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Motivation and study skills : a developmental counselling approach to the classroom McDermid, Neil R. 1983

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MOTIVATION AND STUDY SKILLS: A DEVELOPMENTAL COUNSELLING APPROACH TO THE CLASSROOM  NEIL R. MCDERMID B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology)  We accept  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1983  N e i l R. McDermid, 1983  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the Library shall  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  understood that financial  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  Department o f  It i s thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  (3/81)  I further  copying of t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  make  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study embedding p e r s o n a l skill  of a developmental c o u n s e l l i n g c u r r i c u l u m ,  causation conditions  (deCharms 1976)  into  study  s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l , used a v a r i a t i o n of Gage's (1978) Improvement  Research model to o b t a i n outcome measures of change i n l e v e l s of students' pre-post  l o c u s of c o n t r o l and intervention period.  student  study  skill  progress  across  Formative e v a l u a t i o n of the  program, employing e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s and  process  a  complete  i n d i c a t o r s , provide  a further focus. A r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbian, e i g h t h grade p o p u l a t i o n , parents,  teachers  and  i n s t r u c t o r , assessed  together  with  the impact and e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n . A n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n f o r l o c u s of c o n t r o l , w i t h measures a c r o s s p r e - p o s t  i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , showed a  repeated  significant  p o s i t i v e change ( i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r n a l expectancy/decrease i n e x t e r n a l expectancy).  Males, females and  l o c u s of c o n t r o l .  classes indicated increased  A n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n f o r student  s k i l l s / h a b i t ) , w i t h repeated  measures a c r o s s p r e - p o s t  progress  study  l e v e l s of study  skill  progress.  Males and  s k i l l awareness.  process  C l a s s e s two  through f o u r showed Evaluation reports  i n d i c a t o r s showed r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g support  program, i n d i c a t i n g p r a c t i c a l and  student  females i n d i c a t e d i n c r e a s e d  s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e than c l a s s one. and  (study  intervention  p e r i o d , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n l e v e l s of reported  internalityj  educational  f o r the  significance.  -  i i i-  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  Title  Page  i  Abstract Table  of Contents  i  i  i  i  i  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  v i i  Acknowledgement  viii  CHAPTER I  v  BACKGROUND REVIEW  1  (A) I n t r o d u c t i o n (B) S t u d y S k i l l s a n d P e r s o n a l (i) Previous Evaluations (C) D e v e l o p m e n t a l R e s e a r c h  1 4 6 8  Causation  (i)  Operational Definitions o f Terms (D) R e v i e w o f S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e ( i ) Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ( i i ) Personal Causation and the Origin-Pawn Concept ( i i i ) Personal Causation Training (a) A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n , R e i n f o r c e m e n t s and G o a l Setting  (iv)  CHAPTER I I  (b) O r i g i n s a n d Pawns (c) M o t i v a t i o n T r a i n i n g and Academic Achievement E i g h t h Grade "Process" Study S k i l l s  10 11 11 13 14  14 15 15 16  PROGRAM DESIGN  20  (A) D e s i g n A p p r o a c h (B) D e v e l o p m e n t a l F r a m e w o r k s (C) P r o g r a m I n t e r v e n t i o n  20 21 27  -  iv -  Page  CHAPTER I I I  METHOD (A) E v a l u a t i o n (B) P o p u l a t i o n (C) (D)  CHAPTER I V  31 31 36  Design and S e t t i n g  Assessment Measures Data C o l l e c t i o n and P r o c e d u r e s  RESULTS (A) Outcome M e a s u r e s (i) (ii) (iii) (B)  (iii) (iv) (C)  44 44  Locus o f C o n t r o l Student Progress Case S t u d i e s  Evaluation Reports (i) Student E v a l u a t i o n ( i i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n  44 46 46 Questionnaire Questionnaire  (Follow-up) Parent Evaluation Questionnaire Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Questionnaire  Process Indicators ( i ) Student Achievement  Stories  ( i i ) What I H a v e L e a r n e d ( i i i ) Attendance (iv) Student E f f o r t (v) G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s Commentary o n t h e P r o g r a m Implications F u t u r e R e s e a r c h and E v a l u a t i o n . . . Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  BIBLIOGRAPHY  36 40  49 49 53 60 60 62 62 65 67 68 69 71 72 73 79 81 83  86  APPENDIX A APPENDIX B  92 134  APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX  135 138 139 140 142 144 145 148 151 156 158 161 163  C D E F G H I J K L M N 0..  - v  L I S T OF  -  TABLES  Page CHAPTER I I Table  2.1  Table  A Developmental  Map  and  i n One  i t s Context o f Ego  of  the L i f e  Cycle  Culture  23  2.2  Stages  Development  25  3.1  Data  4.1  P r e and P o s t A s s e s s m e n t Means f o r Nowicki-Strickland Personal R e a c t i o n Survey  45  P r e a n d P o s t A s s e s s m e n t Means f o r Student P r o g r e s s Survey  47  CHAPTER I I I Table  CHAPTER  Collection  Schedule  41  IV  Table  Table  Table  4.2  4.3  P r e and Case  Table  4.4  Student (Percent  T a b l e 4.5  Table  Table  Table  Table  4.6  4.7  4.8  4.9  P o s t Assessment  Means f o r  Studies  48  Evaluation Questionnaire Response  t o Statements  S t a t e m e n t s S t u d e n t s Would O f f e r P e e r s R e g a r d i n g the Program Intervention S t u d e n t S t a t e m e n t s on C o u r s e A d d i t i o n s and C o n c e r n s  1-16) to  52  Deletions, 54  Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up) (Percent Response to S t a t e m e n t s 1-14) Student Statements of Awareness P r o g r a m C o m p l e t i o n t o Y e a r End (Four Months) Student  Statements  of Most  Aspects  of Program  (Program  to Year  End  - Four Months)  50  56 from 58  Useful Completion 59  - v i -  L I S T OF TABLES  (CON'T)  Page Table  4.10  Parent  Evaluation Questionnaire  (Percent  Response  to Statements  1-8) Table  4.11  61  Teacher  Evaluation Questionnaire  (Percent  Response t o Statements  1-6) Table  4.12  63  Teacher  Statements  Comments t o P e e r s ; Suggestions;  o f Program: Program  Personal  Table  4.13  Student  Table  4.14  What I H a v e L e a r n e d I n Or Out Of S c h o o l S i n c e T h i s C o u r s e Started Is  Table  Table  Table  4.15  4.16  4.17  Achievement  Concerns  P r e and Post  Stories  64 66  66  Assessment of  Attendance  67  P r e and P o s t Assessment R a t i n g s o f Student E f f o r t f o r Nine Courses  69  P r e and P o s t Point  Assessment  A v e r a g e Means  f o r Grade 70  - v i i -  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Page CHAPTER I I  Figure  I  Role-Taking  29  - viii -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I thank C h e r y l , Todd and Jamie f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t and l o v e when most needed. I thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. L a r r y Cochran, whose guidance and p a t i e n c e - "get moving, q u i t h a z i n around, no more l o a f i n g , snap out o f i t , g e t w i t h i t " - m o t i v a t e d  completion.  I a l s o thank my committee members, Dr. B i l l Borgen and Dr. R i c h a r d Young, f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and a d v i c e t h a t was so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and w e l l a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , I thank Rabbi Chanuna f o r w r i t i n g i n t h e Talmud: "Much d i d I l e a r n from my t e a c h e r s , more from my c o l l e a g u e s , most from my s t u d e n t s . "  -  1  -  CHAPTER  I  BACKGROUND REVIEW  (A)  Introduction  The  transition  childhood  between e l e m e n t a r y  t o young a d o l e s c e n c e  time of concern  to the educator.  peer  pressures, intellectual  lack  o f m o t i v a t i o n and  ficant  during this  Movement major  stresses  from  unfamiliar (Hamblin  ment b e c a u s e  and  instigator  that  that  to break  However,  every  lack  or  M c K e a n , 1981)  of content  independence  of  from is a  acquisition,  responsibility,  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  education to secondary  severely  signi-  test  can  lead  the p u p i l s '  to s t r e s s ,  exist)  o f new  power  process.  possibilities  School -  clearly  Coping with  i t can a l s o  start.  old links  of  1  There  between  exists  an  s c h o o l and  the l o c a t i o n  This of  has  (1976)  consequence opporfailure.  does not n e c e s s a r i l y  some h e l p .  the  develop-  Bronfenbrenner i s both a  the  stimulate  s c h o o l can promote  transition  t a k e them w i t h o u t  Secondary  but  the secondary  'ecological  ( i f they  school i s a  Adams e t a l . (1976) d e s c r i b e  of developmental  the presence  Sparwood  secondary  i n the experience of t r a n s i t i o n .  students w i l l  case at  Concerns  i t g i v e s t h e s t u d e n t a new  out  tunity  can  Entry into  points an  of  1981).  certainly  1981).  Dyck and  development,  elementary  (Hamblin  involved  lack  junior  transition.  t r a n s i t i o n which  adaptation  (Allan,  and  been  the present  mean the study.  -  2  -  In t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g number of Grade 8 s t u d e n t s working a t minimum l e v e l s , a c c e p t i n g l i t t l e o r no personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "try"  T h i s l a c k of e f f o r t t o do w e l l o r even  seems t o o r i g i n a t e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' f e e l i n g t h a t o t h e r  people o r o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s c o n t r o l what happens t o them.  This  phenomenon i s apparent  students,  not o n l y i n f a i l i n g and near f a i l i n g  but i s e v i d e n t i n many s t u d e n t s who  are doing w e l l .  s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y by Hamblin (1981) and deCharms  The problem i s  (1968):  Hamblin (1981) " t r u a n c y i s f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d today, y e t the most i n s i d i o u s form of i t - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r u a n c y - i s u s u a l l y n e g l e c t e d . Students a r e p r e s e n t i n the f l e s h , but absent i n s p i r i t . Lack of commitment and involvement i n s c h o o l work seems t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a s s i v e and i n e r t forms o f l e a r n i n g . " deCharms (1968) "The Pawn i s n e g a t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d , d e f e n s i v e , i r r e s o l u t e , a v o i d a n t of c h a l l e n g e — the pawn f e e l s powerless." The young a d o l e s c e n t e n t e r i n g t h e secondary e i g h t h grade,  i s asked  s c h o o l system,  to t a c k l e l e a r n i n g t a s k s w h i c h make demands  on them d i f f e r e n t from any they have f a c e d b e f o r e . m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d and the new to  t a k e f o r t h e way  The q u a n t i t y of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s t u d e n t s have  they go about t h i s l e a r n i n g makes heavy demands.  Students have t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y independent i n s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n (Hamblin 1981).  T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e system  assumes s t u d e n t s t o be a c a d e m i c a l l y developed, mature i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s e l f - m o t i v a t e d . i n t h e i r t r a n s i t ion.  However, s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e time and  "Students  help  r e q u i r e time and space t o examine  not j u s t the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of l e a r n i n g , i t s c o n t e n t , but a l s o the p r o c e s s of t h e i r l e a r n i n g i t s e l f " (Gibbs 1981).  The l a c k of  -  'Personal the  Causation'  eighth  attitude  grade  "why  (deCharms, 1976) seen  clearly  reflects  on t h e s t u d e n t s ' p a r t  life/situation.  an  ideal  of  curricula  process s k i l l s  position  elementary  which  There  leads to a  a t the point  i s an of their  despairing  of transition;  school (Allan  i f these  rather  points  secondary  and Dyck 1982).  as w e l l  i t as " h e l p i n g  as p r o v i d i n g  competencies" curriculum The Study  ential which  (p.9).  Skills learning  attempts  focusing,  This  f o r eighth  purpose  identity  learning  grade  1976).  identify  secondary  intervention  i n becoming  study proposed  (1980)  life's summarizes  c u r r i c u l u m s when h e  their  existing  experiences to help  competencies  them d e v e l o p  one s u c h  s t u d e n t s a t Sparwood  strategies  t o promote r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , self-motivation  educationally/socially  Secondary  implement  School.  and e v a l u a t e experi-  f o r Grade 8 s t u d e n t s  industry,  using study  approved  new  developmental  f o r P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n Enhancement:  and d e v e l o p m e n t a l  and r e l a t e d  cycle:  to senior  Gysbers  o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p ,  Program  and e v a l u a t i n g  a t the elementary-junior secondary  (deCharms  people  development  Developmental  s t u d e n t s a r e t o be a s s i s t e d  t h a n Pawns  the  on t h e s t u d e n t l i f e  junior  but e s s e n t i a l  through  is still in  implementing  v a l u e s and c h a l l e n g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l  describes  to provide f o r  the e d u c a t i o n a l system  secondary,  not only p o s s i b l e  Origins  failed  t o p r o v i d e encouragement  to junior  leaving  transition  a  students i n  they a r e not i n c o n t r o l  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  these programs a t the n a t u r a l  the  that  statement.  1  I t i s such an a t t i t u d e  the system  developmental  is  Gibbs  i n s o many  try?". Though  and  3 -  competence,  skills  vehicle.  as a  - 4 -  (B)  Study  Skills  Hamblin  and  Personal  (1981) s u g g e s t s  there  are  the  general s k i l l s  These  include,  Causation  two  types  of  which would  f o r example, development  study be  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  a way  o f what h a s  the  skills  mental on,  fosters  the present  strategies  will  recall  boost  study  attempts  sense  b e i n g more i n c o n t r o l ;  "an  - positively  of  Origin  challenge The  feel  second  These a r e  left  of  study  form  the  to the  H o w e v e r , s t u d e n t s who control  of  available  their  optimistic,  some o f  develop-  a c t e d upon and  deCharms  in  reflected  i n c r e a s e the  (1968) d e s c r i b e s as confident, accepting  potent."  type  i n v e s t i g a t i o n which  motivated,  to read  to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o  what  First,  a l l pupils.  These a r e  o f c o m p e t e n c e and  feeling'of  by  the a b i l i t y  been read.  w h i c h , when e x p e r i e n c e d ,  the p u p i l s '  possessed  exist.  of n o t e - t a k i n g methods,  o r g a n i z a t i o n methods, time which  skills  sole  skills  i n c o r p o r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e s  foundation of a p a r t i c u l a r  responsibility  of  the  subject  discipline. teacher.  have a c q u i r e d a g r e a t e r s e l f - a w a r e n e s s  personal general study  f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  study  skills skills  will  have a  content  of  of a  and  process specific  discipline. Another tional in  approach.  nature.  action  integral  Study  t o be  improving  As  aspect noted  skills  adopted  instructing  to the  the  study  earlier,  are not  a  this  program  i s primarily  Training  performance  s t u d e n t s ' knowledge, or  students  skills  set of procedures  unquestionably.  s t u d e n t s ' academic  stantially  of  can  i n ways t o e n h a n c e t h e i r  instruc-  experiential or r e c i p e s f o r  s t u d i e s aimed  succeed  they  is  can own  by  at  adding  succeed  sub-  by  knowledge ( i . e .  -  promoting latter  learning  outcome t h a t  improving learning a  to l e a r n )  processes,  se.  aimed the  In the  at reducing  student  teristics. learning Origin  and  enhancing  i n school  then,  encouraged  find  profitable.  The to  he  can  study the  To  striving his  skills  This  can  inclusion programs. sense (White  reflects  and  encouraged seem, he  student  at  own than  performance  instruction  is  characteristics  to o r i g i n a t e  of  charachis  c o u l d be more o f  skills  develop  requires  activities. the  t o be  school -  own an  at  the  an  Origin  commitment  least  and  strengthen h i s desire  and  develop  t o do  of  in  1976).  t o be  active whatever  something by  well.  the  developmental the  pupils'  competent style  so  related  pupil,  degree,  they  purpose  creatively  a learning  interests!  are  to d e t e r -  (deCharms  programs which r e i n f o r c e  h e l p i n g him  and  Every  to a l a r g e  experiences  Pupils  i s not  stimulation  the r i g h t  the  techniques which  of e x c e l l e n c e .  selected  his personality  their  (internal motivation)  adopting  background, has  Developmental  1 9 5 9 ) ; by  improving  g o a l s more e f f e c t i v e l y  standards  of c a r e f u l l y  of  aimed  1976).  t o h e l p him  accomplished,  of mastery  at  o f many d i f f e r e n t  the  I t i s the  personal causation, rather  program i s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y  to a t t a i n  be  be  help a person  task of  a p t i t u d e s and  self-awareness  t e a c h i n g of study  r e a c h h i s own  central  can  to experiment,  mine h i s g o a l s but that  Origin  i t would  (deCharms  presentation/discovery then  aimed  1981).  instruction  (external motivation) the  student  constructive  and  study;  of p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n the  t h e Pawn  I f the  the  enhancing  instruction  behaviour,  The  focus of  thereby  context  -  (Brown, C a m p i o n e , Day  students' s e l f - c o n t r o l  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  per  i s the  5  which  -  In of  summary,  that  school,  i n the  becomes  pupils' 'being  failed'  responsible causation  (and  suggests,  'being as  decides  to a c t  personal  motivation t o be  to  own  from  i n the  effective t o be  successes  for,  the  causation."  and  than  than  a ritual  performance  identity.  an  and  'being  to  of  as  success.  i s the  may  support that that  Phares  be  O r i g i n of, h i s behaviour;  he  strives  for  personal  Evaluations  Previous  e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s of  developmental  the  (1976)  when  p.4).  of  he This  regarding property Man  causation  personal  p.269)  Previous  are  external  motivational  locus  study  I t i s knowing  ( d e C h a r m s 1976  primary  or  they  It is  fundamental assumption  the  and  bored'  change i n h i s environment.  t o be  1981) .  author,  of h i s behaviour  "Man's p r i m a r y  are  learning.  upon f a t e .  he  commitment."  the  - and  a person's behaviour cause  (Hamblin  appreciate  failures  They  enjoyable  their  of  agent,  the  i t i s necessary  dependent  i t i s the  often i n  work o f  puils  enhancement  proactive  c o n t r o l of  expectations  i n producing  ( d e C h a r m s 1968  their  one's d e s t i n y which,  curriculum:  a causal  to  in class',  which help  personal  causation  strives or  apathy  i n c o n t r o l of  person  on  take  competence) i s not  the  l e a r n i n g as  g u i d a n c e and  they  i s the  A l l too  them' r a t h e r  picked  and  o b j e c t i v e antecedent but  of  is positive  i s associated with  events;  curriculum  learning rather  experiences  for their  sense of b e i n g  (i)  of  disappear  with  the  causation.  In the  overcome i n e r t i a  techniques  is  of  experience.  complaints  To  "the  field  that  'something done t o  challenging  -  c h i l d r e n conceive  contributes l i t t l e  reactive  is  o b j e c t i v e of  a c t i v e l e a r n i n g or p e r s o n a l  secondary  It  the  6  programs  for  -  motivational the  development  literature. Studies in  ( E i g h t h Grade P o p u l a t i o n )  are not  several related  i n Deliberate Psychological Education  populations, growth.  Whiteley  indicate  Several of  secondary  school  literature  directed Talley  -  T h e r e a r e , however,  E r i c k s o n and  The  7  positive  these  late  gains  studies:  (Sprinthall  adolescent  i n promoting  and  et a l . adult  developmental  s t u d i e s were c o m p l e t e d  on  study  Henning  skills and  1981;  reflects  college  Gibbs  1981).  learning,  reports  outcomes s t u d e n t s  tertiary  an  i n senior  abundance of  populations  emphasis of p r o c e s s as  in  settings.  at university  and  1980), w i t h  evident  (Hills  research  et a l .  1979;  This research supports  rather than  content  learning,  the  and  increased self-control  and  self-direction. Study is  skills  literature  considerably less.  sents  'How  To  Study'  The  study  1981; feel  skills  Burkle  about  the  and  a r e more i n v o l v e d .  The  only  late  through they  Grades  5,  6 and  r e p o r t that the (a)  1981).  'How  To  Results  experience,  'Personal  "some" e f f e c t s  on  a  achievement,  1979). learning'  that  students  capable/competent  develop-  school populations i s  follow-up  Causation'  pre-  ( i . e . Beale  evaluating motivational  In a l o n g i t u d i n a l 7 with  simply  'process  Study'  f e e l more  populations  Maxwell  indicate  childhood-early adolescent  deCharms e t a l . (1976).  literature  ( i . e . Wagner 1979;  simply  research s p e c i f i c a l l y  ment w i t h  the  school  s t u d i e s t h a t emphasize  r a t h e r than  M a r s h a k and positive  few  to secondary  m a j o r i t y of  techniques  T h e r e a r e , however, a in  pertaining  study  of  children  e v a l u a t i o n i n Grade training  control  of  8  indicated: reinforcements  -  and (b)  "positive"  (c)  "very c l e a r "  Developmental  In recent vided the  These  academic  e v i d e n c e on  control)  achievement  the Origin-Pawn  measures; (Internal-  measure.  i n developmental  to t r a d i t i o n a l evaluation  approaches  frequency  as  educational  industry"  to a l a r g e r  experimentation  on  Research  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and  programs.  effects  y e a r s , approaches  alternatives  -  goal-setting;  External  (C)  8  'empirical'  h a v e come t o b e  (Sanders  and  research;  of developmental  r e s e a r c h has  scale  r e s e a r c h have  more r i c h l y  accommodating  intervention  used w i t h  changed  pro-  increasing  from a " c o t t a g e  funded  form of  social  1981).  "Seen i n a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s n e i t h e r a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e a phenomena w h i c h i s s t a t i c i n n a t u r e n o r t o e x p l a i n t h a t phenomena i n u n i v e r s a l i s t i c form w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n that s u c h a n e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be u s e d t o e x p l a i n s i m i l a r phenomena e l s e w h e r e . Rather, they are d i r e c t e d at d e t e r m i n i n g whether, through p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v e n t i o n , d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s c a n be a c h i e v e d , a n d i f so under what c o n d i t i o n s . " ( S a n d e r s 1981, p.11) T h e y a r e e x a m p l e s o f what experiments."  He  quotes  Bronfenbrenner  (1976) terms " t r a n s f o r m i n g  the Russian e d u c a t i o n a l  scientist  Leontiev:  " I t seems t o me t h a t A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h e r s a r e c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n how t h e c h i l d came t o b e what h e i s ; we i n t h e U.S.S.R. a r e s t r i v i n g t o d i s c o v e r n o t how t h e c h i l d came t o be what he i s , b u t how h e c a n become what h e n o t y e t i s . " (p.74) Sprinthall  (1981) r e v i e w s a r e c e n t  rather well  the i d e a  "Gage  of  model which  encompasses  'transforming experiments.'  (1978) has most  researchers  American  recently  an a t t r a c t i v e  offered  alternative  educational to the u s u a l  -  9  -  i n v i d i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n b a s i c and a p p l i e d r e search. He s i m p l y s h i f t s t h e e m p h a s i s a c c o r d i n g t o i n t e n d e d outcome. One s t y l e o f r e s e a r c h , he n o t e s , i s q u i t e simply ' d e s c r i p t i v e . ' The p u r p o s e i s j u s t t h a t - to p r o v i d e a f r e e - s t a n d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon. Others might c a l l i t ' b a s i c , ' b u t Gage r e m i n d s us t h a t s u c h a n a p p r o a c h i s a t h e a r t j u s t a d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h o u t any p a r t i c u l a r h i g h e r v a l u e attached. Such d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h then meets a l l the c o n d i t i o n s of the l a b o r a t o r y approach. It i s d e l i b e r a t e l y h i g h r i s k i n terms o f p a y - o f f and c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o y i e l d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s h o r t run. On t h e o t h e r h a n d Gage p o i n t s o u t t h a t r e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d to p r o d u c e u s e f u l outcomes s h o u l d be t e r m e d 'improvement r e s e a r c h . ' " ( S p r i n t h a l l 1981, p.488) Sprinthall he  (1975) f u r t h e r o u t l i n e s a  integrates into  the  Improvement  'framework f o r r e s e a r c h '  Research  which  model:  "As a n o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k t h e r e s e a r c h m o d e l o u g h t t o i n c l u d e (a) a f o c u s on i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , (b) t h e c o n d u c t o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and ( c ) a c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n f i n d i n g s and p r a c t i c e . O b v i o u s l y , t h e obj e c t i v e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s are import a n t , t h e q u e s t i o n s b r o a d , c o m p r e h e n s i v e , and significant. P s y c h o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n attempts to design l e a r n i n g environments that w i l l p o s i t i v e l y e f f e c t t h e c o u r s e o f human d e v e l o p m e n t . It i s f o u n d e d on t h e i d e a t h a t s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n s m u s t o c c u r i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and i s b a s e d on a c t i o n / r e f l e c t i o n sequences. Rather than perpetua t i n g the a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between producer and consumers of r e s e a r c h , programs r o o t e d i n the f i e l d f u s e t h e s e d o m a i n s a s d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f t h e same o v e r a l l program. G i v e n t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s we h a v e f o u n d s u b s t a n t i v e and u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t h r e e s o u r c e s : the C a m p e l l and S t a n l e y ( 1 9 6 6 ) q u a s i e x p e r i m e n t a l design format, i n c l u d i n g the use of u n o b t r u s i v e measures; t h e S c r i v e n ( 1 9 6 7 ) p l u s B l o o m H a s t i n g s , and Madaus ( 1 9 7 1 ) f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n m o d e l ; and t h e S t a k e ( 1 9 6 9 ) and S t u f f l e b e a m ( 1 9 6 9 ) c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n concepts. I n some ways t h e s e t h r e e r e s e a r c h p r o c e dures are h i g h l y congruent. A l l s a c r i f i c e some m e a s u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c r i g o r ; a l l g i v e up some a s p e c t of o b j e c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n of independent v a r i a b l e s ; and a l l c o n s i d e r c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s as s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e s i n e qua non f o r r e s e a r c h . "  -  Improvement  Research  provides  educational/psychological the n a t u r a l environment where t h e a c t u a l u s e f u l model,  10  -  a developmental  interventions.  approach  for evaluating  The  research takes  place  in  - a Grade 8 c l a s s r o o m  i n the present  study  -  interactions  i s supported  occur.  by  K e a n and  Improvement McNamara  Research,  as  a  (1978).  "Compensatory programs s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d as p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s , r a t h e r t h a n a s p r o j e c t s t o be c o m p l e t e d and t h e n j u d g e d a s s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e s on an ' a l l or n o t h i n g ' b a s i s : A m a j o r i s s u e and a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n o r s o l u t i o n s t o i t s h o u l d be announced w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f d e v e l o p ment t a k i n g p l a c e . Development r e f e r s t o growth, not j u s t f i n a l p a c k a g i n g o f a f i x e d i d e a , and i n c l u d e s t h e process of i n i t i a t i o n , implementation, o b s e r v a t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , and r e c y c l i n g . Through g r a d u a l r e f i n e ments over a p e r i o d of t i m e , a t r u l y u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h c a n b e i n t r o d u c e d t h a t may b e a f a r c r y f r o m the s t a r t i n g p o i n t which c a t a l y z e d the e n t i r e c h a i n of events." ( S a n d e r s 1981, p.12) Improvement which  specifically  procedures, criteria  (i) Study  Research.provides permits  a  the use  i t s strength being  in natural  evaluation design  of a wide a r r a y of  the d e l i b e r a t e  use  assessment  of m u l t i p l e  of  Terms  Study s k i l l s as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e "processes f o r l e a r n i n g . " When one l e a r n s a s t u d y s k i l l w e l l , one i s l e a r n i n g more t h a n a s p e c i f i c s e r i e s of techniques. R a t h e r , one i s l e a r n i n g a way o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , a m e t h o d w h i c h c a n be u s e d i n any r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t , a transferable process f o r learning.  Developmental Intervention (Curriculum)  approach  settings.  Operational Definitions Skills:  formative  :  E x p e r i e n c e s , m e t h o d s and s t r a t e g i e s u s e d t o i n t e r v e n e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and/or groups, i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environment, to promote the normal development of a p o p u l a t i o n .  -  11 -  Personal Causation and t h e O r i g i n Pawn C o n c e p t : Personal Causation: a person i s the cause o fh i s (deCharms 1976) b e h a v i o u r when h e d e c i d e s t o a c t f r o m p e r s o n a l commitment - e v e n t h o u g h t h e a n t e c e d e n t s o f h i s b e h a v i o u r may b e e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . To d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n two m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n deCharms a d o p t e d t h e terms O r i g i n a n d Pawn. Origin: a p e r s o n who f e e l s t h a t h e i s i n c o n t r o l of h i s f a t e ; he f e e l s t h a t t h e cause f o r . h i s behaviour i s w i t h i n himself. Pawn:  he f e e l s  t h a t he i s pushed  someone e l s e p u l l s puppet. behaviour  He f e e l s  the strings the locus  around,  that  and he i s t h e  of causality  for his  i s external to himself.  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n t h e O r i g i n a n d t h e Pawn a r e t h e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f commitment and c o m p e t e n c e ( W h i t e 1 9 5 9 ) a s o p p o s e d t o a i m l e s s n e s s and p o w e r l e s s n e s s .  (D)  Review o f S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e  A brief as  i t formed  concept.  -  concept  i s then  outlining  presented,  personal  Achievement  causation  i s presented, causation and t h e  f o l l o w e d by a review  of the  causation  training  with  Lastly,  a review  of s p e c i f i c  population.  and i n v e s t i g a t i n g  study  methods, p e r t i n e n t t o e i g h t h grade  (i)  training  of the personal  description of personal  investigating  e a r l y adolescence  ature  of achievement m o t i v a t i o n  the immediate antecedent  A concise  origin-pawn research  review  skills  programs,  late-childhood liter-  and r e l a t e d  students.  Motivation  One o f t h e s p e c i f i c achievement motive.  motives  McClelland,  a b o u t w h i c h much i s known i s t h e Atkinson,  Clark,  and L o w e l l  (1953)  -  define  the goal  standard  been  o f the m o t i v e as  of e x c e l l e n c e . "  In recent adapted  s c h o o l boys Mclntyre  years,  f o r use  ed  from  in  businessmen  programs  principles  of operation  basic  a series 1977).  attempting  does  outside  charge  of t h e i r  although  a l . , i t i s not a major  achievement courses increase  motivation.  These  training  various  encourage  commitment  acceptance of a c t i o n and  And  courses  and  personal  for  students  DeCharms  of personal  formed  (1968) i s one by  p o i n t s out of the  causation  in that  major  McClelland i n scoring in  are r e a l l y  t h e immediate  partic-  a r e more c l e a r l y  i n the measure used  motivation  students  training  action;  y e t , much o f what h a p p e n s  feelings  to  actively  training  syndrome as p r e s e n t e d  element  de-  i n c a r r y i n g them o u t  responsibility  f o r i n c r e a s i n g achievement the s u b j e c t ' s  motivation  a n d more s p e c i f i c a l l y  planning  o f s c h o o l , where p e r h a p s  of the achievement  adapt-  A l s c h u l e r and h i s  motivation  1977).  and  environment.  i n more p u r p o s e f u l  (Vidler  high  been  f o r i n c r e a s i n g grades i n school,  the concept of personal  components et  on a c h i e v e m e n t  lives  have  o u t l i n e d the  o f one's  the s i t u a t i o n a l  evidence  seem t o r e s u l t  ularly  programs  have  s p e c i f i c a l l y with  programs  have  followed  f o r the consequences  to master  little  of such courses  training  a  programs  to develop achievement  (1965)  t o be  with  A l s c h u l e r , Tabor  training  such as independence,  Though r e s e a r c h provides  settings,  A l s c h u l e r 1971; These  training  and W i n t e r , 1969).  of steps  social values,  responsibility  motivation  and M c C l e l l a n d  These  i n competition  1976)  designed  (McClelland  (1973)  (Vidler  and  1969).  associates  lineated  (deCharms  i n educational  Ryals  training  -  "success  achievement  (McClelland  1970;  12  training  attempts  (Fanelli  antecedent of  to  1977). the  -  personal that  causation  researchers  motivation causation  (ii)  might  Personal motivation Alkinson,  a l s o have been  Causation causation  evolving  from achievement  rather  than  sonal  1953; M c C l e l l a n d  causation  (deCharms  (Heider  personal  f o l l o w and submit  1971),  1958; K e l l e y  (Rotter  1966).  strive  must b e  (internal)  (external) as a puppet.  r e f e r s to the b e l i e f  that  one i s t h e c a u s e  t o a c t from p e r s o n a l  the o b j e c t i v e antecedents  (McClelland,  1 9 7 6 ) , man a t h i s b e s t  (pawn); he must  own b e h a v i o u r when o n e d e c i d e s though  theory  theory  and A l s c h u l e r  l e a r n i n g theory  not reactive  simply  o f achievement  Concept  motivation  to a t t r i b u t i o n  Concerning motivation (origin),  levels  suggest  (and t h e Origin-Pawn concept) i s a concept o f  1972) and s o c i a l  active  programs  (unknowingly) concerned with  and t h e O r i g i n - P a w n  C l a r k and L o w e l l ,  Weiner  of their  1968).  some r e s e m b l a n c e  1967;  and t h e r e s u l t s  who h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h  (deCharms  Personal  with  concept  13 -  of that  Per-  o f one's  commitment,  even  b e h a v i o u r may b e e x t e r n a l  e v e n t s. The tinguish  terms  between  causation: his  fate;  feels  O r i g i n a n d Pawn w e r e c h o s e n two m o t i v a t i o n a l  the cause  t h a t he i s pushed  behaviour. extremely  states that  An O r i g i n i s a p e r s o n who that  The m o t i v a t i o n a l important. accepting  defensive,  irresolute,  that  effects  The o r i g i n  confident,  feels  f o r h i s behaviour around;  are basic  that  to personal  he i s i n c o n t r o l o f  i s within himself.  A Pawn  someone e l s e i s t h e c a u s e o f h i s o f these  i s positively  of challenge. avoidant  ( d e C h a r m s 1976) t o d i s -  two p e r s o n a l motivated,  The pawn i s n e g a t i v e l y  of challenge.  The o r i g i n  states are optimistic, motivated, feels  -  potent;  the  pawn f e e l s  pawn c o n c e p t action  and  The i s not  is  a feeling  o f p u r p o s e and  specific  t h a t he  (iii)  al.,  motive.  This study  on  but  reach  reviewed  the  research  premeasurement until  three  a motive  a person him  t o be  develop  g o a l s more  literature  accumulation  of  the  the  end  Grades  goals.  Rather, i t  i t ) that can  an  origin  commitment  apply  i s not  and  to  purpose  effectively.  single  source  provided  c h i l d r e n at  of  their  of  the  no  (deCharms  other  four year The  end  study of  e i g h t h grade.  comparison design. Measures  et  relevant  The  the  results  of achievement  fifth  with  grade  basically  are  achievement.  Reinforcements  and  considered training  Pawns; training  and  Goal-setting  strong, does  Shea  i n fact  and an  summarized  motivation,  O r i g i n s and  of m o t i v a t i o n  (1976) i n d i c a t e m o t i v a t i o n  started  and g o a l - s e t t i n g ;  academic  c a n n o t be  longitudinal  I t was  Measures  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n , evidence  a  6 - 8.  Measures of  deCharms  of  (or l a c k of  stems f r o m a  the  i s the  categories:  Though t h e  own  ( d e C h a r m s .1976) s i n c e  to a c l a s s  reinforcements  (a)  his  topic.  experimental-control in  of  determined  origin-  Training  in a natural setting;  continued  i s not  to help  has  The  about h i s a c t i o n s .  help  h i s own  A review  one  commitment  To  Causation  research  1976).  research  the  can  Personal The  concept  (deCharms. 1 9 6 8 ) .  that  a d e s c r i p t i v e name g i v e n  determine h i s goals so  feeling  is realistic  origin-pawn  it  t o any  and  -  powerlessness  s t r e s s e s the  goal  14  and affect  - 15 -  motivated  behaviour.  Achievement m o t i v a t i o n s c o r e s d i d i n c r e a s e f o r  boys i n the s i x t h grade but d i d not i n c r e a s e f o r g i r l s who the t r a i n i n g .  The  received  t r a i n i n g d i d not appear t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y  affect  l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s f o r e i t h e r boys or g i r l s . R e a l i s t i c g o a l - s e t t i n g , a v a r i a b l e thought to be i n t e g r a l to origin-pawn  c o n c e p t , was  enhanced by the t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s who g r e a t e s t p r o p e n s i t y to be  without  t r a i n i n g showed the  unrealistic.  These r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t the t r a i n i n g produced some g e n e r a l i z e d e f f e c t s i n the  (b)  students.  O r i g i n s and Pawns P l i m p t o n and deCharms (deCharms 1976)  did,  i n f a c t , i n c r e a s e the o r i g i n - p a w n  r e p o r t t h a t the t r a i n i n g  s c o r e of the c h i l d r e n .  Their  d a t a a n a l y s i s comprised a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of t h e i r s c o r e s a t three p o i n t s i n time:  at the end of f i f t h grade ( b e f o r e any t r a i n i n g )  and a g a i n a t the end of s i x t h and seventh The  grades.  r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t the o r i g i n s c o r e s  r e f l e c t e d the e f f e c t s of m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g on the children.  (c)  reliably experimental  T r a i n i n g , d i d i n f a c t , enhance m o t i v a t i o n .  M o t i v a t i o n T r a i n i n g and Academic Achievement DeCharms (1976) found t h a t the t r e n d f o r s t u d e n t s f a l l i n g i n -  c r e a s i n g l y f a r t h e r behind was  U.S.  n a t i o n a l norms on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e v e r s e d i n the t r a i n e d s t u d e n t s as compared to  non-trained  controls.  He f u r t h e r found t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between  the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d s t u d e n t s p e r s i s t e d a f t e r the e i g h t h grade  -  year,  when n e i t h e r g r o u p h a d DeCharms a l s o r e p o r t e d  measures general the  of  training. that  training  t a r d i n e s s and  b o y s made m o r e g a i n s  positively  i n certain  i n more a r e a s  In g e n e r a l ,  he  significant  positive  and  research  suggests  Evidence  in this  s u c c e s s f u l and  effects  new  than  affected  cases,  school  grades.  In  girls  as  a result  of  that  over  and  causation  lasting  training  of  c h i l d r e n had  effects  on  that personal  the v a r i o u s  achievement  techniques  academic  used had  t h a t were r e l a t e d  achievement.  causation  to  above a more g e n e r a l i z e d i n i t i a l  p r o j e c t data  personal  causation  ment when p l a c e d  Eighth The  enhances both  "Process"  skills  evaluations  "process"  study  true  at  the  four  to  five  indicate that motivation motivation  i n subject-matter  Grade  study  research  and  skills  -  e i g h t h grade years,  for training  Study  literature  that  Brown, C a m p i o n e and lines  personal  training  specific  changes  in  enthusiasm  for  program.  The  (iv)  found  i n academic  motivation the  -  training.  very  was  attendance,  16  training  arid a c a d e m i c  Skills  i s very  l e a r n i n g how  such Day  students  limited  to  I t has  learn.  i n both  This  is  specific students  has  come t o  (1981) h a v e p r o v i d e d " l e a r n how  to  the  past  fore.  some u s e f u l  l e a r n from  in  particularly  o n l y been r e c e n t l y , the  literature  to  achieve-  material.  useful guidelines for training  level.  for  guide-  reading."  These g u i d e l i n e s i n c l u d e : S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e of knowing about the c r i t e r i o n t a s k . They s h o u l d be t a u g h t how t o m a t c h s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s t o t a s k demands.  -  17  -  S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be t a u g h t a b o u t t h e r o l e o f m o t i v a t i o n , a b i l i t y , and b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e i n studying. T h e y s h o u l d be t a u g h t how t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n , how t o w o r k w i t h t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s , and how t o a p p l y t h e i r e x i s t i n g knowledge. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d know why, when, and how t o u s e p a r t i c u l a r study s t r a t e g i e s . They s h o u l d a l s o be m o n i t o r i n g and c h e c k i n g t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s t r a t e g i e s promote the d e s i r e d r e s u l t . Marshak and effective  study  Burkle skills  nucleus  of  the  project  by  a group  at  Harvard  is the  Study of  Skills  educators  from  students  Bureau of  Elementary  Three  form  preachy  teacher  Study  the  but  Counsel  Secondary School  of Mathematics.  i n d i s c o v e r i n g the value of  experiences.  seven  the  N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of  nor  guidelines for  Program; a c u r r i c u l u m development  N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of  neither prescriptive  further  These.guidelines  the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers  direct  and  instruction.  University,  Principals, and  hm  (1981) p r o v i d e  School  Principals The  program  rather i t actively study  skills  responsibilities  involves  through  are  outlined  1.  P r o v i d e t i m e f o r s t u d e n t s t o t r y o u t new skills and e x p e r i e n c e e r r o r w i t h o u t m a k i n g them f e e l like they have failed.  2.  P r o v i d e u s a b l e feedback to e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n u s i n g new  3.  Provide  values  students about study s k i l l s .  their  encouragement.  for effective  study  skills  instruction  are  emphasized 1.  Study  skills  are processes  for  learning.  2.  Study  skills  are basic  3.  L e a r n i n g s t u d y s k i l l s i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g more a b o u t how one l e a r n s . S t u d y s k i l l s t e a c h i n g must a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s and e n c o u r a g e them t o d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r own j u d g e m e n t i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g and u s e o f s t u d y s k i l l s .  skills.  -  4.  L e a r n i n g by  doing  18  -  i s t h e b e s t way  to l e a r n  study  skills. 5.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e part of study s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e and be i n t e grated i n t o the r e g u l a r course c u r r i c u l u m .  6.  Learning study s k i l l s o f f e r s a t r a n s f e r e f f e c t . A s k i l l l e a r n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one s u b j e c t c a n be a p p l i e d i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s .  7.  The w o r k o f v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a s shown t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u u m o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e .  Cole in  (1979) o u t l i n e d  which middle  led  and  experiences  diary  related  back,  goal-setting, The  to  f o r improvement  study  study  skills.  such  as v e n t i l a t i n g  time  and  problems,  responsibility,  e v a l u a t i o n of  These  the  study  and  skills  student  completion  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s at  as w e l l  as  e v a l u a t i o n of study  pating  teacher  i n the program.  way  o f managing  the  study  reported  skills  term  their  and  time  study  group  s t u d y , when a n d  acti-  keeping and  of  t h e end  of  h a b i t s of  feeling  done the  through  last  students  that  well  a more the  time  spent.  such  as  session  particisystematic taken  for  Teachers  o f homework,  successes  f i v e weekly seventh  study  long-range  finishing  and  how  skills  45-minute  grade  English  t o i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on  where t o s t u d y ,  a  feed-  a  date.  s e s s i o n s i n two  S e s s i o n s were planned  problems,  self-reflection  (1981) d e s c r i b e s a c o u n s e l l o r - l e d series  four counsellor  p r o g r a m was  completion  student  skills  sessions included  reported learning and  study  long-range o r g a n i z a t i o n .  s e s s i o n s was  i n student  t h e due  which c o n s i s t e d of a classroom  study  individual  report before Beale  Students  improvement  improvement  assignments  of  school students volunteer to attend  s e s s i o n s to improve  vities  a program  structured classrooms.  getting  to study.  workshop  ready  to  Experiential  and  -  didactic  activities  possible  i n the  The  19  were d e s i g n e d  classroom  e v a l u a t i o n of  -  to involve students  the  study  skills  completion  of questionnaires at  well  parent  teacher  student and very  study  said  they  and  habits. would  positive with  parents.  Teachers  felt  indicating  not  time,"  "lost  further  classroom  but  that  end  of  through  the workshop,  reported a positive friends.  Parents  recommend  as  i t to  experience were  the p a r t of be  presented  time  devoted  their  also  other  i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e and  greater  children.  in a l l English to  study  a c t u a l l y made t e a c h i n g e a s i e r  performance.  done  questionnaires evaluating  they would  commented o n  felt  the  i t to t h e i r  the workshop s h o u l d  They  w o r k s h o p was  of  students  t o w a r d s homework on  classes.  student  recommend  These parents  responsibility  completion  A l l 43  32  as  sessions.  student as  a s much  by  skills enhancing  was the  -  20  -  CHAPTER  II  PROGRAM DESIGN  " I t seems c l e a r t h a t e m b e d d i n g m o t i v a t i o n c o n c e p t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n s t r i v i n g and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , i n t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l e s s o n s has enormous p o t e n t i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n . The evidence suggests t h a t i t i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d of teachers to be so c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r g o a l s t h a t they ignore the m o t i v a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r methods." ( d e C h a r m s 1976, p.211)  (A)  Design  A with  Approach  summer g r a d u a t e  i t s related  to a s s i s t eighth  with  graders'  translate  behaviour, A  literature,  motivation Industry  into  two  (a l a c k o f  tasks  - a motivation  skills  as  - personal  by  strategies  and  learning  general identity.  The  during  students  (self-awareness, skills  lessen their  at  anti-social  i n t e r v e n t i o n program u t i l i z i n g  to  on  w h i c h when f a i l e d  a failure  b a s i c study  ways  quote,  centered  attitudes,  G r a d e 10,  c a u s a t i o n enhancement  c o u n s e l l o r s were s e e k i n g  it),  (see Appendix A ) .  d e v e l o p m e n t ) and  above  s t r a t e g y became a p p a r e n t  training  subject-matter  the  school problem  ( E r i k s o n 1950) out"  appropriate  together  counsellors seeking  The  m i n i m a l a c h i e v e m e n t , and  seemingly  motivation  and  "dropping  course  both  brought  a school problem.  competencies: may  course  the study  required  industry,  development  - and  and the  "crisis counselling"  -  and  get  more i n v o l v e d  counselling The  on  study  the  the  program  needs  of  the  developmental 1979;  skills  I t was  and  i n the  late-childhood  -  peer  tact  majority  primary skills the  activity, to  impart  program  strengths stages  as  dimensions, relegating on  to  students,  in specific  implementation.  (B)  Developmental  on  of  and  a body used  of  at  often  demands,  used  as  e x i s t i n g or  of  the  concern  industry,  teaching  as  knowledge  through  a  subordinate  and  curricstudent  series  of  counselling  guidance  emphasizes  function the  by that  natural  rests  setting  Frameworks  developmental  which  to  design  a  improve  potential as  con-  and s t r u c t u r a l / h i e r a r c h i c a l  b e t w e e n g u i d a n c e and  and  least  a means t o  development  a  established  other d i s c i p l i n e s  of  school f i t  Bronfenbrenner  identifiable  evaluation  stressed  skills  the  1974;  issues  (school  perspective,  encompassed  grade students,  influence  a  not  program has on  opportunity  school  decision-making),  conceived  to  from a  (Blocher  the  both chronological  for  foundations  to  development,  counselling  kinds  eighth  encompassed  distinguished  competency  Two  of  objectives,  involving  that  and  developmental  intervention,  excellent  therefore  I t focused  pressure,  program, attempted  u l u m and  program  sense  an  school  early-adolescence  self-concept, the  the  e c o l o g i c a l approach  characteristics:  with  important,  The  or  enhancement  provided  needs of  program.  ( E g a n 1979)  1974).  a motivation  content,  f i t the  Egan 1979),  following  (Blocher  design  upstream h e l p i n g .  that  to  to  -  i n upstream h e l p i n g  teaching  decision  focused for  and  21  frameworks p r o v i d e a developmental  the  conceptual  intervention.  The  -  frameworks p r o v i d e educational effects  guidelines  processes  of learning  22 -  for defining healthy  and p r o v i d e  environments  and r e l e v a n t  d i r e c t i o n s f o r evaluating the on t h e growth o f s t u d e n t s  (Blocher  1974). The sented  first  framework i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l .  by t h e work o f E r i k s o n  infancy  t o old-age through  s t a g e he has p o s i t e d accomplished the  next  demands of  (Blocher  presents  with  person  1974).  tasks,  E g a n a n d Cowan  developmental  repre-  task  stages. that  from  At each  must be  successfully to  more c o m p l e x  and d i f f i c u l t  (1979) , a d a p t i n g  t h e work  an i n t e g r a t i v e framework f o r  crises  resources  life  i s to continue  (1975), p r o v i d e  the relevant  framework,  human d e v e l o p m e n t  defined  i t s correspondingly  (1963) d e v e l o p m e n t a l  developmental  traces  a c e n t r a l developmental  Newman a n d Newman  Erikson's  eight well  i f t h e growing  stage,  (1963),  This  (Table  2.1).  T a b l e 2.1  l i f e s t a g e s and t h e i r  and c r i s e s p e r t i n e n t  respective  t o the present  study. The The  task  industry period of  c r i t i c a l stage at the fourth versus  i s one o f l e a r n i n g  life.  The  Children  conviction  am what  life  others.  and s t r i v e He w i l l  their  emerges  will  need  f o rcompletion  develop  i s the fourth  stage.  of a sense o f  the formal  This  and b a s i c  skills  fundamental knowledge, and,  t o do w e l l  i n their  i s " I am what  t o make w o r k . "  the child  study  of feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y .  and m a s t e r i n g  a desire that  to this  i s t h e development  now a c q u i r e  I can learn  successfully, in  stage  t h e development  e v e n more i m p o r t a n t ,  "I  relevant  I will  I f the task  a n d want  (Muuss  1975).  learn" or  i s mastered  accomplishments  of h i s tasks  a sense of duty,  work  later  and r e c o g n i t i o n  a feeling for  from  workmanship  Table  A D e v e l o p m e n t a l Map o f t h e L i f e  Life Late  Stage  Childhood  (8-12)  Key S y s t e m s Family Neighbourhood School Peer Group  Developmental:  2.1  C y c l e and i t s Context  Resources  Tasks  Cooperative  i n One C u l t u r e  social  relations Self-evaluation S k i l l learning Team m e m b e r s h i p  B a s i c human Cooperative  support learning  environment Cooperative recreational environment E f f e c t i v e s k i l l s teaching - learning to learn - basic interpersonal relationships  Crises Industry or inferiority  Feedback on s e l f and performance Early  Adolescence  (13-17)  Family Peer Group School  Physical  maturation  Formal mental tions  opera-  P e e r - g r o u p memberships I n i t i a l sexual intimacy  B a s i c human s u p p o r t Physiological information Cognitive problem-solving and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t a s k s Relationship-building  Belonging or social isolation  skills Knowledge o f s e x r o l e s and t h e i r c u l t u r a l sources Opportunities f o r independent m o r a l judgement ( E g a n a n d Cowan, 1 9 7 9 )  (Note:  only study  the stages  seen  a r e presented.)  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e present  -  and is  work p a r t i c i p a t i o n , based  on  success.  The  capacity of  a desire  to  the  how  and  of  t o be,  (Erickson  t a s k ahead  an  -  attitude  of  striving  f o r i n d u s t r i o u s n e s s and  contribution  learn  becoming"  and  24  this with  1968,  stage skill,  provides a  that  feeling  of  to ego-identity i s  "the  what  process  p.186) - t h a t  a willingness  f o r mastery  to learn  one  i s i n the  i s , an and  identification  master  i t (Muuss  of 1975,  p.62) . If and a  the c h i l d  recognition,  feeling  ment and  of  there w i l l  be  and 'any  isolation The  good.'  w h i c h may  and  age  Of ist,  (Table  he may  the  will  plagued  by  and  a lasting  enjoy-  feelings he  and  sense of  hierarchical.  Loevinger's  of s e q u e n t i a l l y  (1970)  though  correlated  with  ego  ordered  phases) which are d e f i n e d  be  of  will  a  sense  three t r a n s i t i o n a l t h e y may  and  p.63)  framework i s  series  of  that  t h e r e i s work p a r a l y s i s  (Muuss 1975,  a  feeling  become c o n v i n c e d  in alienation  formulates  be  success  stages inde-  chronological  1981) . interest  Self-aware  in this  Transitional  sequence are P h a s e and  1-4  stages  1-3  Conform-  Conscientious  2.2).  This by  and  particular  1-3/4  He  of  f o r accomplishment  develop  f r a m e w o r k , r e p r e s e n t e d by  o f age,  (Hauser  and  of desire  not  done.  result  to acquire a f e e l i n g  k i n d of developmental  development model,  pendently  may  a result  confusion."  second  stages  As  stage a lack  "He  inferiority,  integrative  (seven  be  p r i d e f o r work w e l l  futility  This  at t h i s  of uselessness.  inadequacy never  fails  transition  individual  ( H a y e s 1982)  acceptance  of  i s from  the r u l e s  of  a stage the group  characterized to a  stage  Table  Stages of  Stage  Code  Conformist  1-3  Interpersonal  2.2  Development  Conscious Preoccupation  Style  Reciprocal, superficial. Need f o r a c c e p t a n c e and a p p r o v a l by a u t h o r i t y and g r o u p .  Things, appearance, reputation. Stereotyped thinking.  Character  Development  Conformity to e x t e r n a l r u l e s . Dichotomization o f r i g h t and wrong, as b a s e d on f o r m u l a e f o r b e h a v i o u r and on s o c i e t a l standards.  Self-Conscious  1-3/4  Reciprocal,  affective.  Relationships  Awareness of  are  The  d e s c r i b e d i n terms of feelings. E m p h a s i s on limited, closed groups. 1-4  Conscientious  Intensive, Mutuality, duty.  responsible. respect,  Self  as  feelings. related  M o r a l i t y of r e c i p r o c i t y , and o f r o l e - t a k i n g .  to the group. Transi t i o n from a c t i o n s to traits  (quasi-traits).  Differentiated feelings. Achievement.  inner  Internalized  Only  those stages study are  present  seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e presented.)  of the  guilt.  Traits.  (Loevinger  (Note:  rules,  and  Wessler,  1970)  -  characterized traits tion  and  from  by  achievements  based  as measured by  on  As from  rules  actions to  a c o n c e p t i o n of conduct enduring  as  a  a  transitional Conformist  appreciation Increasing  those which r e f l e c t series  stage  development. Though  precise,  level,  stage:  reliance  a d v a n c e and  ideals,  This  from  transi-  interpersonal  feelings,  of a c t i o n s to conduct  i t presents  An  these  an  achievement  integrative  and  as  from  a set  of  p e r s o n a l i n d u s t r y and  the development  to r e l a t e  adolescent appropriate  life  support  s t a g e , as  developmental  intervention.  They  identity, t o and  the an  they  o f as  do  suggest  communicate w i t h  e i g h t h grade,  higher  i n presenting a in  the  certain  of o n e s e l f , the  and  develop-  a  central  o f a more  formation  greater personal control,  Skills  an  1982).  i n c l u d e the development  understanding  o f more c o m p l e x  They f u r t h e r  stage  and  is a  framework f o r p e r s o n a l development  more i n t e g r a t e d  ability  properly conceived  differences  (Hayes  standards  frameworks d i f f e r  of p e r s o n a l growth.  and  conspicuous  in situations  upon one's s e l f - e v a l u a t e d  theoretical  processes  two  increase i n self-awareness  late-childhood/early-adolescent  greater  inner standards.  to inner c o n t r o l ,  of m u l t i p l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  mental  of  obligations,  propensities characterizes adolescence.  the  complex  -  a conscious preoccupation with  group-sanctioned  relations  26  a  other people,  and  competencies. late-childhood/early-  appropriate developmental  stage  needs f o r a m o t i v a t i o n enhancement  with  -  (C)  Program  This personal  causation  stage  (c) stage teaching  from  the primary  and t h a t  the very  towards formal  permanent  the  student  with  with  qualitatively  there  i s a beginning  self-awareness operations  suggests  that  or unchanging.  or bridge.  movement  (Ginsberg  they  that  different  Instead  they  a l l i t sinherent  e a r l y state of being  possibilities  able  from  life  understanding  view  stage stage of  of psycho-  (Hauser  and Opper  1980).  1969) f o r t h e  the external  are beginning  (Hauser 1980).  world  to perceive  and above a l l ,  t o t h i n k a b s t r a c t l y about  The  adolescence  I t i s at this  no l o n g e r  develop-  the program.  and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m  possible, the subjective, the r e l a t i v e ,  self an  transition  that  A  as  secondary  the late-childhood/early-adolescent  causation,  early-adolescent  to enrich  t o match t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  o f development  logical shift  and i n v a r i a n t  to stimulate  the developmental assumption  important  early-adolescence  hierarchical,  one.  incorporated  childhood  development,  and (d) t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l  o r i n some c a s e s ,  of the early-adolescent  a stage  skills  a i m o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n was  i n t e r v e n t i o n attempted  represents  is  higher  to curriculum  the developmental p o s i t i o n that  through q u a l i t a t i v e ,  stage,  relating  late-childhood/early-adolescence,  Accepting  present  the next  program  o f (a) study  of the curriculum,  stages,  theory,  concepts  appropriateness  child's  ment  and d e v e l o p m e n t a l  of  strategy.  The  and d e v e l o p m e n t a l  characteristics  sequential  to  as an o p e r a t i o n a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f  the perspective  growth progresses  the  theory  concepts  intervention (b)  Intervention  p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d  origin-pawn  27 -  t h e dynamic  They a r e i n themselves,  -  conceive  of p r o b a b i l i t i e s  perspective The tics  about  time  intervention  and  I n an  development the r o l e  they  o f an  Viewed  attempt are  ( H a y e s 1982)  experience  of  "education  should  involve  tion  adolescents vicarious involved  the  be  should  i n the and  of  be  f o r which  mental  of  of  those  their  events  and  the  own  this  'personal experience  of within  development.  personal  examination  of,  logical  l i n k between the  consequent behaviour;  in  supplies  be  their  the  involve adolescents (Hayes  1982  p.161).  c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g an  behaviour by  should  that exist  interpretation'  elicited  Educa-  d i s c u s s i o n of  adolescent  position,  their  that  that adolescents  should  and  development.  judgements."  and  asserts,  t h o s e moments o f own  take  adolescent  extensive  conflicts  predicting  experience  mediating  skills  p e r s o n a l , i t i s n o t meant  (197/6) s u p p o r t s  crucial  responsibility  an  their  Education  of  characteris-  T h e r e f o r e , he  of  i t i s meant  f o r e x p l a i n i n g and  the  be  that experience. practice  1975).  stage  individual  choice.  i n v o l v e d i n the  examination  the  their  in their respective  i s an  with,  course By  Rogers  study  the  experience  Rather,  o t h e r words, p e r s o n a l forms  the  of  individual  DeCharms  element  and  concerned i n the  reorganize  s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e y may  the  active  intervening  a  role-taking  personal.  issues.  lives  content  be  that affect  should  students  context  responsibility  adolescents  existence  to match  the p e r s p e c t i v e of  role-taker  and  c h o i c e , and  to help  i n the  and  the program, which c o n s i s t s  provided with  origin  from  (Rustad  attempts  commitment, i n t e r n a l  a person.  in  future  also  -  possibilities,  of early-adolescence with  promoting  own  and  28  as  the  critical  ( F i g u r e 2.1).  environmental antecedent experience  In  events  environwhich, i f  -  29  -  Figure  I  Role-taking  (Personal  Antecedent  experience  environmental  and  interpretation)  events  Consequent  behaviour  (deCharms  appropriately in  designed, w i l l  some c a s e s , In  order  experience world  of  stimulate  arousal,  purpose.  i s to  create  responsible  framework i n the  these  context  conditions eighth  i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts  w h i c h deCharms and  (1976) has  encourage  feeling  integrate  the  and  to  within  acting  like  or  perhaps,  grade  In  felt  .  