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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cultural foundations of personal meaning : their loss and recovery More, Janet May Derrick 1985

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CULTURAL  FOUNDATIONS  OF  PERSONAL  MEANING:  THEIR  LOSS  AND  by JANET B.Ed.,  A  MAY  University  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  DERRICK  MORE  of B r i t i s h  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  OF  THE  Columbia,  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF  Department  We  accept to  THE  Psychology  this  conforming  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  Janet  STUDIES  of C o u n s e l l i n g  OF  April,  @  GRADUATE  May  as  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1985  Derrick  1963  More,  1985  OF  RECOVERY  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  OC^g.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  ii  ABSTRACT  This when  study  their  culture  investigated during  a  how  a time  Peter as  i n v e s t i g a t e d what  an  the t h e o r e t i c a l  experience The the  cultural  interviewed The  Indian  loss  their  life  was  analyzed  according  to Y i n (1984)  Cross-matching of  recovery  loss  and  change  characteristics and  expanded  Columbia. ulation The  used  of p a t t e r n s meaning  of  Theory  recovery  process outcome  were of  Columbia  Indian  and S t a k e  used  states  that  who  lives,  elders  area  were  of Loss  and Change  (Bertaux, case  1981).  and  identified  forms  of  Secondary  as  cultures of the  forms  well.  supported.  elements  patterns  primary  meaning.  Indian  as  s t u d i e s and  change,  five  was  used  were  s i x primary  and  of personal  were  (1980).  and  revealed  In a d d i t i o n , the emotional  was  for individuals  as m u l t i p l e  the Native  theory  recorded  i n each  to i n c l u d e  meaning  culture.  of loss  i n the e l d e r ' s  characteristics Marris'  also  then  of p e r s o n a l  of  histories  collected  life  and i t  and Change  This  occurs  Native  data  lost;  personal  of Loss  of B r i t i s h  Three  individual's  change.  Theory  cultures  foundation. and  and  process  irretrievable  Native  regains  f o r the study.  reformulation  any  then  loss  innovative basis  i n an  or i r r e t r i e v a b l y  individual  of c u l t u r a l  Marris'  grief-like  i s changed  occurs  I t was  of  British  reform-  specified. the study  was  a  cognitive  framework  useful in  i i i  understanding and  the  the  personal  Native  Indian  conflicts  of  cultures  Native  in British  Indian  Columbia  individuals.  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER  ONE:  INTRODUCTION  Page  1  CHAPTER  TWO:  REVIEW  Page  12  CHAPTER  THREE  RESEARCH  Page  27  CHAPTER  FOUR:  CASE  Page  34  1. A n o n y m o u s  Page  36  2. M i n n i e  Croft  Page  56  3.  Guerin  Page  81  ANALYSIS & RESULTS  Page  103  AND  Page  136  Page  159  CHAPTER  FIVE:  CASE  OF  THE L I T E R A T U R E DESIGN  STUDY  PROCEDURES  INTERVIEWS  Arnold  STUDY  AND  CHAPTER  SIX:  DISCUSSION  CHAPTER  SEVEN;  BIBLIOGRAPHY  SUMMARY  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This Marris'  thesis  work  began  and then  when Tom B e r g e r  gave  me  a copy  suggested  of Loss  I read  Peter  and Change.  Thanks  Tom. The thesis and  Native have  tell  Indian  already  them  that  elders  been  whose  thanked,  I find  lives  are the essence  b u t I want  the s t r e n g t h  to thank  of t h e i r  of  them  this again  humanness  profound. There variety Brenda Vince  many  o f ways, Taylor,  D'Monte;  Kirkness, and  were  Gord.  who  made  to w r i t e  this  Pat K e l l y , my  thesis  and L a r r y Thanks  thesis:  Patti  f o r me,  Audrey  MacMillan,  committee  Cochran;  to each  i t possible  of Marv  a n d my  in a  and B e r t Betty  Point,  Westwood,  family,  MacKay, and  Verna  A r t , Caryn,  Jeff,  of y o u .  