UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Marital adjustment and ego states in transactional analysis 1978

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M A R F T / A L A D J U S T M E N T A N D E G O S T A T E S I N T R A N S A C T I O N A L A N A L Y S I S by PATRICIA ANN HILAND B.Ed., (Secondary), U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Counselling Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA c ) P a t r i c i a Ann Hiland, 1978 i n A p r i l , 1978 In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f ulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e g o s t a t e p a t t e r n s o f c o u p l e s a n d t h e i r l e v e l o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . T h e r e s e a r c h s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t y - o n e m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t a t i n g c o u p l e s . M a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t was m e a s u r e d b y t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e ( S p a n i e r , 1976) a n d e g o s t a t e s w e r e m e a s u r e d b y t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( K e a l y , 1975) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e r e s u l t s , two g r o u p s w e r e f o r m e d b y r a n k o r d e r i n g t h e c o u p l e s ' c o m b i n e d s c o r e s . G r o u p I c o n s i s t e d o f t h e t o p t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - one c o u p l e s a n d G r o u p I I c o n s i s t e d . o f t h e b o t t o m t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - o n e c o u p l e s . A t - t e s t (a = .001) was c a l c u l a t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e two g r o u p s o n t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e a n d t h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y g r o u p d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (a = .001) f r o m t h e l o w d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . E g o s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g t h e m a l e e g o s t a t e s c o r e s f r o m t h e f e m a l e e g o s t a t e s c o r e s f o r a l l s i x e g o s t a t e s . S i x t - t e s t s (a = .05) w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means o f e a c h o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s . P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - moment c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d b e t w e e n t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t a n d A d a p t i v e C h i l d e g o s t a t e s c o r e s a n d t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t and A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p , i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were p r e s e n t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e any d i f f e r e n c e s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s between t h e two g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e t - t e s t s and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s ( a = . 0 5 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f t h e e i g h t h y p o t h e s e s , o n l y t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e was r e j e c t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s e v i d e n c e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( a = .05) l o w e r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s i n t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e t h a n t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m a r r i a g e , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t s i m i l a r i t y o f s p o u s e s (homogamy) has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t . Reasons f o r t h e l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , o t h e r t h a n f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , were d i s c u s s e d and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h were s u g g e s t e d . - I V - TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THEORY AND RELATED RESEARCH 5 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s T h e o r y 5 S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s 6 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s 9 T r a n s a c t i o n s i n M a r r i a g e . . . and O t h e r C l o s e R e l a t i o n s h i p s 13 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s R e s e a r c h 16 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and M a r r i a g e 17 Homo gamy 19 Heterogamy 25 I I I . METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 30 S p e c i f i c Q u e s t i o n s 30 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 31 D e s i g n 35 E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e 35 H y p o t h e s e s 3 7 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s 37 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s i s .... 37 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 39 The P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 3 9' The D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e '.. 42 D e s c r i p t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n and S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s 4 3 P r o c e d u r e i n C o l l e c t i n g D a t a 46 - v - T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s c o n t i n u e d Page C h a p t e r L i m i t a t i o n s 48 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 48 IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 50. D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a 50 Mean and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s 5 0 Summary 52 R e s u l t s o f H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g 52 R e s u l t s f o r t h e G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s 52 R e s u l t s f o r t h e S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s 54 Summary 63 V. DICUSSION AND SUMMARY 65 R e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 65 D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o c e d u r e s U s e d 65 P r i n c i p a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s 66- Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 69\ BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 APPENDIX A: P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 76 APPENDIX B: D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e 81 APPENDIX C: S c a t t e r D i a g r a m s ^ R e p r e s e n t i n g The C o r r e l a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f : The C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s W i t h The A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s f o r - B o t h G r o u p s 86 APPENDIX D: S c a t t e r D i a g r a m s R e p r e s e n t i n g The C o r r e l a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f The N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s W i t h The A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s f o r .Both G r o u p s - v i - LIST OF TABLES TABLE DESCRIPTION Page I D e s c r i p t i o n o f F o u r G r o u p s 46 I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Ego S t a t e D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s f o r Group I and Group I I 5Q1 I I I t - v a l u e s f o r D i f f e r e n c e s Between t h e Means o f t h e Ego S t a t e D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Group and t h e Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Group 5 3 . IV. P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s a n d t h e Low A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s 60 V. P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s and t h e Low A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s 62 - v i i - LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. S t r u c t u r e of the P e r s o n a l i t y 8 2. An Example o f a P a r a l l e l T r a n s a c t i o n 10 3. An Example o f a Crossed T r a n s a c t i o n 11 4. An Example o f an U l t e r i o r T r a n s a c t i o n 12 5. P r o f i l e o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s f o r Group I and Group I I 51 '6. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I 55 7. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on N u r t u r i n g Parent Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I 5-5 8. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on A d u l t Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I 5 6 9. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on Adaptive C h i l d Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I 56 10. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d Ego State V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group II 5 8 11. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n and Bar Graph on N a t u r a l C h i l d Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I 5 9/ - v i i i - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am t h a n k f u l t o t h e many p e r s o n s who have a s s i s t e d me w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , e s p e c i a l l y t o my f a m i l y who p r o v i d e d c o n t i n u a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t and s u p p o r t i n d o i n g t h e s t u d y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my s u p e r v i s o r Dr. Norm Amundson and my c o m m i t t e e members Dr. H a r o l d R a t z l a f f and Dr. B i l l B o r g e n f o r t h e i r i d e a s and h e l p f u l comments d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . A s p e c i a l t h a n k s i s g i v e n t o Dr. R a t z l a f f , who p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o Dr. Todd R o g e r s f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h . L a s t l y , I am t h a n k f u l t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , c o u p l e s and t o a l l t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e r e s e r a c h p r o j e c t . THRISHA HILAND, Vancouver, Spring, 1978 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Marriage r e s e a r c h i s r i c h i n l i t e r a t u r e and c o n t i n u e s to be a major source o f r e s e a r c h i n the p r e s e n t . One may w e l l ask why r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l b e i n g done, as i t has been i n process s i n c e the t u r n o f the cent u r y , when Pearson f i r s t compared the anthropometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f spouses i n 1890. However, d u r i n g t h i s time p e r i o d o f some e i g h t y y e a r s , marriage and the methods o f r e s e a r c h have undergone tremendous changes. E a r l y s t u d i e s o f marriage were f o r the most p a r t a t h e o r e t i c a l and had few s p e c i f i c hypotheses to i n v e s t i g a t e . The s t u d i e s borrowed piecemeal from the g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s o f the r e l e v a n t d i s c i p l i n e s ; i . e . psychology, s o c i a l psychology, s o c i o l o g y , e t c . U n t i l o n l y r e c e n t l y has r e s e a r c h been done t o f i t a l l c u r r e n t knowledge t o g e t h e r i n t o a comprehen- s i v e c o n c e p t u a l framework, t a i l o r e d t o the q u e s t i o n o f marriage i t s e l f . Moreover, the c l a s s i c s t u d i e s o f marriage, Terman (1938), Burgess and C o t t r e l l (1939), Burgess and W a l l i n (1935), and Locke (1953) are based on marriages t h a t were c o n t r a c t e d as much as t h i r t y years ago and need r e p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s e r a of change. Furthermore, there have been s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n marriage, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n the l a s t two decades and much o f -2- t h e e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h "now seems o b s o l e t e o r a t l e a s t q u e s t i o n a b l e i n t h e l i g h t o f o u r c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . New q u e s t i o n s have b e e n r a i s e d by t h e s e x u a l r e v o l u t i o n , t h e women's movement, e t c . w h i c h u r g e n t l y n e e d a n s w e r i n g " ( B l o o d , 1976, p . 8) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h e s i x t i e s , H i c k s a n d P i a t t (1970, p . 555) f o u n d t h a t " f o r a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s , t h e r e i s a s h i f t t o - ward t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p m a r r i a g e " , w h i c h p l a c e s g r e a t e r em- p h a s i s on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s p o u s e s . Many o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done o n t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s p o u s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e by L u c k e y , 1960 a, 1960 b, 1964 a, 1964 b; K e l l y , 1941; Dymond, 1954 ; P r e s t o n e t . a l _ . , 1952; M u r s t e i n & Beck, 1972; M u r s t e i n & G l a u d i n , 1966 , have f o u n d t h a t c o n - g r u e n c e o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f a nd sp o u s e and s i m i l a r i t y o f s p o u s e s (homogamy) enha n c e t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and a r e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t e n d e n c y t o w a r d " l i k e s m a r r y i n g l i k e s " , o r homogamy, i s n o t t h e o n l y t e n d e n c y f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m a r r i a g e . T h e r e h a s a l s o b e e n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t " u n l i k e s " m a r r y (heterogamy) and t h a t t h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n (Winch, K t s a n e s & K t s a n e s , 1954; K e r c k o f f & D a v i s , 1962; Toman, 1962; K a t z , Cohen & C a s t i g l i o n e , 196 3) . - 3 - However, d e s p i t e the f i n d i n g s which support heterogamy, the preponderance of l i t e r a t u r e on marriage favours the tendency towards homogamy i n enhancing the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . . Hence, i t i s the p o s i t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t h a t one would expect s i m i l a r i t y o f spouses t o be the major f a c t o r i n p r e d i c t i n g m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and adjustment. Thus, i t i s the main purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h study to take a c l o s e r look a t s p e c i f i c marriages to ex p l o r e whether s i m i l a r i t y o f spouses has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . In doing so, the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l look a t marriage i n the t r a n s - a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s framework and w i l l apply the concepts o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s theory i n a n a l y s i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n and e x p r e s s i v e aspects o f the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , which are thought t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and adjustment. In p a r t i c u l a r , the study w i l l focus on the t r a n s - a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s concept of ego s t a t e s , to see whether couples who are i d e n t i f i e d as being high d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d w i l l show lower ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e scores than couples who are i d e n t i f i e d as being low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s (TA) i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach o r i g i n a t e d by E r i c Berne i n the 1950's. I t i s a method of studying human behaviour and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which has l e d to an i n c r e a s e d understanding o f what i s happening w i t h i n the i n - d i v i d u a l and what i s happening between i n d i v i d u a l s . Although there has been no systematic r e s e a r c h i n the area o f t r a n s - a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to marriage, s e v e r a l authors (Berne, 1961; H a r r i s , 1967; Campos and McCormick, 1972) - 4 - haye s u g g e s t e d i t s use i n i m p r o v i n g t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g . The o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e n , i s t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n o f s p o u s e s t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c o n c e p t u a l s y s t e m . T h i s s t u d y has s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h a t i t i s t h e f i r s t s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s framework. M o r e o v e r , i t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t h a t t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c o u l d have f r u i t f u l a p p l i c a t i o n t o m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . The s t u d y o f a c o u p l e ' s ego s t a t e s w o u l d n o t o n l y a i d t h e t h e r a p i s t i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t , b u t w o u l d a l s o g i v e a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e d a t a t o c o u p l e s who a r e p l a n n i n g t o m a r r y . - 5 - C h a p t e r I I THEORY AND RELATED RESEARCH I n g e n e r a l , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be t o e x p l a i n t h e t h e o r y a n d t o o u t l i n e t h e r e s e a r c h f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e a r e a s : t h e t h e o r y o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a s a c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and t h e t h e o r i e s o f homogamy and h e t e r o g a m y as e l e m e n t s o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f e c t on m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t . A. T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s T h e o r y T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i s a s y s t e m o f a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e work o f D r . E r i c B e r n e , who saw i t as an e x t e n s i o n o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . T r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s a r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e h a v i o u r and i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t any i n d i v i d u a l c a n l e a r n t o t r u s t h i m s e l f , t h i n k f o r h i m s e l f , make h i s own d e c i s i o n s a n d e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s . I t s p r i n c i p l e s c a n be a p p l i e d on t h e j o b , i n t h e home, i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , i n t h e community -- w h e r e v e r p e o p l e d e a l w i t h p e o p l e . T r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h e o r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r k i n d s o f a n a l y s e s : s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s what i s h a p p e n i n g w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s what i s h a p p e n i n g between two o r more i n - d i v i d u a l s ; game a n a l y s i s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s w h i c h h ave b a d f e e l i n g D a y o f f s : and s c r i p t -6- a n a l y s i s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s t h e l i f e p l a n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l may be l i v i n g . S i n c e s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e l f i n t o ego s t a t e s and t h e a n a l y s i s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e t h e two c o n s t r u c t s most p e r t i n e n t f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s on t h e s e two c o n c e p t s . 