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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cultural foundations of personal meaning : their loss and recovery More, Janet May Derrick 1985

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CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONAL MEANING: THEIR LOSS AND RECOVERY by JANET MAY DERRICK MORE B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1985 @ J a n e t May D e r r i c k More, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of OC^g. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d what o c c u r s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e when t h e i r c u l t u r e i s changed or i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t ; and i t i n v e s t i g a t e d how an i n d i v i d u a l t h e n r e g a i n s p e r s o n a l meaning d u r i n g a time of c u l t u r a l l o s s and change. P e t e r M a r r i s ' i n n o v a t i v e T h e o r y of L o s s and Change was used as the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the s t u d y . T h i s t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t a g r i e f - l i k e r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s o c c u r s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who e x p e r i e n c e any i r r e t r i e v a b l e l o s s of c u l t u r e . The N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were used as the c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n . T h r e e N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d and t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r i e s r e c o r d e d ( B e r t a u x , 1 9 81). The d a t a c o l l e c t e d was t h e n u s e d as m u l t i p l e case s t u d i e s and a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g to Y i n (1984) and S t a k e ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C r o s s - m a t c h i n g of p a t t e r n s of l o s s and change, and p a t t e r n s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning r e v e a l e d s i x p r i m a r y forms of l o s s and change i n the e l d e r ' s l i v e s , and f i v e p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y o f p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g . S e c o n d a r y forms and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n each a r e a were i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l . M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change was s u p p o r t e d . I t was a l s o expanded to i n c l u d e the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In a d d i t i o n , the e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t s of the r e f o r m -u l a t i o n p r o c e s s were s p e c i f i e d . The outcome of the s t u d y was a c o g n i t i v e framework u s e f u l i n i i i u n d e r s t a n d i n g the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s of N a t i v e I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: CHAPTER TWO: CHAPTER THREE CHAPTER FOUR: CHAPTER F I V E : CHAPTER SIX: CHAPTER SEVEN; INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES CASE STUDY INTERVIEWS 1. Anonymous 2. M i n n i e C r o f t 3. A r n o l d G u e r i n CASE STUDY ANALYSIS & RESULTS DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 1 Page 12 Page 27 Page 34 Page 36 Page 56 Page 81 Page 103 Page 136 Page 159 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s began when Tom B e r g e r s u g g e s t e d I r e a d P e t e r M a r r i s ' work and then gave me a copy of L o s s and Change. Thanks Tom. The N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s whose l i v e s a r e the e s s e n c e of t h i s t h e s i s have a l r e a d y been t h a n k e d , but I want to thank them a g a i n and t e l l them t h a t I f i n d the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r humanness p r o f o u n d . T h e r e were many who made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me, i n a v a r i e t y of ways, to w r i t e t h i s t h e s i s : A u d r e y and B e r t MacKay, B r e n d a T a y l o r , Pat K e l l y , P a t t i M a c M i l l a n , B e t t y P o i n t , and V i n c e D'Monte; my t h e s i s committee of Marv Westwood, V e r n a K i r k n e s s , and L a r r y C o c h r a n ; and my f a m i l y , A r t , C a r y n , J e f f , and G o r d . Thanks to each of you. DEDICATION T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d to t h r e e p e o p l e whose l i v e s have been s p e n t b u i l d i n g c u l t u r a l b r i d g e s between N a t i v e I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s and E u r o - C a n a d i a n s ; GEORGE CLUTESI ARTHUR MORE ROBERT STERLING 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A. APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM H i t h e r t o most p e o p l e have a c c e p t e d t h e i r c u l t u r e s as a f a t e , l i k e c l i m a t e or v e r n a c u l a r ; but our e m p a t h i c awareness of the e x a c t modes of many c u l t u r e s i s i t s e l f a l i b e r a t i o n from them as p r i s o n s . M a r s h a l l McLuhan (1972) The p e o p l e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada are a b e a u t i f u l l y complex mix of c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . Some have had a n c e s t o r s i n t h i s l a n d f o r 10,000 y e a r s w h i l e o t h e r s have had no one of t h e i r f a m i l y h e r e b e f o r e them. The m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y t h a t l i v e s i n B.C. i s p r e d o m i o n a t e l y of a n g l o a n c e s t r y ; ' w h i t e ' E u r o - C a n a d i a n s who a r e d e s c e n d e n t s of e a r l y s e t t l e r s who a r r i v e d from E u r o p e and E a s t e r n Canada no more t h a n one h u n d r e d y e a r s ago. Woven i n t o t h i s c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y i s the phenomenon of a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d . More t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances have been made i n the p a s t one hundred y e a r s t h a n i n the p r e v i o u s one t h o u s a n d . R u r a l a r e a s have shrunk to accomodate i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n . The s t r e s s of a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d f o r c e s p e o p l e to seek 2 p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n s to e n a b l e them t o , f i n d a l t e r n a t e means of c o p i n g . P e o p l e who seek the s e r v i c e s of a t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t a r e p r e d o m i n a t e l y from the E u r o - C a n a d i a n s e c t o r of B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e i s one c u l t u r a l group w i t h i n B.C. w h i c h has e x p e r i e n c e d r a p i d c u l t u r a l change and the l o s s of many m e a n i n g f u l t r a d i t i o n s w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. T h i s c u l t u r a l group i s the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t s , however, ar e s e l d o m seen by a c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t , and when the y a r e , o f t e n a r e r e l u c t a n t and s h o r t term c l i e n t s . T h i s i s an i n t r i g u i n g phenomenon, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c a r r i e s a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of human pr o b l e m s compared to the E u r o - C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . I n t u r n , c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s e x p r e s s p u z z l e m e n t and f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g as s k i l l e d h e l p e r s f a i l s to r e l i e v e the p a i n of N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e . T h e r e i s a m a j o r d i s p a r i t y , t h e n , between N a t i v e I n d i a n need and e f f e c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p . I n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d t h i s d i s p a r i t y , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . F i r s t , E u r o - C a n a d i a n s a r e n o t e d f o r t h e i r s t r o n g e t h n o c e n t r i c b i a s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r E u r o - A m e r i c a n c o u s i n s (Goodenough, 1963; Mead, 1955, 1 9 82). T h e r e i s a p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t p e o p l e of o t h e r c u l t u r e s , n o t a b l y t h o s e who are l e s s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced are somehow i n f e r i o r . The m a j o r i t y of c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s are E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . 3 Second, the h i s t o r y of i n i t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and E u r o p ean c u l t u r e s i n B.C. i s t h a t of i n c r e a s i n g d o m i n a t i o n , s u p p r e s s i o n and d i s r e g a r d on the p a r t of E u r o p e a n s ; c a u t i o u s a c c e p t a n c e , c u l t u r a l advancement, c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e , e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l , and s h a r p p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e on the p a r t of N a t i v e I n d i a n s ( F i s h e r , 1977). E u r o p e a n s assumed a p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l power, and t h e n q u i c k l y outnumbered the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . When N a t i v e I n d i a n s f o u g h t back p h y s i c a l l y t h e y were q u i c k l y s u p p r e s s e d ; when N a t i v e I n d i a n s f o u g h t back v e r b a l l y t h e y were d i s r e g a r d e d or p l a c a t e d . N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e became p o w e r l e s s and i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e i r own l a n d . C o n t r a s t t h i s c u l t u r a l b i n d w i t h the mutual t r u s t and r e s p e c t t h a t must e x i s t as p r i m a r y c o n d i t i o n s between c o u n s e l l o r ( E u r o - C a n a d i a n ) and c l i e n t ( N a t i v e I n d i a n ) f o r a s u c c e s s f u l outcome i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . T h i r d , the s e t t l e m e n t of B.C. by E u r o - C a n a d i a n s was c o n s o l i d a t e d between 1870 and 1880, one h u n d r e d y e a r s ago, o n l y a few y e a r s beyond the p r e s e n t l i f e s p a n of an i n d i v i d u a l ( D u f f , 1964; F i s h e r , 1 9 77). By 1900, the m i s s i o n a r i e s ( E u r o - C a n a d i a n ) had i n s t i t u t e d a s c h o o l s y s t e m , p r i m a r i l y a r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m , w h i c h was d e s i g n e d to a s s i m i l a t e N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t o E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . The m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the s c h o o l s o u t l a w e d the use of the N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and e n f o r c e d t h i s r u l e w i t h the s t r a p ; f o r c i b l y removed c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes i f n e c e s s a r y and p l a c e d them i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s as many as 600 m i l e s away; s e p a r a t e d young c h i l d r e n from t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g 4 f r o m one to t e n y e a r s i f t h e y were i n r e s i d e n c e ; p r o v i d e d l i t t l e n u r t u r i n g ; p h y s i c a l l y k e p t the boys and g i r l s q u i t e s e p a r a t e ; p r o v i d e d , at most, a grade e i g h t e d u c a t i o n . I n 1984, the m a j o r i t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e who a r e p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s a r e the p r o d u c t s of t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m , and i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n s t h e y are g e n e r a l l y s i l e n t , d i s t a n t , and shy. F o u r t h , w i t h the f o r c e f u l i n t e r c e p t i o n between the g e n e r a t i o n s by the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m , the t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and customs were not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t a u g h t to the next g e n e r a t i o n s . These f o u r p r i m a r y c o m p o s i t e s of any c u l t u r e began to d i e i n the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . An example of such a d e a t h i s the p r e s e n t e x t i n c t i o n of t h r e e l a n g u a g e s , P e n t l a t c h , T s e t s a u t and N i c o l a i n B.C. ( D u f f , 1 9 64). As l a n g u a g e and customs were d y i n g , N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e a l s o e n t e r e d an a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g E u r o - C a n a d i a n l a n g u a g e , customs, v a l u e s and b e l i e f s i n t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l canoe as a means of f i s h i n g was r e p l a c e d by gas powered b o a t s , f o r example. L o s s and change o c c u r r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ( i b i d ) . C u l t u r e i s the means by w h i c h a group of p e o p l e c o l l e c t i v e l y make meaning of the time b e f o r e them and the space a r o u n d them ( H a l l , 1973, 1984). C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s the e s s e n c e of p e r s o n a l meaning as d e f i n e d by a p e r s o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e n v i r o n m e n t and o t h e r p e o p l e around them (Goodenough, 1963; 5 Chance, 1965; Hanson, 1975; De Vos, 1982; Mead, 1982). The c u l t u r e , f o r example d e t e r m i n e s how a p e r s o n c e l e b r a t e s the s e a s o n ' s of the y e a r or the d e a t h of a l o v e d one. F u r t h e r , the c u l t u r e w i l l d e f i n e what work a p e r s o n w i l l p e r f o r m i n o r d e r to be a c o n t r i b u t i n g member of s o c i e t y . One c u l t u r e may r e g a r d c a t t l e h e r d i n g as m e a n i n g f u l work as do the I b o ' s i n N i g e r i a w h i l e a se c o n d c u l t u r e may r e g a r d O l y m p i c speed s k a t i n g as m e a n i n g f u l work as do C a n a d i a n s . A major change w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , such as i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n or war, or the l o s s of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s or l a n g u a g e , as o c c u r s when one c u l t u r e o p p r e s s e s a n o t h e r , c r e a t e s a major s h i f t i n how p e o p l e f i n d p e r s o n a l meaning. Some p e o p l e l o s e t h e i r s e n s e of p e r s o n a l meaning c o m p l e t e l y (Goodenough, 1963; C a m p b e l l & C o n v e r s e , 1972; K u n k e l , 1975; K l i n g e r , 1977; S p i n d l e r , 1977). W i t h o u t a sense of meaning and p u r p o s e i n l i f e , p e o p l e f e e l a l i e n a t e d , d e p r e s s e d , and l o s t (Fromm, 1972; F r a n k l , 1963; Hanson, 1975; K u n k e l , 1975). They become l i s t l e s s , c y n i c a l , d e p r e s s e d , p s y c h o t i c and s u i c i d a l . A l c o h o l and drug usage i n c r e a s e , and a b u s i v e b e h a v i o r s a r e v e r y e v i d e n t i n f a m i l y groups (Chance & F o s t e r , 1962; Chance, 1968; B e r r y & A n n i s , 1974b; P i z e r & T r a v e r s , 1975; M a r r i s , 1 975). W i t h the tremendous l o s s and change w i t h i n t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B.C. i n the p a s t one hu n d r e d y e a r s , i t i s u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e have l o s t a sen s e of p e r s o n a l meaning and p u r p o s e i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s l o s s of p e r s o n a l meaning m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n p r o f o u n d ways: the ) 6 p e r c e n t a g e of v i o l e n t d e a t h s among the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s t h r e e to f o u r t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n the E u r o - C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ; n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n does not r e a c h the age of 65; the m a j o r i t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n B.C. s c h o o l s drop out b e f o r e grade e i g h t ; and i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i s s i x t y p e r c e n t h i g h e r than E u r o - C a n a d i a n i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y ( I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , 1980). F i n a l l y , l o s s and change i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e are u n d e r s t o o d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y as the b e g i n n i n g of a r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s to r e s t o r e m e a n i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l o s s of a l o v e d p e r s o n t h r o u g h d e a t h i n i t i a t e s a r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s commonly r e f e r r e d to as ' g r i e f ' . C o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e t r a i n e d to u n d e r s t a n d the s t a g e s of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s as documented by K u b l e r - R o s s (1969, 1975) and o t h e r s . T h i s framework of l o s s and r e f o r m u l a t i o n i s t h e n used by c o u n s e l l o r s t o e n a b l e t h e i r c l i e n t s t o r e s t o r e p e r s o n a l meaning. As N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e have e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f o u n d l o s s due t o t h e l o s s of and change i n t h e i r c u l t u r e s , i t can be t h e o r i z e d t h a t a r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s began a f t e r the l o s s and change o c c u r r e d . M a r r i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) p r o p o s e s s u c h a t h e o r y . He u s e s s t u d i e s p e r f o r m e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and A f r i c a to s u g g e s t t h a t p e o p l e i n c u l t u r e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e l o s s and change are u n i v e r s a l l y i n v o k e d to e n t e r the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a l s and groups of i n d i v i d u a l s a u t o m a t i c a l l y seek the r e s t o r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning. At a c u l t u r a l l e v e l , t h i s r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s at once b o t h an i n d i v i d u a l and a group e x p e r i e n c e . 7 M a r r i s b e l i e v e s t h a t not e v e r y c u l t u r a l change i n v o k e s the bereavement p r o c e s s . I t i s o n l y " . . . t h e l o s s of i m p o r t a n t a t t a c h m e n t s . Nor does i t f i t d i s r u p t i v e c h a n g e s , however s e v e r e , i f t h e l o s s i s o b v i o u s l y r e t r i e v a b l e . The a n a l o g y a p p l i e s r a t h e r t o t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where c r u c i a l p u r p o s e s have been d i s o r i e n t a t e d - e i t h e r b ecause an a t t a c h m e n t has been b r o k e n , or b e c a u s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e too b a f f l i n g to a t t a c h any p u r p o s e to them, or b e c a u s e p u r p o s e s a r e b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ." ( i b i d , pages 158-159). M a r r i s i m p l i e s t h a t the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l l o s s may o c c u r over s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s and i s p e r h a p s not c o m p l e t e d i n the l i f e s p a n of one i n d i v i d u a l . F o r "...as l o n g as t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of r e w a r d , b e h a v i o u r w i l l seek to f i n d i t " ( i b i d , page 1 5 9 ) . The outcome of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s dependent upon the i n d i v i d u a l or c u l t u r a l group " . . . r e s t o r i n g a sense t h a t the l o s t a t t a c h m e n t can s t i l l g i v e meaning to the p r e s e n t , not on f i n d i n g a s u b s t i t u t e " ( i b i d , page 1 5 9 ) . Thus the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s one of c o n f l i c t , of r e t u r n i n g to the p a s t w h i c h cannot be done or f o r g e t t i n g the p a s t w h i c h cannot be done e i t h e r . However, "The w o r k i n g out of g r i e f i s i t s e l f the c e n t r a l , most u r g e n t t a s k , because the b e r e a v e d cannot r e p a i r the a b i l i t y t o l e a r n any m e a n i n g f u l ways of c o p i n g , u n t i l t h e y have u n d e r t a k e n i t . Once t h e y have worked t h i s o u t , t h e y w i l l f i n d v i t a l i t y and c o n f i d e n c e f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s " ( i b i d , p . 1 6 0 ) . 8 U n d e r s t a n d i n g the bereavement or r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s does not n e c e s s a r i l y change b e h a v i o u r . Knowing, however t h a t the p r o c e s s i s a u n i v e r s a l r e s p o n s e to l o s s , t h a t i t i s n o r m a l and to be e x p e c t e d can r e l i e v e the s t r e s s of e x p e r i e n c i n g r e f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s i s the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of ' g r i e f work' i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . The same u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n as a r e s p o n s e to c u l t u r a l l o s s may a l s o t h e n r e l i e v e the s t r e s s of e x p e r i e n c i n g c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t may a l s o i n c r e a s e s u p p o r t from s u r r o u n d i n g c u l t u r e s , s u p p o r t b e i n g a prime f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s f u l outcome of r e f o r m u l a t i o n . A n o t h e r outcome of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e i s more p o s s i b l e . M a r r i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t ; "The l e n g t h and i n t e n s i t y of t h e c r i s i s , the r i s k t h a t i t s r e s o l u t i o n w i l l be a b o r t i v e , can be r e d u c e d by the way t h e c o n f l i c t i s a r t i c u l a t e d and c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a s u p p o r t i v e s t r u c t u r e . . . t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t when the e x p e r i e n c e i s s h a r e d " (page 16 2 ) . I n summary, the p r e s e n t l i f e s t y l e o f N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e i n B.C. may be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n the framework of a c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s , one w h i c h i s a n a l o g o u s w i t h the g r i e f e x p e r i e n c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s a s e a r c h f o r c o n t i n u i t y i n l i f e w h i c h may be at once b o t h an i n d i v i d u a l s e a r c h f o r p u r p o s e and meaning, and a c u l t u r a l s e a r c h f o r p u r p o s e and meaning. As c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s , i t may be h e l p f u l to have t h i s f r a m e w o r k when c o u n s e l l i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t s . I t may a l s o be v e r y h e l p f u l f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e , who a r e e i t h e r c o u n s e l l o r s 9 or c l i e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d the c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s t h e y a r e p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g . As s t a t e d above, u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e may r e d u c e the s t r e s s of the e x p e r i e n c e , i n c r e a s e s u p p o r t f r o m o t h e r s , and e n a b l e an a r t i c u l a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e . M a r r i s (1975) b e l i e v e s t h a t r e d u c i n g s t r e s s , i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t , and a r t i c u l a t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e r e d u c e the i n t e n s i t y of the p r o c e s s and i t s l e n g t h , as w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g the l i k l i h o o d of a p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s of N a t i v e I n d i a n and E u r o - C a n a d i a n i n t e r a c t i o n , u s i n g t h i s c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n f ramework may a l s o i n c r e a s e t r u s t and r e s p e c t , prime f a c t o r s i n a c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d what o c c u r r e d i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s when t h e i r c u l t u r e had been l o s t and changed. I t a t t e m p t e d t o document the l o s s e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e n how th e y f o u n d p e r s o n a l meaning d u r i n g a time when t h e i r c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n s were l o s t and c h a n g i n g . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s t u d y were; 1. t o use B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s as the c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning. 2. to a p p l y P e t e r M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of C u l t u r a l L o s s and Change to the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s of B.C. 10 C. DEFINITION OF TERMS F o r the p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y ' c u l t u r e ' was d e f i n e d as the l a n g u a g e , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and customs w h i c h a group of i n d i v i d u a l s c o l l e c t i v e l y use to f i n d meaning f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n t i m e and s p a ce ( H a l l , 1975). ' N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s ' r e f e r r e d d e f i n i t i v e l y to the e l e v e n e t h n i c a l l y s e p a r a t e N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s t h a t e x i s t i n the p h y s i c a l a r e a p o l i t i c a l l y d e f i n e d as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. They a r e A t h a p a s k a n , B e l l a C o o l a , C h i l c o t i n , C o a s t S a l i s h , H a i d a , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , K o o t e n a y , K w a k i u t l , N o o t k a , T l i n g i t , and T s i m s h i a n ( D u f f , 1 9 64). ' N a t i v e I n d i a n ' was d e f i n e d as any i n d i v i d u a l whose p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s t h a t of any of the above N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B.C. F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e o t h e r N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n Canada were i g n o r e d . The d e f i n i t i o n a l s o e x c l u d e d any l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n of ' I n d i a n ' as used by the D e partment of I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . ' E u r o - C a n a d i a n ' was used to d e s c r i b e someone whose c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s found i n E u r o p e and who has, or whose a n c e s t o r s have i m m i g r a t e d to B.C. A E u r o - C a n a d i a n i s commonly r e f e r r e d to as ' w h i t e ' . ' E u r o - C a n a d i a n ' i s a t e r m w i d e l y used i n e t h n o g r a p h y and a n t h r o p o l o g y , f o r example B i e n v e n u e ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The d e f i n i t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning used i n t h i s s t u d y was t h a t of K l i n g e r ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) . He d e f i n e s meaning as the s u b j e c t i v e , p e r v a s i v e q u a l i t y of a p e r s o n ' s whole i n n e r b e i n g and i s 11 e x p e r i e n c e d as b o t h t h o u g h t and e m o t i o n . P e r s o n a l meaning i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p u r p o s e and f u n c t i o n i n l i f e . . The p h r a s e ' c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning' was a c o m b i n a t i o n of the d e f i n i t i o n s of ' c u l t u r e ' and ' p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g ' . T h e r e f o r e , c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning was d e f i n e d as the l a n g u a g e , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and customs by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l d e f i n e s t h e m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s and as one of a group c r e a t i n g meaning f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The l a n g u a g e , c u stoms, b e l i e f s , and v a l u e s are the b e h a v i o u r e x p r e s s e d , as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l s c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . By u s i n g t h e s e c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e s t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l p u r p o s e and f u n c t i o n i n l i f e . 12 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON LOSS OF PERSONAL MEANING DUE TO CULTURAL LOSS AND CHANGE A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on the l o s s and r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s ) b e cause of the l o s s and change i n one's c u l t u r e ( a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s ) r e v e a l e d a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h to t h i s p r o b l e m . The amount of l i t e r a t u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e was l e s s t h a n e x p e c t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e of s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s was r e v i e w e d ; p s y c h o l o g y , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , and a n t h r o p o l o g y . The E d u c a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r (ERIC) d i d not l i s t ' p e r s o n a l meaning', ' c u l t u r a l l o s s ' or ' c u l t u r a l change' as d e s c r i p t o r s . The prime s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n were the S o c i a l S c i e n c e a b s t r a c t s w h i c h u s e d ' c u l t u r e l o s s ' and ' c u l t u r e change' as d e s c r i p t o r s , and r e f e r r e d to the a n t h r o p o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e . The d e s c r i p t o r ' s o c i a l change' l e d to l i t e r a t u r e i n s o c i o l o g y . Some of the a r t i c l e s thus found documented p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s , but none of t h e s e e f f e c t s r e f e r r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the l o s s of p e r s o n a l meaning or i t s r e c o v e r y p r o c e s s . The P s y c h o l o g i c a l a b s t r a c t s used ' c u l t u r e ' , ' c u l t u r e change', ' c u l t u r e s h o c k ' , ' p e r s o n a l v a l u e s ' and 'meaning' as d e s c r i p t o r s . S e a r c h i n g from a p e r i o d of 1894 t o 13 p r e s e n t day p r o d u c e d fewer s t u d i e s t h a n e x p e c t e d p e r t a i n i n g to N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s f o c u s s e d on T h i r d W o r l d c u l t u r e s . The l i t e r a t u r e on N a t i v e I n d i a n s p o p u l a t i o n s was a l s o r e v i e w e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c f o c u s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . T h i s a g a i n became a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y s e a r c h t h a t i n c l u d e d p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n and a n t h r o p o l o g y . A good d e a l of the l i t e r a t u r e documented the p r e s e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e of t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n w i t h s t u d i e s on a l c o h o l and d r u g abuse, s u i c i d e , h i g h s t r e s s l e v e l s , and poor p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l , but none of the l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d the l o s s of p e r s o n a l meaning. Much of the l i t e r a t u r e d i d , however r e f e r to c u l t u r e l o s s a n d / o r change as the r e a s o n f o r a l c o h o l abuse, s u i c i d e , and the o t h e r d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s . T h i s r e v i e w o u t l i n e s what r e s e a r c h was f o u n d t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o t h i s s t u d y i n any way. C u l t u r a l l o s s and c u l t u r a l change are a d d r e s s e d t o g e t h e r . 14 A. THE LOSS OF PERSONAL MEANING DUE TO CULTURAL LOSS AND CHANGE 1. M a r r i s 1 T h e o r y of L o s s and Change M a r r i s ' (1975) t h e o r y , i n t r o d u c e d i n C h a p t e r One, i s the t h e o r e t i c a l f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s r e v i e w e d at l e n g t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r . In the f i e l d of c u l t u r e l o s s and change, M a r r i s ' work i s i n n o v a t i v e . The f o c u s of M a r r i s ' (1975) work i s a PROCESS t h a t he b e l i e v e s i s i n e v i t a b l e i n a l l p e o p l e who e x p e r i e n c e p r o f o u n d c u l t u r e l o s s and change. In c o n t r a s t to o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h was r e v i e w e d ( s e e b e l o w ) , M a r r i s l o o k s a t the e n t i r e p a t t e r n p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o u r . The r e m a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e d e t a i l s s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h the r e s e a r c h e r s f i n d e v i d e n t i n p e r s o n s who are members of a c u l t u r e t h a t has been changed or l o s t , f o r example, F r a n s t e d ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Or the r e v e r s e a p p r o a c h may be used i n the r e s e a r c h ; p e o p l e e x h i b i t i n g v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r or f a m i l y breakdown may be f o u n d to have e x p e r i e n c e d c u l t u r e l o s s and change as i n Ward ( 1 9 7 5 ) . M a r r i s t h e o r i z e s t h a t the p r o c e s s of bereavement i s u n i v e r s a l l y i n v o k e d i n a l l p e o p l e upon the l o s s of s o m e t h i n g or someone t h a t a l l o w e d them to f i n d meaning and p u r p o s e i n t h e i r l i v e s . G r i e f " . . . d e s c r i b e s a s i t u a t i o n where someone i s b e r e f t of p u r p o s e , and so f e e l s h e l p l e s s " (page 3 7 ) . In a p p l y i n g the p r o c e s s of g r i e f i n a c u l t u r a l s e n s e , 15 M a r r i s (1975) s t a t e s ; "The p e r s o n a l c o n f u s i o n of i d e n t i t y , p r o v o k e d by the d i s r u p t i o n of c u l t u r e s and c o m m u n i t i e s , becomes d i s p l a c e d onto c o l l e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s of a common dilemma.... In a l l t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , I b e l i e v e , an a m b i v a l e n c e f u n d a m e n t a l l y s i m i l a r to g r i e v i n g i s w o r k i n g i t s e l f o u t : and the p r o c e s s i s as v u l n e r a b l e to a b o r t i v e outcomes as p e r s o n a l g r i e f " ( p a g e s 6 4 , 6 5 ) . M a r r i s , t h e n , t h e o r i z e s upon the f u n d a m e n t a l c o n f l i c t t h a t i s the e s s e n c e of human b e h a v i o u r when c u l t u r e l o s s and change i s e x p e r i e n c e d . C u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , customs, v a l u e s and/or l a n g u a g e have been l o s t and i t i s i m p e r a t i v e to p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l t h a t new b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , customs and l a n g u a g e be d e v i s e d t h a t w i l l a l l o w new p e r s o n a l meaning. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to r e t u r n to the o l d c u l t u r e or d i s m i s s i t s s i g n i f i g a n c e i n p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . Yet t h e o l d c u l t u r e i s no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e i n f i n d i n g meaning i n the new s u r r o u n d i n g s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h e n , to seek a s o l u t i o n to the c o n f l i c t and f i n d new meaning. O t h e r s w i t h i n the same d i s r u p t e d c u l t u r e w i l l have e x p e r i e n c e d the same p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t , so t h a t t h i s c o n f l i c t w i l l be at once b o t h p e r s o n a l and s h a r e d by o t h e r s . On a c u l t u r a l l e v e l , i t i s a group c o n f l i c t and a group p r o c e s s t h a t i s a n a l o g o u s to the g r i e f p r o c e s s . M a r r i s (1975) r e f e r s to the g r i e f p r o c e s s as a ' r e f o r m -u l a t i o n ' p r o c e s s . He does not o u t l i n e i t s s t a g e s as does K u b l e r - R o s s (1969, 1975) who d e f i n e s p r o c e s s s t a g e s of L o s s f o l l o w e d by D e n i a l ; Anger; B a r g a i n i n g ; D e p r e s s i o n ; 16 A c c e p t a n c e ; and Hope. M a r r i s makes r e f e r e n c e to t h e s e b e h a v i o r s i n l e s s d e f i n i t i v e ways. He does, however, s t a t e t h r e e c l e a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s : 1. R e f o r m u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d by a l o s s w h i c h c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t . No one knows what the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l p r o d u c e . 