DEDICATION  This been  spent  Canadians  thesis  i s dedicated  building  cultural  to three bridges  people  between  and E u r o - C a n a d i a n s ;  GEORGE  CLUTESI  ARTHUR ROBERT  MORE  STERLING  whose Native  lives Indian  have  1  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  A.  APPROACH  TO  THE  PROBLEM  H i t h e r t o most p e o p l e have a c c e p t e d t h e i r c u l t u r e s c l i m a t e or v e r n a c u l a r ; but our empathic awareness modes o f many c u l t u r e s i s i t s e l f a l i b e r a t i o n f r o m prisons. Marshall  The complex this  mix  land  family is  people of  for  here  of  cultural 10,000  before  predomionately  are  descendents  Eastern  Canada  Woven  British  no  into  them.  early  this  changing  world.  made  the  one  thousand.  past Rural  The  others  majority  settlers  than  one  More  hundred  areas  Some  have  who  are  have  ancestors  no  one  that  of  lives  in  Euro-Canadians  arrived  from  is  technological than  in  Europe  in  their  'white'  complexity  to  beautifully  had  had  years  shrunk  a  have  hundred  years  (1972)  society  ancestry;  cultural  rapidly in  while  anglo  more  Canada  backgrounds.  years  of  of  Columbia,  McLuhan  as a f a t e , like of the e x a c t t h e m as  B.C. who  and  ago.  the  phenomenon  advances the  have  previous  accomodate  of  a  been  one  increasing  urbanization. The  stress  of  a  rapidly  changing  world  forces  people  to  seek  2  professionally means  of  coping.  counselling sector  of  experienced  change.  seek  are  cultural  rapid  the  them  to,find  services  predominately  while  group  cultural  within  change  simultaneously  of  from  a  alternate  trained  the  and  B.C. the  which  loss  Euro-Canadian  experiencing  is  the  Native  Indian  Indian  clients,  however,  are  seldom  seen  and  they  are,  often  are  many  rapid  group  when  has  of  cultural  meaningful  technological population.  by  a  reluctant  counselling and  short  clients. is  an  intriguing  Native  Indian  population  human  problems  compared  In  turn,  that  their  relieve  pain  of  the  There  is  a  effective  disparity,  the  particularly  as  Indian  disparity,  the  (Goodenough,  1963; of  technologically  along  other  are  with  Mead,  1955,  In  psychologists  are are  of  puzzlement  helpers  between order  fails  and  to  to  Native  Indian  understand  need  this  points. for  their  Euro-American  1982).  cultures, notably  advanced  number  people.  noted  their  the  population.  express  skilled  then,  following  when  disproportionate  Euro-Canadian  training  Euro-Canadians bias  counselling  to  a  psychological help.  ethnocentric  people  carries  Native  major  consider  First,  phenomenon,  counselling psychologists  frustration  that  enable  This  This  and  to  population.  one  psychologist, term  who  psychologist  is  traditions  persons  People  B.C.'s  There  Native  trained  somehow  There those  is who  inferior.  Euro-Canadians.  strong cousins a  presumption  are The  less majority  of  3  Second, Indian  the  history  c u l t u r e s and  domination,  Europeans;  cautious  part  of  external Native  position Native  of  physically back  Indian  people  Contrast that  cultural  exist  as  in  the  consolidated years  1964; had  beyond  a  the  strap; and  Native  separated  The  them young  By  or  mutual  on  the  assumed  a  the  fought  back  Native  Indians  placated. in  between  of  cultural  decline  their  trust  Indian)  B.C.  and  and  Native own  land.  respect  counsellor  for  a successful  1900,  one  the  system,  residential  hundred  of  an  Native in  and  a  schools their  their as  parents  for  system,  into outlawed rule  homes  many  a  (Duff,  residential  this  only  (Euro-Canadian)  schools  enforced from  ago,  individual  Indians  the  was  years  missionaries  primarily  children  from  Euro-Canadians  lifespan  languages  children  by  1880,  assimilate  removed in  of  missionaries  Indian  forcibly  placed  to  when  imprisoned  (Native  part  outnumbered  Indians  conditions  present  school  designed  Euro-Canadians. of  1870  1977).  instituted was  the  quickly  the  of  the  Europeans  disregarded  with  on  Native  psychology.  