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Projective techniques with children : assessment through guided imagery, drawing, and post-drawing inquiry Crandall, Joanne Margaret 1984

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PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES WITH CHILDREN: ASSESSMENT THROUGH GUIDED IMAGERY, DRAWING, AND POST-DRAWING INQUIRY by JOANNE MARGARET CRANDALL B.A., McGill University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1984 (c^) Joanne Margaret Crandall, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of (JM^L^c^f 777^. ^ 'Pyt^r >uQ.Ao ay__ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date (^h^r-&A^r IO} /9£Y A b s t r a c t Through the use of guided imagery, drawing, and a pos t -drawing i n q u i r y , t h i s study sought t o explore the e f f e c t i v e -ness of p r o j e c t i v e techniques f o r p e r s o n a l i t y assessment with elementary school c h i l d r e n . An ex t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review reported on the use of guided imagery and drawing as p r o j e c t i v e techniques and t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y with c h i l d r e n . The l i t e r a t u r e supported the concept t h a t p r o j e c t i v e methods are v a l i d techniques to use with c h i l d r e n because of t h e i r non-threatening nature and because of t h e i r a b i l i t y to tap i n t o the c h i l d r e n ' s inner world. The guided imagery, drawing a c t i v i t y , and post-drawing i n q u i r y were administered to twenty c h i l d r e n , ranging i n age from nine to twelve. The c h i l d r e n were chosen by the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r and by the r e g u l a r classroom teachers based upon t h e i r work and s o c i a l behaviours i n the classroom. Ten c h i l -dren were grouped as " p o s i t i v e copers" and ten c h i l d r e n were grouped as "negative copers". The data from the study was evaluated both from a q u a n t i t a t i v e and a q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . The F i s c h e r Exact P r o b a b i l i t y Test noted the predominance of the presence of thorns i n the drawing done by the "negative copers". T h i s t e s t a l s o recorded t h a t the r a t e r s had a high degree of agreement i n the " p i c t u r e only" s o r t and the " p i c -t u re and statement combined" s o r t , but t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t agreement i n the "statements only" sort. From the qu a l i t a t i v e perspective, i t was observed that i n the drawings the "positive copers" used char a c t e r i s t i c s of smiling faces, suns shining, and flowers blooming, while the "negative copers" showed ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tangled branches, large thorns, and barred doors. In the statements accompanying the drawings, the "positive copers" used such metaphors as "I'm a happy rosebush", while the "negative copers" used words depicting death, loss, violence, neglect, hurt, and abandon-ment. Some exceptions were also noted. Two of the "positive copers" consistently indicated through the drawings and statements that they were dealing with some unresolved psychological pain, while two of the "negative copers" demonstrated c r e a t i v i t y and some d e f i n i t e psycholog- . i c a l strength. In summary, the q u a l i t a t i v e approach to analysing the data yielded more useful information than the quantitative approach and the findings indicate that the combination of the guided imagery, drawing, and post-drawing inquiry as a projective method can be a useful tool for elementary school counselling. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my gratitute to the chairman of my committee, Dr. J. Allan and to the other members Dr. N. Amundson and Dr. L. Cochran for their willingness to help and their encouragement. I would also l i k e to thank the children, the elementary school counsellor, the teachers, and the pr i n c i p a l s who very kindly became involved i n th i s research. My deepest appreciation i s expressed to my husband, Rodd, who supported me and helped me during the many hours spent on th i s study. I thank God for His amazing world and for the miracle of people. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES x i Chapter I. THE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Background t o the Problem 2 Statement o f the Problem 3 The D e l i m i t a t i o n s 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 D e l i n e a t i o n of the Research Problem 8 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 8 Summary of the Chapter 10 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 P r o j e c t i v e Techniques 12 D e f i n i t i o n of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques . . . 12 H i s t o r y of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques 17 Theory of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques 18 Advantages and Disadvantages of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques 21 Im p l i c a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n 24 Summary of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques 27 Guided Imagery As A P r o j e c t i v e Technique . . .28 D e f i n i t i o n of Guided Imagery 28 H i s t o r y of Guided Imagery 29 Theory of Guided Imagery 30 Advantages and Disadvantages of Guided Imagery 32 Im p l i c a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n 34 Summary of Guided Imagery 36 A r t C o u n s e l l i n g As A P r o j e c t i v e Technique . .36 D e f i n i t i o n of A r t C o u n s e l l i n g 36 H i s t o r y of A r t C o u n s e l l i n g 38 Theory of A r t C o u n s e l l i n g 41 Advantages and Disadvantages of A r t C o u n s e l l i n g 4 6 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n 53 Summary of A r t C o u n s e l l i n g 61 v i Chapter Page The Use of the Rosebush Intervention As A Projective Technique 62 Introduction 62 Rationale 62 Summary 64 III. METHODOLOGY 66 Overview 66 Statement of the Problem 66 Population and Sampling Procedures 67 Research Method Used For The Rosebush Intervention 69 Method of Analysis Used i n the Rosebush Intervention 7 0 Quantitative Analysis 71 Sorting Technique Done By Raters . . . . 71 Overview 71 Qualifications of the Raters . . . . 72 Rationale for the Sorting 7 3 Instructions for Rating 74 Qualitative Analysis 74 Overview 74 Rationale for the Qualitative Study . 74 Method of Qualitative Analysis . . . 75 Method of Art Analysis 7 5 Rhythm vs. Rule 7 6 Complexity vs. Simplexity 77 Expansion vs. Compression 77 Integration vs. Disintegration 78 Size of Rosebush 78 Colour Analysis . . . . . 79 Types of Rosebushes 7 9 Analysis of the Post-Drawing Inquiry . . 7 9 Summary of the Methodology Chapter 80 IV. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 81 Overview 81 Quantitative View of Data 81 Conclusions 82 v i i Chapter Page Results of the Raters 83 Results of the "Picture Only" Sort . . . 83 Discussion of the "Picture Only" Sort . . 8 3 Results of the "Statements Only" Sort . . 85 Discussion of the "Statements Only" Sort 85 Results of the "Pictures and Statements Combined" Sort 87 Discussion of the "Pictures and State-ments Combined" Sort 89 Comparison Between the Results of the Raters and the Perceptions of the Teacher and the Elementary School Counsellor 90 I n t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the Ratings 93 Summary of the Ratings 95 Qualitative Art Analysis 97 Overview 97 Method of Approaching the Drawing 98 The Method of Approaching the Drawing by the "Positive Copers" 98 The Method of Approaching the Drawing by the "Negative Copers" 99 Summary of Approaching the Drawing . . . 101 The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawing . . . . 101 The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings of the "Positive Copers" 101 The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings of the "Negative Copers" 101 Summary of the I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings . 102 Summary of Elkish's Categorizations 102 Results of Rhythm vs. Rule 102 "Positive Copers" 102 "Negative Copers" 102 Summary of Rhythm vs. Rule 104 Complexity vs. Simplexity 104 "Positive Copers" 104 "Negative Copers" 104 Summary of Complexity vs. Simplexity . . 105 Expansion vs. Compression 105 "Positive Copers" 105 ~ "Negative Copers" 105 Summary of Expansion vs. Compression . . 106 v i i i Chapter Page Integration vs. Disintegration 106 "Positive Copers" 106 "Negative Copers" 107 Summary of Integration vs. Disintegra-tion 108 Size of the Rosebush i n Relationship to the Rest of the Picture 108 "Positive Copers" . 109 "Negative Copers" 110 Summary of the Size of the Rosebush i n Relationship to the Rest of the Picture 112 Analysis of Colour 112 "Positive Copers" 113 "Negative Copers" 113 Summary of the Analysis of Colour . . . . 114 ' Types of Rosebushes 115 "Positive Copers" 115 "Negative Copers" 116 Summary of the Types of Rosebushes . . . 116 Summary of the Art Analysis 117 Analysis of the Statements 118 Question One 118 Rationale for the Question 118 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 119 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 121 Summary of the Responses to Question One 122 Question Two 123 Rationale for Question Two 123 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 123 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 123 Summary of the Responses to Question Two 124 Question Three 125 Rationale for Question Three 125 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 125 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 126 Summary of the Responses to Question Three 128 Question Four 128 Rationale for Question Four 128 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 128 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 130 Summary of the Responses to Question Four 131 ix Chapter Page Question Five 132 Rationale for Question Five 132 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 132 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 134 Summary of the Responses to Question Five 137 Question Six 138 Rationale for Question Six 138 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 139 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 140 Summary of the Responses to Question Six 141 Question Seven 141 Rationale for Question Seven 141 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 142 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 145 Summary of the Responses to Question Seven 152 Question Eight 152 Rationale for Question Eight 152 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 153 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 153 Summary of the Responses to Question Eight 154 Question Nine 154 Rationale for Question Nine . . . . . 154 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 155 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . . 157 Summary of the Responses to Question Nine 161 Question Ten 162 Rationale for Question Ten 162 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . . 163 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . .165 Summary of the Responses to Question Ten 168 Question Eleven 16 9 Rationale for Question Eleven . . . . 169 Responses of the "Positive Copers" . .16 9 Responses of the "Negative Copers" . .171 Summary of the Responses to Question Eleven 174 The Discrepancies Between the "Positive" and the "Negative Copers" 175 V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 179 Overview 17 9 The Quantitative Analysis 179 The Results From The Raters 180 X Page Art Analysis 182 Analysis of the Post-Drawing Inquiry . . . . 185 Question One: Self-Concept 18 5 Question Two: Flower 186 Question Three: Leaves 186 Question Four: Stems and Branches . . . 187 Question Five: Thorns . 187 Question Six: Roots 18 8 Question Seven: Environment 188 Question Eight: Resemblance of Drawing to Rosebush 189 Question Nine: Caretakers 189 Question Ten: Climate 190 Question Eleven: L i f e as a Rosebush . . 190 Summary, Conclusions, and Suggestions for Future Research 191 REFERENCES 194 APPENDICES A. Characteristics of the Subjects 204 B. The Rosebush: A Guided Fantasy 205 C. Post-Drawing Inquiry 208 D. Pictures Drawn During Rosebush Intervention . 209 E. Question One 216 F. Question Two 218 G. Question Three 219 H. Question Four 220 I. Question Five 221 J. Question Six 223 K. Question Seven 224 L. Question Eight 227 M. Question Nine 228 N. Question Ten 230 0. Question Eleven 232 x i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 4.1 Presence or Absence of Flowers i n the Pictures Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 81 4.2 Presence or Absence of Leaves i n the Pictures Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 81 4.3 Presence or Absence of Thorns i n the Pictures Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 82 4.4 Presence or Absence of Stems i n the Pictures Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test . 82 4.5 Presence or Absence of Roots i n the Pictures Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 82 4.6 The "Picture Only" Sort 84 4.7 The "Statement Only" Sort . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4.8 The "Picture and Statement Combined" Sort . . . 88 4.9 Comparison Between the Results of the Raters and the Perceptions 91 4.10 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Picture Only" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 93 4.11 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Statement Only" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test 94 4.12 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Pictures and Statements Combined" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test . . 94 1 PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES WITH CHILDREN: ASSESSMENT THROUGH GUIDED IMAGERY, DRAWING, AND POST-DRAWING INQUIRY CHAPTER ONE THE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Introduction The elementary school of today i s more than a place for academic learning. As well as having a varied c u r r i c u l a which aims to meet the c h i l d on the appropriate cognitive l e v e l , the school functions as a melting pot where children o f - d i f f e r e n t cultures and family backgrounds merge and develop s o c i a l l y . The elementary school i s often the f i r s t place, outside the home, where children are confronted with a variety of emotions and c o n f l i c t s and begin to explore d i f -ferent strategies to help them deal with the problems. Consequently, the classroom i s transforming from a place of cognitive learning, to an environment which explores both the cognitive and a f f e c t i v e areas that the children experi-ence. The learning environment either depreciates or i s endorsed according to the general mood of the class. The class members, the teacher, and the learning atmosphere are a l l affected by the wide range of emotions and attitudes. For some children, school i s a cold, h o s t i l e place, where they fe e l alienated and alone. For others, school i s a refuge from a d i f f i c u l t home environment, and for others, school provides a'stimulating learning environment. As the need increases to include affec t i v e learning i n 2 the classroom, more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s placed upon the elem-entary school c o u n s e l l o r to suggest programs, to provide more s e r v i c e s , and to take on l a r g e r case l o a d s . The elementary school c o u n s e l l o r i s regarded as a person who has a l l the answers and has a v a r i e t y of techniques on hand t h a t w i l l s o l v e any problems that may occur. As the teachers focus more upon the c o u n s e l l o r to a l l e v i a t e a problematic s i t u a t i o n i n the classroom, f r u s t r a t i o n and a l o s s of confidence occur when the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r does not s a t i s f y the i n c r e a s i n g demands. F i n a l l y the teachers give up, the c h i l -dren continue to s t r u g g l e with t h e i r emotional t u r m o i l , and the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r f e e l s overwhelmed.. Background to the Problem D i f f e r e n t types of p e r s o n a l i t y assessment have been developed over the years to help c o u n s e l l o r s understand c h i l -dren b e t t e r and to help p r e d i c t f u t u r e behaviour (Muro and Dinkmeyer, 1977). The d i f f e r e n t ways t o assess p e r s o n a l i t y i n c l u d e f i n d i n g out what the c h i l d says about h i m s e l f , what others say about him, and by observing the c h i l d ' s behaviour i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g (Muro and Dinkmeyer, 1977). Current assessments of p e r s o n a l i t y are e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e (such as the J u n i o r Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory and the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y ) , or p r o j e c t i v e (such as s e r i a l drawing, sentence completion, and the C h i l d r e n ' s Apperception T e s t ) . In both cases, however, some type of p e r s o n a l i t y assessment i s u s e f u l f o r the c o u n s e l l o r i n order to meet the needs of the school personnel, and to o b t a i n some information on the c h i l d , before proceeding with a course of action (Keat, 1974). The viewpoint of the author i s that action should not be preceded by stocktaking. That i s , one does not b l i n d l y plunge ahead to change things, with a paucity of information. Instead one pro-ceeds from a background of knowledge about the c h i l d (Keat, 1974, p.19). Personality assessment can either be made formally, using objective tests, or through a structured interview for mat, which w i l l use a combination of objective techniques, where children can symbolically portray their inner world. What i s important i s that the school counsellor needs a technique that w i l l i d e n t i f y emotional problems and help b u i l d a warm f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship with the c h i l d . Com-bining projective techniques with a structured interview i s an intervention which w i l l combine a meaningful counselling experience for the c h i l d with an appropriate personality assessment for the counsellor (Amundson, 1978). Often with children a discussion about th e i r problems i in e f f e c t i v e because they are unable to c l e a r l y express their thoughts and feelings i n words (Klepsch and Logie, 1982). Consequently, the use of projective techniques i s ef f e c t i v e with children, because projective techniques can i l l u s t r a t e quite successfully the inner world of the c h i l d . Statement of the Problem With the increasing expectations placed upon the school 4 counsellor, a simple, yet ef f e c t i v e intervention i s needed that w i l l help the counsellor to evaluate which children would benefit most from counselling. The intervention needs to provide some type of personality assessment that w i l l focus on the child's problem areas. This study proposes that an intervention which combines guided imagery, drawing, and a post-drawing inquiry would be a sa t i s f y i n g design for per-sonality assessment. The proposed intervention consists of three elements, which are these: guided imagery, drawing, and a post-drawing inquiry. The study w i l l discuss the theoretical framework from which the intervention i s derived, how the intervention i s used, and how ef f e c t i v e the intervention i s as a person-a l i t y assessment t o o l . Guided imagery and drawing are both examples of projec-tiv e techniques. Projective techniques can be useful strate-gies to use with elementary school children because the children can often present c r i t i c a l psychological issues with which they are struggling i n a non-threatening way (Rabin, 1960). One non-threatening projective technique i s guided imagery. Guided imagery helps the c h i l d to relax and to focus on a s p e c i f i c image. The image i s designed to evoke some type of af f e c t from the c h i l d . The affect can then be projected. One way of projecting the affect i s through drawing. Drawing has long been used as a projective technique (Levick, 5 198 3) because art i s a p i c t o r i a l language and can quite e f f e c t i v e l y express the inner c o n f l i c t s and confusion that the c h i l d i s experiencing (Klepsch and Logie, 1982). Guided imagery and drawing w i l l be used as a part of the intervention that w i l l be examined i n t h i s study. A t h i r d technique i s also used:-a post-drawing inquiry. The post-drawing inquiry seeks to assimilate the ef f e c t s of the guided imagery and the drawing a c t i v i t y on the c h i l d . As well, i t focuses on the symbolism that i s projected into the drawing, that may indicate the inner c o n f l i c t s and feelings that the c h i l d i s experiencing. The purpose of thi s study i s to observe how e f f e c t i v e such an intervention would be for tapping into areas of emo-t i o n a l concern, how the c h i l d w i l l react to t h i s method, and how i t can be used for personality assessment. The rosebush was chosen as the stimulus to use i n the guided imagery and drawing. In the work that Oaklander (197 8) presented on the rosebush, she observed that the rosebush intervention brought out some issues i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e that had previously remained hidden. Through her description of the children's reaction to the rosebush intervention, i t appeared that the rosebush could e l i c i t useful diagnostic imagery, which would lead to the formation of some type of personality assessment. Consequently, the guided imagery centers on the rosebush, and asks the c h i l d to v i s u a l i z e him or herself as a rosebush. From there, the c h i l d i s directed to draw a picture of a rosebush, based upon his or her 6 experience during the guided imagery. F i n a l l y , the c h i l d i s interviewed by the researcher, as though he or she was the rosebush. Each step of the intervention helps to further i n t e n s i f y the child's experience as being a rosebush. Using the same rationale as the one used by Bolander (1977) for pro-jected tree drawings, i t i s believed that the rosebush w i l l evoke the c h i l d ' s inner experiences and feelings, and that the c h i l d w i l l be able to talk metaphorically about his or her own personal issues. The purpose of t h i s study i s to observe to what extent projective techniques can e l i c i t useful diagnostic imagery, how e f f e c t i v e this intervention i s as a tool for personality assessment, and how b e n e f i c i a l i t would be to incorporate t h i s intervention into the coun-s e l l o r ' s repertoire of s k i l l s . The Delimitations The e f f e c t of the proposed technique w i l l be evaluated through comparing the results of the rosebush intervention between ten children who are defined as being "positive copers" and ten children who are defined as being "negative copers". The children w i l l be i n an elementary school, enrolled i n a grade four, f i v e , or six class, and w i l l range i n age from nine to twelve years. This study w i l l concentrate on the effectiveness of the intervention i n establishing protocols which i d e n t i f y a need for counselling. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Art therapy. The. term refers to the use of art i n a thera-peutic setting. When used this way, by trained counsellors, 7 art "has the a b i l i t y to gain access to unexpressed thoughts, feelings and reactions" (Burgess and Holmstrom, 1979, pp. 294-295). Drawing. Drawing i s one form of art therapy. It i s the directed art experience which w i l l be focused on i n the study. The goal of the drawing i s to explore how the person i s able to project thoughts, symbols and images which are a part of the inner world of the c l i e n t . Inner World. The inner world i s the part of the c l i e n t which i s not seen or apparent to others, and parts of which may even be unknown to the c l i e n t . The inner world i s affec-t i v e i n nature, f u l l of thoughts, feelings, images and symbols which are largely ignored or repressed (Jung, 1965). Projective Technique. Lindzey (1961) defines a projective technique as "an instrument that i s considered especially sensitive to covert or unconscious aspects of behaviour, i t permits or encourages a wide variety of subject responses, i s highly multi-dimensional, and i t evokes unusually r i c h and profuse data" (Rabin, 1981, p.11). In short, a projective technique provides the f a c i l i t a t o r with some c l i n i c a l i n t u i -t i o n concerning the inner world of the c l i e n t . "Positive Coper". A "positive coper" i s a c h i l d who demon-strates signs of well-adjustment i n the classroom, who i s working at an appropriate developmental l e v e l and who in t e r -acts appropriately with his or her peers. The "positive coper" i s determined by the observations of the elementary school counsellor and the classroom teacher (Shafter and 8 Shoben (1956). "Negative Coper". The "negative coper" i s defined as being a c h i l d who i s not working at an appropriate developmental l e v e l and who displays acting out behaviour or withdraws from his or her peers. The "negative coper" i s determined by the observations of the elementary school counsellor and the regular classroom teacher (Shafter and Shoben, 1956) . Delineation of the Research Problem This study hopes to determine protocols for assessing individuals who may require counselling. The drawing and the post-drawing inquiry are designed to promote a greater under-standing of the c l i e n t ' s inner world and to discover the inner c o n f l i c t s and turmoils that the c l i e n t i s experiencing. Through the investigation, i t i s hoped that some hypotheses and tentative conclusions can be formed which w i l l aid the r. school counsellor i n making assessments about children i n the classroom. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study Projective techniques which are designed to assess the inner c o n f l i c t and turmoil of the c l i e n t are many. Test results are standardized and norms are established to deter-mine the c l i e n t ' s status. As well, great care i s taken to convince the c l i e n t that the test i s to determine the c l i e n t ' s creative a b i l i t y and the r e a l purpose of the test i s not d i s -closed (Rabin, 1981). The technique proposed for t h i s study i s handled quite d i f f e r e n t l y . In order to conceive the dynamics of the c l i e n t ' s inner 9 world, the f a c i l i t a t o r must work together with the c l i e n t . The c l i e n t needs to f e e l at ease. The environment must be non-threatening. The guided imagery p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e l a x and concentrate on c e r t a i n s t i m u l i . The drawing permits the c l i e n t to c o n c r e t e l y express what he experienced during the guided imagery, and the post-drawing i n q u i r y p r o v i d e s a time of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and an examination of the c l i e n t ' s r e a c t i o n to the t e s t i n g experience. T h i s study i s important because i t o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e to more formal ways of a s s e s s i n g the c l i e n t ' s needs. The drawing i s symbolic of the c l i e n t ' s i n n e r world and p r o v i d e s the f a c i l i t a t o r with a glimpse of the dynamics t h a t have taken p l a c e . The post-drawing i n q u i r y f u r t h e r explores the a r t experience and seeks to connect the v i s u a l experience with the c l i e n t ' s emotional p e r s p e c t i v e . Through the drawing and the i n t e r v i e w , p r o t o c o l s w i l l then begin to form which c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e the d e c i s i o n about which c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t most from c o u n s e l l i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r chose to use t h i s technique r a t h e r than using another drawing technique such as the House-Tree-Person Test (Hammer, 1960) or the Draw-A-Person Test (Mach-over, 1949) because t h i s technique i s simple to administer,, r e q u i r e s few m a t e r i a l s , and y i e l d s i n t e n s e r e s u l t s . The guided imagery and drawing i s based on a rosebush, which i s a non-threatening stimulus and whose s t r u c t u r e i s not as r i g i d l y d e f i n e d as i s a house, t r e e , or person. As i t i s a l e s s r i g i d form, the c h i l d i s f r e e r to express h i s v i s u a l s t y l e . Both V i o l e t Oaklander (1978)' and John Stevens (1977) have discovered s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n using t h i s technique. U n l i k e other p r o j e c t i v e drawing techniques, t h i s t e c h n i -que f i r s t allows the c h i l d to r e l a x and get i n touch w i t h h i s inner world by concentrating on one s p e c i f i c image. A f t e r v i s u a l i z i n g the image, the c h i l d draws i t . In the post-drawing i n q u i r y , the c h i l d t a l k s as though he i s the drawing. Consequently, the drawing experience i s i n t e n s i f i e d , r i c h data i s accumulated, and the experience becomes more than an e x e r c i s e i n drawing. The study w i l l be meaningful to elementary school coun-s e l l o r s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n using a p r o j e c t i v e technique with a c l i e n t which w i l l promote self-understanding and a i d i n p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. Summary of the Chapter This chapter sought to provide an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the issue of p e r s o n a l i t y assessment i n elementary schools. The chapter discussed the d i f f e r e n t types of p e r s o n a l i t y assess-ment that are a v a i l a b l e and e s t a b l i s h e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r using a p e r s o n a l i t y assessment which combines guided imagery, drawing, and a post-drawing i n q u i r y . The stimulus chosen f o r the guided imagery i s the rose-bush based upon the w r i t i n g s of Oaklander (1978) and Stevens (1977) . The review of the l i t e r a t u r e chapter w i l l provide a d e t a i l e d account of the i n f l u e n c e of p r o j e c t i v e techniques i n p e r s o n a l i t y assessment, elaborate upon guided imagery, and 11 di-scuss art counselling as a projective technique. The methodology chapter w i l l elaborate on how to use the techni-ques of guided imagery, drawing, and a post-drawing inquiry. Following t h i s , the results of the study w i l l be presented and some conclusions w i l l be developed. < CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study i s presented using two d i f f e r e n t formats. The f i r s t s e c t i o n uses a sequen-t i a l format beginning with p r o j e c t i v e techniques, and then f o c u s i n g on two p r o j e c t i v e techniques: guided imagery and a r t c o u n s e l l i n g . Each of these components w i l l be looked at c a t e g o r i c a l l y . The c a t e g o r i e s under which the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be explored are.these: d e f i n i t i o n , h i s t o r y , theory, advantages and disadvantages, i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n , and summary. The second format used i n reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e i s concept o r i e n t e d and w i l l focus on the reasons f o r choosing the rosebush as the symbol f o r the study. By u s i n g both formats, i t i s hoped t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c a r e f u l l y explored a c c o r d i n g to the volume of i n f o r -mation t h a t has been c o l l e c t e d . P r o j e c t i v e Techniques  D e f i n i t i o n of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques The term " p r o j e c t i v e technique" comes from the word " p r o j e c t i o n " , which Freud o r i g i n a l l y developed. Freud d e f i n e d p r o j e c t i o n as "an unconscious process i n which the i n d i v i d u a l u n c o n s c i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e s to e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are not i n t e g r a l l y a p a r t of those o b j e c t s " (Hutt, 1954, p.138). P r o j e c t i o n was a l s o l i n k e d to ego defense mechanisms. Other authors expanded the term projection to include the idea that both positive and nega-tive emotions could be expressed (Bolander, 1977). However, for the most part, projection was defined as being the interaction between inner processes and the environment (Amundson, Freud developed the concept of projection i n order to describe psychopathological attributes of schizophrenic patients. It was Jung who discovered that: . . . "normal" as well as disturbed persons tend to project onto others or onto the world around them constellations from both the personal and the impersonal unconscious which have not yet been assimilated into consciousness. In other terms, we may assume that when an inner attitude or archetype i s projected and experienced by the individual as "coming from" an object or situation "outside" the s e l f , the individual i s not aware that these materials r e a l l y "belong" to the inner world (Bolander, 1977, p.15). Projection i s a defense mechanism used to keep the inner s e l f from being hurt. An individual projects onto someone or something else what he or she i s experiencing, because he or she cannot accept the fact that these feelings are a part of the s e l f (Oaklander, 1978). However, just as projection has negative aspects, i t also has positive aspects. Oaklander (1978) states that projection i s the basis for a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . "Since our projections come from inside us, from our own experiences, from what we know and care about, they t e l l a l o t about our sense of s e l f " (Oaklander, 1978, p.193). The concept of projective techniques emerges from pro-jec t i o n . Projective techniques are defined as being the link between the individual's inner and outer worlds. Pro-jec t i v e techniques are designed to bring out the organizing pr i n c i p l e s of the individual's personality (Rapaport, 1952). The feelings, attitudes and b e l i e f s that the individual has developed for him or herself, either consciously or uncon-sciously, become a part of the individual's "inner world". Projective techniques externalize the inner processes. "Projective techniques, i t i s claimed, provide the avenue by which material i s 'projected 1, which i n ordinary l i f e experi-ence never becomes projected externally but remains enclosed i n the personal l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l " (Zubin, 1965, p.7). The inner world also "contains the ego controls, and the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of withdrawal, tension-building, wish-f u l f i l l m e n t , and denial (Reichard, 1956). The processes of the inner world are brought to the surface through the help of projective techniques, which employ a variety of ambiguous sti m u l i . A projective technique i s an instrument that i s considered especially sensitive to covert or unconscious aspects of behavior, i t permits or encourages a wide variety of subject responses, i s highly multi-dimensional, and i t evokes unusually r i c h and profuse response data with a minimum of subject awareness concerning the purpose of the t e s t (Rabin, 1981, p.11). P r o j e c t i v e techniques were u s e f u l f o r t h e i r p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t i e s and f o r p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. This study i s concerned w i t h p r o j e c t i v e techniques as t o o l s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. Consequently, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y can be e f f e c t i v e l y assessed through p r o j e c t i v e techniques. "The e s s e n t i a l feature of a p r o j e c t i v e technique i s that i t evokes from the subject what i s i n various ways expressive of h i s p r i v a t e world and p e r s o n a l i t y process" (Rabin, 1981, p.10). Perhaps one of the b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n s of p r o j e c t i v e techniques i s the one written-by Murphy (1947): The term p r o j e c t i v e methods has come i n t o general use i n recent years to denote the devices that enable the subject to p r o j e c t himself i n a planned s i t u a t i o n . He sees i n i t what he p e r s o n a l l y i s disposed to see, or does w i t h i t what he i s per-s o n a l l y disposed to do. We are i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y not i n the q u a n t i t y of production, as i n an educa-t i o n a l t e s t , but i n what he i n d i r e c t l y t e l l s us about himself through h i s manner of c o n f r o n t i n g the task. A l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods i n v o l v e some p r o j e c t i o n i n the sense t h a t a person reveals himself i n whatever he does. One may put l i t t l e , or much, of one's s e l f i n t o a production thus the 16 carpenter projects himself when he makes a door-s i l l , and to a much greater degree when he makes a boat. The Allport-Vernon methods are i n some degree projective, the graphological methods s t i l l more so, and the interpretation of ink blots perhaps most projective of a l l . There i s a con-tinuum of self-expression or self-p r o j e c t i o n , from the s l i g h t r e f l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n r a p i d - f i r e mechanical utterance of the "opposites" to words l i k e black or heavy, up to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of one's s e l f with a character in a stage production. Since there i s a continuum, the d e f i n i t i o n i s for convenience only. We s h a l l include under projection a l l those methods i n which the individual has f u l l opportunity to l i v e empathetically, that i s , i n terms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the material presented to him. But we agree that there i s some degree of empathic s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i n a much wider variety of methods than we s h a l l describe; that some i n d i v i -duals r e a l i z e themselves empathically i n some materials which are handled rather mechanically by others; and that a method may be exceedingly projec-t i v e for a person today, but only s l i g h t l y so tomorrow (Murphy, 1947, p.669). In short, projective techniques can be defined as being idiosyncratic and revelatory i n nature (Amundson, 1 ^ ^ - ) . 