the  t o be  This  an  origin.  will  intervention  skill those  the  that  originating  (1976)  development. conditions  p r o m o t e commitment, person;  the  practical  deCharm's  study  incorporate  a  must p r o v i d e  conditions  utilizing  suggested  responsibility  choice  ( d e C h a r m s 1976)  of  one  and  and  create  internal  conditions  Four b a s i c  that  elements  conditions:  Self-study; carefully t a n c e by  2.  behaviour  commitment  to  enhancement  stage.  problem  attempts  1.  commitment  individual  stage  next  the  the  choice,  the  school,  from w i t h i n  The  to  to  to produce motivated  of  the  movement  lead  the  student  will  h i s b a s i c motives others  Internal-goal  i n the  setting;  be  encouraged  i n an  to  consider  atmosphere of  accep-  group. the  1976)  student  will  be  encouraged  -  and  assisted,  late  3.  by p e e r s ,  h i s motives  range  30 -  into  p a r e n t s , and s t a f f  realistic  trans-  s h o r t and l o n g  goals.  Planning/Goal-directed behaviour; encouraged to  to  and a s s i s t e d ,  plan r e a l i s t i c  the student w i l l  by p e e r s , p a r e n t s , and  and c o n c r e t e a c t i o n  be  staff,  to a t t a i n the  goals. 4.  Personal Responsibility; by  peers,  sibility and  the student w i l l  p a r e n t s , and s t a f f , for selected  failure  g o a l s as w e l l  of h i s attempts  should  induce  should  attainment This concrete  the  written  effective  greater  intervention experiences  process  skills  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  i n more  and thus  experiential  and purpose,  deCharms  1976)  learning experience  format  motivation  greater success  to c r e a t e these  to study  skills  which attempts  of self-awareness  and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assignments  of  i n goal-  satisfaction.  attempts  related  skills,  greater personal  The a r o u s e d  behaviour,  respon-  them.  and h i g h e r m o t i v a t i o n ; a l l w i t h i n a c o n t e x t  to the l i f e result  to accept  i n the subject-matter of study  i n c r e a s e d commitment  responsibility, meaning  embedded  from  encouraged,  as f o r the success  to reach  (Adapted  These c o n d i t i o n s ,  to learn  be  and d i s c u s s i o n  with  c o n d i t i o n s by  and c o u r s e work and to balance  techniques, the content  of study  skills.  and  integrate  goal-setting experiences of  -  31 -  CHAPTER I I I  METHOD  (A)  Evaluation  Schubert  (1980), d e f i n e s  epistemology discussing  Design  of science,  statements,  significant  i n relation  for  pursuing  are  i n the context  method goals  practical  What  i s the o r i g i n  relate  four  four  conditions or statements  questions:  ( b ) What  matter?  The  i s the  ( d ) What a r e t h e  practical  and p r o b l e m s ?  the p r a c t i c a l world  of r e l i e f  view  - that  that  i s , they  ideas must  p r o b l e m s and c o n c e r n s and  and p o s i t i v e  action.  of study? suggests  that  such as p o l i t i c a l ,  a large part  view requires  referent  t o contemporary  i s t h e method  environment, play  of ideas  to Schubert  show p r o m i s e  The  conditions  and problems?  i s the subject  problems have a r e a l  directly  What  The f o u r  research.  research?  According and  view, provide  to the following  of ideas  ( c ) What  i n counselling  i n the comparison.  t o the p r a c t i c a l research.  two v i e w s o f t h e  and t h e p r a c t i c a l , i n  conflict  points  o f answers  i s the o r i g i n  o f study? of  the theoretical  the research/practice  He o u t l i n e s f o u r  (a) What  and compares  i n determining  forces within  the research  economic, and s o c i a l t h e method  of study,  forces,  -  direction  of the study,  results.  As s u c h ,  of  the normative  What  for  on g e n e r a t i n g  laws a c r o s s  on t h e  the i n f l u e n c e  aspects  that  of experience,  i s researched action.  and  i s valued  Less  concern  is  u n i v e r s a l laws and g e n e r a l i z i n g  individuals  and  of  research?  to Schubert,  the goal  situations.  of p r a c t i c a l  research  action.  The c u r r i c u l u m  intervention of this  preceding  c o n d i t i o n s a n d was  practical  research.  practical  research  practical  research.  dealing with  met  t h e r e f o r e supported  a n d was  The  based  i n i t s design developed  by Gage  as  as  as  on a model o f p r a c t i c a l  Improvement  the kinds  a l l of the  implemented and e v a l u a t e d  r e s e a r c h model, developed (1981).  study  T h e p r o g r a m i n t e r v e n t i o n was  T h e e v a l u a t i o n was  Sprinthall  i s not outside  i t simplication for direct  According  Improvement  placed  matter?  and s i t u a t i o n a l  What a r e t h e g o a l s  is  the value  order.  the subject matter  placed the  and  states that the p r a c t i c a l view s t r e s s e s the  individual that  -  research  i s the subject  Schubert  for  32  research,  (1978) and a d a p t e d  model permits  of issues of concern  to  greater  by  flexibility  practitioners  (Srpinthall  1981).  S p r i n t h a l l . h a s o u t l i n e d t h e components  Improvement  m o d e l , i n c l u d i n g h i s i n t e g r a t e d component  of the  of multiple  criteria: First, actual  Improvement  research  i n t e r a c t i o n s occur  takes  place  i n t h e s e t t i n g where t h e  - a l l possible interactions,  with  the  -  exception  of  a  single  random a s s i g n m e n t  33  -  independent v a r i a b l e , cannot  i s not  be c o n t r o l l e d ;  possible; generalizability  i s not  a  major  concern. Second,  Improvement  experiment. In  other  words,  clusions, research provide  the  field  third,  and  utilizes  under lead not  formative  former can  wasted  on  the  that  In  A  con-  based  such  and  field  can  be  Studies to  viewed under the  are  either  f o u r t h aspect  variable.  Sprinthall  of  Scriven  and  of  summative  an  modify  as  open-system  this  part  method  of  so  Improvement  (1981) a s k s ,  perhaps  do  are  of  s e r v i c e of not  the  partial  the end  but  intervention  change v e r s u s  we  may  chance  cycle,  provide  even  that  that resources  a particular  research "How  the  can  educational  n e u t r a l or  so  the i n t e r v e n t i o n  e v a l u a t i o n i s i n the one  evaluation.  evaluation findings  components o f  c o n t r i b u t e to p o s i t i v e that  concepts  u l t i m a t e l y have l i t t l e  case,  is  research  with  the  research,  Improvement  f u r t h e r development  t h a t may  In e i t h e r  i n f o r m a t i o n as  may  cedures  and  the  " i m p r o v e " and  some i n s t a n c e s  a program  process.  useful  effect.  for practice  Improvement  summative.  outcome i s e v a l u a t e d  fed back to  effective.  of  between f o r m a t i v e  to a d e c i s i o n to a b o r t  intervention of  case,  be  component  e v a l u a t i o n employing  examination.  being  crucial  similar  Field  system of a n a l y z i n g  really  (1967) i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  results  single  studies reach  accumulate knowledge  critical  e v a l u a t i o n i s never  the  a  a cumulative  i s strengthened.  f r a m e w o r k and  on  results.  The  In  depend  d e p e n d s on  classroom  overall validity  a broader  does not  research  i f a number o f  (Improvement) can  research  that  Instead,  research  the  pro-  negative.  relates assess  to  the  dependent  outcome, even i f  -  we  employ  kind has  of  a  extremely tional  a  set  crude  of  Nicholson  is  g r o w t h do  model i n a n a t u r a l  we  attempt  set  The  answer,  s e v e r a l prominent 1970;  have  Shulman  of measures f o r  H e a t h 1977;  in their  (1970),  McClelland  1973.  f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t  works,  educational  that  what  problem  there  are  phenomenon a n d  He  in  psychological  as  the  competence  content  acquisition. This  fact,  he  suggests,  referenced  t e s t s as  referenced  measures of  test  may  involve  an  the  allows  a l t e r n a t i v e to outcome.  assessment  functioning  ( S p r i n t h a l l 1981).  criteria  aspects  and  to  counselling  educational domain of  T h u s , he  assess  interventions  on  an  but  also  pattern,  a  t h a n one  s i n g l e measure. the  use  for a  provides  summary,  that  maturity to  domain-  s o - c a l l e d standard a  domain-referenced  a s s e r t s , by  shifting  research  impact  important  norm  psychological  maturity, the  of  of  in  the  guidance  a variety  of  dependent v a r i a b l e ,  the  maturity.  emphasizes  psychological  the  appearnce  significant  to  measures allows  In  of  the  definition,  psychological  psychological  formatively tiple  of  By  begin  Sprinthall such as  can  for  to  the  complexity  i t i s important  to  c h e c k and of  balance  of  r e s u l t s which  curriculum  of  a  evaluate  a v a r i e t y of measures.  hopefully,  present  due  one  The  intervention  construct not  only  of  mul-  use  another  i s more  was  the  1977;  suggests,  outcome t h a n  educa-  i s found  - Kohlberg  a  an  s u c h as  S p r i n t h a l l suggests, studies  The  that  "larger" variables  research  respective  s e t t i n g and  to measure?"  o f m e a s u r e s f o r norm r e f e r e n c e d  environments.  results  cyclical  -  S p r i n t h a l l suggests noting  precise  others  or  change and/or  been,  very  formative  34  and  informative  -  developed  and  on a s p e c t s setting  implemented as p r a c t i c a l  research;  The  attempting  o f t h e domain o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y  evaluation design  accumulate a knowledge  answer  -  of s e v e r a l eighth grade classrooms.  formative to  35  utilizing  the following 1.  2.  3.  client  (student)  To what  Is there  increased  theory.  specifically  sought to  and  increased  personal  responsibility feel  helpful?  and i n c r e a s e d  to outside  greater motivation?  in activities  strengths  and  weaknesses  (Student  view/Staff  view/  view)  helpful?  6.  What do  the students  7.  I n what  ways c o u l d  8.  Should  like  i f any, were  I n what  program?  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n be  Not a t  all?  most  ways?  about the  the program continue?  modifications?  skills),  school?)  of the curriculum,  Least  (study  goal-attainment?  o f t h e program?  What a s p e c t s  behaviour  more c o n f i d e n t  are the perceived  Administration  i n the  commitment/purpose,  to school?  (concerns)  participation  effective  Is there  What  i n order  degree?  satisfaction  related  5.  i t s design,  program?  (Do s t u d e n t s  4.  o f measures  a  questions:  Is there  school  It incorporated  a variety  focus  i n the n a t u r a l  f o r p r a c t i c e ( a c t i o n ) and  evaluation, through  to  Present  improved? form?  With  -  (B)  Population  The  grade  in  (No.  known a s  located the  production; The strong  This  amount  transiency  period  vention  i n the  o n d a r y , was  to  granted  Superintendent  of  Assessment  Since setting  of  by  the  the  of  the  District  British  Columbia  years!  evaluate.the  with  coal  the  creates  i n the grade;  at  very a  school. an  curriculum  classrooms,  -  area.  industry  school  Principal  School  located  "company" town w i t h  eighth  important  inter-  Sparwood  knowledge of  Secthe  Measures  the  program  i n t e r v e n t i o n was  the  school,  the  the  a  the  grade E n g l i s h  The  method  effect  or  and  evaluation  the  formative  of  the  design.  i n the  included  a whole, y i e l d e d u s e f u l  impact  s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of  unobtrusive  of  implemented  s e r i e s of measures a l l o w e d  w h i c h , when t a k e n as  approximate  at  student's and  i n the  is reflected  noticeable  is  Schools.  assessment measures. results  nature  Secondary  School  of  of a l l  i s w e l l known f o r  is basically  implement  eighth  region  industry  transiency which  Sparwood  Fernie  Elk Valley  The  consisted  Secondary  Kootenay  The  i n the  i n the  i s within  economic  i s most  Permission  test,  East  primary  of  enrolled  school  Elk Valley.  evaluation  Sparwood  Sparwood community  transition  and  80).  i n the  the  present  union a f f i l i a t i o n s .  certain  (C)  the  students  (approximately  1),  This  for  eight  S p a r w o o d , B.C.  -  Setting  population  regular School  and  36  array  information  combination  methods were  an  of  for a pattern  i n t e r v e n t i o n on A  natural  utilized.  the of  of  to  students pre-post  - 37 -  ( i ) N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey.  The  Nowicki-  S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey ( N o w i c k i & S t r i c k l a n d 1973)  is a  l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n ; one o f the v a r i e d methods used i n the e v a l u a t i o n to measure Origin-Pawn  change - assuming O r i g i n s  a r e more i n t e r n a l i n l o c u s of c o n t r o l and Pawns more e x t e r n a l . N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Survey i s a p e n c i l - a n d - p a p e r  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e con-  s i s t i n g o f 40 q u e s t i o n s w h i c h must be answered e i t h e r 'yes' or The q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d s a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy  'no'.  of r e i n f o r c e m e n t ,  w i t h h i g h s c o r e s b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . R e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y based on samples from grade three to twelve.  T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .63 t o  .83;  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .63 t o .79 w i t h n = 1,732. Scores of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r measures of l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( N o w i c k i & S t r i c k l a n d 1973), s u p p o r t i n g the i n s t r u m e n t ' s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  ( i i ) Case S t u d i e s .  (see Appendix C ) .  The case s t u d i e s a r e p a r a l l e l s t o r i e s , o f  a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same l e n g t h , designed and a p p l i c a t i o n of study s k i l l s .  t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s ' awareness  They a r e a s s e s s e d through  counting  the s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d by each s t u d e n t .  A pre assessment i s com-  p l e t e d w i t h a post assessment i m m e d i a t e l y  f o l l o w i n g the program.  The post assessment r e s u l t s a r e compared w i t h those o f t h e pre assessment t o see i f g a i n s i n awareness and/or a p p l i c a t i o n have been made (see Appendix G).  ( i i i ) Student P r o g r e s s Survey.  The Student P r o g r e s s Survey i s  a s e l f - r e p o r t e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed  t o measure s t u d e n t  -  progress to  in specific  student  asked  attitude,  to respond  (see Appendix  (iv) the  the  on  Student  behaviour a  Journals.  student  student  t o become a n  In t h i s  reflective  students  notes are  The  and  handouts, to r e a c t  which the  the  effect that  leads  of  the  psychological  and  (v) S t u d e n t  on  a s c a l e of  relate  Respondents  " e x c e l l e n t " to  the  heart  and  a powerful  are  "poor"  the  ability  of  the  an  sociological  designed  the  to o b t a i n  meaningful/useful."  "not  change.  program importantly,  the i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r them.  student's  Thus,  actual  personal  a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f  Research  link  the  (Wagschal impact  on  1980) the  wide-ranging  personal  the  student  interest  conflict  in  with  information.  The  i n t e r v e n t i o n and  to 5 from  experience  of  More  of  relevance  affective  to  process  or  involve  l o g " permits  goals. ideas  to  their  to maintain  of m o t i v a t i o n ,  to p a r t i c i p a n t s .  1  the  intervention.  level  i n the  personal of  of  "reflective  Evaluation Questionnaire.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was meaningfulness  and  i n t e r v e n t i o n and  to a higher  of  included  j o u r n a l attempts  asked  significance  l o g has  subject matter  components  items  reflection  are  t o any  l o g becomes t h e  with  student  actual participant  l o g , students  asked  reflective  suggests  s c a l e from  j o u r n a l or  the  or  The  responsibility.  i n a personal  personal  impact  and  The  w h i c h h a v e any  involvement  habits.  seven p o i n t  intervention.  material,  and  -  F).  individual  with  skills  38  The  student  i n f o r m a t i o n about questionnaire  respondents  are  of  the  course  and  the  program's  lists  the  asked  to r a t e  very meaningful/useful"  Perceptions  evaluation  to  specific  various each  "extremely comments  -  are  also  staff  sought.  and  program  The  advisor  Student  to  consider (see  questionnaire  tion  the  after  the  various on  a  and  to  (school  class),  comments r e g a r d i n g were r e c o r d e d  (viii)  of and on  the  end  Measures. progress  recorded  the  elements of  designed  was  The  asks  of  the  about"  term lists  to r a t e  each  to " r e g u l a r l y  behaviour,  attitude they  (see Appendix J ) .  Unobtrusive  measures,  were r e c o r d e d  f o r Grade P o i n t  in addition  pre,  post  Averages,  class detentions).  attendance  general Also,  students,  and  school  any  staff  general  or  parents  L  to o b t a i n directly  involved.  s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of  informa-  i n t e r v e n t i o n - whether  Evaluation Questionnaire.  indirectly  obtain  respondents  school  data,  to  student  questionnaire  concerning  i n t e r v e n t i o n from  developed  the  The  f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s one  w o r k h a b i t s , a s s i g n m e n t s and  referrals,  developer,  (Follow-up).  used/thought  questions  the  i n t e r v e n t i o n ; those  those the  "not  by  when p o s s i b l e .  Staff  questionnaire  was  p r o g r a m and  t h e m s e l v e s and  classroom  (Office  important  intervention.  Also,  about  D a t a was  behaviour  the  since  follow-up. and  reviewed  I).  (follow-up)  5 from  Unobtrusive  specific  Appendix  the  about."  different  (vii) to  1  responsibility  felt  of  components o f  used/thought  the most  program meaningfulness  conclusion  s c a l e of  was  Evaluation Questionnaire  evaluation about  -  questionnaire  f o r feedback  (vi)  39  the  The  information  involved items ask  design  The  and  staff on  i n the  evaluation  staff  perception  program  respondents  p r o c e d u r e s and  instruction  to  comment  also  their  -  40  -  p e r c e p t i o n s on t h e e f f e c t s o r impact w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s (see Appendix L ) .  (ix) Parent E v a l u a t i o n Questionnaire. q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed  The p a r e n t e v a l u a t i o n  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from p a r e n t s ,  who had been informed o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the intervention.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked respondents  t o comment on  changes they had p e r c e i v e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r  f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n .  asked i f they thought  F u r t h e r , they were  such a program s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d (see  Appendix K ) .  (D)  Data C o l l e c t i o n and Procedures The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n f o u r phases:  Phase I -  P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase I I - I n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase I I I - P o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase IV - Follow-up Collection  (i)  (see Table 3.1 - Data  Schedule).  Phase I P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n The u n o b t r u s i v e d a t a was a v a i l a b l e from the end of t h e f i r s t  term.  T h i s i n c l u d e d r e c o r d i n g Grade P o i n t Averages,  attendance,  g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r comments and t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n v o l v e ment i n t h e s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l . r e c o r d s were t h e p r i m a r y  S t a f f , r e p o r t c a r d s and o f f i c e  sources.  The Student P r o g r e s s Survey was g i v e n t o each of the grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s t o complete.  They were r e q u e s t e d t o complete t h e  Table  3.1  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Measure  Source  Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Student  Progress  Student  Journals  Schedule  Participants Survey Survey  Time  Pre-intervention Post-intervention  Participants  Pre-intervention Post-intervention  Participants  Post-intervention Follow-up  Participants  Post-intervention  Student E v a l u a t i o n Questionnaire (Follow-up).  Participants  Follow-up  U n o b t r u s i v e Measures (GPA; Attendance, etc.)  Staff Parents Records  Pre-intervention Intervention Post-intervention Follow-up  Staff Evaluation Questionnaire  Staff  Post-intervention  Parent Evaluation Questionnaire  Parents  Post-intervention  Case  Participants  Student  Evaluation  Questionnaire  Studies  Pre-intervention Post-intervention  -  survey  individually  The istered the  and  42  -  seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n  N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey to  the  s t u d e n t s , by  the a u t h o r ,  students' regular English The  students  evaluators' curriculum  and  interest  their  admin-  setting  of  classroom.  parents  the  i n gathering information concerning  the  Parents  had  and  been  informed  s t u d e n t s were a s s u r e d  and  anonymity  and  e v a l u a t i o n w o u l d be  available  f o r them  told  that  the r e s u l t s  to see  on  of  completion  of the of  study.  (ii)  Phase I I  Intervention  Unobtrusive completion source Staff to  i n a group  was  of  intervention.  confidentiality  the  i f needed.  and  test  for this was  the  also  measures,  s p e c i f i c a l l y attendance,  s c o r e s , were r e c o r d e d  d a t a was asked  the classroom  to note  any  during  this  t e a c h e r and  comments  assignment time.  general  t h e y made i n  The office.  relation  intervention.  Facilitator Formative  l o g b o o k was  e v a l u a t i o n was  kept  carried  for subjective  out  through  comments.  the l e n g t h of  the  program.  (iii)  Phase The  istered the  Post-intervention  N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey to  the  s t u d e n t s , by  the a u t h o r ,  students' regular English The  each  III  Student  student  Progress  i n grade  admin-  setting  of  classroom.  Survey  eight.  i n a group  was  was  Staff  completed was  by  requested  the to  Staff  for  carefully  -  complete  the  The  Student that  only  the  author  that  i f they  i n the  author,  requested  an  as  Staff  The  t o be  to the  their  of  analyzing their  front  journal.  of  the  i n a group  setting  the  the  the  that  students  journal  administered  of  to  to  the  students' regular  returned  Phase The  IV  Student  them t h r o u g h  Student  students,  students'  the  author  as  and  s c h o o l as  soon as  possible.  confidential  the  soon as  These  possible.  assured  by  mail,  to r e t u r n the  Parents  t o see  author  individually  administered  a request  and  t h a t i f they wished  could contact  were  ques-  reminded  of anonymity.  the  results  i n September,  of  They  the  1983.  Follow-up J o u r n a l s were r e q u e s t e d to  These J o u r n a l s were The  to  administered  program  was  term.  I.  the  reminded they  f o r second  E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  response  evaluation  the  requested  someone e l s e  i n Phase  e x p l a n a t i o n of  were a l s o  to  I t was  E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  Parent  tionnaire  ued  mind  them.  explained to  t o t h r e e weeks and  u n o b t r u s i v e measures were c o l l e c t e d  The  (iv)  analyze  i n two  E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  the  were c o l l e c t e d  that  returned  I t was  classroom.  The  with  would  Student  English  collected.  t h e s e w o u l d be  d i d not  s t u d e n t s , by  and  J o u r n a l was  a l a r g e O.K. The  -  survey.  students  place  43  the then  end  of  the year.  analyzed  as  the  students  T h i s was  who  had  itself  a  (Follow-up)  s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , i n a group  regular English  classroom.  continmeasure.  i n Phase I I I .  Evaluation Questionnaire by  of  was  administered  setting  of  the  -  44  -  CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS  Data three cess  f o r evaluation of  sources:  Indicators.  f o r m s and  (A)  program  Outcome M e a s u r e s Each of  together  these  provide  (B)  sources  i n t e r v e n t i o n were o b t a i n e d  from  E v a l u a t i o n Reports  Pro-  and  (C)  contained m u l t i p l e assessment  f o r complete  evaluation results.  Outcome M e a s u r e s  (i)  Locus  intervention dix  C).  five  not  analysis  Locus  repeated  internal  taken  sex  The  i n Locus  of  completed  having part  across  results  of  expectancy)  Inspection  c o n t r o l was  Control across  i n the  assessed  indicate  the p r e - p o s t  Table  4.1;  that  and  five 4.15).  Locus of C o n t r o l ,  a  computed time  intervention  significant  time  ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) and of Locus  with  period  e x t e r n a l expectancy  expectancy  Appen-  (see T a b l e  ( 1 - 4 ) , was  sex  post  assessment  another  program  and  (see  post  s e t s and  t h a t t h e r e was  pre  Survey  intervention  (movement f r o m  moved t o a g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l  pre  variable  class  the p r e - p o s t  (1-4)  D).  entire  dependent  t h e means i n d i c a t e s  Appendix  both  incomplete  ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) and  measurement  1981).  ference  students  of v a r i a n c e f o r the of  of  the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Reaction  having  factors  (Dixon  Control.  using  with  students  with  of  Seventy-five students  surveys  An  (A)  the  of  dif-  to  (p<£.01). class  Control  (see  -  45  -  Table  Pre  and  Post  A s s e s s m e n t Means f o r  Personal  Reaction  Class 1.  2.  3.  4.  4.1  Pre  Survey  Nowicki-Strickland  (Locus of  x  Post  Control)  x  N  Male Female  12.20 13.60  11.70 11.60  Class  12.90  11.65  10 10 20  Male  15.88  10.26  8  Female  16.22  Class  16.05  14.11 12.18  9 17 13 10  Male  13.46  10.15  Female  14.40  Class  13.93  12.60 11.38  Male Female Class  16.17 14.44 15.31  13.50  6  13.11 13.31  9 15  14.36  11.99*  75  14.43 14.67  11.40 12.86  37 38  Eighth Grade Male Female  * ( F = 40.15  1,67  df  p  23  .01)  (Higher scores i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l expectancy; lower scores i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l expectancy.)  Further, of  there  Control  sex  and  Locus with  and  no  class.  repeated  A check f o r e f f e c t  interaction effect  pre-post  between  and c l a s s and L o c u s o f  o f Grade P o i n t  not s i g n i f i c a n t  m e a s u r e m e n t was  across  internal.  significant  sex, Locus of C o n t r o l  o f C o n t r o l was  Control, more  was  Average  when a n a n a l y s i s o f  computed  (see Appendix E ) .  intervention period,  became  Locus Control,  (CPA)  on  covariance Locus of  significantly  -  (ii) and  Student  after  Progress.  intervention  46  -  Student  using the  p r o g r e s s was  Student  Progress  Appendix  F).  (Hoyt  estimate  of r e l i a b i l i t y  was  -SEM  2.36-  and  -SEM  0.91  complete having  s e t s of pre  incomplete  program dent and  class  pre-post  (1-4)  indicates  a  (1-4)  4.2;  effect  five  time  the  tended  was  no  and  sex  period  little  gains  There  was  Progress  interaction Student  p e r i o d , tended  students  the  depen-  of  sex  1981) .  (male/female)  The  i n Student  across  results  Progress  I n s p e c t i o n of  females  Progress,  sex  class  Student  Progress  (see  interaction Class  levels  of  effect  between Student  Progress, across  means  who  Progress while  Student  indi-  (male/female)  (p^l.05).  Student  the  across  the  i n C l a s s 1,  a significant  g a i n towards  (male/female).  intervention  ten  had  of v a r i a n c e w i t h  in their  and  interval  entire  (p^.01).  t o show much h i g h e r  significant  week  the  (Dixon  i n Student  (see  completing  difference  time  before  students  surveys with  factors  exception of  D).  between Student  2-4  seven  Seventy  students not  analysis  made p o s i t i v e  Appendix  made r e l a t i v e l y  An  significant  with  assessment  over  Survey  computed w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement  intervention  that  2.20-).  Progress, with  t o show a d e c r e a s e  class  Table  was  intervention  the pre-post  and  post  s e t s and  Student  t h e r e was  tended  and  (see T a b l e 4.15).  variable  cate  0.85  assessed  Progress.  1 classes There  Progress  pre-post  t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y  more  positive.  (iii) vention  and  Case S t u d i e s . post  a w a r e n e s s and  Case  intervention  gain  S t u d i e s were u t i l i z e d to assess  (see Appendix G).  student  The  study  pre  inter-  skill  Case S t u d i e s were  - t i l -  lable. 4.2  Pre  and P o s t  for  Class 1.  2.  3.  Pre  Progress  x  Means  Survey  Post  X  N  Male Female  40.92 45.90  42.25 45.60  Class  43.41  43.93 35.83 49.86  6  42.85  13  12 10 22  Male  33.83  Female Class  45.71 39.77  Male  38.33 41.67 40.00  46.89 46.89 46.89  9 9 18  38.86 42.50 40.68  44.86 42.90 43.88  7 10 17  41.26  44.49*  70  37.99 43.95  42.46 46.31  34 36  Female Class 4.  Student  Assessment  Male Female Class  Eighth Grade Male Female  *(F  parallel through post study  = 28.54  1,62  i n content content  differed  p  .01)  and e q u a l  analysis.  intervention skill  df  i n length.  The r e s u l t s  period the students  awareness.  7  The r e s u l t s  indicate tended  t o show h i g h e r  I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e means i n d i c a t e s  t o show h i g h e r  gains  tended  t o show g r e a t e r g a i n t h a n  Table  4.3).  Content  general  of the s p e c i f i c  the p r e levels  that  of  gains  (general/specific).  t h a n m a l e s and s p e c i f i c  tions  analysis  analysed  that across  between sex (male/female) and s u g g e s t i o n s  Females tended  were  suggestions  sugges(see  suggestions, pre  -  48  Table  Pre  4.3  and P o s t A s s e s s m e n t Means f o r C a s e (Student  Study S k i l l  General ass Pre  1.  -  x  3.11  Class  Suggestions)  Specific  P o s t X:  Pre x  .778  2.95  3.33 4.20 3.77  Male  1.63  2.00  Female  1.70  Class 3.  4.  2.  Male Female  Studies  Total  Post  X  Pre  .700  .778 1.50  1.94 1.75  .739  1.14  2.90  .75 .60  1.67  2.45  .68  Male Female Class  1.33 1.90 1.62  2.58 3.10 2.84  Male Female Class  1.43 2.44  x  Post  X  N  9 10  1.84  2.05 2.85 2.46  .63  1.20  1.32  2.00  2.45 1.88  8 10  1.31  1.15 1.18  .80 1.10 .95  1.30 1.70 1.50  1.07 1.50 1.29  1.94 2.40 2.17  12 10 22  .43 .44  1.43 1.67  7  .435  1.55  0.93 1.44 1.19  1.72  1.95  2.00 3.00 2.50  2.34 2.03  9 16  Male Female  1.88 2.21  2.48 3.30  1.03 1.72  Class  2.05  2.89  .69 .71 .70  1.29 1.46 1.38  1.76 2.51 2.14  36 39 75  2.80  19  18  E i ghth Grade  %  Increased  % Same % Decreased  General  Specific  Suggestion:  57 32 11  1.38 52 39 11  A b r o a d s t a t e m e n t w h i c h g i v e s no p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n ( s t u d y m o r e , do y o u r homework, p l a n time). S t a t e m e n t i s vague and g e n e r a l .  Suggestion: A narrower statement which gives  a  particular  d i r e c t i o n (study 2 hours each evening, l i s t a l l homework). S t a t e m e n t i s c o n c r e t e and s p e c i f i c .  - 49 -  assessment skills  (B)  to post  with  the  total  Evaluation  (i)  assessment, response  Eighty-one  4.4) 4.5  and and  content  and  the  form  were computed  analysis  completed  4.4.  Table  4.4  categories:  Strongly Agree/Agree; Responses High;  66%)  were r e l a t e d majority  of  Seven o f  the  of  central (average  for Question  Average;  (76%)  indicated  students nine  and  period  (see Appendix I ) .  