settlement  between  Fisher,  which  client  counselling  Third,  few  bind  primary  and  1977).  and  that  advancement,  suppressed;  powerless  is  population  then  were  between  disregard  When N a t i v e  they  became  sharp  and  quickly  verbally  and  cultural  (Fisher,  power,  were  (Euro-Canadian) outcome  and  population.  this  must  Indians  they  fought  suppression  control,  interaction  c u l t u r e s i n B.C.  acceptance,  cultural  Indian  initial  E u r o p ean  increasing  decline,  of  as  i f  with  the  use  the  necessary  600  periods  miles  away;  ranging  4  from  one  to ten years  nurturing; provided, majority are  physically  eight  of N a t i v e  Indian  people  with  generations  by  languages,  composites  extinction  As also  taught  cultures.  B.C.  the f o r c e f u l  the r e s i d e n t i a l  systematically  in  (Duff,  An  separate;  I n 1984, t h e  are parents school  they  and  system,  are g e n e r a l l y  and  customs  grandparents  and i n silent,  language,  replaced occurred  Culture collectively them  personal  environment  between the  system,  beliefs,  the  and  began  of such  traditional  customs  generations.  were n o t  These  four  to d i e i n the N a t i v e  a death  Pentlatch,  were  dying,  an a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  fishing  change  school  culture  languages,  cultures.  was  interception  to the next  example  traditional  of  quite  little  i s the  Tsetsaut  present and N i c o l a  1964).  language  entered  around  who  values,  o f any  of t h r e e  Euro-Canadian  and  education.  residential  Euro-Canadians  with  Indian  Indian  and g i r l s  provided  and s h y .  Fourth,  primary  of t h i s  i n residence;  the boys  a grade  interaction  Native  kept  were  at most,  the products  distant,  i f they  customs, The  by g a s p o w e r e d  i s t h e means make  meaning  (Hall, meaning and  1973,  by w h i c h  as d e f i n e d  other  people  canoe  into  as a means  their of  f o r example.  a group before  Cultural  them  of  Loss  people  them  identity  by a p e r s o n ' s  around  people  (ibid).  of the time 1984).  and b e l i e f s  boats,  simultaneously  Indian  incorporating  values  traditional  Native  and  the  i s the  relationship  (Goodenough,  space essence to the  1963;  5  Chance,  1965;  Hanson,  1975;  De V o s , 1 9 8 2 ;  culture,  f o r example  determines  season's  of the y e a r  or the death  culture be  will  a contributing  cattle while  herding  A  as do  change  war, or the l o s s  when  one c u l t u r e  people  find  personal  Without  a sense  Hanson,  depressed, increase, (Chance Pizer  may  within  Kunkel,  standable,  meaning  the  i n order to  may  regard  i n Nigeria  skating  as  1975;  people  Klinger,  and p u r p o s e  behaviors  become  loss  and change one h u n d r e d  Native  and p u r p o s e  manifests  Indian  in their  itself  i n how  sense  people  of  &  Spindler,  1977).  feel  F r a n k l , 1963;  evident  cynical, usage  i n family  & Annis,  within years, people lives.  i n profound  )  their  and d r u g  Berry  1975).  occurs  shift  listless,  Alcohol  1968;  as  1963; C a m p b e l l  1972;  Marris,  that  lose  1977;  are very  Chance,  a major  in life,  (Fromm, They  industrialization  or language,  (Goodenough,  i n the past  therefore,  as  creates  Some  and s u i c i d a l .  1962;  p e r s o n a l meaning  personal  another,  1975).  the tremendous i n B.C.  speed  such  values  and l o s t  Kunkel,  & Foster,  Further,  perform  culture  Olympic  a culture,  of meaning  psychotic  One  one.  as do t h e I b o ' s  regard  completely  & T r a v e r s , 1975;  cultures  work  of c u l t u r a l  and a b u s i v e  With  of s o c i e t y .  The  c e l e b r a t e s the  of a l o v e d will  1982).  Canadians.  depressed,  1975;  a person  a person  p e r s o n a l meaning.  1972;  alienated,  work  oppresses  meaning  Converse,  of  member  culture  work  major  what  as m e a n i n g f u l  a second  meaningful  or  define  how  Mead,  groups  1974b;  the Native  Indian  i t i s underhave  lost  This  ways: t h e  loss  a  sense  of  6  percentage is  three  of  to  four  ninety-five reach B.C. is  the  age  (Indian  of  percent  and  loss  restore death  meaning.  