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Counsellor trainee reports : effective and ineffective educator behaviours Finlayson, Janet Betty 1984

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COUNSELLOR TRAINEE REPORTS:  EFFECTIVE AND  INEFFECTIVE EDUCATOR BEHAVIOURS By JANET BETTY FINLAYSON B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 ®Janet Betty Finlayson, 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Counselling  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  )E-6  (3/81)  A p r i l 4,  19 84  Psychology  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s (Flanagan,  1954)  reported by counsellor trainees  were used to i n v e s t i g a t e which educator behaviours had f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered students' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  The r e s u l t i n g trainee reports were  categorized and subsequently compared to the domain of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Moreover, the i n v e s t i g a t o r  questioned whether i n c i d e n t s reported by trainees would occur i n supervised s e t t i n g s and i n s e t t i n g s r e l a t e d to supervision (e.g. courses and interviews with educators). C r i t i c a l incident interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour were conducted with a volunteer sample of 24 counsellor trainees (6 males and 18 females) enrolled i n a masters-level c o u n s e l l i n g program at a large u n i v e r s i t y s i t u a t e d i n an urban center on Canada's west coast.  In a l l , 84 i n c i d e n t s  were reported; 77% of the i n c i d e n t s described e f f e c t i v e or f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours and 23% described i n e f f e c t i v e or hindering  behaviours.  In a d d i t i o n , i t was found that 53% of i n c i d e n t s occurred i n a supervised s e t t i n g , 36% i n a classroom  s e t t i n g , 11% i n a p r i v a t e interview, and 1% i n  a social setting. Five basic categories of i n c i d e n t s were found: New  Category I:  Teaches  Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees; Category I I :  Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p ; Category I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as C l i e n t s ; Category IV:  Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to  - i i i-  Trainees; and Category V:  Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n the  Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship. acceptable l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y . approaches to counsellor  These categories demonstrated  The findings suggest that  integrative  t r a i n i n g ( i . e . combined d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l  approaches) are more e f f e c t i v e than unitary t h e o r e t i c a l approaches.  - iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  CHAPTER I . SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Background of the Study Statement of the Problem D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Assumptions Underlying the Study D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study CHAPTER I I .  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  Trainee Experiences, Perceptions, and Preferences R e l a t i o n s h i p - E x p e r i e n t i a l Training Approach Didactic-Systematic Training Approach Integrated Training Approaches D i d a c t i c - E x p e r i e n t i a l Approach Psychoanalytic Approach Developmental Approach. C r i t i c a l Incident Technique Categorization R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Applications CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY Subjects C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Summary of Data C o l l e c t i o n and Procedures  v i i  1 1 5 6 7 8 8 10 10 15 19 24 24 25 29 34 34 37 40 43 43 44 47  - v Page CHAPTER IV. RESULTS D e s c r i p t i v e Data D e f i n i t i o n s and Examples of Categories and Subcategories Category I : Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Category I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as C l i e n t s Category IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees Category V: Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n Within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Independent Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Check CHAPTER V.  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h e o r e t i c a l Implications Congruence Between Categories and T h e o r e t i c a l Models S e t t i n g of Incidents P r a c t i c a l Implications Implications f o r Future Research Summary of Study  49 49 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 67 68 68 78 78 80 82  REFERENCES  84  APPENDICES  89  A. B.  L e t t e r to Subjects Subject Consent Form  89 90  - vi LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1  Outline of the C r i t i c a l Incident Interview  45  Table 2  Categories and Subcategories of E f f e c t i v e Educator Behaviours  50  Category of Incident by P o s i t i v e and Negative Nature of Incident  52  Category of Incident by Setting of Incident  54  Table 3 Table 4  - vii -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to express my gratitude to the chairman of my committee, Dr. L. Cochran, for h i s guidance, patience, and assistance; and to Dr. R. Armstrong and Dr. R. Young f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s research endeavour. Many thanks to the counselling students who so generously shared t h e i r time and experience with me. f a i t h f u l l y represented i n t h i s  I t r u s t that t h e i r experiences have been thesis.  To my family and f r i e n d s , I owe more than I can express.  I am deeply  g r a t e f u l to my mother who has supported and believed i n me i n a l l ways possible.  I thank my father f o r teaching me to s t r i v e f o r excellence i n  a l l that I do. F i n a l l y , I wish to express my h e a r t - f e l t thanks to my wonderful friends who have accompanied and strengthened me throughout a growthful and challenging time i n my l i f e .  - 1-  CHAPTER I . SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  Background of the Study The  task of counsellor educators i s to t r a i n counselling students to  become e f f e c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r s of human change and development (Peavy, Robertson, & Westwood, 1982).  Friesen (1983) recently defined the r o l e of  a counsellor as one who a s s i s t s people i n dealing with the problems of d a i l y l i v i n g as they are found " i n the natural contexts of school, family and workplace" (p. 148).  Another broad d e f i n i t i o n of the counsellor's r o l e  i s one who attempts to free people from immobility and increase t h e i r "response capacity";  i n other words, to increase t h e i r a b i l i t y to generate  new sentences, constructs, behaviours, or thoughts (Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1980). Given the magnitude of the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l counsellors as described above, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that the t r a i n i n g of counsellors has emerged as an important t o p i c of research over the l a s t twenty years.  In the early 1960's, a j o u r n a l devoted to t h i s t o p i c ,  Counselor Education and Supervision, began p u b l i c a t i o n i n the United States.  Other p r o f e s s i o n a l counselling journals have also been concerned  with counsellor education and supervision. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of theory and research i n t h i s area i s dominated by a concern with process:  that i s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those v a r i a b l e s  that produce d e s i r a b l e trainee change (Seligman & Baldwin, 1972). questions which p e r t a i n to process are: e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g program?  Two  What are the components of an  What s p e c i f i c educator or supervisor  - 2 -  approaches and behaviours f a c i l i t a t e the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of counsellors-in-training?  The l a t t e r question i s the topic of the present  study with a focus on the experiences and perceptions of counsellor trainees. D i f f e r i n g approaches to the education and supervision of c o u n s e l l o r s i n - t r a i n i n g have been proposed by proponents of the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d , psychoanalytic, s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , and stage theory models of change.  In the  section which f o l l o w s , each approach w i l l be b r i e f l y summarized and reviewed i n order to generate a context of t h e o r e t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e educator and supervisor behaviours against which to compare student reports. Educators and supervisors concerned with counsellor t r a i n i n g have t r a d i t i o n a l l y focused on e i t h e r a r e l a t i o n s h i p - o r i e n t e d and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y based approach to t r a i n i n g or a didactic-systematic and pedagogic to t r a i n i n g .  approach  In the f i r s t approach, t y p i f i e d by the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d school,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p aspects of the educators' behaviours are emphasized. Rogers (1951, 1957a, 1957b) s p e c i f i e d the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t conditions f o r therapeutic change.  These conditions are considered by the  c l i e n t - c e n t r e d school of t h e r a p i s t s to be u n i v e r s a l l y important i n the c r e a t i o n of a f a c i l i t a t i v e environment where an i n d i v i d u a l ' s personal growth and change can take place.  In t h e i r view, counsellor educators and  supervisors must also provide such conditions to trainees i n the context of a deep and meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In t h i s way, trainee openness to  experience and s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n i s promoted, leading towards p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  The educator-trainee r e l a t i o n s h i p i s analogous to the c o u n s e l l o r -  client relationship.  In a d d i t i o n , trainees both observe and personally  experience the therapeutic e f f e c t s of t h e i r supervisors as powerful models.  - 3 -  An a l t e r n a t e class of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours comprises the didactic-systematic and pedagogic approach to counsellor t r a i n i n g . The emphasis i s on the d i r e c t teaching of s k i l l s and the shaping of t r a i n e e s ' c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours i n accordance with c l e a r l y defined Microcounselling  goals.  t r a i n i n g (Ivey, 1971; Ivey & Authier, 1978; Ivey,  Normington, M i l l e r , M o r r i l l , & Haase, 1968) i s an example of a l e a r n i n g theory approach to teaching basic interviewing s k i l l s .  Discrete o b j e c t i v e  interviewer behaviours are taught to novices i n a systematic and progressive  fashion.  The learning processes are e x p e r i e n t i a l , c o g n i t i v e ,  observational, and s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n a l . analogue i s teacher-student.  The appropriate r e l a t i o n s h i p  Haley (1976) also advocates an  instructionalmodel of t r a i n i n g i n which the task i s to teach therapy as a skill.  Supervisors  teach s p e c i f i c s k i l l s to trainees i n a p p l i c a t i o n to  c l e a r l y defined c l i e n t problems.  The supervisor-trainee r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  analogous to a journeyman-apprentice r e l a t i o n s h i p . There are also supervision models which integrate the above two approaches i n various ways.  For example, the psychoanalytic  approach  involves both a d i d a c t i c and a r e l a t i o n s h i p o r i e n t a t i o n to t r a i n i n g . The d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l approach to t r a i n i n g (Carkhuff, 1969; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967; Truax, Carkhuff & Douds, 1964) requires an e f f e c t i v e educator to provide Rogerian f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions designed to nurture trainee s e l f development, to model e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , and to d i d a c t i c a l l y impart and r e i n f o r c e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s .  Their i n t e g r a t i v e  p o s i t i o n i s that supervisors of the e x p e r i e n t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n would become more e f f e c t i v e i f they recognized  and used t h e i r r o l e as d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e r s  or c o n t r o l l e r s of trainees' behaviours.  On the other hand, supervisors of  - 4 -  the d i d a c t i c school would become more e f f e c t i v e i f they recognized the capacity of a supervisor-offered meaningful therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p to e l i c i t from trainees greater personal involvement  and e x p l o r a t i o n , and  hence, greater p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Other i n t e g r a t i v e approaches include a s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n model i n which a supervisor d e l i b e r a t e l y s e l e c t s and functions i n one of three r o l e s :  teacher, c o u n s e l l o r , or consultant.  A  r o l e i s chosen i n order to most e f f e c t i v e l y meet the t r a i n i n g needs of a student at any one point i n time (Bernard, 1979).  F i n a l l y , a developmental  supervision model incorporates a v a r i e t y of d i d a c t i c and r e l a t i o n s h i p oriented behaviours, adopted to meet the needs of trainees as they progress through c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e stages of development ( L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden & Lorenz, 1979; Stoltenberg, 1981). Very l i t t l e research a t t e n t i o n has been devoted to the perceptions, experiences, and concerns of the c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g .  The  researcher's  i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c arose from experience as a c o u n s e l l o r - i n - t r a i n i n g as w e l l as from experience as a p u b l i c school teacher.  How  to teach  e f f e c t i v e l y and how students l e a r n are questions which have long a t t r a c t e d the i n t e r e s t and imagination of the researcher.  The researcher assumes  that humans are a c t i v e , seeking, organizing processors of information (versus "empty organisms").  This p o s i t i o n has led to a concern with  i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the environment and i t s d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s and to an i n t e r e s t i n q u a l i t a t i v e and exploratory research.  In the present  study, the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique (Flanagan, 1954) was selected to c o l l e c t and categorize student reports of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e educator and supervisor behaviours.  - 5 -  Counsellor educators and supervisors are both teachers and counsellors.  As teachers, they have learning objectives f o r t h e i r students  and use s p e c i f i c educational approaches to reach those o b j e c t i v e s .  For  example, a supervisor might gather a c l i n i c team together and demonstrate a c o u n s e l l i n g technique i n order to enhance the trainees' r e p e r t o i r e of responses to a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of c l i e n t behaviour.  As such, knowledge  of how students perceive the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such approaches i s an important source of feedback to educators. Counsellor educators and supervisors are also c o u n s e l l o r s . Whatever theory of change one adheres to as a c o u n s e l l o r , a fundamental  f i r s t step  f o r many c l i n i c i a n s i s to enter the world of the c l i e n t i n order to understand how he or she uniquely construes and organizes the world (Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1980).  By determining the c l i e n t ' s unique c o n s t r u c t i o n s ,  the counsellor can better devise s u i t a b l e i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  Similarly,  counsellor educators might view the present study as an opportunity to gain access to the construct world of c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . a d e t a i l e d map  By e s t a b l i s h i n g  of the trainee's world, the educator as counsellor may  be  better equipped to intervene and f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g , growth, and p r o f e s s i o n a l development of t r a i n e e s .  Statement of the Problem Although t h e o r i s t s and researchers describe a range of behaviours which they consider f a c i l i t a t e s student p r o f e s s i o n a l growth, most research focuses on one aspect of a t r a i n i n g program:  namely, the c l i n i c a l  supervising of c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g , investigated most often from the point of view of educators.  The purpose of t h i s study i s to formulate  - 6 -  c o u n s e l l i n g students' reports of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours i n supervised  settings and i n settings r e l a t e d to supervision  ( i . e . courses, interviews) and to evaluate these reports w i t h i n the framework of current research f i n d i n g s . The  researcher  asked c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g to r e c a l l incidents when  a professor said or d i d something which had an impact on them i n terms of facilitating  or hindering t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  asked to describe these incidents i n d e t a i l . and categorized by the researcher  Subjects were then  The incidents were summarized  i n order to i d e n t i f y themes of e f f e c t i v e  and i n e f f e c t i v e counsellor educator behaviours from the point of view of trainees.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Operational  d e f i n i t i o n s of terms c r i t i c a l to t h i s study are given  below. 1.  Counsellor trainees or c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g are students e n r o l l e d In a Master of Education or Master of Arts Counselling Psychology program at a large u n i v e r s i t y .  2.  Both sexes are represented.  Counsellor educators and supervisors are f a c u l t y members who teach and supervise courses, l a b s , or c l i n i c s i n the above-mentioned program. Both sexes are represented. are applied interchangeably  3.  The terms "educators" and "supervisors" throughout the study.  P r o f e s s i o n a l growth as a c o u n s e l l o r, f o r the purposes of t h i s study, r e f e r s to the m u l t i - l e v e l learnings experienced by trainees i n t h e i r movement towards increasing competency as counsellors.  Growth might be  evidenced, f o r example, as demonstrating e f f e c t i v e communcation s k i l l s  - 7 -  i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , applying i n d i v i d u a l counselling methods, i d e n t i f y i n g c l i e n t needs, or applying group counselling methods (Peavy, Robertson, & Westwood, 1982).  In t h i s study,  s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n students' a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , and thoughts also c o n s t i t u t e p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. 4.  Impact r e f e r s to the c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e or salience of i n c i d e n t s (both p o s i t i v e and negative) f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g changes i n students' b e l i e f s , thoughts, or behaviours as counsellors.  Hence, educators'  behaviours that are regarded as merely enjoyable or annoying are  not  included. 5.  Behaviours of c o u n s e l l i n g educators and supervisors r e f e r to such possible global a c t i v i t i e s as teaching i n classroom s e t t i n g s , c l i n i c a l supervision of trainees' in-therapy behaviour, assignment of term papers, counselling of students, interviewing students, and engaging i n s o c i a l contact with students. was  S p e c i f i c behaviours were unknown and i t  the purpose of the study to discover what they might be.  Assumptions Underlying  the Study  I t i s assumed that the behaviours of counsellor educators do indeed have an impact on the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of trainees ( i n a d d i t i o n , f o r example, to the impact of peers, c l i e n t s , and events i n the personal work l i v e s of students).  and  Further, i t i s assumed that trainees are capable  of understanding the researcher's  i n s t r u c t i o n s , of r e c a l l i n g s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c i d e n t s , and of v e r b a l l y describing t h e i r experiences and  perceptions.  - 8 -  D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study This research study focused on students enrolled i n a masters program (M.Ed, or M.A.) i n a c o u n s e l l i n g psychology department, at a large u n i v e r s i t y located In an urban center on the west coast of Canada. Two-thirds of the subjects were females and one-third were males. Subjects' average age was 36 years with a range of 23 years to 51 years. The c o u n s e l l i n g program involved i n the study employed approximately 20 f a c u l t y members, i n c l u d i n g both males and females.  The o v e r a l l  o r i e n t a t i o n of the program was e c l e c t i c , with some f a c u l t y members adhering to s p e c i f i c schools of therapy (e.g. A d l e r i a n , Jungian,  Phenomenological-  Humanist, G e s t a l t , R e a l i t y Therapy, and S t r a t e g i c Therapy).  