e l l o r can o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t i s k e e p i n g the s t u d e n t from t h e i r i d e a l c h o i c e , and how he/she c o u l d change the environment o f him/ h e r s e l f i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a r e a l o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g the u s e f u l l n e s s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . T h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n the p e r c e n t a g e o f d i s c r e p a n c y i n f i e l d a c r o s s grade. Does t h i s i m p l y t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e j u s t as immature o r t h a t t h e y have n o t made v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o r c o u l d i t mean t h a t we w i l l always have f a n t a s y o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t we w i l l n e v e r o b t a i n ? There may be some problem as t o the v a l u e o f the concept " f i e l d " o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I t appears t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f f i e l d may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o the r e a l w o r l d today. Roe (1956) d e f i n e d the f i e l d d i m e n s i o n as a h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n based on the type o f work a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n the o c c u p a t i o n , (p. 149). The f a c t t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t e n d n o t t o agree may i n d i c a t e t h a t f i e l d i t s e l f as i t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t r u e d i s n o t s u i t a b l e . I t appears t h a t i n c a r e e r c h o i c e a d o l e s c e n t s do n o t conform t o any b o u n d a r i e s , as a r e s u l t t h e r e may be n o t h i n g wrong w i t h the adolescentfs c h o i c e . Thus the concept o f f i e l d i t s e l f , t h a t b e i n g f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y , may need t o be examined more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y as i t r e l a t e s t o p e o p l e . 95 The o r e t i c a1 . S 1 g n 1 f l e a n c e I n e x a m i n i n g the hypotheses t h e r e was found t o be a d i f f e r e n c e between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 64.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t match t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . T h i s l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t f i e l d does n ot seem t o be a p o w e r f u l c o n s t r a i n e r . Some i n d i v i d u a l s may a s p i r e t o a w i d e r range o f c a r e e r s t h a n they may r e a l i s t i c a l l y have p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e n t e r i n g . E a r l y t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e c o g n i z a n t o f l i m i t a t i o n s on c h o i c e ( B l a u e t a l . , 1956; G i n z b e r g e t a l . , 1951). C a r e e r t h e o r i s t s e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s as compromises between d e s i r e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s based on r e a l i t y . P e o p l e seek c a r e e r s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e images t h e y have o f th e m s e l v e s . When put i n a p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o be r e a l i s t i c p e o p l e f i n d i t p a i n f u l t o s h i f t l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . They have t o do a s e l f assessment i n g o i n g from f a n t a s y t o r e a l i t y . I t can be s u g g e s t e d t h a t s h i f t i n g i n l e v e l means a s h i f t i n p e r s o n a l esteem. Thus, t h e y w i l l s h i f t i n f i e l d o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e i r l e v e l o f s t a t u s . They must compromise what they deem a c c e p t a b l e and d e s i r a b l e t o them. P e o p l e compromise a c c e p t a b l e a s p i r a t i o n s between sex t y p e , p r e s t i g e and f i e l d o f work. P e o p l e b e g i n c i r c u m s c r i b i n g t h e i r 96 o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s e a r l y i n c h i l d h o o d as t h e y d evelop c o n c e p t i o n s o f themselves and o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e l i k e themselves can a n t i c i p a t e i n l i f e . Reeb (1974) p o i n t s out t h a t a t l e a s t as e a r l y as the 8 t h grade, o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s judgments o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y . " P e o p l e c l i n g t e n a c i o u s l y t o more i d e a l but u n r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s , s i n c e t o abandon them i s p o t e n t i a l l y tantamount t o abandoning an i d e a l v e r s i o n o f s e l f " (Cochran, 1983). The s h i f t i n l e v e l become a shock t o one's s e l f - e s t e e m . Thus, p e o p l e s h i f t f i e l d s t o r e t a i n