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The effects of a re-entry program on locus of control and self-regard Dextraze, Rhonda Dianne 1986

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THE EFFECTS OF A RE-ENTRY PROGRAM ON LOCUS OF CONTROL AND SELF-REGARD by RHONDA DIANNE DEXTRAZE B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1972 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1986 (?) Rhonda Dianne Dextraze, 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 )E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT In t h i s study the e f f e c t s of s k i l l s t r a i n i n g are examined, and the moderating e f f e c t s of two i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s -- l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m -- are i n v e s t i g a t e d . The t r a i n i n g program "Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment", or C.O.P.E., which i s three months i n l e n g t h , prepares s i n g l e parent mothers on income a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e t r a i n i n g or r e - e n t r y i n t o the work p l a c e . T h i r t y - n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r e - and p o s t - t e s t e d using R o t t e r ' s Locus of  C o n t r o l Scale and Shostrom's Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory which c o n t a i n s a "Self-Regard" s u b s c a l e . The sample i n c l u d e d two separate C.O.P.E. c l a s s e s and two separate c o n t r o l groups, t o t a l l i n g t h i r t y - n i n e s u b j e c t s . Interviews were c a r r i e d out b e f o r e t r a i n i n g to assess the goals of the program f o r the r e f e r r a l agent, the i n s t r u c t o r and the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and at the end of t r a i n i n g to determine whether p a r t i c i p a n t s had c a r e e r p l a n s , whether they f e l t s u c c e s s f u l and to what they a t t r i b u t e d success and f a i l u r e . Repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was employed to t e s t hypotheses r e g a r d i n g e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g on l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s e l f - r e g a r d . I t was found that locus of c o n t r o l improved at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l (p < .05) f o r both treatment and c o n t r o l groups over the time p e r i o d between the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found i n improvement of locu s of c o n t r o l between the treatment and c o n t r o l group over the same p e r i o d . Pre-post changes i n measured s e l f - r e g a r d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r (p < .05) f o r the experimental group than f o r the c o n t r o l group. A d d i t i o n a l t e s t s were c a r r i e d out on t h i s v a r i a b l e . An ANOVA f o r the s e l f - r e g a r d v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the two treatment groups t e s t e d or between the treatment groups' measured improvement over time. However, a simple main e f f e c t s t e s t e s t a b l i s h e d an i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between treatment and c o n t r o l group means at p r e - t e s t time with no d i f f e r e n c e at p o s t - t e s t time. Interviews of the women at both p r e - and p o s t - t e s t times i n d i c a t e d improved c l a r i t y i n f u t u r e p l a n s , v e r b a l i z e d p e r s o n a l success i n l i n e with s e l f - e s t e e m changes and a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r pe r c e i v e d success and f a i l u r e s . F i n d i n g s suggest that both s e l f - s e l e c t i o n and i n s t r u c t o r s c r e e n i n g may have a f f e c t e d the a n a l y s i s and may a f f e c t the us e f u l n e s s of the program f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgements i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background to the Study 1 Nature of the Problem 2 Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n 6 f o r Employment: The Program Need f o r the Study 8 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 10 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n 13 Locus of C o n t r o l 14 Locus of C o n t r o l as a V a r i a b l e to be Changed 15 Social/Economic Status as a P r e d i c t o r of 16 Locus of C o n t r o l Learned H e l p l e s s n e s s : Development and 20 Connection with Locus of C o n t r o l A t t r i b u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s 23 - V -TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) PAGE S k i l l s U s e f u l to Increase P e r c e p t i o n of 25 C o n t r o l S e l f - R e g a r d : D e f i n i t i o n and T h e o r e t i c a l 28 Bas i s Locus of C o n t r o l and Self-Regard 29 Self-Regard As a V a r i a b l e to be Changed 30 Summary 31 Hypotheses Derived from the L i t e r a t u r e Review 32 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Sample 35 The Interview Process 35 Procedure 36 Groups 37 Program 38 Instruments and Interview Schedule 39 Data A n a l y s i s 43 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Summary of Research Design 44 Subject C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 45 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data 46 - v i -TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Hypothesis T e s t i n g Interviews CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION Summary 55 D i s c u s s i o n 58 Recommendations f o r Future Research 62 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 63 and Program Recommendations C o n c l u s i o n 64 PAGE 47 52 References Appendices 66 73 - v i i -LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Summary of Group C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 38 2 Summary t - T e s t s of D i f f e r e n c e s Between 45 Treatment and C o n t r o l Groups: Four Demographic V a r i a b l e s 3 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n Among I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l 46 Locus of C o n t r o l Scale (I-E) and Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (POI) 4 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Two Groups f o r 48 the I-E Sc a l e at Pre- and Post-Test Time 5 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Two Groups f o r 49 Self-Regard at Pre- and Post-Test Time 6 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Four Groups f o r 50 Self-Regard at Pre- and Post-Test Time 7 ANOVA f o r Simple Main E f f e c t f o r Self-Regard 51 - v i i i -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE 1 Mean s c o r e s f o r p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t s 51 m e a s u r e d o v e r t i m e . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge, from the beginning to the end of t h i s p r o j e c t , the u n g u a l i f i e d support and guidance of Dr. R. Tolsma. In a d d i t i o n , Dr. R. Conry has been a f i n e resource person and Dr. S. Kahn has o f f e r e d her guidance. My f a m i l y , B a r r y , Ben and Blake have given me renewed s t r e n g t h and the women who have been s t u d i e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t have shared with me t h e i r courage. Others who have worked with me on t h i s p r o j e c t have been of d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e : Linda B r e a u l t , Dr. Fred Madryga, Joan Ouchi, Joyce B e l l , Linda Walch and Donna Watson. A l s o , s e v e r a l t y p i s t s have l e n t t h e i r s k i l l s : Candace W i l l i a m s , Marie C l a r k and Faye Clermont. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my mother who at the beginning p o i n t e d out the s k i l l s t h a t I had and cou l d use to f i n i s h t h i s work. Thanks, Mom, there was a s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v e d . 1 CHAPTER ONE I n t r o d u c t i o n and Background to the Study S i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s are a growing c l a s s i n Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1976) r e p o r t s that between 1971 and 1976 there was a 17 per cent i n c r e a s e i n s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s ; two parent f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d by only 13 per cent. In B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1981 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984) there were 78,710 s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s ; 82 per cent of these were women. In Canada, 44 per cent of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s are l i v i n g below the poverty l i n e ; many on we l f a r e (Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the Status of Women, 198 3). These women are economically disadvantaged and f r e q u e n t l y experience r o l e s t r a i n (Heatherington, Cox and Cox, 1979), f e a r of l o n e l i n e s s , l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m , p r a c t i c a l l i v i n g problems and concerns with c h i l d r e n ( I l g e n f r i t z 1961). Depression i s l i n k e d to unmarried people with c h i l d r e n ( P e a r l i n and Johnson, 1977) and f u r t h e r , d e p r e s s i o n impairs p a r e n t a l performance (Weissman, Paykel, S i e g e l and Klerman, 1971; Weissman, Paykel and Klerman, 1972). As w e l l , s i n g l e parent women d e s c r i b e d themselves as having l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e and a lack of education about resources a v a i l a b l e to them i n order to make changes i n t h e i r l i v e s ( R a t c l i f f , 1984). 2 Nature of the Problem W o r e l l and G a r r e t - F u l k s (1983) s t r u c t u r e the s i n g l e mother's problem i n terms of her s o c i a l i z a t i o n : "Our s o c i e t y has been remiss i n p r o v i d i n g r o l e models and consequent e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the woman alone. Few female c h i l d r e n are r a i s e d with the n o t i o n that they may spend h a l f t h e i r l i v e s as s i n g l e persons..." (p. 201) . Women are not s o c i a l i z e d to assume unmarried r o l e s and they are not supported when they become s i n g l e ( A s l i n , 1978/ Bach, 1974). The r o l e of wife and mother, i t i s assumed, w i l l supercede a l l other r o l e s (Lewis, 1978; Bach, 1974) and when women experience the l o s s of t h e i r r o l e as a p a r t n e r i t i s o f t e n accompanied by a sense of pe r s o n a l f a i l u r e (Rawlings and C a r t e r , 1979). Many of these women turn to w e l f a r e f o r support because they p e r c e i v e themselves as l a c k i n g s k i l l s necessary to support themselves and because they lack the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e or p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d so necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l job hunts and job maintenance. R a t c l i f f (1984), i n a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s with 32 women on income a s s i s t a n c e , i n d i c a t e d t hat 15 of these women lacked the se l f - e s t e e m and co n f i d e n c e necessary to make any change i n t h e i r l i v e s . Lack of i n f o r m a t i o n , resources and knowledge was s t a t e d 17 times as a reason f o r not making changes. The other f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d were lack of experience, money, education and f e a r of change. Heatherington, Cox and Cox (1979) i n d i c a t e t hat women experience s t r e s s f o l l o w i n g d i v o r c e due to the l o s s of i d e n t i t y 3 and lack of cross-sex s k i l l s . Thus, women experience l o s s of a f a m i l i a r s et of p a t t e r n s w i t h i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p , and they experience incompetence because of low care e r a s p i r a t i o n s , lack of, or i n c o n s i s t e n t work experience and incomplete job r e l a t e d s k i l i s . Three t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n the framework of the Heatherington (1979) study leave s i n g l e women unprepared f o r t h e i r new p o s i t i o n : 1. economic dependence on a male 2. s u b o r d i n a t i o n to male power 3. r e l i a n c e on a husband f o r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y (Worell and G a r r e t - F u l k s , 1983). C l a r a Thompson (1973) i n d i c a t e s economic and p e r s o n a l dependency are c u l t u r a l l y based feminine r o l e s w i t h i n our s o c i e t y . Often s i n g l e parent mothers who have l e f t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p are l e f t d e s t i t u t e . Forty-one and a h a l f per cent of Canadian s i n g l e parents d e r i v e t h e i r major source of income from government t r a n s f e r payments, u s u a l l y w e l f a r e (Na t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Welfare, 1976). Economic s t r e s s of t h i s s o r t i s r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to s e l f - r e p o r t e d d e p r e s s i o n and f e e l i n g s of incompetence which c o n t r i b u t e to a sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s (Heatherington et a l . , 1979). Women have been t r a i n e d to remain p a s s i v e and n o n a s s e r t i v e i n power d e a l i n g s (Broverman, Broverman, C l a r k s o n , Rosenkrantz, and Vogel, 1972; Branigan and T o l e r , 1971; C h e s l e r , 1975; Johnson, 1978; Unger, 1978). Without a male p a r t n e r , a women may f e e l 4 unprotected, v u l n e r a b l e and h e l p l e s s (Worell and G a r r e t - F u l k s , 1983). As w e l l , the female tendency to use i n d i r e c t power (Unger, 1978) r e s u l t s i n a f a i l u r e of e f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e and f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r (Johnson, 1978) . In a d d i t i o n , a woman who has d e r i v e d her i d e n t i t y , s t a t u s and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s from her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her pa r t n e r ( A s l i n , 1978; Bach, 1974; Heatherington et a l . , 1979) experiences a l i e n a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n from others with whom she shared her pre v i o u s l i f e s t y l e (Blechman and Depenbrock, 1974) as c i t e d i n W o r r e l l and G a r r e t - F u l k s (1983). Thus, the problem f o r s i n g l e parent women i s one of both r e a l and p e r c e i v e d economic, s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l h e l p l e s s n e s s . I n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are warranted, given the l e v e l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s these women exper i e n c e . S t r a t e g i e s t h a t i n c r e a s e p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over events and s t r a t e g i e s that i n c r e a s e s e l f - c o n c e p t are needed f o r women. R e i l l y (1981) f o r example, has found that disadvantaged women in v o l v e d i n a c a r e e r / l i f e p l a n n i n g group which emphasized decision-making experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n locu s of c o n t r o l toward a more i n t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . P e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l over events, t h e r e f o r e , i s s u b j e c t to change with s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . L e f c o u r t (1982) supports t h i s p o s i t i o n s t a t i n g that a s h i f t i n locus of c o n t r o l from a more e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward a more i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n seems a n a t u r a l goal f o r therapy: removing the p e r c e p t i o n of hopelessness i n p u r s u i t of s a t i s f a c t i o n . 5 F u r t h e r , White (1959) contends that the co n f i d e n c e to i n f l u e n c e one's surroundings i s d i r e c t l y connected to se l f - e s t e e m . Increased s e l f - r e g a r d , which i s i n d i c a t e d by performance, . a s s e r t i v e n e s s and charm, a c c o r d i n g to White i s then a goal f o r a t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n . Confidence, then, i s se l f - e s t e e m gained through the p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l events i n one's environment. It has been demonstrated that p a s s i v e acceptance of a v e r s i v e s i t u a t i o n s (Seligman, 1975) can be changed by e f f e c t i v e s k i l l s b u i l d i n g and t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s (de Charms, 1972; Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale, 1978). The purpose of t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of a s k i l l s b u i l d i n g c l a s s on the locus of c o n t r o l and s e l f - r e g a r d of s i n g l e parent women who are on income a s s i s t a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are being submitted f o r study: 1. Do s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the "Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment" c l a s s e x h i b i t g r e a t e r gains i n locus of c o n t r o l than those i n a c o n t r o l group? 2. Do s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a the "Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment" c l a s s show g r e a t e r gains i n s e l f - r e g a r d than those i n a c o n t r o l group? 