The basic  c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s taught to a l l students i n a prepracticum or supervised t r a i n i n g laboratory were those outlined by Egan (1975), extending from the work of Rogers and Carkhuff. didactic-experiential.  The supervision approach was generally  A l l students were enrolled i n a core group of  required courses such as a quasi-group therapy experience, a s k i l l s l a b , counselling theories course, and a t e s t i n g and measurement course. Remaining courses varied according to students' s p e c i a l t y areas, such as school, c o l l e g e and a d u l t , f a m i l y , women, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are generalizable only to s i m i l a r groups of masters-level c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g enrolled i n s i m i l a r c o u n s e l l i n g programs.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study The t r a i n i n g of counsellors i s a complex and s i g n i f i c a n t task; counsellor educators and supervisors seek to accomplish t h i s task as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e .  Research i n t h i s f i e l d has been plagued by  - 9 -  methodological weaknesses and a slow rate of progress (Hansen, Pound, & Petro, 1976; Hansen & Warner, 1971; Lambert, 1980; Matazarro, 1978).  Some  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have pointed to the lack of research studies which focus on the perceptions and point of view of trainees (Lambert, 1980; L i t t r e l l , 1978; Nel son, 1978; Worthington & Roehlke, 1979).  The present study was  undertaken as a f i r s t step toward addressing the methodological weaknesses c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of previous research and to redress the lack of focus on trainees' perceptions and experiences. Studies such as t h i s one provide educators with behavioural reports of trainees' perceptions of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours.  Trainees'  reports serve the purpose of d i r e c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n of educators to many f a c i l i t a t i v e aspects of t h e i r behaviour.  In a d d i t i o n , trainee reports are  compared with previous research f i n d i n g s and serve an h e u r i s t i c f u n c t i o n . In summary, the present study can provide counsellor educators with knowledge of both t h e i r impact as teachers upon students and of t r a i n e e s ' constructs and concerns or 'map of the world'.  With t h i s enhanced  awareness, counsellor educators can be better equipped students.  to e f f e c t i v e l y t r a i n  - 10 -  CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  The review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i s organized around three general headings, two of which have s u b d i v i s i o n s . The chapter begins with a presentation of research and a r t i c l e s on trainee experiences, perceptions, and preferences regarding e f f e c t i v e supervision and continues with an examination of counsellor t r a i n i n g models i n order to o u t l i n e the major dimensions of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours prevalent i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The chapter concludes with a review of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique.  Trainee Experiences, Perceptions, and Preferences A small number of researchers have d i r e c t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the concerns of c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a l n i n g .  L i t t r e l l (1978) suggested that teachers and  supervisors may provide a more e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g environment i f they f u l l y understand and make use of t r a i n e e s ' concerns. purpose.  This approach serves a dual  F i r s t , student f r u s t r a t i o n s and concerns would be reduced  second, educators would be modelling e f f e c t i v e helping s k i l l s .  and,  Littrell  developed a 56-item concerns c h e c k l i s t i n order to assess concerns of counsellor t r a i n e e s . I t was found that beginning trainees were p r i m a r i l y concerned with l e a r n i n g c o u n s e l l i n g techniques, determining c l i e n t needs, and meeting c l i e n t needs. A frequently c i t e d study by Worthington and Roehlke (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d e f f e c t i v e supervision as perceived by both beginning c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g and supervisors of t r a i n e e s . Subjects were asked to rate the frequency and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of 42 supervisor behaviours  - 11 -  compiled from interviews with experienced behaviours on three dimensions:  supervisors.  Students rated the  the frequency with which supervisors  performed these behaviours, t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with s u p e r v i s i o n , and  the  degree to which supervision had contributed to an improvement i n t h e i r skills.  Worthington and Roehlke's r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that supervisor  behaviours such as:  helping supervisees develop t h e i r own  style,  e s t a b l i s h i n g good rapport with supervisees, helping supervisees develop self-confidence, using humour during supervisory sessions, and supervisees by name were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with student and the attainment  calling  satisfaction  of a good student-supervisor r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Furthermore,  d i r e c t demonstration and discussion of c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s and issues were also p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with s a t i s f a c t i o n .  These behaviours included  the f o l l o w i n g : modelling task-oriented behaviour during supervision, sharing the supervisor's counselling experiences, evolving case conceptualizations j o i n t l y with supervisees, g i v i n g feedback about counselling strengths and p o s i t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours, knowing the d i f f e r e n c e between the way  supervisees t a l k about counselling and the  way  they behave during c o u n s e l l i n g , reassuring counsellors that new s k i l l s seem awkward i n i t a l l y , providing l i t e r a t u r e about assessment and treatment techniques, and providing s t r u c t u r e during e a r l y supervision sessions. Worthington and Roehlke also c o r r e l a t e d the frequency of supervisor behaviours with t r a i n e e s ' ratings of supervision's c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e i r own improvment i n c o u n s e l l i n g .  Three groups of behaviours emerged that  were p r e d i c t i v e of improved c o u n s e l l i n g :  f i r s t , supervisors g i v i n g  supervisees d i r e c t help with counselling s k i l l s ; second, supervisors supporting supervisees during r i s k - t a k i n g endeavors (e.g. reassuring  - 12 -  supervisees that new counselling s k i l l s often seem awkward i n i t i a l l y , being a v a i l a b l e for c o n s u l t a t i o n during emergencies, helping supervisees develop confidence and t h e i r own s t y l e ) ; and t h i r d , developing a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with  supervisees. Nelson (1978) surveyed trainees' preferences regarding various  aspects  of supervision i n the b e l i e f that "trainee feedback, both p o s i t i v e and negative, may  provide important  information leading to refinements  supervisory strategy" (p. 539). competence was  in  Nelson found that gaining therapeutic  the preferred goal of most t r a i n e e s , followed by the goals  of gaining p r o f e s s i o n a l confidence and independence, self-awareness, t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. important  I t was noted that self-awareness  and  was judged more  (ranked second) by beginning trainees than by advanced l e v e l  trainees (ranked f o u r t h ) . The preferred supervisory methods f o r monitoring trainee performance were videotaping and d i r e c t observation of sessions.  Trainees i n d i c a t e d  that t h e i r preferred method of being taught therapy techniques was observe the supervisor conducting among beginning  therapy.  This preference was  to  strongest  t r a i n e e s , whereas more advanced trainees often placed  observation of the supervisor second behind the supervisor functioning as a cotherapist or the supervisor v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b i n g therapy techniques.  Both  beginning and advanced trainees i n d i c a t e d that the most important supervisor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was i n t e r e s t i n supervision. by experience  This was  followed  as a t h e r a p i s t , possession of t h e o r e t i c a l or t e c h n i c a l  knowledge, and a b i l i t y to provide feedback. being f l e x i b l e , s e l f - r e v e a l i n g , and  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s included  permissive.  - 13 -  F i n a l l y , trainees rank-ordered supervisor behaviours.  t h e i r preferences  for specific  The four most preferred behaviours were:  "Let  me  develop my own s t y l e of therapy", "Explore my f e e l i n g s towards c l i e n t s and t h e i r problems", "Conduct therapy with one or two c l i e n t s on a regular b a s i s " , and "Observe my interviews i n terms of where I need to make improvements" (p. 546).  Students i n d i c a t e d preferences  that included both  r e l a t i o n s h i p - e x p e r i e n t i a l and d i d a c t i c - s y s t e m a t i c approaches. Several a r t i c l e s and studies conducted by researchers i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s may provide a d d i t i o n a l information about the trainee viewpoint. Goin and K l i n e (1974) used student ratings of t h e i r p s y c h i a t r i c supervisors to determine which supervisors were most e f f e c t i v e . that:  I t was  their belief  "the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a teacher i s presently best evaluated  students themselves" (p. 209).  Those supervisors rated as  by  "outstanding"  were observed i n d e t a i l v i a videotape i n order to see what they talked about and how t h e i r emphasis might d i f f e r from supervisors rated as "good".  A content a n a l y s i s of videotaped  supervisory sessions revealed  that outstanding supervisors made more d i d a c t i c comments about patients and technique than did t h e i r good counterparts.  Students most appreciated  h e l p f u l comments from supervisors that imparted information about psychotherapeutic p r i n c i p l e s as applied to s p e c i f i c p a t i e n t s .  The  outstanding  supervisors were neither extremely passive nor a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y d i r e c t i v e , but had managed to f i n d a middle ground of a c t i v i t y . C l i n i c a l psychologists, Cherniss and Equatios  (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d  preferred s t y l e s of c l i n i c a l supervision i n community health programs. They found that c l i n i c a l s t a f f members preferred the " d i d a c t i c - c o n s u l t i v e " supervisor who  o f f e r s advice, suggestions, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s concerning  - 14 -  c l i e n t dynamics and technique; the " i n s i g h t - o r i e n t e d " supervisor who stimulates the supervisee to think through and solve problems on h i s or her own; and the " f e e l i n g s - o r i e n t e d " approach where the supervisees become aware of t h e i r own emotional responses to the c l i n i c a l process.  Staff  i n d i c a t e d that the d i d a c t i c - c o n s u l t i v e s t y l e was a c t u a l l y the most common. Two least preferred s t y l e s of supervision were " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " where the supervisee i s mostly l e f t on h i s or her own, and " a u t h o r i t a t i v e " where the supervisee i s t o l d what to do and how to do i t i n s p e c i f i c terms. Student experiences and concerns have been explored i n a personal and l i t e r a r y manner by an author trained i n psychoanalysis.  Barnat (1973)  wrote of the process he experienced as a student of " i n t e r n a l i z i n g " h i s supervisor: I have known myself to borrow the a t t i t u d e s , tone of v o i c e , sometimes regional i n f l e c t i o n s , and even the slouch of the supervisor as I approached the c l i e n t hour. A f t e r some time I could r e l i n q u i s h these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the i n i t i a l l y discomforting r e a l i t y of facing the c l i e n t as myself. (p. 18) Barnat bore witness to the i n i t i a l dependence upon supervisors often experienced by students as they struggle to survive those e a r l y , anxious c l i e n t sessions. He continued to w r i t e humorously about himself i n the w a i t i n g room, h a l f hoping that h i s c l i e n t wouldn't show, and anxiously f e e l i n g himself to be a sham because the c l i e n t at l e a s t was a " r e a l " c l i e n t , whereas he was not yet a " r e a l " therapist (Barnet, 1977). Cohen's (1980) r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s e a r l i e r experiences as a t r a i n e e h i g h l i g h t e d students' discomfort with the e v a l u a t i v e aspects of the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p .  For the beginning student, judgment about  performance i s very t i e d up with self-image.  Cohen wrote:  "Being rated as  - 15 -  a t h e r a p i s t i s often tantamount to being rated as a person at t h i s point i n the young t h e r a p i s t ' s career" (p. 79).  Greenberg (1980) observed that  impactful supervisor behaviours include how much the supervisor  confronts  students, how he or she confronts, and how f a i r and consistent the supervisor appears to be.  These behaviours determine i n part the degree to  which a student w i l l f e e l safe to s e l f - d i s c l o s e and explore h i s or her blocks as a t h e r a p i s t .  own  I f a student expects negative consequences f o r  s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g , the student w i l l l i k e l y l i m i t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e due to the fear of f e e l i n g uncomfortable, of f e e l i n g devastated, of l o s i n g favour with the supervisor, of r e c e i v i n g a negative grade, or of r e c e i v i n g a negative p r o f e s s i o n a l evaluation.  S i m i l a r l y , i n an unsafe environment, the  student  tends to present only those samples of counselling sessions that make the student look good, rather than r i s k showing sessions that went poorly and where help i s most needed. In summary, these w r i t e r s from the psychoanalytic school have found that t r a i n i n g i s a highly-charged  experience  f o r trainees; that they tend  to f e e l insecure and highly vulnerable; and that supervisors' behaviours e f f e c t the degree of perceived safety f e l t by students during supervision.  R e l a t i o n s h i p - E x p e r i e n t i a l T r a i n i n g Approach C a r l Rogers (1957a) i d e n t i f i e d the "necessary and  sufficient"  conditions f o r constructive p e r s o n a l i t y change to occur:  When two persons  are i n psychological contact ( i . e . counsellor and c l i e n t ) , the counsellor experiences  and communicates to the c l i e n t a state of congruence or  genuineness, unconditional p o s i t i v e regard f o r the c l i e n t , and an empathic understanding  of the c l i e n t ' s i n t e r n a l frame of reference.  The  - 16 -  c l i e n t - c e n t r e d therapist's view of human nature i s that a basic  positive  growth motivation e x i s t s , pushing the c l i e n t toward d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , autonomy, and new experience.  Therefore, i f a therapist can f a c i l i t a t e the  c l i e n t - c e n t r e d process of s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n , the c l i e n t w i l l move i n positive directions. Client-centred conditions  supervisors attempt to o f f e r the same f a c i l i t a t i v e  of genuineness, respect, p o s i t i v e regard, and empathy to  counsellors-in-training. r e s u l t from t h i s approach. i s r e l a t e d to constructive  Several p o s i t i v e outcomes are considered to The student engages i n s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n which p e r s o n a l i t y change and growth.  The safety of  the therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p provides the trainee with a means of working through f e e l i n g s , values, and a t t i t u d e s and for discovering e f f e c t i v e s e l f as a t h e r a p i s t .  his or her most  An i n t e r e s t i n g feature of t h i s approach i s  that the student i s encouraged to develop Into an e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p i s t , regardless of o r i e n t a t i o n .  Rogers wrote:  I t has become apparent that the most important goal to be achieved i s that the student should c l a r i f y and understand h i s own basic r e l a t i o n s h i p to people, and the a t t i t u d i n a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l concomitants of that r e l a t i o n s h i p . Therefore the f i r s t step i n t r a i n i n g client-centered therapists has been to drop a l l concern as to the o r i e n t a t i o n with which the student w i l l emerge. The basic a t t i t u d e must be genuine. I f h i s genuine a t t i t u d e leads him i n the d i r e c t i o n of some other o r i e n t a t i o n , w e l l and good. (p. 432) The  p o s i t i v e outcomes derived from the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d  training  approach are twofold: students benefit from experiencing the therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p as a c l i e n t while simultaneously observing the supervisor as a r o l e model.  Rogers (1957b) described t h i s process as follows:  - 17 -  The general p r i n c i p l e which seems to apply here i s that i f the climate of the teaching s i t u a t i o n , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and the beginning counsellor are the same as the climate and the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t i n therapy, then the young therapist w i l l begin to acquire a knowledge i n h i s v i s c e r a of what the therapeutic process i s . (p. 81) A c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i c i n g c l i e n t - c e n t r e d therapist and supervisor, Rice (1980), wrote of the need f o r e x p e r i e n t i a l learning i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  Although the kind of l i s t e n i n g and responding we are t a l k i n g about can be studied, and even be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o "techniques", i t can never become an empty push-button device because i t requires the t h e r a p i s t ' s whole processing capacity, the whole s e l f . I t cannot be learned p e r f u n c t o r i l y ; i t cannot be faked, (p. 146) For c l i e n t - c e n t r e d supervisors, the teaching of techniques i s only a small part of t h e i r task. An e f f e c t i v e supervisor i n the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d school engages i n the f o l l o w i n g kinds of a c t i v i t i e s :  r e q u i r i n g students to observe recorded  interviews of experienced t h e r a p i s t s ; to role-play therapist with a f e l l o w student; and to engage i n personal and group therapy. demonstrates  The supervisor  f o r the student by conducting therapy, l i s t e n s to tapes of  students' sessions, and discusses these sessions while o f f e r i n g the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions described above.  The e f f e c t i v e supervisor attempts  to develop a deep and meaningful therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p with the student. Researchers attempting to v a l i d a t e the Rogerian p r i n c i p l e s of therapy have not found substantive evidence to support t h i s p o s i t i o n (Matazarro, 1978).  Lambert, D e J u l i o , and Stein (1978) have concluded that only a  modest r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions and therapy outcome  - 18 -  has been found, despite more than 20 years of e f f o r t s to improve research methodology.  Nevertheless, Matazarro c r e d i t s the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d school of  t h e r a p i s t s f o r having provided a strong influence "toward making psychotherapy observable,  i t s p r a c t i c e and t r a i n i n g techniques and  a t t i t u d e s s p e c i f i a b l e , and i t s r e s u l t s measurable" (p. 943). A b r i e f summary of two studies of c l i e n t - c e n t r e d supervision f o l l o w s . Pierce and Schauble (1970) found that the supervisees  of a supervisor  functioning at high l e v e l s of empathy, regard, genuineness, and concreteness improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on these same f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions. Those supervisees who had supervisors functioning at low l e v e l s on these dimensions d i d not change and even declined s l i g h t l y .  Thus Pierce and  Schauble concluded that modelling and therapeutic e f f e c t s could account f o r supervisee  growth and change.  Moreover, they stated that "the i n d i v i d u a l  supervisor has a great deal of impact, f o r better or f o r worse, on trainee behaviour" (p. 215). This f i n d i n g i s frequently c i t e d i n supervision research. Pierce and Schauble assumed that supervision and therapy are s i m i l a r processes.  They assessed supervisors as being high and low functioning  during supervision on the basis of samples of t h e i r counselling sessions with c l i e n t s .  