a l l forms were  for Question  1-16  17-19  Low.  positive  as  of  indicated  found  helpful. the  analysed.  (see (see  Table Table  m a j o r i t y of  8-10,  interest  i n the  The  to  students  by  5-11  that  by  a majority  a majority  m a j o r i t y of  program.  a  helpful.  which represented  program, were e x p e r i e n c e d as h e l p f u l .  showed  sessions  were e x p e r i e n c e d , 6a,  three  Questions  s e s s i o n s and and  three  were r e l a t e d  occurred.  the a c t i v i t i e s (82%)  sorted into  1-3  significant  and  descriptive  Disagree/Strongly  were a l s o  change  f o r the  were s o r t e d i n t o  Questions  Questions  students average  results  1-15  16  showed a  sessions  sessions of 71%)  Evaluation  t h e p r o g r a m and i t s  Uncertain;  to program a c t i v i t i e s  students,  Student  f o r Questions  f o r Questions  o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s and  (average  to  indicates  Responses  the  The  intervention  statistics.  categories:  H).  4.6).  (a) T a b l e  Disagree.  c a t e g o r i e s of  (see Appendix  reaction  post  completed  statistics  Table  student  the pre  students  Descriptive  doubling  Evaluation Questionnaire.  Questionnaire assessed across  four major  Reports  Student  contents  indicated  students  the  -  50  -  Table  Student  Evaluation Questionnaire  (Percent  0  SA  -  strongly agree  4.4  A  (%)  Response  (Post  to Statements  . U-uncertain;  - agree; b  Intervention)  D - disagree  I b e l i e v e my  2.  I b e l i e v e I have.made p o s i t i v e (increased)  3.  4.  study  i n my  I b e l i e v e I am  h a b i t s have improved.  personal  changes  motivation.  more a w a r e o f my  personal  responsibilities  towards l e a r n i n g .  I have d i s c u s s e d  the  program ( a c t i v i t i e s parents/guardian.  study and  -  strongly ,. disagree 6  3  SA/A  U  D/SD  64  31  5  56  36  8  79  16  33  19  48  51  27  22  54  22  24  70  14  16  38  37  25  52  28  20  77  14  9  66  14  20  70  14  16  46  22  32  skills/motivation  exercises) with  my  5.  I found t h e s e s s i o n on be h e l p f u l .  "student  roles"  6.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on t o be h e l p f u l .  "Origin  behaviours"  6a.  I found " s e t t i n g t o be h e l p f u l .  goals  6b.  I found "checking t o be h e l p f u l .  and  daily  "How  SD  6  Statement 1.  1-16)  do  to  planning"  progress"  7.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on be h e l p f u l .  I l e a r n " to  8.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on " O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f " t o be h e l p f u l .  9.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on be h e l p f u l .  "Note-taking"  10.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on t o be h e l p f u l .  "Taking  11.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n s on S t o r i e s " t o be h e l p f u l .  to  Examinations"  "Achievement  ./con't  -  Table  51  -  4.4  .../con't  Statement 12.  I would l i k e to p a r t i c i p a t e l i k e t h i s again.  13.  I would in a one.  14.  I would  15.  recommend  study  t h a t my  recommend  that  study  similar  to  results  for  Question  from  'Helped  (90%) from  of  17 a  l o t ' to  help'  t h e p r o g r a m was  responses  indicated  results  varying  tended  degrees  through  of  results  content  seven  statement  indicated  t h e p r o g r a m was  that  'helped  a lot'.  A  'though b o r i n g a t  on  69  21  10  38  31  31  the  the  for Question  groups  17.  Responses ranging  of help;  ranging  nine percent  indi-  Twenty-two p e r c e n t times  p r o g r a m was  students.  Average 76  significant majority  Only  help at a l l .  t o show t h a t impact  19  analysis.  time'.  o f no  36  High 13  "Waste o f  to  45  one  indicates  were s o r t e d i n t o  the responses  'a l i t t l e  cated  T a b l e 4.5  were summarized  37  skills/ this  How w o u l d y o u r a t e y o u r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program?  The  28  f u t u r e Grade E i g h t s  a  T a b l e 4.5.  35  this  I believe  (b)  The  like  skills/motivation  find  D/SD  participate  group  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study g r o u p l i k e t h i s one. I would  U  program  friends  skills/motivation  m o t i v a t i o n program u s e f u l next year. 16.  in a  SA/A  still helpful  of  useful'. and  had  Low 11  -  52  -  Table  Statements  4.5  Students would  Regarding  the Program  Offer  to  Peers  Intervention  Statements Helped  a l o t (studying;  marks;  Frequency  goals;  note-taking; tests;  44  responsibility).  B o r i n g , when n o t u s e f u l / t h o u g h b o r i n g , made me a w a r e o f who i s r e s p o n s i b l e / b o r i n g , b u t h e l p e d me t o evaluate myself/didn't l i k e i t (boring) but i t was useful.  35  Very  i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l / f u n / r e a l l y e n j o y e d i t / hope program l i k e t h i s runs next y e a r .  32  Help  somewhat o r a l i t t l e / l e a r n e d p a r t s O.K., others not.  29  Not  everyone needs i t / d i d n ' t O.K. i f y o u want i t .  Something you  h e l p me  should try!/Try  Boring/dull/waste  of  a few  things/  much,  but!/  time/mixes  7  you  up.  4  ( S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s l i s t e d more t h a n one w h i l e a l l students responded at l e a s t  analysis. t o be for  The  included  T a b l e 4.6  s m a l l e r number with  Q u e s t i o n s 18-20.  limited  11  it!  Total  ( c ) T a b l e 4.6.  O.K./  was  also  categorization. result  of  162  response once.)  summarized  of responses  Significant  Response  through  content  allowed a l l statements Results are  indicated  t h e A d d i t i o n s was  the  -  request in  -  f o r more g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s / c a s e s t u d i e s  t h e D e l e t i o n s was  Stories  (65%).  helpful  i n the  Evaluation students (ii)  53  (57%).  the d e c r e a s e / e l i m i n a t i o n of  Concerns v a r i e d  with  a mixture  Significant  Achievement  of  statements  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of program m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  Questionnaire results  tended  to i n d i c a t e  a m a j o r i t y of  showed  positive  students  found  majority  of  students  found  the  majority  of  students  had  majority  of  students  indicated  the  the  the  (iii) a  sessions helpful during  p r o g r a m be  of  outcome measures  sessions helpful  interest  Student  (i)' a m a j o r i t y  c h a n g e on  central  average  that  The  (iv) a  the program  continued  (v)  a  for future  grade e i g h t s .  (ii)  Student  Evaluation Questionnaire  Evaluation Questionnaire the  p r o g r a m s and  end  of  Eighty  i t s contents  the academic students  (Follow-up)  year;  from  Descriptive statistics  (see Table  4.7)  (see Table  received  content  4.8  and  f o r Question  (a) T a b l e  4.7.  17  Table and  Table  4.7  categories:  Strongly Agree/Agree;  Average;  Question Low,  i t was  f o r Questions  12 was  also  as were Q u e s t i o n s  No  indicates  Responses  the  form  1-11  to  the  a l l forms were  for  1-14  Questions  response  i n c l u d e d i n the  results  f o r the  was results.  descriptive  were s o r t e d i n t o  sorted into 13-14;  through  f o r Questions  significant  Uncertain;  student  r e a c t i o n s to  and  completed  not  The  (see Appendix J ) .  were computed  4.9).  thus  student  intervention  a n a l y s i s was  statistics.  Disagree.  post  a l l or p a r t of  analysed.  15-16  assessed  a f o u r month p e r i o d  completed  and  (Follow-up).  three  Disagree/Strongly  three  Increased;  categories: Same;  High;  Decreased.  -  54  -  Table  Student  Statements  on  Course  4.6  Deletions,  A d d i t i o n s and  Concerns  Statements Additions:  More group More c a s e Personal  exercises (Discussion  Circles)  13  studies/oral-group discussions topics  flicts,  (drugs, b i r t h  class  More t i m e / m o r e M o r e on  Frequency  control,  behaviours, c h i l d  spread  7  con-  abuse)  ^  out  4  self-confidence/determination  2  Excitement!  2 Total  Deletions:  D e c r e a s e / e l i m i n a t e Achievement Daily Less  35  Stories  15  P r o g r e s s Checks  5  time/shorter course  2  Exam t a k i n g  Other:  Good  t h e way  i t is  Total  1 23  Total  8  TOTAL  66  (n = 50  Concerns:  Slow/Boring Will  at  t h e r e be  t i m e s / t o o much t i m e something  How  does course  Too  much p a p e r  O v e r my I do  head a t  these  relate  do  this  next  year?  6  t o E n g l i s h marks?  5 5  times/too  fast.  4  t h i n g s a l r e a d y - n o t much h e l p .  4  English?  I c o n t i n u e on my  81)  8  work.  D o e s i t h a v e t o be How  like  of  1  own?  1 TOTAL  Cn ( S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s l i s t e d more t h a n one Not a l l s t u d e n t s g a v e a r e s p o n s e . )  response.  =  28  34 o f .81)  -  Questions over  1-4, w h i c h w e r e r e l a t e d  time but s t i l l  primary skill  improvement  questions  with  The s t r o n g e s t  the post  were d i r e c t l y  of students  neared m a j o r i t y  related  involvement.  some s l i p p a g e f r o m h i g h  students  indicated either  personal  percent  (58%)  i n personal  a t an  equal  5-10.  as 'thought  effort  and  These  by a  significant  session  and  about and  (.47%)  involvement,  t o low, r e t a i n e d a  significant  Ninety-six percent  of  ( 3 5 % ) o r no c h a n g e  (.61%)  s i n c e the post  evaluation period;  ninety-  an i n c r e a s e  responsibility.  show some w e a k e n i n g  t o show  an i n c r e a s e  indicated either  outcome r e l a t e d  of  through  tended  of the program.  The w e a k e s t  Personal  study  of the follow-up,  to the sessions  (76%) a t a v e r a g e .  motivation  eight  gains  (58%) and  (39%) weakened  results  74%)..  On t h e two  or greater  (83%) were r e p o r t e d  (average  of students  to  taking  e v a l u a t i o n , were Q u e s t i o n s  majority  in  motivation  strong.  on' from a range o f ' o n c e / t w i c e - r e g u l a r l y '  majority  with  responsibility  of the s i x sessions  worked  t o be r e l a t i v e l y  Personal  the others.  consistent  t o outcome m e a s u r e s , had weakened  (47%), a near m a j o r i t y  movement.  rate with  Five  tended  outcome measures,  positive  55 -  of post  questions  The f o l l o w - u p  tended  change  results  evaluation results.  (48%) n e a r e d  and s e s s i o n u s e f u l n e s s  ( 4 0 % ) o r no  a majority  tended  However, i n positive  t o show c o n t i n u e d  high  levels  positivity.  (b) analysis sorted focused  Table  4.8.  Table  4.8 was  and i n d i c a t e d r e s u l t s  into  eight general  mostly  on s t u d y i n g  summarized  f o r Question  statements.  through  15.  Student  content  Responses  were  a w a r e n e s s was  (.exams/note-taking) and  responsibility  -  56  -  Table  Student  4.7  Evaluation Questionnaire  (Percent  (.%)  Response  (Follow-up:  4 Months)  to E v a l u a t i o n Statements  Statement  SA/A  (SA/A - S t r o n g l y A g r e e / A g r e e ; D/SD 1.  2.  4.  D/SD  U-Uncertain;  study h a b i t s have experience i n the  I b e l i e v e my  grades  improved as program.  a  47  32  21  35  26  39  58  28  14  39  35  26  72  12  16  77  14  9  47  30  23  Yourself  84  7  9  Methods  64  17  19  a p p l y i n g what  are  improved  I have l e a r n e d  as  a result  i n the  of  program.  I b e l i e v e I have taken g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l respons i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g s i n c e my participation. I b e l i e v e I am result  U  Disagree)  I b e l i e v e my r e s u l t o f my  me 3.  - Disagree/Strongly  1-14)  o f my  more p e r s o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d  participation  i n the  as  a  program.  (SA/A - T h o u g h t a b o u t i t and w o r k e d on i t r e g u l a r l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , once or t w i c e ; U - T h o u g h t about i t but d i d n ' t work on i t ; D / S D - H a v e not t h o u g h t a b o u t i t / n o t worked on i t . 5.  Origin  Behaviours  6.  Setting  Goals  7.  Checking  8.  Organizing  9.  Note-taking  and  Daily  Planning  Progress/Personal  Feedback  10.  Taking  Examinations  74  14  12  11.  Journal  Writing  42  20  38  H  A  L  77  14  (+)  (0)  (-)  35  61  4  40  58  2  (H - H i g h ; 12.  A - Average;  L -  Low)  P e r s o n a l e f f o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t i n the use o f s t u d y s k i l l s d i s c u s s e d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n the program. (+)  Increased;  (0)  Same;  (-)  Decreased  13.  P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e program  14.  Personal  responsibility  completion.  s i n c e program  completion.  9  -  (goal s e t t i n g / o r g a n i z i n g ) .  -  57  The remaining  statements  i n the  list  c o u l d , because of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , be c o l l a p s e d i n t o these statements.  Student  p e r i o d , tended  awareness, a f t e r the f o u r month f o l l o w - u p  t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to program outcome  measures (see Tables 4.1,  (c) Table 4.9. and  4.2  T a b l e 4.9  and  4.3).  was  a s s e s s e d through  i n d i c a t e d r e s u l t s f o r Q u e s t i o n 16.  i n t o e i g h t g e n e r a l statements program tended aware o f .  two  and  content  analysis  A g a i n , responses were s o r t e d  the most u s e f u l a s p e c t s of the  to show c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h what s t u d e n t s were most  Studying  (exam t a k i n g / n o t e - t a k i n g ) and  responsibility  ( g o a l s e t t i n g / o r g a n i z a t i o n ) were i n d i c a t e d as the most u s e f u l a s p e c t s of the program s i n c e program c o m p l e t i o n .  Student  t o program s e s s i o n s / s k i l l s , f o u r months f o l l o w i n g program, to show a s i g n f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to program outcome measures Tables 4.1,  4.2,  4.3).  The  Student  (Follow-up)  r e s u l t s showed t h a t ( i ) w i t h expected  responses tended (see  Evaluation Questionnaire  moderate m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d  slippage a  to i n d i c a t e  positive  g a i n s , or at l e a s t s t a b i l i t y , on the outcome measures ( i i ) a s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y of students tended  to f i n d the s e s s i o n s of  p r a c t i c a l v a l u e and had worked on the s k i l l s  from the s e s s i o n s  ( i i i ) a s i g n f i c a n t m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s maintained and  involvement  tended areas:  w i t h the program content  average  ( i v ) student awareness  t o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n two Studying  interest  primary  (exam t a k i n g / n o t e - t a k i n g ) and R e s p o n s b i l i t y ( g o a l  s e t t i n g / o r g a n i z i n g ) (v) a r e a s o n a b l e , l a s t i n g , a f t e r program effect  occurred.  - 58 -  Table  Student  Statements  Completion  4.8  of Awareness  to Year  End  from  (Four  Program  Months)  Statements  Frequency  Taking  Exams/Studying  46  Taking  Responsibility/Planning/Goal Setting  39 Origin  Behaviours/Trying  More/Listening  Organizing Myself  21  Note-Taking  21  My  13  Own  Abilities  Completing An  Improved  Homework A t t i t u d e To  10 School  9  Journal Writing  4 Total  (n =  163  63  of  80)  -  59  Table  Student (From  Statements  of Most  Program Completion  -  4.9  Useful Aspects to Year  End  of  Program  - Four  Months)  Statements  Taking  Frequency  Exams/Studying  34  Note-Taking Organizing Goal  34 Skills  20  Setting/Planning  Responsibility  Discussions/Origin Characteristics  Discussion/Listening Journal Personal  11 9  Skills  7  Writing  5  Evaluation  2 Total  (n = 57  122  of  80)  -  (iii)  Parent  Questionnaire  enclosed  An  with  Thirty-six  one-third increasing Table  three  percent  results  (Only tended  were t e n d i n g  to  tended  (iv)  the  and  trend  toward  the  study  to  and  study  their  f o r the  program by  plus  staff  intervention. the  author  were r e t u r n e d  (100%).  Questions  1-6  (see  Questions  7-10  (see  Table  4.11)  and  4.12).  content  responsisixty-nine eight  disagreement.) data,  that  taught  The  students  to h i g h e r  The  levels  Further, the  Teacher the  the  program.  Evaluation  four  primary  reactions/observations and  A l l twelve  Descriptive statistics  Table  Fifty-  f u t u r e grade  continuation of  L).  (see  definite  strong with  Forms were d i s t r i b u t e d  (see Appendix  c h i l d r e n as  acquisition.  P h y s i c a l Education)  strong  roughly  personal  previous  ( t e a c h e r s who  K).  children.  greater  skills/habit  show s u p p o r t  assessed  subjects  personally  Appendix  indicated a  o f f e r e d to  of  summary w e r e  their  indicated clear  show, i n s u p p o r t  program  skills/habits  p r o g r a m was  program be  percent  of  the  considered  to view  (33%)  part  Evaluation  indicated that  Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Questionnaire.  Questionnaire academic  the  the  (see  t o make m o d e r a t e p o s i t i v e movement  responsibility  results  tended  one-third  of  Parent  program  T h i s was  results  motivation  support  three  The  on  and  to parents  (.46%) .  parents  indicated a  recommending  classes.  of  the  program  Parental  percent  of  of  Similarly,  i n the  bility.  results.  i n personal  4.10).  interest  responded  the  The  r e a c t i o n / o b s e r v a t i o n of  questionnaire  parents  (33%)  parent  introduction letter  the  enough t o use  -  Evaluation Questionnaire.  assessed  intervention.  60  collected  questionnaires  were computed  for  a n a l y s i s completed  for  -  61 -  Table  Parent  Evaluation (Post  (Percent  4.10  Questionnaire  Intervention)  (%) R e s p o n s e  to Statements  Statements  1-8)  SA/A  JJ_  D/SD  My c h i l d h a s shown a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program.  36  42  22  My c h i l d h a s d i s c u s s e d w i t h me ( u s ) some of t h e a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s o f t h e study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program.  70  8  22  3.  I h a v e o b s e r v e d p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s i n my c h i l d ' s s t u d y s k i l l s and h a b i t s .  33  31  36  4.  I have observed p o s i t i v e changes child's personal motivation.  i n my  39  36  25  I have  i n my 53  31  16  , 61  „, 36  „ 3  69  28  3  61  33  6  (SA - S t r o n g l y A g r e e / A g r e e ; U - U n c e r t a i n ; D/SD - D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y Disagree) 1.  5.  child's  observed general  positive  changes  attitude  toward respon-  sibility. 6.  7.  I would  recommend  the study  skills/moti-  v a t i o n program t o other p a r e n t s . I w o u l d recommend t h e s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e Grade 8 c l a s s e s . I would offered  recommend s i m i l a r i n other grades.  programs  be  n  (n = 36 o f 80)  -  (a) T a b l e for  4.11.  Questions  1-6.  T a b l e 4.11  Agree/Agree;  Question  5  Several,  Some, Few,  further None.  supported  of  ( i i ) student  ment was was  not  minimal  indicated positive  openly  Questions  change and/or  4.12.  7-10.  indicated  the  results  concept  and  some o f  (i) teachers  interest  evidences fifty  their  M o s t , Many,  recommended c o n t i n u a t i o n  transference of  (iii)  with  and  involve-  of program ( m a t e r i a l s )  percent  students  of  the  tended  teachers  to  show  improvement.  Since  ( i ) teacher  suggestions  The  Table  w e r e i n c l u d e d w i t h no indicate  categories of:  subjects  at least  (b) T a b l e  statistics  three categories:  sorted into  d i s p l a y e d and  i n other  that  Indicates descriptive  Uncertain; Disagree/Strongly Disagree,  overwhelmingly the program  -  Responses were s o r t e d i n t o  Strongly  (a,b,c)  62  4.12  indicates  the responses categorization  support  content  analysis  for  w e r e s m a l l i n number a l l or c o l l a p s i n g .  f o r the program  The  results  ( i i ) constructive  f o r program m o d i f i c a t i o n ( S t a f f / C o u n s e l l o r  communi-  cations) .  (C)  Process Indicators  (i)  Student  S t o r i e s were session.  Achievement  stories  The  trying  The sive  and  students  results stories  being  The  Student  students wrote approximately generated  w e r e g i v e n s u c h w o r d s and to  Stories.  t h e n w r o t e on  successful  indicated students  that  achievement  with  tended  an  of  every  related  assigned  ( s e e A p p e n d i x A; each  Achievement second  words topic  Appendix  the f i r s t  three  t o show g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t ,  or related  N). succes-  involvement  -  63  Table  Teacher  4.11  Evaluation Questionnaire (Post  (Percent  -  Intervention)  (.%) R e s p o n s e  to Statements  1-6)  Statement  SA/A  (SA/A - S t r o n g l y A g r e e / A g r e e ; D/SD - D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y 1.  I am was  2.  3.  U-Uncertain;  skills/motivation  to the e i g h t h grade  program  I would  recommend  the study  92  skills/motivation  to f u t u r e e i g h t h grade  students.  4.  I f e e l a program such as w o u l d be u s e f u l i n o t h e r  5.  I am a w a r e o f G r a d e 8 s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t a n d i n v o l v e ment i n t h e s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n p r o g r a m . *For  6.  92  students.  I am g l a d t h a t a p r o g r a m a t t e m p t i n g t o e n h a n c e m o t i v a t i o n and s t u d y s k i l l s i s b e i n g implemented i n the s c h o o l with the e i g h t h grade students.  program be o f f e r e d  responses  5a;  5b;  D/SD  Disagree)  aware t h a t a study offered  U  t h e one d i s c u s s e d grades.  5 c ; n = 8 o f 12  5a.  Students have d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o g r a m w i t h me.  5b.  I have seen s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l s of the program.  5c.  I have n o t i c e d changes ( e f f o r t towards change/ improvement) i n s t u d e n t s i n t h e p a s t s i x weeks.  8  100  above  83  17  67  25  (67%)  Most  Many  (20+)  (10+)  Several (6-10)  Some (3-6)  8  Few  None  (1-3)  8  _  I doubt i f the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program w i l l r e a l l y accomplish anything  12  42  17  75  25  50  42  58  worthwhile. (n  = 12  of  12)  -  64  -  Table  Teacher  Statements  Program  4.12  of Program:  Suggestions;  Comments  Personal  to  Peers;  Concerns  Statements Comments t o 1.  Good  2.  S t r o n g l y agree  3.  Keep  4.  Much n e e d e d p r o g r a m - must be  5.  Worthwhile  endeavour.  6.  Might  to organize  7.  It is  8.  I t i s necessary - d i f f i c u l t i n how t o s t u d y .  9.  C e r t a i n l y a worthwhile patterns established.  Program  -  Peers Taught  in  with  i t i n Grade  help  "Guidance/English." i t - valuable.  8. with motivation.  themselves.  critical. f o r me  goal -  to motivate;  particularly  I wonder i f i t i s n o t  too  late;  Suggestions  1.  If only motivates  2.  I n t e g r a t e more w i t h  3.  Xerox an  4.  Inservice f o r teachers with  5.  Publicize objectives spectrum can o c c u r .  Personal  concerned  a few  - worth  the  effort.  a l l subjects.  example o f m a t e r i a l s f o r Grade  staff. 8's.  s o more m o n i t o r i n g  across entire  course  Concerns  1.  Where/when t o b e  taught  2.  Results w i l l  be  3.  I n c l u d e some s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s - c o n c e r n e d t h e v a l u e b e c o m e s t i e d t o s t u d y s k i l l s ( f a d ) w h i l e MOTIVATION i s r e a l i s s u e .  4.  Little  not  -  staff  input!  implemented.  publicity.  . /con't  Table  Additional  4.12  ..,/con't  Comments  1.  N o t i c e d a l a r g e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e o f G r a d e 8's i n t h i s l a s t month. Partially t i m e o f y e a r , m a t u r i t y and environmental a d a p t a t i o n - b u t t h e t y p e o f t h i n k i n g and r e f l e c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n a t a k e c h a r g e p r o g r a m o f o n e ' s s t u d y h a b i t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d .  2.  Very worthwhile venture! A p p e a r s o v e r l a s t 3-6 w e e k s my S.S. 8 c l a s s e s h a v e b e e n d o i n g s l i g h t l y b e t t e r on q u i z e s a n d t e s t s . Program? Easier Tests?  and  completion,  four  and  five  words used  declined  tended  stories  to story  What  student  Though numbered many least  (Average  7.2  completed and  two  t h i n g s as  course  they  story  W o r d s ) and  What  started and  stories  three the  average  more i m p o r t a n t l y  4.13).  interest  .  Though  moderately  (see T a b l e  involvement  only  three.  remained  I Have L e a r n e d . . .  school since this  measure of  An  one  story  the peak a t  t o show i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t  (ii) of  from  stabilized  t h e number o f compared  a peak o c c u r r e d a t  with  The  was  p r o v i d e d an  learning  necessary.  were r e l a t e d statements primary taking:  of  the  to areas  tended  statements  they  A l l students  directly  indicated  outcome measures o f a l l statements  that  study  skills  g r e a t e r than  frequency progress  frequency  out  open-ended M).  could l i s t responded  The  4.14).  percent student  towards and  as at  (see T a b l e  only five  e x t e r n a l to school.  t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n or  (see Appendix  o n c e , w i t h m o s t p r o v i d i n g t h r e e o r more i t e m s  inspection  results  I Have L e a r n e d  i s ...  (60%)  successive sessions.  t o seven, s t u d e n t s were t o l d felt  high  the  two  responsibility  ten related  to  these  -  66  Table  Student  Story  Completed  -  4.13  Achievement  Stories  x  %  ( o f 85)  Achievement Word U s e d  1  27  32  5.1  2  39  46  7.0  3  66  78  8.1  4  55  65  7.6  5  51  60  7.2  (Refer  t o Appendix N f o r sample  Table  What  stories)  4.14  I H a v e L e a r n e d I n o r Out o f S c h o o l  Since  Class  of  This  Course S t a r t e d  N  I s ...  x  Responses  1  19  4.00  2  15  3.46  3  21  3.11  4  18  3.14  73  3.43  Eighth Grade  (The t o t a l r e s p o n s e was 2 5 1 . Responses not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l / p r o g r a m s k i l l s was 11 ( 5 % ) . R e f e r to Appendix M f o r complete l i s t o f statements.)  -  two  categories  support which post in  ( s e e A p p e n d i x M).  for previous  tended  to  post  Attendance.  4.15). high  pre  students  been t o l d  p r o g r a m was  was  chosen.  and  due  to a t t i t u d e  d i d not and  Class  Pre x ( T e r m 1)  Post  %  to post  not  Only  the  were  (4%) one  calculated was  assessment.  mandatory w i t h  three  pre-  chose  due  to  A l l  no  loss  to  not  sickness  behaviour.  4.15  Assessment  Attendance  across  that attendance  participate,  Table  and  pre-  positivity  statistics  through  the  others  Pre  show  across  of  computed  indicated  assessment  Two  other  gains  levels  descriptive  participate. the  to  period.  results  o f marks i f w i t h d r a w a l  tended  evaluation reports,  positive  A t t e n d a n c e was  The  consistently had  results  moderating  i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d and  (see Table  The  show s i g n i f i c a n t ,  f o u r month f o l l o w - u p  (iii)  -  o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s and  i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d and  the  67  of  Attendance  Post (Term  X 2)  %  Attendance  N  1  65.5  96  59.2  94  20  2  65.0  96  61.1  97  18  3  64.8  95  59.0  94  22  4  64.0  94  59.3  94  20  Eighth Grade  64.9  95  59.7  95  80  (Pre attendance t o t a l d a y s = 6 8 ; Post attendance t o t a l d a y s = 6 3 . F i v e s t u d e n t s d r o p p e d o u t o f p r o g r a m : One f o r a t t i t u d e / d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r , T h r e e by p e r s o n a l r e q u e s t , and One f o r s i c k n e s s . )  -  (iv) teachers  Student i n nine  was  computed  The  effort  courses  pre  was  Effort.  possible that  and  sorted into  score  Each  tended  (term two  ment b u t  tended  improvement  to  across  on  1)  than  to  score higher  tended  to  show d e c r e a s i n g  assessment  one  both  higher  point  of  pre  pre  and  levels  and  effort  (term  2).  post  for a  total  indicated  (see T a b l e post  of  intervention period.  than males both  record,  Good/Satisfactory;  t h e mean s c o r e s  females  levels  subject  school  (male/female) e x i s t e d  pre-post  tended  post  assigned  show s i g n i f i c a n t l y the  by  official  categories:  I n s p e c t i o n of  lower  recorded  the  and  s u b j e c t was  of nine.  to score  effort,  entered  a d i f f e r e n c e between sex  Males  -  Student  assessment  Needs I m p r o v e m e n t .  68  4.16).  assess-  effort Females  assessment  but  pre-post i n t e r v e n t i o n  period.  (v) Grade P o i n t A v e r a g e intervention  (Term 1 and  official  school record.  elective  were used  with  factors  with  repeated  period cant  (Dixon  of  effect  sex  effect  The  the  1981).  results  period  b e t w e e n GPA  t h e means i n d i c a t e d  GPA.  ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) and  The  across  the  the  (p and  sex  assessed  An  class  a  class  T h e r e was o r GPA,  males tended  sex  post  the  subjects plus  one  variance,  computed  i n t e r v e n t i o n time  t h e r e was  no  signifi-  intervention period  significant  (male/female) across  .01).  and  into  a n a l y s i s of  pre-post  pre-post  pre  ( 1 - 4 ) , was  indicated  H o w e v e r , t h e r e was and  was  f o u r main academic  across  0).  GPA  u s i n g marks e n t e r e d  measurement  b e t w e e n GPA  intervention  T e r m 2)  i n computing  d i f f e r e n c e i n GPA  (see Appendix  (GPA).  no and  interaction  pre-post  significant class.  t o move t o a h i g h e r  interaction  Inspection level  of  of  GPA  -  69  -  Table  Pre of  Male  4.9  (n = 11) Female  8.67  (n = 9) Class  6.6  Male (n = 8) Female ( n = 10)  3  (Term  f o r Nine Courses  1)  Post G/S  N  4.1  X  (Term  2) N  2.4  8.0  1.0  2.4  7.25  1.75  5.4  3.6  6.25  2.75  7.0  2.0  7.7  1.3  Class (n = 18)  6.2  2.8  7.0  2.0  Male  6.9  2.1  7.0  2.0  8.6  .4  7.9  1.1  7.7  1.3  7.45  1.55  Male  6.1  2.9  6.6  2.4  (n = 8) Female  7.8  1.2  7.4  1.6  (n = 12) Class  7.1  1.9  7.0  2.0  6.9  2.1  7.2  1.8  5.8  3.2  6.6  2.4  7.8  1.3  (n = Eighth Grade (n = Male  20)  84)  (n = 41) Female (n = 43)  8.0  (G/S - G o o d / S a t i s f a c t o r y ; from  .33  20)  (n = 14) Female (n = 12) Class (n = 26) 4  x  Ratings  6.7  (n = 2  Assessment  Student E f f o r t  Pre G/S  Class  1  and P o s t  4.16  student  reports  .98  N - Needs  as i s s u e d  by  Improvement. subject  Scores  teachers.)  taken  -  while the  70 -  f e m a l e s t e n d e d t o show d e c r e a s i n g  means a l s o  indicated  scores within  the higher  their  gains  greater  that  r a n g e o f GPA w h i l e m a l e s  i n the lower to moderate  and P o s t  Term  1 ( P r e x)  However,  decreased  t e n d e d t o show  r a n g e o f GPA.  4.17  Assessment  A v e r a g e Means  Class  o f GPA.  f e m a l e s t e n d e d t o show  Table  Pre  levels  f o r Grade  Point  ( T e r m 1/Term 2)  Term 2 ( P o s t  x)  N  Male Female Class  13.7 21.7 17.7  14.5 19.0 16.8  14 12 26  Male Female Class  13.4 20.6 17.0  13.9 19.0 16.5  8 11 19  Male Female Class  11.4 21.8 16.6  13.4 20.8 17.1  11 10 21  Male  9.11 16.4 12.8  10.1 15.4 12.8  10  16.0 11.9 20.1  15.8  Female Class  19  Eighth Grade Male Female  13.0 18.6  85 41 44  -  71  -  CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION  The the  results  locus of  showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  control  of  students  diminished  e x t e r n a l expectancy)  period  a statistically  and  progress  (study  period.  Locus  across class  the  and  control  and  student  grade p o i n t average:  addition  to  student these  across  of  difference the  p e r i o d f o r sex  changes  parents,  teachers).  These p a r t i c i p a n t s  patterns  f o r student  gains  The  Increased  (2)  Student  (3)  A needed  (4)  Support  (5)  Suggestions  process  indicators  awareness of  progress  significant and the  maintained  t h e r e were  e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s f o r a l l t h r e e groups  (1)  intervention  averages.  