2. The r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s m e a n i n g f u l i n and of i t s e l f . 3. W h i l e the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d , r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d by c u l t u r e l o s s i s the o n l y m e a n i n g f u l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r b e h a v i o r . I n s u m m a r i z i n g the g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s , M a r r i s w r i t e s ; " R e c o v e r y from g r i e f depends on r e s t o r i n g a sense t h a t t h e l o s t a t t a c h m e n t can s t i l l g i v e meaning to the p r e s e n t , not f i n d i n g a s u b s t i t u t e . The p u r p o s e and f e e l i n g i t e x p r e s s e d has somehow to be a b s t r a c t e d from i t s p a s t s e t t i n g and r e f o r m u l a t e d so as to make p r e s e n t and f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r i n t e r p r e t a b l e as r e w a r d i n g " (page 1 5 9 ) . B. PERSONAL MEANING IN THE CULTURAL CONTEXT Mead (1955) r e f e r r e d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l a n d t h a t i s c e n t r a l to i n d i v i d u a l s i n many n o n - t e c h n i c a l c u l t u r e s . By b e l o n g i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e of l a n d , i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d m e a n i n g i n t h e i r r o l e i n i t ' s u s a g e , the p r e s t i g e a t t a c h e d to i and i t s p r a c t i c a l r o l e i n t h e i r s u r v i v a l . 17 C u l t u r e = v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and customs, and t h e y a r e t r a n s m i t t e d from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h a common l a n g u a g e . Goodenough (1963) s t a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s h a p p i n e s s i s dependent upon t h e i r s e e k i n g a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y t h a t i s s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d by o t h e r s i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . T h i s s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s t h e n the r o o t of t h e i r p e r s o n a l meaning i n l i f e ; i t i s the means by which t h e y v a l u e t h e m s e l v e s . De Vos (1982) c o n f i r m e d Goodenough's (1963) c o n c e p t u a l -i z a t i o n of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l meaning and c u l t u r e . He wrote t h a t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a c u l t u r e d e t e r m i n e s how an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s about h i m s e l f , h i s p a s t and h i s means of s u r v i v i a l . C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y d e t e r m i n e s how an i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t e s to the common c r i s e s i n the l i f e c y c l e , such as b i r t h , m a r r i a g e , d i v o r c e , d e a t h . De Vos f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t of the s e l f i s i n n a t e l y s o c i a l , b e g i n n i n g i n the p r i m a r y s o c i a l g r o u p , the f a m i l y , t h e n e x t e n d i n g to the community and bounded by t h e c u l t u r a l g r o u p . A l l the l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n between s e l f and the s o c i a l group e n a b l e the d e f i n i t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning. In Edward H a l l ' s r e c e n t work (1984) he d e f i n e d the most p o w e r f u l e s s e n c e of a c u l t u r e as i t s ' i n f o r m a l c u l t u r e ' ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . H a l l s t a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u r v i v a l i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r degree of r o o t e d n e s s i n a h e a l t h y , a c t i v e i n f o r m a l c u l t u r e . And he c o n c l u d e d h i s book w i t h an e m p h a t i c s t a t e m e n t of b e l i e f t h a t t i m e , as we see i t 18 c u l t u r a l l y i s a l l we have to f i n d meaning f o r o u r s e l v e s . The f i n a l work r e v i e w e d on c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l meaning i s a t h o r o u g h , d e t a i l e d t r e a t i s e by Hanson ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Hanson s t a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i m p l y t h e i r p e r s o n a l meaning from a c u l t u r e w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p p l y i n g meaning to a c u l t u r e . We do t h i s by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a b s o l u t e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of meaning and t r u t h . One i s r e l a t i v e to the o t h e r . Hanson used h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f meaning i n c u l t u r e to u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r c u l t u r e s . He a l s o a p p l i e d i t to a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , one of w hich i s the e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h to c u l t u r e w hich B e r r y (1976, 1980) used as a model. C. CULTURE CHANGE AND LOSS Moore (1974) c l e a r l y d e f i n e d the changes t h a t can o c c u r i n a s o c i e t y or c u l t u r e . F i r s t , c e r t a i n autonomous changes can o c c u r w i t h i n a c u l t u r e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , v a l u e s , e t c . , w h i c h a r e d e t e r m i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h a t c u l t u r e . S e c o n d l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t may be n e c e s s a r y i n a c u l t u r e due to c r o p f a i l u r e or t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s . A t h i r d f o r m of s o c i a l change i s t h a t of the breakdown of s o c i a l o r d e r w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , and the f o u r t h i s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . These forms of change are more or l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by the c u l t u r e i n t e r n a l l y , and are a d a p t i v e and n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g s u r v i v a l * A f i f t h f o r m of c u l t u r e change i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n . A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s the t r a n s f e r of c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s from one 1 9 c u l t u r e to a n o t h e r . T h i s t r a n s f e r i s viewed as a c o n t i n u u m b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s i m p l e a c c e p t a n c e of a custom or b e l i e f ( a d a p t i v e ) to the extreme of f o r c e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of whole ; s o c i a l s y s t e m s f r o m one c u l t u r e to a n o t h e r . A c c u l t u r a t i o n i n the p a s t has been a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o l o n i z a t i o n , war and m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y . P r e s e n t l y , a c c u l t u r a t i o n o c c u r s most o f t e n i n t h e form of ' m o d e r n i z a t i o n ' . O t h e r s o c i o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s uch as C a m p b e l l & C o n v e r s e ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; K u n k e l ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; S c h n e i d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; and S p i n d l e r (1977) a d d r e s s e d t h e s e same p r o c e s s e s of c u l t u r e change i n a manner s i m i l a r to Moore ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I n a l l d i s c u s s i o n s of c u l t u r e change, no a u t h o r c l e a r l y d e f i n e d the p o i n t at w h i c h the degree of change i s so g r e a t t h a t p a r t s of the c u l t u r e a r e l o s t . D. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CULTURE CHANGE AND LOSS 1. T h e o r e t i c a l Work M a r g a r e t Mead (1955) s t a t e d t h a t a l l s o c i a l change o c c u r s t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s . W h i l e w r i t i n g about p a t t e r n s of t e c h n i c a l change i n c u l t u r e she a s k e d what o c c u r r e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who e x p e r i e n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . She d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the f i e l d s of p s y c h i a t r y and p s y c h o l o g y had not as y e t r e s e a r c h e d t h i s a r e a . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t p s c y h o l o g i c a l 20 d i s t u r b a n c e s must o c c u r and t h a t c l i n i c a l case h i s t o r i e s were n e c e s s a r y i n the f i e l d . J o h n B e r r y , the C a n a d i a n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g i s t has d e v e l o p e d an ' e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l - b e h a v i o u r a l model' w h i c h he u s e d as a framework to u n d e r s t a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n o r c u l t u r e chang (1976, 1980). W i t h i n h i s framework he i n c l u d e d s t r e s s as an outcome of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . I t i s measured w i t h s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s ; p s y c h o s o m a t i c symptoms of s t r e s s , f e e l i n g s of m a r g i n a l i t y , and the d e v e lopment of a t t i t u d e s of a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and r e j e c t i o n . B e r r y ' s model d e t a i l e d f o u r v a r i a b l e s of the c o n t a c t c u l t u r e ; the c o n t a c t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , the c o n t a c t e x p l o i t i v e p a t t e r n , t h e d i v e r s i t y and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the c o n t a c t c u l t u r e and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n emphases upon c o n t a c t . He n o t e d the e x p e c t a t i o n by W e s t e r n c u l t u r e s t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l o c c u r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e . And w h i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e not c l e a r , c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s i n the a c c u l t u r a t e d group have been w e l l documented; an i n c r e a s e i n f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d d i f f f i c u l t i e s i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g . B e r r y c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s work upon p e r c e p t u a l - c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and r e f e r r e d to i t as e x p l o r a t o r y . He has s p e n t l i t t l e time s t u d y i n g the s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . A few r e c e n t p a p e r s have a d d r e s s e d the l o s s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y a f t e r a c u l t u r a l l o s s or change. 21 K i r k n e s s (1980) n o t e d the i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y c r i s i s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n who a r e removed from t h e i r c u l t u r a l homes and p l a c e d i n n o n - N a t i v e homes. T a f t (1977) d e t a i l e d s i x c o p i n g r e s p o n s e s to u n f a m i l i a r c u l t u r e s ; s t r a i n , a sense of l o s s , r e j e c t i o n , c o n f u s i o n , m o r a l a n x i e t y o v e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and p e r s o n a l i n c o m p e t e n c y . He used a v a r i e t y of l i t e r a r y r e s e a r c h f r o m w h i c h to draw t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s , f r o m V i c t o r F r a n k l t o J o h n B e r r y . H i s prime s o u r c e was the U.S. Peace Corps e x p e r i e n c e . P i z e r and T r a v e r s (1975) gave a s i m p l i s t i c o u t l i n e of s o c i a l c hange and the r o l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . They r e f e r r e d to t h e ' c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y ' s c h o o l of p s y c h o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s E r i k E r i k s o n . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s s c h o o l of s c h o l a r s has f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a change i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h a change i n v a l u e s and r o l e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . Then, u s i n g E r i k s o n ' s (1963) c a s e s t u d y of the S i o u x t h e y f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e l o s s of harmony between I n d i a n c h i l d and I n d i a n a d u l t was the r e s u l t of a tremendous change i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n b r o u g h t about by E u r o - A m e r i c a n c o n t a c t . Cawte et a l (1968) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the p s y c h o s o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n of a c c u l t u r a t i o n among A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s . I n A l a s k a , Chance and F o s t e r (1962) s t u d i e d the p a t t e r n s of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n E s k i m o s who were e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d changes i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . Chance (1968) l a t e r d i s c u s s e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p 22 between p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t and i d e n t i t y w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t the common forms of c u l t u r a l l y - i n d u c e d s t r e s s among the C a n a d i a n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n were the p r o b l e m of s e l f - i d e n t i t y and c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t b r o u g h t on by i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t w i t h modern w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . And he s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were v a r i a t i o n s among y o u t h and p a r e n t s i n the t e c h n i q u e s u s e d to ad a p t to t h i s c o n f l i c t . I r r e g a r d l e s s of the t e c h n i q u e u s e d , however the c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . P e d e r s e n , L o n n e r , and Draguns (1981) of the E a s t - W e s t C u l t u r a l C e n t e r i n H a w a i i d i s c u s s e d the m a l a d a p t i o n and s t r e s s o f the c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n . F r a n s t e d (1981) i n an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e r e were i n t e n s e p e r i o d s of p e r s o n a l m a l a d a p t i o n amongst N a t i v e I n d i a n s d u r i n g c u l t u r e change. 2. S p e c i f i c N a t i v e I n d i a n S t u d i e s The s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the r e v i e w used N a t i v e I n d i a n s u b j e c t s . I n the c o n c l u s i o n s of the r e s e a r c h t h e a u t h o r s g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s e d the b e l i e f t h a t what had been f o u n d was at l e a s t i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e to c u l t u r e change and l o s s . Ward (1975) i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n to a c o r o n e r ' s j u r y i n O n t a r i o a t t r i b u t e d the h i g h r a t e of s u i c i d e amongst the N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e of the a r e a , i n p a r t due to the s t r e s s and d i s r u p t i o n of i 23 t h e c u l t u r e change t h e y had e x p e r i e n c e d . I n a s t r e s s s t u d y w i t h Cree s t u d e n t s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r a n d o n , B l u e and B l u e (1984) c o n c l u d e d t h a t c e r t a i n s t r e s s f a c t o r s a r e a c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e to s t r e s s , and f o u n d t h a t the g e n e r a l s t r e s s l e v e l of the s t u d e n t s was above the n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t a v e r a g e . S i k a n d (1978, 1979, 1980) s t u d i e d the s t r e s s l e v e l s of s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . Some of h i s f i n d i n g s c o r r e l a t e d s t r e s s w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t the s t r e s s l e v e l of the N a t i v e s t u d e n t i n Canada was t w i c e as h i g h as the n o n - N a t i v e s t u d e n t . 3. N a t i v e I n d i a n R e c o v e r y from C u l t u r e Change and L o s s One a r t i c l e was f o u n d t h a t d i s c u s s e d a t h e r a p e u t i c a p p r o a c h t h a t would e n a b l e N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t s , i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g to r e g a i n c o n t r o l and meaning i n t h e i r l i v e s . J i l e k - A a l l (1976) de s c r i b e d the use of I n d i a n myths as a means of e n g a g i n g the c l i e n t and f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e r a p y . She a l s o r e f e r r e d to a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t as r e l e v a n t i s s u e s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t s . E m p i r i c a l l y , the most p r o f o u n d r e c o v e r y p r o c e s s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e a r e s e l f - h e l p programs t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e N a t i v e I n d i a n l e a d e r s and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . T h e s e , however, a r e 24 s e l d o m r e s e a r c h e d and a c a d e m i c a l l y r e f e r e n c e d p r o j e c t s . T h e r e f o r e , no r e f e r e n c e to t h e s e programs was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . E. CULTURE CHANGE AND LOSS IN THE NATIVE INDIAN CULTURES OF B.C. The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d h e r e was b r i e f and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of c u l t u r e l o s s and change a r e documented, but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s was i n d i r e c t l y drawn. G e n e r a l l y , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was made by d e s c r i b i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n l i f e s t y l e s p r i o r to E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t and a f t e r E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t . Two works s t a n d out beyond the o t h e r s : R o b i n F i s h e r ' s CONTACT AND CONFLICT ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; and W i l s o n D u f f ' s THE INDIAN HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ( 1 9 6 4 ) . F i s h e r p r o v i d e d a r e a d a b l e , w e l l - r e f e r e n c e d , and c a r e f u l l y r e s e a r c h e d a c c o u n t of the h i s t o r y of I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n r e l a t i o n s i n B.C. What emerged was the d o c u m e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l change i n p h ases b e g i n n i n g i n 1774 and e n d i n g w i t h the l o s s of c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l about 1890. L a r g e i n f l u x e s of E u r o - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s between 1870 and 1890 c o n f i r m e d the l o s s of N a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l o v e r the l a n d and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . D u f f p r o v i d e d an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t of the same p e r i o d as F i s h e r and c o n t i n u e d beyond 1890. He r e f e r r e d to 25 t h e r e s i d e n t i a l and day s c h o o l s y s t e m of e d u c a t i o n r u n by m i s s i o n a r i e s , and the c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of l a n d t i t l e and a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s from E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . O t h e r works e l a b o r a t e d upon the h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d by F i s h e r and D u f f . L e w i s (1970) p u b l i s h e d a case s t u d y of a N a t i v e I n d i a n v i l l a g e w h i c h f o c u s s e d upon the im p a c t of change i n I n d i a n f a m i l i e s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s were o n l y i m p l i e d , but f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n was a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d . L a V i o l e t t e (1961) w r o t e of t h e h i s t o r y of c o n t a c t from a c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l p e r s p e c t i v e . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t c u l t u r a l change and l o s s o c c u r r e d , though some of h i s f a c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n a c c u r a t e and h i s a c c o u n t was g e n e r a l i z e d . S e v e r a l r e c e n t books have been l i f e h i s t o r y a c c o u n t s of c u l t u r a l l o s s and change. S p r a d l e y (1969) t o l d the s t o r y of James Sewid, K w a k i u t l . I t was p r i m a r i l y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and summarized Sewid's s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n to c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . B lackman's (1981) b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t of F l o r e n c e D a v i d s o n ' s l i f e d e t a i l e d her a c c u l t u r a t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l H a i d a to a p r e s e n t day H a i d a . A c c u l t u r a t i v e p a t t e r n s were p r e s e n t i n the book, but were not f o c u s s e d upon and d e s c r i b e d . I n summary, a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a l o s s of p e r s o n a l meaning and i d e n t i t y i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to c u l t u r e change and l o s s . Some s t u d i e s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p by u s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s w hich have e x p e r i e n c e d c u l t u r e 26 change, t h e n d e s c r i b i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r s , b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e to l i f e . O t h e r s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada have a t t r i b u t e d h i g h d e g r e e s of s t r e s s , s u i c i d e and o t h e r v i o l e n t b e h a v i o u r s to c u l t u r e change and l o s s . The a n t h r o p o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c u l t u r e l o s s and change o c c u r r e d amongst the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s of B.C. However, none of the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d c o n s i d e r e d the p r o c e s s of r e c o v e r i n g p e r s o n a l meaning a f t e r c u l t u r e change and l o s s o c c u r r e d , e x c e p t P e t e r , M a r r i s . H i s t h e o r y i s c e n t r a l to the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h . 27 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES A case s t u d y d e s i g n was chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : g i v e n t h e c u l t u r a l d y namics of a w h i t e r e s e a r c h e r and a N a t i v e I n d i a n s u b j e c t , t h e l e a s t o f f e n s i v e and the l e a s t t h r e a t e n i n g of d e s i g n s was i m p o r t a n t f o r a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d outcome i n the s t u d y ; N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e have been s t u d i e d and s u b j e c t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b i n g by many s c i e n t i s t s o v e r the y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and t h e y m i s t r u s t , to say the l e a s t , a q u e s t i o n and answer, m a n i p u l a t i v e or p o w e r f u l a p p r o a c h ; the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s have an o r a l t r a d i t i o n , so t h a t an o r a l a p p r o a c h would be h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e to the s u b j e c t s . A d e s i g n where t h e s u b j e c t s had h i g h p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s and were not m a n i p u l a t e d i n anyway was t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d the most e f f e c t i v e d e s i g n . The case s t u d y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s the p r e f e r r e d d e s i g n o v e r e x p e r i m e n t a l when e x a m i n i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y / h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s where the r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o u r s cannot be m a n i p u l a t e d ( Y i n , 1 9 84). As w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s the case s t u d y answers 'how' and 'why' r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ( Y i n , 1984). However, the case s t u d y a p p r o a c h has been w i d e l y c r i t i c i s e d f o r i t s l a c k of r e s e a r c h r i g o r , i t s s m a l l base f o r s c i e n t i f i c 28 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and i t s u s u a l l e n g t h y , u n r e a d a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n . Y i n (1984) c o n s i d e r e r e d t h e s e t h r e e c r i t i c i s m s v a l i d . However, Y i n a l o n g w i t h C a m p b e l l (1975) and S t a k e (1980) p r a i s e d the v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the case s t u d y and d e t a i l e d the manner i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s may p e r f o r m t h e i r s t u d i e s to overcome t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s . Y i r i f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d t h a t the s k i l l s of the r e s e a r c h e r need to be f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of "any o t h e r r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y " (1984, page 5 6 ) . He l i s t e d f i v e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y to c o n d u c t e f f e c t i v e case s t u d y r e s e a r c h : 1. the a b i l i t y t o ask good q u e s t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t the answers 2. the a b i l i t y to be a good l i s t e n e r 3. the a b i l i t y to be a d a p t i v e and f l e x i b l e 4. a f i r m g r a s p of the i s s u e s b e i n g s t u d i e d 5. f r e e f r o m b i a s e d , p r e c o n c e i v e d e m o t i o n s ( i b i d , pages 56, 57) As t h e s e f i v e s k i l l s a r e a l s o the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r an e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t , i t was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r to p r o c e e d w i t h the case s t u d y d e s i g n . The case s t u d y method does not d i c t a t e random c h o i c e of s u b j e c t s , a l t h o u g h i n a b r o a d way, t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d random c h o i c e . Many c o n t a c t s to e l d e r s were a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r , w i t h l i m i t s b e i n g made by the e l d e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to t a l k and t h e i r p h y s i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y . I t was t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r v i e w e l d e r s who r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range of c u l t u r a l and l i f e d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w b o t h male and f e m a l e e l d e r s . 29 The p r i m a r y d e l i m i t a t i o n to the case s t u d y , i n t e r v i e w method i s t h a t not a l l a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and e v e n t s i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n one i n t e r v i e w . However, as a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y to a case s t u d y , p a t t e r n s not i d e n t i f i e d i n i n t e r v i e w , but i n a r e p l i c a t i o n c o u l d be v e r i f i e d as e x i s t i n g / n o t e x i s t i n g i n the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . F o l l o w - u p was not done i n t h i s s t u d y . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d as a m u l t i p l e - c a s e s t u d y . B o t h S t a k e (1980) and Y i n (1984) s t a t e t h a t at l e a s t t h r e e s o u r c e s of d a t a a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r a r i g o r o u s , h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , i n t e r n a l l y v a l i d s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , t h r e e case s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d , the s e c o n d and t h i r d c ase s t u d i e s b e i n g r e p l i c a t i o n s of the f i r s t . The d a t a was c o l l e c t e d as o r a l l i f e h i s t o r i e s as s u g g e s t e d by B e r t a u x ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B e r t a u x s t a t e d t h a t the g o a l of r e s e a r c h i s " t o a c q u i r e knowledge about c e r t a i n s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s " , not to p r o d u c e s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s (page 3 3 ) . By o b t a i n i n g the l i f e h i s t o r i e s of p e r s o n s from a l l l e v e l s and o c c u p a t i o n s of s o c i e t y , B e r t a u x m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o KNOW s o c i e t y . The l i f e h i s t o r y a p p r o a c h was used i n t h i s s t u d y as the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was c o n s i d e r i n g the 'how' and 'why' of a s o c i a l p r o c e s s ; t h e r e c o v e r y of s t r u c t u r e and meaning i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e f o l l o w i n g an i r r e t r i e v a b l e l o s s or change. The r e c a l l e d , s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e would p r o v i d e the b e s t answers ( B e r t a u x , 1981). The l i f e h i s t o r y was r e c o r d e d as an o r a l i n t e r v i e w s h a r e d w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r i n k e e p i n g w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , as s t a t e d above. E a c h p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d was asked to r e s p o n d to the 30 f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n ; "As N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e was more and more i n c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e h e r e i n B.C., N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e f o u n d t h e i r l i v e s more and more i n v o l v e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t way of l i f e . Then t h e r e came a time about 100 y e a r s ago when N a t i v e p e o p l e found t h e m s e l v e s outnumbered i n t h e i r own l a n d by t h e s e w h i t e E u r o p e a n newcomers, f o r c e d from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homes, t h e i r l i v e s d i s r u p t e d by a l c o h o l and d i s e a s e , t h e i r way of l i f e j u d g e d u n a c c e p t a b l e , and t h e i r c h i l d r e n removed from t h e i r c a r e and s e n t f a r away to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s to l e a r n to become w h i t e men. Most of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l i f e as t h e y were know 150 y e a r s ago, were l o s t . You have l i v e d a l o n g l i f e i n a N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e when most of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways a r e dead or d y i n g and p e o p l e are s t r u g g l i n g to f i n d meaning f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n b o t h the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and the new c u l t u r e . E v e r y o n e once f o u n d p e r s o n a l meaning i n the t r a d i t i o n a l ways and then t h i s became c o n f u s e d . The ways of the new c u l t u r e were a l s o c o n f u s i n g . I n o r d e r to l i v e d u r i n g the p a s t 100 y e a r s , e a c h p e r s o n has had to f i n d a meaning f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n the m i d s t of t h i s l o s s and c o n f u s i o n . I'd l i k e to hea r the s t o r y of your l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p a r t s where you fo u n d meaning f o r y o u r s e l f d u r i n g a time of l o s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l ways i n the m i d s t of new ways." 31 T h i s q u e s t i o n was r e a d a l o u d by the i n t e r v i e w e r p r i o r to ea c h i n t e r v i e w . E a c h i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The e l d e r was e n c o u r a g e d to t a l k f r e e l y about t h e m s e l f w i t h o n l y g u i d i n g r e s p o n s e s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n s asked by the i n t e r v i e w e r ( B e r t a u x , 1 9 81). N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s (55+) were c h o s e n t o be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y as t h e y have e x p e r i e n c e d the g r e a t e s t l e n g t h and i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t u r a l change and s o , p r o v i d e the r i c h e s t d a t a . A c r i t e r i o n of 55+ y e a r s of age f o r s t u d y p u r p o s e s a l s o meant t h a t to have l i v e d t h a t l o n g i n a c u l t u r e where o n l y 5% of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e to be 65 o r o l d e r , t h e s e e l d e r s would be the e x c e p t i o n i n l o n g e v i t y and s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g . They would be c e r t a i n to have f o u n d some s u c c e s s f u l means of o b t a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e and p u r p o s e i n t h e i r l i v e s . The e l d e r s were c o n t a c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h r o u g h her f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s i n the N a t i v e I n d i a n community. In the I n i t i a l C o n t a c t L e t t e r , the names of t h e s e c o n t a c t s were s t a t e d w i t h t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n . The f o l l o w - u p t e l e p h o n e c a l l w i t h the e l d e r s u s u a l l y m e n t i o n e d t h e s e c o n t a c t p e r s o n s as w e l l . Of f i v e e l d e r s c o n t a c t e d by l e t t e r i n i t i a l l y , one d e c l i n e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d b ecause she was too busy, and the se c o n d was out of town f o r sometime and u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the time of the s t u d y . The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e c o n s e n t e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d . The i n t e r v i e w was a r r a n g e d by phone. The t i m e and p l a c e was m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e to b o t h the e l d e r and the i n v e s t i g a t o r , w i t h the p l a c e b e i n g p r i m a r i l y the c h o i c e of the e l d e r . The f i r s t 32 i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d i n the l i v i n g r o o m of the woman's d a u g h t e r , the se c o n d i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d i n my o f f i c e , and th e t h i r d i n t e r v i e w was h e l d i n the k i t c h e n of the e l d e r ' s home. A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks l a p s e d between each case i n t e r v i e w . E a c h i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h o u r s and was ta p e r e c o r d e d . The ta p e was t h e n t r a n s c r i b e d onto a word p r o c e s s o r . The i n i t i a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n was t h e n e d i t e d . The e d i t i n g p r o v i d e d c l a r i t y to the r e a d e r , as w e l l as o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . The e d i t i n g was as f o l l o w s ; t h e i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e to the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n r e m a i n e d i n i t s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h the r e m a i n i n g i n t e r v i e w b e i n g o r g a n i z e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . Few words were o m i t t e d or a l t e r e d , and t h e n p r i m a r i l y f o r g r a m m a t i c a l p u r p o s e s to a l l o w e a s i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g to the r e a d e r . A n a l y s i s of the Case I n t e r v i e w s The i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d f o r p a t t e r n s ( S t a k e 1980), and a l l p a t t e r n s were t h e n a n a l y z e d a g a i n s t the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of M a r r i s . E a c h case i n t e r v i e w was a n a l y z e d i n the o r d e r t h e y were c o n d u c t e d . The p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s was as f o l l o w s ; 1. P a t t e r n s of i r r e t r i e v a b l e l o s s and change i n the c u l t u r e as 33 i n d i c a t e d i n the e l d e r ' s l i f e . 2. P a t t e r n s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning i n the e l d e r ' s l i f e by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e . 3. P a t t e r n s of g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d by K u b l e r - R o s s i n h e r r e s e a r c h on the t e r m i n a l l y i l l (1969, 1975): D e n i a l ; A n g e r ; B a r g a i n i n g ; D e p r e s s i o n ; A c c e p t a n c e ; Hope. These p a t t e r n s were a l l c o n s i d e r e d as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each p a t t e r n i n the case was c i t e d by page and l i n e number i n the i n t e r v i e w . 