initiates  'grief'. of  (1969,  1975)  the  to  that  a  and  Native  Indian  majority  of  grade  is  Native loss  eight;  Development,  change  the  beginning  in  example,  then  a  a  the  and  This  used  people  performed  i n Great  cultures  that  to  the  enter  individuals meaning.  loss  change  both  (1975)  in  as  their began  and  a  are  loved  commonly trained  understood  of  to  loss to  to  person  through  referred  documented  to  as  understand  by  the  Kubler-Ross  and  enable  their  loss  and  after such  cultural  individual  level, and  a  to  change  the  the a  i t can loss  theory. suggest are  and He that  clients  loss be  restoration  of  change uses  studies  people  in  invoked  groups  of  personal  reformulation process experience.  due  theorized  universally  I n d i v i d u a l s and  this  group  profound  cultures,  Africa  a u t o m a t i c a l l y seek  an  mortality  mortality  life  experienced  proposes  Britain  experience  a  in  1980).  of  are  reformulation process.  At  not  students  infant  infant  counsellors  have  reformulation process Marris  does  r e f o r m u l a t i o n process  framework  by  population;  Indian  and  person's  of  population  meaning.  Indian  of  Native  Northern and  Indian  population  Euro-Canadian  others.  occurred.  once  Euro-Canadian  reformulation process  restore personal  the  the  reformulation process  reformulation  As  than  than  For  a  Native  Counselling psychologists  stages  to  as  the  before  higher  Affairs  psychologically  the the  out  among  higher  of  65;  drop  Finally,  deaths  times  percent  schools sixty  violent  is  at  7  Marris bereavement  believes  that  process.  It  attachments. if  the  to  those  Nor  loss  is  them,  pages  Marris may in  occur the  page  over  are  brought  of  The  to  invokes  however  analogy have  severe,  applies  rather  been  has  been  attach  into  the  important  changes,  attachment  purposes  that  of  of  the  any  broken, purpose  contradiction.  reformulation  g e n e r a t i o n s and  one  individual.  reward,  or to  ."  behaviour  a  cultural  i s perhaps  For  will  of  "  seek  to  not  long find  loss  completed as  there  i t "  is a  (ibid,  159). outcome  of  or  attachment  the  can  still  process  is  one  be  or  forgetting  done  substitute"  However, urgent  learn  vitality  "The  task,  any  undertaken  of  and  group give  (ibid,  conflict, the  working because  meaningful  i t .  reformulation  cultural  a  to  an  baffling  finding  most  loss  purposes  too  several  individual  lost  because  change  158-159).  lifespan  The the  crucial  are  implies  possibility  "...the  retrievable.  where  either  because  cultural  i t f i t disruptive  circumstances  or  (ibid,  -  every  i s only  obviously  situations  disorientated because  does  not  Once  confidence  past  to  grief  for other  sense  the the  be  cannot  this  purposes"  that  the  past  done  they  the  cannot  central, the  ability  have  they  (ibid,  which  either.  repair  out,  on  reformulation  is itself  coping, u n t i l worked  a  upon  p r e s e n t , not  Thus  cannot  bereaved  have  the  returning  of  of  to  159).  which  out  ways  they  meaning  of  i s dependent  "...restoring  page  the  process  will  p.160).  find  8  Understanding not  necessarily  process be  is  a  is  can  the  to  experiencing  factor outcome that  way  from  the  that;  structure...the shared" In B.C.  be  and  which  helpful  different  process  prime  the  crisis,  reduced  the  is  Marris  within  when  a  Another  be  contained  of  also  being  possible.  can  to  as  stress  i t may  support  present  lifestyle  within one  the  which  of  Native  a  by  the the  supportive  experience  framework is  of  analogous  is  with  be  at  an  i n d i v i d u a l search  a  cultural  psychologists,  counselling  for  search  Native  Native  Indian  for  purpose  i t may Indian  people,  for  the  is  both  search  who  be  and  in  clients.  