17 H i s t o r y of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques Freud developed the concept of p r o j e c t i o n i n the 1890's when he was i n v e s t i g a t i n g neuroses and introduced t h i s term i n 1894 i n a paper e n t i t l e d "The Anxiety Neurosis". P r o j e c -t i o n was more f u l l y e l a b o r a t e d i n 18 96 i n a paper e n t i t l e d "On the Defense Neuropsychoses". From the r e , the term pro-j e c t i o n gained p o p u l a r i t y as d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s were developed. Rorschach began h i s work on i n k b l o t s before World War I. The term " p r o j e c t i v e techniques" became more popular i n the 1920's when c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s began to develop d i f f e r -ent t e s t s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. In 1926 Goodenough developed her Draw A Man t e s t , which l e d to Machover's Draw A Person t e s t i n 1949 (Bolander, 1977). With the advent of World War I I , more p r o j e c t i v e techniques were developed to provide a p p r o p r i a t e assessment f o r m i l i t a r y personnel s e l e c -t i o n . Techniques such as the Word A s s o c i a t i o n Test and the Thematic Apperception Test were developed a t t h a t time. A g r e a t amount of l i t e r a t u r e was w r i t t e n on p r o j e c t i v e techniques d u r i n g the 1950's, and many t e s t s were developed. Since t h a t time, however, many c r i t i c i s m s have been made and p r o j e c t i v e techniques have l o s t much of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y because the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s were not given to the c l i e n t s . As p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i n g f o l l o wed the medical model, the examiner was deemed to be the "expert" and i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t any i n f o r m a t i o n given to the c l i e n t would be harmful. Only the expert needed to know what inner c o n f l i c t s the c l i e n t was experiencing. Theory of Projective Techniques The theory upon which projective techniques has been developed i s based upon projective psychology. Psychoanalysis has been a major reservoir of theoretical conceptions underlying projective techniques. To mention but a few: the emphasis on personality as a dynamic process; the i n s i s t -ence on the importance of unconsciously motivated behaviour; a t t r i b u t i n g to c o n f l i c t a central role i n understanding personality; the description of personality both as a depth as well as a surface phenomenon; the adherence to a genetic view of individual personality; and the emphasis on the role of the ego i n psychopathology (Holzberg, 1954, p.420). A projective psychology provides an opportunity for a more creative and imaginative way of observing human person a l i t y (Frank, 1960). Projective psychology i s defined as being h o l i s t i c i n i t s approach. Hence the projective point of view employs a h o l i s t i c outlook i n which behaviour i n a p a r t i -cular modality of expression i s studied within the matrix of the whole personality and must be understood i n relationship to a l l other behavioural expressions of the i n d i v i d u a l . The projective productions of individuals are therefore to be regarded merely as parts of a whole (Abt, 1959, p. 37) . In projective psychology, personality i s seen as a process which continues to develop from b i r t h to death. The individual organizes his experiences i n terms of the physical and s o c i a l r e a l i t y of his changing world (Abt, 1959). Thus, projective techniques are established to study as many per-sonality variables as possible and to provide a series of s i g n i f i c a n t descriptive statements, which w i l l assess the individual's personality development. Ego development plays a major part i n projective psy-chology. Ego regression permits a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y to emerge. Bellak (1959) states that i n studying the way an i n d i v i -dual interacts with the environment, not only i s the ego studied, but as well the in t e r a c t i o n a l drives of the i d are studied, the forces of the superego and how the ego integrates the whole process. Levick (1983) provides the following d e f i n i t i o n s of i d , ego, and superego. In analysis, the ego i s perceived as the "seat of observation", and one of the goals of analysis i s to explore the contents, boundaries, and functions of the ego. It i s the ego through which knowledge of the i d and superego i s obtained. Id derivatives become apparent only when i n s t i n c t u a l impulses are not g r a t i f i e d through transformations and feelings of tension and unpleasure are f e l t . In well-adapted individuals, boundaries between ego and superego are not eas i l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (Levick, 1983, p.18). It i s important to study the relationship between the forces of the i d , the ego, and the superego as they interact with outer r e a l i t y . " It permits us to understand the mani-fes t outcome of the struggle of these forces and to make some predictions about the s t a b i l i t y of future movement of their equilibrium" (Bellak, 1959, p.11). Consequently, the value of projective techniques stems from the study of ego defenses and of character formation. It i s believed that because of the ambiguous stimuli of projective techniques, projective techniques can reach into the deeper layers of personality, and e l i c i t responses which w i l l r e f l e c t repressed unconscious feelings and moti-vations, which the individual either could not or would not express openly. Furthermore, the responses are r i c h i n content and responses are o r i g i n a l (Bolander, 1977). Lindzey (1961) elaborates on the theory of projective techniques by stating that projective techniques e l i c i t a d i v e r s i t y of responses which manifest both overt and covert behaviours: A projective technique i s an instrument that i s considered especially sensitive to covert or un-conscious aspects of behaviour, i t permits or encourages a wide variety of subject responses, i s multi-dimensional, and i t evokes unusually r i c h or profuse data with a minimum of subject awareness concerning the purpose of the test. Further, i t i s very often true that the stimulus material presented by the projective test i s ambiguous, interpreters of the test depend upon h o l i s t i c 1 analysis, the test evokes fantasy responses, and there are no correct or incorrect responses to the test (Lindzey, 1961, p.45). Advantages and Disadvantages of Projective Techniques Projective techniques are designed to provide new insight or information about the c l i e n t . They are designed to provide material which would otherwise be inaccessible because of the individual's conscious control over i t (Kass, 1956). Projective techniques provide useful hypotheses and questions that can be formed that may help to explain an individual's behaviour. The advantages of projective techni-ques are that the stimuli i s non-threatening and the i n d i v i -dual's responses are accepted unquestioningly. As well, projective techniques are used as a tool i n personality assessment, and a better sense of what i s happening to the individual can be determined. However, at the same time, many cri t i c i s m s of projective techniques have been voiced. F i r s t of a l l , Singer (1963) suggests that i t i s impor-tant to c l a r i f y the individual's self-perceptions, and to use them while interpreting the results of the projective techniques. Forer (1961) further c l a i n s that there i s a need to be more aware of the c l i e n t ' s interaction with the envi-ronment and the relationship between the external stimuli and stimuli from within the organism. Goldstein (1961) feels that a d i s t i n c t disadvantage of projective techniques i s the variety of assumptions that have been made, that have not been f u l l y tested. Some of the assumptions are that the individual reveals c o n f l i c t s when performing an unstructured task, s i m i l a r i t y i n themes i n d i -cate where the i n d i v i d u a l feels the c o n f l i c t s , and that the more unstructure there i s , the more unconscious and dynamic material w i l l be e l i c i t e d . Goldstein encourages the researcher to consider i f projective techniques r e f l e c t momentary or enduring personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and do projective techniques succeed i n obtaining unconscious material that would otherwise remain unreachable. Deutsch (1954) states that i n order to make an effec-t i v e personality assessment, i t i s important to consider the context i n which the projective technique i s explored. Too often, interpretations of projective tests are faulty because they do not take into consideration the s o c i a l context i n terms of which the subject i s responding or they are meaningless because they do not specify the implications of the test results for the subjects's behaviour i n specified s o c i a l situations (Deutsch, 1954, p.434). Klopfer (1981) cautions the researcher to have a con-structive purpose for administering projective techniques and to make sure the results w i l l be helpful to the i n d i v i d u a l . By t h e i r very nature, projective methods e l i c i t material that the individual might not be w i l l i n g to reveal about himself i f he had more complete conscious control over what he was communicating; therefore, we are deliberately attempting to get under his guard, reach inside of his character armour, and tease out aspects of his personality. Sometimes we may be putting ourselves against his conscious w i l l (Klopfer, 1981, p.234). Klopfer (1981) also states that there i s a tendency to generalize the findings and contends that i t i s important to examine other sources of information. He regards projective techniques as " c l i n i c a l detective work" and feels that the best way to find out what an individual thinks i s to ask him. Singer (1981) urges the researcher to use discretion when administering projective techniques. Rather than ask "What w i l l schizophrenics and neurotics do on my new 'Draw-A-Nose t e s t 1 ? " the investigator ought better to consider what underlying psychological process needs measure-ment and then choose or devise his instruments accordingly (Singer, 1981, p.325). Amundson (191X) urges that projective techniques be used for the purpose of establishing structured interviews rather than as diagnostic assessment. Thus, an advantage of projec-tive techniques ,is that i t can be used to i n i t i a l l y develop a focus and to ease the tension between the counsellor and the c l i e n t . The use of t h i s type of approach helps c l i e n t and counsellor become more concrete about the issues to be dealt with i n counselling. In instances where the 'real' problem i s something other than what i s i n i t i a l l y presented, i t allows the counsellor and c l i e n t to e f f i c i e n t l y establish the parameters for further counselling. The concrete task orientation also seems to help establish a more positive working r e l a t i o n -ship. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n situations where the c l i e n t i s not very verbal (Amundson, , pp. 18-19) . Consequently, i t i s important to think through the re-search problem before i n i t i a t i n g a variety of projective techniques. Projective techniques can be e f f e c t i v e , but only i f they are used correctly. Implications for Children Projective techniques r e f l e c t the language of images, which i s the speech of the unconscious, and i s a more d i r e c t mode of personal communication than words (Naumberg, 1973). Projective techniques can reveal the distorted and repressed aspects of personality i n childhood (Naumberg, 1973). Projec-t i v e techniques can also f a c i l i t a t e communication and bring about greater understanding of what the c h i l d thinks and fe e l s . In the treatment of c h i l d r e n , p r o j e c t i v e tech-niques become even more important than with a d u l t s , because c h i l d r e n are l e s s able to express t h e i r thoughts and f e e l i n g s i n words and are c l o s e r to the more p r i m i t i v e expression of themselves through the language of images and play (Naumberg, 1973, p.52). S i g e l (1960) s t a t e s t h a t the phenomenon of p r o j e c t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n i s d i f f e r e n t than w i t h a d u l t s . C h i l d r e n see r e a l i t y i n many ways, and much depends upon the amount of e perience they have been exposed t o , the amount of knowledge that they have acquired, and t h e i r v e r b a l a b i l i t y . Rabin (196 0) f u r t h e r reminds us tha t the ego and character of a c h i l d are not f u l l y developed or s t a b l e . Consequently, the e f f e c t s of p r o j e c t i v e techniques on c h i l d r e n are not under-stood very w e l l . The ego evolves r a t h e r g r a d u a l l y from an un-d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t e to high l e v e l s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l environments as a r e s u l t of the constant i n t e r p l a y of l e a r n i n g and maturational pro-cesses. Development of the various ego func-t i o n s i s o f t e n s a l t a t o r y . Moreover, there i s oft e n a lack of age-appropriateness i n some func t i o n s as compared w i t h others. E a r l i e r l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t along with l a t e r ones. Such a f l u i d s t a t e i n ego development d i c t a t e s considerable caution i n e v a l u a t i o n , diagnosis and p r e d i c t i o n (Rabin, 1960, p.5). Rabin (1960) goes on to say t h a t the emphasis i n doing p r o j e c t i v e techniques depends upon the maturity of the c h i l d . "The very nature of the task with which a c h i l d i s presented, and the response demands that are made upon him, are to no small degree dependant upon the age l e v e l and/or l e v e l or ego development i n the c h i l d " (Rabin, 1960, p.9). The pro-j e c t i v e techniques that allow the c h i l d to be expressive provide the most i n s i g h t i n t o the inner world of the c h i l d , give clues to the process of ego formation and i n d i c a t e i f c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s o c c u r r i n g . Altman (1960) s t a t e s s t r o n g l y that i n assessing p r o j e c -t i v e techniques done wi t h c h i l d r e n , i t i s important to i n t e g r a t e d i a g n o s t i c evaluations w i t h developmental concepts. " P r i m a r i l y , the c h i l d ' s best productions must always be viewed i n the l i g h t of h i s r e l a t i v e l a c k of s t a b i l i t y , r a p i d i t y of change, l a c k of c l e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n d i -v i d u a t i o n , and the occurrence of sudden changes at c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l stages" (Altman, 1960, p.333). As w e l l , i t i s important to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t the developmental process v a r i e s from c h i l d to c h i l d , and i s p a r t i a l l y depen-dent upon age and maturation. Furthermore, u p s e t t i n g or unusual experiences w i l l have a potent e f f e c t on the c h i l d ' s outcome of the p r o j e c t i v e techniques. C r a n d a l l (1956) suggests that imagination and ingenuity are needed to change and adapt p r o j e c t i v e techniques to meet 27 the ever-changing needs of children. In order to use pro-jective techniques for personality assessment, Crandall states that the following question must be asked: (a) Does the technique e l i c i t behaviour r e l e -vant to the problem under investigation from a l l ages of children studied? (b) At what le v e l of expression i s this behaviour e l i c i t e d ? (c) Is there an adequate sampling of th i s behaviour to insure s t a b i l i t y of measurement? (d) Is the range of th i s behaviour s u f f i c i e n t to allow inter-subject and intra-subject v a r i a b i l i t y ? At the moment, few of these questions can be answered i n respect to existing methods of personality assessment" (Crandall, 1956, p.253). Consequently, despite the disadvantages that are l i s t e d i n the previous section, projective techniques can be potent tools for personality assessment of children, providing that there i s an awareness of the developmental l e v e l of the c h i l d , and the r e a l i z a t i o n that the child' s ego i s not fixed, but i n a state of "becoming". Summary of Projective Techniques There i s a vast amount written on projective techniques. The l i t e r a t u r e has included many d i f f e r e n t ideas and approaches, but the underlying philosophy has not changed much. Essen-t i a l l y , projective techniques were developed i n order to f a c i l i t a t e personality assessment. The philosophy supporting the theory of projective techniques was based upon an ego psychology, which Freud began, and other researchers changed and adapted. Projective techniques gained th e i r popularity during and just after World War I I , when i t was necessary to develop ef f e c t i v e means for making personality assessments with m i l i t a r y personnel. Many tests were developed and norms were established. Projective techniques are s t i l l being used, however, the emphasis seems to no longer be on eval-uating the person according to the norm. Projective techniques are now being used to further understand the i n d i -vidual's inner world. This paper w i l l now examine the l i t e r a t u r e on drawing and guided imagery and how they can be used as projective techniques which tap into the i n d i v i d u a l 1 s inner world. Guided Imagery As a Projective Technique  D e f i n i t i o n of Guided Imagery There have been several d i f f e r e n t terms used for guided imagery i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Some of the terms are "guided fantasy", "affective guided imagery", and "directed daydream technique". Guided imagery i s c l a s s i f i e d as a projective technique because i t taps into the inner world of the i n d i v i -dual. Guided imagery i s used to encourage a free-flow of symbolic, uncensored communication, to a l l e v i a t e impasses, to f a c i l i t a t e emotional expression, to focus more deeply on issues that are important to the s e l f , and to develop a deeper awareness of how the individual interacts with the world around him (Kelly, 1972) . The term imagery implies thinking i n pictures. Like art counselling, guided imagery t r i e s to e l i c i t pictures of the unconscious (Naumberg, 197 3). The term guided imagery implies that the imagery i s controlled, contrary to daydreaming or "pretending". In guided imagery, a s p e c i f i c image i s developed and given to the i n d i v i d u a l . One of the f i r s t steps, then, i n the use of imagery i n therapy i s that the therapist, by c a l l i n g attention to the importance of private processes, dreams, fantasies and by noting the p o s s i b i l i t y that imagery can be used as a resource i n the treatment, opens up a dimension that has been glimpsed only b r i e f l y by many patients i n the past (Singer, 1974, p.249). Thus, guided imagery can open up new doors and provide a r i c h and meaningful experience for an individual who i s seeking to bring harmony between his inner and outer world. History of Guided Imagery Like other projective techniques, guided imagery got i t s star t from a psychoanalytic perspective. Freud used hypnosis and observed the emotional catharsis that took place. The imagery used i n hypnosis generated the b i r t h of guided imag-ery. Freud discovered how an image could change the emotions and thoughts of an individual and bring about catharsis (Singer, 1974). Other people soon began to discover the ef f e c t of guided imagery. Jung used images as an evaluative tool for both himself and for his patients. Hume (1912) was struck by the vividness i n imagery, and i n 1922, Binet encouraged the use of imagery with the eyes closed. Schultz (1932, 1959) f i r s t developed an autogenic training technique, and then l a t e r , was responsible for developing muscular relaxation. Robert Desoille, a French psychotherapist, and Hanscarl Leuner, a German p s y c h i a t r i s t , are c h i e f l y responsible for the development of guided imagery. Desoille and Leuner dev-eloped guided imagery as a means of as s i s t i n g t h e i r c l i e n t s to achieve more s a t i s f y i n g ways of functioning, to develop their insight and t h e i r awareness, and to help them be more self-accepting (Kelly, 1972). From the early development of guided imagery through a psychoanalytic perspective, guided imagery i s used i n a wide variety of ways. Some of the ways that guided imagery i s being currently employed include career planning (Morgan and Skovholt, 1977), h o l i s t i c healing (Brown, 1974), and i n schools (Anderson, 1980) . Theory of Guided Imagery Like art counselling, ego psychology can be applied to guided imagery. It i s believed that as the individual relaxes, defense mechanisms are lowered, there i s less resistance, and the individual can more c l e a r l y v i s u a l i z e his inner world. Impasses are surmounted, and the individual i s able to grapple more e f f e c t i v e l y with his inner experiences. Although images of power and beauty are experienced i n guided imagery, negative images are visualized as well. It i s equally important for the in d i v i d u a l to get i n touch with the negative feelings. Stevens (1971) believes that those who refuse to grapple with the negative elements, w i l l not benefit.from guided imagery. Quite a few people discover experiences of great strength and beauty i n t h e i r fantasies; most people, i f they are honest, w i l l also discover something that i s unpleasant or threatening. If t h i s unpleasantness i s f u l l y experienced, i t w i l l also blossom into a kind of strength and beauty (Stevens, 1971, p.53). Catharsis can occur through a guided imagery providing that the individual i s w i l l i n g to work through the unpleasant images, understand what i s going on, and act upon the under-standing (Stevens, 1971). The individual projects his l i f e experiences into the guided imagery. The deeper that the individual i s w i l l i n g to go i n a guided imagery, the more his awareness i s increased. Heightened awareness results i n better ego functioning. "The resort of imagery may catch the patient by surprise and outwit his defenses, as Reigher (196 3) has so strongly argued" (Singer, 1974, p.251). Similarly, awareness i s re-duced when the individual avoids the unpleasant aspects of the experience (Stevens, 1971). Symbolism plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n guided imagery. It i s necessary to attend to the symbols that are being pro-jected. "The therapeutic process i n eff e c t c a l l s attention to the ongoing i n t e r i o r monologue which most people ignore except for the i r t h r i l l of recognition when they see i t i n the writings of a fine novelist" (Singer, 1974, p.249). Guided imagery opens up new doors to human potential. The individual's repertoire of behavioural s k i l l s i s expanded (Singer, 1974), awareness i s enriched, and creative problem solving s k i l l s are developed and enhanced. Advantages and Disadvantages of Guided Imagery Guided imagery combines both mental and visu a l exercises to tap into the inner world of the in d i v i d u a l . The f i r s t step i n guided imagery i s relaxation. The individual i s asked to relax and close his eyes. Secondly, the imagery i s given. The counsellor gives a series of suggestions or a story to the in d i v i d u a l . The individual concentrates on the stimuli from the counsellor's suggestions. F i n a l l y , the individual processes the guided imagery. Different types of processing are available, however, t h i s study has the i n d i v i -dual process his guided imagery experience through drawing. Guided imagery can be described as being a journey that takes place between a counsellor and the c l i e n t . In a sense, the counsellor i s the guide, and* the c l i e n t i s the t o u r i s t . As the guide, the counsellor f a c i l i t a t e s the experience. The counsellor makes sure that the c l i e n t i s comfortable and relaxed, and provides the appropriate image for the c l i e n t to view. At the end of the journey, the counsellor works through the experience with the c l i e n t (Singer, 1974). Throughout the journey, the counsellor offers support to the c l i e n t , because the c l i e n t may confront frightening images from time to time. The counsellor encourages the c l i e n t to remain i n the presence of the negative images, and to develop more ef f e c t i v e strategies for dealing with these e n t i t i e s (Singer, 1974). Morgan and Skovholt (1977) encourages the use of a common guided imagery with a variety of participants because of the richness and d i v e r s i t y of the experience. This study i s using a common imagery with twenty participants. To further enhance the guided imagery experience, Morgan and Skovholt encourage the use of d i f f e r e n t sensory modali-t i e s . If the c l i e n t i s encouraged to taste, see, f e e l , smell, and hear the environment of his inner world, his experience i s i n t e n s i f i e d and the experience takes on greater s i g n i f i -cance . The guided imagery can be used e f f e c t i v e l y for personal-i t y assessment because major problems are expressed quite c l e a r l y as resistance i s generally lower than usual (Singer, 1974). The more sensitive and f a c i l i t a t i v e the counsellor i s , the easier i t i s for the c l i e n t to describe the journey and to express the impact the journey has made on his l i f e . Guided imagery i s used more and more as a projective technique because i t often i s a pleasurable experience. It i s also non-threatening, and the individual determines how much of the experience that he wishes to share. Because of i t s symbolic nature, feelings can be shared quite e a s i l y and without embarrassment. Probably the greatest benefit that guided imagery offers i s that the individual i s permitted to explore his or her inner world, and to discover the parts of him or herself that are generally ignored or repressed. The guided fantasy experience gives credence to the notion that to have fantasies, far from i n d i -cating craziness or idleness, implies that one i s capable of tuning into and using one's inner experiences for one's benefit - including enhanc-ing creative problem-solving a b i l i t i e s (Morgan and Skovholt, 1977, p.395). As the individual r e a l i z e s that he has control over his feelings and thoughts, autonomy i s developed, as well as insight. The individual becomes more aware of his c a p a b i l i -t i e s , his strengths and his uniqueness. Despite i t s appeal, 'there are certain disadvantages to guided imagery. Guided imagery may not be suitable for some c l i e n t s who are reluctant to get i n touch with their inner worlds. Furthermore, the emotions e l i c i t e d may be quite powerful, and could alarm both the c l i e n t and the counsellor. There may also be a need for the counsellor to help the c l i e n t to integrate the guided imagery experience with other l i f e experiences because of the gap between the c l i e n t ' s percep-tions and r e a l i t y . Implications for Children Guided imagery appears to be a useful technique to use with children because i t i s a fun, non-threatening a c t i v i t y which helps the c h i l d to express those feelings and problems that may otherwise remain repressed. Through fantasy we can have fun with the c h i l d and we can also f i n d out what a child's process i s . Usually her fantasy process (how she does things and moves around i n her fantasy world) i s the same as her l i f e process. We can look into the inner realms of the child's being through fantasy. We can bring out what's going on i n the child's l i f e from her perspective. For these reasons we encourage fantasy and use i t as a therapeutic tool (Oaklander, 1978,p.11). Oaklander (1978) believes that the fantasy world (a part of the inner world) i s created because the r e a l world creates a l o t of d i f f i c u l t y for the c h i l d . The fantasies are re-pressed and usually are anxiety-producing. For a c h i l d , whose ego i s s t i l l developing, Oaklander states that the fan-tasies need to be brought out into the open, dealt with, and finished. Guided imagery i s one way that the fantasy can be explored e f f e c t i v e l y and a satisfactory conclusion can be f ormed. As the c h i l d learns to deal with his fantasies i n a more eff e c t i v e way, guided imagery can also help the c h i l d to r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that the r e a l world has to off e r (Hershey and Kearns, 1979). Thus, guided imagery can be used as a tool for c h i l d development. Summary of Guided Imagery Guided imagery i s a useful projective method because not only does i t tap into the individual's inner world, but i t f a c i l i t a t e s resolution of problems that the individual may be experiencing. Used with children, guided imagery helps the c h i l d to deal with his fantasies appropriately, and can be used as an introductory s k i l l for creative problem-solving. A special bonding between the counsellor and the c l i e n t occurs through guided imagery. The counsellor becomes the guide and the c l i e n t i s the t o u r i s t . The guide takes the t o u r i s t through a metaphorical journey of the inner world, and supports the t o u r i s t as much as possible, while at the same time, allows the t o u r i s t to venture on his own. The guide helps to d i r e c t the journey, but i t i s the t o u r i s t that must make the journey. Both the counsellor and the c l i e n t benefit from the guided imagery. The counsellor gains a r i c h and diverse ex-perience from observing the guided imagery and f a c i l i t a t i n g the process of i t . The c l i e n t i s strengthened through the guided imagery because he i s able to experience his repressed feelings i n a new way, and i s more able to deal with con-f l i c t i n g emotions more e f f e c t i v e l y . Art Counselling As a Projective Technique  D e f i n i t i o n of Art Counselling Edith Kramer (1971) describes art as being "the making of a symbolic object that contains and communicates an idea" (p.28). A r t i s a combination of manual, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and emotional elements which s y m b o l i c a l l y express a p e r c e p t i o n or a f e e l i n g t h a t the a r t i s t has experienced. A r t i s some-t h i n g t h a t can be experienced by anyone. A r t serves y e t one more purpose t h a t i s not con-f i n e d to any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l or s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a u n i v e r s a l l y p l e a s u r a b l e experience and t h e r e f o r e expansive of the s e l f . I t a f f o r d s g r a -t i f i c a t i o n while at the same time i t may be used to serve other f u n c t i o n s . C r e a t i v e experience allows f o r the lo o s e n i n g of r i g i d defences, f o s -t e r s i n t e g r a t i o n , and so provides the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r e s t o r a t i o n of the wholeness of the i n d i v i -d u a l (Pine, 1974, p.117). A r t c o u n s e l l i n g can be d e s c r i b e d as being a communication t o o l which combines c r e a t i v i t y with p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes which tap i n t o the inn e r world of an i n d i v i d u a l . Fears, f a n t a s i e s , dreams, wishes, d e s i r e s , h u r t , and pa i n can be expressed through a r t c o u n s e l l i n g . "Art therapy thus conceived does not stand alone: i t complements psychotherapy by b r i n g i n g unconscious m a t e r i a l c l o s e r to the s u r f a c e and by p r o v i d i n g an area of symbolic experience wherein changes may be t r i e d out, gains deepened and cemented" (Ulman, Kramer and Kwiat-kowska, 1977, p.8). A r t c o u n s e l l i n g i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as being a way i n which the i n n e r world and the outer r e a l i t y can be met and understood. A r t c o u n s e l l i n g can transform a mass of confused feelings and perceptions into a more r e a l i s t i c perspective. Its motive power comes from within the person-a l i t y : i t i s a way of bringing order out of chaos-chaotic feelings and impulses within, the bewildering mass of impressions from without. It i s a means to discover both the s e l f and the world, and to establish a r e l a -tion between the two. In the complete creative process, inner and outer r e a l i t i e s are fused into a new entity (Ulman, 1975, p.13). In short, art counselling symbolizes the dynamics of the inner world and i s a way of projecting what the individual experiences. History of Art Counselling Art has been a part of every culture i n the world which seems to indicate that art serves a fundamental human need (Rubin, 1980). Although art has been used by man through the ages, i t was not u n t i l the past century that art became recognized for i t s therapeutic e f f e c t . In the 1800's i t was noticed that cer t a i n inmates of mental i n s t i t u t i o n s drew wherever they could, with whatever they could f i n d . Although the art work was collected, the administers could not explain the driving compulsion of the inmates to draw (Rubin, 1980) . I t was Freud and Jung who f i r s t began to study the art of the mentally insane and attempt to decode what the inmates were trying to say. The f i e l d of art counselling has grown enormously since then. One of the key leaders i n the f i e l d of a r t c o u n s e l l i n g was Margaret Naumberg. Naumberg was i n t e r e s t e d i n psycho-a n a l y s i s and b e l i e v e d t h a t : A r t was a form of "symbolic speech" emanating from the unconscious, much l i k e dreams, to be evoked i n a spontaneous way and to be s t u d i e d and i n t e r p r e t e d through f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , always r e s p e c t i n g the a r t i s t ' s own meanings. Thus, a r t was p r e c e i v e d as a " r o y a l road" to unconscious symbolic contents, a means of both d i a g n o s i s and therapy, the l a t t e r i n v o l v i n g i n s i g h t and v e r b a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as a r t (Rubin, 1980, p.3). Margaret Naumberg opened Walden School i n New York C i t y i n 1914, and a r t became the main component of her c u r r i c u l u m . Naumberg hoped to d i s c o v e r the unconscious processes of her students through t h e i r a r t expressions (Rubin, 1980). From there, Naumberg worked with c h i l d r e n i n d i v i d u a l l y who were at the New York P s y c h i a t r i c I n s t i t u t e . Naumberg used a r t as the main form of communication. She p u b l i s h e d s i x case s t u d i e s i n the 1940's and l a t e r p u b l i s h e d her work about s c h i z o p h r e n i c a r t and her work with psychoneurotics (Rubin, 1980). Naumberg began to teach courses on a r t therapy a t New York U n i v e r s i t y i n the l a t e 1950's, and provided the f i r s t formal course work on a r t therapy (Rubin, 1980). Another person whose r o o t s were i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , who a l s o l i v e d i n New York, was E d i t h Kramer. For Kramer, art was viewed as a "royal road" to sublimation, a way of integrating c o n f l i c t -ing feelings and impulses i n an ae s t h e t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g form, allowing the ego to control, manage, and synthesize through the creative process i t s e l f . Although Kramer's approach r e l i e s more on the l a t e r development of ego psychology (cf. Kri s , 1952), both are consis-tent with Freudian theory while emphasizing d i f f e r e n t facets of the creative act (Rubin, 1980, p.3). Kramer f i r s t worked with delinquent and disturbed boys at the Wiltwyk School. Her b e l i e f s about the effectiveness of art therapy were developed through her work with children. In 1961, the B u l l e t i n of Art Therapy, which i s now ca l l e d the American Journal of Art Therapy, was founded by Elinor Ulman. Eight years l a t e r , the American Art Therapy Association was formed, which was responsible for developing master's degree programs, and the journal: Creative Arts i n  Therapy. Ulman studied the psychoanalytic approaches that both Naumberg and Kramer had developed and believed that art coun-s e l l i n g provided a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s that was "a way of bringing order out of chaos-chaotic feelings and impulses within, the bewildering mass of impressions from without. . . a means to discover both the s e l f and the world, and to establish a r e l a t i o n between the two" (Ulman, Kramer, 41 & Kwiatkowska, 1977, p.9). It was Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska who introduced art counselling into family therapy. While Naumberg was exploring art counselling using a psychoanalytic framework, art therapy was being examined for i t s effectiveness as a projective technique. The use of v i s u a l stimuli was f i r s t explored with the use of the Rorschach arid the Thematic Apperception Test, and from there, d i f f e r e n t projective tests were developed which required the individual to draw a picture (Rubin, 1980). Art counselling originated from the observations that Freud, Jung and other analysts made about the f i r s t psychotic drawings that they saw. The elaboration of art counselling theories was either based from an ego psychotherapy frame-work (Naumberg and Kramer) or from a projective perspective, where tests were being developed which would reveal the inner c o n f l i c t s and turmoil that an individual was experiencing. Theory of Art Counselling Art counselling provides cognitive and emotional i n -sight into the individual's inner world. It provides "the experience of creating, of having produced something new, of having shaped material i n l i n e with some internal conception, of having expressed oneself" ( K r e i t l e r , 1978, p.206). Art counselling can be viewed as being a form of symbolic language which can be used to i l l u s t r a t e the perceptions and the feelings of an i n d i v i d u a l . The making of art s a t i s f i e d a need to communicate and to impose order on chaos. The act has i t s wellsprings i n the unconscious and, when successful, gives form to aspects of an i n d i -vidual's past, present and future (de Knegt, 1978, p.96). Art counselling allows the individual to deal with pain-f u l and frightening experiences, as well as forbidden wishes and impulses. Art therapy serves to i l l u s t r a t e the complex balance of inner forces i n the individual's world. "Art always reveals truth, but not necessarily the whole truth. Different pictures may show d i f f e r e n t , sometimes contradic-tory facets of the personality" (Kramer, 1971, p.32). In art counselling, both the conscious and the uncon-scious perceptions of the individual i n r e l a t i o n to himself and to himself and to his environment are reflected i n his drawings. The drawing indicates much about the in d i v i d u a l . The strong emotions from within the individual are released and an image i s created on paper, which allows the individual to begin to deal with the inner c o n f l i c t s that he i s experiencing. Art counselling promotes catharsis, s e l f -disclosure, and changes i n behaviour and attitude. Art counselling provides the therapist with r i c h re-sources that can help to build the c l i e n t ' s ego strengths (Ciornai, 198 3). It i s through art counselling that the nebulous and d i f f i c u l t - t o - d e f i n e feelings are translated into v i s i b l e and concrete r e a l i t i e s . Art counselling permits the individual with new p o s s i b i l i t i e s for dealing with his experiences and feelings (Ciornai, 1983). 43 Most of a l l , perhaps, art a c t i v i t y provided the p o s s i b i l i t y of a very l i t e r a l way of "having the situation i n hand", of being able to symbol-i c a l l y master i t , of daring to experiment with changing i t , destroying i t , nurturing i t , aug-menting i t , or diminishing i t at one's w i l l (Ciornai, 1983, p.67). Naumberg states that art counselling has four main func-tions : F i r s t , i t permits d i r e c t expression of dreams, fantasies, and other inner experiences that occur as pictures rather than words. Second, pictured projections of unconscious material escape cencorship more e a s i l y than do verbal expressions, so that the therapeutic process i s speeded up. Third, the productions are durable and unchanging; th e i r content cannot be erased by forgetting and their authorship i s hard to deny. Fourth, the resolution of transference i s made easier (Ulman, 1975, pp. 4-5) . The a f f e c t i v e domain i s stimulated through the use of v i s u a l imagery. By representing emotions graphically, the individual i s more able to discuss the problem verbally, and the healing process begins. The art approach can touch an individual i n a way nothing else can because i n v i s u a l imagery much affe c t i s contained. It i s the a f f e c t i v e aspect of imagery that causes i t to figure i n destructive re-experiencing (phobic image, nightmare, flashback) of a traumatic event (Garrett, 1979, p.106). Jacobi (1955) describes art counselling as being pictures from the unconscious. The pictures can be enhanced through an image, a mood, an emotion, a memory, a fantasy, a dream, or a similar process that cannot be s u f f i c i e n t l y expressed i n words. "These 'pictures' enable us to get a glimpse of the psychological landscape which i s the home of a l l that i s dimly envisioned or dully f e l t , and which, though incompre-hensible, i s nevertheless intensely urgent" (Jacobi, 1955). The creator i s now faced with aspects of his inner l i f e , and the v i t a l processes of the psyche which operate outside of consciousness are revealed. Janice Rhyne (197 3) takes a more h o l i s t i c approach to art counselling. What i s portrayed i n the drawing can i n d i -cate what i s of s i g n i f i c a n t importance to the i n d i v i d u a l . The l i n e s , shapes, and colours i n a drawing demonstrate,^ how the individual has chosen to design his l i f e . The structure of the picture i s closely related to how the individual i n t e r -acts with his environment. As well as the theories that d i f f e r e n t researchers dev-eloped about art counselling through observations of what took place during an art session, a theore t i c a l framework has been developed for the use of drawing as a projective t e s t . Machover (1949) b e l i e v e d that human f i g u r e drawings projected inner thoughts and f e e l i n g s , as w e l l as r e f l e c t e d p e r s i s t e n t patterns of p e r s o n a l i t y (Coppersmith, Sakai, & Beardslee, 1976). Goodenough and H a r r i s (1950) stated that when a person i s asked to draw a human f i g u r e , prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of how the person sees himself w i l l emerge. " Coppersmith (1967) goes on f u r t h e r to s t a t e t h a t " . . . there i s good reason to b e l i e v e that self-esteem w i l l be expressed i n f i g u r e drawings" (Coppersmith, Sakai, & Beardslee, 1976, p.370). Coppersmith concludes t h a t : The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t personal perceptions of one's behaviour are r e f l e c t e d i n a draw-a-person f i g u r e appears as tenable as the p o s s i b i l i t y t hat perceptions of one's thoughts and f e e l -ings are r e f l e c t e d i n such drawings (Copper-smith, Sakai, & Beardslee, 1976, pp.374-375). Hammer (1958) contends that p r o j e c t i v e drawings y i e l d r i c h m a t e r i a l v/hich serve to uncover the basic needs and con-f l i c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l . From h i s observations, Hammer be l i e v e s that an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l not only draw what he sees, but a l s o what he f e e l s . The whole approach of the i n d i v i d u a l must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . "The subject, by the s i z e , placement, l i n e pressure, content of the drawing, and the l i k e , conveys what he f e e l s i n a d d i t i o n to what he sees. His s u b j e c t i v e aspects colour and define h i s o b j e c t i v e i n t e n t " (Hammer, 1958 , p. 28) .