4. C r o s s - c a s e p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g was t h e n p e r f o r m e d . 5. Unmatched c r o s s - c a s e p a t t e r n s were i d e n t i f i e d . R e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s were then o u t l i n e d . To e n s u r e a c c u r a c y , the e d i t e d i n t e r v i e w was r e a d by each e l d e r and f a c t s , s p e l l i n g s , e t c . v a l i d a t e d . \ 34 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY INTERVIEWS T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s the I n t e r v i e w s g i v e n by t h r e e N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s to the r e s e a r c h e r . E a c h i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d two h o u r s , was h e l d i n a p l a c e c h o s e n by the e l d e r and was tape r e c o r d e d . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was i n the home of the e l d e r ' s d a u g h t e r , the s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w was i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e , and the t h i r d i n t e r v i e w was i n the k i t c h e n of the e l d e r ' s home. The t a p e r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w was t r a n s c r i b e d and t h e n e d i t e d . The e d i t i n g was r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e ; m a t e r i a l s h a r e d by the e l d e r was c o n s o l i d a t e d a c c o r d i n g to t o p i c and then p r e s e n t e d t o p i c a l l y i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . E a c h e l d e r r e s p o n d e d to the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n i n i t i a l l y w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . I n a l l c a s e s , the i n t e r v i e w e e s words have been used i n the e d i t e d i n t e r v i e w w i t h some words b e i n g changed or r e - a r r a n g e d f o r c l a r i t y . R e p e t i t i v e words and i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s have been d e l e t e d . H e a d i n g s were e x t r a c t e d from the m a t e r i a l f o r the sake of c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n h e r e . I n a few i n s t a n c e s , m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e r v i e w has n o t been i n c l u d e d i n t h e e d i t e d v e r s i o n . T h i s was g e n e r a l l y done f o r the sake of a n o n y m i t y or because i t was too p e r s o n a l f o r the 35 e l d e r to be c o m f o r t a b l e about i t s i n c l u s i o n . The i n t e r v i e w s a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n the o r d e r t h e y were , c o n d u c t e d . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w e e w i s h e d to r e m a i n anonymous. She i s f e m a l e , i n her mid-60's and from an i s o l a t e d n o r t h e r n community i n B.C. where c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n s has been m i n i m a l compared to o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . T h i s c o n t a c t was a l s o more c o n t r o l l e d by the N a t i v e I n d i a n community t h a n i n o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . The second i n t e r v i e w was w i t h M i n n i e C r o f t , a l s o f e m a l e and i n her raid-seventies. She was b o r n i n S k i d e g a t e , Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , i s H a i d a and has l i v e d the m a j o r i t y of her l i f e i n V a n c o u v e r . The t h i r d i n t e r v i e w was w i t h A r n o l d G u e r i n , male and i n h i s m i d - s e v e n t i e s . He was b o r n on the Musqueam R e s e r v e , i s C o a s t S a l i s h and has l i v e d h i s l i f e i n N a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n the V a n c o u v e r a r e a . E a c h of the e l d e r s c o n s e n t e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r t h e y had v e r i f i e d me as a t r u s t w o r t h y p e r s o n . In each case I knew f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s of the e l d e r , but d i d not know nor had met the e l d e r . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , i n f a c t , was f o r m a l l y a r r a n g e d by the e l d e r ' s d a u g h t e r . I c o n f i r m e d the time and p l a c e . 36 A. F i r s t I n t e r v i e w ANONYMOUS Sen t to R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l To b e g i n w i t h , when I was j u s t a l i t t l e wee g i r l of s e v e n my p a r e n t s s e n t me away t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . And t h i s was t o h e l p me l e a r n w h i t e ways and get an e d u c a t i o n . I t was h a r d to be s e n t away. I t h i n k I was s i c k f o r a month when I was f i r s t i n the s c h o o l . I u s e d t o c r y m y s e l f t o s l e e p . Most of a l l I m i s s e d our own f o o d . I t seemed so changed from our own f o o d , t h i s w h i t e f o o d . I t t a s t e d s t r a n g e - t h e r e were a l o t of t h i n g s I d i d n ' t have at home. But when I go t home f o r my f i r s t h o l i d a y I s a t down and t o l d my M o t h e r a l l a b o u t t h i s . And t h e n I m i s s e d what I u s e d t o e a t i n s c h o o l . And my M o t h e r would go a l l out of h e r way t o go buy i t . She would t r y and c r e a t e b o t h k i n d s of f o o d . T h e r e was a s c h o o l i n the v i l l a g e when I was s m a l l - a one room s c h o o l h o u s e - c o l d ! I o n l y went to s c h o o l t h e r e a y e a r . A t R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l I was away from home at s c h o o l f o r t e n months, u n t i l the end of J u n e . I was a good s t u d e n t and I p a s s e d and I f i n i s h e d my g r a d e e i g h t when I was 14. And I c o u l d n ' t l e a v e s c h o o l ; I had to 37 keep g o i n g back. I n t h o s e days you c o u l d n ' t be out of s c h o o l u n t i l you were 17 o r 18. You c o u l d n ' t j u s t q u i t s c h o o l when you f i n i s h e d i n t h o s e d a y s . So I kept g o i n g back, and the l a s t y e a r I went back we had a t e a c h e r t h a t t a u g h t me s e c r e t a r i a l s k i l l s . The s c h o o l I went to was run by m i s s i o n a r i e s and we were t a u g h t a l l t h e s e t h i n g s - l i k e I n e v e r went to a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l where boys and g i r l s were t o g e t h e r . We were a l l g i r l s and we had our own s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g . I t was s t r i c t . I n e v e r saw any boys or men, i t was a l l g i r l s . We n e v e r t a l k e d t o any m a l e s . Even when we used to go p l a y i n the v i l l a g e they k e p t us to o u r s e l v e s . And t h i s i s what our p r i n c i p a l , a l a d y who was a m i s s i o n a r y would t e l l u s . She t a u g h t us r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and she had r u l e s . T h e r e was no a l c o h o l o r s m o k i n g . She was r e a l l y a g a i n s t t h i s . A l l our s t a f f were a l l C h r i s t i a n s , r e a l l y good C h r i s t i a n s and t h a t ' s the way they t a u g h t us. So what I l e a r n e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l went t o g e t h e r w i t h what I l e a r n e d at home. They were s i m i l a r . My F a m i l y My p a r e n t s were much o l d e r t h a n I was. They we r e n ' t my own l e g a l p a r e n t s ; I was a d o p t e d . Whenever I g o t home from r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , my Mother always s a t me down and she n e v e r l e t me f o r g e t my own c u l t u r e . She made me s i t t h e r e and l e a r n o u r own ways. A l l the summer months t h a t I was t h e r e she t o l d me she d i d n ' t send me away to s c h o o l to e r a s e my own c u l t u r e . 38 She wanted me to have an e d u c a t i o n . She n e v e r went to s c h o o l and she c o u l d n ' t r e a d and t h i s i s what she d i d n ' t want me to do. She wanted me to get t h i s e x t r a s c h o o l i n g . So whenever I came home she k e p t t h i s w i t h me - my own c u l t u r e and she t o l d me what I l e a r n e d . Coming home on my summer h o l i d a y s , and then s h e ' d remind me what she was t e a c h i n g me: about what w h i t e p e o p l e would c a l l c e t a i n t h i n g s ; a g i r l m u s t n ' t do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , l i k e me b e i n g a g i r l I n e v e r s a t a t the t a b l e w i t h my F a t h e r or went n e a r ray F a t h e r when he had to r e s t . My F a t h e r was i n v o l v e d i n what t h e y c a l l e d "The Land Q u e s t i o n " . T h e r e were always c h i e f s i n our house. I was n e v e r a l l o w e d to go nea r my F a t h e r when he was t a l k i n g to our c h i e f s and t a l k i n g b u s i n e s s . When t h e r e was nobody home I was a l l o w e d t o s i t on h i s l a p and e v e r y t h i n g . But when he had v i s i t o r s I c o u l d n ' t . T h i s was one of the main r u l e s . T h i s was s i m i l a r to what I l e a r n e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . And as I grew o l d e r my Mother t a u g h t me d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a b o u t our c u l t u r e - l i k e as I came out of my g i r l h o o d . When I went out of my g i r l h o o d i t was k i n d of h a r d . They had r u l e s f o r t h o s e k i n d of t h i n g s . She put me i n a room a l l by m y s e l f and I s t a y e d t h e r e t h r e e d a y s . She put me on a f a s t and would come i n and t e l l me how to be a l a d y - I c o u l d n ' t be s l o p p y . She e x p l a i n e d to me why I had to be on my own. In t h o s e days i t wasn't r i g h t f o r a g i r l to be w a l k i n g the s t r e e t s a l l the t i m e . 39 I had to be a l a d y . And t h a t was why I was by m y s e l f . I had a n i c e c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r and she b r o u g h t me whatever she t h o u g h t I c o u l d l e a r n , l i k e k n i t t i n g n e e d l e s and c r o c h e t h o o k s . And whenever I g o t b o r e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g she b r o u g h t me s o m e t h i n g e l s e . And t h a t ' s what i t was: I was by m y s e l f ; she w o u l d n ' t l e t me l o o k out the window. On the f i r s t day, I was r e s t l e s s . L i k e a t the s c h o o l where I was a t , you were g i v e n t i m e to p l a y . T h e r e was always h o p p i n g or s k i p p i n g - h o p s c o t c h . Then when I' d go home I' d c a r r y out the same t h i n g . So when she put me i n t h i s room to s i t , i t seemed m i s e r a b l e . I was 14 when I became a woman. And my Mother went t h r o u g h the same t h i n g when she became a woman. You s e e , our c u l t u r e says you must put y o u r d a u g h t e r t h r o u g h t h i s same d i s c i p l i n e and t h i s d a u g h t e r does the same to he r d a u g h t e r . But now, i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . I don't t h i n k anybody e l s e does i t . But I d i d i t f o r f o u r of my d a u g h t e r s . I n my day I n e v e r n e v e r went anywhere w i t h o u t my M o t h e r . I went where my Mother went and where she wanted me to go. I f she d i d n ' t want me to go w i t h h e r t h e n I s t a y e d at home. She would t e l l me t h a t and I ' d s t a y home. When I was v e r y l i t t l e , we were f o r e v e r i n c r a d l e s , you know, t h a t you hang up from the c e i l i n g and t h e n can be r o c k e d . I can remember even when i t was t i m e f o r my nap she used to put me i n a b i g one. And she had t h i s c u r v e d p i e c e of wood t h a t s h e ' d put o v e r my f a c e p a r t and t h e n s h e ' d c o v e r me up and t h a t ' s where I ' d s l e e p . When I'd wake up a l l I 40 d i d was c a l l h e r and s h e ' d t a k e rae o u t . I remember t h a t so w e l l . I was always p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e to my Mom u n t i l I was s e v e n and I was s e n t to the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . As a l i t t l e g i r l I would watch my Mother when she was c a n -n i n g salmon. My Mother used to chase me away be c a u s e I was i n h e r way. And I was a l w a y s t h e r e w a n t i n g to h e l p . We a l s o smoked the s a l m o n . T h e r e ' s a c e r t a i n way to make t h o s e f i l l e t s and t h a t ' s s u p p o s e d to be r e a l l y h a r d . You have to c u t them so t h i n . And I d i d i t - maybe th e y weren't t h a t t h i n . I n the c a n n e r i e s t h e y a l l o w e d the p e o p l e to have smokehouses. A l l the c a n n e r -i e s w e r e n ' t on the w a t e r , j u s t the c a n n i n g p a r t . The accomoda-t i o n s were on t h e l a n d . So my M o t h e r a l w a y s had a smokehouse and I a l w a y s wanted to h e l p . But my Mother d i d n ' t want me to s p o i l the n i c e salmon, so she used to t e l l my F a t h e r to b r i n g i n the p i n k s . Then she'd t e l l me to smoke them m y s e l f . T h a t ' s how I l e a r n e d . We c a l l e d i t (own l a n g u a g e ) . So when we were at t h e c a n n e r i e s we were d o i n g the f i s h t h e I n d i a n way and the w h i t e way. My Mother was k i n d . She k e p t a l o t of c h i l d r e n t h a t weren't h e r own. She r a i s e d them and t h e y n e v e r l e f t h er u n t i l t h e y were on t h e i r own. So her a d o p t e d f a m i l y was my o l d e r b r o t h e r s , and t h e n she a d o p t e d a g i r l and a boy, t h e n me. I was the y o u n g e s t . B u t i n my own l e g a l f a m i l y I was t h e s e c o n d o l d e s t . I n e v e r knew my own l e g a l f a m i l y u n t i l I was about 14. And I d i d n ' t e v e n want to go n e a r them t h e n , t h e y were s t r a n g e r s . I t wasn't t i l l a f t e r 41 my F a t h e r d i e d . T h a t was my f i r s t t i m e w i t h them. I was w o r k i n g i n the c a n n e r y a t t h a t t i m e . I s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n the c a n n e r y when I was 11 and I was e a r n i n g 10 c e n t s an h o u r . I was a t t h e c a n n e r y a t e v e r y summer. I w o r k e d t h e r e about two summers and then when my F a t h e r d i e d when I was 15, b e c a u s e t h e r e was no work i n , my Mother t o l d me I had to go to the r i v e r w i t h my own l e g a l p a r e n t s . I t was v e r y h a r d to l i v e w i t h p e o p l e I n e v e r even knew. My Mot h e r had o t h e r s i s t e r s who were c l o s e r to me than my own p a r e n t s . I f she had g i v e n me a c h o i c e I would have s t a y e d w i t h one of my o t h e r a u n t s , but she d i d n ' t . She made me s t a y w i t h my p a r e n t s , and my b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . So t h a t was r e a l l y h a r d . But b e f o r e the summer was o v e r , I had l e a r n e d . L i k e when I was a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l I had l e a r n e d so much about the B i b l e p a s s a g e s . When I went to s t a y w i t h my p a r e n t s e v e r y t h i n g s o r t of came back to me t h a t the t e a c h e r had t a u g h t us. T h i s i s what r e a l l y h e l p e d me out - t h e f a i t h t h a t t h e y had t a u g h t u s. By the end of the summer, I g o t p r e t t y c l o s e . My Dad was j u s t l i k e my own F a t h e r . And my s i s t e r s , c l o s e r and c l o s e r . I r e a l l y took c a r e of them. I t h i n k t h i s i s what b r o u g h t me c l o s e t o them - I was t e a c h i n g them i n our own l a n g u a g e . My mother would n e v e r a l l o w any of her c h i l d r e n to go to s c h o o l t h e way I d i d , to be s e n t away. She l o s t so many c h i l d r e n . She d i d n ' t want them to l e a v e home. My s i s t e r r i g h t next to me - when she was a t e e n a g e r she ended up g o i n g i n t o an i n s t i t u t i o n . I was t a u g h t and she wasn't. But I t a u g h t the younger ones. And t h a t 42 was what r e a l l y b r o u g h t me c l o s e to them. And I d i d t h i s f o r about t h r e e y e a r s , g o i n g home to my M o t h e r i n our own v i l l a g e and t h e n , come the summer I'd go to my own p a r e n t s on the r i v e r . We were l i v i n g i n on the r i v e r . I t ' s c l o s e d down now. And my mother was net woman. She would r e p a i r the n e t s . I had no i n t e r e s t i n i t . My M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y My m a r r i a g e was a r r a n g e d . I was t o l d who I was g o i n g to ma r r y - i t f e l t s t r a n g e ! I wept! I n my g e n e r a t i o n nobody came t o c o u r t you or s t u f f Ike t h a t . You were s i t t i n g h e r e and the n e x t t h i n g you know, you were t o l d - t h a t you were g o i n g to get m a r r i e d . W e l l , i n my day, i t was a l i t t l e b e t t e r , i t wasn't f o r c e d . L i k e b e f o r e t h a t I know I had two c o u s i n s who were r e a l l y f o r c e d , who were way o l d e r t h a n me. So by t h e time i t got to me, t h a t t r a d i t i o n had ea s e d a b i t . You see i n my day, t h e n i t was somebody my own age. But my o l d e r c o u s i n s , t h e y had to ma r r y r e a l l y o l d e r men. T h a t o f t e n happened, the o l d e r men got f i r s t p i c k . But when t h e y came a r o u n d to my t i m e , i t was somebody my own age. I c o u l d have s a i d , 'No', I g u e s s . But i t t u r n e d out t o be a good m a r r i a g e . We g o t m a r r i e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l way and i n the c h u r c h . I t was a r e a l w edding. The same y e a r I g o t m a r r i e d , my mother had gone down to.work on the r i v e r and we went down to l o o k a f t e r the g a r d e n . 43 E v e r y b o d y was c a t c h i n g s p r i n g s almon. My husband, he had no net o f any k i n d , but he had a b o a t . So we d e c i d e d to t r y and make a n e t . We b r o u g h t out a l l the o l d webbing t h a t was around the h o u s e . I put them t o g e t h e r . We had i t made. I t h i n k t h i s was when we had our f i r s t f i g h t . He d i d n ' t b e l i e v e how to put the f l o a t e r s on. 1 knew, and he d i d n ' t b e l i e v e me. L i k e the l e a d l i n e i s l o n g e r t h a n the top and t h i s was what our f i g h t was a b o u t . But i n the end I won! And we caught f i s h , oh we d i d r e a l l y good. And r i g h t o f f t h e b at I s t a r t e d d o i n g my own c a n n i n g . I d i d the same t h i n g as my M o t h e r . So when I t o l d her about i t , she was r e a l l y p r o u d of me. I even b r o u g h t the salmon down to t a s t e . I was about 23 when my Mother d i e d of c a n c e r . I was a l l a l o n e w i t h my c h i l d r e n . I was p r e t t y young t h e n . I t was t h e n I r e a l i z e d t h a t I was r e a l l y on my own. I m i s s e d her v e r y much. B u t I k e p t them t o g e t h e r , and t h a t ' s what I d i d - s e w i n g , even to my baby's b u n t i n g bag. And I'm s t i l l k i c k i n g m y s e l f f o r not k e e p i n g i t . I used an o l d c o a t to make a b u n t i n g bag. I had two b o y s , a n d t h e n I had two g i r l s t o g e t h e r . T h a t was good you know. So I made the b u n t i n g bag and the boys t o l d me they were g o i n g to get the f u r f o r around the f a c e . So I a s k e d them where t h e y were g o i n g to get i t , and the you n g e r one s a i d , "Oh........" Two days l a t e r t h e y came home w i t h a w e a s e l , a w h i t e w e a s e l . They'd t r a p p e d i t . I t was a w h i t e w e a s e l w i t h s p o t s on i t . So t h e y went 44 o v e r to an u n c l e who i s a t r a p p e r , and he showed them how to s k i n i t and how to dry i t . When i t was d r y I measured i t and i t d i d n ' t f i t v e r y good, so t h e y had to t r y and get a n o t h e r one. T h e r e were t i m e s when the k i d s were g r o w i n g up I n e v e r shopped anywhere but t h r o u g h the m a i l o r d e r c a t a l o g . We'd s t a r t i n a bout A u g u s t ; we'd s t a r t g e t t i n g shoes f o r a l l of them, b o o t s . And t h i s i s where my M o t h e r ' s t r a i n i n g r e a l l y came i n t o me from when I was s m a l l . I a l w a y s wore homemade c l o t h e s t h a t she made h e r s e l f . And when I s t a r t e d g e t t i n g c h i l d r e n I d i d the same t h i n g . I f a n y t h i n g came my way t h a t was r e a l l y n i c e , but i t was a used a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g , I would j u s t r i p i t up and wash i t . I ' d l o o k at the c a t a l o g , p i c k a n i c e l i t t l e d r e s s and I ' d j u s t copy i t . T h a t ' s the way w i t h a l l my c h i l d r e n ; I made a l l t h e i r c l o t h e s and d i d l o t s of k n i t t i n g . I n e v e r e v e r bought them s w e a t e r s from the s t o r e . I k n i t them a l l m y s e l f . The s c h o o l i n our v i l l a g e when my d a u g h t e r s were young was good, i t was modern. I d i d n ' t need to send them to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l l i k e my mother s e n t me. The s c h o o l had t h r e e rooms and t h e y had two t e a c h e r s - t h a t was b e t t e r t h a n what I had i n the v i l l a g e . By t h e n t h e y weren't t a k i n g k i d s i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l u n l e s s t h e y were k i d s t h a t d i d n ' t have good homes or who needed more c a r e . They weren't t a k i n g c h i l d r e n l i k e my own who had homes and who had c a r e . I t was m o s t l y k i d s who had l o s t t h e i r m o thers or who had m o thers i n t h e h o s p i t a l w i t h TB who were i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . Those were the k i n d of k i d s t h e r e t h e n . 45 When my o l d e s t d a u g h t e r f i n i s h e d her grade e i g h t , she d i d DIA r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . T h e r e was a s c h o o l i n the v i l l a g e and my two o l d e s t d a u g h t e r s f i n i s h e d g r a d e 8 i n the v i l l a g e . A f t e r g r a d e 8, i t was DIA p l a c i n g . One came down to V a n c o u v e r , but t h e y s e n t the o t h e r one to Edmonton. I d i d n ' t have a say i n t h i s . They j u s t p l a c e them and you j u s t have to a g r e e . I f I d i d n ' t want them t o go, t h e n they would have t o l d me to f i n d a p l a c e f o r them m y s e l f . I t f e l t l i k e I d i d n ' t have any c o n t r o l o v e r wha"t happened. My Mom d e c i d e d where I was g o i n g to s c h o o l , but when i t came time f o r my d a u g h t e r s to go to s c h o o l , I d i d n ' t have the same k i n d of c o n t r o l o v e r what happened to them as my Mom d i d f o r me. The younger c h i l d r e n d i d n ' t have to go so f a r away as to Edmonton l i k e my o l d e r c h i l d r e n . They j u s t came he r e to V a n c o u v e r . They were a l l p l a c e d i n good homes. None of them e v e r c o m p l a i n e d . When t h e y came home I would s i t down w i t h them and t e a c h them. They n e v e r f o r g o t . None of them e v e r f o r g o t . One t h i n g I made s u r e o f ; I k e p t i n c o n t a c t w i t h l e t t e r s a l l the t i m e . I f t h e y n e v e r wrote me, I'd w r i t e a g a i n . I even s e n t them stamps to make s u r e t h e y ' d w r i t e me. They a l l got t h e i r g r a d e 12 by moving away from the v i l l a g e . And t h e y were a l l good s t u d e n t s . My husband was f i s h i n g t h e n , a h i g h l i n e r , a r e a l l y good f i s h e r m a n . I f the s e a s o n was p o o r , t h e r e was n o t h i n g you c o u l d do a b o u t i t . My h u s b a n d was d e t e r m i n e d h i s sons would g e t a good 4 6 s t a r t . On my s i d e , I was d e t e r m i n e d none of my boys were g o i n g to f i s h . F i s h i n g i s n o t h i n g but g a m b l i n g . So I was d e t e r m i n e d and I h e l p e d them get a t r a d e . T h e r e ' s no p r o m o t i o n i n f i s h i n g . You s t a y where you a r e f o r the r e s t of your l i f e . Whereas i n a g i v e n j o b , you have p a p e r s or w h a t e v e r y o u ' r e g o i n g to go i n f o r . You can keep c l i m b i n g the l a d d e r u n t i l you get to the t o p . And I t h i n k t h i s i s where I wonder because my boys have become heavy d u t y m e c h a n i c s and t h e y ' v e got a l l t h e i r p a p e r s . They can go a n y w h e r e . My t h i r d son i s a c a r p e n t e r and h e ' s g o t a l l h i s t r a d e p a p e r s . And my y o u n g e s t son f i n i s h e d h i s s c h o o l i n g about 10 y e a r s ago, but he's the baby and he's j u s t a baby. He c a n ' t d e c i d e what he's g o i n g to do about g o i n g back to s c h o o l . My c h i l d r e n have c h o s e n c a r e e r s t h a t a r e n ' t c o n n e c t e d w i t h the l a n d . My o l d e s t son i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h the Land Q u e s t i o n s t i l l . And my d a u g h t e r and her husband a r e , t o o . They t r a v e l a r o und a l o t . She knows a l o t about the Land C l a i m . I gave the same g i r l h o o d d i s c i p l i n e t h a t I had to my d a u g h t e r s . I d i d i t f o r my f o u r d a u g h t e r s , but w i t h my f i f t h , s c h o o l was so s t r i c t i n our v i l l a g e , you c o u l d n ' t be a b s e n t more t h a n t h r e e d a y s . When she s t a r t e d her p e r i o d , she had to come home r i g h t a f t e r s c h o o l and I put her back i n her room. I had to l e t h e r go to s c h o o l . And t h e n I d i d the same t h i n g the n e x t day. I c a r r i e d t h a t p a r t of our c u l t u r e out w i t h a l l my g i r l s . And l i k e my o l d e s t d a u g h t e r now, she's got a young g i r l who's 47 e n d i n g her g i r l h o o d and she phoned me and she got my i n s t r u c t i o n s on what to do and she c a r r i e d them o u t . So i t was r e a l l y o n l y w i t h my one d a u g h t e r t h a t I c o u l d n ' t f o l l o w our c u l t u r e . They were so s t r i c t i n our v i l l a g e about t h e c h i l d r e n m i s s i n g s c h o o l . They t o l d us t h a t i f our c h i l d r e n m i s s e d more t h a n so many days of s c h o o l t h e y would c u t us o f f our a l l o w a n c e , our f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e . And i n t h o s e days the f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e was s u c h a b i g h e l p even t h o u g h i t was f i v e d o l l a r s f o r e v e r y c h i l d . So I c o u l d n ' t l e t them do t h a t to me. So i t was j u s t my f i f t h d a u g h t e r ' s time t h a t i t changed. So whenever she came home from s c h o o l I put h e r r i g h t i n h e r room. I d i d n ' t f e e l b a d l y about i t because I was s t i l l c a r r y i n g out p a r t of i t anyways. When we bought the house, I n e v e r had time to e n j o y the house because the k i d s were so s m a l l . R i g h t from the time I g o t the k i d s up f o r s c h o o l In the mor n i n g I was busy. By the time I pu t them to bed, I was r e a d y f o r bed m y s e l f . So I r e a l l y h a v e n ' t e n j o y e d the house - I was always w o r k i n g u n t i l t h e y were a l l out on t h e i r own. And by t h a t t i m e , the house was too b i g f o r us - t h e r e were j u s t the two of us i n t h e r e . I guess t h a t ' s what k e p t me g o i n g . Oh, we had some bad t i m e s , but we got ove r them. I g u e s s when the k i d s s t a r t e d g r o w i n g up I was d e t e r m i n e d to make them i n t o r e s p e c t a b l e y o u ng men and women. T h i s was my dream. When I t h i n k of i t now sometimes i t b r i n g s a lump i n t o my t h r o a t . I 48 t h i n k I d i d w e l l . I a l w a y s t e l l them t h a t as p e r s o n s t h e y were b l e s s e d . They got what t h e y wanted; I g o t them where I wanted them. , T r a d i t i o n a l and Modern L i f e T o g e t h e r I t seems t h a t I d i d n ' t r e a l l y have to make any b i g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t whether I had to go w i t h t h e new way or m a i n t a i n the I n d i a n way. I t seems l i k e i t j u s t s o r t o f , the modern day t o d a y , i t j u s t f a l l s i n t o y o u r l i v i n g . L i k e the new mothers t o d a y , t h e y d o n ' t know how to wash d i a p e r s the way we d i d . Today i t s jus^t Pampers f o r them and t h a t ' s the way i t seems to be. You know, the c h o i c e j u s t r o l l s . W i t h each l i t t l e s t e p I made a d e c i s i o n and t h e n I went on to do w h a t e v e r had to be done. When I f i r s t had to b r e a k away from our own c u l t u r e , I s o r t of f e l t b a d l y about i t . I n my day l i t t l e g i r l s always went e v e r y w h e r e w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s . But when I f i r s t had to l e t my g i r l s go out on t h e i r own, l i k e I had l i t t l e ones i n the house, and I had t o s e n d the o l d e r ones to c h u r c h by t h e m s e l v e s . I f e l t b a d l y and I used to t h i n k , " W e l l , what's my Mother g o i n g to t h i n k i f she knew I was s e n d i n g the k i d s out on t h e i r own,, w i t h o u t me b e i n g a r o u n d ? " I used to be w i t h my Mother a l l the t i m e . I t o l d my Dad about i t and he s a i d , " W e l l , we're h i t t i n g the modern ti m e s you know. J u s t don't l e t them f o r g e t our c u l t u r e . " W e l l , I got used to t h a t . And whenever t h e y had to go out 49 anywhere or I had to go to a m e e t i n g or s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t , t h e n I was a b l e to f e e l at ease and was a b l e to l e a v e them. I s a t down and t h o u g h t about i t and made a d e c i s i o n . And b e s i d e s , you know, t h e r e were o t h e r l a d i e s d o i n g the same t h i n g . So why s h o u l d n ' t I? I t ' s why I s a y , i t j u s t r o l l e d i n t o . I 've seen a l o t of change i n the w o r l d , t o o . I've r e a l l y s e e n a l o t , a l o t t h a t l a d i e s i n my v i l l a g e my age h a v e n ' t seen b e c a u s e t h e y won't l e a v e . L i k e me, t h a t ' s one t h i n g good about my d a u g h t e r s and t h e i r husbands - t h e y t a k e me around l i k e I t h o u g h t I ' d n e v e r , e v e r do. I t ' s not v e r y l o n g ago t h a t I f i r s t went to V a n c o u v e r . I'd always seen p i c t u r e s , but I c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e i t when I was on my way down. We d r o v e . I was f i f t y y e a r s o l d t h e n . We d r o v e r i g h t down to S e a t t l e . I t r e a l l y was s o m e t h i n g , a b i g e x p e r i e n c e . A l l the time I was i n s c h o o l , I n e v e r saw beyond our own v a l l e y , i t was j u s t a t r i p from home to s c h o o l , by b o a t and b a c k . When i t was h a r d f o r me to go home f o r h o l i d a y s , we went by gas boat and my r e t u r n was by gas b o a t . T h a t was the o n l y t r a v e l l i n g we e v e r had. So about 1925 was when I saw P r i n c e R u p e r t f i r s t . They o n l y had h o r s e s . T h e r e was F i r s t Avenue. I remember s e e i n g a h o r s e and buggy g o i n g up the r o a d and t h e n t h e y ' d g e t l o s t f o r a w h i l e . And t h e n I ' d see them a g a i n i n t h e d i s t a n c e - t h e r o a d s w o u l d go up and down. T h a t ' s why I remember i t so w e l l . T hey'd get l o s t f o r a w h i l e . And t h e n a f t e r t h a t I n e v e r saw i t a g a i n u n t i l I was o l d e r . A f t e r I had c h i l d r e n , my h u s b a n d would go t h e r e t o do our 50 b i g s h o p p i n g ; f l o u r , s u g a r . I t was 1948, t h e n , b e f o r e I saw P r i n c e R u p e r t a g a i n . And t h a t was a b i g change. So when I came down to V a n c o u v e r and t h e n to S e a t t l e , i t was a b i g e x p e r i e n c e f o r me. We s t o p p e d i n a l l t h e s e p l a c e s , e v e r y t h i n g was new f o r me and e x c i t i n g . And g o i n g to S e a t t l e was g o i n g o v e r the b o r d e r . And I r e a l l y went s h o p p i n g ! I f i r s t f l e w to V a n c o u v e r when I came down to v i s i t my h u s b a n d . He was f a l l f i s h i n g down t h e r e . I was- s c a r e d . He was t i e d up f o r t e n days and he phoned and t o l d me to come down to V a n c o u v e r . And I was s c a r e d , I was r e a l l y s c a r e d . I ' d n e v e r been by m y s e l f , away from home. So I too k one of my s o n s . I t was a weekend t h a t I was t r a v e l l i n g down - I s t a r t e d out on S a t u r d a y . So I t o o k my son a l o n g j u s t to keep me company on the p l a n e . I p a i d h i s round t r i p and he went back Sunday and went home to s c h o o l . T h a t was my f i r s t p l a n e r i d e . I was s c a r e d . I k e p t a s k i n g him i f he knew h i s way about the a i r p o r t . " F o l l o w e v e r y b o d y " , he s a y s . Then a f t e r t h a t one t r i p , I was a b l e to t r a v e l by m y s e l f . Then e v e r y y e a r a f t e r t h a t I alw a y s came down by m y s e l f , not a l w a y s by p l a n e , sometimes by bus. I always c a r r i e d a l o t of t h i n g s f o r my f a m i l y i n V a n c o u v e r , so I f o u n d i t e a s i e r to t r a v e l by bus . I was w o r k i n g t h e n i n town at the c a n n e r y , and a f t e r the s e a s o n c l o s e d I would come down. I s t a y e d away from home f o r t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s . I s t a y e d out of the v i l l a g e . Our v i l l a g e 51 r o a d s a r e bad f o r t r a v e l l i n g i n the w i n t e r months, so I s t a y e d o u t . Those were the y e a r s t h a t I would work r i g h t up u n t i l b e f o r e C h r i s t m a s , and t h e n we s t a r t e d a g a i n i n J a n u a r y w i t h the h e r r i n g f l e e t . I w o u l d go home f o r C h r i s t m a s . My h u s b a n d was at home and he was f i s h i n g t h e n . He wasn't a l l t h a t w e l l , so he j u s t t i e d h i s bo a t up and he went home. He went home to keep the h o u s e . Somebody had to l i v e i n t h e r e , so he d i d . T h r e e y e a r s ago I d e c i d e d t h a t I j u s t wanted to q u i t work. I c o u l d n ' t work anymore; t h i s i s my f o u r t h y e a r s i n c e 1 s t o p p e d . What gave me the i d e a of q u i t t i n g work was t h i s - I j u s t t u r n e d 60 and 1 was w o r k i n g w i t h one of the l a d i e s from home and she was h i t t i n g 64 and she wasn't w e l l . She'd work two weeks and t h e n s h e ' d be i n the h o s p i t a l . I t a l k e d to her one time and s a i d , "Why don't you q u i t work and j u s t e n j o y y o u r s e l f ? " "Oh", she s a i d , " I want t o g e t my r e t i r e m e n t . " I d o n ' t know what they g e t on t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t . And I t h o u g h t to m y s e l f , why do n ' t 1 j u s t q u i t work, go home and e n j o y the t h i n g s I have been w a n t i n g to do a l l t h e s e y e a r s w h i l e I s t i l l have some good y e a r s l e f t ? I t h o u g h t about i t , n e v e r t o l d anybody. I j u s t gave my n o t i c e I wasn't coming back n e x t y e a r . My b o s s wasn't v e r y happy ab o u t t h a t because i t ' s the o l d t i m e r s who do b e t t e r work and more work t h a n the young p e o p l e . But I made up my mind. So I j u s t p a c k e d up and went home. I weeded, put i n a g a r d e n , p l a n t e d f r u i t t r e e s . I m i s s e d a l o t of t h i n g s when I went home though. L i k e I d i d n ' t have a t e l e p h o n e ; we d i d n ' t have TV. I m i s s e d 52 g o i n g i n t o town f o r s u p p e r , and d o i n g my s h o p p i n g , s t u f f l i k e t h a t . Most of a l l , I m i s s e d the f r e s h f r u i t t h a t I l i k e d to buy b e c a u s e at home you don't get t h a t . You o n l y get t h a t i f you go out of the v a l l e y . And the f i r s t week home I r e a l l y m i s s e d town, e s p e c i a l l y j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e . When I was i n town, I would k n i t and watch TV a t t h e same t i m e . But a t home, i t was so q u i e t . T h i s i s what I m i s s e d , but I g o t used to i t . I t d i d n ' t b o t h e r me a f t e r a w h i l e . W e l l , the nex t y e a r we got our t e l e p h o n e s , so t h a t was good. The f i r s t day we got our t e l e p h o n e s i n , r i g h t a f t e r s u p p e r I phoned down to V a n c o u v e r . They t h o u g h t I was i n town. They d i d n ' t b e l i e v e me f o r a l o n g time t h a t I was s t i l l at home. Now we have TV t o o , a b i g s a t e l l i t e d i s h . We get Edmonton and and an A m e r i c a n s t a t i o n as w e l l as CBC. One t h i n g I r e a l l y l e a r n e d about TV i s t h a t you can keep up w i t h the news. We keep r i g h t up w i t h t h a t . You c a n ' t get i t on r a d i o , even i n town. I d o n ' t know what's w i t h i t . Some days i t ' s good and some days i t ' s not t h a t good. I t ' s why I was t e l l i n g my husband, I t h i n k we s h o u l d d r a g out our o l d r a d i o and get t h o s e b i g b a t t e r i e s . B e c a u s e we used to get good r e c e p t i o n w i t h t h o s e t h i n g s . But now i t ' s e l e c t r i c , we c a n ' t . You c a n ' t even p i c k up a s t a t i o n . So we keep up w i t h the news on our TV. E v e r y t h i n g i n our v i l l a g e now i s modern. H a r d l y anyone l i v e s i n the o l d ways now. Not many o l d p e o p l e a r e l e f t , 53 e s p e c i a l l y i n our v i l l a g e . They a r e a l l my age now,' not v e r y o l d . But e v e r y o n e i s t u r n i n g to the modern w o r l d . I guess most of them w i l l t u r n to the modern w o r l d because i t i s e a s i e r . I t h i n k i t ' s e a s i e r , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h p u t t i n g up f o o d . E v e r y t h i n g i s e a s i e r t o d a y than i t was i n my day. L i k e to s t o r e f i s h you had to make i t a c e r t a i n way so i t k e e p s . But now, we smoke f i s h t h e way we l i k e i t and then we s l a p i t i n the deep f r e e z e and t h a t ' s i t . And we don't have to w o r r y about i t g o i n g bad. Today I t makes sense to put t o g e t h e r the whiteman's way w i t h the I n d i a n way l i k e I d i d when I was l i t t l e . But i t j u s t seems to be h a p p e n i n g f a s t e r and f a s t e r . But I s t i l l s t i c k to a l o t of our own t r a d i t i o n s and I s t i l l pass them on to my g r a n d c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y my g r a n d c h i l d r e n who a r e h a v i n g t h e i r own l i t t l e ones. T h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t to me. I s t i l l c a r r y them on. I t e l l them to do i t t h i s way, don't do t h i s , and I always t e l l them, " I f you d o n ' t c a r r y out our t r a d i t i o n , t h e y w i l l become l i t t l e b r a t s . You need to c o n t r o l them f o r a w h i l e . T h a t ' s why y o u r g r a n d m o t h e r s made t h e s e r u l e s . They grow up to be r e s p e c t a b l e . I'm g o i n g to be a t r a d i t i o n a l g r a n d m o t h e r . I'm g o i n g to s t i c k t o t h a t . My g r a n d c h i l d r e n l i s t e n to me and I've got two l i t t l e g r e a t s now and a t h i r d due n e x t month. My g r a n d d a u g h t e r s have e x p e r i e n c e d the same d i s c i p l i n e I 54 d i d when t h e y l e f t g i r l h o o d . S i n c e I s t a y e d away from home f o r t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s , I wasn't home when my o t h e r g r a n d d a u g h t e r ' s t i m e came. But f o r my t h i r d g r a n d d a u g h t e r ' s t i m e , my d a u g h t e r c a r r i e d t h a t o u t . I was home and she k e p t h e r i n her room. J u s t the o t h e r day my d a u g h t e r s were t a l k i n g to me about d o i n g the same t h i n g y o u ' r e d o i n g , a s k i n g me q u e s t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y about the t r a d i t i o n s , so they can keep them f o r t h e m s e l v e s . I'm p l e a s e d w i t h t h a t . We were a b l e to use w h i t e p e o p l e ' s ways b e c a u s e we were a b l e t o r e m a i n p r e t t y i s o l a t e d . T h i n g s d i d n ' t change r e a l l y f a s t . -•- i s t h e o n l y v i l l a g e now t h a t has no c o n n e c t i o n by r o a d . I t ' s j u s t a f e r r y once a week. D u r i n g the w i n t e r months t h e y d o n ' t have much t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Even the p l a n e s c a n ' t l a n d . So t h e y ' r e s t i l l s o r t of out of i t even now, and change i s n ' t g o i n g t o happen t h e r e r e a l l y f a s t . In our v i l l a g e , i t ' s g o i n g to happen f a s t w i t h the new b r i d g e and paved r o a d . I t might n o t , but me, I t h i n k i t ' s g o i n g to change f a s t . T h e r e a r e t o u r i s t s s t a r t i n g to come i n even w i t h the r o a d on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of t h e r i v e r . They c a n ' t always come a c r o s s the r i v e r to the v i l l a g e . L o t s of p e o p l e come down but t h e y d o n ' t come a c r o s s . I t h i n k w i t h the b r i d g e coming i n , e v e r y b o d y ' s g o i n g to be c u r i o u s t o see what we l o o k l i k e and t h e y ' l l come i n . We're g o i n g to get s t a r e d a t . My d a u g h t e r and I have been t a l k i n g about o p e n i n g a g i f t shop f o r a y e a r now. I do t h i n g s w i t h my hands - c r o c h e t i n g and 55 k n i t t i n g . I can do a l m o s t a n y t h i n g . The o n l y t h i n g I k i c k m y s e l f about i s 1 d i d n ' t l e a r n how to make b a s k e t s w i t h c e d a r b a r k . My Mother knew but I d i d n ' t want to l e a r n . I d o n ' t remember what she d i d . As a young g i r l o n l y o l d l a d i e s d i d t h o s e t h i n g s , so I d i d n ' t c a r e . But now when I t h i n k about i t , I w i s h I had l e a r n e d . I t ' s s o r t o f d y i n g out i n our v a l l e y f a s t . T h e r e are a c o u p l e of p e o p l e who s t i l l do i t . T h e r e ' s one r e a l o l d l a d y i n one v i l l a g e and she s t i l l goes and g e t s c e d a r b a r k . I d o n ' t know. One t h i n g t h a t ' s r e a l l y d y i n g o u t , i s b a s k e t making, u n l e s s someone c a t c h e s i t r e a l l y q u i c k . A n o t h e r v i l l a g e i s r e a l l y p i c k i n g up. T h e y ' r e making o o l i c h a n n e t s . T h e y ' v e g o t v e r y young p e o p l e a l l w o r k i n g on t h a t now. Me, I know how to make s a l m o n n e t s , but I d o n ' t know how to make o o l i c h a n n e t s . T h a t ' s d y i n g out t o o , making n e t s . 56 B. Second I n t e r v i e w MINNIE CROFT Sent to R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l To b e g i n w i t h , I d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was r i g h t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d t a k e us away from our I n d i a n homes. I always f e l t t h a t t h a t was wrong b e c a u s e y o u r p e o p l e form who you a r e , you r own f a m i l y form y o u r way of l i f e . B e f o r e t h e y t o o k us o f f t o s c h o o l , most N a t i v e I n d i a n s were g u i d e d so w e l l i n b e h a v i o u r and t r a d i t i o n s . We d i d n ' t know how wrong i t was to be t a k e n from our homes u n t i l a f t e r we were i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . Then we r e a l i z e d t h a t i n s c h o o l e v e r y t h i n g I n d i a n was s u p p r e s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a n g u a g e . We were s t r a p p e d and p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y i n many c a s e s f o r s p e a k i n g our own l a n g u a g e . We were t r y i n g to hang onto our l a n g u a g e , not f o r g e t i t . The t e a c h e r s i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l seemed to f e e l t h a t t h e y had to s u p p r e s s e v e r y t h i n g about us; a l l I n d i a n , e v e r y t h i n g I n d i a n . Most of t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n s began to f e e l i t was bad to be I n d i a n . And t h a t was not good f o r us. I t d i d n ' t g i v e us any s e l f - r e s p e c t . We t h o u g h t we were bad p e o p l e , i n f e r i o r p e o p l e . I t h i n k i t was wrong t h a t we were made to f e e l t h a t way. Many, many c h i l d r e n f e l t t h a t . I t h i n k most of the I n d i a n s f e l t t h a t way. I f e e l t h a t t h e y n e v e r c o n s u l t e d the N a t i v e I n d i a n about 57 what s h o u l d be t a u g h t to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The p a r e n t s had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r own c h i l d r e n and I f e e l t h a t was wrong. The N a t i v e I n d i a n s had no say i n a n y t h i n g . Some I n d i a n s , e v e n, as t h e y grew up were k e p t i n s c h o o l to do the h a r d work d u r i n g the summer h o l i d a y s . C o u r s e , at t h a t time p r o b a b l y most of us d i d n ' t know any b e t t e r . A few of our N a t i v e p e o p l e were c o n c e r n e d though even t h e n , as e a r l y as t h e n . T h e r e were so many t h i n g s t h a t I see now were wrong b e c a u s e our p a r e n t s had no say i n any way about what we s h o u l d have i n the s c h o o l . Of c o u r s e , many of them had no c h o i c e when we were t a k e n to s c h o o l . Some of us were j u s t t a k e n away, our p a r e n t s weren't c o n s i d e r e d . C h i l d h o o d at R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l I was about n i n e y e a r s o l d when I came down from S k i d e g a t e t o l i v e i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a t S a r d i s ; C o q u a l e e t z a . I had about s e v e n y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g t h e r e . Our f a t h e r d i e d so n e a r l y a l l of us were t a k e n to C o q u a l e e t z a . My mother c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d t o b r i n g us a l l home i n the summer, so I went home e v e r y o t h e r summer. The summers I d i d n ' t go home, I went to a camp at Ocean P a r k . I t was k i n d of n i c e . T h e i r main o b j e c t i v e at r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was to t e a c h us t o be C h r i s t i a n s , good l i t t l e C h r i s t i a n s . Ours was run by the U n i t e d C h u r c h of Canada. The t e a c h i n g of the word of God seemed t o be the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g to the t e a c h e r s . 58 As we got o l d e r , many of us f e l t t h a t many of t h e t e a c h e r s were not r e a l l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . They had a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h t h e c h u r c h and t h a t ' s the o n l y t h i n g t h a t seemed to m a t t e r to the ones who were h i r i n g them. The book I'm w r i t i n g about the C o q u a l e e t z a R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l ; we r e s e a r c h e d t h a t and f o u n d t h a t many of the t e a c h e r s t h e r e o r i g i n a l l y came from back e a s t , Nova S c o t i a and New B r u n s w i c k . The t e a c h e r s seemed to want to make us l i t t l e w h i t e images o f t h e m s e l v e s . But i f th e y had wanted to r e a l l y s u c c e e d t h e y s h o u l d have t a u g h t us to l e a r n the E n g l i s h w e l l . When I was t h e r e , we weren't t a u g h t the p r o p e r E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , but j u s t p i c k e d i t up as we went a l o n g . A l o t of i t wasn't t h a t g r e a t . The s c h o o l i t s e l f a t i t s b e g i n n i n g was v e r y bad. A l l they d i d was t e a c h g a r d e n i n g and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . Many of the s t u d e n t s began s c h o o l when t h e y were t w e l v e or o l d e r and d i d n ' t r e a l l y l e a r n t h e i r ABC's. T h a t was a b o u t 1900. The o l d e r p e o p l e who a r e s t i l l a l i v e s a i d t h e y d i d n ' t l e a r n a n y t h i n g i n s c h o o l . L a t e r on t h o u g h , about 1920, i t began to i m p r o v e . They had a h o s p i t a l and they t a u g h t us p r o p e r home n u r s i n g . They a l s o t a u g h t us how to work i n a l a u n d r y and how to w a i t on t a b l e s . We were t a u g h t to w a i t on the s t a f f d i n i n g room as i f we were w a i t r e s s e s and l e a r n t o s e r v e the meal c o r r e c t l y from the l e f t or p i c k up d i s h e s from the r i g h t - I've f o r g o t t e n w h i c h way! But t h e r e were many t h i n g s t h e y t a u g h t us a f t e r w a r d s t h a t was good. I n the s e v e n y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g I had t h e r e , i t was r e a l l y 59 o n l y t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s of a c a d e m i c b e c a u s e we went to s c h o o l h a l f days and then worked the o t h e r h a l f . But t h a t v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was k i n d of good f o r us t o o , I g u e s s because we l e a r n e d how to cook, sew and h o u s e c l e a n . I f you were a h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t , i n grade 7, 8 or 9 you had to take t u r n s w o r k i n g i n the l a u n d r y or h o s p i t a l on S a t u r d a y b e c a u s e y ou went to s c h o o l a l l day. But i n t h e y o u n g e r g r a d e s , you worked i n the s c h o o l h a l f o f the day and went to the c l a s s r o o m f o r the o t h e r h a l f . We l e f t C o q u a l e e t z a at the end of grade 9 be c a u s e the government w o u l d n ' t l e t us go to the p r o v i n c i a l h i g h s c h o o l i n C h i l l i w a c k . A l o t of us were smart enough to get t h r o u g h and we c o u l d have gone on f u r t h e r , but t h e r e was no way we c o u l d f i n i s h our h i g h s c h o o l . A y e a r or so a f t e r I l e f t C o q u a l e e t z a t h o u g h , t h e y d i d l e t the s t u d e n t s go to h i g h s c h o o l . And i n our r e s e a r c h we found t h a t more I n d i a n s g r a d u a t e d f r o m h i g h s c h o o l i n the 1930's i n B.C. t h a n at any o t h e r t i m e . I l e f t s c h o o l at the end of grade 9. I f i n i s h e d w i t h o u t a f a i l u r e i n any s u b j e c t . And the f u n n i e s t t h i n g i s t h a t many a time I had no i d e a what I was l e a r n i n g . A l g e b r a , geometry, F r e n c h - we had a l l t h e s e s u b j e c t s but d i d n ' t know much about any of them. But we got t h r o u g h . We were shut i n the s c h o o l and were v e r y i g n o r a n t about l i f e i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Some p e o p l e s a i d i t was l i k e a j a i l o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp and a l l t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . T h e r e were v e r y few t i m e s you came out on you r own. You d i d n ' t come out on 60 y o u r own to go and buy a comb - t h e y had to march a t e a c h e r w i t h y o u . When you went to C h i l l i w a c k to do w h a t e v e r s h o p p i n g you had to do, t h e r e was always somebody w i t h you. You d i d n ' t go a l o n e , t h e y marched the whole bunch of us t o g e t h e r to do t h e s e t h i n g s . They n e v e r took us t h e r e . We marched t h r e e m i l e s i n t o C h i l l i w a c k and t h r e e m i l e s back to the s c h o o l . They always k e p t the boys s e p a r a t e from the g i r l s . The g i r l s were i n one wing and the boys i n a n o t h e r . I remember one l i t t l e boy who u s e d to run o v e r to the g i r l s s i d e and see h i s o l d e r s i s t e r . He'd be b r o u g h t back and p u n i s h e d f o r i t even t h o u g h he was j u s t w a n t i n g to see h i s s i s t e r . The o n l y time you were a l l o w e d to v i s i t was on Sundays on the lawn i n f r o n t of t h e s c h o o l . They gave us a c o u p l e of h o u r s t h e r e . The c l a s s r o o m s were not s e p a r a t e . I f you were i n g r a d e f o u r t h e n i t was boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r . They r e s t r i c t e d us so much t h o u g h ! T a l k i n g to boys or s m i l i n g to boys a c r o s s the room was a s i n . We were p u n i s h e d f o r so many l i t t l e t h i n g s , l i k e a c c e p t i n g an a p p l e from a boy who had t a k e n i t o f f a t r e e . T h e s e s o r t s of t h i n g s j u s t make me f e e l a n g r y . The t e a c h e r s j u s t seemed to f e e l t h a t we were bad p e o p l e , t h e y made you f e e l bad. E v e r y t h i n g you d i d was wrong! Y e t t h e y d i d n ' t r e p l a c e i t w i t h good t h i n g s about o u r s e l v e s . We had some happy t i m e s , l i k e C h r i s t m a s p a r t i e s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . But t h e y d i d n ' t t e a c h us a n y t h i n g about our own p e o p l e or our own c u l t u r e . I remember P e r c y G l a d s t o n e and I were at the b o a r d i n h i g h s c h o o l l e a r n i n g F r e n c h . We were w r i t i n g on the b o a r d w h a t e v e r 61 t h e t e a c h e r s a i d . P e r c y G l a d s t o n e was one of our w o n d e r f u l young p e o p l e from S k i d e g a t e and he s a i d to me, " H a i d a 1 s a l o t e a s i e r t h a n t h i s , i s n ' t i t ? " I s a i d , "I don't know i f I can w r i t e H a i d a b e t t e r , but I can speak i t b e t t e r . I t ' s the o t h e r way around h e r e . You c a n ' t speak F r e n c h , but you can w r i t e i t , and H a i d a , you can speak, but you c a n ' t w r i t e i t ! " And P e r c y s a i d , "We're i n a f i x , a r e n ' t we?" I went i n t o s c h o o l at n i n e s p e a k i n g H a i d a , but I knew a l i t t l e b i t of E n g l i s h . My f a t h e r and u n c l e spoke i t , but my mother d i d n ' t . I was t o l d at s c h o o l t h a t I c o u l d not speak H a i d a . I d o n ' t t h i n k i t was t h a t h a r d to l e a r n E n g l i s h , e x c e p t as I s a i d , we n e v e r had the p r o p e r E n g l i s h t a u g h t to u s . I al w a y s t h o u g h t t h a t was v e r y bad because we don't e x p r e s s o u r s e l v e s so e a s i l y and we don't use the Queen's E n g l i s h t h a t w e l l . But when I f i r s t came out of s c h o o l I had f o r g o t t e n H a i d a , but I worked at i t and c o u l d remember i t a l l a g a i n . I g o t a l o n g by g o i n g to my own b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s or my f r i e n d s i n the s c h o o l . You more or l e s s go to your f r i e n d s or o t h e r s from y o u r own t r i b e i n o r d e r to g e t a l o n g . The t e a c h e r s were so s u s p i c i o u s of e v e r y t h i n g we d i d . We w e r e n ' t d o i n g a n y t h i n g but t a l k i n g t o g e t h e r , but they would be s u s p i c i o u s . They were so d i c t a t o r i a l . I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r us to be so r i g i d because the N a t i v e I n d i a n way of l i f e i s so e a s y g o i n g . B e i n g r e g i m e n t e d a l l day l o n g was h a r d to t a k e . But 62 we were young p e o p l e and we a d a p t e d to the way. T h e r e a r e many t h i n g s t h o u g h i n our minds a l l t h e s e y e a r s t h a t we c a n ' t f o r g e t . T h i n g s l i k e the c r u e l punishment and the l o s s of our c u l t u r e . The w o r s t p a r t s of our e d u c a t i o n were t h e s e two t h i n g s . I t h i n k the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l t u r n e d out a l o t of v e r y good s t u d e n t s a f t e r a l l t h a t . B e f o r e we e n t e r e d we had had a l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n and i n s c h o o l we l e a r n e d a l o t . G e n e r a l l y , even t h o u g h t h e y s u p p r e s s e d e v e r y t h i n g I n d i a n , the o b e d i a n c e and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e was good f o r us i n a way. At l e a s t I t h i n k s o , but I know a l o t of o t h e r s don't a g r e e . And i t was h a r d f o r many of us a f t e r we g r a d u a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a d n ' t t a u g h t us how to get a l o n g a f t e r we l e f t s c h o o l . We d i d n ' t know a n y t h i n g about what the government does or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . R e t u r n i n g Home to S k i d e g a t e I went back to S k i d e g a t e to work f o r about t h r e e months when I f i r s t came out of s c h o o l . I wanted to work so I worked i n the s t o r e t h e r e f o r t h r e e months. When I had enough money to come to V a n c o u v e r , I l e f t . I d i d n ' t f i t i n at home when I went home. I t wasn't e a s y . A f t e r g e t t i n g a l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n and s e e i n g a l i t t l e b i t of the o u t s i d e w o r l d , I wasn't happy to s t a y t h e r e and do n o t h i n g . T h e r e was n o t h i n g to do. I l i k e d my own f a m i l y and f r i e n d s and t o me the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s a r e heaven compared to V a n c o u v e r . But s t i l l I w a n t e d to g e t out and work. When you g e t 63 i n t o t h e v i l l a g e i f y o u ' r e n o t w o r k i n g , y o u ' r e not happy. T h a t ' s why most I n d i a n s l e a v e home. So our m i n i s t e r s e n t me to some f r i e n d s i n V a n c o u v e r to get me a j o b - d o m e s t i c work. And t h a t ' s how I g o t s t a r t e d . T h e r e were about t w e l v e H a i d a g i r l s i n V a n c o u v e r at the t i m e ; one was i n a d r e s s m a k i n g shop, a n o t h e r was i n an o f f i c e , but most of us were i n d o m e s t i c work. I used to go home a l o t b e c a u s e I was lonesome when I f i r s t came to the c i t y . I used to go home whenever I c o u l d to see my gr a n d m o t h e r . She l i v e d to be 106. I t ' s f u n n y t h a t I n e v e r used t o w o r r y about my mother, but I a l w a y s used to want to go and see my g r a n d m o t h e r . I t h i n k a f t e r my f a t h e r d i e d my grandmother l o o k e d a f t e r us more. I s t a y e d w i t h her a l o t and d i d l i t t l e t h i n g s f o r h e r . My two f a v o u r i t e p e o p l e at home were my grandmother and my a u n t . My mother had r e m a r r i e d , so most of the time I was back and f o r t h between my a u n t ' s and my gr a n d m o t h e r ' s house though I s t a y e d at m o t h e r ' s . My grandmother used to go and see w h i t e p e o p l e who had s e t t l e d on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s l o n g ago, i n Queen C h a r l o t t e C i t y . They used to i n v i t e her f o r a f t e r n o o n t e a s . I woul d go w i t h h e r . Or the D o c t o r ' s mother would i n v i t e my aunt f o r a f t e r n o o n t e a and i f I was home s h e ' d s a y , " M i n n i e , l e t ' s go to D r . S. They've asked us to t e a . " So we'd go f o r t e a t h e r e . N i c e memories - e v e r y b o d y mixed. Y e a r s ago, I n e v e r saw any p r e j u d i c e i n S k i d e g a t e . 64 I remember t h a t the s c h o o l t e a c h e r used to have a b i g r a n c h we c a l l e d i t , at S a n d s p i t . I t s gone now because i t s where the a i r p o r t i s . H i s p a r e n t s had moved away, but h i s b i g home was s t i l l t h e r e . And he used to i n v i t e the whole bunch of us from Queen C h a r l o t t e C i t y down f o r d a n c i n g . I t was j u s t p l a i n d a n c i n g and h a v i n g a good t i m e . Not l i k e t o d a y . They n e v e r u s e d t o have d r i n k i n g , t h e y n e v e r u s e d t o have s e x . I u s e d to go o v e r and mix w i t h e v e r y o n e . E v e n when I was i n V a n c o u v e r , I went home on h o l i d a y s and r a n my own c o f f e e shop d u r i n g f i s h i n g s e a s o n . I t was l i k e a h o l i d a y e v e r y time I came home. As soon as I g o t m a r r i e d I gave up the b u i l d i n g , and my b r o t h e r t o o k o v e r . I d o n ' t know i f they j u s t l i v e d i n i t or what. I n e v e r d i d ask b e c a u s e I had a l o t of b r o t h e r s and a l l my r e l a t i v e s h e l p e d me to b u i l d t h a t p l a c e anyways. I p a i d f o r the lumber and e v e r y t h i n g and t h e y b u i l t i t good and s t r o n g , and we had d a n c i n g on the weekends. I baked b r e a d and p i e s , and cakes and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I used to be an e x c e l l e n t b a k e r . I j u s t s e r v e d c o f f e e , s m a l l t h i n g s . I n e v e r c o o k e d m e a l s . I t was too e x p e n s i v e ; I had to get the f o o d In P r i n c e R u p e r t , and you had to have a f r i d g e , and I d i d n ' t have t h a t . J u s t a d a i l y s o r t o f t h i n g . My g i r l f r i e n d f r o m V a n c o u v e r , an o l d s c h o o l chum, and my s i s t e r would come and h e l p me r u n i t . Sometimes we'd shut up, we'd shut the p l a c e up and go on a h i k e somewhere on b e a u t i f u l w h i t e sand on the v e r y w e s t c o a s t of the Queen C h a r l o t t e s . Ohhhhhhh! Long s t r e t c h e s of w h i t e sand, b e a u t i f u l ! We'd hear the r o a r of the s u r f , and t h e n j u s t s i t 65 t h e r e and l i s t e n to i t . J u s t b e a u t i f u l - ohhhhhhh! E v e r y Sunday i n my mother's house a b e a u t i f u l atmosphere e x i s t e d . No h o u s e h o l d work was done, t h e r e was no l o u d m u s i c . I t seemed so q u i e t i n the home. My mother was q u i t e r e l i g i o u s , n o t o v e r l y r e l i g i o u s , no I n d i a n s a r e . But t h e y l i v e d t h e i r own r e l i g i o n v e r y w e l l , so i t wasn't h a r d to take the w h i t e r e l i g i o n t h a t was t a u g h t us. Because I'm an o l d e r p e r s o n I know a l l t h i s . But one t h i n g I n o t i c e d at C o q u a l e e t z a and at home i n S k i d e g a t e ; the v e r y p e o p l e who t a u g h t us the word of God from r t h e i r own B i b l e , d i d n ' t l i v e i t . We always used to n o t i c e t h a t . I t was v e r y p u z z l i n g . I remember one time I g o t i n t r o u b l e i n the v i l l a g e . A l l us g i r l s , 17, 18, and 19 would have Sunday d i n n e r at a g i r l f r i e n d ' s home and t h e n we'd go o f f to c h u r c h . One time we s a t r i g h t i n t h e f r o n t and the p r e a c h e r was s a y i n g t h i n g s we d i d n ' t a g r e e w i t h and one o f us began l a u g h i n g a t what he was s a y i n g . And the whole row of us was g i g g l i n g , j u s t s h a k i n g . We d i s g r a c e d o u r -s e l v e s and mother was r e a l l y a n n o y e d . But we d i d n ' t l i k e t h e way some m i n i s t e r s would say one t h i n g and a c t a n o t h e r way y e t . We made f u n of them. We always used to t h i n k t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t l i v e what t h e y s a i d to us. We c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t . We used to make f u n of some of them a f t e r we got out of c h u r c h . I o f t e n t h i n k about i t . I t h i n k I n d i a n s had a h i g h e r r e l i g i o n t h a n the w h i t e p e o p l e d i d , and t h e y a c t u a l l y l i v e d t h e i r r e l i g i o n y e a r s ago. They had a h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e the whiteman came and I t h i n k i t was easy f o r us to u n d e r s t a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y . 66 The o l d e r l e a d e r s at home the y speak v e r y w e l l , and the n i c e s t p a r t of i t i s t h a t they a r e so v e r y w i s e . They seem to g o v e r n t h e i r own p e o p l e f a r b e t t e r t han the young ones t o d a y . R e a l l y , when y o u ' r e as o l d as me you can see t h a t . And y e t , the young ones have had a l l the e d u c a t i o n t h e y can get t o d a y , f a r s u p e r i o r to o u r s . Y e t th e y don't seem to do t h e i r work much e a s i e r t h an the ones t h a t used to r u n the v i l l a g e s . Y e a r s ago t h e y seemed to have no p r o b l e m . I remember my u n c l e s p e a k i n g o v e r the r a d i o from P r i n c e R u p e r t t a l k i n g to the I n d i a n s f i r s t i n H a i d a and then i n E n g l i s h . T o d a y the l e a d e r s s peak i n E n g l i s h more t h a n i n H a i d a b e c a u s e the H a i d a was l o s t a l o n g t i m e ago. Today many of them a r e t r y i n g to l e a r n i t because I suppose t h e y a r e a l l g e t t i n g to r e a l i z e how much of t h e i r own c u l t u r e t h e y ' v e l o s t . A n o t h e r t i m e I remember when a g r e a t b i g b a t t l e s h i p came to t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s when I was at my c o f f e e s h o p . T h e r e was a b i g F i r s t of J u l y dance i n M a s s e t t and the b a t t l e s h i p was t h e r e . Many of us g i r l s f r o m home met i n t h e h o t e l i n M a s s e t t to get d r e s s e d and go to the dance. We went to the dance, s a i d "We're from S k i d e g a t e " , p a i d our way and th e y j u s t l e t us t h r o u g h . And we r e a l i z e d a f t e r we got i n t h a t we d i d n ' t see many M a s s e t t p e o p l e t h e r e . They w o u l d n ' t l e t the M a s s e t t p e o p l e i n and y e t th e y l e t the S k i d e g a t e p e o p l e i n . We d i d n ' t a c c e p t t h i s and we d i d n ' t know a n y t h i n g about i t . We danced a few d a n c e s and t h e n we l e f t . One of the w h i t e g i r l s came out w i t h us and we a l l went to her house and had a p a r t y of our own. She 67 i n v i t e d some M a s s e t t p e o p l e i n . You see t h e r e was a l o t of p r e -j u d i c e among w h i t e p e o p l e t h e n , but i n our own v i l l a g e s and i n S a n d s p i t t h e r e was none. B a s i c a l l y t h e r e was no p r e j u d i c e among t h e p e o p l e on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s , but t h e r e was i n t h e c i t y , i n V a n c o u v e r . My b r o t h e r i s h e r e d i t a r y C h i e f 'Skedans - he j u s t d i e d a c o u p l e of months ago and a l l the o l d t i m e r s , o l d g i r l s l i k e my age and h i s age t h a t have l i v e d on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s a l l t h e i r l i v e s came to the b i g f e a s t a f t e r h i s b u r i a l . T h e s e w h i t e p e o p l e a l l came a l o n g w i t h o u t an i n v i t a t i o n b e cause they knew him. Today t h e y don't have t h a t same k i n d of f r i e n d s h i p on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s . T h e r e d i d n ' t used to be p r e j u d i c e i n our v i l l a g e . W h i t e p e o p l e used to come v i s i t us and we'd come v i s i t them. We're a l l f r i e n d s whether we meet i n the c i t y or e l s e w h e r e . So maybe t h e p r e j u d i c e had a l o t t o do w i t h us be c a u s e p e o p l e t h a t have bad t r e a t m e n t most of t h e i r l i v e s i n I n d i a n v i l l a g e s , t h e y ' r e the ones t h a t don't t u r n out too w e l l . And t h e y ' r e the ones who f e e l a l l t h e s e t h i n g s . Now I go home about once a y e a r . S i n c e my mother and g r a n d m o t h e r have d i e d , I j u s t phone someone and s a y , "I'm coming home. Can I s t a y w i t h you?" " S u r e " t h e y always s a y, and sometimes I d o n ' t even have to ask. My b r o t h e r s and t h e i r w i v e s a l w a y s i n v i t e me. T h e y ' l l say "Come on, come on, y o u ' r e bed i s empty." But I ' l l t e l l you where I f i n d i t so h a r d . I l i k e to be 68 a b l e to go home when I f e e l l i k e i t and s t a y by m y s e l f . But I c a n ' t go home be c a u s e I m a r r i e d a n o n - I n d i a n . T h e r e a r e r e s t r i c t i o n s by the w h i t e p e o p l e about t h i s and I t h i n k i t s r i d i c u l o u s . I'm so i n d e p e n d e n t and a l o n e i n V a n c o u v e r t h a t I'm us e d to g o i n g e x a c t l y where I want, when I want. I t ' s j u s t the f a c t t h a t I would l i k e to have a l i t t l e p l a c e t h e r e i f I want to go home, a shack or s o m e t h i n g i n S k i d e g a t e . You don't always want to s t a y w i t h f r i e n d s when you go somewhere. Maybe s t a y f o r a month l i k e some of the w h i t e p e o p l e who have a home i n H a w a i i , s t a y f o r a month and then come back. We c a n ' t do t h a t i f y o u ' r e l i k e me. T h a t ' s the o n l y t h i n g I a l w a y s f e l t was wrong - t h a t we c a n ' t l i v e i n our v i l l a g e i f we f e e l l i k e i t . I f i g h t f o r the p r i n c i p a l of the whole d a r n e d t h i n g . No o t h e r c o u n t r y does t h a t t o t h e i r c i t i z e n s , t e l l i n g them you c a n ' t go back to y o u r own v i l l a g e where you were b o r n . I t h i n k t h a t ' s r i d i c u l o u s ! A l o t of the I n d i a n s a r e g o i n g back, t h e y ' r e not p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n to t h a t law anymore. I went home f o r my b r o t h e r ' s 5 0 t h wedding a n n i v e r s a r y . I t was n i c e at t h a t a n n i v e r s a r y . My b r o t h e r f i r s t danced w i t h me, t h e n a l l the o t h e r d i f f e r e n t b r o t h e r s j u s t came and d i d a slow d ance w i t h me, a w a l t z or s o m e t h i n g . Even the young ones a l l came and danced w i t h me. N a t i v e s know how to show r e s p e c t and t h a t ' s t h e i r way of showing me t h a t t h e y r e s p e c t me. A l l of them came and took t u r n s d a n c i n g w i t h me. 69 L i f e i n the C i t y The m i n i s t e r s e n t me to some f r i e n d s i n V a n c o u v e r to get a j o b , d o m e s t i c work, and t h a t ' s how many of us s t a r t e d when we came t o the c i t y . We w o u l d j u s t do d o m e s t i c work. Then a f t e r we were he r e a w h i l e , we went a l o n g to o t h e r t h i n g s . One of the g i r l s was s t e n o g r a p h e r f o r C o q u a l e e t z a and she went r i g h t t o work i n an o f f i c e . A n o t h e r worked i n a d r e s s m a k i n g shop. But the r e s t of us, t h e r e were t w e l v e H a i d a g i r l s i n the c i t y a t the t i m e , were d o i n g d o m e s t i c work. I used to go home a l o t b ecause most of us were lonesome f o r our home when we f i r s t came to the c i t y . We used to meet on Sundays, our day o f f and go to c h u r c h at S t . Andrews Wesley downtown. We'd go to c h u r c h and then we'd go to S t a n l e y P a r k and go swimming. At t h a t time t h e r e was no swimming p o o l but t h e r e were g r e a t b i g r o c k s where you c o u l d t a k e y o u r c l o t h e s o f f and change i n t o y o u r s w i m s u i t . Nobody c a r e d . We d i d n ' t w o r r y . We l e f t our t h i n g s on the beach b e h i n d a r o c k . We'd swim and t h e n go and have d i n n e r downtown. When I was l o n e s o m e f o r home, I ' d say t o my e m p l o y e r , "I do want to go home t h i s summer, i s i t okay? I ' l l f i n d you a n o t h e r g i r l from S k i d e g a t e . " Then i f my em p l o y e r s l i k e d h e r , when I got back t h e y would keep her and f i n d me a n o t h e r p l a c e . One time when I r e t u r n e d to V a n c o u v e r , I c a l l e d my f o r m e r e m p l o y e r and she s a i d , " I ' v e g o t a n i c e l a d y f o r y o u . She needs a g i r l r i g h t now." 70 T h i s woman was i n t e r v i e w i n g g i r l s r i g h t t h e n so I went o v e r and was the l a s t one t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . She l i v e d on Angus D r i v e and had t h r e e s m a l l c h i l d r e n and p a i d $30 a month w h i c h was q u i t e a b i t . We u s u a l l y got p a i d $12 a month. A f t e r she i n t e r v i e w e d me, she s a i d , "I t h i n k I ' l l have you come i n . You've got good r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , you s p e a k w e l l and you l o o k good and s t r o n g . Would you l i k e t h a t ? " So I s t o o d up and s a i d , " I f you want me to come, I would be happy to come." "And by t h e way" the l a d y s a i d . "What n a t i o n a l i t y a r e y o u ? " You s e e , my f o r m e r employer hadn't t o l d her I was H a i d a . And I s a i d , "I'm a H a i d a I n d i a n , a f u l l - b l o o d e d H a i d a I n d i a n . " And she s a y s , "Oo.ooooooooooooooh! " j u s t l i k e t h a t ! I s a i d , "Makes a d i f f e r e n c e , d o e s n ' t i t ? You d i d n ' t r e a l i z e I was an I n d i a n o t h e r w i s e you w o uldn't have h i r e d me." She was s t u n n e d when I s a i d t h i s . "Don't say a n y t h i n g e l s e . I d o n ' t want t o work f o r you a f t e r y o u r s u r p r i s e t h a t I am an I n d i a n " , I s a i d . "Oh, I d i d t e l l you how w e l l you spoke and how your r e f e r e n c e s a r e good and you c a r r y y o u r s e l f w e l l and you d r e s s w e l l " , she s a i d . I s a i d , "I w o u l d n ' t work f o r you i f you p a i d me t w i c e as much." And I w a l k e d o u t . I w a l k e d to the f r o n t d o o r , opened i t m y s e l f and w a l k e d o u t . 