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Counsellor trainee reports : effective and ineffective educator behaviours Finlayson, Janet Betty 1984

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COUNSELLOR TRAINEE REPORTS: EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE EDUCATOR BEHAVIOURS By JANET BETTY FINLAYSON B.A., McGill University, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 ®Janet Betty Finlayson, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 4, 19 84 )E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT C r i t i c a l incidents (Flanagan, 1954) reported by counsellor trainees were used to investigate which educator behaviours had f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered students' professional growth. The resulting trainee reports were categorized and subsequently compared to the domain of effective educator behaviours i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Moreover, the investigator questioned whether incidents reported by trainees would occur i n supervised settings and i n settings related to supervision (e.g. courses and interviews with educators). C r i t i c a l incident interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour were conducted with a volunteer sample of 24 counsellor trainees (6 males and 18 females) enrolled i n a masters-level counselling program at a large university situated i n an urban center on Canada's west coast. In a l l , 84 incidents were reported; 77% of the incidents described effective or f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours and 23% described ine f f e c t i v e or hindering behaviours. In addition, i t was found that 53% of incidents occurred i n a supervised s e t t i n g , 36% i n a classroom setting, 11% i n a private interview, and 1% i n a s o c i a l setting. Five basic categories of incidents were found: Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees; Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship; Category I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Clients; Category IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to - i i i -Trainees; and Category V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship. These categories demonstrated acceptable levels of r e l i a b i l i t y . The findings suggest that integrative approaches to counsellor training ( i . e . combined didactic and experiential approaches) are more effective than unitary theoretical approaches. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I. SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 5 Def i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Assumptions Underlying the Study 7 Delimitation of the Study 8 Significance of the Study 8 CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 10 Trainee Experiences, Perceptions, and Preferences 10 Relationship-Experiential Training Approach 15 Didactic-Systematic Training Approach 19 Integrated Training Approaches 24 Didactic-Experiential Approach 24 Psychoanalytic Approach 25 Developmental Approach. 29 C r i t i c a l Incident Technique 34 Categorization 34 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 37 Applications 40 CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY 43 Subjects 43 C r i t i c a l Incident Interview 44 Summary of Data Collection and Procedures 47 - v -Page CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 49 Descriptive Data 49 Definitions and Examples of Categories and Subcategories 53 Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees 55 Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship 57 Category I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Clients 59 Category IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees 61 Category V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration Within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship 63 Independent Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Check 65 CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 67 Limitations of the Study 67 Theoretical Implications 68 Congruence Between Categories and Theoretical Models 68 Setting of Incidents 78 P r a c t i c a l Implications 78 Implications for Future Research 80 Summary of Study 82 REFERENCES 84 APPENDICES 89 A. Letter to Subjects 89 B. Subject Consent Form 90 - v i -LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Outline of the C r i t i c a l Incident Interview 45 Table 2 Categories and Subcategories of Effective Educator Behaviours 50 Table 3 Category of Incident by Positive and Negative Nature of Incident 52 Table 4 Category of Incident by Setting of Incident 54 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my gratitude to the chairman of my committee, Dr. L. Cochran, for his guidance, patience, and assistance; and to Dr. R. Armstrong and Dr. R. Young for their interest i n this research endeavour. Many thanks to the counselling students who so generously shared t h e i r time and experience with me. I trust that their experiences have been f a i t h f u l l y represented i n this thesis. To my family and friends, I owe more than I can express. I am deeply grateful to my mother who has supported and believed i n me i n a l l ways possible. I thank my father for teaching me to st r i v e for excellence i n a l l that I do. F i n a l l y , I wish to express my heart-felt thanks to my wonderful friends who have accompanied and strengthened me throughout a growthful and challenging time i n my l i f e . - 1 -CHAPTER I. SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Background of the Study The task of counsellor educators i s to t r a i n counselling students to become effective f a c i l i t a t o r s of human change and development (Peavy, Robertson, & Westwood, 1982). Friesen (1983) recently defined the role of a counsellor as one who assists people i n dealing with the problems of da i l y l i v i n g as they are found " i n the natural contexts of school, family and workplace" (p. 148). Another broad d e f i n i t i o n of the counsellor's role i s one who attempts to free people from immobility and increase their "response capacity"; i n other words, to increase their a b i l i t y to generate new sentences, constructs, behaviours, or thoughts (Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1980). Given the magnitude of the role of professional counsellors as described above, i t i s not surprising to find that the training of counsellors has emerged as an important topic of research over the last twenty years. In the early 1960's, a journal devoted to this topic, Counselor Education and Supervision, began publication i n the United States. Other professional counselling journals have also been concerned with counsellor education and supervision. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of theory and research i n this area i s dominated by a concern with process: that i s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those variables that produce desirable trainee change (Seligman & Baldwin, 1972). Two questions which pertain to process are: What are the components of an effective training program? What sp e c i f i c educator or supervisor - 2 -approaches and behaviours f a c i l i t a t e the professional growth of counsellors-in-training? The l a t t e r question i s the topic of the present study with a focus on the experiences and perceptions of counsellor trainees. D i f f e r i n g approaches to the education and supervision of counsellors-i n - t r a i n i n g have been proposed by proponents of the client-centred, psychoanalytic, s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , and stage theory models of change. In the section which follows, each approach w i l l be b r i e f l y summarized and reviewed i n order to generate a context of th e o r e t i c a l l y effective educator and supervisor behaviours against which to compare student reports. Educators and supervisors concerned with counsellor training have t r a d i t i o n a l l y focused on either a relationship-oriented and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y -based approach to training or a didactic-systematic and pedagogic approach to t r a i n i n g . In the f i r s t approach, t y p i f i e d by the client-centred school, the relationship aspects of the educators' behaviours are emphasized. Rogers (1951, 1957a, 1957b) specified the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t conditions for therapeutic change. These conditions are considered by the client-centred school of therapists to be universally important i n the creation of a f a c i l i t a t i v e environment where an individual's personal growth and change can take place. In their view, counsellor educators and supervisors must also provide such conditions to trainees i n the context of a deep and meaningful relationship. In this way, trainee openness to experience and self-exploration i s promoted, leading towards professional growth. The educator-trainee relationship i s analogous to the counsellor-c l i e n t relationship. In addition, trainees both observe and personally experience the therapeutic effects of the i r supervisors as powerful models. - 3 -An alternate class of effective educator behaviours comprises the didactic-systematic and pedagogic approach to counsellor t r a i n i n g . The emphasis i s on the direct teaching of s k i l l s and the shaping of trainees' counselling behaviours i n accordance with c l e a r l y defined goals. Microcounselling training (Ivey, 1971; Ivey & Authier, 1978; Ivey, Normington, M i l l e r , M o r r i l l , & Haase, 1968) i s an example of a learning theory approach to teaching basic interviewing s k i l l s . Discrete objective interviewer behaviours are taught to novices i n a systematic and progressive fashion. The learning processes are experiential, cognitive, observational, and self-observational. The appropriate relationship analogue i s teacher-student. Haley (1976) also advocates an instructionalmodel of training i n which the task i s to teach therapy as a s k i l l . Supervisors teach s p e c i f i c s k i l l s to trainees i n application to cl e a r l y defined c l i e n t problems. The supervisor-trainee relationship i s analogous to a journeyman-apprentice relationship. There are also supervision models which integrate the above two approaches i n various ways. For example, the psychoanalytic approach involves both a didactic and a relationship orientation to tr a i n i n g . The didactic-experiential approach to training (Carkhuff, 1969; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967; Truax, Carkhuff & Douds, 1964) requires an effec t i v e educator to provide Rogerian f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions designed to nurture trainee s e l f development, to model effective functioning, and to d i d a c t i c a l l y impart and reinforce s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . Their integrative position i s that supervisors of the experiential orientation would become more effec t i v e i f they recognized and used their role as direct influencers or controllers of trainees' behaviours. On the other hand, supervisors of - 4 -the didactic school would become more effective i f they recognized the capacity of a supervisor-offered meaningful therapeutic relationship to e l i c i t from trainees greater personal involvement and exploration, and hence, greater professional growth. Other integrative approaches include a s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c discrimination model i n which a supervisor deliberately selects and functions i n one of three roles: teacher, counsellor, or consultant. A role i s chosen i n order to most e f f e c t i v e l y meet the training needs of a student at any one point i n time (Bernard, 1979). F i n a l l y , a developmental supervision model incorporates a variety of didactic and relationship-oriented behaviours, adopted to meet the needs of trainees as they progress through c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e stages of development ( L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden & Lorenz, 1979; Stoltenberg, 1981). Very l i t t l e research attention has been devoted to the perceptions, experiences, and concerns of the counsellors-in-training. The researcher's interest i n t h i s topic arose from experience as a counsellor-in-training as well as from experience as a public school teacher. How to teach e f f e c t i v e l y and how students learn are questions which have long attracted the interest and imagination of the researcher. The researcher assumes that humans are active, seeking, organizing processors of information (versus "empty organisms"). This position has led to a concern with individual interpretations of the environment and i t s d i f f e r e n t i a l effects and to an interest i n q u a l i t a t i v e and exploratory research. In the present study, the c r i t i c a l incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) was selected to c o l l e c t and categorize student reports of effective and ine f f e c t i v e educator and supervisor behaviours. - 5 -Counsellor educators and supervisors are both teachers and counsellors. As teachers, they have learning objectives for their students and use s p e c i f i c educational approaches to reach those objectives. For example, a supervisor might gather a c l i n i c team together and demonstrate a counselling technique i n order to enhance the trainees' repertoire of responses to a particular aspect of c l i e n t behaviour. As such, knowledge of how students perceive the effectiveness of such approaches i s an important source of feedback to educators. Counsellor educators and supervisors are also counsellors. Whatever theory of change one adheres to as a counsellor, a fundamental f i r s t step for many c l i n i c i a n s i s to enter the world of the c l i e n t i n order to understand how he or she uniquely construes and organizes the world (Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1980). By determining the c l i e n t ' s unique constructions, the counsellor can better devise suitable interventions. S i m i l a r l y , counsellor educators might view the present study as an opportunity to gain access to the construct world of counsellors-in-training. By establishing a detailed map of the trainee's world, the educator as counsellor may be better equipped to intervene and f a c i l i t a t e the learning, growth, and professional development of trainees. Statement of the Problem Although theorists and researchers describe a range of behaviours which they consider f a c i l i t a t e s student professional growth, most research focuses on one aspect of a training program: namely, the c l i n i c a l supervising of counsellors-in-training, investigated most often from the point of view of educators. The purpose of this study i s to formulate - 6 -counselling students' reports of effective and in e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours i n supervised settings and i n settings related to supervision ( i . e . courses, interviews) and to evaluate these reports within the framework of current research findings. The researcher asked counsellors-in-training to r e c a l l incidents when a professor said or did something which had an impact on them i n terms of f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering their professional growth. Subjects were then asked to describe these incidents i n d e t a i l . The incidents were summarized and categorized by the researcher i n order to i d e n t i f y themes of effective and i n e f f e c t i v e counsellor educator behaviours from the point of view of trainees. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Operational definitions of terms c r i t i c a l to this study are given below. 1. Counsellor trainees or counsellors-in-training are students enrolled In a Master of Education or Master of Arts Counselling Psychology program at a large university. Both sexes are represented. 2. Counsellor educators and supervisors are faculty members who teach and supervise courses, labs, or c l i n i c s i n the above-mentioned program. Both sexes are represented. The terms "educators" and "supervisors" are applied interchangeably throughout the study. 3. Professional growth as a counsellor, for the purposes of this study, refers to the multi-le v e l learnings experienced by trainees i n thei r movement towards increasing competency as counsellors. Growth might be evidenced, for example, as demonstrating effective communcation s k i l l s - 7 -i n interpersonal relationships, applying individual counselling methods, iden t i f y i n g c l i e n t needs, or applying group counselling methods (Peavy, Robertson, & Westwood, 1982). In this study, s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n students' attitudes, b e l i e f s , and thoughts also constitute professional growth. 4. Impact refers to the c r i t i c a l significance or salience of incidents (both positive and negative) for f a c i l i t a t i n g changes i n students' b e l i e f s , thoughts, or behaviours as counsellors. Hence, educators' behaviours that are regarded as merely enjoyable or annoying are not included. 