6 Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment  The Program The C.O.P.E. program i s designed f o r s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e who are between the ages of approximately 17 and 50. The c l a s s i s h e l d from nine i n the morning u n t i l t w o - t h i r t y i n the afte r n o o n f o r a three month p e r i o d . The program i s conducted twice a year. The program has two main areas of focus . The f i r s t i s improving the s e l f - e s t e e m of p a r t i c i p a n t s to a l e v e l where p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l and r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s f o r r e t r a i n i n g , or r e - e n t r y i n t o the workforce i s an a c h i e v a b l e g o a l . In an i n t e r v i e w with the i n s t r u c t o r ( B r e a u l t , 1984) she i n d i c a t e d that some of the common problems of p a r t i c i p a n t s at en t r y are f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , l o n e l i n e s s , worthlessness and d e s p a i r ; these women o f t e n blame themselves f o r the f a i l u r e i n t h e i r marriage or r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C.O.P.E. program p a r t i c i p a n t s are asked to i n v o l v e themselves with p e r s o n a l awareness, using group support f o r a c t i v i t i e s l i k e communication s k i l l s and a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g . S t r e s s r e d u c t i o n i s a l s o p a r t of the group experience. Community awareness and s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g s k i l l s l i k e resume w r i t i n g , and in f o r m a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s h e l p p a r t i c i p a n t s become aware of t h e i r c areer plans i n the goal s e t t i n g and decision-making phase. A c t i v e c o n t a c t s w i t h i n the community and r e p o r t i n g back to the group h e l p with the decision-making phase. The second area of focus i s improving the s e l f - e s t e e m and 7 p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l of women through awareness of e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . The women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p a r e n t i n g e x e r c i s e s as p a r t of the course to improve p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and i n an e f f o r t to ease the t r a n s i t i o n from home to work f o r those women p l a n n i n g r e t r a i n i n g or r e - e n t r y i n t o the labour f o r c e . In the i n t e r v i e w with the i n s t r u c t o r of the C.O.P.E. program ( B r e a u l t , 1984) she s t a t e d that her goals f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l f - e s t e e m and confi d e n c e b u i l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the beginning phases of the program. In the middle and end phases of the program the i n s t r u c t o r focused on empowerment and p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l ; making c h o i c e s . These c h o i c e s i n v o l v e p a r e n t i n g d e c i s i o n s , d e c i s i o n s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s with people and i n s t i t u t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s about the steps a f t e r C.O.P.E. The i n s t r u c t o r i n d i c a t e d ( B r e a u l t , 1984) th a t these women have o f t e n gone i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s e a r l y . When t h e i r marriages or r e l a t i o n s h i p s f a i l these women see themselves as f a i l u r e s , p a r t l y because they have had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to d e f i n e themselves o u t s i d e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or make ch o i c e s f o r themselves. W i t h i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s these women have o f t e n been b a t t e r e d or abused and they leave the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e l i e v i n g they are " s h i t s " and " b i t c h e s " ( B r e a u l t , 1984). The s i n g l e common thread of success with these women has been the experience of b i r t h i n g . The goals f o r the C.O.P.E. c l a s s then, a c c o r d i n g to the i n s t r u c t o r , are to g i v e these women the o p p o r t u n i t y to experience themselves as v a l u a b l e human beings; to acknowledge w i t h i n the group that they are l o v a b l e , worthwhile people, to re c o g n i z e t h e i r t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s , to begin to p l a n , to s e t goals and 8 make d e c i s i o n s about themselves based on what they are d i s c o v e r i n g about themselves and t h e i r community. The r e f e r r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r has the same g o a l s ; b u i l d i n g s e l f - e s t e e m by developing p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , becoming aware of t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to the p a r t i c i p a n t s of C.O.P.E., what community resources are a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g , and c l a r i f y i n g steps toward r e t r a i n i n g ( B e l l , 1984). Need f o r the Study One of the expected outcomes of the Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Pr e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment c l a s s f o r disadvantaged women i s that the women w i l l p e r c e i v e that they have c h o i c e s and a sense of c o n t r o l i n t h e i r l i v e s and that they are able to s e t goals f o r r e t r a i n i n g and/or c a r e e r s which they can reach ( B r e a u l t , 1984). A l s o , the course t r i e s to develop f e e l i n g s of s t r e n g t h and p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d f o r each woman p e r s o n a l l y . I t i s assumed that i n c r e a s e d s e l f - r e g a r d and in c r e a s e d b e l i e f i n events o c c u r r i n g c o n t i n g e n t on pe r s o n a l behaviour w i l l i n c r e a s e goal s t r i v i n g ( B r e a u l t , 1984). L e f c o u r t (1982) i n d i c a t e s that locus of c o n t r o l may be changed from a more e x t e r n a l to a more i n t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n as an i n t e r v e n t i o n goal and many s t u d i e s , the f o l l o w i n g of which are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : Smith, 1970; R i e l l y , 1981; and Levine-Welsh, 1982, i n d i c a t e t h a t change i s p o s s i b l e with s p e c i f i c groups of people and programs. As w e l l , many s t u d i e s , the f o l l o w i n g of which are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : Foulds and Hannigan (1976) ; and Ware and Barr (1977) , i n d i c a t e that the s e l f - r e g a r d of s u b j e c t s may 9 change w i t h s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . L i t t l e i s known a b o u t s h i f t i n g l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d women, and, Mednick (1979) c a u t i o n s r e s e a r c h e r s a b o u t t h e " u n c o n s c i o n a b l e gap c r e a t e d by i g n o r i n g women o u t s i d e t h e w h i t e m i d d l e - c l a s s , c o l l e g e - e d u c a t e d g r o u p we know b e s t " (p. 206). As w e l l , r e s e a r c h on t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o measure change i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d v a r i e t y o f a s s o c i a t e d e f f e c t s . F i r s t , L e f c o u r t (1982) s t a t e s t h a t e x t e r n a l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a t h y , w i t h d r a w a l and h e l p l e s s f e e l i n g s , w h i l e H e r s c h and S c h e i b e (1967) r e p o r t t h a t i n t e r n a l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d o m i n a n c e , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and g o a l d i r e c t e d n e s s , t o m e n t i o n a few c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F u r t h e r , Abramson e t a l . (1978) s u g g e s t t h a t a t t r i b u t i o n s t o w a r d i n t e r n a l i t y o r e x t e r n a l i t y m e d i a t e c h a n g e s i n s e l f - e s t e e m . T h a t i s , l o w e r e d s e l f - e s t e e m and i n t e r n a l i t y a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e p r e s s i o n . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t h a t a change t o w a r d i n t e r n a l i t y a l o n e i s n o t a u s e f u l t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l and t h a t movement to w a r d p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d and i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s a u s e f u l t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p g e n e r a l l y between s e l f - e s t e e m and i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( F i t c h , 1970; Rychman and Sherman, 1973; H a r r i s o n , Guy and L u p f e r , 1981), g e n e r a l l y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y between t h e R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ( R o t t e r , 1966) and t h e s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e o f t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ( S h o s t r o m , 1974), (Wareheim and F o u l d s , 1971). 10 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 1. The r e s e a r c h sample used i n t h i s study was s e l f - s e l e c t e d . As w e l l , a l l s u b j e c t s were screened by the i n s t r u c t o r b e f o r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the C.O.P.E. c l a s s and those not i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e were advised to take s p e c i f i c a c t i o n o u t l i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s study before r e - a p p l y i n g f o r the second c l a s s which was p a r t of t h i s study. 2. S u b j e c t s are members of a medium-sized B r i t i s h Columbia c i t y and are e x p e r i e n c i n g the negative economic e f f e c t s present w i t h i n the community at t h i s time. Such a sample ( L e f c o u r t , 1982) may respond d i f f e r e n t l y to the t e s t forms, e s p e c i a l l y the Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale (Rotter, 1966) given at d i f f e r e n t economic times and i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d . 3. The i n s t r u c t o r i s somewhat f a m i l i a r with both t e s t i n g instruments used i n t h i s study and, although she teaches the concepts i n v o l v e d i n the t e s t s , she i n no way teaches the items. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Disadvantaged women: Women who r e l y on w e l f a r e as t h e i r major source of income are d e f i n e d as disadvantaged f o r the purposes of t h i s study. S k i l l s b u i l d i n g c l a s s : Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment (C.O.P.E.) i s a s k i l l s b u i l d i n g c l a s s s . S k i l l s i n c l u d e communication s k i l l s , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , workshops s p e c i f i c .to each group's needs, p a r e n t i n g , s t r e s s r e d u c t i o n , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , s o c i a l awareness, c a r e e r / l i f e p l a n n i n g , resume 11 w r i t i n g , c a r e e r r e t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , upgrading and a c t i o n p l a n n i n g . I n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a 1 1 o c u s o f c o n t r o l : Locus of c o n t r o l i s a term used to d e s c r i b e a person's b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g the extent to which i n t e r n a l f o r c e s or e x t e r n a l f o r c e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r behaviour. E x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l i s a person's p e r c e p t i o n of behaviour as a product of e x t e r n a l or environmental c o n t i n g e n c i e s . These c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n c l u d e l u c k , f a t e , chance, or powerful o t h e r s . A l s o locus of c o n t r o l i n c l u d e s a person's p e r c e p t i o n of behavior as c o n t i n g e n t on i n t e r n a l or p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . Rotter (1966) contends that people d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t i n g e n t reinforcement. Some people have more i n t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n s ; others more e x t e r n a l . The Rotter I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale (Rotter, 1966) which measures these p e r c e p t i o n s i s used i n t h i s study. H e l p l e s s n e s s : A learned s t a t e (Abramson et a l . , 1978) which pr o v i d e s a model f o r human d e p r e s s i o n . The model (Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale, 1978) i n d i c a t e s that lowered s e l f - e s t e e m i s a symptom of d e p r e s s i o n . Other symptoms i n c l u d e m o t i v a t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e components (Seligman, 1975) which may be a t t r i b u t e d to v a r i o u s causes. These c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s (Abramson et a l . , 1978) are used to e x p l a i n lack of c o n t r o l and i t s i n f l u e n c e on s e l f - e s t e e m . P o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d : L i k i n g o n e s e l f because of one's st r e n g t h s (Shostrom, 1974). In the l i t e r a t u r e , s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - r e g a r d may be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . S e l f - r e g a r d i s measured i n the Self-Regard subscale of Shostrom's (1974) Personal 12 O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . C o n f i d e n c e ; F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y c o n f i d e n c e w i l l be d e f i n e d as e s t e e m e s t a b l i s h e d by p e r c e p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l ; h a v i n g s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e o n e ' s e n v i r o n m e n t ( W h i t e , 1 9 5 9 ) . 1 3 CHAPTER TWO Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Research, theory and t o p i c s r e l a t e d to the present study are presented i n Chapter Two. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s study i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a program f o r s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e . The program attempts to improve the confi d e n c e l e v e l of these women fo r more e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g , f o r job s e a r c h i n g or f o r r e t r a i n i n g . The course i n s t r u c t o r teaches communication s k i l l s , a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s , p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , p e r s o n a l , community and s o c i a l awareness and job search techniques. When needed, r e f e r r a l s are made f o r e d u c a t i o n a l upgrading d u r i n g the program. Two v a r i a b l e s are used i n t h i s study to measure change i n the women t a k i n g the c l a s s as compared with women i n a c o n t r o l group. They are locu s of c o n t r o l (Rotter, 1 9 6 6 ) and s e l f - r e g a r d (Shostrom, 1 9 6 3 ) . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of Chapter Two d e s c r i b e s the locu s of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t and i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r measuring change --s p e c i f i c a l l y , change among disadvantaged persons. The second s e c t i o n of chapter two addresses le a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s , a t h e o r e t i c a l model which e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m . F i n a l l y , because 14 a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e i s a broad concept under which lo c u s of c o n t r o l may be subsumed, a t t r i b u t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d as they r e l a t e to locus of c o n t r o l . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the s e l f - r e g a r d v a r i a b l e and i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n measuring change. As w e l l , r e s e a r c h u sing t h a t c o n s t r u c t to measure change i s reviewed. The f i n a l s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s the r e s e a r c h hypotheses. Locus of C o n t r o l The degree to which an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s that p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l of rewards or events i s p o s s i b l e , determines the locus of c o n t r o l f o r that person. A person who p e r c e i v e s reward as not e n t i r e l y c o n t i n g e n t on behaviour has an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . That person sees luck, chance, powerful o t h e r s , or simple u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an event's occurrence. Thus, that person a t t r i b u t e s rewards to e x t e r n a l sources (Rotter, 1966) and i s l e s s l i k e l y to be achievement o r i e n t e d (Hersch and Scheibe, 1967). A person who p e r c e i v e s events and rewards as c o n t i n g e n t on behaviour has an i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . That person p e r c e i v e s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an event's occurance (Rotter, 1966) and i s more l i k e l y to be achievement o r i e n t e d (Hersch and Scheibe, 1967). Hersch and Scheibe (1967) compared the scores of people who were more i n t e r n a l on the Locus of C o n t r o l S cale (1967) with a number of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . I n t e r n a l s u b j e c t s tended to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as high on achievement, dominance, endurance, 15 e f f i c i e n c y , enthusiasm, c o n f i d e n c e , and a s s e r t i o n to name some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t would appear that i n t e r n a l i t y i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . However, Rotter (1966) suggests t h a t : People at e i t h e r extreme of the reinforcement dimension are l i k e l y to be maladjusted by most d e f i n i t i o n s , and, to the extent t h a t ego c o n t r o l i s another type of d e f i n i t i o n of maladjustment, i t would bear some c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the v a r i a b l e we are concerned with here (p. 4). Rotter (1966) then proposes a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p with maladjustment. Those people who have extremely low scores on the s c a l e are as l i k e l y to experience adjustment problems as those who have e x c e s s i v e l y high s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , although i n t e r n a l i t y i s a d e s i r a b l e goal because of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e l y valued p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s , extreme i n t e r n a l i t y i s not u s e f u l or h e a l t h f u l . Locus of C o n t r o l as a V a r i a b l e to be Changed L e f c o u r t (1982) suggests that a s h i f t i n l o c u s of c o n t r o l from a more e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n to a more i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n seems a n a t u r a l goal of therapy; removing the p e r c e p t i o n of h e l p l e s s n e s s i n p u r s u i t of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Thompson, i n a l i t e r a t u r e review (1981) s t a t e s that p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l i s e f f e c t i v e i n that i t l i m i t s the maximum negative experiences and a l t e r s people's s u f f e r i n g by changing the meaning of a person's e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, i n g e n e r a l terms, i t i s u s e f u l f o r the enhancement of one's s e l f - c o n c e p t to experience a sense 16 of i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l and a t t r i b u t e p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n to behaviour. Smith, (1970) i n a study u s i n g c l i e n t s at a c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n c e n t e r i n d i c a t e d that l o c u s of c o n t r o l scores s h i f t e d w i t h i n s i x weeks with a treatment of c r i s i s management. Upon entrance, c r i s i s c l i e n t s scored high (X = 10.8) (more e x t e r n a l ) on the locu s of c o n t r o l measure (Rotter, 1966). A f t e r s i x weeks these c l i e n t s scored lower (X = 7.12; more i n t e r n a l ) . N o n - c r i s i s , p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s ' scores remained f a i r l y s t a b l e (X = 9.63 and X = 8.86) f o r e q u i v a l e n t t e s t i n g procedures. The c r i s i s c l i e n t s were d e s c r i b e d as f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s concerning coping with events at the o u t s e t . S e v e r a l p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t a r i s e from t h i s study. F i r s t , the treatment mean on the I-E s c a l e was i n i t i a l l y about "10", more e x t e r n a l , and moved to about "7", more i n t e r n a l . Second, t r e a t e d p a t i e n t s d e s c r i b e d themselves i n i t i a l l y as f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s . T h i s e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n became more i n t e r n a l as coping s k i l l s i n c r e a s e d . Social/Economic Status as a P r e d i c t e r of Locus of C o n t r o l Rotter (1966) contends that a person's h i s t o r y of reinforcement determines the degree to which that person d i f f e r s from others i n a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r reinforcement. F o l l o w i n g from t h i s , i f a group were s o c i a l i z e d towards more e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l i n terms of power and dominance, as re s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s many women are, (Broverman et a l . , 1972; K r a n t z l e r , 1973; Bach, 1974; C h e s l e r , 1975; Johnson, 1978; Unger, 1978; Rawlings and C a r t e r , 1979), and f u r t h e r , i f that group, d u r i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p break 17 up, were economically disadvantaged and dependent on e x t e r n a l sources, the people i n i t may move toward an even more e x t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l of events. T e s k i , A r c u r i , and L e s t e r (1980) found that women who had never had d i r e c t c o n t r o l of t h e i r economic s i t u a t i o n by working had a more e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l than women and men who had that c o n t r o l . T h i r t y - s i x women, 65 or o l d e r , who had worked u n t i l they were 50, were compared with 73 males with the same work and age c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d . However, when 34 housewives who had never worked were compared to the working women, the former group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r onger e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l (p < 0.025). Thus, women with a more e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l may hold that p e r c e p t i o n at l e a s t i n p a r t because economic c o n t r o l from p a i d work i s not p