Lambert and Beier (1974) questioned t h i s assumption and  compared the process of supervision with that of counselling by examining the behaviour of supervisors i n both s i t u a t i o n s . They found that supervisor-offered l e v e l s of respect and genuineness were constant  across  supervision and c o u n s e l l i n g , but that l e v e l s of empathy and s p e c i f i c i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n supervision than i n c o u n s e l l i n g .  This f i n d i n g  led Lambert and Beier to suggest that an e x p e r i e n t i a l process may not  - 19 -  account f o r trainees having learned to perform at higher l e v e l s of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions.  Regardless of the c o n f l i c t i n g findings regarding  the effectiveness of c l i e n t - c e n t r e d therapy and supervision, t h i s approach continues wrote:  to influence t h e r a p i s t s and supervisors and, as Matazarro (1978)  i s " f e l t to be c l i n i c a l l y u s e f u l " (p. 947).  The Didactic-Systematic T r a i n i n g Approach In t h e i r f i v e year review of research on practicum  supervision,  Hansen, Pound, and Petro (1976) concluded that s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g programs had been most successful i n teaching basic communication s k i l l s , u s u a l l y to novice t r a i n e e s .  The most common program of t h i s type i s microcounselling  t r a i n i n g (Ivey, 1971;  Ivey & Authier, 1978;  Ivey et a l . , 1968).  Step-by-step techniques are used to teach such s k i l l s as attending making eye contact, paraphrasing,  (e.g.  r e f l e c t i n g f e e l i n g s ) ; i n f l u e n c i n g (e.g.  summarizing, i n t e r p r e t i n g ) ; focus dimensions (e.g. i d e n t i f y i n g and maintaining focus on a s u b j e c t ) ; and q u a l i t a t i v e dimensions (e.g. immediacy, warmth, genuineness, p o s i t i v e regard).  Interviewer behaviour i s  divided i n t o small units and the student acquires d i s c r e t e s k i l l s i n a role-play situation.  The aim i s to bridge the gap between classroom theory  and a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . A supervisor conducting  raicroskills  t r a i n i n g presents one s k i l l at a  time, modelled l i v e or on videotape, coupled with a b r i e f w r i t t e n manual. Trainees are required to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l , observe themselves on videotape,  receive feedback from the supervisor, and to continue t h i s cycle  u n t i l the s k i l l i s mastered.  The supervisor makes s p e c i f i c suggestions f o r  achieving trainee improvement.  I t i s noteworthy that Ivey (1971) did  - 20 -  mention the need f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s on the part of the supervisor, defined as "a f r i e n d l y , warm and genuine a t t i t u d e " (p. 7). Authier (1978) wrote: "The  Ivey and  s u p e r v i s o r / t r a i n e r maintains a warm, supportive  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t r a i n e e " (p. 11).  While these elements were  mentioned, they were not elaborated by these w r i t e r s . Many researchers have investigated the e f f i c a c y of the microcounselling t r a i n i n g model.  Matazarro (1978) summed up her  conclusions about t h i s research: Microcounseling s k i l l s can be taught e f f e c t i v e l y i n a r e l a t i v e l y small number of teaching hours to appropriately selected students... To me, the important c o n t r i b u t i o n of microcounseling i s t h a t , l i k e the c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d programs, i t has defined what i s to be taught; devised appropriate research-based teaching methods; and used measurement, feedback, and reinforcement of s k i l l s . (p. 954) >  Matazarro concluded that a c a r e f u l l y programmed teaching method i s superior to one that i s more l o o s e l y conducted. i s aimed at prepracticum counselling  I t i s noteworthy that m i c r o t r a i n i n g  counsellors and does not address more complex  processes.  Several studies w i l l be reviewed i n which d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g methods have been compared.  The term " e x p e r i e n t i a l " as used here  r e f e r s to r e l a t i o n s h i p - o r i e n t e d e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g .  The term can be  misleading since m i c r o s k i l l s d i d a c t i c t r a i n i n g i s also e x p e r i e n t i a l i n nature, r e q u i r i n g a c t i v e involvement on the part of t r a i n e e s . Ronnestad (1977) found that short-term i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods i n v o l v i n g modelling and feedback succeeded i n teaching beginning trainees to communicate empathic understanding statements.  i n response to videotaped  client  The modelling method of supervision was more e f f e c t i v e than  - 21 -  feedback, and feedback was more e f f e c t i v e than the e x p e r i e n t i a l method.  In  f a c t , there were no d i f f e r e n c e s between students i n the e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o n t r o l groups.  Modelling e n t a i l e d students observing a supervisor who  offered a l t e r n a t e responses to the c l i e n t presentation.  Feedback e n t a i l e d  a b r i e f t r a i n i n g period on l e v e l s of empathic understanding,  followed by  supervisors r a t i n g and b r i e f l y commenting on students' responses to the c l i e n t statements.  In the e x p e r i e n t i a l treatment, supervisors attempted to  create a meaningful f a c i l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with students i n two 12- to 15-minute sessions.  Supervisors explored students' emotions, the f e e l i n g s  of the c l i e n t , and explained the importance of communicating empathy to the client.  Ronnestad cautioned that the e x p e r i e n t i a l treatment would l i k e l y  require a considerably longer time to e f f e c t changes i n student l e a r n i n g . However, In very short-term supervision, e x p l i c i t modelling of appropriate behaviour  and immediate reinforcement  of correct responses were e f f e c t i v e  t r a i n i n g methods. In another study using b r i e f supevision with inexperienced subjects ( i . e . undergraduate students), Goldfarb (1978) found that s p e c i f i c s k i l l s could be taught using e i t h e r a d i d a c t i c or combined d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l supervisory approach.  Subjects received one of f i v e treatments and were  pre- and post-tested on t h e i r l e v e l of empathic responses to actresses simulating c l i e n t s .  Their two 15-minute supervisory sessions involved one  of the f o l l o w i n g conditions.  In the high d i d a c t i c - low e x p e r i e n t i a l (HL)  c o n d i t i o n , the supervisor provided p o s i t i v e feedback f o r the desired student responses and gave samples of more appropriate responses where a student gave l e s s d e s i r a b l e responses.  Discussions of the counsellor's  f e e l i n g s and personal reactions were kept to a minimum.  In the low  - 22  -  d i d a c t i c - h i g h e x p e r i e n t i a l (LH) c o n d i t i o n , the supervisor attempted to create a r e l a t i o n s h i p with the student that was relationship.  The  s i m i l a r to the c o u n s e l l i n g  supervisor r e f l e c t e d , c l a r i f i e d , and interpreted the  experience and f e e l i n g s of the student without o f f e r i n g suggestions or examples.  The high d i d a c t i c - h i g h e x p e r i e n t i a l (HH) condition involved  an  attempt to combine a l l the features of the two previous treatments so that p o s i t i v e feedback and alternate responses were offered w i t h i n a good relationship.  Student s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n and openness to experience were  also r e i n f o r c e d . condition was  The goal i n the low d i d a c t i c - l o w e x p e r i e n t i a l (LL)  to give the student an opportunity  to t a l k about the  session  with a f r i e n d l y p r o f e s s i o n a l , yet to provide as l i t t l e actual supervision as p o s s i b l e .  F i n a l l y , i n the no-supervision  condition (NS), the student  simply waited f o r 15 minutes between sessions. The r e s u l t s of Goldfarb's study were two-fold.  The  first  three  supervision groups, the HL, LH and HH groups, showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  post-treatment r a t i n g s on the Counselling Evaluation Inventory than did the LL and NS treatment groups. e f f e c t i v e conditions.  There was no difference between the  three  However, the rank order of the conditions on a  second r a t i n g s c a l e , the Barrett-Leonard  Relationship Inventory, favoured  the h i g h l y d i d a c t i c approach, HL, with the highly e x p e r i e n t i a l group, LH, showing no d i f f e r e n c e from the LL and NS groups.  The researcher  concluded  that d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l supervision did produce changes i n subjects' behaviour. F i n a l l y , i n a study i n which they sought to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between several d i d a c t i c techniques, Gulanlck and Schmeck (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of a l l possible combinations of modelling, p r a i s e , and  criticism.  - 23 -  The goal was to teach empathic responding  to undergraduates.  Subjects  responded to c l i e n t stimulus statements on audiotape i n a s i m i l a r procedure to the previous two s t u d i e s , r e c e i v i n g two b r i e f supervisory sessions i n one of the f o l l o w i n g conditions:  praise only, c r i t i c i s m only,  p r a l s e - c r i t i c s m only, no praise-no c r i t i c i s m - n o modelling, praise-modelling, c r i t i c i s m - m o d e l l i n g , p r a i s e - c r i t i c i s m - m o d e l l i n g , and modelling only.  In the praise c o n d i t i o n , the experimenter focused only on  the s p e c i f i c elements of the subjects' responses that were correct i n that they contributed to the empathy of the response.  The c r i t i c i s m condition  was the reverse with a focus on elements that subtracted from the empathy. In the modelling c o n d i t i o n , subjects heard a taped a l t e r n a t i v e empathic response.  I t was found that modelling was the only e f f e c t i v e component of  any of the t r a i n i n g procedures and none of the feedback techniques ( i . e . p r a i s e , c r i t i c i s m ) was more e f f e c t i v e than no feedback at a l l . Further support f o r the d i d a c t i c t r a i n i n g approach i s found i n the theory of the school of s t r a t e g i c therapy.  Haley (1976) described a  supervision approach i n which the supervisor i s responsible f o r what happens with a student's cases and intervenes d i r e c t l y when necessary to help the student solve the c l i e n t s ' problems. i s conceived of as teaching s p e c i f i c s k i l l s .  T r a i n i n g student t h e r a p i s t s In contrast to the Rogerian  approach, Haley stated that a supervisor: does not assume that the therapist w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e i f he understands himself or f r e e l y expresses h i s emotions. Instead, [the supervisor] assumes that [the student] w i l l only improve as a t h e r a p i s t by doing therapy under supervision and improving h i s s k i l l s . (p. 176)  - 24 -  Therefore, an e f f e c t i v e problem-solving supervisor works with students i n a group; teaches them s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , such as giving d i r e c t i v e s ; observes students i n action e i t h e r l i v e or on videotape; guides the students' actions (sometimes by the i n t e r r u p t i o n of l i v e sessions);  and matches  c l i e n t s to students' p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g needs.  Integrated Training Approaches  Didactic-Experiential The  Approach  d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g approach integrates  relationship-oriented approaches;  the  e x p e r i e n t i a l models and didactic-systematic  Carkhuff (1969) suggested that "the l e v e l of  counsellor-trainer's  functioning  aspect of e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g " the interpersonal  training  the  appears to be the single most c r i t i c a l (p. 157).  Trainers'  l e v e l of functioning  on  dimensions of empathy, respect, concreteness,  genuineness, and immediacy are considered to be the cornerstone of effective training.  When these f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions and  a  supervisor-offered therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p are present, the t r a i n e r then attempts to systematically  impart learnings concerning these dimensions  through d i d a c t i c , e x p e r i e n t i a l , and modelling sources of  learning.  Proponents of the d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l approach have incorporated ideas from s o c i a l learning theory, behaviour modification programmed i n s t r u c t i o n into t h e i r t r a i n i n g approach. teach a few behaviours at one  theory, and  E f f e c t i v e supervisors  time, provide feedback, and gradually r e f i n e  a student's performance to a desired l e v e l .  Students are exposed to b r i e f  - 25 -  recorded  samples of most e f f e c t i v e therapeutic conditions.  Trainees  r o l e - p l a y being t h e r a p i s t and the supervisor i n t e r r u p t s when necessary to model more e f f e c t i v e responses.  Those elements that are c e n t r a l to the  approach were summarized by Truax and Carkhuff  (1967) as f o l l o w s :  (1) a therapuetic context i n which the supervisor himself provides high l e v e l s of therapeutic conditions; (2) a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c d i d a c t i c t r a i n i n g i n the implementation of the therapeutic conditions; and, (3) a quasi-group therapy experience where the trainee can explore h i s own existence, and h i s own i n d i v i d u a l therapeutic s e l f can emerge, (p. 242) In t h i s way,  the d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l approach i s an attempt to benefit  from and implement the most e f f e c t i v e supervisor behaviours of the  two  basic t r a i n i n g approaches. Methodological  problems have characterized research e f f o r t s to show  the effectiveness of the d i d a c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g approach (Matazarro, 1978).  However, Matazarro suggested that t h i s approach has  been innovative and has stimulated a body of research.  Matazarro credited  these counsellor t r a i n e r s with having contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the development and d e f i n i t i o n of e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g methods.  Psychoanalytic Approach The supervisor-trainee r e l a t i o n s h i p i s considered to be of prime importance by proponents of the psychoanalytic school of therapy.  They  contend that i n t e r a c t i o n s between supervisors and trainees "must be characterized by the marks of a deeply s i g n i f i c a n t human r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Mueller & K e l l , 1972, p. 16).  Although the psychoanalytic school has  generated much a c t u a l research (Matazarro, 1978), the present  not  researcher  - 26 -  considers t h e i r theory and p r a c t i c e to be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l f o r the r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e of counsellor supervision to warrant presentation of relevant psychoanalytic  t r a i n i n g approaches.  The h i s t o r y of supervision sheds some l i g h t on present day issues, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the ways i n which the processes of therapy and are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d .  Ekstein and W a l l e r s t e i n (1972) traced the p r a c t i c e of  supervision to the early psychoanalytic t r a i n i n g was  supervision  f i r s t established.  i n s t i t u t e s i n Europe where formal  An e a r l y debate arose between the  i n s t i t u t e s i n Hungary and Vienna.  Although both groups agreed that an  experience of personal a n a l y s i s was a basic requirement i n one's t r a i n i n g to become a t h e r a p i s t , they d i f f e r e d on how supervised.  the young analyst should  be  The Hungarian school barely d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the  personal therapeutic experience and supervision.  Supervision was a form of  therapy where the trainee's c o n f l i c t s with and reactions to the patient were analyzed with the supervisor.  The Viennese school, on the other hand,  separated supervision and personal a n a l y s i s , considering the former to be e s s e n t i a l l y a teaching or d i d a c t i c experience. was,  The analyst i n t r a i n i n g  and s t i l l i s , required to undergo personal a n a l y s i s with an i n d i v i d u a l  other than the supervisor as an adjunct to supervision.  Thus the processes  of supervision and therapy came to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the  psychoanalytic  school. E k s t e i n and W a l l e r s t e i n (1972) made a d i s t i n c t i o n between the "professional s e l f " and the "personal s e l f " of the t r a i n e e .  Change i n the  former i s brought about by supervision while change i n the l a t t e r i s accomplished through psychotherapy.  They wrote:  - 27 -  Both supervision and psychotherapy are interpersonal helping processes working with the same a f f e c t i v e components, with the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between them created by the d i f f e r e n c e i n purpose. Though both are helping processes, the purpose of the helping experience i s d i f f e r e n t . Whatever p r a c t i c a l problems the patient may bring to h i s psychotherapist, they are always viewed i n the l i g h t of the main task: the r e s o l u t i o n of inner c o n f l i c t . Whatever personal problems the student may bring to his supervisor, they are l i k e w i s e seen i n terms of the main task: leading him toward greater s k i l l i n h i s work with p a t i e n t s , (p. 254) These authors described supervision as combining an a f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l component with a d i d a c t i c component.  The tendency f o r a supervisor to  t h i n k of him or h e r s e l f as doing psychotherapy i s the tendency to f a l l back onto a f a m i l i a r r o l e .  Likewise, the supervisor who  avoid such a r e l a t i o n s h i p may the supervision.  consciously t r i e s to  remain purely d i d a c t i c , to the detriment  of  Ekstein and W a l l e r s t e i n contended that supervisors can  best convey t h e i r body of knowledge to trainees i n such a way that i t i s most usable to the learners by drawing on a l l t h e i r s k i l l s as t h e r a p i s t s . Bordin (1983) also works w i t h i n the psychoanalytic t r a d i t i o n and d e t a i l e d a "supervisory working a l l i a n c e " where the bonds f a l l somewhere between "those of teacher to c l a s s members and t h e r a p i s t to p a t i e n t " (p. .38).  When a supervisor turns to such tasks as helping students overcome  personal and i n t e l l e c t u a l obstacles toward learning and mastery, the supervisor may act as psychoanalyst  or psychotherapist, but always bearing  i n mind the goals of supervision and bringing the student's focus to mastery of therapy.  At other times, the supervisor i s l i k e a coach,  d i d a c t i c a l l y helping a student master a s p e c i f i c s t i l l by g i v i n g feedback or modelling the i d e a l  behaviour.  - 28 -  According to Bordin, the key issue of evaluation forces the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the supervisor from the psychotherapist. i s a "gatekeeper" f o r the profession and the p u b l i c .  The  supervisor  As such, he or she  has been entrusted with considerable r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and power over the student's p r o f e s s i o n a l future.  The degree to which the student f e e l s free  to confront h i s or her innermost experiences during supervision i s r e l a t e d to the way i n which the supervisor handles the evaluative element i n t h e i r relationship.  Rioch (1980) discussed the dynamic of the "up-down" power  s i t u a t i o n that i s inherent i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  When the supervisor i s  seen as the a l l powerful expert and i s i n a one-up p o s i t i o n , several scenarios can be expected to ensue.  I f the supervisor leaves i t to the  students to bring him or her one-down, students may  engage i n such  a c t i v i t i e s as not changing i n any way during supervision so as to make the supervisor f e e l i n e f f e c t u a l .  The supervisee may,  on the other hand, come  on as such a b r i l l i a n t t h e r a p i s t already that nothing the supervisor says i s new or necessary.  F i n a l l y , the supervisee can make sure that the  supervisor's treatment  suggestions f a l l f l a t (e.g. when the supervisor i s  hopeful, the c l i e n t gets worse).  In any event, as long as the supervisor  i s seen as the expert, Rioch suggested: the supervisor finds himself sometimes to be i n a very l o n e l y p o s i t i o n opposite faces which often i n t h e i r i n s c r u t a b i l i t y conceal h o s t i l i t y , boredom, or some other v a r i a t i o n of how to move up when someone senses that he i s down. (p. 78) Or, as M a r s h a l l and Confer (1980) put i t : condescendingly  When supervisors behave  from t h e i r one-up p o s i t i o n , they "breed e i t h e r resentmant  or sycophants" (p. 98).  - 29 -  Another consequence of the supervisee remaining i n the one-down p o s i t i o n i s that he or she often experiences the supervisor i s not heard at a l l . threatening.  