5. Behaviours of counselling educators and supervisors refer to such possible global a c t i v i t i e s as teaching i n classroom settings, c l i n i c a l supervision of trainees' in-therapy behaviour, assignment of term papers, counselling of students, interviewing students, and engaging i n s o c i a l contact with students. Specific behaviours were unknown and i t was the purpose of the study to discover what they might be. Assumptions Underlying the Study I t i s assumed that the behaviours of counsellor educators do indeed have an impact on the professional growth of trainees ( i n addition, for example, to the impact of peers, c l i e n t s , and events i n the personal and work l i v e s of students). Further, i t i s assumed that trainees are capable of understanding the researcher's instructions, of r e c a l l i n g s i g n i f i c a n t incidents, and of verbally describing their experiences and perceptions. - 8 -Delimitation of the Study This research study focused on students enrolled i n a masters program (M.Ed, or M.A.) i n a counselling psychology department, at a large university located In an urban center on the west coast of Canada. Two-thirds of the subjects were females and one-third were males. Subjects' average age was 36 years with a range of 23 years to 51 years. The counselling program involved i n the study employed approximately 20 faculty members, including both males and females. The overall orientation of the program was e c l e c t i c , with some faculty members adhering to s p e c i f i c schools of therapy (e.g. Adlerian, Jungian, Phenomenological-Humanist, Gestalt, Reality Therapy, and Strategic Therapy). The basic counselling s k i l l s taught to a l l students i n a prepracticum or supervised train i n g laboratory were those outlined by Egan (1975), extending from the work of Rogers and Carkhuff. The supervision approach was generally dida c t i c - e x p e r i e n t i a l . A l l students were enrolled i n a core group of required courses such as a quasi-group therapy experience, a s k i l l s lab, counselling theories course, and a testing and measurement course. Remaining courses varied according to students' specialty areas, such as school, college and adult, family, women, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counselling. The results of this study are generalizable only to similar groups of masters-level counsellors-in-training enrolled i n similar counselling programs. Significance of the Study The trai n i n g of counsellors i s a complex and si g n i f i c a n t task; counsellor educators and supervisors seek to accomplish this task as e f f e c t i v e l y as possible. Research i n this f i e l d has been plagued by - 9 -methodological weaknesses and a slow rate of progress (Hansen, Pound, & Petro, 1976; Hansen & Warner, 1971; Lambert, 1980; Matazarro, 1978). Some investigators have pointed to the lack of research studies which focus on the perceptions and point of view of trainees (Lambert, 1980; L i t t r e l l , 1978; Nel son, 1978; Worthington & Roehlke, 1979). The present study was undertaken as a f i r s t step toward addressing the methodological weaknesses char a c t e r i s t i c of previous research and to redress the lack of focus on trainees' perceptions and experiences. Studies such as this one provide educators with behavioural reports of trainees' perceptions of effective and ineff e c t i v e behaviours. Trainees' reports serve the purpose of directing the attention of educators to many f a c i l i t a t i v e aspects of their behaviour. In addition, trainee reports are compared with previous research findings and serve an heuristic function. In summary, the present study can provide counsellor educators with knowledge of both the i r impact as teachers upon students and of trainees' constructs and concerns or 'map of the world'. With this enhanced awareness, counsellor educators can be better equipped to e f f e c t i v e l y t r a i n students. - 10 -CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of related l i t e r a t u r e i s organized around three general headings, two of which have subdivisions. The chapter begins with a presentation of research and a r t i c l e s on trainee experiences, perceptions, and preferences regarding effective supervision and continues with an examination of counsellor training models i n order to outline the major dimensions of effective educator behaviours prevalent i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The chapter concludes with a review of the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Trainee Experiences, Perceptions, and Preferences A small number of researchers have d i r e c t l y investigated the concerns of counsellors-in-tralning. L i t t r e l l (1978) suggested that teachers and supervisors may provide a more effective learning environment i f they f u l l y understand and make use of trainees' concerns. This approach serves a dual purpose. F i r s t , student frustrations and concerns would be reduced and, second, educators would be modelling effective helping s k i l l s . L i t t r e l l developed a 56-item concerns checklist i n order to assess concerns of counsellor trainees. I t was found that beginning trainees were primarily concerned with learning counselling techniques, determining c l i e n t needs, and meeting c l i e n t needs. A frequently cited study by Worthington and Roehlke (1979) investigated effective supervision as perceived by both beginning counsellors-in-training and supervisors of trainees. Subjects were asked to rate the frequency and effectiveness of 42 supervisor behaviours - 11 -compiled from interviews with experienced supervisors. Students rated the behaviours on three dimensions: the frequency with which supervisors performed these behaviours, th e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with supervision, and the degree to which supervision had contributed to an improvement i n their s k i l l s . Worthington and Roehlke's results indicated that supervisor behaviours such as: helping supervisees develop the i r own s t y l e , establishing good rapport with supervisees, helping supervisees develop self-confidence, using humour during supervisory sessions, and c a l l i n g supervisees by name were p o s i t i v e l y correlated with student s a t i s f a c t i o n and the attainment of a good student-supervisor relationship. Furthermore, direct demonstration and discussion of counselling s k i l l s and issues were also p o s i t i v e l y correlated with s a t i s f a c t i o n . These behaviours included the following: modelling task-oriented behaviour during supervision, sharing the supervisor's counselling experiences, evolving case conceptualizations j o i n t l y with supervisees, giving feedback about counselling strengths and positive counselling behaviours, knowing the difference between the way supervisees talk about counselling and the way they behave during counselling, reassuring counsellors that new s k i l l s seem awkward i n i t a l l y , providing l i t e r a t u r e about assessment and treatment techniques, and providing structure during early supervision sessions. Worthington and Roehlke also correlated the frequency of supervisor behaviours with trainees' ratings of supervision's contribution to th e i r own improvment i n counselling. Three groups of behaviours emerged that were predictive of improved counselling: f i r s t , supervisors giving supervisees direct help with counselling s k i l l s ; second, supervisors supporting supervisees during risk-taking endeavors (e.g. reassuring - 12 -supervisees that new counselling s k i l l s often seem awkward i n i t i a l l y , being available for consultation during emergencies, helping supervisees develop confidence and their own s t y l e ) ; and t h i r d , developing a good relationship with supervisees. Nelson (1978) surveyed trainees' preferences regarding various aspects of supervision i n the b e l i e f that "trainee feedback, both positive and negative, may provide important information leading to refinements i n supervisory strategy" (p. 539). Nelson found that gaining therapeutic competence was the preferred goal of most trainees, followed by the goals of gaining professional confidence and independence, self-awareness, and theoretical knowledge. It was noted that self-awareness was judged more important (ranked second) by beginning trainees than by advanced l e v e l trainees (ranked fourth). The preferred supervisory methods for monitoring trainee performance were videotaping and direct observation of sessions. Trainees indicated that th e i r preferred method of being taught therapy techniques was to observe the supervisor conducting therapy. This preference was strongest among beginning trainees, whereas more advanced trainees often placed observation of the supervisor second behind the supervisor functioning as a cotherapist or the supervisor verbally describing therapy techniques. Both beginning and advanced trainees indicated that the most important supervisor characteristic was interest i n supervision. This was followed by experience as a therapist, possession of theoretical or technical knowledge, and a b i l i t y to provide feedback. Other characteristics included being f l e x i b l e , self-revealing, and permissive. - 13 -F i n a l l y , trainees rank-ordered their preferences for s p e c i f i c supervisor behaviours. The four most preferred behaviours were: "Let me develop my own style of therapy", "Explore my feelings towards c l i e n t s and the i r problems", "Conduct therapy with one or two c l i e n t s on a regular basis", and "Observe my interviews i n terms of where I need to make improvements" (p. 546). Students indicated preferences that included both relationship-experiential and didactic-systematic approaches. Several a r t i c l e s and studies conducted by researchers i n related f i e l d s may provide additional information about the trainee viewpoint. Goin and Kline (1974) used student ratings of their psychiatric supervisors to determine which supervisors were most ef f e c t i v e . It was their b e l i e f that: "the effectiveness of a teacher i s presently best evaluated by students themselves" (p. 209). Those supervisors rated as "outstanding" were observed i n d e t a i l v i a videotape i n order to see what they talked about and how th e i r emphasis might d i f f e r from supervisors rated as "good". A content analysis of videotaped supervisory sessions revealed that outstanding supervisors made more didactic comments about patients and technique than did their good counterparts. Students most appreciated helpful comments from supervisors that imparted information about psycho-therapeutic principles as applied to s p e c i f i c patients. The outstanding supervisors were neither extremely passive nor authoritatively d i r e c t i v e , but had managed to find a middle ground of a c t i v i t y . C l i n i c a l psychologists, Cherniss and Equatios (1977) investigated preferred styles of c l i n i c a l supervision i n community health programs. They found that c l i n i c a l staff members preferred the "didactic-consultive" supervisor who offers advice, suggestions, and interpretations concerning - 14 -c l i e n t dynamics and technique; the "insight-oriented" supervisor who stimulates the supervisee to think through and solve problems on his or her own; and the "feelings-oriented" approach where the supervisees become aware of the i r own emotional responses to the c l i n i c a l process. Staff indicated that the didactic-consultive style was actually the most common. Two least preferred styles of supervision were " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " where the supervisee i s mostly l e f t on his or her own, and "authoritative" where the supervisee i s told what to do and how to do i t i n s p e c i f i c terms. Student experiences and concerns have been explored i n a personal and l i t e r a r y manner by an author trained i n psychoanalysis. Barnat (1973) wrote of the process he experienced as a student of " i n t e r n a l i z i n g " his supervisor: I have known myself to borrow the attitudes, tone of voice, sometimes regional i n f l e c t i o n s , and even the slouch of the supervisor as I approached the c l i e n t hour. After some time I could relinquish these characteristics for the i n i t i a l l y discomforting r e a l i t y of facing the c l i e n t as myself. (p. 18) Barnat bore witness to the i n i t i a l dependence upon supervisors often experienced by students as they struggle to survive those early, anxious c l i e n t sessions. He continued to write humorously about himself i n the waiting room, half hoping that his c l i e n t wouldn't show, and anxiously feeling himself to be a sham because the c l i e n t at least was a " r e a l " c l i e n t , whereas he was not yet a " r e a l " therapist (Barnet, 1977). Cohen's (1980) reflections on his e a r l i e r experiences as a trainee highlighted students' discomfort with the evaluative aspects of the supervisory relationship. For the beginning student, judgment about performance i s very tied up with self-image. Cohen wrote: "Being rated as - 15 -a therapist i s often tantamount to being rated as a person at this point i n the young therapist's career" (p. 79). Greenberg (1980) observed that impactful supervisor behaviours include how much the supervisor confronts students, how he or she confronts, and how f a i r and consistent the supervisor appears to be. These behaviours determine i n part the degree to which a student w i l l f e e l safe to self-d i s c l o s e and explore his or her own blocks as a therapist. If a student expects negative consequences for s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g , the student w i l l l i k e l y l i m i t self-disclosure due to the fear of feeling uncomfortable, of feeling devastated, of losing favour with the supervisor, of receiving a negative grade, or of receiving a negative professional evaluation. S i m i l a r l y , i n an unsafe environment, the student tends to present only those samples of counselling sessions that make the student look good, rather than r i s k showing sessions that went poorly and where help i s most needed. In summary, these writers from the psychoanalytic school have found that training i s a highly-charged experience for trainees; that they tend to feel insecure and highly vulnerable; and that supervisors' behaviours effect the degree of perceived safety f e l t by students during supervision. Relationship-Experiential Training Approach Carl Rogers (1957a) i d e n t i f i e d the "necessary and s u f f i c i e n t " conditions for constructive personality change to occur: When two persons are i n psychological contact ( i . e . counsellor and c l i e n t ) , the counsellor experiences and communicates to the c l i e n t a state of congruence or genuineness, unconditional positive regard for the c l i e n t , and an empathic understanding of the c l i e n t ' s internal frame of reference. The - 16 -client-centred therapist's view of human nature i s that a basic positive growth motivation e x i s t s , pushing the c l i e n t toward d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , autonomy, and new experience. Therefore, i f a therapist can f a c i l i t a t e the client-centred process of self-exploration, the c l i e n t w i l l move i n positive directions. Client-centred supervisors attempt to offer the same f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions of genuineness, respect, positive regard, and empathy to counsellors-in-training. Several positive outcomes are considered to result from t h i s approach. The student engages i n self-exploration which i s related to constructive personality change and growth. The safety of the therapeutic relationship provides the trainee with a means of working through feelings, values, and attitudes and for discovering his or her most effect i v e self as a therapist. An interesting feature of this approach i s that the student i s encouraged to develop Into an effective therapist, regardless of orientation. Rogers wrote: It has become apparent that the most important goal to be achieved i s that the student should c l a r i f y and understand his own basic relationship to people, and the a t t i t u d i n a l and philosophical concomitants of that relationship. Therefore the f i r s t step i n training client-centered therapists has been to drop a l l concern as to the orientation with which the student w i l l emerge. The basic attitude must be genuine. I f his genuine attitude leads him i n the direction of some other orientation, well and good. (p. 432) The positive outcomes derived from the client-centred training approach are twofold: students benefit from experiencing the therapeutic relationship as a c l i e n t while simultaneously observing the supervisor as a role model. Rogers (1957b) described this process as follows: - 17 -The general pr i n c i p l e which seems to apply here i s that i f the climate of the teaching s i t u a t i o n , and the relationship between the teacher and the beginning counsellor are the same as the climate and the relationship which exist i n therapy, then the young therapist w i l l begin to acquire a knowledge i n his viscera of what the therapeutic process i s . (p. 81) A currently practicing client-centred therapist and supervisor, Rice (1980), wrote of the need for experiential learning i n the following way: Although the kind of l i s t e n i n g and responding we are talking about can be studied, and even be translated into "techniques", i t can never become an empty push-button device because i t requires the therapist's whole processing capacity, the whole s e l f . I t cannot be learned perfunctorily; i t cannot be faked, (p. 146) For client-centred supervisors, the teaching of techniques i s only a small part of their task. An effective supervisor i n the client-centred school engages i n the following kinds of a c t i v i t i e s : requiring students to observe recorded interviews of experienced therapists; to role-play therapist with a fellow student; and to engage i n personal and group therapy. The supervisor demonstrates for the student by conducting therapy, l i s t e n s to tapes of students' sessions, and discusses these sessions while offering the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions described above. The effective supervisor attempts to develop a deep and meaningful therapeutic relationship with the student. Researchers attempting to validate the Rogerian principles of therapy have not found substantive evidence to support this position (Matazarro, 1978). Lambert, DeJulio, and Stein (1978) have concluded that only a modest relationship betwen the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions and therapy outcome - 18 -has been found, despite more than 20 years of efforts to improve research methodology. Nevertheless, Matazarro credits the client-centred school of therapists for having provided a strong influence "toward making psychotherapy observable, i t s practice and training techniques and attitudes s p e c i f i a b l e , and i t s results measurable" (p. 943). A brief summary of two studies of client-centred supervision follows. Pierce and Schauble (1970) found that the supervisees of a supervisor functioning at high levels of empathy, regard, genuineness, and concreteness improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on these same f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions. Those supervisees who had supervisors functioning at low levels on these dimensions did not change and even declined s l i g h t l y . Thus Pierce and Schauble concluded that modelling and therapeutic effects could account for supervisee growth and change. Moreover, they stated that "the individual supervisor has a great deal of impact, for better or for worse, on trainee behaviour" (p. 215). This finding i s frequently cited i n supervision research. Pierce and Schauble assumed that supervision and therapy are similar processes. They assessed supervisors as being high and low functioning during supervision on the basis of samples of their counselling sessions with c l i e n t s . Lambert and Beier (1974) questioned this assumption and compared the process of supervision with that of counselling by examining the behaviour of supervisors i n both situations. They found that supervisor-offered levels of respect and genuineness were constant across supervision and counselling, but that levels of empathy and s p e c i f i c i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n