in positivity  program  student  i n f l u e n c e d by  positive  and  expectancy/  (male/female)  locus of c o n t r o l  grade p o i n t  i n the  were  not  in  intervention  program  progress  c o n t r o l was  difference  internal  the program  habits) across  intervention  across  (enhancement  significant  Further, locus of  significance In  of  program  (2-4).  covariate  skills  significant  showed  involved  similar  also (students,  outcome  support. locus of  i n study  control  skills/habits  program f o r and for  further  continuation of  program  modification/implementation  supported  and  strengthened  the  outcome  -  and  evaluation Together,  that  and  the  skills)  was  student  progress  effective  ficance First,  and the  practical aspects  universal  of  (2)  utilization  as  design.  students  and  of  the  results  the  individual  that  the  subject matter  concern  g e n e r a l i z i n g the  secondary.  Secondly,  the  a  possible  the  single  and  a cumulative  generalizability effect  student this of  existing  the  primary  within that  for i t s  and  experiment.  and  (3)  school  is  limited  relatively in a  obtained  group  rural, were  the  program  (age/grade) i n  i s limited group.  the  summative  Thirdly,  particular  The  generating  although  group.  study.  i s valued  effect  result  results  in this  signi-  situational  generalizability  and  the  individuals  crucial  p o p u l a t i o n sample,  with  in  laws a c r o s s  Therefore,  a narrow  specifically  cohort  between  (study  control  limit  and  i s placed  e v a l u a t i o n as  school d i s t r i c t  t h e r e f o r e measures of  and  (1)  the  and  material  application.  British  mind  connection  obtained  o n l y one  designed  conclusion  habits.  homogeneous i n c h a r a c t e r , r e p r e s e n t e d  was  the  locus of  stressed practical  Less  formative  Columbian  the  that qualify  r e s e a r c h d e p e n d s on  of  support  especially  and  n o n - d e p e n d e n c e on  field  measures  subject-matter  factors  stressed  for action.  l a w s and  evaluation  skills  design  experience,  situations Instead,  a number  approach  into  i n enhancing  generalizability  implication  these  Limitations  over-all  of  of  concepts,  i n study  and  There are  by  results  goal attainment,  Qualifications  -  results.  embedding m o t i v a t i o n  striving  72  by  a  -  Also, r a n g e and that  the  of  a different  activities  sessions  could  in  the  obtained.  is  and  or  evaluated  that  further  by by  limited  of  by  an  the  of  fact  instruction  the  that  the  instruction Finally,  there  instrumentation. and  post  and  improvements  with  the  pre  the are  As  assessment  of  the  the  the  t e s t s i n the  tests.  have been the  Similarly,  e v a l u a t i o n s , where s e l f - r e p o r t that  subjects  because  they  Commentary  The  on  were d i s p o s e d 'expect'  the  effort  or  with  data  impleobtained  and  i t is  The  greater  results  and/or d i s r u p t i o n .  normally  gains  designed, The  are The  a t t r i b u t e d to  received  limitations  of  have produced  p o s s i b l y be  is different  the from  receive.  due  to  study  i t i s possible that  could  was  obtained.  subjects  subjects  or  l e s s e r degrees  study  novelty  program c o u l d  that  l e s s e r number  greater  i n s t r u c t o r ( s ) could  effect  effectiveness  or  instructor bias  data  the  It i s possible  counsellor.  non-deliberate  i n the  i n number and  encompassed.  or  the  involved  gains  the  greater  Furthermore,  a different  l e s s e r degrees  they  activities  have produced  possibly limited  possible  that  s e l e c t i o n of  of  mented  -  s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s were l i m i t e d  number  data  73  testing  were i d e n t i c a l  students  result  of  student,  became  their parent  t o g i v e more f a v o r a b l e  pre  'test-wise'  experience and  methods were u t i l i z e d ,  'want' c h a n g e t o  and  teacher  i t is possible  ratings  simply  occur.  Program  involved  be  a major weakness  or  e x t e r n a l data  in this  to present,  obtained  and  has  been c o n s i d e r a b l e .  discuss  neglect  and  the  summarize  formative  or  It  the  would  summative  internal  data  obtained  been the  from  in this  1978);  (1)  an  i s going  needed  the program.  A  study  (3) how  The  as  an  Only  after  considered  of  the  i n the  p r o g r a m was  been.  Through  how  the  any  other  vide  student  remain locus  i n the  access  f o r the  i n the  of c o n t r o l  and  enhanced  the  A  unexpected  second  reaction; those and  So  with  not  student  participant  study  of  c o n s t r u c t i v e comments  with  skills  for this  directly  towards  from the  Not  possibili-  students  in  progress  time  those  but  two  more i n v o l v e d population this  provides  students  program enhance i t also  spent  weeks a t  o n l y does  the year  the program  Apart  information and  six full  e i g h t h grade  of  or  successive session.  process,  this  and  evident  eight  a n a l y s i s was  o n l y d i d the  teachers  o u t s i d e the program.  I t s use  grade  four years.  counselling process result  not  i n f o r m a t i o n and  four years  where  these p o i n t s .  t h e amount o f  each  and  remainder  remaining  school.  from  become more a w a r e o f and  previous  f o r the  proceeds  incoming with  des-  (Patton  (2)  implementation  students.  v a l u a b l e the  interpersonal relationships  foundation  the  completed  had  i s doing  p r o g r a m , w h i c h was  instructional  h o u r s a week, t h e a u t h o r  than  program  d e s i g n , was  about  has  (4) w h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s  section  more a p p a r e n t  had  in  improved  a s s e s s m e n t method w i t h  i t become e v i d e n t  study  e v a l u a t i o n or perhaps b e t t e r  t o d i s c o v e r what a p r o g r a m  aspect  did  the  active-reactive-adaptive evaluation  discussion i n this  the  of  as  i t c o u l d be  became i n c r e a s i n g l y  focus  formative  awareness i t p r o v i d e d  ties  primary  u n c e r t a i n t y about  A most u s e f u l consciously  -  of  attempt  to reduce  effects.  and  74  utilization  cribed  it  -  proa  that student  significantly  particular counsellor! implementation  i n v o l v e d i n the their  was  program  overwhelming  p r o g r a m was  their  teacher and  support  positive  -  interest  at  seeing  traditional  for  closed  doors'  time.  However,  of  joking  the  sustained  and  this  two  significant  focused  enough t o  words,  r e t a i n most to  students  i n the  allow  This  and  was  design  to  ' l e a r n i n g about  have o c c u r r e d  quantity  but  across  amount o f  to  author  those  about  continue and  The  with  and/or  least  didn't  took from  limit  This  'content  o n e ' s own  two  r e s u l t s which next  cycle.  involved  to  be  adequately  of  learning;  resent  them t h e  also quality.  pleasing,  from  learning  a wide range; learning  was  on  style.'  learned  i s not  high'  integrate  i n t e r a c t i o n were  yet  pursual  and  consultations  f o r the  task  counsel-  program  program appeared at  and  imple-  staff  r e l a t e d to process  the  much  feelings  teacher  program  that  developed  the  f o r teacher  evaluation;  the  they  the  counselling  show t h e  to ask  (3)  at  of  'behind  as  in  partici-  things(s)  s u b j e c t i v e v i e w i s s u p p o r t e d when a  in  The  (1)  independent or  of  lessen  students  enjoyed  activities  needed most.  lot.  to  formative  of  focus  non-clarification.  assessment  design  occurring  feelings often  they could  i s undertaken.  a  and  teachers  of Appendix M  size  personal  counselling  The  and  experience  i n adjusting  in structure  the  use  interesting observation  activity.  they  allow  r e s u l t s of  student  pating  true,  Student  significant  Another  other  been the  i n t e r e s t e d i n how  program g o a l s .  varied  to  i t and  the  be  the  program appeared  (2)  about  those  will  about  creating opportunities  in action  with  i t has  Certainly i t is  to v i e w c o u n s e l l i n g as  to joke  reflects  considerably,  dialogue  teachers  -  'occurring.'  through misperception  mentation of  ling  counselling  75  a major  review decision  and  instead  empha-  This  appears  to  little/none  to  necessarily related  S u c h q u a l i t y i m p r o v e m e n t was  learned to most  -  evident  with  the  content  a n a l y s i s i t was  increases  of  increases  did  For  case  evident  r e s p o n s e s had  as  both  males.  was  evident  during  the  results  that  result  of  their  control.  increased be  opportunity  e f f o r t ) while  (scoring  the  suggestions to  program  author  observation  of  was  length.  program  the  system r e q u i r e d w h i c h was  the  sessions  unplanned  to  the  GPA  was  subsequently to  fact  the  The  study that  p r o g r a m be  shortest  term at  school  interruptions (like  the  eight  difference  during  that  analysis  of  a p p l i c a t i o n as  skills  and  locus  a  of  a much  low  on  GPA  room f o r movement  the  number  other  of  c e r t a i n f a c t o r s were process.  study  full  A  and  i n the weeks;  and the  A  common instructor,  school's  second  school  power f a i l u r e s  and  term  term,  approximately  T h i s meant b e t w e e n two on  generally  However, i t  modifications?  implemented  year.  not,  effort).  after  of  a week, d e p e n d e n t  the  t h e m a l e s had  much l e s s  and  design  or  q u a l i t y , as  (scoring relatively  and  occurred.  indicated  show g r e a t e r  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  during  this  that  primary p a r t i c i p a n t s , students  f o u r months i n t o t h e three  and  awareness of  on  increased  intervention period.  tended  to  where  c l e a r e r s t a t e m e n t s and  improvements and  w e r e made by the  the  actual  responses  outcome measures  f e m a l e s had  high  responses  Related  f o r movement  relatively  What o f  due  of  During  where  i n those  It i s suggestive  process  the males  T h i s may  greater  evident  the  (and  specificity  study  The  across  stories.  i n many c a s e s  sentences,  q u a n t i t y , made g a i n s .  s e x e s made g a i n s  achievement  that  and  presentations.  b e t w e e n f e m a l e s and  -  occurred  case  showed more c o m p l e t e  well  not  occur) c l a r i t y  more o r g a n i z e d  and  s t u d i e s and  example, whether p o s t  they  76  and  activities  and  basketball  games),  -  which the  tended  program w i l l  be g r e a t e r and to  t o be t o o r u s h e d  only  77 -  f o r most  be i m p l e m e n t e d  and c e r t a i n l y  the program w i l l  students.  This w i l l  also allow  setting of  on g o a l s . sessions  useful, of  twelve  assessment  appropriate  of  integra-  were  slow to get to task  i n group work.  sions  seven  group  cohesion  through  discussion  w h i c h was  at the f i r s t circles  would  i n the  c a n be  interest  begins  and c o o p e r a t i o n ,  one t h r o u g h  indicated successive  was  s i x students However,  ses-  development i n  dropped  attempt  from  t h e p r o g r a m , due t o n o n -  and l a t e r  to save  Session  and i n p e r s o n ,  4).  group d i s c u s s i o n s i n c r e a s e d .  The s t u d e n t s  time,  numerous  students continued  indicated that  f e a r a t s o m e t h i n g new  was  the  However, b o t h  t o see the d i s c u s s i o n c i r c l e s  shyness and/or  on  beginning  Though t h i s  of i n t e r e s t ,  ( s e e A p p e n d i x A,  like  ability  completion.  evaluation results  they  slowly  or motivation.  In sessions  the  c a n b e made b y  and f u n c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l y .  twelve  and t a s k  An a c t i v i t y involvement  of the g o a l -  structured sessions  gains  to proceed  The s l o w b u i l d - u p  evident  been  a period  had o v e r - e s t i m a t e d  and s t r o n g e r  interest  also  had  over  a n d d i s c o u r a g i n g w i t h i n a s e s s i o n o r two  accumulate.  cated  immediately  at the beginning  t h e a d d i t i o n o f more  t h a t more  anticipate l i t t l e  student  evident  I t i s a l s o important  frustrating to  may  b e t h e a d d i t i o n o f o n e o r two  the i n s t r u c t o r  With  i t i s likely  students. and  I t was  that  the students.  goals  interest  for earlier  b e a more  year  English classes.  A further modification w i l l sessions  b e more  be p r e s e n t e d  A f u r t h e r advantage w i l l  tion with  The coming  i n September, where  o n e s e s s i o n a week w i l l  t h i r t e e n weeks.  students.  in  indiand/or  the problem  and d i f f e r e n t .  As a  -78  result to  i t will  develop.  be  A  second  explanation w i l l these would not lowing  the  implemented  be be  p r o g r a m when t h e  journal  concept  their  journals.  every  second  from  those  will  For  the  and  s u c h was  given  the  I t was case, on  latter,  maintained  their  journal  expected  that fol-  own.  In  clarifying  the  each student  journals will  t h a t h a v e no  initial  especially  t o i n t r o d u c i n g and  student  and  their  a regular dialogue with  week f o r t h o s e  who  g i v e n more o p p o r t u n i t y  journals.  s t u d e n t s were l e f t  be  as w e l l as  and  f o r which greater e f f o r t  i s student  w e l l kept  September more time  i n September  activity  given  -  objection.  be  taken  I t was  that i t served  as  in in  evident  a  valuable  resource. Lastly,  the program's s u c c e s s  requires  e x p o s u r e and  program,  t o be  sessions.  most  external support.  effective,  In order  (students' ultimate  must  The  transfer  involved.  letter  the b a s i c program, p a r e n t s  the  outlining  essential  learning  i n f o r m a t i o n would parent  tail  goals  In the  questions study  of  beyond  program  f o r each  i n c l u d e an  Furthermore,  can  be  answered  session.  parents  answered.  f o r them.  available  i n the areas  of  be  For be  will  This  skills  teacher  list  of  additional importance to  of  an de-  interaction,  the  in-service  and  be  readily  the program  on  i t s successful integration with  any  will  m o t i v a t i o n and  The  general  i n greater  made a v a i l a b l e  and  and  to a  invited  consultation w i l l rests  indicated.  the  be  the  parents  receive a  outlined  In a d d i t i o n ,  study  will  explanation of  under d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  questions  the  future, i n addition  m e e t i n g where t h e program w i l l  and  present  also  involvement.  evening  essentials  f o r t h a t t r a n s f e r e n c e to occur  t e a c h e r s must be  success)  be  personal  ultimate success the  made  of  students'  -  school,  i f not  total,  79  -  environment.  Implications  Often educational  programs,  statistical  significance with  was  evident  that  not  only  tional  (1)  limited practical  show a  significance.  r e s u l t s obtained  from  this  statistical  s i g n i f i c a n c e but  also  significance for  Specifically,  implications  study  It  indicated  suggested  by  educa-  the  are: that  the  increased  these needs might study, other (2)  interventions,  the  practice.  results  curriculum  that  could  be  sensitivity be  met,  suggested  such programs are for  of  practical  educational  costs  were  (b)  b e n e f i t s were  (c)  n e e d was  (d)  no  (e)  fulfilled  a preventive  (f)  fulfilled  an  students  in a  critical  and  entering mental  n e e d s and  how  program  under  the  and  implementing  services.  s i g n i f i c a n c e and  have  practice.  reasonable considerable  great  visible  fulfilled  by  p r o g r a m s and  (a)  (g)  student  h e l p f u l i n designing  counsellor-oriented  significance  to  a l t e r n a t i v e s were  obvious  function  instructional function subject  area  important  to  a diagnostic into a  student  that their  function  is  deal  situationally  future ( i n the  population  i n s t r u c t i o n , a great  (instructed  development) course  through  i s learned  of  developabout  the  -  80  the  -  students  and  students  f u r t h e r upon program c o m p l e t i o n ,  recommendations  system  for  that  future  can  be  used  to  interventions  assist  to or  make no  interventions) (h)  fulfilled  a research  program, or  a  group of  intervention basis, change  that  may  intervention (3)  that  instead  ance,  of  counsellors, s o n n e l must tion  of  assessment  be  find  ways  programs  on  of  a  the  pre-post  any  short-term  a result  for that  education  teachers,  as  evaluating  of  the  completed)  searching or  (by  programs,  take p l a c e  can  counselling  function  s i n g l e model of  that  will  administrators to  stimulate  work  and  everywhere,  university  innovation  to  f i t unique l o c a l  of  s u c h p r o g r a m s must  guid-  and  n e e d s and  per-  adapta-  circum-  stances . (4)  that  evaluations  based  on  programs, criteria (5)  the not  ity  can  i n the  through  the  implementation (6)  characteristics  automatic  applied  counsellors presence  unique  across improve  evaluations the  and  involvement and  of  evaluation  that  counsellor  training,  need  adjustment  so  as  to  be  initially  and  goals  of  local  by  standardized  board.  upon r o l e  classroom  also  perception  also  strengthen  others of  theory prepare  through  and  accountabil-  i n the  curriculum  development, programs.  research  counsellors  their  methods for  these  will new  roles. In  summary, c u r r i c u l u m  programs,  s u c h as  the  one  presented  in  -  this  study,  can  add  t o an  counsellor  development  preventive  modality  the  future.  the  role  i n the  school  that w i l l  need that  various  Given  the  t h e o r i e s as  current  instructional  level  "Where s h a l l "Begin "and  at  go  the  on  t i l l  you  R e s e a r c h and  A are  number o f  i n d i c a t e d by  the v a l i d i t y creased  by  and  these  i n c o u n s e l l i n g , developmental  asked  afford  obtained different  King  the  said  effort!  end,  gravely,  then  stop."  Carroll]  possible future research the  results  and  and  conclusions  evaluation directions of  this  study.  the  data  additional evaluations  of  the  program under  study  were c r e a t e d  L i m i t a t i o n s of  instructor  group, bias.  attempting  this  situational Future  to  through accumulated  and  s t u d i e s , by  Other r e s e a r c h  could  i n evaluations with  other  obtained  environment  research  support  grade e i g h t populations,  instructors. version,  t o make t h e  the white r a b b i t .  the  come t o  not  of  problems,  researchers,  Evaluation  a narrow p o p u l a t i o n  deliberate  into  problem-solving.  generalizability  circumstances. of  and  their  [Lewis  Future  attention in  c o u n s e l l o r s moved  to guide  i l l  beginning,"  and  developmental/  greater  practitioners  can  I begin?"  development  within a  given  i t i s time  of knowledge we  student  t o be  heuristics  psychology  of  setting  developmental/preventive  using  and  -  improvement  I t i s suggested  of  81  could  First,  c o u l d be  in-  different by  the  and  use  non-  attempt  to  overcome  strengthen  the  results  replicating  the  study  situational  environments  i n v o l v e the  program, or  grades.  with  and an  adjusted  -  82 -  Second, a f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n Future well  research could  as develop  attitudes  new  was  created  compare d i f f e r e n t  instruments  and b e h a v i o u r s  types  t h a t a r e more  i n the instrumentation. o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n as sensitive  t o changes i n  of the l a t e - c h i l d h o o d - e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t  population. Third, cipant  the r e s u l t s  (students)  collaboration. could  data,  with  relied  parent  The v a l i d i t y  direct  c o u l d attempt  collaboration  evaluation teacher  phases.  and t e a c h e r  area  the methodology.  tical  strengths  analysis.  between d i f f e r e n t  sessions/activities  w h i c h most  and e v a l u a t e ways  Lastly,  Future  the present  aspects  and and  the methodology  could  e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s and  study  Although  completed  a more e x t e n s i v e  number,  and weaknesses - i s a n o t h e r b y more d e t a i l e d  research  the nature  i n this  statis-  area  could  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f the program,  was  e f f e c t i v e n e s s might limited  a f o u r month s t u d e n t  indicated  - their  identify  those  i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  i n which  results.  suggestion  Also,  addressed  t o d e t e r m i n e more e m p i r i c a l l y  exists  program  Future  implementation  o f s e s s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s  c o u l d a l s o be p r o f i t a b l y  and d e s c r i p t i v e  attempt that  the question  effectiveness, relative  that  of the r e s u l t s  measures.  Fourth, range,  integrated for  s e e k t o i n t e g r a t e more p a r e n t  e n h a n c e d b y t h e u s e o f more e x t e n s i v e  follow-up  parti-  p r o b l e m b y t h e u s e o f more  the development,  Specifically,  evaluation into  data  i n the methodology used.  t o overcome t h i s  during  h e a v i l y on t h e p r i m a r y  and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  be e n h a n c e d by improvements  research  be  obtained  follow-up  by t h e d a t a  be i n c r e a s e d .  t o immediate,  short-term  evaluation follow-up  would  be p r o f i t a b l e .  i s t h a t a number  was  One  of students  seemed  -  to  be  actively  significant possible  interested  gains  on  and  tests,  dents  i n terms of development  until  perhaps a year  which  by  sought  Summary and  This personal subject a  to  matter,  didn't manifest indicators.  i s a wide v a r i a t i o n their  Future  and/or  g a i n s may  not  become  study  across  lasting  any One  i n these  research could  longitudinal  a developmental  was  stu-  apparent  improve  on  s e v e r a l grades  effects  of  the  program.  designed  c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n embedding  ( d e C h a r m s 1976)  A  commitment  secondary  into  to enhance student  intervention period;  control;  i n d u c i n g an  and  focus  purpose,  of  study  the  skill  motivation  across  i n c r e a s e d awareness  responsibility  study  skill  study  was  progress  to  see  and  personal  i f there  from pre  of  were  assessment  assessment.  Using formative the  and  latent  d i f f e r e n c e s i n student post  there  causation conditions  of  they  Conclusions  motivation. any  a  to evaluate  study,  pre-post  locus  i n v o l v e d but  f r o m now.  designing  -  evaluations or process  explanation i s that  methodology  83  a variation  of  Gage's  (1978) Improvement  e v a l u a t i o n w i t h m u l t i p l e m e a s u r e s was  impact  Columbian,  and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  e i g h t h grade  Analysis  of  the  program  the v a r i a t i o n  f o r l o c u s of  pre-post  positive  (increase i n internal  expectancy). female) or  No  class  a rural  control,  to  evaluate  British  with  i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , showed a  significant (1-4).  employed  model,  population.  measures a c r o s s change  on  Research  A n a l y s i s of  significant  expectancy/decrease  d i f f e r e n c e s were found the v a r i a t i o n  repeated  i n external  f o r sex for  (male/  student  -  progress  (study  intervention of was  student found  sex  p e r i o d , showed  reported  study  i n t h e measures  interaction, more g a i n  skill/habits),  with  than  teachers  and  results  obtained  No  from  through  measures  positive  progress.  across  change  pre-post  i n levels  A significant  difference  student progress/class  four indicating  significant  t h e program's  The r e s u l t s  differences  substantially were  found f o r  a practical  In a l l cases  of these measures  The r e s u l t s skill  showed  and  suggest  tended  student  sellors  not only could, but should,  development.  developmental/preventive  A final  was  strongly  Further,  to v a l i d a t e  story  to support  parents, signifi-  indicated  t h e outcome  causation training  the r e s u l t s  seriously  c u r r i c u l u m programs.  exploratory  Sufi  and e d u c a t i o n a l  as a c u r r i c u l u m program,  student  i n this  of students,  measures  progress.  enhance  reached  support  that personal  subject matter,  r e s e a r c h w o u l d be  indicators,  c o n t i n u a t i o n (with c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r adjustments).  locus of c o n t r o l  study  and p r o c e s s  instructor,  cance of t h e program.  of  repeated  (male/female). Evaluation  for  with  skill  one.  -  a significant  c l a s s e s two  class  84  the f i n d i n g s  and  embedded i n  i s one w h i c h c a n  suggest  that coun-  consider the b e n e f i t s of The d i r e c t i o n tentative  of future  conclusions  study.  perhaps provides d i r e c t i o n  to the  tentative  conclusions:  Y o g u r t i s made b y a d d i n g a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f o l d y o g u r t to a l a r g e r measure o f m i l k . The a c t i o n o f t h e b a c i l l u s b u l g a r i c u s i n the seeding p o r t i o n of yogurt w i l l i n time c o n v e r t t h e w h o l e i n t o a mass o f new y o g u r t . One d a y some f r i e n d s saw b e s i d e a pond. He was a d d i n g  Nasrudin a little  down o n h i s k n e e s yogurt to the  -  85 -  water. One o f t h e men s a i d , "what a r e y o u t r y i n g t o do, N a s r u d i n ? " " I am t r y i n g t o make y o g u r t . " " B u t y o u c a n ' t make y o g u r t i n t h a t way!" 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AERA ( M o n o g r a p h / / l ) . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1967, 39-83. Schulman, L.S. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1970,40, 371-391. S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. A New M o d e l f o r R e s e a r c h i n t h e G u i d a n c e and C o u n s e l l i n g . The P e r s o n n e l and J o u r n a l , 1981, 5 9 ( 8 ) , 4 8 7 - 4 9 3 .  Review  Service of Guidance  S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. A Program f o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Preliminary Issues. J o u r n a l of School Psychology, 9, 3 7 3 - 3 8 1 .  Some 1971,  S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. F a n t a s y and R e a l i t y i n R e s e a r c h : How t o Move Beyond the P r o d u c t i v e Paradox. Counsellor Education and S u p e r v i s i o n , 1975, 14, 3 1 0 - 3 2 2 . S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. Guidance C o u n s e l l i n g F o c u s on G u i d a n c e , 1973, 5, 1-9.  and  Psychological  Education,  T a l l e y , J . E . a n d H e n n i n g , L.H. Study S k i l l s : E s t a b l i s h i n g a Comprehensive Program at the C o l l e g e L e v e l . Springfield, 111. : C C Thomas, 1981. Vidler, S.  D.C. Ball  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n (ed.).  New  i n Motivation  York: Harcourt,  Brace,  in  Education,  Jovanovich,  1977.  91  Wagner, R.R. Teaching J . Weston Walsh,  Study 1979.  -  Skills  Today.  W a g s h a l , H. I n v o l v i n g the Students' Log. H o r i z o n , 1981, 204-206. Wehrly,  B.  Developmental  Historical Journal Weiner,  B.  Theories  Chicago,  Counselling  Background  f o r the  111.:  Self  and  Recent  Advancement  of  of M o t i v a t i o n :  Portland,  Through a R e f l e c t i v e  i n United Trends.  States  H.,  Dumont, F.,  and  1981,  From Mechanisms Company,  W h i t e , R.W. M o t i v a t i o n R e c o n s i d e r e d : The C o n c e p t P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1959, 66, 2 9 7 - 3 3 3 . Zingle,  L e c o m t e , C.  Schools:  International  Counselling,  Markham P u b l i s h i n g  Oregon:  4,  to  51-58.  Cognition.  1972. of  Counselling  Competence.  Psychology  i n A n d r e w s , J.H.M., and R o g e r s , W.T. (eds.), Canadian Research i n E d u c a t i o n : A S t a t e of the A r t Review. (Report prepared f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada.) U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1981.  -  92 -  APPENDIX A  ENHANCING  PERSONAL CAUSATION  A STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH  -  93  -  STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH  Students s t a r t o f f not as complete b l a n k s , but w i t h h a b i t u a l ways o f g o i n g a b o u t r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g a n d d i s c u s s i o n , and t h e y d e v e l o p f r o m a n d c h a n g e t h e s e ways s l o w l y a n d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . T h e y do n o t a d o p t e n t i r e new a p p r o a c h e s w h o l e s a l e . Conceptions o f what l e a r n i n g a n d s t u d y i n g i n v o l v e a r e u s u a l l y deep-rooted, o f t e n based i n p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e s from s c h o o l . I t i s these c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h f o r m t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e way t e c h n i q u e s a r e a d o p t e d and e m p l o y e d . U n l e s s e x i s t i n g h a b i t s and c o n c e p t i o n s a r e taken i n t o account, l i t t l e of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l occur. A l s o the s t u d e n t s themselves a r e i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o j u d g e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a n d v a l u e o f new t e c h n i q u e s . Whether a t e c h n i q u e s u i t s a n i n d i v i d u a l , w h e t h e r i t m e e t s t h e demands o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k s , a n d w h e t h e r i t c a n be u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y g i v e n t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l e a r n i n g and l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n o n l y be d e c i d e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f . Our j o b i s t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l make the d e c i s i o n .  GIVING R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y  TO  THE  STUDENT  I m p r o v e m e n t s i n s t u d y i n g do n o t t a k e p l a c e o n l y d u r i n g s t u d y s k i l l s c o u r s e s a n d a t no o t h e r t i m e . They t a k e p l a c e a t any and a l l t i m e s d u r i n g a n d when " e x p e r t " a d v i c e i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . Develo p i n g a s a l e a r n e r i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s , and u n l e s s t h e s t u d e n t t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s p r o c e s s - f o r b e c o m i n g a w a r e o f how he i s l e a r n i n g and n o t i c i n g what w o r k s a n d what d o e s n o t w o r k t h e n change w i l l be impeded. I n s t e a d of making s t u d e n t s dependent on e x p e r t a d v i c e and e v a l u a t i o n , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n a n d s e l f - a w a r e n e s s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . O n l y when s t u d e n t s c a n s e e f o r t h e m s e l v e s what t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f d i f f e r e n t ways o f g o i n g about a study t a s k a r e i s development l i k e l y . There i s a tendency to c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n t o s t u d e n t s e x a c t l y what i s g o o d a n d b a d a b o u t some n o t e s o r a n e s s a y , when i n f a c t they are p e r f e c t l y capable of j u d g i n g f o r themselves. Students a r e o f t e n s u r p r i s e d when t h e y r e a l i z e t h e y a l r e a d y h a v e p l e n t y o f c r i t e r i a a v a i l a b l e t o them t o j u d g e . In the p a s t they have s i m p l y not been i n the h a b i t of a p p l y i n g these c r i t e r i a to themselves, but have l e f t a l l judgements to t e a c h e r s . Helping students to judge t h e i r s t u d y i n g f o r themselves i s a c r u c i a l aspect of h e l p i n g them t o d e v e l o p a s l e a r n e r s .  (Gibbs,  1981,  pp.88-89)  -  94 -  T h i s emphasis on p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s t a t e d Rogers's " p r i n c i p l e s of l e a r n i n g " :  i n Carl  L e a r n i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d when t h e s t u d e n t p a r t i c i pates responsibly i n the learning process. When he c h o o s e s h i s own d i r e c t i o n , h e l p s t o d i s c o v e r h i s own l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s , f o r m u l a t e s h i s own p r o b l e m s , d e c i d e s h i s own c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , l i v e s w i t h the consequences of each o f these c h o i c e s , then s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g i s maximised. Independence, c r e a t i v i t y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e a r e a l l f a c i l i t a t e d when s e l f - c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n are basic.. . (Rogers,  1969, pp.162-163)  This intervening curriculum incorporates developmental s t r a t e g i e s f o r Grade 8 - t o promote i n d u s t r y , i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e l a t e d s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n . I t uses study s k i l l s as a f o c u s i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l l y / s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d v e h i c l e .  S e c t i o n s 1 and 2 i n t r o d u c e t h e c o u r s e , e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s as w e l l as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . T h e r e a f t e r , a r e p e a t i n g c y c l e i n c l u d e s s e l f - s t u d y , group goal s e t t i n g / a w a r e n e s s t h r o u g h dyads, quads and t o t a l group i n t e r a c t i o n , p e r s o n a l g o a l s e t t i n g and a s s e s s m e n t , a " d i s c u s s i o n c i r c l e " e x p l o r a t i o n / i n t e g r a t i n g e x e r c i s e and an achievement s t o r y t o enhance p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t .  SESSION  1  INTRODUCTION  Learning/Study  Skills  P r e s e n t to s t u d e n t s the program r a t i o n a l e ( p r e c e d i n g pages) e m p h a s i s i n g s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i bility. R e l a t e t o s p e c i f i c a r e a o f s t u d y s k i l l s and s c h o o l . Format -  12  sessions/2 sessions  a week  - Activities:  individual exercises; paired exercises; small e x e r c i s e s ; , l a r g e group e x e r c i s e s . - S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n through the program - p r i m a r i l y through JOURNALS.  group  ROLE-PLAY Scenario  I  B i l l ( B ) : "What's t h e m a t t e r , G e o r g e , t h r o u g h the easy way?" George  ( G ) : "What do  y o u mean?"  trying  (a l i t t l e  t o make i t  angry)  B: " T r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e t h e t e a c h e r y o u ' r e n o t a s you l o o k , eh?" G:  "Just  what a r e y o u  getting  up  t o nobody.  I was  B: " S u r e y o u w e r e . That's the t h i r d have you turned i n t o a suck." G:  "What's b u g g i n g  you.  Your  as  at?"  B: "Now d o n ' t s t a r t p l a y i n g i n n o c e n t , we nosing the teacher a f t e r c l a s s . " G: " I d o n ' t s u c k something c l e a r . "  stupid  a l l saw  just  time  friends  drop  trying  this  you  you  brown-  to get  week.  Man,  again?"  B: " N o t h i n g ' s b u g g i n g me a n d l e a v e my f r i e n d s o u t o f i t . I j u s t w a n t e d t o t e l l y o u y o u l o o k l i k e a r e a l j e r k t r o t t i n g up to the t e a c h e r l i k e t h a t . And we d o n ' t n e e d a n y o n e l i k e y o u t r y i n g to c u t our t h r o a t s . " G: self long  " T a l k i n g a b o u t j e r k s , y o u s u r e made a f o o l o u t o f y o u r i n c l a s s today. We h a v e n ' t h d d s u c h a g o o d l a u g h . i n a time. Y o u ' r e a l m o s t as s t u p i d as y o u r u g l y s i s t e r . "  B:  "Shut  up."  G:  " T h a t was  B:  "Just  t h e dumbest  comment  one more p e e p o u t  of you,  G: "The t e a c h e r s a y s , "What's a n a n d y o u s a i d ... " B:  "You  ..."  (hits  him)  I ever and  heard." ...  "  equilateral  triangle?"  -  96  -  Students w r i t e i n J o u r n a l s (two/three sentences): a . What h a p p e n e d b . Why? Scenario  in this  story?  II  B: easy G:  "What's way?"  the matter,  "What do  you  G,  trying  t o make i t t h r o u g h  the  mean?"  B: " T r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e t h e t e a c h e r y o u ' r e you l o o k , eh?" G: "What's b o t h e r i n g y o u ? through the y e a r . "  So  f a r , you  not  as  aren't  stupid  as  getting  B: "Now d o n ' t p l a y i n n o c e n t . T o d a y was t h e t h i r d week y o u t a l k e d t o t h e t e a c h e r a f t e r c l a s s , i f t h a t brown-nosing, I d o n ' t know what i s . "  time t h i s isn't  G: " T h a t , w e l l , y o u know, I ' v e b e e n h a v i n g a l o t o f t r o u b l e i n geometry. So I went up a n d a s k e d t h e t e a c h e r a c o u p l e o f q u e s t i o n s about l a s t n i g h t ' s assignment." B: "And a t t h e same t i m e , y o u w e r e t r y i n g p u l l w i t h him."  to get a  little  G: "You know d a r n w e l l I d o n ' t b r o w n - n o s e a n y o n e . As i t i s , I ' l l be l u c k y t o make a C i n t h a t c l a s s . Look, i f you were h a v i n g t r o u b l e i n t h a t c l a s s , w o u l d n ' t y o u so t h e same t h i n g ? " B:  if  "Are  you  nuts?  I'd never  do  anything l i k e  G: " W e l l , i t i s s u r e b e t t e r t h a n f l u n k i n g t h e people don't l i k e i t , t h a t ' s j u s t tough." B:  "I s t i l l  think  G:  " Yeah, b u t what c a n y o u  B:  " I don't  know, b u t  G: " W e l l maybe y o u home. See y o u . " B:  "Yeah,  i t looks real  see you  mind  think  I ' d do  flunking  out.  it." I gotta  get  around."  Students w r i t e i n Journals ( f i v e / s i x  c . What do y o u d. Which scene e. W h i c h s c e n e  An  funny."  (Adapted:  a . What h a p p e n e d  course.  do?"  I don't  don't  that."  i n this  story?  K a n f e r and G o l d s t e i n , 1975, p p . 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 )  sentences): b.  Why?  t h i n k made t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e two do y o u t h i n k h a s a m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y i s m o r e common?  endings? ending?  -  Dyad E x e r c i s e  (Preliminary  97 -  to weekly  "Discussion  Circle")  Using statements from S c e n a r i o have students p r a c t i c e l i s t e n i n g . E a c h s t u d e n t r e a d s comments t o p a r t n e r . Partner l i s t e n s only, maintaining eye contact. On c o m p l e t i o n  of e x e r c i s e each  student  answers  i n their  Journal:  " I f y o u w e r e G e o r g e , w h i c h way w o u l d y o u h a n d l e t h e situation? Would y o u l i k e t o be a b l e t o h a n d l e i t differently?" Volunteers  may p r e s e n t  their  solutions to the large  group.  Expectations -  Suspend judgement: Commitment t o t r y  give  the course  -  Only one s p e a k e r a t a t i m e : others group ( A l s o i n s m a l l e r groups)  a fair try. l i s t e n when i n l a r g e  - M a i n t a i n a "JOURNAL": a personal record of reactions, feelings, b e l i e f s , successes, f a i l u r e s , ideas, goals. P e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e - keep c o n f i d e n t i a l . E n t r i e s a t l e a s t w i t h each s e s s i o n and r e l a t e d e x e r c i s e s and o t h e r t i m e s a s p o s s i b l e . J o u r n a l s w i l l b e k e p t i n c l a s s r o o m a n d may b e a d d e d t o a t any time. HANDOUT:  Evaluation  of the Class  **EMPHASIZE THROUGHOUT "PEOPLE PREDICT  Activities  COURSE: I  DETERMINE"  -  98 -  EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S  DATE  Today's Weather:  and I  am f e e l i n g  I.  II.  Class  Activities  What was  (describe  briefly):  the purpose/reason f o r each  activity?  A.  B.  III.  IV.  V.  VI.  Today  I learned  that  I discovered  that  I n e v e r knew  that  For next c l a s s  I ....  I would  like  t o (work o n ) ( G O A L ) : (think  HAVE A SUPER  about)  DAY!  ORIGIN  ASSIGNMENT  -  SESSION 2  Who  Am  99  -  ROLES  I?  Individuals:  List  10  identities/characters  i n Journal.  E x p l a i n t o t h e s t u d e n t s what i s meant by roles. I n d i v i d u a l s to choose a r o l e they f e e l they have been s u c c e s s f u l i n : a.  l i s t what t a s k s h e / s h e d o e s t o be t h a t r o l e / i d e n t i t y .  b.  i d e n t i f y s t r e n g t h s and of the r o l e .  weaknesses  c . d e c i d e what v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d enactment of the r o l e . Dyads:  Discuss with partner the statements Make n o t e  o f any  similarities  and  of  in  a,b,c.  differences.  Working t o g e t h e r , i d e n t i f y tasks f o r the r o l e of the " s t u d e n t . " I f t h i s was one o f t h e r o l e s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d compare w i t h partner's ideas. Class  Group:  B r i n g out  the  roles  of  the  "student."  H a v e e a c h d y a d o f f e r a t l e a s t one t a s k . L i s t t a s k s on b o a r d a n d h a v e s t u d e n t s e n t e r in Journal. Individuals:  Origin  Write p e r s o n a l statement am I ? "  on  exercise  "Who  Outline  Discussion:  H a n d o u t : ORIGIN I S ?  /ORIGIN GUIDE  STATEMENTS  D i s c u s s w i t h the c l a s s the 9 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n d i v i d u a l l y , h a v e t h e s t u d e n t s comment on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s t h e y s e e them a p p l i e d to themselves. Where do t h e y t h i n k t h e y might emphasize improvement? How w e l l do they t h i n k they f i t the r o l e o f an O r i g i n ?  Achievement Class  Story Groups:  E x p l a i n t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e y w i l l be w r i t i n g some s h o r t s t o r i e s - s t o r i e s w h i c h t h e y may c r e a t e a s f r e e l y a s p o s s i b l e a n d n o t t o be o v e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h grammar a n d spelling. ( T h e s t o r i e s may be u s e d a s a r o u g h d r a f t f r o m w h i c h f u r t h e r w o r k i n grammar a n d s p e l l i n g may b e t a k e n . ) The i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i s freedom of e x p r e s s i o n .  -  100  -  E a c h week a p a n e l o f s t u d e n t j u d g e s w i l l r e a d t h e s t o r i e s and s e l e c t t h e b e s t o n e s a n d t h e s e w i l l b e p o s t e d a s "The S t o r y ( i e s ) o f t h e Week." The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n i s t o be a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e p a n e l . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h week t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e s t o r y w i l l be g i v e n . This w i l l give s t u d e n t s t i m e t o s h a r e i d e a s and t h i n k o f words. *Attempt to e l i c i t achievement words (thoughts) from the s t u d e n t s ; t r y not to supply words. L i s t 10-15 a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d w o r d s . S t u d e n t s a r e t o s e l e c t 10 o r m o r e w o r d s w h i c h they w i l l i n c l u d e i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . *Discuss w i t h the students the " r e a l l i f e " meaning o f the words. A s k s t u d e n t s t o h a v e p a r e n t r e a d and s i g n s t o r y jLf_ s t u d e n t f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e t o do s o . SKELETON PLOT:  T h i s week y o u  are  going  to t h i n k about  and  w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n i t has been done b e f o r e and h e / s h e a c t u a l l y s a y s h e / s h e w a n t s t o s u c c e e d i n what h e / s h e i s doing. (OPTIONAL: S u p p l y m a g a z i n e s f r o m w h i c h s t u d e n t s c o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o s e l e c t p i c t u r e s t h a t s u g g e s t e d s t o r i e s t o them.) HANDOUT:  EVALUATION OF  THE  CLASS  ACTIVITIES  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD L I S T  SHEET  -  ACHIEVEMENT-•RELATED  WORD L I S T  Responsible  Standard  Prepared  Worth  Plans  Experiment  Practices  Encourage  Persists  Explore  Patience  Try(ing)  Performs  Realistic  Progress  Co-operation  Perfect  Attitude  Improve  Positive  Careful  Challenge  Achieve  Dedicated  Determined  Attention  Prove  Willing  Succeed  Confidence  Intend  Interested  101 -  (EXAMPLES)  Goals  ^Instructor's If  note:  difficulty  y o u may w i s h for list  each  generating  words  t o a s s i g n 10 w o r d s  story  plot.  i s provided  A  partial  as examples.  -  102  -  ORIGIN IS?  An O r i g i n i s someone who: a. Takes P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y b. P r e p a r e s h i s work c a r e f u l l y c. P l a n s h e r l i f e t o h e l p h e r r e a c h h e r g o a l s d. P r a c t i c e s h i s s k i l l s e. P e r s i s t s i n h e r work f. Has P a t i e n c e , f o r he knows t h a t some g o a l s take time t o r e a c h g. P e r f o r m s - she knows she has t o do t h i n g s i n order t o reach her goals h. Checks h i s P r o g r e s s - feedback i.  Moves toward P e r f e c t i n g h e r s k i l l s , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o improvement  paying  ***REMEMBER TO YOURSELF: PEOPLE PREDICT  I  DETERMINE  - 103 -  ORIGIN GUIDE STATEMENTS FOR  I.  Goals  i n Life  - list like your  II.  III.  to achieve. life.  A c t u a l check on p r o g r e s s with  focus  success  feelings  V.  and d i s c u s s g o a l s  t h a t y o u want o r w o u l d  Focus  on a n y / a l l  aspects of  Importance o f u s i n g c a r e f u l checks on your p r o g r e s s i n s t r i v i n g for your goals. How w i l l y o u k e e p c h e c k s a n d w h a t w i l l y o u do to m o n i t o r y o u r g o a l ( s ) . N o t e t h e s e a n d comment w i t h e a c h g o a l that you s e t .  goal(s);  IV.  JOURNAL  - focus  on t h e a c t i v i t y  or f a i l u r e ,  related  personal  t o an easy,  o n how w e l l y o u d i d o n y o u r s e t  actually  done,  feelings  responsibility  moderate,  associated  as w e l l as the  or d i f f i c u l t  to reach  goal.  I s i t g o o d t o b e a n O r i g i n ? - D i s c u s s y o u r v a l u e s (what y o u b e l i e v e i n . ) , p a y a t t e n t i o n a n d comment o n p e o p l e / s t u d e n t s y o u s e e who a c t l i k e a n o r i g i n a n d comment o n how o t h e r p e o p l e / s t u d e n t s s e e how y o u a r e and a c t . T h i n k about p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s b i l i t y . Experience  of being  a Pawn.  - Recall  being  t r e a t e d a s a Pawn o r  a c t i n g a s a Pawn. Pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d with the experience. What was i t l i k e ? What d i d y o u n o t l i k e about i t ? VI.  What can't  VII.  VIII.  IX.  X.  I can't do.  do - d i s c u s s , r e a l i s t i c a l l y ,  Do y o u h a v e a n y p e r s o n a l  things you f e e l you  shortcomings?  What a r e t h e y ?  What I c a n b e a n d d o ! - T h i n k a b o u t a n d d i s c u s s y o u r a b i l i t i e s . What c a n y o u do a n d what c a n y o u b e ! What a r e y o u r s t r e n g t h s , a b i l i t i e s and a s s e t s ? What c a n y o u d o w i t h them? C o n s i d e r , comment, w h e t h e r y o u r g o a l s ( s ) a r e r e a l i s t i c . set g o a l ( s ) i n r e l a t i o n t o your a b i l i t i e s ? Can t h e y be r e a l i s t i c a l l y reached?  Have y o u  Be a w a r e , n o t e down, d i s c u s s , who i s r e s p o n s i b l e ( y o u r s e l f o r others) f o r not r e a c h i n g / f o r reaching your g o a l ( s ) . Be a w a r e o f your source of blocks. (Who i s d o i n g t h e b l o c k i n g ? ) R e d u c i n g p e r s o n a l a n d o t h e r b l o c k s - n o t e down a n d d i s c u s s t h e ways y o u c a n do t h i n g s t o r e d u c e b l o c k s a n d a l l o w y o u r s e l f t o move t o w a r d s y o u r g o a l ( s ) .  -  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  104 -  #1  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t story better wants  i n which  the hero  than i t has been to succeed  or heroine i s trying  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7  8.  9  10.  t o do  done b e f o r e and he/she  i n what h e / s h e  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS:  1.  and w r i t e  i s doing.  a  complete  something  actually  says  he/she  -  SESSION 3  How  Do  Notes:  We  105  -  SELF-STUDY  Learn Best This  exercise  impetus It  (Adapted:  to  i s designed  students  provides  an  own  students  to  experience  expect  t o be  thinking  and  pay of  told  how  about  conditions they  One  possible  who  simply  Groups of  to  can  that do  1981,  act  to  to,  s t u d e n t s may  participants  selves  play  towards  in learning  exercise  to  tend  can  be  the  value,  be  the  their passively  surprised  own  by  about is bad  those  and  conditions.  participants experiences.  blame r o t t e n role  how  experience,  that  situations; this more  of  'good' l e a r n i n g  their to  learning.  s t u d e n t s who  their  to b r i n g  own  orientation  and  Even  initial  format  initial  foster  for  an  11-12)  their  the  outcome t o w a t c h f o r  blame o t h e r s  pp.  as  about  learn  know, f r o m  Orient  make t h e  an  learning.  already  a b o u t what  as  attention  much t h e y the  to  introduction  group d i s c u s s i o n s to  Gibbs,  teaching.  they can  them-  help  constructive.  Instructions: Individual:  ' T h i n k b a c k t o some p a s t e x p e r i e n c e o f l e a r n i n g - i t c o u l d be a t s c h o o l , i n s p o r t s , i n a h o b b y , a n y t h i n g t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y a w f u l - i t may h a v e b e e n b o r i n g or h u m i l i a t i n g , or you simply l e a r n t n o t h i n g at a l l . J o t down a few n o t e s on why i t was s o bad. 'Now do t h e same f o r a g o o d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e where you l e a r n t a l o t , were s u c c e s s f u l , e n j o y e d i t and w e r e i n t e r e s t e d . What was i t t h a t made l e a r n i n g so g o o d ? J o t down a few n o t e s '  Dyads:  'Relate your experience to each other. Explain why your e x p e r i e n c e s were good or bad. What a r e t h e m a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n what makes l e a r n i n g g o o d o r b a d f o r you both? T r y and s t i c k t o b a s i n g y o u r d i s c u s s i o n i n y o u r own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n g e n e r a l i z i n g '  -  Quads:  106 -  'Form a g r o u p  of four with another  pair.  From y o u r p o o l e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f good and b a d l e a r n i n g , c a n y o u s e e any themes a r i s i n g ? things which f o r you tend t o c h a r a c t e r i z e good and bad l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l ? E a c h group o f f o u r e l e c t a c h a i r p e r s o n who n o t e s down what i s s a i d u n d e r two c o l u m n s : " T h i n g s t h a t l e a d t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e a r n i n g " and " T h i n g s t h a t t e n d t o s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e v e r y s a t i s factory learning." N o t e down a s many t h i n g s as y o u c a n under t h e s e h e a d i n g s . ' Class:  'Each group  of four,  i n turn,  r e a d s o u t one  item from i t s l i s t . Everyone e l s e l i s t e n s a n d a s k s t h e g r o u p t o e x p l a i n i t s e l f , t o make the meaning o f each item c l e a r . A l s o , f o r each i t e m , I ' d l i k e s u g g e s t i o n s a s t o how t h a t m i g h t a f f e c t t h e way y o u a r e l e a r n i n g h e r e , i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , now.' *Work t h r o u g h a l l i t e m s o r u n t i l  ORIGIN  time runs o u t .  ASSIGNMENT: R e v i e w t h e d a y ' s a c t i v i t y C s e s s i o n 3) a n d s e l e c t something y o u f e e l would h e l p y o u be a b e t t e r learner. T h i n k a b o u t how y o u m i g h t c a r r y o u t this goal. Next s e s s i o n y o u w i l l work w i t h a p a r t n e r and p l a n t h i s g o a l - t o work t o w a r d s i t and e v a l u a t e i t f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e s s i o n s .  HANDOUTS:  EVALUATION OF THE CLASS  ACTIVITIES  -  SESSION 4  Origin  107  -  GOAL-SETTING  Assignment:  Dyads:  E a c h s t u d e n t t o c h o o s e one b r o a d g o a l t o c o n c e n t r a t e on f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c o u r s e . With the help of p a r t n e r , w r i t e a c l e a r s t a t e ment o f g o a l i n t o t h e J o u r n a l : what i s t h e g o a l , how w i l l y o u r e a c h i t , how w i l l y o u know y o u have reached i t (benchmark)? P r o g r e s s t o w a r d s g o a l t o be s e l f - e v a l u a t e d w i t h the h e l p o f p a r t n e r - keep a r e c o r d i n J o u r n a l . Help each o t h e r .  HANDOUTS:  Goal  Recording  Sheets/Guide  Student Progress Activities ^Explain "GOALS" o f  the  Exploration:  course  each  Survey,  Questions,  E v a l u a t i o n of  Class  clearly.  f o r remaining  sessions:  A.  Organizing Y o u r s e l f (General Self-study) 1. U s i n g C l a s s T i m e ( S p e c i f i c S e l f - s t u d y ) 2. U s i n g Home T i m e (Specific Self-study)  B.  Note  C.  Taking  Taking Examinations  Discussion Circle  Group E x e r c i s e  To d e v e l o p s k i l l s and s u m m a r i z i n g . Guidelines:  of l i s t e n i n g , paraphrasing To d e v e l o p O r i g i n b e h a v i o u r s .  A-when look B-each C-each  p e r s o n s p e a k s , e v e r y o n e must at that person p e r s o n g e t s o n l y one t u r n p e r s o n s p e a k s no more t h a n  one m i n u t e D-any p e r s o n i n g r o u p may 'pass' E - v o l u n t e e r s may sum u p : "What h a v e you l e a r n e d ? " F - s t u d e n t s w r i t e up feelings,  TOPIC:  THE  KIND OF  beliefs  reactions, i n Journal.  PERSON I WANT TO  BE!  -  GOAL RECORDING SHEET  -  108 -  GOAL  T h i s sheet w i l l a l l o w y o u t o keep a r e c o r d o f your p r o g r e s s f o r each p e r i o d o f t h e week: FOR YOUR G O A L ( S ) WHICH YOU HAVE CHOSEN I N THE ORIGIN ASSIGNMENTS. ( N o t e s u c c e s s e s , difficulties and any o t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p i n your goal.) DAY 1  DAY  A  2  DAY  F  C  3  DAY 4  DAY 5  H  D  B  G  D  XX  E  C  H  E  A  F  D  A  F  B  G  E  B  G  C  H  -  109 -  GUIDE QUESTIONS FOR GOAL EVALUATIONS  1.  What w o r k e d  2.  What k i n d o f t h i n g s g o t i n t h e way reaching your goal?  3.  How r e a l i s t i c , to r e - s e t your  4.  What your  5.  How do y o u f e e l y o u r e f f o r t at working at your goal?  things goal?  f o r you i n working  toward  your  or interfered  reachable, i s your goal? goal?  are better,  i f any, s i n c e  was?  goal? with you  Do y o u t h i n k y o u n e e d  you have been working  D i d you r e a l l y  on  try, persist,  -  110 -  STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY  Course  Student  Date  * T h i s survey i s f o r you t o monitor your p r o g r e s s towards g o a l ( s ) . Once y o u h a v e s e t a g o a l a n d d e c i d e d how y o u w i l l r e a c h i t Capproach) the s u r v e y w i l l a l l o w y o u t o e v a l u a t e your p r o g r e s s . P l e a s e r e c o r d your o b s e r v a t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Thanks.  Use  of time EXCELLENT  POOR 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Assignments  this  6  5  4  3  2  1  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  •  i n on time EXCELLENT  POOR 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Assignments  this  6  5  4  3  2  1  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  completed EXCELLENT  POOR 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  this  6  5  4  3  2  1  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  Attendance EXCELLENT  POOR 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  this  6  5  4  3  2  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  1  - I l l -  Academic  progress EXCELLENT  7 In  the past  weeks t h i s  Increased/Improved  Classroom  6  5  4  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  behaviour EXCELLENT  7 In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Classroom  6  5  4  this has: Decreased/Worsened  attitude EXCELLENT  7 In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  6  5  4  this has: Decreased/Worsened  -  SESSION 5  -  SELF-STUDY/GOAL-SETTING  Organizing Yourself Notes:  112  How  organized  their  studying  highly Well  (Adapted:  with  students  students  results do  1981,  i s t h e one  that c o n s i s t e n t l y  examination  organized  are  Gibbs,  pp ,-15^-17)  aspect  correlates (Gibbs,  of quite  1981]..  better!  How o r g a n i z e d y o u a r e i s a f a i r l y f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f who y o u a r e and how y o u a r e . Perhaps more t h a n w i t h any o t h e r a s p e c t o f l e a r n i n g , c h a n g i n g how o r g a n i z e d (and b y i m p l i c a t i o n how hard working) you are i n v o l v e s f e e l i n g s : threats and f e a r s . Students can s t a r t to f e e l v e r y i n c o m p e t e n t a n d i n a d e q u a t e when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h j u s t how m a r v e l l o u s l y o r g a n i z e d and e f f i c i e n t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o be. Students seldom d i s c u s s the subject. There i s o f t e n even a s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o g i v e an outward a p p e a r a n c e of incompetence. I n t h e s u b c u l t u r e o f p e e r g r o u p s i t seems q u i t e common f o r s t u d e n t s t o h a v e t o p r e t e n d t o h a v e d o n e no w o r k , o r t o h a v e no i d e a a n a s s i g n m e n t i s due i n , e v e n i f t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . T h i s e x e r c i s e attempts to get f e e l i n g s about o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d i l i g e n c e o u t i n t h e o p e n , and discussed, before possible p r a c t i c a l solutions are suggested. The m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t of a c h e c k l i s t of statements about being organized. The e x e r c i s e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h making d i s c u s s i o n of the t o p i c l e g i t i m a t e - s o c i a l l y acceptable, helping p a r t i c i p a n t s to recognize that t h e i r f e e l i n g s and p r o b l e m s a r e n o t u n i q u e and p o o l i n g i d e a s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t . The s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e e x e r c i s e ( s u g g e s t e d statements) are a l l negative. T h i s i s b e c a u s e p e o p l e seem to f i n d i t e a s i e r to say n e g a t i v e than p o s i t i v e t h i n g s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , and so i t h e l p s t o s t a r t i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h s t a t e m e n t s and s o t h i n k i n g a b o u t themselves. I f you f i n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e b e c o m i n g t o o n e g a t i v e , and i n f a c t s u g g e s t e v e r y t h i n g i s h o p e l e s s , t r y t o i n c l u d e more p o s i t i v e statements. A s e c o n d c a u t i o n i s t h e c h a r a c t e r who attempts, with great enthusiasm, to persuade others that o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g a r e n o t a p r o b l e m a t all: ' P r o v i d e d y o u do ... ( a n d h e r e d e s c r i b e s h i s o r h e r own p e t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e ) y o u ' l l be f i n e ! ' T h i s i s not u s e f u l to those s t u d e n t s who a r e h a v i n g t r o u b l e .  -  113 -  Instructions: Individual:  'Read down t h i s l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s t i c k i n g t h o s e you f e e l a p p l y t o y o u . A l t e r s t a t e m e n t s so t h a t they apply t o you b e t t e r . N o t e down a n y t h i n g you a r e n o t s u r e about o r any d i f f e r e n c e s y o u have.' than  Dyads:  'With  'How many h a v e t i c k e d f e w e r t h a n 5? 10? F e w e r t h a n 15? 15-18?' your  p a r t n e r c o m p a r e how y o u h a v e  Have y o u r e s p o n d e d  t h e same?  When y o u h a v e r e s p o n d e d Note your Quads:  'In your  comparisons groups  of four  responded.  F o r t h e same  differently,  i n your  Fewer  why  reasons?  i s this?  Journal.'  see where y o u agree and  differ. T a k i n g one s t a t e m e n t a t a t i m e , a s k yourselves: "Does t h i s m a t t e r ? " I f you think i t d o e s , a r e t h e r e ways i n w h i c h a n y o n e i n y o u r group o f f o u r copes w i t h o r overcomes t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem? N o t e t h o s e i d e a s a n d ways y o u f i n d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the c l a s s as a whole. Record the i d e a s i n your J o u r n a l . ' Class:  ' E a c h g r o u p o f f o u r , i n t u r n , t a k e s one o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s they n o t e d as i m p o r t a n t and r e l a t e s to t h e o t h e r s i n t h e c l a s s . Someone r e c o r d o n the board. Continue  ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT:  through a l l items  or u n t i l  time  runs out.  E a c h s t u d e n t t o c h o o s e a minimum o f o n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l and note i t i n t h e i r J o u r n a l . I n p a i r s , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s t h e i r g o a l and s h a r e m e t h o d f o r r e a c h i n g g o a l a n d how t h e y w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e i r p r o g r e s s towards a c h i e v i n g i t . ( E a c h s t u d e n t may w i s h t o c h a r t p r o g r e s s f o r t h e week - one t i m e t a b l e c y c l e o r 40 p e r i o d s - a n d complete statements of f e e l i n g s i n J o u r n a l . ) At t h e end o f t h e c y c l e t h e s t u d e n t i s t o d i s c u s s , in their Journal, their personal.reactions: What w o r k e d f o r them? What h i n d e r e d t h e i r p r o g r e s s ? How r e a l i s t i c was t h e i r g o a l ? How w e r e t h i n g s b e t t e r ? How do t h e y f e e l t h e i r e f f o r t was? Were t h e y persistent?  HANDOUT:.  OPTIONAL ORIGIN  GUIDE QUESTIONS/GOAL EVALUATION SHEET EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S STATEMENTS ON ORGANIZATION ASSIGNMENT: S t u d e n t s may i n t e r v i e w a S e n i o r s t u d e n t ( s u c c e s s f u l ) on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . Get t h e i r f e e l i n g s about o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g - i n p a r t i c u l a r about s c h o o l r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g .  -  Session  5  Materials  Instructions:  -  114 -  Statements  R e a d down t h i s l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s t i c k i n g t h o s e y o u f e e l a p p l y t o y o u . Y o u may a l t e r a n y s t a t e ment s o t h a t t h e y a p p l y t o y o u b e t t e r . On t h e back o f t h e page n o t e any s t a t e m e n t s o r f e e l i n g s t h a t may n o t b e i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s l i s t . (Differences from t h i s l i s t )  I  don't  I  couldn't t e l l  I  often  I  find  I  d o n ' t seem t o b e a b l e t o s t i c k a chapter) f o r very long.  to a task  I  think that  me.  I  don't f i n d i t easy I'm d o i n g .  I  am n e v e r  I  sometimes take  I'm  t h i n k I work as h a r d  seem  on O r g a n i z a t i o n  y o u how many h o u r s  to leave t h i n g s ,  i t hard  as I c o u l d .  like  I put i n l a s t  week.  reports,  the l a s t  o t h e r s do m o r e t h a n  quite  to t a l k  s u r e what ages  tend  to f l i t  (skip)  I  seem t o w o r k b e t t e r  (like reading  to others openly  I ' v e g o t t o do  There  i s no way  from  enough o r n o t . one t a s k t o a n o t h e r .  i n some p l a c e s t h a n  others. o f time  I c o u l d do a l l t h e w o r k  I'm  n o t s u r e I a l w a y s do t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  I'm  not sure  I ' l l be a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y  don't have any s o r t for myself.  o n e week  s o m e t i m e s s e v e r a l weeks b e h i n d  I'm  I  how much w o r k  next.  I work r a t h e r i r r e g u l a r l y , p u t t i n g i n l o t s and p r a c t i c a l l y none t h e n e x t . behind,  about  through  to "get going".  n o t s u r e i f I am d o i n g  generally  minute.  t o g e t down t o w o r k .  I  I'm  till  of long-term,  assignments.  expected t o . things  pass  this  first. (a) c o u r s e .  or even s h o r t - t e r m , p l a n  -  SESSION  6  Discussion  EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT  Circle  **Refer  Achievement **Refer  Group E x e r c i s e :  to Session 4  TOPIC:  MY  GREATEST SUCCESS!  