such high anxiety l e v e l s that  Evaluation i s seen as p o t e n t i a l l y  Rioch suggested that good supervisors can reduce students'  anxiety by f r e e l y admitting t h e i r own doubts about the therapeutic process and by admitting that they make mistakes and sometimes don't know what to do e i t h e r .  In t h i s way,  freer to take r i s k s .  students f e e l less anxious, more comfortable,  and  Such e f f e c t i v e supervisors f e e l confident and secure  enough to r e l i n q u i s h the one-up p o s i t i o n and enter into a c o n s u l t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with students.  Developmental Approach Lambert (1980) ended h i s review of supervision studies by c a l l i n g f o r research i n the future that w i l l " i d e n t i f y i n a p r e s c r i p t i v e sense the i d e a l l e a r n i n g environment f o r given students at p a r t i c u l a r times" (p. 434).  Recently, numerous studies have appeared which attempted to match  stages of counsellor development with supervisory environments and behaviours. The concept that supervision i s a developmental process a r i s i n g from changing trainee c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs has long been recognized supervisors i n the psychoanalytic school of t r a i n i n g .  by  Mueller and K e l l  (1972) wrote that the supervisor f i r s t works to e s t a b l i s h a t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with the beginning trainee.  Then, as the r e l a t i o n s h i p  matures, the supervisor works more and more deeply with the trainee so that by the time the r e l a t i o n s h i p terminates, the trainee has come i n t o h i s or her own with the supervisor i n a consultant r o l e .  Miars, Tracey, Ray,  - 30 -  C o r n f e l d , O ' F a r r e l l , and Gelso (1983) found that supervisors with a psychoanalytic  o r i e n t a t i o n varied the supervision process across d i f f e r e n t  trainee l e v e l s of experience more than d i d supervisors of other o r i e n t a t i o n s (e.g. humanistic or cognitive/behavioural).  The authors c i t e d  Mueller and K e l l when they wrote that "a psychodynamic perspective of supervision i s i n h e r e n t l y developmental i n nature" (p. 411). In another study by researchers i n the psychoanalytic  tradition,  Gaoni & Neumann (1974) p o s i t t e d a four-stage theory of the supervisory process, presented  from the point of view of the supervisee.  In the f i r s t  stage, the trainee i s very dependent on the supervisor, seeking p r a c t i c a l help and t h e o r e t i c a l explanations w i t h i n a teacher-pupil r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the second stage, the r e a l work begins as trainees evolve i n t o apprentices, s e t t l i n g i n t o regular sessions with c l i e n t s and gradually acquiring the tools of t h e i r trade.  Supervisors at t h i s point place t h e i r focus on the  p a t i e n t , providing t h e o r e t i c a l information, and model by interviewing patients themselves.  In the t h i r d stage, the supervisor s h i f t s the  emphasis from the patient to the trainee as a person and as a t h e r a p i s t . The goal now i s to help the student develop s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n and s e l f awareness and h i s or her own therapeutic s t y l e .  The fourth stage i s one  that continues throughout the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e of the t h e r a p i s t . I t c o n s i s t s of mutual c o n s u l t a t i o n :  the supervisor exchanges opinions and  experiences with the trainee as more and l e s s experienced  equals.  Bernard's (1979) d i s c r i m i n a t i o n model i s a v a r i a t i o n of the developmental model of supervision.  Bernard i d e n t i f i e d three basic r o l e s  or approaches that a c o u n s e l l i n g or c l i n i c a l psychology supervisor might adopt:  the teacher-student  approach, the c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t approach, or  - 31 -  the consultant-counsellor approach.  Bernard suggested that whereas  supervisors tend to r e l y heavily on only the r o l e which f e e l s most comfortable, supervisors should instead react i n a " s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c " to meet the immediate needs of a t r a i n e e .  way  He wrote that the strength of  the model i s that: with a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n model for supervision, supervisors are asked to add to t h e i r i d i o s y n c r a t i c strengths by becoming comfortable with contrasting r o l e s and using data at hand to s e l e c t the most appropriate r o l e f o r a supervision contact, (p. 64) Stenack and Dye  (1982) attempted to develop behaviourally oriented  r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s that c l e a r l y discriminated among Bernard's three supervisor r o l e s . They found the c l e a r e s t d i s t i n c t i o n s between teacher counsellor r o l e s , with the consultant r o l e overlapping with the role.  and  teacher  Supervisor goals, c o n t r o l , and focus of the i n t e r a c t i o n appeared to  be important dynamics that could change the same supervisor behaviour from, for example, a teaching to a c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e . Dye,  In a l a t e r study (Stenack &  1983), they applied supervisor behaviours i n the three r o l e s to  trainees and found that the content of trainee v e r b a l i z a t i o n s was influenced by supervisor roles i n the f o l l o w i n g way: A study of r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the teacher r o l e and action and thought statements, the counsellor r o l e and f e e l i n g statements, and the consultant r o l e and thought statements... C l e a r l y , the method of supervision can have a profound e f f e c t on the o v e r a l l practicum experience and thus on the development of student counsellors. (p. 166) L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden, and Lorenz (1979) proposed a sequential four-stage developmental framework f o r supervision.  Stage I concerns the  - 32 -  establishment  of a working r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen supervisor and t r a i n e e ,  g o a l - s e t t i n g , and the development of a mutual contract.  In Stage I I , the  supervisor employs both the counselling-therapeutic and teaching models of supervision, s i m i l a r to those presented e a r l i e r i n t h i s review. involves a move to the c o n s u l t a t i v e approach.  Stage I I I  By Stage IV, a s e l f -  supervising model i s employed where the counsellor has i n t e r n a l i z e d the supervision process and become the p r i n c i p l e designer of h i s or her own learning. L i t t r e l l and colleagues p o s i t t e d several advantages to adopting a developmental framework i n supervision.  A developmental approach i s seen  as a more comprehensive and accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the process of supervision than a one or two model approach.  Completion of the stages can  serve as supervision subgoals by which both the supervisor or trainee can assess t h e i r progress.  At d i f f e r e n t times, supervisors engage i n goal-  s e t t i n g , evaluation, c o u n s e l l i n g , teaching, and consulting.  The strength  of t h i s approach l i e s i n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n of the complexity of counsellor t r a i n i n g and i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l types of e f f e c t i v e supervisor and educator behaviours, as opposed to taking an exclusive 'either-or' approach i n which one type of t r a i n i n g behaviour i s favoured. A four-stage supervision approach was proposed as e a r l y as 1964 by Hogan ( c i t e d i n Stoltenberg, 1981).  Stoltenberg (1981) designed a model i n  which he sought to combine Hogan's stages with a teaching stage approach. Stoltenberg described e s s e n t i a l l y the same four stages hypothesized L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden, and Lorenz (1979).  by  Counsellor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  matched with corresponding optimal supervision environments.  At Level I ,  the trainee i s dependent on the supervisor and the task of the l a t t e r i s to  - 33 -  encourage autonomy w i t h i n a normative s t r u c t u r e . The supervisor uses i n s t r u c t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , support, awareness t r a i n i n g , and exemplification.  At Level 2, the counsellor experiences  a  dependency-autonomy c o n f l i c t as he or she becomes more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t .  The  supervisor provides a h i g h l y autonomous environment with low normative structure.  At t h i s l e v e l , the supervisor uses l e s s i n s t r u c t i o n and  s t r u c t u r e , continues to use support and e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , and adds ambivalence and confrontation.  At Level 3, the student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s  c o n d i t i o n a l dependency and the optimal environment provides autonomy, with the structure provided by the student.  The supervisor t r e a t s the  student  more as a peer and uses sharing, mutual e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , and confrontation. adequately  By Level 4, the counsellor i s a master and can f u n c t i o n  i n most environments.  Supervision may  or may not be sought out;  when i t i s , the s t y l e i s c o l l e g i a l . In the f i r s t attempt to o b j e c t i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e Stoltenberg's counsellor complexity model, Miars et a l . (1983) used supervisor s e l f - r e p o r t and asked supervisors whether they perceived themselves as adjusting t h e i r own behaviour  to the t r a i n e e s ' l e v e l of experience.  The  authors found that the f o l l o w i n g occurred: Those items s t r e s s i n g a c t i v e d i r e c t i o n , support, teaching, and close monitoring on the part of the supervisor attained the highest scores with respect to supervising inexperienced students ( f i r s t or second semester practicum). On the other hand, supervisor responses i n d i c a t e d that supervisees with more experience (advanced practicum and i n t e r n l e v e l s ) were given s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s t r u c t u r e , d i r e c t i o n , support, and d i r e c t teaching. With t h i s experienced group of supervisees, more emphasis was placed on personal development, t a c k l i n g c l i e n t r e s i s t a n c e , and dealing with transference/counter-transference i s s u e s , (p. 406-407)  - 34 -  These r e s u l t s suggest that supervisors did not view supervision as a uniform process, or supervisees as a uniform group.  The supervisors d i d  make d i s t i n c t i o n s betwen trainees and the i m p l i c i t notion i s that these were developmental d i s t i n c t i o n s based on changing trainee needs and characteristics.  There appears to be an i n t e r e s t i n g movement from a more  d i d a c t i c approach i n e a r l y supervision to a more r e l a t i o n s h i p - e x p e r i e n t i a l approach with advanced t r a i n e e s .  In the l i g h t of t h i s progression, i t  seems l i k e l y that research on beginning trainees and undergraduate students would most l i k e l y f i n d that d i d a c t i c methods of supervision are most effective. C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l  educator  behaviours which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the p r o f e s s i o n a l development of counsellor t r a i n e e s .  As such, the c r i t i c a l incident technique as described  by Flanagan (1954) was selected as the most appropriate method f o r achieving t h i s o b j e c t i v e . The technique c o n s i s t s of c o l l e c t i n g a s e r i e s of i n c i d e n t s i n the form of observed behaviours p o s i t i o n to make observations.  from people i n an appropriate  The data, or i n c i d e n t s , are subjected to an  i n d u c t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process with the aim of rendering the data more cogent.  The r e s u l t i n g categories a i d i n the formulation of the c r i t i c a l  requirements of the a c t i v i t y being observed.  Categorization of C r i t i c a l Incidents Modern category formation theory provides g u i d e l i n e s , i n a d d i t i o n to those designated by Flanagan, f o r formulating categories from a set of  - 35 -  c r i t i c a l incidents.  Beginning with Flanagan's approach, i t was  found that  the c o l l e c t i o n of a large sample of incidents i n i t s e l f provided a f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t y being i n v e s t i g a t e d .  Flanagan wrote  that f u r t h e r data a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d out, however, i n order to: summarize and describe data i n an e f f i c i e n t manner ... making i t easier to report these requirements [of an a c t i v i t y ] , to draw inferences from them, and to compare them with other a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 344) Therefore,  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n increases the usefulness of the data.  Categories  a r i s e through an inductive process from the i n c i d e n t s themselves, with nothing l o s t and nothing added.  F i r s t , a r e l a t i v e l y small sample of  incidents are sorted i n t o p i l e s or headings that are r e l a t e d to the frame of reference (e.g. f a c i l i t a t i v e behaviours of p r o f e s s o r s ) . d e f i n i t i o n s are made of these t e n t a t i v e p i l e s or categories.  Brief Then, new  i n c i d e n t s are added to them with categories being redefined and as needed.  formulated  This process continues u n t i l a l l the i n c i d e n t s have been placed  i n categories. D i f f i c u l t decisions a r i s e , of course, during the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process.  T r a d i t i o n a l category formation theory holds that category  membership i s an all-or-none phenomenon such that a l l members of a category possess an equal number of c r i t i c a l or definng features. In t h i s view, a l l members of a category are equally good examples of that category. everyday l i f e , however, those c r i t e r i a are seldom, i f ever,  In  met.  Wittgenstein (1953) argued that a set of objects would show a pattern of overlapping s i m i l a r i t i e s or "family resemblances", rather than one set of features shared by a l l objects.  This viewpoint  suggests a continuam of  - 36 -  category membership, leading to the notion of "fuzzy sets" (McCloskey & Glucksberg, 1978; Rosch, 1975; Rosch & Mervis, 1975).  Objects that are  h i g h l y t y p i c a l of a category (e.g. a saiboat) possess a higher degree of salience or category membership (e.g. i n the l a r g e r family of boats) than do l e s s t y p i c a l objects (e.g. a surfboard).  Furthermore, there i s no c l e a r  boundary between categories so that some of the f u z z i e s t objects can be category members and non-members at the same time. B u i l d i n g upon the notion of fuzzy s e t s , Rosch (1975) found that n a t u r a l categories are formed around a c l e a r case or best example of a category, which she r e f e r s to as a "prototype".  Nonprototypic members are  judged against the prototype to determine whether they are better or poorer points.  Rosch wrote that:  the more p r o t o y p i c a l a category member, the more a t t r i b u t e s i t has i n common with other members of the category and the l e s s a t t r i b u t e s i n common with c o n t r a s t i n g categories, (p. 602) Cantor and Mischel (1979) extended the concepts put forward by Rosch i n t o the area of prototypes i n person perception.  They found that the  r u l e s we use f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g people (e.g. extraverts as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i n t r o v e r t s ) are also p r o t o t y p i c a l i t y judgments, s i m i l a r to those rules we use f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g objects (e.g. cars from t r u c k s ) .  In a d d i t i o n ,  Cantor and Mischel and Rosch have made u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s regarding the l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n used i n category formation.  Recognizing that objects  or persons can be categorized at varying l e v e l s of i n c l u s i v e n e s s , Rosch i d e n t i f e d a "basic" category l e v e l as the optimal one f o r most c a t e g o r i z a t i o n tasks. inclusiveness.  The basic l e v e l has a moderate l e v e l of  Categories at t h i s l e v e l , therefore, are both r i c h i n  d e t a i l and yet w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another.  - 37  -  At the more abstract i n c l u s i v e l e v e l , termed superordinate,  categories  are w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another, but richness of d e t a i l i s l o s t . In other words, categories contain such a mixture of d i f f e r e n t members that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t what a t t r i b u t e s a t y p i c a l category member might possess.  On the other hand, categories at the l e s s i n c l u s i v e l e v e l , termed  subordinate  ( i . e . subcategories), require many f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s to be  made i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h one from the other.  Here we f i n d tremendous  richness of d e t a i l but d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among categories i s l a c k i n g . In summary, for Rosch, the optimal l e v e l of category headings f o r an e f f e c t i v e presentation of data i s the basic l e v e l . Notions of fuzzy sets, p r o t o t y p i c a l i t y , and l e v e l s of incluslveness are offered to the reader as an attempt to explain the processes that the researcher considers while c a t e g o r i z i n g a set of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . Cognitive psychological research i n t o category formation i n d i c a t e s that the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process i s not merely subjective or haphazard.  It is  assumed that a set of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s contains i n c i d e n t s that form a continuum of category membership ranging from p r o t o t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t s e a s i l y categorized by independent r a t e r s to fuzzy i n c i d e n t s which possess a t t r i b u t e s of more than one category, and hence, produce l e s s agreement among independent r a t e r s .  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y The most common method of checking the r e l i a i l i t y of a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n system i n the c r i t i c a l incident technique  i s to submit the i n c i d e n t s and  categories to one or more independent r a t e r s . The raters should be trained i n the method of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n that was used by the researcher and be  - 38 -  i n s t r u c t e d to sort the incidents i n t o the categories provided. the check on r e l i a b i l i t y made i n the present study.  This was  I f the categories are  w e l l formed and the raters adequately t r a i n e d , a good degree of agreement can be expected to occur between r a t e r s and the c r i t e r i o n . V a l i d i t y of the incidents obtained through the c r i t i c a l incident technique i s p a r t l y assumed by the fact that many i n d i v i d u a l s have reported upon an a c t i v i t y independently.  In t h i s way, a v a r i e t y of observations are  obtained and i n d i v i d u a l biases are eliminated. Another v a l i d i t y check i s the comparison of the data with the c r i t i c a l requirements of an a c t i v i t y as they have been reported i n the research l i t e r a t u r e .  While one may obtain  new information about an a c t i v i t y by means of the technique, i t i s a l s o to be expected that there w i l l be s i m i l a r i t i e s i n content between the i n c i d e n t s reported and the relevant research l i t e r a t u r e .  A comparison of  the e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours reported i n t h i s study with those found i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s made i n the f i n a l chapter of t h i s paper. Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) s p e c i f i c a l l y researched the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique; a presentation of t h e i r findings follows.  They began by analyzing the job of store manager i n a  Swedish grocery company, c o l l e c t i n g approximately 1800 incidents from four groups of people considered to be i n a good p o s i t i o n to make observations: supervisors, store managers, a s s i s t a n t s , and customers.  Approximately  two-thirds of the incidents were p o s i t i v e ( i . e . referred to u n i t s of successful behaviour) and the remaining one-third were negative. The i n c i d e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d into a t h r e e - l e v e l taxonomy with three superordinate headings or areas, 17 basic c a t e g o r i e s , and 86 subordinate categories.  - 39 -  The checks.  researchers  subjected  the data to several r e l i a b i l i t y and  validity  Their f i r s t check referred to the saturation and comprehensiveness  of the data:  When have enough i n c i d e n t s been c o l l e c t e d to exhaust the  universe of behaviour that the technique i s expected to cover? that the number of subcategories  They found  formed very q u i c k l y during the beginning  of c l a s s i f y i n g the i n c i d e n t s , with l a t e r incidents tending to f a l l w i t h i n e x i s t i n g categories.  