a r t of t h e i r e x perience. I t appears that l o c u s of c o n t r o l may be a f f e c t e d by economic f a c t o r s . As w e l l , women who have experienced r o l e l o s s as a par t n e r or wife i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p are more l i k e l y to s h i f t l o c u s of c o n t r o l to a more e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n from a more i n t e r n a l one. Doherty (1983) i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study confirmed that l o s s of a pa r t n e r because of d i v o r c e a f f e c t e d p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l . He found women who d i v o r c e d had s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t (p = .004) toward a more e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n than t h e i r married c o u n t e r p a r t s . Thus i t may be expected that women who experience the d i s s o l u t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p would move toward e x t e r n a l i t y . He suggests that t h i s movement i s because of f a i l u r e s f o r which people f e l t p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , because of an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e environment, 18 or because of changes which i n v o l v e p e r s o n a l s t r e s s , but that successes a t t r i b u t e d to pe r s o n a l e f f o r t would l e a d to g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l i t y with h i s group sample. Doherty r e p o r t e d t h a t there was an eventual movement back toward i n t e r n a l i t y . It seems h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e to be able to work with women who have moved toward e x t e r n a l i t y because of s t r e s s , u n c o n t r o l l a b l e circumstances, or p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e may tend toward more e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l f o r such reasons. Thus, a program which addresses these concerns would be u s e f u l . Research i n d i c a t e s s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s are r e l a t e d to locu s of c o n t r o l . Stephens and Delys (1973) found that p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n from poor homes were more e x t e r n a l than middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n and that c h i l d r e n from homes assessed below the poverty l i n e were more e x t e r n a l than c h i l d r e n from homes above the poverty l i n e . To support the hypothesis t h a t there was a l i n k between d e p r i v a t i o n , d e n i g r a t i o n and c o n t r o l , L e f c o u r t and Ladwig (1965) s t u d i e d s i x t y black and s i x t y white p r i s o n inmates. Using the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l of Reinforcement S c a l e (Rotter, 1966) , they found a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n among b l a c k s . With socio-economic c l a s s and h i s t o r y c o n t r o l l e d , L e f c o u r t suggests that these f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a d e n i g r a t e d c l a s s tends toward e x t e r n a l i t y . In 1979, Duke and Lewis found o l d e r b l a c k s became more e x t e r n a l but whites showed a decrease i n e x t e r n a l i t y with age. In 1968, J e s s o r , Graves, Hanson and Jessor designed a study u s i n g 221 community members. Using e i g h t c r i t e r i a such as occup a t i o n , age, and language spoken at home, 19 i n v e s t i g a t o r s found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l i t y and e t h n i c background. However, i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o found a l i n k between acknowledgement of o p p o r t u n i t y and c o n t r o l over f a t e . Thus, access to o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i e s d i r e c t l y with l o c u s of c o n t r o l and that a b i l i t y through p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a l a r g e r group membership a f f e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l . So, i f an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between o p p o r t u n i t y and p e r s o n a l a c t i o n and i s i n a p o s i t i o n to take t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y , that person i s l i k e l y to be more i n t e r n a l and experience c o n t r o l over events. That person w i l l be more achievement o r i e n t e d (Hersch and Scheibe, 1967). However, i t appears that membership i n a group which i s d e n i g r a t e d supports e x p r e s s i o n of e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l . Gurin and Gurin (1970) suggest that to belong to an e c o n o m i c a l l y deprived and s o c i a l l y d e n i g r a t e d m i n o r i t y c r e a t e s an experience of d i f f i c u l t i e s and of c h a r a c t e r a s s a u l t s a f f e c t i n g one's sense of d i g n i t y so that s e l f - b l a m e does not seem s e n s i b l e . Seligman (1975) s t a t e s : The w e l f a r e system, however w e l l intended, adds to the u n c o n t r o l l a b i 1 i t y engendered by poverty. I t i s an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t undermines the d i g n i t y of i t s r e c i p i e n t s because t h e i r a c t i o n s do not produce t h e i r source of l i v e l i h o o d . (p. 161) Duncan, i n a ten year study on poverty (1984) ( c i t e d i n T r a v i s , 1984) has i n d i c a t e d t h at most w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s were so f o r only a few y e a r s . Of the twenty per cent who were c h r o n i c a l l y poor, one t h i r d were e l d e r l y and the r e s t were unmarried mothers who d i d not have jobs or c h i l d care 20 o p p o r t u n i t i e s (p. 88). It seems that people, such as b l a c k s or w e l f a r e mothers, who are s o c i a l l y d e n i g r a t e d , e x t e r n a l l y dependent and e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged w i l l have lower s e l f - e s t e e m and w i l l tend to be more e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d ; they w i l l tend to p e r c e i v e c o n t r o l o u t s i d e themselves. F u r t h e r , that p e r c e p t i o n may be a c c u r a t e . C o n t r o l , f o r w e l f a r e mothers, at l e a s t economic c o n t r o l , i s governmental. Learned H e l p l e s s n e s s ; Development and Connection with Locus of  C o n t r o l Although h e l p l e s s n e s s (Seligman, 1975) i s not a c o n s t r u c t d i r e c t l y used i n t h i s study, i t s f o r m u l a t i o n i s h e l p f u l to e x p l a i n and understand l o c u s of c o n t r o l theory, i t s development and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of some people and groups of people w i t h i n s o c i e t y i n which goal d i r e c t e d behaviour i s reduced. Seligman's (1975) i n i t i a l s t u d i e s were with nonhumans. Dogs who were given an i n e s c a p a b l e shock p r i o r to placement i n a s h u t t l e box t r i e d to escape shock w i t h i n the box but gave up q u i c k l y , l a y i n the corner and whined. P r e v i o u s l y unshocked or naive dogs learned to get past a b a r r i e r and escape the shock. F u r t h e r , Seligman became aware that dogs with a h i s t o r y of negative environmental s t i m u l a t i o n gave up q u i c k l y i n the s h u t t l e box even i f they were naive i n terms of i n i t i a l u n c o n t r o l l a b l e shock. Seligman termed t h i s phenomenon "learned h e l p l e s s n e s s " and d e s c r i b e d i t as a p a s s i v e acceptance of reinforcements that are 21 p e r c e i v e d as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . The e x p e c t a t i o n that a response i s independent of an outcome decreases m o t i v a t i o n to respond, i n c r e a s e s f e a r and p o s s i b l y d e p r e s s i o n , and i n t e r f e r e s with f u t u r e l e a r n i n g . H i r o t o (1974) a p p l i e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to a learned h e l p l e s s n e s s study with humans. Using i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s and " s k i l l " and "chance" i n s t r u c t i o n s , H i r o t o d i v i d e d 96 s u b j e c t s i n t o three groups. One group r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g to t u r n o f f a loud n o i s e , one group r e c e i v e d n o i s e but not t r a i n i n g , and a t h i r d group r e c e i v e d no nois e and no t r a i n i n g . E x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s became more h e l p l e s s i n that they were more l i k e l y to p a s s i v e l y accept a loud n o i s e . As w e l l , the experience of u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y -- n o i s e but no t r a i n i n g and the chance i n s t r u c t i o n s -- had s i g n i f i c a n t negative e f f e c t s on the m o t i v a t i o n to escape. Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale (1978) contended t h a t the o r i g i n a l model (Seligman, 1975) l e f t unexplained a number of events o c c u r i n g i n learned h e l p l e s s n e s s s t u d i e s . The reformulated model they presented (Abramson et a l . , 1978) has s e v e r a l p o i n t s which are s a l i e n t to the present study. F i r s t , the model i n t r o d u c e s s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n s which a person makes about noncontingency. Second, the model i n d i c a t e s when s e l f - e s t e e m i s a f f e c t e d . B r i e f l y , the reformulated model i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n s i t u a t i o n s of f a i l u r e , e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s (or a t t r i b u t i n g f a i l u r e to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s ) maintains s e l f - e s t e e m but i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s (or a t t r i b u t i n g f a i l u r e to i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s ) d i m i n i s h e s 22 s e l f - e s t e e m . As w i t h D o h e r t y ' s (1983) d i v o r c e d women who e x p e r i e n c e d f a i l u r e i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p , s i n g l e p a r e n t m o t h e r s a r e i n a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e i s v e r y l i k e l y a s h i f t t o w a r d more e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t v u l n e r a b l e s e l f - e s t e e m . T h u s , a s k i l l s b u i l d i n g c l a s s w h i c h p r o m o t e d s e l f - v a l u i n g , and e n c o u r a g e d s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and c h o i c e m a k i n g t o w a r d g o a l d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t m o t h e r s i n a s o c i a l l y d e n i g r a t e d p o s i t i o n and an e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . The m o d e l f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n h a s more t h a n one d i m e n s i o n . S t a b l e , i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s l i k e a b i l i t y , when u s e d t o e x p l a i n f a i l u r e , a r e n o t as u s e f u l as u n s t a b l e , i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s s u c h as e f f o r t : e f f o r t c a n c h a n g e ; a b i l i t y c a n n o t . As w e l l , g l o b a l , s t a b l e and i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r f a i l u r e s u c h a s a b i l i t y a r e n o t a s u s e f u l when c o n s i d e r i n g f u t u r e c h a n g e . G l o b a l , s t a b l e , and i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s i n c r e a s e t h e e x p e c t a n c y by t h e p e r s o n o f f u t u r e f a i l u r e . I n t e r n a l , s t a b l e and g l o b a l a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e most u s e f u l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g s u c c e s s e x p e c t a n c i e s w h e r e a s e x t e r n a l , u n s t a b l e and s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e most u s e f u l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g f a i l u r e e x p e c t a n c e s . C a r o l Dweck (1975) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a u s a l r e a t t r i b u t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n . She g a v e one g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n s u c c e s s e x p e r i e n c e s and a n o t h e r g r o u p s h e t a u g h t t o a t t r i b u t e f a i l u r e t o l a c k o f e f f o r t . T h e s e c h i l d r e n were s t u d e n t s who r e m a i n e d p a s s i v e when p r e s e n t e d w i t h c h a l l e n g e s t h e y w e r e c a p a b l e 23 of a c h i e v i n g . A f t e r r e a t t r i b u t i o n t r a i n i n g , the c h i l d r e n maintained or improved performance f o l l o w i n g f a i l u r e experiences and v e r b a l i z e d that i n s u f f i c i e n t e f f o r t , not i n a b i l i t y , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f a i l u r e . The success experience group d e t e r i o r a t e d i n performance. Of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study i s the use of a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r s k i l l t r a i n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to lear n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s theory, i f an i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s f a i l u r e to f a c t o r s such as a b i l i t y , t h a t person w i l l have lower s e l f - r e g a r d ; i f t h a t person a t t r i b u t e s f a i l u r e to the economic s i t u a t i o n , or s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or e f f o r t , the i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to maintain s e l f - r e g a r d . The C.O.P.E. program uses a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e to i n d i c a t e that s o c i a l i z a t i o n and other circumstances are o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these women's s i t u a t i o n s and t h a t with s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s can change. A t t r i b u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s Weiner and Litman-Adizes (1980) concurs with the lear n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s approach. They s t a t e that a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , task d i f f i c u l t y and luck are a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r achievement r e l a t e d events w i t h i n our c u l t u r e and th a t a b i l i t y and e f f o r t are the most common causes a t t r i b u t e d to success and f a i l u r e . Task d i f f i c u l t y and luck are seen as other causes. F u r t h e r , these a t t r i b u t i o n s a f f e c t the expectancy of goal attainment. F a i l u r e a s c r i b e d to low a b i l i t y or task d i f f i c u l t y decreases the expectancy f o r goal attainment more than f a i l u r e a s c r i b e d to luck or e f f o r t (Weiner et a l , 1980). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , women have shown a p a t t e r n f o r low 24 ex p e c t a t i o n s and e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n f o r success, except with i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . G urin and P r u i t t (as c i t e d i n Mednick, 1979) have found that women have much lower e x p e c t a n c i e s i n job s i t u a t i o n s than men do. A l s o , these expectancies are r e l a t e d to n o n - f u n c t i o n a l job seeking behaviour. Mednick (1979) s t a t e s : S u c c e s s f u l a t t r i b u t i o n to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r , such as "a lucky break" or "help from o t h e r s " , or to an i n t e r n a l but uns t a b l e f a c t o r such as e f f o r t , are not l i k e l y to lead to i n c r e a s e d expectancy l e v e l s or to i t s f u n c t i o n a l achievement behavior (p. 197). Thus s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e who have an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n or an un s t a b l e i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n f o r success are not l i k e l y to expect to have c o n s i s t e n t f u t u r e success. I t appears that s k i l l s b u i l d i n g i s a u s e f u l technique to change r e a l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n of goal attainment and that p e r c e p t i o n of the source of s k i l l attainment w i l l a f f e c t locus of c o n t r o l and improve s e l f - r e g a r d . The C.O.P.E. program attempts to i n c r e a s e s k i l l e d behaviour f o r job s e a r c h i n g . Wong and Sproule (1984) have yet another p e r s p e c t i v e on a t t r i b u t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . They suggest that e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s may be due to r e a l i s m . As Gur i n , G u r i n , Lao and B e a t t i e (1969) have suggested, " . . . e x t e r n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s are chosen p r i m a r i l y because of r e a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ..." (p. 319), or Doherty (1980), suggests that women move toward more e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s d u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup. Wong and Sproule f u r t h e r suggest t h a t some people co-vary i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l ; t h a t i s , they see an 25 i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between environmental and p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e s , and "invoke a m u l t i p l e c a u s a l schema" (p. 327). B i l o c a l s , as Wong and Sproule (1984) d e f i n e them, are moderate s c o r e r s on the locus of c o n t r o l dimension and are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by complex c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s . Using Weiner, F r i e z e , Kukla, Reed, Rest and Rosenbaums's (1971) c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s , the Trent A t t r i b u t i o n a l P r o f i l e was developed to study the more complex a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e of b i l o c a l s (Wong and Sproule, 1984). Sample q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e statements l i k e : "When I d i d not do w e l l i n a c l a s s i n s c h o o l , i t was because: a. I d i d n ' t t r y hard enough. 1 b. the teacher was very demanding. 1 c. of my lack of s k i l l s i n the su b j e c t area. 1 d. of unlucky breaks. 1 "1" i s not important, "5" i s very important." : U n f o r t u n a t e l y , r e s e a r c h using analyses of more complex a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e s (Wong and Sproule, 1984) i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . Thus learned h e l p l e s s n e s s and a t t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s e x p l a i n p o s s i b l e responses to contingency and noncontingency of p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l . I n t e r n a l i t y has the added dimensions of e f f o r t and a b i l i t y , f o r example, e x t e r n a l i t y , luck or s i g n i f i c a n t others to c i t e some examples. S k i l l s U s e f u l to Increase P e r c e p t i o n of C o n t r o l S e v e r a l kinds of s k i l l s are thought to i n c r e a s e the 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 26 p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l and are used as p a r t of the C.O.P.E. program. These i n c l u d e a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g , communication s k i l l s , and c a r e e r / l i f e p l a n n i n g . One i n t e r v e n t i o n , i . e . , s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n communication s k i l l s and h e l p i n g techniques, has been shown to f a c i l i t a t e movement toward i n t e r n a l i t y ( G o t t e s f e l d and Do z i e r , 1966; and Martin and Shepel, 1974). In a more recent study communication s k i l l s were a l s o used s u c c e s s f u l l y as i n d i c a t e d by movement toward i n t e r n a l i t y . Levine-Welsh (1981) found a s i g n i f i c a n t movement (p < .05) toward i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l f o r a d u l t women i n v o l v e d i n both a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g and a s s e r t i v e n e s s p l u s r a t i o n a l - e m o t i v e t r a i n i n g . F i f t y women i n four groups, three experimental and one c o n t r o l , were in c l u d e d i n the study. The three treatment groups which i n c l u d e d a s s e r t i v e n e s s , r a t i o n a l emotive therapy and a combination of techniques l a s t e d f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e weeks with three-hour s e s s i o n s once a week. One way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e v e r i f i e d t h a t there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the experimental groups on p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . Repeated measures of ANOVA were conducted f o r a l l treatments a c r o s s a l l times: pre-, p o s t - and f i v e week follow-up. A s i g n i f i c a n t movement towards an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was found f o r pre-, p o s t - and follow-up t e s t s when the three treatments were assessed without the c o n t r o l group and with the c o n t r o l group. T h i s r e s e a r c h demonstrated the s u c c e s s f u l use of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , R e i l l y (1981) found a s i g n i f i c a n t movement (p <. 