grief  continuity for  in  purpose  meaning.  helpful  are  people  cultural  It  once  a  a  Indian  individual.  and  when  the  an  counselling  framework very  may  meaning, As  the  process,  by  more  and  reformulation  i n t e n s i t y of  a r t i c u l a t e d and  understood  experienced  normal  counselling  addition,  abortive,  are  in  the  reformulation.  reformulation  is  and  be  is  reformulation.  experience length  that  does  162).  summary,  reformulation  life  the  of  it  relieve  cultures,  cultural  implications  (page  may  the  that  cultural  In  "The  is  of  reformulation.  outcome  however  work'  then  surrounding  process  experiencing  'grief  may  its resolution will  conflict  of  also  understanding of  of  reformulation  loss,  stress  loss  successful  states  that  the  to  understanding  cultural  the  of  Knowing,  response  cultural  articulation  (1975) risk  same  support  in  behaviour.  relieve  The  response  increase  or  t h e o r e t i c a l basis  psychology. a  change  bereavement  universal  expected  This  the  It  either  to may  have  this  also  be  counsellors  9  or  clients  living.  to understand  As  stated  reformulation  the c u l t u r a l  above,  process  of the e x p e r i e n c e ,  enable  an a r t i c u l a t i o n  believes  that  and  outcome.  stress,  as w e l l  Considering  framework  also  counselling  B.  attempted found  2.  investigated their  were  specific  lost  personal  to apply the  (1975) and  of the  the l i k l i h o o d  this and  of a  of N a t i v e  cultural  process positive  Indian  and  reformulation  respect,  prime  factors  in a  had been  the l o s s e s during and  occurred  i n the l i v e s  lost  and c h a n g e d .  of i n d i v i d u a l s  a time  when  of  their  and then  It how  they  cultural  changing.  o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s Indian  study  c u l t u r e s as  were;  the c u l t u r a l  foundation  meaning.  Peter  Native  what  culture  meaning  t o u s e B.C. N a t i v e of  trust  o t h e r s , and  support,  factors  the  PROBLEM  t o document  foundations  1.  THE  when  personal  The  OF  study  individuals  increase  from  reduce  situation.  STATEMENT  This  using  may  the i n t e n s i t y  increasing  are presently  cultural  Marris  increasing  the h i s t o r i c a l  interaction,  they  people  support  reduce  as  Euro-Canadian may  Indian  increase  the experience  i t slength,  the  of the e x p e r i e n c e .  reducing  articulating  understanding  f o r Native  stress  process  Marris'  Indian  Theory  cultures  of C u l t u r a l  o f B.C.  Loss  and Change  to  10  C.  DEFINITION  For  the  language,  and  TERMS  purpose  values,  individuals time  OF  'Native ethnically  beliefs  (Hall,  Indian  separate  They  Athapaskan,  Tsimshian  and  cultures Indian  in  excluded  Department  Indian  is  in  that  the  of  identity  ethnography The of  and  Canada  were  definition  is  found  immigrated 'white'.  that  as  the  of  themselves  to  exist  in  Coast  the  in  Columbia,  Nootka,  Klinger's quality  of  eleven  the  Canada.  Salish,  Tlingit,  a  any  of  of  of  the  this  to  Haida,  and  A  for  personal He  and  Native  study  the  as  used  by  personal Indian  other  definition  Native  also  the  whose  has,  or  Euro-Canadian  meaning  whole  someone who  is  example  defines  person's  whose  Affairs. describe  B.C.  above  The  'Indian'  i n Europe to  individual  'Euro-Canadian'  (1977). of  any  ignored.  anthropology,  definition  pervasive  for  British  as  purposes  used  as  group  Chilcotin,  defined  was  to  as  Kwakiutl,  'Euro-Canadian'  referred  defined  definitively  cultures  Coola,  Northern  have  a  meaning  referred  and  ancestors  which  find  Indian  cultural  that  was  For  legal  of  to  was  1964).  B.C.  any  customs  defined  Kootenay,  identity  cultures  'culture'  1975).  