By the time two-thirds of the incidents had been  c l a s s i f i e d , 95% of the 86 subcategories the researchers  had been e s t a b l i s h e d .  In t h i s  way,  determined that a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of i n c i d e n t s had been  collected. Andersson and N i l s s o n tested the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e i r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n system by submitting random samples of incidents to independent r a t e r s , with subcategories  provided.  There were 61% to 68% l e v e l s of agreement  found among r a t e r s and between r a t e r s and the c r i t e r i o n . agreement (75% to 85%) was may  be explained  A higher l e v e l of  found f o r the 17 basic categories.  i n terms of Rosch's research  This f i n d i n g  (1975) where the basic  category l e v e l produces i n c i d e n t s with more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and l e s s overlap than the subordinate l e v e l ( i n t h i s case, 86 subcategories).  The  submission of data to independent r a t e r s confirmed the o b j e c t i v i t y and  lack  of bias i n the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process. A content a n a l y s i s of the t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e f o r store managers was conducted to answer the question:  Has the c r i t i c a l incident technique  succeeded i n i n c l u d i n g a l l c r i t i c a l aspects of the a c t i v i t y ? question of v a l i d i t y .  Good agreement was  This i s a  found between the data and  l i t e r a t u r e i n that both described  s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r store managers.  r e l a t e d question was also posed:  Are the incidents representative  of  A  - 40 -  behaviours that are t r u l y important or c r i t i c a l f o r the work at hand? I t could be challenged that the c r i t i c a l incident technique gathers extreme, dramatic, or unique incidents that are of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l importance or are an incomplete d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t y .  In addressing t h i s c e n t r a l  question, the researchers submitted t h e i r data to 300 people comprising four r a t i n g groups.  The 86 subcategories were rated on a s i x - p o i n t scale  from 0 (unimportant) to 5 (of the greatest importance f o r a store manager's work).  I t was found that only f i v e of the 86 subcategories were rated as  unimportant by a l l four r a t i n g groups.  An a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g was that  subcategories with few incidents were also rated as important by the four groups.  I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , that frequency i s not a measure of the  c r i t i c a l nature of a behaviour. In conclusion, Andersson and N i l s s o n subjected t h e i r data to various checks and found r e s u l t s which supported the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique.  A p p l i c a t i o n s of the C r i t i c a l  Incident Technique  The c r i t i c a l incident technique was developed during e a r l y a v i a t i o n studies i n the United States A i r Force f o r the purpose of s e l e c t i n g and t r a i n i n g p i l o t s and combat leaders during World War I I (Flanagan, 1954). More r e c e n t l y , Flanagan (1978) conducted a major research e f f o r t , i n conjunction with the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research, toward improving the q u a l i t y of l i f e of Americans.  Over 6500 i n c i d e n t s were recorded from a  large and varied sample i n an attempt to define the c r i t i c a l of a person's q u a l i t y of l i f e .  requirements  These incidents were sorted into 15 basic  categories f a l l i n g under three general headings.  They were subsequently  - 41 -  rated on t h e i r importance to subjects' q u a l i t y of l i f e and assessed as to "needs met" s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .  Flanagan found that subjects' r e c a l l e d events  provided a r i c h and useful source of information e s s e n t i a l to the purposes of the study. Several other recent a p p l i c a t i o n s of the technique are as f o l l o w s . Cohen and Smith (1976) employed the c r i t i c a l incident technique to study ongoing group processes.  They suggested that at one or more points during  the i n t e r a c t i o n s of group members, c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s or i n c i d e n t s a r i s e where the group leader must choose an appropriate response.  The authors  found that c e r t a i n common c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s emerged regardless of the group's o r i e n t a t i o n .  The c r i t i c a l incident technique was used as a way of  arranging data i n sequence, from the events leading up to a c r i t i c a l incident  ( i . e . the p o s s i b l e choices f o r a c t i o n of the group leader) to  those events that resulted from the p o s s i b l e group leader i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Kaczkowski, Lieberman and Schmidt (1978) developed a handbook and videotape based on Cohen and Smith's study i n which the c r i t i c a l incidents were enacted and videotaped f o r use i n counsellor t r a i n i n g and research. Using the c r i t i c a l incident technique, Dachelot, Wemett, G a r l i n g , Craig-Kuhn, Kent, and Kitzman (1981) examined the conditions which f a c i l i t a t e d the c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g of nurses.  C r i t i c a l incident data was  c o l l e c t e d from three groups and then c l a s s i f i e d into 18 basic categories with three general headings.  These categories provided a broad p i c t u r e of  a c t i v i t i e s which occurred i n the c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s and of ways i n which these a c t i v i t i e s were perceived by both students and educators. S i m i l a r l y , Rimon (1979) examined nurses' perceptions of c r i t i c a l aspects of t h e i r role i n providing f o r the psychological and p h y s i c a l care  - 42  of patients i n h o s p i t a l .  -  Researchers i n cognitive psychology  (Weiner,  R u s s e l l , & Lerman, 1979) c o l l e c t e d c r i t i c a l incidents i n a study of the linkages between cognitions and emotions i n achievement-related contexts. In the area of counsellor education, Spivack (1973) developed videotaped vignettes of c r i t i c a l incidents that may occur during the various phases of e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining a helping r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The tapes were  designed to be used as a stimulus i n counsellor t r a i n i n g . In summary, the c r i t i c a l incident technique continues to provide a u s e f u l methodology f o r studies i n a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s , nearly 30 years a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n by Flanagan.  - 43 -  CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY  In t h i s chapter, the methodological and procedural  considerations  involved i n the present study are o u t l i n e d under three headings:  a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the subjects, the c r i t i c a l incident i n t e r v i e w , and a summary of data c o l l e c t i o n and procedures.  Subjects A t o t a l of 24 graduate counselling students p a r t i c i p a t e d In t h i s study.  Subjects ranged i n age from 23 to 51 years of age with a mean age  of 35.8 years.  Eighteen, or 75% of the subjects, were female; s i x , or 25%,  were male. Subjects were r e c r u i t e d from a masters-level  counselling program  ( i n c l u d i n g both M.Ed, and M.A. candidates) offered by the Department of Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, at a large u n i v e r s i t y located i n a major western Canadian c i t y . f u l l - t i m e programs of study.  They were e n r o l l e d i n both part- and  A l l subjects were required to complete a core  group of courses i n c l u d i n g a counselling s k i l l s t r a i n i n g laboratory, a supervised  c l i n i c , and a basic theories of counselling course. In  a d d i t i o n , subjects had completed or were e n r o l l e d i n a wide range of s p e c i a l t y courses such as family c o u n s e l l i n g , t e s t i n g , school c o u n s e l l i n g , c o u n s e l l i n g women, research methods, and group counselling. Subjects were r e c r u i t e d by two methods:  (a) by means of a l e t t e r (see  Appendix A) and (b) by means of a b r i e f o r a l presentation of the same l e t t e r given by the researcher  to a summer session c l a s s .  In the former  - 44 -  method, 32 l e t t e r s were mailed i n the spring of 1982 to students who were i d e n t i f i e d by name as having been members of c l i n i c teams during the proceeding winter session. The researcher made follow-up phone c a l l s to these 32 students.  Seventeen students agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e ; two students  were u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e .  The remaining 10 students were not  contacted due to changes of residence.  Seven a d d i t i o n a l subjects responded  to an o r a l presentation of the research project and submitted t h e i r names and telephone numbers f o r future contact.  Follow-up phone c a l l s were  s u c c e s s f u l l y made to each of these seven subjects. In summary, 17 subjects were r e c r u i t e d by l e t t e r and 7 subjects by means of an appeal to a c l a s s .  A l l but 2 of those subjects who were  s u c c e s s f u l l y reached by telephone r e a d i l y agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  The volunteer sample obtained i n the present study represented a  cross-section of the students enrolled i n the masters l e v e l program.  C r i t i c a l Incident Interview In t h i s study, the data was c o l l e c t e d by means of semi-structured interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour per subject. The c r i t i c a l incident i n t e r v i e w follows a standard format, as outlined by Flanagan:  (a) a  statement of the aims of the research, (b) the question and request f o r r e c a l l , (c) a c r i t e r i a check, and (d) a request f o r d e t a i l s . 1).  (See Table  The i n t e r v i e w e r monitors the data r e c a l l e d by the subject and  evaluates i t according to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a of s i g n i f i c a n c e and accuracy:  - 45 -  TABLE 1 Outline of the C r i t i c a l Incident Interview  Aim Statement The aim of my study i s to explore some experiences i n our program.  that students have  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I want to f i n d out i n what ways students  f i n d that t h e i r professors e i t h e r help or hinder them i n t h e i r growth as professionals. Request f o r R e c a l l Think back over the past year to the d i f f e r e n t experiences bad with your professors.  that you've  Think of the h i g h l i g h t s or highpoints and  lowpoints i n your experiences when something that a professor said or d i d r e a l l y bad an impact on your growth as a p r o f e s s i o n a l ( i . e . c o u n s e l l o r ) . This impact can be p o s i t i v e or negative. these i n c i d e n t s .  You may r e c a l l one or several of  I'd l i k e to ask you to describe them i n d e t a i l i n the  time that we have. C r i t e r i a Check Think of a p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t . Would you say that what t h i s professor said or d i d l e d to a l a s t i n g change i n your a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , or behaviours as a counsellor? Stimulus Questions to E l i c i t D e t a i l s What were the general circumstances  leading up to t h i s incident?  T e l l me e x a c t l y what t h i s professor said or d i d that helped you (held you back) at that time.  Why was t h i s incident h e l p f u l (hindering)?  you t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g at the time?  What were  - 46 -  (a) i s the actual behaviour reported; (b) was i t observed by the reporter; (c) were a l l relevant factors i n the s i t u a t i o n given; (d) has the observer made a d e f i n i t e judgment; (e) has the observer made i t c l e a r j u s t why he believes the behaviour was c r i t i c a l . (p. 342) In a d d i t i o n , the accuracy of the subject's report i s judged on the basis of whether f u l l and d e t a i l e d accounts are given. An i n c i d e n t i s considered to be c r i t i c a l i f i t makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or negatively, to the general aim of the activity.  In the present study, the general aim of counsellor educators  was defined as f a c i l i t a t i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of counsellor trainees.  An incident was c r i t i c a l when an educator's behaviour had  f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered t h i s aim by e f f e c t i n g an impact or l a s t i n g change on a student's a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , or behaviours as a developing p r o f e s s i o n a l counsellor.  This l a s t i n g change or impact was reported  s u b j e c t i v e l y by the student counsellors themselves. I t i s important i n a study of t h i s nature that anonymity of the subjects and counsellor educators be s t r i c t l y maintained.  In the present  study, subjects were assured of t h e i r anonymity and were requested not to reveal the i d e n t i t y of any counsellor educators. the data also ensured anonymity. transcribed.  Subsequent treatment of  Interviews were taped and then  Subject numbers rather than names were assigned to the typed  interviews and i n c i d e n t s .  F i n a l l y , when incidents were extracted from the  interviews and recorded on cards, the researcher attempted to delete any d e t a i l s which might suggest the i d e n t i t y of a student or an educator. The researcher conducted a l l of the c r i t i c a l incident interviews. Flanagan's guidelines f o r the interviewer state that he or she remain  - 47 -  n e u t r a l and permissive, t r e a t i n g the subject as the expert on h i s or her own experiences.  R e f l e c t i o n or paraphrasing of the subject's report and  the posing of c l a r i f y i n g questions were the basic tools of the interviewer.  T r a i n i n g i n the use of these i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s k i l l s  was acquired through completion of a masters-level counselling program as w e l l as through c o n s u l t a t i o n with a methodologist s k i l l e d i n the use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique.  Summary of Data C o l l e c t i o n and Procedures Subjects were students enrolled i n a masters-level c o u n s e l l i n g psychology program at a large u n i v e r s i t y .  Subjects were i n i t i a l l y  contacted by the researcher by means of a l e t t e r or a b r i e f o r a l presentation to a c l a s s . subjects.  Follow-up phone c a l l s were made to p o t e n t i a l  An appointment was arranged with those people who agreed to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  The time and l o c a t i o n of the interview  were arranged at the convenience of the subjects (e.g. at varying times of the day and evening, e i t h e r at the home of subjects or on campus). At the s t a r t of each i n t e r v i e w , subjects signed a consent form (see Appendix B) and the tape-recording equipment was introduced and switched on. Interviews lasted approximately one-half hour. The completed tapes were transcribed by the researcher and by two paid t y p i s t s (working o f f campus).  Incidents were extracted from the interview  t r a n s c r i p t s by the researcher and typed onto 3x5 index cards. set  From t h i s  of i n c i d e n t s , categories were formed according to the procedures  described i n the preceding chapter.  The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n system was checked  for r e l i a b i l i t y by two independent r a t e r s .  Raters were b r i e f l y trained and  presented with the basic l e v e l categories and subcategories into which they  - 48 -  sorted a l l of the i n c i d e n t s .  Upon completion of t h i s process, the rater  and researcher noted together which i n c i d e n t s had been categorized d i f f e r e n t l y from the c r i t e r i o n .  - 49 -  CHAPTER IV. RESULTS  In t h i s chapter, the r e s u l t s obtained from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are reported under three headings:  d e s c r i p t i v e data, d e f i n i t i o n s and examples  of categories and subcategories, and r e s u l t s of the independent r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y check.  D e s c r i p t i v e Data A t o t a l of 84 i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d from 24 subjects.  Subjects  each reported an average of 3.5 Incidents with a range of 2 to 8 i n c i d e n t s per person.  The modal number of i n c i d e n t s per subject was 4.  The  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process produced 5 basic l e v e l categories and 19 subcategories.  A l i s t of the categories i s found i n Table 2.  Basic l e v e l  categories contained a range of 7 i n c i d e n t s to 28 i n c i d e n t s with a median of 14 i n c i d e n t s per category. and as many as 17 i n c i d e n t s .  The 19 subcategories contained as few as 2 The median was 3 i n c i d e n t s per  subcategory.  In Table 3, numbers of p o s i t i v e and negative i n c i d e n t s as w e l l as t o t a l numbers of i n c i d e n t s per category are shown.  S i x t y - f i v e or 77% of  the t o t a l i n c i d e n t s concerned e f f e c t i v e or p o s i t i v e educator behaviours; 19 or 23% concerned  i n e f f e c t i v e or negative educator behaviours.  Therefore,  approximately three-quarters of i n c i d e n t s were p o s i t i v e and one-quarter negative.  was  T o t a l numbers of i n c i d e n t s per category were as follows:  Category I contained 22 or 26.2% of t o t a l i n c i d e n t s ; Category I I contained 28 or 33.3%; Category I I I contained 7 or 8.3%; 15.5%; and Category V contained 14 or 16.7%.  Category IV contained 13 or  - 50 -  TABLE 2  C a t e g o r i e s and S u b c a t e g o r i e s o f E f f e c t i v e E d u c a t o r B e h a v i o u r s  CATEGORY  I : Teaches New C o u n s e l l i n g  S k i l l s , T e c h n i q u e s , and  T h e o r i e s To T r a i n e e s  Subcategory 1:  E f f e c t i v e l y teaches new s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and theories.  Subcategory 2:  Teaches i n t e r v e n t i o n s and t h e o r i e s i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to t r a i n e e s ' cases.  CATEGORY  Subcategory 3:  P r o v i d e s s t r u c t u r e and d i r e c t i o n f o r t r a i n e e s .  Subcategory 4:  Presents subject matter nondogmatically.  Subcategory 5:  A s s i g n s group p r o j e c t s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  Subcategory 6:  G i v e s e x t e n s i v e feedback on w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s .  I I : G i v e s C o n c r e t e Feedback about T r a i n e e s ' C o u n s e l l i n g Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Subcategory 1:  Couples feedback about t r a i n e e s ' i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g b e h a v i o u r s w i t h feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours.  Subcategory 2:  Encourages  t r a i n e e s by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r  e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours. Subcategory 3:  I n s t r u c t s t r a i n e e s by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours.  - 51 -  CATEGORY I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling  Interventions  with Trainees as C l i e n t s Subcategory 1: Demonstrates counselling techniques with trainees as c l i e n t s . Subcategory 2: Demonstrates the basic counselling interview to novices with trainees as c l i e n t s . Subcategory 3: Models group leadership s k i l l s with trainees as group members.  CATEGORY  IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees  Subcategory 1: Genuinely s e l f - d i s c l o s e s and shares personal experiences with t r a i n e e s . Subcategory 2:  Shows respect f o r trainees and i s a f a l l i b l e human being:  CATEGORY  V:  avoids the one-up p o s i t i o n .  Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship  Subcategory 1: F a c i l i t a t e s trainees' exploration of problematical f e e l i n g s and behaviours. Subcategory 2: Explores with trainees t h e i r personal reactions to issues from counselling sessions. Subcategory 3: Confronts trainees when appropriate.  - 52 -  Subcategory 4:  Requires trainees to explore i n w r i t t e n assignments t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s , values, and  Subcategory 5:  experiences.  Requires trainees to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o u n s e l l i n g as c l i e n t s and report t h e i r  experiences.  TABLE 3 Category of Incident by P o s i t i v e and Negative Nature of Incident  Nature of Incident Positive Negative % No. % No.  %  Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees  20.2  17  6.0  5  26.2  22  Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship  21.4  18  11.9  10  33.3  28  Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as C l i e n t s  8.3  7  8.3  7  Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees  10.7  9  15.5  13  Encourages Trainee S e l f E x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship  16.7  14  16.7  14  77.3  65  100.0  84  Category I:  II:  III:  IV:  V:  Total  4.8  22.7  4  19  Total No.  - 53 -  The s e t t i n g of incidents f o r each category i s presented i n Table 3. I t was found that i n c i d e n t s concerning the teaching of new s k i l l s , techniques, and theories occurred p r i m a r i l y during a course.  