03) toward i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l u s i n g p r e - and p o s t - t e s t means 27 of a l o c u s of c o n t r o l instrument as compared to n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l group means i n a post-hoc a n a l y s i s of 29 disadvantaged women i n v o l v e d i n a c a r e e r / l i f e p l a n n i n g treatment emphasizing decision-making and g o a l - s e t t i n g . The C.O.P.E. program implements these s t r a t e g i e s and may expect movement i n both s e l f - r e g a r d and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . Thus, the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r s p e c i f i c types of treatment. These i n c l u d e s t r e n g t h b u i l d i n g , decision-making, g o a l - s e t t i n g , communication s k i l l s and a s s e r t i v e n e s s / r a t i o n a l - e m o t i v e t r a i n i n g . As w e l l , s t r i v i n g f o r goals was improved with s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n t r a i n i n g . Other s t u d i e s using concepts s i m i l a r to locus of c o n t r o l have d e a l t more d i r e c t l y with s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n outcomes. The C.O.P.E. program focuses on s e l f - e s t e e m b u i l d i n g , d e c i s i o n -making, g o a l - s e t t i n g , and a c t i o n - p l a n n i n g . De Charms (1972) uses a c o n s t r u c t which measures these s k i l l s : p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n . When a person intends to i n i t i a t e a behaviour and produces change i n the environment, the person's experience i s seen as i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated; she i s the o r i g i n a t o r of behaviour. The o p p o s i t e of t h i s concept i s expressed as e x t r i n s i c a l l y motivated behaviour i n which a person i s e x t e r n a l l y i m p e l led toward behaviour; the person i s the pawn. De Charms (1972) t r a i n e d teachers to help students (a) determine r e a l i s t i c g o a l s , (b) know t h e i r s t r e n g t h s , (c) determine c o n c r e t e a c t i o n to reach g o a l s , and (d) decide whether they were having the d e s i r e d e f f e c t on goal s t r i v i n g . Whenever o r i g i n t r a i n i n g was o f f e r e d to c h i l d r e n , scores i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Because the C.O.P.E. program 28 uses s k i l l s such as these, movement toward i n t e r n a l i t y may, t h e r e f o r e , be expected f o r women i n the C.O.P.E. c l a s s . S e l f -Regard: D e f i n i t i o n and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s Maslow (1968) , on whose t h e o r i e s the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory i s i n p a r t based, d e s c r i b e s a needs theory which i s s t r u c t u r e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . Lower order needs i n c l u d e s u r v i v a l and s e c u r i t y needs. Above these needs are belonging and esteem needs. F i n a l l y , i f esteem needs are met, a person may s t r i v e toward meeting h i s or her p o t e n t i a l ; f u l f i l l i n g a c t u a l i z i n g needs. With the women i n the program being s t u d i e d , a common complaint on en t r y i s l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n ( R a t c l i f f , 1984), as w e l l as lack of esteem. I t would appear that these r e - e n t r y women want to have belonging needs met as w e l l as needing to have high e r order needs met. Once the belo n g i n g needs are s a t i s f i e d , esteem and a c t u a l i z i n g needs may become a focus . These women, with the a i d of t r a n s f e r payments, have s u r v i v a l needs h e l d constant and, to some exten t , have s e c u r i t y needs s a t i s f i e d . But a l l women are c o n s i d e r i n g r e - e n t r y ; a s h i f t toward independence and s e l f - c o n t r o l from a s i t u a t i o n of economic dependence. T h i s c o n s i d e r e d change leads to a f e a r of the unknown ( R a t c l i f f , 1984) and a "needs s h i f t " toward more s e c u r i t y (Borgen and Amundson, 1984) may occur. With group support f o r g o a l - s e t t i n g , decision-making, and p r a c t i c a l experience maintained w i t h i n the working community, the fe a r may be reduced, belonging needs may be e s t a b l i s h e d , and the women are f r e e to develop esteem needs so necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e t r a i n i n g or 29 job h u n t i n g . P o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d as measured by the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (Shostrom, 1974) i s d e f i n e d as l i k i n g o n e s e l f because of one's s t r e n g t h s . One of the major goals of the program under review i s to improve i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - e s t e e m i n order to d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y with the environment ( B r e a u l t , 1984). Shaver and Robinson (1978) i n d i c a t e that the Self-Regard s u b s c a l e of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory i s a t y p i c a l measure of s e l f - e s t e e m . The S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e s c a l e , should be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Self-Regard subscale (Shostrom, 1974). Shaver and Robinson, however, d e s c r i b e t h i s as l e s s r e l a t e d to s e l f - e s t e e m and, t h e r e f o r e , not u s e f u l as p a r t of a s e l f - e s t e e m measure. Locus of C o n t r o l and Self-Regard F i t c h (1970), using a measure of s e l f - c o n c e p t , found s u b j e c t s low i n s e l f - e s t e e m were more e x t e r n a l on the l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e (Rotter, 1966). Other s t u d i e s (Janis and F i e l d , 1959 and Ryckman and Sherman, 1973) support t h i s f i n d i n g . Abramson et a l . (1978) hypothesized that i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and low s e l f - r e g a r d i n t e r a c t i n some cases. Other s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e a c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d f o r w e l l a d j u s t e d people. Other r e s e a r c h e r s have repo r t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d as measured by the POI and R o t t e r ' s I-E s c a l e . Wareheim and Foulds (1971) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and p e r s o n a l 30 adjustment c o n f i r m i n g R o t t e r ' s (1966) p r e d i c t i o n . Wall (1970) a l s o found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between POI s e l f - r e g a r d (p < .01) and R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l i t y (Rotter, 1966). Thus, there appears to be independent c o n f i r m a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d , i n s t u d i e s where these two instruments are u t i l i z e d . S e lf-Regard as a V a r i a b l e to be Changed S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have demonstrated movement on s c a l e s of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (Shostrom, 1974) and on the s e l f - r e g a r d s c a l e s p e c i f i c a l l y , f o l l o w i n g t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . Two s t u d i e s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Foulds and Hannigan (1976) used 72 c o l l e g e . s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r a 24 hour G e s t a l t workshop. The mean age f o r the group was 20.1 y e a r s . Subjects were randomly assigned by sex i n t o experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The treatment group was then f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two groups of nine male and nine females each. The groups were run by two l i c e n s e d d o c t o r a l l e v e l G e s t a l t p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Pre- and p o s t - t e s t s were administered and follow-up t e s t s were completed by a l l s u b j e c t s s i x months l a t e r . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .001) f o r s e l f - r e g a r d at p o s t - t e s t time and (p < .05) at a s i x month follow-up. Ware and Barr (1977) used the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory and t h r e e other t e s t s to measure the change f o l l o w i n g a nine week group experience. T h i r t y - n i n e s u b j e c t s were randomly assigned to three d i f f e r e n t groups, one of which was n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g . A design was implemented which used a s t r u c t u r e d , an u n s t r u c t u r e d 31 and a c o n t r o l g r o u p . H a l f o f t h e g r o u p members r e c e i v e d a p r e - t e s t , and a l l o f t h e g r o u p members w e r e p o s t - t e s t e d . C o n t e n t f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e d g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f g o a l - s e t t i n g and s u c c e s s a n a l y s i s , s t r e n g t h a n a l y s i s , v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n , t i m e a n a l y s i s and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s w e r e f o u n d f o r b o t h s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d g r o u p s : (F = 4.341; p = .021) f o r t h e s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e o f t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y a t p o s t - t r e a t m e n t t i m e . T h u s , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e i s a u s e f u l v a r i a b l e t o m e a s u r e c h a n g e i n t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s and i n more s t r u c t u r e d t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Summary L e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s t h e o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t s e l f - e s t e e m i s n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d i n f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e c o n t r o l i s p e r s o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d . T h a t i s , a p e r s o n w i t h an i n t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l i n a f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n w i l l f e e l l e s s s e l f - w o r t h . I n f a c t , s i n g l e p a r e n t women, on w e l f a r e , e x p e r i e n c e p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t d i s s o l v e and a l s o e x p e r i e n c e l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e and i s o l a t i o n . T h i s s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e p r o m o t e s movement ( D o h e r t y , 1983) t o w a r d a more e x t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a l r e a d y v u l n e r a b l e f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - e s t e e m w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l (Abramson e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . However, b e c a u s e a b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f e v e n t s i s g e n e r a l l y a more u s e f u l one and b e c a u s e i n c r e a s e d s e l f - r e g a r d i s more u s e f u l t h a n l e s s s e l f - r e g a r d , a p r o g r a m t h a t c h a n g e s womens' p e r c e p t i o n 32 of c o n t r o l and t h e i r f e e l i n g s of s e l f - r e g a r d i s a u s e f u l t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l . In c o n c l u s i o n , although locus of c o n t r o l , as measured by Rotter (1966), i s a s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (Rotter, 1966; L e c o u r t , 1982), c e r t a i n f a c t o r s promote movement toward e x t e r n a l i t y or i n t e r n a l i t y (Rotter, 1966; Seligman, 1975; Abramson et a l . , 1978; L e f c o u r t , 1982; Doherty, 1983), and se l f - e s t e e m i s o f t e n a f f e c t e d by these f a c t o r s (Abramson et a l . , 1978). Thus i t i s u s e f u l to study both locus of c o n t r o l and se l f - e s t e e m i n women i n a program t h a t promotes c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g f o r use i n r e - e n t r y or t r a i n i n g f o r the work f o r c e . Hypotheses Derived from the L i t e r a t u r e Review The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n d i c a t e s that the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are s u i t a b l e f o r examination of the problem o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One. The hypotheses are s t a t e d i n both a l t e r n a t i v e and n u l l forms. Smith (1970), Levine-Welsh (1982), and R e i l l y (1981) i n d i c a t e that a program designed to i n c r e a s e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s w i l l change p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l toward a more i n t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . H^ As a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C.O.P.E., women w i l l become more i n t e r n a l i n t h e i r locus of c o n t r o l , as measured by Ro t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e (Rotter, 1966) when compared to a c o n t r o l group. Foulds and Hannigan (1976), and Ware and Barr (1977) i n d i c a t e that t h e r a p e u t i c / t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i l l c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e s h i f t i n s e l f - r e g a r d . 33 As a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C.O.P.E., women w i l l h a v e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s e l f - r e g a r d as m e a s u r e d by t h e S e l f - R e g a r d s u b s c a l e o f t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ( S h o s t r o m , 1963) when comp a r e d t o a c o n t r o l g r o u p . 34 CHAPTER THREE Methodology The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of treatment on the locus of c o n t r o l and the s e l f - r e g a r d of s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e . The women i n t h i s p r o j e c t a p p l i e d to take a program e n t i t l e d "Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Pr e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment", or C.O.P.E. A f t e r an i n t e r v i e w , the women were r e f e r r e d i n t o the C.O.P.E. c l a s s , onto a wait l i s t or i n t o a s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s i t u a t i o n as suggested by the i n s t r u c t o r . Two groups, a c o n t r o l group made up of women not ta k i n g C.O.P.E. and a treatment group were p a r t of a p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t d e s i g n . T h i s process was repeated with a new group f i v e months a f t e r the f i r s t c l a s s ended. The C.O.P.E. c l a s s i n c l u d e d c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g and self-awareness s k i l l s together with c a r e e r search techniques and b r i e f on-the-job placements. I t s focus was on women wishing r e - e n t r y i n t o the work f o r c e or i n t o r e t r a i n i n g . The c l a s s was j o i n t l y funded by the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources and M i n i s t r y of Education. The treatment group t a k i n g C.O.P.E. met f o r three months. Before the group began the women were p r e - t e s t e d by the re s e a r c h e r . During the f i r s t two weeks the women were inte r v i e w e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The c o n t r o l group was t e s t e d but not i n t e r v i e w e d . 35 T h i s chapter i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i e d under the f o l l o w i n g headings: p o p u l a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s , groups, procedure, instruments and i n t e r v i e w schedule; and a n a l y s i s . Sample Forty-one women took p a r t i n a c l a s s o f f e r e d at a B.C. Community C o l l e g e , although two women d i d not w r i t e the p o s t - t e s t s . The women were a l l s i n g l e parent mothers on income a s s i s t a n c e . These women were r e f e r r e d by t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r at the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources to the C.O.P.E. program. As p a r t of the s c r e e n i n g process, each woman was re q u i r e d to c a l l the l o c a l c o l l e g e and request an i n t e r v i e w with the i n s t r u c t o r of the program. T h i s process e l i m i n a t e d r e f e r r a l s . At t h i s p o i n t the i n s t r u c t o r screened each c l i e n t f o r admission i n t o the C.O.P.E. c l a s s . Shostrom (1976) recommends these procedures to ensure that p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s are indeed s u i t a b l e f o r a group and to ensure that c o e r c i o n to become a p a r t i c i p a n t i s avoided. However, these procedures l i m i t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study somewhat, because of s e l f - s e l e c t i o n b i a s . The Interview Process During an i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w , the i n s t r u c t o r , on the b a s i s of in f o r m a t i o n provided by p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , advised a c t i v e a l c o h o l i c s to attend treatment b e f o r e acceptance i n t o C.O.P.E. She a l s o requested mothers under 19 wait f o r a s p e c i a l C.O.P.E. c l a s s , u s u a l l y o f f e r e d once a year. In a d d i t i o n the i n s t r u c t o r 36 advised c l i e n t s who wanted only c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g to c o n s u l t with the l o c a l c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r . F i n a l l y , any woman who was overwhelmed by circumstances to the p o i n t that she d i d not have f r e e time and a t t e n t i o n f o r the three month course was r e f e r r e d to s i t u a t i o n s which met her s p e c i f i c needs b e f o r e she took the C.O.P.E. c l a s s . Procedure I n i t i a l t e s t i n g with R o t t e r ' s (1966) Locus of C o n t r o l and Shostrom's (1974) Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory occurred as p a r t of a p r e - c l a s s appointment the week bef o r e the c l a s s began. Before each women was t e s t e d , she was int e r v i e w e d and assigned without her awareness to a treatment or c o n t r o l group. W i t h i n two days the group members were t o l d of t h e i r assignment and c o n t r o l group members were advised to go i n t o upgrading or to s p e c i f i c o u t s i d e i n t e r v e n t i o n u n t i l the next C.O.P.E. c l a s s . T h i s process was completed by the i n s t r u c t o r with no awareness of p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s . The c o n t r o l group was excused except f o r p o s t - t e s t i n g , with the promise of group treatment i n the Spring of 1985. The treatment group was intervi e w e d i n the f i r s t two weeks of the c l a s s to determine goals f o r C.O.P.E. Three months l a t e r , d u r i n g the l a s t week of c l a s s , p a r t i c i p a n t s were intervi e w e d by the res e a r c h e r to determine whether i n i t i a l goal statements were met. Th i s process was used to determine whether p a r t i c i p a n t s had developed a pl a n f o r r e t r a i n i n g , r e - e d u c a t i o n or re - e n t r y i n t o the work f o r c e , and to determine the success and f a i l u r e a t t r i b u t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l s o , the i n s t r u c t o r and a 37 spokesperson from the r e f e r r i n g source at the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources were in t e r v i e w e d to determine what the goals were f o r C.O.P.E. p a r t i c i p a n t s . The treatment and c o n t r o l groups were t e s t e d d u r i n g the l a s t week of c l a s s . T h i s procedure was repeated with a second c o n t r o l and treatment group i n A p r i l , 1985. The f i r s t c o n t r o l group was contacted to be p a r t of the treatment group of the second C.O.P.E. c l a s s . Two women agreed. These two women met c r i t e r i a f o r o u t s i d e r e f e r r a l b e f o r e choosing to take the second C.O.P.E. program which was p a r t of t h i s r e s e a r c h . One woman was r e f e r r e d f o r a l c o h o l treatment group. Another woman int e r v i e w e d f o r the f i r s t treatment group was f i r s t p a r t of a support group designed to de a l with a s p e c i f i c problem before becoming one of the second group of C.O.P.E. stu d e n t s . The others were r e f e r r e d on a f i r s t come, f i r s t served b a s i s from the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources. Groups Because these women were s e l f - s e l e c t e d and screened as d e s c r i b e d above, they c o u l d not be con s i d e r e d a random sample. However, the groups were s i m i l a r : The r e s u l t s are i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : 38 Table 1 Summary of Group C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Treatment C o n t r o l Age Range 22-41 18-49 Mean 30. 