1. S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s B e r n e (1961) u s e d t h e t e r m s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s t o d e n o t e t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e l f i n t o t h r e e ego s t a t e s : P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d . T h i s n o t i o n o f ego s t a t e s s t a n d s a s one o f t h e m a j o r c o r n e r s t o n e s upon w h i c h t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s b a s e d ( S t e i n e r , 1971) . B e r n e d e f i n e s an ego s t a t e as "A c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f f e e l i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r " ( B e r n e , 1966, p. 364) . B e r n e ' s t h e o r y e v o l v e d f r o m h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t b e - h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l when a new s t i m u l u s , s u c h a s a word, g e s t u r e o r s o u n d e n t e r e d h i s f o c u s . T h e s e c h a n g e s i n v o l v e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , work i n t o n a t i o n s , body movements, g e s t u r e s and p o s t u r e . I t was a s t h o u g h t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e i n s i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A t c e r t a i n t i m e s one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e i n n e r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e seemed t o be i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y . M o r e o v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o B e r n e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a s o n l y a l i m i t e d r e p e r t o i r e o f ego s t a t e s w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e and d i s - t i n c t s o u r c e s o f b e h a v i o u r . T h e s e f a l l i n t o t h r e e t y p e s : - 7 - (a) e x t e r o p s y c h i c ( P a r e n t ) , an ego s t a t e w h i c h i s b o r r o w e d f r o m p a r e n t a l and o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s a n d r e p r o d u c e s t h e f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o u r a n d r e s - p o n s e s o f t h o s e f i g u r e s ; (b) n e o p s y c h i c ( A d u l t ) , an ego s t a t e w h i c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e autonomous c o l l e c t i n g a n d p r o c e s s i n g o f d a t a and i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a l o g i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f r e a l i t y ; and (c) a r c h a e p s y c h i c ( C h i l d ) , an ego s t a t e w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h i l d h o o d and r e p r o d u c e s t h e b e h a v i o u r a n d f e e l i n g s a t a p a r t i c u l a r moment o r t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s d e - v e l o p m e n t . B o t h P a r e n t and C h i l d ego s t a t e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two f o r m s . The P a r e n t i s t y p i c a l l y e x h i b i t e d by e i t h e r t h e " p r e j u d i c e d P a r e n t " o r t h e " n u r t u r i n g P a r e n t " . The " p r e - j u d i c e d P a r e n t " i s e x p r e s s e d by d o g m a t i c and c r i t i c a l b e - h a v i o u r s and t e n d s t o be f i l l e d w i t h a r b i t r a r y n o n - r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s o r o p i n i o n s . The " n u r t u r i n g P a r e n t " i s o f t e n e x - p r e s s e d as sympathy f o r a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l and i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by s u p p o r t i n g and n u r t u r i n g b e h a v i o u r s . The C h i l d ego s t a t e i s a l s o e x h i b i t e d i n two f o r m s , t h e " a d a p t i v e C h i l d " and t h e " n a t u r a l C h i l d " . The " a d a p t i v e C h i l d " i s e x p r e s s e d by b e h a v i o u r w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i v e t o p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s , s u c h a s c o m p l i a n c e o r w i t h d r a w a l . The " n a t u r a l C h i l d " i s e x p r e s s e d by autonomous f o r m s o f b e h a v i o u r and r e s - ponds t o s i t u a t i o n s s p o n t a n e o u s l y and i n t u i t i v e l y . Thus, t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y c a n be diagrammed a s f o l l o w s : - 8 - FIGURE 1 P r e j u d i c e d Parent N u r t u r i n g Parent A d u l t A d aptive C h i l d N a t u r a l C h i l d S t r u c t u r e o f the P e r s o n a l i t y One of the goals o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i s t h a t there be a balanced r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three ego s t a t e s , and a f r e e flow o f p s y c h i c energy among a l l the ego s t a t e s so t h a t a person can a c t u a l l y s h i f t from one ego s t a t e to another when i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e . I t i s h e l p f u l t o t h i n k o f each ego s t a t e as having boundaries. A c c o r d i n g to Berne (1961), ego boundaries can be thought o f as semipermeable membranes through which p s y c h i c energy can flow f r o n one ego s t a t e to another. "Ego boundaries must be semipermeable; otherwise, p s y c h i c energy would be bound up i n one ego s t a t e and unable to move about spontaneously as s i t u a t i o n s change" (James & Jongeward, 1971, p. 226). In a d d i t i o n , i t i s d e s i r a b l e to have the A d u l t ego s t a t e i n e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l of the o t h e r ego s t a t e s . I f the A d u l t -9- i s f r e e f r o m n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e f r o m t h e P a r e n t and t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o make autonomous d e c i s i o n s . Thus, t h e p e r s o n who h a s A d u l t e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l ... " l e a r n s t o e x e r c i s e A d u l t i n s i g h t a n d c o n t r o l s o t h a t t h e s e c h i l d - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o n l y emerge a t a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s an d i n a p p r o p r i a t e company" ( B e r n e , 1966, p . 3 0 6 ) . Hence, a s t r o n g A d u l t ego s t a t e i s an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a f u l l y f u n c t i o n i n g p e r s o n a n d a l l o w s a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f a l l ego s t a t e s , b e c a u s e e a c h h a s i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make a t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y . 2. T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s C o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p e o p l e i s done by means o f t r a n s a c t i o n s . A t r a n s a c t i o n i s a v e r b a l a n d / o r n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n between two o r more i n d i v i d u a l s . I t c o n s i s t s o f a s t i m u l u s an d a r e s p o n s e b e t w e e n s p e c i f i c ego s t a t e s , and i t may i n v o l v e any c o m b i n a t i o n o f ego s t a t e s . A t r a n s a c t i o n may be s i m p l e , i n v o l v i n g o n l y two ego s t a t e s , o r complex, i n v o l v i n g t h r e e o r f o u r ego s t a t e s . A c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f t r a n s - a c t i o n s l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c k i n d s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s , p a r a l l e l , c r o s s e d a n d u l t e r i o r . T h e r e i s a l s o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r u l e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r e a c h k i n d o f t r a n s a c t i o n . A t r a n s a c t i o n i s p a r a l l e l when someone aims a word, p h r a s e , g e s t u r e o r a c t i o n a t a n o t h e r p e r s o n a n d t h a t p e r s o n r e p l i e s i n t h e same ego s t a t e , s u c h a s P a r e n t , A d u l t o r C h i l d . I f t h e r e s p o n s e i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s t i m u l u s , t h e -10- p e r s o n w i l l g e t t h e e x p e c t e d ego s t a t e o f t h e o t h e r a n d t h e t r a n s a c t i o n c a n c o n t i n u e . B e r n e d e s c r i b e s a p a r a l l e l t r a n s a c t i o n as one w h i c h i s ... " a p p r o p r i a t e and e x p e c t e d and f o l l o w s t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f h e a l t h y human r e l a t i o n s h i p s " ( B e r n e , 1964, p . 2 9 ) . An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e i s i t s o n g o i n g n a t u r e . A p a r a l l e l t r a n s a c t i o n c a n be d i a g r a m e d as t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e shows. The c o m m u n i c a t i o n v e c t o r s a r e p a r a l l e l . FIGURE 2 X: "How o l d a r e you? II Y: I ' m t h i r t y - t w o n X Y An Example o f a P a r a l l e l T r a n s a c t i o n -11- T h e s e c o n d t y p e o f t r a n s a c t i o n , a c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n , o c c u r s when t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a c t s f r o m a d i f f e r e n t e g o s t a t e t h a n t h e i n i t i a t o r e x p e c t e d . I f t h e s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e l i n e s i n a d i a g r a m a r e n o t p a r a l l e l , t h e t r a n s a c t i o n i s a c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n . When t h i s c r o s s i n g o c c u r s , t h e i n t e n d e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s u a l l y b r e a k s down a n d t h e t r a n s a c t i o n c e a s e s u n t i l t h e r e i s a r e a l i g n m e n t o f e g o s t a t e s b y o n e o r b o t h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . C r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t e n h a v e a n e l e m e n t o f s u r p r i s e a n d f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m i s a n e x a m p l e o f a c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n F I G U R E 3 X Y A n E x a m p l e o f a C r o s s e d T r a n s a c t i o n T h e t h i r d t y p e o f t r a n s a c t i o n , a n u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n , i s more c o m p l e x t h a n p a r a l l e l o r c r o s s e d o n e s . T h e y d i f f e r i n t h a t t h e y a l w a y s i n v o l v e m o r e t h a n two e g o s t a t e s . I t i s a v e r b a l o r n o n - v e r b a l m e s s a g e w i t h a h i d d e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l -12- meaning, w h i c h i s d i s g u i s e d u n d e r a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l . The c o m m u n i c a t i o n v e c t o r s i n an u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n c a n be e i t h e r p a r a l l e l o r c r o s s e d , b u t t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c o n f u s i o n , b e c a u s e t h e v e r b a l message may be e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e one w h i c h i s b e i n g g i v e n n o n v e r b a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f an u l t e r i o r t r a n s - a c t i o n . FIGURE 4 Saleswoman C u s t o m e r A Saleswoman: " T h i s c o a t i s o u r l a t e s t s t y l e , b u t i t may be t o o e x p e n s i v e f o r y o u " . C u s t o m e r ' s A . " Y e s , y o u a r e r i g h t c o n s i d e r i n g my b u d g e t " . The s t a t e m e n t was made t o t h e c u s t o m e r ' s A d u l t , b u t t h e non- v e r b a l message comes f r o m t h e saleswoman's C h i l d ego s t a t e and i s s e n t t o t h e c u s t o m e r ' s C h i l d ego s t a t e . The c u s t o m e r must c h o o s e w h i c h message t o r e s p o n d t o and may f e e l c o n f u s e d . An Example o f an U l t e r i o r T r a n s a c t i o n -13- 3. T r a n s a c t i o n s i n M a r r i a g e and o t h e r C l o s e R e l a t i o n s h i p s (a) P a r a l l e l T r a n s a c t i o n s R e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e l o n g - l a s t i n g a n d ha p p y o f t e n have an abundance o f p a r a l l e l t r a n s a c t i o n s . The p r i m a r y v a l u e o f p a r a l l e l t r a n s a c t i o n s i s t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s o n g o i n g a n d t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a h e a l t h y human r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, as B e r n e p o i n t s o u t , a p a r a l l e l t r a n s - a c t i o n " i s a n e c e s s a r y b u t n o t t h e s o l e c o n d i t i o n f o r a 'good' r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s become un- p a l a t a b l e enough, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p may d e t e r i o r a t e e v e n t h o u g h t h e v e c t o r s r e m a i n p a r a l l e l " ( B e r n e , 1966 p. 2 2 5 ) . A r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t works on o n l y one o r two ego s t a t e l e v e l s i s l i k e l y t o r e m a i n u n c h a n g i n g a n d n o t d y n a m i c . T h u s , a r e l a t i o n s h i p b a s e d m a i n l y o n P a r e n t - C h i l d p a r a l l e l t r a n s a c t i o n s may become b o r i n g o r f r u s t r a t i n g t o one o r b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . (b)' C r o s s e d T r a n s a c t i o n s An abundance o f c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n s c a n a l s o be a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n s c a n be u s e f u l , e s p e c i a l l y t o s t o p a p s y c h o l o g i c a l game o r t o change a s t a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d when t h e y a r e u s e d , and someone u s u a l l y e n d s up f e e l i n g p u z z l e d , p u t down o r m i s u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s c a n l e a d t o f u r t h e r c r o s s - u p s a n d r e s e n t m e n t s . -14- Hence, i f a m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on c r o s s e d t r a n s a c t i o n s , t h e l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d c o n t i n u a l l y be c r o s s i n g and t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d b r e a k o f f u n t i l t h e r e i s a r e a l i g n m e n t o f ego s t a t e s . (c) U l t e r i o r T r a n s a c t i o n s R e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t r e l y on a p l e n i t u d e o f u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o be unhappy o n e s . U l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t e n l e a d t o games w h i c h have b a d f e e l i n g p a y o f f s . The i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p may n e v e r be open and h o n e s t w i t h one a n o t h e r and may u s e d e v i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n t o g e t what t h e y want (James and J o n g e w a r d , 19 75) . (d) A d u l t - t o - A d u l t T r a n s a c t i o n s As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o have t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e i n e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e p e r s o n - a l i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n m a r r i a g e and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s where p e r s o n s r e l a t e on an i n t i m a t e l e v e l . H a v i n g t h e A d u l t i n e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l does n o t mean t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a l w a y s a c t i n g f r o m t h e A d u l t . I t means t h a t "The A d u l t i s ' t u n e d i n ' a n d knows when an i m p u l s e may be a c t e d on w i t h g r e a t " p l e a s u r e and when i t must be c o n t a i n e d o r m o d i f i e d t o f i t t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e moment" (James a n d Jongew a r d , 1971, p . 2 4 9 ) . 4 -15- The A d u l t makes d e c i s i o n s a b o u t what i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o u s e f r o m t h e P a r e n t o r C h i l d and a l l o w s f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s e n a b l e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s w i t c h ego s t a t e s a u t o n o m o u s l y , m a i n t a i n i n g a b a l a n c e d r e - l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t h r e e ego s t a t e s and p e r m i t t i n g p s y c h i c e n e r g y t o f l o w f r e e l y among a l l t h e ego s t a t e s . The A d u l t - as - e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n i s p a r t i - c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n m a r r i a g e and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e i t a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y o f t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d g i v e s a dyanamic and f l e x i b l e q u a l i t y t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . I f two i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a b l e t o be s y m p a t h e t i c and c a r i n g o f e a c h o t h e r , i f t h e y g a t h e r and use i n f o r m a t i o n t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s t o g e t h e r , i f t h e y l a u g h and have f u n t o g e t h e r , t h e y a r e u s i n g t h e f u l l r a n g e o f t h e i r ego s t a t e s . T hus, a c c o r d i n g t o B e r n e , one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i f " t o e s t a b l i s h t h e most open and a u t h e n t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n p o s s i b l e between t h e e f f e c t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l components o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y " ( B e r n e , 1966, p . 