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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Internal-external locus of control and children’s perceptions of their family environment Jackson, Mark Edward 1982

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INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS DF CONTROL AND CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR FAMILY ENVIRONMENT by MARK EDWARD JACKSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 \ THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1982 (5) Mark Edward Jackson, 198E In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 13, 1982 ABSTRACT The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locu s oF c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r Family environment was i n v e s t i g a t e d by having 207 grade e i g h t students C85 males and 121 females] complete the Family Environment S c a l e and the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s c a l e . C h i l d r e n with high i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l saw t h e i r F a m i l i e s as being more cohesive, more expressive, encouraging more i n -dependence, having a higher l e v e l oF achievement o r i e n t a -t i o n , a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i -t i e s , a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s more i n t e r e s t e d i n m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s and values, more organized, and experiencing l e s s c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o l i n t h e i r Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s than the c h i l d r e n with high ex-t e r n a l c o n t r o l . These Fi n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s sex with one exception; male c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e d a higher l e v e l oF m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis i n t h e i r F a m i l i e s than d i d Female c h i l d r e n . A s i g n i F i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s u b j e c t gender was Found For the subscale i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I n t e r n a l males per-ce i v e d a higher l e v e l oF i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r F a m i l i e s than d i d e x t e r n a l males, w h i l e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l Females perceived a s i m i l a r l e v e l oF i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r F a m i l i e s . These F i n d i n produced an i n t e r a c t i o n between locus oF c o n t r o l and sub-j e c t gender. The Fin d i n g s were discussed, summarized and suggestions For Further research were presented. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS P a 9 e T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THIS STUDY . . 1 Statement o f the Problem 7 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the F o l l o w i n g Chapters 8 II REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE . . . . 9 I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l . 9 Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e s 10 Research I n v e s t i g a t i n g Locus o f C o n t r o l and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g 11 Family R e l a t i o n s T e s t s and S c a l e s . . 17 Research I n v e s t i g a t i n g Locus o f C o n t r o l as a F u n c t i o n o f the Family Environment 19 The Nature o f T h i s Study . . . . . . 22 II I METHODOLOGY 26 Sample 26 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Instruments 27 N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal R e a c t i o n Survey 27 Family Environment S c a l e . . . . . 28 i v Chapter Page Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 28 Data A n a l y s e s 30 IV DATA PRESENTATION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES 32 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 32 T e s t s of Hypotheses 34 V DISCUSSION, SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 45 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . 45 Summary 48 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 49 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 50 Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research . . 52 References 54 Appendices B l A Student I n f o r m a t i o n Form " 62 B N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal R e a c t i o n Survey 63 C Family Environment S c a l e 66 D Answer Sheet t o the Family Environment S c a l e . . . 67 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3.1 Family Environment S c a l e Subscale D e s c r i p t i o n s 29 4.1 Range, Mean, and Standard D e v i a t i o n of Scores on the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal R e a c t i o n Survey 32 4.2 Group S t r u c t u r e o f the I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l Comparison Groups 33 4.3 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s For Male and Female ' I n t e r n a l ' and ' E x t e r n a l ' Locus of C o n t r o l Groups f o r the Family Environment S c a l e S u b s c a l e s 35 4.4 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Ten Dependent V a r i a b l e s 36 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figures Page 4.1 Locus oF Control and Subject Gender Interaction 44 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciation to my chairman, Or. S. Marks, and to my committee members, Dr. S. Kahn and Or. H. RatzlaFF, For t h e i r supervision, guidance, and Feedback. I would l i k e to thank my Family and Friends For th e i r support and encouragement. I owe a very sp e c i a l thank you to my parents For t h e i r unending love, encouragement and understanding, which has meant so much to me throughout my l i F e . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my Fiancee, Carolyn, For providing me with the i n s p i r a t i o n and motivation to complete t h i s t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THIS STUDY The year 1980 was d e c l a r e d the Year o f the C h i l d and Family i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Over the past twenty years t h e r e has been a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the Fa m i l y ' s i n f l u e n c e i n shaping the d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d [ G l i c k S Haley, 1971; Olson. S Dahl, 1977]. Much of the i n t e r e s t i n the F a m i l y ' s i n f l u e n c e on p e r s o n a l i t y development has stemmed From the widely h e l d b e l i e F t h a t the Family i s the most i n F l u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g component oF a c h i l d ' s development CChristensen, 1964; Jackson, 19G5]. T h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the Family c o u l d probably be t r a c e d back to before the beginning c f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s when Freud made h i s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s about the p a r t parents p l a y e d i n " c a u s i n g " emotional i l l n e s s . S i n c e t h a t time the i n t e r e s t i n f a m i l y dynamics has been i n c r e a s i n g . Much of the c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n understanding the f a m i l y ' s i n f l u -ence on c h i l d development stems from the b e l i e f t h a t many emotional problems are r o o t e d i n the c o n t e x t of one's f a m i l y environment [Bowen, 1978]. In the e a r l y 1950's e f f o r t s were begun to i n v o l v e the f a m i l y i n treatment [Bateson, Jackson, Haley, S Weakland, 1956; Jackson, 1959; L i d z S F l e c k , I960]. There was a sudden i n c r e a s e i n f a m i l y r e s e a r c h i n order to f u r t h e r understand f a m i l y dynamics. Researchers have had a v a r i e t y o f purposes or s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s f o r which they 2 sought answers. S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have, p r i m a r i l y Focussed on de v e l o p i n g methodologies For s t u d y i n g Family i n t e r a c t i o n [ M i s h l e r S Waxier, 1968; R i s k i n S Faunce, 1970]. Others have s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 'Family-as-a-unit' and the ' i n d i v i d u a l - a s - a - u n i t ' [Bauman S Roman, 1966; Re i s s , 1967]. S t i l l o t h e r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the 'Family-as-a-system' [Haley, 1962;^Jackson, 1965]. Others have wanted to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of therapy by f o c u s s i n g on changes i n Family i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s [Haley, 1964; Lennard S B e r n s t e i n , 1969]. F u r t h e r examples o f d i v e r s e r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s i n -cl u d e : a f o c u s on husband-wife dominance [Bauman S Roman, 1966]; an i n t e r e s t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l f a m i l y r e s e a r c h [ S t r a u s , 1968]; an i n t e r e s t i n f a m i l y decision-making [ F e r r e i r a S Winter, 1968]; an i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g the f a m i l y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e t i o l o g y of s c h i z o p h r e n i a [Wynne S S i n g e r , 1963]; an i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g the f a m i l y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to o t h e r behaviour problems i n c h i l d r e n [ G o l d s t e i n , Judd, Rodnick, A l k i r e , S Gould, 1968; Het h e r i n g t o n , Stouwie, S Ridberg, 1971]; an i n t e r e s t i n f a m i l y r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s [ S t r o d t b e c k , 1954]; and an i n t e r e s t i n c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n the f a m i l y [ G o o d r i c h S Boomer, 1963; Olson S Ryder, 1970]. Although everyone agrees t h a t the f a m i l y environment i s c r u c i a l i n shaping the d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d , r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y environment. Thus the major i n t e r e s t o f t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y environment. I n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y dimension l o c u s of c o n t r o l has been i n c r e a s i n g d u r i n g the l a s t twenty years [ K e n n e l l y S K i n l e y , 1975; L e f c o u r t , 1956; Nowicki S Schneewind, 1977; R o t t e r , Seeman, S L i v e r a n t , 1962]. Locus o f c o n t r o l i s a c o n s t r u c t generated w i t h i n R o t t e r ' s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory, and r e f e r s to the e x t e n t t o which an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s events i n h i s / h e r l i f e as being a consequence o f h i s / h e r own behaviour and thus under per-sonal c o n t r o l . C e r t a i n people b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r beha-v i o u r d i r e c t l y e f f e c t s the p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e events which f o l l o w t h e i r e f f o r t s , w h ile o t h e r s f e e l t h a t such events are not i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r behaviour but are con-t r o l l e d by powerful o t h e r s or are determined by l u c k , chance, or f a t e . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l r e f e r s to the b e l i e f t h a t p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e events are a consequence of one's own behaviour and thereby under per s o n a l c o n t r o l ; e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l r e f e r s t o the b e l i e f t h a t p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e events are u n r e l a t e d t o one's own behaviours i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e beyond pe r s o n a l c o n t r o l [ R o t t e r , Seeman, S L i v e r a n t , 1962], Phares [1957] p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t o f numerous s c a l e s developed to measure i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l [James, 1957; R o t t e r , Seeman, E L i v e r a n t , 1962], These were f o l l o w e d by s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of behaviour on the b a s i s of an i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, S P r e s t o n , 1962; K e n n e l l y S K i n l e y , 1975; Palmer, 1971], S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have found t h a t an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l i s a s s o c i a t e d with l e s s a d a p t i v e coping mechanisms and mental pathology [Harrow S F e r r a n t e , 1969; Palmer, 1971]; and i s more p r e v a l e n t among s c h i z o p h r e n i c s than non-s c h i z o p h r e n i c s [Cromwell, Rosenthal, Shakow, S Zahn, 1961]. Other r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l i s a s s o c i a t e d with achievement m o t i v a t i o n among c h i l d r e n [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, S Preston, 1962; F r a n k l i n , 1963; R o t t e r S Mulry, 1965]; i s p r e d i c t i v e of academic achievement [Coleman, Campbell, Hobson, McPartland, Weinfeld, S York, 1966; K e n n e l l y S K i n l e y , 1975]; i s asso-c i a t e d with p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l adjustment [Hersch £ Scheibe, 1967; Phares, R i t c h i e , S Davis, 1968]; i s p r e d i c t i v e of success i n therapy [Kilmann S Howell, 1974; Perry, 1970]; and i s a s s o c i a t e d with a lower need to conform to group p r e s s u r e s [Crowne S L i v e r a n t , 1963]. In general the most widely h e l d view i s t h a t a b e l i e f i n an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l i s a h e a l t h i e r and more p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c than i s a b e l i e f i n an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . While t h e r e e x i s t s an abundance o f l i t e r a t u r e i n v e s t i -g a t i n g the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and f a m i l y environment would seem important. C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, and C r a n d a l l [1965] i n a study o f 923 American elementary and secondary school s tudents drawn from f i v e suburban area s c h o o l s , r e p o r t e d t h a t b e l i e f s i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and i n c r e a s e l i t t l e from the t h i r d t o t w e l f t h grades. I t c o u l d be expected, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y environment p l a y s an important and i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the development of h i s / h e r l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . There i s some r e s e a r c h which has i n v e s t i g a t e d l o c u s of c o n t r o l and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . The f i n d i n g s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f e a t u r e s of the f a m i l y environment which are asso-c i a t e d with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are: maternal per-m i s s i v e n e s s , e a r l y independent t r a i n i n g and maternal f l e x i -b i l i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s [Chance, 1965]; p a r e n t a l behaviour c h a r a c t e r i z e d as warm, p r a i s i n g , p r o t e c t i v e , and s u p p o r t i v e [Katkovsky, C r a n d a l l , S Good, 1967; MacOonald, 1971]; and a f a m i l y atmosphere d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t e n t and s u p p o r t i v e where pa r e n t s have demonstrated a f f e c t i o n , p h y s i c a l con-t a c t , t r u s t , and s e c u r i t y [Nowicki S S e g a l , 1974; Scheck, Emerick, S E l - A s s a l , 1973]. I n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l has a l s o been found to be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t a l beha-v i o u r d e s c r i b e d as l e s s c o n t r o l l i n g [Loeb, 1975]; and with a f a m i l y environment which i s d e s c r i b e d as c o h e s i v e , e x p r e s s i v e , independent, and encouraging c u l t u r a l -r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s [Nowicki S Schneewind, 19773. E x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , on the o t h e r hand, has been Found to be a s s o c i a t e d with Family envirqnments with Features such as: dominance, r e j e c t i o n , and c r i t i c a l i t y [Katkovsky, C r a n d a l l , S Good, 1967] ; o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , d e p r i -v a t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e s , and a f f e c t i v e punishments [Johnson S Kilmann, 1975; MacOonald, 1971]; and c o n t r o l and c o n f l i c t [Loeb, 1975; Nowicki S Schneewind, 1977], The m a j o r i t y of the r e s e a r c h which has i n v e s t i g a t e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s has been based on data d e r i v e d from r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s from a d u l t s and c o l l e g e - a g e s t u d e n t s [Cromwell, 1953; Johnson S Kilmann, 1975; MacDonald, 1971] or o b s e r v a t i o n s of p a r e n t a l beha-v i o u r [Katkovsky, C r a n d a l l , S Good, 1967 ; Loeb, 1975]. However, f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s the assumption, d e r i v e d from symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n theory [Mead, 1938] was accepted. T h i s theory p u r p o r t s t h a t i n o r d e r to under-stand the e f f e c t s of c h i l d r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s on c h i l d r e n , i t i s necessary to examine the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n between themselves and t h e i r f a m i l y , s i n c e i t i s the c h i l d r e n ' s own p e r c e p t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n which i s most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r them. Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study. They were younger than s u b j e c t s used i n most past r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h and s i n c e they s t i l l l i v e d with t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f a m i l y environment would be most immediate. T h i s s t u d y a l s o compared male and female s u b j e c t s , an area which most r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h has overlooked. Much of the previous r e l a t e d research has s t u d i e d male s u b j e c t s to the e x c l u s i o n o f females [Kennelly S K i n l e y , 1975; Loeb, 1975; Palmer, 1971; Scheck, Emerick, S E l - A s s a l , 1973}. Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions of t h e i r f a m i l y environment. In order to study t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , grade e i g h t c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions of t h e i r f a m i l y environment and the r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d . The study attempted to determine whether c h i l d r e n designated as i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environments d i f f e r e n t l y . I t was expected t h a t i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l sub-j e c t s would p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environments as being more cohesive; more expr e s s i v e ; as having more emphasis on independence; more achievement o r i e n t e d ; more i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; more i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; having a higher moral-r e l i g i o u s emphasis; and being more organized than e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . I t was a l s o expected t h a t e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s would per c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environments as being c o n f l i c t i n g and more c o n t r o l l i n g than the i n t e r n a l l o c u s 8 of c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s ' f a m i l y environments. I t was expected there would be no d i f f e r e n c e between male and female s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r f a m i l y environments. D e s c r i p t i o n of the F o l l o w i n g Chapters T h i s t h e s i s was o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s p l u s r e f e r e n c e s and appendix. The f i r s t c hapter p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the background o f i n t e r e s t i n the f a m i l y ' s i n f l u e n c e on c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t y development with par-t i c u l a r f o c u s on the p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t l o c u s of con-t r o l . Chapter I I p r o v i d e s an overview of s e l e c t e d l i t e r a -t u r e which r e p o r t s on l o c u s of c o n t r o l and i t s r e l a t i o n -s h i p to p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an overview of l i t e r a t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g parent and f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e on the development of l o c u s of c o n t r o l . T h i s l e a d s i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the nature of t h i s study. Hypotheses to be t e s t e d i n t h i s study are s t a t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s the methodology. Chapter IV p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f the data a n a l y s e s and t e s t s o f hypotheses. The f i f t h c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s the d i s c u s s i o n , summary, and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Forms and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s appear i n the appendix. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE A c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n oF the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l dimension i s presented, Followed by a d e s c r i p -t i o n oF the v a r i o u s s c a l e s developed to measure l o c u s oF c o n t r o l . A review of the r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g l o c u s oF c o n t r o l and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l F u n c t i o n -i n g i s then presented, Followed by a review oF the v a r i o u s s c a l e s developed to measure Family r e l a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g r t h i s a review oF the r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e oF p a r e n t s and Family on the development oF l o c u s oF con-t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i s pr e s e n t e d . T h i s chapter c o n c l u d e s with a statement oF the hypotheses to be t e s t e d i n t h i s study. I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus oF C o n t r o l I n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l i s a dimension oF p e r s o n a l i t y generated w i t h i n R o t t e r ' s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory and r e f e r s to whether an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s events i n h i s / h e r l i f e to be a r e s u l t o f h i s / h e r own e f f o r t s and behaviour — t h i s type o f i n d i v i d u a l would be d e s c r i b e d as having an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ; or whether an i n d i -v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s events i n h i s / h e r l i f e as being c o n t r o l l e d by o t h e r s o r determined by l u c k , chance or f a t e and t h e r e -f o r e a c c e p t i n g no pe r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the events i n h i s / h e r l i f e -- t h i s type o f i n d i v i d u a l would be d e s c r i b e d as having an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e s The F i r s t attempt to measure the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l dimension as a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e i n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory was r e p o r t e d i n a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n by Phares [1955]. Phares designed a t h i r t e e n - i t e r n s c a l e to measure a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t t r i b u t i n g the occurrence of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s to chance r a t h e r than o n e s e l f . James [1957] r e p o r t e d u s i n g a more l e n g t h y r e v i s i o n of the Phares s c a l e which l a t e r became known as the James-Phares s c a l e . S i n c e the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the James-Phares s c a l e , a s e r i e s o f new s c a l e s has been used, some designed f o r t e s t -i n g s p e c i a l age groups. The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e i s a f o r c e d - c h o i c e measure, designed f o r use with a d u l t s , o f f e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of v a r i o u s events [ R o t t e r , Seeman, S L i v e r a n t , 1962]. The Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e f o r c h i l -dren i s an o r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t r u e - f a l s e s c a l e [ B i a l e r , 1961]; The C h i l d r e n ' s P i c t u r e T e s t o f I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l i s a p r o j e c t i v e measure which d e p i c t s s i t u a t i o n s which i n v o l v e a t t r i b u t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y [ B a t t l e S R o t t e r , 1963]; The I n t e l l e c t u a l Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s designed to measure c h i l d r e n ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l i n the academic s i t u a t i o n [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, S C r a n d a l l , 1965]; The N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey i s a g e n e r a l i z e d l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n [Nowicki S S t r i c k l a n d , 1973]. 11 The N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal R e a c t i o n Survey was chosen f o r use i n t h i s study because i t was the most s u i t -a b l e l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e , of the ones reviewed, which c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a group s e t t i n g . I t was a l s o the most s u i t a b l e s c a l e s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to measure a g e n e r a l i z e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l with c h i l d r e n . Research I n v e s t i g a t i n g Locus of C o n t r o l and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p to P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g Harrow and F e r r a n t e [1969] t e s t e d 128 p s y c h i a t r i c i n -p a t i e n t s [45 males and 83 females] upon admission u s i n g the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e [ R o t t e r , 19B6]. F o l l o w i n g seven weeks oF c l i n i c a l treatment the s u b j e c t s were r e -t e s t e d . T h e i r r e s u l t s suggested t h a t p a t i e n t s with g r e a t e r psychopathology and Fewer s o c i a l s k i l l s [ s c h i z o p h r e n i c ] have a g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n than p a t i e n t s with l e s s c h r o n i c i l l n e s s e s [ n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c ] . Palmer [1971] compared a group oF h o s p i t a l i z e d psy-c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s [n=89] with a c o n t r o l group oF h o s p i t a l -i z e d medical [ n o n - p s y c h i a t r i c ] [h=88] male v e t e r a n s on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e [ R a t t e r , 1966]. The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y supported the author's h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p s y c h i a t r i c i n - p a t i e n t s would demonstrate g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l i t y on R o t t e r ' s [1966] measure oF i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l , as compared with p a t i e n t s h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r n o n - p s y c h i a t r i c reasons. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s o b t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e [ s i g n i f y i n g g r e a t e r 12 e x t e r n a l i t y ] as compared with the n o n - p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with a study by Cromwell, Rosenthal, Shakow, and Zahn [1961] r e p o r t i n g g r e a t e r e x t e r -n a l i t y i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c than i n normal i n d i v i d u a l s on an e a r l y v e r s i o n of the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e , and with a study by Hersch and Scheibe [1967] which found g r e a t e r maladjustment among e x t e r n a l s . Harrow and F e r r a n t e [1969] have r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l i t y f o r s c h i z o p h r e n i c s than f o r n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . Cromwell, Rosenthal, Shakow, and Zahn [1961] compared a group o f white male s c h i z o p h r e n i c s [n=15; mean age=34] with a c o n t r o l group of white male c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s [n=13; mean age=22] u s i n g the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e . They d e s c r i b e d the s c h i z o p h r e n i c s u b j e c t s as having a t t i t u d e s o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l while the normal s u b j e c t s had a t t i t u d e s of i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . They a l s o found s c h i z o -p h r e n i c s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r mothers as more o v e r l y c o n t r o l l i n g than the normal s u b j e c t s . The s e l e c t i o n of c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s as s u b j e c t s f o r the c o n t r o l group i n t h i s study would seem to i n v a l i d a t e the f i n d i n g s . I t c o u l d be expected t h a t a group of people who would i d e n t i f y them-s e l v e s as c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s would n a t u r a l l y have a t t i t u d e s of i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . Crowne and L i v e r a n t [1963] t e s t e d 110 i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology s t u d e n t s , 40 males and 70 females, and found those s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d as being e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e had a h i g h e r need f o r 13 a p p r o v a l , f e l t l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , and con-formed more r e a d i l y to group p r e s s u r e than the i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s . R o t t e r and Mulry [1965] t e s t e d 61 female and 59 male s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d from a f i r s t - y e a r psychology c l a s s a t a major u n i v e r s i t y . The s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l groups u s i n g the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e . The average sco r e was 8.48 and the median was 8.0. T h e r e f o r e a l l sub i e c t s with s c o r e s of 9 or more were c l a s s i f i e d as e x t e r n a l s and with 8 or l e s s , as i n t e r n a l s . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t males and females d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e . Consequently, s u b j e c t gender d i d not appear to be a f a c t o r i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the r e s u l t s . T h i s study found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n t e r n a l s take l o n g e r to decide i n a matching task when the task i s d e f i n e d as s k i l l c o n t r o l l e d than when i t i s d e f i n e d as chance c o n t r o l l e d . The o p p o s i t e tendency i s found with s u b j e c t s who are c l a s s i f i e d as e x t e r n a l s . E x t e r n a l s tend to take l o n g e r to decide on the c o r r e c t match when the task i s d e f i n e d as chance than when i t i s d e f i n e d as s k i l l c o n t r o l l e d . The r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with a study by Crowne and L i v e r a n t [1963] which found e x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s had l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s than i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t s . C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky and P r e s t o n [1962] a d m i n i s t e r e d the C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e l l e c t u a l Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 40 elementary school-age c h i l d r e n , 20 boys and 20 g i r l s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n the F i r s t , second and t h i r d grades. I t was Found t h a t a b e l i e f i n s e l f -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y [ i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l ] f o r achievement events was p r e d i c t i v e of achievement behaviours i n boys, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to those o f the g i r l s . I t was a l s o found t h a t the more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y competent boys [as measured by the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t ] expressed s t r o n g e r b e l i e f s t h a t t h e i r behaviours were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the r e i n f o r c e m e n t they e x p e r i e n c e d than d i d the l e s s compe-t e n t boys. In o t h e r words, the competent boys more o f t e n f e l t "master of t h e i r f a t e " [ i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l ] than d i d the boys who performed p o o r l y i n the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g s i t u -a t i o n . Furthermore, boys who f e l t t h a t they, r a t h e r than o t h e r s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r everyday i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement r e i n f o r c e m e n t s spent more time i n f r e e - p l a y i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s and e x h i b i t e d more c o n c e r t e d s t r i v i n g i n these a c t i v i t i e s than d i d boys who b e l i e v e d the outcome o f t h e i r achievement e f f o r t s were more a f u n c t i o n o f o t h e r s than themselves. Moreover, boys who evidenced s t r o n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r i v i n g i n f r e e p l a y , as compared with the boys whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c a s u a l and l a c k a d a i s i c a l , had g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of s u c c e s s f o r t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t s . Thus i t appears as though a b e l i e f i n an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s p r e d i c t i v e of achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n e a r l y g r a d e - s c h o o l males. C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, and C r a n d a l l [13B5] a d m i n i s t e r e d the I n t e l l e c t u a l Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, E C r a n d a l l , 1965] to 923 elementary and h i g h school s t u d e n t s from grades three to 12. T h e i r r e s u l t s showed t h a t a b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , to s c h o o l - a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by the t h i r d grade and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n i n t e r n a l i t y from the t h i r d to f i f t h grade nor from s i x t h to t w e l f t h grade f o r e i t h e r of the sexes nor f o r the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. K e n n e l l y and K i n l e y [1975] t e s t e d 49 s i x t h grade boys u s i n g the I n t e l l e c t u a l Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q uestion-n a i r e [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, S C r a n d a l l , 1965] to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among p e r c e i v e d teacher a d m i n i s t e r e d r e -i n forcements, l o c u s of c o n t r o l , and academic achievement. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t boys who p e r c e i v e d t e a c h e r s as c o n t i n g e n t l y p u n i t i v e were i n t e r n a l i n l o c u s of c o n t r o l and performed w e l l on measures of academic achievement. An i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l was a l s o p r e d i c t i v e of academic achievement. Hersch and Scheibe [1967] compared c o l l e g e - a g e s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s on the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e with a number of o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s . They found the l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e s r e l a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y to measures of maladjustment, with i n t e r n a l s c o r e r s l e s s maladjusted. Locus o f c o n t r o l s c a l e s are c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d to a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s , with i n t e r n a l s c o r e r s de-s c r i b i n g themselves as more a c t i v e , s t r i v i n g , a c h i e v i n g , powerful, independent, and e f f e c t i v e . For two of t h r e e samples, i n t e r n a l s c o r e r s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e as v o l u n t e e r l a y t h e r a p i s t s on c h r o n i c mental h o s p i t a l wards than e x t e r n a l s c o r e r s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between sexes. In a study by Phares, R i t c h i e , and Davis [1968] the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 255 s t u d e n t s i n summer s c h o o l c l a s s e s a t a s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y . Groups o f i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and then subsequently p r o v i d e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e p o r t s c o n t a i n i n g both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . As pre-d i c t e d , e x t e r n a l s r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the nega-t i v e m a t e r i a l than d i d i n t e r n a l s . I n t e r n a l s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s to engage i n remedial behaviours to c o n f r o n t t h e i r problems. These f i n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t with a study by Davis and Phares [1967] which found t h a t i n t e r n a l s are s u p e r i o r to e x t e r n a l s i n " a c t i v e l y " seeking i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to problem s o l u -t i o n . Gore and R o t t e r [1963] suggested t h a t i n t e r n a l s are more l i k e l y to engage i n behaviours t h a t w i l l c o n f r o n t a problem d i r e c t l y than are e x t e r n a l s . Kilmann and Howell [1974] compared the outcome o f e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l s c o r e s u s i n g the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e and c o n s i d e r e d the a s s o c i a t i o n between l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and d i r e c t and n o n - d i r e c t marathon group therapy with 84 i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d female drug a d d i c t s . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l s 17 e v a l u a t e d themselves more f a v o u r a b l y , evidenced g r e a t e r e f f o r t s t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n therapy, and became more r e -f l e c t i v e - making more s e r i o u s attempts to understand them-s e l v e s . W i t h i n the therapy groups, i n t e r n a l s c o n s i s t e n t l y showed g r e a t e r g a i n s from pretherapy to p o s t - t h e r a p y . Perry [1970] i n v e s t i g a t e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to change i n t h e r a p e u t i c outcome. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t when change o c c u r s i n treatment, i t o c c u r s more o f t e n i n the d i r e c t i o n from e x t e r n a l i z i n g t o i n t e r -n a l i z i n g than the r e v e r s e . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with o t h e r r e s e a r c h which has found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who have an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are b e t t e r a d j u s t e d both person-a l l y and s o c i a l l y than i n d i v i d u a l s who have an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Family R e l a t i o n s T e s t s and S c a l e s I n t e r e s t i n the f a m i l y can be t r a c e d back to before the b e g i n n i n g of Freudian p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . S i n c e t h a t time a number oF i n s t r u m e n t s have been developed to measure v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . The Family R e l a t i o n s Inventory [Brunkan S C r i t e s , 1964] i s a t e s t developed to a s s e s s p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon a c l i e n t ' s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The Family Rorschach [Loveland, Wynne, S Singer, 1963] was developed t o measure a Family's a b i l i t y to reach a consen-sus on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n oF the Rorschach i n k b l o t s . P l e s s and 18 S a t t e r w h i t e [1973] developed an instrument, a d m i n i s t e r e d to parents, to assess the o v e r a l l adequacy of Family F u n c t i o n -i n g From s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w data. Deykin [1972] developed a model For a s s e s s i n g l i f e F u n c t i o n i n g i n Fami-l i e s of d e l i n q u e n t or p r e - d e l i n q u e n t boys. The Family R e l a -t i o n s T e s t [Anthony £ Bene, 1957] was developed to t e s t the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s towards the v a r i o u s members of h i s f a m i l y , and h i s / h e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e i r r e c i p r o c a l r e g a r d f o r him/her. The P e r c e i v e d Parent-i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [Devereux, Bronfenbrenner, £ Rodgers, 19B9] was designed to a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f 14 gene r a l v a r i a b l e s of parent behaviour. The P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [Roe £ Siegelman, 19B3] was developed to as s e s s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r mother or f a t h e r ' s behaviour towards them. The P a r e n t - C h i l d I n t e r -a c t i o n R a t i n g S c a l e s [ H e i l b r u n , 1964] are designed t o as s e s s p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l nurturance. The Family Environment S c a l e [Moos, 1974] was designed t o a s s e s s the s o c i a l c l i m a t e of f a m i l i e s . The l a s t mentioned s c a l e f o c u s s e s on the measurement o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f a m i l y members, on the d i r e c t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l growth emphasized w i t h i n the f a m i l y , and on the b a s i c o r g a n i z a -t i o n s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y . The Family Environment S c a l e was chosen f o r use i n t h i s study because i t was the most s u i t a b l e f a m i l y r e l a -t i o n s s c a l e , o f the ones reviewed, which c o u l d be admini-s t e r e d t o c h i l d r e n . . I t was a l s o the most s u i t a b l e s c a l e 19 s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to measure i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environment. Research I n v e s t i g a t i n g Locus of C o n t r o l as a F u n c t i o n of the Family Environment  D e s p i t e the number of s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a -t u r e c o n c e r n i n g l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e has been done to i n v e s t i g a t e the o r i g i n s of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r -nal c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Chance [1965] and Katkovsky, C r a n d a l l , and Good [1967] have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , as measured by the I n t e l l e c -t u a l Achievement R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [ C r a n d a l l , Katkovsky, S C r a n d a l l , 1965], and data o b t a i n e d through q u e s t i o n i n g and o b s e r v i n g p a r e n t s . Both s t u d i e s produced s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . Chance [19B5] r e p o r t e d t h a t maternal p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , e a r l y independent t r a i n i n g , and mothers' f l e x i b i l i t y o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were r e l a t e d to i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n s of sons, but these maternal v a r i a t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the o r i e n t a t i o n s of daughters. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , Katkovsky, C r a n d a l l , and Good [1967] r e p o r t e d t h a t though g i r l s whose f a t h e r s were e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t i o n a t e and n u r t u r a n t were l e s s i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e t h a t they had caused t h e i r own f a i l u r e s , t h e i r f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t parent b e h a v i o u r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as warm, p r a i s i n g , p r o t e c t i v e , and s u p p o r t i v e were p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . C onversely, such p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s as dominance, r e j e c t i o n and c r i t i c a l i t y were 20 n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with b e l i e f s i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . In a study by MacDonald [1971] r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s o f p a r e n t a l behaviour and r e s u l t s o f the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e were c o l l e c t e d from 427 [192 male and 235 femaleD undergraduate u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . The data were a n a l y z e d i n a 2x2 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d e s i g n [Sex and Parent B e h a v i o u r ] . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p a r e n t s as being warm [ n u r t u r a n t ] , c o n s i s t e n t [ p r e d i c t a b l e ] , and as encouraging t h e i r c h i l d r e n to t r y to c o n t r o l t h e i r own r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . On the o t h e r hand, e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p a r e n t s as u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s which are r a t h e r l i k e l y t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t one's r e i n f o r c e m e n t s are e x t e r -n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d ; namely, o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , d e p r i v a t i o n of p r i v i l e g e s , and a f f e c t i v e punishment. In a s i m i l a r study Johnson and Kilmann [1975] looked a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l e d p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . The s u b j e c t s were 80 u n i v e r s i t y undergraduates [40 male and 40 f e m a l e ] . They were a d m i n i s t e r e d the R o t t e r [19BB] Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e and the Family R e l a t i o n s Inventory [Brunkan S C r i t e s , 1964], The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t maternal c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s of o v e r p r o t e c t i v e n e s s and r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s were r e l a t e d to an e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . Scheck, Emerick, and E l - A s s a l [1973] h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n dimensions o f p a r e n t a l behaviour were i n f l u -e n t i a l i n the development of an i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l 21 c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . These dimensions were p a r e n t a l con-s i s t e n c y , c o n s t r a i n t , and support. They c o l l e c t e d data From 552 male n i n t h - g r a d e r s on p a r e n t - c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . They Found the most i n F l u e n t i a l F a c t o r i n the development oF i n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i n young male a d o l e s c e n t s i s degree of p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l support. Nowicki and Segal [1974] i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l behaviour a s s o c i a t e d with l o c u s oF con-t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , had 112 grade twelve s t u d e n t s [58 male and 54 Female] complete a l o c u s oF c o n t r o l and p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l behaviour s c a l e . Locus oF c o n t r o l oF the sub-j e c t s was measured by the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey [Nowicki S S t r i c k l a n d , 1973] and p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l nurturance was a s s e s s e d by a m o d i f i c a t i o n oF the P a r e n t - C h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n R a t i n g S c a l e s [ H e i l b r u n , 1964]. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t For Females, i n t e r n a l i t y was asso-c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d p a t e r n a l a f f e c t i o n , p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , t r u s t and s e c u r i t y and g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d maternal p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , t r u s t and s e c u r i t y . For males, i n t e r -n a l i t y was a s s o c i a t e d with g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d maternal a f f e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of MacDonald [1971]; t h a t i s , p e r c e i v e d nur-turance o f p arents i s a s s o c i a t e d with i n t e r n a l i t y . Loeb [1975] observed the i n t e r a c t i o n between f o u r t h and f i f t h grade boys, who were h i g h l y i n t e r n a l and h i g h l y e x t e r n a l i n l o c u s of c o n t r o l , and t h e i r p a r e n t s , to a s s e s s 22 the p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t e x t e r n a l boys more f r e q u e n t l y had h i g h l y d i r e c t i v e [more c o n t r o l l i n g ] parents, w hile i n t e r n a l boys had l e s s d i r e c t i v e [ l e s s c o n t r o l l i n g ] p a r e n t s . In a study by Nowicki and Schneewind [1977] the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y environment and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d by having over 700 twelve and e i g h t e e n - y e a r - o l d German, and American males and females complete the Family Environment S c a l e [Moos, 1974] and the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal R e a c t i o n Survey [Nowicki S S t r i c k l a n d , 1973]. I n d i v i d u a l s with high i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l f e l t t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s were cohesive, e x p r e s s i v e , i n d e -pendent, and h i g h on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a -t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and showed l i t t l e evidence of c o n f l i c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The f a m i l y environment asso-c i a t e d with i n t e r n a l i t y was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s sex, age and c u l t u r e , except f o r the f a c t t h a t o l d e r German males showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . However, r e s u l t s were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n and t h i s group was more independent of the f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e , s i n c e i t i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s and working people. The Nature o f t h i s Study The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and c h i l d r e n ' s per-c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environment. A group o f grade e i g h t c h i l d r e n was s e l e c t e d because they were younger than t h o s e s u b j e c t s u s e d i n m o s t p r e v i o u s r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . T h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t w o u l d b e m o r e i m m e d i a t e b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g i n t h e f a m i l y s e t t i n g . U n l i k e m o s t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h i s s t u d y w a s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g p a s s i b l e m a l e / f e m a l e d i f f e r e n c e s o n t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e d i m e n s i o n . T h e p a s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d s e x w a s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . F o r t h i s s t u d y i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l was m e a s u r e d b y t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y [ N o w i c k i S S t r i c k l a n d , 1 9 7 3 ] . T h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n -m e n t was m e a s u r e d b y u s e o f t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e [ M o o s , 1 9 7 4 ] . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i F i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s . No d i f f e r e n c e w a s e x p e c t e d b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s , a n d n o s i g n i f i -c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d s u b j e c t g e n d e r was e x p e c t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s , s t a t e d i n t h e n u l l f o r m : H I : T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ["^=.05] b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e o f ' i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ' s u b j e c t s a n d ' e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n -t r o l ' s u b j e c t s o n e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b -s c a l e s o f t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e : 1. C o h e s i o n 2 . E x p r e s s i v e n e s s 2 4 3. C o n f l i c t 4. I n d e p e n d e n c e 5. A c h i e v e m e n t o r i e n t a t i o n B. I n t e l 1 e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n 7. A c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n 8. M o r a l - r e l i g i o u s e m p h a s i s 9. , O r g a n i z a t i o n 10. C o n t r o l T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e C°C=.05] b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s o n e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s c a l e s o f t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e : 1 . C o h e s i o n 2. E x p r e s s i v e n e s s 3. C o n F l i c t 4. I n d e p e n d e n c e 5. A c h i e v e m e n t o r i e n t a t i o n B. I n t e l 1 e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n 7. A c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n 8. M o r a l - r e l i g i o u s e m p h a s i s 9. O r g a n i z a t i o n 10. C o n t r o l T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i F i b e t w e e n l o c u s o F c o n t r o l e a c h o F t h e F o l l o w i n g s u E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e : 1. C o h e s i o n 2. E x p r e s s i v e n e s s c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n (X=.053 a n d s u b j e c t g e n d e r o n b s c a l e s o F t h e F a m i l y 3. C o n F l i c t Independence Achievement o r i e n t a t i o n I n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n A c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n M o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis O r g a n i z a t i o n C o n t r o l 2 6 C H A P T E R I I I METHODOLOGY T h e s a m p l e , d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s , d a t a c o l l e c -t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a n d d a t a a n a l y s e s u s e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . S a m p l e T h e s a m p l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a l l g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C. i s a s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h e d e m o g r a p h i c m a k e u p o f New W e s t m i n s t e r c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n t h e f u l l r a n g e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s a n d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c m a k e u p o f o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n . T h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l i s t h e s o l e p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r a n d a s a r e s u l t i s t h e o n l y p u b l i c s c h o o l a v a i l a b l e t o c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . S i n c e t h e s a m p l e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a l l g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S e c o n -d a r y S c h o o l i t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d demo-g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w o u l d b e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s a m p l e a n d t h a t t h i s s a m p l e w o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c m a k e u p o f New W e s t m i n -s t e r a n d o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 2 7 P e r m i s s i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y was g r a n t e d b y t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S c h o o l B o a r d a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . D e s c r i p t i o n o f I n s t r u m e n t s T h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h w e r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y [ N o w i c k i S S t r i c k l a n d , 1 9 7 3 ] a n d t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e [ M o o s , 1 9 7 4 ] . 1. N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y T h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y [ N o w i c k i S S t r i c k l a n d , 1 9 7 3 ] i s a l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n , u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o m e a s u r e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d t o a s s i g n s u b j e c t s t o t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . T h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d S u r v e y i s a p e n c i l -a n d - p a p e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f 4 0 q u e s t i o n s w h i c h m u s t be a n s w e r e d e i t h e r ' y e s ' o r ' n o ' . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d s a g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y o f r e i n -f o r c e m e n t , w i t h h i g h s c o r e s b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . R e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s e d o n s a m p l e s f r o m g r a d e s t h r e e t o t w e l v e . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w e r e .63 t o .82; i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s w e r e .63 t o .79 w i t h n = l , 7 3 2 . S c o r e s o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e s i g n i -f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l [ N o w i c k i S S t r i c k l a n d , 1 9 7 3 ] , s u p p o r t i n g t h e i n s t r u -m e n t ' s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . 2 8 2. F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e T h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e - F o r m R [ M o o s , 1974D w a s u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , p e r -c e i v e d F a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e i s a p e n c i l - a n d - p a p e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o F 9 0 q u e s t i o n s w h i c h m u s t b e a n s w e r e d e i t h e r ' t r u e ' o r ' F a l s e ' . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d s i n d e p e n d e n t s c o r e s F o r t e n s e p a r a t e s u b s c a l e s : C o h e s i o n , E x p r e s -s i v e n e s s , C o n F l i c t , I n d e p e n d e n c e , A c h i e v e m e n t O r i e n -t a t i o n , I n t e l l e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n , A c t i v e -R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s E m p h a s i s , O r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d C o n t r o l . T a b l e 3.1 p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o F t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e s u b s c a l e s . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s F o r t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y , r a n g i n g F r o m .64 t o .79. T h e i t e m - t o - s u b s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s v a r y F r o m .45 F o r I n d e -p e n d e n c e t o .58 F o r C o h e s i o n . T h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a -b i l i t i e s a r e a l l s a t i s f a c t o r y , r a n g i n g F r o m .58 F o r I n d e p e n d e n c e t o .86 F o r C o h e s i o n [ M o o s , 1974]. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s T h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y a n d t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s , b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g o F t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r h o m e - r o o m c l a s s r o o m . I n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l F o r t e s t - t a k i n g o r d e r e f f e c t s , t h e o r d e r o F t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d was c o u n t e r -b a l a n c e d a c r o s s c l a s s e s . 29 T A B L E 3.1 F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e S u b s c a l e D e s c r i p t i o n s R e l a t i o n s h i p D i m e n s i o n s 1. C o h e s i o n T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h F a m i l y m e m b e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d a n d c o m m i t t e d t o t h e F a m i l y a n d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h F a m i l y m e m b e r s a r e h e l p F u l a n d s u p p o r t i v e o f e a c h o t h e r . 2. E x p r e s s i v e - T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h F a m i l y m e m b e r s a r e n e s s a l l o w e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d t o . a c t o p e n l y a n d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r F e e l i n g s d i r e c t l y . 3. C o n f l i c t T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e o p e n e x p r e s s i o n o f a n g e r a n d a g g r e s s i o n a n d g e n e r a l l y c o n f l i c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f t h e f a m i l y . P e r s o n a l G r o w t h D i m e n s i o n s 4. I n d e p e n d e n c e T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a m i l y m e m b e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o b e a s s e r t i v e , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t , t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s a n d t o t h i n k t h i n g s o u t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . 5. A c h i e v e m e n t T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f O r i e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s [ i . e . , s c h o o l a n d w o r k ] a r e c a s t i n t o a n a c h i e v e m e n t o r i e n t e d o r c o m p e t i t i v e f r a m e w o r k . B. I n t e l l e c t u a l - T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f a m i l y i s c o n -C u l t u r a l c e r n e d a b o u t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , i n t e l -O r i e n t a t i o n l e c t u a l a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 7. A c t i v e - T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f a m i l y p a r t i c i -R e c r e a t i o n a l p a t e s a c t i v e l y i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f O r i e n t a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 8. M o r a l - T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f a m i l y a c t i v e l y R e l i g i o u s d i s c u s s e s a n d e m p h a s i z e s e t h i c a l a n d E m p h a s i s r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s a n d v a l u e s . S y s t e m M a i n t e n a n c e D i m e n s i o n s 9. O r g a n i z a t i o n M e a s u r e s how i m p o r t a n t o r d e r a n d o r g a n i -z a t i o n i s i n t h e f a m i l y i n t e r m s o f s t r u c t u r i n g t h e f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s , f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g , a n d e x p l i c i t n e s s a n d c l a r i t y i n r e g a r d t o f a m i l y r u l e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s . 10. C o n t r o l A s s e s s e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f a m i l y i s o r g a n i z e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l m a n n e r , t h e r i g i d i t y o f f a m i l y r u l e s a n d p r o -c e d u r e s a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a m i l y m e m b e r s o r d e r e a c h o t h e r a r o u n d . 3D T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e i n f o r m e d o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s i n t e r e s t i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d o p i n i o n s o f g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a s s u r e d o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a n d a n o n y m i t y a n d w e r e t h e n a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e S t u d e n t I n f o r m a t i o n F o r m w h i c h w a s p r o v i d e d [ s e e A p p e n d i x A ] , I n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r r e a d e a c h [ s e e A p p e n d i x B] i t e m a l o u d o n c e , a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o c h e c k ' y e s ' o r 'no' o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r r e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s [ s e e A p p e n d i x C ] a l o u d w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s F o l l o w e d w i t h t h e i r t e s t b o o k l e t a n d a n s w e r s h e e t [ s e e A p p e n d i x • ] . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e n r e a d e a c h i t e m o n t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e a l o u d o n c e , a s k -i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o c h e c k ' t r u e ' o r ' F a l s e ' o n t h e i r a n s w e r s h e e t . D a t a A n a l y s e s T h e r a n g e , mean, a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o F t h e s u b -j e c t s ' s c o r e s o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V . T h e r e s u l t s o F t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c -t i o n S u r v e y a n d t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e w e r e t a b u -l a t e d , a n d t w o c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s o F s u b j e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o F t h e i r s c o r e o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r -s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y . S u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o v e t h e mean w e r e c l a s s i F i e d a s ' e x t e r n a l s ' a n d 31 s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n b e l o w ' t h e m ean w e r e c l a s s i F i e d a s ' i n t e r n a l s ' . T h i s m e t h o d o F c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n w a s c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e . m o s t e f f e c -t i v e m e t h o d t o d e s i g n a t e s u b j e c t s t o t h e t w o c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . I n a s i m i l a r s t u d y J o h n s o n a n d K i l m a n n [ 1 9 7 5 ] e m p l o y e d t h e s a m e m e t h o d o F c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r ' i n t e r n a l ' a n d ' e x t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e ' i n t e r n a l ' a n d ' e x t e r n a l ' c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s s c o r e s f o r t h e s u b s c a l e s o f t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e a r e p r e -s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e s o f : 1. i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l s u b j e c t s 2 . m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s , a s w e l l a s t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s b e t w e e n t h e t w o f a c t o r s , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d s u b j e c t g e n d e r . A 2 x 2 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c o n d u c t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t e n s u b s c a l e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e . T h e s e a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d u s i n g t h e BMP P2V -A n a l y s i s o F V a r i a n c e a n d C o v a r i a n c e s w i t h R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s  [ 1 9 7 9 ] c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . T h e F i r s t s e c t i o n o F C h a p t e r I V r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o F t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s , a n d t h e s e c o n d p a r t c o n t a i n s t h e t e s t s o F h y p o t h e s e s . A l l s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e p e r f o r m e d a t ° ( = . 0 5 . T h i s s t a n d a r d l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i -c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d l e v e l o f s t a t i s -t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 32 C H A P T E R I V • A T A P R E S E N T A T I O N AND S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S E S T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s T h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o f h y p o t h e s e s . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s T h e s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 2 0 7 g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s [ 8 6 m a l e s a n d 121 f e m a l e s ] . T h e a g e r a n g e w a s 12 t o I S y e a r s a n d t h e mean a g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 1 3 y e a r s . T h e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r -s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y w e r e t a b u l a t e d . T h e r a n g e , mean, a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 . 1 . T A B L E 4.1 R a n g e , Mean, A n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n O f S c o r e s • n T h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e N M i n i m u m Maximum M e a n D e v i a t i o n S c o r e 2 0 7 4 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 1 4 . 7 7 4.96 A r e v i e w o f T a b l e 4.1 i n d i c a t e s t h e r e w e r e 2 0 7 s u b -j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c -t i o n S u r v e y . T h e r a n g e o f s c o r e s o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y w e r e f r o m a l o w o f 4.0 t o a h i g h 3 3 o f 3 0 . 0 w i t h a n a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 1 4 . 7 7 . T h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 4 . 9 6 . Two c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s c o r e s o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n S u r v e y . S u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n a b o v e t h e mean C^SO.O] w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s ' e x t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n b e l o w t h e mean [ ^ 1 0 . 0 ] w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s ' i n t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . T a b l e 4.2 p r e s e n t s t h e g r o u p s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t w o c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . T A B L E 4.2 G r o u p S t r u c t u r e O f T h e I n t e r n a l A n d E x t e r n a l C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s S e x L o c u s o f C o n t r o l N M a l e I n t e r n a l 2D F e m a l e I n t e r n a l 2 6 M a l e E x t e r n a l 16 F e m a l e E x t e r n a l 1 8 T o t a l 8D A r e v i e w o F T a b l e 4.2 i n d i c a t e s t h e r e w e r e 2D m a l e a n d 2 6 F e m a l e s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n b e l o w t h e m e an C^ID.D] o n t h e N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c -t i o n S u r v e y . T h e s e 46 s u b j e c t s w e r e c l a s s i F i e d a s ' i n t e r n a l ' l o c u s o F c o n t r o l . A F u r t h e r r e v i e w o F T a b l e 4.2 i n d i c a t e s t h e r e w e r e 16 m a l e a n d 18 f e m a l e s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d o n e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o v e t h e mean C/^20.0]. T h e s e 34 s u b -j e c t s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s ' e x t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s w h en b o t h t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' a n d 3 4 ' e x t e r n a l ' l o c u s of" c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e c o m b i n e d w a s 8 0 . T h e r a w s c o r e s o n t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e w e r e t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e s u b j e c t s d e s i g n a t e d t o t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' a n d ' e x t e r n a l ' c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . T h e r a w s c o r e s o n t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e w e r e t h e n c o n v e r t e d t o s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s F o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i -a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 . 3 . T e s t s o f H y p o t h e s e s T h e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i -a n c e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a p p e a r i n T a b l e 4 . 4 . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f a s t a t e m e n t o f e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s a l o n g w i t h a s u m m a r y o f t h e r e s u l t o f e a c h i n f e r e n t i a l t e s t . H I : T h e r e w i l l b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [*^ .= . 0 5 ] b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e o f ' i n t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s a n d ' e x t e r n a l ' l o c u s o f c o n -t r o l s u b j e c t s o n e a c h o f t h e F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t S c a l e s u b s c a l e s . 1. C o h e s i o n T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ] , A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [ ° < = . 0 5 ] b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' g r o u p m e a n [ 5 5 . 7 1 ] a n d t h e ' e x t e r n a l ' g r o u p m ean [ 3 8 . 5 7 ] [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 3 ] w a s f o u n d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , C o h e s i o n [ p = < . 0 0 0 1 ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d , TABLE 4.3 Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For Male. And Female ' I n t e r n a l * And ' E x t e r n a l ' Locus OF C o n t r o l Groups For The Family Environment S c a l e Subscales Family Environment S c a l e S u b s c a l e 1 . Cohesion I n t e r n a l Sex Mean S.O. M 56.00 10.45 F 55.42 8.28 T o t a l 55.71 E x t e r n a l Mean S.D. 41.31 8.69 35.83 13.61 38.57 T o t a l Means 48.65 45.63 2. Expressivenes M 38.57 12.38 F 46.12 10.58 T o t a l 42.44 35.69 8.69 37.22 34.39 10.16 40.26 35.04 3. C o n f l i c t M 41.90 10.79 F 39.65 10.67 T o t a l 40.78 49.31 11.42 45.61 54.61 13.87 47.13 51 .96 4. Independence M 42.20 9.83 F 44.69 11.46 T o t a l 43.45 34.25 10.59 38.23 40.06 13.38 42.38 37.16 5. Achievement O r i e n t a t i o n M 55.30 7.90 F 54.77 8.18 T o t a l 55.04 43.75 7.86 49.53 47 .67 8.44 51.22 45.71 6. I n t e l l e c t u a l -C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n M 50.00 8.97 F 42.27 11.48 T o t a l 46.14 36.50 8.37 43.25 38.72 9.62 40.50 37.61 7. A c t i v e -R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n M 50.20 12.56 F 51.62 11.40 T o t a l 50.91 43.36 11.27 46.78 47.00 12.52 49.31 45.18 8. Moral-R e l i g i o u s Emphasi s M 50.55 7.97 F 47.04 10.68 T o t a l 4S.80 46.81 9.70 48.68 40.61 7.29 43.83 43.71 9. O r g a n i z a t i o n M 52.50 11.16 F 52.62 10.35 T o t a l 52.56 46.19 8.75 49.35 48.61 9.28 50.62 47.40 10.Control M 51.50 10.75 F 46.35 10.33 T o t a l 48.93 53.50 12.36 52.50 55.44 10.74 50.90 54.77 36 TABLE 4.4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE TEN DEPENDENT VARIABLES • e pendent Variable Source S.S d£ M.S. F P 1. Cohesion Locus 5669 . 26 1 5689 , .26 53.62 <.00D1 Sex 177. 59 1 177, .59 1 .67 0.1997 LS 116. 37 1 116.37 1.10 0.2983 Error 8064.28 76 106, .11 Total 14047. 50 79 2. Expressiveness Locus 1059 . 06 1 1059, .06 9 .36 0.0031 Sex 178. 22 1 178 .22 1 .57 0.2133 LS 363. 48 1 363, .46 3.21 0.0771 Error 8600. 12 76 113, .16 Total 10200. 88 79 3. C o n f l i c t Locus 2423. 08 - 1 2423, .08 17.90 0.0001 Sex 45. 12 1 45, .11 0.33 0.5654 LS 275.64 1 .275, .64 2.04 0.1577 Error 10287.40 76 135, .36 Total 13031. 22 79 4. Independence Locus 767. 13 ' 1 767, .13 5.92 0.0173 Sex 333. 41 1 333 .41 2.57 0.1128 LS 53. 16 1 53 .16 0.41 0.5237 Error 9844. 68 76 ' 129 .54 Total 10998. 38 79 5. Achievement Locus 1634. 69 1 1684 .69 25.63 <.0001 Orientation Sex 55. 51 1 55 .51 0.84 0.3610 LS 95. 78 1 95 .78 1 .46 0.2311 Error 4995 . 82 76 65 .73 Total 6B31 . 80 79 6 . I n t e l l e c t u a l - Locus 1407. 15 1 1407 .15 14.35 0.0003 Cu l t u r a l Orientation Sex 146. 93 1 146 .93 1 .50 0.2246 LS 479 . 68 1 479 .68 4.89 0.0300 Error 7450. 73 76 98 .04 Total 9484. 49 79 7. Active- Locus 633.76 1 633 .76 4.46 0.0381 Recreational Orientation Sex 123. 02 1 123 .02 0.86 0.3S53 LS 23.64 1 23 .64 0.17 0.6847 Error 10811. 10 76 142.25 .Total 11591. 52 79 e. Moral- Locus 500. 32 1 500 .32 5.97 0.0169 Religious Emphasis Sex 456. 82 1 456.82 5.45 0.0222 LS 35.04 1 35 .04 0.42 0.5199 Error 6370.63 76 83 .82 Total 7362. 81 79 9. Organization Locus 515. ,39 1 515 . 39 5.12 0.0265 Sex 31 . ,22 1 31 .24 0.31 0.5793 LS 25. 80 1 25 .80 0.26 0.6142 Error 7653. 87 76 100 .71 Total 8226, 28 79 10 .Control Locus S96. ,41 1 596 .43 4.97 0.0287 Sex 49. ,88 1 49 .88 0.42 0.5210 LS 243. ,98 1 243 .98 2.03 0.1579 Error 9115. ,33 76 119 .94 Total 10005, ,60 79 37 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f c o h e s i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n d o c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . E x p r e s s i v e n e s s T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ] . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [°(=.05] b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e r n a l . ' g r o u p mean [ 4 2 . 4 4 ] a n d t h e ' e x t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 3 5 . 0 4 ] [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 3 ] was f o u n d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , E x p r e s s i v e n e s s [ p = . 0 0 3 1 ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f e x p r e s s i v e n e s s w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n -m e n t s t h a n do c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . C o n f 1 i c t T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ] . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [o| = . 0 5 ] b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 4 0 . 7 8 ] a n d . t h e ' e x t e r n a l ' g r o u p m e a n [ 5 1 . 9 6 ] [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 3 ] was f o u n d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , C o n f l i c t [ p = . 0 0 0 1 ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t -i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f c o n f l i c t 3 8 w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n do c h i l d r e n w i t h a n i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I n d e p e n d e n c e T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a -t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ] . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [^=.05] b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 4 3 . 4 5 ] a n d t h e ' e x t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 3 7 . 1 6 ] [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 3 ] w a s f o u n d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . I n d e p e n d e n c e [ p = . 0 1 7 3 ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f i n d e p e n d e n c e w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n -m e n t s t h a n d o c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . A c h i e v e m e n t O r i e n t a t i o n T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ] . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e P C=.05] b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 5 5 . 0 4 ] a n d t h e ' e x t e r n a l ' g r o u p mean [ 4 5 . 7 1 ] [ s e e T a b l e 4 . 3 ] was f o u n d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , A c h i e v e m e n t O r i e n t a t i o n [ p = < . 0 0 0 1 ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a n i n t e r -n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n d o c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t e r n a l l o c u s 39 of c o n t r o l . I n t e l l e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s should be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4]. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [°C=.05] between the ' i n t e r n a l ' group mean [46.14] and the ' e x t e r n a l ' group mean [37.61] [see T a b l e 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , I n t e l l e c t u a l -C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n [p=.0003]. T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i -c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n -t a t i o n -within t h e i r f a m i l y environments than do c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . A c t i v e - R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s should be r e j e c t e d [see Tab l e 4.4], A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 05] between the ' i n t e r n a l ' group mean [50.91] and the ' e x t e r n a l ' group mean [45.18] [see Tab l e 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , A c t i v e - R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n [p=.0381]. T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r -n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f a c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y environments than do c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . 40 M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4], A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (?t=.05] between the ' i n t e r n a l ' group mean [48.80] and the ' e x t e r n a l ' group mean [43.71] [see Table 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis [p=.01B9], T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r -n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y environments than do c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . O r g a n i z a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4]. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [°C=.05] between the ' i n t e r n a l ' group mean [52.56] and the ' e x t e r n a l ' group mean [47.40] [see Tabl e 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , O r g a n i z a t i o n [p=.0265]. T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n -ments than do c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . 41 10. C o n t r o l The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i -c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s should be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4]. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [0L=.05] between the ' i n t e r n a l ' group mean [48.93] and the ' e x t e r n a l ' group mean [54.77] [see Table 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , C o n t r o l [p=.0287]. T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i -c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f con-t r o l p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f con-t r o l w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y environments than do c h i l d r e n w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . H2 : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [^=.05] between the mean s c o r e o f male and female sub-j e c t s on each of the Family Environment S c a l e s u b s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r a l l but one of the Family Environment S c a l e sub-s c a l e s [see Tabl e 4.4]. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was accepted For n i n e o f the s u b s c a l e s o f the F a m i l y Environment S c a l e and i t was concluded t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between male and female mean s c o r e s on the dependent v a r i a b l e s , Cohesion, E x p r e s s i v e n e s s , C o n f l i c t , Indepen-dence, Achievement O r i e n t a t i o n , I n t e l l e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n , A c t i v e - R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , O r g a n i z a -t i o n , and C o n t r o l . T h e r e f o r e , i t may be concluded t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between how males and females 42 p e r c e i v e t h e i r Family environments on each of the above mentioned s u b s c a l e s . M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s oF v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s should be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4]. A s i g n i F i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ["^=.05] between the male mean [48.68] and the Female mean [43.83] [see Table 4.3] was Found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis [p=.0222]. T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t boys p e r c e i v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l o f m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y environments than do g i r l s . H3: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n [<^=.05] between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and s u b j e c t gender on each o f the Family Environment S c a l e s u b s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s oF the a n a l y s i s oF v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e to r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r a l l but one of the Family Environment S c a l e sub-s c a l e s [see Table 4.4]. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was accepted f o r n i n e o f the s u b s c a l e s o f the Family Environment S c a l e and i t was concluded t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -a c t i o n between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s u b j e c t gender on the dependent v a r i a b l e s , Cohesion, E x p r e s s i v e n e s s , C o n f l i c t , Independence, Achievement O r i e n t a t i o n , A c t i v e - R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis, O r g a n i z a t i o n , and C o n t r o l . I n t e l 1 e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of variance i n d i c a t e d that the n u l l hypothesis should be r e j e c t e d [see Table 4.4]. A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n [oc=.05] between ' i n t e r n a l ' and 'ex t e r n a l ' male means [50.00, 36.50] and ' i n t e r n a l ' and 'e x t e r n a l ' female means [42.27, 38.72] [see Table 4.3] was found f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , I n t e l l e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n [p=.0300]. Therefore the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between ' i n t e r n a l ' and 'ex t e r n a l ' male c h i l d r e n and ' i n t e r n a l ' and 'e x t e r n a l ' female c h i l d r e n and how they perceive the l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r family environments. Fi g u r e 4.1 presents the locus of c o n t r o l and s u b j e c t gender i n t e r a c t i o n . 44 FIGURE 4.1 Locus oF C o n t r o l and Su b j e c t Gender I n t e r a c t i o n I n t e l l e c t u a l -C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n Mean Scor e s I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l The d i s c u s s i o n , summary, and su g g e s t i o n s r e s e a r c h are presented i n Chapter V. For F u r t h e r 45 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s oF the data a n a l y s e s showed t h a t c h i l -dren with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l saw t h e i r Family environments much d i F F e r e n t l y on a l l 10 s u b s c a l e s of the Family Environment S c a l e than d i d the c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l . The i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n saw t h e i r F a m i l i e s as being more c o h e s i v e , more e x p r e s s i v e , encouraging more independence, having a h i g h e r l e v e l of achievement o r i e n t a t i o n , a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , more i n t e r e s t e d i n moral-r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s and v a l u e s , and being more o r g a n i z e d than d i d the e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF "control c h i l d r e n . I t may be expected t h e r e f o r e t h a t c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are more l i k e l y to come from f a m i l i e s which model and maintain the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s l i s t e d above. I t appears t h a t c h i l d r e n who have developed a h e a l t h y b e l i e f i n themselves and t h e i r a b i l i -t i e s have had exposure to the above mentioned c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and v a l u e s i n t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . S i n c e the f a m i l y i s the most i n f l u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t f o r c h i l d r e n , i t would seem t h a t the f a m i l y environment would p l a y a s i g n i -f i c a n t r o l e i n d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l l o c u s of 46 c o n t r o l i n c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n to the above f i n d i n g s the data analyses showed t h a t c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l saw a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l of c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o l i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s than d i d c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . I t may be expected t h e r e f o r e that c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are more l i k e l y to have experienced a f a m i l y environment which they p e r c e i v e to be c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g . I t would seem l o g i c a l that i f a c h i l d i s r a i s e d i n an environment where c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and a r i g i d f a m i l y h i e r a r c h y are c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of the home then that c h i l d would be l e s s l i k e l y to develop a b e l i e f i n o n e s e l f and one's a b i l i t i e s , and would be more l i k e l y to develop an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l b e l i e v i n g t hat p o s i t i v e and negative events are o u t s i d e personal c o n t r o l and are c o n t r o l l e d by powerful o t h e r s . As a general r u l e , t h i s study seems to p o i n t out t h a t c h i l d r e n who have developed an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l are more l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environment to be cohesive, expressive, independent, achievement o r i e n t e d , i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t e d , a c t i v e - r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t e d , i n t e r e s t e d i n m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , and well organized. Furthermore, c h i l d r e n who have developed an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are more l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environment as being c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o l . -These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of previous research which has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n -ship between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and perceived parental beha-v i o u r and f a m i l y environment [Loeb, 1975; Nowicki S Segal, 47 1974; Nowicki S Schneewind, 1977; Scheck, Emerick, S E l - A s s a l , 1973]. The r e s u l t s of the data analyses showed no d i f f e r e n c e between male and female c h i l d r e n on a l l but one of the Family Environment S c a l e subscales. The exception was the subscale oF M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s Emphasis. The r e s u l t s showed that male c h i l d r e n saw t h e i r Family environments as having . a higher degree oF m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis than d i d the Female c h i l d r e n . One could speculate that boys more o f t e n f e e l a g r e a t e r m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s pressure From t h e i r F a m i l i e s than do g i r l s . In order to determine a g r e a t e r understand-ing oF the p o s s i b l e reasons For the male-Female d i f f e r e n c e , f u r t h e r study i n t o the a c t u a l Family environments would be necessary. I t may be that even i F t h e i r Family environ-ments were s i m i l a r on m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis, boys might s t i l l p e r c e i v e a higher degree oF m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis than g i r l s . For the most part, the r e s u l t s showed there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between how male and Female c h i l d r e n perceive t h e i r Family environments. T h i s r e s u l t demonstrates t h a t male and Female c h i l d r e n who have developed an i n t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l , and t h e r e f o r e developed a b e l i e f i n them-s e l v e s , p e r c e i v e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h i s / h e r f a m i l y environment to be s i m i l a r . Furthermore, male and Female c h i l d r e n who have developed an e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l , and t h e r e f o r e developed a tendency not to b e l i e v e i n h i s or her own a b i l i t i e s , a l s o p e r c e i v e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h i s / h e r Family environment to be s i m i l a r . The r e s u l t s oF the data analyses showed no i n t e r a c t i o n 48 between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s u b j e c t gender on a l l but one of the Family Environment S c a l e subscales. The exception was the subscale of I n t e l l e c t u a l - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n . The r e s u l t s showed that i n t e r n a l males perceived a higher l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s than d i d e x t e r n a l males. I n t e r n a l and ex t e r n a l females, on the other hand, perc e i v e d a s i m i l a r l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The l a r g e d i f f e r -ence between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l males' pe r c e p t i o n s pro-duced an i n t e r a c t i o n between the independent v a r i a b l e s l o c u s of c o n t r o l and su b j e c t gender. One could speculate that the i n t e r a c t i o n produced by the l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l males' pe r c e p t i o n s o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s i s a r e s u l t of one of two t h i n g s . E i t h e r e x t e r n a l males pe r c e i v e l e s s f a m i l y concern or i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s because they as i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l these kinds of i s s u e s are beyond t h e i r personal c o n t r o l , or the e x t e r n a l males' pe r c e p t i o n s are accurate and t h e i r f a m i l i e s do not place much emphasis or importance on i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . In order to determine a more accurate understanding of the i n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l male d i f f e r e n c e , f u r t h e r study i n t o the a c t u a l f a m i l y environments would be necessary. Summary The focus of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e i n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l -dren's p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environment. 49 A survey of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that most s t u d i e s done i n t h i s area have been r e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s of c o l l e g e - a g e students or obs e r v a t i o n of parental behaviour. Most r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o f a i l e d to i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e male-female d i f f e r e n c e s , most o f t e n c o n f i n i n g t h e i r i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s to males. T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d male and female grade e i g h t c h i l d r e n ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environments. The data were analyzed u s i n g a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e to i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b j e c t s ' percep-t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environments. A 2x2 matrix was used to determine the r e s u l t s between i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , s u b j e c t gender, and the p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n of these two v a r i a b l e s . The d i s c u s s i o n of the data analyses pointed to the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n has i n e f f e c -t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p erceptions of t h e i r f a m i l y environment. I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study would appear to be f a r reaching i n scope. T h i s study seems to c l e a r l y determine that c h i l d r e n ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l y en-vironment, and that t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t f o r both males and females. I t has p r e v i o u s l y been determined that i n d i v i d u a l s with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l perform b e t t e r and f u n c t i o n more s u c c e s s f u l l y i n numerous personal and s o c i a l arenas than do i n d i v i d u a l s with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . Thus i t would seem d e s i r a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n 50 to develop an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and i t appears as though the f a m i l y environment p l a y s an extremely important r o l e i n t h i s l i n k . The above f i n d i n g has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and t h e r a p i s t s who are t r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . I t may be b e n e f i c i a l to measure locu s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y environment during the course of assess-ment, treatment, and follow-up. These measures co u l d help the t h e r a p i s t e s t a b l i s h goals f o r change with t h e i r c l i e n t s , with the i n t e n t i o n of h e l p i n g the f a m i l y become more cohe-s i v e and e x p r e s s i v e . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to determine that i f the f a m i l y environment changes, does t h i s have a d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t on the l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y members? I t appears that c h i l d r e n with an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l see themselves as more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t than c h i l d r e n with an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . T h i s f i n d i n g i s co-r e l a t e d with the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and s o c i a l c l i m a t e w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Thus i t would seem d e s i r a b l e , when working with f a m i l i e s , to t r y and help them work towards c r e a t i n g a f a m i l y environment which models those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with the development of an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l i n c h i l d r e n . Since a c h i l d ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d at a young age, e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the f a m i l y s t r u c -ture would seem d e s i r a b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study A major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s the l a c k of 51 c o n t r o l over p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of socio-economic and demo-gr a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . While i t was expected t h a t these v a r i -a b l e s would be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the sample i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine what e f f e c t they may have had on the s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l y environments. There are a number o f demographic v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h i s study i n c l u d i n g : socio-economic s t a t u s , two-parent or s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , f a m i l y s i z e , and b i r t h o r d e r . While t h i s study found a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y environment and the f i n d i n g s can probably be g e n e r a l i z e d to grade e i g h t s t u -dents i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , t h i s study does not determine a c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y environment and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . Another l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study may be t h a t the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey and the Family Environment S c a l e are both measuring s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s and t h a t the Family Environment S c a l e may not be measuring the a c t u a l Family c l i m a t e . I f i t were the case t h a t these s c a l e s are measuring s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s then they would o b v i o u s l y s e l e c t s u b j e c t s f o r comparison based on s i l i m a r dimensions of p e r s o n a l i t y and thus the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study would be expected. A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n c o u l d be t h a t the Family E n v i r o n -ment S c a l e i s not measuring the a c t u a l Family c l i m a t e , but only the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n oF h i s / h e r f a m i l y c l i m a t e . The counter-argument to t h i s i s t h a t the F a m i l y Environment S c a l e i s a c c u r a t e l y measuring the p e r c e i v e d Family e n v i r o n -52 merit and that i t i s the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s / h e r environment which i s most important to him/her. The c h i l d ' s p erceptions of h i s / h e r f a m i l y c l i m a t e i s what.he/ she sees as r e a l i t y and i t i s these perceptions which he/ she responds to emotionally and b e h a v i o u r a l l y . The above d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t s out the d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n developing a standardized measure to a c c u r a t e l y explore and measure the complex realm of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and f a m i l y dynamics. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research 1. I n v e s t i g a t e more F u l l y the demographic data obtained From the students on the Student Information Form [see Appendix A]. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to determine what e f f e c t l i v i n g i n a two-parent f a m i l y has on c h i l -dren's l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and perceived Family environment and compare t h i s with c h i l d r e n ' s experiences i n s i n g l e - p a r e n t F a m i l i e s . I t would a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of l i v i n g with e i t h e r a s i n g l e female parent or a s i n g l e male parent and determine the e f f e c t s of these l i v i n g arrangements on c h i l d r e n ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a -t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n s of f a m i l y environment. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Family s i z e and b i r t h order e f f e c t s on l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y environment would a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g . 2. I n v e s t i g a t e the p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y environment of parents and s i b l i n g s by randomly s e l e c t i n g f a m i l i e s to whom the Family Environment S c a l e c o u l d be administered. 53 T h i s would enable the determination of p o s s i b l e d i f f e r ences or s i m i l a r i t i e s between parent, c h i l d , and s i b -l i n g p e rceptions of the f a m i l y c l i m a t e . R e p l i c a t e the data analyses but r a t h e r than d i v i d i n g the s u b j e c t s i n t o comparison groups on the b a s i s of t h e i r scores on the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal Reac-t i o n Survey, d i v i d e the s u b j e c t s i n t o comparison groups on the b a s i s of t h e i r scores on each of the subscales of the Family Environment S c a l e . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e could then be performed to determine whether s i m i l a r r e s u l t s are obtained using t h i s method of a n a l y s i s . R e p l i c a t e t h i s study and i n c l u d e the use of a s e l f -esteem s c a l e to determine p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s or s i m i l a r i t i e s between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l of self-esteem. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to determine whether an a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and high and low l e v e l s of self-esteem i n c h i l d r e n . REFERENCES 55 Ackerman, N. P r e v e n t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n of f a m i l y r e s e a r c h . In G. Caplan [ E d . ] , P r e v e n t i o n of Mental D i s o r d e r s i n  C h i l d r e n . New York; B a s i c Books, 1961. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and C o v a r i a n c e s with Repeated Measures. H e a l t h S c i e n c e s Computing F a c i l i t y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i -f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1979. Anthony, E. J . , S Bene, E. 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Family Process. 1968, 7, 17-36. F r a n k l i n , R.D. Youth's e x p e c t a n c i e s about i n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l oF r e i n f o r c e m e n t r e l a t e d t o N v a r i -a b l e s . Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Purdue U n i v e r -s i t y , 1963. G l i c k , I S Haley, J . Family Therapy and Research: An  Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y . New York: Grume and S t r a t t o n , 1971 . G o l d s t e i n , M.J., Judd, L.L., Rodnick, E.H., A l k i r e , A.A., S Gould, E. A method For s t u d y i n g s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e and c o p i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h i n F a m i l i e s oF d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l oF Nervous and Mental Disease. 1968, 147, 233-251. 57 Goodrich, D.W., E Boomer, D.S. Experimental assessment o f modes o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . Family P r o c e s s . 1963, 2, 15-24. Gore, P.M., B R o t t e r , J.B. A p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y . 1963, 31, 58-64. Haley, J . Family experiments: A new type o f experimenta-t i o n . Family Process, 1962, 1, 265-293. Haley, J . Research on f a m i l y p a t t e r n s : an instrument measurement. Family Process, 1964, 3, 41-65. Harrow, M., S F e r r a n t e , A. Locus oF c o n t r o l i n p s y c h i a -t r i c p a t i e n t s . J o u r n a l oF C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  Psychology, 1969, 33, 582-589. H e i l b r u n , A.B. Parent model a t t r i b u t e s , n u r t u r a n t r e i n -forcement and c o n s i s t e n c y oF behaviour i n a d o l e s c e n t s . C h i l d Development. 1964, 35, 151-167. Hersch, P.D., S Scheibe, K.E. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y oF i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l as a p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. J o u r n a l oF C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1967, 31, 609-613. Het h e r i n g t o n , E.M., Stouwie, R.J., S Ridberg, E.H. P a t t e r n s oF Family i n t e r a c t i o n and c h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i -tudes r e l a t e d t o three dimensions oF j u v e n i l e d e l i n -quency. J o u r n a l oF Abnormal Psychology. 1971, 78," 160-176. Jackson, D.D. Family i n t e r a c t i o n , Family homeostasis and some i m p l i c a t i o n s For c o n j o i n t Family psychotherapy. In J . Masserman [ E d . ] , I n d i v i d u a l and Family Dynamics. New York: Grume and S t r a t t o n , 1959. Jackson, D.D. The study oF the Family. Family P r o c e s s . 1965, 4, 1-20. James, W.H. I n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l oF r e i n -forcement as a b a s i c v a r i a b l e i n l e a r n i n g theory. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 19 57. Johnson, B.L., S Kilmann, P.R. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l e d p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l con-t r o l . J o u r n a l oF C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1975, 31, 40-42. Katkovsky, W., C r a n d a l l , V.C., S Good, S. P a r e n t a l ante-cedents oF c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e F s i n i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l con-t r o l oF r e i n f o r c e m e n t s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement s i t u a t i o n s . C h i l d Development. 1967, 38, 765-776. 58 K e n n e l l y , K., S K i n l e y , S. P e r c e i v e d contingency o f t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d r e i n f o r c e m e n t s and academic per-formance of boys. Psychology i n the Sc h o o l s . 1975, 12, 449-453. Kilmann, P.R., S Howell, R.J. The e f f e c t s o f s t r u c t u r e o f marathon group therapy and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l on t h e r a -p e u t i c outcome. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  Psychology. 1974, 42, 912. L e f c o u r t , H.M. I n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f r e i n -forcement: A review. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 19B6, B5, 205-221. Lennard, H.L., S B e r n s t e i n , A. P a t t e r n s i n Human I n t e r -a c t i o n . San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1959. L i d z , T., S F l e c k , S. S c h i z o p h r e n i c human i n t e g r a t i o n and the r o l e of the. f a m i l y . In Jackson [Ed. 3, The E t i o l o g y o f S c h i z o p h r e n i a . New York: B a s i c Books, 1960. Loeb, Roger. Concomitants of boy's l o c u s o f c o n t r o l examined i n p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Developmental  Psychology. 1975, 3, 353-358. Loveland, N.T., Wynne, L.C., S Singer, M.T. The f a m i l y r o r s c h a c h : A new method f o r s t u d y i n g f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . Family Process. 1963, 2, 187-215. MacOonald, A.P. I n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s oF c o n t r o l : P a r e n t a l antecedents. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i -c a l Psychology. 1971, 37, 141-147. Mead, 6.H. The Ph i l o s o p h y o f the Act. Chicago: U n i v e r -s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938. M i s h l e r , E.G., S Waxier, N.E. I n t e r a c t i o n i n F a m i l i e s : An  Experimental Study o f Fa m i l y P r o cesses and S c h i z o -p h r e n i a . New York: John Wiley S Sons, Inc., 1968. Moos, R.H. Combined P r e l i m i n a r y Manual f o r Family. Work and Group Environment S c a l e s . C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s Press, Inc., 1974. Nowicki, S., S Schneewind, K. R e l a t i o n o f f a m i l y c l i m a t e v a r i a b l e s to l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of c u l t u r e , sex, and age. Emory U n i v e r s i t y , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , and U n i v e r s i t y o f Munich, Munich, F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c oF Germany, 1977. Nowicki, S., S Segal , W. P e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , and b e h a v i o u r a l c o r r e l a t e s o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Developmental Psy-chology. 1974, 10, 33-37. 59 Nowicki, S., S S t r i c k l a n d , B. A l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psy-chology. 1973, 40, 148-155. Olson, •., S Dahl, N., [ E d s . ] , Inventory of M a r r i a g e and  Family L i t e r a t u r e . V o l . IV: 1975 S 1976, S t . Paul, Minnesota, Family S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1977. Olson, •., S Ryder, R. Inventory o f m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t s [IMC]: An experimental i n t e r a c t i o n procedure. J o u r n a l  o f Marriage and the Family. 1970, 32, 443-448. Palmer, R.D. P a r e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n and p e r c e i v e d l o c u s of c o n t r o l i n psychopathology. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 1971, 39, 420-431. Perry, C.E. C l i e n t i n t e r n a l i z i n g and/or c l i e n t e x t e r -n a l i z i n g c o n s i s t e n c y or change: I t s e f f e c t on the t h e r a -p e u t i c p r o c e s s and outcome. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 1020-A, 1970. Phares, E. Changes i n expectancy i n s k i l l and chance s i t u a t i o n s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. Phares, E. Expectancy changes i n s k i l l and chance s i t u a -t i o n s . J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 1957, 54, 339-342. Phares, E. P e r c e p t u a l t h r e s h o l d decrements as a f u n c t i o n o f s k i l l and chance e x p e c t a n c i e s . J o u r n a l of Psy-chology. 1962, 53, 399-407. Phares, E., R i t c h i e , D.W., S Davis, W.L. I n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and r e a c t i o n to t h r e a t . J o u r n a l of  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology. 1968, 10, 402-405. Phares, E. D i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l . J o u r n a l of  P e r s o n a l i t y . 1968, 36, 649-662. P l e s s , I., S S a t t e r w h i t e , B. A measure o f f a m i l y func-t i o n i n g and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . S o c i a l S c i e n c e and  M edicine. 1973, 7, 613,621. R e i s s , D. I n d i v i d u a l t h i n k i n g and f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n : i n t r o d u c t i o n to an experimental study of problem s o l v i n g i n f a m i l i e s o f normals, c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r s , and s c h i z o -p h r e n i c s . A r c h i v e s of General P s y c h i a t r y . 1967, 16, 80-93. 60 R i s k i n , J . , S Faunce, E. Family i n t e r a c t i o n s c a l e s , I I I : d i s c u s s i o n oF methodology and s u b s t a n t i v e F i n d i n g s . A r c h i v e s oF General P s y c h i a t r y . 