31 29.84 Time on Income A s s i s t a n c e Range 4mos-9yrs 9mos-7yrs Mean 1.77 2.25 Number of C h i l d r e n Range 1-4 1-4 Mean 1. 79 1.63 Education i n Grades Range 8-12 6-12 Mean 9. 94 10. 57 Program Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment or C.O.P.E. i s a program o f f e r e d i n a B.C. Community C o l l e g e . The c l a s s runs f o r 12 weeks from 9:00 to 2:30 f i v e days a week and i n c l u d e s on-the-job f i e l d placements. The c l a s s has three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t phase i n v o l v e s communication s k i l l s , a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , r e l a x a t i o n , time management and other technigues to engender g r e a t e r self-awareness and s e l f - e s t e e m . P a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , and community awareness a c t i v i t i e s are i n c l u d e d as are s p e c i f i c speakers that the women are i n t e r e s t e d i n and request. The second phase promotes and encourages g o a l - s e t t i n g . The main a c t i v i t i e s used d u r i n g t h i s time are a c t i v e community experience with c a r e e r s of i n t e r e s t to p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s experience i s enhanced by Canada Employment c o u n s e l l o r s , c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l o r s and each woman's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r from the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources. Career plans are c l a r i f i e d and confirmed w i t h i n the r e a l i s t i c l i m i t s a v a i l a b l e and upgrading and resume w r i t i n g b e g i n s . A l s o , f i e l d placements occur at t h i s time. In the f i n a l phase, an a c t i o n p l a n i s completed and supports are b u i l t i n f o r leave t a k i n g . A program o u t l i n e i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix A. Instruments and Interview Schedule Locus of C o n t r o l R o t t e r (1966) developed a 29 item, f o r c e d c h o i c e , paper and p e n c i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e with s i x ' f i l l e r ' items. S e v e r a l items are presented here as t y p i c a l of the t e s t items: " 9. a. I have o f t e n found that what i s going to happen w i l l happen. b. T r u s t i n g to f a t e has never turned out as w e l l f o r me as making a d e c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n . 13. a. When I p l a n p l a n s , I am almost c e r t a i n t h a t I can make them work. b. It i s not always wise to p l a n too f a r ahead because many t h i n g s t u r n out to be a matter of good or bad f o r t u n e anyhow. 25. a. Many times I f e l t t h a t I have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over th i n g s that happen to me. b. I t i s impossible f o r me to b e l i e v e t h a t chance or luck p l a y s an important r o l e i n my l i f e . " ( Rotter, 1966). A t o t a l score i s obtained by summing the e x t e r n a l b e l i e f s endorsed. The sample Rotter used f o r i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n was 200 male and 200 female Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y elementary 40 psychology students. For t h i s group an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a n a l y s i s (Kuder-Richarson) y i e l d e d r = .70 f o r males and r = .70 f o r females. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a f t e r one month were: females r = .83 (N = 30); males r = .60 (N = 30); combined r = .72 (N = 60). A f t e r two months the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were: males r = .49 (N = 63); females r = .61 (N = 54); combined r = .55 (N = 1 1 7 ) . Rotter (1966) suggests that the decrease a f t e r two months were i n p a r t due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (group vs. i n d i v i d u a l ) . For other group c o r r e l a t i o n s see Rotter (1966) and L e f c o u r t (1982). C o r r e l a t i o n s with the Marlow-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale range from -.07 to -.35. Other f a c t o r a n a l y s i s by Rotter (1966) support the assumption of u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the I-E s c a l e and many l a b o r a t o r y and survey s t u d i e s support the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y ; however, c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s have been obtained by Gurin et a l . (1969), r e g a r d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n with the Marlow-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e . Robinson and Shaver (1978) suggest that the Gurin et a l . (1969) a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d items not found i n the R otter s c a l e , thus r a i s i n g more methodological q u e s t i o n s than answering them. C o r r e l a t i o n s with i n t e l l i g e n c e are low and e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , ranging from .03 to -.22 (Rotter, 1966). Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (POI) S e l f - r e g a r d was measured by the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (Shostrom 1963). This t e s t i n c l u d e s two-choice items i n a 152 paper-and-penci1 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that can be taken i n as 41 l i t t l e as 20 minutes. The items are scored twice, once f o r the two b a s i c s c a l e s of p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i n n e r - d i r e c t e d support (127 items) and time-competence (23 items) and second f o r ten s u b s c a les of which s e l f - r e g a r d i s one. S e v e r a l items of the s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e are presented: " 7. a. I sometimes f e e l embarrassed by compliments, b. I am not embarrassed by compliments. 68. a. I f e e l f r e e to be myself and bear the consequences, b. I do not f e e l f r e e to be myself and bear the consequences. 78. a. S e l f - i n t e r e s t i s n a t u r a l . b. S e l f - i n t e r e s t i s u n n a t u r a l . 118. a. I am a s s e r t i v e and a f f i r m i n g . b. I am not a s s e r t i v e and a f f i r m i n g . " (Shostrom, 1963). T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained from a sample of 48 undergraduate c o l l e g e students f o r s e l f - r e g a r d were .71 ( K l a v e t t e r and Mogar, 1967). The t e s t was a dministered twice, with a one-week s e p a r a t i o n . S t a b i l i t y of scores on the POI was assessed over a one-year p e r i o d f o r 46 student nurses, with a c o e f f i c i e n t of .66 (p < .005) f o r s e l f - r e g a r d ( I l a r d i and May, 1968). T h i s i s w i t h i n the range of comparable t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d i e s with i n v e n t o r i e s such as the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory and Edwards Personal Preference S c a l e . V a l i d i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d by c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between c l i n i c a l l y judged s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g and n o n - s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g groups on 11 of the 12 s c a l e s . S e l f - r e g a r d was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l i n such a (Shostrom, 1974). A l s o , 37 new therapy p a t i e n t s and 39 advanced therapy p a t i e n t s were c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d («*£ = .01) on the s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e . 42 The M.M.P.I., when administered to t h i s same group, y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at the .01 con f i d e n c e l e v e l on four s c a l e s : d e p r e s s i o n , psychopathic d e v i a t e , p s y c h a s t h e n i a , and s c h i z o p h r e n i a . Many other i n d i c a t i o n s of t e s t v a l i d i t y are a v a i l a b l e (Shostrom, 1974). Interview Schedule An i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w of each woman i n the C.O.P.E. program was completed i n the f i r s t two weeks of each c l a s s . In the f i n a l week of each c l a s s the women were in t e r v i e w e d a g a i n . The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was to add d e s c r i p t i v e data to the in f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d . Each woman was asked what her goals and plans were f o r h e r s e l f i n terms of work and i n terms of ex p e c t a t i o n s i n the C.O.P.E. c l a s s . Each woman was a l s o asked to recount her s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . Each woman was then asked to d e s c r i b e her f e e l i n g s about h e r s e l f and to gi v e reasons f o r p r e d i c t e d successes and f a i l u r e s as the c l a s s began. At the end of the c l a s s , each person was asked what her plans were and to g i v e reasons f o r successes or f a i l u r e s at C.O.P.E. In a d d i t i o n to the women e x p e r i e n c i n g the program, the i n s t r u c t o r f o r the program and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r a d v i s i n g women about the program were asked to i d e n t i f y t h e i r goals f o r the women i n C.O.P.E. The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . The i n t e r v i e w schedules are provided i n Appendix B. 43 Data A n a l y s i s Measures of s e l f - r e g a r d were s u b j e c t s ' scores on the POI. Measures of locu s of c o n t r o l were s u b j e c t s ' scores on the Ro t t e r ' s I-E s c a l e . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out on both the s e l f - r e g a r d subscale of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (Shostrom, 1963) and the R o t t e r ' s locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e (Rotter, 1966). A l l groups were compared f o r d i f f e r e n c e s , p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t changes and p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s of treatment s u b j e c t s were compared with the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s of the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . A con f i d e n c e l e v e l ofoC= .05 was s e l e c t e d f o r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of n u l l hypotheses. The i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s were summarized. 44 . CHAPTER FOUR Res u l t s In t h i s chapter the re s e a r c h design i s summarized, s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are repo r t e d and a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data u s i n g repeated measures ANOVA i s d e s c r i b e d . As w e l l , the c o r r e l a t i o n between dependent v a r i a b l e s i s d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l i s summarized and d e s c r i b e d . Summary of Research Design A l l treatment and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were administered p r e - t e s t s the week preceeding the treatment. P o s t - t e s t s were given d u r i n g the l a s t week of c l a s s e s f o r the treatment group and w i t h i n two weeks of that time f o r the c o n t r o l group. This procedure was repeated with a new set of groups, three months a f t e r the f i r s t groups were completed. Reported locus of c o n t r o l , a dependent v a r i a b l e , was measured by The Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e . Reported s e l f - e s t e e m , a dependent v a r i a b l e , was measured by the Self-Regard s u b s c a l e of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory. Repeated measures of ANOVA were computed f o r these i n v e n t o r i e s to determine i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between group means across time when a treatment group was compared with a c o n t r o l group. 45 Subject C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h i r t y - n i n e s u b j e c t s completed t h i s study. Two s u b j e c t s dropped out of the c o n t r o l group. One s u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e , was randomly removed from the treatment i n order to have equal groups. The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study are from combined groups of S p r i n g and F a l l c l a s s e s as w e l l as c o n t r o l groups t e s t e d at the time of treatment p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n g . Table 2 shows summaries of demographic i n f o r m a t i o n and t - t e s t s which compare the means of the treatment and c o n t r o l groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. The t method used was independent groups with equal v a r i a n c e s (Ferguson, 1971). Table 2 Summary t - T e s t s of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Treatment and C o n t r o l Groups: Four Demographic V a r i a b l e s Means V a r i a b l e Treatment C o n t r o l t p Education 10. 80 10. 58 0. 80 NSD Months on Ass i stance 21. 26 27. 09 0. 60 NSD Number of C h i l d r e n 1. 79 1. 63 0. 56 NSD Age 30. 31 29. 84 0. 20 NSD The average age across a l l groups was 30.05. The mean e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r the combined groups was Grade 10. The average length of time on income a s s i s t a n c e across the women 46 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study was 30 months. The average number of c h i l d r e n was 1.7. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups, on the demographic v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d . S t a t i s t i c a l Analys i s of the Data A Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d to e s t a b l i s h whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s , s e l f - r e g a r d and locus of c o n t r o l . Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l f o r p r e - t e s t s (p < .025), the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s .315 i n d i c a t i n g that s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s are being measured. Table 3 c o n t a i n s the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s among IE and POI s c o r e s , f o r p r e -and post-treatment a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h i s study. Table 3 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n Among I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e (I-E) and Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (POI) Pre-Treatment Post-Treatment I-E POI I-E POI I-E Pre r = 1.00 r = .32* r = .44* r = .06 POI Pre r = 1.00 r = .31* r = .36* I-E Post r = 1.00 r = -.13 POI Post r = 1.00 * p < .05 47 An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d using the Biomedical Computer Program P - s e r i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , "A General Mixed Model A n a l y s i s of Variance Equal C e l l S i z e s : P8V" (Jennrich and Sampson, 1979). This computational r o u t i n e r e q u i r e s equal c e l l sizes," three cases were randomly e l i m i n a t e d from the groups to a t t a i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n . Hypothesis T e s t i n g H^ As a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C.O.P.E., women w i l l become more i n t e r n a l i n t h e i r locus of c o n t r o l , as measured by Ro t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e (Rotter, 1966) when compared to a c o n t r o l group. In order to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n t i a l group changes, repeated measures ANOVA was a p p l i e d to the I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l s c o r e s . Table 4 gi v e s a summary of r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . 48 Table 4 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Two Groups f o r the I-E S c a l e at Pre- and Post-Test Time Sum of Mean Source Squares DF Squares F Subjects Treatment 22. 12 1 22. 12 1.4 4 S u b j e c t s 551.58 36 15.32 (Within Treatment) W i t h i n Subjects Time 52. 22 1 52.22 8.35 Treatment x Time 0.01 1 .01 .00 Subjects x Time 225.26 36 6. 26 (Within Treatment) *p < .05 The repeated measures ANOVA show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups (F = 1.44). A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t of time was shown (F = 8.35), however, the treatment-by-time i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .00). Decreases i n e x t e r n a l i t y of locus of scores c o n t r o l f o r the treatment group were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than those of the c o n t r o l group. H2 As a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C.O.P.E, women w i l l have a g r e a t e r degree of s e l f - r e g a r d as measured by the Self-Regard s u b s c a l e of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (Shostrom, 1963) when compared to a c o n t r o l group. In order to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d group changes, repeated measures ANOVA was a p p l i e d to the Self-Regard s c o r e s . The data presented i n Table 5 shows the F 49 values f o r the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s between groups. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups (F = .34). A s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 63.82) main e f f e c t of time was shown . As w e l l , a s i g n i f i c a n t treatment-by-time i n t e r a c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d (F = 20.23). Table 5 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Two Groups f o r S e l f - R e g a r d at Pre- and Post-Test Time Sum of Mean Source Squares DF Squares F Between Subjects Treatment 2. 96 1 2. 96 34 Subje c t s 309. 53 36 8. 50 (Within Treatment) W i t h i n Subjects Time 186. 33 1 186. 33 63. 82 Treatment x Time 59. 07 1 59. 07 20. 23 Subje c t s x Time 105. 10 36 2. 89 (Within Treatment) *p < .05 Since two treatment groups and two c o n t r o l groups were used i n study, another a n a l y s i s was conducted to compare the e f f e c t s of the treatment i n separate implementation to the two independent c o n t r o l groups. Three s u b j e c t s were randomly e l i m i n a t e d to c r e a t e equal c e l l s i z e s f o r the a n a l y s i s . The F values d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e i n e i t h e r case — groups-within-treatment c o n d i t i o n or groups-by-time i n t e r a c t i o n . Table 6 o u t l i n e s the r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , treatment e f f e c t s are g e n e r a l i z a b l e to both implementations. 50 Table 6 Repeated Measures ANOVA Across Four Groups f o r Self-Regard at Pre- and Post-Test Time Sum of Mean Source Squares DF Sguares F Between Subjects Treatment 1. 