s t a t u s . The s h i f t i n g o f f i e l d s i s accompanied by a s h i f t i n g i n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s . The r e s u l t must end w i t h a s a t i s f a c t o r y c h o i c e w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l can accommodate p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . The r e s u l t s f o r grade i n t h i s s t u d y a r e somewhat c o n t r a r y t o t h o s e found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . One might t h i n k p e o p l e would p i c k c a r e e r s w i t h i n j o b c l u s t e r s i n t h e i r f a n t a s y and r e a l i t y c h o i c e . However, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a grade 12 s t u d e n t i s j u s t as i n c l i n e d t o p i c k something d i f f e r e n t as a grade 8 s t u d e n t . T h i s r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r s t u d y and r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s about the c a r e e r m a t u r i t y t h a t s t u d e n t s s u p p o s e d l y a t t a i n by the time they r e a c h grade 12. There i s no e v i d e n c e i n t h i s s t u d y t o suggest t h a t l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d . No s t u d i e s c o u l d be found, comparing c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n and 97 e x p e c t a t i o n w i t h l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . However, the concept o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o u l d be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l as one o f the f a c t o r s i n s t u d y i n g the c a r e e r development o f a d o l e s c e n t s . G i v e n the l a c k o f c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y , more r e s e a r c h w i t h t h i s f a c t o r may be needed b e f o r e i t can be m e a n i n g f u l l y used i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r c h o i c e . I n summary none o f the t h r e e f a c t o r s (grade, gender and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) were s i g n i f i c a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g f i e l d o f agreement between i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . S u b s i d i a r y Q u e s t i o n s The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c a t e g o r y f o r b o t h i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e s were i n t e r e s t s , s e l f e v a l u a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n and outcomes. The r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t grade was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r most c a t e g o r i e s f o r i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y o f f e r some s u p p o r t f o r a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the ways i n w h i c h a d o l e s c e n t s p r o c e s s p e r t i n e n t c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n (Borgen and Young 1982). The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y suggest t h a t a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t o f e q u a l v a l u e t o a d o l e s c e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t 98 ages. I n e xamining the s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a r l i e r s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t s t u d e n t s may be r e a d y t o e x p l o r e i n t e r e s t , o c c u p a t i o n a l outcomes and c a r e e r p r o g r e s s as e a r l y as grade 8 o r 9 seems t o be s u p p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( G i n z b e r g e t a l . , 1951). A d o l e s c e n t s t e n d t o draw b o u n d a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o judgements o f t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s and m o t i v e s . When i n d i v i d u a l s compromise i n s e l e c t i n g a c a r e e r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e s a c r i f i c e d f i r s t and j o b l e v e l second ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1981). S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h R e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new a r e a o f s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might c o n s i d e r t o p i c s such as : 1. The r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n s c h o o l s where the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f b o t h the f a t h e r and the mother i n c l u d e a w i d e r range; t h i s w ould be o f v a l u e i n o b t a i n i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n about the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a d o l e s c e n t s . 2. The r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h a l a r g e r sample base a t each o f the grade l e v e l s . 3. The r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a c r o s s s e c t i o n 99 o f s t u d e n t s i n a v a r i e t y o f c u r r i c u l a . 