216). T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e s s e n t i a l i n a m a r r i a g e o r e l s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o be s a t i s f y i n g t o t h e p e o p l e i n - v o l v e d . -16- B. T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s R e s e a r c h L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has b e en done i n t h e a r e a o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and e v e n l e s s has b e e n done on t h e u s e o f TA i n m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h many books and j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s have b e e n p u b l i s h e d on TA, most o f them have been t h e o r e t i c a l i n n a t u r e . One o f t h e r e a s o n s why r e s e a r c h h a s b e en so l i m i t e d i n t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s t h a t most p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n TA a r e c l i n i c i a n s and few e f f o r t s have b e e n made t o v e r i f y t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c o n c e p t s e m p i r i c a l l y . However, a few r e s e a r c h e r s have v e r i f i e d t h e e x i s t a n c e o f t h e t h r e e ego s t a t e s , a s B e r n e i n d i c a t e d . A l s o t h e r e has b e en some m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and m a r r i a g e i n s e v e r a l b o o k s . Dr. George Thomson (19 72) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f e g o - s t a t e r e c o g n i t i o n i n h i s r e s e a r c h . He d e v e l o p e d an i n - s t r u m e n t w i t h a u d i o t a p e s , w h i c h was i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e t h r e e ego s t a t e s (P, A, and C ) . He f o u n d t h a t p e o p l e who were n o t f a m i l a r w i t h t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as TA e x p e r t s , c o u l d a l l i d e n t i f y ego s t a t e s w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y , o nce t h e c o n c e p t o f ego s t a t e s was e x p l a i n e d t o them and d e - f i n e d . As a r e s u l t o f h i s f i n d i n g s , he s u p p o r t e d B e r n e ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t ego s t a t e s a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e phenomena and c a n be c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d . D r . D a v i d M c C a r l e y (1971) d e s i g n e d t h e Ego S t a t e I n v e n t o r y w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f c a r t o o n s s h o w i n g p e o p l e i n t e r - a c t i n g i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . A comment o r q u e s t i o n i s made f r o m t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e i n e a c h c a r t o o n a n d t h e r e s - p o n d e n t has f i v e c h o i c e s f r o m w h i c h t o answer, c o r r e s p o n d i n g -17- t o t h e P u n i t i v e ( C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ) , N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , A d u l t , A d a p t i v e C h i l d o r R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d ego s t a t e s . M c C a r l e y u s e d t h e i n v e n t o r y t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t i n d i v i d u a l s i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n s showed a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f one o r more d i f f e r e n t ego s t a t e s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r demands o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n . H i s r e s u l t s were n o t c o n c l u s i v e „ However, t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e ego s t a t e i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e c o n c e p t and t h a t i t c a n be m e a s u r e d o b j e c t i v e l y . I n a d d i t i o n , a t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c l i n i c i a n , D r . J o h n M. Dusay, has d e v i s e d t h e i d e a o f egograms, w h i c h he u s e s i n h i s c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . "Egograms r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e n s i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s t i m u l i e m a n a t i n g f r o m an e g o - s t a t e , and t h e y p r o v i d e v i s u a l s y m b o l s o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t ego s t a t e s " (Dusay, 1972, p. 3 8 ) . He r e p o r t s t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f egograms i n h i s c l i n i c a l work, b u t t h e r e i s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s . C. T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and M a r r i a g e As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e use o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n m a r r i a g e , a l t h o u g h some m a t e r i a l has b e e n w r i t t e n by t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c l i n i c i a n s a n d t h e o r i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Thomas H a r r i s , a w e l l - k n o w n t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h e r a p i s t and a u t h o r , one o f t h e most u s e f u l ways o f a p p l y i n g t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t o m a r r i a g e i s i n p r e m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . H a r r i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b e s t m a r r i a g e s grow when b o t h p a r t n e r s have s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s and s i m i l a r r e a l i t y -18- i n t e r e s t s ( H a r r i s , 1 9 6 7 ) . O f t e n i m p o r t a n t d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e i g n o r e d b e f o r e a m a r r i a g e b e c a u s e t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e s o f t h e c o u p l e may be i n c h a r g e o f p l a n n i n g t h e m a r r i a g e . Hence, H a r r i s recommends t h a t a p e r s o n a l i t y d i a g r a m c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h e c o u p l e c o n t e m p l a t i n g m a r r i a g e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s w o u l d be t o u n d e r t a k e a more t h o r o u g h i n q u i r y o f what i s i n t h e P a r e n t , A d u l t , and C h i l d o f e a c h p a r t n e r . I n t h i s way, t h e c o u p l e w o u l d have more o b j e c t i v e d a t a a b o u t e a c h o t h e r , w i t h t h e hope o f p r e d i c t i n g what k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t be p o s s i b l e i n t h e f u t u r e , and w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l be a p a r a l l e l o ne. H a r r i s ' s s u g g e s t i o n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y s i n c e i t recommends t h e u s e o f d i a g r a m m i n g t h e c o u p l e ' s ego s t a t e s t o f i n d o u t i f t h e y a r e p a r a l l e l w i t h e a c h o t h e r . B e r n e goes on f u r t h e r t o s a y t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l b a s i s o f t h e m a r r i a g e i s t h e s e c r e t c o n t r a c t between t h e two C h i l d r e n , t h e " c o n t r a c t o f t h e s c r i p t " . "The s e l e c t i o n o f a mate f r o m among a l l t h e p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e s i s b a s e d on t h i s " ( B e r n e , 1961, p. 2 1 5 ) . The c a n d i d a t e s a r e f i r s t s o r t e d i n t o t h o s e who g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s a c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s , and t h o s e who do n o t . Then t h e f i e l d i s n a r r o w e d down f u r t h e r among t h e f o r m e r by g a m e - t e s t i n g , t o r e v e a l w h i c h o f t h e t r a n s - a c t i o n a l l y e l i g i b l e c a n d i d a t e s w i l l p l a y t h e r e q u i r e d games. L a s t l y , t h e f i n a l c h o i c e among t h e g a m e - e l i g i b l e c a n d i d a t e s r e s t s on t h e one who i s most l i k e l y t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e w h o l e s c r i p t . T hus, t h e " p a r t n e r s a r e drawn t o g e t h e r by t h e -19- i n t u i t i v e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e i r s c r i p t s a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y " ( B e r n e , 1961, p. 2 1 5 ) . However, i n some c a s e s t h i s p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p may n o t be a h e a l t h y one. T h e r e f o r e , as B e r n e s a y s , one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f t r a n s a c t i o n a l m a r r i a g e t h e r a p y i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d games i n t h e m a r r i a g e " w i l l have t o be made o p t i o n a l i n s t e a d o f c o m p u l s i v e , so t h a t d e s t r u c t i v e o r u n c o n s t r u c t i v e e l e m e n t s - c a n be e l i m i n a t e d " ( B e r n e , 1961, p.. 2 1 6 ) . D. Homogamy A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m a r r i a g e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e h a s b e en a p l e t h o r a o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done t o i n - v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f homogamy ( " l i k e m a r r i e s l i k e " ) on m a t e - s e l e c t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n a n d m a r r i a g e o u t - come. However, t h e r e has a l s o b e e n s u p p o r t f o r t h e o p p o s i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , o r h e t e r o g a m y ( " u n l i k e s " m a r r y ) . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f homogamy ( s i m i l a r i t y ) and t h e l i t e r a t u r e on h e t e r o g a m y ( d i s s i m i l a r i t y ) w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I n a l l t h e e a r l y s t u d i e s , homogamy ( w h i c h i s a l s o known as a s s o r t a t i v e mating,), i s t h e t r e n d . Such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b e g a n i n t h e 1920's a n d i n c l u d e d t h e p i o n e e r i n g work o f B r u g e s s and C o t t r e l l , B u r g e s s and W a l l i n , Terman, K i r k p a t r i c k , K e l l y , R i c h a r d s o n and L o c k e . I n a s t u d y done by K e l l y ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s by f i v e j u d g e s on t h i r t y - s i x t r a i t s were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h r e e -20- h u n d r e d e n g a g e d c o u p l e s . The r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s were an a n a l y s i s o f a s s o r t a t i v e m a t i n g , as r e v e a l e d by c o r r e l a t i o n s b etween members o f t h e 300 p a i r s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : O t i s S-A, B e r n r e u t e r , B e l l , S t r o n g , and A l l p o r t - V e r n o n s c o r e s ; a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m a r r i a g e , c h u r c h , d i v o r c e , h o u s e k e e p i n g , e n t e r t a i n i n g , g a r d e n i n g , c a r e o f t h e lawn and r e a r i n g o f c h i l d r e n ; and a number o f p h y s i c a l t r a i t s . The raw a s s o r t a t i v e m a t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e d f r o m z e r o t o +.42 w i t h a m e d i a n o f +.13. However, when c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n t u a t i o n , t h e r a n g e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s was f r o m z e r o t o +.74 and t h e med i a n was +.21. No n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n d i c a t e d . Thus, t h e r e s u l t s f o u n d e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f homogamy i n human m a t i n g . I n two o t h e r s t u d i e s done on "Homogamy I n S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (194 3) a n d "Homogamy i n P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (1944) by B u r g e s s and W a l l i n , t h e y f o u n d f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f homogamy. T h e i r f i n d i n g s were b a s e d on a sample o f one t h o u s a n d e n g a g e d c o u p l e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f mean s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s s o r t a t i v e m a t i n g t o o k p l a c e by s o c i a l f a c t o r s s u c h as f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , c o u r t s h i p b e h a v i o u r , c o n c e p t i o n s o f m a r r i a g e , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n - s h i p s , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n a n d b e h a v i o u r . The d e g r e e o f l i k e m a t i n g w i t h l i k e v a r i e d by t h e gro u p o f i t e m s , t h e h i g h e s t b e i n g r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r (.54), and t h e n e x t h i g h e s t (.38) f o r f a m i l y c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d ( r u r a l o r u r b a n c h i l d - hood, s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r e n t s , p l a c e o f b i r t h e t c ) . I t was a l s o f a i r l y h i g h (.33) f o r c o u r t s h i p b e h a v i o u r , -21- c o n c e p t i o n s o f m a r r i a g e (.31), and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( 1 2 4 ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f homogamy was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y one o f t h e f i f t y - o n e i t e m s showed a h i g h e r a c t u a l t h a n e x p e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n o f a s s o r t a t i v e u n i o n s and t h a t a l l b u t s i x were h i g h enough t o be s a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s w h i c h were done t o e v a l u a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . M o r e o v e r , i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f homogamy i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u s i n g t h e same sample o f one t h o u s a n d e n g a g e d c o u p l e s , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e e n g a g e d c o u p l e s t o i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s o f t h e T h u r s t o n e N e u r o t i c I n v e n t o r y and t h e i r t o t a l n e u r o t i c s c o r e s , c o n f o r m i n g e n e r a l t o t h e t h e o r y o f homogamy. B u r g e s s and W a l l i n (1944) r e p o r t e d t h a t o f t h e f o r t y - t w o i t e m s o f t h e I n v e n t o r y , f o u r t e e n o f t h e i t e m s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on a l l b u t one o f t h e f o r t y - t w o i t e m s s t u d i e d , was i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f homogamy and none were h e t e r o g a m o u s . Homogamy was a l s o shown f o r h e i g h t , w e i g h t , h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a p e r on homogamy by R i c h a r d s o n ( 1 9 3 9 ) , r e p o r t e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s done f r o m 1928 - 19 39 on t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s o f h u s b a n d and w i f e . R i c h a r d s o n r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f h u s b a n d a n d w i f e i n a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , i n f o r m a t i o n , work a s s o c i a t i o n s , o p i n i o n s on c u r r e n t t o p i c s and i n t e r e s t s . The r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were h i g h e r i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a nd a t t i t u d i n a l t r a i t s t h a n i n t h e t r a i t s o f temperament. A l s o none o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d t o be r e l i a b l y n e g a t i v e , ^ - 2 2 - as t h e t h e o r y o f h e t e r o g a m y w o u l d r e q u i r e . T h u s , t h e e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h on homogamy i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f homogamy o r a s s o r t a t i v e m a t i n g o v e r h e t e r o g a m y . I n a d d i t i o n , many o t h e r s t u d i e s have b e e n done i n t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s b y p s y c h o - l o g i s t s a nd s o c i o l o g i s t s , w h i c h g i v e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f homogamy i n a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , temperament, n e u r o t i c t e n d e n c y and a number o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s . T h e s e s t u d i e s have b e e n done ( t o o n l y c i t e a few) b y H o l l i n g s h e a d ( 1 9 5 0 ) , K a t z and H i l l (1958) , G u r i n , V e r o f f and F e l d (1960) and B l o o d and W o l f e (1960) . As S c h e l l e n b e r g (1960) p o i n t s o u t "Homogamy i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s i s one o f t h e few c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o come o u t o f s t u d i e s o f m a t e - s e l e c t i o n . T h e r e c a n be no d o u b t t h a t p e r s o n s t e n d t o m a r r y o t h e r p e r s o n s o f s i m i l a r age, r e s i d e n c e , r a c e , r e l i g i o n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and e d u c a t i o n " ( S c h e l l e n b e r g , 1960, p . 1 5 7 ) . However, t h e q u e s t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s l e s s s e t t l e d . The e a r l i e r t r e n d s o f homo- gamy r e s e a r c h have c h a n g e d e m p h a s i s f r o m p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s a nd f i n a l l y t o p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ( B u r g e s s and W a l l i n , 1 9 4 3 ) . I n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o some d e g r e e f o r t h e " f i e l d o f e l i g i b l e s " (Winch, 19 5 2 ) , f r o m w h i c h t h e mate must u l t i m a t e l y be s e l e c t e d . T h i s has l e d c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s t o e x t e n d t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g m a t e - s e l e c t i o n and m a r r i a g e outcome. - 2 3 - One n o t a b l e s t u d y w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h a p p i n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n m a r r i a g e t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f h u s b a n d and w i f e was done by C o r s i n i (1956) . Twenty v o l u n t e e r c o u p l e s were g i v e n B u r g e s s and W a l l i n ' s M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n t e s t and a f i f t y i t e m a d j e c t i v e Q s o r t , w h i c h t h e c o u p l e s s o r t e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s and f o r how t h e y p r e d i c t e d t h e i r mate w o u l d s o r t them. The c o r r e l a t i o n r e p o r t e d f o r c o u p l e s ' s i m i l a r i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s was .75 and was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . T h u s , t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t h a p p i n e s s i n m a r r i a g e i s e n h a n c e d by s i m i l a r i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s o f K e l l y (1941) and Dymond (1954) . A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h gave f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f s i m i l a r i t y o r homogamy was done by P i c k f o r d , S i g n o r i and Rempel (1966) . T h r e e m a tched g r o u p s o f m a r r i e d c o u p l e s , a h a p p i l y m a r r i e d - g r o u p , an u n h a p p i l y m a r r i e d g r o u p and a g r o u p on t h e v e r g e o f s e p a r a t i o n , were g i v e n t h e G u i l d f o r d Zimmerman Temperament S u r v e y and t h e B u r g e s s - W a l l i n G e n e r a l S a t i s f a c t i o n S c h e d u l e . The h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was t h a t s i m i l a r o r r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s and c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t d i s s i m i l a r o r u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l u n h a p p i n e s s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o u r o f t h e t r a i t s showed a s i g - n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e h a p p i l y m a r r i e d g r o u p and t h e o t h e r s i x t r a i t s were a l l i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r t h o s e g r o u p s h a v i n g t r o u b l e s -24- i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s , o n l y two o f t h e t r a i t s were s i g n i - f i c a n t , w i t h f i v e o t h e r t r a i t s b e i n g i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . I t was f o u n d t h a t h a p p i l y m a r r i e d c o u p l e s were s i m i l a r i n d r i v e , e n e r g y , p r o d u c t i v i t y , e n t h u s i a s m , s e l f - c o n t r o l , s e r i o u s - m i n d e d n e s s , d e l i b e r a t e n e s s , p e r s i s t e n c y o f e f f o r t , f r i e n d l i n e s s and a g r e e a b i l i t y . The d a t a gave f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s o r a d j u s t m e n t was r e l a t e d t o s i m i l a r i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n h u s b a n d and w i f e and t h a t d i s s i m i l a r i t y was r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l un- h a p p i n e s s o r m a l a d j u s t m e n t ; a l t h o u g h t h e f o r m e r was p r o v e d much s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e l a t t e r . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e has b e e n f o u n d i n t h e r e s e a r c h t o s u p p o r t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n m a r i t a l s u c c e s s o r s a t i s - f a c t i o n a n d s i m i l a r i t y o r homogamy on c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s : a t t i t u d e s ( Byrne & B l a y l o c k , 1 9 6 3 ) , i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n a n d a g r e e m e n t ( L e v i n g e r & B r e e d l o v e , 1 9 6 6 ) , p e r s o n p e r - c e p t i o n ( M u r s t e i n & Beck, 1972; L u c k e y , 1960 a,- 1960 b, 1964 a; K e l l y , 1941; Dymond, 1954; P r e s t o n e t a l . , 1952; Mangus, 1 9 5 7 ) , p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s o f s p o u s e ( M u r s t e i n & G l a u d i n , 1966; L u c k e y , 1964 b ) , and m e n t a l h e a l t h ( M u r s t e i n , 1 9 6 7 ) . Thus, t h e r e i s o v e r w h e l m i n g e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t homogamy o f h u s b a n d and w i f e e n h a n c e s t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t . -25- E. Heterogamy- Heterogamy has a l s o b e e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e t h e o r y o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s ( " u n l i k e s " m a r r y ) . T h e s e two t e r m s w i l l be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s n e x t s e c t i o n a s t h e y b o t h mean one and t h e same t h i n g . To q u o t e T h a r p (1963, p . 1 0 4 ) , " I n m a r r i a g e r e s e a r c h , no o t h e r h y p o t h e s i s p r o d u c e d i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e has b e e n a s i n f l u e n t i a l " a s R.F. Winch's t h e o r y o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s i n mate s e l e c t i o n . He and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have p r e s e n t e d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r v i e w i n g mate s e l e c t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y , o r d i s s i m i l a r , r a t h e r t h a n s i m i l a r , p a t t e r n o f n e e d s . B r i e f l y s t a t e d , t h e t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h o s e v a r i a b l e s , n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f homogamy i n mate s e l e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a " f i e l d o f e l i g i b l e s " , mate s e l e c t i o n w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d i s d e t e r m i n e d by a s p e c i f i c k i n d o f h e t e r o g a m y o f m o t i v e s - c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y . Winch d e f i n e s c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y : When two p e r s o n s , A and B, a r e i n t e r a c t i n g , we c o n s i d e r t h e r e s u l t i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n s o f b o t h t o be 'complementary' i f one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s s a t i s f i e d : (1) t h e need o r nee d s i n A w h i c h a r e b e i n g g r a t i f i e d a r e ' d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d ' f r o m t h e n e e d o r n e e d s b e i n g g r a t i f i e d i n B; o r (2) t h e need o r n e e d s i n A w h i c h a r e b e i n g g r a t i f i e d a r e ' v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n i n t e n s i t y ' f r o m t h e same nee d s i n B w h i c h a r e a l s o b e i n g g r a t i f i e d . (Winch, K t s a n e s & K t s a n e s , 1954, p. 243) . -26- E a c h i n d i v i d u a l s e e k s a mate w i t h i n h i s o r h e r f i e l d o f e l i g i b l e s who o f f e r s t h e g r e a t e s t p r o m i s e o f p r o v i d i n g maximum ne e d s a t i s f a c t i o n , a s t h e p a r t n e r s a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o m p l e m e n t a r y p a t t e r n o f m o t i v e s . Hence, i f i n - d i v i d u a l s A and B have c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d p a t t e r n s , " B 1 s r e s u l t i n g b e h a v i o u r w i l l be a g r e a t e r s o u r c e o f g r a t i f i - c a t i o n t o A t h a n w i l l be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e b e h a v i o u r o f C, who i s p s y c h i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o A" (Winch ejt a l . , 1954, p. 242) . W i n c h and h i s a s s o c i a t e s h a v e done s e v e r a l s t u d i e s t o p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f com- p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s , and i t w o u l d be h e l p f u l t o l o o k a t some o f t h e s e i n d e t a i l . One m a j o r s t u d y done by Winch, K t s a n e s and K t s a n e s ( 1 9 5 4 ) , s t u d i e d t w e l v e needs f r o m H.A. M u r r a y ' s c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n o f n e e d s , as w e l l a s t h r e e g e n e r a l t r a i t s . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n t y - f i v e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s a t N o r t h - w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y and t h e i r s p o u s e s , a t o t a l o f f i f t y p e r s o n s . The sample was f a i r l y homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , r a c e , age, e d u c a t i o n and y e a r s m a r r i e d . F o r t y r f o u r s u b v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d and t h r e e methods o f g a t h e r i n g t h e d a t a were u s e d : (1) a n e e d i n t e r v i e w , (2) a c a s e - h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w , and (3) an e i g h t - c a r d t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n t e s t . The s t a t i s - t i c a l t e c h n i q u e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y was t h e i n t e r s p o u s a l product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n , i . e . t h e h u s b a n d s ' s u b v a r i a b l e s c o r e s t i m e s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e w i v e s ' s u b v a r i a b l e s c o r e s . -27- Out o f 1,9 36 p o s s i b l e i n t e r s p o u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , 388 were h y p o t h e s i z e d a s t o d i r e c t i o n o f s i g n : a) t h a t 344 i n t e r s p o u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , e a c h o f w h i c h i n v o l v e d two d i f f e r e n t n e e d s o r t r a i t s , w o u l d be p o s i t i v e ; a n d b) t h a t 44 i n t e r s p o u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e same n e e d o r t r a i t w o u l d be n e g a t i v e (Winch ejt a l . , 1954, p. 245) . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h r e e o u t o f t h e f i v e d i s t r i - b u t i o n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s ( t h o s e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e two a n a l y s e s o f t h e n e e d i n t e r v i e w and f r o m t h e f i n a l c o n f e r e n c e ) s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s i n mate s e l e c t i o n , / o r h e t e r o g a m y . The o t h e r two d i s t r i b u t i o n s , w h i c h were b a s e d upon t h e c a s e - h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w and t h e TAT, d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y . However, t h e s e l a t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n s a l s o d i d - n o t s u p p o r t t h e o p p o s i t e t h e o r y o f homogamous mate s e l e c t i o n , a s t h e y c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d z e r o . Thus, t h e b u l k o f e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d t o s e l e c t m ates whose n e e d s a r e d i s s i m i l a r , r a t h e r t h a n s i m i l a r t o t h e i r own. A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e t h e o r y o f n e e d c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y i n mate s e l e c t i o n was done by K e r c k h o f f and D a v i s ( 1 9 6 2 ) . They u s e d S c h u t z ' s FIRO s c a l e s and F a r b e r ' s i n d e x o f c o n s e n s u s t o measure n e e d c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y a n d v a l u e c o n s e n s u s i n n i n e t y - f o u r c o u p l e s , who were s e r i o u s l y c o n - s i d e r i n g m a r r i a g e . The r e s u l t s were t h e n compared w i t h p r o g r e s s t o w a r d permanence o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p o v e r a s e v e n - month p e r i o d . The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n - s h i p b etween c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y o r h e t e r o g a m y an d p r o g r e s s -28- t o w a r d permanence. B u t f o r t h e l o n g - t e r m c o u p l e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .02 l e v e l i n t h e i n - c l u s i o n a r e a a n d a t t h e .05 l e v e l i n t h e c o n t r o l a r e a , as m e a s u r e d by S c h u t z 1 s s c a l e . I n t h e a f f e c t i o n a r e a , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h e same b u t n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . K e r c k h o f f a n d D a v i s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e f i n d i n g s t o mean t h a t homogamy o p e r a t e s e a r l y i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and n e e d c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y o r h e t e r o g a m y l a t e r . T hus, t h e i r r e s e a r c h gave a d d e d s u p p o r t f o r b o t h homogamy and h e t e r o g a m y t h e o r i e s . Need c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y ( h e t e r o g a m y ) , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o a s e n s e o f p r o g r e s s t o w a r d permanence d u r i n g a seven-month i n t e r v a l i n t h e mate s e l e c t i o n p e r i o d . B o t h t h e o r i e s , homogamy and he t e r o g a m y ( c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s ) , may, i n f a c t , be c o r r e c t . F i r s t l y , c e r t a i n c o u p l e s may be a t t r a c t e d t o e a c h o t h e r by s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd o t h e r s by d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . S e c o n d l y , i n some u n i o n s , c o u p l e s may be drawn t o g e t h e r b y b o t h l i k e and u n l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n e e d s . T h i r d l y , i n e v e r y u n i o n t h e r e a r e b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s , a l t h o u g h one o r t h e o t h e r may be p r e d o m i n a n t . Hence, m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be h e t e r o g a m o u s i n some i n s t a n c e s and homogamous i n o t h e r s , and "would p r o b a b l y be i n t e r m s o f p a t t e r n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t h e r t h a n s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s " (Bowerman & Day, 1956, p. 6 0 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t a k i n g t h e cue f r o m t h e r e v i e w o f t h e -29- l i t e r a t u r e on m a r r i a g e and Bowerman an d Day's s u g g e s t i o n , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p a t t e r n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r o f i l e s o r p a t t e r n s o f t h e c o u p l e s ' ego s t a t e s , t o see i f t h e f i n d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o e i t h e r t h e homogamy o r h e t e r o g a m y t h e o r i e s , o r t o b o t h t h e o r i e s , and w h e t h e r t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l i n t u r n , have any r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . -30- C h a p t e r T h r e e METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN The f o c u s o f c h a p t e r t h r e e i s upon t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o answer, d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s , d e s i g n , e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e , s t a t e m e n t o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , p r o c e d u r e i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , l i m i t a t i o n s and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . A. S p e c i f i c Q u e s t i o n s . A s r e p o r t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e r e h a s b e e n no s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h done on t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h a p p l i e s t o t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s framework. Thus, t h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ego s t a t e s c o r e s o f c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , f r o m t h o s e c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Q u e s t i o n 1 I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e ego s t a t e p a t t e r n s o f c o u p l e s a n d t h e i r l e v e l o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t ? Q u e s t i o n 2 I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s o f c o u p l e s and t h e i r A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s ? Q u e s t i o n 3 I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s o f c o u p l e s and t h e i r A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s ? -31- B. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g t e r m s w i l l be u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . The r e s e a r c h e r has d e f i n e d some terms a c c o r d i n g t o b o t h t r a n s - a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h e o r y and t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s i n L y n n K e a l y ' s P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Ego S t a t e An ego s t a t e d e n o t e s t h e h a b i t u a l ways o f t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and r e a c t i n g t h a t o c c u r t o g e t h e r and a r e r e l a t e d t o a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r ( B e r n e , 1 9 6 6 ) . C r i t i c a l P a r e n t The P a r e n t ego s t a t e i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f a l l e m o t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p e o p l e who a c t as p a r e n t f i g u r e s t o t h e c h i l d ; and i t i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e C r i t i c a l and t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t . The C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e t e n d s t o be f i l l e d w i t h o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h i n g s ( i . e . , r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , c h i l d r e a r i n g , e t c . ) . T h e s e o p i n i o n s may o f t e n be u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by f a c t and may be p r e j u d i c e d . When o p e r a t i n g o u t o f t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e , t h e p e r s o n may u s e p r e j u d i c i a l a n d c r i t i c a l r e m a r k s . A l s o t h e p e r s o n may a p p e a r b o s s y , i n t i m i d a t e o t h e r p e o p l e and p e r h a p s e v e n a l i e n a t e them. T y p i c a l C r i t i c a l P a r e n t b e h a v i o u r s may i n c l u d e : c h a s t i s i n g , c r i t i c i s i n g , a l i e n a t i n g , m o r a l i z i n g , i r r i t a t i n g , e m b a r a s s i n g , d e v a l u i i n g , j u d g m e n t a l , n o n - a c c e p t i n g , d i s r e s p e c t f u l and p u n i t i v e . A l s o t h i s w o u l d i n c l u d e any n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s -32- t h a t c o u l d be g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l , w h e t h e r t h e y a r e v e r b a l o r n o n - v e r b a l ( i . e . , f r o w n i n g , g r i m a c i n g , s h a k i n g a f i n g e r a t a p e r s o n , e t c . ) . A c c o r d i n g t o K e a l y ' s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e " C r i t i c a l P a r e n t c o n s i s t s o f s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r b a s e d on unexamined i n - f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on f a c t " and " i s b a s i c a l l y composed o f l a w s , r u l e s and p r o h i b i t i o n s - . i . e . , a b o u t r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , e t c . " " ( K e a l y , 1975, p . 9 ) . N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t The N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e t e n d s t o r e v e a l i t s e l f i n n u r t u r i n g , s y m p a t h e t i c , s o l i c i t o u s b e h a v i o u r . The N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t i s a c c e p t i n g and c a r i n g o f o t h e r s and d e s i r e s t o make them f e e l w o r t h w h i l e . T y p i c a l N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t b e h a v i o u r s a r e : enco u r a g e m e n t , sympathy, empathy, c o n c e r n , c a r i n g , r e s p e c t and l o v e . A l s o t h i s w o u l d i n c l u d e any p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s t h a t c o u l d be g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l , w h e t h e r v e r b a l o r non - v e r b a l ( i . e . , s m i l e s , nods o f acknowledgment, hugs, t o u c h e s , e t c . ) . K e a l y d e f i n e s t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t as b e i n g "more s y m p a t h e t i c and p r o t e c t i v e " ; a p e r s o n who "knows what i s good f o r o t h e r s and i s i n t e n t on c a r i n g f o r them" ( K e a l y , 1975, pp. 9-10). A d u l t The A d u l t ego s t a t e r e v e a l s i t s p r e s e n c e t h r o u g h r a t i o n a l i t y , l o g i c a n d o b j e c t i v i t y . I t t a k e s i n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e f i v e s e n s e s , compute's, s t o r e s memories a n d u s e s f a c t s t o make d e c i s i o n s . -33- The A d u l t ego s t a t e a l s o f u n c t i o n s a s t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , e n a b l i n g an i n d i v i d u a l t o s u r v i v e a u t o n o m o u s l y and t o be more s e l e c t i v e i n making r e s p o n s e s . B e r n e d e f i n e s t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e s a s : ... an i n d e p e n d e n t s e t o f f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u t e s , and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t r e a l i t y and a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by P a r e n t a l p r e j u d i c e s o r a r c h a i c a t t i t u d e s l e f t o v e r f r o m c h i l d h o o d . . . . The A d u l t i s t h e ego s t a t e w h i c h makes s u r v i v a l p o s s i b l e ( B e r n e , 1963, p. 1 3 7 ) . I n f u n c t i o n i n g a s t h e e x e c u t i v e o f the, p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e " A d u l t " c a n a c t as a r e f e r e e between t h e i n n e r C h i l d and t h e P a r e n t t o f i n d compromises and t o make new d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n n e r C h i l d ; and t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t P a r e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f r e a l i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e - n e s s . T h u s , t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e a l l o w s f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f a l l ego s t a t e s b e c a u s e e a c h has i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o a t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y . K e a l y d e f i n e s t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e as one w h i c h "examines p r e v i o u s d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i t i s s t i l l r e l e v a n t " ; and " I t a l s o e x a m i n e s f e e l i n g s , d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , and w h e t h e r o r n o t t o a l l o w them t o s u r f a c e " ( K e a l y , 1975, p. 1 0 ) . A d a p t i v e C h i l d The A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e ego s t a t e w h i c h r e a c t s o r c o n f o r m s t o demands f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . T y p i c a l A d a p t i v e C h i l d b e h a v i o u r s i n c l u d e : c o m p l y i n g , w i t h d r a w i n g , r e b e l l i n g , p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g and f e e l i n g not-OK. -34- Ke'aly d e f i n e s - t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e as b e i n g m a n i p u l a t i v e o f o t h e r p e o p l e t o s a t i s f y i t s own n e e d s o r w a n t s . " A d a p t i v e C h i l d b e h a v i o u r i s u s u a l l y t h a t o f b e i n g v e r y c o o p e r a t i v e and c o m p l i a n t " ( K e a l y , 19 75 p . 