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Motivation and study skills : a developmental counselling approach to the classroom McDermid, Neil R. 1983

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MOTIVATION AND STUDY SKILLS: A DEVELOPMENTAL COUNSELLING APPROACH TO THE CLASSROOM NEIL R. MCDERMID B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1983 N e i l R. McDermid, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Counselling Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This exploratory study of a developmental counselling curriculum, embedding personal causation conditions (deCharms 1976) into study s k i l l subject material, used a v a r i a t i o n of Gage's (1978) Improvement Research model to obtain outcome measures of change i n l e v e l s of students' locus of c o n t r o l and student study s k i l l progress across a pre-post intervention period. Formative evaluation of the complete program, employing evaluation reports and process i n d i c a t o r s , provide a further focus. A r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbian, eighth grade population, together with parents, teachers and i n s t r u c t o r , assessed the impact and effectiveness of the curriculum intervention. Analysis of the v a r i a t i o n f or locus of c o n t r o l , with repeated measures across pre-post intervention period, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change (increase i n i n t e r n a l expectancy/decrease i n external expectancy). Males, females and classes indicated increased i n t e r n a l i t y j locus of c o n t r o l . Analysis of the v a r i a t i o n for student progress (study s k i l l s / h a b i t ) , with repeated measures across pre-post intervention period, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n l e v e l s of student reported study s k i l l progress. Males and females indicated increased l e v e l s of study s k i l l awareness. Classes two through four showed s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater increase than class one. Evaluation reports and process i n d i c a t o r s showed r e l a t i v e l y strong support for the program, i n d i c a t i n g p r a c t i c a l and educational s i g n i f i c a n c e . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of Contents i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i CHAPTER I BACKGROUND REVIEW 1 (A) I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 (B) Study S k i l l s and P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n 4 ( i ) P r e v i o u s E v a l u a t i o n s 6 (C) Developmental Research 8 ( i ) O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 10 (D) Review o f S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e 11 ( i ) Achievement M o t i v a t i o n 11 ( i i ) P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n and the Origin-Pawn Concept 13 ( i i i ) P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n T r a i n i n g 14 (a) Achievement M o t i v a t i o n , R e i n f o r c e m e n t s and G o a l -S e t t i n g 14 (b) O r i g i n s and Pawns 15 (c) M o t i v a t i o n T r a i n i n g and Academic Achievement 15 ( i v ) E i g h t h Grade " P r o c e s s " Study S k i l l s 16 CHAPTER I I PROGRAM DESIGN 20 (A) D e s i g n Approach 20 (B) Developmental Frameworks 21 (C) Program I n t e r v e n t i o n 27 - i v -Page CHAPTER I I I METHOD 31 (A) E v a l u a t i o n D e s i g n 31 (B) P o p u l a t i o n and S e t t i n g 36 (C) Assessment Measures 36 (D) Data C o l l e c t i o n and Pr o c e d u r e s 40 CHAPTER IV RESULTS 44 (A) Outcome Measures 44 ( i ) Locus o f C o n t r o l 44 ( i i ) Student P r o g r e s s 46 ( i i i ) Case S t u d i e s 46 (B) E v a l u a t i o n R eports 49 ( i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 49 ( i i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up) 53 ( i i i ) P a r e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 60 ( i v ) Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 60 (C) P r o c e s s I n d i c a t o r s 62 ( i ) Student Achievement S t o r i e s 62 ( i i ) What I Have Learned 65 ( i i i ) A t t e ndance 67 ( i v ) Student E f f o r t 68 (v) Grade P o i n t Average 69 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION 71 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s 72 Commentary on the Program 73 I m p l i c a t i o n s 79 F u t u r e R e search and E v a l u a t i o n . . . 81 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY 86 APPENDIX A 92 APPENDIX B 134 APPENDIX C 135 APPENDIX D 138 APPENDIX E 139 APPENDIX F 140 APPENDIX G 142 APPENDIX H 144 APPENDIX I 145 APPENDIX J 148 APPENDIX K 151 APPENDIX L 156 APPENDIX M 158 APPENDIX N 161 APPENDIX 0.. 163 - v -LIST OF TABLES Page CHAPTER I I T a b l e 2.1 A Developmental Map of the L i f e C y c l e and i t s Context i n One C u l t u r e 23 T a b l e 2.2 Stages of Ego Development 25 CHAPTER I I I T a b l e 3.1 Data C o l l e c t i o n Schedule 41 CHAPTER IV T a b l e 4.1 Pre and P o s t Assessment Means f o r N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey 45 T a b l e 4.2 Pre and P o s t Assessment Means f o r Student P r o g r e s s Survey 47 T a b l e 4.3 Pre and P o s t Assessment Means f o r Case S t u d i e s 48 T a b l e 4.4 Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( P e r c e n t Response t o Statements 1-16) 50 T a b l e 4.5 Statements S t u d e n t s Would O f f e r t o Peers Regarding the Program I n t e r v e n t i o n 52 T a b l e 4.6 Student Statements on Course D e l e t i o n s , A d d i t i o n s and Concerns 54 T a b l e 4.7 Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up) (Per c e n t Response to Statements 1-14) 56 T a b l e 4.8 Student Statements of Awareness from Program Completion to Year End (Four Months) 58 T a b l e 4.9 Student Statements of Most U s e f u l A s p e c t s of Program (Program Completion to Year End - Four Months) 59 - v i -LIST OF TABLES (CON'T) Page T a b l e 4.10 Par e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( P e r c e n t Response to Statements 1-8) 61 T a b l e 4.11 Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( P e r c e n t Response t o Statements 1-6) 63 T a b l e 4.12 Teacher Statements o f Program: Comments to P e e r s ; Program S u g g e s t i o n s ; P e r s o n a l Concerns 64 T a b l e 4.13 Student Achievement S t o r i e s 66 T a b l e 4.14 What I Have Learned In Or Out Of S c h o o l S i n c e T h i s Course S t a r t e d Is 66 T a b l e 4.15 P r e and P o s t Assessment of Att e n d a n c e 67 T a b l e 4.16 Pre and Po s t Assessment R a t i n g s o f Student E f f o r t f o r Nine Courses 69 T a b l e 4.17 Pre and Po s t Assessment f o r Grade P o i n t Average Means 70 - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES Page CHAPTER I I F i g u r e I R o l e - T a k i n g 29 - v i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank C h e r y l , Todd and Jamie f o r t h e i r patience, support and love when most needed. I thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. Lar r y Cochran, whose guidance and patience - "get moving, q u i t h a z i n around, no more l o a f i n g , snap out of i t , get w i t h i t " - motivated completion. I a l s o thank my committee members, Dr. B i l l Borgen and Dr. Richard Young, f o r t h e i r support and advice that was so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and w e l l appreciated. F i n a l l y , I thank Rabbi Chanuna f o r w r i t i n g i n the Talmud: "Much d i d I l e a r n from my teachers, more from my colleagues, most from my students." - 1 -CHAPTER I BACKGROUND REVIEW (A) I n t r o d u c t i o n The t r a n s i t i o n between elementary and j u n i o r secondary o r from c h i l d h o o d t o young a d o l e s c e n c e ( A l l a n , Dyck and McKean, 1981) i s a time of c o n c e r n to the e d u c a t o r . Concerns of c o n t e n t a c q u i s i t i o n , peer p r e s s u r e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l development, l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n and l a c k o f independence a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i -f i c a n t d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . Movement from elementary e d u c a t i o n to secondary s c h o o l i s a major t r a n s i t i o n which can s e v e r e l y t e s t the p u p i l s ' power of a d a p t a t i o n (Hamblin 1981). Adams e t a l . (1976) d e s c r i b e c l e a r l y the s t r e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the e x p e r i e n c e of t r a n s i t i o n . Coping w i t h the u n f a m i l i a r c e r t a i n l y can l e a d t o s t r e s s , but i t can a l s o s t i m u l a t e (Hamblin 1981). E n t r y i n t o the secondary s c h o o l can promote d e v e l o p -ment because i t g i v e s the s t u d e n t a new s t a r t . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1976) p o i n t s out t h a t e v e r y ' e c o l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n 1 i s both a consequence and an i n s t i g a t o r o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s . There e x i s t s an oppor-t u n i t y t o break ( i f they e x i s t ) o l d l i n k s between s c h o o l and f a i l u r e . However, the p r e s e n c e of new p o s s i b i l i t i e s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l take them w i t h o u t some h e l p . T h i s has been the c a s e a t Sparwood Secondary S c h o o l - the l o c a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . - 2 -In the past three years there has been an i n c r e a s i n g number of Grade 8 students working at minimum l e v e l s , accepting l i t t l e or no personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This l a c k of e f f o r t to do w e l l or even " t r y " seems to o r i g i n a t e w i t h the students' f e e l i n g that other people or outside i n f l u e n c e s c o n t r o l what happens to them. This phenomenon i s apparent not only i n f a i l i n g and near f a i l i n g students, but i s evident i n many students who are doing w e l l . The problem i s sta t e d s u c c i n c t l y by Hamblin (1981) and deCharms (1968): Hamblin (1981) "truancy i s f r e q u e n t l y discussed today, yet the most i n s i d i o u s form of i t - p s y c h o l o g i c a l truancy - i s u s u a l l y neglected. Students are present i n the f l e s h , but absent i n s p i r i t . Lack of commitment and involvement i n school work seems to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h passive and i n e r t forms of l e a r n i n g . " deCharms (1968) "The Pawn i s n e g a t i v e l y motivated, defensive, i r r e s o -l u t e , avoidant of challenge — the pawn f e e l s power-l e s s . " The young adolescent e n t e r i n g the secondary school system, ei g h t h grade, i s asked to t a c k l e l e a r n i n g tasks which make demands on them d i f f e r e n t from any they have faced before. The q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l to be learned and the new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s students have to take f o r the way they go about t h i s l e a r n i n g makes heavy demands. Students have to become i n c r e a s i n g l y independent i n s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n (Hamblin 1981). T r a d i t i o n a l l y the system assumes students to be academically developed, mature i n r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y and s e l f - m o t i v a t e d . However, students r e q u i r e time and help i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n . "Students r e q u i r e time and space to examine not j u s t the subject matter of l e a r n i n g , i t s content, but a l s o the process of t h e i r l e a r n i n g i t s e l f " (Gibbs 1981). The l a c k of - 3 -' P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n ' (deCharms, 1976) seen i n so many s t u d e n t s i n the e i g h t h grade c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s G i b b s 1 statement. There i s an a t t i t u d e on the s t u d e n t s ' p a r t t h a t they a r e not i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i f e / s i t u a t i o n . I t i s such an a t t i t u d e which l e a d s t o a d e s p a i r i n g "why t r y ? " . Though the system has t r a d i t i o n a l l y f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e f o r dev e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s s k i l l s the e d u c a t i o n a l system i s s t i l l i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e encouragement through the development of c u r r i c u l a a t the p o i n t o f t r a n s i t i o n ; implementing and e v a l u a t i n g t h e se programs a t the n a t u r a l p o i n t s on the s t u d e n t l i f e c y c l e : e l e m entary t o j u n i o r s e c ondary, j u n i o r secondary t o s e n i o r secondary and l e a v i n g s c h o o l ( A l l a n and Dyck 1982). Developmental i n t e r v e n t i o n i s not o n l y p o s s i b l e but e s s e n t i a l a t the e l e m e n t a r y - j u n i o r secondary t r a n s i t i o n i f these s t u d e n t s a r e to be a s s i s t e d i n becoming l i f e ' s O r i g i n s r a t h e r t h a n Pawns (deCharms 1976). Gysbers (1980) summarizes the v a l u e s and c h a l l e n g e s of dev e l o p m e n t a l c u r r i c u l u m s when he d e s c r i b e s i t as " h e l p i n g p e o p l e i d e n t i f y t h e i r e x i s t i n g competencies as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o h e l p them d e v e l o p new competencies" ( p . 9 ) . T h i s study proposed one such d e v e l o p m e n t a l c u r r i c u l u m f o r e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s a t Sparwood Secondary S c h o o l . The purpose of the study was t o d e v e l o p , implement and e v a l u a t e a Study S k i l l s Program f o r P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n Enhancement: e x p e r i -e n t i a l l e a r n i n g and de v e l o p m e n t a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r Grade 8 s t u d e n t s which attempts t o promote r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n d u s t r y , competence, i d e n t i t y and r e l a t e d s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n u s i n g study s k i l l s as a f o c u s i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l l y / s o c i a l l y approved v e h i c l e . - 4 -(B) Study S k i l l s and P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n Hamblin (1981) sugge s t s two t y p e s of study s k i l l s e x i s t . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e t h e g e n e r a l s k i l l s which would be p o s s e s s e d by a l l p u p i l s . These i n c l u d e , f o r example, development of n o t e - t a k i n g methods, o r g a n i z a t i o n methods, time o r g a n i z a t i o n and the a b i l i t y t o r e a d i n a way which f o s t e r s r e c a l l o f what has been r e a d . These a r e some of the s k i l l s the p r e s e n t study attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o d e v e l o p -mental s t r a t e g i e s which, when e x p e r i e n c e d , a c t e d upon and r e f l e c t e d on, w i l l b o o st the p u p i l s ' sense of competence and i n c r e a s e the f e e l i n g ' o f b e i n g more i n c o n t r o l ; what deCharms (1968) d e s c r i b e s as "an O r i g i n - p o s i t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d , o p t i m i s t i c , c o n f i d e n t , a c c e p t i n g of c h a l l e n g e - f e e l p o t e n t . " The second t y p e of study s k i l l s i n c o r p o r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which form the f o u n d a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . These a r e l e f t to the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r . However, s t u d e n t s who have a c q u i r e d a g r e a t e r s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and c o n t r o l of t h e i r p e r s o n a l g e n e r a l s t u d y s k i l l s w i l l have a p r o c e s s a v a i l a b l e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of s t u d y s k i l l s c o n t e n t of a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . Another i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of the study s k i l l s program i s i n s t r u c -t i o n a l approach. As noted e a r l i e r , t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y e x p e r i e n t i a l i n n a t u r e . Study s k i l l s a r e not a s e t of p r o c e d u r e s or r e c i p e s f o r a c t i o n t o be adopted u n q u e s t i o n a b l y . T r a i n i n g s t u d i e s aimed a t i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t s ' academic performance can succeed by a d d i n g sub-s t a n t i a l l y to the s t u d e n t s ' knowledge, o r they can succeed by i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s i n ways to enhance t h e i r own knowledge ( i . e . - 5 -promoting l e a r n i n g to l e a r n ) (Brown, Campione, Day 1981). I t i s the l a t t e r outcome t h a t i s t h e f o c u s of t h e s t u d y ; i n s t r u c t i o n aimed a t i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of t h e i r own l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e b y enhancing p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n , r a t h e r than a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on i n s t r u c t i o n aimed a t i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t performance per se. In t h e c o n t e x t of p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n the i n s t r u c t i o n i s aimed a t r e d u c i n g the Pawn ( e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t u d e n t and enhancing the O r i g i n ( i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n ) c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . I f the s t u d e n t can be encouraged to o r i g i n a t e h i s own l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o u r , then, i t would seem, he c o u l d be more of an O r i g i n i n s c h o o l (deCharms 1976). The c o n s t r u c t i v e t e a c h i n g of s t u d y s k i l l s r e q u i r e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n / d i s c o v e r y o f many d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . P u p i l s a r e then encouraged t o experiment, a d o p t i n g the t e c h n i q u e s which they f i n d p r o f i t a b l e . To h e l p a p e r s o n to be an O r i g i n i s not to d e t e r -mine h i s g o a l s but t o h e l p him d e v e l o p commitment and purpose so t h a t he can r e a c h h i s own g o a l s more e f f e c t i v e l y (deCharms 1976). The study s k i l l s program i s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and c r e a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the c e n t r a l t a s k of the s c h o o l - the s t i m u l a t i o n o f a c t i v e  s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n s t a n d a r d s of e x c e l l e n c e . Every p u p i l , whatever h i s a p t i t u d e s and background, has the r i g h t t o do something w e l l . T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d , a t l e a s t to a l a r g e degree, by the i n c l u s i o n o f c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d e x p e r i e n c e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l programs. Developmental programs which r e i n f o r c e the p u p i l s ' sense of mastery and s t r e n g t h e n h i s d e s i r e t o be competent (White 1959); by h e l p i n g him d e v e l o p a l e a r n i n g s t y l e which r e f l e c t s h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r e s t s ! - 6 -In summary, the o b j e c t i v e of the c u r r i c u l u m i s the enhancement of a c t i v e l e a r n i n g or p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n . A l l too o f t e n i n the secondary s c h o o l , c h i l d r e n c o n c e i v e of l e a r n i n g as a r i t u a l performance t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s l i t t l e t h a t i s p o s i t i v e t o t h e i r i d e n t i t y . They a r e r e a c t i v e i n the f i e l d of l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than p r o a c t i v e (Hamblin 1981) . I t becomes 'something done to them' r a t h e r than an e n j o y a b l e and c h a l l e n g i n g e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e g u i dance and work of the a u t h o r , p u p i l s ' c o m p l a i n t s of 'being p i c k e d on i n c l a s s ' , 'being bored' o r 'being f a i l e d ' d i s a p p e a r as they take c o n t r o l of t h e i r l e a r n i n g . To overcome i n e r t i a and apathy i t i s n e c e s s a r y to s u p p o r t study t e c h n i q u e s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s which h e l p p u i l s a p p r e c i a t e t h a t they a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s - and t h a t p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n (and competence) i s not dependent upon f a t e . I t i s the sense of b e i n g i n c o n t r o l of one's d e s t i n y which, as Phares (1976) s u g g e s t s , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s of s u c c e s s . I t i s knowing " t h e o b j e c t i v e antecedent of a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r may be e x t e r n a l e v e n t s ; but to the p e r s o n he i s the cause of h i s b e h a v i o u r when he d e c i d e s to a c t from p e r s o n a l commitment." (deCharms 1976 p . 4 ) . T h i s i s p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n and i t i s the fundamental assumption r e g a r d i n g m o t i v a t i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m : "Man's p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t y i s t o be e f f e c t i v e i n p r o d u c i n g change i n h i s environment. Man s t r i v e s to be a c a u s a l agent, to be t h e p r i m a r y l o c u s of c a u s a t i o n f o r , or t h e O r i g i n o f , h i s b e h a v i o u r ; he s t r i v e s f o r p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n . " (deCharms 1968 p.269) ( i ) P r e v i o u s E v a l u a t i o n s P r e v i o u s e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s of d evelopmental programs f o r - 7 -m o t i v a t i o n a l development ( E i g h t h Grade P o p u l a t i o n ) a r e not e v i d e n t i n the l i t e r a t u r e . There a r e , however, s e v e r a l r e l a t e d s t u d i e s : S t u d i e s i n D e l i b e r a t e P s y c h o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( S p r i n t h a l l et a l . i n E r i c k s o n and W h i t e l e y 1980), w i t h l a t e a d o l e s c e n t and a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e g a i n s i n promoting d e v e l o p m e n t a l growth. S e v e r a l of t h e s e s t u d i e s were completed i n s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . The l i t e r a t u r e on study s k i l l s r e f l e c t s an abundance of r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d a t u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n s ( H i l l s e t a l . 1979; T a l l e y and Henning 1981; Gibbs 1981). T h i s r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s the emphasis of p r o c e s s l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r t h a n c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g , and r e p o r t s as t e r t i a r y outcomes s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . Study s k i l l s l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o secondary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s . The m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e s i m p l y p r e -s e n t s 'How To Study' t e c h n i q u e s ( i . e . Wagner 1979; Maxwell 1979). There a r e , however, a few s t u d i e s t h a t emphasize 'process l e a r n i n g ' i n s t u d y s k i l l s r a t h e r than s i m p l y 'How To Study' ( i . e . B e a l e 1981; Marshak and B u r k l e 1981). R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s f e e l p o s i t i v e about the e x p e r i e n c e , f e e l more capable/competent and a r e more i n v o l v e d . The o n l y r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment w i t h l a t e c h i l d h o o d - e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s i s deCharms e t a l . (1976). In a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of c h i l d r e n t hrough Grades 5, 6 and 7 w i t h a f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n i n Grade 8 they r e p o r t t h a t the ' P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n ' t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d : (a) "some" e f f e c t s on achievement, c o n t r o l of r e i n f o r c e m e n t s - 8 -and g o a l - s e t t i n g ; (b) " p o s i t i v e " e f f e c t s on academic achievement measures; (c) " v e r y c l e a r " e v i d e n c e on the Origin-Pawn ( I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l c o n t r o l ) measure. (C) Developmental Research In r e c e n t y e a r s , approaches i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e s e a r c h have p r o -v i d e d a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l ' e m p i r i c a l ' r e s e a r c h ; accommodating the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. These approaches have come t o be used w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y as e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has changed from a " c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y " t o a l a r g e r s c a l e and more r i c h l y funded form of s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n (Sanders 1981). "Seen i n a broad p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e s e experiments n e i t h e r attempt to d e s c r i b e a phenomena which i s s t a t i c i n n a t u r e nor to e x p l a i n t h a t phenomena i n u n i v e r s a l i s t i c form w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t such an e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be used to e x p l a i n sim-i l a r phenomena elsewhere. Rather, they a r e d i r e c t e d a t d e t e r m i n i n g whether, through p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r -v e n t i o n , d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s can be a c h i e v e d , and i f so under what c o n d i t i o n s . " (Sanders 1981, p.11) They a r e examples of what B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1976) terms " t r a n s f o r m i n g e x p e r i m e n t s . " He quotes the R u s s i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s c i e n t i s t L e o n t i e v : " I t seems to me t h a t American r e s e a r c h e r s a r e con-s t a n t l y s e e k i n g to e x p l a i n how the c h i l d came t o be what he i s ; we i n the U.S.S.R. a r e s t r i v i n g t o d i s -c o v e r not how the c h i l d came t o be what he i s , but how he can become what he not y e t i s . " (p.74) S p r i n t h a l l (1981) r e v i e w s a r e c e n t American model which encompasses r a t h e r w e l l the i d e a o f ' t r a n s f o r m i n g e x p e r i m e n t s . ' "Gage (1978) has most r e c e n t l y o f f e r e d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the u s u a l - 9 -i n v i d i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n between b a s i c and a p p l i e d r e -s e a r c h . He s i m p l y s h i f t s the emphasis a c c o r d i n g to i n t e n d e d outcome. One s t y l e of r e s e a r c h , he n o t e s , i s q u i t e s i m p l y ' d e s c r i p t i v e . ' The purpose i s j u s t t h a t - to p r o v i d e a f r e e - s t a n d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon. Others might c a l l i t ' b a s i c , ' but Gage reminds us t h a t such an approach i s a t h e a r t j u s t a d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h o u t any p a r t i c u l a r h i g h e r v a l u e a t t a c h e d . Such d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h then meets a l l the c o n d i t i o n s of the l a b o r a t o r y approach. I t i s d e l i b e r a t e l y h i g h r i s k i n terms of p a y - o f f and cannot be expected t o y i e l d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s h o r t r u n . On the o t h e r hand Gage p o i n t s out t h a t r e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d to produce u s e f u l outcomes s h o u l d be termed 'improvement r e s e a r c h . ' " ( S p r i n t h a l l 1981, p.488) S p r i n t h a l l (1975) f u r t h e r o u t l i n e s a 'framework f o r r e s e a r c h ' which he i n t e g r a t e s i n t o the Improvement R e s e a r c h model: "As an o v e r a l l framework the r e s e a r c h model ought t o i n c l u d e (a) a f o c u s on important e d u c a t i o n a l ques-t i o n s , (b) the conduct of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n the n a t u r a l environment, and (c) a c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y between f i n d i n g s and p r a c t i c e . O b v i o u s l y , the ob-j e c t i v e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e impor-t a n t , the q u e s t i o n s b r o a d , comprehensive, and s i g n i f i c a n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n attempts to d e s i g n l e a r n i n g environments t h a t w i l l p o s i t i v e l y e f f e c t the c o u r s e of human development. I t i s founded on the i d e a t h a t such i n t e r v e n t i o n s must oc c u r i n t h e n a t u r a l environment, and i s based on a c t i o n / r e f l e c t i o n sequences. Rather than p e r p e t u -a t i n g the a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o d u c e r and consumers of r e s e a r c h , programs r o o t e d i n the f i e l d f u s e t h e s e domains as d i f f e r e n t phases of the same o v e r a l l program. G i v e n these o b j e c t i v e s we have found s u b s t a n t i v e and u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s from t h r e e s o u r c e s : the Campell and S t a n l e y (1966) q u a s i e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n format, i n c l u d i n g the use of u n o b t r u s i v e measures; the S c r i v e n (1967) p l u s Bloom H a s t i n g s , and Madaus (1971) f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n model; and the Stake (1969) and S t u f f l e b e a m (1969) c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n c o n c e p t s . In some ways t h e s e t h r e e r e s e a r c h p r o c e -dures a r e h i g h l y c o n g r u e n t . A l l s a c r i f i c e some measure of s c i e n t i f i c r i g o r ; a l l g i v e up some a s p e c t of o b j e c t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s ; and a l l c o n s i d e r c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s as something l e s s than the s i n e qua non f o r r e s e a r c h . " - 10 -Improvement Research p r o v i d e s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach f o r e v a l u a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l / p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h takes p l a c e i n the n a t u r a l environment - a Grade 8 c l a s s r o o m i n the p r e s e n t study -where the a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r . Improvement Research, as a u s e f u l model, i s s u p p o r t e d by Kean and McNamara (1978). "Compensatory programs s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d as p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o problems, r a t h e r than as p r o j e c t s to be completed and t h e n judged as s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e s on an ' a l l or n o t h i n g ' b a s i s : A major i s s u e and a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n o r s o l u t i o n s to i t s h o u l d be announced w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f d e v e l o p -ment t a k i n g p l a c e . Development r e f e r s t o growth, not j u s t f i n a l p a c k a g i n g of a f i x e d i d e a , and i n c l u d e s the p r o c e s s of i n i t i a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , and r e c y c l i n g . Through g r a d u a l r e f i n e -ments over a p e r i o d of time, a t r u l y u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l approach can be i n t r o d u c e d t h a t may be a f a r c r y from the s t a r t i n g p o i n t which c a t a l y z e d the e n t i r e c h a i n of e v e n t s . " (Sanders 1981, p.12) Improvement R e s e a r c h . p r o v i d e s a f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n approach which s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r m i t s the use of a wide a r r a y of assessment p r o c e d u r e s , i t s s t r e n g t h b e i n g the d e l i b e r a t e use of m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . ( i ) O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Study S k i l l s : Study s k i l l s as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study a r e " p r o c e s s e s f o r l e a r n i n g . " When one l e a r n s a study s k i l l w e l l , one i s l e a r n i n g more than a s p e c i f i c s e r i e s of t e c h n i q u e s . Rather, one i s l e a r n i n g a way of problem s o l v i n g , a method which can be used i n any r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t , a t r a n s f e r a b l e p r o c e s s f o r l e a r n i n g . Developmental I n t e r v e n t i o n : E x p e r i e n c e s , methods and s t r a t e g i e s used to ( C u r r i c u l u m ) i n t e r v e n e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and/or groups, i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environment, to promote the normal development of a p o p u l a t i o n . - 11 -P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n and the O r i g i n -Pawn Concept : P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n : a p e r s o n i s the cause o f h i s (deCharms 1976) b e h a v i o u r when he d e c i d e s t o a c t from p e r s o n a l commitment - even though the a n t e c e d e n t s of h i s be h a v i o u r may be e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . To d i s t i n g u i s h between two m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n deCharms adopted the terms O r i g i n and Pawn. O r i g i n : a p e r s o n who f e e l s t h a t he i s i n c o n t r o l of h i s f a t e ; he f e e l s t h a t the cause f o r . h i s b e h a v i o u r i s w i t h i n h i m s e l f . Pawn: he f e e l s t h a t he i s pushed around, t h a t someone e l s e p u l l s the s t r i n g s and he i s the puppet. He f e e l s the l o c u s o f c a u s a l i t y f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r i s e x t e r n a l to h i m s e l f . The most important p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s d i s t i n g u i s h -i n g between the O r i g i n and the Pawn a r e t h e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f commitment and competence (White 1959) as opposed t o a i m l e s s n e s s and p o w e r l e s s n e s s . (D) Review of S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e A b r i e f r e v i e w of achievement m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g i s p r e s e n t e d , as i t formed the immediate ant e c e d e n t of the p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n c o n c e p t . A c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n and the o r i g i n - p a w n concept i s then p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f the r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n t r a i n i n g w i t h l a t e - c h i l d h o o d - e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e p o p u l a t i o n . L a s t l y , a r e v i e w of s p e c i f i c l i t e r -a t u r e o u t l i n i n g and i n v e s t i g a t i n g study s k i l l s programs, and r e l a t e d methods, p e r t i n e n t t o e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . ( i ) Achievement M o t i v a t i o n One o f the s p e c i f i c m o tives about which much i s known i s the achievement m o t i v e . M c C l e l l a n d , A t k i n s o n , C l a r k , and L o w e l l (1953) - 12 -d e f i n e t h e g o a l o f the m o t i v e as " s u c c e s s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h a s t a n d a r d of e x c e l l e n c e . " (deCharms 1976) In r e c e n t y e a r s , achievement m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g programs have been adapted f o r use i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h h i g h s c h o o l boys ( M c C l e l l a n d and A l s c h u l e r 1971; A l s c h u l e r , Tabor and M c l n t y r e 1970; R y a l s 1969). These t r a i n i n g programs have been a d a p t -ed from t r a i n i n g programs d e s i g n e d to develop achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n businessmen ( M c C l e l l a n d and W i n t e r , 1969). A l s c h u l e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1973) and M c C l e l l a n d (1965) have o u t l i n e d the v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s o f o p e r a t i o n o f such c o u r s e s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y de-l i n e a t e d a s e r i e s o f s t e p s t o be f o l l o w e d i n c a r r y i n g them out ( V i d l e r 1977). These t r a i n i n g programs encourage commitment to b a s i c s o c i a l v a l u e s , such as independence, a c c e p t a n c e of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the consequences of one's a c t i o n and a c t i v e l y a t t e m p t i n g t o master the s i t u a t i o n a l environment. Though r e s e a r c h on achievement m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g f o r s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e f o r i n c r e a s i n g grades i n s c h o o l , t r a i n i n g does seem to r e s u l t i n more p u r p o s e f u l p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n ; p a r t i c -u l a r l y o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l , where perhaps s t u d e n t s a r e more c l e a r l y i n charge of t h e i r l i v e s ( V i d l e r 1977). DeCharms (1968) p o i n t s out t h a t a l t h o u g h the concept of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s one of the major components of the achievement syndrome as p r e s e n t e d by M c C l e l l a n d et a l . , i t i s not a major element i n the measure used i n s c o r i n g achievement m o t i v a t i o n . And y e t , much of what happens i n t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g achievement m o t i v a t i o n a r e r e a l l y attempts to i n c r e a s e the s u b j e c t ' s f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n ( F a n e l l i 1977). These t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s formed t h e immediate a n t e c e d e n t of the - 13 -p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n concept and the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r programs suggest t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s who have been concerned w i t h l e v e l s o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n might a l s o have been (unknowingly) concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n (deCharms 1968). ( i i ) P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n and the Origin-Pawn Concept P e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n (and the Origin-Pawn concept) i s a concept o f m o t i v a t i o n e v o l v i n g from achievement m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r y ( M c C l e l l a n d , A l k i n s o n , C l a r k and L o w e l l , 1953; M c C l e l l a n d and A l s c h u l e r 1971), w i t h some resemblance to a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y ( H e i d e r 1958; K e l l e y 1967; Weiner 1972) and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ( R o t t e r 1966). C o n c e r n i n g m o t i v a t i o n (deCharms 1976), man a t h i s b e s t must be a c t i v e ( o r i g i n ) , not r e a c t i v e (pawn); he must s t r i v e ( i n t e r n a l ) r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y f o l l o w and submit ( e x t e r n a l ) as a puppet. P e r -s o n a l c a u s a t i o n r e f e r s to the b e l i e f t h a t one i s the cause of one's own b e h a v i o u r when one d e c i d e s t o a c t from p e r s o n a l commitment, even though the o b j e c t i v e a n t e c e d e n t s of t h a t b e h a v i o u r may be e x t e r n a l event s. The terms O r i g i n and Pawn were chosen (deCharms 1976) t o d i s -t i n g u i s h between two m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n : An O r i g i n i s a p e r s o n who f e e l s t h a t he i s i n c o n t r o l of h i s f a t e ; t h a t the cause f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r i s w i t h i n h i m s e l f . A Pawn f e e l s t h a t he i s pushed around; t h a t someone e l s e i s t h e cause o f h i s b e h a v i o u r . The m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s o f these two p e r s o n a l s t a t e s a r e ex t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . The o r i g i n i s p o s i t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d , o p t i m i s t i c , c o n f i d e n t , a c c e p t i n g of c h a l l e n g e . The pawn i s n e g a t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d , d e f e n s i v e , i r r e s o l u t e , a v o i d a n t o f c h a l l e n g e . The o r i g i n f e e l s - 14 -p o t e n t ; t h e pawn f e e l s p o w e r l e s s n e s s (deCharms. 