4. The r e p l i c a t i o n o f the s t u d y u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t o r more e x p a n s i v e r a t i n g system f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e . 5. A l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f a d o l e s c e n t s (grade 8 t h r o u g h 12 and f o l l o w i n g h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n ) a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e i r c a r e e r achievement would be a b i g s t e p toward f i l l i n g the p r e s e n t gap i n knowledge i n the c a r e e r development o f a d o l e s c e n t s . 6. A s t u d y t h a t examines the i n f l u e n c e and impact o f p a r e n t i a l v a l u e s on t h e i r c h i l d s ' c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . 7. A s t u d y t h a t compares a s t u d e n t s p o s i t i o n on Locus o f C o n t r o l w i t h h i s / h e r p a r e n t s ' p o s i t i o n would add v a l u a b l e d a t a t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a n t i c e d e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n a l i t y - e x t e r n a l i t y s c o r e s . 8. A l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h would be t o i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s from the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s i n o r d e r t o supplement f u r t h e r the d a t a from the paper and p e n c i l i n s t r u m e n t s . 9. A s t u d y t h a t examines the d a t a combining b o t h f i e l d and l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e would g i v e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n the l a c k o f agreement between o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n and a s p i r a t i o n . 100 Summary The re s u l t s presented i n the previous chapter suggest strongly that the l e v e l of agreement i n occupational f i e l d between id e a l occupational choice and r e a l occupational choice was not influenced by grade, gender and locus of control. There appears to be a number of possible explanations for the lack of congruence between career aspiration and career expectation and for the lack of influence of grade, gender and locus of control. The f i r s t explanation i s suggested by the sample i n which the study was carried out. It seems that the students i n this p a r t i c u l a r school have tremendous opportunities for educational and occupational advancement. This may be due to the socio economic status of the community and the academic nature of the school. Thus, when l i f t i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n s and requesting t h e i r i d e a l occupational choice, students' aspirations seem to be r e l a t i v e l y high. Yet, given choice and chance, these same students aim just as high and would choose th e i r r e a l occupational choice with the same high aspiration, but perhaps from another f i e l d . On another l e v e l , as explained i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e , some authors indicate that there are many other factors that are considered when a student gives t h e i r i d e a l and r e a l occupational choice. It has been suggested that self-concept 101 and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y a r e i m p o r t a n t ( C h i u , 1976). T h i s l e n d s s u p p o r t t o Super's t h e o r y o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t h r o u g h o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t may be t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were n o t w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s i n t h e i r r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s t a t u s t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e l y changed f i e l d s r a t h e r t h a n s h i f t l e v e l s o f o c c u p a t i o n s . I n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , one o f the major g o a l s o f a c o u n s e l l o r has been t o h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s make w i s e c h o i c e s ( G o t t f r e d s o n and B e c k e r , 1981). I t seems c o u n s e l l o r s may have t o f o c u s l e s s i n a s s e s s i n g and changing the s t u d e n t and f o c u s more on a s s e s s i n g and changing the environment o f the s t u d e n t . That i s t o use the many c o u n s e l l i n g t o o l s i n h e l p i n g a d o l e s c e n t s make v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves r a t h e r than p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s . More a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s k i l l s w ould be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . I t would appear t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t i s i n a sta g e o f v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n and i s n o t read y t o make v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s about s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s . To sum up, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y : 1. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r the i d e a l and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f 102 adolescent students i n t h i s study. The extent of agreement i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d between i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s of adolescent students i s not i n f l u e n c e d by gender, grade, or l o c u s of c o n t r o l taken s e p a r a t e l y or t o g e t h e r . The adolescent students' reasons f o r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l choices are i n f l u e n c e d by grade. 103 R e f e r e n c e s Adams-Webber, J . A. G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l r e i n f o r c e m e n t s and the p e r c e p t i o n o f m o r a l s a n c t i o n s . 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J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 1956, 24, 259-271. 125 Appendix A General Information Questionnaire You are being asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a research study conducted i n conjunction with the Department of Counselling Psychology at the University of B. C. The aim of the study i s to provide information on how secondary school students make vocational plans and decisions. Studies such as this help us to plan services which are most useful to students. We are most grateful for your p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a l l information you provide w i l l be kept i n s t r i c t confidence. Please complete this questionnaire. Grade ' Age years Date of b i r t h : Day Month Year C i r c l e whether you are male or female. Father's Occupation ' .  Mother's Occupation ' ' Please Wait U n t i l You Are Instructed to Turn the Page 126 Appendix B C a r e e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e On the f o l l o w i n g pages a r e a number o f q u e s t i o n s about c a r e e r s . These q u e s t i o n s ask you t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about your t h o u g h t s . S t u d e n t s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e amounts o f t h i n k i n g and p l a n n i n g they do about t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r s . We a r e a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o g i v e t h e i r i d e a s about t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r . The o n l y r i g h t answers a r e the ones w h i c h a r e r i g h t f o r you. G i v e the b e s t answer you can. 1. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o t h i n k about th e o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h would be most d e s i r a b l e t o you, w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o c o n s i d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s such as money, a b i l i t y and t a l e n t , o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , e t c e t e r a . T h i s may sound i m p o s s i b l e , but i f you were c o m p l e t e l y f r e e t o choose, what would be your i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n ? Be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e . Your answer: 2. What chances out o f 10 do you f e e l you have o f e v e r g e t t i n g t h i s i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n ? C i r c l e y o u r chances from 1 t h r o u g h 10. 127 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 None 50-50 C o m p l e t e l y Sure ; P l e a s e g i v e some reas o n s why you t h i n k your chances a r e h i g h o r low. What o c c u p a t i o n a r e you most l i k e l y t o e n t e r ? That i s , l o o k i n g ahead i n t o t h e f u t u r e from where you a r e now and what you a r e d o i n g i n s c h o o l now, what o c c u p a t i o n do you t h i n k you a r e most l i k e l y t o t a k e up a f t e r you have completed your e d u c a t i o n ? Be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e . Your answer: What chances out of.10 do you t h i s o c c u p a t i o n ? C i r c l e your 1 2 3 4 5 None 50-50 f e e l you have o f g e t t i n g chances from 1 t h r o u g h 10. 6 7 8 9 10 C o m p l e t e l y Sure 128 Please g i v e some reasons why you t h i n k your chances are h i g h or low. 129 Appendix C C e l l Means f o r Grade, Gender, Locus o f C o n t r o l Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l Locus o f c o n t r o l I n t e r n a l 0.57 0.67 0.74 0.47 0.59 0.61 (.54) (49) (53) (57) (59) (272) E x t e r n a l 0.72 0.75 0.62 0.70 0.63 0.68 (46) (51) (47) (43) (41) (228) T o t a l 0.64 0.71 0.68 0.57 0.61 0.645 (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) (500) Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l Gender Male 0.74 0.76 0.73 0.52 0.64 0.61 (50) (51) (51) (50) (50) (272) Female 0.54 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.58 0.68 (50) (49) (49) (50) (50) (228) 130 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l T o t a l 0.64 0.71 0.68 0.57 0.61 0.645 (100) (.100) (100) (100) (100) (500) Gender Locus o f c o n t r o l Males Females I n t e r n a l 0.66 0.66 (140) (132) E x t e r n a l 0.71 0.66 (112) (116) T o t a l 0.68 0.66 (252) (248) T o t a l 0.66 (272) 0.68 (228) 131 Appendix D Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Gender Reason Male Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reasons 45. 