Concrete  feedback given w i t h i n the context of a f a c i l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p occurred most often i n a course or a t r a i n i n g l a b . Educators offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions i n a l l f i v e s e t t i n g s , but these occurred most frequently i n the clinic.  Trainee s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n was encouraged frequently during a  course.  In summary, i t was reported that a t o t a l of 30 or 35.8% of  incidents occurred during a c o u n s e l l i n g course; 22 or 26.2% of  incidents  took place In a c l i n i c s e t t i n g ; and 22 or 26.3% of incidents occurred during a t r a i n i n g l a b . Together, they accounted f o r 44 or 52.5% of a l l Incidents.  An a d d i t i o n a l 9 or 10.8% of i n c i d e n t s took place i n a p r i v a t e  interview with an educator and 1 or 1.2% of i n c i d e n t s occurred i n a s o c i a l setting.  D e f i n i t i o n s and Examples of Categories and Subcategories Each of the f i v e basic l e v e l categories has been given a d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e which conveys the e s s e n t i a l features of the category's i n c i d e n t s . Although categories and subcategories may include both e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours, d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e s r e f l e c t only e f f e c t i v e behaviours.  They have been worded p o s i t i v e l y i n order that, when read as a  whole, they provide a summary of students' perceptions of e f f e c t i v e educator and supervisor behaviours. Subcategory t i t l e s were chosen and defined i n order to represent c r i t i c a l behaviours i n more d e t a i l .  Examples of incidents were included i n  order to give the reader an impression of the nature of those behavioural  - 54 -  TABLE 4 Category of Incident by S e t t i n g of Incident  S e t t i n g of Incident  Category  Course % No.  Clinic % No.  Training Lab % No.  Private Interview % No.  Social Setting % No.  -  -  I.  16.7  14  3.6  3  3.6  3  2.4  2  II.  6.0  5  11.9  10  14.3  12  1.2  1  III.  3.6  3  -  -  3.6  3  1.2  1  -  IV.  1.2  1  7.1  6  2.4  2  3.6  3  1.2  1  V.  8.3  7  3.6  3  2.4  2  2.4  2  -  -  35.8  30  26.2  22  26.3  22  10.8  9  1.2  1  Total  reports upon which the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme has been based. were quoted when they e x e m p l i f i e d . t h e i r subcategory.  -  Incidents  Each basic category  i s concluded with a summary of the outcomes ( i . e . ways i n which trainees were effected by educator behaviours) reported by trainees during the c r i t i c a l incident interview.  This ancedotal information i s included i n  order to add richness and d e t a i l to the general outcome c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l categories:  the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of t r a i n e e s .  - 55 -  Category  I:  Techniques, The  Teaches New C o u n s e l l i n g S k i l l s , and T h e o r i e s t o T r a i n e e s  I n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e d i d a c t i c educator  behaviours.  S u b c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e the a s p e c t s o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d to be c r i t i c a l by c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n e e s .  Subcategory theories.  1;  E f f e c t i v e l y teaches new s k i l l s ,  t e c h n i q u e s , and  The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s group concern events when t r a i n e e s a c q u i r e  u s e f u l knowledge from an e d u c a t o r . which i n s t r u c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e  T r a i n e e s mention the h e l p f u l ways i n  this learning  (e.g. p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d  i n f o r m a t i o n , use case s t u d i e s , f i l t e r j a r g o n i n t o everyday  language,  p r e s e n t t h e o r y v i v i d l y and t h o r o u g h l y ) . Example:  A p r o f e s s o r taught d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about when and how to use a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e .  Subcategory  2:  Teaches i n t e r v e n t i o n s and t h e o r i e s i n d i r e c t  a p p l i c a t i o n to t r a i n e e s ' cases.  Educators  i d e n t i f y and teach a p p r o p r i a t e  approaches f o r t r a i n e e s to use w i t h s p e c i f i c c l i e n t s . when p r o f e s s o r s i n t e r r u p t  T h i s i n c l u d e s times  c o u n s e l l i n g sessions to give i n s t r u c t i o n to  trainees. Example:  A professor i d e n t i f i e d  the p o i n t a t which a student was  "stuck" w i t h a c l i e n t and r e q u i r e d the student t o r o l e - p l a y an a p p r o p r i a t e new s k i l l u n t i l i t was mastered. Subcategory  3:  P r o v i d e s s t r u c t u r e and d i r e c t i o n f o r t r a i n e e s .  I n c i d e n t s i n t h i s group concern o n l y i n e f f e c t i v e educator Educators  behaviours.  do not b e l i e v e t h a t they a r e i n a p o s i t i o n to teach  students  a n y t h i n g of use. They do not p r o v i d e s t r u c t u r e or d i r e c t i o n f o r t r a i n e e s , do not t a l k about course c o n t e n t , and are d i s o r g a n i z e d .  -  Example:  56  A p r o f e s s o r t a u g h t w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t he o r she c o u l d n ' t teach students anything, saying, " I t ' s a farce. Logically, w h a t do y o u t h i n k I c a n t e a c h y o u ? Your experiences w i l l t e a c h you out t h e r e " .  Subcategory  4:  Presents  subject matter nondogmatically.  t e a c h i n g new t e c h n i q u e s  to students,  own d e c i s i o n s  the u s e f u l n e s s  Example:  Ineffective biases  regarding  behaviours  the r a c i a l  Example:  In  5:  and m u t u a l s u p p o r t  one c a s e ,  Example:  t o make  their  techniques.  communicate  an e d u c a t o r e x p r e s s e s is  their  a personal  communicated a b i a s a g a i n s t the use o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t he o r she was t e a c h i n g  the processes  bias  a member.  A s s i g n s group p r o j e c t s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . of group growth,  sharing  of  some to  The insights,  versus competition.  I n a c o u r s e a b o u t a s e t o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s , a p r o f e s s o r gave group a s i g n m e n t s , saying s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n f r o m one a n o t h e r r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t e f o r marks.  I n e f f e c t i v e behaviours presentations  the  group of which a student  facilitates  Example:  of  allow students  c o n c e r n t i m e s when e d u c a t o r s  A professor counselling students.  Subcategory educator  educators  When  A professor taught a c o n t r o v e r s i a l technique i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h a n o n d o g m a t i c a p p r o a c h , a p p l y i n g no p r e s s u r e on a s t u d e n t t o a d o p t t h e t e c h n i q u e , s a y i n g , " Y o u c a n make y o u r own d e c i s i o n s " .  to students.  against  -  c o n c e r n t i m e s when f r e q u e n t  seem t o r e p l a c e t e a c h i n g by  student  group  educators.  I n a c o u r s e about c o u n s e l l i n g , a p r o f e s s o r gave a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o make p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o e a c h o t h e r ; the p r o f e s s o r seldom taught the c l a s s .  - 57 -  Subcategory 6:  Gives extensive feedback on w r i t t e n assignments.  In  t h i s group of i n c i d e n t s , educators meet with students p r i v a t e l y and give point-by-point feedback about t h e i r w r i t t e n assignments. Example:  A professor discusses at length both strong and weak points i n a student's paper a f t e r a c o u n s e l l i n g course was completed.  Category I :  Summary of trainee outcomes.  Trainees reported that they  learned how to use new s k i l l s and techniques and incorporate them i n t o t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g r e p o r t o i r e . They gained i n s i g h t i n t o theories and acquired a strong t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r t h e i r own c o u n s e l l i n g .  In cases  where students were employed, t h e i r on-the-job performance improved. f e l t challenged by educators to take r i s k s . for them. not l e a r n .  They  Their professors were models  When there was a lack of s t r u c t u r e , students floundered and d i d Group presentations were experienced as h e l p f u l when they  reduced anxiety and encouraged student e x p l o r a t i o n . They were not h e l p f u l when trainees f e l t that inexperiened peers could only teach so much and they wanted more expert i n s t r u c t i o n from professors.  Finally,  educators'  negative biases were "lapped up" by t r a i n e e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s of i n t e r e s t and l e a r n i n g .  Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category involve a d i d a c t i c element where educators give trainees concrete feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours; and an e x p e r i e n t i a l element where educators o f f e r trainees a f a c i l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p characterized by genuineness, p o s i t i v e regard and support.  - 58 -  Subcategory I ;  Couples feedback about trainees' i n e f f e c t i v e  c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours w i t h feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours.  Educators balance t h e i r comments about where students go wrong  i n t h e i r counselling sessions w i t h comments about t h e i r successful behaviours. Example:  A professor balanced c r i t i c a l , confrontative comments about a student's counselling w i t h supportive, p o s i t i v e comments.  Subcategory 2: Encourages trainees by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours.  Educators make supportive, encouraging  remarks to trainees about t h e i r performance and accomplishments.  They  reassure trainees that i t ' s normal to be nervous and make mistakes.  They  express i n t e r e s t i n and acceptance of trainees as people. Example:  A professor gave a student p o s i t i v e feedback and encouragement such as, "Look at what you've accomplished", and, " I t ' s normal to make mistakes".  Subcategory 3:  I n s t r u c t s trainees by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r  i n e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours.  Educators point out where trainees go  wrong i n t h e i r sessions and suggest what they could do d i f f e r e n t l y . Mistakes are used i n a matter-of-fact way to teach more e f f e c t i v e approaches. humour.  Negative feedback i s given gently, c a r l n g l y , often w i t h  At times, educators confront students w i t h t h e i r lack of progress  and need to change. Example:  A professor viewed a student's counselling tape and pointed out where the student had gone wrong i n a supportive way and suggested what could be done d i f f e r e n t l y .  I n e f f e c t i v e behaviours involve negative confrontative feedback to i n d i v i d u a l students or groups that i s often unexpected. manner that i s threatening, c r i t i c a l and superior.  Educators have a  Other i n e f f e c t i v e  - 59 -  behaviours include a lack of evaluative feedback altogether or comments that are vague. Example:  A professor unexpectedly t o l d a counselling class that they weren't making s a t i s f a c t o r y progress, t h e i r performance i n counselling was not up to standard, and that some people would f a i l .  Category I I : Summary of trainees outcomes.  When p o s i t i v e and  negative feedback was given at the same time, students reported that they learned about themselves, both i n and out of the counsellor r o l e .  Feedback  about t h e i r p o s i t i v e counselling behaviours also resulted i n learning and growth.  Trainees f e l t comfortable to take r i s k s , make mistakes, and bring  up issues without f e e l i n g judged.  They gained confidence i n themselves.  When they received feedback about t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours w i t h i n the context of a caring r e l a t i o n s h i p , trainees reported f e e l i n g receptive and able to l e a r n from the feedback.  When the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions were not  present, they f e l t unsafe and closed.  Students described f e e l i n g  humiliated, threatened, raped, shocked, angry, and a f r a i d .  exposed,  They tended to  withdraw f o r s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n , l o s t confidence, and d i d not l e a r n the counselling s k i l l s .  Moreover, students who received vague or l i t t l e  feedback f e l t that they had missed out and learned l e s s .  Category I I I :  Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions w i t h  Trainees as C l i e n t s In the i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category, the c r i t i c a l element i n v o l v e s educators teaching trainees by means of modelling.  Trainees both observe  the demonstration of s k i l l s and learn e x p e r i e n t l a l l y by p a r t i c i p a t i n g as clients.  - 60 -  Subcategory 1: Demonstrates c o u n s e l l i n g techniques with trainees as clients.  Educators teach trainees how to use techniques by conducting  a c t u a l counselling sessions with trainees as t h e i r c l i e n t s . Example:  A professor demonstrated a counselling technique to a student by going through i t with the student as a c l i e n t .  Subcategory 2:  Demonstrates the basic counselling interview to  novices with trainees as c l i e n t s .  Educators show novices what counselling  can be by having them p a r t i c i p a t e i n sessions as c l i e n t s . Example:  A professor demonstrated a counselling interview with a student as the c l i e n t during the f i r s t hour of a course.  Subcategory 3: members.  Models group leadership s k i l l s with trainees as group  Educators lead groups and demonstrate the s k i l l of e f f e c t i v e  group leadership with trainees as group members. Example:  A student was a member of a group which a professor l e d very skillfully.  Category I I I : Summary of trainees outcomes.  Students reported  that  they s u c c e s s f u l l y learned how techniques worked when educators modelled them.  They also acquired ideas about how to run groups e f f e c t i v e l y .  Novice counsellors r e a l i z e d the r e a l power and value of counselling when they found themselves responding more openly i n the basic (Egan) i n t e r v i e w than they might have expected. open to l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s .  Their fears were allayed and they were more Trainees learned about themselves on a  personal l e v e l while p a r t i c i p a t i n g as c l i e n t s .  - 61 -  Category IV:  Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to  Trainees Incidents assigned to t h i s category describe s i t u a t i o n s where educators openly share t h e i r personal experiences with t r a i n e e s , are f a l l i b l e human beings, and avoid taking a one-up p o s i t i o n with trainees. They show respect f o r trainees. Subcategory 1:  Genuinely s e l f - d i s c l o s e s and shares personal  experiences w i t h t r a i n e e s .  Educators share w i t h trainees t h e i r personal  l i f e experiences and philosophies. They i n d i c a t e to students that i s i s a l r i g h t f o r students to ask them personal questions.  In s o c i a l s e t t i n g s ,  educators remain genuine and n a t u r a l . Example:  A professor spoke about or 'shared' h i s or her personal l i f e experiences and philosophy with students, p a r t i c u l a r l y while undergoing a p a i n f u l experience i n h i s or her personal life.  Subcategory 2: being:  Shows respect f o r t r a i n e e s and i s a f a l l i b l e human  avoids the one-up p o s i t i o n .  A f t e r educators harshly disagree with  students, they come back l a t e r and apologize, making an e f f o r t to understand the students' point of view.  In c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , they  explore issues without n e c e s s a r i l y having to be r i g h t .  They i n v i t e  feedback about themselves as counsellors and teachers and laughingly admit t h e i r own mistakes. Example:  A f t e r a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p between a professor and student erupted i n the professor v e r b a l l y a t t a c k i n g the student, the professor l a t e r apologized and took the time to t r y and understand the student and eventually to respect the student's c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e .  - 62 -  I n e f f e c t i v e behaviours include such events as educators t e l l i n g students that they don't have a r i g h t to disagree with them.  When students are  involved i n a c o n f l i c t or d i f f i c u l t y of some kind with educators, educators are not open to students' feedback and points of view.  They show  i n s e n s i t i v i t y toward students by g i v i n g students excessive favours and compliments i n front of other students. Example:  When a professor's behaviour toward a student had become a problem f o r the student, the l a t t e r discussed t h i s p r i v a t e l y w i t h the professor. The professor responded by throwing i t back onto the student with comments such as, "You are being s i l l y and over-reacting".  Category IV:  Summary of t r a i n e e outcomes. When educators o f f e r e d  f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions to t r a i n e e s , trainees experienced the educators as models. genuine.  They saw ways of being open, compassionate, understanding, and Educators modelled methods of i n t e g r a t i n g the counsellor r o l e  i n t o one's p e r s o n a l i t y .  The n o n - s t r a t i f i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p resulted i n  students f e e l i n g comfortable, non-threatened, f r e e r to take r i s k s , and more open to d i s c u s s i o n and l e a r n i n g .  Students f e l t accepted by and closer to  educators when the l a t t e r s e l f - d i s c l o s e d .  When educators t o l d students  that they didn't have a r i g h t to disagree, students were embarassed i n front of t h e i r peers, u n c e r t a i n , and f e l t put-down. their learning.  This proved to block  When educators d i d not accept student feedback, the  problems betweem them were not resolved, again r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s of learning.  Students who were h i g h l y favoured were i s o l a t e d by t h e i r peers,  withdrew i n c l a s s , skipped c l a s s e s , and l o s t the opportunity to l e a r n .  - 63 -  Category V: Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n the Context of A F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Incidents w i t h i n t h i s category concern r e l a t i o n s h i p - o r i e n t e d e x p e r i e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and events.  Educators f a c i l i t a t e t r a i n e e s '  e x p l o r a t i o n of personal and sometimes problematical f e e l i n g s and behaviours, r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the counsellor r o l e .  Subcategory  1: F a c i l i t a t e s t r a i n e e s ' e x p l o r a t i o n of problematical  f e e l i n g s and behaviours.  Educators focus on t r a i n e e s ' issues such as  f e e l i n g s of inadequacy as counsellors and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication. They explore with students a l t e r n a t e ways to e f f e c t i v e l y handle disagreements. Example:  When appropriate, they counsel students. A professor explored with a student the l a t t e r ' s f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and f r u s t r a t i o n i n the counsellor r o l e .  Subcategory 2: Explores w i t h trainees t h e i r personal reactions to issues from c o u n s e l l i n g sessions.  Educators focus on ways i n which  trainees deal i n t h e i r own l i v e s with the issues that c l i e n t s present. They explore how trainees f e e l during sessions as they respond to c l i e n t s . Example:  When g i v i n g feedback to a student, a professor encouraged the student to focus on h i s or her personal experience with the c l i e n t ' s issue (e.g. anger).  Subcategory 3: Confronts t r a i n e e s when appropriate.  When the moment  i s r i g h t , educators confront and push trainees toward growth and change. They t e l l trainees when the l a t t e r have personal problems that need attention. Example:  A professor p r i v a t e l y confronted a student about the l a t t e r ' s inappropriate behaviour i n c l a s s , suggesting that the student should seek help for personal problems.  -  64  -  Subcategory 4: Requires trainees to explore i n w r i t t e n assignments t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s , values, and experiences.  Educators  assign trainees the task of examining t h e i r own experiences and reactions i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c areas i n c o u n s e l l i n g . Example:  A professor gave an assignment that forced a student to examine h i s or her personal experiences and values i n r e l a t i o n to an area of c o u n s e l l i n g .  Subcategory 5: Required trainees to p a r t i c i p a t e i n counselling as c l i e n t s and report t h e i r experiences.  Students become members of a group  or seek out a p a r t i c u l a r type of counselling and then report t h e i r experiences. Example:  A professor gave an assignment which required students to experience a type of counselling f o r several sessions and then write about i t .  