39 1 1. 39 16 Groups 21. 78 2 10. 89 1. 23 (Within Treatment) Subjec t s 282. 78 32 8. 84 (Within Treatment) Wi t h i n Subjects Time 186. 89 1 186. 89 64. 77 Treatment x Time 64. 22 1 64. 22 22. 26 Groups x Time 4. 56 2 2. 78 79 Subjects-Time 92. 33 32 2. 89 (Within Treatment) *p < .05 Since Self-Regard reached s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s , and a i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r r e d , a simple e f f e c t s t e s t (Winer, 1962) was c a r r i e d out to e s t a b l i s h d i f f e r e n c e s i n means between treatment and c o n t r o l groups at pre-treatment and post-treatment time. A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the mean scores at p r e - and post-treatment times i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. 51 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 Treatment 14.4 Pre-treatment Post-treatment Time F i g u r e 1. Mean scores f o r p r e - and post-treatments measured over time. R e s u l t s of the simple e f f e c t s t e s t (Table 7) i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (F = 4.78) between the means of the treatment and c o n t r o l group at pre-treatment and none at post-treatment time (F = 2.64). Table 7 ANOVA For Simple Main E f f e c t s f o r Self-Regard Source Sum of Squares DF Mean Squares Time 1 Treatment 42.25 1 42.2500 4.78* Time 2 Treatment 23.37 1 23.3700 2.64 Subjects 282.78 32 8.8368 (Within Treatment) *p < .05 52 I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d o u t t o a s s e s s t h e g o a l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , g o a l s o f t h e r e f e r r i n g a g e n t , and g o a l s o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r and t o g e t some i n d i c a t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e s e g o a l s were b e i n g met. The p u r p o s e o f t h e c l a s s f r o m an i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e as w e l l f r o m t h e r e f e r r i n g a g e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t w o - f o l d . The f i r s t i s e s t e e m b u i l d i n g ; t h e s e c o n d , c l e a r p l a n n i n g f o r r e t r a i n i n g , r e - e d u c a t i o n , r e - e n t r y i n t o t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t , o r a r e t u r n t o home w i t h an i m p r o v e d s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . The p a r t i c i p a n t s have s i m i l a r g o a l s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n n i n e t e e n i n t e r v i e w s u s e d , t h e r e were s e v e n t e e n i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t s o f r e q u e s t s f o r s e l f - e s t e e m o r c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g . O t h e r g o a l s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e d t h i r t e e n s t a t e m e n t s o f need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n ; t e n s t a t e m e n t s o f need f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s o r a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g ; e i g h t s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g a need f o r j o b i n f o r m a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o g e t a j o b . Seven r e q u e s t s were made f o r i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s . S i x r e q u e s t s were made f o r b o t h c h i l d c a r e and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e a b i l i t y t o g e t o f f w e l f a r e a t t h e end o f C.O.P.E. O t h e r g o a l s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e d b e i n g a b l e t o overcome a f e a r o f p e o p l e and t h e " w o r l d " , t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n and s e t g o a l s , t o g a i n f r i e n d s , t o h e l p o t h e r s , t o i m prove l i f e , t o s t o p p u t t i n g o n e s e l f down, t o be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e C.O.P.E. c o u r s e , t o g a i n g r o u p s u p p o r t , t o work on r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, t o l e a r n s t r e s s management, and t o l e a r n r e l a x a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Some g o a l 53 statements are very s p e c i f i c ; others are vague. A l l are w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the course. At the end of the course, each woman d e s c r i b e d the goals t h a t had been met f o r her d u r i n g the course. None of the women had access to her o r i g i n a l statements. A breakdown by i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i s a v a i l a b l e i n Appendix C, however, a d e s c r i p t i o n of r e s u l t s i s repor t e d at t h i s p o i n t from a group p e r s p e c t i v e . At p o s t - i n t e r v i e w time, each C.O.P.E. graduate presented a very s p e c i f i c and c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l and ca r e e r plans as opposed to very g e n e r a l , or i n some cases, very d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l statement of care e r p l a n s . The women that addressed the con-f i d e n c e / s e l f - e s t e e m i s s u e at the p o s t - t e s t i n t e r v i e w , d e s c r i b e d themselves as g r e a t l y changed i n re s p e c t to t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m ; most addressed the i s s u e i n s p e c i f i c terms d e s c r i b i n g improved a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s . At the p o s t - i n t e r v i e w , a s s e r t i v e n e s s and communication s k i l l s were l i s t e d t h i r t e e n times as a s u c c e s s f u l experience; improved p a r e n t i n g was mentioned ten times; c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f i v e times; group support was noted four times, as was se l f - e s t e e m and c o n f i d e n c e . Improved community and p e r s o n a l awareness were each mentioned three times as s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . Reduced f e a r was d e s c r i b e d three times. Other i n d i c a t i o n s of success were being able to speak up, having new f r i e n d s h i p s , the f e e l i n g of competence, being a b l e to stand up fo r o n e s e l f , having self-awareness, study s k i l l s , having f e e l i n g s of being i n c o n t r o l , improved r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and improved l i f e sk i l i s . At the p o s t - i n t e r v i e w , p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o asked to r a t e 54 i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s to which t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l experiences were a t t r i b u t e d . These f a c t o r s were good l u c k , hard work, easy course, your i n t e l l i g e n c e , e f f o r t , i n s t r u c t i o n , mood, and "other", f o r "success" and bad l u c k , lack of hard work, hard course, not smart enough, l i t t l e e f f o r t , i n s t r u c t i o n , mood, and "other", f o r " u n s u c c e s s f u l " e x p e r i e n c e s . For s u c c e s s f u l experiences the h i g h e s t mean score and most important a t t r i b u t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s was the i n s t r u c t i o n (X = 4.74); the f o l l o w i n g two were hard work and e f f o r t (X = 4.37 and X = 4.37), and i n t e l l i g e n c e (X = 4.10). The lowest score was l u c k . For f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s , s e v e r a l people chose not to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n d i c a t i n g v e r b a l l y t h a t they had no u n s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . For those who d i d answer, the f a c t o r to which lack of success i s most c o n s i s t e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the group i s mood d u r i n g the c l a s s (X 2.27); the next i s "hard c o u r s e " (X 2.13); the next i s l i t t l e e f f o r t (X 1.87). In both cases, "other" was not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . (Appendix B i n c l u d e s a copy of the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n t e r v i e w schedule.) 55 CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclus i o n s and D i s c u s s i o n Summary T h i s study used a p r e - and p o s t - t e s t design with a treatment c o n d i t i o n and a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n which was repeated three months l a t e r . The purpose of the study was to determine the e f f e c t s of s k i l l b u i l d i n g on a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n as measured by locus of c o n t r o l and s e l f - r e g a r d . Treatment s u b j e c t s were screened before assignment on an otherwise f i r s t come, f i r s t served b a s i s to the C.O.P.E. program. The program ran from 9:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m., f i v e days a week f o r 12 weeks. Subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study were t h i r t y - n i n e s i n g l e parent mothers on income a s s i s t a n c e who wanted a car e e r readiness course b e f o r e r e t r a i n i n g or r e t u r n i n g to the workplace. Twenty women were i n the treatment c o n d i t i o n and nineteen were i n the c o n t r o l ; (however, f o r some an a l y s e s , one or three s u b j e c t s were randomly removed to c r e a t e equal c e l l s i z e s . ) Interviews were c a r r i e d out to assess the goals of the program f o r the r e f e r r a l source, the i n s t r u c t o r and the p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were in t e r v i e w e d at p o s t - t e s t time to f i n d i f they f e l t s u c c e s s f u l and to what they a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r success and f a i l u r e . The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed f o r t h i s study suggested that a program which taught communication s k i l l s , d ecision-making, and g o a l - s e t t i n g , would improve the locus of c o n t r o l of p a r t i c i p a n t s and would improve s e l f - e s t e e m of 56 p a r t i c i p a n t s . The locus of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t was d i s c u s s e d as an a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e measuring i n d i v i d u a l l y p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l over events. An i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d person would be more go a l d i r e c t e d than an e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d person. The r e s e a r c h h ypothesized t h a t a C.O.P.E. program would promote measured change i n a treatment group when compared to a s i m i l a r group, not c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g the c l a s s . In order to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean changes across treatments and time f o r locus of c o n t r o l , an ANOVA was computed. No i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were i n d i c a t e d between groups being t e s t e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t movement over time f o r combined treatment and c o n t r o l groups. There was no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t to i n d i c a t e that the treatment a f f e c t e d movement toward a m o r e . i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l when compared to the c o n t r o l group. The s e l f - r e g a r d c o n s t r u c t was d i s c u s s e d as a v a r i a b l e which would measure the degree to which a person l i k e d h e r s e l f because of her s t r e n g t h s . A woman high i n the s e l f - e s t e e m v a r i a b l e would f e e l more c o n f i d e n t and d e s c r i b e h e r s e l f i n more p o s i t i v e terms. It was hypothesized that the C.O.P.E. program would s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the s e l f - e s t e e m of a treatment group when compared to a s i m i l a r group not c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g the program. An ANOVA was computed to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean changes across time and treatments. As p a r t of that a n a l y s i s i t was determined that there were no d i f f e r e n c e s between groups du r i n g t e s t i n g times. 57 The s e l f - r e g a r d s c a l e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r the groups over time and an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m f o r the treatment group when compared to the c o n t r o l group. Because two treatment and c o n t r o l groups were run at d i f f e r e n t times, the groups were separated to determine whether there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s over time; none were found. In a d d i t i o n , because of the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , a simple e f f e c t s t e s t was performed to e s t a b l i s h whether there were d i f f e r e n c e s between groups at p r e - t e s t time and/or p o s t - t e s t time. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n d i c a t i n g that the treatment group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s e l f - e s t e e m scores than d i d the c o n t r o l group. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at p o s t - t e s t time. Interviews were completed to i n d i c a t e the v e r b a l i z e d homogeneity of goals among the r e f e r r i n g agent, i n s t r u c t o r and group members. Th i s homogeneity of purpose was i n d i c a t e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . S u c c e s s f u l completion of the C.O.P.E. c l a s s was i n d i c a t e d by both c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y of goal statements and by v e r b a l i n d i c a t i o n s of s k i l l s which r e i n f o r c e d the s e l f - e s t e e m measure. As w e l l , success was i n d i c a t e d by i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t week of c l a s s e s by p a r t i c i p a n t s as compared with p e r s o n a l i n d i c a t i o n s of success at completion of the course. 58 D i s c u s s i o n T h i s s e c t i o n r e l a t e s f i n d i n g s from the present study to s t u d i e s c i t e d i n Chapter Two. Locus of C o n t r o l Locus of c o n t r o l was measured by the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale which i n d i c a t e s the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e themselves to c o n t r o l events by pe r s o n a l behavior (Rotter, 1966). The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed f o r t h i s study i n d i c a t e s t h a t e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y d e n i g r a t e d groups tend toward an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ( L e f c o u r t and Ladwig, 1965; R o t t e r , 1966; Stephens and Delys, 1973; Seligman, 1975; T e s k i , et a l , 1980). The women i n t h i s study are on income a s s i s t a n c e ; e x t e r n a l l y dependent upon t r a n s f e r payments f o r t h e i r continued s u r v i v a l and may, t h e r e f o r e , based on assumption, have a more e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . The women are, a l s o , a l l s i n g l e parent mothers; women who have experienced the d i s s o l u t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Doherty (1983), i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study, confirmed that d u r i n g a d i v o r c e , p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l moves toward an e x t e r n a l l o c u s . However, he found t h a t with s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , over time t h i s p e r c e p t i o n became more i n t e r n a l . S k i l l s b u i l d i n g a f f e c t s p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that s p e c i f i c s k i l l development changes p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l toward a more i n t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l i s , in t u r n , r e l a t e d to goal d i r e c t e d behaviour (Hersch and Scheibe, 59 1967). The program that i s the focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h has two main o b j e c t i v e s : Improvement of the p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l of women i n the program i s one o b j e c t i v e which i s s t a t e d i n terms of empowerment f o r each woman; the other i s i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m . The sense of p e r s o n a l power or p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l w i l l enable e f f e c t i v e , r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e making to occur; the women w i l l s et goals that are p e r s o n a l l y meaningful and u s e f u l f o r ca r e e r d i r e c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that the women i n both the treatment and c o n t r o l groups moved toward i n t e r n a l i t y d u r i n g the time the C.O.P.E. program was t e s t e d ; however, the treatment d i d not a f f e c t group performance when compared with the c o n t r o l group. S e v e r a l reasons are p o s s i b l e : 1. Because of the s e l e c t i o n b i a s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the study, the women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t may have e f f e c t i v e l y screened themselves to i n c l u d e only women who were a c t i v e l y seeking experiences and s k i l l s which would a f f e c t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of pe r s o n a l c o n t r o l over events. 2. The community r e f e r r a l base to which c o n t r o l p a r t i c i p a n t s were sent may have used experiences which enhanced p e r c e p t i o n of pe r s o n a l c o n t r o l to the same extent that the C.O.P.E. program d i d . 3. Making a d e c i s i o n to go through a t r a i n i n g program may, i n i t s e l f , have a f f e c t e d the locus of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s u f f i c i e n t l y over time f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of women so th a t i t a f f e c t e d the scores of the c o n t r o l groups. 4. A change i n the economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the environment may 60 have a f f e c t e d the p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l i n e i t h e r group. S k i l l s b u i l d i n g w i t h i n the C.O.P.E. c l a s s has not a f f e c t e d locus of c o n t r o l at s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s when compared to a c o n t r o l group, however, s i g n i f i c a n t changes were made i n p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l of C.O.P.E. p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w e l l as c o n t r o l group p a r t i c i p a n t s . The other goal of the program i s a sense of in c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m . Self-Regard In t h i s study s e l f - r e g a r d was measured by the s e l f - r e g a r d s u b s c a l e of the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory. The theory on which the i n v e n t o r y was i n p a r t c o n s t r u c t e d i n d i c a t e s that lower order needs, both p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l , must be met i n order f o r growth needs to be pursued and that thwarting of t h i s development leads to s i c k n e s s (Maslow, 1968). Self-Regard i s d e f i n e d i n t h i s study as l i k i n g o n e s e l f because of one's stengths (Shostrom, 1974). The main goal of t h i s program as d e s c r i b e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s , the le a d e r s and the r e f e r r i n g agent i s to b u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e : s e l f - e s t e e m b u i l d i n g as a f u n c t i o n of the a b i l i t y to a f f e c t p e r s o n a l and environmental change. S k i l l s b u i l d i n g a f f e c t s t h i s v a r i a b l e (Foulds and Hannigan, 1976; Ware and Bar r , 1977) and t h i s v a r i a b l e , i n t u r n , i s a f f e c t e d by one's locus of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l (Rotter, 1966; F i t c h , 1970; W a l l , 1970; Wareheim and Foulds, 1971). The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the C.O.P.E. program appear to have moved 61 toward a sense of p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d at a r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than those women who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the treatment. I t seems p o s s i b l e to conclude that s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n C.O.P.E. develop a sense of p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than those women who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a c l a s s . Since two groups were examined independently, some g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y i s p o s s i b l e ; however, the r e s u l t s of simple main e f f e c t s t e s t i n d i c a t e that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means of p a r t i c i p a n t s at p r e - t e s t time and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at p o s t - t e s t time (Winer, 1966). S e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s are p o s s i b l e : 1. Screening by the i n s t r u c t o r on t h i s v a r i a b l e was e f f e c t i v e : The i n s t r u c t o r was abl e to s e l e c t those women more i n need of the s k i l l s taught i n t h i s c l a s s than o t h e r s . 