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Subjective assessments of career development : an exploratory study Gilligan, Thomas M. 1983

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SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY by THOMAS M. GILLIGAN B .A . , Yo rk U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depa r tment o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1983 (c) Thomas M. G i l l i g a n , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CoM^CLLmC (WttoLQQN The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) - ' i i -A B S T R A C T T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t u sed a v a r i a t i o n o f K e l l y ' s ( 1955 ) r e p e r t o r y g r i d m e t h o d o l o g y t o o b t a i n s u b j e c t i v e measu re s o f change i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t owa rd s e l f and c a r e e r o v e r t h e p e r i o d f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o m i d - l i f e . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n t h e measu re s o b t a i n e d p r o v i d e d a s e c o n d a r y f o c u s . A g r oup o f t e n ma l e and t e n f e m a l e g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s , aged between 35 and 45 y e a r s , a s s e s s e d t he i n f l u e n c e o f t e n p e r i o d s i n t h e i r l i v e s on t h e i r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Each l i f e p e r i o d was a s s e s s e d by means o f a s e t o f t e n b i - p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . A n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n between t h e a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s , w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement s a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l s o f a v e r a g e p o s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r . S u b j e c t s began w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l o w l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e and g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d h i g h e r l e v e l s by m i d - l i f e . Men, compared t o women, f e l t more f r e e d o m o v e r a l l ; a c q u i r e d and m a i n t a i n e d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m f a s t e r ; and ove rcame r e l a t i v e l y l ow f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t y e a r l i e r . S p e c i f i c c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were s u g g e s t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f becoming more p o s i t i v e a b o u t s e l f and c a r e e r . P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between ma le and f e m a l e p a t t e r n s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e r e f e r e n c e d v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e measu re s w i t h f e m a l e c l i e n t s . The f i n d i n g s and t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y c o u l d be v a l i d a t e d by f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . - i v -T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i Acknow ledgement v i i D e d i c a t i o n v i i i CHAPTER I BACKGROUND REVIEW 1 (A) I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 (B) T h e o r i e s o f C a r e e r Deve l opment 4 ( i ) S o c i a l S y s tems 4 ( i i ) T r a i t F a c t o r 6 ( i i i ) P s y c h o a n a l y t i c 9 ( i v ) Need T h e o r i e s 11 ( v ) D e v e l o p m e n t a l 12 ( v i ) E x i s t e n t i a l 19 (C) R e s e a r c h I n t o C a r e e r Deve l opment 20 ( i ) O b j e c t i v e S t u d i e s 21 ( i i ) S u b j e c t i v e S t u d i e s 27 (D) P u r p o s e and Scope o f T h i s S t u d y 34 CHAPTER I I METHOD 37 (A) S u b j e c t s 37 (B) I n s t r u m e n t s 37 (C) Da ta C o l l e c t i o n and P r o c e d u r e s 41 CHAPTER I I I RESULTS 42 (A) A n a l y s e s o f The A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s 42 (B) E x t e n d e d A n a l y s e s o f Each C a r e e r C o n s t r u c t 44 (C) E x t e n d e d A n a l y s e s o f Ages and P e r i o d s 49 - V -Page CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 51 L i m i t a t i o n s 52 S i g n i f i c a n c e 53 P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n 64 F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 68 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDIX A 78 APPENDIX B 79 APPENDIX C 81 APPENDIX D 83 APPENDIX E 84 - v i -L I S T OF T A B L E S Page T a b l e 1 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s be tween M a l e s and F e m a l e s , w i t h Repea ted Measu rement s A c r o s s T ime P e r i o d s 43 T a b l e 2 A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s A c r o s s L i f e P e r i o d s 44 T a b l e 3 A v e r a g e Age a t Each P e r i o d o f L i f e 49 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I t h ank my A d v i s o r , D r . L a r r y C o c h r a n , f o r h i s w i t , g u i d a n c e and p a t i e n c e i n h e l p i n g me t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o t h a n k my Commi t tee members , D r . M a r s h a l l A r l i n and D r . J ohn A l l a n , f o r t h e s u p p o r t and a d v i c e t h a t was so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and w e l l a p p r e c i a t e d . - v i i i -DEDICATION To my two c h i l d r e n , M i c h e l l e and S e a n , who have w a i t e d f o r me t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . - 1 -CHAPTER I BACKGROUND REVIEW (A) I n t r o d u c t i o n " C a r e e r " i s a s equence o f work r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p i e s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a l i f e - t i m e , f u r t h e r m o r e , c a r e e r s e x i s t o n l y a s p e r s o n s p u r s u e t hem; t h e y a r e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d ( S u p e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f c a r e e r i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e and r e v i e w s o f t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment ( H e a l y , 1982) and w i l l be u sed i n t h i s s t u d y . A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y u sed t o i n v e s t i g a t e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two ma in a p p r o a c h e s . One method has used an " o b j e c t i v e " a p p r o a c h by i n v e s t i g a t i n g c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e b a s i s o f an e x t e r n a l l y j u d g e d s equence o f p o s i t i o n s , e v e n t s and b e h a v i o r s i n t h e w o r k i n g l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . The o t h e r method has s t r e s s e d t h e " s u b j e c t i v e " s i d e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by a n a l y z i n g s e l f - r e p o r t s g i v e n by i n d i v i d u a l s o f c a r e e r - r e l a t e d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . B o t h methods have c o n t r i b u t e d t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , howeve r , t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s and d r awback s t o e a ch a p p r o a c h . - 2 -The work o f Supe r ( 1 9 5 7 ) , G r i b b o n s and Lohnes (1968) and F l a n a g a n and C o o l e y (1966) a r e e xamp l e s o f t h e " o b j e c t i v e " a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t has i d e n t i f i e d and measu red a b r o a d r ange o f q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e f i n e d v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The work o f L e v i n s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , V a i l l a n t (1977) and O s h e r s o n (1980) a r e e xamp l e s o f t h e " s u b j e c t i v e " a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t has p r o v i d e d r i c h and m e a n i n g f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o t he e x p e r i e n t i a l s i d e o f how c a r e e r s d e v e l o p . The o b j e c t i v e method has p r o v i d e d c l e a r q u a n t i f i e d measu re s and p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t b u t t h e d a t a seems f a r removed f r o m t h e r i c h n e s s and e x p e r i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s and l a c k s a d e p t h o f m e a n i n g . On t he o t h e r h a n d , t h e s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h has p r o v i d e d a r i c h n e s s and d e p t h o f mean ing a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r s d e v e l o p b u t o f t e n t h e r i c h n e s s o f mean ing has been o b t a i n e d a t t h e c o s t o f a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t he a n a l y s i s and c o n c l u s i o n s . T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o overcome some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e two r e s e a r c h methods o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h . A b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h e method u sed i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e b e s t j u d g e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l who has had t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n a n e u t r a l o b s e r v e r o f t h e e v e n t s . U n l i k e t he p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e o r p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a sk i n d i v i d u a l s t o p r o v i d e b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e as w e l l a s q u a l i t a t i v e measu re s o f t he e f f e c t s o f t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s ( s ee C h a p t e r I I I ) . A number o f q u e s t i o n s w i l l be a s k e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , i n an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d some l i m i t e d a s p e c t s o f t he - 3 -change p r o c e s s presumed t o e x i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a r e e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change a c r o s s t i m e i n t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s g i v e o f t h e e f f e c t o f s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e p e r i o d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s and w h e t h e r t h e c h a n g e , i f i t o c c u r s , i s o r d e r l y and p r e d i c t a b l e o r random and h a p h a z a r d . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t s show an i n c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e . T h i r d l y , t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l e x p l o r e any d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n t h e t y p e o f change and l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t h a t t h e y r e p o r t . The n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r g i v e s a b a c k g r o u n d r e v i e w o f t h e m a j o r t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Because o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y t h i s b a c k g r o u n d r e v i e w i s as t h o r o u g h a s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t d e t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e ma in empha s i s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l l o o k a t t h e " o b j e c t i v e " and " s u b j e c t i v e " methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l d e f i n e t h e p u r p o s e and s cope o f t h e s t u d y i n more d e t a i l t h a n p r o v i d e d i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n . C h a p t e r I I g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e method u sed t o c o n d u c t t he s t u d y i n c l u d i n g d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a , i n s t r u m e n t s u sed t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a and t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d . C h a p t e r I I I g i v e s a n a l y s e s o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d and C h a p t e r IV c o n c l u d e s t h e p a p e r w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s and l i m i t s o f t h e s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d a t a and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a r e a s w o r t h y o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . - 4 -(B ) T h e o r i e s o f C a r e e r Deve l opment T h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t have p r o v i d e d a w i d e r ange o f c o n c e p t s and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e s e l e c t and i m p l e m e n t c a r e e r c h o i c e s . However , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o n c e p t s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t o a c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e ( O s i p o w , 1 9 7 3 ) . I t i s even d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d an a g r e e d method o f c l a s s i f y i n g t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s ( N o r t o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . F o r t he p u r p o s e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h e m a i n t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d by means o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x a p p r o a c h e s t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : ( i ) S o c i a l Sy s tems ( i i ) T r a i t -F a c t o r ( i i i ) P s y c h o a n a l y t i c ( i v ) Need T h e o r i e s ( v ) D e v e l o p m e n t a l ( v i ) E x i s t e n t i a l . ( i ) S o c i a l Sy s tems The f o c u s o f t h e s o c i a l s y s tems a p p r o a c h i s on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r n a l o r i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r . A c c o r d i n g t o C r i t e s (1969) t h e r e a r e t h r e e ma in c a t e g o r i e s o f n o n - p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l s y s t e m t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , ( i ) A c c i d e n t T h e o r i e s ( i i ) Economic T h e o r i e s ( i i i ) S o c i o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s . The " A c c i d e n t " t h e o r y p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c h a n c e e v e n t s i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n s made w i t h r e g a r d t o o c c u p a t i o n . M i l l e r and Form (1951) a n a l y z e d t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f a l a r g e number o f young p e o p l e and f a i l e d t o d i s c o v e r a common m o t i v a t i n g - 5 -i n f l u e n c e ; t h e c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e was an i d i o s y n c r a t i c r e a c t i o n t o a s e r i e s o f c h a n c e e v e n t s i n the l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The " E c o n o m i c " t h e o r y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f much b r o a d e r s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a n c hance e v e n t s i n t h e l i f e o f any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e s e s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e presumed t o o c c u r i n a more r e g u l a t e d and " l a w f u l " manner . P a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s a r e p e r c e i v e d as a t t r a c t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s on t he b a s i s o f t he e conom i c l aws o f s u p p l y and demand. In a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p e r c e i v e d as s e l e c t i n g an o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h w i l l b r i n g t h e maximum r e t u r n f o r t h e e f f o r t i n v e s t e d ( C r i t e s , 1 9 6 9 ) . " S o c i o l o g i c a l " t h e o r i e s l o o k a t t h e s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s on i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r m s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e . A p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t o d e f i n e t h e l i m i t s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e a r i s i n g f r o m member sh ip i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s o r g r o u p . One o f t h e key i s s u e s i s t h e e f f e c t o f sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . Diamond (1971) f o u n d t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s were m i n i m a l a t t h e uppe r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s b u t more marked a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s . Rose and E l t o n (1971) l o o k e d a t d i f f e r e n c e s between s e x e s i n t e rms o f H o l l a n d ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( H o l l a n d , 1966) and f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e x e s . O s i pow (1973) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e w o u l d seem t o be s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f men and women t o j u s t i f y t h e use o f s e p a r a t e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , u n t i l a t l e a s t s u ch t i m e as s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s change t o a l l o w f o r - 6 -more e q u a l i t y i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e open t o b o t h s e x e s . In g e n e r a l , a s o c i a l s y s t e m ' s a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t s t r e s s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . However , t h e d i v i s i o n between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i f sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s r e s u l t i n a more r i g i d and l i m i t e d s e t o f c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women compared t o men i t c an be a r g u e d t h a t women i n g e n e r a l w i l l f e e l l o c k e d i n by c i r c u m s t a n c e s and l e s s f r e e t o a c t t h a n men: Because t h e y do n o t f e e l f r e e t o a c t i t can be a r g u e d t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t have a f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make good p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . P e r s o n a l t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment m a i n t a i n t h a t i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s s u ch as a s en se o f good d e c i s i o n mak i ng a b i l i t y , s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m , e t c . a r e t he c r u c i a l f a c t o r s , Howeve r , a p e r s o n a l s en se o f s e l f o r s e t o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s a b o u t s e l f and c a r e e r do n o t come i n t o b e i n g o r e v o l v e i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m e x t e r n a l , i m p e r s o n a l s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . ( i i ) T r a i t - F a c t o r The t r a i t - f a c t o r a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t e v o l v e d o u t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p s y c h o m e t r i c s and o c c u p a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ( P a r s o n s , 1 9 0 9 ) . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y the f o c u s i s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u t t h e empha s i s i s on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e f i n a b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e ( C r i t e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . The u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a t t r a c t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a w i l l s h a r e c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n e e d s . The p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n demands c e r t a i n k i n d s o f a p t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s - 7 -and s a t i s f i e s c e r t a i n k i n d s o f n eed s . The re i s an i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y work t h a t i d e a l l y l e a d s t o a mutua l a c commoda t i on and c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The t h e o r y i n i t s v a r i o u s f o r m s s t a t e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c e r t a i n k i n d s o f t e m p e r a -m e n t s , a b i l i t i e s , a p t i t u d e s , e t c , w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l and s a t i s f i e d i n one k i n d o f work e n v i r o n m e n t o r o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o t h e r k i n d s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w i l l be b e s t accommodated i n an a l t e r n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n c e i v e d as a movement o r m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l g a i n s a c c e s s t o an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T r a i t f a c t o r t h e o r i s t s a r g u e t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d , more r e c e n t l y o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t u a l i z a t i o n , c o n s i s t o f b e i n g i n an e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y ( H e a l y , 1 9 8 2 ) . The l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t i n any o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s d e t e r m i n e d by t he d e g r e e o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y between i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t t he e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i . e . an o c c u p a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t l y p u r s u e d when i t a f f o r d s a h i g h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 7 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o H e r r (1970) one o f t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e t r a i t f a c t o r a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i t does n o t a l l o w f o r change t o t a k e p l a c e e i t h e r i n t h e s o c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o r i n t he i n d i v i d u a l . The t h e o r y has a l s o been c r i t i c i s e d on t h e g r ound s t h a t i t p r omote s t h e s t a t u s quo and does n o t f a c i l i t a t e g r o w t h i n - 8 -t h e i n d i v i d u a l . ( S t e r n 1 9 7 0 ) . A t h i r d m a j o r c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t t h e t h e o r y p l a c e s t o o much empha s i s on t h e r a t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s t h a t o c c u r i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and d e v e l o p m e n t ( H e r r , 1 9 7 0 ) . T iedeman (1958 ) i n a r e v i e w o f t r a i t - f a c t o r t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h d a t a was t h e marked o v e r l a p i n i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e s between p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . In t h e same v e i n , T h o r n d i k e and Hagen (1959) , i n a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t he o c c u p a t i o n a l l i v e s o f 1 0 , 000 men o v e r a t e n y e a r p e r i o d , f o u n d t h a t i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and s t a b i l i t y by r e f e r e n c e t o s t a t e d a p t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . H o l l a n d (1973) has d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ba sed on s i x o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and p s y c h o -l o g i c a l t y p e s . H o l l a n d ' s a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s t e n d t o c h o o s e s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t t o H o l l a n d ' s t h e o r y and some r e v i e w s o f t h e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t have c l a s s i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n as t h a t o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l need t h e o r i s t . H e r r (1970) p o i n t s o u t t h a t a t t h e t i m e an i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s e s h i s o c c u p a t i o n h i s d e c i s i o n i s made on t h e b a s i s o f a l i f e h i s t o r y i n w h i c h a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and e v e n t s have i n t e r a c t e d w i t h h i s g e n e t i c d i s p o s i t i o n t o c r e a t e a h i e r a r c h y o f h a b i t u a l o r p r e f e r r e d methods o f r e s o l v i n g s o c i a l t a s k s , s u ch as c h o o s i n g an o c c u p a t i o n . I t i s t h i s h i e r a r c h y o r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t c a u s e s an i n d i v i d u a l t o s e l e c t an o c c u p a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t he p e r c e i v e s w i l l s a t i s f y h i s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s . However , t h e r e s e a r c h on H o l l a n d ' s t h e o r y does - 9 -n o t l e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p o r t t o h i s s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s . N o r t o n (1971) and Os ipow (19.73) p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e t h e o r y i s s u b j e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e t r a i t - f a c t o r a p p r o a c h i n t h a t i t doe s n o t f u l l y e x p l a i n t h e ways i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s and e n v i r o n m e n t s i n t e r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r and change o v e r t i m e . ( i i i ) P s y c h o a n a l y t i c The ma i n c o n c e p t w i t h i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e a means o f s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c i n s t i n c t u a l d r i v e s i n a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e manner ( F r e u d , 1 9 6 2 ) . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e e f f o r t s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l makes i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n and i s s i m p l y a means t o an end r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g an end i n i t s e l f ( C r i t e s , 1 9 6 9 ) . Horney (1950) d e v i a t e s f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w p o i n t by s p e c i f y i n g two d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d r i v e s t h a t f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n w o r k . On t he one h a n d , t h e r e i s a s t r i v i n g t o w a r d f u l f i l m e n t o f a " r e a l " s e l f and on t h e o t h e r t h e r e i s a n e u r o t i c c o m p u l s i o n t o s a t i s f y a s e l f image based on u n r e a l i s t i c f a n t a s i e s . E v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i s m o t i v a t e d i n t he c h o i c e o f a c a r e e r and work by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e two i n n e r need s . Horney d e f i n e s t h r e e p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s on t h e b a s i s o f how i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t and d e v e l o p on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n o r d e r t o meet i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s . A f u r t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , comes f r o m ego p s y c h o l o g y . B r i l l ( 1949) - 10 -d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between c a r e e r c h o i c e s made i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y i m m e d i a t e needs f o r ego g r a t i f i c a t i o n and t h o s e c h o i c e s t h a t a r e made i n f a v o u r o f a l o n g t e r m g o a l . Sommers (1956) u se s t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e manner i n w h i c h e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s a f f e c t the s e l e c t i o n o f an o c c u p a t i o n t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s who worked i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n s e l e c t e d . B e l l (.1960) p o i n t s o u t t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a r e made on t h e b a s i s o f i r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t m a i n t a i n a s en se o f ego i n t e g r i t y . G a l i n s k y and F a s t (1966) d e f i n e a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n t e r m s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n mak i n g p r o c e s s e s . B o r d i n , Nachman and Sega l (1963) d e s c r i b e t h e ways i n w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a s p r o v i d e o u t l e t s f o r d i f f e r e n t f o rms o r e x p r e s s i o n s o f p s y c h i c e n e r g y . C o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f B o r d i n , a number o f s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d o u t r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s ; on d e n t i s t s , l a w y e r s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s (Nachman, 1 9 6 0 ) ; on c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o -g i s t s and p h y s i c i s t s ( G a l i n s k y , 1 9 6 2 ) ; and on e n g i n e e r s ( B e a l l and B o r d i n , 1 9 6 4 ) . C r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e ( i ) t h e t h e o r y i s based on p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s wherea s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e a r e a f u n c t i o n o f normal p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s ( i i ) t h e r e s e a r c h i s n a r r o w i n f o c u s and t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t e a s i l y g e n e r a l i z e d ( i i i ) r e s e a r c h d a t a t h a t s u p p o r t s the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y o f c a r e e r c h o i c e and d e v e l o p m e n t c an be e x p l a i n e d i n a more d i r e c t and s i m p l e manner by c o n s t r u c t s d e r i v e d f r o m a l t e r n a t e t h e o r i e s ( O s i p o w , 1 9 7 3 ) . - 11 -( i v ) Need T h e o r i e s Need T h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e based on t he t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h o f Roe ( 1 9 5 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Roe ,a c h i l d w i l l o n l y have a p r o p o r t i o n o f h i s needs met i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t he has w i t h h i s p a r e n t s . Those needs t h a t a r e n o t met o r a r e o n l y p a r t i a l l y g r a t i f i e d , d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and ways t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t e s t o o t h e r p e o p l e . An i n d i v i d u a l r a i s e d i n a warm c a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l l e a r n t o move t o w a r d o t h e r p e o p l e and d e v e l o p i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s t h a t a l l o w h im t o be i n c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s . On t he o t h e r hand , an i n d i v i d u a l r a i s e d i n a h o u s e h o l d w i t h a m i n i m a l amount o f warmth and c a r i n g w i l l d e v e l o p a t e n d e n c y t o move away f r o m o t h e r s and d e v e l o p s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i n g s r a t h e r t h a n p e o p l e . The c h o i c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n w i l l r e f l e c t t he i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n , a b i l i t i e s and f o rms o f b e h a v i o r t h a t t he i n d i v i d u a l has a c q u i r e d i n l e a r n i n g t o s a t i s f y h i s c h i l d h o o d n e e d s . F o r e x a m p l e , an i n d i v i d u a l who has l e a r n e d t o become c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e w i l l t e n d t o choo se an o c c u p a t i o n where s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l s a r e v a l u e d . R o e ' s h y p o t h e s e s a r e ba sed on t he h i e r a r c h y o f needs d e f i n e d by Ma s l ow ( 1 9 5 4 ) , w i t h l o w e r o r d e r needs such as t he need f o r p h y s i c a l s a f e t y and s h e l t e r t a k i n g p r e c e d e n c e o v e r h i g h e r o r d e r needs s u ch as t h e need f o r know ledge o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . An i n d i v i -d u a l w i l l t r y t o have h i s needs f o r s e l f e s t eem and a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g met i n h i s c a r e e r i n ways t h a t a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e l a t e d f o r m s o f b e h a v i o r and s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . - 12 -Mos t o f t h e r e s e a r c h a imed a t t e s t i n g R o e ' s t h e o r y has been w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ( P o w e l l , 1960 ; S w i t z e r e t a l . 1962; G r e e n and P a r k e r , 1 9 6 5 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t he r e s e a r c h has n o t p r o v i d e d much s u p p o r t f o r t h e b a s i c h y p o t h e s e s o f R o e ' s t h e o r y . What t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e i t h e r p e r s o n o r n o n - p e r s o n o r i e n t e d and t h i s f a c t a l o n e seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I t can be assumed f r o m t h e ma in r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g t h a t an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s en se o f s e l f and c a r e e r w i l l be t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c a r e e r c h o i c e p r o v i d e s s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h e need t o b e l o n g o r t o be w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ; w i t h some o c c u p a t i o n s a f f o r d i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t i s f y i n g h i g h need l e v e l s t o be i n v o l v e d t h a n o t h e r s . ( v ) D e v e l o p m e n t a l D e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s assume t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s d e t e r m i n e d by a p r o c e s s o f change and a d j u s t m e n t t h a t o c c u r s i n f a i r l y w e l l d e f i n e d s t a g e s o v e r t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . A c c o r d i n g t o C r i t e s (1969) d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e c an be t r a c e d t o t h e e a r l y work o f C a r t e r ( 1940 ) , whose r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t and s t y l e s o f c o p i n g i n a d u l t h o o d were d e p e n d e n t upon t h e way i n w h i c h i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s had been f o rmed d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . I d e a l l y t he a d o l e s c e n t a c q u i r e d a s e t o f i n t e r e s t s v i a a ' F a n t a s y ' and ' T e n t a t i v e ' s t a g e o f d e v e l o p -ment and g r a d u a l l y p r o g r e s s e d t o a more m a t u r e and i n t e g r a t e d s en se o f s e l f ba sed on r e a l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n s . I t i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a c r o s s d i s c r e t e p e r i o d s o r s t a g e s o f l i f e f r o m u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , - 13 -u n r e a l i s t i c and immatu re p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f and v o c a t i o n t o more i n t e g r e t a t e d and m a t u r e l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t i s t he key c o n c e p t o f t he d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . G i n z b e r g e t a l . (1951) d e f i n e t h e p r o c e s s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t as one t h a t goes t h r o u g h t h r e e s t a g e s : ' F a n t a s y ' , ' T e n t a t i v e ' and ' R e a l i s t i c ' . W i t h i n t h e T e n t a t i v e and F a n t a s y s t a g e s f u r t h e r s u b - s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d e f i n e d t h a t a r e l i n k e d t o s p e c i f i c a g e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l l o w a n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n t e rms o f t h e movement f r o m one s u b - s t a g e t o a n o t h e r t h e t h e o r y assumes t h a t by t h e m i d - t w e n t i e s a v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e w i l l have been made t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e m a i n s commited t o i m p l e m e n t d u r i n g t h e r e s t o f h i s c a r e e r . The p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be g e n e r a l l y i r r e v e r s i b l e becau se o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t made i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . However , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u a l l y s eek s a maximum l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e compromi se t h a t he makes between h i s i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t i v e needs and t h e l i m i t s imposed by t h e b r o a d e r s o c i a l o r d e r . S u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t o r c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment i s a t t a i n e d by t h e use o f s p e c i f i c ego f u n c t i o n s ; ( i ) R e a l i t y t e s t i n g ( i i ) R e a l i s t i c t i m e p e r c e p t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t f r o m t h e f u t u r e ( i i i ) I n h i b i t i o n o f b e h a v i o r ( i v ) A r e a l i s t i c a w a r e n e s s o f e x t e r n a l l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e f a c i l i t y o f c o m p r o m i s i n g i n n e r s u b j e c t i v e needs and d e s i r e s t o t h o s e l i m i t a t i o n s . An i n d i v i d u a l who d e v e l o p s a s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r p a t h , i n t e rms o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d by G i n z b e r g , w i l l have a s t r o n g ego and a s t r o n g s e l f c o n s t r u c t o r s t r o n g s u b j e c t i v e awa rene s s r a t h e r t h a n a weak s e n s e o f s e l f . - 14 -A l t h o u g h G i n z b e r g r e l a t e s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t o e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h e r e s e a r c h has n o t been s u c c e s s f u l i n c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r o l e t h a t t h o s e f a c t o r s p l a y . A s e cond c r i t i c i s m o f the r e s e a r c h i s t h a t t h e s t u d i e s have m a i n l y been c o n f i n e d t o young a d u l t s . F i n a l l y , t h e s amp le s f r o m w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h d a t a were drawn were t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t v a l i d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s (O s i pow , 1 9 7 3 ) . T iedeman and O ' H a r a (1963) have f o c u s s e d more upon t he c o g n i t i v e d e c i s i o n mak i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e s e a r c h o f T iedeman and O ' H a r a i s d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n c e p t s o f G i n z b e r g e t a l . b u t t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e y d e v e l o p e d i s more comp lex and d e t a i l s t he r o l e t h a t an e v o l v i n g s e l f - c o m p l e x p l a y s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . Emphas i s on t h e d e c i s i o n mak ing p r o c e s s i s e v i d e n t i n t he d e f i n i i t o n o f t h e t h r e e ma i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s i d e n t i f i e d by T iedeman and O ' H a r a v i z : ( i ) A n t i c i p a t i o n ( i i ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( i i i ) A d j u s t m e n t . The s t a g e s a r e f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d ; e . g . A n t i c i p a t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e s u b - s t a g e s o f e x p l a n a t i o n , c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , c h o i c e and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . A t e ach s t a g e o f t h e d e c i s i o n a l p r o c e s s t he i n d i v i d u a l i s f a c e d w i t h t h e t a s k s o f " D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " and " I n t e g r a t i o n " , whereby he s e l e c t s r e l e v a n t d a t a f r o m a w i d e r ange o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he e n c o u n t e r s and then r e - i n t e g r a t e s t h e d a t a i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e . The e v o l u t i o n o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a more g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t o v e r i d e s t he p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The two p r o c e s s e s o f ' D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' and ' I n t e g r a t i o n ' f a c i l i t a t e a more g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as w e l l as r e s o l v i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s o r t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l - 15 -d e v e l o p m e n t : " C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h e n i s s e l f d e v e l o p m e n t v i e w e d i n r e l a t i o n w i t h c h o i c e , e n t r y and p r o g r e s s i n e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s " (T iedeman and O ' H a r a , 1 9 6 3 , p. 4 6 ) . The p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t t h a t c a p t u r e s the p a r t i c u l a r empha s i s t h a t T iedeman and O ' H a r a p l a c e on c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e i d e a t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e s a f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The work o f T iedeman and O ' H a r a i s c a r r i e d f u r t h e r by K r o l l e t a l . (1970) who d e s c r i b e a p r o c e s s o f s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n i n c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . As an i n d i v i d u a l g a i n s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t he w o r l d a b o u t him he a c q u i r e s a s en se o f competence a b o u t h i m s e l f and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h he can c o n t r o l o r must a c c e p t t he r e a l l i m i t s t h a t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t c o n t a i n s . The v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l makes d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f h i s c a r e e r a r e d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n t h a t he has a c q u i r e d . A s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s a j udgemen t a b o u t h i m s e l f a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m between f e e l i n g f r e e t o a c t and f e e l i n g l o c k e d i n by c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The .work o f K r o l l , T i e d e m a n , O ' H a r a and t he t h e o r i s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them i s d e s c r i b e d by O s i pow (1973) a s a b r i d g e between t h e t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s e d by G i n z b e r g e t a l . (1951) and t h e t h e o r y o f D o n a l d S u p e r , whose work i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r . A d i s t i n c t g r o u p o f t h e o r i s t s t h a t can be c l a s s i f i e d somewhat l o o s e l y w i t h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l f r amework a r e t h o s e t h e o r i s t s who f o c u s on t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . D i l l e y (1965) r e l a t e s r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a b i l i t y t o mea su re s o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y by w h i c h v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i s d e f i n e d as a - 16 -p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n measu re s o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y , a c c e p t a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a g e n e r a l c o n c e r n a b o u t what i s i n v o l v e d i n mak ing a good d e c i s i o n . W i t h i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r amework o f an e v o l v i n g s e l f comp lex , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t becomes t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r ange o f i n d i v i d u a l s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s o r c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r , t h a t g r a d u a l l y become more i n t e g r a t e d and f o c u s s e d i n t o a u n i f i e d w h o l e . A commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s c an be seen as a c o n s t r u c t t h a t d e f i n e s t h e empha s i s on c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e d by D i l l e y . A more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , v i e w e d f r o m w i t h i n a c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l f r amework i s p r o v i d e d by K n e f e l c a m p and S l e p i t z a (1976) who a c k n o w l e d g e t he t h e o r i e s o f G i n z b e r g e t a l . ( 1 9 5 1 ) , T iedeman and O ' H a r a (1963) and Supe r (1957) b u t c l a i m t h a t t h e s e t h e o r i e s do n o t s p e c i f y t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s used by i n d i v i d u a l s i n o r g a n i z i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g and a c t i n g upon a w i d e r a n g e o f c a r e e r r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . K n e f e l c a m p and S l e p i t z a have i d e n t i f i e d n i n e a r e a s o f q u a l i t a t i v e c o g n i t i v e change t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s : ( i ) L o cu s o f C o n t r o l ( i i ) A n a l y s i s ( i i i ) S y n t h e s i s ( i v ) S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e ( v ) S e l f P r o c e s s i n g ( v i ) Openness t o A l t e r n a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e s ( v i i ) A b i l i t y t o Assume R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( v i i i ) A b i l i t y t o t a k e on New R o l e s and ( i x ) A b i l i t y t o t a k e R i s k s w i t h S e l f . The n i n e v a r i a b l e s c o n s t i t u t e a model o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n w h i c h t he i n d i v i d u a l moves f r o m a s i m p l e c a t e g o r i c a l v i e w o f c a r e e r t o a more comp lex p e r s p e c t i v e . Supe r (1957 ) has e v o l v e d a much b r o a d e r and more comp lex d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t t h a n t h e o t h e r t h e o r i s t s . - 17 -A c c o r d i n g t o S u p e r , t h e v o c a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t i s p a r t o f a comp lex o f s e l f d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t e v o l v e s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t i s a r e s u l t o f an i n t e r -a c t i o n o f many f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g g e n e t i c endowment, p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i e t a l and s i t u a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . C a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t a k e s p l a c e as an i n d i v i d u a l a t t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s a s e n s e o f who he i s t h r o u g h t he work o r o c c u p a t i o n t h a t he s e l e c t s f o r h i m s e l f . The v o c a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t t h a t S upe r d e s c r i b e s i s one t h a t e v o l v e s o v e r t i m e , i s t i e d t o p a r t i c u l a r c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and p a s s e s t h r o u g h d i s t i n c t s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Supe r has drawn upon t h e work o f B u e h l e r (1933) and H a v i g h u r s t (1953) t o d e s c r i b e t h e l i f e s t a g e s t h a t each- i n d i v i d u a l p a s s e s t h r o u g h . The l i f e s t a g e s a r e ( i ) G rowth ( i i ) E x p l o r a t i o n ( i i i ) E s t a b l i s h -ment ( i v ) M a i n t e n a n c e ( v ) D e c l i n e . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h each l i f e s t a g e a r e p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s t h a t c o n f r o n t t he i n d i v i d u a l and w h i c h he r e s o l v e s by means o f p a r t i c u l a r c o p i n g s k i l l s , i d e n t i f i e d by Supe r (1977) as ( i ) P l a n f u l n e s s o r Time P e r s p e c t i v e ( i i ) E x p l o r a t i o n ( i i i ) A c q u i r e d I n f o r m a t i o n ( i v ) D e c i s i o n Mak i ng and ( v ) R e a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any p a r t i c u l a r c o p i n g s k i l l w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t he v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s e n c o u n t e r e d a t e a c h o f t h e l i f e s t a g e s b u t t he dominance o f any one t a s k d u r i n g a g i v e n l i f e s t a g e does n o t e x c l u d e t h a t t a s k f r o m l a t e r l i f e s t a g e s ( Supe r and H a l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . C e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s a r e l i n k e d t o s p e c i f i c age p e r i o d s : ( i ) C r y s t a l i z a t i o n ( 14 - 18 y r s ) ( i i ) S p e c i f i c a t i o n (18-21 y r s ) ( i i i ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n - 18 -( 21 - 24 y r s ) ( i v ) S t a b i l i z a t i o n ( 25 -35 y r s ) and ( v ) C o n s o l i d a t i o n (35 y r p l u s ) ( S u p e r , 1 9 6 3 ) . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a l a r g e l y i r r e v e r s i b l e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l moves t o w a r d more r e a l i s t i c , s p e c i f i c and c o m m i t t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Two m a i n p o i n t s m a . d e by Supe r a r e ( i ) c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s t h a t t a k e s p l a c e o v e r t h e l i f e c y c l e ( i i ) s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t a t l a t e r s t a g e s c an be p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o m p l e t e s t h e v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s s p e c i f i c t o e a r l i e r s t a g e s . V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y , a t a l l s t a g e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , has been d e f i n e d by Supe r and K i d d (1979) as t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s r e a d i n e s s t o cope w i t h t h e t a s k s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t a g e , compared t o members o f h i s p e e r age g r o u p . L a t e r v e r s i o n s o f t he t h e o r y have s u b s t i t u t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f ' C a r e e r A d a p t a b i l i t y ' f o r t h a t o f ' V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y ' t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n a d u l t h o o d ( S upe r and K n a s e l , 1 9 8 1 ) . S upe r has been c r i t i c i z e d on t h e g r ound s t h a t h i s t h e o r y does n o t a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e e conom i c and s o c i a l f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s i n a more d i r e c t manner ( O s i p o w , 1 9 7 3 ) . In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e t h e o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t norma l c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s i n g commitment t o v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a f t e r age 25 t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n ( P h i l l i p s , 1 9 8 2 ) . However , t h e t h e o r y i s p e r c e i v e d as t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e and has s t i m u l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ( N o r t o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . - 19 -( v i ) E x i s t e n t i a l The e x i s t e n t i a l t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s more a v i e w -p o i n t o r p e r s p e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a f o r m a l s t a t e m e n t o f t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s . However , t h e e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w has been i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a s u b j e c t i v e s i d e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r . Compared t o more f o r m a l t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , where t h e ma in f o c u s has been t o i d e n t i f y t h e ways i n w h i c h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h e e x i s t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n o f how v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e e x p l a i n s t h e mean ing o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e ( S i m o n s , 1 9 6 6 ) . A b a s i c p r e m i s e o f e x i s t e n t i a l t h o u g h t i s t h a t man i s f r e e t o c r e a t e h i s own mean ing i n l i f e and t h a t he g a i n s a s en se o f who he i s by a c t i n g t o r e a l i z e h i s ; own v a l u e s and a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t f o l l o w f r o m h i s c h o i c e s . W i t h i n t h e r e a l l i m i t s imposed by t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f a m a n ' s l i f e he i s f r e e t o a c t and t h a t f r e e d o m i n c l u d e s t h e f r e e d o m t o a v o i d t h e a n x i e t y o f c h o o s i n g t o a c t w i t h s e l f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Seen f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e p r o c e s s o f c h o o s i n g a v o c a t i o n a l p a t h t h a t w i l l a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i z e t h e v a l u e s t h a t a r e m e a n i n g f u l t o him i n l i f e . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p r o c e s s t h a t l e a d s f r o m a sense o f s e l f -c e n t r e d n e s s and i s o l a t i o n t o one o f b e i n g c o n n e c t e d t o o t h e r s i n a more a l t r u s t i c way ( S i m o n s , 1 9 6 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B i o l and and W a l k e r ( 1981 ) o f a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s t o be made i n l i f e t h e c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n and c a r e e r may be t h e most c r i t i c a l t o s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s t h r o u g h commitment and m e a n i n g f u l c h o i c e s t h a t - 20 -an i n d i v i d u a l moves i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c a r e e r f r om a f l o u n d e r i n g p u r p o s e l e s s e x i s t e n c e t o a s en se o f p u r p o s e i n l i f e ( S t a n d l e y , 1 9 7 1 ) . Commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s i s a c o n s t r u c t t h a t was u sed i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r t o d e s c r i b e t he c o g n i t i v e a p p r o a c h t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , h oweve r , i t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t t o t he e x i s t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n , where t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l f o c u s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l commitment i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . A n o t h e r c o n s t r u c t t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e e x i s t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n , even more f u l l y i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p s a m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r o r e x p e r i e n c e s a l a c k o f mean ing and i n v o l v e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some s i m i l a r i t i e s , an e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment c o n t r a s t s s t r o n g l y a t one p o i n t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s i n w h i c h c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s p e r c e i v e d as a p r o c e s s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y r e a c h e s a f i n a l s t a g e o f d e c l i n e . The e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f man, t h e c r e a t o r o f m e a n i n g , p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t o f an o n g o i n g p r i m e o f l i f e i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a l w a y s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e more m e a n i n g . (C) R e s e a r c h I n t o C a r e e r Deve l opment In t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e p a p e r a b r i e f r e v i e w w i l l be g i v e n o f a number o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t have l o o k e d a t a d u l t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e s e a r c h f a l l s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s s t u d i e s ba sed on a q u a n t i t a t i v e " o b j e c t i v e " a p p r o a c h , t h a t r e l i e s on d a t a d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e d and measu red by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The s e cond c a t e g o r y l o o k s a t t h e " s u b j e c t i v e " s i d e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by means o f a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s - 21 -o f b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a . ( i ) O b j e c t i v e S t u d i e s : ( a ) C a r e e r P a t t e r n S t u d y T h i s s t u d y began i n 1950 by Supe r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , w h o i n i t i a t e d a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The r e s e a r c h p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 342 e i g h t h and n i n t h g r a d e boys who were t e s t e d d u r i n g h i g h s c h o o l , m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s two y e a r s a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l and i n t e r v i e w e d and t e s t e d a t age t w e n t y f i v e and age t h i r t y f i v e . The t e s t i n g , i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e measu re s on a number o f t h e o r e t i c a l v a r i a b l e s presumed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a t p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t a g e s . Each i n d i v i d u a l was compared t o t h e g roup norm o r a v e r a g e on t h e v a r i a b l e measu re s t h a t had been o b t a i n e d and was j u d g e d t o be v o c a t i o n a l l y m a t u r e o r immature on t he b a s i s o f how w e l l he c ompa red . S u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t o r v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y a t one l i f e s t a g e was presumed t o be a r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r o f a d j u s t m e n t a t l a t e r s t a g e s . A n a l y s i s o f t he s t u d y d a t a a t age t w e n t y - f i v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i g h s c o r e s on t h e v a r i a b l e s measu red d u r i n g t he a d o l e s c e n t phase o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , and c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e s k i l l s needed t o f u l f i l l t h e v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s o f t h a t p e r i o d , had a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a t t he l a t e r s t a g e . V a r i a b l e s s u ch as o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and i n t e r e s t m a t u r i t y were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c a r e e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , - 22 -c o l l e g e g r a d e s and q u a l i t y o f j o b c h a n g e s . However , a number o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and t h e g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s o f t h e s u b j e c t s were a l s o p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l a t e r s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o n s i s t e n c y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e c o u l d n o t be r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e l e v e l s o f a d j u s t m e n t a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d . L a t e r a t t e m p t s t o e x t e n d t h e m e t h o d o l o g y t o an a n a l y s i s o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a t m i d - l i f e have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l . The ma i n d i f f i c u l t y has been t o i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l t a s k s t h a t a d u l t s s h a r e i n common a t t h i s p e r i o d o f t h e i r c a r e e r ( S u p e r and K n a s e l , 1 9 8 1 ) . (b ) C a r e e r Deve l opmen t S t u d y The C a r e e r Deve l opmen t S t u d y began i n 1958 and was based on a samp le o f 57 boys and 54 g i r l s , 8 t h g r a d e s c h o o l age i n f i v e M a s s a c h u s e t t s c o m m u n i t i e s . A s e t o f e i g h t s c a l e s , t e rmed R e a d i n e s s f o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g ( R . V . P . ) were s c o r e d f r o m a s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . The p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d a t t h e 1 0 t h g r a d e l e v e l and c o n t a c t was made w i t h f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s f o r a p e r i o d o f t w e l v e y e a r s ; t h e a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 25 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e l a s t i n t e r v i e w . In 1980 a f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y and f i n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was made, 21 y e a r s a f t e r t h e s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The f o c u s o f t h i s f i n a l s u r v e y was t o o b t a i n d a t a f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r s . - 23 -The C a r e e r Deve l opment S t udy was based on t h e n o t i o n o f ' C a r e e r P a t t e r n ' i n w h i c h " C a r e e r i s c o n c e i v e d as t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and p a t t e r n i s t he p r o f i l e o f s c o r e s on a c a r e e r v a r i a b l e o b s e r v e d r e p e a t e d l y o v e r a l o n g t i m e s p a n " ( G r i b b o n s and L o h n e s , 1 9 8 2 , p. 8 ) . E i g h t s u b s c a l e s were u sed t o r a t e t h e i n t e r v i e w c o n t e n t and made up t he ' R e a d i n e s s f o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g ' ( R . V . P . ) ; a d e v i c e f o r m e a s u r i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . The s u b s c a l e s w e r e : ( i ) C u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e f a c t o r s , ( i i ) O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e f a c t o r s , ( i i i ) A b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s , ( i v ) A c c u r a c y i n e s t i m a t i n g a b i l i t i e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s , ( v ) Adequacy o f e v i d e n c e f o r s e l f a t t r i b u t e s , ( v i ) Awa rene s s o f i n t e r e s t s , ( v i i ) Awa rene s s o f v a l u e s . The r e s p o n s e s were r a t e d on a 3 - p o i n t s c a l e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a measu re o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . R e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y , ba sed on a c o m p a r i s o n o f t he s c o r e s on t h e R .V .P . i n d i c e s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a t age 2 0 , were m i x e d . The e i g h t h - g r a d e R.V.P. s c o r e s had a l o w p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n d i c e s a t age 20 b u t t h e t e n t h g r a d e R .V .P . s c o r e s were n o t c o r r e l a t e d . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t e d e i t h e r t h a t t h e R .V .P . was n o t s e n s i t i v e enough t o measu re c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o r t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o t h e o r y , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y does n o t d e v e l o p c o n t i n u o u s l y ( H e a l y , 1 9 8 2 ) . In 1980 c o n t a c t was made w i t h 91 o f t he o r i g i n a l 108 s u b j e c t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e f o l l o w - u p a t t h i s p o i n t was t o o b t a i n m i n i m a l - 24 -c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n on what t h e s u b j e c t s were d o i n g i n 1980 and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r s . The i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t e l e p h o n e c a l l s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f 1958 o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h 1980 o c c u p a t i o n s a c t u a l l y a t t a i n e d showed t h a t o n l y s i x men and s i x women were i n t h e same o r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . O v e r a l l t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e men as a g r oup f a r e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e women i n m e e t i n g t h e hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t t h e y had s e t f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n 1958 . ( c ) P r o j e c t T a l e n t P r o j e c t T a l e n t began i n 1960 and t o o k t he f o r m o f an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e U.S. h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . The i n v e n t o r y was ba sed on a s amp le o f 4 00 , 000 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m 1353 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The i n t e n t i o n o f t he s t u d y was t o t a k e " a n i n v e n t o r y o f t h e a p t i t u d e s and r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e n a t i o n s needs i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and p u b l i c s e r v i c e f i e l d s " ( F l a n a g a n e t a l . , 1 962 , p. 5 ) . Each s t u d e n t t o o k a b a t t e r y o f a p t i t u d e and a b i l i t y t e s t s , a d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y , an a c t i v i t i e s i n v e n t o r y , two open -ended e s s a y s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s a b o u t the t y p e o f c a r e e r g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. F o l l o w - u p c o n t a c t s were made o n e , f i v e and t e n y e a r s a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . The m a j o r r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t ( i ) H i g h s c h o o l i n t e r e s t , a b i l i t y , a p t i t u d e and i n f o r m a t i o n t e s t s c o r e s have a m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e t y p e o f o c c u p a t i o n - 2 5 -THERE IS MI PAGE 25 IN THIS THESIS, - 26 -s e l e c t e d f i v e and e l e v e n y e a r s a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l . However , what seemed most s i g n i f i c a n t was t h e o v e r l a p i n i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s and a p t i t u d e s between p e o p l e i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s "Thus a w i d e v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s i s open t o any one s t u d e n t " ( F l a n a g a n , 1 9 7 3 , p. 1 2 ) . ( i i ) Mos t c a r e e r p l a n s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s made a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l were u n r e a l i s t i c , w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s and f i e l d s t h a t were n o t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a b i l i t i e s and a p t i t u d e s . ( i i i ) T h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s t h a t were made a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . F i v e y e a r s a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l o n l y 18 .6% o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t he s t u d y s t i l l p l a n n e d t o p u r s u e t h e c a r e e r s t h a t t h e y had c h o s e n d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . (d ) Summary The " o b j e c t i v e " r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , o u t l i n e d a b o v e , have u sed a p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t has p r o v i d e d a w e a l t h o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , c a r e e r p a t t e r n s and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . However , t h e r e a r e two p o i n t s wo r t h mak i ng c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h . F i r s t , t h e r e i s an u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y i n r e s e a r c h i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a by a t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r , r a t h e r t h a n by t h e s e l f r e p o r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l who e x p e r i e n c e s t h e e v e n t . A l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t s o f v i e w w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t even t h e most c a r e f u l l y t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r i n f l u e n c e s b o t h t h e - 27 -s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he r e s u l t s as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f h i s own b i a s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , t h e i m p r e s s i o n s g a i n e d f r o m d r y s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a h a r d l y do j u s t i c e t o t h e r i c h n e s s and mean ing o f a c t u a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e c a r e e r o f an i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s p o i n t i s c l e a r l y o f c o n c e r n i n t h e C a r e e r Deve l opment S t u d y where t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s s t a t e " B e h i n d t h e f o r m a l i s m o f o u r a n a l y t i c d e v i c e s we a r e aware o f r e a l l i v e s i n p r o g r e s s i n t e rms we c a n n o t s h a r e w i t h o u r r e a d e r s " ( G r i b b o n and L o h n e s , 1 982 , p. 1 1 5 ) . ( i i ) " S u b j e c t i v e " S t u d i e s (a ) L e v i n s o n D . J . : "The Seasons o f a M a n ' s L i f e " The s t u d y began i n 1968 and ended i n 1973 . The r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s were 40 men aged between 35 and 4 5 , w i t h 10 men i n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s ( i ) H o u r l y w o r k e r s i n i n d u s t r y ( i i ) B u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s ( i i i ) N o v e l i s t s ( i v ) B i o l o g i s t s . The s t u d y wanted t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he n a t u r e o f a d u l t -hood by e x a m i n i n g t he l i v e s o f t h e men f r o m a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A d u l t h o o d was c o n c e i v e d i n t e rms o f a l i f e - c o u r s e t h e o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e f o c u s o f t he s t u d y was on t h e f l o w o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i f e , d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f s p e c i f i c e v e n t s . P a r t i c u l a r empha s i s was g i v e n t o e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e a r e a o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t becau se t h e r e s e a r c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e a r e a o f work as t he ma in c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i n d i v i d u a l - 28 -and s o c i e t y . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o g a i n some s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a s , t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and u s e f u l r e s e a r c h methods i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t ( L e v i n s o n , 1978 , p. 8 ) . Each man was i n t e r v i e w e d between 5 t o 10 t i m e s f o r a p e r i o d o f 1 t o 2 hou r s o v e r two w e e k s . The t a p e d t r a n s c r i p t s amounted t o 300 pages p e r man. The method was d e s c r i b e d as ' b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r v i e w i n g ' a imed a t e l i c i t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f a d j u s t m e n t and r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e l i v e s o f each o f t h e men, e . g . t h e a r e a s o f c a r e e r , f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n , i l l n e s s . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f t h e l i f e o f e a ch man and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f i n d i n g s , t o o k p l a c e a t t h e same t i m e . The r e s e a r c h e r s compared t h e b i o -g r a p h i c a l d a t a o f t h e men i n t h e s t u d y t o t h e p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i e s o f men s u ch as L u t h e r , G a n d h i and Dante i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a t h e o r y o f a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t , " O u r e s s e n t i a l method was t o e l i c i t t he l i f e s t o r i e s o f 40 men t o c o n s t r u c t b i o g r a p h i e s and t o d e v e l o p g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e s e b i o g r a p h i e s " ( L e v i n s o n , 1978 , p. 1 6 ) . The r e s u l t s showed a b a s i c s o u r c e o f o r d e r i n t h e l i f e c y c l e i n w h i c h each a d u l t p a s s e d t h r o u g h a s i m i l a r s equence o f d e v e l o p -men ta l p e r i o d s and was c o n f r o n t e d by s i m i l a r t a s k s w i t h i n each p e r i o d . The p e r i o d s we re c o n n e c t e d t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l a ge . Ta s k s o f t he ' N o v i c e P e r i o d ' , w h i c h e x t e n d e d f r o m age 17 t o 3 2 , i n c l u d e d f o r m i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and mak ing a c h o i c e and commitment t o an o c c u p a t i o n . The i d e a o f f o r m i n g an o c c u p a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a more a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p r o c e s s t h a t e x t e n d e d o v e r t h e n o v i c e phase and b e y o n d , r a t h e r t h a n t h e n o t i o n o f - 29 -c h o o s i n g an o c c u p a t i o n , w h i c h was seen as t oo n a r r o w a d e s c r i p t i o n . Commitment was seen as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t he t a s k o f f o r m i n g an o c c u p a t i o n and a t t h e end o f t h e n o v i c e phase a p e r i o d o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t b e g i n s , based upon t he e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g o f t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s . A f t e r t h e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d , i n t h e e a r l y 3 0 ' s , a man e n t e r s a " S e t t l i n g Down" p e r i o d , r o u g h l y f r o m age 33 t o 4 0 , i n w h i c h he d e d i c a t e s h i m s e l f t o p a s t c h o i c e s . A t age 40 t o 45 t h e r e i s a ' M i d - L i f e T r a n s i t i o n " , when i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o r e - a p p r a i s e h i s l i f e t o t h a t p o i n t and t o work on new d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s . F o r t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e men, a b o u t 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e M i d l i f e T r a n s i t i o n i s a t i m e o f m o d e r a t e t o s e v e r e c r i s i s as t h e y t r i e d t o i n t e g r a t e t he p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i r l i v e s w i t h t h e knowledge and awa rene s s o f t h e l i m i t e d t i m e r e m a i n i n g t o them. (b ) V a i l l a n t G . E . : " A d a p t a t i o n t o L i f e " The l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t known a s ' T h e G r a n t S t u d y 1 began i n 1938 and was based on a s e l e c t p o p u l a t i o n o f 268 m a l e c o l l e g e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . The s t u d y f o c u s s e d on t h e n a t u r e o f m e n t a l h e a l t h i n a d u l t h o o d and t h e p r o c e s s e s o f a d a p t i o n t o t h e e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d u l t h o o d , d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f the p s y c h o d y n a m i c c o n c e p t o f ego d e f e n c e mechan i sms . A t t he s t a r t o f t he p r o j e c t each s u b j e c t was g i v e n a b a t t e r y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s and an i n t e n s i v e s e r i e s o f e i g h t p s y c h i a t r i c i n t e r v i e w s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a d a t a b a s e . A f t e r c o l l e g e g r a d u a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d a d e t a i l e d annua l q u e s t i o n n a i r e - 30 -r e l a t i n g t o w o r k , f a m i l y , m e d i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e r e s e a r c h t eam. In 1950/52 each s u b j e c t was i n t e r -v i e w e d and a g a i n i n 1968 when V a i l l a n t , a p s y c h i a t r i s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y , c o n d u c t e d i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 95 o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t s . P r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h each man, V a i l l a n t became f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e v e r a l hund red pages o f documents i n e ach m a n ' s f i l e . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d manner i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r u sed a s e r i e s o f open ended q u e s t i o n s t o p r obe f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o w o r k , m e d i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and f a m i l y c o n c e r n s . In a d d i t i o n , r a t i n g s c a l e s were u sed t o e s t a b l i s h a s y s t e m a t i c and r e l i a b l e method o f s t a n d a r d i z i n g t he v a l u e j u d g e -ments made d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m a p s y c h o -dynamic o r i e n t a t i o n t o show how a d a p t a t i o n i n a d u l t h o o d can be d e s c r i b e d i n t e rms o f a h i e r a r c h y o f a d a p t i v e ego d e f e n c e mechan i sms . T h e r e were f o u r " l e v e l s " o f a d a p t a t i o n , w i t h t h e f o u r t h l e v e l , common i n " h e a l t h y " a d u l t s , c o n s i s t i n g o f t he d e f e n s e s o f S u b l i m a t i o n , A l t r u i s m , S u p p r e s s i o n and Humor ( V a i l l a n t , 1 977 , p. 8 0 ) . The o t h e r t h r e e l e v e l s were P s y c h o t i c , Immature and N e u r o t i c . A n a l y s i s o f t h e a d a p t i v e c o p i n g d e f e n s e s , u sed by t h e men i n t h e s t u d y , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d e f e n s e s were more o f t e n h e a l t h y t h a n p a t h o l o g i c a l . A d a p t a t i o n i n a d u l t h o o d was r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s d e f i n e d by E r i k s o n ( 1 9 6 3 ) . Men aged f r o m 25 t o 35 were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s o l i d a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d - 31 -t h a t an i m p o r t a n t i n n e r p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f c a r e e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n , when t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i r s t a c q u i r e d new v a l u e s f r o m n o n - p a r e n t a l r o l e mode l s and t h e n ended t h e p r o c e s s by f i n a l l y r e j e c t i n g them. T r a i t s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d were n o t e n d u r i n g and d i d n o t p r o v e t o be r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n s o f a d u l t p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r . However , e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s were f o u n d t o be r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s d e v e l o p e d a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l a t e r l i f e : c h i d r e n who had e x p e r i e n c e d warmth and c a r i n g i n t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p i n t o warm c a r i n g a d u l t s who r e l a t e d e a s i l y t o o t h e r s , wherea s c h i l d r e n f r o m homes w i t h l i t t l e a f f e c t i o n o r c a r i n g , t e n d e d t o be more w i t h d r a w n f r o m p e o p l e , p rone t o m e n t a l i l l n e s s , d e p e n d e n t and l a c k i n g i n t r u s t . ( c ) O she r s on S .D. : " H o l d i n g On o r L e t t i n g Go " The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y were p u b l i s h e d i n 1980 , f o l l o w i n g an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i f e h i s t o r i e s o f a g r oup o f 20 men, who had made m i d - l i f e c a r e e r c h a n g e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s s o u g h t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f c a r e e r and c a r e e r change d u r i n g a d u l t h o o d . The s p e c i f i c g o a l s o f t h e r e s e a r c h were t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on ( i ) t h e mean ing o f i n i t i a l o c c u p a t i o n a l cho ice. , ( i i ) t h e r o l e o f 1 s t c a r e e r c h o i c e i n a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ( i i i ) t he f a c t o r s t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n m i d - l i f e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and s t r e s s . A l l t w e n t y men i n t h e s t u d y were w h i t e m a l e s , aged between 35 and 50,who had made a c a r e e r change f r o m a f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e - 32 -as a p r o f e s s i o n a l t o a s econd c a r e e r as an a c t o r , v i s u a l a r t i s t o r p o t t e r . A s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s t o o k p l a c e w i t h each man o v e r a t w o ' w e e k p e r i o d . A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h r e e t o t e n y e a r s a f t e r the c a r e e r c h a n g e . The i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e was d e s c r i b e d as ' f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n 1 m e t h o d , w h i c h a l l o w e d each s u b j e c t t o impose h i s own s t r u c t u r e i n r e c a l l i n g and d e s c r i b i n g t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f h i s c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The i n t e r v i e w e r d i d no t a sk d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s o r a t t e m p t t o d i r e c t t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e were a l m o s t e i g h t h o u r s o f i n t e r v i e w t i m e , r e s u l t i n g i n more t h a n two hundred pages o f t a p e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n , f o r e a ch p e r s o n i n t he s t u d y . The t h e o r e t i c a l model o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and m i d - l i f e c a r e e r change e v o l v e d o u t o f t h e s t u d y and was no t w e l l d e f i n e d u n t i l t h e s t u d y was h a l f - c o m p l e t e d . The r e s e a c h d a t a were i n t e r p r e t e d t o show t h a t : ( i ) The f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e i n young a d u l t h o o d i s an a t t e m p t t o r e a l i z e an " i d e a l i z e d " r a t h e r t h a n r e a l i s t i c s e l f c o n c e p t . The i d e a l i z e d s e l f - c o n c e p t d e n i e s u n a c c e p t a b l e a s p e c t s o f t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e r e p r e s e n t s a commitment t o p a r e n t a l v a l u e s . ( i i ) The ma in i s s u e a t m i d - l i f e i s t o r e - d e f i n e t h e s e l f -c o n c e p t and t h i s i n v o l v e s a l o s s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and f a n t a s i e s o f young a d u l t h o o d , c o n c e r n i n g c a r e e r . The p r o c e s s o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an autonomous sen se o f s e l f c a n e x t e n d w e l l i n t o t h e m i d - l i f e p e r i o d . ( i i i ) A l l a s p e c t s and i n v o l v e m e n t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e m i d - l i f e c a r e e r c h a n g e . - 33 -( i v ) The p r o c e s s o f change a t m i d - l i f e and t h e mean ing o f a m i d - l i f e c a r e e r change can become e i t h e r a p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n and p e r s o n a l g r o w t h o r c an t a k e t he f o r m o f a m a l a d a p t i v e d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n i n w h i c h t he i n d i v i d u a l d e n i e s t he r e a l i t y o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e . The t h e o r e t i c a l model o f m i d - l i f e ( c a r e e r ) change t h a t e v o l v e d o u t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a t h r e e s t a g e p r o c e s s , ( i ) T h e r e i s a d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t ( C r i s i s ) ( i i ) A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he s e l f c o n c e p t ( A d a p t i v e o r M a l a d a p t i v e ) ( i i i ) S t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t ( I n t e g r a t i o n ) . (d ) Summary The t h r e e " s u b j e c t i v e " s t u d i e s , o u t l i n e d above have used t h e i n t e r v i e w method i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a w e a l t h o f r i c h and m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and a d u l t change p r o c e s s e s t h a t i s m i s s i n g f r o m t h e a u s t e r e s t a t i s t i c a l measurement s o f the " o b j e c t i v e " s t u d i e s , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . However , t h e r e a r e a number o f p o i n t s t h a t c an be made c o n c e r n i n g t he l i m i t s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u sed i n t h e s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . ( i ) T h e r e i s an e x c l u s i v e f o c u s on the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f ma l e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s ; g i v e n t he d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a -t i o n p r o c e s s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t i e d t o t h e f e m a l e r o l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t women w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t " e x p e r i e n c e " i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . ( i i ) The s t u d i e s have t a k e n a n a r r o w r a n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s and t h e r e s u l t s have been based on s m a l l s a m p l e s ; t h e s e two f a c t o r s l i m i t t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s . - 34 -( i i i ) The amount o f v e r b a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m each s u b j e c t amounted t o hund red s o f pages o f t a p e d t r a n s c r i p t s and c r e a t e d a p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m i n v a r i a b l y r e s u l t e d i n t he r e s e a r c h e r i m p o s i n g h i s own s y s t em o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h e c a s e o f t h e G r a n t S t u d y t h e method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e whereas t h e method u sed by O she r s on was more i d i o s y n c r a t i c . " The key q u e s t i o n was how t o o r g a n i z e and r e d u c e t h i s m a t e r i a l i n t o some m e a n i n g f u l and c o h e r e n t f o r m The manner i n w h i c h t h i s o c c u r s i s n o t , f o r me, c o m p l e t e l y amenab le t o e x p l a n a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t , s i n c e much o f t h e p r o c e s s i s i n t e g r a l l y t i e d up w i t h how one l e a r n s t o l i s t e n t o and u n d e r s t a n d p e o p l e as a c l i n i c i a n " ( O s h e r s o n , 1 9 8 0 , p. 2 3 2 ) . ( i v ) The c o n c l u s i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n g l o b a l t e rms such as " s e l f c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n " and " p r o c e s s e s o f a d a p t a t i o n " , and a r e n o t p r e c i s e o r w e l l d e f i n e d . (D) P u r p o s e and Scope o f T h i s S t u d y A b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r i s t h a t ' C a r e e r ' c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as a s equence o f work r e l a t e d e v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . The ma in f o c u s o f t h i s p ape r w i l l be t o l o o k a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s t h a t c o n n e c t s t h e s e e v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s . Mo s t o f t h e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o u t l i n e d i n t he p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , d e f i n e ' C a r e e r ' a s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n w h i c h change s i n c a r e e r p a t t e r n s o c c u r as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . - 35 -The q u e s t i o n s t h a t w i l l be a s k e d i n t h i s p a p e r a r e : ( i ) I f an i n d i v i d u a l i s a s k e d t o r a t e t e n p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e p e r i o d s , u s i n g a s e t o f b i - p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , w i l l t h e a v e r a g e r a t i n g a c r o s s t h e p e r i o d s o f l i f e change i n an o r d e r l y p r e d i c t a b l e manner o r w i l l t he change be random and h a p h a z a r d . ( i i ) W i l l t h e a v e r a g e r a t i n g on t he s e t o f p e r s o n a l c a r e e r c o n s t r u c t s show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f 1 i f e . ( i i i ) W i l l men and women show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y o r k i n d o f change t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . T h i s p a p e r w i l l l o o k a t t h e n a t u r e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by u s i n g a r e s e a r c h method i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s w i l l p r o v i d e b o t h t h e d a t a and an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h a t d a t a . The d a t a w i l l t a k e t h e f o r m o f s e l f r e p o r t s on p e r i o d s i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , t h a t e ach c o n s i d e r s t o have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . The o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t he d a t a w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d by h a v i n g each s u b j e c t r a t e t he p e r i o d s t h a t t h e y have i d e n t i f i e d . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h i s method i s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e a s s e s s m e n t and i n t e r p r e t a t -i o n o f d a t a o b t a i n e d v i a r e s e a r c h methods i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e t h e d a t a and t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e s an a s s e s s m e n t ba sed on some t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h samp le s i z e , g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and method o f s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y n a r r o w i n f o c u s - 36 -becau se o f t he need t o o b t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n , s u i t a b l e f o r t h e a ims o f t h e r e s e a r c h , w i t h i n t h e t i m e l i m i t s and o t h e r r e s t r a i n t f a c t o r s imposed on t h e r e s e a r c h e r . In a d d i t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l a d d r e s s a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by u s i n g a n o v e l method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n an a t t e m p t t o comb ine b o t h s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e methods o f r e s e a r c h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e ma i n t h r u s t o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn w i l l be t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e s t u d y w i l l s e r v e t o s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t he d e v e l o p -ment o f a u s e f u l r e s e a r c h method and i n d i c a t e a r e a s i n w h i c h f u t u r e r e s e a r c h may be most p r o f i t a b l e . - 37 -CHAPTER II METHOD (A) S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y were a l l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n programmes o f f e r e d by t he Depa r tmen t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d i n a non - random manner i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s amp le age r ange was between 35 and 45 y e a r s o f a ge . The re were t e n m a l e and t e n f e m a l e s u b j e c t s : t h e mean age o f t h e ma l e s u b j e c t s was 39.1 y e a r s and t h e mean age o f t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 4 0 . 8 y e a r s . (B) I n s t r u m e n t s A v a r i a t i o n o f K e l l y ' s (1955) r e p e r t o r y g r i d m e t h o d o l o g y was u s e d . The r e p e r t o r y g r i d has been u sed t o p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measu re s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s , t h a t a r e assumed t o o c c u r o v e r t i m e , i n t h e ways t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t r u e o r p e r c e i v e e v e n t s , p e o p l e , s i t u a t i o n s , e t c . ( B a n n i s t e r and F r a n s e l l a , 1 9 7 1 ) . The use o f t h e r e p e r t o r y g r i d t e c h n i q u e has been d e s c r i b e d as a r e s e a r c h - 38 -method i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i s a l s o an e x p e r i m e n t e r ; t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e s u b j e c t c o l l a b o r a t e i n a mutua l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e ( B a n n i s t e r and M a i r , 1 9 6 8 ) . R e p e r t o r y g r i d m e t h o d o l o g y i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and has p r o v e d t o be u s e f u l i n t h e s t u d y o f a w i d e r ange o f m a t t e r s o f c o n c e r n i n t h e a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h ( S l a t e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . A g r i d i s a s e t o f e l e m e n t s ( p e o p l e , e v e n t s , p e r i o d s o f l i f e , o b j e c t s e t c . ) t h a t have been e v a l u a t e d by means o f a s e t o f c o n s t r u c t s ( b i p o l a r c o n c e p t s s u ch as s t r o n g / w e a k ) . In u s i n g t h e r e p e r t o r y g r i d t o e v a l u a t e c a r e e r s , e a c h g r i d i s a s e t o f p e r i o d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c a r e e r , t h a t have been r a t e d on a s e t o f b i - p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s . In o r d e r t o c o m p l e t e a g r i d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have ( i ) a method o f e l i c i t i n g e l e m e n t s ( i i ) a s o u r c e o f c o n s t r u c t s ( i i i ) a method o f r a t i n g t h e b i - p o l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s ( C o c h r a n , 1 9 8 0 ) . ( i ) E l e m e n t s The e l e m e n t s u sed i n t h i s s t u d y were p e r i o d s o f l i f e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d a s b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e s i n t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . The t w e n t y s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y , l a b e l and number i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t e n p e r i o d s o f t h e i r l i v e s t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o have been i m p o r t a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s ( s ee A p p e n d i x C ) . - 39 -( i i ) C o n s t r u c t s A s e t o f t e n b i - p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s were s u p p l i e d t o each s u b j e c t . The c o n s t r u c t s were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r as a means o f e x p l o r i n g t h e s u b j e c t i v e s i d e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and becau se t h e y were j u d g e d t o r e p r e s e n t a b r oad r ange o f i s s u e s and v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t s were c h o s e n f o r use i n t he s t u d y : C a r e e r / C o n s t r u c t s (1 ) A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f / ( o f who you a r e and where you a r e g o i n g ) (2) A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f Es teem / (3) S a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s / (4) A S t r o n g Commitment t o L o n g - / Term G o a l s (5) F e e l In C o n t r o l o f My Own / D e s t i n y ( 6 ) A M e a n i n g f u l I n v o l v e m e n t In / C a r e e r (7) Sense o f B e l o n g i n g w i t h O t h e r s / (8) F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t / (9) Harmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f / L i f e : F e e l i n g s e t t l e d and c o n t e n t (10 ) A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e i n / O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make W i se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s A Weak Sense o f S e l f A Weak Sense o f S e l f E s teem D i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s A Weak Commitment t o L o n g -Term G o a l s Do Not F e e l i n ' C o n t r o l o f My D e s t i n y A L a ck o f Mean ing and I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r Sense o f I s o l a t i o n and C u t O f f From O t h e r s F e e l i n g L o c k e d i n by C i r c u m s t a n c e D i s ha rmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : F e e l i n g u n s e t t l e d and d i s c o n t e n t A Lack o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make Wise P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s - 40 -( i i i ) R a t i n g S c a l e and Forms F o r e a c h p e r i o d t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r age a t t h e s t a r t o f t h a t p e r i o d and t o c o m p l e t e two s e n t e n c e s tems t o r e f l e c t t h e way t h a t t h e y f e l t and t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s a t t h a t t i m e . The s u b j e c t s were t h e n a s ked t o r a t e t h e p e r i o d on each o f t h e t e n b i - p o l a r c a r e e r c o n s t r u c t s on t h e b a s i s o f a f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e , u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m a t : A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f A Weak Sense o f S e l f E s teem Es teem S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o c i r c l e t h e d o t t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t e d t h e way t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be a t t h e t i m e p e r i o d . The d o t on t h e e x t r e m e l e f t r e p r e s e n t s a s t r o n g o r p o s i t i v e s en se o f s e l f e s teem i n r e l a t i o n t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , wherea s t h e d o t on t h e e x t r e m e r i g h t r e p r e s e n t s a weak o r n e g a t i v e s e n s e o f s e l f e s t e e m . The m i d d l e d o t r e p r e s e n t s an a m b i v a l e n t s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m and t h e r e m a i n i n g two d o t s r e p r e s e n t somewhat p o s i t i v e o r somewhat n e g a t i v e l e v e l s o f s e l f e s t e e m . N u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s were a s s i g n e d t o t h e d o t s w i t h a v a l u e o f 5 , i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h d e g r e e o f p o s i t i v i t y , a s s i g n e d t o t h e e x t r e m e l e f t d o t ; mov i ng f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t t h e d o t s c o r r e s p o n d t o r a t i n g s o f 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t e n p e r i o d s were r a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , u s i n g a s e p a r a t e r a t i n g s h e e t f o r e a ch p e r i o d , and c o m p l e t e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r by each s u b j e c t . The p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t e d i n a s e t o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e mea su re s f o r each o f t h e p e r i o d s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n i n t h e s t u d y . A s amp le o f t h e r a t i n g f o r m , w h i c h each s u b j e c t u sed - 41 -f o r e a ch o f t h e t e n c a r e e r l i f e p e r i o d s , i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x ( A ) . (C) Da ta C o l l e c t i o n and P r o c e d u r e s Da t a were c o l l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f r o m t w e l v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s and i n t h r e e s m a l l g r o u p s f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g s u b j e c t s . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y ( A p p e n d i x B ) , t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o f o l l o w a ' C a r e e r L i f e L i n e ' p r o c e d u r e , ( A p p e n d i x C ) , i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t e n p e r i o d s i n t h e i r l i v e s t h a t had been s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ; t o l a b e l e a ch p e r i o d i n s uch a way t h a t i t w o u l d h e l p them r e c a l l t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s en se o f mean ing t h a t i t h e l d f o r t hem; f i n a l l y t o number t h e t e n p e r i o d s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . The s u b j e c t s were t h e n p r o v i d e d w i t h a s e t o f t e n r a t i n g f o r m s , one f o r each l i f e p e r i o d , and a s k e d t o f o l l o w t h e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x ( D ) . The p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , and i n A p p e n d i c e s ( B ) , (C) and (D) was f o l l o w e d i n a s t a n d a r d manne r , w i t h no d i f f e r e n c e between i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n and a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e t o o k between f o r t y and f i f t y f i v e m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . - 42 -CHAPTER I I I RESULTS (A) A n a l y s e s o f t h e A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s F o r e ach s u b j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s f o r e a c h o f t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s were a v e r a g e d , so t h a t e ach i n d i v i d u a l had t e n a v e r a g e s ; one f o r each p e r i o d o f h i s / h e r l i f e . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r two f a c t o r s , w i t h sex ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) as one f a c t o r and t i m e p e r i o d s as t h e s e c o n d , was computed w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f t i m e ( F e r g u s o n , 1 9 8 1 , p. 3 2 6 ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e ( p > 0 . 0 0 1 } . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e means i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s began w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l o w d e g r e e o f p o s i t i v i t y , r e g a r d i n g s e l f and c a r e e r , and g r a d u a l l y moved t o w a r d a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f p o s i t i v i t y ( s ee T a b l e 1 ) . - 43 -T a b l e 1 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s between M a l e s and F e m a l e s , w i t h R e p e a t e d Measu rement s A c r o s s T ime P e r i o d s S o u r c e Sum o f Deg ree s Mean F P r o b a b i l i t y o f S qua r e s o f S qua r e s R a t i o V a r i a t i o n F reedom Between S u b j e c t s Sex 389 .219 1 389 .219 1.195 0 .289 W i t h i n 5863 .563 18 325 .753 W i t h i n S u b j e c t s T ime 2380 .118 ' 9 264 .458 3.725 0.001 Sex/T ime 1047 .930 9 116 .437 1.640 0 .108 W i t h i n 11502 .188 162 71.001 Howeve r , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t ma i n e f f e c t f o r sex ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) and no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between sex and t i m e p e r i o d s . By i n s p e c t i n g t h e a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s g i v e n f o r e a c h o f t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e ( s ee T a b l e 2 ) , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e t w e n t y s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y t e n d e d t o become more p o s i t i v e o v e r t i m e . W i t h each s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d o f l i f e t h e s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o show h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y . - 44 -T a b l e 2 A v e r a g e C o n s t r u c t R a t i n g s A c r o s s L i f e P e r i o d s L i f e P e r i o d s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 S u b j e c t s T o t a l 3 .150 3 .270 3. 190 3 .275 3 .725 3 . 650 3 .640 3. 940 3. .965 4 .180 M a l e 3 .330 3 .630 3. 640 3 .470 3 .790 3. 790 3 .770 3. 900 4. .290 3 .770 Female 2 .970 2 .910 2. 740 .3 .080 3 .660 3. 510 3 .510 3. 980 3. .640 4 . 590 (B) E x t e n d e d A n a l y s e s o f Each C a r e e r C o n s t r u c t G i v e n t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e f o r t h e a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s , i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o t e s t t h e r e s u l t s on e a c h o f t h e t e n i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s t o see i f t h e r e were any d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e ma le and f e m a l e r a t i n g s f o r s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t s and t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s a f f e c t e d t h e o v e r a l l t r e n d t o w a r d g r e a t e r p o s i t i v i t y . The method u sed was t o t a k e t he r a t i n g s g i v e n on e a c h c o n s t r u c t and o b t a i n an a v e r a g e r a t i n g f o r e a c h c o n s t r u c t f o r e a ch p e r i o d o f t i m e . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r two f a c t o r s , w i t h sex ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) as one f a c t o r and t i m e p e r i o d s as t h e s e c o n d , was computed f o r e a ch c o n s t r u c t w i t h r e p e a t e d measu rement s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f t i m e - 45 -( F e r g u s o n , 1 9 8 1 , p. 3 2 6 ) . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t , on a v e r a g e , some c o n s t r u c t s were r a t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t manner a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s t h a n o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s (p < 0 . 0 5 ) . The a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f o r a l l t e n c o n s t r u c t s i s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . Each c o n s t r u c t i s d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t i n g s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e a n d , where r e l e v a n t , any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women. The mean r a t i n g s f o r e a ch c o n s t r u c t a t e a c h p e r i o d o f l i f e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x ( E ) . C o n s t r u c t 1 "A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f (Of Who You a r e / A Weak Sense o f S e l f " and Where You a r e G o i n g ) R e s u l t : T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a s en se o f s e l f a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e . C o n s t r u c t 2 "A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f Es teem / A Weak Sense o f S e l f E s t e e m " R e s u l t : T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f e s t eem a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . Bo th men and women showed a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f s e l f e s t eem a c r o s s t he t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . - 46 -C o n s t r u c t 3 " S a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s / D i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s " R e s u l t : T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c a r e e r p r o g r e s s a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 2 ) . B o t h men and women become more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c a r e e r p r o g r e s s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . C o n s t r u c t 4 " S t r o n g Commitment t o Long Term G o a l s / Weak Commitment t o Long Term G o a l s " R e s u l t : T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . B o t h men and women become more s t r o n g l y c o m m i t t e d t o l o n g t e r m c a r e e r g o a l s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . C o n s t r u c t 5 " F e e l In C o n t r o l o f My Own D e s t i n y / Do Not F e e l In C o n t r o l o f My D e s t i n y " R e s u l t : T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e l i n g s o f c o n t r o l o f o n e ' s own d e s t i n y a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e . C o n s t r u c t 6 "A M e a n i n g f u l I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r / A L a ck Of Mean ing and I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r " R e s u l t : T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e -ment i n c a r e e r a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . B o t h men and women g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d a more m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i r c a r e e r s a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . - 47 -C o n s t r u c t 7 " S e n s e o f B e l o n g i n g W i t h O t h e r s / Sense o f I s o l a t i o n and C u t O f f f r o m O t h e r s " R e s u l t : T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a s en se o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h o t h e r s a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e . B o t h men and women f e l t a r e a l t i v e l y s t r o n g s en se o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h o t h e r s t h a t d i d n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e . C o n s t r u c t 8 " F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t / F e e l i n g L o c k e d In By C i r c u m s t a n c e " R e s u l t : ( i ) T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 005 ) ( i i ) Women and men d i f f e r i n t h e i r f e e l i n g o f f r e e d o m (p < 0 . 04 ) w i t h men f e e l i n g more f r e e t h a n women o v e r a l l . ( i i i ) Women d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m men i n t h e way t h e i r sen se o f f r e e d o m v a r i e s a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 9 ) . Men m a i n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m a c r o s s a l l t e n p e r i o d s whe rea s women t e n d t o f e e l l o c k e d i n by c i r c u m s t a n c e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s and f e e l a s t r o n g s e n s e o f f r e e d o m o n l y i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d s . - 48 -C o n s t r u c t 9 "Harmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e / D i s ha rmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : F e e l i n g s e t t l e d and c o n t e n t F e e l i n g U n s e t t l e d and d i s c o n t e n t " R e s u l t : T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e l i n g s o f h a rmon i ou s l i f e s t y l e a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 5 ) . B o t h men and women g r a d u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l s o f c o n t e n t m e n t and harmony i n t h e l i f e s t y l e t h a t t h e y have d e v e l o p e d a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f 1 i f e . C o n s t r u c t 10 "A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s / A L a c k o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make Wi se P e r s o n a l A b i l i t y t o Make Wi se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s D e c i s i o n s " R e s u l t : ( i ) T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n d e c i s i o n mak ing a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . B o t h men and women g r a d u a l l y become more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d i c i s i o n s . ( i i ) Men and women v a r y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ways a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e (p < 0 . 