8 43. 7 44. 6 Gave Reasons 54. 2 56. 3 55. 4 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reasons 81. 3 77. 1 79. 2 Gave Reasons 18. 7 22. 9 20. 8 3 Outcomes Gave no Reasons 71. 1 83. 5 77. 2 Gave Reasons 28. 9 16. 5 22. 8 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reasons 98. 8 97. 6 98. 2 Gave Reasons 1. 2 2. 4 1. 8 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reasons 55. 3 42. 7 47. 6 Gave Reasons 45. 7 57. 3 52. 4 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l Gave no Reasons 71. 4 71. 0 71. 2 E v a l u a t i o n Gave Reasons 28. 6 29. 0 28. 8 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reasons 96. 0 93. 5 94. 8 Gave Reasons 4. 0 6. 5 5. 2 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reasons 99. 2 99. 2 99. 2 Gave Reasons 0. 8 0. 8 0. 8 132 Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) Reason Male Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reasons 98.0 98.0 98.0 Gave Reasons 2.0 2.0 2.0 T o t a l Gave no Reasons 79.4 78.5 78.9 Gave Reasons 20.6 21.5 21.1 T o t a l N (252) (248) (500) Appendix E Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Gender Reason Male Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 40. 1 43. 1 41. 6 Gave Reason 59. 9 56. 9 58. 4 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 83. 3 74. 4 80. 4 Gave Reason 16. 7 25. 6 19. 6 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason 73. 0 86. 7 79. 8 Gave Reason 27. 0 13. 3 20. 2 4 Ca r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 97. 6 99. 2 98. 4 Gave Reason 2. 4 0. 8 1. 6 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 57. 1 44. 4 50. 8 Gave Reason 42. 9 55. 6 49. 2 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l Gave no Reason 70. 6 79. 4 75. 0 E v a l u a t i o n Gave Reason 29. 4 20. 6 25. 0 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 97. 6 94. 3 96. 0 Gave Reason 2. 4 5. 7 4. 0 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 98. 8 99-. 6 99. 2 Gave Reason 1. 2 0. 4 0. 8 134 Appendix E ( c o n t i n u e d ) Reason Male Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 97.6 96.0 96.8 Gave Reason 2.4 4.0 3.2 T o t a l Gave no Reason 79.5 80.1 79.8 Gave Reason 20.5 19.9 20.2 ( T o t a l N) (252) (248) (500) 135 Appendix F Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Grade Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 33.0 45.0 43.0 57.0 45.0 44.6 Gave Reason 67.0 55.0 57.0 43.0 55.0 55.4 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 55.0 93.0 88.0 76.0 85.0 79.2 Gave Reason 45.0 7.0 12.0 24.0 15.0 20.8 Outcomes Gave no Reason 43.0 94.0 87.0 71.0 95.0 77.2 Gave Reason 67.0 6.0 13.0 29.0 5.0 22.8 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 99.0 100.0 97.0 98.0 97.0 98.2 Gave Reason 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 1.8 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 77.0 64.0 33.0 23.0 31.0 47.6 Gave Reason 23.0 36.0 67.0 77.0 69.0 52.4 136 Appendix F ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 53.0 84.0 84.0 60.0 75.0 71.2 Gave Reason 47.0 16.0 16.0 40.0 25.0 28.8 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 80.0 96.0 100.0 98.0 100.0 94.8 Gave Reason 20.0 4.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 5.2 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 96.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.2 Gave Reason 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 100.0 98.0 96.0 96.0. 99.0^' 98.0 Gave Reason 0.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 1.0 2.0 T o t a l Gave no Reason Gave Reason 70.6 86.0 82.0 75.5 80.7 78.6 29.4 14.0 18.0 24.5 19.3 21.4 137 Appendix G Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e by Grade Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 36.0 45.0 40.0 50.0 42.0 41.6 Gave Reason 64.0 55.0 60.0 50.0 58.0 58.4 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 65.0 90.0 90.0 71.0 86.0 80.4 Gave Reason 35.0 10.0 10.0 29.0 14.0 19.6 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason 63.0 87.0 77.0 75.0 97.0 79.8 Gave no Reason 37.0 12.0 23.0 25.0 3.0 20.2 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 100.0 100.0 99.0 97.0 96.0 98.4 Gave no Reason 0.0 0.0 1.0 3 . 0 4 . 0 1.6 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 51.0 54.0 56.0 47.0 46.0 50.8 Gave Reason 49.0 46.0 44.0 53.0 54.0 49.2 138 Appendix G ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 53.0 87.0 83.0 71.0 81.0 75.0 Gave Reason 47.0 13.0 17.0 29.0 19.0 25.0 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 86.0 96.0 99.0 100.0 98.0 96.0 Gave Reason 14.0 4.