• Hammer (1958) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t man views the world from his own image, and di s t o r t i o n s i n his anthropomorphic view occur to the extent that what i s projected i n the drawing i s a defense mechanism. The projective drawing i s even affected by the attitude of the individual toward the draw-ing. In the realm of projective drawings, even the attitude with which the subject approaches' ; the task offers a wide range i n which the per-sonality can manifest i t s e l f : the subject might draw cheerfully or. sourly; s i l e n t l y or garrulously; i n a tense manner or with the calm poise of a man who cooks pancakes i n a restaurant window; with confidence or hesi-tency; with one eye on the examiner, or with apparent disregard of the other person's po-t e n t i a l opinion (Hammer, 1958, p.59). The theoretical framework upon which art counselling i s based i s largely psychodynamic i n i t s orientation. The focus i s c l e a r l y on the inner world of the i n d i v i d u a l . The various theories a l l agree that through drawing, either spontaneous "free" art such as Naumberg has developed, or projective drawing tests l i k e those of Hammer and Machover, the i n d i v i -dual w i l l project his inner feelings, c o n f l i c t s , and turmoils onto paper. The advantages and disadvantages of art coun-s e l l i n g w i l l now be explored. Advantages and Disadvantages of Art Counselling The l i t e r a t u r e on art counselling indicates that art 47 counselling i s a useful projective technique. A therapist who chooses to use art counselling as a projective technique can decide whether to use a "free" drawing method, such as the one that Naumberg has developed, or to use a projective drawing test such as Draw-A-Person or House-Tree-Person. Each of these methodologies w i l l be examined separately. Naumberg (1973) believes that how the art experience i s introduced to the c l i e n t i s very important when using art counselling as a projective technique. She states that i t i s necessary to allow freedom i n the art a c t i v i t y and to en-courage spontaneity. As soon as o r i g i n a l art work i s encouraged, instead of dependence on models and s p e c i f i c techniques, the focus of a patient's art a c t i v i t y i s modified. He w i l l begin to draw on his own inner resources and this w i l l i n -evitably lead to some expression of the con-f l i c t s within the personality, which may reveal aspects of the pattern of his mental disease as well as the s p e c i f i c i n s e c u r i t i e s or trau-matic experiences within the patient (Naumberg, 1973, p.50). Sandra Pine (1974), following a similar model to that of Naumberg, uses art counselling to loosen r i g i d defenses, to promote integration and to restore the wholeness of the i n -di v i d u a l . She believes that communication with the s e l f must be emphasized. Colour c a l l s forth an a f f e c t i v e response, a loosening of controls, encouraging freedom and of f e r i n g a change to explore, express, create and have a cathartic experience. It affords an opportunity for a new experience of oneself, for ego growth, an opportunity to try again for a synthesis of f e e l i n g and thought and to take a fresh look at one's a b i l i t y (Pine, 1974, pp.96-97). The "free" art method provides the individual with the opportunity to express his feelings symbolically on paper rather than having to express the feelings verbally (Garrett, 197 9). The art a c t i v i t y permits the individual to be i n control of the sit u a t i o n and to be able to determine i t s outcome (Ciornai, 1983). Those following a model similar to Naumberg's look upon the art a c t i v i t y as symbolizing the individual's inner world. The art experience i s valuable because i t r e f l e c t s an image of the language of the uncon-scious (Naumberg, 197 3). There are some discrepancies between art therapists about what type of person w i l l benefit most from art counsell-ing. Kramer believes that art counselling i s most b e n e f i c i a l .with children from the ages of about four to puberty (Ulman, Kramer & Kwiatkowska, 1977), whereas, other art therapists contend that art therapy can be used with people of a l l ages and i n a wide variety of situations. "Art therapy has found a place not only i n psychiatric hospitals and c l i n i c s but also i n g e r i a t r i c centers, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs for the physically disabled, r e s i d e n t i a l centers and schools for retarded, and penal or correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s " (Ulman, Kramer & Kwiatkowska, 1977, p.8). The wide range of l i t e r -ature on art counselling seems to t e s t i f y to the f l e x i b i l i t y of art counselling to be able to be applied to a wide context of experiences, people, and cultures. Art counselling allows dreams and other inner experiences to be expressed as pictures rather than words, and so, the individual i s less l i k e l y to censor his feelings, and the therapeutic process i s quickened (Ulman, 1975). Communication from the unconscious i s d i r e c t l y projected into the drawing. Part of the methodology consists of how to interpret the drawing. Naumberg feels that the " . . . the therapeutic value of such art expression does not depend on interpretation, but rather on i t s value as an image language of the uncon-scious" (Naumberg, 1973, p.53). Burgess (1979) disagrees with Naumberg. She believes that art assessment provides greater insight into the presenting problem. It can add to diagnostic processes through projec-tive use of graphic products. It can o f f e r treat-ment, sequenced to promote growth and reintegration of a traumatized personality. As e x i s t e n t i a l art therapy combines with a psychodynamically oriented framework, insights are frequently offered through art work as to the depth and extent of the psycho-l o g i c a l trauma (Burgess, 1979, p.295). However, for others who use projective drawings as test measures, i t i s necessary to consider that the amount of i n -formation that the researcher can gain from a drawing depends upon the s k i l l s and experience of the researcher. It i s important not to go overboard with the interpretation (Levy, 1959). Myers (1978) suggests that the evaluation procedure needs to include physical proximity, b a r r i e r s , force f i e l d s , erasures, and shading. Coppersmith, Sakai, Beardslee, and Coppersmith (1976) provide further components to consider i n evaluating a pro-jected drawing. It i s important to assess the size of the figure, the a f f e c t displayed, the sense of movement, and the security of footing. Other variables that are important to consider are the horizontal and v e r t i c a l placement on paper, the footing s t a b i l i t y , the content, and the amount of move-ment i n the picture. Bolander (1977) does not believe that the projected drawing i s a c l i n i c a l diagnostic t o o l . She does believe, how-ever, that the projected drawing can provide a variety of information about the i n d i v i d u a l . Bolander further stresses that i t i s necessary to consider the developmental l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l . It can be said further that analysis of the draw-ing w i l l aid in an assessment of the general maturity and internal balance of the subject. Indeed, a judgment of the l e v e l of development should be the f i r s t step i n interpretation, for a l l further observation must be evaluated i n connection with the maturity f a c t o r (Bolander, 1977, p.5). Bennett (1966) s t a t e s that the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p or p a t t e r n of c l u e s from the p r o j e c t e d drawing f a c i l i t a t e s the making of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i -v i d u a l . However, Hammer (1981) i s quick to p o i n t out th a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s cannot be made from j u s t one source. Rubin (1980) b e l i e v e s t h a t one way i n which a r t coun-s e l l i n g i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other forms of c o u n s e l l i n g i s tha t a r t c o u n s e l l i n g i n c l u d e s both doing and r e f l e c t i n g . I t i s important to d i s c u s s the drawing with the i n d i v i d u a l , so as to g a i n a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e of what the i n d i v i d u a l i s t r y i n g to communicate. The r e f l e c t i n g may be minimal with c e r t a i n pop-u l a t i o n s who are unable to do so, but some c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the experience, e i t h e r d u r i n g or a f t e r , i s c r i t i c a l t o l e a r n i n g from i t . From a d i a g n o s t i c p o i n t of view, the products are o n l y l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s without the person's a s s o c i a t i o n s . The t h e r a p i s t ' s c h a l -lenge then becomes one of c r e a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g to maximize what i s learned from the event by both c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t (Rubin, 1980, p.8). Thus, i n d e c i d i n g upon the methodology i n a r t coun-s e l l i n g , one of the v i t a l elements to con s i d e r i s how the drawing w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d . Which techniques would best s u i t the s i t u a t i o n ? Is a post-drawing i n q u i r y important to the research? What w i l l the researcher do with the information? It i s necessary to design an e f f e c t i v e evaluation process. Amundson supports the idea of id e n t i f y i n g the general themes of a picture. As a starting point, approach the interpretive task from a global perspective and leave the interpretation of s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s u n t i l l a t e r (Tolor, 1968). The most v a l i d and r e l i a b l e information usually comes from the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of general themes. In approaching each drawing as questions such as: How does th i s drawing as a whole impress me? Is i t reason-ably well structured? What are the essential components? What kind of person i s l i k e l y to produce a drawing such as th i s one? (Amundson, Ml, p.37). As well, Amundson ( ) states that the interpreter need not only be concerned with what i s drawn, but with what i s omitted. One concern raised about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of art coun-s e l l i n g i s who w i l l most benefit from i t . The present state of knowledge scarcely allows a prediction about who w i l l p r o f i t most from art therapy. It i s worth trying when there i s d i f f i c u l t y i n verbal communication or when people are adept i n the use of language to con-ceal thought and f e e l i n g (Ulman, Kramer, & Kwiatkowska, 1977, p.12). Furthermore, i n considering art counselling, i t i s necessary to ask to what extent does a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y i n -fluence an individual to grow and change. "Nor have we studied the s p e c i f i c influence on the potential for change that may be exercised by an understanding of the subtler unconscious as well as conscious meanings of any art product" (Kubie, 1973, p.97). In examining the l i t e r a t u r e on art counselling and on carrying out the research project, i t i s important to consider how the creative art process w i l l help the individual to change. Implications for Children Art counselling has been used i n private and public i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n schools. It has been used with learning disabled children, mentally and physically handicapped c h i l -dren and adults, terminally i l l patients, individuals, groups, and families. Although art counselling has been shown to be e f f e c t i v e with a wide population, i t s e f f e c t i v e -ness i s manifested most c l e a r l y with children. "In the treatment of children, projective techniques become even more important than with adults, because children are less able to express their thoughts and feelings i n words and are closer to the more primitive expression of themselves through the language of images and play" (Naumberg, 1973, p.51). Lowenfeld (1975) supports the idea of art as a language of images. He further adds: Expression grows out of, and i s a re l e c t i o n of, the t o t a l c h i l d . A c h i l d expresses his thoughts, feelings, and interests i n his drawings and paintings and shows his know-ledge of his environment i n his creative expression (Lowenfeld, 1975, p.9). Art counselling as a projective technique permits the c h i l d to have control as the creator, and allows the c h i l d to express his thoughts and feelings without personal r i s k (Thompson, 1983). Art counselling "helps the c h i l d relax i n the counselling session and allows his unconscious to express i t s e l f quickly and d i r e c t l y due to the child's r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l i s t i c l e v e l of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which results i n a limited vocabulary and unsophisticated defense mechan-isms" (Thompson, 1983, p.93). Art counselling can work i n many ways. It can provide clues to a therapist regarding areas of trouble and strength. It can offer assessment through art interviewing techniques. It can add to diagnostic processes through projective use of graphic products (Burgess and Holmstrom, 1979, p.295). Drawing i s a useful technique for personality assessment of children because often, children are unable to verbally express what they want to communicate. Both verbal and writing s k i l l s are often i n s u f f i c i e n t as tools for s e l f -expression (Klepsch and Logie, 1982), whereas, drawing i s able to tap into the children's inner world. Since drawing also r e f l e c t s the person, the idea of using i t as a measurement of personality, of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to others, of group values, and of attitude i s not out of l i n e . Its use i s a l l the more v a l i d when one considers that children are able to convey i n their drawings thoughts and feelings they cannot possibly express i n speech or writing. They simply do not have the words with which to do i t , and l i k e our ancient ancestors, must learn to draw before they.learn to write (Klepsch and Logie, 1982, pp. 6-7). Drawing evokes the dimension of fantasy and imagination. The f a c t that most children l i k e to draw, further encourages the use of drawing as an e f f e c t i v e measure of personality assessment. Klepsch and Logie (1982) have observed that children ". . .. dig deeper into whatever aspect i s being measured; and they seem to be able to plumb the inner depths of a person and uncover some of the otherwise inaccessible inside information" (Klepsch and Logie, 1982, p.11). Klepsch and Logie (1982) state that drawings can cover four projec-t i v e uses: (1) measure of personality, (2) measure of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to others, (3) measure of group values, and (4) measure of attitudes. Levick (1983) discusses art counselling from a psycho-analytic perspective. She states that most children have developed a repertoire of defense mechanisms by around the age of ten, that enable them to make the t r a n s i t i o n from adolescent to adult. For Levick, art counselling serves to i l l u s t r a t e ego mechanisms of defense. "Knowledge of defense mechanisms of the ego and how individuals u t i l i z e them pro-vides inferences about t o t a l personality development, p a r t i -c u l a r l y when i d e n t i f i e d within the gestalt of graphic images produced by normal and abnormal populations" (Levick, 1983, p.xix). The use of drawings i s important to Levick because i t promotes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and understanding of defense mechanisms and how they relate to cognitive s k i l l s from a developmental perspective (Levick, 1983). Through her psychodynamic model, Levick believes that the drawings reveal inner c o n f l i c t s . The drawing provides the c h i l d with an opportunity to re-experience the c o n f l i c t , to resolve i t , and to integrate the resolution. The most important goal i n art counselling i s to be aware of and r remain consistent with the child ' s needs. The defense mech-anisms need to be related to the child's l e v e l of development. Unlike other projective techniques or other measures -of ( personality assessment, drawing i s an easy way to establish rapport and serves as an "ice breaker" with a shy or d i f f i c u l t c h i l d . The emphasis i s taken away from verbal a b i l i t y , and provides the c h i l d with more freedom for self-expression. The drawing page serves as a canvas upon which the subject may project a glimpse of his inner world, his t r a i t s and attitudes, his behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y strengths and weaknesses. C h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r t o communicate through drawings than through v e r b a l p r o j e c t i v e techniques much t h a t i s important to them and much t h a t t r o u b l e s them (Hammer, 1960, p.258). Hammer (1960) has a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t p r o j e c t i v e drawings have a f a r gr e a t e r range of a p p l i c a b i l i t y than other p r o j e c -t i v e techniques because c h i l d r e n are not i n t i m i d a t e d by f e e l i n g s of inadequacy concerning v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n and a b i -l i t y . Although p r o j e c t i v e drawings were o r i g i n a l l y designed to tap i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , i t i s now apparent that emo-t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s are a l s o tapped. Drawing i n d i c a t e s what i s important to the c h i l d , how the problems a f f e c t the c h i l d , and what the c h i l d does about the problems. Submerged l a y e r s of f e e l i n g are e l i c i t e d through drawing (Hammer, 1960). Drawing can a l s o be seen as a rec o r d of pl a y (Lark-Horowitz, Lewis, & Luca, 1967). C h i l d r e n enjoy outwardly expressing the in n e r urges as a means of attempting to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the world and s e l f . Through drawing, c h i l d r e n seek to c l a r i f y what they are f e e l i n g , to put the world i n t o order and to e s t a b l i s h a p l a c e f o r themselves. Drawing serves as an emotional o u t l e t . "The c h i l d , i n h i s art, i s the center; e v e r y t h i n g r e v o l v e s around him and must be brought i n t o harmony with h i s s e l f " (Lark-Horowitz, Lewis, & Luca, 1967, p.24). Drawings manifest children's personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s They are sources of cognitive and perceptual growth, as well as indicators of children's a b i l i t y to communicate with the world around them (Lark-Horowitz, Lewis, & Luca, 1967). Expression grows out of, and i s a r e f l e c t i o n of, the t o t a l c h i l d . A c h i l d expresses his thoughts, feelings, and interests i n his drawings and paintings and shows his knowledge of his envi-ronment i n his creative expressions (Lowenfeld and B r i t l a i n , 1975, p.9). The d i f f e r e n t stages of development i n children are re-flected i n the art work. The i n t e l l e c t u a l capacities, the physical development, the creative and perceptual involvement and s o c i a l awareness are a l l graphically i l l u s t r a t e d through ar t counselling. "Drawings give us a good indication of the child's growth, moving from an egocentric point of view to a gradual awareness of the s e l f as part of a larger envi-ronment" (Lowenfeld and B r i t l a i n , 1975, p.52). It i s also important to consider the use of colour i n children's drawings. Hammer states that colour drawings reveal more about the personality than pencil drawings (Klepsch and Logie, 1982). A study on the significance of colour was conducted by Hammer, J o l l e s and Precker i n 1950. The researchers concluded that red indicates violence or ex-cessive emotion. It can also r e f l e c t cheerfulness. Yellow represents h o s t i l i t y , dependency, and i n f a n t i l e behaviour. Orange shows a good relationship with the surroundings. It may, however, also suggest areas of discomfort. Blue suggests s e l f - r e s t r a i n t or controlled reactions. Green also suggests controlled reactions. On the other hand, black can indicate controlled reactions or a compulsive type of beha-viour. Brown represents timidity and regression. When brown and black are used together, anxiety or depression i s indicated. The study concluded that one should pay attention to an excessive use of one colour. Furthermore, well-adjusted children use a variety of colours, whereas, emo-t i o n a l l y unstable children tend to use only a few colours (Klepsch and Logie, 1982). At the same time, i t i s i n t e r -esting to note that Marzolf and Kirchnel (1979) cautioned researchers not to in f e r too much from colour. As well as looking at the colours, interpretation i n -volves looking at the o v e r a l l impression of the drawing and then focusing on the s p e c i f i t i e s . The o v e r a l l or global impression the drawing portrays or projects i s more important than information given by one s p e c i f i c sign. One s p e c i f i c sign should not be viewed as i n d i -cative of a problem or concern. Several signs are required before inferences l i k e that can be made about a c h i l d (Klepsch and Logie, 1982, p.42). Furthermore, i t i s important to remember that the drawing only represents the c h i l d on the day that the drawing was made. The c h i l d may not have f e l t the same way the day before, and may not f e e l the same way again (Klepsch and Logie, 1982). It i s only through pe r i o d i c a l c o l l e c t i n g of drawings or through the use of other projective techniques or an interview, that the researcher w i l l be able to gain some understanding of persistent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the c h i l d A l o t of the interpretation hinges on the chil d ' s current stage of mental development. I t i s important to remember that the attitudes and concerns at the given moment of the drawing, may change over time, due to maturation and exper-ience (Koppitz, 1968). At best, the drawing i s a p o r t r a i t of the inner c h i l d at the moment (Koppitz, 1968). Kramer reminds us that: Art always reveals truth, but not necessarily the whole truth. Different pictures may show d i f f e r e n t , sometimes contradictory facets of personality (Kramer, 1971, p.32). Interpreting the drawings i s only the f i r s t step i n helping the c h i l d . Oaklander (1978) believes that children who have indicated that they need help have some impairment i n their "contact functions". The contact functions are looking, talking, touching, l i s t e n i n g , moving, smelling and tasting. Consequently, Oaklander (1978) suggests that c h i l -dren need to renew contact with t h e i r senses, body, feelings, and i n t e l l e c t . She believes that i n order to e l i c i t change, a building of awareness must be developed. Pine (1974) advocates setting goals i n order to help children. In short, art permits the c h i l d to do the impossible. He can learn to control the rea l world by-experimenting with active mastery of tools, media, and the ideas and feelings expressed i n the process. He can gain symbolic access to and r e l i v e past traumas, and can rehearse and practice for the future. He can learn to be i n charge i n a symbolic mode, and thus come to f e e l competent to master r e a l i t y (Rubin, 1978, p.29). Summary of Art Counselling Art counselling covers a wide range of ideas and i n t e r -pretations. What i s important to consider i s that throughout the l i t e r a t u r e , art counselling i s recognized as an ef f e c t i v e projective technique and a useful measure of personality assessment. Art counselling can bring about catharsis, growth and change. I t can be used within many d i f f e r e n t circumstances and by people of many d i f f e r e n t ages. Art serves yet one more purpose that i s not confined to any p a r t i c u l a r individual or s i t -uation. I t i s a universally pleasurable experience and therefore expansive of the s e l f . I t affords t h i s most important and appropriate g r a t i f i c a t i o n while at the same time i t may be used to serve other functions (Pine, 1974, p.117). Through art counselling, emotional c o n f l i c t s can be reconciled, and self-awareness and personal growth can be encouraged. In addition, a more compatible relationship between the individual's inner and outer worlds can be pro-moted (Levick, 1983). Art counselling becomes a springboard for self-expression and communication. The implications for using art counselling almost appear to be l i m i t l e s s . The Use of the Rosebush Intervention As A Projective Technique  Introduction A projective drawing technique was chosen for several reasons. F i r s t of a l l , most children enjoy drawing and consequently, a projective drawing exercise i s not a threat-ening a c t i v i t y for them. Secondly, the drawing i s the means of communication, and so, co-operation i s f a c i l i t a t e d , rapport i s ea s i l y established, and anxiety i s decreased. Thirdly, drawings provide insight on an i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , personality dynamics are i l l u s t r a t e d , and the child's percep-tual motor s k i l l s are exhibited (Loney, 1971). As well, a projective drawing technique i s f l e x i b l e and can be a spring-board for other projective techniques. Furthermore, the drawing acts as a quick screening device, which can indicate aspects of the personality from a glance. F i n a l l y , projective drawing exercises are inexpensive and easy to administer, either i n d i v i d u a l l y or with a group. Rationale The rationale for using the rosebush i s similar to Bolander's (1977) and Hammer's (1960) rationale for using the tree as a projective drawing technique. It i s necessary to assume at the outcome that aspects of the individual's per-sonality w i l l be projected i n the drawing. It i s assumed by nearly a l l of the investigators working with the broad-theme techniques that the subject w i l l express or project i n the drawings various facets of his personality: his self-view, his attitude towards others, his feelings about the environment, his con-scious i n c l i n a t i o n s , and his unconscious c o n f l i c t s (Bolander, 1977, p.30). The tree represents l i f e , and the a b i l i t y to derive sat-i s f a c t i o n from the environment (Buck, 1953). The rosebush could be described s i m i l a r l y . The rosebush represents l i f e , and can also i l l u s t r a t e the individual's relationship with the environment. For some, the rosebush i s healthy and vibrant, for others, the rosebush i s f u l l of thorns and may only bear one or two buds. Hammer (1958) saw the tree as being a symbol that could be used to project deeper person-a l i t y feelings. The rosebush can work i n the same way. The flower can indicate depression, anxiety, alienation, just as a tree drawing can. Bolander (1977) believes that a tree i s a neutral object to draw, and that a tree i s free of stereotype or conventional r e s t r a i n t . The rosebush i s also free from stereotype. It i s easy to draw because the form i s not s p e c i f i c . The rose-bush could be one flower, or many. It could be growing out of a pot, or on a t r e l l i s . To draw a rosebush i s a non-threatening experience. In observing the drawing, Bolander (1977) offers the following suggestions. It i s important to note the size, the shape, the position, the general impression conveyed, the roots, any special signs, the proportion of the rosebush i n re l a t i o n to the rest of the picture, the type of foliage, the branches, and the ground. A l l these elements w i l l also 1 ; a s s i s t i n making an appropriate assessment of the projective drawing of the rosebush. Hammer (1960) observes that deeper feelings are brought out when the object of the drawing becomes less personal C l i n i c a l experience also suggests that i t i s easier for a subject to attribute more con-f l i c t i n g or emotionally disturbing negative t r a i t s and attitudes to the drawn Tree than to the drawn Person because the former i s less "close to home" as a s e l f p o r t r a i t . The deeper or more forbidden feelings can more readil y be projected onto the Tree than onto the Person, with less fear of revealing one-s e l f and less need for ego-defensive maneu-vering (Hammer, 1960, pp. 363-364). Summary The same theoretical applications that both Bolander (1977) and Hammer (1960) use can be applied to the rosebush. The rosebush i s an object which i s not "close to home", and therefore the chances that more negative feelings are pro-jected increase. Resistance i s lowered, as the rosebush i s a more nebulous object to draw. Ego defense mechanisms become less r i g i d , and the individual experiences a greater freedom to express how he or she feels and what he or she perceives. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The previous chapter explored the l i t e r a t u r e related to projective techniques, guided imagery, and drawing. The pur-pose of this chapter i s to describe the proposed methodology that w i l l be used to examine the use of guided imagery, drawing, and the post-drawing inquiry as projective techni-ques. The methodological considerations and d e t a i l s of the present study are also specified i n this chapter. Overview The ways that children cry out for help are many. Due to a lack of mature language, children can not often t e l l counsellors d i r e c t l y what i s troubling them. As well, certain thoughts and feelings may be too painful to be kept at a conscious l e v e l . A simple intervention that elementary school counsellors can use to help i d e n t i f y emotional prob-lems and build relationships with children, i n a non-threat-ening way, i s necessary. The intervention needs to tap d i r e c t l y into areas of emotional concern. By combining guided imagery, drawing and the post-drawing inquiry, i t i s believed that the c h i l d w i l l be able to express or reveal concerns that may otherwise be buried or hidden. Statement of the Problem It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable that when using the projec-tive techniques of guided imagery and drawing with children, that the drawings, and the verbal statements associated with the drawings, tend o f t e n to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a predomi-nance of e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative emotion. The quest i o n remains as to whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c h i l d r e n who are d e s c r i b e d as being able to " p o s i t i v e l y cope" (those who are d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r teacher as working a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l and are able to r e l a t e i n an a p p r o p r i a t e manner with t h e i r peers) from c h i l d r e n who are d e s c r i b e d as "negative copers" (those who are d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r teacher as demonstrating academic and s o c i a l problems t h a t vary from the norm). Furthermore, the i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from such an i n t e r -v e n t i o n , may p o i n t out t h a t a l l i s not as i t appears to be. Perhaps, some of the " p o s i t i v e copers" may be s t r u g g l i n g with i s s u e s t h a t have remained hidden. Perhaps, some of the "negative copers" may e x h i b i t signs of s t r e n g t h , growth, and congruency. The guided imagery, drawing, and the post-drawing i n q u i r y w i l l y i e l d one r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of how the c h i l d experiences the world around him or her. The c a r e f u l use of such an i n t e r v e n t i o n may be an i d e a l t o o l f o r the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r t o use as a means of a s s e s s i n g the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l needs and to determine the appropriateness of f u r t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g . P o p u l a t i o n and Sampling Procedures Twenty c h i l d r e n served as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study. The c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n three r e g u l a r elementary school classrooms and were i n grade f o u r , f i v e , or s i x . Ten c h i l d r e n were chosen as " p o s i t i v e copers" and ten 68 children were chosen as "negative copers". The classrooms were located i n two d i f f e r e n t elementary schools which are a part of a large school system i n a major urban centre located i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Both schools are situated i n the inner c i t y core and located i n economically d i v e r s i f i e d neighborhoods. Parts of the neighborhood are quite well-developed and have a large middle class section. However, other areas are economically deprived, and are designed mainly for the work-ing c l a s s . In the l a t t e r area described are found t r a i l e r courts, low-cost housing, and run-down sections. These two schools were chosen because of the presence of an elementary school counsellor, who worked i n both schools. It was the elementary school counsellor who contacted the teachers who volunteered i n the study. Between the elemen-tary school counsellor and the teacher, children were chosen for the study based upon c r i t e r i a selected to determine whether the children exhibited signs of either "positive" or "negative coping". "Positive coping" was defined as being able to work i n the classroom at an appropriate developmental l e v e l and to be able to interact e f f e c t i v e l y with one's peers. "Negative coping" was defined as being unable to work i n the classroom at an appropriate developmental l e v e l and acting out or with-drawing i n the classroom environment rather than interacting e f f e c t i v e l y with one's peers (Shaffer, L. and Shoben, E., 1956) . Parental permission to participate i n the study was obtained for the children p r i o r to administering the rosebush intervention. (For further information on the children, refer to Appendix A). Research Method Used for the Rosebush Intervention Each c h i l d was seen i n d i v i d u a l l y and the interview con-sisted of three parts: 1. Guided Imagery The guided imagery i s designed to establish a warm, f a c i l i t a t i v e atmosphere between the counsellor and the c h i l d . The researcher began by saying: Thank you.for coming here. I'm interested i n children's imaginations and drawings, and your teacher thought that you might be interested in this project. Today, we are going to l i s t e n to a tape about a rosebush, and then, I w i l l ask you to draw a picture of what you imagined. After you are finished with your drawing, I w i l l talk to you about the picture. Now, I would l i k e you to s i t comfortably i n your chair . . . l e t yourself relax . . . and close your eyes. The tape of the guided imagery of the rosebush i s played (see Appendix B). The tape takes ten minutes to complete. While the tape i s being played, the researcher has time to observe the c h i l d and to determine how deeply relaxed the c h i l d i s . At the end of the tape, the c h i l d i s directed to draw a p i c t u r e showing what he o r she imagined d u r i n g the g u i d e d imagery. 2. Drawing The c h i l d i s g i v e n a p i e c e o f w h i t e , 8 V x 11" paper, a p e n c i l , an e r a s e r , and a s e t o f t w e l v e p e n c i l c r a y ons whose c o l o u r s are w h i t e , b l a c k , r e d , orange, p i n k , l i g h t g r e e n , dark g r e e n , l i g h t b l u e , navy b l u e , l i g h t brown, dark brown, and y e l l o w . No o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d e x c e p t t h a t the c h i l d i s r e q u e s t e d t o draw a p i c t u r e of what he or she imagined d u r i n g the g u i d e d imagery. D u r i n g t h i s p a r t o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n , l i t t l e o r no d i a l o g u e t a k e s p l a c e between th e r e s e a r c h e r and the c h i l d . I f t h e c h i l d r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s about what he or she i s a l l o w e d t o draw, t h e r e s e a r c h e r reminds the c h i l d t o draw what he o r she imagined. The c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o draw and c o l o u r the p i c t u r e any way t h a t he or she d e s i r e s . The drawing t a k e s between t e n and t w e n t y - f i v e minutes t o complete. 3. Post^-Drawing I n q u i r y The f i n a l p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s the p o s t - d r a w i n g i n q u i r y (see Appendix C ) . The p o s t - d r a w i n g i n q u i r y c o n s i s t s of e l e v e n q u e s t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d i s asked about the d r a w i n g . The c h i l d i s d i r e c t e d t o answer the q u e s t i o n as though he or she were the r o s e b u s h . The r e s e a r c h e r keeps n o t e s on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t she has made on the c h i l d , which w i l l be used i n the a n a l y s i s . Method of A n a l y s i s Used i n the Rosebush I n t e r v e n t i o n Three main methods of a n a l y s i n g the d a t a were s e l e c t e d . The d e t a i l s of each method are presented below. 1. Quantitative Analysis The drawings w i l l be analysed f i r s t from a quantitative perspective. The analysis w i l l be a non-parametric contrast group design i n which s p e c i f i c signs w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y evaluated to determine i f a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the drawings of the "positive" and the "negative copers" exists. A 2 x 2 f a c t o r a l design (Campbell and Stanley, 1963), i s used for this analysis. . The following indicators were measured: a. presence or absence of flowers b. presence or absence of leaves c. presence or absence of stems (or branches) d. presence or absence of thorns, and e. presence or absence of roots. These indicators were chosen because they were common elements i n a l l the pictures. The Fischer Exact P o s s i b i l i t y Test was used and the one t a i l test was administered. 2. Sorting Technique Done By Raters  Overview In order to establish some o b j e c t i v i t y , three raters were selected to sort the drawings, the statements (taken from the post-drawing inquiry) and the drawings and statements together for two reasons. F i r s t of a l l , raters were used to evaluate the drawings, the statements, and the drawings and statements together to determine whether they e l i c i t e d predominantly positive or predominantly negative a f f e c t . As well, raters were used to determine which sort was most e f f e c t i v e . The question, which sort would provide the raters with the most information about the "positive" and "negative copers", needed to be answered. Before the sorting began, the purpose of the study was explained to the raters ( i.e. to determine the effectiveness of the rosebush intervention as a projective technique for personality assessment). As well, the raters were shown nine pictures and nine statements from a previous p i l o t study which were used as examples to generate a discussion on possible differences between predominantly positive and pre-dominantly negative a f f e c t . Definitions of "predominantly p o s i t i v e " and "predominantly negative" were also described. "Predominantly p o s i t i v e " was defined as affe c t that was believed to express happiness, nurturing, or health. "Pre-dominantly negative" was defined as affe c t that was believed to express anger, neglect, hurt or pain. Some examples were used to i l l u s t r a t e the d e f i n i t i o n s but the raters were also encouraged to approach the sorting on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l . Qualifications of the Raters Three raters were chosen for the study. Raters A and C were completing the Master of Education program i n Counselling Psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Rater A has been a. secondary school counsellor for seven years while Rater C has taught elementary school for two years and has worked as a volunteer counsellor at the Unemployed Teachers Action Centre, as well as at Student Services at the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Rater B has completed the Diploma i n Counselling Psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, has taught elementary school for the past twenty-eight years, and has spent the l a s t eleven years i n learning assistance. A l l the raters have taken a course i n projective techniques and are familiar with the use of art counselling. Rationale For The Sorting The basis of these sorts were made i n terms of the pre-dominant feeling tone of the drawings, the statements, and the drawings and statements combined. To make judgments about the drawings, the statements, and the combined drawings and statements, the rater was asked to consider the t o t a l gestalt of the expression, as some.drawings and statements wi have a combination of both positive and negative imagery. The purpose of these three analyses i s to try to deter-mine which i s the most ef f e c t i v e way of analysing the data. This i s di f f e r e n t from many other studies which tend to rel y upon pictures alone i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e "normal" from "pathological" populations. Instructions For Rating After the raters received some training and indicated that they understood the difference between predominantly positive and predominantly negative a f f e c t , they were asked to sort the data into p i l e s . They were allowed two sorts for each category. In the f i r s t sort, the raters sorted the material into three p i l e s : "predominantly posi t i v e " , "pre-dominantly negative", and "not sure". In the second sort, the raters had to decide whether the material i n the "not sure" category belonged i n the "predominantly p o s i t i v e " or the "predominantly negative" p i l e . They could make any other changes as well. The task was done i n d i v i d u a l l y . I t was assumed that the "predominantly negative" responses would be from the "negative copers" and that the "predominantly pos i t i v e " responses would be from the "posi-tiv e copers". The raters were asked to sort the data from three d i f f -erent perspectives: f i r s t , drawings alone; second, statements alone; and t h i r d , drawings and statements combined. Each sort was done separately. The raters were not given any information about the children, nor were they told which children had been select-ed as being "positive" or "negative copers". The Fischer Exact Probability Test was used to deter-mine the i n t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the ratings. 