71 She w a l k e d o u t b e h i n d me, h o l d i n g h e r b a b y . She s a i d , "I'm s o r r y , I d i d n ' t mean to o f f e n d you. P l e a s e r e c o n s i d e r . " "I'm s o r r y . I d o n ' t want to work f o r you, you were so s u r p r i s e d " , I s a i d . And I k e p t on w a l k i n g . I phoned my f o r m e r e m p l o y e r and she wanted to know how I had g o t t e n a l o n g i n the i n t e r v i e w . And I s a i d , " F i n e , u n t i l she f o u n d out I was a H a i d a I n d i a n . She was so s u r p r i s e d I t o l d h er I w o u l d n ' t work f o r h e r f o r any money, and I w a l k e d out on h e r . " My f o r m e r employer l a u g h e d and s a i d , " I t s e r v e s her r i g h t . She's my f r i e n d , but she's n e v e r had an I n d i a n w o r k i n g f o r h e r . S e r v e s h e r r i g h t . W e ' l l f i n d a n o t h e r e m p l o y e r f o r you, don't w o r r y . " I l e a r n e d t h a t w h i t e p e o p l e were p r e t t y p r e j u d i c e d at t h a t t i m e . They were v e r y p r e j u d i c e d . I remember my g i r l f r i e n d from S k i d e g a t e , she was a b e a u t i f u l g i r l , and she was a t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r b e f o r e she got m a r r i e d . She worked at the b e t t e r h o t e l s i n V a n c o u v e r , the G r o s v e n o r , the D e v o n s h i r e and o t h e r p l a c e s . She was h a l f b r e e d ; h e r f a t h e r was w h i t e so she went to h i g h s c h o o l i n Queen C h a r l o t t e C i t y . A l o t o f H a i d a I n d i a n s chose b e t t e r h o t e l s t o s t a y at when t h e y came to V a n c o u v e r . So when they came I n t o her h o t e l she always spoke to them and s a i d " H e l l o " and "How's t h i n g s ? " One time when her boss was around she spoke to some of her f r i e n d s from home, and he a s k e d her how she knew how to speak to t h o s e p e o p l e ? And she s a i d , "I'm a H a i d a I n d i a n . " They f i r e d h e r . T h a t was 72 p r e j u d i c e at t h a t t i m e . I o f t en t h i n k of t h a t . T h e r e was so much p r e j u d i c e when we f i r s t came to the c i t y . E v e n when I m a r r i e d my husband, h i s f a m i l y were p r e j u d i c e d u n t i l t h e y saw me and got used to me. He and I met t h r o u g h a f r i e n d . He was a f r i e n d of h e r h u s b a n d ' s . He was a f t e r me to go out w i t h him f o r a l o n g time and I w o u l d n ' t . I was s t i l l an I n d i a n and t h o u g h t I n d i a n and I d i d n ' t want to go out w i t h him. I a l w a y s had t h e a t t i t u d e r i g h t f r o m the b e g i n n i n g , you know how I w a l k e d out of t h a t l a d y ' s p l a c e , i f you don't l i k e me, to h e l l w i t h y o u . T h a t a t t i t u d e . I u s e d to s a y t h a t . I o f t e n went w i t h my husband to n i g h t c l u b s and t h a t was the a t t i t u d e we had. I f you d o n ' t c a r e a b o u t me the n I won't pay any a t t e n t i o n t o you. I g u e s s a l o t o f H a i d a ' s a r e l i k e t h a t ; y ou d o n ' t l i k e me, t h e n I d o n ' t g i v e a damn. T h a t ' s the way I am and t h a t ' s t h a t . My h u s b a n d and I had one s o n . He g r a d u a t e d f r o m h i g h s c h o o l when he was 16 and went r i g h t i n t o U n i v e r s i t y . He h a s n ' t been a r o u n d N a t i v e p e o p l e most of h i s l i f e b e c ause he's been too busy g o i n g to s c h o o l and w o r k i n g . I t h i n k l i v i n g i n the c i t y has s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h i t t o o . A f t e r my husband p a s s e d away, I d e c i d e d to take a s e c r e t a r i a l c o u r s e . T h i s had n o t h i n g to do w i t h I n d i a n A f f a i r s ; I was p a y i n g f o r t h i s m y s e l f . I t o o k an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t and d i d w e l l enough, but I wanted to c o m p l e t e my g r a d e s 11 and 12.' So w h i l e I was t a k i n g the s e c r e t a r i a l c o u r s e , I a l s o took my h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e . I had been s m a r t enough t o go to h i g h s c h o o l 73 when I was y o u n g e r , but th e y w o u l d n ' t l e t us i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . They d i d n ' t l e t us c o n t i n u e ; t h e y s h o u l d have t h o u g h t of t h a t . When I wrote e s s a y s f o r my grade 11 and 12 c o u r s e s , my t e a c h e r would w r i t e ' v e r y good e s s a y s ' and compliment me on my grammar. I c o u l d w r i t e w e l l , but I c a n ' t e x p r e s s m y s e l f w e l l when I'm t a l k i n g . A l o t of I n d i a n p e o p l e my age a r e l i k e t h a t . But the you n g e r p e o p l e who speak E n g l i s h a l l t h e i r l i v e s have a f a r b e t t e r g r a s p of E n g l i s h t han we o l d e r p e o p l e do. P u t t i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n and White T o g e t h e r At C o q u a l e e t z a t h e y gave us the mesaage t h a t to be I n d i a n was bad. Most of us f e l t t h a t . I was n e v e r ashamed of b e i n g a H a i d a , so t h a t I d o n ' t t h i n k I b e l i e v e d i t . I've always been a p r o u d p e r s o n . At s c h o o l I o b j e c t e d to a l l the t h i n g s t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t t e a c h us about our own p e o p l e . They n e v e r t a u g h t us a n y t h i n g a b o u t o u r c u l t u r e . A l o t of us r e s e n t e d t h e f a c t t h a t our c u l t u r e was l o s t w h i l e we were i n s c h o o l . And a l s o , t h e y d i d n ' t p r e p a r e us to g e t out i n t o the w o r l d . They were so much on t e a c h i n g us to be r e l i g i o u s and making us i n t o l i t t l e w h i t e images of t h e m s e l v e s . They were i n c h a r g e and j u s t t o o k o v e r and we had to do e v e r y t h i n g as t h e y s a i d . But you weren't r e a l l y p r e p a r e d to meet the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Most of us were 16, 17, 18 when we l e f t s c h o o l but we were l i k e 12 y e a r o l d s . You were r e a l l y a c h i l d , a 74 l i t t l e c h i l d when you came o u t . They n e v e r t a u g h t us what the o u t s i d e was a l l about; government r u l e s , or sex, or t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . We l o s t a l o t of t r a i n i n g t h a t our p a r e n t s would g i v e u s. When the y t o o k us to s c h o o l t h e y s e p a r a t e d us and l o s t a f a m i l y u n i t . T h e r e were many t h i n g s t h a t y o u r p a r e n t s c o u l d t e a c h you where i n s c h o o l nobody t a u g h t you a n y t h i n g . When you became a young l a d y t h e y d i d n ' t know t h a t t h i s happened to you. And th e y n e v e r t a u g h t you t h e s e t h i n g s . I t ' s no p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the o u t s i d e w o r l d . I t ' s a wonder! I t ' s a wonder t h a t any of us i c o u l d t h i n k f o r o u r s e l v e s . T h a t was wrong. And t h e n o f c o u r s e w i t h I n d i a n A f f a i r s l o o k i n g a f t e r us when we came o u t , t h a t ' s a n o t h e r t h i n g . We c a n ' t t h i n k f o r o u r s e l v e s . I've h a t e d I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r the t h i n g s t h e y have done to I n d i a n s . I've n e v e r worked f o r them, I c a n ' t s t a n d i t . I f th e y ha ve t h e i r l i t t l e f i n g e r i n s o m e t h i n g , t h e y t a k e the c o n t r o l away. I have n o t h i n g to do w i t h them. I remember about 35 y e a r s ago, my u n c l e was band manager of t h e S k i d e g a t e I n d i a n V i l l a g e . He t r i e d to get our money from I n d i a n A f f a i r s , i n v e s t i t and work on the p r i n c i p a l . But I n d i a n A f f a i r s w o u l d n ' t g i v e i t to him. I've a l w a y s t h o u g h t t h a t nobody seemed to want us to get a l o n g i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d , o u t s i d e the I n d i a n v i l l a g e . I t ' s as i f , i f you c a n ' t be w h i t e , d o n ' t b o t h e r ! I d o n ' t t h i n k many of us wanted to be a l l w h i t e . They wanted to a s s i m i l a t e us and none of us wanted t h a t , I d o n ' t t h i n k . I d i d n ' t . We d o n ' t mind i n t e g r a t i n g , but a s s i m i l a t i o n i s 75 s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . I u s e d a l o t of the s c h o o l i n g t h a t I g o t at C o q u a l e e t z a . I've done a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s . I've been a manager of a h o t e l , manager of a s t o r e , done g e n e r a l o f f i c e work, managed N a t i v e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s i d e from the f a c t t h a t a l o t of us t h i n k t h a t we were s u p p r e s s e d so much i n e v e r y t h i n g I n d i a n , I t h i n k many o f us l e a r n e d a l o t at r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . The o b e d i a n c e and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , i t was good f o r us i n a way. At l e a s t I t h o u g h t s o , but a l o t o f p e o p l e d o n ' t a g r e e . We have d i f f e r e n t v i e w s f r o m each o t h e r , i t ' s not a l l the same. I know t h a t b e c a u s e I g u e s s I'm more I n d i a n t h a n w h i t e i n my t h i n k i n g . I ' v e always made c e r t a i n t h a t no m a t t e r what company I keep, I'm an I n d i a n ! When I'm w i t h w h i t e p e o p l e f o r an e v e n i n g , I t r u l y e n j o y m y s e l f , I d o n ' t put i t on. And when I go to my own p e o p l e , I e n j o y m y s e l f t h o r o u g h l y t h e r e t o o . You have to l i v e b o t h w o r l d s v e r y w e l l . I ' v e worked on b e h a l f of N a t i v e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s most of my l i f e , but I d i d n ' t work FOR N a t i v e I n d i a n s u n t i l the l a s t two y e a r s of my r e t i r e m e n t . I was w o r k i n g f o r w h i t e p e o p l e , managing a s t o r e , and the I n d i a n s wanted me to work f o r them and manage a s t o r e . They s a i d no o t h e r I n d i a n i n V a n c o u v e r had the a b i l i t y t h a t I have; t h a t I ' d managed s t o r e s and no o t h e r I n d i a n has done t h a t . They s a i d i f I d i d n ' t come to manage t h e y would have to h i r e a w h i t e p e r s o n because the I n d i a n A f f a i r s wanted a w h i t e p e r s o n . So I b r o k e down - I t r y to h e l p my N a t i v e p e o p l e . But 76 i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t w o r k i n g i n b u s i n e s s to t h i n k I n d i a n . B e c a u s e , do you know, you have to t h i n k w h i t e ! And y e t , y o u ' r e d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n s . I t was N a t i v e I n d i a n s who owned the s t o r e i n name o n l y . They s a t on the b o a r d . But the I n d i a n A f f a i r s l o o k e d a f t e r the money. They took the c o n t r o l away. I t was t e r r i b l e . I c a n ' t s t a n d i t . I've always been v e r y i n d e p e n d e n t and I e n j o y d o i n g t h i n g s . I may not always be r i g h t , but I TRY to be r i g h t i n what I do. I've done v e r y w e l l . One l e g i s w h i t e and i t t e n d s to be b u s i n e s s and j o b o r i e n t e d , and the o t h e r l e g i s ME and i t i s I n d i a n , at home. E v e n i n my own home, when my husband was home, I had to l i v e w h i t e . And when we had I n d i a n f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s to v i s i t , I ' e x p l a i n to him; now t h i s i s such and such a way. I always had to t e a c h him j u s t as he t a u g h t me a l o t of t h i n g s . I've e n j o y e d b o t h w o r l d s . I t h i n k a l m o s t any j o b I've had I've e n j o y e d v e r y much. I've r e t a i n e d my H a i d a l a n g u a g e . You f o r g e t i t i n s c h o o l f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e , but t h e n when you come back, i f you want to remember i t and keep at i t , you c a n . Because once you've spoken i t you won't f o r g e t i t t h a t e a s i l y . I've even t r a n s l a t e d i n the Supreme C o u r t of B.C. I've been asked to do t h a t so I d i d . I f y o u ' r e s p e a k i n g to w h i t e p e o p l e , you have to t h i n k t h e i r ways. And i f y o u ' r e t a l k i n g among y o u r s e l v e s ( N a t i v e I n d i a n ) , you have to t h i n k t h e i r ways, so t h a t you l i v e two w o r l d s ! You've got to t h i n k two w o r l d s t o o ! I t ' s k i n d of d i f f i c u l t and 77 maybe i t makes us h e s i t a t e a b i t i n e v e r y t h i n g we s a y . And we do t a l k to w h i t e p e o p l e because we've had to do t h a t . I do t h i n g s the w h i t e way and t h e n I do t h i n g s the I n d i a n way. I can s w i t c h . And at the same time t o o , when p e o p l e i n s u l t y o u , you have to s t o p and t h i n k where t h e y ' r e from because t h a t way you s t o p t o t h i n k of t h e i r t h i n k i n g . You a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . I t h i n k t h a t we've had to l e a r n as N a t i v e p e o p l e to f i t o u r s e l v e s i n t o any s i t u a t i o n . At l e a s t t h a t ' s the way I see i t . I've had to a d a p t . And when I go home I must put m y s e l f i n t o a n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s t h e r e . I t h i n k t h i s makes me a r i c h e r p e r s o n because I u n d e r s t a n d b o t h w o r l d s . You t r y to u n d e r s t a n d why a w h i t e p e r s o n does t h i s t o our I n d i a n s ; b e c a u s e he d o e s n ' t t h i n k l i k e us, he d o e s n ' t know the r e a s o n we're l i k e we a r e . And a l o t of them don't even s p e a k to I n d i a n s , so how c o u l d t h e y know a n y t h i n g about us? Many a t i m e I've t a l k e d to my w h i t e f r i e n d s about N a t i v e I n d i a n s and t o l d them " we do a l o t of d i f f e r e n t t h i n k i n g t h a n you p e o p l e . " Or I ' l l say some a w f u l t h i n g s to them. Then I ' l l s a y, "Oh, y o u ' l l have to e x c u s e me because I g e t so angry about t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . " You know, I'm always a p o l o g i z i n g . I s h o u l d n ' t a p o l o g i z e , but I do. I've l i v e d b o t h w o r l d s v e r y w e l l i n V a n c o u v e r most of my l i f e . Many a t i m e I f e e l l i k e t e l l i n g w h i t e p e o p l e what i t ' s r e a l l y l i k e . I t ' s ama z i n g . I t r a v e l a l o t on the bus and n e a r l y always somebody s i t s b e s i d e you t h a t ' s w h i t e because t h e r e are no 78 I n d i a n s l i v i n g n e a r b y . I o n l y see the I n d i a n s t h a t a r e g o i n g b a c k and f o r t h t o u n i v e r s i t y . I meet p e o p l e and some of them ar e v e r y , v e r y a w are. They seem to know a b o u t th e H a i d a s . I'm q u i t e amazed at i t . But t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s t h a t t h e y don't know. They j u s t r e a d a l o t , but p e o p l e don't t a l k to I n d i a n s so t h e y d o n ' t r e a l l y know. Maybe i t ' s p a r t l y t h i s too - I'm k i n d of a r e s e r v e d p e r s o n and I l i k e b e i n g by m y s e l f . So even i f t h e y ' r e f r i e n d l y , I d o n ' t e n c o u r a g e i t i n t h a t a r e a . I went to J o h n T u r n e r ' s e l e c t i o n g a t h e r i n g . My son and I were s t a n d i n g on s o r t of a h i l l q u i t e a ways from where he was. B u t he came r i g h t by us and shook my hand and j u s t h e l d i t . Gee, he h u r t my hand. He h u r t my a r t h r i t i s . I had to have my own r i n g s cut o f f my f i n g e r s . I had t h e s e H a i d a r i n g s made j u s t f o r me. Many of us H a i d a ' s on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s have a r t h r i t i s . I t h i n k i t must be the c l i m a t e maybe. I guess i t ' s the dampness t h e r e . My b r o t h e r has i t . We were a l l i n H a w a i i at the same t i m e ; my b r o t h e r , h i s w i f e , my nephew and n i e c e , and my s o n and me. We a l l w a l k e d I n t o one of the b e s t r e s t a u r a n t s t h e r e to have s t e a k and l o b s t e r . When we w a l k e d i n , the m a i t r e d' came o v e r and met us, and s a i d , "How do you do? A r e you l o c a l p e o p l e ? " We a l l had on muumuus and H a w a i i a n s h i r t s of c o u r s e . We s a i d , "No, we're H a i d a I n d i a n s " "Oh", he s a i d . "We have common a n c e s t r y ! Where would you f o l k s l i k e to s i t ? You can s i t anywhere you'd l i k e ! " And a n o t h e r t i m e i n the Koona I n n , my l a d y f r i e n d and I had 79 j u s t had d i n n e r and we came o u t s i d e where t h e r e was music and a l u a u was g o i n g on on t h e g r o u n d s . So we j u s t s a t and l i s t e n e d to t h e m u s i c . And a l i t t l e H a w a i i a n gave t h i s d i s h to me and s a i d , " C o m p l i m e n t s , c o m p l i m e n t s " . And I s a i d t h a t I ' d j u s t had d i n n e r . "Oh, you must have i t , you must hav e . " You c o u l d n ' t r e f u s e i t j u s t l i k e w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n s , you c a n ' t r e f u s e when somebody g i v e s you s o m e t h i n g . They made a b i g d i s h f o r me, and no m a t t e r how much I t o l d him I had j u s t f i n i s h e d d i n n e r , I had to say t h a n k you v e r y much and t a k e i t . And on L a h i n a , I w a l k e d i n t o a j e w e l r y shop and I got one of t h o s e b e a u t i f u l p e a r l and amber n e c k l a c e s . I t o l d the man t h e r e , a f t e r I p a i d f o r i t , "Too bad you don't have e a r r i n g s to match i t . " "I have a p a i r " , he says and went ov e r and got a p a i r from somewhere e l s e . " I ' l l g i v e them to y o u ! " And he gave them to me! And my l a d y f r i e n d c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d how p e o p l e were so k i n d t o me a l l t h e t i m e . E v e r y t i m e I've been i n H a w a i i I ' v e been t r e a t e d r o y a l l y . T h e r e ' s an H a w a i i a n g i r l m a r r i e d to a w h i t e boy i n Queen C h a r l o t t e C i t y and I was t e l l i n g her about t h i s . And she s a i d , "Why d i d n ' t you t e l l them you were H a w a i i a n ? They would have t r e a t e d you r o y a l l y . " They do t r e a t t h e i r own p e o p l e v e r y w e l l t h e r e t h e y s a y . They g i v e them the b e s t t a b l e s and v e r y good t r e a t m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e g o i n g to the n i c e r p l a c e s . You have to t r y and work b o t h s i d e s of b o t h w o r l d s because y o u a r e an I n d i a n . T h a t i s t h e way you g e t a l o n g . I have a l w a y s , 80 had one l e g i n one c u l t u r e , and one l e g i n the o t h e r c u l t u r e . I have been so l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h c u l t u r e s t h a t I d o n ' t know t h a t I've s h i f t e d one way or the o t h e r . Maybe more on the w h i t e s i d e t h a n t h e I n d i a n now. C o u r s e , t h a t ' s b e c a u s e I'm not a t home as I grow o l d e r . I can s h i f t e i t h e r way i f I want t o , but be-cau s e I'm i n the c i t y I I p s e a l o t of my I n d i a n ways. I d r e s s up when I'm asked to wear my costume, and do w h a t e v e r I have to do. I made b u t t o n b l a n k e t s f o r my son and me. My c r e s t i s r a v e n . I'm v e r y proud of b e i n g H a i d a . T h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t to me. 81 T h i r d I n t e r v i e w ARNOLD GUERIN The N a t i v e c u l t u r e has a l m o s t been t o t a l l y l o s t a l o n g w i t h t h e l o s s of our l a n g u a g e . You s e e , t h e l a n g u a g e seems to be what h o l d s the N a t i v e c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r . I t seems to be the h e a r t of i t . As you use the I n d i a n l a n g u a g e i t becomes q u i t e h a r d to p r o p e r l y t r a n s l a t e some s e n t e n c e s or t r a n s l a t e them as you u n d e r s t a n d them i n the I n d i a n l a n g u a g e . I t seems t h a t y ou've got t o " t h i n k I n d i a n " t o s p e a k i t . T h e r e i s no two ways a b o u t i t . I had to l e a r n to speak I n d i a n . S c h o o l i n g E x p e r i e n c e s I went t o s c h o o l and we were n o t a l l o w e d t o speak I n d i a n . I went to the Kuper I s l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n the G u l f I s l a n d s f r o m 1920 u n t i l 1926. T h e r e were 100 a c r e s of f a r m b e h i n d the s c h o o l and we h a u l e d wood and cut i t to use i n h e a t i n g the s c h o o l . And b e i n g so f a r away from t h o s e who l o o k e d a f t e r us, we c o u l d speak I n d i a n . T h a t ' s where I l e a r n e d to speak my I n d i a n l a n g u a g e ; out i n the f i e l d s , out i n the woods. A f t e r some y e a r s I spoke f l u e n t C o w i c h a n ! I can remember coming home from s c h o o l i n the summer 82 h o l i d a y s and t a l k i n g I n d i a n t o my s t e p m o t h e r . She would j u s t s i t back and l a u g h at me because I was t r a n s l a t i n g . I was t h i n k i n g i n E n g l i s h and s p e a k i n g I n d i a n . Because of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e I became s t r o n g l y d e t e r m i n e d to l e a r n to speak my l a n g u a g e p r o p e r l y . My Mom, my I n d i a n mother wanted me to be a good s p e a k e r of th e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . My Dad was h a l f b r e e d . My Dad wanted me t o be I n d i a n , m o t h e r w a n t e d me t o s p e a k E n g l i s h . So I d i d my b e s t , t h a t ' s about a l l I c o u l d do under t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e r e was no c h o i c e about g o i n g to s c h o o l , no c h o i c e . I m i g h t have had t h e c h o i c e o f g o i n g to the N o r t h V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l . B e i n g Roman C a t h o l i c , i t was e i t h e r Kuper I s l a n d or N o r t h V a n c o u v e r f o r me. I remember I was v i s i t i n g Ed Sparrow's mother, M a t i l d a who l i v e d i n S t a n l e y P a r k . I was t h e r e w i t h my U n c l e B i l l , my Dad's b r o t h e r and h i s w i f e . I was up on a h i l l i n the Lumberman's A r c h a r e a p l a y i n g on the swings when my o l d e s t b r o t h e r came. He p i c k e d me up o f f the s w i n g s , hugged me and took me w i t h him and h i s w i f e . We d r o v e i n h i s R i o down to Lummi and I l i v e d w i t h him t h e r e f o r sometime. I a l s o l i v e d t h e r e w i t h my m o t h e r ' s b r o t h e r , A l e c G eorge on my o l d g r a n d f a t h e r ' s l a n d . T h a t was at Sandy P o i n t . Then when I came back to Musqueam, Dad p i c k e d me up and took me to s c h o o l at Kuper I s l a n d . I was 10. I began s c h o o l i n J u l y , J u l y the 4 t h , 1920. T h e r e was a month's summer h o l i d a y from June u n t i l J u l y , and I s t a r t e d t h e n . 83 But I n e v e r saw my mother. In 1921, my f i r s t v a c a t i o n , Dad t o o k me a c r o s s to Musqueam. Th a t was the l a s t time I saw Mom. She was i n Musqueam and I was i n s c h o o l on Kuper I s l a n d . My mother p a s s e d away i n 1957. I s t a y e d w i t h my Dad u s u a l l y a f t e r t h a t d u r i n g summer h o l i d a y s . One h o l i d a y I s t a y e d i n s c h o o l because t h e y needed someone to h e l p a r o u n d w i t h the c a t t l e on the farm. T h e r e were f o u r of us who s t a y e d . When I went to s c h o o l t h e r e was a b o t t l e of c o d l i v e r o i l on t h e window s i l l i n s i d e the d i n i n g room. E v e r y t i m e you came i n t o e a t you took a t e a s p o o n f u l of c o d l i v e r o i l . H o r r i b l e s t u f f ! We g o t so used to i t though t h a t the boys would come i n and k i s s t h e b o t t l e . But I c o u l d n e v e r do i t . \ When I was a s c h o o l b o y the S p a n i s h i n f l u e n z a was a r ound but was much weaker t h a n i t had been when i t f i r s t h i t the I n d i a n p e o p l e . The i n f l u e n z a d i d n ' t k i l l anybody when I was a boy. I remember s i t t i n g on the s t e p s i n f r o n t of our r e c r e a t i o n h a l l when I g o t s i c k . W i t h i n an hour or so, t h e y had me i n bed. B e f o r e t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g wrong w i t h me. T h e r e were f o r t y boys and f o r t y g i r l s at Kuper I s l a n d t h e n and the o n l y ones l e f t w a l k i n g a r o u n d were f i v e b o y s . They o n l y had enough to m i l k t h e cows and s l o p the p i g s . My s c h o o l m a t e s were a l s o c a t c h i n g t u b e r c u l o s i s . When they were too f a r gone, th e y would be s e n t home, s e n t home to d i e . Somehow or o t h e r my r e s i s t a n c e k e p t me from c a t c h i n g i t from the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . We were a l l t a k i n g c o d l i v e r o i l from the same 84 b o t t l e and t h e y were d y i n g o u t . T h e r e were one o r two y e a r s when t h e r e were no c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g Kuper I s l a n d from e i t h e r C o w i chan or the G u l f I s l a n d s because a l l the p a r e n t s r e f u s e d to l e t them go to s c h o o l . T h e i r c h i l d r e n were d y i n g too f a s t and t h e y blamed the p r i e s t s and t h e i r r e l i g i o n f o r the d e a t h s . Some o f the o l d p e o p l e even blamed the e u c h a r i s t and wondered w h a t e v e r d i d they put i n t h a t p i e c e of b r e a d . So f o r a few y e a r s t h a t I was at s c h o o l a l l the c h i l d r e n t h e r e were from the m a i n l a n d ; from Musqueam, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , C h e h a l i s , C h i l l i w a c k , Kamloops and D o u g l a s L a k e . We had p r a y e r s and s e r v i c e s and r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e s i x y e a r s I was at s c h o o l . I s e r v e d as a l t a r boy many t i m e s ; f o r the s c h o o l , the s t a f f and the B i s h o p of V i c t o r i a . A l l the s c h o o l s t a f f at Kuper were F r e n c h C a n a d i a n - the M o n t f o r t F a t h e r s . They came d i r e c t l y from Quebec. They had no o t h e r h e a d q u a r t e r s between Quebec and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . B e s i d e s the s c h o o l at K uper I s l a n d , t h e y had a r e c t o r y at Duncan, S t . A n n e ' s , and p e r h a p s a n o t h e r one up n e a r Comox as w e l l . They were a l l F r e n c h C a n a d i a n and D u t c h , so they d i d n ' t t e a c h us i n E n g l i s h u n t i l t h e y c o u l d speak i t t h e m s e l v e s . We d i d n ' t t r y to l e a r n F r e n c h , but F r e n c h was a l l you h e a r d t h r o u g h the h a l l w a y s . T h e r e was one I r i s h m a n , F a t h e r Murphy, and he spoke F r e n c h w i t h the r e s t of them. I remember many of the ways t h i n g s were p r o n o u n c e d ; the funny l i t t l e word, ' s c h e d u l e ' was s a i d ' s c h e d - U U l e ' . I a l s o remember the F a t h e r s s a y i n g , "Make i t h a r d . " By 85 s a y i n g t h a t t h e y meant 'Do y o u r b e s t ' . T h a t d i d n ' t c l i c k w i t h me u n t i l l a t e r . T h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e l i k e m y s e l f who d i d not get a p r o p e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n b ecause of the r u l e s of the w h i t e man. The w h i t e man s a y s , "We've been h e r e 100 y e a r s and y o u ' r e s t i l l 100 y e a r s b e h i n d u s " ! A t Kuper I s l a n d s c h o o l we were to l e a v e when we c o m p l e t e d the F i f t h Reader w h i c h wasn't q u i t e e q u i v a l e n t t o the f i f t h g r a d e . You were not a l l o w e d i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l i f you were I n d i a n . You c o u l d n ' t - t h e r e was no way of f u r t h e r i n g y o u r e d u c a t i o n beyond t h a t . I t seems t h a t I was q u i t e a s t r o n g s t u d e n t and d i d q u i t e w e l l i n s c h o o l . F a t h e r Murphy, one of my t e a c h e r s came t o me one day and s a i d , "You know, A r n o l d , you've got g r e a t p r o m i s e as a s t u d e n t . I'm g o i n g to see i f we can somehow get you up h i g h enough i n s c h o o l so you can work you r way t h r o u g h and g e t i n t o h i g h s c h o o l . " A y e a r l a t e r he came back to me and s a i d , "No. No, t h e r e ' s no way." And F a t h e r De Wert, the m i s s i o n a r y , once s a i d to me, " A r n o l d , t h e o n l y way y o u ' r e g o i n g to get an e d u c a t i o n i s to e n t e r a s e m i n a r y . T h i s i s the one way t h a t you w i l l get the e d u c a t i o n t h a t you d e s e r v e . I d o n ' t say t h a t you must become a p r i e s t , but t h i s i s t h e o n l y chance t h a t you w i l l g e t . " I d i d n ' t c a r e to go t h a t r o u t e . I n e v e r went back and f i n i s h e d the s c h o o l i n g t h a t the F a t h e r s wanted me to do. I d i d go back to n i g h t s c h o o l when I 86 was o l d e r and w o r k i n g at K u p e r . One o f t h e nuns t a u g h t u p g r a d i n g and I went and r a i s e d my s t a n d a r d . She s a i d i t was the e q u i v a l e n t of g r a d e e i g h t , but I don't t h i n k i t was a f u l l grade e i g h t . But I d i d w e l l t h e r e . Our L o s s e s We have l o s t the l a n d s around us and our fre e d o m to move on them b e c a u s e of the e n c r o a c h m e n t of t h e w h i t e p e o p l e . We l i v e on the Musqueam I n d i a n r e s e r v e h e r e , I t h i n k , b ecause of the g r e a t t i d a l f l a t s a t the mouth of the r i v e r . We used to t r a p salmon, salmon coming i n the n o r t h arm of the F r a s e r . We s e t our t r a p s on the f l a t s and when the t i d e was out we went and p i c k e d up our c a t c h . Our t i d a l f l a t s have been t a k e n o v e r and g i v e n to the H a r b o u r s B o a r d f o r them to l o o k a f t e r , so we have a l a r g e t i d a l f l a t out i n f r o n t of us h e r e t h a t we c a n n o t use anymore. I t ' s not o u r s now, but we do c l a i m i t i n our h e a r t s . That i s one of the t h i n g s . L o o k i n g back 100 y e a r s - my Dad was b o r n i n 1874. He was 12 y e a r s o l d when V a n c o u v e r b u r n e d . At t h a t time t h i s was Gastown. He used to speak to me about Gastown, about G r a n v i l l e , about Q u e e e n s b o r o u g h and a l l t h o s e p l a c e s . I d o n ' t know too much about 100 y e a r s ago, but a c c o r d i n g to Dad t h e r e must have been q u i t e a change. One of our o l d p a t r i a r c h s , o l d K h a p i l a h n o , he was a Musqueam. 'Quyupelenuxw' ( K h a p i l a h n o ) h i s name was. He moved out to C a p i l a n o , the C a p i l a n o R i v e r to save h i s f i s h i n g c r e e k . 87 He moved when he fo u n d t h a t the w h i t e man was f o r c e f u l i n h i s ways o f t a k i n g o v e r e v e r y t h i n g and c l a i m i n g i t u n t o h i m s e l f . Dad s a i d t h a t was the r e a s o n he moved. We have l o s t t h a t r i v e r now to the Squamish p e o p l e , of c o u r s e . T h a t i s one of the t h i n g s I know. Now, we speak of d i s e a s e s , the d i s e a s e s t h a t s t r u c k and k n o c k e d the I n d i a n p e o p l e o v e r . I d i d n ' t see much of the s m a l l p o x e p i d e m i c , but s m a l l p o x was s t i l l a round when I became a s c h o o l b o y . Gus S y l v e s t e r of Kuper I s l a n d once s a i d to me, "Ther e were t i m e s when we were h a v i n g f u n e r a l s i n the n i g h t . We d i d n ' t b o t h e r to box anybody. We d i d n ' t b o t h e r to h a r d l y wrap them i n a b l a n k e t . We dug b i g g r a v e s and threw them i n , the y were d y i n g o f f t h a t f a s t . " I t was b e c a u s e of t h e s m a l l p o x . When I was a c h i l d , s m a l l p o x s t i l l t r o u b l e d our p e o p l e and I have f i v e pox i n the c e n t e r of my back. My s t e p m o t h e r ' s mother, an o l d Squamish l a d y b o i l e d some s t i n g i n g n e t t l e r o o t s and gave us the b r o t h to d r i n k . And t h o s e l i t t l e s o r e s b r o k e open and t h a t ' s a l l I g o t of the pox. My b r o t h e r i s the same - Johnny. Many p e o p l e c o n t r a c t e d t u b e r c u l o s i s and t h e r e was n o t h i n g to h e l p t h o s e p e o p l e f o r too many, too many y e a r s . Then the h o s p i t a l s came i n f o r I n d i a n s , f o r t u b e r c u l a r I n d i a n s . T h e r e was f i r s t C h i l l i w a c k - S a r d i s . And then t h e r e was L y t t o n , and l a t e r a f t e r t h a t , I t h i n k a f t e r the ( S e c o n d ) W o r l d War, t h e r e was Nanaimo - t h e h o s p i t a l f o r s o l d i e r s was t u r n e d i n t o a t u b e r c u l a r h o s p i t a l . Many of the p e o p l e t h a t I worked w i t h had been i n the 88 p l a c e a l o n g time and i t was i n t h o s e y e a r s t h a t they f o u n d the m e d i c i n e f o r c u r i n g them. I t was about t h a t time t h a t t h e y s t a r t e d to open up t h e i r c h e s t s and o p e r a t e . So some of the men, you see them t o d a y , t h o s e t h a t a r e o l d enough, walk k i n d o f l o p s i d e d b ecause t h e y have some r i b s m i s s i n g . But t h e n t h e y f o u n d a d r u g t h a t h e l p e d . So now, we're f r e e of t h a t . I g u e s s i n t h a t t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n l i f e t o l i f e w i t h the whiteman the change i n our d i e t had a l o t to do w i t h us h a v i n g d i s e a s e s . I mean, you changed o v e r to the whiteman's way, but you d i d n ' t t a k e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t t h e y u s e d you know. You d i d n ' t have t h e money to buy t h e f o o d s t h a t w o u l d have k e p t you s t r o n g . But t h a t m i g h t be one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t h e l p e d me by b e i n g a s t u d e n t at Kuper I s l a n d f o r s i x y e a r s at the time t h a t I had. My meals were f u l l . T h e r e were v e g e t a b l e s , t h e r e was e v e r y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . The meats and t h a t got p r e t t y r a n c i d b e f o r e you f i n i s h e d them because you k i l l e d a cow and you k i l l e d a p i g and you had to eat i t , a l l . T h e r e was no r e f r i g e r a t i o n w h i l e I a t t e n d e d s c h o o l . I was a g r e a t l i t t l e t h i e f f o r s t e a l i n g c a r r o t s and t u r n i p s . T h i s was one of the t h i n g s t h a t I d i d a l w a y s . I l i k e d c a r r o t s - raw - and raw t u r n i p s . I c o u l d e at two t u r n i p s w i t h no t r o u b l e at a l l . I'd s o o n e r e at them than a raw c a r r o t . I i m a g i n e t h a t h e l p e d me d u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s when o t h e r p e o p l e ' s h e a l t h f a i l e d them, b e i n g t h a t way. I ' v e w a t c h e d t h e i r m e d i c i n e men do t h e i r work; shamans. The c u r i n g of p e o p l e o n l y , making a c u r e . T h e r e was n o t h i n g t h e r e 89 that r e a l l y astonished me. I think that my span of l i f e was almost a l i t t l e b i t late to see and to be able to understand a l l that was; the b e l i e f s of the Indian doctors, the b e l i e f s of the people. I didn't r e a l l y see that. Dad was a staunch Catholic. He t o l d me that one day he heard the beat of drums. This lady shaman was curing someone i n the longhouse and was singing her Indian doctor song. He could hear the beating of s t i c k s to the rhythym of her song. He thought i t was an ordinary cure and wanted to see i t and so he walked i n . But when he got i n there, there were two cedar poles, 'kwuxwtun', h i t t i n g the underside of the roof of the house with nobody holding them. And they were the beat of her song. He said when he saw that i t was a l i t t l e b i t too much for him, so he walked out. That was only one of the things Dad did t e l l me. So when you speak about the old culture, there wasn't too much of i t that I can r e a l l y speak about because there was much of i t that was gone by the time I was a boy. I didn't see the day of the potlatch. My older s i s t e r s and brothers did. This i s how much I missed by those few years. Alot of people s t i l l think that the dances, the winter dances of today are potlatch things. But they are not. I do not speak about t h e i r dances because I'm not a dancer. Once a dancer, you're a dancer for l i f e . You're i n i t i a t e d and you go through quite an austere winter or two. So that part of i t , I don't have the knowledge to be able to speak on. I f I wanted to go and ask a dancer what i t ' s a l l 90 a b o u t , h e ' l l s a y , " I f you want to know what i t ' s a l l a b o u t , a l l yo u have t o do i s go down t h e r e and t e l l them t h a t you want to be a d a n c e r . You w i l l know p r e t t y q u i c k l y what i t ' s a l l a b o u t . " My o l d e s t b r o t h e r l e f t home i n 1917. He was bo r n h e r e on Musqueam and knows a b i t more' of the c u l t u r e of the o l d p e o p l e t h a n I a c t u a l l y do. He knows about the p o t l a t c h . He was a d a n c e r of the masked dance. My Dad t e l l s me when the S h a k e r s were a r o u n d , he used to go o v e r t h e r e and r i n g the b e l l s f o r them, even though he was not one. And he would go and h e l p w i t h th e d a n c i n g i n the b i g house. Then he l e f t i n 1917. When my mother d i e d , my b r o t h e r Bob came h e r e , s a t b e s i d e my Dad and spoke Musqueam. He had a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Dad - and he h a d n ' t s p o k e n Musqueam s i n c e he l e f t h e r e i n 1917. Dad d i e d i n 1961. I'v e l i v e d i n l o n g h o u s e s . I l i v e d an I n d i a n l i f e from a young man. At K u p e r I s l a n d to e s t a b l i s h m y s e l f and have a p l a c e t o l i v e and to work as a l o n g s h o r e m a n i n Chemainus, I l i v e d i n a l o n g h o u s e . I had a n i c e boat t h a t we used to go a c r o s s to. work. I've had snow r i g h t up to the s i d e of my bed when I woke up i n the m o r n i n g sometimes. I t came t h r o u g h the smokehole i n the top o f t h e r o o f . I ' v e had to g e t up i n t h a t snow i n my b a r e f e e t , get c l o t h e d and go