1 0 ) . R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d The R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e ego s t a t e w h i c h r e a c t s b y r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o K e a l y , t h e R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d u s u a l l y r e - b e l s w i t h a n g e r , boredom, s a r c a s m , -:etc. The R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d i s a l s o o p e n l y a s s e r t i v e and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d g e t s u p s e t and n e g a t i v e when t o l d what t o do. He s u l k s , w i t h d r a w s , a r g u e s , i s s t u b b o r n and has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h l e a d e r s . N a t u r a l C h i l d The N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e i s d e f i n e d as t h a t p a r t o f t h e ego s t a t e w h i c h i s t h e v e r y y o u n g , u n t r a i n e d , n a t u r a l , unprogrammed, e x p r e s s i v e i n f a n t s t i l l i n s i d e e a c h p e r s o n . T y p i c a l N a t u r a l C h i l d b e h a v i o u r s a r e s u g g e s t e d by: i m p u l s i v e , c u r i o u s , a f f e c t i o n a t e , s e n s u o u s , s p o n t a n e o u s , u n c e n s o r e d and c r e a t i v e . K e a l y d e f i n e s t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e as b e i n g e x p r e s s i v e , u n i n h i b i t e d , c r e a t i v e and c u r i o u s , w i t h t h e u r g e s t o t o u c h , f e e l and e x p e r i e n c e . M a r i t a l o r D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t As t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d S p a n i e r ' s D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e (19 76) t o measure m a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t , h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f a d j u s t m e n t was u s e d . M a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t i s an e v e r - c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s -35- w i t h a q u a l i t a t i v e d i m e n s i o n w h i c h c a n be e v a l u a t e d a t any p o i n t i n t i m e on a c o n t i n u u m f r o m w e l l a d j u s t e d t o mad- a d j u s t e d . T h u s , i n t h i s s e n s e , m a r i t a l o r " d y a d i c a d j u s t - ment c a n be d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s , t h e outcome o f w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e d e g r e e o f : (1) t r o u b l e s o m e d y a d i c d i f f e r e n c e s ; (2) i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s and p e r s o n a l a n x i e t y ; (3) d y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n ; (4) d y a d i c c o h e s i o n ; and (5) c o n s e n s u s on m a t t e r s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o d y a d i c f u n c t i o n i n g " ( S p a n i e r , 1976, 1. 1 7 ) . H i g h D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s H i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d a s t h o s e c o u p l e s whose c o m b i n e d a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s r a n k them i n t h e t o p t h i r t y o f t h o s e t a k i n g t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s Low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as t h o s e c o u p l e s whose c o m b i n e d a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s r a n k them i n t h e b o t t o m t h i r t y o f t h o s e t a k i n g t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t e m n t S c a l e . C. D e s i g n The d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a t w o-group, d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d s t u d y . T h i s d e s i g n was u s e d t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e o f d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t . D. E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e E i g h t y - o n e m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t i n g c o u p l e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y . E a c h c o u p l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d two i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e -36- D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a and t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e r e s u l t s , two g r o u p s were f o r m e d by r a n k o r d e r i n g t h e c o u p l e s ' c o m b i n e d s c o r e s . Group I c o n s i s t e d o f t h e t o p t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - o n e c o u p l e s a n d Group I I c o n s i s t e d o f t h e b o t t o m t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - o n e c o u p l e s . M o r e o v e r , t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s on t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e , a t - t e s t (a = .001) was c a l c u l a t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e means o f t h e two g r o u p s . The mean combined c o u p l e s c a l e s c o r e s f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p and t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p were 248.53 and 190.6 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f 9.0 8 (for t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d group) a n d 21.37 ( f o r t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e t - t e s t showed t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (a = .001) fr o m t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s on t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t e d S c a l e . A f t e r t h e two g r o u p s were fo r m e d , ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r e a c h c o u p l e were o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e male ego s t a t e s c o r e f r o m t h e f e m a l e ego s t a t e s c o r e f o r a l l s i x ego s t a t e s . A n a l y s i s was t h e n done on t h e i r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s . A t - t e s t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e -3 7- means o f t h e two g r o u p s on e a c h o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t and A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s and t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s , P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p . M o r e o v e r , d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were shown t o i l l u s t r a t e any i n d i v i d u a l o r c o u p l e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s . E . H y p o t h e s e s 1. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y was t h a t s u b j e c t s ( c o u p l e s ) who a r e o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d w i l l show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o w e r ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " t h a n S u b j e c t s ( c o u p l e s ) who a r e o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e and t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c n u l l h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . HI: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , between c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d a n d c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e asured by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e - . -38- Hr 2 T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b e t w e e n c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e • -} • H:3' T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n A d u l t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b e tween c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . H:4 T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , between c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . H:5 T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , between c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . H:6 T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) i n N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , between c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d / as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . -39- H7: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( a =.05) c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e o f one p a r t n e r and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d o r f o r c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . H8: T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( a = .05) c o r r e l a t i o n b etween t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e o f one p a r t n e r and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r c o u p l e s who a r e h i g h h y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d o r f o r c o u p l e s who a r e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t e m e n t S c a l e . F. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The two i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y were t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , d e v e l o p e d b y K e a l y (1975) and t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e , d e v e l o p e d by S p a n i e r (19 7 6 ) . 1. The P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a) B a c k g r o u n d o f T e s t The P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PRQ) was d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s i x ego s t a t e s , as d e f i n e d by K e a l y a n d t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h e o r y . I t . w a s d e v e l o p e d by L y n n K e a l y f o r a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n 1975. K e a l y d e v e l o p e d t h e PRQ a c c o r d i n g t o t h e L o e v i n g e r (1957) model o f t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t , where t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t has t h r e e a s p e c t s o r components: 1) t h e s u b s t a n t i v e component - where t h e c o n s t r u c t must be d e r i v e d f r o m an e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y b a s e d d e f i n i t i o n o f -40- a t r a i t . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a l a r g e sample o f i t e m s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e as b e h a v i o r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e t r a i t . T h e s e i t e m s a r e t h e n s u b j e c t e d t o t h e judgm e n t s o f e x p e r t r a t e r s . T h i s i s what i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . (2) t h e s t r u c t u r a l component - c o n c e r n i s f o c u s e d , on t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o r h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e s c a l e as w e l l as i t s f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y , and t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e w i t h c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . (3) t h e e x t e r n a l component - i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h what most i n v e s t i g a t o r s c a l l c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y a n d c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , and i n c l u d e s n o n - t e s t b e h a v i o u r , f a c t o r p a t t e r n s , and r e l a t i o n s o r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e s t s ( K e a l y , 1975, pp. 2 9 - 3 0 ) . The s t e p s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e PRQ were f o l l o w e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e L o e v i n g e r m o d e l . The s u b s t a n t i v e component c o n s i s t e d o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p o o l o f 205 i t e m s b a s e d on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e s . The i t e m s were t h e n r a t e d by j u d g e s , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e PRQ. The s t r u c t u r a l component c o n s i s t e d o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e PRQ and t h e Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r - a b i l i t y s c a l e t o 50 8 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s were t h e n f a c t o r a n a l y z e d . The e x t e r n a l component c o n s i s t e d o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e PRQ w i t h t h e C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (C r.'P:;i/j. t o 139 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a n d a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h f a c t o r was t h e n e s t i m a t e d by t h e KR-20 f o r m u l a and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s were f o u n d t o r a n g e f r o m .47 - .69. The s i x ego s t a t e s were a l s o -41- r e v e a l e d as i n d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r s b y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . (b) V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y The r e s e a r c h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e PRQ shows i t t o be a v a l i d a n d r e l i a b l e t e s t f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : s i x i n d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r s emerged, e a c h one c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a TA ego s t a t e ; t h e r e was h i g h i n t e r - j u d g e a g r e e m e n t on t h e t e s t i t e m s ; t h e r e was c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e CPI on f o u r o f t h e s i x f a c t o r s (CP c o r r e l a t e d between v a r i o u s s c a l e s on F a c t o r 3 o f t h e CPI a t .27; AC c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h S o c i a b i l i t y on t h e CPI a t -.300 and w i t h P s y c h o l o g i c a l - m i n d e d n e s s on t h e CPI a t -.374; RC c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h S o c i a l i z a t i o n on t h e CPI a t -.373 a n d w i t h S e l f - c o n t r o l on t h e CPI a t -.350; NC c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h S o c i a l P r e s e n c e on t h e CPI a t .194+). I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , e x - t e r n a l v a l i d a t i o n and t h e s t r u c t u r a l component o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y were d e m o n s t r a t e d and were a t a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s . (c) Norms T h e r e a r e no norms o r p r o f i l e s a v a i l a b l e , as t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d . (d) S c o r i n g and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The f i n a l s c o r e s r e f l e c t t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e s . The f r a c t i o n a l s c o r e s c a n be c h a n g e d i n t o d e c i m a l s c o r e s and a g r a p h o r 'egogram' c a n be p l o t t e d . A knowledge o f TA i s r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (e) F u t u r e R e s e a r c h K e a l y s t a t e s " t h a t t h e PRQ i s r e a d y f o r u s e i n i t s p r e s e n t form". However, he a l s o s t a t e s t h a t "More e x t e n s i v e work nee d s t o be done on t h e PRQ a d d i n g t o t h e e x t e r n a l -42- coirtponent of v a l i d i t y " (Kealy, 1975, p.67). As y e t there has been ;.no a d d i t i o n a l independent r e s e a r c h done to v e r i f y the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the PRQ. 2. The Dyadic Adjustment S c a l e (a) Background of T e s t The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) i s a new measure designed to assess the q u a l i t y of^marriage and other s i m i l a r dyads. The s c a l e was developed to meet the need f o r r e l e v a n t , v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures, which c o u l d be used i n r e s e a r c h on m a r i t a l and nonmarital dyadic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s c a l e i n c l u d e s s u b s c a l e s which measure f o u r e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i e d components of dyadic adjustment: dyadic s a t i s f a c t i o n , dyadic consensus, dyadic cohesion, and a f f e c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n (Spanier, 1976). (b) V a l i d i t y i . Content V a l i d i t y The items i n c l u d e d i n the S c a l e were evaluated by three judges f o r content v a l i d i t y . The items were i n c l u d e d o n l y i f the judges found the items: (1) r e l e v a n t measures o f dyadic adjustment f o r contemporary r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; (2) c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the nominal d e f i n i t i o n s suggested by Spanier and Cole (1974) f o r adjustment and i t s components ( s a t i s f a c t i o n , cohesion, and con- sensus) ; and (3) c a r e f u l l y worded wi t h a p p r o p r i a t e f i x e d c h o i c e responses (Spanier, 1976, pp. 22-23). i i . C r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d V a l i d i t y The Dyadic Adjustment S c a l e was administered to a married sample of 218 persons and a d i v o r c e d sample of 94 persons. For each o f the 32 items, the d i v o r c e d sample d i f f e r e d -43- s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e m a r r i e d sample (p.<.001), u s i n g a t - t e s t f o r a s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between sample means. Th u s , e a c h i t e m i n t h e s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s . M o r e o v e r , t h e t o t a l s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , t h e mean t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e s f o r t h e m a r r i e d and d i v o r c e d s a m p l e s b e i n g 114.8 and 70.7, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i i i . C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y A l l i t e m s w i t h c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y u s e d i n p r e v i o u s m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t o r i g i n a l l y t e s t e d . The L o c k e - W a l l a c e M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e (1959), t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d and w e l l - a c c e p t e d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e , was s e l e c t e d t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e m e a s u r e d t h e same g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t . The c o r r e l a t i o n r e p o r t e d between t h e s e s c a l e s was .86 f o r m a r r i e d r e s p o n d e n t s and .88 f o r d i v o r c e d r e s p o n d e n t s (p<.001). C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a l 3 2 - i t e m s c a l e . F o u r i n t e r r e l a t e d com- p o n e n t s ( d y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n , d y a d i c c o h e s i o n , d y a d i c c o n - s e n s u s , and a f f e c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n ) , t h r e e o f w h i c h were h y p o t h e s i z e d as components o f a d j u s t m e n t , were f o u n d t o e x i s t . Hence, t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e a p p e a r s t o measure p a r t i a l l y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t d e f i n e d e a r l i e r ( S p a n i e r and C o l e , 1976) . (c) R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y was d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e component s c a l e s , as w e l l a s t h e t o t a l s c a l e , by C r o n b a c h ' s C o e f f i c i e n t -4.4- A l p h a (1951) , w h i c h i s a measure o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e f o u r components o f t h e s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m .73 - .96, and t h e t o t a l s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y was .96. M o r e o v e r , "a s e p a r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y u s i n g t h e Spearman-Brown a v e r a g e i n t e r - i t e m f o r m u l a f o r i n - t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( G u i l d f o r d , 1954:354,359) was a l s o f o u n d t o be .96" ( S p a n i e r , 1976, p . 