3. Qualitative Analysis Overview The q u a l i t a t i v e study was designed to provide the reader with the wholeness of the research topic. It was designed to explore the difference between "positive" and "negative copers" and to i l l u s t r a t e any discrepencies that may occur between the two groups. Rationale For The Qualitative Study One might assume that a c h i l d who i s described as a " p o s i t i v e coper" w i l l p r o j e c t a predominance of p o s i t i v e a f f e c t . As w e l l , one might assume t h a t a c h i l d who i s des-c r i b e d as a "negative coper" may p r o j e c t a predominance of negative a f f e c t . However, some of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t may occur are when a " p o s i t i v e coper" p r o j e c t s a predominance of negative a f f e c t and what a "negative coper" p r o j e c t s a predominance of p o s i t i v e a f f e c t . The q u a l i t a t i v e study i s designed to address these i s s u e s . As w e l l , the q u a l i t a t i v e s e c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e how the c h i l d r e n were a f f e c t e d by the guided imagery, examine s i m i -l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the drawings of the " p o s i -t i v e " and "negative copers", and c o n s i d e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of us i n g the rosebush i n t e r v e n t i o n i n elementary school coun-s e l l i n g . Method of Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s The q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i l l be pa t t e r n e d a f t e r the way i n which the d e s i g n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . Both a d e t a i l e d a r t a n a l -y s i s of the drawings w i l l be made and the c h i l d r e n ' s statements w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d from a met a p h o r i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Method of A r t A n a l y s i s The drawing w i l l be analysed from s i x types of i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . Each w i l l be e x p l a i n e d below: a. Approach to the P i c t u r e The way i n which the c h i l d s t a r t e d to draw appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n determining one difference between "positive" and "negative copers". Whether the c h i l d started to draw right away or hesitated w i l l be explored i n this section. b. I n i t i a l Placement Where the c h i l d started to draw on the paper also seems to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining a difference between "posi-t i v e " and "negative copers". Where on the paper the c h i l d f i r s t began to draw w i l l be explored i n t h i s section. c. The Drawings Analysed.'According to Elkish's Cate-gories The pictures w i l l be discussed and analysed through con-tras t i n g pairs of positive and negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as developed by Elkish (1965). These are rhythm vs. rule, complexity vs. s i m p l i c i t y , expansion vs. compression, and integration vs. disintegration. F i r s t of a l l , however, i t i s necessary to define the various categories. Rhythm vs. Rule Rhythm i s defined as being f l e x i b l e strokes which create a sense of time and space (Thompson, 1983) . E l k i s h claims that a well formed object usually indicates an adaptive ego that has both define boundaries and healthy defense mechan-isms. However, should the object not be well formed, the rhythm usually indicates some type of mental disturbance. Rule can either be defined as R i g i d i t y or as Inertness. Ri g i d i t y i s a mechanical, tight, spasmodic movement whereas, Inertness i s sloppy i n appearance and there i s no sense of time and space (Thompson, 1983). Rule manifests as ego that i s underdeveloped. Rule-Inertness i l l u s t r a t e s an under-developed ego. A c h i l d whose boundaries have not been out-lined or who has no set value system may manifest these chara c t e r i s t i c s i n Rule Inertness. A c h i l d whose background i s very r i g i d and who may have f e l t repressed, may manifest these feelings i n Rule-Rigidity (Thompson, 1983). Complexity vs. Simplexity Complexity generally indicates that the drawing i s complete and detailed, showing both i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Too much d e t a i l , however, can indicate that the c h i l d i s overly meticulous. Complexity i s generally be-lieved to be a positive quality (Thompson, 1983) . Simplicity must not be confused with simplexity. Sim-p l i c i t y i s a picture that i s drawn r e a l i s t i c a l l y but without a l o t of fancy decoration, whereas, simplexity i s : "a lack of d e t a i l , impoverished d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which suggests a f i x a t i o n i n e a r l i e r stages of development, archarisms, or perhaps regression" (Thompson, 1983, p.21). Simplexity, therefore, i s regarded as being a negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Expansion vs. Compression Expansion i s shown when.only a part of the object i s drawn to provide the observer with a sense of spaciousness. Expansion encourages the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of independence and spontaneity, as well as, i l l u s t r a t e s well-defined ego boun-daries. If overly developed, expansion can also indicate f l i g h t s into fantasy, escapism, and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y (Thompson, 78 1983) . In contrast, compression i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the "meticu-lous smallness of an object i n r e l a t i o n to the space available i n which to draw i t and i t s s p a t i a l relationship to other objects i n the picture" (Thompson, 1983, p.22). Compression i n a picture i s indicative of a r e s t r i c t e d ego which may i l l u s t r a t e withdrawal or depression. Integration vs. Disintegration Integration provides a sense of the wholeness of what the c h i l d i s trying to convey through the drawing. I t i n d i -cates that the c h i l d i s able to combine, unify, assimilate, and organize what he or she may be experiencing (Thompson, 1983) . Disintegration can be sub-divided into either piecemeal or condensation. Piecemeal implies that the various objects i n the picture have no connection with each other and that there i s no assimilation. Condensation i s when objects are drawn that are intended to promote a feeling of oneness but that are not related (Thompson, 1983). It i s usually i n d i c a -t i v e of immaturity. Size of Rosebush The size of the rosebush i s examined next. In t h i s analysis, the size of the rosebush i s determined i n comparison to the rest of the drawing. The rosebush may be drawn i n pro-portion to the rest of the picture, may be drawn proportion-ately ilarger than the rest of the picture, or may be drawn proportionately smaller than the rest of the'picture. Colour A n a l y s i s Colour w i l l be examined more from how i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the o v e r a l l f e e l i n g tone of the p i c t u r e than to the s i g n i f i -cance of s p e c i f i c colours i n the drawing. Analysing the colour i n t h i s way i s supported by Amundson (1982) who s t a t e s t h a t : Brower and Weidler (1950) suggest t h a t con-s t r i c t e d people tend to use fewer c o l o u r s , people with an e f f e r v e s c e n t nature s h i f t o r a p i d l y from c o l o u r to c o l o u r , depressed persons r e l y more h e a v i l y on darker colours and aggressive persons tend to emphasize b r i g h t e r colours such as red and orange. (Amundson, 1982, p.17). This study proposes to explore the general c o l o u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n the p i c t u r e s so as to e l i m i n a t e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of what each colour s i g n i f i e s . Types of Rosebushes The types of rosebushes represented i n the drawings i s a l s o a u s e f u l form of a n a l y s i s . I t i s worthwhile to note which c h i l d r e n used rosebushes and which created t h e i r own forms. This may a l s o prove to be a u s e f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n determining d i f f e r e n c e s between " p o s i t i v e " and "negative copers". A n a l y s i s of the Post Drawing Inquiry Each of the statements w i l l be analysed separately. F i r s t , the statements made by the " p o s i t i v e copers" w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , then the statements by the "negative copers" w i l l be examined. In the a n a l y s i s , a r e p o r t of the statements w i l l f i r s t be d i s c u s s e d , and secondly p s y c h o l o g i c a l themes w i l l be developed. F i n a l l y , a summary f o r each statement w i l l be g i v e n , p r o v i d i n g the reader with the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s encountered between the " p o s i t i v e " and the "nega-t i v e copers". Summary of the Methodology Chapter This chapter sought to d e s c r i b e how the rosebush i n t e r -v e n t i o n i s used and e l a b o r a t e d upon the method of a n a l y s i s t h a t w i l l be used. The rosebush i n t e r v e n t i o n i s done i n three stages. F i r s t , the c h i l d l i s t e n s to the guided imagery, second, the c h i l d draws a p i c t u r e , and t h i r d , the c h i l d i s asked the questions from the post-drawing i n q u i r y . The data i s analysed i n a v a r i e t y of ways. There i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the drawings, r a t e r s are asked to s o r t the drawings, the statements, and the drawings and statements i n t o "predominantly p o s i t i v e " and "predominantly n e g a t i v e " p i l e s , a q u a l i t a t i v e a r t a n a l y s i s i s presented, and f i n a l l y an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the post-drawing i n q u i r y i s made. The r e s u l t s of the v a r i o u s analyses are presented i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. CHAPTER IV SUMMARY OF RESULTS Overview The results obtained i n the investigation of the rosebush intervention are reported i n th i s chapter. The same format that was used i n the methodology chapter w i l l be used here. Quantitative View of Data Using a non-parametric contrast group design, the f o l -lowing indicators from the drawings were compared between the "positive" and the "negative copers": 1. absence or presence of flowers 2. absence or presence of leaves 3. absence or presence of thorns 4. absence or presence of stems/branches, and 5. absence or presence of roots. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were chosen because their absence or presence were evident i n a l l the drawings. Tables 4.1 to 4.5 indicate that presence or absence of flowers, leaves, stems (branches), thorns, and roots. Table 4.1 Flowers Presence Absence Total Positive 9 1 10 Not Signifi c a n t Negative 8 2 10 Table 4.2 Leaves Presence Absence Total Positive 6 4 10 - Not Significant Negative 2 £3 10_ Table 4.3 Thorns Presence Absence Total Positive 3 7 10 Negative 8 2 10 Table 4.4 Stems Presence Absence Total Positive 7 3 10 Negative 10 0 10 Table 4.5 Roots Presence Absence Total Positive 3 7 10 Negative _2 8 10 A 2 x 2 Factoral Design Examining Presence and Absence of Specific Characteristics In The Pictures Using The Fischer Probability Test The Fischer Exact Probability Test was used with the one t a i l test. N i s twenty. In the absence or presence of thorns, the probability was less than .05. This would seem to indicate that children who are "negative copers" w i l l use thorns i n their drawings more often than children who are "positive copers". Nothing s i g n i f i c a n t was noted i n the other tables. Conclusions The lack of s t a t i s t i c a l significance would seem to i n d i -cate that t h i s study would benefit more from a q u a l i t a t i v e p < .05 (one-tailed test) I v Not S i g n i f i c a n t Not Signif i c a n t analysis, where the material could be examined from a wholistic perspective. Results of the Raters The sorting by the raters yielded some s i g n i f i c a n t findings. The results of the sorts as well as a discussion, summary and conclusions are presented below. Results of the "Picture Only" Sort At the end of the f i r s t sort, the raters agreed on the ratings of ten pictures (out of a possible twenty). Five of the ratings were "positive" (#01, #04, #07, #10, and #19), three of the pictures were rated "negative" (#05, #16, and #21), and two were rated as being "not sure" (#11 and #15). After the second sort, the raters agreed on the ratings of sixteen pictures (80% accuracy). Ten of the pictures were rated "positive" (#01, #02, #03, #04, #07, #08, #10, #17, #19, and #22) and six of the pictures were rated "negative" (#05, #12, #13, #15, #16, and #21). There was no agreement made on #11, #16, #18, and #20. Discussion of the "Picture Only" Sort In the "picture only" sort (see Table 4.6), rater A observed that the picture drawn by #12 was d i f f i c u l t to rate because the fence covered the rose and the rose was not coloured. Rater A f e l t that the fence may indicate enmesh-ment i n the family and described the colouring as being "helter skelter". Rater A described the picture drawn by #18 as being deceiving. The flower i s smiling, yet the dog looks as though he i s going to trample on the rosebush and the Table 4.6 PICTURE ONLY F i r s t Sort Rater A Rater B Rater C Total 01 P P P * 02 P N/S P 03 N/S P P 04 P P P * 05 N N N 06 N/S N N/S 07 P P P * 08 P N/S P 10 P P P * 11 N/S N/S N/S * 12 N/S N N 13 N/S N N 15 N/S N/S N/S * 16 N N N * 17 P P N/S 18 N/S P N/S 19 P P P * 20 P N N/S 21 N N N * 22 P P N/S After F i r s t Sort: 10 N/S = Not Sure * = agreement made by Raters A, B, Second Sort Rater A Rater B Rater P P P P P P P P P P P P N N N N N P P P P P P P P P P P N . N N N N N N N N N N N N N P P P N P N P P P P N P N N N P P P After Second Sort: and C. and the hand looks as though i t i s going to grab the flower. The picture seemed defenseless. Rater A also commented that the picture drawn'by #13 seemed to indicate that #13 did not want anyone to come near. Rater B made few comments during the "picture only" sort. Rater C stated that the "pictures only" sort was d i f f i c u l t because of the ambiguity of some of the pictures. She f e l t that there were too many things missing i n #15's picture and found the imagery overwhelming i n #18's picture. Results of the "Statements Only" Sort At the end of the f i r s t sort, the raters agreed upon eight statements. Five of the statements were rated as being "positive" (#01, #07, #17, #19, and #22), two of the statements were rated as "negative" (#05 and #21), and one was rated as "not sure" (#15). After the second sort, the raters agreed upon twelve statements (60% accuracy). Seven of the state-ments were rated as being "negative" (#05, #06, #13, #15, and #21). No agreement was made on #02, #04, #08, #11, #12, #16, #18, and #20). Discussion of the "Statements Only" Sort While sorting the "statements only" (See Table 4.7), Rater A observed that the word "supposed" used i n the state-ment made by #16 indicated to her that something was not right and the #16 i s not as big and important as he would l i k e to be. She observed that #04's statement sounded as though the c h i l d would l i k e to l e t you know that he i s alone. Rater A also said that the statements were easier to 86 Table 4.7 STATEMENT ONLY F i r s t Sort Rater A Rater B Rater C Tote 01 P.. P P * 02 P P N/S 03 N/S P P 04 P N N 05 N N N * 06 N/S N N 07 P P P. * 08 P N N 10 P P N/S 11 N/S N N 12 N/S P N/S 13 N/S N N/S 15 N/S N/S N/S * 16 N P N/S 17 P P P * 18 N/S P P 19 P P P * 20 P N/S N 21 N N N * 22 P P P * After F i r s t Sort: 8 Second Sort Rater A Rater B Rater C Total P P P * P P N P P P * P N N N N N * N N N * P P P * P N N P P P * P N N N P P N N N * N N N * N P N P P P * N P P P P P * P N N N N N * P P P * After Second Sort: 12 sort than the pictures because the statements provided more concrete information than the pictures and did not require as much i n t u i t i o n . Rater B also found i t easier to sort the "statements only" than the "pictures only" because she found more meaning i n the words than i n the vi s u a l images. Rater C, l i k e Raters A and B, preferred the "statements only" rating to the "pictures only" because the verbal imagery seemed to be more e x p l i c i t . The statement made by #02 was troublesome for Rater C because so l i t t l e was said. She wondered why the c h i l d was unable to say more about herself. Like Rater A, Rater C questionned #16's use of "supposed to be" rather than stating "I am". Results of the "Pictures and Statements Combined" At the end of the f i r s t sort of the "pictures and state-ments combined" (See Table 4.8), the raters agreed upon fourteen pictures and statements. Eight of them were rated as being "positive" (#01, #02, #03, #07, #10, #17, #19, and #22), f i v e of them were rated as being "negative" (#05, #06, #11, #13, and #21), and one was rated as being "not sure" (#15). After the second sort, the raters agreed upon eighteen pictures and statements (90% agreement). Nine of the pictures and statements were rated as "positive" (#01, #02, #03, #07, #10, #17, #18, #19, and #22) and nine were rated as being "negative" (#05, #06, #08, #11, #13, #15, #16, #20, and #21). The only two pictures and statements that were not agreed upon were #04 and #12. 88 Table 4.8 PICTURE & STATEMENT F i r s t Sort Second Sort Rater A Rater B Rater C T o t a l Rater A Rater B Rater C T o t a l 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 P P P N N N P N P N P N N/S N/S P P P N/S N P P P P N/S N N P N/S P N P N N/S N P P P N N P P P P N N N P N P N N/S N N/S N P N/S P N/S N P P P P N N N P N P N P N N N P P P N N P P P P P N N P N P N P N N N P P P N N P P P P N N N P N P N N N N N P P P N N P A f t e r F i r s t S o r t : 14 A f t e r Second So r t : 18 D i s c u s s i o n of the " P i c t u r e s and Statements Combined" Rater A made a v a r i e t y o f obser v a t i o n s while s o r t i n g the p i c t u r e s and the statements. Although p r e v i o u s l y Rater A had s o r t e d #18 and #12 as being "predominantly negative", she decided to s o r t them as being "predominantly p o s i t i v e " , based upon the c h i l d r e n ' s statements. She s t a t e d t h a t #18 d i d not seem to be worried about the p o s s i b i l i t y of someone snatching him, and t h a t #12 d i d not i n d i c a t e t h a t there was any en-meshment or a f e e l i n g of being trapped. Rater A s t a t e d t h a t #05 d i d not pro v i d e a l o t of m a t e r i a l on which to make an assessment. The nothingness of the statement and the serp e n t i n e q u a l i t y o f the p i c t u r e seemed ominous but Rater A found i t d i f f i c u l t to decide what the c h i l d was t r y i n g to express. Rater A a l s o commented t h a t #20 seemed to be expressing a negative s e l f - c o n c e p t , while, by drawing a red d a i s y , #15 seemed to be saying t h a t he d i d not want to be put i n t o a mold. Rater A concluded t h a t the assessment as to whether the m a t e r i a l e l i c i t e d e i t h e r "predominantly p o s i t i v e " or "pre-dominantly negative" m a t e r i a l was most e f f e c t i v e when the p i c t u r e and the statement were used together. Rater B s t a t e d t h a t the most s u c c e s s f u l r a t i n g was when the p i c t u r e and the statement were combined together because the words helped to c l a r i f y the ambivalency i n the p i c t u r e s . She decided to move #12 from the "predominantly p o s i t i v e " p i l e because, when the p i c t u r e and the statement were combined, a "predominantly pos i t i v e " a f f e c t seemed to be projected. Although she found i t somewhat confusing, due to the ambiguity of some pictures and statements, Rater C preferred to rate the picture and the statement together. She discov-ered, for the most part, that through combining the picture with the statement, that useful information would be e l i c i t e d . While sorting the picture and the statement, Rater C found i t d i f f i c u l t to rate #18. Rater C also observed that #12 and #15 both seemed to be non-committal and found them d i f f i c u l t to rate. When she did not observe anything posi-t i v e , but did not note anything to be obviously negative, Rater C decided to rate the material as being "predominantly posi t i v e " . Comparison Between the Results of the Raters and the Percep- tions of the Teacher and the Elementary School Counsellor The following observations were made when the assessments made by the raters were compared with the assessments made by the teacher and school counsellor (see Table 4.9). Ten of the assessments (50% accuracy) were the same (#01, #03, #05, #06, #10, #13, #17, #19, #21, and #22) i n the "pictures only" sort, while eleven assessments (55% accuracy) were the same (#01, #03, #05, #06, #07, #10, #13, #17, #19, #21, #22) i n the "statements only". Fourteen of the assessments (70% accuracy) were the same (#01, #02, #05, #06, #07, #08, #10, #11, #13, #17, #19, #20, #21, and #22) when the pictures and the statements were combined. The differences between the assessment made by the teacher Table 4.9 OF THE PICTURES ONLY, STATEMENTS ONLY, and PICTURE & STATEMENT TOGETHER THAT THE RATERS AGREED UPON, HOW ACCURATE WAS THE ASSESSMENT Assessed by teacher as: P i c t u r e Only: Statement only: P i c t u r e & Statement: 01 P P P. P 02 N N/A N/A P (*) 03 P P P P 04 N N/A N/A N/A (*) 05 N N N • N 06 P N • N N (*) 07 P N P P 08 N N/A N/A N 10 P P P P 11 N N/A N/A N 12 N N/A N/A N/A (*) 13 N N N N 15 P N N N (*) 16 P N/A N/A N C * ) 17 P P P P 18 N N/A N/A P (•*) 19 P P P P 20 N N/A N/A N 21 N N N N 22 P P P P N/A * = No agreement = Discrepancy between two assessments and the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r and t h a t of the r a t e r s were a l s o noteworthy. While #02 was assessed as being a "negative coper", both her " p i c t u r e o n l y " and her "statement o n l y " were ambiguous enough t h a t the r a t e r s d i d not unanimously agree. I t was only through the combined use of the p i c t u r e and the s t a t e -ment t h a t the r a t e r s a l l f e l t t h a t #02 e l i c i t e d "predominant-l y p o s i t i v e " a f f e c t . #04 was a l s o d i f f i c u l t f o r the r a t e r s to assess and i n a l l three c a t e g o r i e s no agreement was made between the three r a t e r s . T h i s was the same f o r #12. Both the v i s u a l and the v e r b a l imagery were considered as being too ambiguous. Although #06 and #15 were assessed by the teacher and the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r as showing p o s i t i v e coping s k i l l s , the r a t e r s s o r t e d the p i c t u r e , the statement, and the p i c t u r e and statement combined of #06 as being negative. No agreement was made between the r a t e r s on the " p i c t u r e s only" and the "statements o n l y " of #16, however, once the p i c t u r e and the statement were combined, the r a t e r s r a t e d #16 as being "predominantly n e g a t i v e " . Although #07 was rated as being "predominantly p o s i t i v e " i n both the "statement o n l y " and the p i c t u r e and statement combined, the " p i c t u r e o n l y " was rated as being "predominantly n e g a t i v e " . No agreement was made on the " p i c t u r e o n l y " and the "statement o n l y " of #08, #11, #18, and #20, however, once the p i c t u r e and the statement were combined #08, #11, and #20 were r a t e d as being "predominantly negative" which corresponds with the perception of the teacher and the elementary school counsellor, while #18 was rated as being "predominantly po s i t i v e " which did not correspond with the perceptions of the teacher and the elementary school counsellor. I n t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the Ratings The Fischer Exact Probability Test was used as a measure for testing the i n t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the ratings. Table 4.10 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Picture Only" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test. Rater A Positive Negative Total Rater B Positive 10 2 12 Negative 1 7 8 P < .01 Rater A Positive Negative Total Rater C Positive 11 1 12 Negative 1 7 8 P < .01 94 Table 4.11 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Statement Only" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test Rater A Positive Negative Total Rater B Positive 8 12 Negative 8 Not S i g n i f i c a n t Rater A Positive Negative Total Rater C Positive 12 Negative Not Signif i c a n t Table 4.12 Comparison Between the Raters on the "Pictures and Statements Combined" Sort Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test Rater A Positive Negative Total Rater B Positive 10 0 10 Negative 10 P < .01 Rater C Positive Negative Rater A Positive Negative 10 P < .01 Total 10 10 In tables 4.10, 4.11, and 4.12, the results of Rater A were compared with the results of Rater B and then with the results of Rater C. Table 4.10 explored "Picture Only" sort, Table 4.11 examined the "Statement Only" sort, and Table 4.12 looked at the "Picture and Statement Combined" sort. The one t a i l test was used and N was 20. There was an impressive degree of agreement e l i c i t e d i n the "picture only" sort and the "picture and statement com-bined" sort. However, nothing s i g n i f i c a n t occurred from the "statement only" sort. Therefore, i t would seem that the "picture only" sort yielded s i g n i f i c a n t findings. The "statements only" offered no discrimination. The "picture and statement combined" sort offered s i g n i f i c a n t findings because of the influence of the picture with the statement. Summary of the Ratings Rater A observed that the "negative copers" expressed varying degrees of negativeness and that she would want to work more with some children than with others. She also f e l t that the rosebush intervention could be used at a secondary l e v e l but that i t would be more applicable with younger c h i l -dren. Rater B stated that the rosebush intervention seemed to be useful for children and acknowledged that the elements i n the pictures and statement pertained to issues i n the c h i l -dren's l i v e s . A l l three raters concluded by stating that they preferred the "picture and statement combined" sort to that of the "picture only" and "statement only" sorts. The discrepancies i n the assessment made by the elemen-tary school counsellor and the teacher, and that of the raters are s i g n i f i c a n t . The discrepancies would seem to indicate that some c h i l -dren who appear to be "positive copers" may not be coping as e f f e c t i v e l y as i t would f i r s t appear (#06, #15, #16) and could benefit from counselling. As well, the ratings may also indicate that some of the "negative copers" may be coping better with t h e i r problems than expected. Children such as #02 and #18 perhaps are learning to function more e f f e c t i v e l y because of the help that they have received. As well, the fluctuation i n ratings help to emphasize that other counselling strategies need to be used i n the case of some children (such as #04 and #12) to determine how they are feeling. The mixed messages i n the statements of both posit i v e and negative a f f e c t and the ambivalency i n the drawings, symbolize the confusion that these children seem to be experiencing. The use of the Fischer Exact Probability Test also yielded some s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Through the test, i t was shown that an impressive degree of agreement was achieved i n the "pictures only" sort. This r e s u l t seems to contradict the sentiments of the raters who a l l found the "picture only" sort quite d i f f i c u l t to do because of the ambiguity involved. 97 The "statement only" sort did not y i e l d any s i g n i f i -cance with the Fischer Exact Probability Test, and yet, the raters a l l found t h i s sort easier to do because the state-ments were seen as generally being less ambiguous than the drawings. r The "picture and statement combined" sort offered an impressive degree of agreement, however, from the test, the degree of agreement only seems possible because of the influence of the picture. The "picture and statement com-bined" sort was the one that the raters preferred and found most e f f e c t i v e . In conclusion, i t would appear that the i n t u i t i v e grasp of the data i s a more r e l i a b l e indicator of "positive" and "negative coping" than any cues that have been abstracted. Qualitative Art Analysis Overview The drawings w i l l be discussed and analysed through a variety of techniques which include observations of the c h i l d during the drawing a c t i v i t y , the i n i t i a l placement of the drawing, evaluating the picture i n terms of four categories developed by Elkish (1965), the size of the rosebush i n r e l a -tion to the rest of the picture, the use of colour i n the drawings, and the types of rosebushes used. In each segment of the analysis, the observations of the "positive copers" w i l l go f i r s t , followed by the observations of the "negative copers". At the end of each section, there w i l l be a section calle d summary and conclusions (See Appendix D for the pictures). 98 Method of Approaching the Drawing The background to the picture i s concerned with the be-haviour of the c h i l d at the end of the guided imagery, and what type of behaviours the researcher observed during the drawing a c t i v i t i e s . The Method of Approaching the Drawing By The "Positive Copers" #17 started to draw the rosebush right away. He worked ca r e f u l l y and kept looking at the researcher. He tended to cover up the picture while drawing and colouring. #16 started to draw right away as well, and l i k e #17, he kept the draw-ing covered. He seemed very intense while drawing the p i c -ture. When he had completed i t , #16 asked i f he had to colour i t , and decided that he did not want to. #15 started to draw the picture right away as well. He drew the vase f i r s t . #19 started by drawing a l i n e i n the middle of the page, then he drew a flower with roots, and then started to colour the picture immediately. He would then put i n a l i t t l e more d e t a i l , then colour a l i t t l e , and then draw a l i t t l e . #22 said that he remembered a l l of what he had seen during the guided imagery but didn't know how he was going to draw i t a l l . He took a few moments before he started to draw, looked at the paper for a while and wondered aloud how to draw a rosebush. He also said that he had been practising how to draw a rose i n art class. When he completed the p i c -ture, he put the pencil down and said, "and that's what I thought", and then coloured the picture. #07 also hesitated before he started to draw. He seemed to be quite d e f i n i t e about what he was doing and he made sure to put a smile on the tree trunk. Both #01 and #03 started to draw right away. #01 drew readily and e a s i l y . She was quite detailed and made a care-f u l choice of colours and shading. #03 displayed a l o t of c r e a t i v i t y and imagination. She drew a horse with polka dots, a smiling sun and a tree, and made a careful selection of colours. #10 asked i f he was to draw what he saw i n his mind. He started off by drawing a h i l l , and seemed to be very d e f i n i t e i n his drawing. He used s o l i d l i n e s and ca r e f u l l y considered what he was doing. His picture was detailed with a careful selection of colour. He would use one shade of colour and then another shade to compliment i t . He concentrated on the task and was not distracted by outside noise. #10 also checked the colours c a r e f u l l y and reconsidered his choice from time to time. In contrast, #06 wanted to know i f she could draw with a p e n c i l , started to draw right away and kept the drawing to herself. The Method of Approaching the Drawing By The "Negative Copers" #13 started to draw right away. He drew quickly and kept the drawing covered. He did not colour c a r e f u l l y but seemed to know what colours he wanted to use. #18 used l i g h t strokes, seemed quite intense on drawing and drew c a r e f u l l y . He put a l o t of energy i n the picture, but kept seeking the 100 researcher's approval. #20 kept the drawing mostly covered and drew intensely. She put a l o t of time and e f f o r t into the drawing. She occasionally would look at the researcher. As for #21, she paused for a moment, and then drew two half c i r c l e s on the page. She would draw something and then colour i t , and did not seem too pa r t i c u l a r about neatness. #02 stretched f i r s t , thought about the picture for several moments before beginning to draw, and started off by drawing a picket fence. She was quite detailed i n her draw-ing and made careful colour selection. As well, she would outline each object before colouring i t . She coloured l i g h t l y and seemed to want to make her picture perfect. She was quite tense because of back pain and tapped her fingers several times as she considered what colour to use. #04 expressed concern that he was missing too much work while doing the rosebush intervention, and constantly talked throughout' the drawing. He started to draw right away and spent a l o t of time drawing thorns. #04 also said that he wished that he could draw what he saw and he did not think' that he was a good drawer. #05, #08, #11, and. #12 a l l started to draw right away. #05 kept his drawing covered with his hand and leaned over i t . #08 drew quite intensely and kept his work p a r t i a l l y covered. He coloured c a r e f u l l y and made a careful decision about what colours to use. After completing the rest of the picture, #08 added the sun. #11 talked while he drew and said that he had f a l l e n on a rosebush before. He had a bad cold, and 101 talked about his cold and about his mom being i n the hospital. #12 announced that he was good at drawing fences. His fence design was quite i n t r i c a t e and detailed. Summary of the Method of Approaching the Drawing The vast majority of the children approached the a c t i v i t y without any hesitation and started to draw ri g h t away. Both the "positive" and the "negative copers" were concerned with doing a good job, made a careful choice of colour, and seemed to concentrate on making a r e a l e f f o r t to do a good job. Some of the children wanted to keep their picture from the researcher's view and only a few of the children talked while drawing. It would seem that the drawing a c t i v i t y was meaningful for each c h i l d and that each picture was creative and personal. The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawing  The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings of the "Positive Copers" From what the researcher was able to observe, six of the "positive copers" started their picture i n the middle of the page (#17, #15, #19, #03, and #10) and one c h i l d (#07) started his drawing at the bottom of the page. The I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings of the "Negative Copers" Only two of the "negative copers" (#21 and #18) started to draw i n the middle of the page, while f i v e children (#13, #02, #05, #11, and #12) started to draw at the bottom of the page. 102 Summary of the I n i t i a l Placement of the Drawings It would seem from these observations that children who cope p o s i t i v e l y tend to begin to draw the i r picture i n the middle of the page, whereas, children who cope negatively tend to draw their picture at the bottom of the page. Summary of Elkish's Categorizations Before analysing the drawings, i t i s important to remem-ber that rhythm, complexity, expansion, and integration are usually defined as being positive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whereas, rule, simplexity, compression, and disintegration are defined as being negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Keeping t h i s i n mind, the pictures w i l l be analysed according to the above categories. The pictures drawn by the "positive copers" w i l l be discussed f i r s t , and the p i c -tures drawn by the "negative copers" w i l l then be explored. A summary of the findings for each section w i l l follow. Results of Rhythm vs. Rule , "Positive Copers" It would seem that rhythm was predominant i n a l l the p i c -tures. Each c h i l d seemed to use f l e x i b i l i t y i n their drawings and seemed to draw the various objects i n proportion with each other. No one seemed to exemplify either R i g i d i t y or Inertness. "Negative Copers" Fle x i b l e strokes seem to be demonstrated by #08 and #20. Both children seemed to best i l l u s t r a t e the concept of 103 rhythm. It would seem that the other "negative copers" demonstrated the concept of rule. As rule can be broken down into r i g i d i t y and inertness, i t i s necessary to c l a s s i f y the other pictures into these two categories. R i g i d i t y , as has been previously defined, i s composed of tight movements. It would appear that the pictures drawn by #05, #02, #12, and #13 are ind i c a t i v e of r i g i d i t y . P a r t i -c u l a r l y the drawings done by #05 and #13 appear to be tight and mechanical i n nature. It was more d i f f i c u l t to assess the pictures drawn by #02 and #12, and the judgment was based upon the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the rosebush. #0.2's rosebush i s r i g i d i n form and the l i n e s over #12's rosebush are tight and mechanical looking. Inertness i s defined as being sloppy i n appearance and lacking i n d e f i n i t i o n . Although some indication of d e f i n i t i o n seems to be established i n the pictures, i t would seem that the pictures drawn by #04, #18, #21, and #11 display some of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of inertness. The pictures drawn by #18 and #22 have both a sense of propor-tion and a. lack of proportion i n the drawings. Overall, they are both drawn and coloured i n a sloppy manner, and although, both express strong a f f e c t , the messages are confusing. The pictures drawn by #04 and #11 are even more d i f f i c u l t to categorize. Both of the drawings seem to express aspects of r i g i d i t y , due to the t i g h t , spasmodic movements on the page, but also show some degree of inertness because of the 104 lack of care i n which they were coloured. Summary of Rhythm vs. Rule Overall, therefore, i t would seem that the "positive copers" demonstrate the concept of rhythm i n the i r drawings, whereas, the majority of the "negative copers" demonstrate the concept of rule i n t h e i r art work. Complexity vs. Simplexity "Positive Copers" The concept of complexity seemed to be best i l l u s t r a t e d by the drawings of #10, #07, #03, #16, #22, #17, and #06. Each of these pictures showed i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r -entiation. Not only was the rosebush represented c l e a r l y i n each of these drawings, but also a d i s t i n c t environment was developed. However, i n the pictures done by #01, #15, and #19, there seems to be less d e t a i l , which gives the pictures an impoverished e f f e c t . Although the rosebush i s v i s i b l e , the environment around i t i s undeveloped and incomplete. Thus, by d e f i n i t i o n , the pictures drawn by #01, #15, and #19 char-acterize the concept of simplexity. "Negative Copers" The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of complexity seems to be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the pictures drawn by #11, #12, #12, #02, #18, #20 and #08. These pictures seem to be quite detailed and have varying degrees of completeness to them. In contrast to them, the pictures drawn by #04, #05, and #21 demonstrate the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of simplexity. Summary of Complexity vs. Simplexity The majority of both the "positive" and the "negative copers" demonstrate complexity i n the i r drawings. The draw-ings are usually detailed and the boundaries seem to be quite well-developed. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of simplexity i s more d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. As simplexity refers more to an impoverished style rather than a picture that i s not f u l l of i n t r i c a t e design, what constitutes simplexity i s harder to define. However, i t would seem that c e r t a i n children i n both the "positive" and the "negative" groups drew pictures that were stark, seemed to lack a f f e c t , and did not communicate effec-t i v e l y what the children were f e e l i n g . These pictures were categorized as being simplex i n nature. Expansion vs. Compression "Positive Copers" It would seem that the pictures drawn by a l l the "posi-t i v e copers" (#15, #22, #06, #10, #17, #19, #07, #01, #03, and #16) a l l demonstrate the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of independence and spontaneity, and provide the observer with a sense of spa-ciousness. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s constitute expansion. "Negative Copers" For the most part, the pictures drawn by the "negative copers" also demonstrate the concept of expansion. The p i c -tures drawn by #12, #13, #11, #18, #20, #21, #08, and #04 106 seem to provide a sense of perspectiveness and a quality of expansion. One picture that seems to demonstrate most clear-l y the concept of expansion i s the picture drawn by #18. The size of the dog seems to be i n proportion to the height of the flower. However, based upon the size of the rosebush i n compari-son to the rest of the picture, i t would seem that #02 and #05 best i l l u s t r a t e the concept of compression. Both rose-bushes seem to be meticulate i n their structure. The rosebush drawn by #02 does not seem to be i n proportion with the rest of the picture, and #05 has only chosen to draw the rosebush. However, the rosebush i s drawn only i n the bottom half of the page. Summary of Expansion vs. Compression It would seem that f o r the most part, a l l the "positive copers" and the majority of the "negative copers" are able to use the concept of expansion i n their pictures. Most of the children can use the technique of perspectiveness and are able to put the various objects i n their drawings i n propor-ti o n with each other. However, there are certain "negative copers" whose spa-t i a l relationship seems to be poor and so concentrate on projecting a sense of meticulous smallness i n the i r drawings. Integration vs. Disintegration  "Positive Copers" In determining the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of integration, i t i s 107 necessary to consider i f the c h i l d i s conveying a sense of wholeness through the drawing. Although some of the pictures do not necessarily seem to be projecting a positive experience (such as #16 and #06) , i t would seem that most of the "posi-tive copers" (#03, #01, #07, #17, #10, #22, #16, and #06) display the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of u n i f i c a t i o n , assimilation, and organization which would indicate integration. However, the picture drawn by #15 does not display any type of assimilation with the environment, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine from the picture what #15 may be experiencing. "Negative Copers" As integration i s designed to convey a sense of the wholeness of what the c h i l d i s experiencing, i t would seem that only a few of the pictures drawn by the "negative copers" would be indi c a t i v e of th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The pictures drawn by #13,j#ll, #08, and #18 seem to assimilate and unify what the children are possibly experiencing. The other p i c -tures drawn by the "negative copers" seem to i l l u s t r a t e the concept of disintegration. Disintegration i s divided into two types, which are referred to as piecemeal and condensation. Piecemeal i s when there i s l i t t l e or no assimilation between the various objects i n the picture. There seems to be no connection between the d i f f e r e n t objects i n the pictures drawn by #04, #02, #12, and #20. The objects are disjointed and do not seem to interact with the rest of the environment. Condensation occurs when a sense of oneness i s attempted 108 to be expressed but the objective i s not met. It would seem that the pictures drawn by #05 and #21 best meet th i s c r i t e r -ion. The picture drawn by #05 shows no unity and i s serpentine i n nature. It would appear i n the picture drawn by #21, that a sense of unity between the various objects i s trying to be expressed, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain how a sense of-.oneness i s being developed. Summary of Integration vs. Disintegration The majority of the "positive copers" (90%) display the qu a l i t i e s of assimilation, u n i f i c a t i o n , and organization i n the i r drawings, which would indicate integration. However, although a sense of wholeness i s there, this does not imply that all the pictures project predominantly positive a f f e c t . The majority of the "negative copers" (60%) demonstrate the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of disintegration. These pictures are disjo i n t e d and do not convey.a sense of assimilation. It would seem that integration i s cha r a c t e r i s t i c of the "positive copers", while dis i n t e g r a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "negative copers". Size of the Rosebush i n Relationship to the Rest of the Picture The size of the rosebush i n relationship to the rest of the picture i s an important aspect to consider when analysing the children's drawings. Based upon Bolander's (1977) assessment of tree drawings, i t would seem that a healthy, well-adjusted c h i l d would put the rosebush i n the appropriate perspective based upon the rest of the picture. A c h i l d who i s experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n coping with his or her environ-ment, w i l l probably d i s t o r t the size of the rosebush to either compensate or manifest the anxieties that he or she i s experiencing. An overly large rosebush may show that a c h i l d i s trying to compensate for the power that he or she feels i s lacking. A diminutive rosebush would help to i l l u s t r a t e the child's low self-esteem. "Positive Copers" In general, most of the "positive copers" positioned the rosebush i n proper perspective to the rest of th e i r p i c -ture. It would seem that these children (#03, #07, #17, #10, #22, and #19) are developing positive coping strategies, and have a healthy perspective of how they are interacting with the world around them. However, the rosebush drawn by #06 i s quite small i n relationship to the rest of the picture. This drawing seems to convey a sense of insecurity and low self-esteem. In contrast to the rosebush drawn by #06, the rosebushes drawn by #01 and #16 are overly large for the rest of the picture. The focus of the picture drawn by #01 i s on the rosebush. Although the rosebush i s c a r e f u l l y coloured and a l o t of d e t a i l i s put into i t , there i s l i t t l e else in the picture. Either #01 feels very confident i n herself or #01 i s exemplifying how she would l i k e to be. The rosebush drawn by #16 covers the entire picture. The thorns seem to be the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the rosebush. It would seem that #16 i s trying to convey a sense of power, and even h o s t i l i t y . The picture seems to be quite defensive i n nature. Perhaps for #16, one coping mechanism i s to appear to be a l o t stronger than he may f e e l . The rosebush drawn by #15 i s an enigma. It i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain i f the rosebush i s drawn i n correct proportion to the rest of the picture. There seems to be too many det a i l s lacking to get a proper perspective of the size of the rosebush i n comparison to the rest of the picture. "Negative Copers" Three of the "negative copers" seem to have drawn the rosebush i n proportion with the rest of the picture. #18 c l e a r l y distinguishes the size of the rosebush i n comparison to the rest of the picture. He very c a r e f u l l y includes only part of the dog to show the relationship between the dog and the rosebush. #20 also seems to have a good grasp of propor-tion i n her picture. #08 conveys a sense of control over her l i f e and some element of hope. Although the wind seems to be moving the tree and the leaves, which may indicate some indecision, the budding flowers can be seen as,a sign of hope. In the pictures drawn by #02 and #12, the rosebush i s quite small, i n comparison to the rest of the picture. The focal point of the picture drawn by #02 seems not to be the rosebush at a l l , but the fence. It would seem that #02 wants to i s o l a t e and protect herself. #12 has almost completely obliterated the rosebush from view with the fence that he has drawn on top of the rosebush. It would seem that #12 would prefer to hide the rosebush from view. Perhaps, #12 feels neglected, ignored, or inadequate. The pictures drawn by #04, #11, and #21 a l l convey the rosebush as being bigger than the rest of the objects on the page. #04's rosebush i s quite large. It would appear that through t h i s , #04 i s seeking to draw attention to himself. The same could be said of the picture drawn by #11. He may be trying to a t t r a c t attention, or he may have drawn the rosebush out of proportion to compensate for the feelings of powerlessness and helplessness that he i s experiencing. The rosebush drawn by #21 i s also quite large. It covers the top t h i r d of the page and almost seems to indicate that #21 i s trying to conceal something. Again, the theme of power and control seems to be manifested i n this picture. Both the pictures drawn by #05 and #13 are much more d i f f i c u l t to assess. It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the size of the rosebush of #05 because the rosebush i s the only ob-ject i n the picture. It seems to manifest the desire to control (the twisted branches and large thorns), but the i n -a b i l i t y at the same time (as the rosebush only occupies the bottom half of the page). At f i r s t glance, the rosebush drawn by #13 seems to be smaller than the rest of the picture. However, the perspective i n the picture appears to be quite accurate, and i f th i s i s taken into account, i t could be that the rosebush i s somewhat larger than o r i g i n a l l y thought, as the rosebush i s located i n the foreground. At the same 112 time, the rosebush seems to be removed from the rest of the picture and somewhat isolated. Summary of the Size of the Rosebush i n Relationship to the  Rest of the Picture It would seem that more of the "positive copers" drew their rosebushes i n proper perspective than the "negative copers". Six of the "positive copers" put th e i r rosebushes i n proper perspective, while only three of the "negative copers" did. One of the "positive copers" drew the rosebush proportionately smaller than the rest of the picture, while two of the "negative copers" did. Two of the "positive copers" drew their rosebushes proportionately bigger than the rest of the picture, while three of the "negative copers" did. One picture drawn by a "positive coper" was d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y , while two pictures drawn by the "negative copers" were d i f f i c u l t to determine. If the size of the rosebush i s an indicator of how the c h i l d perceives the world around him or her and how the c h i l d interacts with his or her environment, i t would seem that the children whose rosebushes are. appropriately proportioned to the rest of the picture, are more able to cope p o s i t i v e l y with t h e i r environment, whereas, children whose rosebushes are not appropriately proportioned, may display negative coping mechanisms. Analysis of Colour Much has been written on the significance of colour i n art counselling (Alschuler and Hattwick, 1943, 1969; Hammer, 1965; J o l l e s , 1957; Pasto, 1968; d i Leo 1970; Cooper, 1978; and Buck, 1948). However, for the purpose of this discussion colour w i l l be explored only i n connection to the ov e r a l l e f f e c t of colour i n the picture, rather than focusing on the sp e c i f i c choices of colour. "Positive Copers" Out of the "positive copers", only #16 chose not to colour his picture. Perhaps #16 was not interested i n colour ing the picture or did not want to invest more of himself emotionally by completing the picture. The picture conveys a fe e l i n g of starkness that perhaps #16 i s experiencing. #07, #17, #22, #19, #06, and #15 a l l appear to have coloured t h e i r pictures c a r e f u l l y and made appropriate colour selections. The tone of these pictures i s soft and the use of colour does not seem to manifest either any strong posi-t i v e or any strong negative feelings. The use of colour i n the pictures drawn by #01, #03, and #10 highlight the c r e a t i v i t y and imagination of the c h i l -dren. These children seem to be p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with d e t a i l and have used colour to help evoke positive feelings that they could be experiencing. "Negative Copers" Only one of the "negative copers" (#05) chose not to colour his picture. He did, however, add a small red flower during the post-drawing inquiry. The lack of colour seems to accentuate the feeling of ambivalency that #01 was projecting throughout the a c t i v i t y . Four of the "negative copers" (#02, #20, #08, and #12) seemed to be concerned about making the correct colour choice and colouring c a r e f u l l y . #08, #20, and #02 outlined the items to be coloured before colouring the inside. The colours that were chosen were r e a l i s t i c and no one colour was overly used. Although 12's colour choices also seemed to be appro-priate, one alarming element i s that #12 chose not to colour the rosebush. Although the colour choices made by #18, #21, #13, #11, and #04 also seem to be appropriate, the style of colouring i s somewhat inappropriate for the children's stage of development. The colouring style i s somewhat sloppy and l i t t l e e f f o r t i s made to be tidy. It would seem that the style of colouring i s conveying a sense of confusion and am-bivalency that perhaps these children are experiencing. Summary of the Analysis of Colour The majority of both the "positive" and the "negative copers" coloured their drawings. Only two children decided not to colour t h e i r pictures (#16 of the "positive copers" and #05 of the "negative copers"). The tone of colour used by the majority of the "positive copers" i s soft and seems to add another quality to the p i c -tures. As well, i t appears that the "positive copers" chose their colours c a r e f u l l y and used the colours to help project their feelings. There did not appear to be an excessive use of any colour that the "positive copers" used. Although colour i s used by the majority of the "nega-tive copers" the general tone of the pictures seem to be more confusing and ambivalent. F i f t y percent of the "negative copers" demonstrated a colouring style that seemed inappro-priate for t h e i r age group. The style of colouring was some-what sloppy and their choice of colour did not appear to be c a r e f u l l y planned. Perhaps t h i s colouring style i s indi c a -ti v e of the confusion that the "negative copers" f i n d i n t h e i r l i v e s . There did not appear to be an excessive use of any one colour by the "negative copers". Types of Rosebushes The type of rosebush that the c h i l d chose to draw i s also s i g n i f i c a n t . It would seem that the children who chose to draw a rosebush, allowed the guided imagery to control t h e i r thoughts. However, children that used other objects to represent the rosebush, would seem to have been more aware of divergent thoughts than on creating a standard image of a rosebush. A standard image of a rosebush would include a bush with some type of leaves or flowers, a more divergent image would be a tree. "Positive Copers" ( For the most part, the "positive copers" tended to re-present the rosebush as some type of flowering bush. #01, #06, #19, #22, #17, #15, and #10 contain common elements of flowers and stems. In addition, #06, #19, #22, #17, #10, and #01 have leaves. Both #01 and #19 also have thorns and roots. On the other hand, #16, #07, and #03 represent the rosebush more divergently. #16 uses a thorn bush, #07 uses a tree, and #03 uses a person r i d i n g on a horse. These d i -vergencies could suggest that the children were more free to creatively express their inner world when they did not have to focus on a s p e c i f i c stimulus. "Negative Copers" Seven of the "negative copers" (#02, #20, #12, #18, #13, #11, and #04) used rosebushes i n t h e i r pictures. Three did not. #01 used a thornbush instead of a rosebush, serpentine i n nature, with one, small, red flower. Both #08 and #21 used a tree. It would seem that these children were able to use a divergent form as a vehicle to express their feelings. Summary of the Types of Rosebushes The same number of children i n both the "positive" and the "negative copers" chose to use the rosebush i n their drawings. The other children used a d i f f e r e n t symbol for the rosebush. It could be hypothesized that the children who used other images than the rosebush i n their drawings were less able to relate to the stimuli i n the guided imagery. 117 Summary of the Art Analysis In considering the art analysis, the following tentative conclusions can be made about the "positive" and the "nega-ti v e copers". a. Most of the "positive" and the "negative copers" were able to st a r t drawing as soon as the guided imagery was over. b. The majority of the "positive copers" started to draw i n the middle of the page whereas, the majority of the "negative copers" started to draw at the bottom of the page. c. Most of the "positive copers" displayed the q u a l i t i e s of rhythm, complexity, expansion and integration, whereas, most of the "negative copers" demonstrated the q u a l i t i e s of rule, complexity, expansion and disintegration. d. Most of the "positive copers" drew the rosebush i n appropriate perspective to the rest of the picture, whereas the majority of the "negative copers" drew the rosebush out of proportion (i.e. either too big or too small). e. The use of colour i n the pictures drawn by the "positive copers" seems to emphasize the care and meticulous-ness that the majority of the "positive copers" took during the a c t i v i t y . Although the colouring added to the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the picture, there seemed to be no predominant use of colour. Although there was no predominant use of colour i n the "negative copers", the style of colouring seemed to be inappropriate for the children's developmental l e v e l . Perhaps, 118 for some of the "negative copers", the way i n which the colour was used accentuates the confusion and ambivalence that they may be experiencing. f. Most of the "positive copers" and the "negative copers" used the image of the rosebush i n their pictures to symbolize the rosebush. Analysis of the Statements Although o r i g i n a l l y sixteen questions were used i n the post-drawing inquiry, i t was decided to combine certain questions together because some of the questions focused on similar themes and i t was believed that through combining the answers, that the content of the responses would be richer. The responses w i l l be analysed through comparing the responses between the "positive and the "negative copers". The responses of the "positive copers" w i l l be looked at f i r s t , then the responses of the "negative copers" w i l l be examined. A summary of discussion w i l l follow. Question One: What kind of rosebush are you and what do you look like? (See Appendix E, Question One) Rationale for the Question The question was designed to explore the child's s e l f -concept. It was presumed that children who exhibit appropriate s o c i a l s k i l l s , whose work habits are satisfactory, and who appear to be coping p o s i t i v e l y with their environment, would describe the rosebush i n a positive way, noting the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the flower, the thorn, the stem, the leaf, and the root, would be aware of their colour, and would per-ceive themselves as being nice, kind, pretty, or f r i e n d l y . It was also presumed that children who exhibit inappropriate s o c i a l s k i l l s , whose work habits are not satisfactory, and who appear to be coping with their environment i n a negative fashion, would describe the rosebush i n a negative way, per-haps not having a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the rosebush, may be without colour, and who would perceive themselves as being mean, h o s t i l e , ugly, s e l f i s h or unfriendly (Bolander, 1977). Responses of the "Positive Copers" The responses that the^"positive copers" made are gen-e r a l l y positive i n tone, with such statements as "I'm a pretty large rosebush" (#01), "I'm a rosebush that rides horses and i s r e a l l y c o l o u r f u l " (#03), "I'm t a l l and f r i e n d l y (#17), "I'm a nice rosebush" (#19), "I'm big with about medium sized flowers and I'm strong" (#07), and "I'm big and t a l l , with red and yellow flowers" (#22). Size seems to be a factor that connotes a positive image Nine of the responses included a reference to size. It would appear that the children who saw themselves as being large or t a l l projected a posi t i v e image, while the c h i l d who saw herself as being small (#06) projected a more negative image, "I've got one red rose, and I'm dying". Two children described themselves as " t a l l and skinny" (#15 and #19). It i s questionable as to whether the word "skinny" has positive or negative connotations. From the 120 context of the statement made by #15, the statement appears to be predominantly negative, because #15 goes on to state that "I'm not r e a l l y a rosebush, I'm a red daisy". From the context of the statement made by #19, i t would seem that the statement i s predominantly pos i t i v e , because #19 concluded by stating "I'm a nice rosebush". The statements made by #06, #15, and #16 seem to be predominantly negative, whereas the statements made by #01, #03, #07, #10, #17, #19, and #22 are predominantly positive i n content. #06 talks about the dying rosebushes a l l around her and describes herself as dying as well. #15 states that he i s not r e a l l y a rosebush, but a daisy. #16 describes himself as being a thorny rosebush. Both #15 and #16 appear as though they want to take on another identit y and seem reluctant to do this exercise i n the form of a rosebush. As thi s question was designed to e l i c i t responses focusing on self-concept, i t would seem that #06, #15, and #16 have lower self-concepts than would appear i n the classroom. #01, #03, #07, #10, #17, #19, and #22 project more posi-t i v e images of themselves. A high l e v e l of c r e a t i v i t y i s also shown by some of these children. #03 describes herself as "a rosebush that rides horses and i s r e a l l y c o l o u r f u l " , #07 states that "I'm a wild rosebush with four d i f f e r e n t kinds of roses", and #10 states he doesn't bloom roses but da f f o d i l s . #15 and #16 also demonstrate creative responses as #15 says that he i s a red daisy and #16 visu a l i z e s himself as "guarding the jewels i n the castle". 121 Responses of the "Negative Copers" The responses that the "negative copers" made are gener-a l l y negative i n content, with statements such as "I'm sad, coz I'm a l l alone (#04), "I don't f e e l very good because there are other people running around, and trees can't run around" (#08), "I'm out i n the middle where they are going to make a parking l o t , and my flowers are bent" (#11), "I'm a mean rosebush" (#13), "I'm p r i c k l y " (#20), and "I'm very mean. I take up most of the world, just to be s e l f i s h " (#21). Once again, size i s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Five of the children referred to size. #08 states that she i s t a l l and f a t , but then adds that she doesn't f e e l very good because she can't run around. #13 states "I'm big and t a l l " , and then adds that he i s a mean rosebush. #18 and #20 des-cribe . themselves as short, while #21 states that "l!m the biggest rosebush i n the world" and then describes herself as being "very mean". " T a l l " and "big" seem to be linked with feelings of loneliness (#08) or with feelings of anger and h o s t i l i t y (#13 and #18). Most of the children described themselves as being rose-bushes, except for #05 who stated that "I'm a b i l l i o n thorns" and #08 described herself as a tree. Eight of the children described themselves as having thorns or pric k l e s (#02, #04, #05, #11, #12, #13, #18, and #20). It could be that the presence of thorns s i g n i f i e s that the children are defensive or protecting themselves and use the thorns so as not to be hurt. \ 122 Once again, c r e a t i v i t y i s expressed through the responses. #08 vis u a l i z e s herself as being a tree, #11 told a story of what was happening to him, "There used to be a house there. The woman there used to take good care of me. They tore the house down. The woman l i v e s i n another place", and #05 states that "I'm a b i l l i o n thorns". Although c r e a t i v i t y i s present, i t only seems to enhance the feelings of desolation (#11) or defensiveness (#05) that the children are projecting. Only #18 states that he has a happy face. Summary of the Responses to Question One The importance of size i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c found i n both the "positive" and the "negative copers". This i s a common element and i s one that both groups of children emphasized. However, the general themes that each group pre-sented vary a great .deal. The themes of growth, health, a c t i v i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , f r i e n d l i n e s s , worthiness, strength, and beauty are manifested i n the responses of the "positive copers". The majority of the responses also seem to indicate that the children have positive self-esteem and consider themselves to be of worth. The themes of loss, sadness, i n a c t i v i t y , h o s t i l i t y , selfishness, meanness, loneliness, anger, and despair are manifested i n the responses of the "negative copers". The majority of the responses seem to indicate that the children have a low self-esteem and do not see themselves as having value. Question Two: T e l l me about your flowers (See Appendix F: Question Two). Rationale for Question Two This question was designed to explore the t a c t i l e q u a l i -t i e s of the flower and to determine i t s significance i n the child's l i f e . Responses of the "Positive Copers" A l l the "positive copers" had flowers except for #16 who thought that i t would not be "suitable to have flowers on a rosebush that's guarding jewels". Both #19 and #22 described their flowers as buds, i n the process of blooming. The flowers were described as being "nice and soft and they smell pretty" (#01), "the petals are soft and very pretty" (#06), "they f e e l soft and s i l k y " (#07), "they f e e l soft" (#10), "the flower i s velvety" (#15), "they're bushy" (#17), and "they f e e l nice and soft" (#19). In general, the children visualized that the flowers were soft to touch. #03 stated that her eye was a flower, which kept the same imagery as she expressed previously, that she herself was the rosebush. The image of death continued to be a powerful one for #06 who stated that her one flower was going to die soon, " i t blooms for a couple of days and then i t f a l l s o f f " . #10 continued to describe his flowers as d a f f o d i l s and #15 stated once again that he was a red daisy. Responses of the "Negative Copers" Eight of the "negative copers" had flowers. #13 didn't have flowers "coz someone moved away and took them" and #21 124 stated that "the l a s t flowers I ever had were a long time ago and I ate them up because I was hungry". Only one c h i l d described how the flower f e l t to touch "they f e e l weird, l i k e powdery" (#08), whereas the other children described the flower i n more functional terms, such as "they're i n f u l l bloom" (#02, "they're just buds, they want to grow" (#08), "they're nice and fr i e n d l y " (#18), and "my flowers are kind of skinny and f a t " (#18). #05 does not know much about his flower, "I drew i t just for something to do. I don't know i f i t l i k e s being there". He was non-committal. #11 describes his flowers as changing from red to pink because they are no longer being taken care of. #12 chose not to describe his flower but rather to t e l l what happened when a bee came along. The statement made by #20 that the flowers are kind of f a t and skinny i s ambivalent. Summary of the Responses to Question Two The t a c t i l e sense of the flower was an important element for the "positive copers". The quality of touch was s i g n i f i -cant and emphasized throughout their responses. Another prevalent theme e l i c i t e d from the "positive copers" was the theme of nurturance and health. In contrast, the t a c t i l e sense of the flower was not stressed i n the responses of the "negative copers". Very l i t t l e was said about how the flower f e l t . Rather, the themes that were evoked by thi s question were themes of neg-le c t and ambivalency. Question Three: T e l l me about your leaves. (See Appendix G: Question Three). Rationale for Question Three Question three was designed to determine how s i g n i f i c a n t the inclusion or omission of leaves would be. In was believed that children who included leaves i n t h e i r description would see themselves as being more "complete" than children who did not include leaves i n t h e i r description (Bolander, 1977). Responses of the "Positive Copers" For the most part, the descriptions made by the "posi-t i v e copers" about their leaves were quite short and did not provide a l o t of information. Some of the comments were "they're furry on the back side" (#10), "they f e e l nice" (#17), and "I have l o t s of leaves" (#19). Three of the children had no leaves. #15 did not have leaves because "they were a l l picked o f f " , #16 stated that he did not bother with leaves, "I might have put some on. What I saw was just a big bunch of thorns and bushes that people are trying to get through, to get to the jewels", and #22 stated that rosebushes "don't have leaves". #01 had "nice, big, white ones" that cover most of the tree. The leaves seem to represent security and protection. #07 also described the leaves as being a form of protection "they're shelter for animals". #03 stated that she had a red leaf for her mouth and green leaves for her feet. In her description, #03 continued to use the image of herself as being the rosebush. #06 continued with her theme of death,"some leaves are l e f t - the rest have already died". #06 continued to be pre-occupied with the images of death and dying that she envisioned. For #16, the leaves did not provide adequate protection, thus, for him, leaves were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , "What I saw was just a big bunch of thorns and bushes that people are trying to get through, to get to the jewels". For the "positive copers", i t would seem that the i n c l u -sion or omission of leaves was not highly s i g n i f i c a n t . With three children, the leaves appeared to have some metaphorical value. #06 used the leaves as a v i s u a l sign that death was coming, "some are s t i l l green and the others are brown". #15 appears to be making a statement of how there seems to be something missing from his l i f e , "I don't have any leaves coz they were a l l picked o f f " . What #16 seems to be alluding to i s that he needs something more powerful than leaves to pro-tect the "jewels" that he i s guarding. Response of the "Negative Copers" The statements that the "negative copers" made about their leaves seem to y i e l d more information than the state-ments made by the "positive copers" because the statements explain more f u l l y why there i s either the presence or absence of leaves. Five children had leaves. #08 stated that the "leaves are dying and they're f a l l i n g o f f " . Her statement i n t e n s i -f i e s the feelings of sadness and loneliness that #08 127 previously discussed. Whereas, for #12, the leaves seem to have a nurturing e f f e c t , "there's lots of c a t e r p i l l a r eggs on i t " . #13 states that he has "red leaves coz I just have red leaves". Although the colour and the texture of the leaves (i. e . "they f e e l wet") are unusual, he declines to comment further. #18 also seems to have unusual looking leaves. He described them as having "long black spines", while #21 states that she i s "mostly made of leaves". Five of the children stated that they had no leaves. #02 claimed that she did not want' any. Perhaps, for her, leaves symbolized something that #02 did not f e e l comfortable about having, so she chose not to have leaves i n her picture. It i s interesting to note that #02 had previously been sex-ually abused. #04 stated that he "never r e a l l y saw.any leaves". #05 continued to keep his comments short and offered the reason that " i t ' s winter" to explain why he had no leaves. #11 l o s t his leaves when the wind blew them away. It would appear that #11 i s mourning the loss of something or someone i n his l i f e and that he i s powerless to stop i t . Both #08 and #11 v i s u a l i z e the wind as being i n control and having the power to take the leaves away. #20 expresses quite a strong d i s l i k e about having leaves around her, "I don't l i k e them around me". It i s almost as though leaves repre-sent persons or things that cause f r u s t r a t i o n i n her l i f e . Summary of the Responses to Question Three The themes e l i c i t e d from the "positive copers" seem to focus on nothingness, protection, and death. The themes e l i c i t e d from the "negative copers" focus on sadness, l o n e l i -ness, emptiness, and powerlessness. The t a c t i l e quality of the leaves i s very rarely touched and a predominance of both "positive" and "negative copers" did not include leaves at a l l i n t h e i r pictures. Question Four: T e l l me about your stems and branches. (See Appendix H: Question Four). The Rationale for Question Four The purpose of t h i s question i s to determine how the c h i l d perceives that he or she i s supported. Is there some-thing s o l i d to hold up the flowers and leaves? It would seem that i f the stems and branches are perceived as being strong, that the c h i l d would f e e l that his or her foundation i s secure. However, i f the stems and branches are weak or unhealthy, perhaps the c h i l d i s attempting to say that he or she does not f e e l as strong as he or she may appear and that the foundation i s insecure. Responses of the "Positive Copers" For the most part, stems were synonomous with branches and the two words were used interchangeably. Some of the description of the stems and branches made by the "positive copers" include "I have leg stems and arm stems" (#03), "big and strong" (#07), and "they're hard. You can't break them" (#19). As well, one of the children stated "my stems -129 they're old and they break e a s i l y " (#06). Three of the children seemed to focus on the strength of the branches and stems. #07 stated that the branches are big and strong. Again, he refers to the nurturing q u a l i t i e s of the rosebush by stating that "the birds l i v e on the branches". #07 appears to be s a t i s f i e d and f u l f i l l e d with himself because he goes on to state how happy he i s fee l i n g . #16 describes the branches as being "thick l i k e trees". It seems very important to him that the branches are s o l i d be-cause "smaller ones could break". It appears to be very necessary for #16 to have thick branches i n order to have security. #19 also need strong branches. He makes sure that "you can't break them". #01 seems to have a firm foundation as she describes her trunk as being "wide". #03 continues to project herself as the rosebush and says that she has "leg stems and arm stems". She seems to be confident i n her image. As well, #06 c o n t i -nues to i l l u s t r a t e her theme of death and dying. The stems break ea s i l y , "they're not very strong and they sag. My rosebush i s slowly f a l l i n g apart". #06 seems to portray a lack of security and the fear of eventually f a l l i n g completely apart. When #15 describes his stem as being "rubbery, long, and skinny',' i t i s almost as though one can't quite get a hold of the stem because i t i s quite elusive. The stem has also been cut off which raises the question on how much the stem w i l l be able to continue to support the flower and provide i t 130 with the nourishment that i t needs. #10 states that his stems "don't have thorns", whereas both #17 and #22 describe t h e i r branches as being " p r i c k l y " . It would seem that #10 feels secure with the branches the way they are and has no need for further protection, whereas, #17 and #22 may be feeling somewhat insecure and require further protection. In addition #22 describes his stems as being "long and tangly", making.the rosebush snake-like i n appearance. Responses of the "Negative Copers" It i s interesting to note that only one of the "posi-tive copers" described the branches as being tangly, whereas, six of the "negative copers" describe the branches as being tangly, using such words as "they're crinkled up - they go back l i k e that and that" (#04), "they're twisted" (#11), and "they're brown and long and curvy" (#21). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of tangled or twisted branches or stems would seem to denote some type of evasiveness or a defense mechanism. Either the c h i l d may not want to deal with a problem so he or she attempts to ignore i t by twisting i t up and d i s t o r t i n g the problem, or the area of concern i s too painful to confront causing a d i s t o r t i o n i n the child's per-ceptions. #02, #04, #05, #11, #20, and #21 a l l have twisted ' branches. As well as being twisted, #02's branches are "thick and they're layered". Perhaps the branches are also a form-of protection. The texture of the branches of #04 are unusual because they are "spongy", which would seem to indicate that they do not off e r a firm support. It i s interesting to note that the wind which blew away the leaves o f f #11 also i s responsible for twisting the branches a l l up. Again, there appears to be a statement of the sense of powerlessness that #11 i s experiencing. #20 appears to allude to confusion that she could be experiencing i n her l i f e as the branches are tangled up and "some grow from one branch to another, to another". There appears to be no beginning or no end. #21 describes the stems as being "long and curvy" rather than using the terms tangled or twisted. This statement appears to be quite p o s i t i v e . #08 states that the branches are "strong but some of them are breaking". It would appear that #08 i s i n some type of t r a n s i t i o n , where she i s going from a weaker foundation to one that i s more secure. #12 talks about the branches being straight and fat and #13 says that they are "hard and strong". It would seem that both boys f e e l secure with where they are presently. Summary of the Responses to Question Eour Question four seems to provide some sense of how secure the c h i l d perceives him or herself to be. The more secure children describe the branches as being strong and straight, whereas, the less secure children describe the branches as being easy to break and as being tangled or twisted. Those children whose branches are tangled or twisted appear to have some d i f f i c u l t y with coping with certain issues, and instead 132 of confronting the problem, the children have chosen to d i s -t o r t the image so that i t becomes almost unrecognizable. The predominant themes of the "positive copers" are those of strength, nurturance, happiness, s t a b i l i t y , and protection. The predominant themes of the "negative copers" are twisted-ness, d i s t o r t i o n , pain, lack of security, scattering, loss and helplessness. I t would seem that the stems are a metaphor for security and are a foundation on which to grow. For the majority of the "positive copers", the security seems to be . there. However, for the majority of the "negative copers", there i s no c e n t r a l i t y or security. Question Five: Do you have thorns? If so, t e l l me about them. If not, t e l l me how you protect your-s e l f . Are you a mean or a fr i e n d l y rose-bush? (See Appendix I: Question Five). Rationale for Question Five Question f i v e was designed to determine how protective the c h i l d i s and what type of defense mechanisms he or she might project. As well, i t w i l l provide some information on how the c h i l d perceives him or herself as being (either "mean" or "friendly") and i t may help to shed some l i g h t on s e l f -perceptions and how they f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the way i n which a c h i l d copes. Responses of the "Positive Copers" Six of the "positive copers" said that they had thorns. The description of the thorns include "they're l i t t l e and they stic k out of the stems, and maybe i f you touch them, t h e y ' l l probably s t i c k i n your f i n g e r s . They're black and they're l i t t l e , and they s t i n g and s t u f f " (#01), "they're r e a l l y sharp and they're b i g and they're a l l over the p l a c e on the stems and the branches" (#06), "they're r e g u l a r thorns, they're not so b i g " (#16) , "they're l i t t l e skinny thorns, they don't hurt a l o t " (#17), "the thorns are p r i c k l y , they hurt when you touch them" (#19), "they're sharp and s m a l l , i f someone t r i e s to p i c k a rose, the thorns w i l l go i n t o them" (#22). #01, #17, and #19 d e s c r i b e the thorns as being f r i e n d l y . Although they h u r t , they don't hurt a l o t and they are used f o r p r o t e c t i o n . These thorns do not appear to be h o s t i l e or a g g r e s s i v e . #22 s t a t e s t h a t the thorns are "both mean and f r i e n d l y " . T h i s would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t #22 may i n i t i a t e c o n f l i c t from time to time. #06 d e s c r i b e s her thorns as being mean and used to keep people away. There i s a s h i f t i n theme i n t h i s statement. In the previous statements, symbols of death and dying were very s t r o n g , whereas, t h i s statement seems to be more h o s t i l e and almost a c t s as a warning to keep out. The statement made by #16 appears to j u s t i f y why the thorns are present. #16 f i r s t s t a t e s t h a t "they're r e g u l a r thorns", which seems to imply t h a t they are n e i t h e r bigger nor small e r than u s u a l . He a l s o seeks to e x p l a i n why they are there, "they're j u s t t r y i n g to keep you out of the c a s t l e " . #03, #07, #10, and #15 a l l have no thorns, however, the reasons vary. #03 does not need thorns because she has a d i f f e r e n t form of p r o t e c t i o n , "I p r o t e c t myself with my hands and my legs and my mouth. I kick and punch and I b i t e " . On the other/hand, #07 feels no need for protection, "no thorns coz I l i k e to have animals come near me". Both the comments of #10 and #15 are short and do not provide much information. They both state that they do not protect themselves. The presence of thorns i n the statements made by the "positive copers" acts as protection. For the most part, the thorns are designed to s t a r t l e the intruder. L i t t l e anger or h o s t i l i t y i s expressed i n the statements. The "positive copers" are more concerned about being i n a safe environment. Responses of the "Negative Copers" Unlike the "positive copers", the "negative copers" had much more to say about thorns and how they protected them-selves. Perhaps th i s i s because the "negative copers" had developed th e i r defense mechanisms more f u l l y . Only one of the "negative copers" did not have thorns. #08 stated that she had "no thorns, no protection". She had been sexually abused and was l i v i n g i n a foster home at the time of the interview. Perhaps, #08 did not f e e l she needed to protect herself for the moment because her environment was secure, or perhaps she had given up because of the feeling of powerlessness that she alluded to i n previous statements. Some of the description of thorns include "they're very sharp, pointy" (#02), "sharp, mean thorns" (#04), "they're sharp, they draw blood" (#05), "there's poison on some of the thorns" (#11), "people can get stabbed" (#12), and "they're p r i c k l y , sharp, and sometimes dangerous" (#18). The thorns are used for protection and are generally described as being mean. #02 warns that " i f any person comes up, they get prickled". #02 was also previously sexually abused and men-tioned i n the pre-interview that she prefers to be by herself. Perhaps, for her, the thorns are a means of keeping people away. #05 also uses the thorns to keep people away, "leave me alone". The thorns are threatening, " i f you touch them, yo u ' l l find out what they do". Throughout the intervention, #05 appeared to be on the defensive, and did not want the researcher to get close to him. #05 goes on to state that "sometimes I t r i c k people" and gives an example of how he does i t , "I l i v e i n front of a house - I grow two s t o r i e s , they're looking for the house - hmm - there must be a house here . . . and things l i k e that". #05 behaved i n a similar fashion, during the pre-interview, when he stated that his mother i s a lawyer, whereas, she i s unemployed and on welfare. #04 has both short and long thorns that are "real p r i c k l y The statement "sometimes they take my roses off - unless they want to p u l l them for fun - t h e y ' l l p u l l them out with their hands or wear gloves just to be mean" appears to i l l u s t r a t e that #04 might believe that l i f e i s not f a i r and that he may see himself as a victim, but that he w i l l f i g h t back, " i f they grab them, t h e y ' l l get prickled". The statements made by #11 about the thorns appear to be ambivalent, because he states that "some of them are r e a l 136 big and some of them are re a l small" and "some of them are mean and some of them are f r i e n d l y " . Perhaps #11's world view i s ambivalent as well because he also states that "the fri e n d l y ones just poke you. The mean ones w i l l give you a cut". However, #11 also provides a cure for any pain that may occur, "you just have to get a shot and then y o u ' l l be okay". There appears to be continual fluctuation and uncer-tainty i n #11's l i f e . The statements made by #18 also seem to r e f l e c t ambiva-lency and uncertainty. He describes the thorns as being "both mean and f r i e n d l y " . Although i n previous statements, #18 states that he i s happy, he describes the thorns as being "prickly, sharp, and sometimes dangerous". Perhaps some of his experiences are too painful to discuss even metaphoric-a l l y . #18 has been physically abused, but i t would seem as though he wants to repress these memories. #20 also mentions long and short thorns, however, the thorns are mean and "they hurt sometimes". #20 protects her-s e l f with the thorns, "people w i l l get a p r i c k l e from the rose". Although protection i s important, i t would appear that there are times when protection i s more important than other times. Another c h i l d who has remained ambiguous i n his state-ments i s #12. It i s through the statements about the thorns, that #12 i s able to express some of the anger and h o s t i l i t y that he fe e l s , " i f someone touches them, they get i t a l l the way through their finger. People can get stabbed. The thorns are mean". #12 has also been sexually abused and i t would seem that question f i v e i s the f i r s t question which has.:per-mitted him to express some of the anger and hurt that he i s feelin g . #13 has mean thorns as well. They hurt " l i k e a bee sting". #13 was quite reluctant to say much during the post-drawing inquiry, so his statements about the thorns could i l l u s t r a t e that there i s some painful material with which he i s unable to cope. #21 has "thorns but you can't see them". She also has "a thorn coming down from the stem, i t goes through the mountain. Every time the rosebush gets t h i r s t y , the thorn gets water from the lake". Although the thorns act as pro-tection and are mean, the thorn that goes down from the stem seems to have some nurturing e f f e c t , as i t provides water whenever the rosebush needs i t . Thus, the thorns can be both h o s t i l e and caring at the same time. Perhaps, the statements about the thorns could be a metaphor for how #21 perceives her l i f e . There has been suspected sexual abuse i n the home, but at the time of the interview, the father was s t i l l l i v i n g i n the home. It i s interesting to note #21's f i n a l statement, "a long time ago, a woodman came and t r i e d to cut me down but I wouldn't l e t him". Summary of the Responses to Question Five Although most of the other questions generated approxi-mately the same amount of responses from ^both the "positive" and the "negative copers", question f i v e e l i c i t e d more responses from the "negative copers". It would seem that t h i s question had more metaphorical significance for the "negative copers". The main themes that seem to be e l i c i t e d from the "posi-tiv e copers" are pain, power, and protection. The pain seems to refer to what the thorns can do and r e f l e c t the power that they have. The thorns seem to be used for protec-tio n , but not i n an aggressive way. The main themes that seem to be e l i c i t e d from the "nega-tive copers" are pain, h o s t i l i t y , destruction, protection, and ambivalency. The thorns are threatening i n nature. The pain here seems more acute and the thorns are menacing. There i s also an element of disintegration i n the state-ments made by some of the "negative copers". As the post-drawing inquiry continues, some of the children become, less and less congruent. Ambivalency seemed to characterize the nature of the thorns of children who were either physically or sexually abused. For these children, the uncertainty of who they are and the fe e l i n g of powerlessness i n their situations seem to be symbolized by statements such as the thorns are "long and short" and "mean and f r i e n d l y " . Question Six: T e l l me about your roots. (See Appendix J : Question Six). Rationale for Question Six This question was designed to determine how stable and secure the c h i l d i s f e e l i n g . It was presumed that a c h i l d 139 who feels secure w i l l have roots that are long, healthy, and nurturing. Children