down and p i c k up some wood to s t a r t my f i r e and make my b r e a k f a s t . So I've l i v e d i n l o n g h o u s e s . I've l i v e d by the canoe, and I've seen the day when the I n d i a n p e o p l e out of P o r l i e r P a s s t r o l l e d , hand t r o l l e d i n t h e i r c a n o e s , about 30 canoes i n the 91 e v e n i n g . You'd see 30 o r 40 canoes l y i n g i n the p a s s , t r o l l i n g . L i t t l e d u g o u t s . And when one would c a t c h a s a l m o n on h i s l i n e he wou l d s t a n d up to h a u l i t i n and t h e r e a r e t u r b u l e n t w a t e r s t h e r e i n the P a s s . They were so s u r e of t h e m s e l v e s . You always knew when one of them had caught s o m e t h i n g - he'd s t a n d up i n h i s canoe! I ' v e l i v e d on t h e t h e i s l a n d s t h e r e , t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . I ' v e l i v e d on c l a m s , I've l i v e d on salmon, I've l e a r n e d how to f i s h c o d , I 've w a t c h e d the o l d I n d i a n way o f c a t c h i n g l i n g c o d w i t h the p i e c e of wood. My s t e p m o t h e r ' s o l d Dad used to do i t . And I u s e d to see him when he'd go a l o n g the beach s p e a r i n g c o d, r o c k c o d , o t h e r s m a l l salmon and s m a l l cod w i t h a s p e a r . T h a t was a p r e t t y i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g . I n e v e r r e a l l y became good at d o i n g t h a t . When t h e r e was a b r e e z e on the water and you c o u l d n ' t see down to the bottom, now t h i s i s down a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e , he had a m o u t h f u l of d r i e d salmon roe and e v e r y now and then he'd s p i t i n t o the w a t e r and i t would smooth o f f the s u r f a c e f o r a w h i l e so he c o u l d l o o k down. I t was k i n d of an o i l y t h i n g . I d o n ' t know how he saw t h r o u g h i t . I g u e s s the o i l wasn't t h a t s t r o n g t h a t i t would b l u r h i s v i s i o n , so t h a t ' s what he u s e d . My L i f e and F a m i l y I've l i v e d a l i f e when the c o a l o i l lamp was a l l I c o u l d r e a d by, where you had t o c a r r y y o u r w a t e r . My w i f e and I had to carr y - our w a t e r up h i l l b e c a u s e a f t e r we g o t m a r r i e d , we l i v e d i n '1 92 h e r Dad's h o u s e . He had a n i c e h o u s e a t K u p e r . I t was up on top of the h i l l . We had to c a r r y w ater up h i l l and the w e l l was down at the bottom; c l i m b up the h i l l even when t h e r e was snow on the g r o u n d . My m o t h e r was a Lummi, h e r Dad was t h e c h i e f o f Lummi. H i s name was George T i y u l i s h . H i s f a t h e r was the c h i e f of Lummi b e f o r e him. H i s name was T t h i y u l i k w . And I know h i s f a t h e r b e f o r e him, the one who s i g n e d the t r e a t y w i t h w h i t e f o l k s . So my mother came from t h a t l a n d . And my f a t h e r ' s mother, her grandmother i s K h a p i l a h n o ' s o l d e r s i s t e r . She would be my g r e a t g r e a t g r a n d m o t h e r ; t h i s man, K h a p i a l a h n o , the g r e a t w a r r i o r was the y o u n g e s t of t h a t f a m i l y . So, he'd be my g r e a t g r e a t g r a n d u n c l e . T h i s i s how f a r we c a r r y our g e n e o l o g y . My w i f e i s from Kuper I s l a n d . Her mother was a Nanaimo l a d y . On her mother's s i d e , I d o n ' t know how many s i s t e r s t h e r e were, at l e a s t h a l f a d o z e n . They a l l have l a r g e f a m i l i e s , and t h e y a l l seem to have s t a y e d i n Na,naimo. So you go to Nanaimo and t h e y ' r e a l l f i r s t c o u s i n s to J a n i e . My f a t h e r - i n - l a w was a man t h a t n e v e r had a day of s c h o o l i n g . He was a l o n g s h o r e m a n f o r 56 y e a r s . Of t h o s e 56 y e a r s he was a foreman f o r Empir e S t e v e d o r e s f o r 35 y e a r s . He r e t i r e d when he was 74 y e a r s and th e y t r i e d to g e t him back sometimes. But he w o u l d n ' t go. He was 94 when he d i e d two y e a r s ago. S t r o n g man, n e v e r smoked, a c i g a r e t t e n e v e r d a n g l e d o f f h i s l i p s , t h a t k i n d of a man. He w o u l d n ' t swear though he was around the l o n g s h o r e f o l k s , n e v e r s a i d a p r o f a n e word. J u s t a g r e a t man. I 93 a d m i r e d him v e r y h i g h l y . When I was a l i t t l e boy h e r e on the Musqueam R e s e r v e , t h e r e were no houses h e r e o u t s i d e the r e s e r v e i n t h i s a r e a . The s t r e e t s were c u t i n ; M a r i n e D r i v e was i n , 4 1 s t Avenue was i n and Dunbar S t r e e t was i n . T h e r e was o n l y one house on 4 1 s t Avenue between h e r e and Dunbar. J u s t one house, and t h e r e was n o t h i n g at the c o r n e r of Dunbar and 4 1 s t , n o t h i n g h e r e but two l i t t l e w a i t i n g s t a t i o n s f o r the s t r e e t c a r - j u s t l e a n t o ' s . So to go to town, you went up t h e r e and you took the s t r e e t c a r to K e r r i s d a l e . You went on up to K e r r i s d a l e , and you too k a t r a n s f e r and you took the i n t e r u r b a n . T h i s i n t e r u r b a n seemed to dump us o f f i n the m i d d l e of a b r i d g e , whether i t was Cambie B r i d g e or G r a n v i l l e - i t was a s t e e l b r i d g e . T h e r e was a t r a n s f e r i n the m i d d l e of a b r i d g e to a n o t h e r c a r t h a t took you on down to G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t or H a s t i n g s S t r e e t to the main d e p o t . So t h a t ' s the way I l i v e d on the Musqueam r e s e r v e . T h e r e was no e l e c t r i c i t y , t h e r e was no w a t e r . We used to go up to the g a r a g e up her e to get our w a t e r . We'd b r i n g i t home i n t a n k s , b i g t a n k s , b i g 5 g a l l o n cans i n our c a r . T h e r e was wa t e r h e r e but the C h i n e s e g a r d e n s w i t h a l l t h e i r f e r t i l i z e r s , made i t d i f f i c u l t to use our w a t e r . My f i r s t j o b was i n the h e r r i n g s a l t e r y . I happened to get out of s c h o o l j u s t as the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n h i t us. So I g o t a j o b i n 1926, O c t o b e r , i n a J a p a n e s e h e r r i n g s a l t e r y . They c a u g h t h e r r i n g out h e r e o f f G a l i a n o and around P e n d e r i n s e i n e s and s a l t e d them In t h e s e g r e a t b i g s a l t e r i e s t h e y had at the n o r t h 94 end of G a l i a n o . So I worked i n s e i n e b o a t s and I worked i n the camp, the s a l t e r y camp, s a l t i n g t h e h e r r i n g s i n b i g t a n k s . Twelve t o n t a n k s t h e y were. The h e r r i n g was b r o u g h t i n i n s i x t y t o n scows. And we s a l t e d them i n t w e l v e t o n t a n k s ; p u t 60 s a c k s of 125 pounds each of s a l t i n t o a t w e l v e t o n ta n k . And a f t e r f o u r d a y s , you took them out of t h e r e and th e y would be i n w a t e r , a b r i n e . You'd t a k e them out of the tanks i n s c o o p s , net s c o o p s . The s a l t e r y i t s e l f c o u l d h o l d 450 t o n s o f h e r r i n g . I was 16. We worked h a r d . So t h e n , I g i l l n e t t e d up i n the Skeena R i v e r , i n R i v e r s I n l e t and on the F r a s e r . I d i d n ' t make a good g i l l n e t t e r . F o r some r e a s o n or o t h e r , w h e t h e r I wasn't w o r k i n g t h e t i d e s p r o p e r l y o r my net wasn't f i x e d up p r o p e r l y . . . I d i d n ' t have good l u c k as a g i l l n e t t e r . I had a g r e a t l o v e f o r s o c c e r a l l t h e s e y e a r s , so I went out to Kuper I s l a n d and p l a y e d t h e r e and got a j o b as a l o n g s h o r e m a n . I was 48 when I s t o p p e d p l a y i n g o r g a n i z e d s o c c e r , and t h e n I went c o a c h i n g f o r 12 y e a r s and I had a men's f i r s t d i v i s i o n team p l a y i n g i n Nanaimo. I t was c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h the b e s t teams i n Nanaimo. I s t i l l work w i t h my g r a n d c h i l d r e n . T h a t one g r a n d s o n way down the o t h e r end of the c h e s t e r f i e l d , he's g e t t i n g to be q u i t e a l i t t l e s o c c e r p l a y e r . A f t e r I q u i t my l o n g s h o r i n g and my l o g g i n g , d u r i n g the Second World War I b u i l t a b o a t . I was q u i t e a boat b u i l d e r . I had a 32 f o o t b o a t , a good boat t h a t I had b u i l t . I went t r o l l i n g , salmon t r o l l i n g . And, oh, I had a h a r d time making 95 enough money f o r my gas f o r the f i r s t y e a r and h a l f of the next y e a r . More t h a n h a l f . T r o l l e r s , the o l d t r o l l e r s won't h e l p y o u , you know. They won't say " t h i s i s what's wrong"...but t o w a r d the end of my s e c o n d y e a r I became a h i g h l i n e r a l l of a sudden o v e r n i g h t . I was making my own g e a r . So t h e n I became a h i g h l i n e r and some days I made $100 a day. But t h e n o u r b o a t was s m a l l and cramped. I had c h i l d r e n and t h e r e wasn't enough room f o r the whole f a m i l y on the b o a t . The c h i l d r e n took t u r n s f a l l i n g o v e r b o a r d . I was a d v i s e d to s e l l the b o a t . Then from t h e r e I went back to l o n g s h o r i n g . I was a l i t t l e b i t f o r t u n a t e . I d i d n ' t have to f i g h t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I d o n ' t t h i n k I d i d , I c a n ' t r e c a l l at a n y t i m e . My tongue i s s h a r p enouugh, i t had to be. And I u n d e r s t o o d one s i d e and t h e o t h e r . I seemed to have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how one p e o p l e l i v e d and the o t h e r p e o p l e l i v e d . T h a t i s the w h i t e v e r s u s t h e I n d i a n . So t h e n I c o u l d j o k e about my own I n d i a n n e s s , w h a t e v e r way you want, w i t h anyone. Some of them t o d a y , i f I k i n d of say s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s a l i t t l e b i t out of p l a c e maybe, t h e y d o n ' t even s m i l e . They d o n ' t b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e a f r a i d t o h u r t me. But b e i n g t h a t way, you d i d n ' t have to f i g h t w i t h anybody. You d i d n ' t have to argue w i t h anyone. You worked s i d e by s i d e w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , and got a l o n g . But t h e r e a r e o t h e r p e o p l e t h a t c o u l d n ' t l i v e e x a c t l y i n t h a t same way. I n e v e r went back and f i n i s h e d the s c h o o l i n g t h a t the F a t h e r s wanted me t o . But when I worked at K u p e r , I went to 96 n i g h t s c h o o l and I d i d w e l l t h e r e . And t h i s i s what h e l p e d me go i n t o l i n g u i s t i c s . . . I went i n t o l i n g u i s t i c s about 1970 , maybe e a r l i e r . I was t e a c h i n g i n 1971. T h a t ' s an a s p e c t of my l i f e t h a t I'm g l a d I d i d . I'm g l a d I to o k up l i n g u i s t i c s . My I n d i a n Language A l i n g u i s t came to me t w i c e a week, b o t h he and h i s w i f e were l i n g u i s t s . He came to me t w i c e a week, out to Kuper from V i c t o r i a , from the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Came a c r o s s on the f e r r y , s t a y e d w i t h me a c o u p l e of hou r s or so, and t h e n would t a k e the nex t f e r r y o u t . And he d i d t h a t f o r a number of y e a r s , seems to me s o m e t h i n g l i k e two or t h r e e y e a r s by the time he q u i t . I d i d p r e t t y w e l l . He l e f t me homework when he'd go away. And I had to have t h a t done when he came back, boy! He was one of t h e s e guys t h a t wasn't g o i n g to l e t you o f f e a s y . He was J e w i s h - E n g l i s h and worked h a r d . So he s a i d to me, " B e i n g a Jew, nobody f a i l s , and b e i n g an E n g l i s h m a n i s the same t h i n g . You b e t t e r work h a r d . " He d i d w e l l f o r me. So much so t h a t I work w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n g u i s t s ; t h e y w i l l come to me and I u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about and can work w i t h them. The l i n g u i s t s a r e r e c o r d i n g the Musqueam, and t h e n t h e y t r y t o b r e a k i t down i n t o what the l i t t l e p a r t s of the l a n g u a g e are d o i n g ; why t h e y a r e i n t h e r e . The a r t i c l e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e d e m o n s t r a t i v e s , a r e d e t e r m i n e r s . They d e t e r m i n e s o m e t h i n g - not 97 j u s t ' a s ' , ' a ' , ' t h e ' . One may show you t h a t i t ' s a m a s c u l i n e t h a t we're t a l k i n g a b o u t , and he's a b s e n t or p r e s e n t . So you d o n ' t say 'a g r a n d m o t h e r ' . The word f o r grandmother i s the same as t h a t f o r g r a n d f a t h e r . But the o t h e r d e t e r m i n e r t e l l s you w h i c h one i t i s , m a s c u l i n e or f e m i n i n e . Those a r e t h i n g s we work w i t h when I work w i t h l i n g u i s t s . We break down the whole l a n g u a g e . S t a r t i n g out w i t h t h e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e , s t a r t i n g to w r i t e i t , I had one heck of a time to even p i c k out my p r o n o u n s , to p i c k o u t t h e v e r b s , to p i c k out the f i r s t p e r s o n , s e c o n d p e r s o n , t h i r d p e r s o n . A l o t of t i m e s , t h e t h i r d p e r s o n p r o n o u n i s n o t u s e d , but i s i m p l i e d by t h e a s p e c t of the s e n t e n c e . And t h i s makes i t v e r y h a r d when y o u ' r e s t a r t i n g o u t . As you use the I n d i a n l a n g u a g e i t becomes q u i t e h a r d to p r o p e r l y t r a n s l a t e some s e n t e n c e s or t r a n s l a t e them as you u n d e r s t a n d them i n the I n d i a n l a n g u a g e . I t seems t h a t y o u ' v e got to t h i n k I n d i a n to speak i t . T h e r e ' s no two ways about i t . I had to l e a r n to speak I n d i a n . E v e r y t h i n g you do, or e v e r y t h i n g you u s e , i t has i t s own names. The coming i n o f a canoe to t h e b e a c h , t h e d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e b e a c h , the h a u l i n g up of y o u r canoes onto the b e a c h . These a r e a l l so d i f f e r e n t . They each a r e d i f f e r e n t I n d i a n t e r m i n o l o g y . From the p a s t , our c u l t u r e has to do w i t h the r e t e n t i o n of I n d i a n names. P e o p l e ' s I n d i a n names are not j u s t g i v e n names 98 l i k e the E n g l i s h names. T h e y ' r e names t h a t you t a k e from y o u r a n c e s t o r s . O n l y a d i r e c t d e s c e n d e n t of y o u r s can use y o u r name. And a l o t of p e o p l e , w i t h the l o s s of the I n d i a n l a n g u a g e , the p r o n u n c i a t i o n has been e r o d e d . So t h a t when you h e a r someone come l o n g and say, "My I n d i a n name i s so and s o " , r i g h t away, b e c a u s e you speak I n d i a n , you know d a r n w e l l t h a t h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s not r i g h t . But where he i s wrong, you don't know, so you c a n ' t h e l p him. So t h e n we have I n d i a n names, we have I n d i a n p l a c e names; many of t h o s e a r e used by the w h i t e p e o p l e l i k e ' C a p i l a n o ' , 'Nanaimo', ' T s w a s s a s s e n ' . I t a u g h t o u r l a n g u a g e at Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l f o r a number of y e a r s w i t h c h i l d r e n g r a d e s two and t h r e e . I d i d v e r y w e l l w i t h them. The t e a c h e r used to say to me, " I f I c o u l d t e a c h them to r e a d and w r i t e l i k e you can t e a c h them t h a t a l p h a b e t t h a t you h a v e , how happy I'd be." And t h e n I worked h e r e on the Musqueam R e s e r v e and I worked up h e r e at S o u t h l a n d s S c h o o l E l e m e n t a r y . And then I t a u g h t at P o i n t G r e y S e c o n d a r y . T h e r e was o n l y one w h i t e s t u d e n t t h a t a t t e n d e d my c l a s s at P o i n t G r e y . The p e o p l e h e r e d i d n ' t want me to t e a c h the w h i t e k i d s . "The w h i t e p e o p l e have t a k e n e v e r y t h i n g away from u s , why g i v e them our l a n g u a g e ? ! " Which I d i d n ' t t h i n k was q u i t e r i g h t e i t h e r . I t h o u g h t to m y s e l f , i f a w h i t e p e r s o n s p e a k s some I n d i a n , t h a t p e r s o n becomes 'more of a f r i e n d of y o u r s . You remember you r l a n g u a g e once you have l e a r n e d i t . My s i s t e r s , t h e y a l l speak good I n d i a n . They d i d n ' t when th e y were 99 y o u n g e r . I t seems l i k e when t h e y were younger t h e y d i d n ' t want t o show t h a t t h e y were I n d i a n . Dad u s e d to s a y to them, " Y o u ' l l a l w a y s be I n d i a n . " To me he'd s a y , "Don't l e t y o u r s i s t e r s sway y o u . Remember, y o u ' r e g o i n g to get a l o n g b e t t e r when you remember y o u ' r e I n d i a n . Take the good from the whiteman, t a k e the good from the I n d i a n " , he used to say to me. "Put t h o s e two t o g e t h e r . " Today - I n d i a n and White T o g e t h e r A l c o h o l - t h a t ' s been one of the g r e a t c u r s e s of our p e o p l e . I t h o u g h t t h a t when t h e y opened the beer p a r l o u r s up to the I n d i a n s , I t h o u g h t t h a t i t would o n l y be a m a t t e r of time u n t i l t h e y ' d had enough and t h e y w o u l d n ' t use a l c o h o l . But i t d o e s n ' t seem t h a t i t w i l l work t h a t way. T h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e t h a t don't d r i n k , and t h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e t h a t d r i n k . I t h i n k t h a t f i n d i n g meaning f o r y o u r s e l f i n the m i d s t of l o s s and c o n f u s i o n - t h i s i s the l o s s of the c u l t u r e i t s e l f . Then you've got to become mixed, w h i t e and I n d i a n . Y o u ' r e not l i k e the E u r o p e a n t h a t came out h e r e and l e f t h i s c o u n t r y . You a r e a p e o p l e t h a t were s e g r e g a t e d from the r e s t of s o c i e t y r i g h t i n y o u r own l a n d . So t h e n , as soon as you came w i t h i n t h o s e bounds, the I n d i a n r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s , you had to become an I n d i a n . When you walk out of t h o s e b o u n d a r i e s , you become a w h i t e man. You've got to a c t l i k e one, speak l i k e one. You 100 s p l i t - you have k i n d of a d u a l t y p e of a c u l t u r e . You work b o t h s i d e s . Y o u ' r e not h a l f one or h a l f the o t h e r . You a r e h e r e or y o u ' r e o v e r h e r e . T h e r e are t h i n g s where the I n d i a n i s so d i f f e r e n t to the whiteman. E v e n t o d a y , I n o t i c e among the c h i l d r e n when I'm out i n the .'if, s c h o o l s , you can a l r e a d y see t h a t t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e b i t of f r i c t i o n between the I n d i a n k i d s and t h e o t h e r s i n the c o r r i d o r s . I t h i n k the younger c h i l d r e n a r e becoming more I n d i a n i n a way. They a r e r e t a i n i n g t h e i r I n d i a n n e s s , t h e i r I n d i a n n a t u r e , t h e i r I n d i a n p r i d e . And t h e y ' r e apt to put up a l i t t l e argument o v e r i t . And i t ' s h a r d to keep them from d o i n g i t because t h i s t h i n g i s w o r k i n g on b o t h s i d e s , not one s i d e or the o t h e r . I t h i n k t h e r e ' s s t i l l a l o t of c o n t a c t w i t h Lummi and W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e . Now, t o d a y , t h e r e i s a l o t of c o n t a c t when t h e r e i s a d e a t h on any one of the Cowichan r e s e r v e s or the G u l f I s l a n d r e s e r v e s ; Nanaimo, V i c t o r i a , Musqueam, C h i l l i w a c k , C h e h a l i s , or Lummi. T h e r e ' s a c o l l e c t i o n t a k e n h e r e to t r y and o f f s e t the f u n e r a l e x p e n s e s . So i n t h a t way, y o u ' r e i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l l the p l a c e s q u i t e a l o t . We have one man h e r e who goes a r o u n d and i s i n t o u c h by phone w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . When t h e r e ' s a d e a t h , he t a k e s a c o l l e c t i o n and d e l i v e r s i t . S p o r t s - we have canoe r a c i n g . You've n e v e r seen the amount of e x e r c i s i n g and body b u i l d i n g t h a t goes i n t o t a k i n g p a r t as a crewmember. They r e a l l y work t h e m s e l v e s up. As soon as t h e w eather g e t s warm enough, t h e n the canoes go i n t o the water 101 and t h e y s t a r t t r a i n i n g . One of the p l a c e s , l i k e Duncan, would have a E u c h a r i s t p r o c e s s i o n , and i t was always h e l d as one of t h e i r s p o r t s d a y s . They might h o s t the f i r s t canoe r e g a t t a , and t h e n the r e g a t t a would go down maybe to Lummi, t h e n maybe up to C u l t u s L a k e , and d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s l i k e t h a t . And when e v e r y o n e ' s had one, t h e n the s o c c e r t o u r n a m e n t s b e g i n and t h i n g s a r e g o i n g on t i l l q u i t e l a t e i n the summer. S o c c e r i s a g r e a t game w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . We l i k e s o c c e r and t h e y work h a r d to b u i l d up a . team. We c r o s s the C a n a d i a n - U.S. b o r d e r ; we c a n ' t j u s t s i m p l y w a l k a c r o s s . We've got to r e p o r t , we c a n ' t i g n o r e i t . I d o n ' t r e a l l y have any t r o u b l e c r o s s i n g t h e b o r d e r . Of c o u r s e , I ' d l i k e i t to be e a s i e r even t h a n i t i s . I d o n ' t l i k e to be s t o p p e d by somebody t h a t I s h o u l d be s t o p p i n g ! " V i s i t o r s who n e v e r l e f t ! " I d i d n ' t l e a r n to s p e a k - F r e n c h . As a m a t t e r of f a c t , I k i n d of h a t e d the F r e n c h . And I s t i l l do because of t h o s e s i x y e a r s ; s i x y e a r s of h a v i n g to l i v e w i t h F r e n c h nuns and p r i e s t s . I t ' s a heck of a t h i n g to s a y , but t h a t ' s the f e e l i n g I have. I t s t a y s w i t h you a l l t h o s e y e a r s . A l i t t l e b i t a n g r y . Oh, you don't show i t to anybody, but t h e r e i s the f e e l i n g i n s i d e , and i t ' s a l w a y s t h e r e a f t e r a l l t h o s e y e a r s . But I g e t a l o n g w i t h e v e r y b o d y e l s e ! I am at h e a r t s t i l l a Roman C a t h o l i c , I am at h e a r t v e r y s t r o n g l y . But not a p r a c t i s i n g C a t h o l i c . I mean, you have r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s i x y e a r s and i t ' s p r e t t y h a r d to pass 102 i t o f f . To s p l i t and be an I n d i a n on the r e s e r v e and a w h i t e p e r s o n when y o u ' r e o f f , t h a t might have been h a r d f o r a p e r s o n at one t i m e . But now i t ' s j u s t a m a t t e r of h a b i t . You know what's e x p e c t e d of you when y o u ' r e w a l k i n g around town and you r command of the l a n g u a g e has become q u i t e s t r o n g . You can d r i v e a motor c a r as good as anybody e l s e . You become a r i c h e r p e r s o n . You become a r i c h e r p e r s o n by s t u d y i n g the l a n g u a g e , t o o , t h a t l a n g u a g e t h a t wasn't w r i t t e n at one t i m e . I was one o f t h e f i r s t ones to s t a r t w i t h the l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h . And t h i s r e s e a r c h s t r e n g t h e n s y o u r E n g l i s h , t o o , be c a u s e then you b e g i n to u n d e r s t a n d why t h i n g s a r e done s a y , i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . Why t h e y ' v e got to be. 103 CHAPTER FIVE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS AND RESULTS E a c h case s t u d y , i n o r d e r was a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a ; 1. P a t t e r n s of i r r e t r i e v a b l e c u l t u r a l l o s s and change a r e i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the e l d e r ' s l i f e h i s t o r y . 2. P a t t e r n s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning i n the e l d e r ' s l i f e a r e i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h key s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e . 3. E m o t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of the g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by u s i n g K u b l e r - R o s s ' (1969, 1975) STAGES: D e n i a l ; A n g e r ; B a r g a i n i n g ; D e p r e s s i o n ; A c c e p t a n c e ; Hope. * I n the a n a l y s i s f o l l o w i n g , the numbers b e s i d e each p a t t e r n i n d i c a t e f i r s t the PAGE, and t h e n the L I N E ( S ) on w h i c h v e r i f i c a t i o n of the p a t t e r n may be found i n each case s t u d y . 4. F o l l o w i n g the a n a l y s i s of p a t t e r n s i n each case s t u d y , the p a t t e r n s a r e matched a c r o s s c a s e s . 5. P a t t e r n s t h a t do not match a c r o s s the t h r e e case s t u d i e s a r e t h e n i d e n t i f i e d . RESULTS a r e t h e n d i s c u s s e d . 104 ANALYSIS OF FIRST CASE STUDY "ANONYMOUS" Pages 36 - 55 1. PATTERNS OF IRRETRIEVABLE LOSS AND CHANGE a. C h i l d h o o d s c h o o l i n g of young c h i l d r e n now i n c l u d e d f o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n . "She n e v e r went to s c h o o l and she c o u l d n ' t r e a d and t h i s i s what she d i d n ' t want me to do. She wanted me to g e t t h i s e x t r a s c h o o l i n g . " 38:1 - 3 36:1,2,3 / 41:21 - 23 / 41:13 - 15 / 36:15 - 18 /37:1 - 17 b. B o t h the n a t u r a l and a d o p t e d f a m i l y of the e l d e r i n d i c a t e f a m i l y s t r e s s and p e r h a p s , c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c u l t u r a l change. "My s i s t e r r i g h t n e x t to me - when she was a t e e n a g e r she ended up g o i n g i n t o an i n s t i t u t i o n . " 41:24,25 "My Mother was k i n d . She ke p t a l o t of c h i l d r e n t h a t weren't h e r own." 4 0 : 1 9 - 2 1 41:4 - 7, 11 - 12 / 40:19 - 25 c. The c l o s e n u r t u r a n c e of h e r p a r e n t s was l o s t f o r t e n months of e a c h y e a r f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n y e a r s w h i l e a t t e n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . 105 "I t h i n k I was s i c k f o r a month when I was f i r s t i n the s c h o o l . I used to c r y m y s e l f to s l e e p . " 36:4,5 37:3,4, 15 - 18 / 37:1 - 4 d. T r a n s m i s s i o n of many c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s ended. "You s e e , our c u l t u r e says you must put y o u r d a u g h t e r t h r o u g h t h i s same d i s c i p l i n e and t h i s d a u g h t e r does the same to her d a u g h t e r . But now, i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . I d o n ' t t h i n k anybody e l s e does i t . " 39:13 - 16 55:1 - 5 / 55:6 - 10 / 42:17 - 28 / 46:1 - 10 / 47:3 - 13 52:24,25 & 53:1 - 8 e. L o s s of good h e a l t h to d i s e a s e . "...who had mothers i n the h o s p i t a l w i t h TB." 46: 9 44:24 / 46:8 - 10 f . L o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r the e d u c a t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e of the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . "One came down to V a n c o u v e r , but t h e y s e n t the o t h e r one to Edmonton. I d i d n ' t have a say i n t h i s . They j u s t p l a c e them and you j u s t have to a g r e e . " 44:23 - 25 36:15,16 & 37:1 - 4 / 4 5 : 1 - 1 2 g. R e c e i v e d a f o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n w h i c h p r o b a b l y was i n f e r i o r t o a E u r o - C a n a d i a n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . " . . . I f i n i s h e d my g r a d e e i g h t when I was 14. And I c o u l d n ' t l e a v e s c h o o l ; I had to keep g o i n g back." 36:16,17 & 37:1 - 4 106 37:5 - 15 h. I n c l u s i o n of w h i t e c u l t u r e i n t o N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . "But now, we smoke f i s h the way we l i k e i t and t h e n we s l a p i t i n the deep f r e e z e and t h a t ' s i t . And we don't have to worry about i t g o i n g bad." 53:6 - 8 4 8 : a l l / 4 9 : a l l / 5 0 : a l l / 5 1 : a l l / 5 2 : a l l / 53:9 - 11 4 0 : 1.6 - 18 / 4 2 : 2 0 -2 2 / 44:4 - 15 / 47:7 - 23 / 48:12 - 22 49:13 - 20 2. KEY ELEMENTS WHICH ENABLED RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING a . The c o n s t a n t s t r o n g s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e of h e r M o t h e r as w e l l as o t h e r s of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . " I u s e d to be w i t h my Mother a l l the t i m e . I t o l d my Dad about i t and he s a i d , " W e l l , we're h i t t i n g the modern ti m e s you know. J u s t don't l e t them f o r g e t our c u l t u r e . " 48:20 - 23 36:8 - 11 / 38:6 - 10 / 39:17 - 25 & 40:1 / 43:13 - 16 N b. A w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d , s t r u c t u r e d e n v i r o n m e n t which was c o m p a t i b l y N a t i v e I n d i a n and w h i t e . "So what I l e a r n e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l went t o g e t h e r w i t h what I l e a r n e d at home." 37:16,17 36:1 - 3 / 38:1 - 3 / 38:12 - 17 / 38:18 - 25 & 39:1 - 11 39:17 - 20 / 42:10 - 23 & 43:1 - 8 / 44:7 - 9 / 49:8 - 10 5 3 : 9 - 1 1 / 53:23 & 54:1 - 8 107 c. A v a l u e d knowledge of h e r N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . "So whenever I came home she k e p t t h i s w i t h me - my own c u l t u r e and she t o l d me what I l e a r n e d . " 38:3 - 5 38:6 - 25 / 3 9 : a l l / 40:1 - 17 / 53:12 - 15 / 54:5 - 8 d. A s e n s e of h e r s e l f as p r i m a r i l y a N a t i v e I n d i a n p e r s o n who i s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g b o t h t h e w h i t e c u l t u r e and the modern w o r l d . "So when I came down to V a n c o u v e r and then to S e a t t l e , i t was a b i g e x p e r i e n c e f o r me. We s t o p p e d i n a l l t h e s e p l a c e s , e v e r y t h i n g was new f o r me and e x c i t i n g . " 50:2 - 5 44:4 - 15 / 46:18 - 25 & 47:1 - 13 / 47:22 - 25 & 48:1 - 12 48:24 & 49:1 - 14 / 50:7 - 22 / 51:24 - end & 52:1 - 23 53:9 - end & 54:1 - 10 e. A p r i d e i n her r o l e i n l i f e . "I g u e s s when the k i d s s t a r t e d g r o w i n g up I was d e t e r m i n e d to make them i n t o r e s p e c t a b l e young men and women." 47:22 - 24 43 : 9 - 12 / 4 3 : 1 6 - e n d & 44:1 - 15 / 4 4 : 2 2 , 2 3 / 4 5 : 1 6 - 22 46:2 - 14 / 47:14 - 25 & 48:1 - 4 f . C o n t i n u i t y of many c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e t i m e and w i t h the next g e n e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the l a n g u a g e . "But I s t i l l s t i c k to a l o t of our own t r a d i t i o n s and I s t i l l pass them on to my g r a n d c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y my g r a n d c h i l d r e n who a r e h a v i n g t h e i r own l i t t l e o n e s . T h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t to me." 53:12 -108 15 53:15 - end & 54:1 - 8 / 46:18 - end & 47:1 - 13 / 53:5 - 8 / 41 :20, 21 / 40: 16 g. A w i l l i n g n e s s to s u r v i v e and a d a p t . "And the f i r s t week home I r e a l l y m i s s e d town, e s p e c i a l l y j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e . . . i t was so q u i e t . T h i s i s what I m i s s e d , but I g o t used to i t . I t d i d n ' t b o t h e r me a f t e r a w h i l e . " 52:5 - 9 4 1 : a l l & 42:1 / 42:20 - 22 / 43:13 - 18 / 45:13 - 22 47:3 - 13 / 47:22 / 48:11,12 / 48:24 & 49:1 -5, 6 - 1 8 50:8 - 17 & 50:18 - 22 / 51:15 - 25 & 5 2 : a l l 3. STAGES OF THE GRIEF/REFORMULATION PROCESS. T h r e e s t a g e s p r e v a i l i n t h i s case s t u d y and o c c u r i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r : DEPRESSION - L o n e l i n e s s , poor h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p. 161) D e p r e s s i o n o c c u r s m i n i m a l l y i n t h i s case s t u d y . "To b e g i n w i t h , when I was j u s t a l i t t l e wee g i r l of s e v e n my p a r e n t s s e n t me away to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . . . I t was ha to be s e n t away. I t h i n k I was s i c k f o r a month...I used to c r y m y s e l f to s l e e p . . . I m i s s e d our own f o o d . " 36:1 -6 " I was t o l d who I was g o i n g t o m a r r y - i t f e l t s t r a n g e ! I wept 42: 9, 10 109 "I was about 23 when my Mother d i e d of c a n c e r . . . I t was t h e n I r e a l i z e d t h a t I was r e a l l y on my own. I m i s s e d her v e r y much." 43:13 - 15 ACCEPTANCE - Awareness of the r e a l i t y of the p r e s e n t , a s s e s s m e n t of s e l f i n the p r e s e n t ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975 , p . 1 6 1 ) . The major s t a g e i n t h i s case s t u d y i s a c c e p t a n c e ; * of r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l - "I was a good s t u d e n t and I p a s s e d and I f i n i s h e d my g r ade e i g h t ...And I c o u l d n ' t l e a v e s c h o o l ; I had t o keep g o i n g back." 36:16,17 & 37:1 * of s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t a i n i n g to s e p a r a t i o n f r o m males - " I t was s t r i c t . I n e v e r saw any boys or men...We n e v e r t a l k e d to any m a l e s " (37:8 - 10) and "I was n e v e r a l l o w e d t o go n e a r my F a t h e r when he was... t a l k i n g b u s i n e s s . . . T h i s was one of the main r u l e s " (38:12 - 16) . * of two c u l t u r e s - "So when we were a t the c a n n e r i e s we were d o i n g the f i s h the I n d i a n way and whiteman's way." 40:16,17 * of the c o n t r o l of the whiteraan - " I f I d i d n ' t want them to go, t h e n t h e y would have t o l d me to f i n d a p l a c e f o r them m y s e l f . " 45:6 - 8 * of her l i f e s i t u a t i o n - "Oh, we had some bad t i m e s , but we got o v e r them." 47:22 * of modern w h i t e and t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e I n d i a n l i f e s t y l e s -" . . . t h e modern day t o d a y , i t j u s t f a l l s i n t o y o u r l i v i n g . " 110 48:7 ,8 BARGAINING - G r a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the r e a l c o n s e q u e n c e s ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p. 161) T h i s c a s e s t u d y ends i n the s t a g e of B a r g a i n i n g , w h i c h more o f t e n t h a n n o t , o c c u r s BEFORE the s t a g e of D e p r e s s i o n . T h i s e l d e r i s b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the r a p i d change she sees a b o u t to o c c u r i n her v i l l a g e b e cause a new r o a d and b r i d g e ( m o d e r n i z a t i o n ) have been b u i l t . She i s most c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the i n c r e a s e d r a p i d i t y of change; "We were a b l e to use w h i t e p e o p l e ' s ways because we were a b l e to r e m a i n p r e t t y i s o l a t e d . T h i n g s d i d n ' t change r e a l l y f a s t . . . I n our v i l l a g e , i t ' s g o i n g to happen f a s t . . . I t h i n k I t ' s g o i n g to change f a s t . . . W e ' r e g o i n g to g e t s t a r e d a t " ( 5 4 : 9 , 1 0 , 1 6 , 2 2 , 2 3 ) . However, she p l a n s to b a r g a i n w i t h the i n f l u x of w h i t e t o u r i s t s ; "My d a u g h t e r and I have been t a l k i n g about o p e n i n g a g i f t shop f o r a y e a r now" ( 5 4:24,25). B a r g a i n i n g a l s o o c c u r s i n two p r e v i o u s p o i n t s i n the case s t u d y . I t a p p e a r s to be a c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n of u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e and i t ' s f o r c e f u l e n c r o achment upon N a t i v e I n d i a n l i f e . T h i s Is p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the f i g h t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n t i t l e to l a n d T h i s l a n d t i t l e b a r g a i n i n g has c o n t i n u u e d f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s ; "My F a t h e r was i n v o l v e d i n what th e y c a l l e d 'The Land Q u e s t i o n ' . T h e r e were always c h i e f s i n pur I l l h o u s e " ( 3 8 : 1 1 , 1 2 ) . "My o l d e s t son i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h the Land Q u e s t i o n s t i l l . And my d a u g h t e r and her husband a r e , t o o . They t r a v e l around a l o t " (46:15 - 1 7 ) . 112 ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY TWO "MINNIE CROFT" Pages 56 - 80 1. PATTERNS OF IRRETRIEVABLE LOSS AND CHANGE a. T r a n s m i s s i o n o f the H a i d a c u l t u r e by f a m i l y members ended when c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . " I a l w a y s f e l t t h a t t h a t was wrong because your p e o p l e form who you a r e . . . B e f o r e t h e y took us o f f to s c h o o l , most N a t i v e I n d i a n s were g u i d e d so w e l l i n b e h a v i o u r and t r a d i t i o n s . " 56:2 - 5 59:22 - 25 / 60:23,24 / 62:3,4 / 66:14 / 73:11 - 14 74:3 - 5 b. N u r t u r a n c e from her H a i d a f a m i l y f o r the m a j o r i t y of seven y e a r s from the age of n i n e to s i x t e e n w h i l e i n s c h o o l . "I was about n i n e y e a r s o l d when I came down from S k i d e g a t e to l i v e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a t . . . C o q u a l e e t z a . . . M y mother c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d to b r i n g us a l l home i n the summer, so I went home e v e r y o t h e r summer." 