Story: to Session 2  SKELETON PLOT:  HANDOUT:  115 -  ( U s e 10-15 new  achievement-related  words)  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t and w r i t e a c o m p l e t e s t o r y i n w h i c h t h e h e r o o r h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n he ( s h e ) h i m s e l f ( h e r s e l f ) h a s done i t b e f o r e and he/she a c t u a l l y a s k s for help i n attaining his/her goal.  STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD L I S T SHEET  -  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  #2  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g story better  i n which the hero  or heroine  asks  f o r help  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  about  and w r i t e  i s t r y i n g t o do  i n attaining his/her  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS:  2.  to think  goal.  a  complete  something  t h a n he/she h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f has done i t b e f o r e  actually  1.  116 -  and h e / s h e  -  SESSION  7  Instructions Individual:  -  SELF-STUDY  Organizing Yourself:  **Refer  117  Utilization  o f Home T i m e  Utilization  of  t o S e s s i o n 5 Re: (For both  School  Notes. Topics):  'Think back over  t h e p a s t m o n t h s , o r any  experiences which and  'Now  may  stand out  j o t down w h e r e t i m e was  away, n o t try  Time  planned  t o make n o t e s do  poorly  or not  even  on why  i t was  t h e same f o r good  use  earlier  (Home/School) used,  wasted  considered. so  Also  bad.'  of time.  Where  you  d i d p l a n your time, were s u c c e s s f u l w i t h time management a n d f o u n d t i m e was w e l l u s e d . What was i t a b o u t t h o s e t i m e s t h a t made y o u s u c c e s s f u l w i t h your time? J o t down a few n o t e s . Dyads:  'Relate your  e x p e r i e n c e to each  other.  Explain  why y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e g o o d and b a d . How your t i m e was u s e d p o o r l y and w e l l . What a r e t h e m a j o r s i m i l a r i t i e s you share? Major d i f f e r e n c e s ? Try and s t i c k t o b a s i n g y o u r d i s c u s s i o n i n y o u r own p e r s o n a l experiences r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z i n g . ' Quads:  'From y o u r p o o l e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f g o o d a n d b a d t i m e use (Home/School), c a n you see any themes, major s i m i l a r i t i e s , a r i s i n g ? - t h i n g s you c o u l d g e n e r a l i z e about time use of a s t u d e n t ? Each g r o u p o f f o u r e l e c t a c h a i r p e r s o n who notes down what i s s a i d u n d e r two c o l u m n s : " T h i n g s t h a t l e a d t o s a t i s f a c t o r y time u s e " and " T h i n g s that l e a d to u n s a t i s f a c t o r y time use". N o t e down a s many t h i n g s a s y o u c a n u n d e r t h e s e h e a d i n g s . '  Class:  ' E a c h g r o u p o f f o u r , i n t u r n , r e a d s o u t one i t e m from i t s l i s t . E v e r y o n e e l s e l i s t e n s and a s k s t h e g r o u p t o e x p l a i n i t s e l f , t o make t h e m e a n i n g of each item c l e a r . R e c o r d t h e i t e m s on t h e b o a r d .  *Work t h r o u g h a l l i t e m s o r u n t i l 30 m i n u t e s o r 1/2 period.  time  runs  ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 5:  out.  Focus for  HANDOUT:  Each  topic  i s setting  time  use  -  GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S  at  least  goal(s)  Home/School  -  SESSION  8  Discussion  118 -  EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT  Circle  **Refer  to Session 4  TOPIC:  Achievement **Refer  Group E x e r c i s e :  WHY  TRY!  Story: to Session  SKELETON PLOT:  2  ( U s e 10-15 new  achievement-related  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g write  a complete  or h e r o i n e than  story  i s trying  someone e l s e  t o t h i n k about and i n which  the hero  t o do s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r  and h e / s h e a c t u a l l y  he/she i s l o o k i n g forward  HANDOUT:  words)  to success.  STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD L I S T SHEET  says  -  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  119 -  #3  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t complete something he/she  story  i n which, t h e h e r o  better  i s looking  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  or heroine i s t r y i n g  t h a n someone e l s e  and he/she  forward to success.  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS  and w r i t e  a to  a c t u a l l y s.  -  SESSION Taking  9 Notes  Notes:  120  -  SELF-STUDY (Adapted:  Gibbs,  T h i s s e s s i o n uses  1981, the  18-22)  simple  and  useful  device  of  a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r t a k e an a c t u a l l e a r n i n g t a s k - i n t h i s c a s e t a k i n g n o t e s - and t h e n j u s t a s k i n g them t o c o m p a r e w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s how t h e y d i d t h i s and t o s h a r e methods and u s e s . This e n a b l e s d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t s t o h i g h l i g h t the nature of the l e a r n i n g task - i n t h i s case some o f t h e d e c i s i o n s a b o u t c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s w h i c h a r e i n v o l v e d i n n o t e t a k i n g and w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . Most s t u d e n t s , even e x p e r i e n c e d ones, are q u i t e i n a r t i c u l a t e a b o u t why t h e y t a k e n o t e s i n t h e way t h e y d o . P r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o l e a r n about t a k i n g notes i s that i t can serve a v a r i e t y of functions i n learning. D i f f e r e n t t a s k s make d i f f e r e n t demands, a n d d i f f e r e n t e n d s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t means. ( E x p l a i n t h i s w i t h a n i l l u s t r a t i o n ) The t a s k o f r e q u i r i n g e a c h p e r s o n t o g e t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o t h e r ' s n o t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o be a b l e t o e x p l a i n them t o a n o t h e r p a i r i s q u i t e u s e f u l . It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l when y o u s u s p e c t s t u d e n t s w i l l t a k e t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f s t u d y i n g somewhat f o r g r a n t e d a n d n o t r e a l l y f e e l t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t o be s a i d a b o u t i t . A n o t h e r ' s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n i n g can g e t a r o u n d t h i s a n d d r a w o u t more t h a n i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w e r e a s k e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r own n o t e s . Instructions: Individual:  This f i r s t  stage  involves students  taking  notes  f r o m some s o u r c e - a l e c t u r e , b o o k , f i l m o r v i d e o . T h i s can s i m p l y i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s ' l a s t l e c t u r e or n o t e s or a s p e c i a l n o t e t a k i n g a c t i v i t y a t the s t a r t o f t h e s e s s i o n . The more r e c e n t l y t h e n o t e s h a v e b e e n t a k e n , t h e more v i v i d l y a n d c o m p l e t e l y w i l l s t u d e n t s b e a b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t how and why t h e y were w r i t t e n . Dyads:  'In p a i r s ,  each  of you  i n t u r n have a l o o k a t  the  o t h e r ' s n o t e s a n d t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y a r e w r i t t e n i n the form they a r e . Which t h i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d a n d w h i c h a r e l e f t o u t , a n d why? What w i l l t h e y be u s e d f o r ? Ask the o t h e r p e r s o n whatever q u e s t i o n s you need i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r notes. Spend about f i v e m i n u t e s on e a c h s e t of n o t e s . N e x t , y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y your partner's notes to another p a i r . '  - 121 -  Quads:  'In f o u r s , each of you i n t u r n t r y to e x p l a i n your p a r t n e r ' s notes to the other p a i r . Why a r e t h e o t h e r ' s n o t e s d i f f e r e n t f r o m y o u r own? Do t h e o t h e r s u s e t h e i r n o t e s i n t h e same way a s y o u do? Find out. You are not allowed to d e s c r i b e y o u r own n o t e s u n l e s s y o u r p a r t n e r i s unable t o . ' ' S t i l l i n f o u r s , can you see from your f o u r s e t s o f n o t e s what makes them e i t h e r " g o o d " a n d u s e f u l n o t e s o r " p o o r " and u s e l e s s n o t e s ? Form a l i s t of t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s you have i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h y o u t h i n k a r e u s e f u l and t h o s e w h i c h y o u t h i n k you should a v o i d . W r i t e t h e s e down f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to the c l a s s .  Class:  'Each  group  i n turn w i l l  read  out  one  item  from i t s l i s t . I f what i s r e a d o u t i s c l e a r t o t h e o t h e r g r o u p s and n o t a p r o b l e m , t h e n we w i l l w r i t e i t up o n t h e b o a r d u n d e r one o f two h e a d i n g s : "Good p o i n t s a b o u t t h e s e n o t e s " o r "Bad p o i n t s a b o u t t h e s e n o t e s . " I f any o f t h e p o i n t s a r e u n c l e a r , we w i l l c l a r i f y them a n d o n l y p u t them up o n o u r l i s t i f we a g r e e on i t and a r e c l e a r what i t means.' ^Continue ORIGIN  through  a l l items  or u n t i l  time  runs  ASSIGNMENT: *Refer  HANDOUT:  t o S e s s i o n 5:  Focus i s s e t t i n g g o a l ( s ) for note taking.  N o t e T a k i n g - Two M e t h o d s EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS  out.  -  122  -  INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES: To take n o t e s e f f e c t i v e l y , one must have t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y main i d e a s and i m p o r t a n t d a t a w i t h i n a w r i t t e n o r o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t s t u d e n t s have a l r e a d y developed a t l e a s t s k i l l i n i d e n t i f y i n g main i d e a s and f a c t s .  rudimentary  I f some o r many o f the  s t u d e n t s do not have t h i s s k i l l y e t , i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e them w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s development. To h e l p your s t u d e n t s develop a mastery o f t h e s e methods - o u t l i n i n g and mapping - s t r u c t u r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s i t u a t i o n s throughout  the year i n w h i c h the s t u d e n t s must t a k e n o t e s and hand  them i n f o r r e v i e w .  Through t h i s k i n d of ongoing p r o c e s s you can  b o t h s t r e s s t h e u t i l i t y of n o t e - t a k i n g and keep your s t u d e n t s engaged i n improving t h e i r note-taking s k i l l s .  -  123 -  NOTE-TAKING METHODS Effective that not  note  taking  a student  can learn.  only useful  requires results  i s perhaps  The a b i l i t y  i n academic  the retention i n learning  t h e s i n g l e most u s e f u l t o take  contexts but a l s o  of information.  study  skill  good n o t e s w i l l i n any s e t t i n g  which  The p r o c e s s o f t a k i n g  b o t h when t h e n o t e s  a r e taken  prove  notes  a n d when t h e y a r e  used.  Two  methods a r e p r e s e n t e d  materials: a  (1) o u t l i n i n g ,  technique which  MAPPING: Research world  indicates  their  thinking  to apply  comfortable with this  that  differences  understanding  concept  people  below.  see,  c a n be seen  understand,  While  required  n o t e - t a k i n g method  t o s t u d e n t s f o r whom o u t l i n i n g  i s a useful  some s t u d e n t s a r e  as class  discussions.  t o take  that  Mapping  lacks  requires  tool,  Although  i t may b e u s e d  i n  organiza-  organization  does a s one goes a l o n g b u t r e s u l t s i n n e a r l y notes.  useful  and (2)  a clear less  with  l a c k an  can prove  i s not a helpful  s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l  well-organized  of these students  i n s e e i n g and t h i n k i n g  when t h e n o t e s  i s an a l t e r n a t i v e  outlining  tothe  t h e o u t l i n e method, o t h e r s c a n o n l y s t r u g g l e  Mapping  than  Evidence  e v e r y d a y i n t h e ways  t o n o t e - t a k i n g methods.  order.  such  and respond  and f e e l i n g .  of differences  method, e s p e c i a l l y  tion,  to written  method; a n d (2) mapping,  ways a n d p e r s o n a l w a y s .  obvious  (1)  application  WHAT I S I T S VALUE?  individual  This  their  the traditional  i s presented  i n very different  express  through  equal  i n any c o n t e x t , mapping  - 124 -  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l f o r t a k i n g notes d u r i n g u n s t r u c t u r e d o r a l presentations. C e r t a i n l y o u t l i n i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t and u s e f u l n o t e - t a k i n g method. Mapping can a l s o be u s e f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those who f i n d difficult.  outlining  A l t h o u g h mapping may be new t o you, examine i t c a r e f u l l y ,  experiment w i t h i t s u s e , and master i t s uses i f you f i n d i t u s e f u l .  METHODS T a k i n g n o t e s h e l p s you t o l e a r n i n two ways: 1. To take good n o t e s , you need t o f i g u r e out what t h e i m p o r t a n t i d e a s and f a c t s a r e i n what you a r e r e a d i n g o r h e a r i n g . F i g u r i n g out what these i m p o r t a n t i d e a s and f a c t s a r e and t h e n w r i t i n g them down w i l l h e l p you l e a r n them. 2. You can use your notes a week o r a month l a t e r t o s t u d y f o r a t e s t or p r e p a r e an assignment. TWO GOOD METHODS FOR TAKING NOTES ARE: 1. OUTLINING I . Main i d e a A. I d e a / d e t a i l B. I d e a / d e t a i l 1. S u b - d e t a i l 2. S u b - d e t a i l 2.  *Think of your notes as a MAP. Only w r i t e down t h e main i d e a s and import a n t f a c t s . A l s o , be s u r e t o w r i t e your n o t e s i n your own words. USE ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE WHEN YOU TAKE NOTES. THE MORE YOU CAN USE THEM, THE LESS WRITING YOU'LL HAVE TO DO.  MAPPING  detail idea/fact idea/fact TOPIC/MAIN IDEA  idea/fact  -  MAPPING  125 -  EXAMPLE  The ' b e s t n o t e s ' i n o u t l i n e mapping n o t e s about E n g l i s h .  form  o f a 14 y e a r  o l d boy, and h i s  SETTING  -  Time and p l a c e s i n w h i c h n o v e l i s s i t u a t e d .  IMAGERY  -  Kind by  SYMBOLISM -  o f images  simile  One t h i n g The  the author  uses  to describe  o r metaphor. stands  witches  f o r another  i n Macbeth s i g n i f y i n g end.  (usually)  -  SESSION  10  Discussion  EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT  Circle  **Refer  Achievement  **Refer  Group  to Session  TOPIC:  Exercise: 4  I'M USUALLY  SUCCESSFUL WHEN  Story:  to Session  SKELETON PLOT:  HANDOUT:  126 -  2  ( U s e 10-15 new  achievement-related  words)  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t a n d w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero o r h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g t h a t w i l l take a l o n g time but w i l l r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s and a c t u a l l y s a y s what ( o r how) h e / s h e i s d o i n g t o h e l p h i m s e l f / herself succeed.  STUDENT PROGRESS EVALUATION  SURVEY  OF THE CLASS  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED  ACTIVITIES  WORD L I S T  SHEET  -  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  127 -  #4  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t a n d w r i t e a c o m p l e t e s t o r y i n w h i c h t h e h e r o o r h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g that w i l l take a l o n g time but w i l l r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s and a c t u a l l y s a y s what ( o r how) h e / s h e i s d o i n g t o h e l p h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f succeed.  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS  5.  6.  8.  -  SESSION 11  Taking  SELF-STUDY  Examinations  Notes:  128 -  (Adapted:  Gibbs,  pp.42-44)  T h i s e x e r c i s e i s a i m e d a t what i s i n v o l v e d i n a c t u a l l y s i t t i n g the examination i t s e l f . It g i v e s s t u d e n t s t h e c h a n c e t o t h i n k a b o u t how t o p l a n t h e i r time and t a c k l e t h e examination paper s e n s i b l y w h i l e n o t under s t r e s s o r time p r e s s u r e . As m a t e r i a l y o u w i l l n e e d a p a s t e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r , complete w i t h any e x a m i n a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r a c o u r s e s t u d e n t s a r e s t u d y i n g . Make s u r e t h a t each group o f f o u r a t l e a s t i s w o r k i n g from t h e same e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r - i f i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e more t h a n o n e e x a m i n a t i o n .  The t i m i n g s f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e a r e v e r y t i g h t . Two p e r i o d s may be r e q u i r e d - b r e a k i n g between dyads and quads. E x e r c i s e s on e x a m i n a t i o n s seem t o have a c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t and r a i s e a l l s o r t s o f powerful issues f o r students other than those s t r i c t l y r e l a t e d w i t h t a k i n g examinations. I t may take some guidance from you a t t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , o r even an a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e , t o make t h e l i n k between e x a m i n a t i o n t a c t i c s and revision tactics. Instructions: Individual:  ' I m a g i n e y o u a r e i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n room, a n d y o u a r e g i v e n t h i s exam p a p e r a n d t o l d to b e g i n . Go a h e a d , f o r t e n m i n u t e s , e x a c t l y a s i f y o u w e r e r e a l l y d o i n g t h e exam.'  Dyads:  'Compare w h a t y o u d i d w i t h y o u r - was i t d i f f e r e n t ? How? Why? i n your Journal.  Quads:  'Pool the t a c t i c s you adopted. What a r e t h e m o s t u s e f u l t h i n g s t o do i n t h e f i r s t t e n minutes? What t h i n g s a r e b e s t a v o i d e d ? '  Individual:  'Now go b a c k a n d s t a r t t a c k l i n g a q u e s t i o n w h i c h i s n o t y o u r b e s t q u e s t i o n ( c h o o s e y o u r 2nd o r 3rd b e s t ) and . s t a r t w o r k i n g on i t . You have t e n minutes t o work on i t . Don't t r y a n d f i n i s h your answer i n t e n m i n u t e s , j u s t u s e i t a s t h e f i r s t t e n m i n u t e s you'd spend on t h i s answer.  t e n minutes Note t h e s e  -  Dyads:  129 -  'Compare how y o u went a b o u t your chosen q u e s t i o n s . '  Quads:  'Pool your  tactics.  would be b e s t s u i t e d choose t o adopt?' Class:  'Each  group  starting  t o answer  What m e t h o d s o f r e v i s i o n t o t h e t a c t i c s you would  i s to describe  a p r o m i s i n g way o f  t a c k l i n g t h e paper, and g o i n g about answering a q u e s t i o n ; a n d t o s u g g e s t what f o r m o f r e v i s i o n would be t h e b e s t s o r t o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h a t way. L i s t t h e t a c t i c s on t h e b o a r d . ' '"Continue  HANDOUT:  through  SOME EXAMINATION  a l l items  o r u n t i l time  runs out.  WEAKNESSES  GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S  ORIGIN  ASSIGNMENT: *Refer  t o S e s s i o n 5:  Focus  i s on s e t t i n g  goal(s)  for examination taking. Choose one o r more e x a m i n a t i o n t a c t i c s (approach) which you f e e l w i l l h e l p y o u and p l a n a r e v i s i o n t a c t i c (method) t o r e a c h i t . Do t h i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r your next major t e s t . M o n i t o r and e v a l u a t e your p r o g r e s s and r e s u l t s as i n p r e v i o u s Origin Assignments.  -  SOME EXAMINATION  *  Turning  * Not how not *  up  130  -  WEAKNESSES  late  and  flustered  - and  so  losing  time.  f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t w h i c h and many q u e s t i o n s t o a n s w e r a n d s o a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h do c o u n t a n d m i s s i n g o u t q u e s t i o n s w h i c h do c o u n t .  Budgeting  time  are  answered  per  cent).  * Misreading time  between q u e s t i o n s  (e.g.,  not  been  so b a d l y  i n s t e a d of  or misunderstanding  d e c i d i n g what  w h i c h has  three  i s being  questions  asked  that not  f o u r , throwing  through  f o r - and  so  enough  questions  away  twenty-five  spending  too  answering a  asked.  * R e a d i n g w h a t e v e r t h e q u e s t i o n ( w h e t h e r ' D i s c u s s ... ' 'Compare c o n t r a s t ... ' ' E v a l u a t e ... ' o r w h a t e v e r ) a s : ' L i s t w h a t e v e r can t h i n k of about t h i s t o p i c i n w h i c h e v e r o r d e r you can t h i n k it. Make no facts.  little  question  attempt  to o r g a n i z e  your  answer.  Include  only  and you of  unconnected  * Writing i l l e g i b l y . T h i s i s v e r y common. The more s l o w l y a n e x a m i n e r i s f o r c e d t o r e a d , by p o o r h a n d w r i t i n g , t h e l e s s c h a n c e t h e r e i s t h a t he o r s h e c a n w o r k o u t what a n a n s w e r i s s a y i n g . *  Using  opinions  supported  and  personal  arguments.  experience  Abandoning  as  a  a l l logic  substitute for and  intellectual  wellrigour.  * B e l i e v i n g t h a t sheer q u a n t i t y w i l l g a i n marks. In f a c t , the r e v e r s e c a n be t h e c a s e - good p o i n t s and a r g u m e n t s b e i n g l o s t i n a w e l t e r of i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l . *  F o r g e t t i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t 50% o f m a r k s f o r a n a n s w e r a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o o b t a i n , t h e n e x t 25% e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t and t h e l a s t 25% q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e - and s o w a s t i n g t i m e e l a b o r a t i n g on . a l r e a d y g o o d o r a d e q u a t e a n s w e r s i n s t e a d o f i m p r o v i n g p o o r and i n a d e q u a t e a n s w e r s .  *  T r y i n g t o remember what t h e y know a b o u t a t o p i c , s e l e c t what i s r e l e v a n t t o a q u e s t i o n , o r g a n i z e i t i n t o an a n s w e r and f o r m u l a t e sentences t o e x p r e s s t h a t a n s w e r a l l a t t h e same t i m e i n s t e a d o f i n s e p a r a t e s t a g e s - and s o p r o d u c i n g p a r t l y i r r e l e v a n t , d i s o r g a n i z e d , i n c o m p l e t e and i n c o h e r e n t a n s w e r s .  *  F a i l i n g to read through incorrect passages.  *  finished  answers  for grossly incoherent  and  Panicking.  T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , a p a r t i a l l i s t and you i t e m s t o s u i t y o u r own s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e  may and  w i s h t o d e l e t e and experience.  add  131 -  SESSION. 12  Discussion  EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT  Circle  **Refer  Group  to Session  Exercise:  4 - Lengthen  time  to 2 minutes per person.  Once e v e r y o n e h a s h a d t h e i r to TOPIC:  Achievement  WHAT I S AN  a general  turn  open  discussion.  ORIGIN?  Story:  S t u d e n t s t o draw words f r o m p r e v i o u s l y g e n e r a t e d l i s t s o f achievement-related w o r d s ( t r y t o u s e a t l e a s t 10 a n d a s many o t h e r s a s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r s t o r y . ) PLOT:  This  week  complete  HANDOUT:  you a r e going s t o r y on:  STUDENT PROGRESS  to think  I WAS  AN  about  and w r i t e  ORIGIN THE TIME THAT  SURVEY  EVALUATION OF THE CLASS A C T I V I T I E S ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD L I S T SHEET  a ...!  - 132 -  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  #5  T h i s week y o u a r e g o i n g story  on:  I WAS  to think  about  AN ORIGIN THE TIME THAT  and w r i t e  a  complete  ...  ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS  Draw w o r d s f r o m p r e v i o u s f o u r ( 4 ) s e t s o f w o r d s . U s e a s many o f t h e w o r d s a s y o u c a n , m a k i n g s u r e t h e y a l l make s e n s e w i t h i n the s t o r y .  -  SESSION 13  133  -  EVALUATION/ORIGIN  ASSIGNMENT  Evaluation: Group D i s c u s s i o n -  feelings  of course,  specific  feedback,  d i f f i c u l t i e s ahead d o i n g g o a l s on emphasize that w i t h these s k i l l s they can't lose - only gain, O r i g i n s p e r s i s t - e v e n w i t h f a i l u r e s (and f a i l u r e s w i l l occur.)  Origin  Assignment:  Continue  t o meet w i t h a.  Set  p a r t n e r once a week/every a goal(s)  2 weeks  [ R e l a t e d to m a t e r i a l -  to:  study  s k i l l s - of the course or any o t h e r g o a l w h i c h i s important.] b . M o n i t o r and e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e of p a r t n e r , r e c o r d i n g r e s u l t s and r e a c t i o n s in Journal. The g o a l may be one w h i c h l a s t s l o n g e r t h a n a week - h o w e v e r , s t i l l meet e a c h week and d i s c u s s p r o g r e s s . c.  S h a r e s u c c e s s e s and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s (and defeats) with partner. To e n c o u r a g e one a n o t h e r a s ORIGINS!  Meet f o r r e m a i n d e r o f t h e y e a r A good p l a c e f o r m e e t i n g would  - 15-20 m i n u t e s a week. be E n g l i s h c l a s s .  * * C o n t i n u e w i t h J o u r n a l f o r r e m a i n d e r o f y e a r - and permanently i f y o u f o u n d i t a t a l l u s e f u l ; i t i s a g o o d " s o u r c e " t o go t o and h a v e a t a l k .  APPENDIX  134  -  B  Sparwood Secondary School O F F I C E O F T H E PRINCIPAL  T E L E P H O N E 425-6666  p  E L K F O R D - Zenith 2355  - ° - B O X 67  SPARWOOD, B.C. VOB 2G0  ^..January  Dear  Parent/Guardian:  Mr. M c D e r m i d h a s r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o r u n a s i x week p r o g r a m o n s t u d y s k i l l s w i t h a l l grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . This program w i l l be p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r g r a d e e i g h t E n g l i s h c l a s s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m i s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y l e a r n , a s w e l l as how t o o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l , how t o t a k e n o t e s a n d how t o w r i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s W i t h r e g a r d t o s t u d y s k i l l s , i t i s hoped t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n how t o s e t p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t o h e l p them a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s , a n d t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the success o r f a i l u r e o f these plans. We b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t s who c a n become m o t i v a t ed t o s t u d y a n d who u s e a p l a n n e d a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g , w i l l be a b l e t o i m p r o v e t h e i r g r a d e s i n s c h o o l . Mr. M c D e r m i d w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e p r o g r a m a f t e r t h e s i x weeks a r e up t o s e e how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e done. Should y o u have any q u e s t i o n s o r v i e w p o i n t s about the program, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c a l l Mr. McDermid o r m y s e l f a t 425-6666. Sincerely,  ./E. W. S u r g e n o r Principal SPARWOOD SECONDARY SCHOOL EWS:vq  19  83  -  135  -  APPENDIX  C  NOWICKI-STRICKLAND PERSONAL REACTION  1.  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t m o s t p r o b l e m s w i l l j u s t d o n ' t f o o l w i t h them? Yes  2.  Do  you  believe  that  you  No  can  stop  Are  some k i d s  just  born  M o s t o f t h e t i m e do g r e a t d e a l to you?  you  feel  that  Yes 5.  Are  you  often  blamed  for  things  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t i f somebody c a n p a s s any subject?  Do y o u f e e l t h a t i t ' s g o i n g t o be  Do y o u f e e l t h a t m o s t o f c h i l d r e n have to say?  Do  you  believe  that  the  does  M o s t o f t h e t i m e do [mind] o p i n i o n ?  you  just  Do  you  think  that  cold?  good  g r a d e s means  studies  aren't  hard  your  fault?  e n o u g h he  or  pay  to  try  hard  [Yes]*  cheering Yes  more t h a n No  l i s t e n t o what  their  [No]* things  happen?  [Yes]* seem i t ' s f o r no  No  No  that  [Yes]*  No  i t hard  she  [No]*  make g o o d  i t usually  a  [Yes]*  time p a r e n t s  can  find Yes  13.  that  No  wishing  When y o u g e t p u n i s h e d reason at a l l ?  you  [No]*  No  Yes 12.  a  i f t h i n g s s t a r t out w e l l i n the morning a g o o d day no m a t t e r w h a t y o u do?  Yes 11.  getting  No  Yes 10.  [Yes]*  Do y o u f e e l t h a t m o s t o f t h e t i m e i t d o e s n ' t b e a c u s e t h i n g s n e v e r t u r n o u t r i g h t anyway?  Yes 9.  No  No  Yes 8.  catching [No]*  No  Yes 7.  from  No  No  Yes 6.  i f  lucky? Yes  4.  themselves [Yes]*  yourself  Yes 3.  solve  SURVEY  good  [Yes]* to  change a  friend's  [Yes]* luck helps  a  [No]*  team t o  win?  -  14.  136 -  Do y o u f e e l t h a t i t ' s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e p a r e n t ' s mind about a n y t h i n g ? Yes  15.  No  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t y o u r p a r e n t s o f y o u r own d e c i s i o n s ? Yes  16.  Do y o u f e e l little  Do y o u b e l i e v e  A r e most  that  kids  are just  your  just  that  I f you f i n d  about  leaf  sports?  [Yes]* than you are? [Yes]*  ways t o h a n d l e m o s t  problems  them? No  you have a l o t o f c h o i c e  a four  y o u good  b o r n good a t  age s t r o n g e r  one o f t h e b e s t  not to think  Do y o u f e e l t h a t f r i e n d s are?  bring  i s very  [Yes]*  No  Yes 21.  there  No  Yes 20.  [No]'.*  No  most k i d s  of the other  Do y o u f e e l is  y o u t o make m o s t  t h a t when y o u do s o m e t h i n g w r o n g  Yes 19.  allow  y o u c a n do t o make i t r i g h t ?  Yes 18.  should  your  [Yes]*  No  Yes 17.  t o change  No  clover  [Yes]* i n deciding  who  your  [No]*  do y o u b e l i e v e  that  i t might  luck? Yes  No  [Yes]*  22.  Do y o u o f t e n f e e l t h a t w h e t h e r y o u do y o u r homeowrk h a s much t o do w i t h what k i n d o f g r a d e s y o u g e t ? Yes No [No]*  23.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t when a k i d y o u r a g e d e c i d e s t o h i t y o u , t h e r e ' s l i t t l e y o u c a n do t o s t o p h i m o r h e r ? Yes No [Yes]*  24.  Have y o u e v e r had a good  luck  Yes 25.  Do y o u b e l i e v e how y o u a c t ?  that  No  whether  or not people  Yes 26.  Will  your  parents  usually Yes  27.  charm?  No help _  [Yes]* like  you depends on  [No]*  y o u i f y o u a s k them t o ? No  [No]*  H a v e y o u f e l t t h a t when p e o p l e w e r e mean t o y o u i t was f o r no r e a s o n a t a l l ? Yes No [Yes]*  usually  -  137 -  28.  M o s t o f t h e t i m e , do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u c a n c h a n g e what h a p p e n t o m o r r o w b y what y o u do t o d a y ? Yes No [No]*  29.  Do y o u b e l i e v e are  going  that  when b a d t h i n g s  t o h a p p e n no m a t t e r what Yes  30.  Do y o u t h i n k  that  kids  are going  might  t o happen  they  y o u t r y t o do t o s t o p  No  just  them?  [Yes]*  can get t h e i r  own way i f t h e y j u s t  keep  trying? Yes 31.  M o s t o f t h e t i m e do y o u f i n d way a t home? Yes  32.  Do y o u f e e l h a r d work?  t h a t when g o o d Yes  33.  Do y o u f e e l there's  that  little  Do y o u f e e l them t o ?  36.  i t useless  that  i t ' s easy  to t r y to get your  No things  own  [Yes]* happen  they happen because o f  No  [No]*  when somebody y o u r  Yes 35.  [No]*  age wants  y o u c a n do t o c h a n g e Yes  34.  No  t o be your  enemy  matters?  No  [Yes]*  to get friends  t o do w h a t  No  y o u want  [No]*  Do y o u u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t y o u h a v e l i t t l e g e t t o e a t a t home? Yes No Do y o u f e e l t h a t when someone d o e s n ' t y o u c a n do a b o u t i t ? Yes No  t o s a y a b o u t what y o u [Yes]*  like  you there's  little  [Yes]*  37.  Do y o u u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t i t ' s a l m o s t u s e l e s s t o t r y i n s c h o o l b e c a u s e most o t h e r c h i l d r e n a r e j u s t p l a i n s m a r t e r t h a n y o u a r e ? Yes No [Yes]*  38.  A r e y o u t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s makes t h i n g s t u r n o u t b e t t e r ? Yes No  39.  