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 4.0 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 97.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 Gave Reason 3.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 9 Ch o i c e Gave no Reason 97.0 99.0 98.0 94.0 96.0 96.8 Gave Reason 3.0 1.0 2.0 6.0 4.0 3.2 T o t a l Gave no Reason Gave Reason 72.0 84.1 82.4 78.3 82.5 79.7 28.0 15.9 17.6 11.7 17.5 20.3 139 Appendix H Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by St u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason Gave Reason o 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason Gave Reason 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason Gave Reason 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason Gave Reason 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 45.2 54.8 82.0 18.0 79.4 20.6 97.4 2.6 46.0 54.0 43.9 56.1 75.9 24.1 74.6 25.4 99.1 0.9 49.6 50.4 44.6 55.4 79.2 20.8 77.2 22.8 98.2 1.8 47.6 52.4 140 Appendix H ( c o n t i n u e d ) Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R elevance Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 71.3 71.1 71.2 28.7 28.9 28.8 96.0 93.4 94.8 4.0 6.6 5.2 98.9 99.6 99.2 1.1 0.4 0.8 98.2 97.8 98.0 1.8 2.2 2.0 141 Appendix H ( c o n t i n u e d ) Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 79.4 78.4 78.9 Gave Reason 20.6 21.6 21.1 ( T o t a l N) (272) (248) (500) 142 Appendix I Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason Gave Reason 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason Gave Reason 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason Gave Reason 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason Gave Reason 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 40.8 59.2 81.3 18.8 82.4 17.6 98.9 1.1 46.7 53.3 42.5 57.5 79.4 20.6 76.8 23.2 97.8 2.2 55.7 44.3 41.6 58.4 80.4 19.6 79.8 20.2 98.4 1.6 50.8 49.2 143 Appendix I ( c o n t i n u e d ) Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R elevance Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 73.9 76.3 75.0 26.1 23.7 25.0 96.3 95.6 96.0 •3.7 4.4 4.0 98.9 99.6 99.2 1.1 .4 .8 97.1 96.5 96.8 2.9 3.5 3.2 144 Appendix I ( c o n t i n u e d ) Locus o f C o n t r o l Reason I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 79.6 75.2 77.6 Gave Reason 20.4 24.8 22.4 ( T o t a l N) (272) (248) (500) 145 Appendix J Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l and Gender Gender Reason I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a e e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 45.7 Gave Reason 54.3 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 85.7 Gave Reason 14.3 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason 77.1 Gave Reason 22.9 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 99.3 Gave Reason 0.7 45.5 45.6 44.7 43.3 43.5 54.5 54.4 55.3 57.7 56.5 75.9 81.3 78.1 76.7 77.5 24.1 18.7 21.9 23.3 22.5 63.4 71.1 81.8 85.3 83.5 36.6 28.9 18.2 14.7 16.5 97.2 98.9 96.3 99.2 97.6 1.8 1.1 3.7 0.8 2.4 146 Appendix J ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Reason Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 51.7 54.7 53.4 49.3 45.3 47.6 72.9 69.6 71.4 27.1 30.4 28.6 97.9 93.7 96.1 2.1 6.3 3.9 98.6 100.0 99.2 1.4 0.0 0.8 50.9 44.8 42.7 59.1 55.2 57.3 69.7 72.4 71.0 30.3 27.6 29.0 93.9 93.2 93.5 6.1 6.8 6.5 99.2 99.2 99.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 147 Appendix J ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Reason Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 97.9 98.2 98.1 98.5 97.4 98.0 Gave Reason 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.5 2.6 2.0 T o t a l Gave no Reason 80.6 77.7 79.3 78.1 78.9 78.5 Gave Reason 19.4 22.3 21.9 21.9 21.1 21.5 ( T o t a l N) (140) (112) (252) (132) (116) (248) 148 Appendix K Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by St u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Locus o f C o n t r o l and Gender Gender I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Reason Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 42.9 45.4 44.1 38.6 48.3 43.1 Gave Reason 57.1 54.5 55.9 61.4 51.7 56.9 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 86.2 79.5 83.3 75.8 79.3 77.4 Gave Reason 13.8 20.5 16.7 24.2 20.7 22.6 Outcomes Gave no Reason 77.9 67.0 73.o 87.1 86.3 86.7 Gave Reason 22.1 33.0 26.9 12.9 13.7 13.3 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 100.0 94.6 97.6 99.2 99.2 99.2 Gave Reason 0.0 5.4 2.