supervision than i n counselling. This finding led Lambert and Beier to suggest that an experiential process may not - 19 -account for trainees having learned to perform at higher levels of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions. Regardless of the c o n f l i c t i n g findings regarding the effectiveness of client-centred therapy and supervision, this approach continues to influence therapists and supervisors and, as Matazarro (1978) wrote: i s " f e l t to be c l i n i c a l l y useful" (p. 947). The Didactic-Systematic Training Approach In their f i v e year review of research on practicum supervision, Hansen, Pound, and Petro (1976) concluded that s p e c i f i c training programs had been most successful i n teaching basic communication s k i l l s , usually to novice trainees. The most common program of this type i s microcounselling training (Ivey, 1971; Ivey & Authier, 1978; Ivey et a l . , 1968). Step-by-step techniques are used to teach such s k i l l s as attending (e.g. making eye contact, paraphrasing, r e f l e c t i n g feelings); influencing (e.g. summarizing, interpreting); focus dimensions (e.g. i d e n t i f y i n g and maintaining focus on a subject); and q u a l i t a t i v e dimensions (e.g. immediacy, warmth, genuineness, positive regard). Interviewer behaviour i s divided into small units and the student acquires discrete s k i l l s i n a role-play s i t u a t i o n . The aim i s to bridge the gap between classroom theory and actual practice. A supervisor conducting raicroskills training presents one s k i l l at a time, modelled l i v e or on videotape, coupled with a brief written manual. Trainees are required to practice the s k i l l , observe themselves on videotape, receive feedback from the supervisor, and to continue this cycle u n t i l the s k i l l i s mastered. The supervisor makes sp e c i f i c suggestions for achieving trainee improvement. I t i s noteworthy that Ivey (1971) did - 20 -mention the need for relationship s k i l l s on the part of the supervisor, defined as "a f r i e n d l y , warm and genuine attitude" (p. 7). Ivey and Authier (1978) wrote: "The supervisor/trainer maintains a warm, supportive relationship with the trainee" (p. 11). While these elements were mentioned, they were not elaborated by these writers. Many researchers have investigated the efficacy of the microcounselling training model. Matazarro (1978) summed up her conclusions about t h i s research: Microcounseling s k i l l s can be taught e f f e c t i v e l y i n a r e l a t i v e l y small number of teaching hours to appropriately selected students... To me, the important contribution of microcounseling i s that, l i k e the client-centered programs, i t has defined what i s to be taught; devised appropriate research-based teaching methods; and used measurement, feedback, and reinforcement of s k i l l s . (p. 954) > Matazarro concluded that a c a r e f u l l y programmed teaching method i s superior to one that i s more loosely conducted. I t i s noteworthy that microtraining i s aimed at prepracticum counsellors and does not address more complex counselling processes. Several studies w i l l be reviewed i n which didactic and experiential trai n i n g methods have been compared. The term "experiential" as used here refers to relationship-oriented experiential t r a i n i n g . The term can be misleading since m i c r o s k i l l s didactic training i s also experiential i n nature, requiring active involvement on the part of trainees. Ronnestad (1977) found that short-term i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods involving modelling and feedback succeeded i n teaching beginning trainees to communicate empathic understanding i n response to videotaped c l i e n t statements. The modelling method of supervision was more effective than - 21 -feedback, and feedback was more effective than the experiential method. In f a c t , there were no differences between students i n the experiential and control groups. Modelling entailed students observing a supervisor who offered alternate responses to the c l i e n t presentation. Feedback entailed a brief training period on levels of empathic understanding, followed by supervisors rating and b r i e f l y commenting on students' responses to the c l i e n t statements. In the experiential treatment, supervisors attempted to create a meaningful f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship with students i n two 12- to 15-minute sessions. Supervisors explored students' emotions, the feelings of the c l i e n t , and explained the importance of communicating empathy to the c l i e n t . Ronnestad cautioned that the experiential treatment would l i k e l y require a considerably longer time to effect changes i n student learning. However, In very short-term supervision, e x p l i c i t modelling of appropriate behaviour and immediate reinforcement of correct responses were effec t i v e training methods. In another study using b r i e f supevision with inexperienced subjects ( i . e . undergraduate students), Goldfarb (1978) found that s p e c i f i c s k i l l s could be taught using either a didactic or combined didactic-experiential supervisory approach. Subjects received one of fi v e treatments and were pre- and post-tested on the i r l e v e l of empathic responses to actresses simulating c l i e n t s . Their two 15-minute supervisory sessions involved one of the following conditions. In the high didactic - low experiential (HL) condition, the supervisor provided positive feedback for the desired student responses and gave samples of more appropriate responses where a student gave less desirable responses. Discussions of the counsellor's feelings and personal reactions were kept to a minimum. In the low - 22 -didactic-high experiential (LH) condition, the supervisor attempted to create a relationship with the student that was similar to the counselling relationship. The supervisor reflected, c l a r i f i e d , and interpreted the experience and feelings of the student without offering suggestions or examples. The high didactic-high experiential (HH) condition involved an attempt to combine a l l the features of the two previous treatments so that positive feedback and alternate responses were offered within a good relationship. Student self-exploration and openness to experience were also reinforced. The goal i n the low didactic-low experiential (LL) condition was to give the student an opportunity to talk about the session with a friendly professional, yet to provide as l i t t l e actual supervision as possible. F i n a l l y , i n the no-supervision condition (NS), the student simply waited for 15 minutes between sessions. The results of Goldfarb's study were two-fold. The f i r s t three supervision groups, the HL, LH and HH groups, showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher post-treatment ratings on the Counselling Evaluation Inventory than did the LL and NS treatment groups. There was no difference between the three effective conditions. However, the rank order of the conditions on a second rating scale, the Barrett-Leonard Relationship Inventory, favoured the highly didactic approach, HL, with the highly experiential group, LH, showing no difference from the LL and NS groups. The researcher concluded that d i f f e r i n g levels of didactic and experiential supervision did produce changes i n subjects' behaviour. F i n a l l y , i n a study i n which they sought to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between several didactic techniques, Gulanlck and Schmeck (1977) investigated the effects of a l l possible combinations of modelling, praise, and c r i t i c i s m . - 23 -The goal was to teach empathic responding to undergraduates. Subjects responded to c l i e n t stimulus statements on audiotape i n a similar procedure to the previous two studies, receiving two brief supervisory sessions i n one of the following conditions: praise only, c r i t i c i s m only, pralse-criticsm only, no praise-no criticism-no modelling, praise-modelling, criticism-modelling, praise-criticism-modelling, and modelling only. In the praise condition, the experimenter focused only on the s p e c i f i c elements of the subjects' responses that were correct i n that they contributed to the empathy of the response. The c r i t i c i s m condition was the reverse with a focus on elements that subtracted from the empathy. In the modelling condition, subjects heard a taped alternative empathic response. I t was found that modelling was the only effective component of any of the train i n g procedures and none of the feedback techniques ( i . e . praise, c r i t i c i s m ) was more effective than no feedback at a l l . Further support for the didactic training approach i s found i n the theory of the school of strategic therapy. Haley (1976) described a supervision approach i n which the supervisor i s responsible for what happens with a student's cases and intervenes d i r e c t l y when necessary to help the student solve the c l i e n t s ' problems. Training student therapists i s conceived of as teaching s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . In contrast to the Rogerian approach, Haley stated that a supervisor: does not assume that the therapist w i l l be more effective i f he understands himself or freely expresses his emotions. Instead, [the supervisor] assumes that [the student] w i l l only improve as a therapist by doing therapy under supervision and improving his s k i l l s . (p. 176) - 24 -Therefore, an effective problem-solving supervisor works with students i n a group; teaches them s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , such as giving d i r e c t i v e s ; observes students i n action either l i v e or on videotape; guides the students' actions (sometimes by the interruption of l i v e sessions); and matches c l i e n t s to students' particular training needs. Integrated Training Approaches Didactic-Experiential Approach The didactic-experiential training approach integrates the relationship-oriented experiential models and didactic-systematic training approaches; Carkhuff (1969) suggested that "the l e v e l of the counsellor-trainer's functioning appears to be the single most c r i t i c a l aspect of effective t r a i n i n g " (p. 157). Trainers' l e v e l of functioning on the interpersonal dimensions of empathy, respect, concreteness, genuineness, and immediacy are considered to be the cornerstone of effective t r a i n i n g . When these f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions and a supervisor-offered therapeutic relationship are present, the trainer then attempts to systematically impart learnings concerning these dimensions through d i d a c t i c , e x p e r i e n t i a l , and modelling sources of learning. Proponents of the didactic-experiential approach have incorporated ideas from s o c i a l learning theory, behaviour modification theory, and programmed inst r u c t i o n into their training approach. Effective supervisors teach a few behaviours at one time, provide feedback, and gradually refine a student's performance to a desired l e v e l . Students are exposed to brief - 25 -recorded samples of most effective therapeutic conditions. Trainees role-play being therapist and the supervisor interrupts when necessary to model more ef f e c t i v e responses. Those elements that are central to the approach were summarized by Truax and Carkhuff (1967) as follows: (1) a therapuetic context i n which the supervisor himself provides high levels of therapeutic conditions; (2) a highly s p e c i f i c didactic training i n the implementation of the therapeutic conditions; and, (3) a quasi-group therapy experience where the trainee can explore his own existence, and his own indi v i d u a l therapeutic self can emerge, (p. 242) In this way, the didactic-experiential approach i s an attempt to benefit from and implement the most effective supervisor behaviours of the two basic training approaches. Methodological problems have characterized research efforts to show the effectiveness of the didactic-experiential training approach (Matazarro, 1978). However, Matazarro suggested that this approach has been innovative and has stimulated a body of research. Matazarro credited these counsellor trainers with having contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the development and d e f i n i t i o n of effective training methods. Psychoanalytic Approach The supervisor-trainee relationship i s considered to be of prime importance by proponents of the psychoanalytic school of therapy. They contend that interactions between supervisors and trainees "must be characterized by the marks of a deeply s i g n i f i c a n t human relationship" (Mueller & K e l l , 1972, p. 16). Although the psychoanalytic school has not generated much actual research (Matazarro, 1978), the present researcher - 26 -considers their theory and practice to be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l for the related d i s c i p l i n e of counsellor supervision to warrant presentation of relevant psychoanalytic training approaches. The history of supervision sheds some l i g h t on present day issues, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the ways i n which the processes of therapy and supervision are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Ekstein and Wallerstein (1972) traced the practice of supervision to the early psychoanalytic i n s t i t u t e s i n Europe where formal training was f i r s t established. An early debate arose between the i n s t i t u t e s i n Hungary and Vienna. Although both groups agreed that an experience of personal analysis was a basic requirement i n one's training to become a therapist, they differed on how the young analyst should be supervised. The Hungarian school barely differentiated between the personal therapeutic experience and supervision. Supervision was a form of therapy where the trainee's c o n f l i c t s with and reactions to the patient were analyzed with the supervisor. The Viennese school, on the other hand, separated supervision and personal analysis, considering the former to be e s s e n t i a l l y a teaching or didactic experience. The analyst i n training was, and s t i l l i s , required to undergo personal analysis with an i n d i v i d u a l other than the supervisor as an adjunct to supervision. Thus the processes of supervision and therapy came to be differentiated i n the psychoanalytic school. Ekstein and Wallerstein (1972) made a d i s t i n c t i o n between the "professional s e l f " and the "personal s e l f " of the trainee. Change i n the former i s brought about by supervision while change i n the l a t t e r i s accomplished through psychotherapy. They wrote: - 27 -Both supervision and psychotherapy are interpersonal helping processes working with the same affective components, with the essential difference between them created by the difference i n purpose. Though both are helping processes, the purpose of the helping experience i s different. Whatever p r a c t i c a l problems the patient may bring to his psychotherapist, they are always viewed i n the l i g h t of the main task: the resolution of inner c o n f l i c t . Whatever personal problems the student may bring to his supervisor, they are likewise seen i n terms of the main task: leading him toward greater s k i l l i n his work with patients, (p. 254) These authors described supervision as combining an affective interpersonal component with a didactic component. The tendency for a supervisor to think of him or herself as doing psychotherapy i s the tendency to f a l l back onto a familiar role. Likewise, the supervisor who consciously t r i e s to avoid such a relationship may remain purely d i d a c t i c , to the detriment of the supervision. Ekstein and Wallerstein contended that supervisors can best convey thei r body of knowledge to trainees i n such a way that i t i s most usable to the learners by drawing on a l l their s k i l l s as therapists. Bordin (1983) also works within the psychoanalytic t r a d i t i o n and detailed a "supervisory working a l l i a n c e " where the bonds f a l l somewhere between "those of teacher to class members and therapist to patient" (p. .38). When a supervisor turns to such tasks as helping students overcome personal and i n t e l l e c t u a l obstacles toward learning and mastery, the supervisor may act as psychoanalyst or psychotherapist, but always bearing i n mind the goals of supervision and bringing the student's focus to mastery of therapy. At other times, the supervisor i s l i k e a coach, d i d a c t i c a l l y helping a student master a s p e c i f i c s t i l l by giving feedback or modelling the ideal behaviour. - 28 -According to Bordin, the key issue of evaluation forces the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the supervisor from the psychotherapist. The supervisor i s a "gatekeeper" for the profession and the public. As such, he or she has been entrusted with considerable r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and power over the student's professional future. The degree to which the student feels free to confront his or her innermost experiences during supervision i s related to the way i n which the supervisor handles the evaluative element i n their relationship. Rioch (1980) discussed the dynamic of the "up-down" power situa t i o n that i s inherent i n this relationship. When the supervisor i s seen as the a l l powerful expert and i s i n a one-up position, several scenarios can be expected to ensue. If the supervisor leaves i t to the students to bring him or her one-down, students may engage i n such a c t i v i t i e s as not changing i n any way during supervision so as to make the supervisor f e e l i n e f f e c t u a l . The supervisee may, on the other hand, come on as such a b r i l l i a n t therapist already that nothing the supervisor says i s new or necessary. F i n a l l y , the supervisee can make sure that the supervisor's treatment suggestions f a l l f l a t (e.g. when the supervisor i s hopeful, the c l i e n t gets worse). In any event, as long as the supervisor i s seen as the expert, Rioch suggested: the supervisor finds himself sometimes to be i n a very lonely position opposite faces which often i n their i n s c r u t a b i l i t y conceal h o s t i l i t y , boredom, or some other variation of how to move up when someone senses that he i s down. (p. 78) Or, as Marshall and Confer (1980) put i t : When supervisors behave condescendingly from their one-up position, they "breed either resentmant or sycophants" (p. 98). - 29 -Another consequence of the supervisee remaining i n the one-down position i s that he or she often experiences such high anxiety levels that the supervisor i s not heard at a l l . Evaluation i s seen as potentially threatening. Rioch