Category V:  Summary of trainee outcomes.  When educators explored  with trainees t h e i r problematical f e e l i n g s and behaviours, trainees saw t h e i r professors d i f f e r e n t l y : educators.  trainees gained  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  Students became more open about discussing t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n  the counsellor r o l e and learned how to become more e f f e c t i v e as counsellors.  When trainees focused on t h e i r personal reactions  during  sessions with c l i e n t s , they f e l t as though they were f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g as equals i n the feedback sessions. for t r a i n e e s .  This was a powerful learning experience  The c r i t i c a l point of being confronted  by a professor was  experienced as intense and p a i n f u l , but r e s u l t e d i n p o s i t i v e growth and change.  Trainees acquired personal i n s i g h t and useful counselling tools  when examining t h e i r personal values, a t t i t u d e s , and experiences.  Finally,  when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c l i e n t r o l e , they learned about themselves and about how i t f e e l s to be i n the c l i e n t ' s p o s i t i o n .  - 65 -  Independent Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Check Raters (A and B) were provided with category and subcategory  titles.  They were required to independently c l a s s i f y the 84 i n c i d e n t s under the given headings.  The researcher read the headings to the r a t e r s and  provided b r i e f explanations when requested.  Raters were t o l d that,  although a l l headings were worded p o s i t i v e l y , one-quarter of incidents were negative.  Examples were given of ways i n which subcategory headings could  be read as negative headings. Both raters completed hour.  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task i n approximately one  An 84.5% or 85% l e v e l of agreement was found between Rater A's  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the c r i t e r i o n ; a 90.5% or 91% l e v e l of agreement with the c r i t e r i o n was found f o r Rater B.  Due to the small number of i n c i d e n t s  contained i n some subcategories, i t was decided that only basic l e v e l categories would be included i n the r e l i a b i l i t y check.  I t has been  recommended that the basic l e v e l i s the optimal l e v e l of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n f o r an e f f e c t i v e presentation of data (Rosch, 1975).  ( I t i s noted i n passing,  however, that l e v e l s of agreement between subcategories and the c r i t e r i o n for Rater A and Rater B were 79.8% or 80% and 83.3% or 83%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) According to the category formation research, incidents form a continuum of category membership.  P r o t o t y p i c a l incidents are e a s i l y  c l a s s i f i e d , while "fuzzy" i n c i d e n t s possessing a t t r i b u t e s of more than on category are l e s s r e l i a b i l y c l a s s i f i e d (McCloskey & Glucksberg, 1978). This explanation appears to account f o r those instances when the independent  r a t e r s d i d not agree with the c r i t e r i o n i n the present study.  For example, the f o l l o w i n g incident was c l a s s i f i e d d i f f e r e n t l y by Rater A than by the researcher:  - 66 -  A professor interrupted a student's counselling session and t o l d the student exactly what to say and how to say i t to the c l i e n t . In the c r i t e r i o n , the above incident was a member of Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees. I t i s an example of a time when a professor teaches an i n t e r v e n t i o n i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to a trainee's case. incident i n Category I I :  Rater A, on the other hand, placed t h i s  Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees'  Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p . Rater A judged the incident to be an example of a time when an educator gives feedback about a trainee's i n e f f e c t i v e  counselling behaviours. The  incident c l e a r l y i s a member of both categories at the same time. (For t h i s i n c i d e n t , Rater B agreed with the c r i t e r i o n ) . In conclusion, the f i v e basic categories were found to be r e l i a b l e . Two independent, raters agreed i n the majority of cases ( a t 85% and 91% l e v e l s of agreement) with the researcher's basic l e v e l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the data.  Instances of disagreement were accounted f o r by the concept of  "fuzzy sets" where nonprototypic members possessed q u a l i t i e s of more than one category at the same time.  - 67 -  CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS  The f i n a l chapter of t h i s paper i s divided i n t o the f o l l o w i n g areas to f a c i l i t a t e discussion:  the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, the t h e o r e t i c a l and  p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r counsellor education, and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r future research.  The chapter concludes with a summary of the study.  Excerpts from the c r i t i c a l incident interviews are included i n order to i l l u m i n a t e the categories of e f f e c t i v e behaviours found i n t h i s study. In t h i s study, counselling students reported a t o t a l of 84 i n c i d e n t s which f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered  t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  S i x t y - f i v e events  were p o s i t i v e or f a c i l i t a t i v e while 19 events were negative or hindering. These 84 i n c i d e n t s could be economically  reduced to 5 basic categories,  3 of which contained both p o s i t i v e and negative incidents and 2 of which contained only p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s .  I t was found that these categories were  r e l i a b l e i n the sense that independent judges could use them to categorize i n c i d e n t s with over 80% agreement, which i s an accepted cutoff point i n determining 1964).  the r e l i a b i l i t y of a set of categories (Andersson & N i l s s o n ,  R e l i a b l e agreement provides assurance that the categories were an  adequate r e f l e c t i o n of the actual i n c i d e n t s .  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Several f a c t o r s l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the findings of the present study.  F i r s t , the most serious l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s the  r e s t r i c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the sample.  The subjects were few i n number  (N = 24) and drawn from only one counselling program. subjects were r e c r u i t e d on a volunteer basis.  Second, the 24  Borg and G a l l (1979) stated  - 68 -  that volunteer subjects are l i k e l y to be a biased sample of the target population; f o r example, volunteers tend to be more i n t e l l i g e n t and higher i n need f o r s o c i a l approval than nonvolunteers.  Given the l i m i t e d nature  of the sample, t h i s study might be characterized as an i n t e n s i v e case study of one c o u n s e l l i n g department. T h i r d , another f a c t o r which l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s i s the use of subject s e l f - r e p o r t and r e c a l l of i n c i d e n t s . C o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g reported t h e i r perceptions of i n c i d e n t s which occurred i n the recent past.  Although one could argue that people's  perceptions and memories are subjective and s e l e c t i v e , the c r i t i c a l incident category i s t y p i c a l l y formed by d i f f e r e n t people reporting the same kinds of events.  In the sense that d i f f e r e n t people  independently  produced s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t s , categories were formed o b j e c t i v e l y . Fourth, although the basic categories found i n t h i s study were formulated by one researcher and hence were subject to personal b i a s , the categories were r e l i a b l e and corroborated the a v a i l a b l e evidence  concerning  e f f e c t i v e behaviours from the research l i t e r a t u r e . In summary, due to the r e s t r i c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample i n terms of i t s s i z e , l o c a t i o n , and volunteer s t a t u s , the categories are not generalizable to a l l c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g .  Consequently,  the r e s u l t s of  t h i s study are regarded as t e n t a t i v e and exploratory i n nature.  Theoretical Implications Congruence between Categories and T h e o r e t i c a l Models The f i v e basic categories found i n t h i s study formed a continuum of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours that ranged from a purely d i d a c t i c approach to a purely e x p e r i e n t i a l approach.  Most e f f e c t i v e educator  behaviours,  - 69 -  however, involved a combination or i n t e g r a t i o n of these two approaches. The f i r s t category, e n t i t l e d :  Teaches New  Counselling S k i l l s ,  Techniques, and Theories to Trainees, f e l l w i t h i n the realm of the d i d a c t i c - s y s t e m a t i c theories of counsellor t r a i n i n g .  Counselling  students  reported that teaching was h e l p f u l when i t had d i r e c t relevance to t h e i r c l i e n t cases.  They preferred an unbiased, nondogmatic presentation of  information which allowed them the freedom to form t h e i r own opinions.  For  some t r a i n e e s , the use of group assignments was f a c i l i t a t i v e , while f o r others, i t hindered t h e i r l e a r n i n g .  On the whole, trainees appreciated  sound teaching techniques and the p r o v i s i o n of structure and d i r e c t i o n . One  student described an e f f e c t i v e teaching method i n the f o l l o w i n g  way: I f i n d that a l o t of people who I take courses from here l i v e i n t h e i r jargon and they don't l i v e with the kind of everyday language that teachers and counsellors do. W e l l , t h i s professor has the s k i l l to f i l t e r a l l that s t u f f down from the jargon so that i t makes sense. That's a unique teaching s k i l l . For another student, the l e a r n i n g of a p a r t i c u l a r technique  was  significant: In a l l the years that I've been here, the use of that [counselling technique] has been the most important thing of a l l . The second and t h i r d basic categories involved the use of feedback and modelling.  These are c e n t r a l t r a i n i n g behaviours i n the  didactic-systematic approach.  However, trainees also reported that these  a c t i v i t i e s were coupled with r e l a t i o n s h i p - e x p e r i e n t i a l elements: was embedded i n a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p with the professor and involved an e x p e r i e n t i a l component.  Feedback  modelling  - 70 -  In Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p , feedback was sometimes given to trainees i n a c l e a r , step-wise  fashion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  microtraining: He was very concise and s p e c i f i c with h i s feedback. He gave a reasonable amount without overloading you, he timed i t w e l l , and he presented i t i n a relaxed f a s h i o n . 1  A strong educator-trainee r e l a t i o n s h i p was  found to f a c i l i t a t e the hearing  of feedback on the part of the t r a i n e e : I f e e l that I established some r e a l l y good r e l a t i o n s h i p s with my professors t h i s year. They were r e a l l y r e a l l y h e l p f u l . I t ' s much e a s i e r to take c r i t i c i s m and that type of thing when you know that they're saying i t c a r i n g l y . I t makes i t easier to l i s t e n to feedback. When a student received confrontative feedback without the presence of a f a c i l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , the feedback was  less effective:  You can't have confrontation without a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The reason why the confrontation was so negative to me was because she had no idea of where I was personally, as we had no r e l a t i o n s h i p . She was making such personal statements that had nothing to do with her knowledge of who I was. So I f e l t ripped off i n that sense. A s i m i l a r viewpoint was expressed by another student: I don't think that confrontation takes place without a t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A confrontation takes place i n a s i t u a t i o n of t r u s t and not i n a s i t u a t i o n where people are going to f e e l exposed i n front of the group.  References to the gender of professors have been alternated by the researcher.  - 71 -  The f i n d i n g s f o r Category I I , t h e r e f o r e , confirmed the c e n t r a l c l i e n t centred tenet that trainees learn best when a supervisor-offered facilitative  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s present, as w e l l as the d i d a c t i c p r i n c i p l e  that l e a r n i n g i s concrete and progressive. Category I I I , e n t i t l e d :  Models by Demonstrating Counselling  Interventions with Trainees as C l i e n t s , confirmed elements of both d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g approaches.  Trainees reported that i t was  h e l p f u l to see a counsellor i n a c t i o n : I t was a masterpiece of teaching, the way he had i t a l l down. I t helped me i n the sense that I thought, Hey, i f I run a [group] that's how I want to have i t run. He was r e a l l y modelling how to run a [group] and I f e l t he d i d a damn good job of i t . The student was, on one l e v e l , experiencing the group process, and on another l e v e l , watching and noting how the professor was leading the group.  A student who was new to c o u n s e l l i n g found i t very e f f e c t i v e when a  professor modelled an interview with the student as the c l i e n t : We had done the Egan s k i l l s and. I though we were beating them to death. I f e l t l i k e I was progressing, but i t wasn't u n t i l I saw her apply them, u n t i l I f e l t those s k i l l s , I experienced them, I saw them i n action [that I r e a l i s e d what c o u n s e l l i n g can be]. She drew some things out of me i n front of everybody that I didn't think I would say. That had an impact. F i n a l l y , when a student volunteered to be a c l i e n t while a professor demonstrated  a c o u n s e l l i n g technique, the student experienced the power of  the technique: I volunteered f o r the demonstration of the technique. [Being the c l i e n t ] was such a powerful experience. That most probably had as much impact on me as any s i n g l e experience i n counselling.  - 72 -  This category confirmed modelling combined with an e x p e r i e n t i a l component as an e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g approach. Together, the f i r s t three categories confirmed the f i n d i n g s of Worthington and Roehlke (1979) as described i n the l i t e r a t u r e review and summed up by the authors as f o l l o w s : Beginning practicum counselors seemed to rate supervision as b e t t e r when t h e i r supervisors more d i r e c t l y taught them how to counsel w i t h i n a supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p and then encouraged them to t r y out the newly learned counseling s k i l l s i n order to incorporate those s k i l l s that were found to be f a c i l i t a t i v e i n t o t h e i r own s t y l e s . (p. 70) The fourth and f i f t h categories supported principles.  In Category IV, e n t i t l e d :  the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d t r a i n i n g  Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions  ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees, students saw methods of i n t e g r a t i n g the c o u n s e l l i n g role into one's p e r s o n a l i t y .  In the words of  one t r a i n e e : He was open, compassionate, understanding that counsellors are supposed to be.  and a l l these things  Another trainee was appreciative of the genuineness of a professor: Somehow the prof came across as being very genuine and as concerned with us as i n d i v i d u a l s as she was about the content of the course. That's the only course that I've ever had l i k e that i n my whole h i s t o r y of u n i v e r s i t y . I t was a r e v e l a t i o n . She provided great modelling f o r me. F i n a l l y , a student was profoundly influenced when a supervisor offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions:  - 73 -  The professor influenced me a great deal because be was a model of what he was teaching and that i s the f i r s t time that I have ever experienced that. I've always experienced professors who distanced themselves from t h e i r topic i n my previous u n i v e r s i t y courses, and they s a i d , Do what I say but don't behave as I am. And t h i s p a r t i c u l a r person r e a l l y modelled. I r e a l l y admire him deeply. He influenced me i n that he has given me a goal to work f o r , an i d e a l , which i s something that you get very seldom. I t ' s quite a g i f t . I t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g too to me that other people d i d not have that response to him, that they didn't appreciate him on that l e v e l , but I r e a l l y d i d . The findings reported here substantiated the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d approach which i n d i c a t e s that students benefit from experiencing the therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p f i r s t h a n d and from seeing t h e i r educators model c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours. The f i n a l category, e n t i t l e d :  Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n  w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p , d i r e c t l y confirmed the r e l a t i o n s h i p - e x p e r i e n t i a l approach.  When educators offered f a c i l i t a t i v e  conditions to t r a i n e e s , the trainees engaged i n s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n e i t h e r during verbal i n t e r a c t i o n s with educators or through assignments.  In one  instance, a student explored during a feedback session how the issue of anger was being handled i n h i s or her own l i f e : With one of my c l i e n t s i t was a r e a l issue of anger and we got i n t o a l l sorts of personal s t u f f around anger. So i t became information that could be used with other people and ourselves. I t was a personal growth thing where we could t a l k about our own experiences plus my reactions to the c l i e n t , how I deal with anger, what I do when I'm dealing with anger. The d i s c u s s i o n that came out was safe, but was also a powerful learning experience. When a professor confronted herself:  a student, the student learned about him or  - 74 -  She was very gentle, and yet at the same time she would stand f o r absolutely no b u l l s h i t . She would challenge anybody i f they were incongruent, but not i n the way of putting them down. She would gently say to them, But t h i s i s the case, i s n ' t i t ? And they couldn't deny i t . I t was important for me i n that I learned about my d i r e c t i v e n e s s , my tendency to be a teacher and a d i r e c t o r and not to hear what people were a c t u a l l y saying. She s a i d , Look, t h i s and t h i s happened. And I was able to see i t then and that was the very f i r s t time. With her I was able to accept i t because of her gentleness. The f i v e categories comprising the domain of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours confirmed the s u p e r i o r i t y of i n t e g r a t i v e t r a i n i n g approaches which combine elements of the d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l approaches. Carkhuff (1969) suggested that the use of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions by the t r a i n e r i s c r i t i c a l f o r e f f e c t i v e counsellor t r a i n i n g . was v a l i d a t e d i n the present study.  This p r o p o s i t i o n  Three of the f i v e categories found i n  t h i s study d i r e c t l y described the presence of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions such as respect f o r the student, genuineness, a b i l i t y to confront when appropriate, use of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , and educator openness and flexibility.  When f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions were present, subjects found  that t r a i n e r s ' systematic attempts to impart learnings through d i r e c t teaching, the use of feedback, and modelling were more e f f e c t i v e .  In  Carkhuff's words: Those [programs] demonstrating p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s attempt s p e c i f i c a l l y to provide an e x p e r i e n t i a l base i n which the trainees have the f i r s t h a n d experience of high l e v e l s of conditions while at the same time they teach d i d a c t i c a l l y the necessary d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and communication of both f a c i l i t a t i v e and a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d c o n d i t i o n s . (p. 10) Carkhuff described the kind of modelling e f f e c t s that were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r subjects i n the present study:  - 75 -  The t r a i n e r s are not simply imparters of accumulated wisdom but also c o n s t i t u t e models for e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g . I f they themselves are l i v i n g e f f e c t i v e l y , the trainees have an opportunity to l e a r n to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y , (p. 9 - 10) F i n a l l y , i t was found that educators can have a deleterious students' counselling behaviours.  