who f e e l less secure w i l l have shorter roots, or perhaps they w i l l have no roots at a l l . Responses of the "Positive Copers" Three of the "positive copers" did not have roots and one was not sure, "maybe there are roots underground. I see myself just standing i n front, not underground" (#16). #03 di d not have roots because she was on her horse. #15 did not have roots as the flower was i n a vase and #22 did not see any roots. The lack of roots does not appear to be very s i g n i f i c a n t . Four of the statements described the roots i n similar terms. The statements a l l described the roots as being long and straight and as providing a firm foundation. The c h i l -dren described the roots as going "deep into the ground and they keep the tree r e a l l y sturdy" (#01), "the roots are straight and good, deep and strong, and even i f a hurricane came along, i t couldn't take them out" (#07), "they just go straight down" (#10), and "they're long and straight, they go deep into the ground" (#17). #06 and #19 described their roots d i f f e r e n t l y . #06 stated that the roots are "long and skinny and way down i n the earth searching for water and they can't find any". It would seem that #06 i s searching for something that she can not find . She stated that the roots " f e e l pretty low down", which i s probably how she i s feeling as well. #19 has roots that are small and crooked. Although he says the sun i s 140 shining, his foundation does not seem to be very secure. Responses of the "Negative Copers" Four of the "negative copers" did not have roots. #02 stated that she did not have roots because she "didn't want to draw under the ground - i t ' s too hard". #04 stated that "I never saw no roots i n my picture" while #13 said "I didn't grow any". #21 stated that "I don't have roots - I don't need them". Perhaps i t i s too painful for #02 to make roots as she may be hurt and confused. Similarly, both #04 and #13 could find i t too d i f f i c u l t to draw roots at t h i s time. As for #21, roots were unnecessary when the thorn functioned as a root. #05 states that he has roots but that he didn't draw them. Roots were not important. Whereas, for some of the "positive copers" the word "straight" seems to be synonomous with "healthy", #08 states that "they're long and tangly". They're healthy". #12, #18, and #20 also seem to have healthy roots. "They're long and healthy" (#12), "they're long, they never quit growing" (#18), and "they grow deep into the ground, so my rosebush can grow t a l l e r and t a l l e r . And some of them are short, and some are long, some of them c u r l " . It would appear that although these children were observed as not being able to e f f e c t i v e l y cope with their environment, that their foundation seems to be secure, and perhaps, with time, they w i l l be able to cope more e f f e c t i v e l y . Only #11 described the roots negatively, "they're in the ground, they're kind of short and they're twisted. They're not so healthy". There seems to be a sense of despair i n th i s statement, that i s not present i n the statements made by the other "negative copers". Summary of the Responses to Question Six For the "positive copers", the words "long and straight" were linked to the concept of healthy roots, whereas, for the "negative copers", as long as the roots were long, they were seen as being healthy. The roots could be either twisted or straight. The absence of roots seemed to indicate that either the children did not find them necessary or that they did not have a foundation on which to build. It would seem that the main theme that both the "posi-t i v e " and the "negative copers" have developed i n t h e i r responses i s one of nurturing. The majority of children who stated that they had roots i n t h e i r picture also indicated that there was some nurturance. Those who did not have roots, did not allude to nurturance i n their comments. Question Seven: T e l l me about where you l i v e . What kind of things do you see around you? How do you l i k e l i v i n g where you are? (See Appendix K: Question Seven). Rationale for. Question Seven This question was designed to determine how the c h i l d perceives the environment i n which he or she l i v e s and whether the c h i l d views the environment as being pleasant or unplea-sant. It i s presumed that the "positive copers" w i l l l i k e l i v i n g where they are, but that the "negative copers" w i l l not. Whereas most of the previous questions were intrapsy-chic i n nature, question seven i s designed to determine where the c h i l d perceives him or herself as being i n relationship to the environment. Responses of the "Positive Copers" The "positive copers" describe a variety of environments i n which they l i v e . Some of the more positive environments include "there's a fence around me and l i k e there's pine trees and things l i k e that" (#01), "I l i v e i n a purple space ... and there's l i t t l e trees f l o a t i n g around and birds...and the sun i s shining" (#03), "around me I see big redwood trees and spruce trees, and pine trees, and nice f l u f f y clouds, animals running around and playing, and me growing" (#07) , "in a park, I see swings and a pond and I see the ducks" (#10), "I can look down the street. People come i n , s i t . down at the table and eat. I'm i n the kitchen" (#15), "I l i v e near someone's backyard but not i n i t . I'm out i n the open" (#17), and "I l i v e i n someone's backyard. I see a fence and some grass and a clothesline" (#19). Some of the descriptions of the negative environments included "I'm i n the middle of the desert" (#06 and #19) and "I l i v e on a fantasy island, guarding the cast l e , i t ' s deserted, but there are jewels inside" (#16). #01 and #16 described where they l i v e as sometimes being boring. #01 said " i t ' s kind of boring i n a way because you just stand there" and #16 commented that " i t get boring, some 143 times i t ' s boring when people aren't around". It would appear that for both of these children that they get bored when there i s not enough for them to do but that they s t i l l l i k e being where they are. #01 summarizes by saying " i t ' s pretty okay" and #16 adds that " i t ' s fun when people t r y to get through (the rosebush). Both children seem to have a positive a t t i -tude towards their environment. #16 i s not concerned i f someone t r i e s to cut down the rosebush because "there's so much of me, I just keep growing". Only #06 does not l i k e l i v i n g where she i s , "I see sand and sun and some other dead rosebushes laying a l l over the place. I don't l i k e l i v i n g there at a l l " . Once again, the image of death i s prevalent. #03, #07, #10, #15, #17, #19, and #22 a l l l i k e l i v i n g where they are. The description made by #03 has a dream-like quality to i t , "that's a l i t t l e patch of land there f l o a t i n g around. The horse i s sort of just walking on a i r . It's di f f e r e n t , strange, c o l o u r f u l . . . I wouldn't mind l i v i n g there. I l i k e the colours and I could just walk on a i r instead of always f a l l i n g down." #03 seems to enjoy the environment that she has created. #07 also seems to be content with the environment that he has created, "I've got grass and a l i t t l e rabbit eating a rose, and I've got the sky. It's nice outside with just l i t t l e f l u f f y clouds around." Although #07 l i k e s where he i s l i v i n g , i t i s interesting to note that there are no people around, "My background i s around i n the country where nobody l i v e s . I just stay there with wilderness and Mother Nature." Per-haps #07 feels more comfortable with animals than with people. However, the environment seems to be a happy one and #07 concludes by stating that "I suggest that other rosebushes would l i k e to l i v e here". In observing #07 on the playground, he appeared to be quite happy playing by himself or being with younger children. However, he seemed to be intimidated when one of his classmates approached him. Children i n his own age group seemed to l i k e to tease him. Perhaps th i s fantasy was also a form of escape for the teasing that he was experiencing. #10 also lik e d where he l i v e d because " i t ' s high and i t ' s close to the sun". His needs seem to be met, "I have a tree beside me to shelter me i f I want to stay i n the shade" and he i s happy to watch what i s going on around him. S i m i l a r l y , #15 i s content to observe the world from where he i s , "I can see everything outside. People and t h e i r dogs chasing s t i c k s , other flowers on the ground". It would seem that #15 feels quite secure where he i s (in the kitchen) and des-cribes his environment as being "nice". Like #10 and #15, #17 also seems to be by herself. She states, "I'm usually by myself. I l i k e l i v i n g where I am". #17 also states that she l i v e s , "out i n the open" and "near someone's yard, but not i n i t " . It would appear that #17 wants some independence. Near her are two signs which say "keep out" and "one way". #17 says that behind the "keep out" sign i s " e l e c t r i c i t y - they have a l l t h i s e l e c t r i c equipment", but she does not elaborate further nor does she 145 offe r an explanation for the 'one way1 sign. Perhaps there are certain problems or issues i n #17's l i f e that she would prefer not to discuss. Although #19 claims that " i t ' s a l r i g h t where I l i v e " , the environment seems to be barren and void of any positive feelings, "I l i v e i n the desert. I don't see anything around me". Perhaps #19 has learned to make the best of an environ-ment that may otherwise be unpleasant. #22 also l i k e s where he i s l i v i n g which i s i n "someone's back yard". Although the environment does not seem to have much, "I see a fence and some grass and a clothesline", i t s t i l l appears to be s a t i s f y i n g . Although many of the "positive copers" seem to l i k e where they l i v e , for the most part there seems to be l i t t l e i nteraction with the environment and each c h i l d seems very much alone. Perhaps a difference between the "positive" and the "negative" copers i s that the "positive copers" are able to adapt more e a s i l y to the situation that they are i n and try to make the most of i t , whereas the "negative copers" have a more d i f f i c u l t time i n making adjustments. Responses of the "Negative Copers" Question seven e l i c i t e d a variety of responses from the "negative copers" which include "I l i v e i n the front yard -picket fence and big house behind me" (#02), "high upon a grassy area, with clouds i n the sky, i t ' s hot" (#04), "I l i v e i n a marble. I t l i v e s on top" (#05), " i t l i v e s i n a park" (#08), "I'm i n the country. They're going to make a store and a parking l o t . They're making a parking l o t where I am now" (#11), "I l i v e at 21-23 Street, on the corner by the sidewalk." (#12), "I l i v e i n an empty l o t by a street that nobody comes near. I see broken bottles, broken windows, and glass. No people." (#13), "I l i v e i n a person's yard with lo t s and l o t s of animals around, I have l o t s and l o t s of friends but they've a l l been picked and put into j a r s . " (#18), "I l i v e i n the desert but l a t e l y some people put a fence there." (#20), and "I l i v e i n a desert where a l o t of dark people used to l i v e . An old man planted me and didn't know that I was e v i l , so I grew up." (#21). From studying the responses, i t would appear that one c h i l d (#11) does not l i k e his environment, two children (#02 and #12) l i k e where they are l i v i n g and the other children (#04, #05, #08, #13, #18, #20 and #21) have mixed feelings towards their environment. The statements made by #11 seem to manifest despair and a deep sense of loss, "I l i k e i t when the lady l i v e d there, but I don't l i k e i t now." It seems that #11 i s i n a very vulnerable position and that there i s l i t t l e he can do about i t , "The jeep i s going to mow me down. I'm going to scratch the jeep." At the same time, #11 i s trying to protect some-one, something or part of himself. The tree becomes a meta-phor for whatever i t i s that #11 i s trying to protect. It would also seem that #11 i s aware of how much stronger he i s than the tree, "I f e e l sorry for the tree too. It i s just a baby. tree. It was just born when the lady had to go. I ' l l 147 be harder to mow down than the tree." #11's l i f e seems to be rapidly changing and the theme of death i s accentuated through his image of the rose, "The bumble bee i s probably going to land on the rose, i t ' s pro-bably going to die. It's the l a s t b i t of pollen that I ' l l probably ever get." - The environment and what #11 i s exper-iencing i s c e r t a i n l y "not very nice". At the time of the interview, #11's mother was i n hospital. This happens quite frequently and whenever i t does happen, #11 i s l e f t alone, uncared for, and i s quite neglect-ed. If he does not take care of himself, there does not seem to be anyone there to help him. For #02, her environment includes "a picket fence, a sidewalk, and grass". She goes on to state that " i t ' s okay l i v i n g where I am, my location i s very peaceful". It would seem that what makes the location so peaceful i s that i t i s completely void of any type of interaction. #02's statements seem to further i l l u s t r a t e her desire to be l e f t alone. It would also appear that #02 i s able to cope with her environ-ment as long as she i s not forced to develop inter-personal s k i l l s . #12 describes his environment as being "f r i e n d l y " . He i s situated at the street corner and sees cars..and people. Unlike #02, #12 seems to be i n closer contact to what goes on around him and i t would seem that he would l i k e to p a r t i c i -pate more i n his environment, however, he seems to be prevented from doing so by the fence that goes " a l l the way around". 148 Whereas, i t would seem that #12 derives pleasure from his environment, #02 does not. The statements made by the other "negative copers" seem more ambivalent than those described above. For #04, there seems to be l i t t l e interaction with his environment. At f i r s t , #04 says he sees people and then says that he does not, "It was l i k e the park was mine and I was a l l alone". He seems to f e e l both bored and happy. He feels bored because "I don't have no other friends l i k e rosebushes", but he feels happy because "I'm on the grass. I can go into the grass". Perhaps the grass i s a metaphor for warmth and a sense of belonging that #04 experiences occasionally. At the time of the interview, #04 had only been i n the school for several months and although his behaviour was f a i r l y disruptive at f i r s t , #04 was learning how to develop more eff e c t i v e and appropriate coping strategies. Perhaps being "spread out i n the grass" i s one way for #04 to cope more e f f e c t i v e l y . #20 also alludes to feelings of boredom and of peace at the same time, "I see a l o t of boring things to do and that. I just stare on anything I want - l i k e the clouds or a boring bee buzzing around you...It's peaceful. And I l i k e to be peaceful and that". #20 appears to be on the outside, watch-ing and not p a r t i c i p a t i n g a l o t . Where she i s , there does not seem to be anything exciting or worthwhile, whereas, "on the other side of the fence i s another rose p r i c k l e bush and there's cactus, on the other side, there's animals. Just me 149 on this side". Although #20 may want to be there, she also seems to be preoccupied with herself, "I see some of my roots, and my branches, and my p r i c k l e s " . Perhaps for #20, her coping strategies focus inward as the environment may be too overwhelming to consider. The statements made by #08 are similar to those of #20 i n that both appear as though they want to be elsewhere, but fe e l unable to do anything about i t , "I'd rather be a person so I could play around, but I guess i t ' s fun". It may be that the environment i s overwhelming and that change i s both risky and scary. #08's response also e l i c i t s a feeling of helplessness, "I see children playing and people walking dogs and a l l sorts of things - but I don't know how to draw them". Comments made by #05 also seem to be ambivalent because he states that the environment i s "as good as earth to l i v e on. It's l i k e earth but smaller". However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine his world view. It would also seem that power i s important because #05 sees "teensy weensy people going i n and out of their houses" which would seem to imply that #05 would l i k e to have more control over his environment. At the same time, there i s no interaction between #05 and the envi-ronment. I t would appear that. #05 has chosen to i s o l a t e himself. The comments made by #13, #18, and #21 woke powerful images that enhance feelings of h o s t i l i t y , neglect, and lone-l i n e s s . However, the children seem to condone and even support their l i v i n g conditions. There appears to be quite a love-hate relationship between the children and where they l i v e . The vacant l o t where #13 dwells i s f u l l of broken glass and there are no people, "can't get into the house or the apartment. It's an old part of town". It seems that #13 i s alone and neglected. The environment i s harsh and cru e l , "the cracks (in the road) are from when the ra i n gets into the lines and i t freezes". Although the environment i s not a nurturing one, #13 states that " i t ' s okay to be there" It would appear that #13 finds i t easier to cope with the environment that he i s i n presently than to have to contem-plate a change. The same could be said of #18. At f i r s t , #18 depicts his environment as being f r i e n d l y but then goes on to state that "there's a cage that goes a l l the way around". I t would appear that perhaps #18 feels trapped and helpless. These feelings are enhanced when #18 goes on to state that "the dog's going to l i c k the flower. The flower feels mad. Sometimes I l i k e the dog around but I don't l i k e to be licked by the dog". Even though the dog i s going to l i c k the flower, there i s nothing the flower can do #18 i s also feeling angry, "I'm mad about the hand because the flower doesn't want to be touched". Again, there i s a sense of helplessness. #18 has been physically abused so perhaps the dog and the hand are metaphors of fear and power At the same time, this environment provides #18 with some re cognition because he says "I love i t because people can come around and look at me and say 'that flower i s p r e t t y 1 " . Despite the menacing behaviours of the dog and the hand, #18 151 s t i l l gets the attention that he needs. Perhaps because #18 does get some recognition, he may not want to consider change. The environment that #21 places herself i n i s violent i n nature, "I k i l l e d two people that touched one of my thorns and everyone moved away from me as I grew because I was so mean". Unlike #13 and #18 who appear to be victims of their environments, #21 seems to be the catalyst. Like #13 and #18, the environment i n which #21 l i v e s i s stark and desolate. "I don't see anything because the men that went away took everything. A l l the plants died because they weren't watered". Sim i l a r l y to #13 and #18, #21 appears to be content to stay where she i s , "I fi n d i t very lonely but I think i t ' s a l o t better than having a l l those people around. Now that they know my reputation, they would t r y to cut me down". It would appear that perhaps #21 i s feeling g u i l t y and may be trying to hide something. She seems to consider herself as being an e v i l person and would rather remain i n her present environment than r i s k being exposed. As was observed i n the comments made by the "positive copers", the "negative copers" also seem to interact very l i t t l e with th e i r environment and seem to be quite isolated. The main difference seems to be that the "negative copers" express more ambivalence towards t h e i r environment. The en-vironment may be less than satisfactory and d i s t o r t s their perception of themselves and the world. Change i s not con-sidered as an alternative and the environment perpetuates 152 th e i r maladaptive processes. Summary of the Responses to Question Seven In conclusion, question seven yielded useful information on not only how the c h i l d perceives the world around him or her but also on how the c h i l d functions i n the world. Although some of the descriptions were more detailed and graphic, "the environments of the "positive" and the "negative copers" were quite similar. The children tended to be isolated and did not interact with the environment. The main themes that were developed by the "positive copers" seem to be those of boredom, growth, nurturance, happiness, security, and independence. The main themes that were developed by the "negative copers" seem to be those of ambivalency, despair, loss, neglect, boredom, the feeling of being trapped, helplessness, powerlessness, h o s t i l i t y , and desolation. I t would also seem that the majority of the "positive copers" were content l i v i n g where they are, whereas, the majority of the "negative copers" were ambivalent. Question Eight: Do you think that you look l i k e a rosebush or do you think that you look l i k e something else? If so, what? (See Appendix L: Question Eight). Rationale for Question Eight The purpose of th i s question i s to determine how clos e l y the c h i l d followed the guided imagery and how much the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d with being a rosebush. 153 Responses o f the " P o s i t i v e Copers" Four of the " p o s i t i v e copers" s t a t e d t h a t they look l i k e a rosebush. #06, #07, #16 and #22 seem to have i d e n t i -f i e d very c l o s e l y w i t h the image of the rosebush. #10 was not sure. He s t a t e d , "Well, I don't r e a l l y know...sort of but I have d i f f e r e n t kinds of f l o w e r s " . However, #01, #03, #15, #17, and #19 a l l thought t h a t they d i d not resemble a rosebush. #01 s t a t e d t h a t she looked "probably l i k e a t r e e with l i t t l e blooms, l i k e t r e e s t h a t have those l i t t l e f lowers on them". In the guided imagery, the c h i l d r e n were t o l d t h a t they could be any type of flower that they l i k e which probably helps to e x p l a i n the answers of #10 and #01. I t a l s o helps to e x p l a i n the responses of #15 and #19. #15 s t a t e d "I look l i k e a d a i s y " , while #19 s a i d "I t h i n k I look l i k e something e l s e , a d i f f e r e n t k i n d df f l o w er". #03 s a i d t h a t she looked l i k e a person "with j u s t a l i t t l e paper, a l i t t l e cardboard over top of them, l i k e Hallowe'en or something". T h i s f i t s i n w e l l with #03's image of h e r s e l f d i s g u i s e d as a rosebush. #17 s t a t e s t h a t "I look l i k e a monster". This response may imply t h a t #17 has a low self-esteem. Responses of the "Negative Copers" More c h i l d r e n i n the "negative copers" f e l t t h a t they looked l i k e a rosebush. #02, #04, #11, #12, #12, and #18 a l l r e p l i e d t h a t they d i d look l i k e rosebushes. However, #11 added t h a t "probably a l l the other rosebushes look way b e t t e r 154 than me. They're not going to be bulldozed down". This comment could be related to a low self-concept or to the impending destruction that #11 foresees. #05, #08, #20, and #21 a l l believed that they did not look l i k e rosebushes. #05 believed that he looked l i k e a thornbush, #08 saw herself as a tree and #20 said she had "red flowers and d i f f e r e n t coloured branches". These re-sponses are a l l quite acceptable as the guided imagery en-couraged the children to use t h e i r imaginations quite crea-t i v e l y . However, #21's response promotes some concern as she states: "I think I look l i k e a monster tree - very mean." #21 continues to cast herself as negative and e v i l . Summary of the Responses to Question Eight For the most part, the children either i d e n t i f i e d closely as being a rosebush or they imaged themselves as being d i f f -erent, while keeping within appropriate boundaries. However, the statements made by #17 and #21 raise concern as the c h i l -dren seem to have very low opinions of themselves and describe themselves as being "monsters". Question Nine: Who takes care of you? How do you f e e l about that? How do they look after you? (See Appendix M: Question Nine). Rationale for Question Nine This question was designed to provide the c h i l d with an opportunity to describe who looks after him or her, who i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n his or her l i f e , and how effe c t i v e the nur-turing i s . 155 Responses of the "Positive Copers" Two of the "positive copers" said that no one looked after them. #06 stated that "Nobody takes care of me. I don't l i k e i t very much" and #19 said no one - "I f e e l sad". Both #06 and #19 probably f e e l alone and neglected. Both used the desert as a metaphor for where they l i v e . Although both project images of children as being quite competent and able to cope, they both appear to be hurting. #06 goes on to say that "I need somebody to take care of me. I'd l i k e a garden-er". Perhaps a gardener would be able to bring #06 back to good health. #19 said that he looks "for water i n my roots. I'd l i k e another plant to look after me". #19 seems to be able to look after himself to some degree but would prefer some help. Perhaps having another plant there would reduce the loneliness that #19 i s experiencing. The other "positive copers" could a l l describe who takes care of them. Their descriptions include "the wife and some-times the children" (#01), "the people, the things around me, l i k e the birds, the trees and the grass" (#07), "just nature" (#10), "the mother" (#15), "I just keep growing and growing" (#16), "people come by" (#17) , and "the person that owns the house" (#22). For #01, #03, #15, and #22 people were the caretakers. For #01, the wife and the children are important because "they water me". When she was asked i f there was a dad, #01 replied "yeah, he probably just waters me and makes sure that nothing's wrong". Probably for #01, s i g n i f i c a n t others i n her l i f e 156 include her mother and her s i b l i n g s . Father could be impor-tant but perhaps he i s not there as much. #15 emphasizes the role of the mother, "she waters me every day, I f e e l good about i t " . For #22, the person i s the caretaker because "she waters me and cuts the uneven sides", so there probably i s someone s i g n i f i c a n t who looks after him. #03 had a mixture of people and things to look after her, "when I'm upset they (birds, trees, and grass) make me happy. I eat grass and the birds - when I'm hot, they f l u t t e r over me and cool me o f f , and the sun, i f I'm cold, warms me up". The whole environ-ment seems to of f e r #03 both nurturing and acceptance. Both #07 and #10 said that nature looked after them. For #03 t h i s means " i n spring, l e t t i n g some rain down, i n summer, shading me with the big trees and i n winter by making me go to sleep, i n the f a l l by making me f a l l asleep", while for #10 t h i s means "the sun always shines on me so that my flowers w i l l always stay i n bloom, and when i t ' s windy, the wind can pick up the water and water me". It would appear that #07 i s quite dependent upon Mother Nature because he states: "I f e e l that without Mother Nature I probably wouldn't be a l i v e " . Although he appreciates being taken care of, i t would seem that #07 i s over-dependent. He has a very close bond with his mother and according to the counsellor, would appear to be over-protected at home. Perhaps #07 i s af r a i d of going out on his own. On the other hand, #16 would almost appear to be too independent. He sees himself as being responsible for his 157 own growth although he does get some help: "rain comes along and waters me". #16 attests that " i t ' s fine the way i t i s " . The message seems to be mixed because i f everything was f i n e , would i t be necessary for #16 to guard his jewels? #17 also has a mixed message. When people come by and water her, she feels good but "I f e e l lonely and sad when no one comes by". Perhaps her environment i s not as secure as she would l i k e i t to be. It would seem that some of the "positive copers" are more able to cope than others. Some appear to have s i g n i f i c a n t others which o f f e r a nurturing and a protective environment. The children f e e l accepted and that they belong so that when there are times of d i f f i c u l t y , there i s someone there on whom they can r e l y . However, some of the children do not perceive themselves to be i n a warm and secure environment, so that although they may be appearing that they are coping, and con-sequently, less attention i s given to them i n the school, they are hurting and may be s i l e n t l y crying for help. Responses of the "Negative Copers" The "negative copers" tend to make themselves heard more and so are more often provided with the help that they need. Four of the children did not f e e l that they were being looked a f t e r . Their statements include "I can't feed myself, I can't water myself" (#05), "nobody takes care of me now" (#11), and "nobody" (#13). #05 said that he i s kept a l i v e by "blood". He appears to be quite defensive and does not want anyone to interfere or to help look after him. He probably i s a f r a i d of being hurt or rejected. #11 expresses l o n e l i -ness and g r i e f , "The lady was going to move me to a d i f f e r e n t spot but she didn't have enough money". L i f e ' s r e a l i t i e s have been d i f f i c u l t . It would seem that #11 has been promised d i f f e r e n t things but that few promises have been f u l f i l l e d . There has also been a variety of father figures i n t i l ' s l i f e but no one remains, "there used to be a gate keeper around, she had a gate keeper to look after me but he had a heart attack". t l 3 also said that no one takes care of him but that "I l i k e being by myself". Perhaps i t i s easier for #13 to cope on his own than to have to deal with developing relationships. #02, #04, #08, #12, #18, #20, and #22 a l l said that some-one was taking care of them. The descriptions include "the people who l i v e i n the house behind me" (#02) , "my thorns and my stems and the rain and the sun (#04), "the parkman" (#08), "the people who l i v e i n the apartment (#12), "my owner takes care of me" (#18), "I do" (#20), and "I'd rather look afte r myself" (#21). Some one or something looks after #02, #04, #08, #12, and #18. For #02 i t i s the people who l i v e i n the house. Once again, through her statement, i t would seem that #02 i s re-emphasizing how she l i k e s to be l e f t alone, "they don't bother me - they don't pick me. I f e e l glad. They water me and they pick out the weeds behind me". #02 appears to be looked after but having her own private space i s very impor-tant. She seems to be protected. Protection i s also s i g n i -159 fic a n t to #08. "He (the parkman) always watches me and a l l the other trees and makes sure people don't climb me, that they don't break my branches or anything". Similarly to #02, #08 seems to l i k e to be taken care of, while at the same time, be allowed to have some privacy. Both these g i r l s have been sexually abused and at the time of the interview, had both been removed from the source of the problem. #02 was l i v i n g with her mother and #08 was i n a foster home. #12 also l i k e s who looks after him ( i . e . the people i n the apartment). He states that "when they water the grass some of them sprays on me. The rain and the sun help too". He seems content to be where he i s . Although there has been sexual abuse i n the home and #12 was removed and l i v e d i n a foster home for a year, i t seems that #12 i s most comfortable i n his present environment, although i t i s questionable how adequate the care i s . #18 also states that he l i k e s where he i s l i v i n g as "they give me water, good s o i l , put worms where I am, and i t ' s fun". This statement seems to be incongruent with the r e a l i t y of 118's home l i f e ' a s there has been reported physical abuse. ... ... However, for #12 and #18 i t would seem that the children f e e l most comfortable l i v i n g with th e i r families and would rather t ry to cope with something familiar than to go else-where. Change i s more threatening than no change. Although #04 appears to be well taken care of, "the r a i n gives water and the sun gives hot. The thorns protect me. 160 They help me l i v e " , his feelings of loneliness are re-empha-sized. #04 states, " i t ' s nice that they're there, i t ' s beautiful, but no one comes around". Perhaps one of the reasons for #04's negative coping s k i l l s i s that he feels so lonely and vulnerable that i t i s important to him to gain recognition i n any way that he can. At the same time, i t could be questionable as to how much nurturing #04 i s getting, as the thorns and the stems that take care of him are also a part of him. #04 seems to be a lonely, vulnerable c h i l d . Both #20 and #21 r e l y upon themselves for care and pro-tection. Up to t h i s point, the statements made by #20 have been quite mild mannered, but here, the mood changes from one of passivity to aggression. "When people climb over the fence and t r y to pick a piece of me, I would squeeze and squeeze, and they would get p r i c k l e s and stop picking me." Her statement i s quite threatening i n nature and i t would appear that #20 does not want anyone to come near her. As well, #20 seems to take care of her own needs. "When the roots get way down, they f i n d water, I get i t from there". In her own family, #20 i s often i n charge of the three young children as her mother i s out at bingo frequently. #20 has somewhat learned how to look after herself but she also appears to be h o s t i l e and angry about the way she was been treated. #21's reply i s quite short. She simply states that "I'd rather look after myself than having people bugging me and trying to cut me down". For her, a coping strategy seems to 161 be to p u l l inside herself so-that she can avoid being hurt by the rest of the world. Summary of the Responses to Question Nine The themes e l i c i t e d from the "positive copers" include nurturance and acceptance. The nurturance and acceptance was provided by a variety of people (including wife, children, mother) and nature. Sometimes the nurturance was provided by the i n d i v i d u a l . For the "negative copers", the themes e l i c i t e d from th i s response include neglect, g r i e f , despair, loss, hurt, h o s t i l i t y , a g g r e s s i t i v i t y , and loneliness. There was a deep sense of abandonment and hopelessness. In contrast to the "positive copers", for the "negative copers" caring i s some-times viewed as a negative experience. Some of the "negative copers" would rather look after themselves than l e t someone look after them. Question nine yi e l d s some clues on how the children have decided to cope with their various l i f e s t y l e s . For some c h i l -dren, the environment and the nurturing that they receive from i t seems to be stable and secure, while for others, t h i s i s not so. In the nurturing environments where s i g n i f i c a n t others express affection and care, children are more able to cope i n a positive manner. However, where the s i g n i f i c a n t others do not express affection and care, children respond by coping negatively. These "negative copers" either attempt to make the best out of a situation by blocking out or d i s t o r t i n g the hurt and 162 the pain that they are experiencing, or by withdrawing inwardly and developing a world view that they can only trust them-selves. The negative coping style manifests i t s e l f through acting out behaviours designed to obtain recognition and attention that the children desperately need or through refusing to interact with peers and being a n t i - s o c i a l . At the same time, i t i s important not to presume that children who seem to be coping i n a more positive way are not hurting. For some of the "positive copers", feelings have been repressed so that outwardly they appear to be competent and well-adjusted. Like the "negative copers", however, the i r needs are not being met. More than that, however, perhaps the i r needs are not even recognized as they have not developed any method of expressing how they r e a l l y f e e l . Question Ten: What's the weather l i k e for you right now? What happens to you as the seasons change? (See Appendix N: Question Ten). Rationale for Question Ten Question ten was designed to complement both questions eight and nine and to determine how the c h i l d perceives what i s around him or her and also to explore how the c h i l d has learned to cope with change. I t was presumed that a c h i l d who i s r e l a t i v e l y secure and comfortable i n his or her sur-roundings would see the weather as being calm, mild, or summy. A c h i l d whose environment i s not so secure may per-ceive the weather as being stormy or cloudy. Whether or not the seasons change and whether or not the 163 c h i l d changes with the season may r e f l e c t the type of coping mechanisms that the c h i l d has developed and how f l e x i b l e or r i g i d the c h i l d i s . Responses of the "Positive Copers" For the most part, the- weather was perceived as being pleasant. The descriptions included: " i t | s nice and sunny with the sun and the blue sky" (#01), " i t ' s just right - l i k e i n between hot and cold" (#03), "the weather i s nice and hot" (#07), " i t ' s always sunny" (#10), " i t ' s usually sunny" (#15), " i t ' s hot and sunny" (#17) and " i t ' s r e a l l y sunny, i t hasn't rained for days" (#22). Thus, i t would seem that #01, #03, #07, #10, #15, #17, and #22 l i k e being where they are and that the climate f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r growth and development. There seems to be enough ra i n and enough variation i n the weather that the children f e e l s a t i s f i e d . However, the climate does not appear to be as f a c i l i t a -t i v e for #06, #19, and #16. For #06, the weather i s "hot and dry", however, th i s seems to be preferred to r a i n because "I would have drowned i n a l l the r a i n " . #19 also describes the weather as being "dry". In both cases, the climate i s a r r i d and does not promote growth. For #16, i t i s the opposite as i t generally rains, "I usually have enough r a i n to grow more". The climate i s mostly r a i n which #16 claims to help him "keep on growing". However, l i k e #06 and #19, for #16 there seems to be no balance. The question "What happens to you as the seasons change?" 