57:13 - 19 5 7 : 2 0 - 23 / 5 8 : 8 , 9 / 60:7 - 13 / 6 0 : 2 1 - 23 / 6 1 : 1 8 - 20 62:10 - 12 / 63:14 - 17 / 73:6 - 8 c. I n d i c a t i o n s of i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y s t r e s s and perhaps c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c u l t u r e change. "Our f a t h e r d i e d so n e a r l y a l l of us were t a k e n to C o q u a l e e t z a . " 113 57:15,16 60:8 - 11 / 62:14 - 23 & 63:1,2 / 63:10 - 18 / 67:16 - 19 66:1 - 8 d. F o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of the H a i d a l a n g u a g e ended. "We were s t r a p p e d and p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y i n many c a s e s f o r s p e a k i n g our own l a n g u a g e . We were t r y i n g to hang onto our l a n g u a g e , not f o r g e t i t . " 56:8 - 10 60:25,26 & 61:1 - 17 / 66:9 - 14 / 73:4 - 9 e. F o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n became a p a r t of N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a i n i n g . "I was about n i n e y e a r s o l d when I came down from S k i d e g a t e t o l i v e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l at S a r d i s : C o q u a l e e t z a . I had about seven y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g t h e r e . " 57:13 - 15 5 6 : a l l / 5 7 : a l l / 5 8 : a l l / 5 9 : a l l / 6 0 : a l l / 6 1 : a l l 62:1 - 13 / 64:1 / 71:18,19 / 72:15 - 19 / 73:4 - 6 73 : 1 1 - 21 / 78: 1 ,2 f . P a r e n t a l l o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e of t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . "I f e e l t h a t t h e y n e v e r c o n s u l t e d the N a t i v e I n d i a n about what s h o u l d be t a u g h t to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The p a r e n t s had n o t h i n g to do w i t h the e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r own c h i l d r e n and I f e e l t h a t was wrong...Some of us were j u s t t a k e n away, our p a r e n t s weren't c o n s i d e r e d . " 56:19 & 57:1 - 12 / 114 56:1 - 10 / 5 9 : a l l / 6 0 : a l l / 6 1 : a l l / 62:1 - 12 73:15 - 17 g. The f o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n was i n f e r i o r to E u r o - C a n a d i a n ' s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . "We l e f t C o q u a l e e t z a at the end of g r ade n i n e because the government w o u l d n ' t l e t us go to the p r o v i n c i a l h i g h s c h o o l i n C h i l l i w a c k . A l o t of us were smart enough to get t h r o u g h and we c o u l d have gone on f u r t h e r , but t h e r e was no way we c o u l d f i n i s h o u r h i g h s c h o o l . " 59:9 - 13 57:20 - 23 / 5 8 : a l l / 59:1 - 8 / 59:16 - 20 / 72:23 - 25 73:18 - 25 h. L o s s of s e l f - r e s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s , i . e . w h i t e s " . . . t h e y had to s u p p r e s s e v e r y t h i n g about us; a l l I n d i a n , e v e r y t h i n g I n d i a n . Most of the N a t i v e I n d i a n s began to f e e l i t was bad to be I n d i a n . " 56:11 - 14 5 6 : 1 1 - 18 / 5 9 : 2 2 - 25 / 60:1 - 6 / 6 0 : 1 4 - 21 / 6 6 : 1 5 -26 & 67:1 - 19 / 69:22 - 24 & 7 0 : a l l & 7 1 : a l l / 72:2 - 6 7 3 : 1 1 - 14 / 74:17 - 22 / 77:12 - 22 / 78:17 - end & 79:1 -23 / 77:4 - 6 i . L o s s of r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s , i . e . w h i t e s "But we d i d n ' t l i k e the way some m i n i s t e r s would say one t h i n g a n d a c t a n o t h e r way y e t . We made f u n o f them. We a l w a y s u s e d to t h i n k t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t l i v e what they s a i d to us. We c o u l d n ' t 115 u n d e r s t a n d t h a t . " 65:18 - 21 5 7 : 1 - 3 / 58:1 - 7 / 58:8 - 12 / 6 0 : 1 8 - 20 / 6 1 : 2 1 - 25 62:1 - 4 / 65:8 - end / 68:12 - 17 / 73:15 - 22 74:13 - 16 / 77:12 - 17 j . L o s s of c o n t r o l of a d u l t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . "But I ' l l t e l l y o u where I f i n d i t so h a r d . I l i k e to be a b l e to go home when I f e e l l i k e i t and s t a y by m y s e l f . But I c a n ' t go home...there are r e s t r i c t i o n s by the w h i t e p e o p l e about t h i s and I t h i n k i t ' s r i d i c u l o u s . " 67:26 & 68:1 - 4 72:20 - 22 / 74:17 - 22 / 75:23 - 25 / 76:3 - 6 57:3 & 10 - 12 k. I n c l u s i o n of w h i t e c u l t u r e i n t o N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e , " . . . a l l the o l d t i m e r s , o l d g i r l s l i k e my age and h i s age t h a t have l i v e d on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s a l l t h e i r l i v e s came to the b i g f e a s t a f t e r h i s b u r i a l . These w h i t e p e o p l e a l l came a l o n g w i t h o u t an i n v i t a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y knew him." 6 7 : 6 - 9 66:15 - end / 68:1 - 17 / 69:1 - 18 / 7 0 : a l l / 7 1 : a l l 72:20 - 25 / 73:4 - 9 / 74:17 - 22 & 2 3 - 2 5 / 64:9 - end 6 3 : 1 9 - 2 6 / 65:12 - end 2. KEY ELEMENTS WHICH ENABLED RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING a. M i n n i e m a i n t a i n e d her p r i d e i n b e i n g H a i d a and h e r s e l f . " I was n e v e r ashamed of b e i n g a H a i d a , so t h a t I d o n ' t t h i n k I 116 believed i t . I've always been a proud person." 73:12 - 14 61:2 - I I 62:21 - 23 / 65:4 - 7 / 66:1,2 / 68:18 -24 70:12 - 24 & 71:3 - 12 / 72:8 - 14 / 75:12,13 / 80:6 - 9 b. The language i s relearned. "You forget i t i n school for l i t t l e while , but then when you come back, i f you want to remember i t and keep at i t , you can. Because once you've spoken i t you won't forget i t that e a s i l y . " 76:17 - 21 78:17 / 61:16,17 / 66:11,12 c. Some support and guidance from members of the older generation and her family. "I used to go home whenever I could to see my grandmother. She l i v e d to be 106...I always used to want to go and see my grandmother...I stayed with her alot and did l i t t l e things for her." 63:9 - 14 61:18 - 20 / 63:3,4 / 63:19 - 24 / 64:13 - 16 / 65:17,18 67:20-25 / 68:18 - 24 d. Sense of herself as primarily a Native Indian who has s u c c e s s f u l l y learned how to be a white person. "I've always made cer t a i n that no matter what company I keep, I'm an Indian!" 75:12,13 "If you're speaking to white people, you have to think t h e i r ways. And i f you're t a l k i n g among yourselves, you have to think 117 t h e i r ways, so that you l i v e two worlds! You've got to think two worlds too!" 76:22 - 25 76:9 - 16 / 76:22 - 25 / 7 7 : a l l / 79:24,25 & 80:1 - 6 62:5 - 10/63:3 - 1 1 64:7,8 / 64:9,10 & 16 - 23 / 72:4 - 6 74:23 - 25 & 75:2 - I I 58:23,24 / 59:2 - 4 / 75:9,10 75:12 - 16 e. A willingness to survive and adapt. "I do things the white way and then I do things the Indian way. I can switch. And at the same time too, when people i n s u l t you, you have to stop and think where they're from because that way you stop to think of t h e i r thinking. You act accordingly. I think that we've had to learn as Native people to f i t ourselves into any situation...1've had to adapt." 77:3 - 10 56:5 - I I 57:5,6 / 58:10 -12 / 59:16 - 20 / 61:21 - 25 62:5 - 9 /66:9 - 12 / 66:22 - 25 / 67:9 - 14 / 68:15 - 17 69:11 - 17 / 69:18 - 21 / 72:8 - 14 / 75:11 - 15 / 76:9 -16 / 76:22 - 25 & 77:1,2 / 77:11 - 14 / 79:24,25 & 80:1 -end 3. STAGES OF THE GRIEF/REFORMULATION PROCESS. Three stages of the reformulation process occur i n this case study; ANGER - regret, h o s t i l i t y towards others (Kubler-Ross, 1975, p. 161) A n g e r p r e d o m i n a t e s M i n n i e ' s l i f e h i s t o r y . She b e g i n s w i t h , "To b e g i n w i t h , I d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was r i t h a t t h e y s h o u l d t a k e us away from our I n d i a n homes" (56:1,2) and c o n t i n u e s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r to " I ' v e h a t e d I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r the t h i n g s t h e y have done to I n d i a n s " (74:13,14) and ends w i t h the p r e s e n t day, "Many at i m e I've t a l k e d to my w h i t e f r i e n d s about N a t i v e I n d i a n s and t o l d them 'we do a l o t of d i f f e r e n t t h i n k i n g than you p e o p l e ' . Or I ' l l say some a w f u l t h i n g s to them. Then I ' l l s a y , 'Oh, y o u ' l l have to exc u s e me b e c a u s e I g e t so a n g r y a b o u t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n '" (77 - 18) . DEPRESSION - l o n e l i n e s s , poor h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p. 161) D e p r e s s i o n a p p e a r s m i n i m a l l y i n t h i s case s t u d y . M i n n i e m e n t i o n s b e i n g l o n e l y w h i l e w o r k i n g i n the c i t y as a young woman; "I used to go home a l o t because I was lonesome when I f i r s t came to the c i t y " (63:8,9) and not b e i n g happy when she r e t u r n e d to S k i d e g a t e a f t e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l ; "I d i d n ' t f i t i n at home when I went home...I wasn't happy to s t a y t h e r e and do n o t h i n g " (62:17 - 2 0 ) . M i n n i e a l s o b r i e f l y r e f e r s to the a r t h r i t i s i n her hands "...he h u r t my hand. He h u r t my a r t h r i t i s . . . I had to have my own r i n g s c u t o f f my f i n g e r s " ( 7 8 : 1 2 , 1 3 ) . 119 At the end of the i n t e r v i e w , M i n n i e makes b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o her b e h a v i o u r w i t h w h i t e p e o p l e on the bus; "...I'm k i n d of a r e s e r v e d p e r s o n and I l i k e b e i n g by m y s e l f . So even i f t h e y ' r e f r i e n d l y , I d o n ' t e n c o u r a g e i t i n t h a t a r e a " (78:6 - 8 ) . ACCEPTANCE - awareness of the r e a l i t y of the p r e s e n t , a s s e s s m e n t o f s e l f i n the p r e s e n t ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p . 1 6 1 ) . A c c e p t a n c e i s i n t e r w o v e n w i t h anger i n t h i s case s t u d y . M i n n i e a p p e a r s to a c c e p t the w h i t e c u l t u r e i n o r d e r to s u r v i v e , but i s an g r y about the r e l a t i o n s h i p the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e has w i t h her H a i d a c u l t u r e . "I t h i n k t h i s makes me a r i c h e r p e r s o n because I u n d e r s t a n d b o t h w o r l d s . You t r y to u n d e r s t a n d why a w h i t e p e r s o n does t h i s to our I n d i a n s ; b e c a u s e he d o e s n ' t t h i n k l i k e us, he d o e s n ' t know the r e a s o n we're l i k e we a r e " (77:11 - 1 4 ) . She a c c e p t s t h a t "you have to t r y and work b o t h s i d e s of b o t h w o r l d s b e c a u s e you a r e an I n d i a n . T h a t i s the way you g e t a l o n g " ( 7 9 : 2 4 , 2 5 ) . The p r i c e f o r t h i s a c c e p t a n c e , however, i s a n g e r . "We don't mind i n t e g r a t i n g , but a s s i m i l a t i o n i s s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t " (74:25 & 7 5 : 1 ) . 120 ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY THREE "ARNOLD GUERIN" Pages 81 - 102 1. PATTERNS OF IRRETRIEVABLE LOSS AND CHANGE a. T r a n s m i s s i o n of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s e n d s . "So when you speak about the o l d c u l t u r e , t h e r e wasn't too much of i t t h a t I can r e a l l y speak about because t h e r e was much of i t t h a t was gone by the time I was a boy. I d i d n ' t see the day of the p o t l a t c h . " 89:15 - 18 89:18 - 25 / 90:14 - 22 / 90:23 - 25 & 91:1 - 20 86:6 - 16 / 86:22 - 24 & 87:1 - 5 / 88:24,25 & 89:1 - 14 b. F o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of the l a n g u a g e ends. "The N a t i v e c u l t u r e has a l m o s t been t o t a l l y l o s t a l o n g w i t h the l o s s of our l a n g u a g e . You s e e , the l a n g u a g e seems to be what h o l d s the N a t i v e c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r . . . I went to s c h o o l and we were no t a l l o w e d to speak I n d i a n . " 81:1 - 3 & 9 81:13 - 18 & 82:1 - 3 / 82:7 - 10 / 97:24,25 & 98:1 - 10 c. I n d i c a t i o n s of f a m i l y s t r e s s and p e r h a p s , c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c u l t u r a l change. " B u t I n e v e r saw my m o t h e r . I n 1921, my f i r s t v a c a t i o n , Dad t o o k 121 me a c r o s s to Lummi. T h a t was the l a s t t i m e I saw Mom. She was i n Musqueam and I was i n s c h o o l on Kuper I s l a n d . My mother p a s s e d away i n 1957." 82:27 & 83:1 - 3 82:15 - 24 / 8 3 : 4 - 7 / 9 9 : 9 - 1 4 d. I n c l u s i o n of w h i t e c u l t u r e i n t o I n d i a n l i f e s t y l e . "We c r o s s the C a n a d i a n - US b o r d e r ; we c a n ' t j u s t s i m p l y walk a c r o s s . We've got to r e p o r t . . . I d o n ' t l i k e to be s t o p p e d by somebody t h a t I s h o u l d be s t o p p i n g ! 101:10 - 14 82:6 - 8 / 83:5,6 /• 83:6 - 13 / 8 4 : a l l / 88:7 - 12 92:19 - 22 / 9 3 : a l l / 9 4 : a l l / 95:1 - 10 / 99:9 - 14 1 0 1 : a l l e. White e d u c a t i o n becomes a p a r t of N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a i n i n g . " I began s c h o o l i n J u l y , J u l y the 4 t h , 1920. T h e r e was a month's summer h o l i d a y from June u n t i l J u l y , and I s t a r t e d t h e n . " 82:25,26 81:9 - 19 / 82:10 - 13 / 83:9 - end / 8 4 : a l l / 8 5 : a l l 86:1 - 4 / 98:11 - 23 / 100:5 - 12 / 95:24,25 & 96:1 - 4 f . F o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n i s s u b s t a n d a r d to E u r o - C a n a d i a n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . " T h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e l i k e m y s e l f who d i d not g e t a p r o p e r 122 f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e of the r u l e s of t h e w h i t e man.- A t Kuper I s l a n d s c h o o l we were to l e a v e when we c o m p l e t e d the F i f t h R e a d e r . . . " 85:3 - 8 85:11 - end / 86:1 - 4 / 84:14 - 25 g. L o s s of p a r e n t a l n u r t u r i n g f o r the m a j o r i t y of s i x y e a r s w h i l e a t t e n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . "I went to the Kuper I s l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n the G u l f I s l a n d s from 1920 u n t i l 1926." 81:9 - 12 83:1 - 4 / 83:5 - 8 h. L o s s of good h e a l t h to d i s e a s e . "'We d i d n ' t b o t h e r to h a r d l y wrap them i n a b l a n k e t . We dug g r e a t b i g g r a v e s and threw them i n , t h e y were d y i n g o f f t h a t f a s t . * I t was because of the s m a l l p o x . " 87:11 - 13 87:6 - 18 / 87:19 - 25 & 88:1 - 6 / 83:14 - end / 84:1 - 4 2. KEY ELEMENTS WHICH ENABLED RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING i a. Musqueam l a n g u a g e i s l e a r n e d . " I had to l e a r n t o speak I n d i a n . . . T h a t ' s where I l e a r n e d to speak my I n d i a n l a n g u a g e ; o u t i n t h e f i e l d s , out i n t h e woods." 81:8, 16,17 81:6 - 8 / 81:13 - 18 / 82:1 - 5 / 9 6 : a l l / 9 7 : a l l 9 8 : a l l / 99:1 - 7 b. The Musqueam c u l t u r e and l a n g u a g e i s v a l u e d . "You become a r i c h e r p e r s o n by s t u d y i n g the l a n g u a g e , t o o , t h a t 123 l a n g u a g e t h a t wasn't w r i t t e n ats one t i m e . I was one o f t h e f i r s t ones to s t a r t w i t h the l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h . " 102:7 - 10 81:1 - 8 / 90:14 - end / 91:1 - 20 / 92:5 - 18 / 102:7 -10 / 9 6 : a l l / 9 7 : a l l / 99:1 - 7 / 100:9 - 12 / 100:13 -21 c. G u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t g i v e n by p a r e n t s and f a m i l y members. "'Remember, y o u ' r e g o i n g to get a l o n g b e t t e r when you remember y o u ' r e I n d i a n . Take the good from the whiteman, take the good f r o m the I n d i a n ' , he used to say to me." 99:2 - 5 99:5 - 7 / 82:6 - 9 / 91:23,24 & 92:1 / 92:14 - end & 93:1 d. Sense of h i m s e l f as a N a t i v e I n d i a n p e r s o n who can f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n b o t h w h i t e and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . "You're not l i k e the E u r o p e a n t h a t came out here and l e f t h i s c o u n t r y . You a r e a p e o p l e t h a t were s e g r e g a t e d from the r e s t of s o c i e t y r i g h t i n y o u r own l a n d . So t h e n , as soon as you came w i t h i n . . . t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s , you had to become an I n d i a n . When you walk out of t h o s e b o u n d a r i e s , you become a w h i t e man. You've got to a c t l i k e one, speak l i k e one." 99:17 - 23 1 0 1 : 9 - 1 3 / 102:2 - end e. W i l l i n g n e s s to adapt and s u r v i v e . "I seemed to have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how one p e o p l e l i v e d and 124 the o t h e r p e o p l e l i v e d , you know. T h a t i s the w h i t e v e r s u s the I n d i a n . So then I c o u l d j o k e about my own I n d i a n n e s s , w h a t e v e r way you want, w i t h anyone." 95:14 - 17 95:17 - 23 / 94:22 - 25 & 95:1 - 10 / 9 3 : a l l / 94:1 - 9 96:12 - 19 / 98:11 - 23 / 99:15 -end & 100:1 - 4 / 102:2 -end 3. PATTERNS OF THE GRIEF/REFORMULATION PROCESS T h i s c a s e s t u d y has t h r e e s t a g e s of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s ; ANGER - r e g r e t , h o s t i l i t y towards o t h e r s ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p.161) A r n o l d e x p r e s s e s b r i e f but deep, e m p h a t i c anger; " I d i d n ' t l e a r n to speak F r e n c h . As a m a t t e r of f a c t , I k i n d of h a t e d the F r e n c h . And I s t i l l do b e c a u s e of t h o s e s i x y e a r s you know, s i x y e a r s of h a v i n g to l i v e w i t h F r e n c h nuns and p r i e s t s . I t ' s a h e c k of a t h i n g to s a y , but t h a t ' s , you know, the f e e l i n g I have. I t s t a y s w i t h you a l l t h o s e y e a r s . A l i t t l e b i t a n g r y . Oh, you d o n ' t show i t to anybody, but t h e r e i s the f e e l i n g i n s i d e , and i t ' s always t h e r e a f t e r a l l t h o s e y e a r s . But I g e t a l o n g w i t h e v e r y b o d y e l s e ! " (101:15 - 2 2 ) . No o t h e r anger or h o s t i l i t y i s a p p a r e n t but t h i s anger has been m a i n t a i n e d s i n c e the age of s i x t e e n . DEPRESSION - l o n e l i n e s s , poor h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s 125 ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p. 161) One of the p r i m a r y d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s case s t u d y i s t h a t of d i s e a s e . A r n o l d d e s c r i b e s the many d i s e a s e s of N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e and h i s own poor h e a l t h as a boy; he c o n t r a c t s S p a n i s h i n f l u e n z a and " w i t h i n an hour or so, t h e y had me i n bed" ( 8 3 : 1 8 ) , has a b r u s h w i t h s m a l l p o x but drank a s p e c i a l b r o t h and " l i t t l e s o r e s b r o k e open and t h a t ' s a l l I g o t of the pox" ( 8 7 : 1 7 , 1 8 ) . He e s c a p e s c o n t r a c t i n g t u b e r c u l o s i s , but many of h i s s c h o o l m a t e s d i e d and as an a d u l t "many of the p e o p l e t h a t I worked w i t h had been i n t h a t p l a c e (TB h o s p i t a l ) a l o n g time and i t was i n t h o s e y e a r s t h a t t h e y f o u n d the m e d i c i n e f o r c u r i n g them" (87:25 & 8 8 : 1 , 2 ) . A l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n i s r e f e r r e d to as "one of the g r e a t c u r s e s of our p e o p l e . . . T h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e t h a t don't d r i n k , and t h e r e ' s a l o t of good p e o p l e t h a t d r i n k , you know" ( 9 9 : 9 , 1 3 , 1 4 ) . ACCEPTANCE - awareness of the r e a l i t y of the p r e s e n t , a s s e s s m e n t of s e l f i n the p r e s e n t ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975, p. 161) A r n o l d has r e a c h e d a p o i n t of a c c e p t a n c e t h a t the two c u l t u r e s l i v e i n the same l a n d and t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e has l e d to the i r r e t r i e v a b l e l o s s and change of h i s c u l t u r e . i 126 A r n o l d has come to an a c c e p t a n c e of the m e l d i n g of the two c u l t u r e s i n h i s l i f e . He does so i n a m a t t e r of f a c t manner as he d e s c r i b e s the whiteman's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " b e i n g f o r c e f u l h i s ways of t a k i n g o v e r e v e r y t h i n g and c l a i m i n g i t unto h i m s e l f ( 8 7 : 1 , 2 ) . He a c c e p t s the w h i t e c u l t u r e f o r what i t i s and what i t means f o r h i s l i f e ; " . . . t o s p l i t and be an I n d i a n on the r e s e r v e and a w h i t e p e r s o n when y o u ' r e o f f . . . " ( 1 0 2 : 2 , 3 ) . 127 CROSS - CASE PATTERN MATCHING A. PATTERNS OF IRRETRIEVABLE LOSS AND CHANGE SPECIFIC FORMS: OCCURS IN CASE: 1. White f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p a r t of s c h o o l i n g 2. F a m i l y s t r e s s and c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s . 3. L o s s of p a r e n t a l n u r t u r a n c e w h i l e a t t e n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l 4. T r a n s m i s s i o n of many c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s ended 5. L o s s of good h e a l t h to d i s e a s e 6. L o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r the e d u c a t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e of the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n 7. R e c e i v e d an i n f e r i o r w h i t e e d u c a t i o n 8. F o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of l a n g u a g e ended 9. L o s s of s e l f - r e s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h o t h e r s i . e . w h i t e s 10. L o s s of r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s i . e . w h i t e s 11. L o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r a d u l t d e c i s i o n -m aking 12. I n c l u s i o n of w h i t e c u l t u r e i n N a t i v e I n d i a n l i f e s t y l e 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 128 PATTERNS OF RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING KEY CHARACTERISTICS: OCCURS IN CASE: 1. S u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e from p a r e n t s and f a m i l y 2. W e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d s t r u c t u r e d e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h combined b o t h c u l t u r e s 3. V a l u e d knowledge of own t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e 4. Sense of b e i n g p r i m a r i l y I n d i a n and s u c c e s s f u l at o p e r a t i n g i n b o t h c u l t u r e s 5. P r i d e i n o n e s e l f i n l i f e r o l e 6. C o n t i n u i t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s 7. W i l l i n g n e s s to s u r v i v e and adapt 1 8. Language m a i n t a i n e d 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 STAGES OF REFORMULATION EMOTIONAL ASPECTS: LOSS OCCURS DENIAL ANGER BARGAINING DEPRESSION ACCEPTANCE HOPE OCCURS IN CASE 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 130 PATTERNS THAT DO NOT MATCH 1. LOSS T h r e e p a t t e r n s do not match w i t h the o t h e r s ; a. l o s s of s e l f - r e s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s i . e . w h i t e (2) b. l o s s of r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s i . e . w h i t e (2) c. l o s s of c o n t r o l over a d u l t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (2) 2. RECOVERY Two p a t t e r n s do not match w i t h the o t h e r s ; a. w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d s t r u c t u r e d e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h combined b o t h c u l t u r e s (1 ) b. c o n t i n u i t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s (1) 3. STAGES OF REFORMULATION One s t a g e d i d not match any o t h e r ; B a r g a i n i n g . (1) 131 RESULTS PATTERNS OF LOSS S p e c i f i c Forms: 1. The f i r s t and t h i r d e l d e r s r e l a t e d the same number of l o s s e s - e i g h t - w h i l e the s e c o n d e l d e r , M i n n i e , was aware of e l e v e n l o s s e s i n her l i f e t i m e . M i n n i e has l i v e d the m a j o r i t y of her l i f e i n a w h i t e e n v i r o n m e n t t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g her c u l t u r a l l o s s . A r n o l d s t a t e s t h a t many l o s s e s i n h i s c u l t u r e o c c u r r e d b e f o r e h i s l i f e t i m e , l i m i t i n g t h e n the number he r e c a l l s . The f i r s t e l d e r l i v e s i n an i s o l a t e d a r e a of the p r o v i n c e and her N a t i v e c u l t u r e i s h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and has c o n t r o l l e d E u r o - C a n a d i a n c o n t a c t . T h i s dynamic would l i m i t her l o s s e s . 2. M i n n i e , Case S t u d y Two has e x p e r i e n c e d the most l o s s e s . She e x p r e s s e s p r i d e f o r her c u l t u r e , H a i d a (81:26 & 82:1) and the l o s s e s appear r e l a t e d to her p r i d e : l o s s of s e l f - r e s p e c t , l o s s of r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s and l o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r a d u l t d e c i s i o n -m a king. T h i s may a l s o r e l a t e to h e r main s t a g e of Anger ( 1 1 8 ) . 132 3. T h e r e a r e S i x P r i m a r y Forms of L o s s and Change; y A. N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e now i n c l u d e s e l e m e n t s of the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . B. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d an i n f e r i o r f o r m a l w h i t e e d u c a t i o n i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . C. Many N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g l a n g u a g e f o r a t i m e , were l o s t . D. L o s s of p a r e n t a l n u r t u r a n c e d u r i n g the g r o w i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l y e a r s of c h i l d h o o d . E. I n c r e a s e d f a m i l y s t r e s s and p e r h a p s , c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s . F. White f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n became a p a r t of N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a i n i n g . Of l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e i n the forms of l o s s and change; 1. L o s s of h e a l t h to d i s e a s e . 2. L o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r the e d u c a t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e of t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . 3. F o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of the l a n g u a g e ended. 133 PATTERNS OF RECOVERY Key C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. There are eight c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recovery and Case Study One has experienced a l l eight. The second and t h i r d elders, Minnie and Arnold have experienced f i v e of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. The two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that do no match any other - a well d i s c i p l i n e d structured environment which incorporates both cu l t u r e s , and a continuity i n Native Indian t r a d i t i o n s - are both experienced by the f i r s t elder. She l i v e s i n a more controlled t r a d i t i o n a l environment than the other two elders. 3. The Primary C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Recovery are; A. Support and guidance of parents and family B. Sense of being primarily Native Indian and successful at operating i n both Euro-Canadian and Native Indian cultures C. Pride i n oneself i n l i f e role 134 D. A w i l l i n g n e s s to s u r v i v e and adapt E. The N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e i s m a i n t a i n e d Of l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e i s ; 1. V a l u e d knowledge of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e STAGES OF REFORMULATION E m o t i o n a l A s p e c t s : 1. A l l t h r e e e l d e r s e x p e r i e n c e the e m o t i o n s of L o s s , D e p r e s s i o n and A c c e p t a n c e . 2. A l l t h r e e e l d e r s have r e a c h e d the s t a g e of A c c e p t a n c e . 3. The f i r s t e l d e r i s now a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g B a r g a i n i n g due to c u r r e n t m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n her v a l l e y . 4. The se c o n d and t h i r d e l d e r s have e x p e r i e n c e d AND ARE STILL EXPERIENCING ANGER. M i n n i e e x p r e s s e s h e r a n g e r , a l t h o u g h she s a y s she i s u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d . A r n o l d b r i e f l y s t a t e s h i s h a t r e d f o r t h e F r e n c h , s a y s he i s 'a l i t t l e b i t a n g r y ' and does n o t show i t . (103:6 - 13) 135 5. The f i r s t e l d e r does not e x p e r i e n c e A n g e r , but r a t h e r i s i n v o l v e d i n B a r g a i n i n g . P e r h a p s by b e i n g i n a m u l t i - g e n e r a t i o n a l B a r g a i n i n g s t a g e (112 & 113) the Anger s t a g e was s h o r t e n e d or n o t been e x p e r i e n c e d . 6. None of the e l d e r s have e n t e r e d the s t a g e of Hope and a r e l o o k i n g to f u t u r e e v e n t s or p l a n n i n g f o r - f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . A r n o l d seems to be a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s s t a g e as he works w i t h I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g the Musqueam l a n g u a g e . He a l s o has o b s e r v e d them i n the c o r r i d o r s d e f e n d i n g t h e i r I n d i a n n e s s . 136 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY A. DISCUSSION I . T h i s s t u d y has i d e n t i f i e d s i x p r i m a r y forms of l o s s and change i n the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B.C. and f i v e p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning by N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p r i m a r y forms and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was made by e x t r a c t i n g key, r e p e a t e d e l e m e n t s f r o m the l i f e h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w s of t h r e e N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s . T h e s e p r i m a r y forms of l o s s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y were t h e n r e l a t e d to M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change. T h i s t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r an i r r e t r i e v a b l e c u l t u r e l o s s or change, a bereavement p r o c e s s i s i n v o k e d t h a t M a r r i s r e f e r s to as a ' r e f o r m u l a t i o n ' o f meaning. SIX PRIMARY FORMS OF LOSS AND CHANGE IN NATIVE INDIAN CULTURES The f o l l o w i n g forms of c u l t u r e l o s s and change were e x t r a c t e d f r o m the i n t e r v i e w s of a l l t h r e e e l d e r s ; 1. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s l o s t the 137 g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t of t h e i r p a r e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l y e a r s of c h i l d h o o d . G u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t f r o m the r e s i d e n t i a l t e a c h i n g s t a f f s d i d not r e p l a c e t h a t of the p a r e n t s . 2. F o r m a l E u r o - C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n became a p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . 3. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d an i n f e r i o r f o r m a l E u r o - C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of time i . e . h a l f days i n the c l a s s r o o m , and g r a d u a t i o n when an e l e m e n t a r y grade l e v e l of f i v e or e i g h t was a t t a i n e d . I t i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t many of t h e p a r o c h i a l t e a c h e r s were p o o r l y t r a i n e d . 4. Many p a r t s of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e were l o s t , i n c l u d i n g the l a n g u a g e , the r o l e of p a r e n t s , r e l i g i o n , p o t l a t c h i n g , n e t m a k i n g , and b a s k e t m a k i n g . 5. T h e r e was i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y s t r e s s and c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s a t home c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the e a r l y d e a t h of a p a r e n t , or the i n a b i l i t y of a p a r e n t to f u l f i l l t h e i r p a r e n t i n g r o l e . T h i s c o u l d d e c r e a s e the s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e r e c e i v e d by the c h i l d as w e l l as d e c r e a s i n g the d e g r e e of N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n . I t c o u l d a l s o i n c r e a s e the deg r e e of s t r e s s the c h i l d e x p e r i e n c e d ; s t r e s s a l r e a d y i n c r e a s e d by a t t e n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . 138 6. N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s now i n c l u d e e l e m e n t s of the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e - smoked f i s h i s f r o z e n i n the deep f r e e z e , c a r s a r e used f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , E u r o - C a n a d i a n f o o d i s p a r t of t h e d i e t , E n g l i s h i s spoken and w r i t t e n , and c h i l d r e n a r e e d u c a t e d i n E u r o - C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . S e c o n d a r y forms of l o s s and change i n the c u l t u r e s emerged from two of the t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e l d e r s . They a r e ; SECONDARY MEANS OF LOSS AND CHANGE IN NATIVE INDIAN CULTURES: 1. L o s s of good h e a l t h to d i s e a s e . 2. L o s s of c o n t r o l o v e r the e d u c a t i o n and g u i d a n c e of the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . 3. F o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of the N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e from the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n to the c h i l d r e n ended. FIVE PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS OF RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning were e x t r a c t e d from the l i f e h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w s of a l l t h r e e e l d e r s ; 1. The s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e of p a r e n t s and e x t e n d e d f a m i l y 139 was p r o v i d e d whenever p o s s i b l e . 2. T h e r e i s a sense of b e i n g p r i m a r i l y N a t i v e I n d i a n and s u c c e s s f u l at o p e r a t i n g i n b o t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . 3. Encouragement was r e c e i v e d from the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n to s u r v i v e and adapt - t o ta k e the b e s t from two c u l t u r e s . 4. The N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e was m a i n t a i n e d or r e l e a r n e d . 5. T h e r e was a p r i d e i n o n e s e l f i n t h e i r r o l e i n l i f e . One s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e c o v e r y emerged i n two out of t h r e e of the e l d e r s ' l i v e s . I t i s ; A SECONDARY CHARACTERISTIC OF RECOVERY OF PERSONAL MEANING: I. A v a l u e d knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . I I . The s t u d y a p p e a r s to s u p p o r t M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change (1975) and show t h a t i t i s a p p l i c a b l e to the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B.C.. M a r r i s s t a t e s t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t t h e c a s e s t u d i e s and the above f i n d i n g s . 