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 149 Appendix K ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Reason Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 52.9 63.8 57.1 47.1 36.2 42.9 71.4 69.6 70.6 28.6 30.4 29.4 97.1 98.2 97.6 2.9 1.8 2.4 98.6 99.2 98.8 1.4 0.8 1.2 39.4 50.0 44.4 60.6 50.0 55.6 77.3 81.9 79.4 22.7 1 8 r l 20.6 95.5 93.2 94.4 4.5 6.8 5.6 99.2 100.0 99.6 0.8 0.0 0.4 150 Appendix K ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender I n t e r - E x t e r - I n t e r - E x t e r -n a l n a l n a l n a l Reason Male Male T o t a l Female Female T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 97.9 97.4 97.7 96.2 95.7 96.0 Gave Reason 2.1 2.6 2.3 3.8 4.3 4.0 T o t a l Gave no Reason 80.6 79.3 80.0 71.1 81.5 76.0 Gave Reason 19.4 20.7 20.0 28.9 18.5 24.0 ( T o t a l N) (140) (112) (252) (132) (116) (248) 151 Appendix L Summary of Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r I n t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 35.2 42.9 35.8 57.9 52.5 45.2 Gave Reason 64.8 57.1 64.2 42.1 47.5 54.8 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 61.2 91.8 86.8 80.7 89.8 82.0 Gave Reason 38.8 8.2 13.2 19.3 10.2 18.0 3 Outcomes Gave No Reason 50.0 95.9 88.7 70.2 93.2 79.4 Gave Reason 50.0 4.1 11.3 29.8 6.8 20.6 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 98.2 100.0 96.2 96.5 96.6 98.4 Gave Reason 1.8 0.0 3.8 3.5 3.4 2.6 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 66.7 64.3 28.3 35.1 37.3 46.0 Gave Reason 33.3 34.7 71.7 64.9 62.7 54.0 152 Appendix L ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 55.6 81.6 44.4 18.4 85.2 95.9 14.8 4.1 94.5 100.0 5.5 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 92.5 59.6 7.5 40.4 100.0 98.3 0.0 1.7 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 98.1 94.7 1.9 5.3 69.5 65.1 30.5 34.9 100.0 96.0 0.0 4.0 100.0 98.9 0.0 1.1 98.3 98.2 1.7 1.8 153 Appendix L ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 71.8 85.9 80.7 77.0 81.9 79.4 Gave Reason 28.2 14.1 19.3 23.0 18.0 20.6 ( T o t a l N) (54) (49) (43) (57) (59) (272) 154 Appendix M Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r I n t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade Grade Reason 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason Gave Reason 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason Gave Reason 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason Gave Reason 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason Gave Reason 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 31.5 36.8 34.0 51.9 49.2 40.8 68.5 63.2 66.0 49.1 50.8 59.2 64.8 77.8 78.7 84.2 81.4 81.2 35.2 12.2 11.3 15.8 18.6. 18.8 59.3 93.9 84.9 79.9 94.9 82.4 40.7 6.1 15.1 21.1 5.1 17.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.2 96.6 98.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 3.4 1.1 65.6 61.2 49.1 41.4 30.5 46.7 44.4 38.8 50.9 59.6 68.5 53.3 155 Appendix M ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 57.4 85.7 86.8 70.2 71.2 73.9 42.6 14.3 13.2 29.8 28.8 26.1 90.7 95.9 94.4 100.0 100.0 96.3 9.3 4.1 5.6 0.0 0.0 3.7 96.3 98.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.9 3.7 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 94.5 100.0 98.1 94.7 97.3 97.1 5.5 0.0 1.9 5.3 1.7 2.9 156 Appendix M ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 82.2 84.4 81.2 79.77 80.2 79.6 Gave Reason 27.2 15.6 18.2 20.3 19.8 20.4 ( T o t a l N) (54) (49) (53) (57) (59) (272) 157 Appendix N Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade Grade Reason 9 10 1 1 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason Gave Reason 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason Gave Reason 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason Gave Reason 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason Gave Reason 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 30.4 47.1 51.1 55.8 34.1 48.4 69.6 52.9 48.9 44.2 65.9 51.6 47.8 94.1 89.3 67.4 78.1 75.9 52.2 59.0 10.6 32.6 21.9 24.1 34.8 92.2 85.1 72.1 87.8 74.6 65.2 7.8 14.9 27.9 12.2 25.4 100.0 100.0 97.9 100.0 97.6 99.2 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 2.4 0.8 67.4 62.6 59.6 30.2 22,0 49.6 32.6 37.3 40.4 69.8 78.0 50.4 158 Appendix N ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason Gave Reason 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason Gave Reason 50.0 86.3 74.5 50.0 13.7 25.5 73.9 96.1 100.0 26.1 3.9 0.0 97.8 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.1 6.4 0.0 3.9 93.7 60.5 82.9 71.1 39.5 17.1 28.9 97.7 100.0 93.4 2.3 0.0 6.6 100.0 100.0 99.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 100.0 100.0 97.8 0.0 0.0 2.2 159 Appendix N ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 76.9 86.1 83.5 76.0 88.0 80.7 Gave Reason 33.1 12.9 16.5 24.0 22.0 19.3 ( T o t a l N) (46) (51) (47) (43) (41) (228) 160 Appendix 0 Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l and Grade Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 41.3 47.1 41.4 46.6 36.6 42.5 Gave Reason 58.7 52.9 59.6 53.4 63.4 57.5 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 65.2 88.2 89.4 72.1 80.5 79.4 Gave Reason 34.8 11.8 10.6 27.9 19.5 20.6 Outcomes Gave no Reason 41.3 94.2 87.2 67.4 72.7 76.8 Gave Reason 58.7 51.8 12.8 32.6 27.3 23.2 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 97.8 98.1 100.0 95.4 97.6 97.8 Gave Reason 2.2 1.9 0.0 4.6 2.4 2.2 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 65.2 76.5 53.2 44.2 34.1 53.7 Gave Reason 34.8 23.5 46.8 55.8 65.9 44.3 161 Appendix 0 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 58.7 Gave Reason 41.3 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 80.4 Gave Reason 19.6 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 97.8 Gave Reason 2.2 9 Ch o i c e Gave no Reason 100.0 Gave Reason 0.0 92.2 76.6 74.4 78.1 76.3 7.8 23.4 25.6 21.9 23.7 98.