164 yields some powerful information. It raises the issue of whether no change implies r i g i d i t y and how no change relates to the development of coping mechanisms. #01, #03, #07, and #17 said that they changed with the seasons. #01 stated "In the winter I'm just branches and that. My thorns kind of f a l l o ff and I just have l i t t l e stems and branches. I don't have leaves or anything. In the summer I'm nice and bloomed". As the seasons change, #01 seems to be able to cope e f f e c t i v e l y and to transform according to the d i f f e r e n t seasons. #07 i s also able to change with the conditions that he i s exposed to, "when the seasons change, a l l my buds f a l l o f f , then a l l my leaves f a l l off too. Then I go to sleep for winter". #17 also changes, "I get cold and hot and sometimes the leaves f a l l o f f . " #03 i s also able to change with the sea-sons and her c r e a t i v i t y i s expressed as well, "after f a l l , I change into something Christmas-y and i n the spring, I change into water...I can change into other things". It would seem therefore, that i t would be safe to conclude that #01, #03, #07, and #17 have a l l developed s k i l l s which help them to p o s i t i v e l y interact and cope with their environment. From the responses e l i c i t e d by question ten, i t would seem that #06, #10, #15, #16, #19, and #22 would perceive that 'no change' i s a more ef f e c t i v e way of coping. For #15, #16, and #22 i t would appear that 'no change 1 i s preferable to 'change' because they can continue the way they are. "I think I ' l l l i v e a long time i n the vase. I 165 stay the same" (#15), "Nothing happens to me as the seasons change, I just keep on growing" (#16) and "when i t snows, she puts a covering over me" (#22) . Rather than adapting to the changing climate, these children have decided to remain the same. Perhaps, this i s a chief quality i n t h e i r coping mech-anisms. #06, #10, and #19 also appear to have opted for no change. #06 i s a f r a i d of change, and perhaps she i s more afr a i d of change than to remain the same, "I would have drowned i n a l l the r a i n " . #10 says that, " i t ' s always sunny", which could mean that #10 has decided to look upon his l i f e experiences i n a posi-tive fashion or that he has decided to ignore the negative experiences. Here, the "no change" policy again seems to be a chief quality of his coping mehcanisms. #19 states that "the seasons don't change". To change could be threatening. Thus, the "positive copers" seem to develop coping mechanisms based upon the concept of 'change' or 'no change'. Some are f l e x i b l e and able to adapt to new situations while others have opted not to change, but to remain the same no matter what. For them, change may be threatening and the r i s k too great. Responses of the "Negative Copers" Like the "positive copers", most of the "negative copers" described the weather as being pleasant. The descriptions include, "sunny - the wind i s very calm" (#02), " i t ' s hot and 166 i t ' s real sunny, a b i t of clouds" (#04), " i t ' s winter and the sun i s s t i l l shining" (#08), "warm" (#12), " i t ' s nice and shiny" (#20), and " i t ' s perfect, warm" (#21). It would seem that #02, #04, #08, #12, #20, and #21 l i k e the climate and that the climate may be a factor i n determining how they cope. #05 described the weather as being white. "If i t ' s white, i t ' s winter. It's medium. Snow on the ground". The climate i s cold and unfriendly which #05 seemed to want to project throughout the a c t i v i t y . Being cold and unfriendly are components of his coping s t y l e . The weather for #13, and #18 was described as being " t e r r i b l e " . #13 said "the weather i s t e r r i b l e . It rains hard. It's hot today". The climate does not appear to be f a c i l i t a t i v e i n developing healthy coping patterns. The same can be said for #18, who states that the weather i s "sunny, no clouds i n the a i r and hotter than I can stand". The weather i s a r r i d and dry and growth i s not encouraged. The climate for #11 also prevents growth. #11 states that the weather has "mostly been raining and storms. Today i t ' s shiny". However, destruction seems immi-nent as #11 states "that bulldozer supposed to bulldoze me down today". The weather seems to enhance the negative coping s k i l l s that #11 has developed. #02, #04, #08, #12, #13, and #18 said that they changed with the seasons. The changing varies, but the descriptions include, "I lose my petals and that's i t . In the spring I come up again" (#02), "my leaves f a l l s o f f and my flowers gets old and wrinkled up and dried. In the spring, my leaves sta r t growing again and so does my flower" (#12), and "my leaves f a l l off and then they grow back" (#13). There seems to be d e f i n i t e transitions and these children appear to be able to cope with the changes. They know what to expect. #04 describes the changes i n more d e t a i l "the grass, i t brings me underneath for a while and my stems go underneath and I stay there u n t i l the end of winter and then I sprout back up...the grass and that takes me down when i t ' s winter, and i t ' s warm, and I come back up when i t ' s summer". The grass appears to be a metaphor for the nurturing that #04 gets. The grass i s warm and protective and during times of change, #04 seems to have a refuge. #08's descriptionof what happens as the seasons change is also graphic, "I get cold i n the f a l l . In the winter, I don't l i k e the winter because i t ' s cold. I l i k e spring be-cause i t ' s getting a b i t warmer, and I l i k e summer because i t ' s warm". Although #08 does not l i k e winter, she i s able to adapt. In order for her to cope, she has learned how to adapt to the changing climate. However, for #05, #11, #20, and #21, no change was pre-ferable to change. For these "negative copers", no change had various connotations. For #05, change never occurs. Everythings stays the same, "nothing much happens". For #11, change i s linked with destruction, "that bulldozer supposed to bulldoze me down today". Change has negative connotations. On the other hand, for both #20 and #21, no change i s 168 r described as being warm and pleasant, " i t ' s just perfect, warm. Seasons stay the same" (#21). Summary of Responses to Question Ten The "positive copers" generally describe the weather as being pleasant, warm, and sunny. The themes seem to be of growth and development. Forty percent of the children changed with the seasons. The change i s perceived as being positive and the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d a p t i b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y are prevalent. However, sixty percent of the "positive copers" did not change with the seasons. No change provided s t a b i l i t y and security. The "negative copers" generally describe the weather as being pleasant and warm. The themes seem to be the same as those of the "positive copers", that i s , growth and develop-ment. Sixty percent of the "negative copers" changed with the seasons. Change seemed to be welcome and certain. The change was a t r a n s i t i o n with which the children seemed to be able to cope. Forty percent of the "negative copers" supported no change. Though ambivalency was one of the themes, s i m i l a r l y to the "positive copers", no change was pleasant, stable, and secure. More "negative copers" welcomed change than "positive copers". This i s quite s i g n i f i c a n t and could point out that "negative copers" are more i n a state of flux than "positive copers" and are forced to deal with that the best way they can. It could be that the concept of 'no change' i s more 169 appropriate for children, in order to develop positive coping mechanisms, than to expose children constantly to new stimuli and encouraging change. Perhaps rea l change i n behaviour can only occur once the individual has a foundation on which to b u i ld. Question Eleven; How does i t f e e l to be a rosebush? What i s your l i f e l i k e as a rosebush? Rationale for Question Eleven This question was designed to focus on the child's s e l f -concept and to learn more about the child's perceptions of his or her l i f e experiences. It was assumed that "positive copers" would display more confidence and speak more p o s i t i v e l y about their self-concept than the "negative copers". It was also believed that the "positive copers" would speak more p o s i t i v e l y about their l i f e experiences than the "negative copers". Responses of the "Positive Copers" The responses from the "positive copers" contained a variety of answers. Four of the children described th e i r l i v e s as being "nice", f i v e of the responses were ambivalent, and one c h i l d expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The four children who enjoyed being a rosebush and thought that th e i r l i v e s were pleasant, made statements such as, "It's kind of interesting because I'm i n a backyard and I watch people go by and they admire me and stuff l i k e that -i t ' s r e a l nice" (#01), " i t ' s easy, easy l i v i n g since every-body i s protecting me i n a way" (#03), " i t feels good to be a rosebush. It's very fun watching the animals play around, coz they're playing around me and i t ' s a great l i f e " (#07), and " i t ' s exciting because sometimes the ducks have babies, you know, ducklings - and I watch them. And thi s i s an apple tree, except that i t doesn't have apples on i t . It's not l i k e me - I always bloom" (#10). Except for #10, who said that his l i f e was "sort of boring because I always have to stay i n one spot but i t ' s nice because I don't have to do my chores or do anything that I don't want to do", the children expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . I t would appear that these children (#01, #03, #07, and #10) have developed s u f f i c i e n t coping strategies that they are able to adapt e a s i l y and are able to make the most of a sit u a t i o n . The responses of #15, #16, #17, #19, and #22 were more ambivalent, that i s , the responses expressed both some s a t i s -faction and some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n about being a rosebush. Their responses include " i t feels weird" (#15), " i t ' s funny watching people trying to get through (the thorns) but i t ' s boring sometimes" (#16), "my l i f e i s lonely and peaceful" (#17), " i f I could, I would l i k e to be another plant" (#19), and " i t f e els good to be a rosebush. My l i f e i s kind of boring coz nobody does anything with me" (#22). From the responses, i t would appear that the children may be mainly s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l i f e s t y l e but there are some parts with which they are not happy. Di s s a t i s f a c t i o n seems to arise due to a lack of atten-tion at times, "I get watered every day and that's i t " (#15), 171 "sometimes i t ' s lonely, no one comes around and i t ' s cold out" (#17), and "she cuts me and a l l that, but that's i t , you know. She doesn't talk to me" (#22). For others, bore-dom seems to be the main factor, "my l i f e i s boring. I don't have anyone to play with and I can't move around" (#19). Both #16 and #22 also discuss their feelings of boredom. The ambivalency of responses would seem to indicate that perhaps the coping mechanisms of these children may not be as posi t i v e i n orientation as they would i n i t i a l l y appear to be. Combined with the previous responses of #16, #17, and #22 i t would seem that these children are not coping effec-t i v e l y with th e i r environment and that the rosebush i n t e r -vention helps to bring out t h e i r feelings i n a non-threatening way. #06 expressed strong d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n about being a rose-bush. Her statements include, "I f e e l sad, lonely, and ignored. I have no hope", "but now he's (the rosebush) growing older and he's going to die. Before, he used to have someone to take care of him and now he doesn't have any water or anything to keep him a l i v e " and "my l i f e i s d u l l . Lots of wind and sad. Depressing". I t would seem that #06 i s containing a l o t of negative feelings that are not being picked up from her classroom behaviour. Her cry of despair i s unheard because of the mask she wears. The rosebush intervention seems to be able to chip off part of that mask. Responses of the "Negative Copers" The responses from the "negative copers" are also varied. The content of the responses makes i t more d i f f i c u l t to categorize the responses but i t would seem that #02 and #12 v i s u a l i z e t h e i r l i v e s as rosebushes as being 'nice', while #04, #05, #08, #13, and #18 are ambivalent, and #11, #20, and #21 express strong feelings of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . #02 and #12 seem to be happy being rosebushes. #02 states " i t ' s very peaceful and I have a l o t of time to myself" and #12 states, "excellent, my l i f e i s fun". Again, #02 seems to be happy as long as she i s able to have time to her-s e l f . However, #12's response seems to be i r o n i c considering his family background and his environment. Perhaps for him, the only way to cope i s to block out his own feelings. Ambivalency seems to be characterized i n the responses of #04, #05, #08, #13, and #18. The descriptions include, "Well, sometimes people come down and then I'm happy, but when they start to leave, then I'm sad" (#04), " i t ' a normal l i f e . I have my good times and my bad times" (#05), "I f e e l bad because I can't get around l i k e the kids, but I l i k e i t " (#08), "I think about what's going to happen to me where I'm l i v i n g " (#13), and "the roots t i c k l e me. I think I ' l l give the dog a thorn" (#18). For; #04, ambivalency seems to occur because of the lone-liness that he feels " i f there's another one (a rosebush) there, I'd f e e l happy, but...it's fun because a l l my friends come by, they l i k e the smell...when they smell other roses and I hear about i t , I get happy because i f they l i k e that rose, they l i k e me too". He feels happy when he can go deep 173 into the grass, "the best part i s when people come over or when I'm inside the ground". The grass continues to be a nurturing symbol for #04. #05 i s defensive as well as ambivalent, " t e r r i b l e , I don't l i k e to be video-taped. I don't want other people to hear this tape". He seems to be discontent but seems to be at a loss as to how to express his feelings. #08 i s sad because she can not move around but says that her l i f e i s okay because "God made me thi s way". #13 also describes his l i f e as being okay but seems to be worried about his future, "I think about where I'm going to get water and s t u f f . I'm not getting too much". There appears to be l i t t l e nurturing i n #13's l i f e . #18 starts out by describing his l i f e as being "play f u l " but there also seems to be a sense of foreboding as he con-cludes "I won't be i n the ground very much longer". It would appear that #18's foundation i s insecure and shaky. For the children expressing ambivalency, i t would seem that there are times when they can cope p o s i t i v e l y and times when they cannot. Much seems to depend upon their environment and how secure and comfortable they are fe e l i n g . #11, #20, and #21 express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as being rose-bushes. #11 states "no one takes care of me and I am going to be bulldozed down. My l i f e i s not very good. It used to be good t i l a year ago when the lady l e f t " . The sense of loss that #11 experiences i n the previous statements occurs again i n t h i s response. He feels uncared for and alone. The rose-bush intervention seems to be able to enhance th i s misery. #20 seems to i n f l i c t pain upon herself which i s why she i s unhappy. "I get pric k l e s on myself and s t u f f . I hurt myself and that. It's kind of painful for me being a rose-bush. When I t r y to get to know myself more, i t hurts". It would seem that getting to know herself i s scary and ris k y . She i s able to express her concerns through the rosebush intervention. For #21, the rosebush intervention enhances how she perceives her l i f e to be, "my l i f e i s very d u l l , very boring, very long, l i k e I mean each day seems l i k e a m i l l i o n years, no one to talk to, I don't know what l i f e i s l i k e , I just s i t there". There seems to be a fee l i n g of entrapment, "I used to be able to move, but now, my thorn stuck i t s e l f r i g h t where i t i s , and now I can't move anymore". She seems to be lonely and desolate which would be factors that would help to explain why she has negative coping mechanisms. Summary of the Responses to Question Eleven In both the responses of the "positive" and the "nega-tive copers", f i f t y percent of the children expressed ambi-valency i n th e i r statements. The themes generated from the ambivalency of the "positive copers" included fun, nurturance, health, escape, lack of attention, and boredom. The themes generated from the ambivalency of the "negative copers" included happiness, thoughtfulness, discontent, i n a c t i v i t y , .sadness, pain, hurt, and entrapment. The predominance of ambivalency would seem to indicate 175 that some of the "positive copers" are experiencing more d i f f i c u l t y coping than what their behaviour indicates i n the classroom. Similarly, some of the "negative copers" could be coping more e f f e c t i v e l y than their behaviour i n the classroom indicates. Those who are s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d with their l i f e experiences are much more fixed i n their world outlook than the children who are ambivalent. The Discrepancies Between the "Positive" and the "Negative  Copers" Through the drawing and statement analyses, certain d i s -crepancies between the "positive" and the "negative copers" were noticed. It would appear that certain "positive copers" are ex-periencing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the i r l i v e s and although they may be functioning e f f e c t i v e l y at school, they are i n pain and are having trouble coping. As well, certain "negative copers" would seem to be developing strengths and exhibiting signs of growth and are coping more e f f e c t i v e l y than what may appear i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . The two "positive copers" who consistently demonstrated signs of loneliness, pain, death, and h o s t i l i t y i n the i r draw-ings and statements were #06 and #16. The two "negative copers" who consistently demonstrated signs of growth, strength, and nurturance were #02 and #16. The drawings by #06 and #16 used disturbing imagery. #06's drawing conveys a mood of depression with the use of a setting sun, three dead rosebushes, and a rosebush with brown leaves f a l l i n g off of i t . #16's drawing i s a giant thornbush f u l l of large thorns. Located i n the upper l e f t hand corner i s a castle with a moat around i t , and located i n the lower l e f t hand corner i s a hand with a large sword. The images used by both #06 and #16 i n the drawings are depressing and h o s t i l e , and give no indication that the children are coping p o s i t i v e l y with t h e i r environment. In contrast, the drawings done by #02 and #18 demonstrate the use of some posit i v e imagery. #02 coloured neatly and outlined each image i n the picture. However, the rosebush was the smallest image i n the picture and somewhat out of proportion. #18's rosebush was drawn i n proportion to the other images i n the picture, however, the drawing was not neatly coloured. As well, the hand and the dog are threaten-ing i n nature. At the same time, however, the rosebush has a smile on i t s face (not v i s i b l e i n the photocopy). Therefore, i t would seem that the drawings done by #06 and #16 demonstrate negative imagery, while, although the pictures by #02 and #18 have some negative q u a l i t i e s i n them, there i s some expression of pos i t i v e f e e l i n g . These discre-pancies are further noticed i n the statements made by the children. The themes expressed i n the statements made by #06 i n -clude the themes of death and dying (question 1 and 2), decay (question 3), resignation (question 3), f r a g i l i t y and deterioration (question 4), h o s t i l i t y and seclusion (question 5), depression and anxiety (question 6), desolation (question 7), desertion and rejection (question 9), pessimism (question 10), and loneliness and neglect (question 11). These themes indicate a high l e v e l of anxiety which contradict the cate-gorization of #06 as being a "positive coper". The statements of #16 express the themes of uncertainty and inadequacy (question 1), defensiveness (question 2, 3 and 5), feeling pressured to l i v e up to unreasonable expectations (question 1, 2 and 3), overwhelming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (question 3), f e e l i n g that he has to be strong (question 4 and 6), resignation to loneliness (question 7, 9, and 11), and ambi-valency (question 10). #16 seems to be putting up a "front" of being strong and independent, but his statements indicate he i s lonely and has a deep need to protect something from within, which makes him f e e l inadequate. The themes that emerge from the statements made by #02 include growth (question 2), independence (question 3), con-fusion (question 4), h o s t i l i t y and self-protection (question 5), resignation (question 6), contentment (question 7 and 8), nurturance (question 9), peace and t r a n q u i l i t y (question 10 and 11), and enjoying solitude (question 11). Although #02 i s defined as being a "negative coper" and some of her state-ments are i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s , at the same time, signs of growth, strength, and independence emerge. She appears to be experimenting with ways to cope more e f f e c t i v e l y and i s dev-eloping problem solving s k i l l s . #18 expresses themes of contentment (question 1), f r i e n d -liness and self-protection (question 2 and 5), self-assurance (question 3), endurance and growth (question 6), loss and imprisonment (question 7), anger (question 7), self-determi-nation and d i s l i k e of being manipulated (question 7), s e l f -importance (question 7), nurturance and affection (question 9), oppression (question 10), pleasure (question 11), and optimism (question 11). #18 also enjoys attention and l i k e s to be noticed (question 7). These statements include signs of hope, strength, and endurance that, despite #18's history of physical abuse and poor home environment, demonstrate his a b i l i t y to cope i n a predominantly positive fashion. In conclusion, not only did t h i s study bring out common charac t e r i s t i c s that were demonstrated by the "positive" and by the "negative copers", but also, certain discrepancies were emphasized. The best examples of the discrepancies were #06, #16, #02, and #18, although occasional discrepancies were noted among other children as well. These discrepancies serve to enhance the value of such a study because they empha size that " a l l i s not as i t appear to be". Some of the "posi t i v e copers" are hurting inside and are unable to express their pain. Some of the "negative copers" are learning how to deal more e f f e c t i v e l y with t h e i r pain, but once labelled as being "negative copers", are not often considered able to grow and change. The rosebush intervention serves, therefore as an assessment tool which can determine varying degrees of positive or negative coping. 179 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Overview The purpose of thi s study was to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the rosebush intervention as a screening device i n order to determine which children would most benefit from counselling. Twenty children were used i n the study: ten children who were defined as being "positive copers" and ten children who were defined as being "negative copers". The study was also designed to observe how ef f e c t i v e a projective intervention would be for tapping into areas df emotional concern and how children would react to thi s method. The results of the research questions explored i n the present study w i l l now be discussed i n the same order used i n e a r l i e r chapters. The Quantitative Analysis In the quantitative analysis, a 2 x 2 fa c t o r a l non-parametric contrast group design was used to analyse the pictures according to the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of: presence or absence of flowers, presence or absence of leaves, presence or absence of stems (branches), presence or absence of thorns, and presence or absence of roots. Using the Fischer Exact Probability Test, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found i n any of the tables except for the table on the presence or absence of thorns. It was noted that children who are "negative copers" use 180 thorns more often i n their drawings than children who are "positive copers". Thus, one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "negative copers" i s the tendency to use thorns i n the drawing. Thorns were not as s i g n i f i c a n t l y important i n the drawings made by the "posi-tive copers". The lack of s t a t i s t i c a l significance also seemed to indicate that a study of t h i s type would benefit more from a q u a l i t a t i v e analysis where the material could be examined from a wholistic perspective. The Results From The Raters A l l three raters agreed that the most ef f e c t i v e sort was the "picture and statement combined" sort. They a l l stated that the "picture and the statement combined" sort f a c i l i -tated the decision as to whether there was a predominance of positive or negative e f f e c t . Using the "picture only" sort, the raters agreed on eighty percent of the pictures, using the "statement only" sort, the raters agreed on sixty percent of the statements, while with the "picture and the statement combined", the raters had a ninety percent agreement. Based upon these r e s u l t s , i t would seem that i n using an a c t i v i t y of this nature (where both picture and statements are gathered as data) that i t would be best to combine the pictures and statements i n analysing the data. Many draw-ing tests (such as House-Tree-Person) seem to r e l y solely on the drawings, and not so much on what the c h i l d i s saying 181 about the drawing. Although the majority of the pictures seemed to be clear cut as to whether they were expressing predominantly positive or negative af f e c t , ambiguity i n the pictures and statement was also noted and discussed by the raters. The discrepancies made between the elementary school counsellor and the teacher, who observed the children as either being "positive" or "negative copers", and the raters, who assessed the pictures and the statements as displaying either predominantly positive or negative a f f e c t , are also of s i g n i f i c a n t value. The raters were i n f i f t y percent agreement with the teacher and counsellor with the pictures only sort, f i f t y -f i v e percent agreement with the statement only sort, and seventy percent agreement with the picture and statement com-bined . These discrepancies between the perceptions of the class-room teacher and elementary school counsellor, who are provided with many opportunities to observe the children, and the raters, who had to make th e i r selection based upon the data presented to them, could indicate that some children who are seen as being "positive copers", may be not coping as e f f e c t i v e l y as i t f i r s t may appear. These children may be able to mask the i r feelings of confusion and alienation i n the class, but may be able to express th e i r deeper feelings through the drawing and the post-drawing inquiry. Through the rating a c t i v i t y , i t became apparent that 182 some of the "positive copers" used symbols and metaphors i n their drawings and i n their statements that were not express-ing p o s i t i v e a f f e c t . Symbols of pain, depression, and death were used. This would seem to indicate that although these children were defined as being "positive copers" i n the classroom, that they were experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n the world around them. The rating a c t i v i t y also served to i n d i -cate that the "negative copers" expressed varying degrees of negative af f e c t , and that some children may be experiencing growth and nurturing i n t h e i r l i v e s , while others are not. As well, for certain "negative copers", there was a combina-tion of both positive and negative images i n the i r statements and drawings, and at times, the posit i v e imagery or tone seemed stronger than the negative tone. Art Analysis The art analysis used a variety of techniques to examine the data. Through observation, using Elkish's (1965) cate-gories, and examining certain t r a i t s , the following tentative conclusions were made. The majority of the "positive" and the "negative copers" started to draw the picture immediately after the guided imagery, however, there seemed to be a s i g n i f i c a n t difference as to where on the page the children f i r s t started to draw. The majority of the "positive copers" started to draw the i r picture i n the middle of the page, while the majority of the "negative copers" started to draw t h e i r picture at the bottom of the page. It would appear that the majority of the "posi-183 t i v e copers" f e l t quite confident to begin the exercise, while the majority of the "negative copers" may have f e l t less competent and somewhat anxious and so clung to the ° bottom of the page. One hundred percent of the "positive copers" demonstrated the concept of rhythm i n their drawings, while only twenty percent of the "negative copers" demonstrated rhythm. The other eighty percent of the "negative copers" i l l u s t r a t e d the concept of rule i n t h e i r art a c t i v i t y . It would seem therefore, that rhythm i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of pictures drawn by "positive copers", while rule i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p i c -tures drawn by "negative copers". Seventy percent of both the "positive" and "negative copers" demonstrated the use of complexity i n their drawings. Thus, no difference i s noted between "positive" and "negative copers" i n regards to the use of complexity and simplexity i n the drawings. One hundred percent of the "positive copers" and eighty percent of the "negative copers" demonstrated the concept of expansion i n t h e i r drawings. Therefore, there seems to be a minimal difference between the "positive" and the "negative copers" concerning the use of expansion and compression i n the drawings. Ninety percent of the "positive copers" used the char-a c t e r i s t i c of integration in t h e i r drawings, while only forty percent of the "negative copers" used the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of integration i n t h e i r s . Therefore, a common element i n the drawings made by the "positive copers" would seem to be the use of integration i n t h e i r drawings, while a common element of the "negative copers" would be the use of disintegration. Sixty percent of the "positive copers" positioned the rosebush i n proper perspective to v the rest of the picture, while only t h i r t y percent of the "negative copers" placed the rosebush i n proportion to the rest of the picture. Thus, i t would seem that the "positive copers" tend to use more appropriate techniques of proportion than "negative copers". The majority of both the "positive" and the "negative copers" used colour i n t h e i r pictures. Ninety percent of the "positive copers" coloured their pictures c a r e f u l l y , and selected t h e i r colours thoughtfully. Only forty percent of the "negative copers" coloured their pictures c a r e f u l l y F i f t y percent of the "negative copers" used l i t t l e care and the colouring style was somewhat sloppy. Therefore, i t would seem that a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "positive copers" i s that they colour more c a r e f u l l y and made a more thoughtful selec-t i o n of colours than the "negative copers". Seventy percent of both the "positive" and the "negative copers" chose to use the rosebush i n th e i r pictures. Thus, there i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y no difference between the "positive" and the "negative copers" i n using the imag.ery of the rose-bush as the focal point of their drawings. Therefore, the art anaylsis has brought out some common-a l i t i e s and some differences between the "positive" and the "negative copers". The commonalities are that both the "positive" and the "negative copers" started to draw ri g h t away, demonstrating the use of complexity and expansion i n th e i r drawings, and generally put a rosebush i n the i r drawings. The differences include that the "positive copers" started to draw their pictures from the middle of the page, while the "negative copers" started at the bottom; the "posi-t i v e copers" used rhythm while the "negative copers" used rule; the "positive copers" demonstrated integration while the "negative copers" used disintegration; the "positive copers" used proper perspective i n t h e i r pictures while the "nega-t i v e copers" were less accurate i n their perspective; and the "positive copers" made a more careful colour choice and coloured thoughtfully while the "negative copers" did not choose the colours as c a r e f u l l y and were somewhat sloppy. Analysis of the Post-Drawing Inquiry As each question was analysed separately, the themes from each question w i l l be summarized i n this section. Question One: Self-Concept Seventy percent of the "positive copers" seemed to pro-ject the theme of a positive self-image, twenty percent projected the theme of a negative self-image, and ten. percent projected the theme of death and dying. Ninety percent of the "negative copers" projected the theme of a negative s e l f -image, as well as, themes of anger, h o s t i l i t y , and l o n e l i -ness. Only ten percent of the "negative copers" referred to anything p o s i t i v e l y . 186 Therefore, i t would seem that the majority of the "posi-tiv e copers" perceive themselves as having a positive s e l f -image, while the "negative copers" perceive themselves as having a negative self-image. As well, the "negative copers" project themes of h o s t i l i t y and desolation. The exceptions to this pattern are also s i g n i f i c a n t as i t could suggest that some of the "positive copers" may not be coping as e f f e c t i v e l y as they may appear i n class, and that for some of the "nega-ti v e copers" there i s a sense of optimism and hope that may not appear i n class. Question Two: Flower The pleasureable quality of the t a c t i l e sensations of the flower was emphasized i n the statements; made: by the "posi-tiv e copers". As well, the theme of growth i s evident throughout the majority of the statements made by the "posi-tiv e copers". The "negative copers" did not elaborate on the t a c t i l e sensations of the flower. They saw the flower i n more functional terms. Included i n the themes made by the "negative copers" are the themes of growth, mixed with f e e l -ings of neglect and ambivalency. Thus, f o r the "positive copers", flowers represent growth and s i g n i f y the pleasures of touch and af f e c t i o n , whereas, flowers for the "negative copers" emphasize apathy, loss, uncertainty, and bewilderment. Question Three: Leaves The themes projected by the "positive copers" were mixed. For some, the theme seems to be protection, while for others, there i s a strong sense of neglect. The themes by the "negative copers" included sadness, loneliness, neglect, loss, and powerlessness. As well, the "negative copers" refer more to the t a c t i l e quality of the leaves, however, this quality did not seem to be pleasurable, rather i t was described i n unpleasant terms. Therefore, i t would seem that the "positive copers" are generally projecting ambivalency i n t h i s statement. However, i t i s of importance for the "negative copers", as i t seems to more deeply explore feelings of desolation and unhappiness. Question Four: Stems and Branches The images developed by the "positive copers" include the themes of strength, nurturance, confidence, and develop-ment. The majority of the "negative copers" expressed themes of evasiveness and pain. Consequently, while the "positive copers" i l l u s t r a t e d through t h e i r responses why they have developed positive coping mechanisms, the "negative copers" i l l u s t r a t e d through the i r responses the reasons for developing negative coping mechanisms. Question Five: Thorns Sixty percent of the "positive copers" described them-selves as having thorns. The thorns provide protection, but are generally described as being f r i e n d l y . In contrast, ninety percent of the "negative copers" described themselves as having thorns. The thorns are generally described as 188 being mean, nasty, h o s t i l e , and are a means of alienating people. The "negative copers" project ambivalency and uncer-tainty i n their statements. This i s not as evident i n the "positive copers". Therefore, the stimulus of the thorns evokes powerful images for the "negative copers" and perhaps, manifests some of the coping mechanisms that the "negative copers" use. The thorns are not as antagonistic for the "positive copers". They are more for protection than for attack. Question Six: Roots Sixty percent of both the "positive" and the "negative copers" stated that they had roots. The themes projected by the "positive copers" include having a firm foundation and being secure, as did those of the "negative copers". It would seem, therefore, that some of the "negative copers" have a firm foundation and an inner strength which i s not readi l y apparent to most observers. Thus, for the majority of the children i n both groups, roots were associated with the themes of foundation and security. Question Seven: Environment The themes evoked by the "positive copers" include growth and contentment, whereas, for the "negative copers", themes of loneliness, annihilation, i s o l a t i o n , and neglect are most noticeable. There was also a high degree of ambiva-lency i n the statements made by the "negative copers". Therefore, i t would seem that the "positive copers" are more able to adapt to their environment and f e e l content there, whereas the "negative copers" experience i s o l a t i o n and annihilation. Question Eight: Resemblance of Drawing to Rosebush Forty percent of the "positive copers" thought that they looked l i k e a rosebush, while sixty percent of the "negative copers" thought that they looked l i k e a rosebush. Those who did not see themselves as being a rosebush, saw themselves as something related to a rosebush. Therefore, question eight seems to lack i n a l o t of sig nificance for both the "positive" and the "negative copers". L i t t l e more i s learned about the children from t h i s question Question Nine: Caretakers The majority of the statements of the "positive copers" used images of caring, and the whole environment seems to offe r nurturance and acceptance. In contrast, the majority of the statements of the "negative copers" used images of loss, abandonment, and hopelessness. As well, for the "nega tive copers" caring was f e l t to be a negative experience. Therefore, question nine i s quite s i g n i f i c a n t as i t demon-strates how the children have chosen to cope i n the world. Many of the "positive copers" are able to cope i n a positive manner because they are i n a nurturing environment where s i g n i f i c a n t others express af f e c t i o n and care. However, for many of the "negative copers", the world i s a painful place to be, and so they react to i t with a sense of hopelessness and helplessness. Question Ten: Climate Seventy percent of the "positive copers" described the climate as f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r growth and development. How-ever, only forty percent stated that they change with the seasons. Sixty percent of the "negative copers" described the climate as being f a c i l i t a t i v e . As well, sixty percent said that they changed with the seasons. Although i t would appear at f i r s t glance that the "positive copers" demonstrate themes of positive environmental support and adaptability to stress and change, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to observe that the "negative copers" project similar themes. Therefore, the concept of "change" versus "no change" i s an important one for both the "positive" and the "negative copers". The "positive copers" have demonstrated some d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting, as have the "negative copers". There appears to be an inner' source of strength i n the "negative copers" that help them to adapt to th e i r environ-ment sometimes more readily than the "positive copers". Question Eleven: L i f e as a Rosebush The themes projected are f a i r l y r e p e t i t i v e of those discussed i n question one. However, at the same time, the themes are more mixed. The themes expressed by the "positive copers" include both themes of contentment and ambivalency. F i f t y percent of the responses of the "positive copers" were ambivalent i n nature. The theme of ambivalency was also apparent i n f i f t y percent of the responses made by the "negative copers". As well, t h i r t y percent of the "negative copers" expressed the theme of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The themes of ambivalency and d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n are more prevalent than the theme of contentment. Therefore, this question would seem to suggest that for some of the "positive copers", the coping mechanisms may not be as posit i v e i n orientation as they would i n i t i a l l y appear to be. Similarly, the theme of ambivalency seems to be more powerful than the one of h o s t i l i t y i n the "negative copers". This would suggest that the a b i l i t y to cope p o s i t i v e l y i s not only d i f f i c u l t for the "negative copers", but also for the "positive copers". Summary, Conclusions, and Suggestions for Future Research In conclusion, the pictures and the statements yielded s i g n i f i c a n t imports regarding the ways i n which the children perceived the world around them. Although some of the "posi-t i v e copers" appeared to be adapting well to their environment and showed signs of adjustment i n the classroom, through t h e i r pictures and statements, i t would seem that they have been experiencing some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the i r live»s. Although they showed signs of positive coping s k i l l s i n the classroom, th i s was not necessarily how they were experiencing the world them. Simi l a r l y , the pictures and statements of the "nega-tive copers" suggested that some of the "negative copers" had areas of strength and growth that were not apparent i n the classroom environment. Thus, the study yielded both common-a l i t i e s that the "positive" and the "negative copers" groups shared, as well as emphasizing the discrepancies. 192 As w e l l , the rosebush i n t e r v e n t i o n appears to be a u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c t o o l as i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to administer, can be done i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n smal l groups, and y i e l d s a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of data t h a t can be used i n determining where the c h i l d r e n ' s problem areas l i e , and what type of c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be used. The rosebush i n t e r v e n -t i o n i s a l s o non-threatening and the c h i l d r e n seemed to enjoy p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . There seems to be two p o s s i b l e suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t a r i s e from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. The f i r s t r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t y concerns the f u r t h e r studying of the e f f e c t of i n t e r p r e t i n g p i c t u r e s without statements, and i n t e r p r e t i n g p i c t u r e s with statements. In t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , the r a t e r s a l l s t a t e d t h a t they p r e -f e r r e d to r a t e the " p i c t u r e and statement combined" r a t h e r than the " p i c t u r e o n l y " or the "statement o n l y " because the p i c t u r e with the statement f a c i l i t a t e d an understanding of the o v e r a l l message t h a t the c h i l d r e n were conveying. However, the r e s u l t s from the F i s c h e r Exact P r o b a b i l i t y Test showed the same amount of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n both the " p i c t u r e only" and the " p i c t u r e and statement combined" s o r t , while the "statement o n l y " s o r t y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n c e . These r e s u l t s seem to c o n t r a d i c t the ob s e r v a t i o n s of the r a t e r s who f e l t t h a t the combination of the p i c t u r e and the statement was more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y impacting. I t would t h e r e f o r e seem t h a t a u s e f u l t o p i c f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be to examine more f u l l y which method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e : the 193 use of pictures only or combining the picture with a state-ment . A second area of research that has arisen as a r e s u l t of th i s topic i s exploring the concept of change versus no change and how i t affects the coping mechanisms of children. The research from t h i s study tends to suggest that the c h i l -dren who develop positive coping s k i l l s prefer no change, whereas the children who exhibit negative coping s k i l l s are exposed to a wide variety of change. This would seem to con-t r a d i c t the idea that change i s therapeutic. Those children who have to deal with less stimuli are able to cope more e f f e c t i v e l y with t h e i r environment than those children whose environment i s i n a constant flux. Consequently, a suggestion for further research would be to examine how change affects the way i n which children interact with their environment. F i n a l l y , there seems to be a need to, once again, consider the nature and the effectiveness of projective techniques i n elementary school counselling and to use these techniques i n such a way that young people can be helped to cope i n a posi-t i v e manner with l i f e ' s varying experiences. 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American Journal of Art Therapy, 18, 11-18. 203 Wadeson, H. (1973). Art techniques used i n conjoint marital therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 12, 147-164. Wagner, E.E. (1971). Structural analysis: A theory of per-sonality based on projective techniques. Journal of  Personality Assessment, 35, 422-435. Wexler, M. & Holzberg, J.E. (1952). A further study of the v a l i d i t y of human form drawings i n personality evaluation. Journal of Projective Techniques, 16, 249-251. Williams, G.H. & Wood, M.M. (1977). Developmental art therapy. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. Wulach, J.S. (1977). Piagetian cognitive development and primary process thinking i n children. Journal of Person- a l i t y Assessment, 41, 230-237. Zubin, J., Eron, L.D. & Schumer, F. (1965). An experimental  approach to projective techniques. New York: N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. APPENDIX A Characteristics of the Subjects The following information was gathered on the subjects. This information was provided by the subjects, the classroom teacher, p r i n c i p a l , or the elementary school counsellor • ii Positive Copers" "Negative Copers" Total Female 4 4 8 Male 6 6 12 9 years 1 4 5 10 years 3 2 5 11 years 6 4 10 Grade 4 3 6 9 Grade 5 5 3 8 Grade 6 2 1 3 Single Child - 3 3 Family of Two Siblings 4 3 7 Family of More Than Two Siblings 6 4 10 Single Parent Family 2 5 7 Two Parent Family (includes step-parents and common law) 8 4 12 Foster Family - 1 1 Sexually or Phy-s i c a l l y Abused (suspected or reported according to elem. school counsellor or p r i n -cipal) — 5 5 205 APPENDIX B The Rosebush: A Guided Fantasy I would l i k e you to c l o s e your eyes. J u s t be aware of your body. Forget about what's been going on around you... j u s t t h i n k about what's going on i n s i d e of you. Think about your b r e a t h i n g . . . f e e l the a i r move i n through your nose and mouth, down i n t o your chest - imagine t h a t your b r e a t h i n g i s l i k e g e n t l e waves l a p p i n g on the shore...as each wave r o l l s i n , the more r e l a x e d you f e e l . Think about your r i g h t arm. F e e l i t g e t t i n g h e a v i e r and h e a v i e r . . . F e e l the heaviness go a l l the way down the arm, down to your f i n g e r t i p s . . . Think about your l e f t arm...Feel i t g e t t i n g h e a v i e r and h e a v i e r . . . F e e l the heaviness go a l l the way down the arm, down to your f i n g e r t i p s . . . Think about your r i g h t l e g . . . F e e l i t g e t t i n g h e a v i e r and h e a v i e r . . . F e e l the heaviness go down, down and i n t o your foot...Think about your l e f t l e g . . . F e e l i t g e t t i n g h e a v i e r and h e a v i e r . . . F e e l the heaviness go down, down, i n t o your f o o t . . . F e e l your body r e -l a x i n g and f e e l i n g heavy... Be aware of your thoughts and images i n your mind - look at them (pause) - now put them i n t o a g l a s s j a r and watch them (pause) examine them, as more thoughts and images come i n t o your mind, put them i n t o your j a r t o o . . . F i n d out what you can l e a r n about them...Now take the j a r and pour out the thoughts and images, watch as they s p i l l out and disappear (pause) - the j a r i s empty... Now I'd l i k e you to imagine t h a t you are a rosebush. Become a rosebush and f i n d out what i t ' s l i k e to be a r o s e -bush. . .What kind of rosebush are you?...Are you very small?... Are you large?...Are you f a t ? . . . A r e you t a l l ? . . . D o you have f l o w e r s ? . . . I f so, what kind?...They can be any k i n d you want.. What c o l o u r are your flowers?...Do you have many or j u s t a few ...Are you i n f u l l bloom or do you only have buds?...Do you have leaves?...What kind?...What are your stems and branches like ? . . . D o you have thorns?...What are your r o o t s l i k e (pause) or maybe you don't have any...If you do, are they long and s t r a i g h t ? . . . A r e they twisted?...Are they deep?...Look around you (pause) are you i n a y a r d ? . . . i n a p a r k ? . . . i n the desert? . . . i n the c i t y ? . . . i n the country?... i n the middle of the ocean ...Ar you i n a pot or growing i n the ground...or through cement...or even i n s i d e somewhere?...Look around you (pause) what do you see?...Other flowers?...Are you alone?...Are there any trees?...Animals?...People?...Birds?...Do you look l i k e a rosebush or something e l s e ? . . . I s there anything around you l i k e a fence?...Does someone take care of you?... What's the weather l i k e f o r you r i g h t now?... What i s your l i f e like?...How do you feel?...What do you experience and what happens to you as the seasons change?... Be aware of y o u r s e l f as a rosebush...look c a r e f u l l y . . . F i n d out how you f e e l about your l i f e and what happens to you... In a few minutes, I ' l l ask you to open your eyes and I want you to draw a p i c t u r e of y o u r s e l f as a rosebush. Then, when I t a l k t o you, I want you to t e l l me about the p i c t u r e 207 as though you are the rosebush. (longer pause) When you are ready, open your eyes and draw the rosebush. 208 APPENDIX C Post-Drawing Inquiry Question One: What kind of rosebush are you and what do you look lik e ? Question Two: T e l l me about your flowers. Question Three: T e l l me about your leaves. Question Four: T e l l me about your stems and branches. Question Five: Do you have thorns? If so, t e l l me about them. If not, t e l l me how you protect your-s e l f . Are you a mean or a f r i e n d l y rosebush? Question Six: T e l l me about your roots. Question Seven: T e l l me about where you l i v e . What kind of things do you see around you? How do you l i k e l i v i n g where you are? Question Eight: Do you think that you look l i k e a rosebush or do you think that you look l i k e something else? If so, what? Question Nine: Who takes care of you? How do you f e e l about that? How do they look after you? Question Ten: What's the weather l i k e for you right now? What happens to you as the seasons change? Question Eleven: How does i t f e e l to be a rosebush? What i s your l i f e l i k e as a rosebush? APPENDIX D #06 215 #21 #22 216 APPENDIX E Question 1: What k i n d of rosebush are you and what do you look l i k e ? " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: I'm a p r e t t y l a r g e rosebush with l a r g e , blooming flowers t h a t are k i n d of c o l o u r f u l and my stem has p r i c k l e s on i t , and I have long c u r l y -l i k e r o o t s and the weather's p r e t t y good where I am. I'm on a lawn, I get watered almost every day and some-times they p i c k some blooming roses o f f of me and take them to t h e i r house. In the f a l l my leaves f a l l o f f and t h a t , and i n the s p r i n g they bloom again. Lots of b r i g h t green leaves and I th i n k my flowers are kind of c o l o u r f u l , and my stem i s a k i n d • o f n i c e r i c h brown. Black thorns. #03: We l l , I l i k e horses and be-cause when the rosebush came t o my mind, l i k e my horse i s Amber, and I j u s t thought of her...I'm a r o s e -bush t h a t r i d e s horses and i s r e a l l y c o l o u r f u l . I have brown h a i r , blue eyes, red l i p s , I have red and orange f l o w e r s . #06: I'm a small f a t rosebush. I've got one red rose, and I'm dy i n g . I've got brown leaves and I'm o l d . I've got one red rose - a l l my others have f a l l e n o f f . I'm dying because of the hot sun and no water. There's a whole bunch of other rosebushes around me•that are dyi n g -no, they're dead. I'm the l a s t one there t h a t has any leaves l e f t on me. #07: I'm a w i l d rosebush with four d i f f e r e n t kinds of ro s e s . 'I'm a f r i e n d l y r o s e -"Negative" Responses #02: I'm a red rosebush. I have b i g stems and some thorns and I'm r e d . #04: I'm happy and -no - I'm sad, 'cuz I'm a l l alone. I have p r i c k l e s on me, red roses and green stems. #05: Thorn. I'm a b i l l i o n thorns. One flower. Long stems. Nothing e l s e . #08: I have p u r p l e flowers on me, I'm t a l l , f a t , s o r t o f , and I have long branches. I don't f e e l very good because there are other people run-ning around, and t r e e s can't run around. I want to run around and p l a y with the other k i d s but I can't because I'm a t r e e . #11: I'm out i n the middle where they are going to make a parking l o t , and my flowers are bent. I've got l o t s of thorns. My flowers used to be red but now they are changing to pink. I have black , black stems. I have a fence surrounding me t h a t i s broken i n some spots. There used to be a house th e r e . The woman there used to take good care of me. They t o r e the house down. The woman l i v e s i n another p l a c e . #12: I'm a rosebush with pink flowers and p r i c k l e s . I have leaves and r o o t s . #13: I'm b i g and t a l l . I'm a mean rosebush. I have red leaves with yellow i n the middle and I have brown thorns. 217 Question #1 cont'd: "Positive"Responses #07 cont'd: bush. I'm p r e t t y wide - I'm b i g w i t h about medium s i z e d flowers and I'm strong. #10: I'm a b i g rosebush. I don't bloom roses, I bloom d a f f o -. d i l s . I have l o t s of leaves and my leaves always stay on. #15: I'm not r e a l l y a rosebush, I'm a red d a i s y . I'm t a l l and skinny. #16: I'm a thorny rosebush. I'm guarding jewels i n the c a s t l e . I'm supposed to be enormous, I cover the whole c a s t l e . I'm supposed to be a thorn rosebush. I have t h i c k bushes - other bushes are growing from them. #17: I'm t a l l and f r i e n d l y . I'm t a l l , green leaves and green stems and pink f l o w e r s . #19: I'm a red rosebush. I'm t a l l and skinny. I'm p r i c k l y , I have b i g thorns. I'm a nice rosebush. #22: I'm b i g and t a l l , with red and yellow flowers. "Negative" Responses #18: I'm a red rosebush. I'm short. I have red on my leaves and black thorns. I have a happy face. #20: I'm a p r i c k l y rosebush. I'm short and f a t . I'm p r i c k l y , I have l o t s of roses, my branches are black, there's a fence around me. Sometimes I think that the clouds are animals. #21: I'm the biggest rosebush i n the world. I'm very t a l l and very long. I'm very mean. I take up most of the world, j u s t to be s e l f i s h . 218 APPENDIX F Question #2: T e l l me about your f l o w e r s . " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: T h e i r p e t a l s are n i c e and s o f t and they smell p r e t t y , and they're k i n d of b i g flowers - not many flowers but q u i t e b i g . #0 3: My eye i s a f l o w e r . #06: My one flower j u s t blooms. I t ' s going to d i e soon. I t blooms f o r a couple of days and then i t f a l l s o f f . The p e t a l s are s o f t and very p r e t t y . #07: There's some red f l o w e r s , some y e l l o w f l o w e r s , some blue f l o w e r s , and some orange f l o w e r s . They're d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s 'coz t h a t ' s how I l i k e them. They f e e l s o f t and s i l k y . #10: They're ye l l o w , they f e e l s o f t . D a f f o d i l s s tay on. #15: I've got one red d a i s y . I t has a l i t t l e round t h i n g i n the middle. A long stem. The flower i s v e l v e t y . #16: I don't t h i n k i t would be s u i t a b l e to have flowers on a rosebush t h a t ' s guarding jewels. #17: They're bushy. #19: The flowers are j u s t buds. They f e e l n i c e and s o f t . They w i l l bloom soon. #22: My flowers are j u s t bloom-i n g . They M l be a l o t more i n j u s t a l i t t l e w h i l e . "Negative" Responses #02: They're b i g - they're i n f u l l bloom. #04: They're ro s e s - they f e e l wierd - l i k e powdery, and they smell n i c e . #05: I t ' s by i t s e l f . I drew i t j u s t f o r something to do. I don't know i f i t l i k e s being t h e r e . #08: They're j u s t buds. They want to grow. #11: My flowers are t u r n i n g from red to pink. I a i n ' t got no treatment, no one has been t a k i n g c a re of me. #12: A bee come along and land on i t i n s i d e and take some s t u f f out of i t and take i t to the other p l a n t s . #13: No flowers 'coz someone moved away and took them. #18: I have t h r e e f l o w e r s . They're n i c e and f r i e n d l y . Sometimes when you t r y to p i c k one, they h u r t . The r o o t s are long and they grow i n the green. #20: My f l o w e r s are kind of skinny and f a t . They c l o s e up at n i g h t and they open i n the morning. #21: The l a s t flowers I ever had were a long time ago and I ate them up because I was hungry. 219 APPENDIX G Question #3: T e l l me about your l e a v e s . " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: They're n i c e b i g white ones, they cover almost a l l the t r e e . #03: One l e a f i s my mouth, i t ' s red . The o t h e r s are my f e e t , they're green. #06: Some leaves are l e f t - the r e s t have a l r e a d y d i e d . Some are s t i l l green and the o t h e r s are brown. They're going to f a l l o f f soon. (Do they know t h a t they're going to die?) W e l l , they've seen the other ones f a l l o f f , so I guess they do. #07: My leaves are green. They're j u s t around the r o s e s , but they don't cover up the r o s e s . They're s h e l t e r f o r animals. #10: They're f u r r y on the back s i d e . #15: I don't have any leaves 'coz they were a l l p i c k e d o f f . #16: I d i d n ' t bother w i t h l e a v e s . I might have put some on. What I saw was j u s t a b i g bunch of thorns and bushes t h a t people are t r y i n g to get through, to get to the j ewe1s. #17: They f e e l n i c e . "Negative" Responses #02: I don't have any leaves - I d i d n ' t want any. #04: I never had leaves on my rosebush. I never r e a l l y saw any l e a v e s . #05: No l e a v e s . I t ' s winter. #08: My leaves are dying and they're f a l l i n g o f f . They f e e l p r e t t y sad t h a t they're f a l l i n g o f f . The wind makes them f a l l o f f . #11: No l e a v e s . I had two or three, not very many. They a l l f e l l o f f , the wind blew them away. #12: There's a l o t of c a t e r p i l l a r eggs on i t . The leaves are l i g h t green, they f e e l rough. #13: I have red leaves 'coz I j u s t have red' l e a v e s . They f e e l wet. #18: The leaves have long b l a c k spines on them. #20: I don't have any leaves be-cause I don't l i k e them around me. #21: I'm mostly made of l e a v e s . #19: I have l o t s of l e a v e s . They're p r i c k l y . #22: No leaves because rosebushes don't have l e a v e s . 220 APPENDIX H Question #4: T e l l me about your stems and branches. " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: I have branches s t i c k i n g out. I t ' s k i n d o f got a wide trunk, with not too wide of stems j u s t s t i c k i n g out. #03: I have l e g stems and arm stems. They're long and they're red and green. #06: My stems they're o l d and they break e a s i l y . They're not very strong and they sag. My rosebush i s slow l y f a l l i n g a p a r t . #07: B i g and s t r o n g . The b i r d s l i v e on the branches. I'm a happy rosebush. #10: They're brown and they don't have thorns. #15: My stem i s rubbery, long and skinny. I t ' s been cut o f f . #16: They're t h i c k l i k e t r e e s . Smaller ones c o u l d break. #17: They're p r i c k l y . #19: They're hard. You can't break them. "Negative" Responses #02: They're t h i c k and they're l a y e r e d . They're t a n g l e d up. #04: They're spongy. They're c r i n k l e d up - they go back l i k e t h a t and t h a t . Some of them can t u r n . #05: Tangly. They're about as t a l l as a two s t o r e y house. #08: They're strong but some of them are breaking. #11: They're t w i s t e d . The storm wi t h the wind t h a t blew the leaves t w i s t e d me a l l up. #12: They're f a t and the branches are s t r a i g h t . #13: Hard and s t r o n g . #18: n/a #20: My stems and branches are black, they're t a n g l e d up, some grow from one branch to another, to another. #21: They're brown and long and curvy. #22: They're long and t a n g l y and p r i c k l y . 221 APPENDIX I Q u e s t i o n #5: Do you have t h o r n s ? I f s o , t e l l me about them. I f n o t , t e l l me how you p r o t e c t y o u r s e l f . Are you a mean or a f r i e n d l y rosebush? " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: They're l i t t l e and they #02: s t i c k out o f the stems, and maybe i f you to u c h them, t h e y ' l l p r o b a b l y s t i c k i n your f i n g e r s . They're b l a c k #04: and t h e y ' r e l i t t l e , and they s t i n g and s t u f f . They're k i n d o f f r i e n d l y t h o r n s . I p r o t e c t m y s e l f w i t h t h e t h o r n s . #03: No t h o r n s . I p r o t e c t m y s e l f w i t h my hands and my l e g s and my mouth. I k i c k and punch and I b i t e . #06: The t h o r n s a r e underneath t h e l e a v e s t h a t a r e s t i l l t h e r e . #05: They're r e a l l y sharp and t h e y ' r e a l l over the p l a c e on t h e stems and the branches. Mean t h o r n s . They keep peopl e away. #07: No t h o r n s 'coz I l i k e t o have a n i m a l s come near me. I have no form o f p r o t e c t i o n . #10: No p r o t e c t i o n . #15: No t h o r n s . I don't p r o t e c t m y s e l f . #08: #16: They're r e g u l a r t h o r n s . #11: They're not so b i g . They're j u s t t r y i n g t o keep you out o f the c a s t l e . #17: I f o r g o t t o draw them. They're l i t t l e s k i n n y t h o r n s , they don't h u r t a l o t . They're f r i e n d l y . #19: The t h o r n s are p r i c k l y . They h u r t when you t o u c h them. They're f r i e n d l y t h o r n s . I p r o t e c t m y s e l f w i t h t h e t h o r n s . " N e g a t i v e " Responses They v e r y s h a r p , p o i n t y . Mean. I f any p e r s o n comes up, t h e y g e t p r i c k l e d . Sharp. Sharp, mean t h o r n s . I f p e o p l e t r y and p u l l o f f the f l o w e r , one of them s t i c k i n you and they h u r t . Sometimes they t a k e my r o s e s o f f - u n l e s s they want t o p u l l them f o r f u n - t h e y ' l l p u l l them out w i t h t h e i r hands o r wear g l o v e s j u s t t o be mean. I f they g r a b them, t h e y ' l l g e t p r i c k l e d . There's some s h o r t and l o n g -r e a l p r i c k l y . They're sharp. They draw b l o o d . I f you t o u c h them, y o u ' l l f i n d out what they do. Leave me a l o n e . The t h o r n s p r o t e c t t h e roseb u s h . They p r o t e c t the f l o w e r t o o . I ' l l grow s m a l l e r o r b i g . Sometimes I t r i c k p e o p l e . L i k e - t h e r e ' s a house t h e r e - I l i v e i n f r o n t o f a house - I grow two s t o r i e s , t h e y ' r e l o o k i n g f o r the house, "hmm - t h e r e must be a house here"...and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . No t h o r n s . No p r o t e c t i o n . Some of them are r e a l b i g and some o f them are r e a l s m a l l . They poke. The stems broke r i g h t h ere. The k i d s were f o o l i n g around on the f e n c e , they broke the fence and one of the stems was broken. There's p o i s o n on some o f the t h o r n s . -Some o f them are mean and some of them a r e f r i e n d l y . The f r i e n d l y one j u s t poke you. The mean ones w i l l g i v e you a c u t . You j u s t have t o get a shot and then y o u ' l l be okay. 222 Question #5 cont'd: " P o s i t i v e " Responses "Negative" Responses #22: They're sharp and s m a l l . They're both mean and f r i e n d l y . I f someone t r i e s t o p i c k a r o s e , the thorns w i l l go i n t o them. #12: They're r e a l sharp. I f someone touches them, they get i t a l l the way through t h e i r f i n g e r . People can get stabbed. The thorns are mean. #13: They're sharp. They p r i c k them. L i k e a bee s t i n g . They're mean tho r n s . #18: I have s i x t h o r n s . They're p r i c k l y , sharp, and sometimes dangerous. They're both mean and f r i e n d l y . #20: My thorns are long, sometimes they're s h o r t . They hurt sometimes. They're mean. People w i l l get a p r i c k l e from the r o s e . That's how I p r o t e c t myself. #21: I have thorns but you can't see them. They're very sharp. There's a thorn coming down from the stem, i t goes through the mountain. Everytime the rosebush get t h i r s t y , the thorn gets water from the lak e . They are mean thorns. I p r o t e c t myself with them. A long time ago, a woodman came and t r i e d to cut me down but I wouldn't, l e t him. 223 APPENDIX J Q u e s t i o n #6: T e l l me about your r o o t s . " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: They go deep i n t o t h e ground and t h e y keep the t r e e r e a l l y s t u r d y . #03: No r o o t s - I'm on my h o r s e . #06: They're l o n g and s k i n n y and way down i n the e a r t h s e a r c h -i n g f o r water and they c a n ' t f i n d any. They f e e l p r e t t y low down. #07: The r o o t s a r e s t r a i g h t and good, deep and s t r o n g , and even i f a h u r r i c a n e came a l o n g , i t c o u l d n ' t t a k e them ou t . #10: (not i n p i c t u r e ) They j u s t go s t r a i g h t down. They're s t r a i g h t . #15: No r o o t s . #16: Maybe t h e r e a r e r o o t s under-ground. I see m y s e l f j u s t s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t , n o t underground. #17: They're l o n g and s t r a i g h t . They go deep i n t o the ground. #19: Dark brown r o o t s . The sun i s s h i n i n g . My r o o t s a re s m a l l . They're c r o o k e d . #22: No r o o t s - I d i d n ' t see any. "N e g a t i v e " Responses #02: No r o o t s because I d i d n ' t want t o draw under the ground i t ' s t o o h a r d . #04 #05 #08 #11 #12 #13 #18; #20 I never saw no r o o t s i n my p i c t u r e . I t has r o o t s but I d i d n ' t draw them. The r o o t s a r e down t h e r e under-ne a t h t h e ground. They're l o n g and t a n g l y . They're h e a l t h y . I have r o o t s but I d i d n ' t show them i n t h e p i c t u r e . They're i n the ground, t h e y ' r e k i n d of s h o r t and t h e y ' r e t w i s t e d . They're not so h e a l t h y . The r o o t s a r e underneath. They're l o n g and h e a l t h y . I d i d n ' t grow any. They're l o n g , q u i t g r o w i n g . They never #21 My r o o t s a r e w h i t e , they grow l o n g , t h e y ' r e t w i s t e d . They f i n d water as they go down deep i n t o the ground, so my ro s e b u s h can grow t a l l e r and t a l l e r . And some o f them are s h o r t , and some a r e l o n g . Some of them c u r l . I don't have r o o t s - I don't need them. 224 APPENDIX K Question #7: T e l l me where you l i v e . What kind of t h i n g s do you see around you? How do you l i k e l i v i n g where you l i v e ? " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: There's a couple of t r e e s , and t h e r e ' s a fence around me and l i k e t h e re's pine t r e e s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I t ' s k i n d of b o r i n g i n a way be-cause you j u s t stand t h e r e . I t ' s p r e t t y okay. #03: I l i v e i n a f i e l d . I t ' s l i k e space - I l i v e i n a p u r p l e space...and t h e r e ' s l i t t l e t r e e s f l o a t i n g around and b i r d s . . . a n d the sun i s s h i n i n g . That's a l i t t l e patch of land there f l o a t i n g around. The house i s s o r t of j u s t walking on a i r . I t ' s d i f f e r e n t , strange, c o l o u r -f u l . . . I wouldn't mind l i v i n g t h e r e . I l i k e the c o l o u r s and I could j u s t walk on a i r i n s t e a d of always f a l l i n g down. #06: I'm i n the middle of the d e s e r t . I see sand and sun and some other dead rosebushes l a y i n g a l l over the p l a c e . I don't l i k e l i v i n g there a t a l l . #07: I've got grass and a l i t t l e r a b b i t e a t i n g a r o s e , and I've got the sky. I t ' s n i c e o u t s i d e , with j u s t l i t t l e f l u f f y clouds around. The rosebush i s about seven f e e t h i gh. There are b i g t r e e s around, but the rosebush i s b i g g e r . My background i s around i n the country where nobody l i v e s . I j u s t stay there with w i l d e r n e s s and Mother Nature. No people around, j u s t animals. Around me I see b i g redwood "Negative" Responses #02: I l i v e i n the f r o n t yard -p i c k e t fence and a b i g house behind me. I see a p i c k e t fence, a sidewalk and gra s s . I t ' s okay l i v i n g where I am, my l o c a t i o n i s very p e a c e f u l . #04: High upon a grassy area, with clouds i n the sky, i t ' s r e a l hot. I'm a l l alone. I see swings and p i c n i c t a b l e s and t r e e s . I see people - no, I never saw people. I t was l i k e the park was mine and I was a l l alone. I t ' s q u i t e a bore because I don't have no other f r i e n d s l i k e rosebushes ... but I l i k e i t when I'm spread out on the grass - I'm happy 'coz I'm on the grass - I can go i n t o the g r a s s . #05: I l i v e i n a marble. I t l i v e s on top. I see l i t t l e teensy-weensy people going i n and out of t h e i r houses. I t ' s as good as e a r t h to l i v e on. I t ' s l i k e e a r t h but s m a l l e r . #08: I t l i v e s i n a park. I see c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g and people walking dogs and a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s - but I don't know how to draw them. I'd r a t h e r be a person so t h a t I co u l d p l a y around but I guess i t ' s fun. #11: I'm i n the country. They're going to make a s t o r e and a parking l o t . They're making a p a r k i n g l o t where I am now. There's a b i g bee f l y i n g around me now. The jeep i s going to mow me down. I'm going to s c r a t c h the jeep. I f e e l s o r r y f o r the t r e e too. I t i s j u s t a 225 "Negative" Responses #11 cont'd: baby tree. It was just born when the lady had to go. I ' l l be harder to mow down than the tree. The bumble bee i s probably going to land on the rose, i t ' s probably going to die. It's the l a s t b i t of pollen that I ' l l probably ever get. It's not very nice. I l i k e i t when the lady l i v e d there, but I don't l i k e i t now. #12: I l i v e a 21 - 23 Street; on the corner, by the sidewalk. There's a fence a l l the way around. I see cars, people. It's fr i e n d l y . #13:- I l i v e i n an empty l o t by a street that nobody comes near. I see broken bottles, broken windows, and glass. No people. Can't get into the house or the apartment. It's i n an old part of town. The cracks are from when the rain gets into the lines and i t freezes. It's okay to be there. Question # 7 cont'd: "Positive" Responses #07 cont'd: trees, and spruce trees, and pine trees, and nice f l u f f y clouds, animals running around, and playing, and me growing. Living where I am i s a nice -atmosphere. I get enough water, and the atmosphere i s happy. I suggest that other rosebushes would l i k e to l i v e here. #1.0: In a park. I see swings and a pond and I see the ducks. And there i s a house over here, but you can't see i t . Well, I l i k e i t because i t ' s high and i t ' s close to the sun. I have a tree beside me to shelter me i f I want to stay i n the shade. #15: I can see everything outside. People and their dogs chasing s t i c k s , other flowers on the ground. The grass, I can look down the street. People come i n , s i t down at the table and eat. I'm i n the kitchen. It's nice. #16: I l i v e on a fantasy island, guarding the ca s t l e , i t ' s deserted, but there are jewels inside. I see birds f l y i n g above. One owl i s on the rosebush. It gets boring. Sometimes i t ' s boring when people aren't around, but i t ' s fun, when people t r y and get through. (Has anyone succeeded i n getting through?) Yes, but they couldn't get across the moat. (How do you f e e l when someone comes to cut you down?) It doesn't matter. There's so much of me, I just keep growing. #18: I l i v e i n a person's yard with lots of animals around, I have lo t s and lo t s of friends, but they've a l l been picked and put i n j a r s . There's a cage that goes a l l the way around. The dog's going to l i c k the flower. The flower feels mad. Sometimes I l i k e the dog around, but I don't l i k e to be licked by the dog. I'm mad about the hand because the flower doesn't want to be touched. I love i t because people can come around and look at me and say "that flower i s pretty." #20: I l i v e in the desert but l a t e l y , some people put a fence there. 226 Question #7 cont'd: "Positive" Responses #17: I l i v e near someone's yard, but not i n i t . I'm out i n the open. I see a cat, and a fence, and some signs. The signs say "keep out" and "one way". Behind the "keep out" sign i s e l e c t r i c i t y ) - they have a l l t h i s e l e c t r i c equipment. I'm usually by myself. I l i k e l i v i n g where I am. #19: I l i v e i n the desert. I don't see anything around me. It's a l r i g h t where I l i v e . #22: I l i v e i n someone's back yard. I see a fence and some grass and a cl o t h e s l i n e . I l i k e where I'm l i v i n g . "Negative" Responses #20 cont'd: On the other side of the fence i s another rose p r i c k l e bush, and there's cactus. On the other side, there's animals. Just me on this side. I see a l o t of , boring things to do and that. I just stare on anything I want - l i k e the clouds or a boring f l y buzzing around you. I see some of my roots, and my branches, and my p r i c k l e s . Fine, I f e e l fine and that. It's peaceful. And I l i k e to be peaceful and that. #21: I l i v e i n a desert where a l o t of dark people used to l i v e . An old man planted me and didn't know that I was e v i l , so I grew up, I k i l l e d two people that touched me of my thorns, and everyone moved away from me as I grew because I was so mean. I don't see anything because the men that went away took everything. A l l the plants died because they weren't watered. I fi n d i t very lonely but I think i t 1 s a l o t better than having a l l those people around. Now that they know my reputation, they would try to cut me down. 227 APPENDIX L Question #8: Do you think you look l i k e a rosebush or do you look l i k e something else? If so, what? "Positive" Responses #01: I think I look not l i k e a rosebush. The leaves might look, and the branches, but the flowers are very d i f f e r -ent - they don't look l i k e roses. Probably just a tree with l i t t l e blooms, l i k e trees that have those l i t t l e flowers on them. #03: I don't think I look l i k e a rosebush - I look l i k e a person, with just a l i t t l e paper, a l i t t l e cardboard over top of them, l i k e Hallowe'en or something. #06: I think I look l i k e a rosebush. #07: I think I look l i k e a rosebush. #10: Well, I r e a l l y don't know... sort of, but I have d i f f e r -ent kinds of flowers. #15: I look l i k e a daisy. #16: I look l i k e a rosebush. #17: I think I look l i k e some-thing else. I look l i k e a monster. #19: I think I look l i k e some-thing else, a d i f f e r e n t kind of flower. #22: I think I look l i k e a rosebus "Negative" Responses #02: I think I look l i k e a rosebush. #04: In my picture, I look exactly l i k e a rosebush. #05: I look l i k e something else. I look l i k e a thornbush. #08: I don't think I look l i k e a rosebush. I think I look l i k e a tree. #11: I look l i k e a rosebush but probably a l l the other rose-bushes look way better than me. They're not going to be bulldozed down. #12: I think I look l i k e a rosebush. #13: I guess I look l i k e a rosebush. #18: I look l i k e a rosebush. #20: I look l i k e something else. I look l i k e red flowers and d i f f e r e n t coloured branches. #21: I think I look l i k e a monster tree - very mean. I don't look l i k e a rosebush. 228 APPENDIX M Question #9: Who takes care of you? How do you f e e l about that? How do they look a f t e r you? " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: The wife and sometimes the c h i l d r e n . They water me. (Is there a dad there too?) Yeah, he probably j u s t waters me and makes, sure t h a t nothing's wrong. I l i k e i t . #03: The people, the t h i n g s around me. L i k e the b i r d s , the t r e e s , and the g r a s s . When I'm upset they make me happy. I eat g r a s s , and the b i r d s - when I'm hot, they f l u t t e r over me and c o o l me off,, and the sun, i f I'm c o l d , warms me up...In a way, the house p r o t e c t s me. I f e e l g r e a t . #06: Nobody takes care of me. I don't l i k e i t very much. I need somebody t o take care of me. I'd l i k e a gardener. #07: Mother Nature takes care of me by, i n s p r i n g , l e t t i n g some r a i n down, i n summer shading me with the b i g t r e e s , and i n winter by making me go to s l e e p , i n the f a l l by making me f a l l a s l e e p . I f e e l t h a t without Mother Nature I probably wouldn't be a l i v e . She takes good care of me. #10: J u s t nature. The sun always shines on me so t h a t my flowers w i l l always stay i n bloom, and when i t ' s windy, the wind can p i c k up the water and water me. #15: The mother - she waters me every day. I f e e l good about i t . "Negative" Responses #02: The people who l i v e i n the house behind me. They're very n i c e . They don't bother me - they don't p i c k me. I f e e l g l a d . They water me and they p i c k out the weeds behind me. #04: My thorns and my stems. And the r a i n and the sun. The r a i n g i v e s water and the sun g i v e s hot. The thorns p r o t e c t me. They help me l i v e . I t ' s n i c e t h a t they're t h e r e , i t ' s b e a u t i f u l , but no one comes around... #05: Myself. I can't feed myself, I can't water myself. Blood. (Would the rosebush ever want someone e l s e to look a f t e r i t ? ) No. #08: The parkman - I l i k e t h a t he takes care of me. He always watches me and a l l the other t r e e s and makes sure t h a t people don't climb me, t h a t they don't break my'branches or anything. #11: The lady was going to move me to a d i f f e r e n t spot, but she d i d n ' t have enough money. Nobody takes care of me now. I don't f e e l very good about t h a t . There used to be a gate keeper around, she had a gate keeper to look a f t e r me, but he had a heart a t t a c k . #12: The people who l i v e s i n the apartment. When they water the grass some of them sprays some of me. The r a i n and the sun help too. I l i k e the people l o o k i n g a f t e r me. 229 Question #9 cont'd: "Positive" Responses #16: I just keep growing and growing. Rain comes along and waters me. I'ts fine the way i t i s . #17: People come by and they water me sometimes when i t ' s r e a l l y hot. I f e e l lonely and sad when no one comes by. #19: No one - I f e e l sad. I look for water with my roots. I'd l i k e another plant to look after me. #22: The person that owns the house. She waters me and cuts the uneven sides. I think i t ' s good. "Negative" Responses #13: Nobody. I am kept by the ra i n . I l i k e being by myself. #18: My owner takes care of me. The person who planted me. They give me water, good s o i l , put worms where I am, and i t ' s fun. #20: I do. When people climb over the fence and try to pick a piece of me I would squeeze and squeeze, and they would get p r i c k l e s and stop picking me. When the roots get way down, they find water, I get i t from there. I l i k e looking after myself. #21: I'd rather look aft e r myself than having people bugging me and trying to cut me down. 230 APPENDIX N Question #10: What's the weather l i k e f o r you r i g h t now? What happens to you as the seasons change? " P o s i t i v e " Responses "Negative" Responses #01: I t ' s n i c e and sunny - wit h the sun and the blue sky. In the wint e r I'm j u s t branches and t h a t . My thorns k i n d of f a l l o f f and I j u s t have l i t t l e stems and branches. I don't have leaves or any-t h i n g . In the summer, I'm n i c e and bloomed. #03: I t ' s j u s t r i g h t - l i k e i n between hot and c o l d . A f t e r f a l l , I change i n t o some-t h i n g Christmas-y, and i n s p r i n g , I change i n t o water... I can change i n t o other t h i n g s . #06: Hot and dry. Sometimes i t r a i n s r e a l l y heavy but t h a t hasn't happened y e t or e l s e I would have d i e d . I would have drowned i n a l l the r a i n . #07: The weather i s summer r i g h t now. The weather i s n i c e and hot and I'm shaded by the t r e e s , the branches are a l l n i c e and p u f f e d up. When the seasons change, a l l my buds f a l l o f f , then a l l my leaves f a l l o f f too. Then I go to s l e e p f o r the wint e r . #10: I t ' s always sunny. #15: I t ' s u s u a l l y sunny, some-times i t r a i n s o u t s i d e , sometimes i t snows, i t doesn't h a i l . I t h i n k I ' l l l i v e a long time i n the vase. I s t a y the same. #16: I u s u a l l y have enough r a i n to grow more. Sometimes i t gets hot, but not c o l d . #02: Sunny - the wind i s very calm. I l o s e my p e t a l s and t h a t ' s i t . In the s p r i n g I come up again. #04: I t ' s hot and i t ' s r e a l sunny, a b i t of c l o u d s . Few more days and i t w i l l r a i n . The gr a s s , i t b r i n g s me underneath f o r a while and my stems go underneath and I stay there u n t i l the end of winter and then I sprout back up...the grass and t h a t takes me down when i t ' s w inter, and i t ' s warm, and I come back up when i t ' s summer. #05: White. I f i t ' s white, i t ' s w i n t e r . I t ' s medium.' Snow on the ground. I'm under the snow p i l e a l r e a d y . Same t h i n g i n summer, same t h i n g i n f a l l , same t h i n g i n s p r i n g . Nothing much happens. #08: I t ' s windy and the sun i s s t i l l s h i n i n g . I get c o l d i n the f a l l . In the winte r , I don't l i k e the winter because i t ' s c o l d . I l i k e s p r i n g because i t ' s g e t t i n g a b i t warmer, and I l i k e summer because i t ' s warm. #11: Mostly been r a i n i n g and storms. Today i t ' s s h iny. I change c o l o u r s . I grow a l i t t l e b i t . That b u l l d o z e r supposed to b u l l d o z e me down today. #12: Warm, sometimes c o l d , never get snow, maybe sometimes. My leaves f a l l s o f f and my flowers get o l d and wrinkled up and d r i e d . In the s p r i n g , my leaves s t a r t s growing again and so does my fl o w e r . 231 Question #10 cont'd: "Positive" Responses "Negative" Responses #16 cont'd: I have d i f f e r e n t seasons, but mostly r a i n . Nothing happens to me as the seasons change. I just keep on growing. #17: It's hot and sunny. I change. I get cold and hot and sometimes the leaves f a l l . #19: Dry. The seasons don't change. Sometimes i t rains. #22: It's r e a l l y sunny, i t • hasn't rained for days. When i t snows she puts a covering over me. #13: The weather i s t e r r i b l e . It rains hard. It's hot today. My leaves f a l l off and then they grow back. #18: Sunny, no clouds i n the a i r and hotter than I can stand. I get brown, then I go down into the ground u n t i l winter i s over, then I come back up for the spring u n t i l next f a l l . #20: It's nice and shiny. Sometimes i t ' s cloudy. The seasons don't change. #21: It i s usually sunset where I l i v e . It's j u s t perfect, warm. Seasons stay the same. 232 APPENDIX 0 Question #11: How does i t f e e l to be a rosebush? What i s your l i f e l i k e as a rosebush? " P o s i t i v e " Responses #01: I t ' s n i c e . A l o t of people admire you. I t ' s kind of i n t e r e s t i n g because I'm i n a backyard and I watch people go by and they admire me and s t u f f l i k e t h a t - i t ' s r e a l n i c e . #03: D i f f e r e n t . A n i c e f e e l i n g . Good. I t ' s easy, easy l i v i n g , s i n c e everybody i s p r o t e c t i n g me i n a way. #06: I t f e e l s d i f f e r e n t . I t ' s not fun because you have to stay i n the same p l a c e . I f e e l sad, l o n e l y , and i g -nored. I have no hope. Before, he was a l i t t l e rosebush, he had hope. But now he's o l d e r and he's going to d i e . Before, he used to have someone take care of him and now, he doesn't have any water or anything to keep him a l i v e . These Arabians were camping i n t h i s p a r t here, they p l a n t e d a rosebush, and they were t a k i n g c a r e of i t , and then they had to l e a v e . My l i f e i s d u l l . Lots of wind and sad. Depressing. #07: I t f e e l s good to be a r o s e -bush. I t ' s very fun watching the animals p l a y around, 'coz they're p l a y i n g around me and i t ' s a g r e a t l i f e . #10: I t ' s s o r t of b o r i n g because I always have to stay i n one spot but i t ' s n i c e because I don't have to do my chores or anything t h a t I don't want to do. I t ' s e x c i t i n g because sometimes the ducks have babies - you know, d u c k l i n g s -"Negative" Responses #02: I t f e e l s good. I t ' s very p e a c e f u l and I have a l o t of time to myself. #04: I f there's another one there I'd f e e l happy, b u t . . . i t ' s fun because a l l my f r i e n d s come by, they l i k e the smell...when they sm e l l other roses and I hear about i t I get happy because i f they l i k e t h a t r o s e , they l i k e me too. Well, sometimes people come down and then I'm happy, but when they s t a r t to leave, then I'm sad. The best p a r t i s when I can go down deep, when i t ' s winter I eat n i t r o g e n 'coz n i t r o g e n f l i e s around i n the a i r . I l i k e t h a t too, 'coz i t p r o t e c t s me, i t makes me l i v e . We're doing s c i e n c e , and t h a t s t u f f makes you l i v e . Not bad -the best p a r t i s when people come over o r when I'm i n s i d e the ground. #05: I t ' s how I f e e l r i g h t now -t e r r i b l e . I don't l i k e to be video-taped. I don't want other people to hear t h i s tape. I t ' s a normal l i f e . I have my good times and my bad times. #08: I f e e l bad because I can't get around l i k e the k i d s , but I l i k e i t . I l i k e i t because God made me t h i s way. I t ' s okay I guess. #11: I l i k e being a rosebush but not r i g h t now. No one takes care of me and I am going to be bul l d o z e d down. My l i f e i t not very good. I t used to be good ' t i l a year ago when the lady l e f t . Question #11 cont'd: " P o s i t i v e " Responses #10 cont'd: and I watch them. And t h i s i s an apple t r e e , except t h a t i t doesn't have any apples on i t 'coz i t ' s not l i k e me. I always bloom. #15: I t f e e l s wierd. J u s t having a stem, and v e l v e t y red flowers around. I t ' s d i f f e r e n t . I get watered every day and t h a t ' s i t . #16: I t ' s okay. I t ' s funny watching people t r y i n g t o get through (the thorns) but i t ' s b o r i n g sometimes. #17: Sometimes i t ' s n i c e . I t ' s q u i e t and p e a c e f u l . Some-times i t ' s l o n e l y , no one comes around and i t ' s c o l d out. My l i f e i s l o n e l y and p e a c e f u l . #19: I t f e e l s f i n e to be a r o s e -bush. I f I could I would l i k e to be another p l a n t . My l i f e i s b o r i n g . I don't have anyone to p l a y w i t h and I can't move around. #22: I t f e e l s good to be a r o s e -bush. My l i f e i s k i n d of bo r i n g 'coz nobody does anything w i t h me. She c u t s me and a l l t h a t , but t h a t ' s i t , you know. She doesn't t a l k t o me. "Negative" Responses #12: E x c e l l e n t . My l i f e i s fun. #13: I t f e e l s okay. I t h i n k about where I'm going to get water and s t u f f . I'm not g e t t i n g too much. I thin k about what's going to happen where I'm l i v i n g . #18: My l i f e i s p l a y f u l . The r o o t s t i c k l e me. I t h i n k I ' l l g i v e the dog a th o r n . I won't be i n the ground much longer. #20: When I p i c k one of my branches, j u s t to see what i t smells l i k e and s t u f f , I get p r i c k l e s on myself and s t u f f . I hurt myself and t h a t . I t ' s k i n d of p a i n f u l f o r me being a rosebush. When I t r y to get to know myself more, i t h u r t s . My l i f e i s kind of i n t e r e s t i n g . #21: I don't know how i t f e e l s to be a rosebush 'coz i t ' s always the same f o r me. My l i f e i s very d u l l , very b o r i n g , very long, l i k e I mean each day seems l i k e a m i l l i o n years, no one to t a l k t o , I don't know what l i f e i s l i k e , I j u s t s i t t h e r e . When I co u l d move, I used to have l o t s o f fun chasing people away from me, but now, I can't do t h a t . I used to be able to move, but now, my thorn stuck i t s e l f r i g h t where i t i s , and now I can't move any more. 

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