suggested that good supervisors can reduce students' anxiety by freely admitting their own doubts about the therapeutic process and by admitting that they make mistakes and sometimes don't know what to do either. In this way, students f e e l less anxious, more comfortable, and freer to take r i s k s . Such effective supervisors f e e l confident and secure enough to relinquish the one-up position and enter into a consultative relationship with students. Developmental Approach Lambert (1980) ended his review of supervision studies by c a l l i n g for research i n the future that w i l l " i d e n t i f y i n a prescriptive sense the ideal learning environment for given students at particular times" (p. 434). Recently, numerous studies have appeared which attempted to match stages of counsellor development with supervisory environments and behaviours. The concept that supervision i s a developmental process a r i s i n g from changing trainee characteristics and needs has long been recognized by supervisors i n the psychoanalytic school of training. Mueller and K e l l (1972) wrote that the supervisor f i r s t works to establish a trusting relationship with the beginning trainee. Then, as the relationship matures, the supervisor works more and more deeply with the trainee so that by the time the relationship terminates, the trainee has come into his or her own with the supervisor i n a consultant role. Miars, Tracey, Ray, - 30 -Cornfeld, O'Farrell, and Gelso (1983) found that supervisors with a psychoanalytic orientation varied the supervision process across different trainee levels of experience more than did supervisors of other orientations (e.g. humanistic or cognitive/behavioural). The authors cited Mueller and K e l l when they wrote that "a psychodynamic perspective of supervision i s inherently developmental i n nature" (p. 411). In another study by researchers i n the psychoanalytic t r a d i t i o n , Gaoni & Neumann (1974) positted a four-stage theory of the supervisory process, presented from the point of view of the supervisee. In the f i r s t stage, the trainee i s very dependent on the supervisor, seeking p r a c t i c a l help and theoretical explanations within a teacher-pupil relationship. In the second stage, the real work begins as trainees evolve into apprentices, s e t t l i n g into regular sessions with c l i e n t s and gradually acquiring the tools of thei r trade. Supervisors at this point place th e i r focus on the patient, providing theoretical information, and model by interviewing patients themselves. In the t h i r d stage, the supervisor s h i f t s the emphasis from the patient to the trainee as a person and as a therapist. The goal now i s to help the student develop self-observation and s e l f -awareness and his or her own therapeutic s t y l e . The fourth stage i s one that continues throughout the professional l i f e of the therapist. I t consists of mutual consultation: the supervisor exchanges opinions and experiences with the trainee as more and less experienced equals. Bernard's (1979) discrimination model i s a variation of the developmental model of supervision. Bernard i d e n t i f i e d three basic roles or approaches that a counselling or c l i n i c a l psychology supervisor might adopt: the teacher-student approach, the counsellor-client approach, or - 31 -the consultant-counsellor approach. Bernard suggested that whereas supervisors tend to rely heavily on only the role which feels most comfortable, supervisors should instead react i n a " s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c " way to meet the immediate needs of a trainee. He wrote that the strength of the model i s that: with a discrimination model for supervision, supervisors are asked to add to their idiosyncratic strengths by becoming comfortable with contrasting roles and using data at hand to select the most appropriate role for a supervision contact, (p. 64) Stenack and Dye (1982) attempted to develop behaviourally oriented role descriptions that c l e a r l y discriminated among Bernard's three supervisor roles. They found the clearest d i s t i n c t i o n s between teacher and counsellor roles, with the consultant role overlapping with the teacher role. Supervisor goals, control, and focus of the interaction appeared to be important dynamics that could change the same supervisor behaviour from, for example, a teaching to a counselling role. In a l a t e r study (Stenack & Dye, 1983), they applied supervisor behaviours in the three roles to trainees and found that the content of trainee verbalizations was influenced by supervisor roles i n the following way: A study of results indicated strong relationships between the teacher role and action and thought statements, the counsellor role and feeling statements, and the consultant role and thought statements... Clearly, the method of supervision can have a profound effect on the overall practicum experience and thus on the development of student counsellors. (p. 166) L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden, and Lorenz (1979) proposed a sequential four-stage developmental framework for supervision. Stage I concerns the - 32 -establishment of a working relationship betwen supervisor and trainee, goal-setting, and the development of a mutual contract. In Stage I I , the supervisor employs both the counselling-therapeutic and teaching models of supervision, similar to those presented e a r l i e r i n this review. Stage I I I involves a move to the consultative approach. By Stage IV, a s e l f -supervising model i s employed where the counsellor has internalized the supervision process and become the pr i n c i p l e designer of his or her own learning. L i t t r e l l and colleagues positted several advantages to adopting a developmental framework i n supervision. A developmental approach i s seen as a more comprehensive and accurate description of the process of supervision than a one or two model approach. Completion of the stages can serve as supervision subgoals by which both the supervisor or trainee can assess the i r progress. At different times, supervisors engage i n goal-se t t i n g , evaluation, counselling, teaching, and consulting. The strength of t h i s approach l i e s i n i t s recognition of the complexity of counsellor training and integration of a l l types of effective supervisor and educator behaviours, as opposed to taking an exclusive 'either-or' approach i n which one type of training behaviour i s favoured. A four-stage supervision approach was proposed as early as 1964 by Hogan (cited i n Stoltenberg, 1981). Stoltenberg (1981) designed a model i n which he sought to combine Hogan's stages with a teaching stage approach. Stoltenberg described e s s e n t i a l l y the same four stages hypothesized by L i t t r e l l , Lee-Borden, and Lorenz (1979). Counsellor characteristics are matched with corresponding optimal supervision environments. At Level I, the trainee i s dependent on the supervisor and the task of the l a t t e r i s to - 33 -encourage autonomy within a normative structure. The supervisor uses in s t r u c t i o n , interpretation, support, awareness tr a i n i n g , and exemplification. At Level 2, the counsellor experiences a dependency-autonomy c o n f l i c t as he or she becomes more self-confident. The supervisor provides a highly autonomous environment with low normative structure. At this l e v e l , the supervisor uses less instruction and structure, continues to use support and exemplification, and adds ambivalence and confrontation. At Level 3, the student cha r a c t e r i s t i c i s conditional dependency and the optimal environment provides autonomy, with the structure provided by the student. The supervisor treats the student more as a peer and uses sharing, mutual exemplification, and confrontation. By Level 4, the counsellor i s a master and can function adequately i n most environments. Supervision may or may not be sought out; when i t i s , the style i s c o l l e g i a l . In the f i r s t attempt to objectively investigate Stoltenberg's counsellor complexity model, Miars et a l . (1983) used supervisor self-report and asked supervisors whether they perceived themselves as adjusting th e i r own behaviour to the trainees' l e v e l of experience. The authors found that the following occurred: Those items stressing active d i r e c t i o n , support, teaching, and close monitoring on the part of the supervisor attained the highest scores with respect to supervising inexperienced students ( f i r s t or second semester practicum). On the other hand, supervisor responses indicated that supervisees with more experience (advanced practicum and intern levels) were given s i g n i f i c a n t l y less structure, d i r e c t i o n , support, and direct teaching. With this experienced group of supervisees, more emphasis was placed on personal development, tackling c l i e n t resistance, and dealing with transference/counter-transference issues, (p. 406-407) - 34 -These results suggest that supervisors did not view supervision as a uniform process, or supervisees as a uniform group. The supervisors did make di s t i n c t i o n s betwen trainees and the i m p l i c i t notion i s that these were developmental di s t i n c t i o n s based on changing trainee needs and ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There appears to be an interesting movement from a more didactic approach i n early supervision to a more relationship-experiential approach with advanced trainees. In the l i g h t of this progression, i t seems l i k e l y that research on beginning trainees and undergraduate students would most l i k e l y find that didactic methods of supervision are most eff e c t i v e . C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The objective of this study i s to i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l educator behaviours which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the professional development of counsellor trainees. As such, the c r i t i c a l incident technique as described by Flanagan (1954) was selected as the most appropriate method for achieving t h i s objective. The technique consists of c o l l e c t i n g a series of incidents i n the form of observed behaviours from people i n an appropriate position to make observations. The data, or incidents, are subjected to an inductive categorization process with the aim of rendering the data more cogent. The resulting categories aid i n the formulation of the c r i t i c a l requirements of the a c t i v i t y being observed. Categorization of C r i t i c a l Incidents Modern category formation theory provides guidelines, i n addition to those designated by Flanagan, for formulating categories from a set of - 35 -c r i t i c a l incidents. Beginning with Flanagan's approach, i t was found that the c o l l e c t i o n of a large sample of incidents i n i t s e l f provided a functional description of the a c t i v i t y being investigated. Flanagan wrote that further data analysis i s carried out, however, i n order to: summarize and describe data i n an e f f i c i e n t manner ... making i t easier to report these requirements [of an a c t i v i t y ] , to draw inferences from them, and to compare them with other a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 344) Therefore, categorization increases the usefulness of the data. Categories arise through an inductive process from the incidents themselves, with nothing lost and nothing added. F i r s t , a r e l a t i v e l y small sample of incidents are sorted into p i l e s or headings that are related to the frame of reference (e.g. f a c i l i t a t i v e behaviours of professors). Brief de f i n i t i o n s are made of these tentative p i l e s or categories. Then, new incidents are added to them with categories being redefined and formulated as needed. This process continues u n t i l a l l the incidents have been placed i n categories. D i f f i c u l t decisions a r i s e , of course, during the categorization process. Traditional category formation theory holds that category membership i s an all-or-none phenomenon such that a l l members of a category possess an equal number of c r i t i c a l or definng features. In this view, a l l members of a category are equally good examples of that category. In everyday l i f e , however, those c r i t e r i a are seldom, i f ever, met. Wittgenstein (1953) argued that a set of objects would show a pattern of overlapping s i m i l a r i t i e s or "family resemblances", rather than one set of features shared by a l l objects. This viewpoint suggests a continuam of - 36 -category membership, leading to the notion of "fuzzy sets" (McCloskey & Glucksberg, 1978; Rosch, 1975; Rosch & Mervis, 1975). Objects that are highly t y p i c a l of a category (e.g. a saiboat) possess a higher degree of salience or category membership (e.g. i n the larger family of boats) than do less t y p i c a l objects (e.g. a surfboard). Furthermore, there i s no clear boundary between categories so that some of the fuzziest objects can be category members and non-members at the same time. Building upon the notion of fuzzy sets, Rosch (1975) found that natural categories are formed around a clear case or best example of a category, which she refers to as a "prototype". Nonprototypic members are judged against the prototype to determine whether they are better or poorer points. Rosch wrote that: the more protoypical a category member, the more attributes i t has i n common with other members of the category and the less attributes i n common with contrasting categories, (p. 602) Cantor and Mischel (1979) extended the concepts put forward by Rosch into the area of prototypes i n person perception. They found that the rules we use for categorizing people (e.g. extraverts as distinguished from introverts) are also p r o t o t y p i c a l i t y judgments, similar to those rules we use for distinguishing objects (e.g. cars from trucks). In addition, Cantor and Mischel and Rosch have made useful d i s t i n c t i o n s regarding the le v e l of abstraction used i n category formation. Recognizing that objects or persons can be categorized at varying levels of inclusiveness, Rosch identifed a "basic" category l e v e l as the optimal one for most categorization tasks. The basic l e v e l has a moderate l e v e l of inclusiveness. Categories at this l e v e l , therefore, are both r i c h i n d e t a i l and yet well differentiated from one another. - 37 -At the more abstract inclusive l e v e l , termed superordinate, categories are well differentiated from one another, but richness of d e t a i l i s l o s t . In other words, categories contain such a mixture of different members that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to predict what attributes a t y p i c a l category member might possess. On the other hand, categories at the less inclusive l e v e l , termed subordinate ( i . e . subcategories), require many fine discriminations to be made i n order to distinguish one from the other. Here we find tremendous richness of d e t a i l but d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among categories i s lacking. In summary, for Rosch, the optimal l e v e l of category headings for an effective presentation of data i s the basic l e v e l . Notions of fuzzy sets, p r o t o t y p i c a l i t y , and levels of incluslveness are offered to the reader as an attempt to explain the processes that the researcher considers while categorizing a set of c r i t i c a l incidents. Cognitive psychological research into category formation indicates that the categorization process i s not merely subjective or haphazard. I t i s assumed that a set of c r i t i c a l incidents contains incidents that form a continuum of category membership ranging from prototypical incidents e a s i l y categorized by independent raters to fuzzy incidents which possess attributes of more than one category, and hence, produce less agreement among independent raters. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y The most common method of checking the r e l i a i l i t y of a categorization system i n the c r i t i c a l incident technique i s to submit the incidents and categories to one or more independent raters. The raters should be trained i n the method of categorization that was used by the researcher and be - 38 -instructed to sort the incidents into the categories provided. This was the check on r e l i a b i l i t y made i n the present study. I f the categories are well formed and the raters adequately trained, a good degree of agreement can be expected to occur between raters and the c r i t e r i o n . V a l i d i t y of the incidents obtained through the c r i t i c a l incident technique i s partly assumed by the fact that many individuals have reported upon an a c t i v i t y independently. In this way, a variety of observations are obtained and indiv i d u a l biases are eliminated. Another v a l i d i t y check i s the comparison of the data with the c r i t i c a l requirements of an a c t i v i t y as they have been reported i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . While one may obtain new information about an a c t i v i t y by means of the technique, i t i s also to be expected that there w i l l be s i m i l a r i t i e s i n content between the incidents reported and the relevant research l i t e r a t u r e . A comparison of the effective and ineff e c t i v e educator behaviours reported i n this study with those found i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s made in the f i n a l chapter of this paper. Andersson and Nilsson (1964) s p e c i f i c a l l y researched the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique; a presentation of th e i r findings follows. They began by analyzing the job of store manager i n a Swedish grocery company, c o l l e c t i n g approximately 1800 incidents from four groups of people considered to be i n a good position to make observations: supervisors, store managers, assistants, and customers. Approximately two-thirds of the incidents were positive ( i . e . referred to units of successful behaviour) and the remaining one-third were negative. The incidents were c l a s s i f i e d into a three-level taxonomy with three superordinate headings or areas, 17 basic categories, and 86 subordinate categories. - 39 -The researchers subjected the data to several r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y checks. Their f i r s t check referred to the saturation and comprehensiveness of the data: When have enough incidents been collected to exhaust the universe of behaviour that the technique i s expected to cover? They found that the number of subcategories formed very quickly during the beginning of c l a s s i f y i n g the incidents, with l a t e r incidents tending to f a l l within existing categories. By the time