140 1. R e f o r m u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d by a l o s s w h i c h c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t . No one knows what the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l p r o d u c e . E a c h of the t h r e e e l d e r s l o s t m e a n i n g f u l p a r t s of t h e i r N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e , s i x forms of w h i c h t h e y a l l s h a r e d as i d e n t i f i e d i n the case s t u d i e s . The c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t e d by t h e s e c u l t u r a l l o s s e s was e x p r e s s e d as a s e t of c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s i n each e l d e r ' s l i f e . I n the Anonymous case s t u d y , the e l d e r e x p e r i e n c e s her N a t i v e c u l t u r e as b e i n g i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the 'modern w o r l d t o d a y ' . Her c h i l d r e n a r e s e n t f a r away from home to c o n t i n u e t h e i r s c h o o l i n g i n the w h i t e w o r l d and she has no say about where t h e y w i l l be s e n t . She t r i e s to h o l d on to her t r a d i t i o n a l ways i . e . womanhood r i t u a l i n s p i t e of c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s w i t h the v i l l a g e s c h o o l . And she comes to a c c e p t t h a t her own young c h i l d r e n must spend tim e on t h e i r own, away from h e r , c o n t r a r y to h e r own t r a d i t i o n a l u p b r i n g i n g . " I n my day I n e v e r n e v e r went anywhere w i t h o u t my M o ther...what's my Mother g o i n g to t h i n k i f she knew I was s e n d i n g the k i d s out on t h e i r own, w i t h o u t me b e i n g a r o u n d ? " (pages 40 & 5 0 ) . She f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s the s t r e s s of l o s s e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y : she must l i v e w i t h her ' l e g a l ' p a r e n t s i n the summers when she i s a t e e n - a g e r and she i s v e r y a f r a i d ; h e r n a t u r a l o l d e r s i s t e r i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ; h e r a d o p t i v e M o t h e r and l e g a l mother have c o n f l i c t i n g o u t l o o k s on s c h o o l i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; 1 141 and h e r a d o p t i v e p a r e n t s d i e when she i s a young woman. M i n n i e ' s s e t of c o n f l i c t s ( s e c o n d case s t u d y ) e v o l v e s from h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m . Because of the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l y e a r s , she l o s e s c o n t i n u o u s s u p p o r t i v e p a r e n t i n g from her mother and grandmother f o r sev e n of h e r c h i l d h o o d y e a r s w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g h a r s h d i s c i p l i n e and d e g r a d i n g b e h a v i o r from the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l . She l o s e s c o n t a c t w i t h her H a i d a c u l t u r e , f o r g e t s h e r l a n g u a g e , and does n o t g a i n a d e q u a t e s k i l l s to f u n c t i o n as f u l l y i n the E u r o - C a n a d i a n w o r l d as she would l i k e . Her c o n f l i c t w i t h her I n d i a n n e s s i n the w h i t e w o r l d i s i n t e n s i f i e d when she l i v e s i n the c i t y and e x p e r i e n c e s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and d e g r a d i n g b e h a v i o u r b e c a u s e she i s H a i d a . T h i s c o n f l i c t c o n t i n u e s i n t o h e r c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e w i t h a n o n - I n d i a n ; "He was a f t e r me to go out w i t h him f o r a l o n g time and I w o u l d n ' t . I was s t i l l an I n d i a n . . . a n d I d i d n ' t want to go out w i t h him" (page 7 4 ) . M i n n i e e x p r e s s e s h e r c o n f l i c t b e s t when she s t a t e s "Many atime I f e e l l i k e t e l l i n g w h i t e p e o p l e what i t ' s r e a l l y l i k e . I t ' s amazing" (page 7 9 ) . A r n o l d ' s c o n f l i c t ( t h i r d c ase s t u d y ) w i t h c u l t u r e l o s s i s e x p r e s s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h i s l a n g u a g e . H i s I n d i a n mother wants him to speak E n g l i s h w h i c h he does. He i s t a u g h t i n E n g l i s h at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l by p r i e s t s whose p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e i s F r e n c h . H i s h a l f - I n d i a n f a t h e r , however, wants him to l e a r n Musqueam. He does l e a r n to speak an I n d i a n l a n g u a g e , but not h i s own S a l i s h d i a l e c t i n i t i a l l y . He f i r s t 142 l e a r n s Cowichan r a t h e r t h a n Musqueam, and i n a c o n f l i c t u a l s i t u a t i o n - a t the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l where the N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s a r e f o r b i d d e n . H i s s t e p m o t h e r l a u g h s at h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a t t e m p t s . He becomes an e x p e r t i n the Musqueam l a n g u a g e and t e a c h e s l i n g u i s t s from the U n i v e r s i t y - p r o f e s s o r s who r e p r e s e n t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , a h i e r a r c h y t h a t p r e v i o u s l y had d e n i e d him a c o m p l e t e E u r o - C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n . At one p o i n t , A r n o l d s a y s , "So I d i d my b e s t , t h a t ' s about a l l I c o u l d do under t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s " (page 8 4 ) . The r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s p r o d u c e s b i - c u l t u r a l i s m i n the l i v e s of t h e s e t h r e e e l d e r s . E a c h e l d e r i n d i v i d u a l i z e s b o t h the g r i e f - l i k e p r o c e s s and i t s ' outcome w h i l e s h a r i n g s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o c e s s and outcome w i t h the o t h e r s . The f i r s t e l d e r has l i v e d a l i f e of b i - c u l t u r a l c o m p a t a b i l i t y ; " I t seems l i k e i t j u s t s o r t o f , the modern day t o d a y , i t j u s t f a l l s i n t o y o u r l i v i n g " (page 4 9 ) . The s e c o n d and t h i r d e l d e r s , however, d i s c u s s ' s p l i t t i n g ' and 'working b o t h s i d e s ' . M i n n i e d e s c r i b e s h e r b i - c u l t u r a l i s m as f o l l o w s ; " I f y o u ' r e s p e a k i n g to w h i t e p e o p l e , you have to t h i n k t h e i r ways. And i f y o u ' r e t a l k i n g among y o u r s e l v e s ( N a t i v e I n d i a n ) , you have to t h i n k t h e i r ways, so t h a t you l i v e two w o r l d s ! " (page 7 8 ) . A r n o l d s a y s , "You s p l i t - you have k i n d of a d u a l type of a c u l t u r e . You work bo t h s i d e s . Y o u ' r e not h a l f one or h a l f the o t h e r . You a r e h e r e or y o u ' r e o v e r h e r e " (page 1 0 1 ) . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n t h a t the b i - c u l t u r a l outcome of 143 s u c c e s s f u l r e f o r m u l a t i o n can be a c o n t i n u u m of p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; f r o m a low c o n f l i c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of c u l t u r a l c o m p a t a b i l i t y to a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o n f l i c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l s p l i t t i n g . 2. The r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s m e a n i n g f u l i n and of i t s e l f . E a c h e l d e r a p p e a r s to f e e l t h e y have l i v e d m e a n i n g f u l , f u l l l i v e s w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t . A l l t a l k a b o u t becoming " r i c h e r p e r s o n s " f o r h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h c u l t u r e s . E a c h e l d e r e x h i b i t s p r i d e i n t h e m s e l f i n t h e i r r o l e i n l i f e ( r e c o v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 5) and i n s u c c e s s f u l l y o p e r a t i n g i n b o t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s ( r e c o v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 2 ) . H a v i n g l i v e d a l i f e of p e r s o n a l / c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to M a r r i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , M i n n i e s a y s of h e r s e l f , " I t h i n k t h i s makes me a r i c h e r p e r s o n because I u n d e r s t a n d b o t h w o r l d s " (page 7 9 ) . 3. W h i l e the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d , r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d by c u l t u r e l o s s i s the o n l y m e a n i n g f u l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r b e h a v i o r . I n o r d e r to do t h i s , M a r r i s s t a t e s t h a t the l o s t a t t a c h m e n t must be found to s t i l l g i v e meaning to the p r e s e n t ( M a r r i s , 1975, p. 1 5 9 ) . The c o n f l i c t of c u l t u r e l o s s f o r Anonymous ( c a s e s t u d y one) 144 i s f i t t i n g the modern w o r l d w i t h her t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . She wants to h o l d onto the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s t h a t she has m a i n t a i n e d i n s p i t e of c u l t u r a l l o s s . She uses the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of c h i l d r a i s i n g and womanhood, a l t e r e d somewhat by the modern w o r l d to g i v e meaning to her l i f e i n the p r e s e n t . She sees h e r s e l f as a t r a d i t i o n a l g r andmother p a s s i n g on her N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s to her g r a n d c h i l d r e n and g r e a t -g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Her sense of meaning i n the p r e s e n t i s u s i n g what rem a i n s of h e r c u l t u r e to t e l l her g r a n d c h i l d r e n "...do i t t h i s way, d on't do t h i s . . . i f you don't c a r r y out our t r a d i t i o n , t h e y w i l l become l i t t l e b r a t s " ( p a g e 5 5 ) . By t a k i n g t h i s s t a n c e , she m a i n t a i n s her sense of b e i n g p r i m a r i l y I n d i a n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e modern w o r l d i n t o her l i f e and the l i v e s of her f a m i l y . M i n n i e ' s c o n f l i c t of c u l t u r a l l o s s c e n t e r s about her r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . She makes s e n s e of the e x p e r i e n c e by u s i n g the s k i l l s she g a i n e d at s c h o o l to l i v e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a E u r o - C a n a d i a n c i t y . At the same t i m e , she i s b i t t e r about the l o s s of H a i d a c u l t u r e and the t r e a t m e n t N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e r e c e i v e d f r o m E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . She s e e s h e r s e l f as h a v i n g one l e g i n one c u l t u r e and one l e g i n the o t h e r c u l t u r e , but a l w a y s b e i n g H a i d a i n w h a t e v e r s i t u a t i o n she f i n d s h e r s e l f . B e i n g H a i d a , she t e l l s w h i t e p e o p l e what she t h i n k s of t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of I n d i a n p e o p l e , t e a c h e s her w h i t e husband about N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e , and h e l p s h e r ' I n d i a n p e o p l e ' whenever she can. And a d j u n c t to t h i s r e s e a r c h , M i n n i e i s c o n d u c t i n g her own case s t u d y r e s e a r c h 145 o f f o r m e r s t u d e n t s at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be the b a s i s of a book i n the f u t u r e . A r n o l d ' s p r i m e c u l t u r a l l o s s ( c a s e s t u d y t h r e e ) was h i s l a n g u a g e . He s e t s out to l e a r n Musqueam and s u c c e e d s . He uses Musqueam to become known p r e s e n t l y as an e x p e r t , someone whom N a t i v e I n d i a n s and E u r o - C a n a d i a n s l o o k to f o r e d u c a t i o n and g u i d a n c e i n the l a n g u a g e . And he t a k e s the Musqueam l a n g u a g e i n t o the E u r o - C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s and t e a c h e s young Musqueam c h i l d r e n . He has found meaning and p u r p o s e by u s i n g h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e i n a modern, E u r o - C a n a d i a n s e t t i n g . "You become a r i c h e r p e r s o n by s t u d y i n g the l a n g u a g e , t o o , t h a t l a n g u a g e t h a t wasn't w r i t t e n at one t i m e . I was one of t h e f i r s t ones to s t a r t w i t h the l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h . And t h a t r e s e a r c h s t r e n g t h e n s y o u r E n g l i s h , t o o . . . " (pages 103-104). E a c h e l d e r , t h e n , has e x p e r i e n c e d c u l t u r e l o s s w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d as p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r l i v e s . E a c h has one p a r t i c u l a r c e n t r a l l o s s w h i c h g e n e r a t e s c o n f l i c t , and w h i c h t h e y t h e n use as the f o c u s f o r r e f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s r e f o r m u l a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by making sense of the c o n f l i c t - by u s i n g the l o s t c u l t u r a l a t t a c h m e n t , i n a new form, to g i v e meaning to t h e i r p r e s e n t l i f e . E a c h e l d e r has r e s o l v e d t h e i r p r i m a r y c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t and made i t , as M a r r i s (1975) s t a t e s , " . . . t h e o n l y m e a n i n g f u l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r b e h a v i o r " (page 1 5 9 ) . And a l l t h r e e e l d e r s s h a r e f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i r l i v e s w h i c h e n a b l e d them to use the l o s t a t t a c h m e n t and s u c c e s s f u l l y 146 r e f o r m u l a t e i t . To c r e a t e a more s p e c i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t s of the g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s K u b l e r - R o s s (1969, 1975) was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y f o r s p e c i f i c i t y where M a r r i s ' t h e o r y becomes vague. K u b l e r - R o s s i d e n t i f i e s s i x e m o t i o n a l s t a g e s t h a t o c c u r a f t e r ' a l o s s ; D e n i a l , A n g e r , B a r g a i n i n g , D e p r e s s i o n , A c c e p t a n c e and Hope. These g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the above p a t t e r n , but may c o - e x i s t and o v e r l a p ( i b i d , 1969, pages 234-236). A l l t h r e e e l d e r s i n t e r v i e w e d e x p e r i e n c e d the e m o t i o n s of d e p r e s s i o n and a c c e p t a n c e . Two of the t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d a n g e r . One e l d e r e x p e r i e n c e d b a r g a i n i n g . A n g e r , B a r g a i n i n g , D e p r e s s i o n and A c c e p t a n c e are the c e n t r a l s t a g e s of K u b l e r - R o s s ' r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . U s i n g t h i s frame of e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t s , none of the e l d e r s e x p e r i e n c e d the i n i t i a l e m o t i o n of D e n i a l , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e y were b o r n a f t e r d r a s t i c c u l t u r a l change and l o s s began. Nor d i d t h e y r e a c h t h e f i n a l e m o t i o n a l element of Hope i n K u b l e r - R o s s ' r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n f a c t , one e l d e r e x p r e s s e s f e a r of the f u t u r e . The i n c o m p l e t e n e s s of the e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t s of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i n the l i v e s of t h e s e e l d e r s f i t s w i t h M a r r i s ' t h e o r y when he i m p l i e s t h a t the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l l o s s may o c c u r o v e r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s and i s p e r h a p s n o t c o m p l e t e d i n the l i f e s p a n of one i n d i v i d u a l ( M a r r i s , 1975, 147 159 ) . I I I . The outcome of the above two p o i n t s i s a c o g n i t i v e framework u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l i v e s of N a t i v e I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . By u s i n g M a r r i s ' t h e o r e t i c a l framework, i t can be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p e o p l e of N a t i v e I n d i a n h e r i t a g e have had or a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a n o r m a l , u n i v e r s a l l y i n v o k e d p r o c e s s t h a t i s a n a l o g o u s w i t h the bereavement p r o c e s s . T h i s r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s : c r e a t e s a c o n f l i c t of p e r s o n a l meaning w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t must be r e s o l v e d b e f o r e any o t h e r m e a n i n g u l ways of l i f e can be u n d e r t a k e n ; c r e a t e s p e r s o n a l c o n f u s i o n about i d e n t i t y ; i n c r e a s e s s t r e s s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; c r e a t e s a need f o r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and r e c e i v e s u p p o r t ; i s an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s who have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same c u l t u r a l l o s s ; i s as v u l n e r a b l e to end i n a poor outcome as i s p e r s o n a l g r i e f . I t can a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d to be a normal and u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s t h a t e v e r y p e r s o n has or w i l l a t one time e x p e r i e n c e , a t l e a s t at the p e r s o n a l l e v e l . N a t i v e I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s however, and o t h e r s who e x p e r i e n c e c u l t u r e l o s s and change e x p e r i e n c e t h i s r e f o r m u l a t i o n at a p e r s o n a l and at a c u l t u r a l l e v e l . T h i s c o g n i t i v e framework a l s o c r e a t e s a g r e a t e r 148 p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the l i f e e x p e r i e n c e of N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e i n B.C. The e l d e r s i n t h i s s t u d y have s u r v i v e d some major p s y c h o l o g i c a l l o s s e s , l o s s e s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d to be t r a u m a t i c w i t h l o n g l a s t i n g e f f e c t s ; the e a r l y d e a t h of a p a r e n t ( f o r the f i r s t e l d e r i t was r e m o v a l from n a t u r a l p a r e n t s and a d o p t i o n ) , e a r l y s e p a r a t i o n from p a r e n t s and home, s e p a r a t i o n from p a r e n t s d u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t a l y e a r s of c h i l d h o o d , a b o a r d i n g s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s e p a r a t i o n of the s e x e s , i n e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s -r i g i d i t y , l a c k of e m o t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e s p e c t , and h i g h a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T hese t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r w o r l d v i e w , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e , t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e i r p a r e n t i n g s t y l e . These t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l a l s o be t r a n s m i t t e d to the next g e n e r a t i o n i n some form. The e l d e r s have s u r v i v e d t h e s e e a r l y t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s and s u r v i v e d the p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock of c u l t u r e l o s s and change i n a d d i t i o n . The h i g h d e g r e e of e m o t i o n a l and c o g n i t i v e s t r e n g t h t h a t t h e s e s u r v i v a l t a s k s demanded must be enormous. The e l d e r s ' f a m i l i e s were a l s o e x h i b i t i n g s i g n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s due to c u l t u r e change. Yet i n s p i t e of the d i s t r e s s , members of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n gave g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t to t h e s e e l d e r s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e n g t h of t h i s o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n must have been h i g h , as w e l l . 149 C u l t u r a l l y , t h e s e N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e have e x p e r i e n c e d the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i n a n e g a t i v e , c o n f l i c t u a l and sometimes d e g r a d i n g manner. I t i s the e n t r a n c e of t h i s f o r e i g n c u l t u r e i n t o t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r c u l t u r e w h i c h has f o r c e d the need f o r r e f o r m u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e y a r e f o r c e d to l i v e w i t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n s as the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i s o c c u r r i n g . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e n g t h and s t r e s s t h a t t h e s e t a s k s demand i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to E u r o - C a n a d i a n s i s v e r y h i g h . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y t h a t t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e s must have s i g n f i g a n c e i f t h e y can e n a b l e t h r e e p e o p l e to overcome and r e f o r m u l a t e t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r c u l t u r e s u c c e s s f u l l y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be seen as 1) m a i n t a i n i n g s e l f - e s t e e m 2) r e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e from s i g n i f i g a n t o t h e r s and 3) g a i n i n g meaning from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e i n the p r e s e n t time and c u l t u r e . B. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y i s an e x p l o r a t o r y , t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g s t u d y w h i c h i s l i m i t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways; I . T h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d i n i t s ' s c o p e of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y to the l a r g e r N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . W h i l e e l e m e n t s of the e l d e r s ' l i v e s i n t h i s s t u d y o v e r l a p , the e l d e r s i n t e r v i e w e d h e r e s h a r e some common f a c t o r s w h i c h e x c l u d e o t h e r N a t i v e I n d i a n 150 p e o p l e : t h e y a r e of the same g e n e r a t i o n , a l l a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , and th e y a r e from c o a s t a l N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y must be c a u t i o u s l y g e n e r a l l z a b l e t o : * N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n the younger g e n e r a t i o n s * the few N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s who d i d not a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l * o t h e r N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n B.C. o r i n Canada I I . The r e s e a r c h method used i . e . l i f e h i s t o r y I n t e r v i e w s a n a l y z e d i n the c a s e s t u d y method l i m i t s the f i n d i n g s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner; * the r e c o r d e d l i f e h i s t o r y was based upon a p e r s o n ' s n a t u r a l l y s e l e c t i v e r e c o l l e c t i o n of e v e n t s . E v e n t s f o r g o t t e n c o u l d not be r e t r i e v e d i n the l i f e h i s t o r y . * the e l d e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d once w i t h one f o l l o w - u p d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e d i t e d l i f e h i s t o r y . No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was e x t r a c t e d and added to the i n i t i a l l i f e h i s t o r y o v e r any l e n g t h y p e r i o d of t i m e , t h e r e b y , l i m i t i n g the s t u d y to the e v e n t s r e c a l l e d i n the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . * the l i f e h i s t o r i e s were used as the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of one i n d i v i d u a l as s h a r e d w i t h an o b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h e r . However, t h e c o m p l e t e o b j e c t i v i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r i s more open to q u e s t i o n i n case s t u d y method t h a n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l method. * the i n t e r v i e w e r was E u r o - C a n a d i a n and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , 151 i n t e r a c t i o n , e t c . would i n f l u e n c e what i n f o r m a t i o n the e l d e r w i s h e d to s h a r e . I I I . O t h e r r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s s u c h as s u r v e y method or a r c h i v a l a n a l y s i s c o u l d w e l l d i s c l o s e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the case s t u d y method. A l l p o s s i b l e methods of r e s e a r c h have not been u s e d , t h e r e b y l i m i t i n g the f i n d i n g s . C. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y r e v e a l s some of the a s p e c t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e t h a t have o c c u r r e d as the outcome of c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n i r r e t r i e v a b l e l o s s and change. V e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d on t h i s s u b j e c t . The s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h r e e a r e a s : I . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h e o r i e s of C u l t u r a l L o s s and Change M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change ( 1 9 7 5 ) , an i n n o v a t i v e t h e o r y , has been s u p p o r t e d and the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s a p p e a r s a p p l i c a b l e to N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n B.C. By a p p l y i n g the t h e o r y to c u l t u r e s o t h e r than the c u l t u r e s used by M a r r i s i n o r i g i n a t i n g h i s t h e o r y ( B r i t i s h and A f r i c a n ) , M a r r i s ' t h e o r y has a l s o been expanded. I t i s now seen as a p p l i c a b l e to 152 the i n t e r a c t i o n between B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and E u r o -C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . M a r r i s ' t h e o r y i s b r o a d and, t h e r e f o r e , vague i n some a r e a s . The l a c k of h i s s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of s t a g e s and e m o t i o n s of the g r i e f - r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s was a d d r e s s e d by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the work of K u b l e r - R o s s (1969, 1975) i n t o t h i s s t u d y . The c e n t r a l e m o t i o n s of K u b l e r - R o s s 1 bereavement p r o c e s s i . e . d e p r e s s i o n , b a r g a i n i n g , a n g e r , and a c c e p t a n c e were p r e s e n t i n the N a t i v e e l d e r ' s l i v e s . T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e s u p p o r t s the b e r e a v e m e n t - l i k e r e f o r m u l a t i o n t h e o r y and adds s p e c i f i c i t y to M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change. I I . P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n s of T h i s S t u d y Based upon the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y t h e r e are s p e c i f i c t a s k s t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d p e r f o r m i n o r d e r to f i n d p e r s o n a l meaning i n l i f e and c o m p l e t e the c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . Some of t h e s e a r e ; 1. G a i n s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e from the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . I f s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e a r e not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , t h e n s u b s t i t u t e s can be sought i n the e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , the I n d i a n community and/or the p r o f e s s i o n a l community. These s u b s t i t u t e ' p a r e n t s ' c o u l d , of c o u r s e a l s o r e a c h out and o f f e r s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e . The g u i d a n c e c o u l d take the form o f s p e c i f i c l i v i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y to l i v e i n b o t h the N a t i v e 153 I n d i a n c u l t u r e and the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . 2. F u l l y a c c e p t the p r i m a r y f o u n d a t i o n of one's I n d i a n n e s s . 3. Become s u c c e s s f u l at o p e r a t i n g b i - c u l t u r a l l y i n b o t h the I n d i a n c u l t u r e and the E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . 4. D e v e l o p the s k i l l s to adapt and s u r v i v e i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e . 5. M a i n t a i n or r e l e a r n the N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e and/or t r a d i t i o n s . 6. D e v e l o p p r i d e i n o n e s e l f i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g the r i c h s e t of t a s k s t h a t b e i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n and l i v i n g i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n demands. 7. D e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e means of c o p i n g w i t h the d e p r e s s i o n and a n g e r t h a t a r e p a r t of the normal p r o c e s s of r e f o r m u l a t i o n . 8. Come to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h c u l t u r e and meaning i s normal and has a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n of e m o t i o n s , u s u a l l y e n d i n g i n hope f o r the f u t u r e . 9. S h a r e the e x p e r i e n c e of p e r s o n a l / c u l t u r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e s u p p o r t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h u s r e d u c e the l e n g t h and i n t e n s i t y of the p r o c e s s . 10. I n c r e a s e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r what prime c u l t u r a l a t t a c h m e n t has been l o s t . 11. Use the l o s t c u l t u r a l a t t a c h m e n t i d e n t i f i e d above (10) i n a new f o r m i n the p r e s e n t t i m e . 154 A E u r o - C a n a d i a n who t a k e s p a r t i n any of the above t a s k s a s , f o r example, a E u r o - C a n a d i a n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t would have t a s k s to p e r f o r m beyond t h a t of w o r k i n g w i t h a f e l l o w E u r o -C a n a d i a n . These would be; 1. A knowledge of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e and community i n o r d e r to a s s i s t i n the t a s k of becoming b i - c u l t u r a l . 2. An awareness of the h i s t o r i c a l e l e m e n t s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h i n h i b i t the r e l a t i o n s h i p and c r e a t e m i s t r u s t , d i s r e s p e c t and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 3. An a b i l i t y to o b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e t h r o u g h a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s ( n e g a t i v e ) s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . 4. A w i l l i n g n e s s to see the N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t as an o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n more about E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . 5. A w i l l i n g n e s s to r e a c h o u t , e n t e r N a t i v e I n d i a n homes and make p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g would be the f o l l o w i n g ; 1. T e a c h the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i t s emphasis on u n i v e r s a l i t y , n o r m a l i t y and h o p e f u l n e s s . 2. W i t h the N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t , d e v e l o p a p l a n t h a t w i l l 155 i n c r e a s e t h e i r b i - c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and l e a d to h o p e f u l n e s s . 3. E n a b l e the c l i e n t to d i s c o v e r what th e y have l o s t , c u l t u r a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y . 4. Use the l o s s t h e c l i e n t i d e n t i f i e s as t h e gro u n d upon w h i c h to r e b u i l d t h e i r s e n s e of meaning. 5. Use the group p r o c e s s to i n c r e a s e s u p p o r t and s h a r i n g . 6. Use N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s as s o u r c e s of s u p p o r t , g u i d a n c e , and c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s or f o r g r o u p s . 7. Use books about N a t i v e I n d i a n e x p e r i e n c e s , l e g e n d s , and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e as the b e g i n n i n g of d i s c u s s i o n and s h a r i n g . Hugh B r o d y ' s MAPS AND DREAMS (1981) i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e book. 8. E n c o u r a g e c l i e n t s to w r i t e down t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s . T h i s d i a r y can be p e r s o n a l l y ^ t h e r a p e u t i c , and i t can a l s o be e d i t e d and s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s . 9. B u i l d c u l t u r a l b r i d g e s between N a t i v e I n d i a n and E u r o - C a n a d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s or grou p s by s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of what has been l o s t , and the s t r e n g t h t h a t r e f o r m u l a t i o n has r e q u i r e d . 10. To add the above a p p l i c a t i o n s to the c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s a l r e a d y l e a r n e d and u s e d . I I I . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y c r e a t e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ; 1. A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y , t h a t i s a r e p l i c a t i o n w i t h m u l t i p l e - c a s e s t u d i e s of N a t i v e I n d i a n e l d e r s to v e r i f y the 156 p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s and f i n d a d d i t i o n a l ones. 2. A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y as above but w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l s from younger g e n e r a t i o n s and c u l t u r e s o t h e r t h a n c o a s t a l B.C. a. One p o s s i b l e f o c u s f o r such a s t u d y would be the c o m p a r i s o n of r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s w i t h t h o s e found i n t h i s s t u d y . Does the younger g e n e r a t i o n r e a c h the a f f e c t i v e s t a g e of hope? 3. To c o n d u c t a s i m i l a r s t u d y w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e who have not s u c c e s s f u l l y f o u n d p e r s o n a l meaning and who a r e m a i n t a i n i n g one e m o t i o n a l p l a c e i n the r e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s i . e . d e p r e s s i o n o r a n g e r . 4. To c o n d u c t a c o m p a r l t i v e s t u d y w i t h p a t t e r n s of r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f y o u n g e r and o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s . 5. To a p p l y M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change to i m m i g r a n t s i n Canada by u s i n g a s i m i l a r case s t u d y a p p r o a c h . 6. To a p p l y M a r r i s ' T h e o r y of L o s s and Change to i m m i g r a n t s i n Canada, but u s i n g o t h e r r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y . 157 D. SUMMARY This study has investigated what occurs i n an indi v i d u a l ' s l i f e when t h e i r culture has been changed and parts of i t l o s t ; and how an i n d i v i d u a l regains personal meaning i n a time of c u l t u r a l loss and change. Marris' Theory of Loss and Change was used as the t h e o r e t i c a l foundation for the study. This theory states that people i n cultures that experience i r r e v e r s i b l e loss and change are invoked to enter a reformulation process that i s analogous to bereavement. The Native Indian cultures of B r i t i s h Columbia were used as the c u l t u r a l foundation to be investigated. Three Native Indian el d e r s , 55+ years, male and female, representing three d i f f e r e n t c o a s t a l Indian cultures were interviewed for two hours each and t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r y recorded. The data c o l l e c t e d was then transcribed, some minimal e d i t i n g performed, and the interview confirmed as correct by each el d e r . The l i f e h i s t o r y was then analyzed using the case study approach developed by Y i n (1984) and Stake (1980). Key elements of c u l t u r a l loss and change were i d e n t i f i e d and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recovery of personal meaning were i d e n t i f i e d . The second and t h i r d case studies r e p l i c a t e d the f i r s t . Cross matching of patterns of loss and change, and patterns of recovery of personal meaning revealed a strong 158 overlap between case studies. Six primary forms of loss and change were i d e n t i f i e d and f i v e primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recovery of personal meaning were i d e n t i f i e d . Salient forms and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n each area were i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l . Marris' Theory of Loss and Change was supported. The case studies show the emotional elements of bereavement with the outcome of the reformulation process being an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d form of b i - c u l t u r a l i s m . This theory then i s useful i n understanding the Native Indian cultures of B r i t i s h Columbia and the personal c o n f l i c t s of Native Indian i n d i v i d u a l s . 159 BIBLIOGRAPHY B e n e d i c t , R u t h . P a t t e r n s of C u l t u r e . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1959. B e r r y , J o h n W. & A n n i s , R.C. P s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m : u n i t y and i d e n t i t y r e c o n s i d e r e d . T o p i c s i n C u l t u r e L e a r n i n g , 1974b, V o l . 2 , 17-22. B e r r y , J o h n W. Human E c o l o g y and C o g n i t i v e S t y l e . New Y o r k : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , J o hn W i l e y & Sons, 1976. B e r r y , J o h n W. 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