1968). The o r i g i n -pawn concept s t r e s s e s the f e e l i n g t h a t one has determined h i s own a c t i o n and g o a l and i s r e a l i s t i c about h i s a c t i o n s . The o r i g i n - p a w n concept i s not a motive (deCharms .1976) s i n c e i t i s not a d e s c r i p t i v e name g i v e n t o a c l a s s o f g o a l s . Rather, i t i s a f e e l i n g o f purpose and commitment (or l a c k of i t ) t h a t can a p p l y to any s p e c i f i c m o t i v e . To h e l p a p e r s o n t o be an o r i g i n i s not to d e t e r m i n e h i s g o a l s but to h e l p him d e v e l o p commitment and purpose so t h a t he can r e a c h h i s own g o a l s more e f f e c t i v e l y . ( i i i ) P e r s o n a l C a u s a t i o n T r a i n i n g The r e s e a r c h reviewed stems from a s i n g l e s o u r c e (deCharms e t a l . , 1976). A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d no o t h e r r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h on the t o p i c . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s the a c c u m u l a t i o n of a f o u r y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g ; Grades 6 - 8. The study s t a r t e d w i t h the premeasurement of the c h i l d r e n a t the end of t h e f i f t h grade and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e end o f t h e i r e i g h t h grade. I t was b a s i c a l l y an e x p e r i m e n t a l - c o n t r o l comparison d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s a r e summarized i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : Measures of achievement m o t i v a t i o n , r e i n f o r c e m e n t s and g o a l - s e t t i n g ; Measures of O r i g i n s and Pawns; Measures of m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g and academic achievement. (a) Achievement M o t i v a t i o n , R e i n f o r c e m e n t s and G o a l - s e t t i n g Though the e v i d e n c e cannot be c o n s i d e r e d s t r o n g , Shea and deCharms (1976) i n d i c a t e m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g does i n f a c t a f f e c t - 15 -motivated behaviour. Achievement m o t i v a t i o n scores d i d increase f o r boys i n the s i x t h grade but d i d not increase f o r g i r l s who received the t r a i n i n g . The t r a i n i n g d i d not appear to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t locus of c o n t r o l scores f o r e i t h e r boys or g i r l s . R e a l i s t i c g o a l - s e t t i n g , a v a r i a b l e thought to be i n t e g r a l to origin-pawn concept, was enhanced by the t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l students who without t r a i n i n g showed the greatest propensity to be u n r e a l i s t i c . These r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t the t r a i n i n g produced some gen e r a l i z e d e f f e c t s i n the students. (b) O r i g i n s and Pawns Plimpton and deCharms (deCharms 1976) report that the t r a i n i n g d i d , i n f a c t , increase the origin-pawn score of the c h i l d r e n . Their data a n a l y s i s comprised a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of t h e i r scores at three p o i n t s i n time: at the end of f i f t h grade (before any t r a i n i n g ) and again at the end of s i x t h and seventh grades. The r e s u l t s demonstrate that the o r i g i n scores r e l i a b l y r e f l e c t e d the e f f e c t s of m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g on the experimental c h i l d r e n . T r a i n i n g , d i d i n f a c t , enhance m o t i v a t i o n . (c) M o t i v a t i o n T r a i n i n g and Academic Achievement DeCharms (1976) found that the trend f o r students f a l l i n g i n -c r e a s i n g l y f a r t h e r behind U.S. n a t i o n a l norms on standardized t e s t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y reversed i n the t r a i n e d students as compared to non-trained c o n t r o l s . He f u r t h e r found that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the t r a i n e d and untrained students p e r s i s t e d a f t e r the eighth grade - 16 -y e a r , when n e i t h e r group had t r a i n i n g . DeCharms a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d s c h o o l measures of a t t e n d a n c e , t a r d i n e s s and i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , g r a d e s . I n g e n e r a l boys made more g a i n s i n more a r e a s than g i r l s as a r e s u l t o f the t r a i n i n g . I n g e n e r a l , he found p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n t r a i n i n g of c h i l d r e n had v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e and l a s t i n g e f f e c t s on academic achievement. E v i d e n c e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n t r a i n i n g was s u c c e s s f u l and t h a t the v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s used had s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s i n academic achievement t h a t were r e l a t e d t o changes i n m o t i v a t i o n over and above a more g e n e r a l i z e d i n i t i a l e nthusiasm f o r t h e new program. The p r o j e c t d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g f o r p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n enhances b o t h m o t i v a t i o n arid academic a c h i e v e -ment when p l a c e d i n s u b j e c t - m a t t e r m a t e r i a l . ( i v ) E i g h t h Grade " P r o c e s s " Study S k i l l s The s t u d y s k i l l s l i t e r a t u r e i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n b o t h s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h e v a l u a t i o n s and u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s i n " p r o c e s s " s t u d y s k i l l s - l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e a t the e i g h t h grade l e v e l . I t has o n l y been r e c e n t l y , the p a s t f o u r to f i v e y e a r s , t h a t such l i t e r a t u r e has come t o the f o r e . Brown, Campione and Day (1981) have p r o v i d e d some u s e f u l g u i d e -l i n e s f o r t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s to " l e a r n how to l e a r n from r e a d i n g . " These g u i d e l i n e s i n c l u d e : Students s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d i n the importance of knowing about the c r i t e r i o n t a s k . They s h o u l d be taught how to match study t e c h n i q u e s to t a s k demands. - 17 -Students s h o u l d be taught about the r o l e of m o t i v a t i o n , a b i l i t y , and background knowledge i n s t u d y i n g . They s h o u l d be taught how to i n c r e a s e t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n , how to work w i t h t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, and how to a p p l y t h e i r e x i s t i n g knowledge. Students s h o u l d know why, when, and how to use p a r t i c u l a r study s t r a t e g i e s . They s h o u l d a l s o be m o n i t o r i n g and c h e c k i n g to ensure t h a t the s t r a t e g i e s promote the d e s i r e d r e s u l t . Marshak and B u r k l e (1981) p r o v i d e f u r t h e r g u i d e l i n e s f o r e f f e c t i v e study s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e s e . g u i d e l i n e s form the n u c l e u s of the hm Study S k i l l s Program; a c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t by a group of e d u c a t o r s from the Bureau of Study Couns e l a t H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Secondary S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Elementary S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s and the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of T e a c h e r s of Mathematics. The program i s n e i t h e r p r e s c r i p t i v e nor preachy but r a t h e r i t a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s the s t u d e n t s i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e v a l u e o f study s k i l l s t hrough d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s . Three t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e o u t l i n e d 1. P r o v i d e time f o r s t u d e n t s t o t r y out new s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e e r r o r w i t h o u t making them f e e l l i k e they have f a i l e d . 2. P r o v i d e u s a b l e feedback to s t u d e n t s about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n u s i n g new study s k i l l s . 3. P r o v i d e encouragement. and seven v a l u e s f o r e f f e c t i v e s t u d y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n a r e emphasized 1. Study s k i l l s a r e p r o c e s s e s f o r l e a r n i n g . 2. Study s k i l l s a r e b a s i c s k i l l s . 3. L e a r n i n g study s k i l l s i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g more about how one l e a r n s . Study s k i l l s t e a c h i n g must a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s and encourage them to d e v e l o p the a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r own judgement i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g and use of study s k i l l s . - 18 -4. L e a r n i n g by d o i n g i s the b e s t way to l e a r n study s k i l l s . 5. A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of study s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d take p l a c e d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e and be i n t e -g r a t e d i n t o the r e g u l a r c o u r s e c u r r i c u l u m . 6. L e a r n i n g study s k i l l s o f f e r s a t r a n s f e r e f f e c t . A s k i l l l e a r n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one s u b j e c t can be a p p l i e d i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s . 7. The work of v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s has shown t h a t t h e r e i s a continuum of c o g n i t i v e development throughout c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . C o l e (1979) o u t l i n e d a program f o r improvement of study s k i l l s i n which m i d d l e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s v o l u n t e e r t o a t t e n d f o u r c o u n s e l l o r l e d s e s s i o n s to improve study s k i l l s . These s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d a c t i -v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s such as v e n t i l a t i n g study problems, k e e p i n g a d i a r y r e l a t e d t o study time and problems, s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and f e e d -back, g o a l - s e t t i n g , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and l o n g - r a n g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e v a l u a t i o n of the study s k i l l s program was done through s t u d e n t c o m p l e t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t the end of the l a s t s e s s i o n as w e l l as t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d y h a b i t s of s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n the program. Students r e p o r t e d l e a r n i n g a more s y s t e m a t i c way of managing t h e i r s t u d y time and f e e l i n g t h a t the time taken f o r the s t u d y s k i l l s improvement s e s s i o n s was w e l l s p ent. Teachers r e p o r t e d improvement i n s t u d e n t c o m p l e t i o n of homework, l o n g - r a n g e assignments and i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s u c c e s s e s such as f i n i s h i n g a term r e p o r t b e f o r e the due d a t e . B e a l e (1981) d e s c r i b e s a c o u n s e l l o r - l e d study s k i l l s workshop which c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s o f f i v e weekly 45-minute s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s r o o m group s e s s i o n s i n two s e v e n t h grade E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m s . S e s s i o n s were planned to i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on g e t t i n g ready t o s t u d y , when and where t o s t u d y , and how to s t u d y . E x p e r i e n t i a l and - 19 -d i d a c t i c a c t i v i t i e s were d e s i g n e d t o i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s as much as p o s s i b l e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n s . The e v a l u a t i o n of the study s k i l l s workshop was done th r o u g h s t u d e n t c o m p l e t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t the end of the workshop, as w e l l as p a r e n t and t e a c h e r c o m p l e t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t s t u d y h a b i t s . A l l 43 s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e and s a i d they would recommend i t to t h e i r f r i e n d s . P a r e n t s were a l s o v e r y p o s i t i v e w i t h 32 i n d i c a t i n g they would recommend i t to o t h e r p a r e n t s . These p a r e n t s commented on i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e and g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards homework on the p a r t of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T eachers f e l t the workshop s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a l l E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . They f u r t h e r f e l t t h a t time devoted to study s k i l l s was not " l o s t t i m e , " but a c t u a l l y made t e a c h i n g e a s i e r by enhancing the s t u d e n t c l a s s r o o m performance. - 20 -CHAPTER I I PROGRAM DESIGN " I t seems c l e a r t h a t embedding m o t i v a t i o n c o n c e p t s , e s p e c i a l l y the c o n n e c t i o n between s t r i v i n g and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , i n t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l e s s o n s has enormous p o t e n t i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d of t e a c h e r s t o be so concerned w i t h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r g o a l s t h a t they i g n o r e the m o t i v a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r methods." (deCharms 1976, p.211) (A) D e s i g n Approach A summer graduate c o u r s e brought t o g e t h e r the above quote, w i t h i t s r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , and two c o u n s e l l o r s s e e k i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o a s s i s t w i t h a s c h o o l problem. The s c h o o l problem c e n t e r e d on e i g h t h g r a d e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n (a l a c k of i t ) , a t t i t u d e s , and l e a r n i n g competencies: I n d u s t r y t a s k s ( E r i k s o n 1950) which when f a i l e d a t may t r a n s l a t e i n t o " d r o p p i n g o u t " by Grade 10, g e n e r a l a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , m i n i m a l achievement, and a f a i l u r e i d e n t i t y . A s eemingly a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y became apparent d u r i n g the c o u r s e - a m o t i v a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n program u t i l i z i n g study s k i l l s as s u b j e c t - m a t t e r (see Appendix A ) . The s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e d b o t h - p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n enhancement ( s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , i n d u s t r y , and m o t i v a t i o n development) and b a s i c study s k i l l s development - and t h e c o u n s e l l o r s were s e e k i n g ways to l e s s e n t h e i r " c r i s i s c o u n s e l l i n g " - 21 -and get more i n v o l v e d i n upstream h e l p i n g (Egan 1979) or d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g and t e a c h i n g ( B l o c h e r 1974). The d e c i s i o n to d e s i g n a m o t i v a t i o n enhancement i n t e r v e n t i o n , f o c u s e d on study s k i l l s c o n t e n t , p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r upstream h e l p i n g . I t was i m p o r t a n t , from a s c h o o l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t the program f i t the needs of the s c h o o l and not the s c h o o l f i t the needs of the program. The program t h e r e f o r e encompassed a d e v e l o p m e n t a l and e c o l o g i c a l approach ( B l o c h e r 1974; Bronfenbrenner 1979; Egan 1979), i n the sense t h a t the program has a t l e a s t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : I t f o c u s e d on i s s u e s o f t e n of c o n c e r n to l a t e - c h i l d h o o d - e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n c e ( s c h o o l demands, i n d u s t r y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , peer p r e s s u r e , and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ) , e s t a b l i s h e d con-t a c t w i t h the m a j o r i t y of e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s , used t e a c h i n g as a p r i m a r y a c t i v i t y , encompassed a body of i d e n t i f i a b l e knowledge and s k i l l s to impart to s t u d e n t s , used e v a l u a t i o n as a means to improve the program, attempted to i n f l u e n c e o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s t hrough c u r r i c -ulum and program development, s t r e s s e d e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l s t u d e n t s t r e n g t h s as o b j e c t i v e s , c o n c e i v e d of development as a s e r i e s of s t a g e s i n v o l v i n g b o t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l / h i e r a r c h i c a l d i m e n s i o n s , d i s t i n g u i s h e d between guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g by r e l e g a t i n g c o u n s e l l i n g to a s u b o r d i n a t e g u idance f u n c t i o n t h a t r e s t s on competency i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and emphasizes the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . (B) Developmental Frameworks Two k i n d s of d evelopmental frameworks p r o v i d e the c o n c e p t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s on which to d e s i g n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . The - 22 -frameworks p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e f i n i n g h e a l t h y and r e l e v a n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s and p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g environments on the growth of s t u d e n t s ( B l o c h e r 1974). The f i r s t framework i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l . T h i s framework, r e p r e -sented by the work of E r i k s o n (1963), t r a c e s human development from i n f a n c y t o o l d - a g e t h r o u g h e i g h t w e l l d e f i n e d l i f e s t a g e s . At each s t a g e he has p o s i t e d a c e n t r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k t h a t must be acc o m p l i s h e d i f the growing p e r s o n i s t o c o n t i n u e s u c c e s s f u l l y to the next s t a g e , w i t h i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more complex and d i f f i c u l t demands ( B l o c h e r 1974). Egan and Cowan (1979) , a d a p t i n g the work of Newman and Newman (1975), p r o v i d e an i n t e g r a t i v e framework f o r E r i k s o n ' s (1963) de v e l o p m e n t a l c r i s e s ( T a b l e 2.1). T a b l e 2.1 p r e s e n t s t h e r e l e v a n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i f e s t a g e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s , r e s o u r c e s and c r i s e s p e r t i n e n t t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The c r i t i c a l s t a g e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study i s the f o u r t h s t a g e . The t a s k a t the f o u r t h s t a g e i s the development of a sense o f i n d u s t r y v e r s u s the development o f f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y . T h i s p e r i o d i s one of l e a r n i n g and m a s t e r i n g the f o r m a l and b a s i c s k i l l s o f l i f e . C h i l d r e n now a c q u i r e t h e i r fundamental knowledge, and, even more i m p o r t a n t , a d e s i r e t o do w e l l i n t h e i r work (Muuss 1975). The c o n v i c t i o n t h a t emerges i s " I am what I w i l l l e a r n " or " I am what I can l e a r n t o make work." I f the t a s k i s mastered s u c c e s s f u l l y , the c h i l d w i l l need and want accomplishments l a t e r i n l i f e and s t r i v e f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f h i s t a s k s and r e c o g n i t i o n from o t h e r s . He w i l l d e v e lop a sense of dut y , a f e e l i n g f o r workmanship T a b l e 2.1 A Developmental Map of the L i f e C y c l e and i t s Context i n One C u l t u r e L i f e Stage Key Systems Developmental: Tasks Resources C r i s e s L a t e C h i l d h o o d (8-12) F a m i l y Neighbourhood S c h o o l Peer Group C o o p e r a t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n S k i l l l e a r n i n g Team membership B a s i c human s u p p o r t C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g environment C o o p e r a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l environment E f f e c t i v e s k i l l s t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g to l e a r n - b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Feedback on s e l f and performance I n d u s t r y or i n f e r i o r i t y E a r l y A d o l e s c e n c e (13-17) F a m i l y Peer Group School P h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n Formal mental opera-t i o n s Peer-group member-s h i p s I n i t i a l s e x u a l i n t i m a c y B a s i c human s u p p o r t P h y s i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n C o g n i t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t a s k s R e l a t i o n s h i p - b u i l d i n g s k i l l s Knowledge of sex r o l e s and t h e i r c u l t u r a l s o u r c e s O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r ind e p e n -dent m o r a l judgement B e l o n g i n g o r s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n (Note: o n l y the sta g e s seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p r e s e n t study a r e presented.) (Egan and Cowan, 1979) - 24 -and work p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and an a t t i t u d e o f s t r i v i n g f o r mastery t h a t i s based on a d e s i r e f o r i n d u s t r i o u s n e s s and p r o v i d e s a f e e l i n g of s u c c e s s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s s t a g e t o e g o - i d e n t i t y i s "the c a p a c i t y t o l e a r n how t o be, w i t h s k i l l , what one i s i n the p r o c e s s of becoming" ( E r i c k s o n 1968, p.186) - t h a t i s , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the t a s k ahead and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n and master i t (Muuss 1975, p.62) . I f the c h i l d f a i l s a t t h i s s t a g e to a c q u i r e a f e e l i n g o f s u c c e s s and r e c o g n i t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be a l a c k o f d e s i r e f o r accomplishment and a f e e l i n g o f u s e l e s s n e s s . "He may not d e v e l o p the f e e l i n g o f e n j o y -ment and p r i d e f o r work w e l l done. He w i l l be plagued by f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and i n f e r i o r i t y , and he may become c o n v i n c e d t h a t he w i l l n ever be 'any good.' As a r e s u l t t h e r e i s work p a r a l y s i s and a sense of f u t i l i t y which may r e s u l t i n a l i e n a t i o n and a l a s t i n g sense of i s o l a t i o n and c o n f u s i o n . " (Muuss 1975, p.63) The second k i n d of d e v e l o p m e n t a l framework i s h i e r a r c h i c a l . T h i s i n t e g r a t i v e framework, r e p r e s e n t e d by L o e v i n g e r ' s (1970) ego development model, f o r m u l a t e s a s e r i e s of s e q u e n t i a l l y o r d e r e d s t a g e s (seven s t a g e s and t h r e e t r a n s i t i o n a l phases) which a r e d e f i n e d i n d e -p e n d e n t l y of age, though they may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l age (Hauser 1981) . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s sequence a r e s t a g e s 1-3 Conform-i s t , 1-3/4 S e l f - a w a r e T r a n s i t i o n a l Phase and 1-4 C o n s c i e n t i o u s ( T a b l e 2.2). T h i s t r a n s i t i o n (Hayes 1982) i s from a s t a g e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l a c c e p t a n c e of the r u l e s of the group t o a s t a g e T a b l e 2.2 Stages of Development Stage Code I n t e r p e r s o n a l S t y l e C o nscious P r e o c c u p a t i o n C h a r a c t e r Development C o n f o r m i s t 1-3 R e c i p r o c a l , s u p e r f i c i a l . T h i n g s , appearance, C o n f o r m i t y to e x t e r n a l r u l e s . Need f o r a cceptance and r e p u t a t i o n . D i c h o t o m i z a t i o n of r i g h t and a p p r o v a l by a u t h o r i t y S t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g . wrong, as based on formulae and group. f o r b e h a v i o u r and on s o c i e t a l s t a n d a r d s . S e l f - C o n s c i o u s 1-3/4 R e c i p r o c a l , a f f e c t i v e . Awareness of f e e l i n g s . M o r a l i t y of r e c i p r o c i t y , R e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e The S e l f as r e l a t e d and of r o l e - t a k i n g . d e s c r i b e d i n terms of to the group. T r a n s -f e e l i n g s . Emphasis on i t i o n from a c t i o n s to l i m i t e d , c l o s e d groups. t r a i t s ( q u a s i - t r a i t s ) . C o n s c i e n t i o u s 1-4 I n t e n s i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e . D i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n n e r I n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s , g u i l t . M u t u a l i t y , r e s p e c t , f e e l i n g s . duty. Achievement. T r a i t s . (Note: Only those stages seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the ( L o e v i n g e r and W e s s l e r , 1970) p r e s e n t study a r e presented.) - 26 -c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n s c i o u s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h o b l i g a t i o n s , i d e a l s , t r a i t s and achievements as measured by i n n e r s t a n d a r d s . T h i s t r a n s i -t i o n from g r o u p - s a n c t i o n e d r u l e s t o i n n e r c o n t r o l , from i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s based on a c t i o n s t o those which r e f l e c t f e e l i n g s , and from a c o n c e p t i o n of conduct as a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s to conduct as a s e t of e n d u r i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s a d o l e s c e n c e . As a t r a n s i t i o n a l l e v e l , i t p r e s e n t s two c o n s p i c u o u s d i f f e r e n c e s from the C o n f o r m i s t s t a g e : An i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s i t u a t i o n s (Hayes 1982). I n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e upon one's s e l f - e v a l u a t e d s t a n d a r d s i s a d e v e l o p -mental advance and an achievement p r o p e r l y c o n c e i v e d of as a h i g h e r s t a g e development. Though these i n t e g r a t i v e frameworks d i f f e r i n p r e s e n t i n g a p r e c i s e , t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r p e r s o n a l development i n the l a t e - c h i l d h o o d / e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e they do suggest c e r t a i n c e n t r a l p r o c e s s e s of p e r s o n a l growth. They i n c l u d e the development of a more complex and more i n t e g r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o n e s e l f , the f o r m a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i n d u s t r y and i d e n t i t y , g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o and communicate w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , and the development of more complex S k i l l s and competencies. They f u r t h e r s u p port the e i g h t h grade, l a t e - c h i l d h o o d / e a r l y -a d o l e s c e n t l i f e s t a g e , as an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e d e v e l o p m e n t a l needs f o r a m o t i v a t i o n enhancement i n t e r v e n t i o n . - 27 -(C) Program I n t e r v e n t i o n T h i s program was d e s i g n e d as an o p e r a t i o n a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n t h e o r y and dev e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y , r e l a t i n g o r i g i n - p a w n c o n c e p t s and dev e l o p m e n t a l c o n c e p t s to c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f (a) study s k i l l s development, (b) s t a g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a t e - c h i l d h o o d / e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n c e , (c) s t a g e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the c u r r i c u l u m , and (d) the e x p e r i e n t i a l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . A c c e p t i n g the dev e l o p m e n t a l p o s i t i o n t h a t growth p r o g r e s s e s through q u a l i t a t i v e , h i e r a r c h i c a l , and i n v a r i a n t s e q u e n t i a l s t a g e s , the pr i m a r y aim o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n was to e n r i c h the c h i l d ' s p r e s e n t s t a g e , o r i n some c a s e s , t o s t i m u l a t e movement to the next h i g h e r one. The i n t e r v e n t i o n attempted t o match the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -ment of the e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t secondary st u d e n t w i t h the program. The program i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e dev e l o p m e n t a l assumption t h a t a d o l e s c e n c e r e p r e s e n t s a s t a g e o f development q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from c h i l d h o o d and t h a t the l a t e - c h i l d h o o d / e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t l i f e s t a g e i s the v e r y important t r a n s i t i o n or b r i d g e . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e o f e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s a b e g i n n i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f psycho-l o g i c a l c a u s a t i o n , s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m (Hauser 1980). A s h i f t towards f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s ( G i n s b e r g and Opper 1969) f o r the e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t they no l o n g e r view the e x t e r n a l w o r l d as permanent or unchanging. I n s t e a d they a r e b e g i n n i n g to p e r c e i v e the p o s s i b l e , the s u b j e c t i v e , the r e l a t i v e , and above a l l , the dynamic s e l f w i t h a l l i t s i n h e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s (Hauser 1980). They a r e i n an e a r l y s t a t e of b e i n g a b l e t o t h i n k a b s t r a c t l y about themselves, - 28 -c o n c e i v e of p r o b a b i l i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e about time and f u t u r e (Rustad and Rogers 1975). The i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o attempts to match the s t a g e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n c e w i t h the program, which c o n s i s t s o f promoting commitment, i n t e r n a l c h o i c e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n a p e r s o n . In an attempt t o h e l p s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e development they a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n where they may take t h e r o l e o f an o r i g i n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f study s k i l l s development. Viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l a d o l e s c e n t r o l e - t a k e r (Hayes 1982) r o l e - t a k i n g i s an e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c h o i c e . T h e r e f o r e , he a s s e r t s , " e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be concerned w i t h , be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f , and i n v o l v e a d o l e s c e n t s i n the e x p e r i e n c e of those moments of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t h a t a f f e c t t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r own development. Educa-t i o n s h o u l d be p e r s o n a l . By p e r s o n a l , i t i s not meant t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of v i c a r i o u s i s s u e s . Rather, i t i s meant t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the e x a m i n a t i o n of those c o n f l i c t s t h a t e x i s t i n t h e i r own l i v e s and f o r which the i n d i v i d u a l a d o l e s c e n t s u p p l i e s the c o n t e n t of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d i n v o l v e a d o l e s c e n t s i n the a c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f t h e i r own judgements." (Hayes 1982 p.161). DeCharms (197/6) s u p p o r t s t h i s p o s i t i o n , c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g an i n t e r v e n i n g ' p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' as the c r i t i c a l element f o r e x p l a i n i n g and p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r ( F i g u r e 2.1). In o t h e r words, p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e e l i c i t e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l e v e n t s forms the c r u c i a l m e d i a t i n g l i n k between the a n t e c e d e n t e n v i r o n -mental e v e n t s and the consequent b e h a v i o u r ; e x p e r i e n c e which, i f - 29 -F i g u r e I R o l e - t a k i n g ( P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) Antecedent e n v i r o n m e n t a l events Consequent b e h a v i o u r (deCharms 1976) a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s i g n e d , w i l l l e a d t o s t a g e enhancement or perhaps, i n some c a s e s , movement to the next s t a g e . In o r d e r to produce m o t i v a t e d b e h a v i o u r one must p r o v i d e the e x p e r i e n c e of a r o u s a l , commitment and purpose. In the p r a c t i c a l w o r l d of th e s c h o o l , the problem i s t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w i l l s t i m u l a t e commitment and r e s p o n s i b l e c h o i c e f e l t t o be o r i g i n a t i n g from w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l (deCharms 1976) . T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts t o c r e a t e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s u t i l i z i n g deCharm's (1976) framework i n the c o n t e x t of e i g h t h grade study s k i l l development. The i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e t h o se c o n d i t i o n s which deCharms (1976) has suggested promote commitment, i n t e r n a l c h o i c e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n a p e r s o n ; the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t encourage f e e l i n g and a c t i n g l i k e an o r i g i n . Four b a s i c elements i n t e g r a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s : 1. S e l f - s t u d y ; the s t u d e n t w i l l be encouraged to c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y h i s b a s i c m o t i v e s i n an atmosphere of a c c e p -t a n c e by o t h e r s i n the group. 2. I n t e r n a l - g o a l s e t t i n g ; the s t u d e n t w i l l be encouraged - 30 -and a s s i s t e d , by p e e r s , p a r e n t s , and s t a f f t o t r a n s -l a t e h i s motives i n t o r e a l i s t i c s h o r t and l o n g range g o a l s . 3. P l a n n i n g / G o a l - d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r ; the s t u d e n t w i l l be encouraged and a s s i s t e d , by p e e r s , p a r e n t s , and s t a f f , to p l a n r e a l i s t i c and c o n c r e t e a c t i o n t o a t t a i n the g o a l s . 4. P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; t h e s t u d e n t w i l l be encouraged, by p e e r s , p a r e n t s , and s t a f f , t o l e a r n to a c c e p t r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t e d g o a l s as w e l l as f o r the s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e of h i s attempts to r e a c h them. (Adapted from deCharms 1976) These c o n d i t i o n s , embedded i n the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f study s k i l l s , s h o u l d i n d u c e i n c r e a s e d commitment and purpose, g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and h i g h e r m o t i v a t i o n ; a l l w i t h i n a c o n t e x t of meaning to the l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The aroused m o t i v a t i o n s h o u l d r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r , g r e a t e r s u c c e s s i n g o a l -a t t a i n m e n t and thus g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts to c r e a t e these c o n d i t i o n s by c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o st u d y s k i l l s and c o u r s e work and e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g format which attempts t o b a l a n c e and i n t e g r a t e the p r o c e s s e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t e c h n i q u e s , g o a l - s e t t i n g s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h the c o n t e n t e x p e r i e n c e s of w r i t t e n assignments and d i s c u s s i o n o f study s k i l l s . - 31 -CHAPTER I I I METHOD (A) E v a l u a t i o n D e s i g n Schubert (1980), d e f i n e s and compares two views o f the e p i s t e m o l o g y of s c i e n c e , the t h e o r e t i c a l and the p r a c t i c a l , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s e a r c h / p r a c t i c e c o n f l i c t i n c o u n s e l l i n g r e s e a r c h . He o u t l i n e s f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s i n t h e comparison. The f o u r s t a t e m e n t s , i n r e l a t i o n t o the p r a c t i c a l view, p r o v i d e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p u r s u i n g p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h . The f o u r c o n d i t i o n s o r statements a r e i n the c o n t e x t o f answers t o the f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s : (a) What i s the o r i g i n o f i d e a s and problems? (b) What i s the method o f study? (c) What i s the s u b j e c t matter? (d) What a r e t h e g o a l s o f r e s e a r c h ? What i s the o r i g i n o f i d e a s and problems? A c c o r d i n g to Schubert the p r a c t i c a l view r e q u i r e s t h a t i d e a s and problems have a r e a l w o r l d r e f e r e n t - t h a t i s , they must d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o contemporary problems and con c e r n s and show promise of r e l i e f and p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . What i s the method o f study? The p r a c t i c a l view s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h environment, such as p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f o r c e s , p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the method of study , - 32 -d i r e c t i o n o f the study, and the v a l u e p l a c e d on the r e s u l t s . As such, r e s e a r c h i s not o u t s i d e the i n f l u e n c e of the normative o r d e r . What i s the s u b j e c t matter? Schubert s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l view s t r e s s e s the i n d i v i d u a l and s i t u a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t the s u b j e c t m atter t h a t i s r e s e a r c h e d i s v a l u e d f o r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r d i r e c t a c t i o n . Less c o n c e r n i s p l a c e d on g e n e r a t i n g u n i v e r s a l laws and g e n e r a l i z i n g the laws a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s and s i t u a t i o n s . What a r e the g o a l s o f r e s e a r c h ? A c c o r d i n g t o Schubert, t h e g o a l of p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h i s a c t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h i s study met a l l of the p r e c e d i n g c o n d i t i o n s and was t h e r e f o r e supported i n i t s d e s i g n as p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h . The program i n t e r v e n t i o n was developed as p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h and was implemented and e v a l u a t e d as p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h . The e v a l u a t i o n was based on a model of p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h , Improvement r e s e a r c h model, developed by Gage (1978) and adapted by S p r i n t h a l l (1981). The Improvement model p e r m i t s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the k i n d s o f i s s u e s of c o n c e r n t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s ( S r p i n t h a l l 1981). S p r i n t h a l l . h a s o u t l i n e d the components of the Improvement model, i n c l u d i n g h i s i n t e g r a t e d component of m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a : F i r s t , Improvement r e s e a r c h t a k e s p l a c e i n the s e t t i n g where t h e a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r - a l l p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , w i t h the - 33 -e x c e p t i o n o f a s i n g l e independent v a r i a b l e , cannot be c o n t r o l l e d ; random assignment i s not p o s s i b l e ; g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s not a major c o n c e r n . Second, Improvement r e s e a r c h does not depend on a s i n g l e c r u c i a l e xperiment. I n s t e a d , f i e l d r e s e a r c h depends on a c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t . In o t h e r words, i f a number of c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e s r e a c h s i m i l a r con-c l u s i o n s , t h e o v e r a l l v a l i d i t y i s s t r e n g t h e n e d . F i e l d based r e s e a r c h (Improvement) can accumulate knowledge f o r p r a c t i c e and p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r framework and system of a n a l y z i n g such f i e l d r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s . The t h i r d , and c r i t i c a l component of Improvement r e s e a r c h , i s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s never r e a l l y summative. Improvement r e s e a r c h u t i l i z e s f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n employing the c o n c e p t s of S c r i v e n (1967) i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n . In the former c a s e , outcome i s e v a l u a t e d w i t h an open-system so t h a t r e s u l t s can be f e d back to "improve" and modify the i n t e r v e n t i o n under e x a m i n a t i o n . In some i n s t a n c e s the e v a l u a t i o n f i n d i n g s may l e a d to a d e c i s i o n to a b o r t f u r t h e r development so t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e not wasted on a program t h a t may u l t i m a t e l y have l i t t l e chance of b e i n g e f f e c t i v e . In e i t h e r c a s e , e v a l u a t i o n i s i n t h e s e r v i c e of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n and c a n be viewed as one p a r t of t h e c y c l e , n o t t h e end of the p r o c e s s . S t u d i e s under t h i s method can p r o v i d e p a r t i a l but u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n as to the components of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e to p o s i t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l change v e r s u s the p r o -c edures t h a t a r e e i t h e r n e u t r a l or perhaps even n e g a t i v e . A f o u r t h a s p e c t of Improvement r e s e a r c h r e l a t e s t o the dependent v a r i a b l e . S p r i n t h a l l (1981) a s k s , "How do we a s s e s s outcome, even i f - 34 -we employ a f o r m a t i v e or c y c l i c a l model i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and what k i n d of change and/or growth do we attempt to measure?" The problem has been, S p r i n t h a l l suggests n o t i n g Shulman (1970), t h a t t h e r e a r e a v e r y p r e c i s e s e t of measures f o r norm r e f e r e n c e d phenomenon and an e x t r e m e l y crude s e t of measures f o r " l a r g e r " v a r i a b l e s such as educa-t i o n a l environments. The answer, S p r i n t h a l l s u g g e s t s , i s found i n the r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l prominent r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s - K o h l b e r g 1977; N i c h o l s o n 1970; Heath 1977; M c C l e l l a n d 1973. He s u g g e s t s , as the o t h e r s have i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e works, t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l competence i s a f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l outcome than c o n t e n t a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s f a c t , he s u g g e s t s , a l l o w s f o r the appearnce of domain-r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the s o - c a l l e d s t a n d a r d norm r e f e r e n c e d measures of outcome. By d e f i n i t i o n , a d o m a i n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t may i n v o l v e the assessment of s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g ( S p r i n t h a l l 1981). Thus, he a s s e r t s , by s h i f t i n g the c r i t e r i a t o a s p e c t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y , r e s e a r c h i n guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g can b e g i n to a s s e s s the impact of a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s on an i m p o r t a n t dependent v a r i a b l e , the domain of p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y . S p r i n t h a l l emphasizes t h a t due to the c o m p l e x i t y of a c o n s t r u c t such as p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y i t i s i m p ortant to e v a l u a t e not o n l y f o r m a t i v e l y but a l s o to use a v a r i e t y of measures. The use of mul-t i p l e measures a l l o w s f o r a check and b a l a n c e of one a n o t h e r and p r o v i d e s a p a t t e r n , h o p e f u l l y , of r e s u l t s which i s more i n f o r m a t i v e t h a n one s i n g l e measure. In summary, the p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n was - 35 -developed and implemented as p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h ; a t t e m p t i n g t o f o c u s on a s p e c t s o f the domain of p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y i n the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g o f s e v e r a l e i g h t h grade c l a s s r o o m s . I t i n c o r p o r a t e d a f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n u t i l i z i n g a v a r i e t y o f measures i n o r d e r to accumulate a knowledge f o r p r a c t i c e ( a c t i o n ) and t h e o r y . The e v a l u a t i o n , t h r o u g h i t s d e s i g n , s p e c i f i c a l l y sought to answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Is t h e r e c l i e n t ( s t u d e n t ) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program? To what degree? 2. I s t h e r e i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r (study s k i l l s ) , s c h o o l s a t i s f a c t i o n and g o a l - a t t a i n m e n t ? 3. Is t h e r e i n c r e a s e d commitment/purpose, g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n ? (Do s t u d e n t s f e e l more c o n f i d e n t i n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l ? t o o u t s i d e s c h o o l ? ) 4. What a r e the p e r c e i v e d s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses (concerns) o f the program? (Student v i e w / S t a f f view/ A d m i n i s t r a t i o n view) 5. What a s p e c t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m , i f any, were most h e l p f u l ? L e a s t h e l p f u l ? I n what ways? 6. What do the s t u d e n t s l i k e about the program? 7. In what ways c o u l d the i n t e r v e n t i o n be improved? 8. Should the program c o n t i n u e ? P r e s e n t form? With m o d i f i c a t i o n s ? Not a t a l l ? - 36 -(B) P o p u l a t i o n and S e t t i n g The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l r e g u l a r grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the Sparwood Secondary S c h o o l ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 0 ) . Sparwood Secondary S c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n Sparwood, B.C. T h i s s c h o o l i s w i t h i n F e r n i e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t (No. 1 ) , l o c a t e d i n t h e E a s t Kootenay r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia -known as the E l k V a l l e y . The E l k V a l l e y i s w e l l known f o r c o a l p r o d u c t i o n ; the p r i m a r y economic i n d u s t r y i n t h e a r e a . The Sparwood community i s b a s i c a l l y a "company" town w i t h v e r y s t r o n g u n i o n a f f i l i a t i o n s . The n a t u r e of the i n d u s t r y c r e a t e s a c e r t a i n amount of t r a n s i e n c y which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s c h o o l . T h i s t r a n s i e n c y i s most n o t i c e a b l e a t the e i g h t h grade; an i m p o r t a n t t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i n the s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l y e a r s ! P e r m i s s i o n t o implement and e v a l u a t e . t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r -v e n t i o n i n the e i g h t h grade E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m s , a t Sparwood Sec-ondary, was g r a n t e d by the P r i n c i p a l w i t h the knowledge of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s . (C) Assessment Measures S i n c e the program i n t e r v e n t i o n was implemented i n the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g o f the s c h o o l , the method of e v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e d an a r r a y of assessment measures. The s e r i e s of measures a l l o w e d f o r a p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s which, when t a k e n as a whole, y i e l d e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to approximate the e f f e c t or impact of the i n t e r v e n t i o n on the s t u d e n t s and the s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of the d e s i g n . A c o m b i n a t i o n of p r e - p o s t t e s t , u n o b t r u s i v e and f o r m a t i v e methods were u t i l i z e d . - 37 -( i ) N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Personal Reaction Survey. The Nowicki-S t r i c k l a n d Personal Reaction Survey (Nowicki & S t r i c k l a n d 1973) i s a locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n ; one of the v a r i e d methods used i n the e v a l u a t i o n to measure Origin-Pawn change - assuming O r i g i n s are more i n t e r n a l i n locus of c o n t r o l and Pawns more e x t e r n a l . The N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d Survey i s a pencil-and-paper questionnaire con-s i s t i n g of 40 questions which must be answered e i t h e r 'yes' or 'no'. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d s a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy of reinforcement, w i t h h i g h scores being associated w i t h an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . R e l i a b i l i t y estimates are s a t i s f a c t o r y based on samples from grade three to twelve. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .63 to .83; i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .63 to .79 w i t h n = 1,732. Scores of the questionnaire are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to other measures of locus of c o n t r o l (Nowicki & S t r i c k l a n d 1973), supporting the instrument's construct v a l i d i t y (see Appendix C). ( i i ) Case Studies. The case s t u d i e s are p a r a l l e l s t o r i e s , of approximately the same l e n g t h , designed to assess students' awareness and a p p l i c a t i o n of study s k i l l s . They are assessed through counting the suggestions o f f e r e d by each student. A pre assessment i s com-p l e t e d w i t h a post assessment immediately f o l l o w i n g the program. The post assessment r e s u l t s are compared w i t h those of the pre assessment to see i f gains i n awareness and/or a p p l i c a t i o n have been made (see Appendix G). ( i i i ) Student Progress Survey. The Student Progress Survey i s a s e l f - r e p o r t e v a l u a t i o n questionnaire developed to measure student - 38 -p r o g r e s s i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and h a b i t s . The items i n c l u d e d r e l a t e t o s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e , b e h a v i o u r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Respondents a r e asked to respond on a seven p o i n t s c a l e from " e x c e l l e n t " t o "poor" (see Appendix F ) . ( i v ) Student J o u r n a l s . The s t u d e n t j o u r n a l attempts t o i n v o l v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n a p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the i n t e r v e n t i o n . The j o u r n a l or " r e f l e c t i v e l o g " p e r m i t s the s t u d e n t to become an a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e p r o c e s s of change. I n t h i s r e f l e c t i v e l o g , s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o m a i n t a i n program m a t e r i a l , n o t e s and handouts, and p e r s o n a l g o a l s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , s t u d e n t s a r e asked to r e a c t to any of the i d e a s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n which have any p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e or r e l e v a n c e f o r them. Thus, t h e r e f l e c t i v e l o g becomes the h e a r t of t h e s t u d e n t ' s a c t u a l p e r s o n a l involvement w i t h the i n t e r v e n t i o n and an a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f the impact or e f f e c t o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n . Research (Wagschal 1980) s u g g e s t s t h a t the l o g has a p o w e r f u l a f f e c t i v e impact on the s t u d e n t w hich l e a d s t o a h i g h e r l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n , w i d e - r a n g i n g i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t m a t t e r and the a b i l i t y t o l i n k p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . (v) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the program's m e a n i n g f u l n e s s to p a r t i c i p a n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i s t s the v a r i o u s components of the i n t e r v e n t i o n and r e s p o n d e n t s a r e asked to r a t e each on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 5 from "not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l / u s e f u l " t o " e x t r e m e l y m e a n i n g f u l / u s e f u l . " P e r c e p t i o n s of the c o u r s e and s p e c i f i c comments - 39 -a r e a l s o sought. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was reviewed by d e v e l o p e r , s t a f f and a d v i s o r to c o n s i d e r the most important elements of the program f o r feedback (see Appendix I ) . ( v i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( F o l l o w - u p ) . The s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( f o l l o w - u p ) was d e s i g n e d to o b t a i n i n f o r m a -t i o n about the program m e a n i n g f u l n e s s from p a r t i c i p a n t s one term a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of the i n t e r v e n t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i s t s v a r i o u s components of the program and asks respondents to r a t e each on a s c a l e of 1 to 5 from "not used/thought about" to " r e g u l a r l y used/thought about." A l s o , q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i n c e the end of the i n t e r v e n t i o n - whether they f e l t d i f f e r e n t about themselves and s c h o o l (see Appendix J ) . ( v i i ) U n o b t r u s i v e Measures. U n o b t r u s i v e measures, i n a d d i t i o n to s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m p r o g r e s s d a t a , were r e c o r d e d p r e , p o s t and f o l l o w - u p . Data was r e c o r d e d f o r Grade P o i n t Averages, a t t e n d a n c e ( s c h o o l and c l a s s ) , work h a b i t s , assignments and g e n e r a l s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r ( O f f i c e r e f e r r a l s , c l a s s d e t e n t i o n s ) . A l s o , any g e n e r a l comments r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n from s t u d e n t s , s t a f f or p a r e n t s were r e c o r d e d when p o s s i b l e . L ( v i i i ) S t a f f E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s t a f f e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on s t a f f p e r c e p t i o n of the i n t e r v e n t i o n ; those d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e program i n s t r u c t i o n and t h o s e i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . The items ask r e s p o n d e n t s t o comment on the s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of the d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e s and a l s o t h e i r - 40 -perceptions on the e f f e c t s or impact w i t h the students (see Appendix L ) . ( i x ) Parent E v a l u a t i o n Questionnaire. The parent e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from parents, who had been informed of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n . The questionnaire asked respondents to comment on changes they had perceived i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s general a t t i t u d e and behaviour f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n . F u r t h e r , they were asked i f they thought such a program should be continued (see Appendix K). (D) Data C o l l e c t i o n and Procedures The data c o l l e c t i o n occurred i n four phases: Phase I -P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase I I - I n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase I I I - Post-i n t e r v e n t i o n ; Phase IV - Follow-up (see Table 3.1 - Data C o l l e c t i o n Schedule). ( i ) Phase I P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n The unobtrusive data was a v a i l a b l e from the end of the f i r s t term. This included recording Grade Po i n t Averages, attendance, general a t t i t u d e and behaviour comments and the students' i n v o l v e -ment i n the school i n general. S t a f f , report cards and o f f i c e records were the primary sources. The Student Progress Survey was given to each of the grade eigh t students to complete. They were requested to complete the T a b l e 3.1 Data C o l l e c t i o n Schedule Measure Source Time N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey Student P r o g r e s s Survey Student J o u r n a l s Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up). U n o b t r u s i v e Measures (GPA; Attendance, e t c . ) S t a f f E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Parent E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s S t a f f P a r e n t s Records S t a f f P a r e n t s P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n F o llow-up P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n F o llow-up P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n I n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n F o llow-up P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n Case S t u d i e s P a r t i c i p a n t s P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n - 42 -s u r v e y i n d i v i d u a l l y and seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f needed. The N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey was admin-i s t e r e d t o the s t u d e n t s , by the a u t h o r , i n a group s e t t i n g o f the s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m . The s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s had been i n f o r m e d of the e v a l u a t o r s ' i n t e r e s t i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n . P a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s were a s s u r e d of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity and t o l d t h a t the r e s u l t s of the e v a l u a t i o n would be a v a i l a b l e f o r them to see on c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s t u d y . ( i i ) Phase I I I n t e r v e n t i o n U n o b t r u s i v e measures, s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t e n d a n c e , assignment c o m p l e t i o n and t e s t s c o r e s , were r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h i s time. The s o u r c e f o r t h i s d a t a was the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and g e n e r a l o f f i c e . S t a f f was a l s o asked to n o t e any comments they made i n r e l a t i o n to the i n t e r v e n t i o n . F a c i l i t a t o r l o g book was kept f o r s u b j e c t i v e comments. F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was c a r r i e d out through the l e n g t h of the program. ( i i i ) Phase I I I P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n The N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey was admin-i s t e r e d t o the s t u d e n t s , by the a u t h o r , i n a group s e t t i n g o f the s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m . The Student P r o g r e s s Survey was completed by the S t a f f f o r each s t u d e n t i n grade e i g h t . S t a f f was r e q u e s t e d to c a r e f u l l y - 43 -complete the s u r v e y . The Student J o u r n a l was c o l l e c t e d . I t was e x p l a i n e d to the s t u d e n t s t h a t these would be r e t u r n e d i n two to t h r e e weeks and t h a t o n l y the a u t h o r would a n a l y z e them. I t was r e q u e s t e d of the s t u d e n t s t h a t i f they d i d not mind someone e l s e a n a l y z i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l t o p l a c e a l a r g e O.K. i n the f r o n t o f the j o u r n a l . The Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s t u d e n t s , by the a u t h o r , i n a group s e t t i n g o f the s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m . The u n o b t r u s i v e measures were c o l l e c t e d f o r second term. These were c o l l e c t e d as i n Phase I . The S t a f f E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and r e q u e s t e d to be r e t u r n e d to the author as soon as p o s s i b l e . The P a r e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by m a i l , w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n of the program and a r e q u e s t to r e t u r n the ques-t i o n n a i r e t o the s c h o o l as soon as p o s s i b l e . P a r e n t s were reminded t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e was c o n f i d e n t i a l and a s s u r e d of anonymity. They were a l s o reminded t h a t i f they wished t o see t h e r e s u l t s o f the e v a l u a t i o n they c o u l d c o n t a c t the a u t h o r i n September, 1983. ( i v ) Phase IV Follow-up The Student J o u r n a l s were r e q u e s t e d of s t u d e n t s who had c o n t i n -ued them through to the end of the y e a r . T h i s was i t s e l f a measure. These J o u r n a l s were then a n a l y z e d as i n Phase I I I . The Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s t u d e n t s , by the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , i n a group s e t t i n g of the s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m . - 44 -CHAPTER IV RESULTS Data f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f the program i n t e r v e n t i o n were o b t a i n e d from t h r e e s o u r c e s : (A) Outcome Measures (B) E v a l u a t i o n Reports and (C) P r o -c e s s I n d i c a t o r s . Each of t h e s e s o u r c e s c o n t a i n e d m u l t i p l e assessment forms and t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e f o r complete e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . (A) Outcome Measures ( i ) Locus of C o n t r o l . Locus of c o n t r o l was a s s e s s e d p r e and p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n u s i n g the N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d R e a c t i o n Survey (see Appen-d i x C ) . S e v e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s completed b o t h p r e and post assessment s u r v e y s w i t h f i v e s t u d e n t s h a v i n g i n c o m p l e t e s e t s and another f i v e s t u d e n t s not h a v i n g taken p a r t i n the e n t i r e program (see T a b l e 4.15). An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e Locus of C o n t r o l , w i t h f a c t o r s of sex (male/female) and c l a s s ( 1 - 4 ) , was computed w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n time p e r i o d (Dixon 1981). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e i n Locus of C o n t r o l (movement from e x t e r n a l expectancy to i n t e r n a l expectancy) a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n time (p<£.01). I n s p e c t i o n o f the means i n d i c a t e s t h a t sex (male/female) and c l a s s (1-4) moved to a g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l expectancy of Locus of C o n t r o l (see T a b l e 4.1; Appendix D). - 45 -T a b l e 4.1 Pre and Post Assessment Means f o r N o w i c k i - S t r i c k l a n d P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n Survey (Locus of C o n t r o l ) C l a s s Pre x P o s t x N 1. Male 12.20 11.70 10 Female 13.60 11.60 10 C l a s s 12.90 11.65 20 2. Male 15.88 10.26 8 Female 16.22 14.11 9 C l a s s 16.05 12.18 17 3. Male 13.46 10.15 13 Female 14.40 12.60 10 C l a s s 13.93 11.38 23 4. Male 16.17 13.50 6 Female 14.44 13.11 9 C l a s s 15.31 13.31 15 E i g h t h Grade 14.36 11.99* 75 Male 14.43 11.40 37 Female 14.67 12.86 38 *(F = 40.15 1,67 d f p .01) (Higher s c o r e s i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l expectancy; lower s c o r e s i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l e xpectancy.) F u r t h e r , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between Locus o f C o n t r o l and sex, Locus of C o n t r o l and c l a s s and Locus of C o n t r o l , sex and c l a s s . A check f o r e f f e c t o f Grade P o i n t Average (CPA) on Locus of C o n t r o l was not s i g n i f i c a n t when an a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement was computed (see Appendix E ) . Locus of C o n t r o l , a c r o s s p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , became s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r n a l . - 46 -( i i ) Student P r o g r e s s . Student p r o g r e s s was a s s e s s e d b e f o r e and a f t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n u s i n g the Student P r o g r e s s Survey (see Appendix F ) . (Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y over seven week i n t e r v a l was 0.91 -SEM 2.36- and 0.85 -SEM 2.20-). Seventy s t u d e n t s had complete s e t s of pre and p o s t assessment s u r v e y s w i t h t e n s t u d e n t s h a v i n g i n c o m p l e t e s e t s and f i v e s t u d e n t s n o t c o m p l e t i n g t h e e n t i r e program (see T a b l e 4.15). An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h the depen-dent v a r i a b l e Student P r o g r e s s , w i t h f a c t o r s o f sex (male/female) and c l a s s (1-4) was computed w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n time p e r i o d (Dixon 1981) . The r e s u l t s i n d i -c a t e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n Student P r o g r e s s a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n time ( p ^ . 0 1 ) . I n s p e c t i o n of the means i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of females i n C l a s s 1, who tended to show a d e c r e a s e i n Student P r o g r e s s , sex (male/female) and c l a s s (1-4) made p o s i t i v e g a i n s i n t h e i r Student P r o g r e s s (see T a b l e 4.2; Appendix D). There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between Student P r o g r e s s and c l a s s ( p ^ l . 0 5 ) . C l a s s 1 made r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e g a i n towards Student P r o g r e s s w h i l e c l a s s e s 2-4 tended to show much h i g h e r l e v e l s o f Student P r o g r e s s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between Student P r o g r e s s and sex (male/female). Student P r o g r e s s , a c r o s s p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , tended t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y more p o s i t i v e . ( i i i ) Case S t u d i e s . Case S t u d i e s were u t i l i z e d p r e i n t e r -v e n t i o n and p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t study s k i l l awareness and g a i n (see Appendix G). The Case S t u d i e s were - t i l -lable. 