2. Women i n the c o n t r o l group were ab l e to f i n d resources to meet t h e i r esteem needs to some extent d u r i n g the time i n which the C.O.P.E. program was run. The i n t e r v i e w process added i n f o r m a t i o n to that r e v e a l e d i n the t e s t i n g p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w process focused on three main f a c t o r s s u p p o r t i n g f e e l i n g s of success w i t h i n the C.O.P.E. program. One f a c t o r was an e x t e r n a l source (the i n s t r u c t o r ) , the other f a c t o r s were i n t e r n a l : e f f o r t and a b i l i t y . E f f o r t i s l e s s u s e f u l when d e s c r i b i n g s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , which become a p r e d i c t o r f o r f u t u r e e x p e c t a n c i e s , than i s a b i l i t y (Mednick, 1979). Both, however, are i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . Using an e x t e r n a l source f o r s u c c e s s f u l a t t r i b u t i o n i s 62 l e s s u s e f u l than u s i n g an i n t e r n a l source (Abramson et a l , 1978). When d e s c r i b i n g f a i l u r e , the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r f o r women i n t h i s study was mood, an i n t e r n a l , u n s t a b l e , s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n ; a u s e f u l a t t r i b u t i o n (Abramson et a l , 1978). A l l of these c r i t e r i a p o i n t to exp e c t a n c i e s f o r success based on a somewhat u s e f u l a t t r i b u t i o n process (Mednick, 1979; Weiner et a l , 1980). Although a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r f a i l u r e appear to be u s e f u l i n that mood i s an un s t a b l e i n t e r n a l f a c t o r , s u b j e c t to change, a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r success made by these p a r t i c i p a n t s are more ambiguous. That i s , e x t e r n a l sources as w e l l as i n t e r n a l sources are given almost equal weight. Wong and Sproule (1984) d e s c r i b e t h i s phenomenon as " b i l o c a l " . As w e l l , the i n t e r v i e w process determined i n i t i a l and f i n a l goal statements of these women. A l l women at the end of the c l a s s e s had d e f i n e d c l e a r and concre t e goals f o r r e t r a i n i n g , work or f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . Recommendations f o r Future Research 1. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might use a t h i r d c o n t r o l group; one made up of p a r t i c i p a n t s not c u r r e n t l y w i l l i n g to take a s k i l l s b u i l d i n g c l a s s , yet having the same group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as those i n the C.O.P.E. T h i s process would add i n f o r m a t i o n to about the measured change i n women and t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s f o r change. 2. Using randomization w i t h i n groups would be h e l p f u l to determine whether f i n d i n g s are the r e s u l t of s e l e c t i o n or the r e s u l t of the treatment. 3. C a r e f u l m o n i t o r i n g and coding of behavior change of the 63 a t t r i b u t i o n process would be a u s e f u l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t to more f u l l y understand what f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d change and what the process of change i s as i t r e l a t e s to locus of c o n t r o l and a t t r i b u t i o n p r o c e s s . 4. A study t h a t used a f o l l o w up design with the re s e a r c h would be u s e f u l to determine whether C.O.P.E. p a r t i c i p a n t s met t h e i r s t a t e d g o a l s . 5. F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of s k i l l s b u i l d i n g to i s o l a t e and s o r t s p e c i f i c s k i l l s u s e f u l f o r t h i s group would be h e l p f u l to determine which s k i l l s are most u s e f u l f o r i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . 6. A c o r r e l a t i o n a l study using s i n g l e parent mothers on income a s s i s t a n c e and s i n g l e parent women who are working would be i n t e r e s t i n g i n order to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between these p o p u l a t i o n s i n p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m . I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study and Program Recommendations S i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e are s o c i a l l y and econo m i c a l l y d e n i g r a t e d and s k i l l s b u i l d i n g can promote movement towards g o a l - s e t t i n g to change t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i v e ways. The outcome of t h i s study supports the esteem b u i l d i n g / s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e focus of the c l a s s . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n measured esteem over time as compared with a c o n t r o l group. Because of the change i n esteem i t i s recommended t h a t the program continue and others l i k e i t be developed. The p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l appears to happen independently of the groups' process and may be a f u n c t i o n of s e l f - s e l e c t i o n f o r 64 t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . That i s , a time when movement toward an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l i s o c c u r r i n g may be a time when people choose to become p a r t of a group process which w i l l promote s t r i v i n g toward esteem b u i l d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , g o a l - s e t t i n g and pl a n n i n g . Because of the l e s s c l e a r r e s u l t s with lo c u s of c o n t r o l , i t i s recommended that t h i s focus be e i t h e r strengthened or dropped with the C.O.P.E. program. C o n c l u s i o n The treatment and c o n t r o l samples used i n t h i s study have moved s i g n i f i c a n t l y toward an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . The s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d have s e t goals to remove themselves from economic dependence, f o r most women have chosen to move, through a p e r i o d of r e t r a i n i n g , toward economic independence. At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study s e l f - e s t e e m f o r each woman was very h i g h . They were able to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r experience of themselves i n p o s i t i v e terms and were able to d e s c r i b e t h e i r s t r e n g t h s p u b l i c l y . Many women re p o r t e d t h e i r s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and communication s k i l l s as g r e a t l y improved. They d e s c r i b e d t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l completion of the "C.O.P.E." program as a combination of pe r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s and environmental supports ( i n s t r u c t o r ' s h e l p ) . T h e i r f a i l u r e s are l a r g e l y i n t e r n a l i z e d as u n s t a b l e , changeable a t t r i b u t e s . 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Winer, B. (1962). S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n Experimental Design. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Wong, P. and Sproule, C. (1984). An a t t r i b u t i o n a n a l y s i s of the locus of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t and the Trent a t t r i b u t i o n p r o f i l e . In H. L e f c o u r t (Ed.), Research with the Locus of C o n t r o l  C o n s t r u c t , V o l . 3. Toronto: Academic Press, Inc. W o r e l l , J . and G a r r e t - F u l k s , N. (1983). The R e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the S i n g l e - A g a i n Women. In Franks, V. & Rothblum, E. (Eds.), The S t e r e o t y p i n g of Women. New York: Springer P u b l i s h i n g Co. APPENDIX A Theoretical Framework of Career Opportunities i n Preparation for Employment C.O.P.E. (Coming out Prepared for Equality) Prepared by Linda Breault, Coordinator LEAVES 73 -79 NOT FILMED; PERMISSION NOT OBTAINED. APPENDIX A T h e o r e t i c a l Framework of Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Employment C.O.P.E (Coming out Prepared f o r E q u a l i t y ) Prepared by: Linda B r e a u l t Coord i n a t o r 74 APPENDIX A C.O.P.E. PURPOSE: C.O.P.E was developed to o f f e r s i n g l e parent women on income a s s i s t a n c e the c o n f i d e n c e , i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s to make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r f u t u r e s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to ex p l o r e ways of becoming ec o n o m i c a l l y independent. INTRODUCTION: The "average Canadian f a m i l y " - working f a t h e r , mother at home and 2.2 c h i l d r e n - i s becoming a myth. Over 10 per cent of a l l Canadian f a m i l i e s are s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s , 90 per cent of which are headed by mothers. If you are a s i n g l e parent woman i n Canada your chances of l i v i n g below the S t a t i s t i c s Canada poverty l i n e are two i n th r e e . Almost one h a l f o,f a l l women who head f a m i l i e s are on some form of w e l f a r e . In Kamloops t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s as bad i f not worse than i n other communities across Canada ( l o c a l s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e at time of p r i n t i n g ) . The woman on income a s s i s t a n c e i s faced with i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s which keep her from becoming eco n o m i c a l l y independent. Margaret Daly i n "To See Ourse l v e s " : Information Canada, 1975, sums up the s i t u a t i o n of female s i n g l e parent when she speaks of " l i v e s t h a t have been shaped not by any ch o i c e s or d e c i s i o n s they have made, but by l a r g e r f o r c e s - f o r c e s of s o c i e t y t h a t have crushed and moulded them i n t o a l i f e s t y l e ^ o f poverty, of 'disadvantage', because they are women". 1. 2. 3. "One i n A World of Two's", N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e -Ottawa, 1976, page 4. "One i n A World o f Two's", N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e -Ottawa, 1976, page 1. "The Disadvantaged Woman", To See Ourselves - Ottawa, Information Canada, page 103, 1975. 75 Most women i n our s o c i e t y are t r a d i t i o n a l l y brought up to be the at-home mother, which perpetuates the "average Canadian f a m i l y " myth. The t r a i t s which women are encouraged to develop focus on i n t e r p e r s o n a l success, as mother, as w i f e . A woman's r o l e i s to be s e l f l e s s , n u r t u r i n g , s u p p o r t i v e . She l e a r n s to be the s t e r e o t y p i c female: submissive, conforming, dependent. Women l e a r n to l i k e themselves only i f they are l i k e d by o t h e r s ; they l e a r n not to d e f i n e themselves but to be d e f i n e d by o t h e r s . When marriage f a i l s , one of the bases f o r women's s e l f - e s t e e m and i d e n t i t y i s taken from them and a sense of f a i l u r e r e s u l t s . Our s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes o f t e n do not prepare women to become f i n a n c i a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and independent. P o o r l y equipped to enter the work f o r c e , faced with inadequate or no c h i l d maintenance payments, 41.5 per ce n t ^ o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s , women have no c h o i c e but to apply f o r w e l f a r e . To be on we l f a r e c a r r i e s a stigma of being l e s s worthwhile than o t h e r s . Such a stigma aggravates the a l r e a d y low l e v e l s of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e f e l t by women and makes i t even more d i f f i c u l t f o r them to decide to re - e n t e r the work f o r c e or to r e t r a i n . Faced with having to f i n d employment or take f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , the s i n g l e parent women i s o f t e n overwhelmed with g u i l t and fe a r about become an inadequate parent. A " f a i l u r e " as a wife she has only her r o l e of mother l e f t to v a l i d a t e her sense of s e l f - w o r t h . S o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s , although changing, continue to.perpetuate the myth that working mothers are inadequate mothers. These a t t i t u d e c o n f r o n t a l l working mothers, but they are f e l t most deeply by the woman, who must parent alone. Thus, she f e e l s p a r a l y s e d by the c o n f l i c t of wanting to work and a l s o to parent w e l l . The woman on income a s s i s t a n c e o f t e n f i n d s h e r s e l f i s o l a t e d and l o n e l y . Not knowing how to develop a support system f o r h e r s e l f , coupled with the lack of understanding from o t h e r s , she f e e l s d e f eated, confused and alone. C.O.P.E. was developed to help s i n g l e parent women break through these i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s . The program has a f o u r - f o l d purpose: 1. To p r o v i d e a support system of women h e l p i n g women to break through t h e i r sense of hopelessness and i s o l a t i o n . 2. To develop s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - w o r t h to enable these women to set g o a l s . 4. S t a t i s t i c s Canada - Survey of Consumer Finances - 1974. 76 3. To inform women of c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e to them f o r e d u c a t i o n a l upgrading, r e t r a i n i n g or work-force e n t r y . 4. To a s s i s t women to overcome s p e c i f i c problems which hinder them from becoming economically independent: P a r e n t i n g , communication s k i l l s , a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , access to community and s o c i a l a gencies. OUTLINE: The 12-week program runs from 9:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m., d a i l y . Short classroom time eases the t r a n s i t i o n from home to school and prevents the need f o r a f t e r - s c h o o l c h i l d c a r e . The women are encouraged to use noon hours to swim or do other p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , shop at t h r i f t shops or look a f t e r home maintenance d e t a i l s . The classroom i s off-campus and i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d to bus r o u t e s , the Community Y and the downtown co r e . INTAKE: The t o t a l r e f e r r a l and acceptance process demands a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Unit of M.H.R. F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Workers i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s r e f e r p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s to the F.A. Worker at the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n U n i t . There, the women are int e r v i e w e d and then r e f e r r e d to the C.O.P.E. i n s t r u c t o r who s e t s up i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s s c r e e n i n g process i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the i n s t r u c t o r to assess i n d i v i d u a l needs and to allow the women to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r problem areas. Once a d e c i s i o n i s made, the F.A. Worker and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r are informed and r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures begin. The i n t e r v i e w i s h e l d at l e a s t two weeks p r i o r to course commencement so the women can make good c h i l d care arrangements. During the w a i t i n g p e r i o d they a l s o meet with t h e i r Rehab. O f f i c e r to arrange t r a i n i n g allowance and d i s c u s s t h e i r commitment to the program. DEVELOPMENTAL PHASES The C.O.P.E. program i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n three phases, each phase r e i n f o r c i n g the other two to p r o v i d e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , awareness and the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r goal s e t t i n g and d e c i s i o n making. 77 Pelitninary Phase This time i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g b a s i c communication s k i l l s and deve l o p i n g g r e a t e r self-awareness and c o n f i d e n c e . Using a c o o p e r a t i v e , problem s o l v i n g model, the p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n to hel p each other and gi v e mutual support. The process i s an empowering one which allows each woman to begin to acknowledge her s t r e n g t h s and a b i l i t y and begin to see that she has c h o i c e s and can act upon them. S p e c i f i c workshops and u n i t s are b u i l t i n t o the format to encourage p e r s o n a l growth and to de a l with s p e c i f i c problems the p a r t i c i p a n t s are encountering. Parenting The success or f a i l u r e of the women moving to economic independence i s o f t e n determined by t h e i r f a m i l y and i t s a b i l i t y to cope with mother's changing r o l e . The women o f t e n s u f f e r from g u i l t , u n c e r t a i n t y and f r u s t r a t i o n when they don't understand t h e i r own r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r lack of b a s i c p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . Each group has d i f f e r e n t emphasis on the amount of time spent i n t h i s area. The approach used i s b a s i c a l l y an A d l e r i a n model emphasizing s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , l o g i c a l consequences and r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . R e f e r r a l s are o f t e n made to S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s , Mental Health or M.H.R. Family Support Workers or S o c i a l Workers f o r s i t u a t i o n s which r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p beyond the scope of the program. S t r e s s Reduction The p a r t i c i p a n t s are exposed to a v a r i e t y of techniques to enable them to de a l more e f f e c t i v e l y with t h e i r l i v e s and dea l with a n x i e t y and s t r e s s : v i s u a l i z a t i o n , r e l a x a t i o n techniques, time management, massage and two f i t n e s s c l a s s e s per week are i n c l u d e d along with noon hour water a e r o b i c s . A s s e r t iveness The women l e a r n a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s i n order to be able to l i s t e n f a i r l y to the needs of t h e i r f a m i l y and to communicate c l e a r l y t h e i r own needs and changing r o l e s . Besides being able to communicate with the f a m i l y the women a l s o r e q u i r e a s s e r t i v e n s s s k i l l s to c l e a r l y s t a t e t h e i r messages to f r i e n d s and i n d i v i d u a l s with whom they must d e a l as they begin to take c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s . A v a r i e t y of techniques are used to break o l d p a t t e r n s of p a s s i v i t y , m a n i p u l a t i o n and a g g r e s s i o n . 