0 0 2 ) . Bo th men and women e x p e r i e n c e a r e l a t i v e l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g the e a r l y p e r i o d s o f l i f e , h oweve r , men e s t a b l i s h s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e t o make w i s e d e c i s i o n s s o o n e r t h a n women. - 49 -(C) E x t e n d e d A n a l y s e s o f Ages and P e r i o d s G i v e n t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e f o r t h e a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s and a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n t h e r a t i n g s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s , i t was o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o l o o k a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s f u r t h e r by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a v e r a g e age g i v e n a t t h e s t a r t o f e a ch p e r i o d ( s ee T a b l e 3 ) . T a b l e 3 A v e r a g e Age a t Each P e r i o d o f L i f e P e r i o d s o f L i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A v e r a g e  Age O v e r a l l 1 6 . 65 19 .85 22 .17 24 .57 2 7 . 0 28 .92 31 .25 33 . 52 35 .87 38 .45 Men 1 6 . 0 0 19 .15 21 .7 23 .95 26 .85 28 . 40 29 .70 31 . 70 33 .75 36 .70 Women 1 7 . 3 0 20 .55 22 . 65 25 . 20 27 .15 29 .45 3 2 . 8 0 35 .35 3 8 . 0 0 40 .02 The r e s u l t s showed t h a t ( i ) Men, as a g r oup t e n d e d t o r e c a l l more s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s o f l i f e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h a n t h o s e r e c a l l e d by women ( i i ) Women, as a g r o u p t e n d e d t o r e c a l l more s i g n i f i c a n t - 50 -p e r i o d s o f l i f e d u r i n g t h e i r t h i r t i e s t h a n t h o s e r e c a l l e d by men ( i i i ) The a v e r a g e age a t e ach p e r i o d was s i m i l a r f o r men and women a c r o s s t h e t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a s t t h r e e p e r i o d s where t h e a v e r a g e ages o f men t e n d e d t o be l o w e r t h a n t h o s e g i v e n by women. - 51 -CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p o s i t i v i t y o f f e e l i n g s a b o u t s e l f and c a r e e r a c r o s s t h e l i f e p e r i o d s f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o m i d - l i f e . F e e l i n g s o f p o s i t i v i t y were r e l a t i v e l y l o w d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e and t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e s , p a r t i -c u l a r l y f o r women. However , o v e r a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y y e a r s , t he s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y g r a d u a l l y became more p o s i t i v e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s change i n p o s i t i v i t y , t h e r e were a l s o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a v e r a g e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s e v e n o f t h e t e n i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s , w i t h a s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m r e l a t i v e n e g a t i v i t y t o more p o s i t i v i t y o v e r t i m e . (1 ) A s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m (2) S a t i s f i e d w i t h c a r e e r p r o g r e s s (3 ) A s t r o n g commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s (4 ) A m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r (5 ) F e e l i n g f r e e t o a c t (6 ) Harmony i n o n e ' s s t y l e o f l i f e (7 ) A f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s - 52 -A l s o , men d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m women on two o f t h e t e n c o n s t r u c t s . F i r s t , men f e l t more f r e e d o m t o a c t t h a n women and men m a i n t a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m a c r o s s a l l t e n p e r i o d s o f l i f e , whe rea s women s t a r t l o w and a c q u i r e d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m , e q u i v a l e n t t o t h o s e o f t h e men, o n l y l a t e r i n l i f e . S e c o n d , men f e l t more c o n f i d e n t t o make d e c i s i o n s . A l t h o u g h b o t h men and women e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y l o w f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s , m e n e s t a b l i s h e d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s s o o n e r t h a n women. L i m i t a t i o n s T h e r e a r e a number o f f a c t o r s t h a t l i m i t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y was s m a l l w i t h t e n f e m a l e s u b j e c t s and t e n m a l e s u b j e c t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e , a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n c h a r a c t e r , was drawn e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m a g r o u p o f g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d were t h e r e f o r e measu re s o f a n a r r o w p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p . T h i r d l y , t h e d a t a were o b t a i n e d f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r age g r oup and t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d by a p o s s i b l e c o h o r t e f f e c t e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h a t g r o u p . A l s o , t h e s e l e c t e d c o n s t r u c t s were l i m i t e d i n t h e number and t h e r a n g e o f t h e o r e t i c a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t t h e y encompas sed . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t s e l e c t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t s o r a g r e a t e r number o f c o n s t r u c t s c o u l d have p r o d u c e d g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d e g r e e s o f p o s i t i v i t y i n t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , p o s i t i v i t y i s - 53 -o n l y one a s p e c t o f t h e change p r o c e s s and a measure o f p o s i t i v i t y a l o n e does n o t p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t he change t a k e s p l a c e a t a l l . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t between i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s and i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y i n one a r e a o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d e p e n d e n t o r i n d e p e n d e n t o f o t h e r a r e a s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e l i m i t a t i o n due t o t h e s e l f r e p o r t method i t s e l f . S u b j e c t s p r o v i d e d p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t had o c c u r r e d i n t h e p a s t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e memory o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e d f r om t h e e x p e r i e n c e t h e y a c t u a l l y h ad . However , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was t o o b t a i n s u b j e c t i v e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . The v a l u e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s u b j e c t i v e v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and a l l d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s p a p e r p r o c e e d s f r o m t h a t p o i n t . S i g n i f i c a n c e F i r s t , l e v e l s o f a v e r a g e p o s i t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g s e l f and c a r e e r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o m i d - l i f e . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t he b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e o r i e s o f a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t , o f w h i c h c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t , i n w h i c h change t a k e s p l a c e as an o n g o i n g g r a d u a l p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n as a s e r i e s o f r e a c t i o n s t o random a c c i d e n t a l e v e n t s . T h i s r e s u l t does n o t s u p p o r t " a c c i d e n t " t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -men t , s uch a s t h o s e o f M i l l e r and Form ( 1 9 5 1 ) , who d i d n o t f i n d e v i d e n c e o f an i n t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d p r o c e s s o f change i n c a r e e r - 54 -d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e i r d a t a t h a t change t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c a r e e r l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s as a r e s p o n s e t o h a p h a z a r d e x t e r n a l e v e n t s o r " a c c i d e n t s " ; The d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t o o o r d e r l y and p r o g r e s s i v e t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r on t h e b a s i s o f a s e r i e s o f r e a c t i o n s t o random " a c c i d e n t a l " e v e n t s . A more p l a u s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s a s an i n t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d p r o c e s s o f change i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s t r u g g l e t o become more p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r and do so g r a d u a l l y o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . The f a c t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y g r a d u a l l y become more p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r , o v e r a p e r i o d t h a t e x t e n d e d i n t o m i d - l i f e , does n o t s u p p o r t t h o s e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment t h a t p e r c e i v e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s as an e v e n t t h a t o c c u r s r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f c a r e e r s and i s m a i n t a i n e d f r o m t h a t p o i n t o n . S t a g e d e v e l o p -ment t h e o r i s t s s u ch as G i n z b e r g (1951) and Super (1957) p e r c e i v e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t e v o l v i n g t h r o u g h a number o f d i s c r e t e s t a g e s i n w h i c h a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f and c a r e e r i s n o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d s and m a i n t a i n e d f r o m t h a t p o i n t o n . The d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t r o n g s e n s e o f s e l f and c a r e e r i s a p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e i n t h e l i v e s o f most i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t i s g r a d u a l l y r e s o l v e d o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g o f a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y d i d n o t s u p p o r t c y c l i c a l o r ' c r i s i s ' t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r - 55 -d e v e l o p m e n t ; i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s i n v o l v i n g marked r e d u c t i o n s i n t he l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r . However , i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t L e v i n s o n (1978) does a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t many men pas s t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t s m o o t h l y and w i t h o u t d i s t r e s s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , O she r s on (1980) c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t b e f o r e t r a n s i t i o n can t a k e p l a c e i t i s i n v a r i a b l y p r e c e d e d by a c r i s i s o r d i s r u p t i o n . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a f o r m a l programme o f s t u d i e s . I t can be a r g u e d t h a t e n r o l l m e n t i n a g r a d u a t e programme, w i t h i t s h i g h l e v e l s o f p e r s o n a l , e m o t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , c o n s t i t u t e s a m a j o r c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . Bu t t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a c r i s i s , m a n i f e s t e d by s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n s i n l e v e l s o f a v e r a g e p o s i t i v i t y p r e c e d e d s u ch a t r a n s i t i o n . The d a t a s u g g e s t a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y ; a p r o c e s s t h a t i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by ' c r i s i s ' o r t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s , a t l e a s t i n t h e s en se o f d r a s t i c changes i n p o s i t i v i t y . A number o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s m a n i f e s t e d s i g n i f i c a n t change and d e s e r v e comment. In a d d i t i o n , two o f t he s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t he need t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . However , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t any i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g be v i e w e d w i t h i n a s e t o f c o n s t r u c t s , d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t an o v e r a l l o r a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . - 5 6 -THERE IS _ . PAGE 56 IN THIS THESIS, - 57 -The two s t a t i s t i c a l l y non s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t r u c t s t h a t d e s e r v e comment a r e : ( i ) "A Sense, o f B e l o n g i n g W i t h / A Sense o f I s o l a t i o n and O t h e r s C u t O f f f r o m O t h e r s " Cit) "A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f / A Weak Sense o f S e l f " ( o f who you a r e and where you a r e g o i n g ) V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e mean r a t i n g s f o r t h e two c o n s t r u c t s ( s ee A p p e n d i x E) showed t h a t , on a v e r a g e , r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y were m a i n t a i n e d a c r o s s t h e l i f e p e r i o d s . S u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y had a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g sense o f s e l f and s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s and m a i n t a i n e d t h e s e h i g h l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y i n t o m i d - l i f e . These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h need t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ( s ee C h a p t e r I I ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e need t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o p o s e d by Roe ( 1 9 5 6 ) , t h e g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p t h a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o have a s t r o n g s en se o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h o t h e r s and t o a t t a i n a s t r o n g sense o f s e l f when t h i s b a s i c need t o b e l o n g w i t h o t h e r s was m e t . The i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y had cho sen an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t b r o u g h t them i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e a n d , ba sed on a need t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two c o n s t r u c t s , m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , w o u l d be e x p e c t e d . A l s o , a l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d c an be p a r t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t h a t were p r e s e n t f o r t h e two c o n s t r u c t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s . A d d i t i o n a l i n c r e a s e s i n p o s i t i v i t y w o u l d n o t be as s i g n i f i c a n t a s w o u l d o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s where t he i n i t i a l l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y were l o w e r . - 58 -A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t become s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r o n g e r i n t h e i r s en se o f s e l f a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s t h e r e was one a s p e c t o f t h e i r s en se o f s e l f t h a t d i d a c q u i r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c hange s i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y ; t h i s a s p e c t was a s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m . "A S t r o n g Sense o f S e l f E s teem / A Weak Sense o f S e l f E s t e e m " . D e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i s t s , s u c h as S u p e r , m a i n t a i n t h a t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n v o l v e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a s e l f c o n c e p t t h r o u g h o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e may be a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e way i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p s a s en se o f who he i s and where he i s g o i n g ( i . e . a s e n s e o f s e l f ) and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e two c o n s t r u c t s a r e d i f f e r e n t , t hough p o s s i b l y c o r r e l a t e d , a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t . I t may be t h a t b e f o r e t h e b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y needs a r e met and a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f d e v e l o p e d , t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i s u n a b l e t o a c q u i r e s t r o n g p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o f s e l f e s t e e m . The d a t a s u g g e s t s a p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s m e n t i o n e d . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y on a number o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s t h a t f o r m a s e t o f c o n s t r u c t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ( s ee C h a p t e r I I ) : ( i ) " F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t / F e e l i n g L o c k e d i n by C i r c u m s t a n c e s " ( i i ) " A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e / A L a ck o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s In O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o A b i l i t y t o Make Wise Make Wi se P e r s o n a l P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s " D e c i s i o n s - 59 -( i i i ) "A M e a n i n g f u l I n v o l v e m e n t / A L a c k o f Mean ing and I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r In C a r e e r " An e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e f r e e t o c r e a t e t h e i r own mean ing i n l i f e and c a r e e r i s an a r e a i n w h i c h m a j o r e x i s t e n t i a l d e c i s i o n s a r e made. From an e x i s t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e c r e a t i o n o f m e a n i n g , o r a m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r , c an o n l y be a c h i e v e d when an i n d i v i d u a l makes d e c i s i o n s t o a c t i n such a way t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a r e r e a l i z e d . In o t h e r w o r d s , i n d i v i d u a l s c an c r e a t e mean ing i n t h e i r l i v e s o n l y i f t h e y f e e l f r e e t o a c t so a s t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t l e a d t o t he r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f mean ing i s a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s t h a t d e v e l o p s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l and i s d e p e n d e n t upon a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g s e n s e o f f r e e d o m t o a c t and upon mak i ng w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y on t he t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s m e n t i o n e d above i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Two c o n s t r u c t s t h a t r e f l e c t e d c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t w e r e : ( i ) A S t r o n g Commitment t o / A Weak Commitment t o Long Term G o a l s Long Term G o a l s " ( i i ) A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e / A L a c k o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make Wi se Wi se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s " The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d showed an o b s e r v a b l e i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s . In o t h e r w o r d s , a sense o f p l a n n i n g o r commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s and t h e a b i l i t y t o make w i s e d e c i s i o n s a r e i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t e v o l v e g r a d u a l l y - 60 -o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . F o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s and t o make s t r o n g commitment s t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s were r e l a t i v e l y p r o b l e m a t i c d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s . The i d e a o f a g r a d u a l p r o l o n g e d e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r o v i d e d by some c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i s t s such as D i l l e y (1965 ) and K n e f e l c a m p and S l e p i t z a ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t t h a t n o t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i s t s s uch as T iedeman and O ' H a r a (1963) assume t h a t t he a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y s t a g e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r p r o g r e s s e s f r o m t h o s e e a r l y p e r i o d s on t h e b a s i s o f how he u t i l i z e s t h a t a b i l i t y t o s u rmount v a r i o u s t a s k s a t l a t e r s t a g e s . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y do n o t l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s i s f o rmed d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The a v e r a g e o f t h e t e n c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s , c a l c u l a t e d a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s , f a i l e d t o show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ma i n e f f e c t f o r s ex ( m a l e / f e m a l e ) and no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between sex and t i m e p e r i o d s ( s ee T a b l e 1, p . 4 3 ) . However , two o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s d i d show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t he a v e r a g e r a t i n g s a c r o s s p e r i o d s o f l i f e g i v e n by men compared t o t h o s e g i v e n by women. The two c o n s t r u c t s w e r e : ( i ) " F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t / F e e l i n g L o c ked i n by C i r c u m s t a n c e s " ( i i ) "A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e / A L a c k o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o A b i l i t y t o Make Wise P e r s o n a l Make Wi se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s " D e c i s i o n s - 61 -On a v e r a g e men compared t o women e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m a c r o s s t he t e n l i f e p e r i o d s . Women d i f f e r e d f r o m men d u r i n g e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s by h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r s e n s e o f f r e e d o m t o a c t and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e a v e r a g e l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y , d e r i v e d f r o m a l l t e n c o n s t r u c t s , were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r men and women d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d on two o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s p l u s a v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s ( s ee T a b l e 2 , p. 44 and A p p e n d i x E) t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r women compared t o men. T h i s f i n d i n g r e f l e c t s on t h e r e s u l t s o f a number o f t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t based on e x c l u s i v e l y ma l e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s e l f c o n c e p t t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s e d by S upe r (1957) has a s one o f i t s p r i n c i p a l a x i oms t h a t l a t e r p e r i o d s o f a d j u s t m e n t and l e v e l s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a r e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e way i n w h i c h e a r l i e r p e r i o d s a r e r e s o l v e d . The measu re s u sed by Supe r t o d e t e r m i n e s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a t any p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t a g e a r e d e r i v e d f r o m m a l e g r o u p norms. I f s t a n d a r d s ba sed on ma l e g r oup norms had been a p p l i e d t o t h e women i n t h i s s t u d y d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y p e r i o d s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e s u l t s wou l d p r o b a b l y have i n d i c a t e d poo r a d j u s t m e n t and l o w l e v e l s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a t l a t e r p e r i o d s o f l i f e . A p r e d i c t i o n t h a t w o u l d n o t have been s u p p o r t e d by t he - 62 -r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . In g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n a number o f ways . F i r s t , t h e l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g s e l f and c a r e e r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e i n t h e l i v e s o f t he i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s f i n d i n g f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t e i t h e r " a c c i d e n t " t h e o r i e s o r " c r i s i s " t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , where a l e s s o r d e r l y and p r o g r e s s i v e e v o l u t i o n o f p o s i t i v i t y w o u l d have been e x p e c t e d . S e c o n d , t he d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t r o n g p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r i s a p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e i n t h e l i v e s o f mos t i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t t a k e s an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e t o r e s o l v e . These r e s u l t s do n o t s u p p o r t " s t a g e " t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h a t a s s e r t t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s and i s m a i n t a i n e d f r o m t h a t p o i n t o n . T h i r d , a number o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s p r o v i d e d r e s u l t s t h a t r e f l e c t on s p e c i f i c t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , ( i ) A r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g s en se o f b e l o n g i n g was m a i n t a i n e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h need t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h a t w o u l d p r e d i c t a s t r o n g need t o b e l o n g t o be a d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p , s u ch as c o u n s e l l o r s , who a r e c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e i r w o r k , ( i i ) I n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y showed s t r o n g i n c r e a s e s i n t h e i r l e v e l s o f s e l f e s t e e m . S e l f - e s t e e m changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s whe rea s a s t r o n g : s e n s e o f s e l f d i d n o t show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . The d i f f e r e n c e - 63 -i n t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t he two c o n s t r u c t s s u g g e s t s t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t he s e l f c o n c e p t i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p r o c e s s t h a t f o l l o w s a p a r t i c u l a r s equence o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t he s e l f c o n c e p t r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e g l o b a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s n o t f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n e x i s t i n g s e l f c o n c e p t t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . ( i i i ) Freedom t o a c t , a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s and m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r a r e t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s t h a t showed o b s e r v a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y . The r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h i t s empha s i s on d e c i s i o n s t h a t l e a d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l v a l u e s , ( i v ) P l a n f u l n e s s , i n t h e f o r m o f a s t r o n g commitment t o l o n g t e r m g o a l s and d e c i s i o n mak i ng i n t h e f o r m o f a f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s were two c o n s t r u c t s t h a t r e f l e c t c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and t h a t showed o b s e r v a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s t h e t e n l i f e p e r i o d s . The f i n d i n g does n o t l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h o s e c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t p e r c e i v e t h e normal e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d e c i s i o n mak i n g a b i l i t y t o t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n e ; f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y t h e a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s was a p r o b l e m t h a t was o n l y r e s o l v e d g r a d u a l l y o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , ( v ) T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m and c o n f i d e n c e t o make w i s e d e c i s i o n s , w i t h women f e e l i n g l e s s f r e e and c o n f i d e n t t h a n men, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The s t a t i s t i c a l l y - 64 -d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r men and women i s d i f f e r e n t , w i t h o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t do n o t t a k e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t o a c c o u n t . P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t r o n g p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r i s a p r o c e s s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d t o be p r o b l e m a t i c d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment and one t h a t r e s o l v e s i t s e l f o n l y a f t e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , i n t h e l i v e s o f most i n d i v i d u a l s . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t f a c e -c o u n s e l l o r s a r e what p r a c t i c a l s t e p s o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s c an be u n d e r -t a k e n t o (a ) h e l p c l i e n t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c p e r i o d s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and (b ) f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r a c r o s s t he l i f e s p a n . The an swe r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s c an o n l y be i n d i c a t e d a t t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y l e v e l o f t h e r e s e a r c h . However , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d e v e l o p i n g more e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . From t h e d a t a i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e r e i s some v a l i d i t y t o a ' n e e d ' t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a has p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t he i d e a t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s u c c e s s f u l l y c h o o s e o c c u p a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r d e s i r e d l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s ; a d e s i r e o r need t h a t - 65 -s tems f r o m e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t t h e b a s i c r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t h i s a r e a and f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r s equence o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t . I t i s s u g g e s t e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d f i r s t h e l p c l i e n t s t o e x p l o r e t h e i r b a s i c needs i n t h e a r e a o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e b e f o r e g o i n g on t o h e l p i n c r e a s e l e v e l s o f s e l f e s teem o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t . C o n n e c t e d t o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r s equence o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t i s t h e p o s s i b i -l i t y t h a t a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f and p r e c e d e s a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m . I t w o u l d seem t h a t a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f o r i d e n t i t y d e v e l o p s , a t l e a s t w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y , d u r i n g e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s ; e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s o f a s en se o f i d e n t i t y may h e l p t o i d e n t i f y t he f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a c t i o n p l a n s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e f e e l i n g s o f p o s i t i v i t y a b o u t s e l f . In o t h e r w o r d s , a c o u n s e l l o r / c l i e n t e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t ' s s en se o f s e l f , d u r i n g t h e e a r l y phase o f c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , may r e v e a l b o t h s t r o n g n e g a t i v e s e l f i m a g e s , t o be r e m o v e d , as w e l l a s s t r o n g p o s i t i v e s e l f i m a g e s , t o be e n h a n c e d . a n d i m p l e m e n t e d v i a c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Some s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r an e x i s t e n t i a l v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t c o n n e c t e d i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s o f p o s i t i v i t y a b o u t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a b i l i t y and f r e e d o m t o a c t w i t h more m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r . A f o c u s on i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t i n c r e a s e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s awa rene s s o f h i s p e r s o n a l v a l u e s (S imon e t a l . 1972) i s a p r a c t i c a l means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e e x i s t e n t i a l - 66 -v i e w o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e s mean ing t h r o u g h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . Freedom t o a c t p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r e x i s t e n t i a l f o c u s p o i n t , when i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a r e used t h a t b o t h a c k n o w l e d g e t h e r e a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e and a t t h e same t i m e , a t t e m p t t o enhance a s en se o f i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m a r e a s , o v e r l o o k e d by a number o f c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , was t h e a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . To some e x t e n t t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i n d e c i s i v e b e h a v i o r o r p o o r d e c i s i o n mak i n g a b i l i t y may be due t o a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e i n d i v i d u a l may a l s o have f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y i t s e l f t o make w i s e d e c i s i o n s ; a d e f i c i t t h a t c an be r e m e d i e d by a number o f p r a c t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f J a m ' s and Mann ( 1 9 7 7 ) . F i n a l l y , two c o n s t r u c t s , t h e f r e e d o m t o a c t and c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s t h e l i f e p e r i o d s f o r women compared t o men. A l t h o u g h b o t h women and men e x p e r i e n c e d l o w e r l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s were more e x t r e m e f o r women, t hough n o t p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e i r l a t e r p e r i o d s o f p o s i t i v e and s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p -men t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s f o r women compared t o men. The n a t u r e o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r p a t t e r n s between t he s e x e s i s n o t c l e a r f r o m - 67 -t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , men may a c q u i r e a much b r o a d e r r a nge o f employment e x p e r i e n c e f a s t e r t h a n women becau se o f t h e g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e y have i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n -mak i ng a b i l i t y . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t d u r i n g t he e a r l y s t a g e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t men g a i n e x p e r i e n c e by a p p l y i n g f o r and o b t a i n i n g j o b s t h a t t h e y d o n ' t have r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e f o r , f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y can l e a r n on t h e j o b . Women d o n ' t have t h e same c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n mak i n g a b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e a r e more l i m i t e d i n t h e r a n g e o f j o b s t h a t t h e y a p p l y f o r . C o u n s e l l o r s c an h e l p women become more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n on t h e j o b , t h e r e b y g a i n i n g v a l u a b l e employment e x p e r i e n c e t h a t wou l d o t h e r w i s e n o t be a v a i l a b l e t o them. A n o t h e r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t -i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d i n ma l e and f e m a l e r e s u l t s , i s t h a t c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r s need t o be c a r e f u l i n t h e use o f measu rement s o r t e s t s o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y o r c a r e e r r e a d i n e s s w i t h f e m a l e c l i e n t s , when t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s o f m e a s u r e -ment a r e ba sed on ma l e g r o u p norms. In g e n e r a l , t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s s h o u l d c r e a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t w i l l h e l p c l i e n t s overcome t he p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a p o s i t i v e v i e w o f s e l f and c a r e e r d u r i n g t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s and f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y a c r o s s t h e l i f e s p a n . S p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s based on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r e s u l t s were d e v e l o p e d t o a d d r e s s t h e two ma i n o b j e c t i v e s g i v e n a b o v e . In p a r t i c u l a r , c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d ( i ) h e l p c l i e n t s e x p l o r e t h e i r b a s i c needs f o r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e - 68 -b e f o r e f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f s e l f e s teem o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t ( i i ) h e l p c l i e n t s e x p l o r e t h e i r s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y i n t e r m s o f i t s n e g a t i v e as w e l l as p o s i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s , as a f o c u s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n p l a n s ( i i i ) h e l p c l i e n t s d e v e l o p an awa rene s s o f t h e p e r s o n a l v a l u e s t h a t t h e y w i l l r e a l i z e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m e a n i n g f u l c a r e e r ( i v ) h e l p c l i e n t s d e v e l o p an i n t e r n a l b a s i s o f c o n t r o l as a means o f i n c r e a s i n g a sense o f f r e e d o m t o a c t ( v ) h e l p c l i e n t s d e v e l o p t he a b i l i t y t o make w i s e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s f o r examp le by t e a c h i n g a c o n f l i c t model o f d e c i s i o n mak i ng ( v i ) be aware o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s o f women compared t o men and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f u s i n g v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s based on m a l e g r o u p no rms , w i t h f e m a l e c l i e n t s . F u t u r e R e s e a r c h A number o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e v a l i d i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d by imp rovemen t s i n t he m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y were c r e a t e d by t h e use o f a n a r r o w p o p u l a t i o n s amp le and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d a t t e m p t t o overcome t h i s p r o b l e m by t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . S e c o n d , t h e r e s e a r c h o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on measu re s o f p o s i t i v i t y , h o w e v e r , t h i s i s o n l y one a s p e c t o f t h e change p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and t he measu re s o b t a i n e d do n o t p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h e change p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e a t a l l . - 69 -F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d augment t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a o b t a i n e d w i t h a more d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i f e p e r i o d s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The q u e s t i o n o f why women seem t o have g r e a t e r p r o b l e m s t h a n men, r e g a r d i n g some c o n s t r u c t s , d u r i n g t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d s i s one t h a t c o u l d a l s o be p r o f i t a b l y a d d r e s s e d by a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e a c t u a l f l o w o f e v e n t s d u r i n g t h o s e e a r l y p e r i o d s . A p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t i n c h o i c e between o c c u p a t i o n and m a r r i a g e seemed t o be e v i d e n t i n t h e s e l f s t a t e m e n t s t h a t t he women p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e a r l y l i f e p e r i o d s and t h i s c o n f l i c t may i n f l u e n c e t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f women i n ways t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r o c e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by men; f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d examine t h i s t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s c o u l d e v a l u a t e a number o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . One s u g g e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t he d a t a was t h a t a s t r o n g s e n s e o f s e l f o r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y p r e c e d e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t r o n g s en se o f s e l f e s t e e m . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a c o u l d a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t , i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t and i n v e s t i g a t e t he ways i n w h i c h l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y c an be i n c r e a s e d . A number o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were s u g g e s t e d f o r i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d s t r a t e g i e s . P a r t i c u l a r - 70 -r e s e a r c h c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d e v a l u a t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t ( i ) s t r e n g t h e n a s e n s e o f i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( i i ) h e i g h t e n an awa rene s s o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and ( i i i ) i n c r e a s e g e n e r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t y on t h e o v e r a l l l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s have t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r . - 71 -Summary and C o n c l u s i o n T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n s u b j e c t i v e measu re s o f change i n l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r o v e r t h e p e r i o d f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o m i d - l i f e . A s e c o n d a r y f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y was t o see i f t h e r e were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he measu re s o b t a i n e d f r o m men compared t o t h o s e f r o m women. U s i n g a v a r i a t i o n o f K e l l y ' s (1955) r e p e r t o r y g r i d m e t h o d o -l o g y , a g r o u p o f t e n m a l e and t e n f e m a l e g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s , aged between 35 and 45 y e a r s , a s s e s s e d t he i n f l u e n c e o f t e n p e r i o d s i n t h e i r l i v e s on t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . Each l i f e p e r i o d was a s s e s s e d by means o f a s e t o f t e n b i - p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . A n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n between a v e r a g e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s , w i t h r e p e a t e d measurement s a c r o s s t he t e n l i f e p e r i o d s , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t g r a d u a l change i n l e v e l s o f a v e r a g e p o s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r between a d o l e s c e n c e and m i d - l i f e . S u b j e c t s began w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l o w l e v e l s o f p o s i t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s o f l i f e and g r a d u a l l y moved t o w a r d h i g h e r d e g r e e s o f p o s i t i v i t y a t m i d - l i f e . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n t h e measu re s o b t a i n e d f r o m men compared t o women, w i t h men f e e l i n g more f r e e d o m t o a c t o v e r a l l , and a c q u i r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f f r e e d o m s o o n e r t h a n women; a l s o men i n c r e a s e d r e l a t i v e l y l o w f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t y s o o n e r t h a n women d i d . - 72 -The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t r o n g p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s e l f and c a r e e r i s a p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e i n t h e l i v e s o f most i n d i v i d u a l s ; one t h a t t a k e s an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e t o r e s o l v e and c o n s t i t u t e s a p r o c e s s t h a t may be e f f e c t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e u se o f s p e c i f i c c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between ma le and f e m a l e p a t t e r n s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y ma le r e f e r e n c e d v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e measu re s w i t h f e m a l e c l i e n t s . The d i r e c t i o n o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h wou l d be t o v a l i d a t e t h e f i n d i n g s and t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . - 73 -B IBL IOGRAPHY B a n n i s t e r , D., and F r a n s e l l a , F. I n q u i r i n g man; t h e t h e o r y o f  p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . L o n d o n : P e n g u i n , 1 971 . B a n n i s t e r , D., and M a i r , J . The e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . New Y o r k : A cadem i c P r e s s , 1968 . B e a l l , L . , and B o r d i n , E.S. The d e v e l o p m e n t and p e r s o n a l i t y o f e n g i n e e r s . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1964 , 4 3 , 2 3 - 3 2 . B e l l , H.M. E g o - i n v o l v e m e n t i n v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . P e r s o n n e l  and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 0 , 3 8 , 7 32 - 736 . B l o l a n d , P . A . , and W a l k e r , B.A. A h u m a n i s t i c e x i s t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 8 1 , 2 9 , 1 9 7 - 2 0 4 . B o r d i n , E . S . , Nachman, B. , and S e g a l , S . J . An a r t i c u l a t e d f r amework f o r v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , TJD, 1 0 7 - 1 1 6 . B r i l l , A . A . B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1 949 . B u e h l e r , C. P e r m e n s l i c h e l e b e n s l a u f a l s p s y c h o ! o g i c h e s p r o b l e m . 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J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 1 , 1, 3 0 5 - 3 1 5 . - 74 -D i l l e y , J . S . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t y and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 965 , 4 5 , 4 2 3 - 4 2 7 . E r i k s o n , E.H. C h i l d h o o d and s o c i e t y . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1963 . F e r g u s o n , G.A. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l , 1 9 8 1 . F l a n a g a n , J . C . , D a i l e y , J . T . , S h a y c r o f t , M . F . , Gorham, W.A. , O r r , D.B. , and G o l d b e r g , I. D e s i g n f o r a s t u d y o f a m e r i c a n  y o u t h . Houghton M i f f l i n , 1962. F l a n a g a n , J . C . The f i r s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o f P r o j e c t T a l e n t : i m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r c a r e e r g u i d a n c e . The V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1 973 , 2 2 , 8 - 1 4 . 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T o r o n t o : W i l e y , 1976 . Sommers, V . S . V o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e as an e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y , 1956 , 1 0 , 5 2 0 - 5 3 5 . S t a n d l e y , N. K i e r k e g a a r d and m a n ' s v o c a t i o n . The V o c a t i o n a l G u i d e  J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 1 , 2 0 , 1 1 9 - 1 2 2 . S t e r n , G .C . P e o p l e i n c o n t e x t : m e a s u r i n g p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t  c o n g r u e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r y . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1970 . S u p e r , D.E. The p s y c h o l o g y o f c a r e e r s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1957. S u p e r , D.E. C a r e e r e d u c a t i o n and t h e mean ing o f wo r k . Wash ington- , D.C. : U.S. G o v t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1976 . S u p e r , D .E . , and H a l l , D.T. C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . In M. R o z e n z w e i g and L. P o r t e r ( E d s . ) . Annua l Rev i ew  o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 978 , 2 9 , 3 3 3 - 3 7 2 . S u p e r , D .E . , and K i d d , J . M . V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n a d u l t h o o d : t o w a r d t u r n i n g a model i n t o a m e a s u r e . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o r , 1 979 , 14_, 2 5 5 - 2 7 0 . S u p e r , D .E . , and K n a s e l , E.G. C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n a d u l t h o o d : some t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s and a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n . B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l o f G u i d a n c e and C o u n s e l l i n g , 1 9 8 1 , 9_(2), 1 9 4 - 2 0 1 . S w i t z e r , D.K., G r i g g , A . E . , M i l l e r , J . S . , and Young , R.K. E a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e : a t e s t o f R o e ' s h y p o t h e s i s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 2 , 9_, 4 5 - 4 8 . T h o r n d i k e , R., and Hagen, E. 1 0 , 000 c a r e e r s . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1959 . T i e d e m a n , D.V. The H a r v a r d s t u d i e s i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n c u r r e n t  p e r s p e c t i v e . 1 958 , (m imeo) . - 77 -T i e d e m a n , D.V., and O ' H a r a , R.P. C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t : C h o i c e and  A d j u s t m e n t . New Y o r k : C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d , 1963 . V a i l l a n t , G .E . A d a p t a t i o n t o l i f e . L i t t l e Brown and Company, 1977. APPENDIX A CODE: SECTION B. CAREER PERIOD RATING FORM (1) AGE: PERIOD NAME: PERIOD NUMBER: (2) C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s t o r e f l e c t t h e way y o u remember t h i s p e r i o d , ( i ) I t h o u g h t t h a t I ( i i ) I f e l t t h a t I (3) C o n s i d e r each o f t h e t e n c o n s t r u c t s l i s t e d b e l o w and c i r c l e t h e d o t w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s a b o u t y o u r s e l f d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A S t r o n g Sen se o f S e l f ( o f who y o u a r e and whe re y o u a r e g o i n g ) A S t r o n g Sen se o f S e l f E s teem S a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s A S t r o n g Commitment t o L o n g -Term G o a l s F e e l In C o n t r o l o f My Own D e s t i n y A M e a n i n g f u l I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r Sen se o f B e l o n g i n g w i t h O t h e r s F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t Harmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : F e e l i n g s e t t l e d and c o n t e n t A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make W i se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s > +-> rt3 E o 5-o c at s- a> x: -t-> 4-> a> • i - . a a> c x: 2 ai E O > A Weak Sen se o f S e l f A Weak Sen se o f S e l f E s teem D i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s A Weak Commitment t o L o n g -Term G o a l s Do Not F e e l In C o n t r o l o f My D e s t i n y A L a c k o f Mean ing and I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r Sen se o f I s o l a t i o n and C u t O f f f r o m O t h e r s F e e l i n g L o c k e d i n by C i r c u m s t a n c e D i sha rmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : F e e l i n g u n s e t t l e d and d i s c o n t e n t A L a c k o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make W i se P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s - 79 -APPENDIX B My name i s Tom G i l l i g a n and I am a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t c o m p l e t i n g my M.A. i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a sk i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e f l e c t on p e r i o d s o f t h e i r l i v e s t h a t t h e y t h i n k were o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o r i n f l u e n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . The d a t a b e i n g c o l l e c t e d w i l l p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h I a p p r e c i a t e y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y p l e a s e remember t h a t y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y and t h a t you a r e f r e e t o r e f u s e t o an swer any q u e s t i o n s o r t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . S h o u l d you c h o o s e t o w i t h d r a w p l e a s e be a s s u r e d t h a t you may do so w i t h o u t r e c r i m i n a t i o n o r n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s h o u l d you be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h e n c o m p l e t i o n o f f o rms w i l l r e p r e s e n t y o u r f o r m a l c o n s e n t t o do s o . A l l d a t a r e q u i r e d w i l l be g a t h e r e d t o d a y and i s e x p e c t e d t o t a k e a b o u t one h o u r . To e n s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y t h e d a t a w i l l be r e c o r d e d by means o f a code number f o r e a ch i n d i v i d u a l , h o w e v e r , I w i l l a s k you t o p u t y o u r name on a s e p a r a t e c a r d t h a t w i l l be d e s t r o y e d a f t e r t h e d a t a has been c o l l e c t e d and t h e p r o c e d u r e s v e r i f i e d . The p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d t o d a y i s as f o l l o w s : F i r s t , I w i l l a s k e a c h o f y ou t o i d e n t i f y , l a b e l and number t e n s e p a r a t e p e r i o d s i n y o u r l i v e s t h a t you c o n s i d e r t o have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f y o u r c a r e e r . Then I w i l l a sk you t o c o n s i d e r each p e r i o d s e p a r a t e l y , g i v i n g y o u r age and a b r i e f t h o u g h t a b o u t - 80 -APPENDIX ( B ) / c o n t ' d y o u r s e l f a t t h a t t i m e . F i n a l l y , I w i l l a s k you t o r a t e each p e r i o d by means o f t e n c o n s t r u c t s t h a t I w i l l p r o v i d e . The r e s u l t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n my M a s t e r s T h e s i s and w i l l be a v a i l a b l e a t t h e D e p t . o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y l a t e r i n t h e summer. - 81 -APPENDIX C A f t e r y ou have p u t y o u r name on t h e s m a l l g r een code c a r d I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o t u r n t o S e c t i o n A c a l l e d ' C a r e e r L i f e L i n e ' . I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o mark t e n p o i n t s on t h e v e r t i c a l b l a c k l i n e t h a t b i s e c t s t h e page . Each p o i n t w i l l r e p r e s e n t a p e r i o d o r t i m e i n y o u r l i f e t h a t had some s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o r f e e l i n g t o y o u and t h a t i n someway a f f e c t e d t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f y o u r c a r e e r . I d e n t i f y e a c h p e r i o d o r mark t h a t y o u make w i t h a s i n g l e wo rd o r p h r a s e t h a t w i l l h e l p y o u t o r e c a l l t h a t p e r i o d t o m ind l a t e r i n t h e p r o c e d u r e . W r i t e each wo rd o r p h r a s e o p p o s i t e t h e mark on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t he l i n e , u n d e r t he h e a d i n g " P e r i o d Name". When y o u have i d e n t i f i e d , marked and l a b e l l e d t e n s u ch p e r i o d s , go back down t he l e f t hand s i d e o f t he c a r e e r l i f e l i n e and g i v e each p e r i o d o r mark a number f r o m one t o t e n , w i t h t h e numbers r u n n i n g c o n s e c u t i v e l y f r o m 1 f o r t h e p e r i o d c l o s e s t t o a d o l e s c e n c e t o 10 f o r t h e p e r i o d c l o s e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . A t t h i s p o i n t a r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s on t h e p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d ? Take t h e t i m e y o u need and f e e l f r e e t o a sk f o r a s s i s t a n c e o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the p r o c e d u r e a t any p o i n t . We w i l l p r o c e e d t o S e c t i o n B when e v e r y o n e has c o m p l e t e d P a r t A. 82 APPENDIX C / c o n t ' d CODE: SECTION A. CAREER L I F E L INE PRESENT TIME PERIOD NUMBER PERIOD NAME ADOLESCENCE Make t e n marks on t h e " l i f e - l i n e " t o r e p r e s e n t t e n s e p a r a t e p e r i o d s o f y o u r l i f e t h a t i n some way c o n t r i b u t e d t o y o u r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t : each p e r i o d w i l l have f o r y o u . Number each p e r i o d , w i t h c l o s e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . G i v e y o u i d e n t i f y and r e c a l l t h e e v e n t s a s p e c i a l f e e l i n g o r s i g n i f i c a n c e number (10 ) b e i n g t h e p e r i o d each p e r i o d a name t h a t w i l l h e l p and f e e l i n g s o f t h a t t i m e . - 83 -APPENDIX D In S e c t i o n B y o u w i l l f i n d 1 0 C a r e e r P e r i o d R a t i n g Fo rms ; e ach r a t i n g f o r m i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p e r i o d number f r o m 1 t o 1 0 . C o m p l e t e t h e t e n r a t i n g f o r m s , one a t a t i m e , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner . In P a r t ( 1 ) e n t e r y o u r age and t h e p e r i o d name o r p h r a s e t h a t y o u gave i n S e c t i o n A. Then r e f l e c t on how y o u f e l t and t h o u g h t a b o u t y o u r s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l a t t h a t t i m e and c o m p l e t e t h e two s e n t e n c e s i n p a r t 2 . F i n a l l y c o n s i d e r each o f t h e t e n c o n s t r u c t s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d and c i r c l e t h e d o t t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s a b o u t y o u r s e l f d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . I wan t t o s t r e s s once more the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f y o u r r e s p o n s e s and ask t h a t y o u t r y t o gauge as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s a t each p e r i o d as y o u c o m p l e t e t h e s e c o n s t r u c t r a t i n g s . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s on t h e p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d . Take t h e t i m e y o u need and f e e l f r e e t o a sk f o r a s s i s t a n c e o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e a t any p o i n t . When y o u have c o m p l e t e d t h e t e n r a t i n g fo rms p l e a s e g i v e them t o me t o g e t h e r w i t h t he C a r e e r L i f e L i n e and code c a r d . I w o u l d l i k e t o t hank y o u f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . - 84 -APPENDIX E INDIVIDUAL MEAN CONSTRUCT RATINGS ACROSS L I F E PERIODS C o n s t r u c t 1 "A S t r o n g Sen se o f S e l f / A Weak Sense o f S e l f " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3.35 3.45 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.85 3 .75 4 . 10 3.95 4 .25 Ma le 3.70 3.90 4 . 00 3.90 4 . 00 3.90 3 .50 4 . 10 4 . 30 4 . 00 Female 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.80 4 .00 4 . 10 3.60 4 . 50 C o n s t r u c t 2 "A S t r o n g Sen se o f S e l f E s t eem / A Weak Sense o f S e l f E s t e e m " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3 .25 3.25 3.20 3.40 4 . 10 3.85 3.85 4 . 20 3.95 4 . 35 Ma le 3.50 3.70 3.70 3.70 4 . 00 4 . 10 3.70 4 . 10 4 . 10 4 . 20 Female 3.00 2 .80 2 .70 3.10 4 . 20 3.60 4 . 00 4 . 30 3.80 4 .50 - 85 -C o n s t r u c t 3 " S a t i s f i e d W i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s / D i s s a t i s f i e d W i t h C a r e e r P r o g r e s s " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3 .05 3.00 3, .00 2 .55 3.15 3.20 3.30 3.70 3.70 4 .25 Ma le 2 .90 3.10 3, .30 2 .70 3.20 3.20 3.30 4 . 00 4 .40 3.90 Fema le 3.20 2 .00 2 .80 2 .40 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3 .00 4 .60 C o n s t r u c t 4 " S t r o n g Commitment t o Long Term / Weak Commitment t o Long Term G o a l s G o a l s " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3.10 3.40 3.20 3.55 3 .65 3.70 3.80 4 .10 4 .30 4 .55 M a l e 3.10 3.70 3.70 3.70 3 .70 4 . 00 4 . 00 4 . 10 4 .40 4 . 20 Female 3.10 3.10 2 .70 3.40 3 .60 3.40 3.60 4 . 10 4 .20 4 . 90 - 86 -C o n s t r u c t 5 " F e e l I n C o n t r o l o f My 1 2 S u b j e c t s T o t a l 3.25 3.40 Ma le 3.60 4 . 00 Female 2 .90 2 .80 D e s t i n y / Do No t F e e l L i f e P e r i o d s 3 4 5 6 3.20 3 .40 3.75 3.70 3.60 3.80 3.90 3.80 2 .80 3.00 3.60 3.60 C o n t r o l o f My Own D e s t i n y " 7 8 9 10 3.60 3 .75 3.85 4 .15 3.90 3 .80 4 . 00 3.60 3 .30 3 .70 3.70 4 . 70 C o n s t r u c t 6 "A M e a n i n g f u l I n v o l v e m e n t In C a r e e r / A L a ck o f Mean ing and I n v o l v e m e n t i n C a r e e r " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 2 .65 2 .95 2. 85 2 .75 3.30 3.15 3.50 3.60 4 . 00 4 . 30 Ma le 2 .80 3.10 3. 50 3.00 3.60 3.40 3.80 3.70 4 . 60 3.90 Female 2 .50 2 .80 2. 20 2 .50 3.00 2 .90 3.20 3.50 3.40 4 .70 - 87 -C o n s t r u c t 7 " S e n s e o f B e l o n g i n g w i t h O t h e r s / Sense o f I s o l a t i o n and C u t O f f From O t h e r s " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3.25 3.75 3.15 3.75 3.90 4 . 00 3.85 3 .90 4 . 00 4 . 00 Ma le 3.40 3.80 3.40 3.60 3.60 4 . 00 4 . 20 3.70 4 . 50 3.50 Fema le 3.10 3.70 2 .90 3.90 4 . 20 4 . 00 3.50 4 . 10 3.50 4 . 50 C o n s t r u c t 8 " F e e l i n g F r e e t o A c t / F e e l i n g L o c k e d In By C i r c u m s t a n c e " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3.65 3.20 3.35 3.30 4 . 05 3.65 3 .65 4 . 2 5 4 . 20 4 . 10 Ma le 4 . 20 4 . 00 4 . 00 3.60 4 . 70 3.60 3 .90 4 . 10 4 . 50 3.80 Female 3.10 2 .40 2 .70 3 .00 3.40 3.70 3 .40 4 . 4 0 3.90 4 . 40 - 88 -C o n s t r u c t 9 "Harmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : / D i sha rmony i n O n e ' s S t y l e o f L i f e : F e e l i n g S e t t l e d and C o n t e n t F e e l i n g U n s e t t l e d and D i s c o n t e n t " L i f e P e r i o d s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 S u b j e c t s T o t a l 2. 85 2 .95 2. 95 2 .90 3.70 3.50 3.30 3.70 3.55 3. 70 Ma le 2. 90 3.40 3. 10 3.00 3.50 3.60 3.60 3.60 4 . 00 3. 10 Female 2. 80 2 .50 2. 80 2 .80 3.90 3.40 3.00 3.80 3.10 4 . 30 C o n s t r u c t 10 "A F e e l i n g o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s / A L a c k o f C o n f i d e n c e i n O n e ' s A b i l i t y t o Make W i s e r P e r s o n a l A b i l i t y t o Make W i s e P e r s o n a l D e c i s i o n s D e c i s i o n s " L i f e P e r i o d s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 3.10 3.35 3.50 3.55 3.85 3.90 3 .80 4 .10 4 .15 4 . 1 5 Ma le 3.20 3.60 4 . 10 3.70 3.70 4 . 30 3 .80 3 .80 4 .10 3.50 Fema le 3.00 3.10 2.90 3.40 4 . 00 3.50 3 .80 4 .40 4 .20 4 . 80 

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