4.2 P r e and P o s t Assessment Means f o r Student P r o g r e s s Survey C l a s s Pre x P o s t X N 1. Male 40.92 42.25 12 Female 45.90 45.60 10 C l a s s 43.41 43.93 22 2. Male 33.83 35.83 6 Female 45.71 49.86 7 C l a s s 39.77 42.85 13 3. Male 38.33 46.89 9 Female 41.67 46.89 9 C l a s s 40.00 46.89 18 4. Male 38.86 44.86 7 Female 42.50 42.90 10 C l a s s 40.68 43.88 17 E i g h t h Grade 41.26 44.49* 70 Male 37.99 42.46 34 Female 43.95 46.31 36 * ( F = 28.54 1,62 df p .01) p a r a l l e l i n c o n t e n t and e q u a l i n l e n g t h . The r e s u l t s were a n a l y s e d through c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a c r o s s the p r e -p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d t h e s t u d e n t s tended t o show h i g h e r l e v e l s of study s k i l l awareness. I n s p e c t i o n o f the means i n d i c a t e s t h a t g a i n s d i f f e r e d between sex (male/female) and s u g g e s t i o n s ( g e n e r a l / s p e c i f i c ) . Females tended t o show h i g h e r g a i n s than males and s p e c i f i c sugges-t i o n s tended to show g r e a t e r g a i n than g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s (see T a b l e 4.3). Content a n a l y s i s of the s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s , p r e - 48 -T a b l e 4.3 Pre and P o s t Assessment Means f o r Case S t u d i e s (Student Study S k i l l S u g g e s t i o n s ) G e n e r a l S p e c i f i c T o t a l ass Pre x P o s t X : Pre x P o s t X Pre x P o s t X N 1. Male 3.11 3.33 .778 .778 1.94 2.05 9 Female 2.80 4.20 .700 1.50 1.75 2.85 10 C l a s s 2.95 3.77 .739 1.14 1.84 2.46 19 2. Male 1.63 2.00 .75 .63 1.20 1.32 8 Female 1.70 2.90 .60 2.00 1.15 2.45 10 C l a s s 1.67 2.45 .68 1.31 1.18 1.88 18 3. Male 1.33 2.58 .80 1.30 1.07 1.94 12 Female 1.90 3.10 1.10 1.70 1.50 2.40 10 C l a s s 1.62 2.84 .95 1.50 1.29 2.17 22 4. Male 1.43 2.00 .43 1.43 0.93 1.72 7 Female 2.44 3.00 .44 1.67 1.44 2.34 9 C l a s s 1.95 2.50 .435 1.55 1.19 2.03 16 E i ghth Grade Male 1.88 2.48 .69 1.03 1.29 1.76 36 Female 2.21 3.30 .71 1.72 1.46 2.51 39 C l a s s 2.05 2.89 .70 1.38 1.38 2.14 75 % I n c r e a s e d 57 52 % Same 32 39 % Decreased 11 11 G e n e r a l S u g g e s t i o n : A broad statement which g i v e s no p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n ( study more, do your homework, p l a n t i m e ) . Statement i s vague and g e n e r a l . S p e c i f i c S u g g e s t i o n : A narrower statement which g i v e s a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n ( s t u d y 2 hours each e v e n i n g , l i s t a l l homework). Statement i s c o n c r e t e and s p e c i f i c . - 49 -assessment to p o s t assessment, i n d i c a t e d f o u r major c a t e g o r i e s of s k i l l s w i t h the t o t a l r e s ponse d o u b l i n g (see Appendix H). (B) E v a l u a t i o n Reports ( i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s e s s e d s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n t o the program and i t s c o n t e n t s a c r o s s the p r e and p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d (see Appendix I ) . E i g h t y - o n e s t u d e n t s completed the form and a l l forms were a n a l y s e d . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were computed f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-16 (see T a b l e 4.4) and c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s completed f o r Q u e s t i o n 17-19 (see T a b l e 4.5 and T a b l e 4.6). (a) T a b l e 4.4. T a b l e 4.4 i n d i c a t e s r e s u l t s f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . Responses f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-15 were s o r t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U n c e r t a i n ; D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . Responses f o r Q u e s t i o n 16 were a l s o s o r t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : High; Average; Low. Q u e s t i o n s 1-3 were r e l a t e d t o t h e outcome measures and showed a s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s (average 66%) i n d i c a t e d p o s i t i v e change o c c u r r e d . Q u e s t i o n s 5-11 were r e l a t e d t o program a c t i v i t i e s and s e s s i o n s and showed t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s found the a c t i v i t i e s and s e s s i o n s h e l p f u l . Seven o f the n i n e s e s s i o n s (82%) were e x p e r i e n c e d , by a m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s , as h e l p f u l . Q u e s t i o n s 6a, 8-10, which r e p r e s e n t e d the c e n t r a l s e s s i o n s of the program, were e x p e r i e n c e d by a m a j o r i t y (average 71%) of s t u d e n t s as h e l p f u l . The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s (76%) i n d i c a t e d average i n t e r e s t i n the program. - 50 -T a b l e 4.4 Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Post I n t e r v e n t i o n ) ( P e r c e n t (%) Response to Statements 1-16) 0 s t r o n g l y . s t r o n g l y SA - A - agree; U - u n c e r t a i n ; D - d i s a g r e e SD - ,. 6 3 agree b 6 d i s a g r e e Statement SA/A U D/SD 1. I b e l i e v e my s t u d y h a b i t s have improved. 64 31 5 2. I b e l i e v e I have.made p o s i t i v e changes ( i n c r e a s e d ) i n my p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n . 3. I b e l i e v e I am more aware of my p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards l e a r n i n g . 5. I found the s e s s i o n on " s t u d e n t r o l e s " t o be h e l p f u l . 6. I found the s e s s i o n on " O r i g i n b e h a v i o u r s " t o be h e l p f u l . 6 a . I found " s e t t i n g g o a l s and p l a n n i n g " to be h e l p f u l . 6 b . I found " c h e c k i n g d a i l y p r o g r e s s " t o be h e l p f u l . 7. I found t h e s e s s i o n on "How do I l e a r n " to be h e l p f u l . 8. I found the s e s s i o n on " O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f " to be h e l p f u l . 9. I found the s e s s i o n on " N o t e - t a k i n g " to be h e l p f u l . 10. I found the s e s s i o n on " T a k i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s " t o be h e l p f u l . 11. I found t h e s e s s i o n s on "Achievement S t o r i e s " t o be h e l p f u l . 56 36 8 79 16 4. I have d i s c u s s e d the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program ( a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s ) w i t h my 33 19 48 p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n . 51 27 22 54 22 24 70 14 16 38 37 25 52 28 20 77 14 9 66 14 20 70 14 16 46 22 32 ./con't - 51 -T a b l e 4.4 .../con't Statement SA/A U D/SD 35 28 37 12. I would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a program l i k e t h i s a g a i n . 13. I would recommend t h a t my f r i e n d s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n group l i k e t h i s 45 36 19 one. 14. I would recommend t h a t f u t u r e Grade E i g h t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n 69 21 10 group l i k e t h i s one. 15. I b e l i e v e I would f i n d a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program s i m i l a r to t h i s one 38 31 31 u s e f u l next y e a r . 16. How would you r a t e your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t H i g h Average Low i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program? 13 76 11 (b) T a b l e 4.5. T a b l e 4.5 i n d i c a t e s r e s u l t s f o r Q u e s t i o n 17. The r e s u l t s were summarized through c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . Responses f o r Q u e s t i o n 17 were s o r t e d i n t o seven statement groups r a n g i n g from 'Helped a l o t ' to "Waste of time'. A s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y (90%) of the r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d t h e program was of h e l p ; r a n g i n g from 'a l i t t l e h e l p ' to 'helped a l o t ' . Only n i n e p e r c e n t i n d i -c a t e d the program was of no h e l p a t a l l . Twenty-two p e r c e n t of r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 'though b o r i n g a t times s t i l l u s e f u l ' . The r e s u l t s tended to show t h a t the program was h e l p f u l and had v a r y i n g degrees of impact on the s t u d e n t s . - 52 -T a b l e 4.5 Statements Students would O f f e r to Peers Regarding the Program I n t e r v e n t i o n Statements Frequency 44 Helped a l o t ( s t u d y i n g ; g o a l s ; n o t e - t a k i n g ; t e s t s ; marks; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) . B o r i n g , when not u s e f u l / t h o u g h b o r i n g , made me aware of who i s r e s p o n s i b l e / b o r i n g , but h e l p e d me to e v a l u a t e m y s e l f / d i d n ' t l i k e i t ( b o r i n g ) b u t i t was u s e f u l . Very i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l / f u n / r e a l l y enjoyed i t / hope program l i k e t h i s runs next y e a r . Help somewhat or a l i t t l e / l e a r n e d a few t h i n g s / O.K./ p a r t s O.K., o t h e r s n o t . Not everyone needs i t / d i d n ' t h e l p me much, but!/ O.K. i f you want i t . 35 32 29 11 Something you s h o u l d t r y ! / T r y i t ! 7 B o r i n g / d u l l / w a s t e o f time/mixes you up. 4 T o t a l Response 162 ( S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s l i s t e d more than one response w h i l e a l l s t u d e n t s responded a t l e a s t once.) (c) T a b l e 4.6. T a b l e 4.6 was a l s o summarized through c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . The s m a l l e r number of r e s p o n s e s a l l o w e d a l l statements to be i n c l u d e d w i t h l i m i t e d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . R e s u l t s a r e i n d i c a t e d f o r Q u e s t i o n s 18-20. S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t of the A d d i t i o n s was the - 53 -r e q u e s t f o r more group d i s c u s s i o n s / c a s e s t u d i e s ( 5 7 % ) . S i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e D e l e t i o n s was the d e c r e a s e / e l i m i n a t i o n of Achievement S t o r i e s ( 6 5 % ) . Concerns v a r i e d w i t h a m i x t u r e of statements h e l p f u l i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of program m o d i f i c a t i o n s . The Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s showed t h a t ( i ) ' a m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s tended to i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e change on the outcome measures ( i i ) a m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s found the s e s s i o n s h e l p f u l ( i i i ) a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s found the c e n t r a l s e s s i o n s h e l p f u l ( i v ) a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s had average i n t e r e s t d u r i n g the program (v) a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d the program be c o n t i n u e d f o r f u t u r e grade e i g h t s . ( i i ) Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( F o l l o w - u p ) . The s t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up) a s s e s s e d s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n s to the programs and i t s c o n t e n t s from p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n through to the end of the academic y e a r ; a f o u r month p e r i o d (see Appendix J ) . E i g h t y s t u d e n t s completed a l l or p a r t of the form and a l l forms were a n a l y s e d . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were computed f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-14 (see T a b l e 4.7) and c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s was completed f o r Q u e s t i o n s 15-16 (see T a b l e 4.8 and T a b l e 4.9). No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s ponse was r e c e i v e d f o r Q u e s t i o n 17 and thus i t was not i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t s . (a) T a b l e 4.7. T a b l e 4.7 i n d i c a t e s r e s u l t s f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . Responses f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-11 were s o r t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U n c e r t a i n ; D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . Q u e s t i o n 12 was a l s o s o r t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : H i g h ; Average; Low, as were Q u e s t i o n s 13-14; I n c r e a s e d ; Same; Decreased. - 54 -Student Statements on Course D e l e t i o n s , A d d i t i o n s and Concerns T a b l e 4.6 Statements Frequency  A d d i t i o n s : More group e x e r c i s e s ( D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e s ) 13 More case s t u d i e s / o r a l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s 7 P e r s o n a l t o p i c s (drugs, b i r t h c o n t r o l , con-f l i c t s , c l a s s b e h a v i o u r s , c h i l d abuse) ^ More time/more spread out 4 More on s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e / d e t e r m i n a t i o n 2 E x c i t e m e n t ! 2 T o t a l 35 D e l e t i o n s : D e c r e a s e / e l i m i n a t e Achievement S t o r i e s 15 D a i l y P r o g r e s s Checks 5 L e s s t i m e / s h o r t e r c o u r s e 2 Exam t a k i n g 1 T o t a l 23 Other: Good the way i t i s T o t a l 8 TOTAL 66 (n = 50 of 81) Concerns: Slow/Boring a t t i m e s / t o o much time 8 W i l l t h e r e be something l i k e t h i s next year? 6 How does c o u r s e r e l a t e t o E n g l i s h marks? 5 Too much paper work. 5 Over my head a t t i m e s / t o o f a s t . 4 I do t h e s e t h i n g s a l r e a d y - not much h e l p . 4 Does i t have to be E n g l i s h ? 1 How do I c o n t i n u e on my own? 1 TOTAL 34 Cn = 28 of .81) ( S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s l i s t e d more than one r e s p o n s e . Not a l l s t u d e n t s gave a response.) - 55 -Q u e s t i o n s 1-4, which were r e l a t e d t o outcome measures, had weakened ove r time but s t i l l tended t o be r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g . On t h e two pri m a r y outcome measures, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t a k i n g (58%) and study s k i l l improvement (47 % ) , a near m a j o r i t y or g r e a t e r tended to show p o s i t i v e movement. P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n (39%) weakened a t an e q u a l r a t e w i t h the o t h e r s . The s t r o n g e s t r e s u l t s o f the f o l l o w - u p , and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o s t e v a l u a t i o n , were Q u e s t i o n s 5-10. These q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s e s s i o n s of the program. F i v e o f the s i x s e s s i o n s (83%) were r e p o r t e d as 'thought about and worked on' from a range o f ' o n c e / t w i c e - r e g u l a r l y ' by a s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s (average 74%).. The weakest s e s s i o n (.47%) neared m a j o r i t y i n v o l v e m e n t . P e r s o n a l e f f o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t , w i t h some s l i p p a g e from h i g h through t o low, r e t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s (76%) a t average. N i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t of s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r an i n c r e a s e (35%) or no change (.61%) i n p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e the post e v a l u a t i o n p e r i o d ; n i n e t y -e i g h t p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r an i n c r e a s e (40%) o r no change (58%) i n p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f o l l o w - u p r e s u l t s tended to show some weakening of p o s t e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . However, outcome r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s (48%) neared a m a j o r i t y i n p o s i t i v e g a i n s and s e s s i o n u s e f u l n e s s tended t o show c o n t i n u e d h i g h l e v e l s of p o s i t i v i t y . (b) T a b l e 4.8. T a b l e 4.8 was summarized through c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and i n d i c a t e d r e s u l t s f o r Q u e s t i o n 15. Responses were s o r t e d i n t o e i g h t g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s . Student awareness was f o c u s e d m o s t l y on s t u d y i n g (.exams/note-taking) and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - 56 -T a b l e 4.7 Student E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Follow-up: 4 Months) (P e r c e n t (.%) Response to E v a l u a t i o n Statements 1-14) Statement SA/A U D/SD (SA/A - S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U - U n c e r t a i n ; D/SD - D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) 1. I b e l i e v e my study h a b i t s have improved as a r e s u l t o f my e x p e r i e n c e i n the program. 2. I b e l i e v e my grades a r e improved as a r e s u l t o f me a p p l y i n g what I have l e a r n e d i n the program. 3. I b e l i e v e I have t a k e n g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g s i n c e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4. I b e l i e v e I am more p e r s o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d as a r e s u l t o f my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e program. (SA/A - Thought about i t and worked on i t r e g u l a r l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , once or t w i c e ; U - T h o u g h t about i t but d i d n ' t work on i t ; D/SD-Have not thought about i t / n o t worked on i t . 47 32 21 35 26 39 58 28 14 39 35 26 5. O r i g i n B e h a v i o u r s 72 12 16 6. S e t t i n g Goals and P l a n n i n g 77 14 9 7. Checking D a i l y P r o g r e s s / P e r s o n a l Feedback 47 30 23 8. O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f 84 7 9 9. N o t e - t a k i n g Methods 64 17 19 10. T a k i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s 74 14 12 11. J o u r n a l W r i t i n g 42 20 38 (H - High; A - Average; L - Low) H A L 12. P e r s o n a l e f f o r t and involvement i n the use o f study s k i l l s d i s c u s s e d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n the program. 9 77 14 (+) I n c r e a s e d ; (0) Same; (-) Decreased (+) (0) (-) 13. P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e program c o m p l e t i o n . 35 61 4 14. P e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i n c e program completion. 40 58 2 - 57 -(goal setting/organizing). The remaining statements i n the l i s t could, because of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , be collapsed into these two statements. Student awareness, a f t e r the four month follow-up period, tended to show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to program outcome measures (see Tables 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3). (c) Table 4.9. Table 4.9 was assessed through content analysis and indicated r e s u l t s for Question 16. Again, responses were sorted into eight general statements and the most useful aspects of the program tended to show consistency with what students were most aware of. Studying (exam taking/note-taking) and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (goal setting/organization) were indicated as the most useful aspects of the program since program completion. Student responses to program s e s s i o n s / s k i l l s , four months following program, tended to show a s i g n f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to program outcome measures (see Tables 4.1, 4.2, 4.3). The Student Evaluation Questionnaire (Follow-up) r e s u l t s showed that ( i ) with expected slippage a moderate majority of students continued to indicate p o s i t i v e gains, or at l e a s t s t a b i l i t y , on the outcome measures ( i i ) a s i g n i f i c a n t majority of students tended to f i n d the sessions of p r a c t i c a l value and had worked on the s k i l l s from the sessions ( i i i ) a s i g n f i c a n t majority of students maintained average i n t e r e s t and involvement with the program content (iv) student awareness tended to be translated into p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n two primary areas: Studying (exam taking/note-taking) and Responsbility (goal setting/organizing) (v) a reasonable, l a s t i n g , a f t e r program e f f e c t occurred. - 58 -T a b l e 4.8 Student Statements of Awareness from Program Completion t o Year End (Four Months) Statements Frequency T a k i n g Exams/Studying 46 T a k i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y / P l a n n i n g / G o a l S e t t i n g 39 O r i g i n B e h a v i o u r s / T r y i n g M o r e / L i s t e n i n g O r g a n i z i n g M y s e l f 21 Not e - T a k i n g 21 My Own A b i l i t i e s 13 Completing Homework 10 An Improved A t t i t u d e To S c h o o l 9 J o u r n a l W r i t i n g 4 T o t a l 163 (n = 63 of 80) - 59 -T a b l e 4.9 Student Statements of Most U s e f u l A s p e c t s of Program (From Program Completion to Year End - Four Months) Statements T a k i n g Exams/Studying Note-Taking O r g a n i z i n g S k i l l s G o a l S e t t i n g / P l a n n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y D i s c u s s i o n s / O r i g i n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s D i s c u s s i o n / L i s t e n i n g S k i l l s J o u r n a l W r i t i n g P e r s o n a l E v a l u a t i o n T o t a l Frequency 34 34 20 11 9 7 5 2 122 (n = 57 of 80) - 60 -( i i i ) P a r e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The P a r e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s e s s e d p a r e n t r e a c t i o n / o b s e r v a t i o n of the program i n t e r v e n t i o n . An i n t r o d u c t i o n l e t t e r and program summary were e n c l o s e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o p a r e n t s (see Appendix K ) . T h i r t y - s i x p a r e n t s responded (.46%) . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d s t r o n g enough to use the r e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r o u g h l y o n e - t h i r d (33%) of the p a r e n t s tended to view t h e i r c h i l d r e n as i n c r e a s i n g i n p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n and study s k i l l s / h a b i t s (see T a b l e 4.10). S i m i l a r l y , o n e - t h i r d (33%) i n d i c a t e d a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n the program on the p a r t of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F i f t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d a t r e n d toward g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . P a r e n t a l s u p p o r t of the program was s t r o n g w i t h s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t recommending the program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e grade e i g h t c l a s s e s . (Only t h r e e p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d c l e a r disagreement.) The r e s u l t s tended t o show, i n support o f p r e v i o u s d a t a , t h a t s t u d e n t s were t e n d i n g t o make moderate p o s i t i v e movement to h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and study s k i l l s / h a b i t a c q u i s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e r e s u l t s tended t o show support f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e program. ( i v ) Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s e s s e d s t a f f ( t e a c h e r s who taught the f o u r p r i m a r y academic s u b j e c t s p l u s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ) r e a c t i o n s / o b s e r v a t i o n s of the program i n t e r v e n t i o n . Forms were d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d p e r s o n a l l y by the a u t h o r (see Appendix L ) . A l l twelve q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d (100%). D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were computed f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-6 (see T a b l e 4.11) and c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s completed f o r Q u e s t i o n s 7-10 (see T a b l e 4.12). - 61 -T a b l e 4.10 Pa r e n t E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Post I n t e r v e n t i o n ) ( P e r c e n t (%) Response to Statements 1-8) Statements SA/A JJ_ D/SD (SA - S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U - U n c e r t a i n ; D/SD - D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) 1. My c h i l d has shown a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. 3. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s s t u d y s k i l l s and h a b i t s . 4. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n . I would recommend s i m i l a r programs be o f f e r e d i n o t h e r g r a d e s . 36 42 22 My c h i l d has d i s c u s s e d w i t h me (us) some of the a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s of the 70 8 22 study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. 33 31 36 39 36 25 5. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward r e s p o n - 53 31 16 s i b i l i t y . 6. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i - , n „, „ 61 36 3 v a t i o n program t o o t h e r p a r e n t s . 7. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i -v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e 69 28 3 Grade 8 c l a s s e s . 61 33 6 (n = 36 o f 80) - 62 -(a) T a b l e 4.11. T a b l e 4.11 I n d i c a t e s d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1-6. Responses were s o r t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U n c e r t a i n ; D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e , w i t h Q u e s t i o n 5 (a,b,c) f u r t h e r s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f : Most, Many, S e v e r a l , Some, Few, None. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d ( i ) t e a c h e r s overwhelmingly supported the concept and recommended c o n t i n u a t i o n of the program ( i i ) s t u d e n t t r a n s f e r e n c e of i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e -ment was not o p e n l y d i s p l a y e d and e v i d e n c e s of program ( m a t e r i a l s ) was m i n i m a l i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s ( i i i ) f i f t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t l e a s t some of t h e i r s t u d e n t s tended t o show p o s i t i v e change and/or improvement. (b) T a b l e 4.12. T a b l e 4.12 i n d i c a t e s c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s f o r Q u e s t i o n s 7-10. S i n c e the r e s p o n s e s were s m a l l i n number a l l were i n c l u d e d w i t h no c a t e g o r i z a t i o n or c o l l a p s i n g . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e ( i ) t e a c h e r support f o r the program ( i i ) c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r program m o d i f i c a t i o n ( S t a f f / C o u n s e l l o r communi-c a t i o n s ) . (C) P r o c e s s I n d i c a t o r s ( i ) Student Achievement S t o r i e s . The Student Achievement S t o r i e s were s t o r i e s s t u d e n t s wrote a p p r o x i m a t e l y every second s e s s i o n . The s t u d e n t s generated achievement r e l a t e d words or were g i v e n such words and then wrote on an a s s i g n e d t o p i c r e l a t e d to t r y i n g and b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l (see Appendix A; Appendix N). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h each of the f i r s t t h r e e s u c c e s -s i v e s t o r i e s s t u d e n t s tended to show g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t , i n volvement - 63 -T a b l e 4.11 Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Post I n t e r v e n t i o n ) ( P e r c e n t (.%) Response to Statements 1-6) Statement SA/A U D/SD (SA/A - S t r o n g l y Agree/Agree; U - U n c e r t a i n ; D/SD - D i s a g r e e / S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) 1. I am aware t h a t a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program was o f f e r e d t o the e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . 2. I am g l a d t h a t a program a t t e m p t i n g t o enhance m o t i v a t i o n and study s k i l l s i s b e i n g implemented i n the s c h o o l w i t h t h e e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . 3. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . 4. I f e e l a program such as the one d i s c u s s e d above would be u s e f u l i n o t h e r g r a d e s . 5. I am aware of Grade 8 s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e -ment i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. *For r e s p o n s e s 5a; 5b; 5c; n = 8 of 12 (67%) 92 92 8 100 83 17 67 25 Most Many S e v e r a l Some Few None (20+) (10+) (6-10) (3-6) (1-3) 5a. Students have d i s c u s s e d t h e program w i t h me. 5b. I have seen s t u d e n t _ m a t e r i a l s of the program. 5c. I have n o t i c e d changes ( e f f o r t towards change/ improvement) i n s t u d e n t s i n the p a s t s i x weeks. 6. I doubt i f the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program w i l l r e a l l y a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e . 8 8 12 42 17 75 25 50 42 58 (n = 12 of 12) - 64 -T a b l e 4.12 Teacher Statements of Program: Comments to P e e r s ; Program S u g g e s t i o n s ; P e r s o n a l Concerns Statements Comments to Peers 1. Good - Taught i n " G u i d a n c e / E n g l i s h . " 2. S t r o n g l y agree w i t h i t - v a l u a b l e . 3. Keep i t i n Grade 8. 4. Much needed program - must be concerned w i t h m o t i v a t i o n . 5. Worthwhile endeavour. 6. Might h e l p to o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s . 7. I t i s c r i t i c a l . 8. I t i s n e c e s s a r y - d i f f i c u l t f o r me to m o t i v a t e ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n how t o s t u d y . 9. C e r t a i n l y a w o r t h w h i l e g o a l - I wonder i f i t i s not too l a t e ; p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d . Program S u g g e s t i o n s 1. I f o n l y m o t i v a t e s a few - worth the e f f o r t . 2. I n t e g r a t e more w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s . 3. Xerox an example of m a t e r i a l s f o r s t a f f . 4. I n s e r v i c e f o r t e a c h e r s w i t h Grade 8's. 5. P u b l i c i z e o b j e c t i v e s so more m o n i t o r i n g a c r o s s e n t i r e c o u r s e spectrum can o c c u r . P e r s o n a l Concerns 1. Where/when to be taught - s t a f f i n p u t ! 2. R e s u l t s w i l l not be implemented. 3. I n c l u d e some s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s - concerned the v a l u e becomes t i e d t o s t u d y s k i l l s ( f a d ) w h i l e MOTIVATION i s r e a l i s s u e . 4. L i t t l e p u b l i c i t y . . /con't T a b l e 4.12 ..,/con't A d d i t i o n a l Comments 1. N o t i c e d a l a r g e change i n a t t i t u d e o f Grade 8's i n t h i s l a s t month. P a r t i a l l y time of y e a r , m a t u r i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n - but the type of t h i n k i n g and r e f l e c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n a take charge program of one's study h a b i t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d . 2. Very w o r t h w h i l e v e n t u r e ! Appears over l a s t 3-6 weeks my S.S. 8 c l a s s e s have been d o i n g s l i g h t l y b e t t e r on q u i z e s and t e s t s . Program? E a s i e r T e s t s ? and c o m p l e t i o n , a peak o c c u r r e d a t s t o r y t h r e e . Though s t o r i e s f o u r and f i v e d e c l i n e d from the peak at s t o r y t h r e e the average words used s t a b i l i z e d (Average 7.2 Words) and more i m p o r t a n t l y t h e number o f s t o r i e s completed remained m o d e r a t e l y h i g h (60%) compared t o s t o r y one and two (see T a b l e 4.13). The r e s u l t s tended to show i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t w i t h s u c c e s s i v e s e s s i o n s . ( i i ) What I Have Learned... . What I Have Learned i n o r out of s c h o o l s i n c e t h i s c o u r s e s t a r t e d i s ... p r o v i d e d an open-ended measure of s t u d e n t involvement and l e a r n i n g (see Appendix M). Though numbered o n l y to seven, s t u d e n t s were t o l d they c o u l d l i s t as many t h i n g s as they f e l t was n e c e s s a r y . A l l s t u d e n t s responded a t l e a s t once, w i t h most p r o v i d i n g t h r e e or more items (see T a b l e 4.14). An i n s p e c t i o n o f the statements i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y f i v e p e r c e n t were r e l a t e d t o a r e a s d i r e c t l y e x t e r n a l t o s c h o o l . The s t u d e n t statements tended to show a s i g n i f i c a n t f r e q u e n c y towards the two p r i m a r y outcome measures of study s k i l l s p r o g r e s s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t a k i n g : a l l statements g r e a t e r than f r e q u e n c y t e n r e l a t e d t o t h e s e - 66 -T a b l e 4.13 Student Achievement S t o r i e s S t o r y 1 2 3 4 5 Completed (of 85) 27 39 66 55 51 % 32 46 78 65 60 x Achievement Word Used 5.1 7.0 8.1 7.6 7.2 (Re f e r to Appendix N f o r sample of s t o r i e s ) T a b l e 4.14 What I Have Learned In or Out of S c h o o l S i n c e T h i s Course S t a r t e d I s ... C l a s s N x Responses 1 19 4.00 2 15 3.46 3 21 3.11 4 18 3.14 E i g h t h Grade 73 3.43 (The t o t a l r e s ponse was 251. Responses not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o school/program s k i l l s was 11 ( 5 % ) . R e f e r to Appendix M f o r complete l i s t o f statements.) - 67 -two c a t e g o r i e s (see Appendix M). The r e s u l t s tended to show sup p o r t f o r p r e v i o u s outcome measures and e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s , which tended to show s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e g a i n s a c r o s s p r e -p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d and moderating l e v e l s of p o s i t i v i t y i n the f o u r month f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d . ( i i i ) A t t e n d a n c e . A ttendance was computed a c r o s s the p r e -p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d and d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were c a l c u l a t e d (see T a b l e 4.15). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t e n d a n c e was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h pre assessment through to p o s t assessment. A l l s t u d e n t s had been t o l d the program was not mandatory w i t h no l o s s o f marks i f w i t h d r a w a l was chosen. Only t h r e e (4%) chose t o not p a r t i c i p a t e . Two o t h e r s d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e , one due to s i c k n e s s and the o t h e r due t o a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r . T a b l e 4.15 Pre and Post Assessment of A ttendance C l a s s Pre x (Term 1) % Attendance P o s t X (Term 2) % A t t e n d a n c e N 1 65.5 96 59.2 94 20 2 65.0 96 61.1 97 18 3 64.8 95 59.0 94 22 4 64.0 94 59.3 94 20 E i g h t h Grade 64.9 95 59.7 95 80 (Pre a t t e n d a n c e t o t a l d a y s = 6 8 ; P o s t a t t e n d a n c e t o t a l d a y s = 6 3 . F i v e s t u d e n t s dropped out of program: One f o r a t t i t u d e / d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r , Three by p e r s o n a l r e q u e s t , and One f o r s i c k n e s s . ) - 68 -( i v ) Student E f f o r t . Student e f f o r t , r e c o r d e d by s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s i n n i n e c o u r s e s and e n t e r e d on the o f f i c i a l s c h o o l r e c o r d , was computed p r e assessment (term 1) and p o s t assessment (term 2 ) . The e f f o r t was s o r t e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : G o o d / S a t i s f a c t o r y ; Needs Improvement. Each s u b j e c t was a s s i g n e d one p o i n t f o r a t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e of n i n e . I n s p e c t i o n of the mean s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e between sex (male/female) e x i s t e d (see T a b l e 4.16). Males tended t o s c o r e lower than females b o t h p r e and p o s t a s s e s s -ment but tended to show s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of e f f o r t improvement a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . Females tended to s c o r e h i g h e r than males b o t h p r e and post assessment but tended to show d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f e f f o r t p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . (v) Grade P o i n t Average (GPA). GPA was a s s e s s e d p r e and p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n (Term 1 and Term 2) u s i n g marks e n t e r e d i n t o the o f f i c i a l s c h o o l r e c o r d . The f o u r main academic s u b j e c t s p l u s one e l e c t i v e were used i n computing the GPA. An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , w i t h f a c t o r s o f sex (male/female) and c l a s s ( 1 - 4 ) , was computed w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n time p e r i o d (Dixon 1981). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n GPA a c r o s s the p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d (see Appendix 0 ) . However, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between GPA and sex (male/female) a c r o s s p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d (p .01). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between GPA and c l a s s o r GPA, sex and c l a s s . I n s p e c t i o n of the means i n d i c a t e d males tended to move to a h i g h e r l e v e l o f GPA - 69 -T a b l e 4.16 Pre and P o s t Assessment R a t i n g s of Student E f f o r t f o r Nine Courses C l a s s Pre x (Term 1) Po s t X (Term 2) G/S N G/S N 1 Male 4.9 4.1 6.7 2.4 (n = 11) Female 8.67 .33 8.0 1.0 (n = 9) C l a s s 6.6 2.4 7.25 1.75 (n = 20) 2 Male 5.4 3.6 6.25 2.75 (n = 8) Female 7.0 2.0 7.7 1.3 (n = 10) C l a s s 6.2 2.8 7.0 2.0 (n = 18) 3 Male 6.9 2.1 7.0 2.0 (n = 14) Female 8.6 .4 7.9 1.1 (n = 12) C l a s s 7.7 1.3 7.45 1.55 (n = 26) 4 Male 6.1 2.9 6.6 2.4 (n = 8) Female 7.8 1.2 7.4 1.6 (n = 12) C l a s s 7.1 1.9 7.0 2.0 (n = 20) E i g h t h Grade 6.9 2.1 7.2 1.8 (n = 84) Male 5.8 3.2 6.6 2.4 (n = 41) Female 8.0 .98 7.8 1.3 (n = 43) (G/S - G o o d / S a t i s f a c t o r y ; N - Needs Improvement. Scores taken from s t u d e n t r e p o r t s as i s s u e d by s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s . ) - 70 -w h i l e females tended t o show d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f GPA. However, the means a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t females tended t o show d e c r e a s e d s c o r e s w i t h i n the h i g h e r range of GPA w h i l e males tended to show t h e i r g r e a t e r g a i n s i n the lower to moderate range o f GPA. T a b l e 4.17 Pre and P o s t Assessment f o r Grade P o i n t Average Means (Term 1/Term 2) C l a s s Term 1 (Pre x) Term 2 (Post x) N Male Female C l a s s 13.7 21.7 17.7 14.5 19.0 16.8 14 12 26 Male Female C l a s s 13.4 20.6 17.0 13.9 19.0 16.5 8 11 19 Male Female C l a s s 11.4 21.8 16.6 13.4 20.8 17.1 11 10 21 Male Female C l a s s E i g h t h Grade Male Female 9.11 16.4 12.8 16.0 11.9 20.1 10.1 15.4 12.8 15.8 13.0 18.6 10 19 85 41 44 - 71 -CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the l o c u s of c o n t r o l of s t u d e n t s (enhancement of i n t e r n a l e x p e c t a n c y / d i m i n i s h e d e x t e r n a l expectancy) a c r o s s the program i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d and a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s (study s k i l l s and h a b i t s ) a c r o s s the program i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . Locus of c o n t r o l and s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t a c r o s s the program i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d f o r sex (male/female) and c l a s s ( 2 - 4 ) . F u r t h e r , l o c u s of c o n t r o l was not i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o v a r i a t e grade p o i n t average: l o c u s of c o n t r o l m a i n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e a c r o s s s t u d e n t grade p o i n t a v e r a g e s . In a d d i t i o n t o these changes i n p o s i t i v i t y t h e r e were a l s o p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s f o r a l l t h r e e groups i n v o l v e d ( s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s ) . These p a r t i c i p a n t s showed s i m i l a r outcome p a t t e r n s f o r s t u d e n t g a i n s and program s u p p o r t . (1) I n c r e a s e d awareness of l o c u s of c o n t r o l (2) Student p r o g r e s s i n study s k i l l s / h a b i t s (3) A needed program (4) Support f o r and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f program (5) S u g g e s t i o n s f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n / i m p l e m e n t a t i o n The p r o c e s s i n d i c a t o r s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d the outcome - 72 -and e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . T o g ether, the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e measures s u p p o r t the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t embedding m o t i v a t i o n c o n c e p t s , e s p e c i a l l y the c o n n e c t i o n between s t r i v i n g and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , i n t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r m a t e r i a l (study s k i l l s ) was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing s t u d e n t s l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s i n study s k i l l s and h a b i t s . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s There a r e a number of f a c t o r s t h a t q u a l i f y and l i m i t the s i g n i -f i c a n c e and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , the o v e r - a l l d e s i g n s t r e s s e d p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l approach s t r e s s e d (1) the i n d i v i d u a l and s i t u a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t the s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s v a l u e d f o r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r a c t i o n . L e s s c o n c e r n i s p l a c e d i n g e n e r a t i n g u n i v e r s a l laws and g e n e r a l i z i n g the laws a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s and s i t u a t i o n s (2) non-dependence on a s i n g l e c r u c i a l experiment. I n s t e a d , f i e l d r e s e a r c h depends on a c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t (3) the u t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n as p r i m a r y and summative e v a l u a t i o n as secondary. T h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d by d e s i g n . S e c o n d l y , the p o p u l a t i o n sample, a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n c h a r a c t e r , r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y one s c h o o l i n a r u r a l , B r i t i s h Columbian s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and the r e s u l t o b t a i n e d were t h e r e f o r e measures of a narrow s t u d e n t group. T h i r d l y , the program was d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group (age/grade) i n mind and the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d by a p o s s i b l e c o h o r t e f f e c t e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h a t group. - 73 -A l s o , the s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s were l i m i t e d i n number and the range and number of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t they encompassed. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t s e l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s or g r e a t e r or l e s s e r number of s e s s i o n s c o u l d have produced g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degrees of g a i n s i n t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d . Furthermore, the study was d e s i g n e d , i m p l e -mented and e v a l u a t e d by an i n v o l v e d c o u n s e l l o r . The d a t a o b t a i n e d i s p o s s i b l y l i m i t e d by n o n - d e l i b e r a t e i n s t r u c t o r b i a s and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r ( s ) c o u l d have produced g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degrees of g a i n s i n the d a t a o b t a i n e d . The r e s u l t s a r e f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by the e f f e c t o f n o v e l t y and/or d i s r u p t i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the program c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d i s d i f f e r e n t from the i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t s n o r m a l l y r e c e i v e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e the l i m i t a t i o n s due t o t e s t i n g and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . As the t e s t s i n the s t u d y were i d e n t i c a l pre and p o s t assessment i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s t u d e n t s became ' t e s t - w i s e ' and improvements c o u l d have been the r e s u l t o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p r e t e s t s . S i m i l a r l y , w i t h s t u d e n t , p a r e n t and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s , where s e l f - r e p o r t methods were u t i l i z e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s u b j e c t s were d i s p o s e d t o g i v e more f a v o r a b l e r a t i n g s s i m p l y because they 'expect' or 'want' change t o o c c u r . Commentary on the Program The e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n t h i s has been c o n s i d e r a b l e . I t would be a major weakness to p r e s e n t , d i s c u s s and summarize the summative or e x t e r n a l d a t a o b t a i n e d and n e g l e c t the f o r m a t i v e o r i n t e r n a l - 74 -d a t a o b t a i n e d from the program. A p r i m a r y f o c u s of the study has been the u t i l i z a t i o n of f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n or perhaps b e t t e r des-c r i b e d i n t h i s study as a c t i v e - r e a c t i v e - a d a p t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ( P a t t o n 1978); (1) an attempt to d i s c o v e r what a program i s d o i n g (2) where i t i s g o i n g (3) how i t c o u l d be improved (4) what i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed to reduce u n c e r t a i n t y about program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e f f e c t s . The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n proceeds from these p o i n t s . A most u s e f u l a s p e c t of the program, which was not e v i d e n t or c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e d e s i g n , was t h e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n and awareness i t p r o v i d e d about the s t u d e n t s . I t s use and p o s s i b i l i -t i e s as an assessment method w i t h incoming grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s became i n c r e a s i n g l y more apparent w i t h each s u c c e s s i v e s e s s i o n . Only a f t e r t h e program was completed and a n a l y s i s was i n p r o g r e s s d i d i t become e v i d e n t how v a l u a b l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and time spent had been. Through the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , s i x f u l l weeks a t two hours a week, the a u t h o r had become more aware of and more i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h i s e i g h t h grade p o p u l a t i o n than any o t h e r i n t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r y e a r s . Not o n l y does t h i s p r o -v i d e s t u d e n t a c c e s s f o r t h e remainder of t h e y e a r but p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r the r e m a i n i n g f o u r y e a r s w i t h those s t u d e n t s t h a t remain i n the s c h o o l . So not o n l y d i d the program enhance s t u d e n t l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s t u d e n t study s k i l l s i t a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o u n s e l l o r ! A second unexpected r e s u l t o f t h e program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n ; p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e program and t h o s e o u t s i d e the program. A p a r t from t h e i r overwhelming support and c o n s t r u c t i v e comments towards the program was t h e i r p o s i t i v e - 75 -i n t e r e s t a t s e e i n g c o u n s e l l i n g ' o c c u r r i n g . ' C e r t a i n l y i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l f o r t e a c h e r s to view c o u n s e l l i n g as o c c u r r i n g 'behind c l o s e d d o o r s ' and to j o k e about the use and f o c u s of c o u n s e l l i n g time. However, i t has been the e x p e r i e n c e of the a u t h o r t h a t much of the j o k i n g r e f l e c t s t r u e , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s o f t e n d e v e l o p e d and s u s t a i n e d through m i s p e r c e p t i o n and n o n - c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n of t h i s program appeared to l e s s e n those f e e l i n g s c o n s i d e r a b l y , c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s (1) to show the s t a f f c o u n s e l -l i n g i n a c t i o n (2) t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s to ask about the program and d i a l o g u e about i t and c o u n s e l l i n g (3) f o r t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h those i n t e r e s t e d i n how they c o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h and/or i n t e g r a t e the program g o a l s . Student assessment and t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n were two s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ; two r e s u l t s which w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t i n a d j u s t i n g the program f o r the next c y c l e . Another i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n r e l a t e d to p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d s t u d e n t a c t i v i t y . The d e s i g n of the program appeared t o be f o c u s e d enough to r e t a i n most s t u d e n t s a t t a s k y e t a d e q u a t e l y v a r i e d i n s t r u c t u r e to a l l o w independent p u r s u a l of l e a r n i n g ; i n o t h e r words, s t u d e n t s enjoyed or a t l e a s t d i d n ' t r e s e n t p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s and they took from them the t h i n g s ( s ) they needed most. T h i s s u b j e c t i v e view i s s u p p o r t e d when a r e v i e w of Appendix M i s u n d e r t a k e n . T h i s was p l e a s i n g , as a major d e c i s i o n i n t h e d e s i g n was to l i m i t 'content from on h i g h ' and i n s t e a d empha-s i z e ' l e a r n i n g about one's own l e a r n i n g s t y l e . ' T h i s appears to have o c c u r r e d a c r o s s a wide range; l e a r n e d l i t t l e / n o n e to l e a r n e d a l o t . The amount of l e a r n i n g i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d to q u a n t i t y but a l s o q u a l i t y . Such q u a l i t y improvement was most - 76 -e v i d e n t w i t h the case s t u d i e s and achievement s t o r i e s . D u r i n g c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i t was e v i d e n t t h a t i n many cases where a c t u a l i n c r e a s e s of r e s p o n s e s had not o c c u r r e d (and i n those where i n c r e a s e s d i d o c c u r ) c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y o f r e s p o n s e s o c c u r r e d . F o r example, whether p o s t case study r e s p o n s e s i n c r e a s e d or n o t , they showed more complete s e n t e n c e s , c l e a r e r statements and g e n e r a l l y more o r g a n i z e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t i v e t h a t q u a l i t y , as w e l l as q u a n t i t y , made g a i n s . R e l a t e d to t h i s was the d i f f e r e n c e between females and males. The outcome measures i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h sexes made g a i n s a c r o s s t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . However, i t was e v i d e n t d u r i n g the p r o c e s s and s u b s e q u e n t l y d u r i n g a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s t h a t the males tended to show g r e a t e r a p p l i c a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n c r e a s e d awareness of study s k i l l s and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . T h i s may be due t o the f a c t t h a t the males had a much g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r movement ( s c o r i n g r e l a t i v e l y low on GPA and e f f o r t ) w h i l e the females had much l e s s room f o r movement ( s c o r i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h on GPA and e f f o r t ) . What o f program improvements and m o d i f i c a t i o n s ? A number o f s u g g e s t i o n s were made by p a r t i c i p a n t s and c e r t a i n f a c t o r s were e v i d e n t to the a u t h o r d u r i n g and a f t e r the p r o c e s s . A common o b s e r v a t i o n of the p r i m a r y p a r t i c i p a n t s , s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r , was program l e n g t h . The d e s i g n of the study and the s c h o o l ' s term system r e q u i r e d t h e program be implemented i n the second term, which was th e s h o r t e s t term at e i g h t f u l l weeks; a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r months i n t o the s c h o o l y e a r . T h i s meant between two and t h r e e s e s s i o n s a week, dependent on o t h e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and unplanned i n t e r r u p t i o n s ( l i k e power f a i l u r e s and b a s k e t b a l l games), - 77 -which tended t o be too rushed f o r most s t u d e n t s . The coming y e a r the program w i l l be implemented i n September, where i n t e r e s t may be g r e a t e r and c e r t a i n l y the program w i l l be more immediately u s e f u l , and o n l y one s e s s i o n a week w i l l be p r e s e n t e d over a p e r i o d of twelve t o t h i r t e e n weeks. T h i s w i l l a l s o a l l o w f o r e a r l i e r assessment o f s t u d e n t s . A f u r t h e r advantage w i l l be a more a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e g r a -t i o n w i t h E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . A f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l be the a d d i t i o n of one o r two s e s s i o n s on g o a l s . I t was e v i d e n t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the g o a l -s e t t i n g s e s s i o n s t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r had o v e r - e s t i m a t e d the a b i l i t y of the s t u d e n t s . With the a d d i t i o n o f more s t r u c t u r e d s e s s i o n s on g o a l s i t i s l i k e l y t h a t more and s t r o n g e r g a i n s can be made by s t u d e n t s . I t i s a l s o important t o pr o c e e d s l o w l y i n the b e g i n n i n g and a n t i c i p a t e l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or m o t i v a t i o n . Though t h i s can be f r u s t r a t i n g and d i s c o u r a g i n g w i t h i n a s e s s i o n o r two i n t e r e s t b e g i n s to accumulate. The slow b u i l d - u p of i n t e r e s t , and c o o p e r a t i o n , was a l s o e v i d e n t i n group work. In s e s s i o n s one through s i x s t u d e n t s were slow to get to t a s k and f u n c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l y . However, s e s -s i o n s seven t h r o u g h twelve i n d i c a t e d s u c c e s s i v e development i n group c o h e s i o n and t a s k c o m p l e t i o n . An a c t i v i t y which was dropped from the program, due t o non-invo l v e m e n t a t the f i r s t attempt and l a t e r to save time, was the d i s c u s s i o n c i r c l e s (see Appendix A, S e s s i o n 4 ) . However, b o t h i n st u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s and i n p e r s o n , numerous s t u d e n t s i n d i -c a t e d they would l i k e t o see the d i s c u s s i o n c i r c l e s c o n t i n u e d and/or group d i s c u s s i o n s i n c r e a s e d . The s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the problem had been shyness and/or f e a r a t something new and d i f f e r e n t . As a - 7 8 -r e s u l t i t w i l l be implemented i n September and g i v e n more o p p o r t u n i t y to d e v e l o p . A second a c t i v i t y f o r which g r e a t e r e f f o r t and i n i t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n i s s t u d e n t j o u r n a l s . I t was expected t h a t these would not be w e l l kept and such was the c a s e , e s p e c i a l l y f o l -l o w i n g the program when the s t u d e n t s were l e f t on t h e i r own. In September more time w i l l be g i v e n to i n t r o d u c i n g and c l a r i f y i n g the j o u r n a l concept as w e l l as a r e g u l a r d i a l o g u e w i t h each s t u d e n t i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . For the l a t t e r , s t u d e n t j o u r n a l s w i l l be taken i n e v e r y second week f o r t h o s e t h a t have no o b j e c t i o n . I t was e v i d e n t from those who m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r j o u r n a l t h a t i t s e r v e d as a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . L a s t l y , the program's s u c c e s s ( s t u d e n t s ' u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s ) r e q u i r e s exposure and e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t . The e s s e n t i a l s o f the program, t o be most e f f e c t i v e , must t r a n s f e r beyond the program s e s s i o n s . In o r d e r f o r t h a t t r a n s f e r e n c e to o c c u r p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s must be i n v o l v e d . In the f u t u r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o a g e n e r a l l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the b a s i c program, p a r e n t s w i l l r e c e i v e a l i s t o f the e s s e n t i a l l e a r n i n g g o a l s f o r each s e s s i o n . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n would a l s o i n c l u d e an e x p l a n a t i o n of the importance o f p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t . Furthermore, p a r e n t s w i l l be i n v i t e d to an e v e n i n g meeting where the program w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n g r e a t e r de-t a i l and q u e s t i o n s can be answered. For t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n , the p r e s e n t study under d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e and any q u e s t i o n s answered f o r them. I n a d d i t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a s of study s k i l l s and m o t i v a t i o n and p e r s o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i l l be r e a d i l y i n d i c a t e d . The u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s of the program r e s t s on i t s s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the s t u d e n t s ' - 79 -s c h o o l , i f not t o t a l , environment. I m p l i c a t i o n s O f t e n e d u c a t i o n a l programs, c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n s , show a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s study i n d i c a t e d not o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e but a l s o s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r educa-t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i m p l i c a t i o n s suggested by the r e s u l t s a r e : (1) t h a t the i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y to s t u d e n t needs and how t h e s e needs might be met, suggested by the program under stud y , c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n d e s i g n i n g and implementing o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r - o r i e n t e d programs and s e r v i c e s . (2) t h a t such programs a r e of p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . (a) c o s t s were r e a s o n a b l e (b) b e n e f i t s were c o n s i d e r a b l e (c) need was g r e a t (d) no v i s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s were o b v i o u s (e) f u l f i l l e d a p r e v e n t i v e f u n c t i o n ( f ) f u l f i l l e d an i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( i n s t r u c t e d s t u d e n t s i n a s u b j e c t a r e a t h a t i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y c r i t i c a l and i m p ortant to t h e i r f u t u r e development) (g) f u l f i l l e d a d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n ( i n the c o u r s e of e n t e r i n g i n t o a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n through d e v e l o p -mental i n s t r u c t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l i s l e a r n e d about the - 80 -s t u d e n t s and the system t h a t can be used to a s s i s t s t u d e n t s f u r t h e r upon program c o m p l e t i o n , to make recommendations f o r f u t u r e i n t e r v e n t i o n s o r no i n t e r v e n t i o n s ) (h) f u l f i l l e d a r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n (by e v a l u a t i n g the program, or a group o f programs, on a p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n b a s i s , assessment of any s h o r t - t e r m change t h a t may take p l a c e as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n can be completed) (3) t h a t i n s t e a d of s e a r c h i n g f o r t h a t s i n g l e model of g u i d -ance, c o u n s e l l i n g o r e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l work everywhere, c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and u n i v e r s i t y p e r -s o n n e l must f i n d ways to s t i m u l a t e i n n o v a t i o n and a d a p t a -t i o n o f programs to f i t unique l o c a l needs and c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . (4) t h a t e v a l u a t i o n s of such programs must a l s o be i n i t i a l l y based on the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and g o a l s of l o c a l programs, not a u t o m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n s by s t a n d a r d i z e d c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d a c r o s s the b o a r d . (5) c o u n s e l l o r s can improve upon r o l e p e r c e p t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n the c l a s s r o o m and a l s o s t r e n g t h e n a c c o u n t a b i l -i t y through the involvement of o t h e r s i n the development, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m programs. (6) t h a t c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g , t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h methods w i l l need adjustment so as to p r e p a r e c o u n s e l l o r s f o r these new r o l e s . In summary, c u r r i c u l u m programs, such as the one p r e s e n t e d i n - 81 -t h i s study, can add to an improvement of s t u d e n t development and c o u n s e l l o r development i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g w i t h i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l / p r e v e n t i v e m o d a l i t y t h a t w i l l need to be g i v e n g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i n the f u t u r e . I t i s suggested t h a t i t i s time c o u n s e l l o r s moved i n t o the r o l e of d e v e l o p m e n t a l / p r e v e n t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s , u s i n g v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s as h e u r i s t i c s t o g u i d e t h e i r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . G i v e n the c u r r e n t l e v e l o f knowledge i n c o u n s e l l i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y we can i l l a f f o r d not to make the e f f o r t ! "Where s h a l l I b e g i n ? " asked the w h i t e r a b b i t . " B e g i n a t the b e g i n n i n g , " t h e K i n g s a i d g r a v e l y , "and go on t i l l you come to the end, t h e n s t o p . " [Lewis C a r r o l l ] F u t u r e Research and E v a l u a t i o n A number of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n d i r e c t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e v a l i d i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d c o u l d be i n -c r e a s e d by a d d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s of the program under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . L i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study were c r e a t e d by the use of a narrow p o p u l a t i o n group, s i t u a t i o n a l environment and non-d e l i b e r a t e i n s t r u c t o r b i a s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d attempt to overcome these problems, a t t e m p t i n g to support and s t r e n g t h e n the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h accumulated s t u d i e s , by r e p l i c a t i n g the study w i t h d i f f e r e n t grade e i g h t p o p u l a t i o n s , s i t u a t i o n a l environments and i n s t r u c t o r s . Other r e s e a r c h c o u l d i n v o l v e the program, or an a d j u s t e d v e r s i o n , i n e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r g r a d e s . - 82 -Second, a f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n was c r e a t e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d compare d i f f e r e n t types o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n as w e l l as develop new i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o changes i n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s o f the l a t e - c h i l d h o o d - e a r l y - a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n . T h i r d , the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the p r i m a r y p a r t i -c i p a n t ( s t u d e n t s ) d a t a , w i t h p a r e n t and t e a c h e r d a t a i n t e g r a t e d f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The v a l i d i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s c o u l d be enhanced by improvements i n the methodology used. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d attempt t o overcome t h i s problem by the use of more d i r e c t c o l l a b o r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e development, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n phases. S p e c i f i c a l l y , seek t o i n t e g r a t e more p a r e n t and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n i n t o the methodology. A l s o , the methodology c o u l d be enhanced by the use of more e x t e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s and f o l l o w - u p measures. F o u r t h , the q u e s t i o n o f s e s s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s - t h e i r number, range, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses - i s a n o t h e r a r e a t h a t c o u l d a l s o be p r o f i t a b l y a d d r e s s e d by more d e t a i l e d s t a t i s -t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a c o u l d attempt t o determine more e m p i r i c a l l y the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the program, i d e n t i f y those s e s s i o n s / a c t i v i t i e s which most i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the program and e v a l u a t e ways i n which e f f e c t i v e n e s s might be i n c r e a s e d . L a s t l y , t h e p r e s e n t study was l i m i t e d t o immediate, s h o r t - t e r m r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h a f o u r month s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w - u p was completed a more e x t e n s i v e f o l l o w - u p would be p r o f i t a b l e . One s u g g e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d by the d a t a i s t h a t a number of s t u d e n t s seemed - 83 -to be a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d and i n v o l v e d but they d i d n ' t m a n i f e s t any s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on t e s t s , e v a l u a t i o n s o r p r o c e s s i n d i c a t o r s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n these s t u -dents i n terms of development and t h e i r g a i n s may not become apparent u n t i l perhaps a y e a r from now. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d improve on methodology by d e s i g n i n g a l o n g i t u d i n a l study a c r o s s s e v e r a l grades which sought to e v a l u a t e l a t e n t and/or l a s t i n g e f f e c t s o f the program. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s s t u d y , a d e v e l o p m e n t a l c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r v e n t i o n embedding p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s (deCharms 1976) i n t o study s k i l l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , was d e s i g n e d to enhance s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n a c r o s s a p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d ; i n d u c i n g an i n c r e a s e d awareness of l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ; commitment and purpose, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n . A secondary f o c u s of t h e study was to see i f t h e r e were any d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t study s k i l l p r o g r e s s from p r e assessment to p o s t assessment. U s i n g a v a r i a t i o n of Gage's (1978) Improvement Research model, f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n w i t h m u l t i p l e measures was employed t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program on a r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbian, e i g h t h grade p o p u l a t i o n . A n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n f o r l o c u s of c o n t r o l , w i t h r e p e a t e d measures a c r o s s p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change ( i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r n a l e x p e c t a n c y / d e c r e a s e i n e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a n c y ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r sex (male/ female) o r c l a s s ( 1 - 4 ) . A n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t - 84 -p r o g r e s s (study s k i l l / h a b i t s ) , w i t h r e p e a t e d measures a c r o s s p r e - p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t r e p o r t e d study s k i l l p r o g r e s s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n t h e measures o b t a i n e d from s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s / c l a s s i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h c l a s s e s two through f o u r i n d i c a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y more g a i n than c l a s s one. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r sex ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) . E v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s and p r o c e s s i n d i c a t o r s , o f s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and i n s t r u c t o r , showed a p r a c t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i -c ance o f t h e program. In a l l c a s e s s u p p o r t was s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d f o r t h e program's c o n t i n u a t i o n ( w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a d j u s t m e n t s ) . The r e s u l t s of these measures tended t o s u p p o r t the outcome measures of l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s . The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n t r a i n i n g embedded i n study s k i l l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , as a c u r r i c u l u m program, i s one which can enhance s t u d e n t development. F u r t h e r , the r e s u l t s suggest t h a t coun-s e l l o r s n o t o n l y c o u l d , b u t s h o u l d , s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r t h e b e n e f i t s of d e v e l o p m e n t a l / p r e v e n t i v e c u r r i c u l u m programs. The d i r e c t i o n o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would be to v a l i d a t e the f i n d i n g s and t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A f i n a l S u f i s t o r y perhaps p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n t o the t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s : Y o g u r t i s made by adding a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f o l d y o g u r t to a l a r g e r measure of m i l k . The a c t i o n o f the b a c i l l u s b u l g a r i c u s i n t h e s e e d i n g p o r t i o n of y o g u r t w i l l i n time c o n v e r t the whole i n t o a mass of new y o g u r t . One day some f r i e n d s saw N a s r u d i n down on h i s knees b e s i d e a pond. He was ad d i n g a l i t t l e y o g u r t to the - 85 -water. One of the men s a i d , "what a r e you t r y i n g t o do, N a s r u d i n ? " " I am t r y i n g to make y o g u r t . " "But you can't make y o g u r t i n t h a t way!" 