two-thirds of the incidents had been c l a s s i f i e d , 95% of the 86 subcategories had been established. In t h i s way, the researchers determined that a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of incidents had been collected. Andersson and Nilsson tested the r e l i a b i l i t y of their categorization system by submitting random samples of incidents to independent raters, with subcategories provided. There were 61% to 68% levels of agreement found among raters and between raters and the c r i t e r i o n . A higher l e v e l of agreement (75% to 85%) was found for the 17 basic categories. This finding may be explained i n terms of Rosch's research (1975) where the basic category l e v e l produces incidents with more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and less overlap than the subordinate l e v e l ( i n t h i s case, 86 subcategories). The submission of data to independent raters confirmed the o b j e c t i v i t y and lack of bias i n the categorization process. A content analysis of the training l i t e r a t u r e for store managers was conducted to answer the question: Has the c r i t i c a l incident technique succeeded i n including a l l c r i t i c a l aspects of the a c t i v i t y ? This i s a question of v a l i d i t y . Good agreement was found between the data and l i t e r a t u r e i n that both described similar a c t i v i t i e s for store managers. A related question was also posed: Are the incidents representative of - 40 -behaviours that are tr u l y important or c r i t i c a l for the work at hand? I t could be challenged that the c r i t i c a l incident technique gathers extreme, dramatic, or unique incidents that are of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l importance or are an incomplete description of the a c t i v i t y . In addressing t h i s central question, the researchers submitted their data to 300 people comprising four rating groups. The 86 subcategories were rated on a six-point scale from 0 (unimportant) to 5 (of the greatest importance for a store manager's work). I t was found that only f i v e of the 86 subcategories were rated as unimportant by a l l four rating groups. An additional finding was that subcategories with few incidents were also rated as important by the four groups. I t appears, therefore, that frequency i s not a measure of the c r i t i c a l nature of a behaviour. In conclusion, Andersson and Nilsson subjected their data to various checks and found results which supported the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Applications of the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The c r i t i c a l incident technique was developed during early aviation studies i n the United States A i r Force for the purpose of selecting and training p i l o t s and combat leaders during World War I I (Flanagan, 1954). More recently, Flanagan (1978) conducted a major research e f f o r t , i n conjunction with the American Institute for Research, toward improving the quality of l i f e of Americans. Over 6500 incidents were recorded from a large and varied sample i n an attempt to define the c r i t i c a l requirements of a person's quality of l i f e . These incidents were sorted into 15 basic categories f a l l i n g under three general headings. They were subsequently - 41 -rated on their importance to subjects' quality of l i f e and assessed as to "needs met" s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Flanagan found that subjects' recalled events provided a r i c h and useful source of information essential to the purposes of the study. Several other recent applications of the technique are as follows. Cohen and Smith (1976) employed the c r i t i c a l incident technique to study ongoing group processes. They suggested that at one or more points during the interactions of group members, c r i t i c a l situations or incidents arise where the group leader must choose an appropriate response. The authors found that certain common c r i t i c a l situations emerged regardless of the group's orientation. The c r i t i c a l incident technique was used as a way of arranging data i n sequence, from the events leading up to a c r i t i c a l incident ( i . e . the possible choices for action of the group leader) to those events that resulted from the possible group leader interventions. Kaczkowski, Lieberman and Schmidt (1978) developed a handbook and videotape based on Cohen and Smith's study i n which the c r i t i c a l incidents were enacted and videotaped for use i n counsellor training and research. Using the c r i t i c a l incident technique, Dachelot, Wemett, Garling, Craig-Kuhn, Kent, and Kitzman (1981) examined the conditions which f a c i l i t a t e d the c l i n i c a l training of nurses. C r i t i c a l incident data was collected from three groups and then c l a s s i f i e d into 18 basic categories with three general headings. These categories provided a broad picture of a c t i v i t i e s which occurred i n the c l i n i c a l settings and of ways i n which these a c t i v i t i e s were perceived by both students and educators. S i m i l a r l y , Rimon (1979) examined nurses' perceptions of c r i t i c a l aspects of the i r role i n providing for the psychological and physical care - 42 -of patients i n hospital. Researchers i n cognitive psychology (Weiner, Russell, & Lerman, 1979) collected c r i t i c a l incidents i n a study of the linkages between cognitions and emotions i n achievement-related contexts. In the area of counsellor education, Spivack (1973) developed videotaped vignettes of c r i t i c a l incidents that may occur during the various phases of establishing and maintaining a helping relationship. The tapes were designed to be used as a stimulus i n counsellor trai n i n g . In summary, the c r i t i c a l incident technique continues to provide a useful methodology for studies i n a variety of f i e l d s , nearly 30 years after i t s i n i t i a l introduction by Flanagan. - 43 -CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY In this chapter, the methodological and procedural considerations involved i n the present study are outlined under three headings: a description of the subjects, the c r i t i c a l incident interview, and a summary of data c o l l e c t i o n and procedures. Subjects A t o t a l of 24 graduate counselling students participated In this study. Subjects ranged i n age from 23 to 51 years of age with a mean age of 35.8 years. Eighteen, or 75% of the subjects, were female; s i x , or 25%, were male. Subjects were recruited from a masters-level counselling program (including both M.Ed, and M.A. candidates) offered by the Department of Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, at a large university located i n a major western Canadian c i t y . They were enrolled i n both part- and ful l - t i m e programs of study. A l l subjects were required to complete a core group of courses including a counselling s k i l l s training laboratory, a supervised c l i n i c , and a basic theories of counselling course. In addition, subjects had completed or were enrolled i n a wide range of specialty courses such as family counselling, testing, school counselling, counselling women, research methods, and group counselling. Subjects were recruited by two methods: (a) by means of a l e t t e r (see Appendix A) and (b) by means of a brief oral presentation of the same l e t t e r given by the researcher to a summer session class. In the former - 44 -method, 32 l e t t e r s were mailed i n the spring of 1982 to students who were i d e n t i f i e d by name as having been members of c l i n i c teams during the proceeding winter session. The researcher made follow-up phone c a l l s to these 32 students. Seventeen students agreed to participate; two students were unwilling to participate. The remaining 10 students were not contacted due to changes of residence. Seven additional subjects responded to an oral presentation of the research project and submitted their names and telephone numbers for future contact. Follow-up phone c a l l s were successfully made to each of these seven subjects. In summary, 17 subjects were recruited by l e t t e r and 7 subjects by means of an appeal to a class. A l l but 2 of those subjects who were successfully reached by telephone readily agreed to participate i n the study. The volunteer sample obtained i n the present study represented a cross-section of the students enrolled i n the masters l e v e l program. C r i t i c a l Incident Interview In this study, the data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour per subject. The c r i t i c a l incident interview follows a standard format, as outlined by Flanagan: (a) a statement of the aims of the research, (b) the question and request for r e c a l l , (c) a c r i t e r i a check, and (d) a request for d e t a i l s . (See Table 1). The interviewer monitors the data recalled by the subject and evaluates i t according to the following c r i t e r i a of significance and accuracy: - 45 -TABLE 1 Outline of the C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Aim Statement The aim of my study i s to explore some experiences that students have i n our program. S p e c i f i c a l l y , I want to find out i n what ways students find that their professors either help or hinder them i n their growth as professionals. Request for Recall Think back over the past year to the different experiences that you've bad with your professors. Think of the highlights or highpoints and lowpoints i n your experiences when something that a professor said or did r e a l l y bad an impact on your growth as a professional ( i . e . counsellor). This impact can be positive or negative. You may r e c a l l one or several of these incidents. I'd l i k e to ask you to describe them i n d e t a i l i n the time that we have. C r i t e r i a Check Think of a particular incident. Would you say that what th i s professor said or did led to a l a s t i n g change i n your attitudes, b e l i e f s , or behaviours as a counsellor? Stimulus Questions to E l i c i t Details What were the general circumstances leading up to this incident? T e l l me exactly what this professor said or did that helped you (held you back) at that time. Why was this incident helpful (hindering)? What were you thinking and feeling at the time? - 46 -(a) i s the actual behaviour reported; (b) was i t observed by the reporter; (c) were a l l relevant factors i n the situation given; (d) has the observer made a definite judgment; (e) has the observer made i t clear just why he believes the behaviour was c r i t i c a l . (p. 342) In addition, the accuracy of the subject's report i s judged on the basis of whether f u l l and detailed accounts are given. An incident i s considered to be c r i t i c a l i f i t makes a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution, either p o s i t i v e l y or negatively, to the general aim of the a c t i v i t y . In the present study, the general aim of counsellor educators was defined as f a c i l i t a t i n g the professional growth of counsellor trainees. An incident was c r i t i c a l when an educator's behaviour had f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered this aim by effecting an impact or la s t i n g change on a student's attitudes, b e l i e f s , or behaviours as a developing professional counsellor. This l a s t i n g change or impact was reported subjectively by the student counsellors themselves. It i s important i n a study of this nature that anonymity of the subjects and counsellor educators be s t r i c t l y maintained. In the present study, subjects were assured of their anonymity and were requested not to reveal the iden t i t y of any counsellor educators. Subsequent treatment of the data also ensured anonymity. Interviews were taped and then transcribed. Subject numbers rather than names were assigned to the typed interviews and incidents. F i n a l l y , when incidents were extracted from the interviews and recorded on cards, the researcher attempted to delete any deta i l s which might suggest the id e n t i t y of a student or an educator. The researcher conducted a l l of the c r i t i c a l incident interviews. Flanagan's guidelines for the interviewer state that he or she remain - 47 -neutral and permissive, treating the subject as the expert on his or her own experiences. Reflection or paraphrasing of the subject's report and the posing of c l a r i f y i n g questions were the basic tools of the interviewer. Training i n the use of these interpersonal interview s k i l l s was acquired through completion of a masters-level counselling program as well as through consultation with a methodologist s k i l l e d i n the use of the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Summary of Data Collection and Procedures Subjects were students enrolled i n a masters-level counselling psychology program at a large university. Subjects were i n i t i a l l y contacted by the researcher by means of a l e t t e r or a brief oral presentation to a class. Follow-up phone c a l l s were made to potential subjects. An appointment was arranged with those people who agreed to participate i n the study. The time and location of the interview were arranged at the convenience of the subjects (e.g. at varying times of the day and evening, either at the home of subjects or on campus). At the start of each interview, subjects signed a consent form (see Appendix B) and the tape-recording equipment was introduced and switched on. Interviews lasted approximately one-half hour. The completed tapes were transcribed by the researcher and by two paid ty p i s t s (working off campus). Incidents were extracted from the interview transcripts by the researcher and typed onto 3x5 index cards. From this set of incidents, categories were formed according to the procedures described i n the preceding chapter. The categorization system was checked for r e l i a b i l i t y by two independent raters. Raters were b r i e f l y trained and presented with the basic l e v e l categories and subcategories into which they - 48 -sorted a l l of the incidents. Upon completion of this process, the rater and researcher noted together which incidents had been categorized d i f f e r e n t l y from the c r i t e r i o n . - 49 -CHAPTER IV. RESULTS In this chapter, the results obtained from the investigation are reported under three headings: descriptive data, definitions and examples of categories and subcategories, and results of the independent rater r e l i a b i l i t y check. Descriptive Data A t o t a l of 84 incidents were collected from 24 subjects. Subjects each reported an average of 3.5 Incidents with a range of 2 to 8 incidents per person. The modal number of incidents per subject was 4. The categorization process produced 5 basic l e v e l categories and 19 subcategories. A l i s t of the categories i s found i n Table 2. Basic l e v e l categories contained a range of 7 incidents to 28 incidents with a median of 14 incidents per category. The 19 subcategories contained as few as 2 and as many as 17 incidents. The median was 3 incidents per subcategory. In Table 3, numbers of positive and negative incidents as well as t o t a l numbers of incidents per category are shown. Si x t y - f i v e or 77% of the t o t a l incidents concerned effective or positive educator behaviours; 19 or 23% concerned ine f f e c t i v e or negative educator behaviours. Therefore, approximately three-quarters of incidents were positive and one-quarter was negative. Total numbers of incidents per category were as follows: Category I contained 22 or 26.2% of t o t a l incidents; Category I I contained 28 or 33.3%; Category I I I contained 7 or 8.3%; Category IV contained 13 or 15.5%; and Category V contained 14 or 16.7%. - 50 -TABLE 2 Categories and Subcategories of E f f e c t i v e Educator Behaviours CATEGORY I: Teaches New C o u n s e l l i n g S k i l l s , Techniques, and  Theories To Trainees Subcategory 1: E f f e c t i v e l y teaches new s k i l l s , techniques, and t h e o r i e s . Subcategory 2: Teaches i n t e r v e n t i o n s and th e o r i e s i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to t r a i n e e s ' cases. Subcategory 3: Provides s t r u c t u r e and d i r e c t i o n f o r t r a i n e e s . Subcategory 4: Presents subject matter nondogmatically. Subcategory 5: Assigns group p r o j e c t s and pre s e n t a t i o n s . Subcategory 6: Gives extensive feedback on w r i t t e n assignments. CATEGORY I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' C o u n s e l l i n g  Behaviours w i t h i n the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e  R e l a t i o n s h i p Subcategory 1: Couples feedback about t r a i n e e s ' i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours w i t h feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours. Subcategory 2: Encourages t r a i n e e s by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours. Subcategory 3: I n s t r u c t s t r a i n e e s by g i v i n g feedback about t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g behaviours. - 51 -CATEGORY I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions  with Trainees as Clients Subcategory 1: Demonstrates counselling techniques with trainees as c l i e n t s . Subcategory 2: Demonstrates the basic counselling interview to novices with trainees as c l i e n t s . Subcategory 3: Models group leadership s k i l l s with trainees as group members. CATEGORY IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees Subcategory 1: Genuinely self-discloses and shares personal experiences with trainees. Subcategory 2: Shows respect for trainees and i s a f a l l i b l e human being: avoids the one-up position. CATEGORY V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the  Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Subcategory 1: F a c i l i t a t e s trainees' exploration of problematical feelings and behaviours. Subcategory 2: Explores with trainees th e i r personal reactions to issues from counselling sessions. Subcategory 3: Confronts trainees when appropriate. - 52 -Subcategory 4: Requires trainees to explore i n written assignments thei r counselling-related attitudes, values, and experiences. Subcategory 5: Requires trainees to participate i n counselling as c l i e n t s and report th e i r experiences. TABLE 3 Category of Incident by Positive and  Negative Nature of Incident Nature of Incident  Positive Negative Total Category % No. % No. % No. I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees 20.2 17 6.0 5 26.2 22 I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Clients IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuine-ness, Respect) to Trainees V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Total 21.4 18 8.3 7 10.7 9 16.7 14 77.3 65 11.9 10 4.8 4 22.7 19 33.3 28 8.3 7 15.5 13 16.7 14 100.0 84 - 53 -The setting of incidents for each category i s presented i n Table 3. It was found that incidents concerning the teaching of new s k i l l s , techniques, and theories occurred primarily during a course. Concrete feedback given within the context of a f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship occurred most often i n a course or a training lab. Educators offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions i n a l l fiv e settings, but these occurred most frequently i n the c l i n i c . Trainee self-exploration was encouraged frequently during a course. In summary, i t was reported that a t o t a l of 30 or 35.8% of incidents occurred during a counselling course; 22 or 26.2% of incidents took place In a c l i n i c setting; and 22 or 26.3% of incidents occurred during a tra i n i n g lab. Together, they accounted for 44 or 52.5% of a l l Incidents. An additional 9 or 10.8% of incidents took place i n a private interview with an educator and 1 or 1.2% of incidents occurred i n a s o c i a l setting. Definitions and Examples of Categories and Subcategories Each of the fiv e basic l e v e l categories has been given a descriptive t i t l e which conveys the essential features of the category's incidents. Although categories and subcategories may include both effective and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours, descriptive t i t l e s r e f l e c t only effective behaviours. They have been worded p o s i t i v e l y i n order that, when read as a whole, they provide a summary of students' perceptions of effe c t i v e educator and supervisor behaviours. Subcategory t i t l e s were chosen and defined i n order to represent c r i t i c a l behaviours i n more d e t a i l . Examples of incidents were included i n order to give the reader an impression of the nature of those behavioural - 54 -TABLE 4 Category of Incident by Setting of Incident Setting of Incident Training Private Social Course C l i n i c Lab Interview Setting Category % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. I. 16.7 14 3.6 3 3.6 3 2.4 2 - -I I . 