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.6 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 98.1 93.6 95.4 95.2 96.5 1.9 6.4 4.6 4.8 3.5 162 Appendix 0 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade Reason 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) T o t a l Gave no Reason 73.4 78.0 83.3 77.3 79.4 81.9 Gave Reason 26.2 12.0 17.7 22.7 20.6 18.1 ( T o t a l N) (46) (51) (47) (43) (41) (228) 163 Appendix P Summary o f Reasons G i v e n by St u d e n t s f o r I d e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Gender and Grade ( J u n i o r / S e n i o r ) Gender by Grade Reason Males Males i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Females Females i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason Gave Reason 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason Gave Reason 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason Gave Reason 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason Gave Reason 39.0 56.0 45.6 41.6 46.4 43.5 61.0 44.0 54.4 58.4 53.6 56.5 82.7 80.0 81.3 73.8 81.8 77.0 17.3 20.0 18.7 26.2 18.2 23.0 72.1 70.0 71.1 77.1 92.9 83.4 27.9 30.0 28.9 22.9 7.1 16.6 98.0 100.0 98.2 98.6 95.9 97.5 2.0 0.0 1.2 21.4 4.1 2.5 164 Appendix P ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender by Grade Males Males i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Females Females i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Reason Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 60.9 Gave Reason 39.1 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 78.1 Gave Reason 21.9 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 95.3 Gave Reason 4.7 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 98.6 Gave Reason 1.4 40.0 52.3 55.0 60.0 47.7 45.0 24.2 75.8 62.0 71.5 69.0 38.0 28.6 31.0 73.7 26.3 97.0 96.0 89.2 100.0 3.0 4.0 10.8 0.0 100.0 0.0 99.2 98.6 0.8 1.4 100.0 0.0 42.7 57.3 70.9 29.1 93.5 6.5 99.2 0.8 165 Appendix P ( c o n t i n u e d ) Gender by Grade Males Males Females Females i n i n i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r J u n i o r S e n i o r Reason Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 98.6 98.0 98.0 97.9 97.9 98.0 Gave Reason 1.4 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 T o t a l Gave no Reason 80.4 77.7 79.3 78.4 78.4 78.4 Gave Reason 19.6 22.3 20.7 21.6 21.6 21.6 ( T o t a l N) (152) (100) (252) (148) (100) (248) 166 Appendix Q Summary o f Reasons Gi v e n by S t u d e n t s f o r R e a l O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e f o r Gender and Grade ( J u n i o r / S e n i o r ) Grade by Gender Males Males Females Females i n i n i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r J u n i o r S e n i o r Reason Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 1 I n t e r e s t Gave no Reason 39.7 40.5 40.1 37.5 51.5 43.1 Gave Reason 60.3 59.5 59.9 62.5 48.5 56.9 2 B e h a v i o r Gave no Reason 88.0 76.2 83.3 75.1 80.8 77.4 Gave Reason 12.0 23.8 16.7 24.9 19.2 22.6 3 Outcomes Gave no Reason 71.5 75.2 73.0 79.8 96.9 86.6 Gave Reason 29.5 24.8 27.0 20.2 3.1 13.4 4 C a r e e r P r o g r e s s Gave no Reason 99.3 95.0 97.6 100.0 97.9 99.1 Gave Reason 0.7 5.0 2.4 0.0 2.1 0.9 167 Appendix Q ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade by Gender Reason Males Males i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Females Females i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 5 S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 55.4 Gave Reason 41.8 6 O c c u p a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Gave no Reason 70.8 Gave Reason 29.2 7 S o c i a l R e l e v a n c e Gave no Reason 96.0 Gave Reason 4.0 8 M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Gave no Reason 98.0 Gave Reason 2.0 55.4 57.2 48.9 44.6 42.8 51.1 70.2 70.6 77.8 29.8 29.4 22.2 100.0 . 97.6 .91.2 0.0 2.4 8.8 100.0 0.0 98.6 99.3 1.4 0.7 37.3 62.7 81.8 18.2 98.9 1.1 100.0 0.0 44.3 55.7 79.4 20.6 94.3 5.7 99.6 0.4 168 Appendix Q ( c o n t i n u e d ) Grade by Gender Males Males Females Females i n i n i n i n J u n i o r S e n i o r J u n i o r S e n i o r Reason Grades Grades T o t a l Grades Grades T o t a l ( P e r c e n t a g e ) 9 C h o i c e Gave no Reason 98.6 96.0 97.6 97.3 93.9 96.0 Gave Reason 1.4 4.0 2.4 2.7 5.1 4.0 T o t a l Gave no Reason 80.4 77.7 79.4 79.1 81.3 79.7 Gave Reason 19.6 22.3 20.6 20.9 18.7 20.3 ( T o t a l N) (152) (100) (252) (148) (100) (248) 

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