1970, 22, 527-537. R i s k i n , J . , S Faunce, E. An e v a l u a t i v e review oF Family i n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h . Family Process, 1972, 11, 365-455. Roe, A., S Siegelman, M. A p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s ques-t i o n n a i r e . C h i l d Development. 1963, 34, 355-369. R o t t e r , J . S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology. New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1954. Ro t t e r , J.B. G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c i e s For i n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l oF r e i n f o r c e m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Mono-graphs. 1966, 80 [1, Whole No. 609], 1-28. R o t t e r , J.B., S Mulry, R.C. I n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l or r e i n f o r c e m e n t and d e c i s i o n time. J o u r n a l  oF P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology. 1965, 2, 598-604. R o t t e r , J.B., Seeman, M., S L i v e r a n t , S. I n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l oF r e i n f o r c e m e n t : A major v a r i a b l e i n behaviour theory. In N.F. Washburne [ E d . ] , D e c i s i o n s , V a l u e s and Groups. V o l . 2, London: Pergamon Press, 1962. Scheck, D., Emerick, R., S E l - A s s a l , M. A d o l e s c e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s oF p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s and the develop-ment of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . J o u r n a l  of Marriage and the Family. 1973, 35, 643-652. St r a u s , M.A. Communication, c r e a t i v i t y , and problem-s o l v i n g a b i l i t y oF middle- and w o r k i n g - c l a s s f a m i l i e s i n t h r e e s o c i e t i e s . American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y . 1968, 73, 417-430. Stro d t b e c k , F.L. The f a m i l y as a t h r e e person group. American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 1954, 19, 23-29. Wynne, L.C., S Si n g e r , M.T. Thought d i s o r d e r and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c s : A r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y . A r c h i v e s of General P s y c h i a t r y , 1963, 9, 191-198. APPENDICES 62 APPENDIX A Student I n f o r m a t i o n Form Note: These q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are p a r t oF a study on a t t i -tudes and o p i n i o n s oF grade e i g h t c h i l d r e n . I t i s not a t e s t ; t h e r e are no r i g h t o r wrong answers; and you -do not have to put-your name on the ques-t i o n n a i r e s . Your h e l p i n F i l l i n g out the ques-t i o n n a i r e s would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . P l e a s e complete the q u e s t i o n s below and then Follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . 1 . What i s your age? 2 . What i s your sex? Male Female 3. Which oF your p a r e n t s l i v e with you? [check one] Both J u s t Mother J u s t F a t h e r None 4. How many c h i l d r e n i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f are i n your f a m i l y ? 5. How o l d are your b r o t h e r s , i f any? 6 . How o l d are your s i s t e r s , i f any? 63 APPENDIX B NOWICKI-STRICKLAND PERSONAL REACTION SURVEY 1. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t most problems w i l l s o l v e them-s e l v e s i f you j u s t don't f o o l with them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 2. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t you can stop y o u r s e l f from c a t c h i n g a c o l d ? Yes No [No]* 3. Are some k i d s j u s t born l u c k y ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 4. Most of the time do you f e e l t h a t g e t t i n g good grades means a g r e a t deal to you? Yes No [No]* 5. Are you o f t e n blamed f o r t h i n g s t h a t j u s t a r e n ' t your f a u l t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 6. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t i f somebody s t u d i e s hard enough he o r she can pass any s u b j e c t ? Yes No [No]* 7. Do you f e e l t h a t most o f the time i t doesn't pay to t r y hard because t h i n g s never t u r n out r i g h t anyway? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 8. Do you f e e l t h a t i f t h i n g s s t a r t out w e l l i n the morning t h a t i t ' s going to be a good day no matter what you do? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 9. Do you f e e l t h a t most of the time parents l i s t e n to what t h e i r c h i l d r e n have to say? Yes No [No]* 10. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t w i s h i n g can make good t h i n g s happen? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 11. When you get punished does i t u s u a l l y seem i t ' s f o r no good reason a t a l l ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 12. Most o f the time do you f i n d i t hard to change a f r i e n d ' s [mind] o p i n i o n ? . Yes No [ Y e s ] * 13. Do you t h i n k t h a t c h e e r i n g more than l u c k h e l p s a team to win? Yes No [No]* 14. Do you f e e l t h a t i t ' s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e to change your parent's mind about anything? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 15. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t your p a r e n t s should allow you to make most of your own d e c i s i o n s ? Yes No [No]* 64 _ 2 -16. Do you F e e l t h a t when you do something wrong t h e r e i s very l i t t l e you can do to make i t r i g h t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 17. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t most k i d s a re j u s t born good a t s p o r t s ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * IS. Are most o f the o t h e r k i d s your age s t r o n g e r than you are? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 19. Do you F e e l t h a t one of the bes t ways to handle most problems i s j u s t not to t h i n k about them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 20. Do you F e e l t h a t you have a l o t of c h o i c e i n d e c i d i n g who your F r i e n d s are? Yes No [No]* 21. IF you F i n d a Four l e a f c l o v e r do you b e l i e v e t h a t i t might b r i n g you good l u c k ? Yes \ No [ Y e s ] * 22. Do you o f t e n F e e l t h a t whether you do your homework has much to do with what k i n d o f grades you ge t ? Yes No [No]* 23. Do you f e e l t h a t when a k i d your age d e c i d e s to h i t you, t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do to stop him or her? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 24. Have you ever had a good l u c k charm? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 25. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t whether or not people l i k e you depends on how you a c t ? Yes No [No]* 26. W i l l your p a r e n t s u s u a l l y h e l p you i f you ask them to? Yes No [No]* 27. Have you f e l t t h a t when people were mean to you i t was u s u a l l y f o r no reason a t a l l ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 28. Most of the time, do you f e e l t h a t you can change what might happen tomorrow by what you do today? Yes No [No]* 29. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t when bad t h i n g s are going t o happen they j u s t are going to happen no matter what you t r y to do to stop them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 3D. Do you t h i n k t h a t k i d s can get t h e i r own way i f they j u s t keep t r y i n g ? Yes No [No]* Most of the time do you F i n d i t u s e l e s s to t r y to get your own way a t home? Yes No [ Y e s ] * •o you Fe e l t h a t when good t h i n g s happen they happen because oF hard work? Yes No [No]* Do you Fe e l t h a t when somebody your age wants to be your enemy t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do to change matters? Yes No [ Y e s ] * Do you Fe e l t h a t i t ' s easy to get F r i e n d s to do what you want them to? Yes No [No]* Do you u s u a l l y F e e l t h a t you have l i t t l e t o say about what you get to eat a t home? Yes No C Y e s ] * Do you F e e l t h a t when someone doesn't l i k e you t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do about i t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * Do you u s u a l l y F e e l t h a t i t ' s almost u s e l e s s to t r y i n s c h o o l because most o t h e r c h i l d r e n a re j u s t p l a i n smarter than you a r e ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * Are you the ki n d oF person who b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a n n i n g ahead makes t h i n g s t u r n out b e t t e r ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * Most oF the time, do you F e e l t h a t you have l i t t l e t o say about what your Family decides to do? Yes No [ Y e s ] * Do you t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r t o be smart than t o be l u c k y ? Yes No [No]* A l l items are answered i n an e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL IN APPENDIX C; LEAF 66, NOT MICROFILMED. FAMILY ENVIRONMENT SCALE FORM R MAY BE OBTAINED FROM: CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS, INC. 577 COLLEGE AVE., PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA 94306 66 APPENDIX C A SOCIAL CLIMATE SCALE PAfflllY cnvinonmcnT icms PonmR RUDOLF H. MOOS . INSTRUCTIONS There are 90 statements in this booklet They are statements about families. You are to decide which of these statements are true of your family and which are false. Make all your marks on the separate answer sheets. If you think the statement is True or mostly True of your family, make an X in the box labeled T (true). If you think the statement is False or mostly False of your family, make an X in the box labeled F (false). You may feel that some of the statements are true for some family members and false for others. Mark T if the statement is true for most members. Mark F if the statement is false for most members. If the members are evenly divided, decide what is the stronger overall impression and answer accordingly. Remember, we would like to know what your family seems like to you. So do not try to figure out how other members see your family, but do give us your general impression of your family for each statement • t * CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS, INC. 577 College Ave., Palo Alto, California 94306 © C o p y r i g h t 1 9 7 4 b y C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , P » l o A l t o , C A 9 4 3 0 6 . A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d . T h i s t e s t , o r p a r t s t h e r e o f , m a y n o t b e r e p r o d u c e d In 1. Family members really help and support one another. 2. Family members often keep_ their feelings to themselves. 3. We fight a lot in our family. 4. We don't do things on our own very often in our family. 5. We feel it is important to be the best at whatever you do. 6. We often talk about political and social proWems. 7. V/e spend most weekends and evenings at home. 8. Family members attend church, synagogue, or Sunday School fairly often. 9. Activities in our family are pretty carefully planned. 10. Family members are rarely ordered around. 11. We often seem to be killing time at home. 12. We say anything we want to around home. 13. Family members rarely be-come openly angry. 14. In our family, we are strongly encouraged to be independent. 1 5. Getting ahead in life is very important in our family. 16. We rarely go to lectures, plays or concerts. 17. Friends often come over for dinner or to visit. 18. We don't say prayers in our family. 19. V/e are generally very neat and orderly. 20. There are very few rules to fol-low in our family. 21. We put a lot of energy into what we do at home. 22. It's hard to "blow off steam" at home without upsetting somebody. 23. Family members sometimes get so angry they throw things. 24. We think things out for ourselves in our family. 25. How much money a person makes is not very important to us. 26. Learning about newand different things is very important in our family. 27. Noboby in our family is active in sports, Little League, bowling, etc. 28. We often talk about the religious meaning of Christmas, Passover, or other holidays. 29. It's often hard to find things when you need them in our household. 30. There is one family member who makes most of the decisions. 31. There is a feeling of together-ness in our family. 32. We tell each other about our personal problems. 33. Family members hardly ever lose their tempers. 34. We come and go as wc want to in our family. 35. Wc believe in competition and "may the best man win." 36. We are not that interested in cultural activities. 37. We often go to movies, sports events, camping, etc. 38. We don't believe in heaven or hell. 39. Being on time is very important in our family. 40. There are set ways of doing things at home. 41. We rarely volunteer when something has to be done at home. '42. If we feel like doing something on the spur of the moment we often just pick up and go. 43. Family members often criticize each other. 44. There is very little privacy in our family. 45. We always strive to do things just a little better the next time. 46. We rarely have intellectual discussions. 47. Everyone in our family has a hobby or two. 48. Family members have strict ideas about what is right and wrong. 49. People change their minds often in our family. 50. There is a strong emphasis on following rules in our family. 51. Family members really back each other up. 52. Someone usually gets upset if you complain in our family. 53. Family members sometimes hit each other. I 54. Family members almost always rely on themselves when a problem comes up. 55. Family members rarely worry about job promotions, school grades, etc. 56. Someone in our family plays a musical instrument. ; 57. Family members are not ! very involved in recreational activities outside work or ; school. ' 58. We believe there are some [ things you just have to take on faith. 59. Family members make sure their rooms are neat. 60. Everyone has an equal say in I family decisions. [ 61. There is very little group spirit ; in our family. 62. Money and paying bills is j openly talked about in our family. ' 63. If there's a disagreement in our family, we try hard to smooth things over and keep the peace. 64. Family members strongly encourage each other to stand up for their rights. j 65. In our family, we don't try that hard to succeed. 66. Family members often go to the library. 67. Family members sometimes attend courses or take lessons for some hobby or interest 68. In our family each person has different ideas about what is right and wrong. 69. Each person's duties are clearly defined in our family. 70. We can do whatever we want to in our family. 71. We really get along well with each other. 72. We are usually careful about what we say to each other. 73. Family members often try to one-up or out-do each other. 74. It's hard to be by yourself without hurting someone's feelings in our household. 75. "Work before play" is the rule in our family. 76. Watching T.V. is more important than reading in our family. 77. Family members go out a lot. 78. The Bible is a very important book in our home. 79. Money is not handled very carefully in our family. 80. Rules are pretty inflexible in our household. 81. There is plenty of time and at-tention for everyone in our family. 82. There are a lot of spontaneous discussions in our family. 83. In our family, we believe you don't ever get anywhere by raising your voice. 84. We are not really encouraged to speak up for ourselves in our family. 85. Family members are often compared with others as to how well they are doing at work or school. 86. Family members really like music, art and literature. 87. Our main form of entertain-ment is watching T.V. or listening to the radio. 88. Family members believe that if you sin you will be punished. 89. Dishes are usually done immediately after eating. 90. Y o u can't get away with much in our family. APPENDIX D Answer Sheet to the FES T T F F T F -11- -12- -13- -14- -15- -16- -17- 18- -19- -20-T F T F -21- -22- -23- -24- -25- -26- -27- -28- -29- 30-T F T F 31- •32- -33- -34- -35- -36- -37- -38- -39- 40-T F T F -41- 42- -43- -44- -45- -46- -47- -48- -49- -50-T F T F -51- -52- -53- -54- -55- -56- -57- -58- -59- -60-T F T F -61- -62- -&3- 64- -65- -66- -67- -68- -69- -70-T F T F 71- -72- -73- -74- -75- -76- -77- -78- -79- -80-T F T F 81- -82- -83- -84- -85- -86- -87- -88- -89- -90-T F d o n o i m a r k b e l o w t h i s l i n e C Ex Con Ind AO ICO A R O MRE Org Ctl R / S 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 S/s 

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