6.0 5 11.9 10 14.3 12 1.2 1 - -I I I . 3.6 3 - - 3.6 3 1.2 1 - -IV. 1.2 1 7.1 6 2.4 2 3.6 3 1.2 1 V. 8.3 7 3.6 3 2.4 2 2.4 2 - -Total 35.8 30 26.2 22 26.3 22 10.8 9 1.2 1 reports upon which the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme has been based. Incidents were quoted when they exemplified.their subcategory. Each basic category i s concluded with a summary of the outcomes ( i . e . ways i n which trainees were effected by educator behaviours) reported by trainees during the c r i t i c a l incident interview. This ancedotal information i s included i n order to add richness and d e t a i l to the general outcome characteristic of a l l categories: the professional growth of trainees. - 55 -Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s ,  Techniques, and Theories to Trainees The Incidents i n th i s category involve d i d a c t i c educator behaviours. Subcategories describe the aspects of t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n that were considered to be c r i t i c a l by counselling trainees. Subcategory 1; E f f e c t i v e l y teaches new s k i l l s , techniques, and theories. The incidents i n th i s group concern events when trainees acquire useful knowledge from an educator. Trainees mention the h e l p f u l ways i n which i n s t r u c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e t h i s learning (e.g. provide det a i l e d information, use case studies, f i l t e r jargon into everyday language, present theory v i v i d l y and thoroughly). Example: A professor taught d e t a i l e d information about when and how to use a p a r t i c u l a r counselling technique. Subcategory 2: Teaches interventions and theories i n d i r e c t  a p p l i c a t i o n to trainees' cases. Educators i d e n t i f y and teach appropriate approaches for trainees to use with s p e c i f i c c l i e n t s . This includes times when professors interrupt counselling sessions to give i n s t r u c t i o n to trainees. Example: A professor i d e n t i f i e d the point at which a student was "stuck" with a c l i e n t and required the student to role-play an appropriate new s k i l l u n t i l i t was mastered. Subcategory 3: Provides structure and d i r e c t i o n f o r trainees. Incidents i n t h i s group concern only i n e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours. Educators do not believe that they are i n a p o s i t i o n to teach students anything of use. They do not provide structure or d i r e c t i o n for trainees, do not t a l k about course content, and are disorganized. - 56 -E x a m p l e : A p r o f e s s o r t a u g h t w i t h t he b e l i e f t h a t he o r she c o u l d n ' t t e a c h s t u d e n t s a n y t h i n g , s a y i n g , " I t ' s a f a r c e . L o g i c a l l y , what do you t h i n k I can t e a c h you? You r e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l t e a c h you out t h e r e " . S u b c a t e g o r y 4 : P r e s e n t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r n o n d o g m a t i c a l l y . When t e a c h i n g new t e c h n i q u e s t o s t u d e n t s , e d u c a t o r s a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the u s e f u l n e s s o f t he t e c h n i q u e s . E xamp le : A p r o f e s s o r t a u g h t a c o n t r o v e r s i a l t e c h n i q u e i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h a nondogmat i c a p p r o a c h , a p p l y i n g no p r e s s u r e on a s t u d e n t t o adopt t h e t e c h n i q u e , s a y i n g , "You can make y o u r own d e c i s i o n s " . I n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s c o n c e r n t i m e s when e d u c a t o r s communicate t h e i r b i a s e s t o s t u d e n t s . I n one c a s e , an e d u c a t o r e x p r e s s e s a p e r s o n a l b i a s a g a i n s t t h e r a c i a l g roup o f w h i c h a s t u d e n t i s a member. E x amp l e : A p r o f e s s o r communicated a b i a s a g a i n s t t he use o f some c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a t he o r she was t e a c h i n g t o s t u d e n t s . S u b c a t e g o r y 5: A s s i g n s g roup p r o j e c t s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The e d u c a t o r f a c i l i t a t e s t he p r o c e s s e s o f g roup g r o w t h , s h a r i n g o f i n s i g h t s , and m u t u a l s u p p o r t v e r s u s c o m p e t i t i o n . E x amp l e : I n a c o u r s e about a s e t o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s , a p r o f e s s o r gave g roup a s i g n m e n t s , s a y i n g s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n f r om one a n o t h e r r a t h e r t h a n compete f o r ma r k s . I n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s c o n c e r n t i m e s when f r e q u e n t s t u d e n t g roup p r e s e n t a t i o n s seem t o r e p l a c e t e a c h i n g by e d u c a t o r s . E x a m p l e : I n a c o u r s e about c o u n s e l l i n g , a p r o f e s s o r gave a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o make p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o each o t h e r ; t he p r o f e s s o r se ldom t a u g h t t he c l a s s . - 57 -Subcategory 6: Gives extensive feedback on written assignments. In thi s group of incidents, educators meet with students privately and give point-by-point feedback about their written assignments. Example: A professor discusses at length both strong and weak points i n a student's paper after a counselling course was completed. Category I: Summary of trainee outcomes. Trainees reported that they learned how to use new s k i l l s and techniques and incorporate them into t h e i r counselling reportoire. They gained insight into theories and acquired a strong theoretical base for their own counselling. In cases where students were employed, their on-the-job performance improved. They f e l t challenged by educators to take r i s k s . Their professors were models for them. When there was a lack of structure, students floundered and did not learn. Group presentations were experienced as helpful when they reduced anxiety and encouraged student exploration. They were not helpful when trainees f e l t that inexperiened peers could only teach so much and they wanted more expert instruction from professors. F i n a l l y , educators' negative biases were "lapped up" by trainees, resulting i n a loss of interest and learning. Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling  Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship The incidents i n this category involve a didactic element where educators give trainees concrete feedback about thei r effective and ine f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours; and an experiential element where educators offer trainees a f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship characterized by genuineness, positive regard and support. - 58 -Subcategory I; Couples feedback about trainees' i n e f f e c t i v e  counselling behaviours with feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e counselling  behaviours. Educators balance their comments about where students go wrong in t h e i r counselling sessions with comments about their successful behaviours. Example: A professor balanced c r i t i c a l , confrontative comments about a student's counselling with supportive, positive comments. Subcategory 2: Encourages trainees by giving feedback about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours. Educators make supportive, encouraging remarks to trainees about the i r performance and accomplishments. They reassure trainees that i t ' s normal to be nervous and make mistakes. They express interest i n and acceptance of trainees as people. Example: A professor gave a student positive feedback and encouragement such as, "Look at what you've accomplished", and, "It's normal to make mistakes". Subcategory 3: Instructs trainees by giving feedback about t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours. Educators point out where trainees go wrong i n their sessions and suggest what they could do d i f f e r e n t l y . Mistakes are used i n a matter-of-fact way to teach more effective approaches. Negative feedback i s given gently, carlngly, often with humour. At times, educators confront students with their lack of progress and need to change. Example: A professor viewed a student's counselling tape and pointed out where the student had gone wrong i n a supportive way and suggested what could be done d i f f e r e n t l y . Ineffective behaviours involve negative confrontative feedback to indi v i d u a l students or groups that i s often unexpected. Educators have a manner that i s threatening, c r i t i c a l and superior. Other in e f f e c t i v e - 59 -behaviours include a lack of evaluative feedback altogether or comments that are vague. Example: A professor unexpectedly told a counselling class that they weren't making satisfactory progress, their performance i n counselling was not up to standard, and that some people would f a i l . Category I I : Summary of trainees outcomes. When positive and negative feedback was given at the same time, students reported that they learned about themselves, both i n and out of the counsellor role. Feedback about their positive counselling behaviours also resulted i n learning and growth. Trainees f e l t comfortable to take r i s k s , make mistakes, and bring up issues without feeling judged. They gained confidence i n themselves. When they received feedback about their i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours within the context of a caring relationship, trainees reported feeling receptive and able to learn from the feedback. When the f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions were not present, they f e l t unsafe and closed. Students described feeling exposed, humiliated, threatened, raped, shocked, angry, and a f r a i d . They tended to withdraw for self-protection, lost confidence, and did not learn the counselling s k i l l s . Moreover, students who received vague or l i t t l e feedback f e l t that they had missed out and learned less. Category I I I : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Clients In the incidents i n this category, the c r i t i c a l element involves educators teaching trainees by means of modelling. Trainees both observe the demonstration of s k i l l s and learn e x p e r i e n t l a l l y by parti c i p a t i n g as c l i e n t s . - 60 -Subcategory 1: Demonstrates counselling techniques with trainees as c l i e n t s . Educators teach trainees how to use techniques by conducting actual counselling sessions with trainees as their c l i e n t s . Example: A professor demonstrated a counselling technique to a student by going through i t with the student as a c l i e n t . Subcategory 2: Demonstrates the basic counselling interview to novices with trainees as c l i e n t s . Educators show novices what counselling can be by having them participate i n sessions as c l i e n t s . Example: A professor demonstrated a counselling interview with a student as the c l i e n t during the f i r s t hour of a course. Subcategory 3: Models group leadership s k i l l s with trainees as group members. Educators lead groups and demonstrate the s k i l l of effective group leadership with trainees as group members. Example: A student was a member of a group which a professor led very s k i l l f u l l y . Category I I I : Summary of trainees outcomes. Students reported that they successfully learned how techniques worked when educators modelled them. They also acquired ideas about how to run groups e f f e c t i v e l y . Novice counsellors realized the real power and value of counselling when they found themselves responding more openly i n the basic (Egan) interview than they might have expected. Their fears were allayed and they were more open to learning the s k i l l s . Trainees learned about themselves on a personal l e v e l while p a r t i c i p a t i n g as c l i e n t s . - 61 -Category IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to  Trainees Incidents assigned to this category describe situations where educators openly share their personal experiences with trainees, are f a l l i b l e human beings, and avoid taking a one-up position with trainees. They show respect for trainees. Subcategory 1: Genuinely self-discloses and shares personal experiences with trainees. Educators share with trainees their personal l i f e experiences and philosophies. They indicate to students that i s i s a l r i g h t for students to ask them personal questions. In soc i a l settings, educators remain genuine and natural. Example: A professor spoke about or 'shared' his or her personal l i f e experiences and philosophy with students, p a r t i c u l a r l y while undergoing a painful experience i n his or her personal l i f e . Subcategory 2: Shows respect for trainees and i s a f a l l i b l e human being: avoids the one-up position. After educators harshly disagree with students, they come back l a t e r and apologize, making an effort to understand the students' point of view. In c o n f l i c t situations, they explore issues without necessarily having to be ri g h t . They i n v i t e feedback about themselves as counsellors and teachers and laughingly admit their own mistakes. Example: After a poor relationship between a professor and student erupted i n the professor verbally attacking the student, the professor l a t e r apologized and took the time to try and understand the student and eventually to respect the student's counselling st y l e . - 62 -Ineffective behaviours include such events as educators t e l l i n g students that they don't have a right to disagree with them. When students are involved i n a c o n f l i c t or d i f f i c u l t y of some kind with educators, educators are not open to students' feedback and points of view. They show i n s e n s i t i v i t y toward students by giving students excessive favours and compliments i n front of other students. Example: When a professor's behaviour toward a student had become a problem for the student, the l a t t e r discussed this privately with the professor. The professor responded by throwing i t back onto the student with comments such as, "You are being s i l l y and over-reacting". Category IV: Summary of trainee outcomes. When educators offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions to trainees, trainees experienced the educators as models. They saw ways of being open, compassionate, understanding, and genuine. Educators modelled methods of integrating the counsellor role into one's personality. The non-stratified relationship resulted i n students feeling comfortable, non-threatened, freer to take r i s k s , and more open to discussion and learning. Students f e l t accepted by and closer to educators when the l a t t e r self-disclosed. When educators told students that they didn't have a right to disagree, students were embarassed i n front of their peers, uncertain, and f e l t put-down. This proved to block t h e i r learning. When educators did not accept student feedback, the problems betweem them were not resolved, again resulting i n a loss of learning. Students who were highly favoured were isolated by their peers, withdrew i n class, skipped classes, and lost the opportunity to learn. - 63 -Category V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the Context of  A F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship Incidents within this category concern relationship-oriented experiential interactions and events. Educators f a c i l i t a t e trainees' exploration of personal and sometimes problematical feelings and behaviours, related d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the counsellor r o l e . Subcategory 1: F a c i l i t a t e s trainees' exploration of problematical feelings and behaviours. Educators focus on trainees' issues such as feelings of inadequacy as counsellors and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication. They explore with students alternate ways to e f f e c t i v e l y handle disagreements. When appropriate, they counsel students. Example: A professor explored with a student the l a t t e r ' s feelings of inadequacy and frustr a t i o n i n the counsellor role. Subcategory 2: Explores with trainees t h e i r personal reactions to issues from counselling sessions. Educators focus on ways i n which trainees deal i n their own l i v e s with the issues that c l i e n t s present. They explore how trainees f e e l during sessions as they respond to c l i e n t s . Example: When giving feedback to a student, a professor encouraged the student to focus on his or her personal experience with the c l i e n t ' s issue (e.g. anger). Subcategory 3: Confronts trainees