e f f e c t on  Students reported periods of time when  they l o s t ground, were unable to perform, f e l t distrubed  i n t h e i r personal  l i v e s and were not growing p r o f e s s i o n a l l y as a r e s u l t of an i n t e r a c t i o n with an educator.  Carkhuff has proposed that:  "Training  i n the helping  professions may be f o r better or for worse" (p. 6 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that trainees' experiences confirmed elements of the psychoanalytic t r a i n i n g approach.  For some t r a i n e e s , t h e i r  i n t e r a c t i o n s with educators d i d indeed bear the marks of a s i g n i f i c a n t human r e l a t i o n s h i p .  As suggested by Ekstein and W a l l e r s t e i n  (1972),  t r a i n e r s can best convey t h e i r knowledge by drawing on both t h e i r therapy and teaching s k i l l s . nature of counsellor  The findings of t h i s study have supported t h i s dual education.  Psychoanalytic authors have w r i t t e n about the dangers of educators adopting a one-up p o s i t i o n with trainees.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study  confirmed that when t r a i n e r s were accessible and adopted a n o n - s t r a t i f i e d p o s i t i o n v i s - S - v i s t r a i n e e s , trainees f e l t safer to take r i s k s and l e a r n . In a d d i t i o n , trainees f e l t safe to engage i n s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n .  On the  other hand, when t r a i n e r s adopted a one-up p o s i t i o n , trainees became f e a r f u l , anxious, and preoccupied with s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n .  For example, when  they received feedback from professors who appeared to be superior and c o n t r o l l i n g , trainees reported f e e l i n g s of threat, h u m i l i a t i o n , shock,  - 76 -  f e a r , and v i o l a t i o n . educator  A student described at length the impact of such  behaviours:  There was one professor — I think that when he would counsel he was outstanding, but something happened when he became a teacher. He was hard on people. I t was h i s a b i l i t y to always be i n c o n t r o l , always have the power and i n some ways to hurt people. He was so superior, so p e r f e c t , and so powerful. He frightened people and c o n t r o l l e d and manipulated. His choice of when to confront was too much, too o f t e n , and too consistent. In that c l a s s , people were r e a l l y anxious. We put so much energy i n t o p r o t e c t i n g ourselves that we couldn't put as much energy i n t o l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s . I thought, I f you're going to be a professor doing c o u n s e l l i n g , you should be a r o l e model. I thought of myself as I f I were a c l i e n t i n that class and that c l i e n t s don't need to be put i n t o a more vulnerable p o s i t i o n by t h i s kind of attack. For me, I learned some of the negative things that I wouldn't want to do myself. Writers form the psychoanalytic school have r e f l e c t e d on the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of students i n t r a i n i n g .  As discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e  review, f o r some students, judgement about performance i s very connected with t h e i r self-image.  This point was i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g student  report: I'm very touchy on the whole issue of my age and the fact that I've had some experience before coming into the counselling program. I was t r y i n g so darn hard. I was r e a l l y anxious to do w e l l , so any l i t t l e negative s t u f f I got, I r e a l l y took to heart. What happened to me was I would get so wound up i n reacting to the c r i t i c a l comments that I wouldn't hear anything else that the professor might have said which might have been p o s i t i v e , because I was so upset. Another student came into the program with very high expectations of him or h e r s e l f and the f a c u l t y : I came i n t o the program with tremendously high expectations: This i s my year. This i s going to be my year to get my l i f e together, to l e a r n a new d i r e c t i o n for my career. A l s o , my  - 77 expectations of the s t a f f at the u n i v e r s i t y was that they were wise people; t h i s was higher l e a r n i n g . Greenberg (1980) suggested that the manner i n which a supervisor gives feedback determines the degree to which a student w i l l f e e l safe to hear the feedback and to s e l f - d i s c l o s e .  A student i n the study described an  educator who created a safe environment during feedback sessions so that the student f e l t free to bring up h i s or her mistakes: I think her a t t i t u d e was that i t didn't matter what you s a i d , i t was okay. I didn't f e e l the l e a s t b i t apprehensive about bringing up r e a l l y stupid things that I'd done i n front of other students i n the c l a s s . She made i t easy f o r you to do that. S i m i l a r f e e l i n g s of safety were reported by another student: He had an impact on me as a person and as a p r o f e s s i o n a l as w e l l . He had an i n t e r e s t i n you not only as a student but as a person. He gave supportive feedback. I f e l t understood by him. I j u s t f e l t comfortable to bring issues and t a l k about my c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s and my needs and my flaws without f e e l i n g threatened or judged. The psychoanalytic t h e o r i s t s have accurately captured some of the trainee experiences and perceptions reported i n the present  study.  Another integrated t r a i n i n g approach i s the developmental perspective on trainee growth.  The f i n d i n g s of the present study, however, n e i t h e r  comfirmed or denied the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s method.  No c l e a r sense of  stages of development was indicated i n the i n c i d e n t s . In f a c t , i t i s more l i k e l y that educators and supervisors would be i n a better p o s i t i o n to comment on the developmental needs of t r a i n e e s .  Students might be expected  to have d i f f i c u l t y conceptualizing and a r t i c u l a t i n g the stages i n t h e i r growth process.  own  - 78 -  S e t t i n g of Incidents Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h i s study was that c o u n s e l l o r s - i n t r a i n i n g reported that educators f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered  their professional  growth i n a l l phases or settings of a counselling program.  While 52% of  i n c i d e n t s occurred during a supervised lab or c l i n i c , another 36% of i n c i d e n t s occurred i n a course, 11% during an o f f i c e interview, and  1%  during a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . These findings did not support the e x c l u s i v e focus found i n counsellor t r a i n i n g research on the supervision of trainees.  In the l i t e r a t u r e , supervision most often r e f e r s to "that part  of the o v e r a l l t r a i n i n g of mental health professionals that deals with modifying  t h e i r actual in-therapy behaviours"  (Lambert, 1980,  425).  This  d e f i n i t i o n excludes p r i m a r i l y d i d a c t i c aspects of t r a i n i n g such as classroom teaching.  I t excludes as w e l l purely personal aspects of  t r a i n i n g such as quasi-therapy  experiences.  I t was  found i n t h i s study  that trainees' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth was promoted by d i d a c t i c and  personal  exploration experiences as w e l l as by d i r e c t supervision of t h e i r in-therapy behaviours.  P r a c t i c a l Implications The recommendations which f o l l o w from t h i s study's categories considered  are  to be most e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n the context of a f a c i l i t a t i v e  relationship.  This i s deemed a necessary condition f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g  trainees' sense of safety and openness to l e a r n i n g .  The  practical  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the findings are apparent from the l i s t of categories subcategories  of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours.  and  The r e s u l t s of the  research i n d i c a t e that educators of counselling trainees increase t h e i r  - 79 -  e f f e c t i v e n e s s by teaching students s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , techniques, and t h e o r i e s ; by g i v i n g students concrete feedback, both p o s i t i v e and about t h e i r counselling behaviours; by modelling  negative,  interventions using  trainees as c l i e n t s ; by o f f e r i n g f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions such as genuineness and respect to trainees; and by encouraging trainee s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n as r e l a t e d to counselling issues. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that educators should be cognizant of the impact they exert on students' growth i n a l l phases of the program, whether they are supervising students, teaching a course, conducting an interview i n t h e i r o f f i c e , or chatting over a beer at a s o c i a l event.  In f a c t ,  everything that educators do seems to p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t trainee growth. They are regarded by trainees as personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l models. Trainees may  look to them as people possessing  greater  development and perhaps greater personal wisdom.  professional  Trainees are looking f o r  ways to integrate t h e i r newly developing counselling s k i l l s with t h e i r unique p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They look to educators as models of ways i n which to accomplish such an i n t e g r a t i o n .  A trainee v i v i d l y describes t h i s process  as f o l l o w s : I think that when you are going through t h i s program, you suddenly f i n d yourself wearing t h i s hat that doesn't f i t . You know, the counselling s k i l l s are l i k e a hat that's too small or a hat that's too b i g . I t j u s t doesn't f i t you, who you are, and i t ' s r e a l l y hard to bring that s t u f f together; who I am as a person, who I am as a spontaneous, r e a l , genuine, human being, and then there's the s k i l l s . Suddenly I'm leaning forward, and I'm r e f l e c t i n g . Suddenly I'm doing a l l these good things that I never did before. And s t i l l manage to make f r i e n d s . And i t ' s r e a l l y hard to bring that s t u f f together. I think professors who model both high l e v e l counselling s k i l l s , plus are able to maintain t h e i r own spontaneity, t h e i r own genuineness, t h e i r own humanness, i n c l u d i n g t h e i r weaknesses and t h e i r f a u l t s , r e a l l y f a c i l i t a t e counsellor growth i n the program.  - 80 -  The above quotation provides some i n s i g h t into the inner world of c o u n s e l l i n g students involved i n the process of p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Students are very vulnerable during t h i s process and seem to require a great deal of safety and encouragement from educators.  An important  f i n d i n g of t h i s study i s that one of the t r a i n e e s ' c e n t r a l needs i s to maintain self-confidence during the e a r l y stages of a d i f f i c u l t l e a r n i n g process.  E f f e c t i v e educators can a s s i s t by providing support,  encouragement and i n s t r u c t i o n to t r a i n e e s . A student described such feedback i n the f o l l o w i n g way: I found her feedback was supportive, but she didn't p u l l any punches. I f you f e l t you needed a l i t t l e k i c k i n the rear, she didn't p u l l the punches, but she balanced i t with the supportive s t u f f . Where she could f i n d something nice to say she would say i t , and then she would give you the 'whatever'. She didn't h e s i t a t e to be c r i t i c a l i n a negative way, because 'she always coupled i t with support. I f e l t a great deal of support there. :  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study showed that adherence to one t r a i n i n g approach, such as a purely d i d a c t i c - s y s t e m a t i c or a purely r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p e r i e n t i a l approach, would l i m i t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an educator. The trainees reported the s i g n i f i c a n c e of both elements i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  Implications f o r Future Research D i r e c t i o n s f o r future research extended from these findings take several forms.  This i n v e s t i g a t i o n might be considered a p i l o t study f o r a  s i m i l a r but broader i n v e s t i g a t i o n which included students from more than one c o u n s e l l i n g program, generating a l a r g e r pool of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s f o r  - 81 -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o categories. In t h i s way, the present categories would be v e r i f i e d and made more comprehensive, thus enhancing t h e i r v a l i d i t y and usefulness to educators and researchers a l i k e . Worthington and Roehlke (1979) found that educators and students have d i f f e r e n t i a l perceptions of what constitutes f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours.  Future researchers might conceptualize a c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t  study c o n t r a s t i n g and comparing educators' and students' reports; or a study combining educators' and students' reports i n t o one set of categories.  Such a comprehensive c a t e g o r i z a t i o n scheme would extend the  categories found i n the present study, since these categories were derived from only one source:  namely, student reports. On the other hand, the  i n c l u s i o n of student reports would enhance e x i s t i n g instruments of e f f e c t i v e supervisor behaviours commonly used i n research studies ( i . e . the l i s t of 42 e f f e c t i v e supervisor behaviours developed by Worthington Roehlke  [1979]).  and  The generation of a comprehensive c a t e g o r i z a t i o n system  lends i t s e l f to the development of a research instrument f o r p r o f i l i n g counselling programs, and as a method of feedback f o r educators. In a d d i t i o n to student report data, i t i s recommended that r e p l i c a t i o n s of the present study involve the i n c l u s i o n of o b j e c t i v e observations of incidents i n v o l v i n g educators and students and o b j e c t i v e outcome measures of trainees' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  I f there i s an  i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r environment as Lewin suggested (1936), outcome studies ( i . e . trainee c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) should Include data on such relevant v a r i a b l e s as p e r s o n a l i t y , cognitive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and needs of students i n a d d i t i o n to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the supervisory s e t t i n g and educator behaviours which i n t e r a c t to f a c i l i t a t e trainee p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  - 82 -  A f i n a l set of r e p l i c a t i o n s of the present study might be conducted i n r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s such as c l i n i c a l psychology and s o c i a l work i n order to discover the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n t r a i n e e s ' reports of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours.  Summary In t h i s study, c r i t i c a l incidents (Flanagan, 1954)  reported  by  counsellor trainees were used to i n v e s t i g a t e which educator behaviours had f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered students' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  The r e s u l t i n g  trainee reports were categorized and subsequently compared to the domain of e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Moreover, the  i n v e s t i g a t o r questioned whether incidents reported by trainees would occur i n supervised  s e t t i n g s and s e t t i n g s r e l a t e d to supervision (e.g. courses  and interviews with  educators).  C r i t i c a l incident interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour were conducted with a volunteer sample of 24 counsellor trainees (6 males and 18 females) e n r o l l e d i n a masters-level  counselling program at a large u n i v e r s i t y  situated i n an urban center on Canada's west coast.  In a l l , 84 i n c i d e n t s  were reported; 77% of the i n c i d e n t s described e f f e c t i v e or f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours and 23% described i n e f f e c t i v e or hindering behaviours. In a d d i t i o n , i t was supervised  found that 53% of the i n c i d e n t s occurred i n a  s e t t i n g , 36% i n a classroom s e t t i n g , 11% i n a private i n t e r v i e w ,  and 1% i n a s o c i a l s e t t i n g . Five basic categories of incidents were found: New  Category I:  Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees;  Teaches  Category I I :  Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship; Category I I I : Models by  - 83 -  Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as C l i e n t s ; Category IV:  Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to  Trainees; and Category V:  Encourages Trainee S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n the  Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p . acceptable l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y .  These categories demonstrated  The f i n d i n g s suggest that i n t e g r a t i v e  approaches to counsellor t r a i n i n g ( i . e . combined d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l approaches) are more e f f e c t i v e than u n i t a r y t h e o r e t i c a l approaches.  - 84 References Andersson, B. , & N i l s s o n , S. (1964). Studies i n the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Journal of Applied Psychology, 48, 398 - 403. Barnat, M. (1973). Student reactions to the f i r s t supervisory year: R e l a t i o n s h i p and r e s o l u t i o n s . Journal of Education f o r S o c i a l Work, 9^ (3), 3 - 8 . Barnat, M. (1977). 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C r i t i c a l incidents i n counseling: Simulated video experiences f o r t r a i n i n g counselors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 12, 263 - 270. Stenack, R.J., & Dye, H.A. (1982). Behavioural d e s c r i p t i o n s of practicum supervision r o l e s . Counselor Education and Supervision, 21, 295 - 304.  - 88 Stenack, R.J., & Dye, H.A. (1983). Practicum supervision r o l e s : E f f e c t s on supervisee statements. Counselor Education and Supervision, 23, 157 - 168. Stoltenberg, C. (1981). Approaching supervision from a developmental perspective: The counselor complexity model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 59 - 65. Truax, C.B., & Carkhuff, R.R. (1967). Toward e f f e c t i v e counseling and psychotherapy: T r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e . Chicago: Aldine. Truax, C.B., Carkhuff, R.R., & Douds, V. (1964). Towards an i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l approaches to t r a i n i n g i n counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 11, 240 - 247. Weiner, B., R u s s e l l , D., & Lerman, D. (1979). The cognition-emotion process i n achievement-related contexts. Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 3_7, 1211 - 1220. Wittgenstein, L. (1953). MacMillan.  Philosophical investigations.  New York:  Worthington, E.L., J r . , & Roehlke, H.J. (1979). E f f e c t i v e supervision as perceived by beginning c o u n s e l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26, 64 - 73.  - 89 APPENDIX A L e t t e r to Subjects May 15, 1982  Dear  ,  I am a second year M.A. student i n the Counselling Psychology program at U.B.C. This l e t t e r i s a request f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n my research study, e n t i t l e d : "Counsellor Trainee Reports: E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e Educator Behaviours." By exploring some student experiences, t h i s study could contribute to the improved q u a l i t y of our program. I f you agree to be a subject i n my study, we w i l l meet f o r approximately t h i r t y minutes. I w i l l ask you several questions about your unique experiences i n the program t h i s past year. Your responses w i l l be treated with the s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and you may, of course, withdraw from the i n t e r v i e w at any p o i n t . Let me add that your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y voluntary and would be appreciated tremendously. I w i l l be phoning you s h o r t l y to receive your reply. Thank you, i n advance, f o r your consideration of my request. Yours s i n c e r e l y ,  Janet B. Finlayson  - 90 APPENDIX B  Subject Consent Form  T i t l e of Study:  Counsellor Trainee Reports:  E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e  Educator Behaviours  The f o l l o w i n g conditions apply to t h i s study:  a) subjects w i l l remain anonymous; b) names of professors w i l l not be used; c) a l l data w i l l be treated with s t r i c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ; d) subjects are voluntary; e) subjects may withdraw from the interview at any point; f ) the interview w i l l take up to 30 minutes; g) r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e or withdrawal from the study w i l l not influence c l a s s standing i n any  I,  way.  , understand the above conditions  and give my consent to be a subject i n t h i s study. Date:  

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