78 S o c i a l Awareness S o c i a l r o l e s and a t t i t u d e s with regard to women are changing. Work and education p a t t e r n s , f a m i l y r o l e s , s e x u a l i t y , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l employment, concepts of f e m i n i n i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e female behaviors are d i s c u s s e d and e x p l o r e d . Many of the women, having l i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n , are o f t e n unaware of community r e s o u r c e s . An awareness of s o c i a l agencies, p r o v i n c i a l government agencies and community resources i s developed. Speakers from these areas are of t e n i n v i t e d depending upon the group's needs. Phase Two - Goal S e t t i n g A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s who enter the program are aware that they want to change, however, these women don't know what to do or how to do i t . Changes i n sel f - i m a g e which occur d u r i n g the course allow f o r g r e a t e r freedom of c h o i c e and more d e c i s i v e n e s s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s are encouraged to dream, br a i n s t o r m and thin k c r e a t i v e l y about p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s . Holland's Code and the S e l f - D i r e c t e d Search and the Job Hunting Guide are used as f u r t h e r t o o l s . They then narrow the a l t e r n a t i v e s a c c o r d i n g to per s o n a l vaues and p r i o r i t i e s , l i m i t s and a b i l i t i e s . Because of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i t i s necessary to expl o r e immediate op t i o n s as w e l l as l i f e - t i m e c a r e e r s . They then base t h e i r employment c h o i c e s upon employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n twelve months or l e s s . Those with marketable s k i l l s e x p l o r e ways of g a i n i n g f u r t h e r s k i l l s through i n - s e r v i c e , e x t e n s i o n courses and t r a i n i n g . I t i s important to re c o g n i z e that women not only make ca r e e r c h o i c e s but a l s o l i f e - s t y l e c h o i c e s . They need to ex p l o r e e x t e n s i v e l y to make r e a l i s t i c d e c i s i o n s about g o a l s and o p t i o n s . Most thi n k only of t r a d i t i o n a l female jobs without r e a l l y examining whether the c h o i c e i s based on r o l e f a m i l i a r i t y or pe r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . Exposure to ca r e e r c h o i c e i s l i m i t e d to o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the Kamloops area s i n c e most of the women do not want to r e l o c a t e . Career i n f o r m a t i o n i s pro v i d e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways: - D i s c u s s i o n and reading of care e r m a t e r i a l s - C l a s s v i s i t s by Canada Employment C o u n s e l l o r - C l a s s v i s i t s by Cariboo C o l l e g e C o u n s e l l o r - I n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h - I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s with C o l l e g e C o u n s e l l o r s - F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with on-the-job t r a i n i n g plans 79 Once the women have narrowed t h e i r c h o i c e s they s e l e c t a f i e l d placement f o r one week. T h i s work exposure o f t e n i n c l u d e s s i t t i n g i n on c l a s s e s i f they p l a n to attend c o l l e g e . These experiences are h e l p f u l i n c l a r i f y i n g g o a ls and c o n f i r m i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e s . At t h i s time the women are encouraged to meet with t h e i r Rehab. O f f i c e r to d i c u s s with her/him some of the opt i o n s they they are e x p l o r i n g . Once the women have an idea of t h e i r g o als they are r e q u i r e d to develop i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r plans and a resume. The m a j o r i t y of C.O.P.E. p a r t i c i p a n t s are women who q u i t school e a r l y and are under-educated and u n t r a i n e d . Most r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g and/or upgrading. Throughout the course there i s a heavy emphasis on academic and study s k i l l upgrading and re a d i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s are encouraged to w r i t e the G.E.D. i f t h e i r Able Placement Test r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e probable success. R e f e r r a l s are made to other c o l l e g e personnel f o r t e s t i n g and c o n s u l t a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Tours of the C o l l e g e and L i b r a r y are i n c l u d e d i n the course. Phase Three - A c t i o n Plan The f i n a l stage i s th a t of a c t i o n . Each p a r t i c i p a n t completes a p r s o n a l a c t i o n p l a n to he l p her to f e e l c o n f i d e n t to de a l a s s e r t i v e l y with problems which w i l l a r i s e . Emphasis i s placed on r e a l i s t i c a l l y l o o k i n g ahead to the d i f f i c u l t i e s she i s l i k e l y to meet and to g i v e thought and p r e p a r a t i o n to overcoming them. By the end of the week, the f i r s t steps should i d e a l l y be underway so th a t a momentum w i l l take over i n the vacuum l e f t by completing the course. The women are encouraged to continue t h e i r support system. Most of the former p a r t i c i p a n t s keep i n touch to l e t me know what they are doing. Upon l e a v i n g C.O.P.E. the women then work with t h e i r Rehab. O f f i c e r to make necessary f i n a n c i a l arrangments f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or to take the M.H.R. Job A c t i o n Program f o r h e l p i n g a i n i n g employment and f u r t h e r v o c a t i o n a l guidance. My hope as the f a c i l i t a t o r of C.O.P.E. i s that I have helped women to make changes, but l e f t them f r e e to decide how and what to change. Each of my groups have pr o v i d e d me with a rewarding and e n r i c h i n g experience as I see women l e a v i n g with the s k i l l s to cope with f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s , the c o n v i c t i o n to a c t on them and confid e n c e to f o l l o w through on the best d e c i s i o n a v a i l a b l e . J 80 APPENDIX B Pre-Group Interview Schedule 1. What do you expect from y o u r s e l f i n C.O.P.E.? PROBE: Anything more? 2. G e n e r a l l y , how would you d e s c r i b e your f e e l i n g s abut y o u r s e l f as you are s t a r t i n g C.O.P.E.? PROBE: Would you gi v e me some s i t u a t i o n s to which I can r e l a t e t h i s ? 3. To what or whom do you a t t r i b u t e these f e e l i n s ? (Where do they come from?) (What i s the cause?) PROBE: Can you gi v e me some examples? 4. What do you value about y o u r s e l f ? PROBE: What are the most important t h i n g s ? 5. How d i d you come to be (value from preceeding q u e s t i o n ) ? 6. What ambitions do you have f o r y o u r s e l f ? Goals? 7. I f you were to f a i l , what would be the cause? 8. If you were to succeed, to what or whom would you a t t r i b u t e the cause? 9. How important i s i t to you to know you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r your successes? 10. How important i s i t to you to know you are r e s p o n s i b l e or your f a i l u r e s ? 11. To what would you a t t r i b u t e your success at C.O.P.E. (meeting the e x p e c t a t i o n s s et i n Question 1)? IF CLIENT NEEDED CUES, THE FOLLOWING LIST WAS OFFERED: Good luck Good or poor guest speakers, B r e a u l t or the program M i n i s t r y of Human Resources Your i n t e l l i g e n c e Your hard work Health E f f o r t 81 Post-Group Interview Schedule 1. What are your immediate goals or plans? 2. a) What are some s u c c e s s f u l experiences you've had at C.O.P.E.? b) What are the reasons? 3. a) What are some u n s u c c e s s f u l experiences at C.O.P.E.? b) What are the reasons? 4. What are some a d d i t i o n a l reasons f o r your s u c c e s s f u l experiences at C.O.P.E.? NOT TRUE VERY TRUE a) Good Luck 1 2 3 4 5 b) Hard work 1 2 3 4 5 c) Easy course 1 2 3 4 5 d) Your i n t e l l i g e n c e 1 2 3 4 5 e) E f f o r t 1 2 3 4 5 f) Linda B r e a u l t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 g) Mood d u r i n g C.O.P.E. 1 2 3 4 5 h) Others/group support 1 2 3 4 5 5. What are some a d d i t i o n a l reasons f o r your u n s u c c e s s f u l experiences at C.O.P.E.? NOT TRUE VERY TRUE a) Bad luck 1 2 3 4 5 b) Lack of work 1 2 3 4 5 c) Hard course 1 2 3 4 5 d) Not smart enough 1 2 3 4 5 e) L i t t l e e f f o r t 1 2 3 4 5 f) Linda B r e a u l t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 g) Mood d u r i n g c l a s s 1 2 3 4 5 h) Others 1 2 3 4 5 What do you think of these q u e s t i o n s ? 82 APPENDIX C Interviews Pre and Post: Goal Statements Subject One: Wanted improved communication s k i l l s , i n c r e a s e d self-awareness and lessened f e a r of people. She a l s o wanted i n f o r m a t i o n . At the c o n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w she d e s c r i b e d her a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s and her a b i l i t y to speak up, u s i n g them. She a l s o t a l k e d about the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e and i t s correspondence courses as a means of completing a degree. Subject Two: Wanted an e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n , a chance to make f r i e n d s and be of h e l p . She a l s o d e s c r i b e d a need f o r a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s . At the c o n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w she d e s c r i b e d her a s s e r t i v e a b i l i t i e s , her new found f r i e n d s and three job p r o s p e c t s . Subject Three: Wanted to i n c r e a s e her c o n f i d e n c e i n order to f i n d a job. She a l s o wanted to help with d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n . She f e l t a need f o r a s s e r t i o n techniques and f o r c h i l d care i n f o r m a t i o n . At the post i n t e r v i e w she d e s c r i b e d plans f o r upgrading and education and a sense of success at g e t t i n g a c l e a r d i r e c t i o n . Subject Four: Wanted to get o f f w e l f a r e . She wanted i n c r e a s e d awareness and p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w t h i s s u b j e c t d e s c r i b e d a sense that she could now do t h i n g s and she had a c l e a r l y developed s e t of p l a n s . Subject F i v e was randomly e l i m i n a t e d from the study. Subject S i x : Wanted an i n c r e a s e d sense of c o n f i d e n c e , communication s k i l l s , a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s , and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . She a l s o wanted to a r t i c u l a t e g o a l s . At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w t h i s c l i e n t d e s c r i b e d c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s as being s u c c e s s f u l , i n f a c t , "Great" and communication s k i l l s as somewhat l e s s s u c c e s s f u l . She had c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d g o als and steps to take to reach them. 83 Subject Seven: Described a need f o r p e r s o n a l awareness, more s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , c o n f i d e n c e and the a b i l i t y to stop p u t t i n g h e r s e l f down. She a l s o wanted to be able to f i n d a job. At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w t h i s c l i e n t had a c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l , was able to stand up f o r h e r s e l f and f e l t t h a t "she c o u l d do i t " . Subject E i g h t : Wanted to improve communication s k i l l s , parenting. s k i l i s and a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s . She wanted i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . She wanted to know about s c h o o l i n g . At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w she d e s c r i b e d i n c r e a s e d self-awareness and improved communication s k i l l s , she t a l k e d about improved study s k i l l s and a s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l program she would take. She a l s o d e s c r i b e d v o l u n t e e r work with which she was i n v o l v e d . Subject Nine: Described a goal as being able to f i n i s h the C.O.P.E. program. Other goals were to keep from a v o i d i n g the world, to f i n d a job; to get more knowledge. At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w she was moving i n t o town to be more ac c e s s a b l e and to be able to get a job. She valued her a b i l i t y to speak up and communicate. Subject Ten: Wanted some o u t s i d e c o n t a c t , some work or e d u c a t i o n a l goals and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . At the end of the program she d e s c r i b e d her p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s as having improved, her p e r s o n a l awareness as being g r e a t e r and her f r i e n d s h i p s as having i n c r e a s e d . T h i s c l i e n t ' s g o als f o r work/educational d i r e c t i o n were l e f t at t h i s time and a d e c i s i o n was made to r e t u r n to her marriage. Subject Eleven: Wanted to overcome p e r s o n a l f e a r s and problems, improve her p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and g a i n more c o n f i d e n c e . She a l s o d e s c r i b e d a need to get more i n touch with the world. At the end of the course she d e s c r i b e d a l e s s e n i n g of her f e a r of a u t h o r i t y , b e t t e r p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , b e t t e r community awareness and communication s k i l l s and a f e e l i n g of being more i n c o n t r o l . Subject Twelve: Wanted to f i n d out more about h e r s e l f ; to l e a r n d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , to get some education and to enter the work f o r c e . At the end of the program she d e s c r i b e d s p e c i f i c c a r e e r g o a l s . She a l s o d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as having found new resources and as having learned more about h e r s e l f . She has c l e a r l y met her needs i n the program. 84 S u b j e c t T h i r t e e n : Wanted t o b u i l d h e r c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - e s t e e m . A t t h e p r o g r a m ' s end s h e d e s c r i b e d a s e n s e o f i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e and e s t e e m . She a l s o d e s c r i b e d new s e l f - a s s e r t i a n s k i l l s , i m p r o v e d p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and c l e a r c a r e e r p l a n s . S u b j e c t F o u r t e e n : Wanted t o meet new p e o p l e and d e v e l o p f r i e n d s h i p s . She a l s o w a n t e d t o g a i n i n c r e a s e d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a w a r e n e s s and t o d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n f o r w o r k . A t t h e f i n a l i n t e r v i e w t h i s c l i e n t d e s c r i b e d i m m e d i a t e v o l u n t e e r p l a n s and a c a r e e r g o a l . She a l s o d i s c u s s e d h e r i m p r o v e d p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , s e l f - a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s and i m p r o v e d s e l f - e s t e e m . As w e l l s he d e s c r i b e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e g r o u p s u p p o r t f o r h e r . S u b j e c t F i f t e e n : Wanted t o b u i l d h e r s e l f u p; t o i m p r o v e h e r s e l f - e s t e e m . She w a n t e d t o g e t o f f in c o m e a s s i s t a n c e and h a v e some e d u c a t i o n a l / c a r e e r p l a n s . A t t h e f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s h e d e s c r i b e d h e r n e x t s t e p s a s d o i n g a resume b l i t z and t a k i n g a j o b a c t i o n c o u r s e t h r o u g h t h e M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s u c c e s s w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , h e r i m p r o v e d s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e g r o u p s u p p o r t . S u b j e c t S i x t e e n : Waned i m p r o v e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , i n c r e a s e d i n d e p e n d a n c e and a d i r e c t i o n f o r s c h o o l o r w o r k . A t t h e f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s h e d e s c r i b e d c l e a r and i m m e d i a t e c a r e e r p l a n s . She a l s o t a l k e d a b o u t h e r s u c c e s s w i t h a s s e r t i o n , s e l f - e s t e e m and c o n f i d e n c e and w i t h p a r e n t i n g , on t h e j o b p l a c e m e n t s and i n h e r c a r e e r c h o i c e . S u b j e c t S e v e n t e e n : Wanted t o g e t o f f w e l f a r e and r a i s e h e r c h i l d r e n i n d e p e n d a n t l y o f w e l f a r e . She w a n t e d t o c h a n g e h e r s e l f , t o l e a r n t o l i k e h e r s e l f ; t o f e e l l e s s p u t down and s c a r e d . She w a n t e d some i n d e p e n d a n c e . A t t h e f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s he d e s c r i b e d h e r s u c e s s i n t e r m s o f a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s , p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . She h a d u p g r a d i n g i n p r o g r e s s and an a p p l i c a t i o n i n f o r a s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g a r e a . 85 Subject Eighteen: Wanted to f e e l good about h e r s e l f . She wanted to improve communication s k i l l s g e n e r a l l y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n her d e a l i n g s with men. She wanted to get over f e e l i n g i s o l a t e d ; to improve her c o n f i d e n c e . She wanted to f e e l c l o s e r to her f a m i l y . In terms of e d u c a t i o n a l improvement she wanted to complete her high s c h o o l and get some s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w she d e s c r i b e d her successes. Her f e a r was reduced through group support. She had improved communication s k i l l s which helped with her f a m i l y l i f e . Her p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s were improved. She d e s c r i b e d f i t n e s s c l a s s e s and r e l a x a t i o n e x e r c i s e s as h e l p i n g to reduce t e n s i o n and improve s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Her e d u c a t i o n a l goals were s p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e . Subject Nineteen: Wanted conf i d e n c e through a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s , group support, s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , s t r e s s management and r e l a x a t i o n . She had s p e c i f i c work goals i n mind. At the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w her work goals were s t i l l very s p e c i f i c but very d i f f e r e n t from her e n t r y g o a l s . She d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l areas as s u c c c e s s f u l l y improved. Those areas i n c l u d e d p a r e n t i n g , self-awareness, communication s k i l l s , a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s , s e l f - e s t e e m development and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Her c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l was h i g h . Subject Twenty: Wanted improved c o n f i d e n c e , aggressiveness l e v e l s . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as depressed and wanted to get o f f a s s i s t a n c e and f i n d work. She wanted to l i k e h e r s e l f . She wanted to imrpove her p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . She had s p e c i f i c c a r e e r and v o l u n t e e r areas i n mind. During the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w i t was immediately obvious that her c a r e e r goals had changed. She d e s c r i b e d her p a r e n t i n g as s u c c e s s f u l . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as having l o s t a sense of f e a r ; of having i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l awareness and a d e s i r e f o r a c t i o n . L i f e s k i l l s l i k e a s s e r t i o n were improved, s p e c i f i c a l l y her a b i l i t y to d e a l with requests and c r i t i c i s m . She f e l t she had b u i l t good r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the c l a s s and had a s t r o n g support system. 

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