when appropriate. When the moment i s r i g h t , educators confront and push trainees toward growth and change. They t e l l trainees when the l a t t e r have personal problems that need attention. Example: A professor privately confronted a student about the l a t t e r ' s inappropriate behaviour i n class, suggesting that the student should seek help for personal problems. - 64 -Subcategory 4: Requires trainees to explore i n written assignments th e i r counselling-related attitudes, values, and experiences. Educators assign trainees the task of examining their own experiences and reactions i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c areas i n counselling. Example: A professor gave an assignment that forced a student to examine his or her personal experiences and values i n re l a t i o n to an area of counselling. Subcategory 5: Required trainees to participate i n counselling as  cl i e n t s and report t h e i r experiences. Students become members of a group or seek out a part i c u l a r type of counselling and then report t h e i r experiences. Example: A professor gave an assignment which required students to experience a type of counselling for several sessions and then write about i t . Category V: Summary of trainee outcomes. When educators explored with trainees their problematical feelings and behaviours, trainees saw the i r professors d i f f e r e n t l y : trainees gained relationships with educators. Students became more open about discussing their feelings i n the counsellor role and learned how to become more effective as counsellors. When trainees focused on their personal reactions during sessions with c l i e n t s , they f e l t as though they were f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g as equals i n the feedback sessions. This was a powerful learning experience for trainees. The c r i t i c a l point of being confronted by a professor was experienced as intense and p a i n f u l , but resulted i n positive growth and change. Trainees acquired personal insight and useful counselling tools when examining their personal values, attitudes, and experiences. F i n a l l y , when pa r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c l i e n t r o l e , they learned about themselves and about how i t feels to be i n the c l i e n t ' s position. - 65 -Independent Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Check Raters (A and B) were provided with category and subcategory t i t l e s . They were required to independently c l a s s i f y the 84 incidents under the given headings. The researcher read the headings to the raters and provided brief explanations when requested. Raters were told that, although a l l headings were worded p o s i t i v e l y , one-quarter of incidents were negative. Examples were given of ways i n which subcategory headings could be read as negative headings. Both raters completed the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task i n approximately one hour. An 84.5% or 85% l e v e l of agreement was found between Rater A's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the c r i t e r i o n ; a 90.5% or 91% lev e l of agreement with the c r i t e r i o n was found for Rater B. Due to the small number of incidents contained i n some subcategories, i t was decided that only basic l e v e l categories would be included i n the r e l i a b i l i t y check. It has been recommended that the basic l e v e l i s the optimal l e v e l of categorization for an effective presentation of data (Rosch, 1975). (It i s noted i n passing, however, that levels of agreement between subcategories and the c r i t e r i o n for Rater A and Rater B were 79.8% or 80% and 83.3% or 83%, respectively.) According to the category formation research, incidents form a continuum of category membership. Prototypical incidents are e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d , while "fuzzy" incidents possessing attributes of more than on category are less r e l i a b i l y c l a s s i f i e d (McCloskey & Glucksberg, 1978). This explanation appears to account for those instances when the independent raters did not agree with the c r i t e r i o n i n the present study. For example, the following incident was c l a s s i f i e d d i f f e r e n t l y by Rater A than by the researcher: - 66 -A professor interrupted a student's counselling session and told the student exactly what to say and how to say i t to the c l i e n t . In the c r i t e r i o n , the above incident was a member of Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees. I t i s an example of a time when a professor teaches an intervention i n direct application to a trainee's case. Rater A, on the other hand, placed t h i s incident i n Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship. Rater A judged the incident to be an example of a time when an educator gives feedback about a trainee's i n e f f e c t i v e counselling behaviours. The incident c l e a r l y i s a member of both categories at the same time. (For thi s incident, Rater B agreed with the c r i t e r i o n ) . In conclusion, the fi v e basic categories were found to be r e l i a b l e . Two independent, raters agreed i n the majority of cases (at 85% and 91% levels of agreement) with the researcher's basic l e v e l categorization of the data. Instances of disagreement were accounted for by the concept of "fuzzy sets" where nonprototypic members possessed q u a l i t i e s of more than one category at the same time. - 67 -CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The f i n a l chapter of this paper i s divided into the following areas to f a c i l i t a t e discussion: the li m i t a t i o n s of the study, the theoretical and p r a c t i c a l implications for counsellor education, and implications for future research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the study. Excerpts from the c r i t i c a l incident interviews are included i n order to illuminate the categories of effective behaviours found i n this study. In this study, counselling students reported a t o t a l of 84 incidents which f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered their professional growth. Si x t y - f i v e events were positive or f a c i l i t a t i v e while 19 events were negative or hindering. These 84 incidents could be economically reduced to 5 basic categories, 3 of which contained both positive and negative incidents and 2 of which contained only positive incidents. I t was found that these categories were r e l i a b l e i n the sense that independent judges could use them to categorize incidents with over 80% agreement, which i s an accepted cutoff point i n determining the r e l i a b i l i t y of a set of categories (Andersson & Nilsson, 1964). Reliable agreement provides assurance that the categories were an adequate r e f l e c t i o n of the actual incidents. Limitations of the Study Several factors l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the findings of the present study. F i r s t , the most serious l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s the re s t r i c t e d c haracteristic of the sample. The subjects were few i n number (N = 24) and drawn from only one counselling program. Second, the 24 subjects were recruited on a volunteer basis. Borg and Gall (1979) stated - 68 -that volunteer subjects are l i k e l y to be a biased sample of the target population; for example, volunteers tend to be more i n t e l l i g e n t and higher i n need for s o c i a l approval than nonvolunteers. Given the limited nature of the sample, this study might be characterized as an intensive case study of one counselling department. Third, another factor which l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the findings i s the use of subject self-report and r e c a l l of incidents. Counsellors-in-training reported their perceptions of incidents which occurred i n the recent past. Although one could argue that people's perceptions and memories are subjective and selective, the c r i t i c a l incident category i s t y p i c a l l y formed by different people reporting the same kinds of events. In the sense that different people independently produced similar incidents, categories were formed objectively. Fourth, although the basic categories found i n this study were formulated by one researcher and hence were subject to personal bias, the categories were r e l i a b l e and corroborated the available evidence concerning effective behaviours from the research l i t e r a t u r e . In summary, due to the re s t r i c t e d characteristics of the sample i n terms of i t s s i z e , location, and volunteer status, the categories are not generalizable to a l l counsellors-in-training. Consequently, the results of this study are regarded as tentative and exploratory i n nature. Theoretical Implications  Congruence between Categories and Theoretical Models The f i v e basic categories found i n this study formed a continuum of effective educator behaviours that ranged from a purely didactic approach to a purely experiential approach. Most effective educator behaviours, - 69 -however, involved a combination or integration of these two approaches. The f i r s t category, e n t i t l e d : Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees, f e l l within the realm of the didactic-systematic theories of counsellor t r a i n i n g . Counselling students reported that teaching was helpful when i t had direct relevance to their c l i e n t cases. They preferred an unbiased, nondogmatic presentation of information which allowed them the freedom to form their own opinions. For some trainees, the use of group assignments was f a c i l i t a t i v e , while for others, i t hindered their learning. On the whole, trainees appreciated sound teaching techniques and the provision of structure and d i r e c t i o n . One student described an effective teaching method i n the following way: I find that a l o t of people who I take courses from here l i v e i n t h e i r jargon and they don't l i v e with the kind of everyday language that teachers and counsellors do. Well, this professor has the s k i l l to f i l t e r a l l that stuff down from the jargon so that i t makes sense. That's a unique teaching s k i l l . For another student, the learning of a pa r t i c u l a r technique was s i g n i f i c a n t : In a l l the years that I've been here, the use of that [counselling technique] has been the most important thing of a l l . The second and t h i r d basic categories involved the use of feedback and modelling. These are central training behaviours i n the didactic-systematic approach. However, trainees also reported that these a c t i v i t i e s were coupled with relationship-experiential elements: Feedback was embedded i n a strong relationship with the professor and modelling involved an experiential component. - 70 -In Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship, feedback was sometimes given to trainees i n a clear, step-wise fashion characteristic of microtraining: He was very concise and s p e c i f i c with his feedback. He gave a reasonable amount without overloading you, he timed i t w e l l , and he presented i t i n a relaxed fashion. 1 A strong educator-trainee relationship was found to f a c i l i t a t e the hearing of feedback on the part of the trainee: I f e e l that I established some r e a l l y good relationships with my professors t h i s year. They were r e a l l y r e a l l y h e l p f u l . I t ' s much easier to take c r i t i c i s m and that type of thing when you know that they're saying i t caringly. I t makes i t easier to l i s t e n to feedback. When a student received confrontative feedback without the presence of a f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship, the feedback was less e f f e c t i v e : You can't have confrontation without a relationship. The reason why the confrontation was so negative to me was because she had no idea of where I was personally, as we had no relationship. She was making such personal statements that had nothing to do with her knowledge of who I was. So I f e l t ripped off i n that sense. A similar viewpoint was expressed by another student: I don't think that confrontation takes place without a trusting relationship. A confrontation takes place i n a situation of trust and not i n a situation where people are going to f e e l exposed i n front of the group. References to the gender of professors have been alternated by the researcher. - 71 -The findings for Category I I , therefore, confirmed the central c l i e n t -centred tenet that trainees learn best when a supervisor-offered f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship i s present, as well as the didactic p r i n c i p l e that learning i s concrete and progressive. Category I I I , e n t i t l e d : Models by Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Cl i e n t s , confirmed elements of both didactic and experiential training approaches. Trainees reported that i t was helpful to see a counsellor i n action: It was a masterpiece of teaching, the way he had i t a l l down. I t helped me i n the sense that I thought, Hey, i f I run a [group] that's how I want to have i t run. He was r e a l l y modelling how to run a [group] and I f e l t he did a damn good job of i t . The student was, on one l e v e l , experiencing the group process, and on another l e v e l , watching and noting how the professor was leading the group. A student who was new to counselling found i t very effective when a professor modelled an interview with the student as the c l i e n t : We had done the Egan s k i l l s and. I though we were beating them to death. I f e l t l i k e I was progressing, but i t wasn't u n t i l I saw her apply them, u n t i l I f e l t those s k i l l s , I experienced them, I saw them i n action [that I realised what counselling can be]. She drew some things out of me i n front of everybody that I didn't think I would say. That had an impact. F i n a l l y , when a student volunteered to be a c l i e n t while a professor demonstrated a counselling technique, the student experienced the power of the technique: I volunteered for the demonstration of the technique. [Being the c l i e n t ] was such a powerful experience. That most probably had as much impact on me as any single experience i n counselling. - 72 -This category confirmed modelling combined with an experiential component as an effec t i v e training approach. Together, the f i r s t three categories confirmed the findings of Worthington and Roehlke (1979) as described i n the l i t e r a t u r e review and summed up by the authors as follows: Beginning practicum counselors seemed to rate supervision as better when their supervisors more d i r e c t l y taught them how to counsel within a supportive relationship and then encouraged them to try out the newly learned counseling s k i l l s i n order to incorporate those s k i l l s that were found to be f a c i l i t a t i v e into their own styles. (p. 70) The fourth and f i f t h categories supported the client-centred training p r i n c i p l e s . In Category IV, e n t i t l e d : Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees, students saw methods of integrating the counselling role into one's personality. In the words of one trainee: He was open, compassionate, understanding and a l l these things that counsellors are supposed to be. Another trainee was appreciative of the genuineness of a professor: Somehow the prof came across as being very genuine and as concerned with us as individuals as she was about the content of the course. That's the only course that I've ever had l i k e that i n my whole history of university. I t was a revelation. She provided great modelling for me. F i n a l l y , a student was profoundly influenced when a supervisor offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions: - 73 -The professor influenced me a great deal because be was a model of what he was teaching and that i s the f i r s t time that I have ever experienced that. I've always experienced professors who distanced themselves from their topic i n my previous university courses, and they said, Do what I say but don't behave as I am. And this p articular person r e a l l y modelled. I r e a l l y admire him deeply. He influenced me i n that he has given me a goal to work fo r , an i d e a l , which i s something that you get very seldom. I t ' s quite a g i f t . I t ' s interesting too to me that other people did not have that response to him, that they didn't appreciate him on that l e v e l , but I r e a l l y did. The findings reported here substantiated the client-centred approach which indicates that students benefit from experiencing the therapeutic relationship firsthand and from seeing th e i r educators model counselling behaviours. The f i n a l category, e n t i t l e d : Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship, d i r e c t l y confirmed the relationship-experiential approach. When educators offered f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions to trainees, the trainees engaged i n self-exploration either during verbal interactions with educators or through assignments. In one instance, a student explored during a feedback session how the issue of anger was being handled i n his or her own l i f e : With one of my c l i e n t s i t was a real issue of anger and we got into a l l sorts of personal stuff around anger. So i t became information that could be used with other people and ourselves. It was a personal growth thing where we could t a l k about our own experiences plus my reactions to the c l i e n t , how I deal with anger, what I do when I'm dealing with anger. The discussion that came out was safe, but was also a powerful learning experience. When a professor confronted a student, the student learned about him or herself: - 74 -She was very gentle, and yet at the same time she would stand for absolutely no b u l l s h i t . She would challenge anybody i f they were incongruent, but not i n the way of putting them down. She would gently say to them, But this i s the case, isn't i t ? And they couldn't deny i t . I t was important for me i n that I learned about my directiveness, my tendency to be a teacher and a director and not to hear what people were actually saying. She said, Look, t h i s and this happened. And I was able to see i t then and that was the very f i r s t time. With her I was able to accept i t because of her gentleness. The fi v e categories comprising the domain of effective educator behaviours confirmed the superiority of integrative training approaches which combine elements of the didactic and experiential approaches. Carkhuff (1969) suggested that the use of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions by the trainer i s c r i t i c a l for effective counsellor training. This proposition