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San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s , 1979. Minor, B.J. B r i d g i n g the Gap between Research and P r a c t i c e : I n t r o d u c t i o n . The P e r s o n n e l and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1981, 59(8), 487-493. Mosher, R.L., and S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. D e l i b e r a t e P s y c h o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n . The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1971, 2 ( 4 ) , 3-82. Muuss, R.E. T h e o r i e s o f A d o l e s c e n c e . New York: Random House, 1975. Newman, B., and Newman, P. Development Through L i f e . Homeward, 111.: Dorsey P r e s s , 1975. N i c h o l s o n , E. Success and Ad m i s s i o n s C r i t e r i a f o r P o t e n t i a l l y  S u c c e s s f u l R i s k s . P r o v i d e n c e , R.I.: Brown U n i v e r s i t y and the F o r d F o u n d a t i o n , 1970. N o w i c k i , S., and S t r i c k l a n d , B. A Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 40, 148-155. O e t t i n g , E.R. Program E v a l u a t i o n , S c i e n t i f i c I n q u i r y , and C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1982, 10(4), 61-70. O e t t i n g , E.R. The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t as Program E v a l u a t o r . The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1977, 7(2), 89-91. Paddock, S.C., and Pac k a r d , J.S. On the Conduct of S i t e R e l a t i o n s i n E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch. E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1981, 10(3), 14-17. P a t t o n , M.Q. U t i l i z a t i o n - F o c u s e d E v a l u a t i o n . B e r v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1978. Phares, E. Locus of C o n t r o l i n P e r s o n a l i t y . M o r r i s t o w n , N.J.: Ge n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s , 1976. - 90 -Rogers, C R . Freedom to L e a r n : A view of what e d u c a t i o n might  become. Columbus, Ohio: C E . M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1969. R o t t e r , J.B. G e n e r a l i z e d E x p e c t a n c i e s f o r I n t e r n a l v e r s u s E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l of R e i n f o r c e m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, 1966, 80(1, Whole No. 609). Rustad, K., and Rogers, C. Promoting P s y c h o l o g i c a l Growth i n a H i g h S c h o o l C l a s s . C o u n s e l l o r E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 1975, 14, 277-285. R y a l s , K. Achievement M o t i v a t i o n T r a i n i n g f o r Average A b i l i t y U n d e r - A c h i e v i n g E i g h t h and Tenth Grade Boys. U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. Sanders, D.P. E d u c a t i o n a l I n q u i r y as Developmental R e s e a r c h . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1981, 1 0 ( 3 ) , 8-13. S c h u b ert, W.H. R e c a l i b r a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Research: Toward a Focus on P r a c t i c e . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1980, 9 ( 1 ) , 17-24. S c r i v e n , M.S. The Methodology of E v a l u a t i o n : P e r s p e c t i v e s on C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n . AERA (Monograph / / l ) . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1967, 39-83. Schulman, L.S. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . Review  of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1970,40, 371-391. S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. A New Model f o r R e search i n the S e r v i c e of Guidance and C o u n s e l l i n g . The P e r s o n n e l and Guidance  J o u r n a l , 1981, 5 9 ( 8 ) , 487-493. S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. A Program f o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Some P r e l i m i n a r y I s s u e s . J o u r n a l of S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1971, 9, 373-381. S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. F a n t a s y and R e a l i t y i n Research: How to Move Beyond the P r o d u c t i v e Paradox. C o u n s e l l o r E d u c a t i o n and  S u p e r v i s i o n , 1975, 14, 310-322. S p r i n t h a l l , N.A. Guidance C o u n s e l l i n g and P s y c h o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Focus on Guidance, 1973, 5, 1-9. T a l l e y , J . E . and Henning, L.H. Study S k i l l s : E s t a b l i s h i n g a Comprehensive Program at the C o l l e g e L e v e l . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111. : C C Thomas, 1981. V i d l e r , D.C. Achievement M o t i v a t i o n i n M o t i v a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , S. B a l l ( e d . ) . New York: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i c h , 1977. 91 -Wagner, R.R. T e a c h i n g Study S k i l l s Today. P o r t l a n d , Oregon: J . Weston Walsh, 1979. Wagshal, H. I n v o l v i n g the S t u d e n t s ' S e l f Through a R e f l e c t i v e Log. H o r i z o n , 1981, 204-206. Wehrly, B. Developmental C o u n s e l l i n g i n U n i t e d S t a t e s S c h o o l s : H i s t o r i c a l Background and Recent Trends. I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l f o r the Advancement of C o u n s e l l i n g , 1981, 4, 51-58. Weiner, B. T h e o r i e s of M o t i v a t i o n : From Mechanisms to C o g n i t i o n . C h i c a g o , 111.: Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1972. White, R.W. M o t i v a t i o n R e c o n s i d e r e d : The Concept of Competence. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1959, 66, 297-333. Z i n g l e , H., Dumont, F., and Lecomte, C. C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y i n Andrews, J.H.M., and Rogers, W.T. ( e d s . ) , Canadian R e s e a r c h  i n E d u c a t i o n : A S t a t e of the A r t Review. (Report p r e p a r e d f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u manities Research C o u n c i l of Canada.) U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1981. - 92 -APPENDIX A ENHANCING PERSONAL CAUSATION A STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH - 93 -STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH St u d e n t s s t a r t o f f n o t as complete b l a n k s , but w i t h h a b i t u a l ways of g o i n g about r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and d i s c u s s i o n , and they d e v e l o p from and change t h e s e ways s l o w l y and w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . They do not adopt e n t i r e new approaches w h o l e s a l e . C o n c e p t i o n s o f what l e a r n i n g and s t u d y i n g i n v o l v e a r e u s u a l l y d e e p - r o o t e d , o f t e n based i n p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e s from s c h o o l . I t i s these c o n c e p t i o n s which form the framework f o r the way t e c h n i q u e s a r e adopted and employed. U n l e s s e x i s t i n g h a b i t s and c o n c e p t i o n s a r e taken i n t o a c c o u n t , l i t t l e of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l o c c u r . A l s o the s t u d e n t s themselves a r e i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o judge the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and v a l u e of new t e c h n i q u e s . Whether a t e c h n i q u e s u i t s an i n d i v i d u a l , whether i t meets the demands of the l e a r n i n g t a s k s , and whether i t can be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y g i v e n the p r e s e n t l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l e a r n i n g and l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y be d e c i d e d by the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f . Our j o b i s to h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l make the d e c i s i o n . GIVING RESPONSIBILITY TO THE STUDENT Improvements i n s t u d y i n g do not take p l a c e o n l y d u r i n g study s k i l l s c o u r s e s and a t no o t h e r time. They take p l a c e a t any and a l l times d u r i n g and when " e x p e r t " a d v i c e i s not a v a i l a b l e . D e v e l -o p i n g as a l e a r n e r i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s , and u n l e s s the s t u d e n t takes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s p r o c e s s - f o r becoming aware of how he i s l e a r n i n g and n o t i c i n g what works and what does not work -then change w i l l be impeded. I n s t e a d of making s t u d e n t s dependent on e x p e r t a d v i c e and e v a l u a t i o n , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s s h o u l d be encouraged. Only when s t u d e n t s can see f o r themselves what the advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of d i f f e r e n t ways of g o i n g about a s t u d y t a s k a r e i s development l i k e l y . There i s a tendency to c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n t o s t u d e n t s e x a c t l y what i s good and bad about some n o t e s or an e s s a y , when i n f a c t they a r e p e r f e c t l y c a p a b l e of j u d g i n g f o r themselves. Students a r e o f t e n s u r p r i s e d when they r e a l i z e t h e y a l r e a d y have p l e n t y of c r i t e r i a a v a i l a b l e t o them to j u d g e . In the p a s t they have s i m p l y not been i n the h a b i t o f a p p l y i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a t o themselves, but have l e f t a l l judgements to t e a c h e r s . H e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to judge t h e i r s t u d y i n g f o r themselves i s a c r u c i a l a s p e c t of h e l p i n g them to d e v e l o p as l e a r n e r s . ( Gibbs, 1981, pp.88-89) - 94 -T h i s emphasis on p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s t a t e d i n C a r l Rogers's " p r i n c i p l e s o f l e a r n i n g " : L e a r n i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d when the stu d e n t p a r t i c i -p a t e s r e s p o n s i b l y i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . When he chooses h i s own d i r e c t i o n , h e l p s t o d i s c o v e r h i s own l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s , f o r m u l a t e s h i s own problems, d e c i d e s h i s own c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , l i v e s w i t h the consequences of each o f these c h o i c e s , t h e n s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g i s maximised. Independence, c r e a t i v i t y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e a r e a l l f a c i l i t a t e d when s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n a r e b a s i c . . . (Rogers, 1969, pp.162-163) T h i s i n t e r v e n i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n c o r p o r a t e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r Grade 8 - to promote i n d u s t r y , i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e l a t e d s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n . I t uses study s k i l l s as a f o c u s i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l l y / s o c i a l l y approved v e h i c l e . S e c t i o n s 1 and 2 i n t r o d u c e the c o u r s e , e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s as w e l l as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . T h e r e a f t e r , a r e p e a t i n g c y c l e i n c l u d e s s e l f - s t u d y , group g o a l s e t t i n g / a w a r e n e s s t h r o u g h dyads, quads and t o t a l group i n t e r a c t i o n , p e r s o n a l g o a l s e t t i n g and assessment, a " d i s c u s s i o n c i r c l e " e x p l o r a t i o n / i n t e g r a t i n g e x e r c i s e and an achievement s t o r y t o enhance p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION L e a r n i n g / S t u d y S k i l l s P r e s e n t to s t u d e n t s the program r a t i o n a l e ( p r e c e d i n g pages) emphasising s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d approach and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . R e l a t e to s p e c i f i c a r e a o f study s k i l l s and s c h o o l . Format - 12 s e s s i o n s / 2 s e s s i o n s a week - A c t i v i t i e s : i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e s ; p a i r e d e x e r c i s e s ; s m a l l group e x e r c i s e s ; , l a r g e group e x e r c i s e s . - S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n through the program - p r i m a r i l y through JOURNALS. ROLE-PLAY S c e n a r i o I B i l l ( B ) : "What's the m a t t e r , George, t r y i n g to make i t through the easy way?" George (G): "What do you mean?" (a l i t t l e angry) B: " T r y i n g to c o n v i n c e the t e a c h e r you're not as s t u p i d as you l o o k , eh?" G: " J u s t what a r e you g e t t i n g a t ? " B: "Now don't s t a r t p l a y i n g i n n o c e n t , we a l l saw you brown-n o s i n g the t e a c h e r a f t e r c l a s s . " G: " I don't suck up to nobody. I was j u s t t r y i n g to get something c l e a r . " B: "Sure you were. T h a t ' s the t h i r d time t h i s week. Man, have you t u r n e d i n t o a suck." G: "What's bugging you. Your f r i e n d s drop you a g a i n ? " B: "Nothing's bugging me and l e a v e my f r i e n d s out o f i t . I j u s t wanted t o t e l l you you l o o k l i k e a r e a l j e r k t r o t t i n g up to the t e a c h e r l i k e t h a t . And we don't need anyone l i k e you t r y i n g t o c u t our t h r o a t s . " G: " T a l k i n g about j e r k s , you s u r e made a f o o l out o f y o u r -s e l f i n c l a s s today. We haven't hdd such a good l a u g h . i n a l o n g time. You're almost as s t u p i d as your u g l y s i s t e r . " B: "Shut up." G: "That was the dumbest comment I ever h e a r d . " B: " J u s t one more peep out of you, and ... " G: "The t e a c h e r s a y s , "What's an e q u i l a t e r a l t r i a n g l e ? " and you s a i d ... " B: "You . . . " ( h i t s him) - 96 -Students w r i t e i n J o u r n a l s (two/three s e n t e n c e s ) : a. What happened i n t h i s s t o r y ? b. Why? S c e n a r i o I I B: "What's the m a t t e r , G, t r y i n g to make i t through the easy way?" G: "What do you mean?" B: " T r y i n g to c o n v i n c e t h e t e a c h e r you're not as s t u p i d as you l o o k , eh?" G: "What's b o t h e r i n g you? So f a r , you a r e n ' t g e t t i n g t hrough the y e a r . " B: "Now don't p l a y i n n o c e n t . Today was the t h i r d time t h i s week you t a l k e d t o the t e a c h e r a f t e r c l a s s , i f t h a t i s n ' t brown-nosing, I don't know what i s . " G: "That, w e l l , you know, I've been h a v i n g a l o t of t r o u b l e i n geometry. So I went up and asked t h e t e a c h e r a c o u p l e of q u e s t i o n s about l a s t n i g h t ' s assignment." B: "And a t the same time, you were t r y i n g to get a l i t t l e p u l l w i t h him." G: "You know darn w e l l I don't brown-nose anyone. As i t i s , I ' l l be l u c k y t o make a C i n t h a t c l a s s . Look, i f you were h a v i n g t r o u b l e i n t h a t c l a s s , wouldn't you so the same t h i n g ? " B: "Are you n u t s ? I'd never do a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . " G: " W e l l , i t i s s u r e b e t t e r than f l u n k i n g the c o u r s e . An i f p e o p l e don't l i k e i t , t h a t ' s j u s t tough." B: " I s t i l l t h i n k i t l o o k s r e a l funny." G: " Yeah, but what can you do?" B: " I don't know, but I don't t h i n k I'd do i t . " G: " W e l l maybe you don't mind f l u n k i n g o u t . I g o t t a get home. See you." B: "Yeah, see you around." (Adapted: K a n f e r and G o l d s t e i n , 1975, pp.169-170) Students w r i t e i n J o u r n a l s ( f i v e / s i x s e n t e n c e s ) : a. What happened i n t h i s s t o r y ? b. Why? c. What do you t h i n k made the d i f f e r e n c e i n the two endings? d. Which scene do you t h i n k has a more s a t i s f a c t o r y ending? e. Which scene i s more common? - 97 -Dyad E x e r c i s e ( P r e l i m i n a r y to weekly " D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e " ) U s i n g statements from S c e n a r i o have s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e l i s t e n i n g . Each s t u d e n t r e a d s comments t o p a r t n e r . P a r t n e r l i s t e n s o n l y , m a i n t a i n i n g eye c o n t a c t . On c o m p l e t i o n of e x e r c i s e each s t u d e n t answers i n t h e i r J o u r n a l : " I f you were George, which way would you handle the s i t u a t i o n ? Would you l i k e t o be a b l e t o h a n d l e i t d i f f e r e n t l y ? " V o l u n t e e r s may p r e s e n t t h e i r s o l u t i o n s t o the l a r g e group. E x p e c t a t i o n s - Suspend judgement: g i v e the c o u r s e a f a i r t r y . - Commitment t o t r y - Only one speaker a t a t i m e : o t h e r s l i s t e n when i n l a r g e group ( A l s o i n s m a l l e r groups) - M a i n t a i n a "JOURNAL": a p e r s o n a l r e c o r d of r e a c t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s , s u c c e s s e s , f a i l u r e s , i d e a s , g o a l s . P e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e - keep c o n f i d e n t i a l . E n t r i e s a t l e a s t w i t h each s e s s i o n and r e l a t e d e x e r c i s e s and o t h e r times as p o s s i b l e . J o u r n a l s w i l l be kept i n c l a s s r o o m and may be added t o a t any time. HANDOUT: E v a l u a t i o n o f the C l a s s A c t i v i t i e s **EMPHASIZE THROUGHOUT COURSE: "PEOPLE PREDICT I DETERMINE" - 98 -EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES Today's Weather: am f e e l i n g DATE and I I. C l a s s A c t i v i t i e s ( d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y ) : I I . What was the p u r p o s e / r e a s o n f o r each a c t i v i t y ? A. B. I I I . Today I l e a r n e d t h a t I .... IV. I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t V. I never knew t h a t V I . F o r next c l a s s I would l i k e t o (work on) (GOAL): ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT ( t h i n k about) HAVE A SUPER DAY! - 99 -SESSION 2 ROLES  Who Am I? I n d i v i d u a l s : L i s t 10 i d e n t i t i e s / c h a r a c t e r s i n J o u r n a l . E x p l a i n t o the s t u d e n t s what i s meant by r o l e s . I n d i v i d u a l s to choose a r o l e they f e e l they have been s u c c e s s f u l i n : a. l i s t what t a s k s he/she does to be t h a t r o l e / i d e n t i t y . b. i d e n t i f y s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the r o l e . c. d e c i d e what v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d i n enactment of the r o l e . Dyads: D i s c u s s w i t h p a r t n e r t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f a,b,c. Make not e of any s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . Working t o g e t h e r , i d e n t i f y t a s k s f o r the r o l e of the " s t u d e n t . " I f t h i s was one of the r o l e s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d compare w i t h p a r t n e r ' s i d e a s . C l a s s Group: B r i n g out the r o l e s of the " s t u d e n t . " Have each dyad o f f e r a t l e a s t one t a s k . L i s t t a s k s on board and have s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n J o u r n a l . I n d i v i d u a l s : W r i t e p e r s o n a l statement on e x e r c i s e "Who am I ? " O r i g i n O u t l i n e D i s c u s s i o n : Handout: ORIGIN IS? /ORIGIN GUIDE STATEMENTS D i s c u s s w i t h the c l a s s the 9 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n d i v i d u a l l y , have the s t u d e n t s comment on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they see them a p p l i e d to themselves. Where do they t h i n k they might emphasize improvement? How w e l l do they t h i n k they f i t the r o l e o f an O r i g i n ? Achievement S t o r y C l a s s Groups: E x p l a i n to the s t u d e n t s t h a t they w i l l be w r i t i n g some s h o r t s t o r i e s - s t o r i e s which they may c r e a t e as f r e e l y as p o s s i b l e and not to be over concerned w i t h grammar and s p e l l i n g . (The s t o r i e s may be used as a rough d r a f t from which f u r t h e r work i n grammar and s p e l l i n g may be taken.) The important a s p e c t i s freedom of e x p r e s s i o n . - 100 -Each week a p a n e l of s t u d e n t judges w i l l r e a d the s t o r i e s and s e l e c t the b e s t ones and t h e s e w i l l be p o s t e d as "The S t o r y ( i e s ) of the Week." The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n i s to be a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the p a n e l . At the b e g i n n i n g of each week the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the s t o r y w i l l be g i v e n . T h i s w i l l g i v e s t u d e n t s time to share i d e a s and t h i n k of words. *Attempt to e l i c i t achievement words (thoughts) from the s t u d e n t s ; t r y not t o s u p p l y words. L i s t 10-15 a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d words. Students a r e to s e l e c t 10 or more words which t h e y w i l l i n c l u d e i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . * D i s c u s s w i t h the s t u d e n t s the " r e a l l i f e " meaning o f the words. Ask s t u d e n t s to have p a r e n t r e a d and s i g n s t o r y jLf_ s t u d e n t f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e to do so. SKELETON PLOT: T h i s week you a r e g o i n g to t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do something b e t t e r than i t has been done b e f o r e and he/she a c t u a l l y says he/she wants to succeed i n what he/she i s d o i n g . (OPTIONAL: Supply magazines from which s t u d e n t s c o u l d be encouraged t o s e l e c t p i c t u r e s t h a t suggested s t o r i e s t o them.) HANDOUT: EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD LIST SHEET - 101 -ACHIEVEMENT-•RELATED WORD LIST R e s p o n s i b l e Standard P r e p a r e d Worth P l a n s Experiment P r a c t i c e s Encourage P e r s i s t s E x p l o r e P a t i e n c e T r y ( i n g ) Performs R e a l i s t i c P r o g r e s s C o - o p e r a t i o n P e r f e c t A t t i t u d e Improve P o s i t i v e C a r e f u l C h a l l e n g e A c h i e v e D e d i c a t e d Determined A t t e n t i o n Prove W i l l i n g Succeed C o n f i d e n c e I n t e n d I n t e r e s t e d Goals (EXAMPLES) ^ I n s t r u c t o r ' s n o t e : I f d i f f i c u l t y g e n e r a t i n g words you may w i s h t o a s s i g n 10 words f o r each s t o r y p l o t . A p a r t i a l l i s t i s p r o v i d e d as examples. - 102 -ORIGIN IS? An O r i g i n i s someone who: a. Takes Personal R e s p o n s i b i l i t y b. Prepares h i s work c a r e f u l l y c. Plans her l i f e to help her reach her goals d. P r a c t i c e s h i s s k i l l s e. P e r s i s t s i n her work f. Has Pati e n c e , f o r he knows that some goals take time to reach g. Performs - she knows she has to do things i n order to reach her goals h. Checks h i s Progress - feedback i . Moves toward P e r f e c t i n g her s k i l l s , paying s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to improvement ***REMEMBER TO YOURSELF: PEOPLE PREDICT I DETERMINE - 103 -ORIGIN GUIDE STATEMENTS FOR JOURNAL I . Goals i n L i f e - l i s t and d i s c u s s g o a l s t h a t you want or would l i k e t o a c h i e v e . Focus on a n y / a l l a s p e c t s o f your l i f e . I I . Importance o f u s i n g c a r e f u l checks on your p r o g r e s s i n s t r i v i n g f o r your g o a l s . How w i l l you keep checks and what w i l l you do to m o n i t o r your g o a l ( s ) . Note t h e s e and comment w i t h each g o a l t h a t you s e t . I I I . A c t u a l check on p r o g r e s s - f o c u s on how w e l l you d i d on your s e t g o a l ( s ) ; f o c u s on the a c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y done, f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e , p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as the f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d t o an easy, moderate, or d i f f i c u l t to r e a c h g o a l . IV. I s i t good to be an O r i g i n ? - D i s c u s s your v a l u e s (what you b e l i e v e i n . ) , pay a t t e n t i o n and comment on p e o p l e / s t u d e n t s you see who a c t l i k e an o r i g i n and comment on how o t h e r p e o p l e / s t u d e n t s see how you a r e and a c t . T h i n k about p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s b i l i t y . V. E x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g a Pawn. - R e c a l l b e i n g t r e a t e d as a Pawn or a c t i n g as a Pawn. Pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e . What was i t l i k e ? What d i d you not l i k e about i t ? VI . What I c a n ' t do - d i s c u s s , r e a l i s t i c a l l y , t h i n g s you f e e l you c a n ' t do. Do you have any p e r s o n a l shortcomings? What a r e they? V I I . What I can be and do! - T h i n k about and d i s c u s s your a b i l i t i e s . What can you do and what can you be! What a r e your s t r e n g t h s , a b i l i t i e s and a s s e t s ? What can you do w i t h them? V I I I . C o n s i d e r , comment, whether your g o a l s ( s ) a r e r e a l i s t i c . Have you s e t g o a l ( s ) i n r e l a t i o n t o your a b i l i t i e s ? Can they be r e a l i s t i c a l l y reached? IX. Be aware, no t e down, d i s c u s s , who i s r e s p o n s i b l e ( y o u r s e l f or o t h e r s ) f o r not r e a c h i n g / f o r r e a c h i n g your g o a l ( s ) . Be aware o f your s o u r c e o f b l o c k s . (Who i s d o i n g the b l o c k i n g ? ) X. Reducing p e r s o n a l and o t h e r b l o c k s - note down and d i s c u s s the ways you can do t h i n g s to reduce b l o c k s and a l l o w y o u r s e l f to move towards your g o a l ( s ) . - 104 -ACHIEVEMENT STORY #1 T h i s week you a r e g o i n g to t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g to do something b e t t e r than i t has been done b e f o r e and he/she a c t u a l l y says he/she wants to succeed i n what he/she i s d o i n g . ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9 10. - 105 -SESSION 3 SELF-STUDY How Do We L e a r n B e s t (Adapted: G i b b s , 1981, pp. 11-12) Notes: T h i s e x e r c i s e i s d e s i g n e d to a c t as an i n i t i a l impetus to s t u d e n t s t h i n k i n g about t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . I t p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the format of the group d i s c u s s i o n s and as an i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o , and v a l u e , t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e of l e a r n i n g . Even s t u d e n t s who p a s s i v e l y e xpect to be t o l d how to l e a r n can be s u r p r i s e d by how much they a l r e a d y know, from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , about the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f o s t e r 'good' l e a r n i n g and about what they can do to b r i n g about those c o n d i t i o n s . One p o s s i b l e outcome t o watch f o r i s p a r t i c i p a n t s who s i m p l y blame o t h e r s f o r t h e i r bad e x p e r i e n c e s . Groups of s t u d e n t s may tend t o blame r o t t e n t e a c h i n g . O r i e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s towards the r o l e t h a t they them-s e l v e s p l a y i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s ; t h i s can h e l p make the e x e r c i s e to be more c o n s t r u c t i v e . I n s t r u c t i o n s : I n d i v i d u a l : 'Think back to some p a s t e x p e r i e n c e of l e a r n i n g - i t c o u l d be a t s c h o o l , i n s p o r t s , i n a hobby, a n y t h i n g t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y a w f u l - i t may have been b o r i n g or h u m i l i a t i n g , or you s i m p l y l e a r n t n o t h i n g a t a l l . J o t down a few notes on why i t was so bad. 'Now do the same f o r a good l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e -where you l e a r n t a l o t , were s u c c e s s f u l , enjoyed i t and were i n t e r e s t e d . What was i t t h a t made l e a r n i n g so good? J o t down a few n o t e s ' Dyads: ' R e l a t e your e x p e r i e n c e t o each o t h e r . E x p l a i n why your e x p e r i e n c e s were good or bad. What a r e the main s i m i l a r i t i e s between what makes l e a r n i n g good or bad f o r you both? T r y and s t i c k to b a s i n g your d i s c u s s i o n i n your own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z i n g ' - 106 -Quads: 'Form a group o f f o u r w i t h a n o t h er p a i r . From your p o o l e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f good and bad l e a r n i n g , can you see any themes a r i s i n g ? -t h i n g s which f o r you tend t o c h a r a c t e r i z e good and bad l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l ? Each group of f o u r e l e c t a c h a i r p e r s o n who notes down what i s s a i d under two columns: "Things t h a t l e a d to u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e a r n i n g " and "Things t h a t tend t o s u p p o r t and encourage v e r y s a t i s -f a c t o r y l e a r n i n g . " Note down as many t h i n g s as you can under t h e s e h e a d i n g s . ' C l a s s : 'Each group of f o u r , i n t u r n , r e a ds out one i t e m from i t s l i s t . Everyone e l s e l i s t e n s and asks the group t o e x p l a i n i t s e l f , t o make the meaning o f each i t e m c l e a r . A l s o , f o r each i t e m , I'd l i k e s u g g e s t i o n s as to how t h a t might a f f e c t the way you a r e l e a r n i n g h e r e , i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , now.' *Work through a l l items or u n t i l time runs o u t . ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: Review the day's a c t i v i t y C s e s s i o n 3) and s e l e c t something you f e e l would h e l p you be a b e t t e r l e a r n e r . T h i n k about how you might c a r r y out t h i s g o a l . Next s e s s i o n you w i l l work w i t h a p a r t n e r and p l a n t h i s g o a l - to work towards i t and e v a l u a t e i t f o r the remainder o f the s e s s i o n s . HANDOUTS: EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES - 107 -SESSION 4 GOAL-SETTING O r i g i n Assignment: Dyads: Each st u d e n t t o choose one broad g o a l to c o n c e n t r a t e on f o r the remainder of the c o u r s e . With the h e l p of p a r t n e r , w r i t e a c l e a r s t a t e -ment of g o a l i n t o the J o u r n a l : what i s t h e g o a l , how w i l l you r e a c h i t , how w i l l you know you have reached i t (benchmark)? P r o g r e s s towards g o a l to be s e l f - e v a l u a t e d w i t h the h e l p of p a r t n e r - keep a r e c o r d i n J o u r n a l . Help each o t h e r . HANDOUTS: G o a l R e c o r d i n g Sheets/Guide Q u e s t i o n s , Student P r o g r e s s Survey, E v a l u a t i o n of C l a s s A c t i v i t i e s ^ E x p l a i n each c l e a r l y . "GOALS" of the c o u r s e f o r r e m a i n i n g s e s s i o n s : A. O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f ( G e n e r a l S e l f - s t u d y ) 1. U s i n g C l a s s Time ( S p e c i f i c S e l f - s t u d y ) 2. U s i n g Home Time ( S p e c i f i c S e l f - s t u d y ) B. Note T a k i n g C. T a k i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s E x p l o r a t i o n : D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e Group E x e r c i s e To develop s k i l l s o f l i s t e n i n g , p a r a p h r a s i n g and summarizing. To develop O r i g i n b e h a v i o u r s . G u i d e l i n e s : A-when pe r s o n speaks, everyone must l o o k a t t h a t p e r s o n B-each p e r s o n g e t s o n l y one t u r n C-each p e r s o n speaks no more than one minute D-any p e r s o n i n group may 'pass' E - v o l u n t e e r s may sum up: "What have you l e a r n e d ? " F - s t u d e n t s w r i t e up r e a c t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s i n J o u r n a l . TOPIC: THE KIND OF PERSON I WANT TO BE! - 108 -GOAL RECORDING SHEET - GOAL T h i s sheet w i l l a l l o w you to keep a r e c o r d o f your p r o g r e s s f o r each p e r i o d o f the week: FOR YOUR GOAL(S) WHICH YOU HAVE CHOSEN IN THE ORIGIN ASSIGNMENTS. (Note s u c c e s s e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s and any o t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p i n your g o a l . ) DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 DAY 5 A F C H D B G D XX E C H E A F D A F B G E B G C H - 109 -GUIDE QUESTIONS FOR GOAL EVALUATIONS 1. What worked f o r you i n working toward your g o a l ? 2. What k i n d of t h i n g s got i n the way o r i n t e r f e r e d w i t h you r e a c h i n g your g o a l ? 3. How r e a l i s t i c , r e a c h a b l e , i s your g o a l ? Do you t h i n k you need t o r e - s e t your g o a l ? 4. What t h i n g s a r e b e t t e r , i f any, s i n c e you have been working on your g o a l ? 5. How do you f e e l your e f f o r t was? D i d you r e a l l y t r y , p e r s i s t , a t working a t your g o a l ? - 110 -STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY Course Student Date * T h i s survey i s f o r you t o m o n i t o r your p r o g r e s s towards g o a l ( s ) . Once you have s e t a g o a l and d e c i d e d how you w i l l r e a c h i t Capproach) the s u r v e y w i l l a l l o w you t o e v a l u a t e your p r o g r e s s . P l e a s e r e c o r d your o b s e r v a t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Thanks. Use of time EXCELLENT POOR 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same • Assignments i n on time EXCELLENT POOR 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same Assignments completed EXCELLENT POOR 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same Att e n d a n c e EXCELLENT POOR 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same - I l l -Academic p r o g r e s s EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 I n t h e p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Cl a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 In the p a s t weeks t h i s has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Classroom a t t i t u d e EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 I n the p a s t weeks t h i s h a s: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened - 112 -SESSION 5 SELF-STUDY/GOAL-SETTING O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f (Adapted: G i b b s , 1981, pp ,-15^-17) Notes: How o r g a n i z e d s t u d e n t s a r e i s the one a s p e c t of t h e i r s t u d y i n g t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e s q u i t e h i g h l y w i t h e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s ( Gibbs, 1981].. W e l l o r g a n i z e d s t u d e n t s do b e t t e r ! How o r g a n i z e d you a r e i s a f a i r l y fundamental p a r t of who you a r e and how you a r e . Perhaps more than w i t h any o t h e r a s p e c t of l e a r n i n g , changing how o r g a n i z e d (and by i m p l i c a t i o n how h a r d working) you a r e i n v o l v e s f e e l i n g s : t h r e a t s and f e a r s . Students can s t a r t t o f e e l v e r y incompetent and i n a d e q u a t e when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h j u s t how m a r v e l l o u s l y o r g a n i z e d and e f f i c i e n t i t i s p o s s i b l e to be. Students seldom d i s c u s s the s u b j e c t . There i s o f t e n even a s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o g i v e an outward appearance of incompetence. In the s u b c u l t u r e o f peer groups i t seems q u i t e common f o r s t u d e n t s to have to p r e t e n d t o have done no work, or to have no i d e a an assignment i s due i n , even i f t h i s i s not the c a s e . T h i s e x e r c i s e attempts to get f e e l i n g s about o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i l i g e n c e out i n the open, and d i s c u s s e d , b e f o r e p o s s i b l e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s a r e suggested. The m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t of a c h e c k l i s t of statements about b e i n g o r g a n i z e d . The e x e r c i s e i s concerned w i t h making d i s c u s s i o n of the t o p i c l e g i t i m a t e - s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e i r f e e l i n g s and problems a r e not unique and p o o l i n g i d e a s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement. The statements i n t h e e x e r c i s e (suggested statements) a r e a l l n e g a t i v e . T h i s i s because p e o p l e seem to f i n d i t e a s i e r t o say n e g a t i v e than p o s i t i v e t h i n g s about themselves, and so i t h e l p s to s t a r t i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h statements and so t h i n k i n g about themse l v e s . I f you f i n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e becoming too n e g a t i v e , and i n f a c t suggest e v e r y -t h i n g i s h o p e l e s s , t r y to i n c l u d e more p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . A second c a u t i o n i s the c h a r a c t e r who a t t e m p t s , w i t h g r e a t enthusiasm, to persuade o t h e r s t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g a r e not a problem at a l l : ' P r o v i d e d you do ... (and here d e s c r i b e s h i s or her own pet o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e ) y o u ' l l be f i n e ! ' T h i s i s not u s e f u l to those s t u d e n t s who a r e h a v i n g t r o u b l e . - 113 -I n s t r u c t i o n s : 'Read down t h i s l i s t o f statements t i c k i n g those you f e e l a p p l y t o you. A l t e r statements so t h a t they a p p l y t o you b e t t e r . Note down a n y t h i n g you a r e not s u r e about or any d i f f e r e n c e s you have.' 