2 4 ) . Thus, t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t o t a l s c a l e a n d i t s components have s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y t o j u s t i f y t h e i r u s e a s m e a s u r e s o f d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t . (d) S c o r i n g The s c o r i n g o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f a s i m p l e c u m u l a t i o n o f s c o r e s . The t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e i s 151. (e) F u t u r e R e s e a r c h S i n c e t h e s c a l e i s r e l a t i v e l y new, t h e r e i s no new r e - s e a r c h y e t p u b l i s h e d w h i c h u s e s t h e s c a l e . However, a c c o r d i n g t o S p a n i e r , t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n M a r c h , 1977, t h e r e a r e a b o u t f i f t y r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s underway w h i c h u s e t h e s c a l e , so p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h u s e s t h e s c a l e s h o u l d b e g i n a p p e a r i n g s o o n . G. : D e s c r i p t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n and S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s The e i g h t y - o n e c o u p l e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y came f r o m f o u r d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . The g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d o f a c o n t r o l g r o u p , a m a r r i a g e e n c o u n t e r g r o u p , a m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t g r o u p and a m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p . T h e s e g r o u p s were s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e -45- e x t r e m e s o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t , f r o m t h o s e who were ' w e l l - a d j u s t e d ' t o t h o s e who were ' m a l a d j u s t e d 1 . Hence, c o u p l e s were a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r f r o m c l a s s e s f o r m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t and f r o m m a r r i a g e e n c o u n t e r g r o u p s ( t h o s e c o u p l e s who w i s h t o e n r i c h an a l r e a d y b a s i c a l l y a d j u s t e d m a r r i a g e ) and f r o m v a r i o u s s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a n d m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d who do m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g ( t h o s e c o u p l e s who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . M o r e o v e r , a c o n t r o l g r o u p o f c o u p l e s who had h a d no m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t and m a r r i a g e e n c o u n t e r e x p e r i e n c e o r m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g were a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r o m f i v e d i f f e r e n t summer s c h o o l c l a s s e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The o n l y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e c o u p l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y was t h a t t h e y e i t h e r be m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t i n g . The g r o u p o f c o u p l e s , who were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , was c o m p r i s e d o f n i n e t e e n c o u p l e s f r o m t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p , n i n e c o u p l e s f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e E n c o u n t e r g r o u p , one c o u p l e f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e E n r i c h m e n t g r o u p and one c o u p l e f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e C o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p . The g r o u p o f c o u p l e s , who were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , was com- p r i s e d o f t w e l v e c o u p l e s f r o m t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p , two c o u p l e s f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e E n c o u n t e r g r o u p , two c o u p l e s f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e E n r i c h m e n t g r o u p and f o u r t e e n c o u p l e s f r o m t h e M a r r i a g e C o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p . -46- A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sample i s summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : TABLE 1. D e s c r i p t i o n o f F o u r Groups Groups Number o f C o u p l e s i n Group O r i g i n o f Group L o c a t i o n o f Group a . C o n t r o l G r o u p 44 5 summer s c h o o l c l a s s e s U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. b. M a r r i a g e E n c o u n t e r 15 M a r r i a g e E n - c o u n t e r g r o u p s Richmond, B.C. c . M a r r i a g e E n r i c h m e n t 5 M a r r i a g e E n r i c h - ment c l a s s e s N o r t h S h o r e L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g C e n t r e West V a n c o u v e r , d. M a r r i a g e C o u n s e l l i n g 17 C a t h o l i c F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P a s t o r a l I n s t i - C o q u i t l a m & V a n c o u v e r , B.C. t u t e V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i t a r i a n F a m i l y L i f e C e n t r e V a n c o u v e r , B.C. Eugene E l m o r e , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M a r r i a g e C o u n s e l l o r H. P r o c e d u r e i n C o l l e c t i n g D a t a The v a r i o u s s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , M a r r i a g e E n c o u n t e r c o - o r d i n a t o r s a n d m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r s were c o n t a c t e d and a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The r e s e a r c h e r met w i t h e a c h c o n t a c t p e r s o n , -47- d e t a i l e d t h e s t u d y , gave i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e i n s t r u m e n t s and gave them t h e t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a m a n i l l a e n v e l o p e f o r e a c h c o u p l e w i t h two s e t s o f i n s t r u m e n t s , c o n s e n t f o r m s a n d d a t a s h e e t s (see A p p e n d i x A and B ) . I n e a c h c a s e , e x c e p t f o r t h e m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t g r o u p , t h e c o u p l e s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y r e c e i v e d t h e t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e c o n t a c t p e r s o n s . However, w i t h t h e m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t g r o u p , t h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e and t h e t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s , p l u s d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s , a l o n g w i t h an;" o u t l i n e o f t h e s t u d y , a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n and a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n f r o m t h e c o n t a c t a g e n c y were m a i l e d t o t h e c o u p l e s . The c o n t r o l g r o u p was c o n t a c t e d p e r s o n a l l y by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The r e s e a r c h e r met w i t h e a c h o f t h e f i v e summer s c h o o l c l a s s e s , gave a s h o r t o u t l i n e o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d a s k e d f o r " v o l u n t e e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s were t h e n g i v e n e n v e l o p e s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s . M o r e o v e r , f o r e a c h c a s e where s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s was n e c e s s a r y , i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e c o u p l e s h o u l d n o t communicate d u r i n g t h e t e s t - t a k i n g and t h a t no a n s wers s h o u l d be c h a n g e d f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t e s t s . -48- I . L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d i n e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y as a r e s u l t o f t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The c o u p l e s s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y were n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . R a t h e r , t h e y were a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r b e c a u s e t h e y b e l o n g e d t o a s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f p e o p l e ( i . e . , t h o s e c o u p l e s who h a d h a d m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g , m a r r i a g e e n r i c h m e n t o r m a r r i a g e e n c o u n t e r ) . A l s o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f m a r r i e d o r c o - h a b i t i n g c o u p l e s , as t h e y were f r o m u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s . L a c k o f v e r i f y i n g i n d e p e n d e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e i s a l i m i t a t i o n i n terms o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . J . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 1. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e , c o u p l e s were r a n k o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o m b i n e d a d - j u s t m e n t s c o r e s . Two g r o u p s were f o r m e d Group I , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e t o p t h i r t y c o u p l e s and Group I I , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e b o t t o m t h i r t y c o u p l e s . A t - t e s t (a = .001) was c a l c u l a t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f t h e two g r o u p s on t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e and t h e r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y g r o u p d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (a = .001) f r o m t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . Ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r e a c h c o u p l e were o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e male ego s t a t e s c o r e f r o m t h e f e m a l e ego s t a t e s c o r e f o r a l l s i x ego s t a t e s . S i x t - t e s t s (a = .05) were c a l c u l a t e d t o -49- means o f e a c h o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e m e a sures f o r t h e two g r o u p s . 2. P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d b etween t h e C r i t i c a l a n d A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s and t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t and A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p , i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a i t o n c o e f f i c i e n t was t e s t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g a t w o - t a i l e d t e s t . 3. D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were c o m p i l e d i n t h e f o r m o f t a b l e s and g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and t o i l l u s t r a t e any r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r p a t t e r n s p r e s e n t i n t h e d a t a . A l s o d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were u s e d t o h i g h l i g h t any d i f f e r e n c e s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s between t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p and t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . -50- C h a p t e r F o u r PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA A. D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were c o m p i l e d t o g i v e a more c o m p l e t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e ego s t a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s a n d t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s , and t o i l l u s t r a t e p a t t e r n s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r i n g i n t h e d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a s e r v e d t o h i g h l i g h t any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o r s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . 1. Mean and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r e a c h c o u p l e were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h g r o u p t o show t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n and d i s p e r s i o n o f s c o r e s between g r o u p s ( T a b l e I I ) . T a b l e I I shows t h a t t h e means f o r b o t h g r o u p s r a n g e d f r o m .19 (NP ego s t a t e f o r Group I and Group I I ) t o .32 (A ego s t a t e Group I I ) . The v a r i a n c e f o r b o t h g r o u p s r a n g e d f r o m .13 (A ego s t a t e f o r Group I and AC ego s t a t e f o r Group I I ) t o .23 (A ego s t a t e f o r Group I I ) . A p r o f i l e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two g r o u p s i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 5. F i g u r e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n mean ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s a p p e a r s t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t b etween t h e TABLE I I : Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Ego S t a t e D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s f o r Group I and Group I I Ego S t a t e - V a r i a b l e s CP NP A AC RC NC Group I (N=30) H i g h D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n .21 .19 .19 .15 .18 .13 .24 .16 .22 .21 .24 .19 Group I I (N=30) Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n .20 .18 .19 .14 .32 .23 .22 .13 .19 .14 .28 . 21 MEAN DIFFERENCES FIGURE 5 High D y a d i c a l l y Adjusted Group I X - Low Dy a d i c a l l y Adjusted Group I I . - — .'3 J 2 CP NP A AC RC NC EGO STATES P r o f i l e o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s F o r Group I and Group I I -52- A d u l t ego s t a t e s o f t h e two g r o u p s , w i t h t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p s h o w i n g a h i g h e r mean ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e t h a n t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s much l e s s , a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f d i f f e r e n c e i s shown between t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d mean ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s o f t h e two g r o u p s . The o t h e r f o u r mean ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t w h i c h i s t h e same f o r b o t h g r o u p s ) a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p t h a n f o r t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s a m p l e . 2. SUMMARY On t h e b a s i s o f t h e mean ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r e a c h g r o u p , t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p i n d i c a t e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s on t h r e e o f t h e ego s t a t e s c a l e s (CP, AC, RC), a l t h o u g h none p r o v e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e was no n u m e r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e NP ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e f o r e i t h e r g r o u p . The low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p e v i d e n c e d a h i g h e r ego d i f f e r e n c e on two o f t h e ego s t a t e s c a l e s (NC, A) and t h e l a t t e r p r o v e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a gave a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s was i n t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . B. R e s u l t s o f H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g : 1. R e s u l t s f o r t h e G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s ( c o u p l e s ) who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d w o u l d show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o w e r ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " t h a n s u b j e c t s ( c o u p l e s ) -5.3- who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e and t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s was s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e b u t n o t f o r t h e o t h e r f i v e ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s . A t - t e s t (a = .05) f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s was c a l c u l a t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s on e a c h o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e I I I i n - c l u d e s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s : TABLE I I I . t - V a l u e s f o r D i f f e r e n c e s Between t h e Means o f t h e Ego S t a t e D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Group and t h e Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d G r oup. EGO STATES t-VALUES C r i t i c a l P a r e n t .137 N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t .04 A d u l t 2.88* A d a p t i v e C h i l d . 346 R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d .580 N a t u r a l C h i l d .802 * p < .05 The t - v a l u e showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l between t h e means o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e f o r t h e two g r o u p s . -54- 2. R e s u l t s f o r t h e S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s (a) H y p o t h e s i s 1 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , as m e a s u r e d by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (a = . 0 5 ) , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d , as m e a s u r e d by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t . r e j e c t e d . F i g u r e 6 g i v e s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s and i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . (b) H y p o t h e s i s 2 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d . F i g u r e . 7 p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s and shows t h a t t h e r e i s m i n i m a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . (c) H y p o t h e s i s 3 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n A d u l t ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . F i g u r e 8 i n d i c a t e s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . C o u p l e s 1 Combined . D i f f e r e n c e F r e q u e n c y F o r B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 and Group Group I on CP V a r i a b l e S c o r e s . o n H i g h (N=30) Low (N=30) C r i t i c a l D y a d i c a l l y D y a d i c a l l y P a r e n t A d j u s t e d A d j u s t e d Group I Group I I 90-100 81-90 71-80 2 11 61-70 1 2 51-60 1 2 41-50 31-40 3 1 3 2 111 1 222 22 21-30 11-20 8 4 7 3 11111111 1111 2222222 222 1-10 7 7 1111111 2222222 0 5 6 11111 222222 FIGURE 6 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d B a r G r a p h on C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I C o u p l e s ' Combined D i f f e r e n c e F r e g u e n c y F o r B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 and Group Group 2 on RC V a r i a b l e Scores', on H i g h (N=30) Low (N=30) N u r t u r i n g D y a d i c a l l y D y a d i c a l l y P a r e n t A d j u s t e d A d j u s t e d Group I Group I I 91-100 81-90 1 1 71-80 61-70 51-60 1 2 41-50 1 2 31-40 3 1 111 2 21-30 3 7 111 2222222 11-20 10 9 1111111111 222222222 1-10 10 6 1111111111 222222 0 .... 3 . 