was validated i n the present study. Three of the fi v e categories found i n this study d i r e c t l y described the presence of f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions such as respect for the student, genuineness, a b i l i t y to confront when appropriate, use of self-disclosure, and educator openness and f l e x i b i l i t y . When f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions were present, subjects found that trainers' systematic attempts to impart learnings through direct teaching, the use of feedback, and modelling were more effe c t i v e . In Carkhuff's words: Those [programs] demonstrating positive effects attempt s p e c i f i c a l l y to provide an experiential base i n which the trainees have the firsthand experience of high levels of conditions while at the same time they teach d i d a c t i c a l l y the necessary discrimination and communication of both f a c i l i t a t i v e and action-oriented conditions. (p. 10) Carkhuff described the kind of modelling effects that were s i g n i f i c a n t for subjects i n the present study: - 75 -The trainers are not simply imparters of accumulated wisdom but also constitute models for effective l i v i n g . I f they themselves are l i v i n g e f f e c t i v e l y , the trainees have an opportunity to learn to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y , (p. 9 - 10) F i n a l l y , i t was found that educators can have a deleterious effect on students' counselling behaviours. Students reported periods of time when they l o s t ground, were unable to perform, f e l t distrubed in their personal l i v e s and were not growing professionally as a result of an interaction with an educator. Carkhuff has proposed that: "Training i n the helping professions may be for better or for worse" (p. 6). It i s interesting to note that trainees' experiences confirmed elements of the psychoanalytic training approach. For some trainees, t h e i r interactions with educators did indeed bear the marks of a si g n i f i c a n t human relationship. As suggested by Ekstein and Wallerstein (1972), trainers can best convey thei r knowledge by drawing on both the i r therapy and teaching s k i l l s . The findings of this study have supported this dual nature of counsellor education. Psychoanalytic authors have written about the dangers of educators adopting a one-up position with trainees. The results of th i s study confirmed that when trainers were accessible and adopted a non-stratified position vis-S-vis trainees, trainees f e l t safer to take ri s k s and learn. In addition, trainees f e l t safe to engage i n self-exploration. On the other hand, when trainers adopted a one-up position, trainees became f e a r f u l , anxious, and preoccupied with self-protection. For example, when they received feedback from professors who appeared to be superior and co n t r o l l i n g , trainees reported feelings of threat, humiliation, shock, - 76 -fear, and v i o l a t i o n . A student described at length the impact of such educator behaviours: There was one professor — I think that when he would counsel he was outstanding, but something happened when he became a teacher. He was hard on people. It was his a b i l i t y to always be in control, always have the power and i n some ways to hurt people. He was so superior, so perfect, and so powerful. He frightened people and controlled and manipulated. His choice of when to confront was too much, too often, and too consistent. In that class, people were r e a l l y anxious. We put so much energy into protecting ourselves that we couldn't put as much energy into learning the s k i l l s . I thought, If you're going to be a professor doing counselling, you should be a role model. I thought of myself as I f I were a c l i e n t i n that class and that c l i e n t s don't need to be put into a more vulnerable position by this kind of attack. For me, I learned some of the negative things that I wouldn't want to do myself. Writers form the psychoanalytic school have reflected on the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of students i n train i n g . As discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, for some students, judgement about performance i s very connected with their self-image. This point was i l l u s t r a t e d by the following student report: I'm very touchy on the whole issue of my age and the fact that I've had some experience before coming into the counselling program. I was trying so darn hard. I was r e a l l y anxious to do w e l l , so any l i t t l e negative stuff I got, I r e a l l y took to heart. What happened to me was I would get so wound up i n reacting to the c r i t i c a l comments that I wouldn't hear anything else that the professor might have said which might have been po s i t i v e , because I was so upset. Another student came into the program with very high expectations of him or herself and the faculty: I came into the program with tremendously high expectations: This i s my year. This i s going to be my year to get my l i f e together, to learn a new direc t i o n for my career. Also, my - 77 -expectations of the staff at the university was that they were wise people; t h i s was higher learning. Greenberg (1980) suggested that the manner i n which a supervisor gives feedback determines the degree to which a student w i l l f e el safe to hear the feedback and to s e l f - d i s c l o s e . A student i n the study described an educator who created a safe environment during feedback sessions so that the student f e l t free to bring up his or her mistakes: I think her attitude was that i t didn't matter what you said, i t was okay. I didn't f e e l the least b i t apprehensive about bringing up r e a l l y stupid things that I'd done in front of other students i n the class. She made i t easy for you to do that. Similar feelings of safety were reported by another student: He had an impact on me as a person and as a professional as w e l l . He had an interest i n you not only as a student but as a person. He gave supportive feedback. I f e l t understood by him. I just f e l t comfortable to bring issues and t a l k about my counselling s k i l l s and my needs and my flaws without feeling threatened or judged. The psychoanalytic theorists have accurately captured some of the trainee experiences and perceptions reported i n the present study. Another integrated training approach i s the developmental perspective on trainee growth. The findings of the present study, however, neither comfirmed or denied the effectiveness of t h i s method. No clear sense of stages of development was indicated i n the incidents. In fact, i t i s more l i k e l y that educators and supervisors would be i n a better position to comment on the developmental needs of trainees. Students might be expected to have d i f f i c u l t y conceptualizing and a r t i c u l a t i n g the stages i n the i r own growth process. - 78 -Setting of Incidents Another interesting finding i n t h i s study was that counsellors-in-t r a i n i n g reported that educators f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered their professional growth i n a l l phases or settings of a counselling program. While 52% of incidents occurred during a supervised lab or c l i n i c , another 36% of incidents occurred i n a course, 11% during an o f f i c e interview, and 1% during a so c i a l interaction. These findings did not support the exclusive focus found i n counsellor training research on the supervision of trainees. In the l i t e r a t u r e , supervision most often refers to "that part of the overall training of mental health professionals that deals with modifying their actual in-therapy behaviours" (Lambert, 1980, 425). This d e f i n i t i o n excludes primarily didactic aspects of training such as classroom teaching. It excludes as well purely personal aspects of training such as quasi-therapy experiences. It was found i n t h i s study that trainees' professional growth was promoted by didactic and personal exploration experiences as well as by direct supervision of th e i r in-therapy behaviours. P r a c t i c a l Implications The recommendations which follow from t h i s study's categories are considered to be most effective within the context of a f a c i l i t a t i v e relationship. This i s deemed a necessary condition for f a c i l i t a t i n g trainees' sense of safety and openness to learning. The p r a c t i c a l implications of the findings are apparent from the l i s t of categories and subcategories of effective educator behaviours. The results of the research indicate that educators of counselling trainees increase th e i r - 79 -effectiveness by teaching students s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , techniques, and theories; by giving students concrete feedback, both positive and negative, about the i r counselling behaviours; by modelling interventions using trainees as c l i e n t s ; by offering f a c i l i t a t i v e conditions such as genuineness and respect to trainees; and by encouraging trainee self-exploration as related to counselling issues. The findings indicate that educators should be cognizant of the impact they exert on students' growth i n a l l phases of the program, whether they are supervising students, teaching a course, conducting an interview i n the i r o f f i c e , or chatting over a beer at a s o c i a l event. In f a c t , everything that educators do seems to p o t e n t i a l l y affect trainee growth. They are regarded by trainees as personal and professional models. Trainees may look to them as people possessing greater professional development and perhaps greater personal wisdom. Trainees are looking for ways to integrate their newly developing counselling s k i l l s with their unique personalities. They look to educators as models of ways i n which to accomplish such an integration. A trainee v i v i d l y describes this process as follows: I think that when you are going through this program, you suddenly find yourself wearing this hat that doesn't f i t . You know, the counselling s k i l l s are l i k e a hat that's too small or a hat that's too big. It just doesn't f i t you, who you are, and i t ' s r e a l l y hard to bring that stuff together; who I am as a person, who I am as a spontaneous, r e a l , genuine, human being, and then there's the s k i l l s . Suddenly I'm leaning forward, and I'm r e f l e c t i n g . Suddenly I'm doing a l l these good things that I never did before. And s t i l l manage to make friends. And i t ' s r e a l l y hard to bring that stuff together. I think professors who model both high l e v e l counselling s k i l l s , plus are able to maintain th e i r own spontaneity, t h e i r own genuineness, the i r own humanness, including their weaknesses and their f a u l t s , r e a l l y f a c i l i t a t e counsellor growth i n the program. - 80 -The above quotation provides some insight into the inner world of counselling students involved i n the process of professional growth. Students are very vulnerable during this process and seem to require a great deal of safety and encouragement from educators. An important finding of this study i s that one of the trainees' central needs i s to maintain self-confidence during the early stages of a d i f f i c u l t learning process. Effe c t i v e educators can assist by providing support, encouragement and instruction to trainees. A student described such feedback i n the following way: I found her feedback was supportive, but she didn't p u l l any punches. If you f e l t you needed a l i t t l e kick i n the rear, she didn't p u l l the punches, but she balanced i t with the supportive s t u f f . Where she could find something nice to say she would say i t , and then she would give you the 'whatever'. She didn't hesitate to be c r i t i c a l i n a negative way, because:'she always coupled i t with support. I f e l t a great deal of support there. The findings of this study showed that adherence to one training approach, such as a purely didactic-systematic or a purely relationship-experiential approach, would l i m i t the effectiveness of an educator. The trainees reported the significance of both elements i n their professional growth. Implications for Future Research Directions for future research extended from these findings take several forms. This investigation might be considered a p i l o t study for a similar but broader investigation which included students from more than one counselling program, generating a larger pool of c r i t i c a l incidents for - 81 -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into categories. In this way, the present categories would be v e r i f i e d and made more comprehensive, thus enhancing their v a l i d i t y and usefulness to educators and researchers a l i k e . Worthington and Roehlke (1979) found that educators and students have d i f f e r e n t i a l perceptions of what constitutes f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours. Future researchers might conceptualize a c r i t i c a l incident study contrasting and comparing educators' and students' reports; or a study combining educators' and students' reports into one set of categories. Such a comprehensive categorization scheme would extend the categories found i n the present study, since these categories were derived from only one source: namely, student reports. On the other hand, the inclusion of student reports would enhance existing instruments of effective supervisor behaviours commonly used i n research studies ( i . e . the l i s t of 42 effective supervisor behaviours developed by Worthington and Roehlke [1979]). The generation of a comprehensive categorization system lends i t s e l f to the development of a research instrument for p r o f i l i n g counselling programs, and as a method of feedback for educators. In addition to student report data, i t i s recommended that replications of the present study involve the inclusion of objective observations of incidents involving educators and students and objective outcome measures of trainees' professional growth. I f there i s an interaction between individuals and their environment as Lewin suggested (1936), outcome studies ( i . e . trainee counselling effectiveness) should Include data on such relevant variables as personality, cognitive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and needs of students i n addition to a description of the supervisory setting and educator behaviours which interact to f a c i l i t a t e trainee professional growth. - 82 -A f i n a l set of replications of the present study might be conducted i n related d i s c i p l i n e s such as c l i n i c a l psychology and s o c i a l work i n order to discover the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n trainees' reports of effective and i n e f f e c t i v e educator behaviours. Summary In this study, c r i t i c a l incidents (Flanagan, 1954) reported by counsellor trainees were used to investigate which educator behaviours had f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered students' professional growth. The resulting trainee reports were categorized and subsequently compared to the domain of effective educator behaviours i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Moreover, the investigator questioned whether incidents reported by trainees would occur i n supervised settings and settings related to supervision (e.g. courses and interviews with educators). C r i t i c a l incident interviews l a s t i n g one-half hour were conducted with a volunteer sample of 24 counsellor trainees (6 males and 18 females) enrolled i n a masters-level counselling program at a large university situated i n an urban center on Canada's west coast. In a l l , 84 incidents were reported; 77% of the incidents described effective or f a c i l i t a t i v e educator behaviours and 23% described i n e f f e c t i v e or hindering behaviours. In addition, i t was found that 53% of the incidents occurred i n a supervised s e t t i n g , 36% i n a classroom setting, 11% i n a private interview, and 1% i n a s o c i a l setting. Five basic categories of incidents were found: Category I: Teaches New Counselling S k i l l s , Techniques, and Theories to Trainees; Category I I : Gives Concrete Feedback about Trainees' Counselling Behaviours within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship; Category I I I : Models by - 83 -Demonstrating Counselling Interventions with Trainees as Clients; Category IV: Offers F a c i l i t a t i v e Conditions ( i . e . Genuineness, Respect) to Trainees; and Category V: Encourages Trainee Self-Exploration within the Context of a F a c i l i t a t i v e Relationship. These categories demonstrated acceptable levels of r e l i a b i l i t y . 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Philosophical investigations. New York: MacMillan. Worthington, E.L., J r . , & Roehlke, H.J. (1979). Effective supervision as perceived by beginning counselors-in-training. Journal of Counseling  Psychology, 26, 64 - 73. - 89 -APPENDIX A Letter to Subjects May 15, 1982 Dear , I am a second year M.A. student i n the Counselling Psychology program at U.B.C. This l e t t e r i s a request for your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n my research study, e n t i t l e d : "Counsellor Trainee Reports: Effective and Ineffective Educator Behaviours." By exploring some student experiences, this study could contribute to the improved quality of our program. If you agree to be a subject i n my study, we w i l l meet for approximately t h i r t y minutes. I w i l l ask you several questions about your unique experiences i n the program this past year. Your responses w i l l be treated with the s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and you may, of course, withdraw from the interview at any point. Let me add that your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y voluntary and would be appreciated tremendously. I w i l l be phoning you shortly to receive your reply. Thank you, i n advance, for your consideration of my request. Yours sincerely, Janet B. Finlayson - 90 -APPENDIX B Subject Consent Form T i t l e of Study: Counsellor Trainee Reports: Effective and Ineffective Educator Behaviours The following conditions apply to this study: a) subjects w i l l remain anonymous; b) names of professors w i l l not be used; c) a l l data w i l l be treated with s t r i c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ; d) subjects are voluntary; e) subjects may withdraw from the interview at any point; f) the interview w i l l take up to 30 minutes; g) refusal to participate or withdrawal from the study w i l l not influence class standing i n any way. I, , understand the above conditions and give my consent to be a subject i n this study. Date: 

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