'How many have t i c k e d fewer than 5? Fewer than 10? Fewer than 15? 15-18?' 'With your p a r t n e r compare how you have responded. Have you responded the same? F o r the same re a s o n s ? When you have responded d i f f e r e n t l y , why i s t h i s ? Note your comparisons i n your J o u r n a l . ' 'In your groups o f f o u r see where you agree and d i f f e r . T a k i n g one statement a t a time, ask y o u r s e l v e s : "Does t h i s m a t t e r ? " I f you t h i n k i t does, a r e t h e r e ways i n which anyone i n your group of f o u r copes w i t h or overcomes t h i s p a r -t i c u l a r problem? Note t h o s e i d e a s and ways you f i n d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the c l a s s as a whole. Record the i d e a s i n your J o u r n a l . ' 'Each group of f o u r , i n t u r n , t a kes one o f the statements they noted as important and r e l a t e s to the o t h e r s i n t h e c l a s s . Someone r e c o r d on the board. Continue through a l l items o r u n t i l time runs o u t . ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: Each s t u d e n t to choose a minimum of one o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l and no t e i t i n t h e i r J o u r n a l . In p a i r s , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s t h e i r g o a l and share method f o r r e a c h i n g g o a l and how they w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e i r p r o g r e s s towards a c h i e v i n g i t . (Each s t u d e n t may w i s h t o c h a r t p r o g r e s s f o r the week - one t i m e t a b l e c y c l e o r 40 p e r i o d s - and complete statements of f e e l i n g s i n J o u r n a l . ) At the end of the c y c l e t h e s t u d e n t i s t o d i s c u s s , i n t h e i r J o u r n a l , t h e i r p e r s o n a l . r e a c t i o n s : What worked f o r them? What h i n d e r e d t h e i r p r o g r e s s ? How r e a l i s t i c was t h e i r g o a l ? How were t h i n g s b e t t e r ? How do they f e e l t h e i r e f f o r t was? Were they p e r s i s t e n t ? HANDOUT:. GUIDE QUESTIONS/GOAL EVALUATION SHEET EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES STATEMENTS ON ORGANIZATION OPTIONAL ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: Students may i n t e r v i e w a S e n i o r s t u d e n t ( s u c c e s s f u l ) on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l approach. Get t h e i r f e e l i n g s about o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g - i n p a r t i c u l a r about s c h o o l r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g . I n d i v i d u a l : Dyads: Quads: C l a s s : - 114 -S e s s i o n 5 M a t e r i a l s - Statements on O r g a n i z a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s : Read down t h i s l i s t of statements t i c k i n g those you f e e l a p p l y to you. You may a l t e r any s t a t e -ment so t h a t they a p p l y t o you b e t t e r . On t h e back of the page note any statements o r f e e l i n g s t h a t may not be i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s l i s t . ( D i f f e r e n c e s from t h i s l i s t ) I don't t h i n k I work as hard as I c o u l d . I c o u l d n ' t t e l l you how many hours I put i n l a s t week. I o f t e n seem to l e a v e t h i n g s , l i k e r e p o r t s , t i l l the l a s t minute. I f i n d i t ha r d t o get down to work. I don't seem to be a b l e to s t i c k t o a t a s k ( l i k e r e a d i n g through a c h a p t e r ) f o r v e r y l o n g . I t h i n k t h a t o t h e r s do more than me. I don't f i n d i t easy to t a l k to o t h e r s o p e n l y about how much work I'm d o i n g . I am never q u i t e s u r e what I've got to do n e x t . I sometimes take ages t o "get g o i n g " . I'm not s u r e i f I am d o i n g enough o r n o t . I tend t o f l i t ( s k i p ) from one t a s k to a n o t h e r . I seem to work b e t t e r i n some p l a c e s than o t h e r s . I work r a t h e r i r r e g u l a r l y , p u t t i n g i n l o t s of time one week and p r a c t i c a l l y none the nex t . I'm g e n e r a l l y b e h i n d , sometimes s e v e r a l weeks b e h i n d assignments. There i s no way I c o u l d do a l l the work I'm expected t o . I'm n o t s u r e I always do the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s f i r s t . I'm not s u r e I ' l l be a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y pass t h i s (a) c o u r s e . I don't have any s o r t of l o n g - t e r m , or even s h o r t - t e r m , p l a n f o r m y s e l f . - 115 -SESSION 6 EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e Group E x e r c i s e : * * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 4 TOPIC: MY GREATEST SUCCESS! Achievement S t o r y : * * R e f e r to S e s s i o n 2 (Use 10-15 new a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d words) SKELETON PLOT: T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g to do something b e t t e r t h a n he (she) h i m s e l f ( h e r s e l f ) has done i t b e f o r e and he/she a c t u a l l y asks f o r h e l p i n a t t a i n i n g h i s / h e r g o a l . HANDOUT: STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD LIST SHEET - 116 -ACHIEVEMENT STORY #2 T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which t h e hero o r h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g to do something b e t t e r than he/she h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f has done i t b e f o r e and he/she a c t u a l l y a s k s f o r h e l p i n a t t a i n i n g h i s / h e r g o a l . ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. - 117 -SESSION 7 SELF-STUDY O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f : U t i l i z a t i o n o f Home Time U t i l i z a t i o n o f S c h o o l Time * * R e f e r to S e s s i o n 5 Re: Notes. I n s t r u c t i o n s (For b o t h T o p i c s ) : I n d i v i d u a l : 'Think back over the p a s t months, or any e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e s which may s t a n d out (Home/School) and j o t down where time was p o o r l y used, wasted away, n o t planned o r not even c o n s i d e r e d . A l s o t r y to make no t e s on why i t was so bad.' 'Now do the same f o r good use of time. Where you d i d p l a n your time, were s u c c e s s f u l w i t h time management and found time was w e l l used. What was i t about t h o s e t i m e s t h a t made you s u c c e s s f u l w i t h your time? J o t down a few n o t e s . Dyads: ' R e l a t e your e x p e r i e n c e to each o t h e r . E x p l a i n why your e x p e r i e n c e s were good and bad. How your time was used p o o r l y and w e l l . What a r e the major s i m i l a r i t i e s you share? Major d i f f e r e n c e s ? T r y and s t i c k to b a s i n g your d i s c u s s i o n i n your own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z i n g . ' Quads: 'From your p o o l e d e x p e r i e n c e s of good and bad time use (Home/School), can you see any themes, major s i m i l a r i t i e s , a r i s i n g ? - t h i n g s you c o u l d g e n e r a l i z e about time use of a s t u d e n t ? Each group of f o u r e l e c t a c h a i r p e r s o n who n o t e s down what i s s a i d under two columns: "Things t h a t l e a d t o s a t i s f a c t o r y time use" and "Things t h a t l e a d t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y time use". Note down as many t h i n g s as you can under t h e s e h e a d i n g s . ' C l a s s : 'Each group of f o u r , i n t u r n , r e a ds out one i t e m from i t s l i s t . Everyone e l s e l i s t e n s and asks the group t o e x p l a i n i t s e l f , t o make the meaning of each i t e m c l e a r . Record the items on the b o a r d . *Work through a l l items or u n t i l time runs out. Each t o p i c a t l e a s t 30 minutes or 1/2 p e r i o d . ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: * R e f e r to S e s s i o n 5: Focus i s s e t t i n g g o a l ( s ) f o r time use - Home/School HANDOUT: GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES - 118 -SESSION 8 EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e Group E x e r c i s e : * * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 4 TOPIC: WHY TRY! Achievement S t o r y : * * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 2 (Use 10-15 new a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d words) SKELETON PLOT: T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g to do something b e t t e r than someone e l s e and he/she a c t u a l l y says he/she i s l o o k i n g forward t o s u c c e s s . HANDOUT: STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD LIST SHEET - 119 -ACHIEVEMENT STORY #3 T h i s week you a r e g o i n g to t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which, the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o something b e t t e r than someone e l s e and he/she a c t u a l l y s. he/she i s l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o s u c c e s s . ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. - 120 -SESSION 9 SELF-STUDY T a k i n g Notes (Adapted: G i b b s , 1981, 18-22) Notes: T h i s s e s s i o n uses the s i m p l e and u s e f u l d e v i c e o f a s k i n g s t u d e n t s to undertake an a c t u a l l e a r n i n g t a s k - i n t h i s c ase t a k i n g n o t e s - and then j u s t a s k i n g them to compare w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s how they d i d t h i s and t o share methods and u s e s . T h i s e n a b l e s d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t s t o h i g h l i g h t the n a t u r e o f the l e a r n i n g t a s k - i n t h i s case some of the d e c i s i o n s about c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s which a r e i n v o l v e d i n note t a k i n g and which might o t h e r w i s e be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . Most s t u d e n t s , even e x p e r i e n c e d ones, a r e q u i t e i n a r t i c u l a t e about why they take notes i n the way they do. P r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o l e a r n about t a k i n g n o t e s i s t h a t i t can s e r v e a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s i n l e a r n i n g . D i f f e r e n t t a s k s make d i f f e r e n t demands, and d i f f e r e n t ends r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t means. ( E x p l a i n t h i s w i t h an i l l u s t r a t i o n ) The t a s k of r e q u i r i n g each p e r s o n to get to under-s t a n d the o t h e r ' s n o t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y to be a b l e to e x p l a i n them to another p a i r i s q u i t e u s e f u l . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l when you s u s p e c t s t u d e n t s w i l l take t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r form of s t u d y i n g somewhat f o r g r a n t e d and not r e a l l y f e e l t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g to be s a i d about i t . Another's l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n i n g can get around t h i s and draw out more than i f the i n d i v i d u a l were asked t o e x p l a i n t h e i r own n o t e s . I n s t r u c t i o n s : I n d i v i d u a l : T h i s f i r s t s t a g e i n v o l v e s s t u d e n t s t a k i n g n o t e s from some s o u r c e - a l e c t u r e , book, f i l m or v i d e o . T h i s can s i m p l y i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s ' l a s t l e c t u r e or n o t e s or a s p e c i a l n o t e t a k i n g a c t i v i t y a t the s t a r t of the s e s s i o n . The more r e c e n t l y the n o t e s have been taken, t h e more v i v i d l y and c o m p l e t e l y w i l l s t u d e n t s be a b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t how and why they were w r i t t e n . Dyads: 'In p a i r s , each of you i n t u r n have a l o o k a t the o t h e r ' s n o t e s and t r y to u n d e r s t a n d why they a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e form they a r e . Which t h i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d and which a r e l e f t o ut, and why? What w i l l they be used f o r ? Ask the o t h e r p e r s o n whatever q u e s t i o n s you need i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r n o t e s . Spend about f i v e m inutes on each s e t of n o t e s . Next, you w i l l be asked to e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y your p a r t n e r ' s n o t e s to an ot he r p a i r . ' - 121 -Quads: 'In f o u r s , each of you i n t u r n t r y to e x p l a i n your p a r t n e r ' s n o t e s to the o t h e r p a i r . Why are the o t h e r ' s n o t e s d i f f e r e n t from your own? Do the o t h e r s use t h e i r n o t e s i n the same way as you do? F i n d o u t . You a r e not a l l o w e d to d e s c r i b e your own n o t e s u n l e s s your p a r t n e r i s unable t o . ' ' S t i l l i n f o u r s , can you see from your f o u r s e t s o f n o t e s what makes them e i t h e r "good" and u s e f u l n o t e s or "poor" and u s e l e s s notes? Form a l i s t of t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s you have i d e n t i f i e d which you t h i n k a r e u s e f u l and those which you t h i n k you s h o u l d a v o i d . W r i t e these down f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the c l a s s . C l a s s : 'Each group i n t u r n w i l l r e a d out one i t e m from i t s l i s t . I f what i s r e a d out i s c l e a r to the o t h e r groups and not a problem, then we w i l l w r i t e i t up on the board under one of two h e a d i n g s : "Good p o i n t s about these n o t e s " or "Bad p o i n t s about these n o t e s . " I f any of the p o i n t s a r e u n c l e a r , we w i l l c l a r i f y them and o n l y put them up on our l i s t i f we agree on i t and a r e c l e a r what i t means.' ^Cont i n u e t h r o u g h a l l items or u n t i l time runs o u t . ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: *R e f e r to S e s s i o n 5: Focus i s s e t t i n g g o a l ( s ) f o r n o t e t a k i n g . HANDOUT: Note T a k i n g - Two Methods EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS - 122 -INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES: To take notes e f f e c t i v e l y , one must have the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y main ideas and important data w i t h i n a w r i t t e n or o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s assumed that students have already developed at l e a s t rudimentary s k i l l i n i d e n t i f y i n g main ideas and f a c t s . I f some or many of the students do not have t h i s s k i l l y e t , i t may be necessary to provide them w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n necessary f o r i t s development. To help your students develop a mastery of these methods - o u t l i n i n g and mapping - s t r u c t u r e a number of d i f f e r e n t kinds of s i t u a t i o n s throughout the year i n which the students must take notes and hand them i n f o r review. Through t h i s k i n d of ongoing process you can both s t r e s s the u t i l i t y of note-taking and keep your students engaged i n improving t h e i r note-taking s k i l l s . - 123 -NOTE-TAKING METHODS E f f e c t i v e n o t e t a k i n g i s perhaps the s i n g l e most u s e f u l study s k i l l t h a t a s t u d e n t can l e a r n . The a b i l i t y to take good n o t e s w i l l prove not o n l y u s e f u l i n academic c o n t e x t s but a l s o i n any s e t t i n g which r e q u i r e s t h e r e t e n t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f t a k i n g n o t e s r e s u l t s i n l e a r n i n g b o t h when the n o t e s a r e ta k e n and when they a r e used. Two methods a r e p r e s e n t e d through t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s : (1) o u t l i n i n g , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l method; and (2) mapping, a t e c h n i q u e which i s p r e s e n t e d below. MAPPING: WHAT IS ITS VALUE? Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e o p l e see, u n d e r s t a n d , and respond to the w o r l d i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways and p e r s o n a l ways. E v i d e n c e of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s can be seen e v e r y day i n the ways s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s t h e i r t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e e i n g and t h i n k i n g i s a u s e f u l concept t o a p p l y t o n o t e - t a k i n g methods. While some s t u d e n t s a r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the o u t l i n e method, o t h e r s can o n l y s t r u g g l e w i t h t h i s method, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e n o t e s r e q u i r e d t o take l a c k an obv i o u s o r d e r . Mapping i s an a l t e r n a t i v e n o t e - t a k i n g method t h a t can prove u s e f u l (1) to s t u d e n t s f o r whom o u t l i n i n g i s not a h e l p f u l t o o l , and (2) i n s i t u a t i o n s where the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l l a c k s a c l e a r o r g a n i z a -t i o n , such as c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . Mapping r e q u i r e s l e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a n o u t l i n i n g does as one goes a l o n g but r e s u l t s i n n e a r l y e q u a l w e l l - o r g a n i z e d n o t e s . A l t h o u g h i t may be used i n any c o n t e x t , mapping - 124 -i s p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l f o r t a k i n g notes during unstructured o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y o u t l i n i n g i s an important and u s e f u l note-taking method. Mapping can a l s o be u s e f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y to those who f i n d o u t l i n i n g d i f f i c u l t . Although mapping may be new to you, examine i t c a r e f u l l y , experiment w i t h i t s use, and master i t s uses i f you f i n d i t u s e f u l . Taking notes helps you to l e a r n i n two ways: 1. To take good notes, you need to f i g u r e out what the important ideas and f a c t s are i n what you are reading or hearing. F i g u r i n g out what these important ideas and f a c t s are and then w r i t i n g them down w i l l help you l e a r n them. 2. You can use your notes a week or a month l a t e r to study f o r a t e s t or prepare an assignment. TWO GOOD METHODS FOR TAKING NOTES ARE: METHODS 1. OUTLINING I . Main idea A. I d e a / d e t a i l B. I d e a / d e t a i l 1. S u b - d e t a i l 2. S u b - d e t a i l *Think of your notes as a MAP. Only w r i t e down the main ideas and impor-tant f a c t s . A l s o , be sure to w r i t e your notes i n your own words. 2. MAPPING USE ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE WHEN YOU TAKE NOTES. THE MORE YOU CAN USE THEM, THE LESS WRITING YOU'LL HAVE TO DO. d e t a i l i d e a / f a c t TOPIC/MAIN IDEA i d e a / f a c t i d e a / f a c t - 125 -MAPPING EXAMPLE The 'best n o t e s ' i n o u t l i n e form o f a 14 yea r o l d boy, and h i s mapping n o t e s about E n g l i s h . SETTING - Time and p l a c e s i n which n o v e l i s s i t u a t e d . IMAGERY - K i n d of images the au t h o r uses to d e s c r i b e ( u s u a l l y ) by s i m i l e or metaphor. SYMBOLISM - One t h i n g s t a n d s f o r a n o t h e r The w i t c h e s i n Macbeth s i g n i f y i n g end. - 126 -SESSION 10 EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e Group E x e r c i s e : * * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 4 TOPIC: I'M USUALLY SUCCESSFUL WHEN Achievement S t o r y : * * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 2 (Use 10-15 new a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d words) SKELETON PLOT: T h i s week you a r e g o i n g to t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g t o do something t h a t w i l l take a l o n g time but w i l l r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s and a c t u a l l y says what (or how) he/she i s d o i n g t o h e l p h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f s u cceed. HANDOUT: STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD LIST SHEET - 127 -ACHIEVEMENT STORY #4 T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y i n which the hero or h e r o i n e i s t r y i n g to do something t h a t w i l l take a l o n g time but w i l l r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s and a c t u a l l y says what (or how) he/she i s d o i n g to h e l p h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f succeed. ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS 5. 6. 8. - 128 -SESSION 11 SELF-STUDY T a k i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s (Adapted: Gibbs, pp.42-44) Notes: T h i s e x e r c i s e i s aimed a t what i s i n v o l v e d i n a c t u a l l y s i t t i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n i t s e l f . I t g i v e s s t u d e n t s the chance t o t h i n k about how to p l a n t h e i r time and t a c k l e the e x a m i n a t i o n paper s e n s i b l y w h i l e n ot under s t r e s s or time p r e s s u r e . As m a t e r i a l you w i l l need a p a s t e x a m i n a t i o n paper, complete w i t h any ex a m i n a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r a c o u r s e s t u d e n t s a r e s t u d y i n g . Make s u r e t h a t each group o f f o u r a t l e a s t i s working from the same e x a m i n a t i o n paper - i f i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use more than one e x a m i n a t i o n . The timings f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e are very t i g h t . Two periods may be req u i r e d - breaking between dyads and quads. Ex e r c i s e s on examinations seem to have a c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t and r a i s e a l l s o r t s of powerful issues f o r students other than those s t r i c t l y r e l a t e d w i t h t a k i n g examinations. I t may take some guidance from you at the c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , or even an a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e , to make the l i n k between examination t a c t i c s and r e v i s i o n t a c t i c s . I n s t r u c t i o n s : I n d i v i d u a l : Dyads: 'Imagine you a r e i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n room, and you a r e g i v e n t h i s exam paper and t o l d to b e g i n . Go ahead, f o r t e n minutes, e x a c t l y as i f you were r e a l l y d o i n g the exam.' 'Compare what you d i d w i t h your t e n minutes - was i t d i f f e r e n t ? How? Why? Note t h e s e i n your J o u r n a l . Quads: 'Pool the t a c t i c s you adopted. What a r e the most u s e f u l t h i n g s t o do i n t h e f i r s t t e n minutes? What t h i n g s a r e b e s t a v o i d e d ? ' I n d i v i d u a l : 'Now go back and s t a r t t a c k l i n g a q u e s t i o n which i s not your b e s t q u e s t i o n (choose your 2nd o r 3rd b e s t ) and . s t a r t working on i t . You have t e n minutes to work on i t . Don't t r y and f i n i s h your answer i n t e n minutes, j u s t use i t as the f i r s t t e n minutes you'd spend on t h i s answer. - 129 -Dyads: 'Compare how you went about s t a r t i n g to answer your chosen q u e s t i o n s . ' Quads: 'Pool your t a c t i c s . What methods o f r e v i s i o n would be b e s t s u i t e d t o the t a c t i c s you would choose t o adopt?' C l a s s : 'Each group i s to d e s c r i b e a p r o m i s i n g way o f t a c k l i n g the paper, and g o i n g about answering a q u e s t i o n ; and to suggest what form o f r e v i s i o n would be the b e s t s o r t of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h a t way. L i s t the t a c t i c s on the bo a r d . ' '"Continue through a l l items o r u n t i l time runs out. HANDOUT: SOME EXAMINATION WEAKNESSES GOAL EVALUATION SHEET/GUIDE QUESTIONS EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT: * R e f e r t o S e s s i o n 5: Focus i s on s e t t i n g g o a l ( s ) f o r e x a m i n a t i o n t a k i n g . Choose one o r more e x a m i n a t i o n t a c t i c s (approach) which you f e e l w i l l h e l p you and p l a n a r e v i s i o n t a c t i c (method) to r e a c h i t . Do t h i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r your next major t e s t . M o n i t o r and e v a l u a t e your p r o g r e s s and r e s u l t s as i n p r e v i o u s O r i g i n Assignments. - 130 -SOME EXAMINATION WEAKNESSES * T u r n i n g up l a t e and f l u s t e r e d - and so l o s i n g time. * Not f o l l o w i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n paper i n s t r u c t i o n s about which and how many q u e s t i o n s to answer and so answering q u e s t i o n s which do not count and m i s s i n g out q u e s t i o n s which do count. * Budgeting time between q u e s t i o n s so b a d l y t h a t not enough q u e s t i o n s a r e answered (e.g., t h r e e i n s t e a d of f o u r , throwing away t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t ) . * M i s r e a d i n g or m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g q u e s t i o n s through spending too l i t t l e time d e c i d i n g what i s b e i n g asked f o r - and so answering a q u e s t i o n which has not been asked. * Reading whatever the q u e s t i o n (whether 'Discuss ... ' 'Compare and c o n t r a s t ... ' ' E v a l u a t e ... ' or whatever) a s : ' L i s t whatever you can t h i n k of about t h i s t o p i c i n whichever o r d e r you can t h i n k of i t . Make no attempt to o r g a n i z e your answer. I n c l u d e o n l y unconnected f a c t s . * W r i t i n g i l l e g i b l y . T h i s i s v e r y common. The more s l o w l y an examiner i s f o r c e d t o r e a d , by poor h a n d w r i t i n g , t h e l e s s chance t h e r e i s t h a t he o r she can work out what an answer i s s a y i n g . * U s i n g o p i n i o n s and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r w e l l -s u p p o r t e d arguments. Abandoning a l l l o g i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r . * B e l i e v i n g t h a t sheer q u a n t i t y w i l l g a i n marks. In f a c t , the r e v e r s e can be the case - good p o i n t s and arguments b e i n g l o s t i n a w e l t e r of i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l . * F o r g e t t i n g t h a t the f i r s t 50% o f marks f o r an answer a r e r e l a t i v e l y easy to o b t a i n , the next 25% e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t and the l a s t 25% q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e - and so w a s t i n g time e l a b o r a t i n g on .already good o r adequate answers i n s t e a d of i m p r o v i n g poor and i n a d e q u a t e answers. * T r y i n g to remember what they know about a t o p i c , s e l e c t what i s r e l e -v a n t to a q u e s t i o n , o r g a n i z e i t i n t o an answer and f o r m u l a t e s e n t e n c e s to e x p r e s s t h a t answer a l l a t the same time i n s t e a d of i n s e p a r a t e s t a g e s - and so p r o d u c i n g p a r t l y i r r e l e v a n t , d i s o r g a n i z e d , i n c o m p l e t e and i n c o h e r e n t answers. * F a i l i n g t o r e a d through f i n i s h e d answers f o r g r o s s l y i n c o h e r e n t and i n c o r r e c t p a s sages. * P a n i c k i n g . T h i s i s , of c o u r s e , a p a r t i a l l i s t and you may wish to d e l e t e and add items to s u i t your own s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e and e x p e r i e n c e . 131 -SESSION. 12 EXPLORATION/SELF-CONCEPT D i s c u s s i o n C i r c l e Group E x e r c i s e : * * R e f e r to S e s s i o n 4 - Lengthen time t o 2 minutes p e r p e r s o n . Once everyone has had t h e i r t u r n open t o a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n . TOPIC: WHAT IS AN ORIGIN? Achievement S t o r y : S t udents t o draw words from p r e v i o u s l y g e n e r a t e d l i s t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d words ( t r y to use a t l e a s t 10 and as many o t h e r s as a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r s t o r y . ) PLOT: T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y on: I WAS AN ORIGIN THE TIME THAT ...! HANDOUT: STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY EVALUATION OF THE CLASS ACTIVITIES ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORD LIST SHEET - 132 -ACHIEVEMENT STORY #5 T h i s week you a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k about and w r i t e a complete s t o r y on: I WAS AN ORIGIN THE TIME THAT ... ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED WORDS Draw words from p r e v i o u s f o u r (4) s e t s o f words. Use as many of the words as you can, making s u r e they a l l make sense w i t h i n the s t o r y . - 133 -SESSION 13 EVALUATION/ORIGIN ASSIGNMENT E v a l u a t i o n : Group D i s c u s s i o n - f e e l i n g s o f c o u r s e , s p e c i f i c feedback, d i f f i c u l t i e s ahead d o i n g g o a l s on emphasize t h a t w i t h these s k i l l s they c a n ' t l o s e - o n l y g a i n , O r i g i n s p e r s i s t - even w i t h f a i l u r e s (and f a i l u r e s w i l l o c c u r . ) O r i g i n Assignment: Continue to meet w i t h p a r t n e r once a week/every 2 weeks t o : a. Set a g o a l ( s ) [ R e l a t e d to m a t e r i a l - study s k i l l s - o f the c o u r s e or any o t h e r g o a l which i s i m p o r t a n t . ] b. M o n i t o r and e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e of p a r t n e r , r e c o r d i n g r e s u l t s and r e a c t i o n s i n J o u r n a l . The g o a l may be one which l a s t s l o n g e r than a week - however, s t i l l meet each week and d i s c u s s p r o g r e s s . c. Share s u c c e s s e s and accomplishments (and d e f e a t s ) w i t h p a r t n e r . To encourage one another as ORIGINS! Meet f o r remainder of the y e a r - 15-20 minutes a week. A good p l a c e f o r meeting would be E n g l i s h c l a s s . * * C o n t i n u e w i t h J o u r n a l f o r remainder of y e a r - and permanently i f you found i t a t a l l u s e f u l ; i t i s a good " s o u r c e " to go to and have a t a l k . - 134 -APPENDIX B Sparwood Secondary School O F F I C E O F T H E PRINCIPAL T E L E P H O N E 425-6666 p - ° - BOX 67 E L K F O R D - Zenith 2355 S P A R W O O D , B .C . VOB 2G0 ^ . . J a n u a r y 19 8 3 Dear P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n : Mr. McDermid has r e t u r n e d from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o r u n a s i x week program on s t u d y s k i l l s w i t h a l l grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . T h i s program w i l l be p a r t o f the r e g u l a r grade e i g h t E n g l i s h c l a s s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e program i s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y l e a r n , as w e l l as how to o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l , how t o tak e notes and how t o w r i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s W i t h r e g a r d t o s t u d y s k i l l s , i t i s hoped t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n how to s e t p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t o h e l p them a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s , and t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e s e p l a n s . We b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t s who can become m o t i v a t -ed t o s t u d y and who use a p l a n n e d a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g , w i l l be a b l e t o improve t h e i r g rades i n s c h o o l . Mr. McDermid w i l l e v a l u a t e the program a f t e r the s i x weeks are up to see how w e l l t he s t u d e n t s have done. Shou l d you have any q u e s t i o n s o r v i e w p o i n t s about the program, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c a l l Mr. McDermid o r m y s e l f at 425-6666. S i n c e r e l y , ./E. W. Surg e n o r P r i n c i p a l SPARWOOD SECONDARY SCHOOL EWS:vq - 135 -APPENDIX C NOWICKI-STRICKLAND PERSONAL REACTION SURVEY 1. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t most problems w i l l s o l v e themselves i f you j u s t don't f o o l w i t h them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 2. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t you can s t o p y o u r s e l f from c a t c h i n g a c o l d ? Yes No [No]* 3. Are some k i d s j u s t b o r n l u c k y ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 4. Most of the time do you f e e l t h a t g e t t i n g good grades means a g r e a t d e a l to you? Yes No [No]* 5. Are you o f t e n blamed f o r t h i n g s t h a t j u s t a r e n ' t your f a u l t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 6. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t i f somebody s t u d i e s h a r d enough he o r she can pass any s u b j e c t ? Yes No [No]* 7. Do you f e e l t h a t most o f the time i t doesn't pay to t r y h a r d beacuse t h i n g s never t u r n out r i g h t anyway? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 8. Do you f e e l t h a t i f t h i n g s s t a r t out w e l l i n the morning t h a t i t ' s g o i n g t o be a good day no m a t t e r what you do? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 9. Do you f e e l t h a t most of the time p a r e n t s l i s t e n t o what t h e i r c h i l d r e n have to say? Yes No [No]* 10. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t w i s h i n g can make good t h i n g s happen? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 11. When you get p u n i s h e d does i t u s u a l l y seem i t ' s f o r no good r e a s o n a t a l l ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 12. Most of the time do you f i n d i t h a r d to change a f r i e n d ' s [mind] o p i n i o n ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 13. Do you t h i n k t h a t c h e e r i n g more than l u c k h e l p s a team to win? Yes No [No]* - 136 -14. Do you f e e l t h a t i t ' s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o change your p a r e n t ' s mind about a n y t h i n g ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 15. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t your p a r e n t s s h o u l d a l l o w you t o make most of your own d e c i s i o n s ? Yes No [No]'.* 16. Do you f e e l t h a t when you do something wrong t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e you can do to make i t r i g h t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 17. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t most k i d s a r e j u s t b o r n good a t s p o r t s ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 18. Are most of the o t h e r k i d s your age s t r o n g e r than you are? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 19. Do you f e e l t h a t one o f the b e s t ways to h a n d l e most problems i s j u s t n o t t o t h i n k about them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 20. Do you f e e l t h a t you have a l o t of c h o i c e i n d e c i d i n g who your f r i e n d s are? Yes No [No]* 21. I f you f i n d a f o u r l e a f c l o v e r do you b e l i e v e t h a t i t might b r i n g you good l u c k ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 22. Do you o f t e n f e e l t h a t whether you do your homeowrk has much to do w i t h what k i n d o f grades you get? Yes No [No]* 23. Do you f e e l t h a t when a k i d your age d e c i d e s t o h i t you, t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do to st o p him or her? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 24. Have you ever had a good l u c k charm? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 25. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t whether or not pe o p l e l i k e you depends on how you a c t ? Yes No [No]* 26. W i l l your p a r e n t s u s u a l l y h e l p you i f you ask them to? Yes _ No [No]* 27. Have you f e l t t h a t when pe o p l e were mean t o you i t was u s u a l l y f o r no r e a s o n a t a l l ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * - 137 -28. Most of t h e time, do you f e e l t h a t you can change what might happen tomorrow by what you do today? Yes No [No]* 29. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t when bad t h i n g s a r e go i n g to happen they j u s t a r e g o i n g to happen no m a t t e r what you t r y to do to st o p them? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 30. Do you t h i n k t h a t k i d s can get t h e i r own way i f they j u s t keep t r y i n g ? Yes No [No]* 31. Most o f the time do you f i n d i t u s e l e s s to t r y to get your own way a t home? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 32. Do you f e e l t h a t when good t h i n g s happen they happen because o f hard work? Yes No [No]* 33. Do you f e e l t h a t when somebody your age wants t o be your enemy t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do to change m a t t e r s ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 34. Do you f e e l t h a t i t ' s easy t o get f r i e n d s to do what you want them to? Yes No [No]* 35. Do you u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t you have l i t t l e to say about what you get to e a t at home? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 36. Do you f e e l t h a t when someone doesn't l i k e you t h e r e ' s l i t t l e you can do about i t ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 37. Do you u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t i t ' s almost u s e l e s s to t r y i n s c h o o l be-cause most o t h e r c h i l d r e n a r e j u s t p l a i n smarter than you are? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 38. Are you the k i n d of p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a n n i n g ahead makes t h i n g s t u r n out b e t t e r ? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 39. Most o f the time, do you f e e l t h a t you have l i t t l e t o say about what your f a m i l y d e c i d e s t o do? Yes No [ Y e s ] * 40. Do you t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r t o be smart than to be l u c k y ? Yes No [No]* * A l l items a r e answered i n an e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . - 138 -APPENDIX D A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e With Repeated Measures For Two Dependent V a r i a b l e s ( P r e - P o s t ) (BMDP v.2, Dixon, 1981) Dependent Source S.S. df M.S. F P V a r i a b l e C o n t r o l (Pre) Sex 25.82 1 25.82 0.59 0.4456 C l a s s 111.25 3 37.08 0.85 0.4738 SC 47.36 3 14.79 0.36 0.7821 E r r o r 2938.00 67 43.85 T o t a l 28682.36 75 25682.27 (Post) Locus 210.02 1 210.02 40.15 0.0000 LS 13.32 1 13.23 2.53 0.1165 LC 32.90 3 10.97 2.10 0.1089 LSC 29.80 3 9.93 1.90 0.1381 E r r o r 350.48 67 5.23 T o t a l 636.43 75 249.38 P r o g r e s s (Pre) C l a s s 113.90 3 37.97 0.70 0.5529 Sex 804.40 1 804.40 14.93 0.0003 CS 644.61 3 214.87 3.99 0.0116 E r r o r 3340.41 62 53.88 T o t a l 248131.32 70 24452.67 (Post) Survey 390.55 1 390.55 31.66 0.0000 SC 200.85 3 66.95 5.43 0.0022 SS 37.04 1 37.04 3.00 0.0881 SCS 57.90 3 19.31 1.56 0.2069 E r r o r 764.90 62 12.34 T o t a l 1451.24 70 526.19 - 139 -APPENDIX E A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e (GPA) With Dependent V a r i a b l e Locus o f C o n t r o l Dependent V a r i a b l e Source S.S. df M.S. F P C o n t r o l (Pre) Sex 52.56 1 52.56 1.19 0.2588 C l a s s 84.65 3 28.22 0.64 0.5919 SC 37.42 3 12.47 0.28 0.8375 1 s t Covar. 28.87 1 28.87 0.65 0.4212 E r r o r 2909.13 66 44.08 T o t a l 74 166.20 (Post) Locus 205.59 1 205.59 39.00 0.0000 LS 15.77 1 15.77 2.99 0.0883 LC 32.67 3 10.89 2.07 0.1132 LSC 28.23 3 9.41 1.78 0.1586 1 s t Covar. 2.55 1 2.55 0.48 0.4895 E r r o r 347.94 66 5.27 T o t a l 632.75 75 249.68 - 140 -APPENDIX F STUDENT PROGRESS SURVEY Student Course Date *Your h e l p i s r e q u e s t e d i n a s s e s s i n g the study h a b i t s and s k i l l s o f t h i s s t u d e n t . P l e a s e r e c o r d your o b s e r v a t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Thank-you. Use of time EXCELLENT POOR In t h e p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/improved Decreased/Worsened Same Assignments i n on time EXCELLENT POOR In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same Assignments completed EXCELLENT POOR In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same Atte n d a n c e EXCELLENT POOR 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Same - 141 -Necessary m a t e r i a l s EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Academic p r o g r e s s EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 In t h e p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/improved Decreased/Worsened Cl a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Classroom a t t i t u d e EXCELLENT 7 6 5 4 In the p a s t weeks t h i s b e h a v i o u r has: Increased/Improved Decreased/Worsened Thank you, C o u n s e l l o r - 142 -APPENDIX G A CASE STUDY: RANDI Randi i s a t h i r t e e n - y e a r - o l d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t . She was a p a s s i n g (average) s t u d e n t i n elementary s c h o o l the p r e v i o u s y e a r , but she has not done v e r y w e l l i n her f i r s t term of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . Randi a t t e n d s s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y and i s g e n e r a l l y c o -o p e r a t i v e and f r i e n d l y . She c l a i m s t o be working j u s t as h a r d as she was the y e a r b e f o r e . However, she i s o f t e n l a t e t o her c l a s s e s and i n c r e a s i n g l y , she i s not c o m p l e t i n g her assignments. She does t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s more work to do a t the j u n i o r h i g h l e v e l and t h a t the work i s somewhat h a r d e r than elementary s c h o o l . She a l s o f i n d s the number of c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s somewhat c o n f u s i n g . She says the t e a c h e r s expect her to do a l l the work on h e r own. Randi i s i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and i s v e r y much e n j o y i n g the more i n v o l v e d s o c i a l a s p e c t s of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . She has g o t t e n v e r y i n v o l v e d w i t h a group t h a t a t t i m e s , she s a y s , d e c i d e s her a c t i o n s f o r h e r . She i s o f t e n s o c i a l i z i n g i n c l a s s to the p o i n t where she does not know what i s g o i n g on and as a r e s u l t g e t s b e h i n d i n her work and assignments. Randi's p a r e n t s a r e concerned and wanting to h e l p , as a r e her t e a c h e r s . T h e i r o f f e r has met w i t h r e l u c t a n c e so f a r . Randi wants t o pass i n t o Grade 9; she does not want to j u s t 'get by.' CASE STUDY QUESTIONS: 1. What would you suggest Randi do to improve her s i t u a t i o n ? 2. What would you do i f you were Randi? - 143 -APPENDIX G ( c o n ' t ) A CASE STUDY: SANDY Sandy i s a Grade 8 s t u d e n t who would l i k e t o improve h i s s c h o o l work. Sandy has been r e c e n t l y f e e l i n g t h a t he has l i t t l e c o n t r o l of h i s own l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . He f e e l s t h a t i t i s becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t , t o change h i s s i t u a t i o n . T h i s i s something new to him. In e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l he was u s u a l l y encouraged by h i s a b i l i t i e s and s u c c e s s e s and f e l t p o s i t i v e about l e a r n i n g . He a l s o f e l t more i n c o n t r o l i n elementary s c h o o l . In the e i g h t h grade he has begun to s l a c k e n - o f f i n c l a s s . He i s p a y i n g l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o i n s t r u c t i o n s , t a l k i n g much more and f a i l i n g to complete some assignments and homework. He i s a l s o s p ending much more of h i s time i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Sandy has been r e l u c t a n t to a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the changes he i s e x p e r i e n c i n g and has begun t o blame lower marks on assignments and poor exam r e s u l t s on the t e a c h e r or the " s c h o o l " i n g e n e r a l . Sandy knows he must t r y to change some of t h ese "new" b e h a v i o u r s to improve but i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y making any s e r i o u s p r o g r e s s . He f e e l s r a t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d t h a t he h a s n ' t been a b l e t o improve h i s s i t u a t i o n . R e c e n t l y he has made a d e c i s i o n t o improve h i s a t t i t u d e towards s c h o o l and to work on i m p r o v i n g h i s g r a d e s . He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c o n t i n u i n g h i s p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r would p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n h i s f a i l i n g some of h i s c o u r s e s and d o i n g p o o r l y i n o t h e r s . CASE STUDY QUESTIONS: 1. What t h i n g s c o u l d you suggest to Sandy t h a t might h e l p him i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? ( S u g g e s t / l i s t as many as you can.) 2. F o r each s u g g e s t i o n t r y to comment on s p e c i f i c s t e p s ( t h i n g s ) he might do to be s u c c e s s f u l . 3. What would you do p e r s o n a l l y i f you were Sandy? - 144 -APPENDIX H D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Student S u g g e s t i o n s ( S p e c i f i c ) C a t e g o r i e s C l a s s Pre Post P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1 8 8 R e l a t e d 2 7 11 3 11 13 4 5 11 T o t a l 31 44 T e s t - T a k i n g R e l a t e d 1 0 0 2 0 1 3 1 1 4 0 4 T o t a l 1 6 Note-Taking R e l a t e d 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 4 4 0 1 T o t a l 0 7 O r g a n i z a t i o n R e l a t e d 1 6 15 2 6 12 3 7 11 4 2 9 T o t a l 21 47 T o t a l S u g g e s t i o n s E i g h t h Grade 53 104 - 145 -APPENDIX I STUDENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE NAME _ BLOCK Du r i n g the p a s t s i x weeks, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 h o u r s , you have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a program which has attempted to h e l p you b e t t e r understand how you l e a r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the program has attempted t o i n c r e a s e your awareness of study s k i l l s and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n . In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e program f u l l y your i n p u t i s r e q u i r e d . As the main p a r t i c i p a n t , your o p i n i o n s , r e a c t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s a r e v e r y important i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the program. P l e a s e work through the q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t r e s p onse i s o f t e n t h e b e s t so do n o t spend a l o t of time on each q u e s t i o n . Thank you f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program and your e v a l -u a t i o n o f the program. For each of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , c i r c l e one o f : SA s t r o n g l y agree A - agree U - u n c e r t a i n D - d i s a g r e e SD - s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 1. I b e l i e v e my study h a b i t s have improved. SA 2. I b e l i e v e I have made p o s i t i v e changes ( i n c r e a s e d ) i n my p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n . SA 3. I b e l i e v e I am more aware of my p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards l e a r n i n g . 4. I have d i s c u s s e d the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program ( a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s ) w i t h my p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n . SA A SA I found the s e s s i o n on " s t u d e n t r o l e s " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D I found the s e s s i o n on " O r i g i n b e h a v i o u r s " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D 6 a. I found " s e t t i n g g o a l s and p l a n n i n g " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D 6 b . I found " c h e c k i n g d a i l y p r o g r e s s " to be h e l p f u l . SA A U D SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD - 146 -7. I found the s e s s i o n on "How do I l e a r n " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D SD 8. I found the s e s s i o n on " O r g a n i z i n g Y o u r s e l f " to be h e l p f u l . SA A TJ D SD 9. I found the s e s s i o n on " N o t e - t a k i n g " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D SD 10. I found the s e s s i o n on " T a k i n g E x a m i n a t i o n s " to be h e l p f u l . SA A U D SD 11. I found the s e s s i o n s on "Achievement S t o r i e s " t o be h e l p f u l . SA A U D SD 12. I would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a program l i k e t h i s a g a i n . SA A U D SD 13. I would recommend t h a t my f r i e n d s p a r t i -c i p a t e i n a st u d y s k i l i s / m o t i v a t i o n group l i k e t h i s one. SA A U D SD 14. I would recommend t h a t f u t u r e Grade E i g h t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n group l i k e t h i s one. SA A U D SD 15. I b e l i e v e I would f i n d a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program s i m i l a r to t h i s one u s e f u l next y e a r . SA A U D SD 16. How would you r a t e your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the st u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program? HIGH AVERAGE LOW 17. I f o t h e r s t u d e n t s would ask me about the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program, I would say the f o l l o w i n g : 18. A d d i t i o n s or d e l e t i o n s (changes) I would make to the program a r e : 19. Concerns I have about the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program a r e : - 147 -20. A d d i t i o n a l Comments: - 148 -APPENDIX J STUDENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE - FOLLOW UP NAME BLOCK During the second term of t h i s school year you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s i x week (12 sessions) program. This program attempted to help you b e t t e r understand how you l e a r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the program attempted to increase your awareness of study s k i l l s and r e l a t e d personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n . In order to evaluate the program f u l l y your feedback i s necessary. Your personal o p i n i o n s , r e a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s are very important to the e v a l u a t i o n of the program. Please work through the questions i n order. Your f i r s t response i s of t e n the best so do not spend a l o t of time on each question. Thank you f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program and e v a l u a t i n g your personal involvement w i t h the program. For each of the f o l l o w i n g questions, c i r c l e ONE of: st r o n g l y . T T _ ,. SA - A - agree U - u n c e r t a i n D - disagree agree b ° SD - s t r o n ^ y disagree 1. I b e l i e v e my study h a b i t s have improved as a r e s u l t of my experience i n the program. SA A U D SD 2. I b e l i e v e my grades are improved as a r e s u l t of me applying what I learned i n the program. SA A U D SD 3. I b e l i e v e I have taken greater personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g s i n c e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. SA A U D SD 4. I b e l i e v e I am more p e r s o n a l l y motivated as a r e s u l t of my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. SA A U D SD Each of the f o l l o w i n g are s k i l l s you discussed and experienced i n the program. Please i n d i c a t e the degree of involvement w i t h each of these s i n c e the completion of the program. - 149 -For each of the f o l l o w i n g , c i r c l e ONE of: Thought about i t and worked on i t r e g u l a r l y . Thought about i t and worked on i t o c c a s i o n a l l y . Thought about i t but d i d not work on i t . Thought about i t and worked on i t once or twice. Have not thought about i t and have not worked on i t . 5. " O r i g i n Behaviours" 6. " S e t t i n g Goals and Plannin g " 7. "Checking d a i l y progress/ G e t t i n g personal feedback" 8. "Organizing Y o u r s e l f " 9. "Note-taking Methods" 10. "Taking Examinations" 11. "Journal W r i t i n g " 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12. How would you r a t e your personal e f f o r t and invovlement i n the use of study s k i l l s we discussed and experienced i n the program? High Average Low 13. How would you r a t e your personal m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e the completion of the program? a. Increased Same Decreased b. High Average Low 14. How would you r a t e your personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i n c e the completion of the program? a. Increased Same Decreased b. High Average Low 15. From the completion of the program to the present I have found I have been most aware of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. - 150 -16; From the c o m p l e t i o n o f the program to the p r e s e n t I have found the most u s e f u l a s p e c t s of the program to be: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 17. A d d i t i o n a l Comments: - 151 -APPENDIX K - 152 -Sparwood Secondary School O F F I C E OF T H E PRINCIPAL TELEPHONE 425-6666 ELKFORD - Zenith 2355 P. 0. BOX 67 SPARWOOD, B.C. VOB 2G0 Feb. 18 19 83 Dear P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n : As you are aware, y o u r son or d a u g h t e r has s p e n t a l m o s t 14 hours i n the p a s t s i x weeks r e v i e w i n g , p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r i n g and p r a c t i c i n g p o s i t i v e s t u d y s k i l l s and h a b i t s and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Each c h i l d was a l s o r e q u e s t e d t o at t e m p t e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r o g r e s s i n the program. In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e our program f u l l y , we would a p p r e c i a t e y o u r h e l p . P l e a s e f i n d e n c l o s e d a b r i e f summary o f the s t u d y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program p r e s e n t e d to y o u r c h i l d t he p a s t s i x weeks and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r you t o c o m p l e t e . P l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the e n c l o s e d e n v e l o p e . Have y o u r son o r d a u g h t e r r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Mr. McDermid. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous manner. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e as y o u r a s s i g n e d number the l a s t f o u r d i g i t s o f y o u r t e l e p h o n e number. T h i s i s to a s s u r e us t h a t we have a r e t u r n e d form from you. Thank you f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . A w r i t t e n copy o f our r e p o r t f i n d i n g s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e some time n e a r the end o f September. P l e a s e c o n t a c t us a t t h a t time i f you w i s h t o d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s . Yours t r u l y , E. W. Sur g e n o r P r i n c i p a l E S / l p E n c l . NOTE: Mr. Mcfermid is returning to U.B.C. Friday, February 25. If at all possible please return COMPLETED questionnaire to him by noon Friday, February 25, 1983. Thank you. If this is not possible please return to the principal, Mr. Surqenor. - 153 -APPENDIX K (co n ' t ) PROGRAM SUMMARY The purpose o f the program was to h e l p s t u d e n t s understand how they l e a r n , as w e l l as how to o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l , how to take  n o t e s and how to w r i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s . Students were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a n a g o a l around each study s k i l l , p r a c t i c e i t f o r a week and e v a l u a t e t h e i r p r o g r e s s . Each s t u d e n t was f u r t h e r encouraged t o work on r e l a t e d (or o t h e r ) g o a l s f o r the remainder of the y e a r - e v a l u a t i n g each g o a l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . With r e g a r d t o study s k i l l s , i t i s hoped t h a t s t u d e n t s became aware of how to s e t p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o de v e l o p p l a n s t o h e l p them a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s , and to a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f these p l a n s . We b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t s who can become m o t i v a t e d to study and who use a planned approach t o s t u d y i n g , t a k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i l l be a b l e t o improve t h e i r grades i n s c h o o l . With r e g a r d t o m o t i v a t i o n the program encouraged s t u d e n t s to work towards ORIGIN b e h a v i o u r s ( t a k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and m a i n t a i n i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l ) as opposed t o PAWN b e h a v i o u r s ( l a c k i n g p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and h a v i n g o t h e r s " p e e r s " c o n t r o l them). An ORIGIN i s someone who: a. Takes P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y b. P r e p a r e s h i s work c a r e f u l l y c. P l a n s her l i f e to h e l p h er r e a c h h er g o a l s d. P r a c t i c e s h i s s k i l l s e. P e r s i s t s i n h e r work f . Has P a t i e n c e , f o r he knows t h a t some g o a l s take time to r e a c h g. Performs, she knows she has to do t h i n g s i n or d e r t o r e a c h h e r g o a l s h. Checks h i s P r o g r e s s - feedback i . Moves toward P e r f e c t i n g h er s k i l l s , p a y i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o improvement - 154 -APPENDIX K ( c o n ' t ) PARENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE DATE ASSIGNED P l e a s e work through the q u e s t i o n s NUMBER ( l a s t 4 phone d i g i t s ) i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t r esponse i s o f t e n t h e b e s t so do not spend a l o t of time on each q u e s t i o n . Thanks f o r your h e l p i n e v a l u a t i n g the program. For each of the f o l l o w i n g c i r c l e one: SA - " r o n g l y A _ _ u n c e r t a i n D _ d l s S D _ s t r o n g l y agree b & d i s a g r e e 1. My c h i l d has shown a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n the stud y s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. SA A U D SD 2. My c h i l d has d i s c u s s e d w i t h me (us) some of the a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s of the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. SA A U D SD 3. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s study s k i l l s and h a b i t s . SA A U D SD 4. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n . SA A U D SD 5. I have observed p o s i t i v e changes i n my c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . SA A U D SD 6. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program to o t h e r p a r e n t s . SA A U D SD 7. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e Grade 8 c l a s s e s . SA A U D SD 8. I would recommend s i m i l a r programs be o f f e r e d i n o t h e r g r a d e s . SA. A U D SD 9. COMMENTS: - 155 -APPENDIX K (con't) PARENT COMMENTS Twelve i n d i v i d u a l comments were r e c e i v e d . They a r e l i s t e d below as r e c e i v e d : 1. What i s meant by s k i l l s / h a b i t s ? 2. My c h i l d says he has been p r a c t i c i n g many of t h e s e s k i l l s 'before the c o u r s e . 3. S o r r y f o r no p o s i t i v e comments/answers - perhaps the program has not been r u n l o n g enough. 4. Changes yes - s i g n i f i c a n t No. 5. Sounds l i k e an e x c e l l e n t program (much needed) more informed i n an a c t i v e way. 6. P o s s i b l y the program s h o u l d be s t a r t e d e a r l i e r Grade 5 o r 6. 7. My son r e a l l y enjoyed the program. 8. My c h i l d f e e l s she b e n e f i t e d t o a degree from the program. 9. I f e e l i t s h o u l d be i n a l l c l a s s e s . 10. The f u l l b e n e f i t , I f e e l , has y e t to show through. I t h i n k d u r i n g exams more w i l l become ap p a r e n t . 11. A more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the program would be i n o r d e r . 12. S. has a c h i e v e d s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n , a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n . She has s e t g o a l s f o r h e r s e l f and p l a n s t o t r y now f o r the Honour R o l l . - Wish I was - perhaps - 156 -APPENDIX L TEACHER EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE DATE SUBJECT D u r i n g the p a s t s i x weeks a l l grade e i g h t s i n r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s have been i n v o l v e d i n a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. Your h e l p i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the program i s v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g the degree of program aware-ness on the p a r t of s t a f f . I am a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing of any o b s e r v a b l e changes i n any of t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i -c i p a t i n g i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. P l e a s e complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n t o me. I w i l l be happy to d i s c u s s w i t h you any a s p e c t of the program i f you would l i k e to d i s c u s s the program i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Thanks f o r your h e l p and i n t e r e s t . N e i l McDermid CIRCLE ONE OF: s t r o n g l y . T T _ . ^ ,. n T > s t r o n g l y SA - J A - agree U - u n c e r t a i n D - d i s a g r e e SD - ,. agree ° ° d i s a g r e e 1. I am aware t h a t a study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program was o f f e r e d t o the e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . SA A U D SD 2. I am g l a d t h a t a program a t t e m p t i n g to enhance m o t i v a t i o n and study s k i l l s i s b e i n g implemented i n the s c h o o l w i t h the e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . SA A U D SD 3. I would recommend the study s k i l l s / m o t i -v a t i o n program be o f f e r e d t o f u t u r e e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s . SA A U D SD 4. I f e e l a program such as the one d i s c u s s e d above would be u s e f u l i n o t h e r g r a d e s . SA A U D SD 5. I am aware o f Grade 8 stud e n t i n t e r e s t and invo l v e m e n t i n the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program. SA A U D SD I f SA o r A: ( C i r c l e one) A. Students have d i s c u s s e d NONE the program w i t h me. F E W ( 1 _ 3 ) ; S ( M E ( 3 _ 6 ) SEVERAL (6-10) MANY (10+) MOST (20+) - 157 -I have seen s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l s (handouts, e x e r c i s e s , g o a l s h e e t s ) of the program. I have n o t i c e d changes ( e f f o r t towards change/ improvement) i n s t u d e n t s i n the p a s t s i x weeks. NONE FEW (.1-3) SOME (3-6) SEVERAL (.6-10) MANY (10+) MOST (20+) NONE FEW (1-3) SOME (3-6) SEVERAL (.6-10) MANY (.10+) MOST (20+) D. Other i n d i c a t o r s : I doubt i f the study s k i l l s / m o t i v a t i o n program w i l l r e a l l y a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e . SA A U D SD I f o t h e r t e a c h e r s would ask me about a stu d y s k i l l s program t o promote m o t i v a t i o n , I would say the f o l l o w i n g : 8. One s u g g e s t i o n I would make i s 9. One c o n c e r n I have i s 10. A d d i t i o n a l comments: - 158 -APPENDIX M WHAT I HAVE LEARNED IN OR OUT OF SCHOOL SINCE THIS COURSE STARTED IS ... L e a r n i n g o c c u r s b o t h i n and out of s c h o o l . L e a r n i n g may mean knowing about or u n d e r s t a n d i n g something or someone ( y o u r s e l f ) , o r how to do something, or make something. T r y to remember the t h i n g s you have l e a r n e d s i n c e t h i s c o u r s e s t a r t e d . L i s t a l l you have l e a r n e d below: Th i n g s I have l e a r n e d s i n c e t h i s program s t a r t e d a r e : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. - 159 -APPENDIX M (c o n ' t ) STUDENT STATEMENTS STATEMENTS FREQUENCY 1. Take b e t t e r n o t e s . 39 2. Count i n 6/8 time. 1 3. A e r o b i c dance. 1 4. M i d d l e E a s t geography. 1 5. B a s i c A l g e b r a / s u b j e c t s . 5 6. How to improve my marks. 5 7. How t o t a l k t o p e o p l e b e t t e r . 1 8. How to s o l v e some of my own problems. 5 9. How to l i k e s c h o o l . 1 10. How to make s c h o o l f u n . 2 11. Co-operate i n c l a s s / r e s p e c t o t h e r s . 8 12. Complete assignments. 8 13. To l i s t e n . 7 14. Badge r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S c o u t s . 1 15. F i r s t A i d . 1 16. Try to do my homework. 5 17. Do b e t t e r work i n c l a s s . 1 18. S c h o o l i s not har d i f you t r y . 2 19. Some p e o p l e a c t the way they do because they c a n ' t h e l p i t . 1 20. How to s e t g o a l s . 16 21. How to a c c o m p l i s h g o a l s . 6 22. D i f f e r e n t r o l e s t h a t I am. 4 23. To st u d y m o r e / b e t t e r . 21 24. N o t h i n g 7 25. B e t t e r way of t a k i n g t e s t s . 20 26. Use my sp a r e ( c l a s s ) time b e t t e r . 3 27. What an O r i g i n i s . 4 28. To work w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . 1 29. How t o f e e l good about m y s e l f . 4 - 160 -APPENDIX M ( c o n ' t ) STATEMENTS FREQUENCY 30. A l o t of good words from Achievement S t o r i e s . 4 31. How to d e a l w i t h t h i n g s i n a b e t t e r way. 3 32. A b i t more of some p e o p l e i n c l a s s / s c h o o l . 3 33. T r y h a r d e r / p e r s i s t . 9 34. How to check my p r o g r e s s . 3 35. To be n e a t e r . 1 36. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y / s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n 21 37. How to o r g a n i z e m y s e l f / o r g a n i z a t i o n i s important f o r me. 14 38. Help o t h e r s but not to f o r g e t to h e l p m y s e l f . 2 39. How to d r i v e . 1 40. I l e a r n e d how to l e a r n . 1 41. New b a s k e t b a l l s k i l l s . 1 42. How to be my s e l f . 3 43. B r i n g m a t e r i a l s to c l a s s . 3 44. Not to judge p e o p l e wrongly. 1 TOTAL 251 - 161 -APPENDIX N ACHIEVEMENT STORY SAMPLES Female Miss Worth, a f t e r b e i n g out of s c h o o l f o r 30 y e a r s , was w i l l i n g to e x p l o r e t h e i d e a s about g o i n g t o a c o l l e g e n i g h t s c h o o l t o improve h e r j o b s t a t u s . Her f r i e n d s thought i t would be a g r e a t c h a l l e n g e f o r h e r . M i s s Worth thought she c o u l d succeed. B e i n g r e a l i s t i c she d e c i d e d to t r y i t o n l y on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s because g o i n g to s c h o o l a t n i g h t and h a v i n g t o go to work d u r i n g the day would be v e r y h a r d . I t might c o s t her h e r j o b and maybe even her h e a l t h . M i s s Worth was i n t e n t on her g o a l and worked v e r y h a r d . She s t a r t e d t o make v e r y good p r o g r e s s even though she'd get t i r e d and f e e l l i k e g i v i n g up. A f t e r a ye a r of har d work and d e t e r m i n a t i o n M i s s Worth f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d h er g o a l . She graduated w i t h honors and improved h e r j o b s t a t u s and s e l f - e s t e e m . Male I was an o r i g i n the time t h a t I s t a r t e d c r o s s - c o u n t r y r u n n i n g . The f i r s t week wasn't so bad. Then a f t e r the f i r s t c o u p l e o f weeks I had c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f and I s a i d t h a t I ' l l improve. I was r e a l l y d e d i c a t e d i n r u n n i n g . I knew t h a t I was ready t o c h a l l e n g e anyone. My s c h o o l used t o r u n a m i l e e v e r y day. My t e a c h e r t o l d us i n one week we a r e go i n g to F e r n i e , t o r u n a g a i n s t F e r n i e and K i m b e r l e y . That week went by v e r y s l o w l y then f i n a l l y the b i g day came. When we got to F e r n i e I was r e a l l y n e r v ous. We a l l l i n e d up and took o f f . When I was r u n n i n g I thought to m y s e l f i s t h i s worth i t and then I s a i d Yes! I came i n 39th out o f 150 k i d s , I was r e a l l y proud of m y s e l f . - 162 -Female I'm an o r i g i n i n w e i g h t l i f t i n g . I s e t my g o a l s h i g h f o r mys e l f and t r y to succeed. S h e l l y and I a r e t o t a l l y d e d i c a t e d t o w e i g h t -l i f t i n g and f i t n e s s . I t takes l o t s of c o o p e r a t i o n on b o t h our p a r t s , t e l l i n g each o t h e r when we a r e d o i n g something wrong or even i f we a r e d o i n g something r i g h t . We encourage each o t h e r as much as p o s s i b l e . We b o t h have a p r e p a r e d workout t h a t we p e r s i s t a t . I t takes p a t i e n c e to b u i l d up your stamina. Sometimes we c h a l l e n g e each o t h e r o r experiment w i t h new e x e r c i s e s . But we a r e always c a r e f u l . Our h i g h e s t g o a l i s t o make i t to a c o m p e t i t i o n - even i f we d i d n ' t win. Female I am t r y i n g to r e a c h my g o a l o f a w o r l d champion f i g u r e s k a t e r . I have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , I am v e r y d e d i c a t e d and l o v e i t because I am v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . My a c t u a l p l a n s a r e t o go as f a r as I can. I don't have a whole l o t of p a t i e n c e , but I pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n and I am as d e d i c a t e d as I can be a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time. I t r y to have c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f . I t g e t s d i f f i c u l t a t times because of my everyday way o f l i f e . I'm c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h my s k a t i n g p r o , K a r o l Freeman, and I am now on my 2nd f i g u r e (8 i n t o t a l ) , j u n i o r bronze f r e e s k a t e (gold) and j u n i o r bronze dances ( g o l d ) . I am h o p e f u l l y g o i n g t o Nor t h s h o r e summer s c h o o l i n Vancouver t h i s summer. T h i s s t o r y i s not f i c t i o n . NOTE: With s u c c e s s i v e s t o r i e s (1) s t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d i n c l a r i t y and became more s p e c i f i c (2) more s t o r i e s were on t o p i c (3) more p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s appeared (4) more s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d (5) s t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d i n l e n g t h and c o m p l e t i o n . - 163 -APPENDIX 0 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r GPA - Pre and P o s t Assessment (Term 1/Term 2) GPA Source S.S. df M.S. F P (Pre) (Post) Sex 2076.58 1 2076.58 33.44 0.0000 C l a s s 739.64 3 246.55 3.97 0.0115 SC 89.92 3 29.97 0.48 0.6954 E r r o r 4160.76 67 62.10 T o t a l 44730.62 75 58079.92 GPA 1.44 1 1.44 0.35 0.5543 GS 49.83 1 49.83 12.25 0.0008 GC 23.19 3 7.73 1.90 0.1381 GSC 1.89 3 0.63 0.16 0.9260 E r r o r 272.63 67 4.07 T o t a l 348.98 75 63.70 

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