5 111 22222 FIGURE 7 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n and B a r G r a p h on N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I -56- C o u p l e s ' Combined ~ D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s .on A d u l t F r e q u e n c y f o r Group B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 and Group 2 on A V a r i a b l e H i g h (N=30) D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Low (N=30) D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Group 1 Group 2 91-100 81-90 71-80 1 2 61-70 4 2222 51-60 41-50 1 8 1 22222222 31-40 5 2 11111 22 21-30 8 5 11111111 22222 11-20 10 5 1111111111 22222 1-10 0 6 5 111111 22222 FIGURE 8 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d B a r Gr a p h on A d u l t Ego S t a t e . V a r i a b l e f o r Group: I and Group I I C o u p l e s 1 Combined F r e q u e n c y f o r Group B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 D i f f e r e n c e and Group 2 on AC V a r i a b l e Scores:: on H i g h (N=30) Low (N=30) A d a p t i v e D y a d i c a l l y D y a d i c a l l y C h i l d A d j u s t e d A d j u s t e d Group 1 Group 2 91-100 81-90 71-80 61-70 51-60 41-50 4 1 1111 2 31-40 5 4 11111 2222 21-30 4 10 1111 2222222222 11-20 7 6 1111111 : 222222 1-0 6 5 111111 22222 0 4 4 1111 2222 FIGURE-9 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n and B a r Gr a p h on A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e .for Group I and Group I I -5 7- I t a p p e a r s f r o m F i g u r e 8 t h a t t h e r e i s a n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , t h u s l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e (2.88) f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , w h i c h i s i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n and i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = .05 l e v e l . (d) H y p o t h e s i s 4 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d . A summary o f t h e r e s u l t s i s shown i n F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e 9 s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . (e) H y p o t h e s i s 5 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d a n d c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d . F i g u r e 10 p r o v i d e s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . -58- ,Couples ' Combined F r e q u e n c y f o r Group B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 and Group 2 on RC V a r i a b l e D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s on R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d H i g h (N=30) D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Low (N=30) D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d Group 1 Group 2 91-100 81-90 71-80 61-70 51-60 41-50 31-40 21-30 11-20 1-10 1 2 4 2 5 11 3 1 1 3 7 3 5 7 5 1 11 1111 11 11111 11111111111 111 1 1 222 2222222 222 22222 2222222 22222 0 FIGURE 10 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n and B a r G r a p h on R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I I t a p p e a r s f r o m F i g u r e 10 t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by a s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e (.580) f o r t h e R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , ( f ) H y p o t h e s i s 6 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e " d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s " , between c o u p l e s who were h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d and c o u p l e s who were low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d ( s e e F i g u r e 11 f o r a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s ) . F i g u r e 11 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s l i g h t t r e n d i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e i s -59- n e g l i g i b l - e . The c a l c u l a t e d t - v a l u e (.802) f o r t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , w h i c h i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = .05 l e v e l , g i v e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s . C o u p l e s 1 Combined D i f f e r e n c e F r e q u e n c y f o r Group B a r G r a p h f o r Group 1 a n d Group 2 on NC V a r i a b l e S c o r e s on H i g h (N=30) Low (N=30) N a t u r a l D y a d i c a l l y D y a d i c a l l y C h i l d A d j u s t e d A d j u s t e d Group 1 Group 2 91-100 81-90 71-80 1 1 1 2 61-70 1 2 1 22 51-60 1 1 41-50 3 7 111 2222222 31-40 2 2 11 22 21-30 7 6 1111111 222222 11-20 11 7 11111111111 2222222 1-10 0 4 5 1111 22222 FIGURE 11 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n and B a r G r a p h on N a t u r a l C h i l d Ego S t a t e V a r i a b l e f o r Group I and Group I I (g) H y p o t h e s i s 7 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e o f one p a r t n e r and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r , f o r c o u p l e s who were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g e i t h e r h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d o r low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d . - 6 0 - P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d b etween t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t and A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was t e s t e d a t t h e a = .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g a t w o - t a i l e d t e s t . T a b l e I V p r o v i d e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s and t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . TABLE I V . P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s and t h e Low A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s CORRELATION COEFFICIENT H i g h A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s (N=30) Male CP and Female AC .2269 Female CP and M a l e AC -.1208 Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s (N=30) Male CP and Female AC .0132 Female CP and M a l e AC -.0189 T a b l e IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = .05 l e v e l . The male C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e female. A d a p t i v e - 6 1 - C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e f e m a l e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e male A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s . S c a t t e r d i a g r a m s were a l s o p l o t t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s w i t h t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s (see A p p e n d i x C ) . (h) H y p o t h e s i s 8 I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e o f one p a r t n e r and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r , f o r c o u p l e s who were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g e i t h e r h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d o r low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d . T a b l e V i n c l u d e s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . T a b l e V p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = .05 l e v e l . The male N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e f e m a l e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . The f e m a l e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e male A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . F o r t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s , b o t h t h e male and f e m a l e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s ' A d a p t i v e C h i l d -62- ego s t a t e s c o r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , s c a t t e r d i a g r a m s were p l o t t e d t o r e p r e s e n t g r a p h i c a l l y t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s w i t h t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s (see A p p e n d i x D ) . TABLE V. P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s o f t h e H i g h A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s and t h e Low A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s CORRELATION COEFFICIENT H i g h D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s (N=30) M a l e NP and Female AC .059 7 Female NP arid M a l e AC -.259 3 Low D y a d i c a l l y A d j u s t e d C o u p l e s (N=30) Male NP and Female AC Female NP and Mal e AC -.2182 -.0096 3. Summary The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g o f t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s and t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e t - t e s t r e s u l t s and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( a = . 0 5 ) d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p and t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p was i n t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p w o u l d show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o w e r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s t h a n t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . The r e s u l t s o f t h e t - t e s t showed t h a t two o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s were i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t o n l y t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e was shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = . 0 5 l e v e l . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p w o u l d show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e o f one p a r t n e r and t h e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r . The same s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d between t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t and A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d g r o u p . The r e s u l t o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s between t h e male C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c o r e s and t h e f e m a l e A d a p t i v e C h i l d ego s t a t e s c o r e s was i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e -64- high dyadically adjusted group. The descriptive data for the general and the s p e c i f i c hypotheses gave additional support to the notion that there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , except for the Adult ego state variable. However th i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t could have occurred by chance alone, as a r e s u l t of repeated t-tests on data from the same subjects using sub-test scores from one instrument; or because of a Type I error. A Type I error i s made when a true n u l l hypothesis i s rejected. In t h i s study with a = .05, there were f i v e chances out of one hundred for committing a Type I error. -65- C h a p t e r F i v e DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY A. R e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n - s h i p b etween t h e ego s t a t e p a t t e r n s o f c o u p l e s a n d t h e i r l e v e l o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e c o u p l e s 1 ego s t a t e p a t t e r n s t o see w h e t h e r c o u p l e s who were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d w o u l d show l o w e r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s t h a n c o u p l e s who were i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d . B. D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o c e d u r e s Used The sample o f t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t y - o n e m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t i n g ; . c o u p l e s . M a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t was measured by t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e ( S p a n i e r , 1976), and ego s t a t e s were measured by t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( K e a l y , 1 9 7 5 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e r e s u l t s , two g r o u p s were f o r m e d by r a n k o r d e r i n g t h e c o u p l e s ' combined s c o r e s . One g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f t h e t o p t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - one c o u p l e s and one g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f t h e b o t t o m t h i r t y o f t h e e i g h t y - o n e c o u p l e s . Ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s were c a l c u l a t e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g t h e m a l e ego s t a t e s c o r e s f r o m t h e f e m a l e ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r a l l s i x ego s t a t e s . S i x t - t e s t s (a= .05) were c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t f o r a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e means o f e a c h o f t h e s i x ego s t a t e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s . -66- P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d b etween t h e CP and AC ego s t a t e s c o r e s and t h e Np and AC ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p , i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were p r e s e n t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e any d i f f e r e n c e s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s between t h e two g r o u p s . A. P r i n c i p a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e t - t e s t and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (a = . 0 5 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f t h e e i g h t h y p o t h e s e s , o n l y t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e was s u p p o r t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e h i g h d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s e v i d e n c e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (a = .05) l o w e r ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s i n t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e t h a n t h e low d y a d i c a l l y a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . The s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (a = .05) r e s u l t i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m a r r i a g e (as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I ) , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t s i m i l a r i t y o f s p o u s e s (homogamy) has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t . M o r e o v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (a = .05) -67- b a s e d on t h e d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e may have r e s u l t e d by c h a n c e a l o n e o r b e c a u s e o f a Type I e r r o r (as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I V ) , t h e r e i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on homogamy i n m a r r i a g e t o s u g g e s t t h e c o n t r a r y . The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e CP, AC, RC and NC ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s a r e s u p p o r t e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i n e v e r y m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e r e a r e b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s b etween m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s , a l t h o u g h one o r t h e o t h e r ( s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s ) may be p r e d o m i n a n t (Bowerman and Day, 1 9 5 6 ) . T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r a l l o f t h e f i v e ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s , e x c e p t f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . I t c o u l d , however, be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample o f c o u p l e s . I n t e r m s o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , i t may be due t o t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t i v e r e s e a r c h a t t e s t i n g t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( K e a l y , 1975) as a measure o f ego s t a t e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o r - r e l a t i o n s b etween t h e CP and AC ego s t a t e s c o r e s and t h e NP and AC ego s t a t e s c o r e s f o r t h e c o u p l e s o f e a c h g r o u p were s u p p o r t e d . T h i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , o t h e r t h a n i n t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e . -68- The f a i l u r e to f i n d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , e x c e p t f o r t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e , c o u l d be a r e s u l t o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e s t u d y . The s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s and t h e use o f a n o n - r a n d o m i z e d sample may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l a c k o f i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y ( C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y , 1966, p. 1 5 ) . The l a c k o f a s t a n d a r d a p p r o a c h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a l s o may have d e t r a c t e d f r o m a t r u e measure o f t h e c o u p l e s ' ego s t a t e s and t h e i r l e v e l o f d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , m i g h t have added t o t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . As t h e d i s c u s s i o n on I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n C h a p t e r I I I i n d i c a t e s , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f v e r i f y i n g i n d e p e n d e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t - ment S c a l e . T h i s s t u d y a l s o d i d n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e s p r e s e n t i n t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( K e a l y , 19 7 5 ) , w h i c h may have o c c u r r e d i n t h e measurement o f t h e ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e s , and i n t u r n , may have a f f e c t e d t h e c o u p l e s ' ego s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s . The s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d and s e l f - r e p o r t p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s and m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e s d e t r a c t s f r o m an a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s i t e m s d i d n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t o r a d e q u a t e l y measure c e r t a i n ego s t a t e c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s . One o f t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t i t i s t h e f i r s t s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e m a r i t a l -69- r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s framework. M o r e o v e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y may a i d t h e m a r r i a g e r e s e a r c h e r and c o u n s e l l o r t o u n d e r s t a n d more f u l l y t h e e x p r e s s i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s p o u s e s , w h i c h a r e t h o u g h t t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . D. Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e s u g g e s t e d : 1. M a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t i s a n e v e r - c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h a t any g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e has o n l y a r b i t r a r y p o i n t s on a d i m e n s i o n f r o m w e l l a d j u s t e d t o m a l a d j u s t e d ( S p a n i e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . Thus, a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p needs t o be done on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s t o g e t a more a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h t a k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t by a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s e a r c h e x p e r i m e n t . 