Most what  o f t h e t i m e , do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u r f a m i l y d e c i d e s t o do? Yes  40.  *  Do y o u t h i n k  planning  No  i n an e x t e r n a l  ahead  [Yes]*  y o u have l i t t l e  i t ' s b e t t e r t o be smart Yes No  A l l items a r e answered  that  t o say about  [Yes]* than  t o be l u c k y ? [No]*  direction.  -  138  -  APPENDIX D  Analysis Dependent  Dependent Variable  Control  (Pre)  of Variance With Variables  Source  Sex Class SC Error Total  (Post)  Progress (Pre)  Locus LS LC LSC Error Total Class Sex CS Error Total  (Post)  Survey SC SS SCS Error Total  Repeated  (Pre-Post)  S.S.  Measures For  (BMDP v . 2 ,  df  Dixon,  Two 1981)  F  P  25.82 37.08  0.59 0.85  0.4456 0.4738  0.36  0.7821  M.S.  25.82  1  111.25  3  47.36 2938.00 28682.36  3 67 75  14.79 43.85 25682.27  210.02 13.32 32.90 29.80 350.48  1 1 3 3 67 75  210.02 13.23 10.97 9.93 5.23 249.38  40.15 2.53 2.10 1.90  0.0000 0.1165 0.1089 0.1381  3 1  37.97 804.40 214.87 53.88  0.70 14.93 3.99  0.5529 0.0003 0.0116  31.66  0.0000 0.0022 0.0881  636.43 113.90 804.40 644.61 3340.41 248131.32  3 62 70  390.55 200.85 37.04  1 3 1  57.90 764.90 1451.24  3 62 70  24452.67 390.55 66.95 37.04 19.31 12.34 526.19  5.43 3.00 1.56  0.2069  -  139  -  APPENDIX E  Analysis  o f C o v a r i a n c e (GPA) W i t h Locus  Dependent Variable  Control  (Pre)  Source  of  Variable  Control  S.S.  df  M.S.  F  1.19 0.64 0.28  Sex  52.56  1  52.56  Class SC  84.65 37.42  3  28.22  1st Covar. Error  28.87  3 1 66  12.47 28.87 44.08  74  166.20  1 1 3 3 1  205.59 15.77 10.89 9.41 2.55  66 75  5.27 249.68  2909.13  Total (Post)  Dependent  Locus LS LC LSC 1st Covar. Error Total  205.59 15.77 32.67 28.23 2.55 347.94 632.75  0.65  39.00 2.99 2.07 1.78 0.48  P  0.2588 0.5919 0.8375 0.4212  0.0000 0.0883 0.1132 0.1586 0.4895  -  140 -  APPENDIX  F  STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY  Course  Student  Date  *Your h e l p i s r e q u e s t e d i n a s s e s s i n g this  Use  student.  Please record  your  the study h a b i t s  and s k i l l s o f  observations carefully.  Thank-you.  o f time EXCELLENT  In  the past  weeks  Increased/improved  Assignments  POOR  this  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  i n on time EXCELLENT  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Assignments  POOR  this  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  completed EXCELLENT  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  POOR  this  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  Attendance EXCELLENT  POOR 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  this  6  5  4  3  2  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Same  1  -  Necessary  141  -  materials EXCELLENT 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Academic  this  6  5  4  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  progress EXCELLENT 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/improved  Classroom  this  6  5  4  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  behaviour EXCELLENT 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  Classroom  this  6  5  4  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  attitude EXCELLENT 7  In  the past  weeks  Increased/Improved  this  6  5  4  behaviour has:  Decreased/Worsened  Thank y o u ,  Counsellor  -  142 -  APPENDIX  G  A CASE STUDY:  Randi was  i s a thirteen-year-oldjunior  a passing  year, high  (average)  operative  Randi  was  and  increasingly,  the year  t h e number  before.  school regularly  just  elementary  o f c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s expect  She h a s g o t t e n v e r y  in  class  as  a result  aspects  involved with  her actions f o r her.  Randi's teachers.  behind  parents  wants t o pass  CASE STUDY  into  i n h e r work and  a r e concerned  Their offer  She d o e s  level  school.  and  She  confusing.  also She  h a s met w i t h  and i s v e r y  of j u n i o r  a group  high  that at  She i s o f t e n  t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e s h e d o e s n o t know w h a t gets  to her c l a s s e s  high  somewhat  as  h e r t o do a l l t h e w o r k o n h e r own.  t h e more i n v o l v e d s o c i a l  decides  as hard  her assignments.  i s involved i n several school a c t i v i t i e s  enjoying  says,  than  of j u n i o r  and i s g e n e r a l l y c o -  However, she i s o f t e n l a t e  harder  She  the previous  term  t o be working  she i s n o t c o m p l e t i n g  the teachers  school. she  school  t h a t t h e r e i s more w o r k t o do a t t h e j u n i o r  Randi much  school student.  i n elementary  She c l a i m s  t h e w o r k i s somewhat  finds says  attends  and f r i e n d l y .  she  that  student  high  b u t she has n o t done v e r y w e l l i n h e r f i r s t school.  think  RANDI  times,  socializing  i s going  on and  assignments.  and wanting  to h e l p ,  r e l u c t a n c e so f a r .  G r a d e 9; s h e d o e s n o t w a n t  to j u s t  as a r e h e r Randi  'get by.'  QUESTIONS:  1.  What w o u l d y o u s u g g e s t  2.  What  Randi  w o u l d y o u do i f y o u w e r e  do t o i m p r o v e h e r s i t u a t i o n ? Randi?  -  143  -  APPENDIX G  A  Sandy work. his  i s a Grade 8  Sandy has  own  elementary  successes control  the  paying  failing  eighth  less  to  is  attention  and  poor  his  and  has  must  situation.  would probably poorly  in  accept  He  his  new  to  f e l t more  slacken-off  in class.  of  and  abilities  t a l k i n g much m o r e homework.  He  him.  and in  or  Recently and  in his  "school"  c h a n g e some o f  he to  his  that  has  present  failing  in  "new" any  attitude  some o f  serious  hasn't been able  improving  his  he  general.  made a d e c i s i o n  w o r k on  changes  assignments  making  he  and  also  the  these  difficulty  discouraged  school  the  is  He  activities.  b l a m e l o w e r m a r k s on  i s having  continuing  result  control  i s something  responsibility for  to  feels rather  that  little  also  instructions,  try  He  recognizes  has  school  i t i s b e c o m i n g more  learning.  teacher  progress.  He  improve h i s  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  improve but  towards  he  This  begun to  begun t o  to  attitude  to  time i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  behaviours  his  has  to  exam r e s u l t s on  his  that  some a s s i g n m e n t s a n d  Sandy knows he  improve  feels  usually  to  been r e l u c t a n t  experiencing  like  school.  s p e n d i n g much more o f Sandy h a s  would  situation.  was  g r a d e he  complete  SANDY  f e e l i n g that  p o s i t i v e about  i n elementary  In is  felt  he  who  He  change h i s  school  and  student  situation.  more d i f f i c u l t , t o In  CASE STUDY:  been r e c e n t l y  learning  (con't)  to  his  and  to  improve  grades.  behaviour  courses  and  doing  others.  CASE STUDY QUESTIONS: 1.  What in  things  could  this situation?  you  suggest  to  Sandy  (Suggest/list  2.  F o r e a c h s u g g e s t i o n t r y t o comment h e m i g h t do t o b e successful.  3.  What w o u l d y o u  do  personally  as  i f you  that  many as  on  might  help  you  can.)  s p e c i f i c steps  were  Sandy?  him  (things)  -  144  -  APPENDIX  Distribution  of  Student  Suggestions  Categories  Personal  H  Class  Responsibility  Pre  Post  7  11  11 5 31  13 11 44  2  0  1  3 4 Total  0 1  1  Related  8  2 3 4 Total  Test-Taking  Note-Taking  Organization  Total  Related  1  Related  1  Related  Suggestions  Eighth  (Specific)  8  0  0 1  0  1 4 6 1  2 3  0 0  1 4  4 Total  0 0  1 7  1  6  15  2 3 4 Total  6 7 2 21  12 11 9 47  Grade  53  104  -  145  -  APPENDIX  STUDENT EVALUATION  I  QUESTIONNAIRE  NAME _ BLOCK  D u r i n g t h e p a s t s i x w e e k s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 h o u r s , y o u h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a program w h i c h has a t t e m p t e d t o h e l p you b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how y o u l e a r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the program has a t t e m p t e d t o i n c r e a s e y o u r awareness o f s t u d y s k i l l s and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n . In order to e v a l u a t e the As t h e m a i n p a r t i c i p a n t ,  program f u l l y your i n p u t i s r e q u i r e d . y o u r o p i n i o n s , r e a c t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s  are v e r y important i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the program. Please work t h r o u g h the q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t r e s p o n s e i s o f t e n t h e b e s t s o do n o t s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e o n e a c h q u e s t i o n . Thank you u a t i o n of  For  each of  f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n the program.  the  following questions,  strongly agree  SA  A - agree  1.  I b e l i e v e my  2.  3.  4.  circle  U - uncertain  one  eval-  of:  D - disagree  SD  -  strongly disagree  I b e l i e v e I h a v e made p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s ( i n c r e a s e d ) i n my p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n .  SA  SD  I b e l i e v e I am more a w a r e o f my personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards l e a r n i n g .  SA  I have d i s c u s s e d the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n p r o g r a m ( a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s ) w i t h my parents/guardian.  SA  be  the  s e s s i o n on  "student  improved.  your  SD  found  h a b i t s have  p r o g r a m and  SA  I  study  i n the  roles"  6 a.  I found t o be  6b.  goals  and  "checking  helpful.  daily  SD  SD  SA  A  U  D  SA  A  U  D  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  behaviours"  SD  planning"  helpful.  I found be  "setting  "Origin  SD  to  helpful.  I f o u n d t h e s e s s i o n on t o be h e l p f u l .  A  progress"  to  -  7.  I found  the session  on "How  146 -  do I l e a r n "  to  be h e l p f u l . 8.  I found to  9.  10.  I found  on " T a k i n g  the session  the sessions  I would like  13.  I would like  14.  15.  16.  like  to participate  recommend  this  that  in a  SA  A  TJ  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  program  my  friends  parti-  skilis/motivation  group  one.  I w o u l d recommend t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study group l i k e t h i s one.  SD  "Achievement  again.  i n a study  D  Examinations"  t o be h e l p f u l .  this  cipate  on  U  t o be  be h e l p f u l .  I found  A  Yourself"  on " N o t e - t a k i n g "  Stories" 12.  on " O r g a n i z i n g  be h e l p f u l .  I found t h e s e s s i o n helpful.  to 11.  the session  SA  f u t u r e Grade E i g h t s skills/motivation  I b e l i e v e I would f i n d a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n p r o g r a m s i m i l a r t o t h i s one u s e f u l next year. How w o u l d y o u r a t e y o u r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program? HIGH  17.  I f other program,  18.  Additions  19.  Concerns I have  AVERAGE  s t u d e n t s w o u l d a s k me a b o u t I would say t h e f o l l o w i n g :  or deletions  about  the study  LOW skills/motivation  ( c h a n g e s ) I w o u l d make t o t h e p r o g r a m a r e :  the study  skills/motivation  program a r e :  - 147 -  20.  Additional  Comments:  - 148 -  APPENDIX J  STUDENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE - FOLLOW UP  NAME BLOCK  D u r i n g t h e second term o f t h i s s c h o o l y e a r you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s i x week (12 s e s s i o n s ) program. T h i s program attempted to h e l p you b e t t e r understand how you l e a r n . Specifically, the program attempted t o i n c r e a s e your awareness o f study s k i l l s and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n . In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e program f u l l y your feedback i s necessary. Your p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s , r e a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program. P l e a s e work through t h e q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t response i s o f t e n t h e b e s t so do n o t spend a l o t o f time on each q u e s t i o n . Thank you f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e program and e v a l u a t i n g your p e r s o n a l involvement w i t h t h e program. For each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , c i r c l e ONE o f : SA 1.  2.  3.  4.  strongly agree  . A - agree b  U - uncertain  TT  _ ,. D - disagree °  SD -  s  t  r  o  n  ^ y  disagree  I b e l i e v e my study h a b i t s have improved as a r e s u l t o f my e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e program.  SA  A  U  D  SD  I b e l i e v e my grades a r e improved as a r e s u l t o f me a p p l y i n g what I l e a r n e d i n t h e program.  SA  A  U  D  SD  I b e l i e v e I have t a k e n g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g s i n c e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e program.  SA  A  U  D  SD  I b e l i e v e I am more p e r s o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d as a r e s u l t o f my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e program.  SA  A  U  D  SD  Each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e s k i l l s you d i s c u s s e d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e program. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e degree o f involvement w i t h each o f these s i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program.  - 149 -  For each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g , c i r c l e ONE o f : Thought about i t and worked on i t r e g u l a r l y .  Thought about i t and worked on i t o c c a s i o n a l l y .  Thought about i t b u t d i d n o t work on i t .  Thought about i t and worked on i t once o r t w i c e .  Have n o t thought about i t and have n o t worked on i t .  5.  " O r i g i n Behaviours"  5  4  2  1  6.  " S e t t i n g G o a l s and P l a n n i n g "  5  4  2  1  7.  "Checking d a i l y p r o g r e s s / 5  4  2  1  5  4  2  1  5  4  2  1  5  4  2  1  5  4  2  1  G e t t i n g personal feedback" 8.  "Organizing Yourself"  9.  " N o t e - t a k i n g Methods"  10.  "Taking Examinations"  11.  "Journal Writing"  12.  How would you r a t e your p e r s o n a l e f f o r t and i n v o v l e m e n t i n t h e use o f study s k i l l s we d i s c u s s e d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e program? High  13.  14.  15.  Average  Low  How would you r a t e your p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e program? a.  Increased  b.  High  Same Average  Decreased Low  How would you r a t e your p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program? a.  Increased  b.  High  Same Average  Decreased Low  From t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program t o t h e p r e s e n t I have found I have been most aware o f : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  -  16;  From most  the completion useful aspects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  17.  Additional  Comments:  150  -  of the program to the present of the program to be:  I have  found  the  -  151 -  APPENDIX K  -  152  -  Sparwood Secondary School OFFICE OF T H E  PRINCIPAL  P. 0. BOX 67 T E L E P H O N E 425-6666  SPARWOOD, B.C.  ELKFORD - Zenith 2355  VOB 2G0  Feb.  Dear  18  19  Parent/Guardian:  As y o u a r e a w a r e , y o u r s o n o r d a u g h t e r h a s s p e n t a l m o s t 14 h o u r s i n t h e p a s t s i x weeks r e v i e w i n g , p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r i n g and p r a c t i c i n g p o s i t i v e study s k i l l s and h a b i t s and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . E a c h c h i l d was a l s o requested to attempt e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r personal progress i n the program. I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e o u r p r o g r a m f u l l y , we w o u l d appreciate your help. Please f i n d enclosed a b r i e f summary o f t h e s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n p r o g r a m p r e s e n t e d t o y o u r c h i l d t h e p a s t s i x weeks a n d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r you t o c o m p l e t e . Please return the questionnaire i n the enclosed envelope. Have y o u r s o n o r d a u g h t e r r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Mr. M c D e r m i d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous m a n n e r . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e as y o u r a s s i g n e d number t h e l a s t f o u r d i g i t s o f y o u r t e l e p h o n e n u m b e r . T h i s i s t o a s s u r e us t h a t we h a v e a r e t u r n e d f o r m f r o m y o u . Thank y o u A w r i t t e n copy some t i m e n e a r at t h a t time i  f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . o f o u r r e p o r t f i n d i n g s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t h e end o f September. P l e a s e c o n t a c t us f you wish to discuss the r e s u l t s . Yours  truly,  E. W. S u r g e n o r Principal ES/lp Encl. NOTE: Mr. Mcfermid is returning to U.B.C. Friday, February 25.  If at all  possible please return COMPLETED questionnaire to him by noon Friday, February 25, 1983.  Thank you.  to the principal, Mr. Surqenor.  If this is not possible please return  83  -  153 -  APPENDIX  PROGRAM  K  (con't)  SUMMARY  The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m was t o h e l p s t u d e n t s understand how t h e y l e a r n , a s w e l l a s how t o o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l , how t o t a k e n o t e s a n d how t o w r i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a n a g o a l around each study s k i l l , p r a c t i c e i t f o r a week a n d e v a l u a t e t h e i r p r o g r e s s . E a c h s t u d e n t was f u r t h e r encouraged t o work on r e l a t e d ( o r o t h e r ) g o a l s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e y e a r - e v a l u a t i n g each g o a l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . W i t h r e g a r d t o s t u d y s k i l l s , i t i s h o p e d t h a t s t u d e n t s became a w a r e o f how t o s e t p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t o h e l p them a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s , and t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f these p l a n s . We b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t s who c a n become m o t i v a t e d t o s t u d y a n d who u s e a p l a n n e d a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g , t a k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i l l be a b l e t o improve t h e i r g r a d e s i n s c h o o l . With r e g a r d t o m o t i v a t i o n t h e program encouraged students t o w o r k t o w a r d s ORIGIN b e h a v i o u r s ( t a k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and m a i n t a i n i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l ) a s opposed t o PAWN b e h a v i o u r s ( l a c k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d h a v i n g o t h e r s " p e e r s " c o n t r o l them).  An  ORIGIN i s someone who: a.  Takes P e r s o n a l  Responsibility  b.  Prepares  c.  Plans  d.  Practices his skills  e.  Persists  f.  H a s P a t i e n c e , f o r h e knows take time t o r e a c h  g.  P e r f o r m s , s h e knows s h e h a s t o do t h i n g s i n order to reach h e r goals  h.  Checks h i s P r o g r e s s  i.  Moves toward P e r f e c t i n g h e r s k i l l s , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o improvement  h i s work  her l i f e  carefully  to help  her reach  her goals  i n h e r work that  some  goals  - feedback paying  -  154 -  APPENDIX  PARENT EVALUATION  K  (con't)  QUESTIONNAIRE  DATE ASSIGNED  P l e a s e work  through  the questions  NUMBER  (last  4 phone  digits)  in order. Your f i r s t response i s o f t e n t h e b e s t s o do n o t s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e on e a c h q u e s t i o n . Thanks  For  f o r your help  each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c i r c l e one:  SA - " r o n g l y agree  1.  2.  3.  4.  A  _  _  u  n  c  e  r  t  a  i  n  D  I have  observed  child's  study  I have  positive  skills  observed  changes  9.  s  I would  S  positive  positive attitude  recommend  _ strongly disagree  i n the SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA.  A  U  D  SD  c h a n g e s i n my  changes toward  t h e study  program  D  i n my  and h a b i t s .  personal motivation.  I have observed child's general  i n my  to other  skills/ parents.  I w o u l d recommend t h e s t u d y skills/ m o t i v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o future  8.  l  My c h i l d h a s d i s c u s s e d w i t h me ( u s ) some o f the a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s o f t h e study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program.  motivation 7.  d  &  responsibility. 6.  _  b  My c h i l d h a s shown a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program.  child's 5.  i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e program.  Grade  8 classes.  I would  recommend  offered  i n other  COMMENTS:  similar grades.  programs be  -  155  -  APPENDIX K  PARENT  Twelve i n d i v i d u a l below as r e c e i v e d : i s meant by  (con't)  COMMENTS  comments w e r e r e c e i v e d .  1.  What  2.  My c h i l d s a y s h e h a s b e e n p r a c t i c i n g 'before the c o u r s e .  are  S o r r y f o r no p o s i t i v e has n o t been r u n l o n g  4.  Changes  5.  Sounds l i k e an e x c e l l e n t p r o g r a m more i n f o r m e d i n a n a c t i v e way.  6.  P o s s i b l y the program G r a d e 5 o r 6.  7.  My  son r e a l l y  8.  My  child  9.  I feel  the  - perhaps the program  be  (much  started  needed) - Wish  earlier -  I  was  perhaps  program.  she b e n e f i t e d t o a d e g r e e f r o m t h e be  skills  No.  should  enjoyed  many o f t h e s e  comments/answers enough.  yes - s i g n i f i c a n t  i t should  listed  skills/habits?  3.  feels  They  program.  i n a l l classes.  10.  The f u l l b e n e f i t , I f e e l , h a s y e t t o show t h r o u g h . I t h i n k d u r i n g exams more w i l l become a p p a r e n t .  11.  A more d e t a i l e d  12.  S. h a s a c h i e v e d s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n , a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e a n d determination. She h a s s e t g o a l s f o r h e r s e l f a n d p l a n s t o t r y now f o r t h e H o n o u r R o l l .  outline  o f t h e p r o g r a m w o u l d be  i n order.  -  156 -  APPENDIX L  TEACHER EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE  DATE SUBJECT  During  the past  English  motivation the  s i x weeks a l l g r a d e e i g h t s i n r e g u l a r  c l a s s e s have been program.  program  i svery  i n v o l v e d i n a study  Your help much  skills/  i n the evaluation of  appreciated.  I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f p r o g r a m a w a r e ness on t h e p a r t o f s t a f f . I am a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w i n g of any o b s e r v a b l e changes i n any o f t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d r e t u r n t o me. I w i l l be happy t o d i s c u s s w i t h y o u any a s p e c t o f t h e program i f y o u would l i k e to d i s c u s s t h e program i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Thanks  f o r your help  and i n t e r e s t .  Neil  McDermid  C I R C L E ONE OF: SA -  1.  2.  3.  strongly agree J  _ . U - uncertain  strongly SD - ,. disagree  n T >  SA  A  U  D  SD  I am g l a d t h a t a p r o g r a m a t t e m p t i n g t o enhance m o t i v a t i o n and study s k i l l s i s b e i n g implemented i n t h e s c h o o l w i t h t h e e i g h t h grade students.  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  SA  A  U  D  SD  I would grade I feel  recommend  t h e study  skills/moti-  program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e  eighth  students. a program such  a s t h e one d i s c u s s e d  above would be u s e f u l i n o t h e r 5.  ^ ,. D - disagree °  T T  I am a w a r e t h a t a s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n p r o g r a m was o f f e r e d t o t h e e i g h t h g r a d e students.  vation  4.  . A - agree °  grades.  I am a w a r e o f G r a d e 8 s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t a n d involvement i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. If  SA o r A:  ( C i r c l e one)  A.  Students have d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o g r a m w i t h me.  NONE F  E  W  SEVERAL  ( 1  _  3 ) ;  ( 6 - 1 0 ) MANY  S  (  M  E (  3  _  6  )  (10+) MOST (20+)  -  157 -  I have seen s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l s (handouts, exercises, goal sheets) of t h e program. I have n o t i c e d changes ( e f f o r t towards change/ improvement) i n s t u d e n t s i n t h e p a s t s i x weeks. D. O t h e r  I  doubt  NONE FEW SEVERAL  (.1-3)  SOME ( 3 - 6 )  (.6-10) MANY  (10+) MOST (20+)  NONE FEW SEVERAL  (1-3)  SOME (3-6)  (.6-10) MANY  (.10+) MOST (20+)  indicators:  i f the study  program w i l l  really  skills/motivation accomplish  worthwhile.  anything SA  I f o t h e r t e a c h e r s w o u l d a s k me a b o u t a s t u d y s k i l l s promote m o t i v a t i o n , I would s a y t h e f o l l o w i n g :  8.  One s u g g e s t i o n  9.  One c o n c e r n I h a v e i s  10. A d d i t i o n a l  I w o u l d make i s  comments:  A  U  D  program t o  SD  -  158 -  APPENDIX M  WHAT I HAVE LEARNED IN OR OUT OF SCHOOL S I N C E THIS COURSE STARTED I S ...  Learning about  occurs  or understanding  something, learned  Things 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  both  i n and o u t o f s c h o o l . something  o r make s o m e t h i n g .  since  this  course  I have l e a r n e d  o r someone  this  List  may mean k n o w i n g  (yourself),  T r y t o remember  started.  since  Learning  o r how t o do  the things  a l l you have  program s t a r t e d a r e :  y o u have  learned  below:  -  159 -  APPENDIX M  STUDENT  (con't)  STATEMENTS  STATEMENTS  FREQUENCY  1.  Take b e t t e r  2.  Count  3.  A e r o b i c dance.  1  4.  Middle  1  5.  Basic Algebra/subjects.  5  6.  How  t o improve  5  7.  How  to talk  8.  How  t o s o l v e some o f my  9.  How  to l i k e  school.  1  10.  How  t o make  school fun.  2  11.  Co-operate  12.  Complete assignments.  8  13.  To l i s t e n .  7  14.  Badge r e q u i r e m e n t s  15.  First  16.  T r y t o do my homework.  5  17.  Do b e t t e r  1  18.  School  19.  Some p e o p l e  20.  How  to set goals.  21.  How  to accomplish  22.  Different  23.  To s t u d y m o r e / b e t t e r .  24.  Nothing  25.  B e t t e r way  26.  U s e my  27.  What  28.  To w o r k w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e .  1  29.  How  4  i n 6/8  notes.  39  time.  1  East geography.  my m a r k s .  t o people better.  1  own p r o b l e m s .  i n class/respect  5  others.  8  f o r Scouts.  1  Aid.  1  work i n c l a s s .  i s not hard  i f you t r y .  a c t t h e way  roles  t h e y do b e c a u s e  2 they  can't help  i t .  1 16  goals.  that  6  I am.  4 21 7  of taking  spare  (class)  an O r i g i n  to feel  tests. time  better.  is.  good about  20 3 4  myself.  -  160 -  APPENDIX M  (con't)  STATEMENTS  FREQUENCY  30.  A l o t o f good words f r o m A c h i e v e m e n t  31.  How  32.  A b i t more o f some p e o p l e  33.  Try harder/persist.  9  34.  How  3  35.  To be n e a t e r .  36.  Responsibility/self-motivation  37.  How  38.  Help  39.  How  40.  I learned  41.  New  basketball s k i l l s .  1  42.  How  t o b e my  3  43.  Bring materials  44.  Not t o j u d g e p e o p l e w r o n g l y .  to deal with  t o c h e c k my  4  i n a b e t t e r way.  3  i n class/school.  3  progress.  1  to organize others  things  Stories.  myself/organization  but not to forget  21 i s important  to help  f o r me.  myself.  2  to d r i v e . how  14  1 to learn.  1  self. to c l a s s .  3 1  TOTAL  251  -  161 -  APPENDIX N  ACHIEVEMENT  STORY  SAMPLES  Female Miss to  Worth, a f t e r  explore  her  t h e i d e a s about  o u t o f s c h o o l f o r 30 y e a r s , was  going  to a college  night  willing  s c h o o l t o improve  job status. Her  friends  Worth thought it  being  only  having her  thought  she c o u l d  i t would be a g r e a t succeed.  on an e x p e r i m e n t a l  Being  challenge f o r her.  realistic  b a s i s because going  t o go t o w o r k d u r i n g  she d e c i d e d  Miss  tot r y  t o s c h o o l a t n i g h t and  t h e day would be v e r y  hard.  I t might  cost  h e r j o b a n d maybe e v e n h e r h e a l t h . Miss  started  W o r t h was i n t e n t  t o make v e r y  feel  like  Miss  Worth  improved  giving  good p r o g r e s s  up.  finally  on h e r g o a l and worked v e r y  After  a year  realized  even though of hard  her goal.  she'd  hard.  She  g e t t i r e d and  work and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  She g r a d u a t e d  with  honors and  h e r j o b s t a t u s and s e l f - e s t e e m .  Male I The I  was a n o r i g i n  first  My  week w a s n ' t  had c o n f i d e n c e  dedicated  we  I knew t h a t  slowly  g o t t o F e r n i e I was r e a l l y  said  Yes!  myself.  Then a f t e r  every  cross-country  the f i r s t  that  I ' l l improve.  I was r e a d y day.  My  I thought  I came i n 3 9 t h  then  finally  nervous. to myself  We  o f weeks I was  to challenge  teacher  told  a l l lined  really  anyone.  u s i n one Kimberley.  t h e b i g d a y came.  i s t h i s worth  o u t o f 150 k i d s ,  running.  couple  t o F e r n i e , t o r u n a g a i n s t F e r n i e and  week w e n t b y v e r y  When I was r u n n i n g  I started  and I s a i d  to run a mile  week we a r e g o i n g  that  so bad.  i n myself  i n running.  s c h o o l used  That  t h e time  When  up a n d t o o k o f f . i t and t h e n  I was r e a l l y  proud  of  I  -  162 -  Female I'm a n o r i g i n and  i n weightlifting.  t r y to succeed.  S h e l l y and I a r e t o t a l l y  lifting  and f i t n e s s .  telling  each  are  doing  I t takes  We  both  right.  patience  other  or experiment with  highest  to b u i l d  goal  We  up y o u r  goals  high  dedicated  of cooperation  f o r myself  to weight-  on b o t h  our p a r t s ,  s o m e t h i n g w r o n g o r e v e n i f we  encourage each other  have a p r e p a r e d  takes  Our  lots  o t h e r when we a r e d o i n g  something  possible.  I s e t my  workout  stamina.  new e x e r c i s e s .  a s much a s  t h a t we p e r s i s t S o m e t i m e s we  challenge  B u t we a r e a l w a y s  i s t o make i t t o a c o m p e t i t i o n  - even  at. It each  careful.  i f we  didn't  win.  Female I  am  trying  t o r e a c h my  I have a p o s i t i v e I am v e r y can. and  attitude,  interested  I don't  skate  of l i f e .  (gold)  actual plans  I'm  I t gets  figure  skater.  and l o v e i t b e c a u s e  a r e t o go a s f a r a s I  to Northshore  o n my  story  i s not  summer  particular  difficult  c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h my 2nd f i g u r e  and j u n i o r  going  NOTE:  dedicated  a s I c a n be a t t h i s  i n myself.  F r e e m a n , a n d I am now free  My  champion  have a whole l o t o f p a t i e n c e , b u t I pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n  have c o n f i d e n c e way  of a world  I am v e r y  in it.  I am a s d e d i c a t e d  everyday  goal  school  a t times  (gold).  i n Vancouver  I t r y to  because  o f my  skating pro, Karol  (8 i n t o t a l ) ,  bronze dances  time.  this  junior  bronze  I am h o p e f u l l y summer.  fiction.  W i t h s u c c e s s i v e s t o r i e s (1) s t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d i n c l a r i t y a n d became m o r e s p e c i f i c (2) m o r e s t o r i e s w e r e o n t o p i c (3) m o r e p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s a p p e a r e d (4) more s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d ( 5 ) s t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d i n l e n g t h and c o m p l e t i o n .  This  -  163 -  APPENDIX  Analysis  of Variance Assessment  GPA  (Pre)  Source  Sex Class SC Error Total  (Post)  GPA GS GC GSC Error Total  S.S.  2076.58 739.64 89.92 4160.76 44730.62  0  f o r GPA (Term  df  - P r e and  1/Term  Post  2)  M.S.  F  P  1  2076.58  33.44  0.0000  3 3 67  246.55  3.97 0.48  0.0115 0.6954  0.35 12.25 1.90 0.16  0.5543 0.0008 0.1381  75  29.97 62.10 58079.92  1.44 49.83 23.19 1.89  1 1 3 3  1.44 49.83 7.73 0.63  272.63 348.98  67 75  4.07 63.70  0.9260  

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