2. P a p e r and p e n c i l m e a s u r e s a r e u s e f u l b u t l i m i t e d i n o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f m a r i t a l o r d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t . Thus, t h e r e i s a need f o r o u t s i d e e v a l u a t o r s i n o r d e r t o g e t a more o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e P e r s o n a l R e sponse Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s measurement o f ego s t a t e ( K e a l y , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s recommended f o r - 7 0 - future research that the ego states of females and males could be measured separately (not i n the form of couples' ego state difference scores) and that separate hypotheses could be stated for females and males. There i s a need for further research on the PRQ i n order to provide additional v a l i d a t i o n for i t s use as a measurement of ego states. Concurrent v a l i d i t y could be increased by using another TA ego state measure i n addition to the PRQ. The external component of v a l i d i t y could also be increased by using an additional personality inventory with the same or s i m i l a r constructs as the PRQ. Further research i s recommended on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to provide additional c r i t e r i o n - related v a l i d i t y . The present study did not use an unbiased or randomized sample. Thus, i n order to be able to generalize the results to the population, randomized samples should be used i n future research. There i s a need for further research on the Adult ego state variable to see whether s i m i l a r i t y of the couples' Adult ego state i s p o s i t i v e l y associated with marital adjustment. Another study might r e p l i c a t e t h i s study with a random sample to see i f the Adult ego state variable shows s t a t i s t i c a l -71- s i g n i f i c a n c e o v e r t h e o t h e r ego s t a t e v a r i a b l e i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b etween h i g h a d j u s t e d a n d low a d j u s t e d c o u p l e s . 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M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n g r u e n t s e l f - s p o u s e c o n c e p t s . S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1960, 39_, 153-157. (a) L u c k e y , E.B. M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c o n g r u e n c e o f p e r c e p t i o n . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 1960, 31, 49-54. (b): L u c k e y , E.B. M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s o f s p o u s e . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 1964, 26, 217-220. (a) L u c k e y , E.B. M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d i t s c o n c o m i t a n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f and s p o u s e . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 11 ( 2 ) , 136-145. (b) Mangus, A.R. F a m i l y i m p a c t s on m e n t a l h e a l t h . M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g , 1957, 1J9, 256-262. M c C a r l e y , D.G. The ego s t a t e i n v e n t o r y , i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d v a l i d a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1971. M u r s t e i n , B . I . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m e n t a l h e a l t h t o m a r i t a l c h o i c e and c o u r t s h i p p r o g r e s s . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 1967, 2_9, 447-461. (b) . M u r s t e i n , B . I . , & Beck, G.D. P e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n , m a r r i a g e a d j u s t m e n t , and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 39_, 396-403. M u r s t e i n , B . I . , & G l a u d i n , V. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t o p e r s o n a l i t y : A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l c h e c k l i s t . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 1966, 28, 37-43. - 7 5 - P r e s t o n , M.G., P e l ' t z , W.L., Mudd, E.H., & F r o s c h e r , H.B. I m p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a s a f u n c t i o n o f m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1952, 47, 326-336. P i c k f o r d , J.H., S i g n o r i , E . I . , & Rempel, H. S i m i l a r o r r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s as a f a c t o r i n m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 1966, 28_, 190-192. R i c h a r d s o n , H.M. S t u d i e s o f m e n t a l r e s e m b l a n c e between h u s b a n d s and w i v e s and between f r i e n d s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1939, 36^, 104-120. S c h e l l e n b e r g , J.A. Homogamy i n p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a n d t h e " F i e l d o f E l i g i b l e s " . S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1960, 3_9, 157-162. S p a n i e r , G..B. M e a s u r i n g d y a d i c adjustment:: New s c a l e s f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f m a r r i a g e and s i m i l a r d y a d s . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e . F a m i l y , 1976, _38_ ( 1 ) , 15-28. S p a n i e r , G.B. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M a r c h 16, 1977. S p a n i e r , G.B. & C o l e , C L . Toward c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y o f t h e F a m i l y , 1976, 121-146. S t e i n e r , C. Games A l c o h o l i c s P l a y . New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1971. Terman, L.M. P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c o t r s i n M a r i t a l H a p p i n e s s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1938. T h a r p , R.G. P s y c h o l o g i c a l P a t t e r n i n g i n m a r r i a g e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1963, 6_0 ( 2 ) , 97-117. Thomson, G. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f ego s t a t e s . T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s J o u r n a l , 1972, 2 ( 4 ) , L96-210 Toman, W. F a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f t h e p a r t n e r s i n d i v o r c e d and m a r r i e d c o u p l e s . J o u r n a l o f I n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1962, IS!, 48-51. Winch, R.F. The Modern F a m i l y . New Y o r k : H o l t , 1952. Winch, R.F., K t s a n e s , T., & K t s a n e s , V. The t h e o r y o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y n e e d s i n m a t e - s e l e c t i o n : An a n a l y t i c and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y . A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1954, 19, 241-249. -76- APPENDIX A PERSONAL RESPONSE QUESTIONNAIRE -77- PERSONAL RESPONSE QUESTIONNAIRE Di r e c t i o n s : L i s t e d below are a number of statements concerning personal a t t i t u d e s and t r a i t s . Read each item and decide whether the statement i s True or False as i t pertains to you personally, and mark i t on the answer sheet provided. Please c i r c l e T or F. When i n a d i f f i c u l t or tense s i t u a t i o n , my stomach churns and my hands sweat. I u s u a l l y get upset i f I don't get my own way. I l i k e to leave as few things to chance as pos s i b l e . Many people are f o r g e t t i n g t h a t i t i s only through hard work t h a t they w i l l reach the top. I am seen as being a stubborn person. I seem to have developed a capacity f o r independent tJiinking, as opposed to many who conform to other people's thoughts and ideas. When people t e l l me that I should do something, I have a tendency to do j u s t the opposite. I u s u a l l y t r y t o l i v e up to the expectations o f others. I t bothers me that there are not enough people today with the courage to stand up f o r what i s r i g h t . I u s u a l l y estimate the r i s k s of making a d e c i s i o n before a c t u a l l y making i t . When I am happy, everyone seems to know i t . I think that I am more observant than most people. When I see people that are weak and unassuming, I t r y to make sure that others don't take advantage of them. I f e e l comfortable following a strong leader. People are not moral enough today. I o f t e n wonder what "they" w i l l say about things th a t I do. There are too many unproductive people i n the world. Most people should go to church more of t e n than they do. T : F (1) T : F (2) T : F (3) T : F (4) T : F (5) T : F (6) T . F (7) T . F (8) T . F (9) T F (10) T F (11) T F (12) T : F (13) T : F (14) T : F (15) T : F (16) T : F (17) T : F (18) - 7 8 - T : F (19) T : F (20) T : F (21) T : F (22) T : F (23) T : T (24) T F (25) T : F (26) T F (27) T F (28) T . F (29) T : F (30) T : F (31) T : F (32) T : F (33) T : F (34) T : F (35) T : F (36) T : F (37) T : F (38) T : F (39) T : F (40) T : F (41) T : F (42) I f I do something that I don't want to do, I u s u a l l y do i t grudgingly. I t i s important f o r me to analyze a l l s i t u a t i o n s thoroughly before I a c t . My f i r s t r e a c t i o n when t o l d t o do something i s to say "no". I o f t e n f i n d myself i n s i t u a t i o n s where I am the leader and other group members depend on me f o r guidance. I t takes a l o t to convince me to do something when I don't want to do i t . I f i n d that I want to comfort people who are having bad times. You are judged by the company you keep. When wandering through a store, I f i n d that I l i k e to touch and f e e l many o f the store's goods. What people need today i s more d i s c i p l i n e . I u s u a l l y a c t the way I f e e l , rather than c o n t r o l l i n g my emotions. I have a tendency t o t a l k and laugh l o u d l y i n my i n t e r a c t i o n s with others. When people don't see things my way, I r e a l l y get f r u s t r a t e d but t r y t o hide i t . I have d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g along w e l l with most leaders. One way o f stopping wrong-doing i s to severely punish people who break the law. I o f t e n f i n d myself using expressions l i k e "Wow!", "Gosh!", e t c . When confronted with adversity, I e i t h e r sulk or withdraw. I t i s important to know how to "get around people". I f e e l unccmfortable when people express negative emotions such as anger, boredom, et c . I am c a r e f u l not t o laugh or t a l k too loudly. I f something seems that i t may become a problem, I t r y t o think of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . I d i s l i k e other people t e l l i n g me what I "ought" or "should" do. I f e e l most important when I am helping others. My whole body tenses when someone t e l l s me I have to do something. I f i n d myself being open and spontaneous with other people. - 7 9 - T . F (43) T F (44) T : F (45) T F (46) T F (47) T F (48) T F (49) T F (50) T F (51) T F (52) T : F (53) T F (54) T F (55) T : F (56) T : F (57) T . F (58) T : F (59) T . F (60) I f i n d that being r e a l l y n i c e t o people helps get me things that I want. You j u s t don't get service any more l i k e you used t o . I u s u a l l y come to the a i d o f friends who are i n d i f f i c u l t y . I tend to agree rather than argue with other people about concepts o f r i g h t and wrong, ideas about what to do, plans, programs, systems, procedures, e t c . I would enjoy working i n the area o f helping others. I tend to argue rather than agree with people about concepts of r i g h t and wrong, ideas about what to do, etc. When I f e e l angry I l e t people know. Some people say that I have a chip on my shoulder. I see myself as being a person with good f o r e s i g h t . I enjoy doing "stupid" things j u s t f o r the fun of i t . I t ' s d isgusting the way taxes keep going up to support people on s o c i a l welfare. I tend to look a t " a l l the f a c t s " and plan c a r e f u l l y before s t a r t i n g some a c t i o n . I have a tendency to support the underdog. I t±iink c h i l d r e n should be taught to help other people as much as p o s s i b l e . I enjoy making decisions f o r the good of other people. I t d i s t u r b s me that people are l o s i n g s i g h t o f t r a d i t i o n a l and conservative ways o f doing things. Many people need to be protected from society. Teenagers would be bett e r o f f i f they l i s t e n e d to and learned from the experiences o f o l d e r people. -80' KEY TO PERSONAL RESPONSE QUESTIONNAIRE Items are answered True or False and a l l are keyed True. Items are keyed to the correct ego states as follows: C r i t i c a l Parent - 4, 9, 15, 17, 18, 25, 27, 32, 44, 53, 58, 60 Nurturing Parent - 13, 22, 24, 40, 45, 47, 55, 56, 57, 59 - 3, 6, 10, 12, 38, 51, 54, 20 - 1, 8, 14, 16, 30, 35, 36, 37, 43, 46 Rebellious Child - 2, 5, 7, 19, 21, 23, 31, 34, 39, 41, 48, 50 Natural Child - 11, 26, 28, 29, 33, 42, 49, 52 Adult Adaptive Child S c o r e / a EG06RNA \oo j <*0 • 80- so 30 AO- 10- 0 C ? $9 AC APPENDIX B DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE 1. Handling family finances 2. Matters o f r e c r e a t i o n 3. Religious matters 4. Demonstrations o f a f f e c t i o n 5. Friends 6. Sex r e l a t i o n s 7. Conventionality (correct o r proper behavior) 8. Philosophy o f l i f e 9. Ways of dealing with parents or in-laws 10. Aims, goals, and things bel i e v e d important 11. Amount o f time spent together 12. Making major decisions 13. Household tasks 14. Leisure time i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s 15. Career d e c i s i o n s 16. How o f t e n do you discuss or have you considered divorce, separation, or terminating your r e l a t i o n s h i p ? DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE Almost Occa- F r e- Almost Always Always s i o n a l l y quently Always Always Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Disagree Disagree i CO to i More A l l Most of often Occa- the time the time than not s i o n a l l y Rarely Never cont'd . More /All the time Most o f the time often than not Occa- s i o n a l l y Rarely Never 17. How o f t e n do you or your mate leave the house a f t e r a f i g h t ? 0 1 2 3 4 5 18. In general, how o f t e n do you thi n k t h a t things between you and your partner are going-well? 5 4 3 2 1 0 19. Do you confide i n your mate? 5 4 3 3 1 0 20. Do you ever regret t h a t you married? (or l i v e d together) 0 1 2 3 4 5 21. How o f t e n do you and your partner quarrel? 0 1 2 3 4 5 22. How o f t e n do you and your mate "get on each other's nerves?" 0 1 2 3 4 5 Every Day Almost Every Day Occa- s i o n a l l y Rarely Never 23. Do you k i s s your mate? 4 5 2 1 0 A l l o f them Most of them. Seme of them Very few of them None of them 24. Do you and your mate engage i n outside i n t e r e s t s together? 4 3 2 1 0 c o n t ' d 25. Have a stimulating exchange o f ideas Less than Once or Once or once a twice a twice a Once a More o f t e n Never month month week day 5 26. Laugh together 0 1 2 3 4 . 5 27. Calmly discuss something 0 1 2 3 4 5 28. Work together on a p r o j e c t Q l 2 3 4 5 These are some things about which couples sometimes agree and scmetime disagree. Indicate i f e i t h e r item below caused d i f f e r e n c e s of opinions o r were problems i n your r e l a t i o n s h i p during the past few weeks. (Check YES or NO). Yes No 29. -p i Being too t i r e d f o r sex i CO its I 30. Q l Not showing love 31. The dots on the following l i n e represent d i f f e r e n t degrees of happiness i n your r e l a t i o n s h i p . The middle point, "happy", represents the degree o f happiness of most r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Please c i r c l e the dot which best describes the degree of happiness, a l l things considered,of your r e l a t i o n s h i p Extremely F a i r l y A l i t t l e Happy Very Extremely Perfect Unhappy Unhappy Unhappy happy happy 32. Which of the following statements best describes hew you f e e l about the future o f your r e l a t i o n s h i p ? 5 I want desperately f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and would go to almost any length to see that i t does I want very much f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and w i l l do a l l I can to see that i t does. 3 I want very much f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and w i l l do my f a i r share t o see that i t does. cont'd. 32. 2 I t would be n i c e i f my r e l a t i o n s h i p succeeded, but I can't do much more than I am doing now t o help i t succeed. 1 I t would be nice i f i t succeeded, but I refuse to do any more than I am doing now to keep the r e l a t i o n s h i p going. 0 My r e l a t i o n s h i p can never succeed, and there i s no more that I can do to keep the r e l a t i o n s h i p going. TOTAL - 151 i 00 Cn I -86- APPENDIX C SCATTER DIAGRAMS REPRESENTING The C o r r e l a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f The C r i t i c a l P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s W i t h The A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s f o r B o t h Groups - 87 - 4 1 Sc a t j.— t:er 4 - v w — D i a c rjrai -lei.-— i R ep: ^— ires 11 13 Ijin g t h e j _ J Cc e l a L t i i ona 1 wi" Rel a t i o n , , f 1 sh: LP Fe'male !Ad aptlive 2 C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e pox. I ô*r-< S'S— ph. i -trr :or 1 | i Via. iPai .e ren 2x: t_I Sc 5a] 1 1 Stc i t e e L H J qh Dye die all y U i 1 1 Ac tec Gi DUT. i X fi- Lc w I yac ice 11> ll I | I ; ; Ac JU£ tec Gi our. I I • I— //V | i ! r. \ > i 3 1 f — — 7 i j 1 ! i » 9 1 ,< > ™ v . \ 1 I J j, • A « %> •V- « V r • > o X I " * \* i ; ; A i <*. 1 ) •»,.,,„ T- 1 i / i ' i f*—i • I : - K . / ^ z _ 7 r ( — « »-* > j J , J D ' —y 1 1 - i 4 i Urn — " • X r > 1 > — / • < » i F P I rial 2 Ac 3ap1 Live O r. 0 •4 > I 5 -/ l Chiild i i Egc D SI tati 1 ~Scpre ^ ! 1 i — 1 — C I - 8 8 - u 1 Sc|< ;ex '-am ram spar in£ f t he^ Co rr£B l a t i o na" L_R e.Lf i t i o.n.H shi p o f t r te 1 a l e C r i j t i c a l Pa r e r i t Egc s b a t e - [ S c d r e wd t h t h e Mai e -Ad aptxvc-5~Gh"rtrd~[ E-gb— StHt re~ Scut >re . .. _ eue l e rit- e S Cr i _ i t i c aly 1 s are t a t E y o core -M- f fli gh nyr dir al 1 y..„ ; Ac jus tec our: I X f TiT W T yar i Pr l l y //" ; ) Ac jU£ tec Gi our: II • — — _//>. > — —< / . f — V \ L — I —> fm— A iV-rr i .1 7" ? 5r ) \ 1 Q > it s > \ « t. t 7" r J f r— < • — \ - • » i i J i \ i y K * r i /_.. h — k . T r ~ 1 i i W Q f f > •r \ 4 4 V V" 4 i i i • 1 i i 1 " 9 t i , i r\ M jo £ .Ad? 3ta1 iptj be £ I i Lve C h i l d I t t / * $ ( « 1 < i E( 3 CO] i i .... . —, - L -89- APPENDIX D SCATTER DIAGRAMS R E P R E S E N T I N G The C o r r e l a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f The N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t Ego S t a t e S c o r e s W i t h The A d a p t i v e C h i l d Ego S t a t e S c o r e s f o r B o t h Groups — Lt± e r _ . D i . a m : a m R e p r n t L n q t l l e C o ] : r e l a i : i o n a ! R s l a t i Dns h i o f t h e f 4 a 1 3 N u r b u i - i n 5 P,arc- E< g o S t a t e S c : o r 711 h t . h e -Ma- L e _ .N.u t a ctx b e r . i j Boo i g i , : e ' i? 'ei r i a l e / ̂ . d a p t i r v e " - c i - ±i-a—E ' g o " - s t 2 — S COJ t e 1 E g \. • | K\. k. s/ / t f t H i fh?I )yac Jic£ i l l s F ) IP A > \ J k / k A d j u s e d G r o u p I - X - e»- Y# </ > L j t < L o T D ^acL ,ca~. - i y 7 i A J A * \ k A d j u s e d G r c >up I I • -— 1 I - Q . t j > t. > r" 0 \ ? i \ i k f- \ 1 1 r r f f O % - \- - -) —i F — -K-. 1 •J > f * J ——_ > f. * > —t- 1 N Le_, 3ta- ^da] be ! •vH 1 7P ( " • h i ' O t- 0 5 I i r 8 t > E g o : 3co: r e t t n i , =3q_r iam _Re P-T< ?se n t : .nq t i ie Coi •re Lai i o ia3 R( 2 l a ti< )ns h i j o f t h e I "em ale' N i r t u r i n g Pc •ire n t Eg|o S t a t e Sc Dre w i t h t l i e u a r i Sta Ma J te Ade i p t CI f r i l cT~Ecfd - s i Scopre 1 b'e Pa Utile IN rent E art: go ng-y r e ' \ Hif h r 11\ \ Sc ore in & Ad; ust ed Grc up r X- Iv t J Lov • Dj ad ca! i y 9- * ii ,! > f T3S1 up FT" • - i / J - O. * K L > f d i V i J A 4 r — —7 I— . A. L . • V- - V > i — ID J 1 i r J — 7 1 /r V — J ¥r <• J f 1 —3 \— 3, J 1- -4- i •s Ma Le . \da 3 t i ve i Zhi Ld 0 * ) L 5 > * 8 < /< Eg D S tat 5 S( x>r< 1 — t — i — 1

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