Bella  Indian'  cultural  use  politically  (Duff,  'Native  and  Native  area  Salish,  study  cultures'  physical  Interior  this  collectively  space  are  of  a  whose  is  term  widely  Bienvenue  used  in  meaning inner  this  as  being  commonly  the and  used  (1978). study  was  subjective, is  in  11  experienced  as  individual's The  meaning'. defined  thought  purpose  phrase  combination  both  of  the  the  definitions  of  c r e a t i n g meaning  customs, well By  as  using  their  beliefs, the  themself  and  individuals  these  cultural  fundamental  are  the  function  in  the  and to  customs others  The  meaning by and  was  which as  an  one  language,  expressed, inner  individual life.  a  'personal  affective the  is  m e a n i n g ' was  personal  behaviour  and  foundations,  and of  themselves.  meaning .  personal  relationship  for  and  of  beliefs,  cognitive  purpose  life.  foundation  in  values  Personal  'culture'  values,  defines  group  of  cultural  language,  in  foundation  individual a  emotion.  function  'cultural  Therefore,  as  and  and  as  experience.  creates  12  CHAPTER  REVIEW  A  review  personal and  OF  of  in  variables)  the  issue  less  was  a  amount than  of  The  (ERIC)  list  did  not  'cultural  change'  information and  were 'culture  anthropology  variables)  and  recovery  because  (anthropological  several  or  of  of  the  loss  sociological  approach  to  this  addressing  the  meaning',  descriptors.  the  Social  change'  literature.  documented  psychological  referred  specifically  recovery  process.  'culture  change',  as  prime  of  the  articles  effects,  but  none  the  of  'culture  shock',  personal  Searching  from  a  the  led  to  found  these  effects  meaning used  values' period  'culture  to  change'  thus  abstracts  'personal  used  referred  'social  or  of  which  and  of  Center  loss'  sources  abstracts  Psychological  descriptors.  'cultural  descriptor  loss  and  Information  descriptors,  Some  to  The  Science  The  sociology.  The  reviewed;  sociology,  Resources  'personal  as  d i s c i p l i n e s was  psychology,  Educational  in  as  loss  MEANING  expected.  literature  'meaning'  PERSONAL CHANGE  literature specifically  cross-cultural  anthropology.  the  multi-disciplinary  l i t e r a t u r e of  psychology,  loss'  culture  revealed The  l i t e r a t u r e on  (psychological  one's  problem.  The  THE L I T E R A T U R E ON LOSS OF DUE TO CULTURAL LOSS AND  meaning  change  TWO  or  its  'culture', and  of  1894  to  13 present Native  day  Indians  focussed  on  The  Third  with  became  psychology, of the  the  suicide, but  Much and/or  to  multi  of  The  Native  Indians  focus  on  education  vast  pertaining  majority  population  with  stress the  populations  search  and  the  of  expected  of  to  studies  was  also  psychological studies.  disciplinary  documented  high  none  and  A  good  deal  psychological state  studies  literature  included  anthropology.  present  levels,  that  This  of  on  a l c o h o l and  drug  poor  performance  in  directly  addressed  the  loss  meaning. the  change  literature  as  destructive  This  review  this  study  addressed  -  than  cultures.  specific  Indian  personal  other  a  on  studies  America.  World  sociology,  Native  school, of  a  literature  abuse,  fewer  i n North  literature  reviewed again  produced  the  did,  however  refer  for  alcohol  abuse,  reason  culture  suicide,  loss and  the  behaviours.  o u t l i n e s what in  to  any  together.  way.  research  Cultural  was  loss  found and  that  cultural  pertained change  are  14  A.  THE  LOSS  1.  Marris  OF  Theory  1  Marris' theoretical length  focus  the  culture was  reviewed  members  a  Fransted  may  change  i n Ward  universally  lives.  Grief  purpose,  be  the  found  AND  CHANGE  One,  is  the at  In  change,  (1975) work  contrast  Marris  remaining  has  been  reverse  to  who  to  Marris'  experience  at  evident  approach  or may  behavior  experienced  entire  or  which  specific  i n persons  be  that  pattern  details  lost,  is  profound  literature  the  literature  changed  work  i s a PROCESS  other  looks  violent  have  that  the  so  process  i n a l l people them  to  "...describes a  applying  and  for  used  in  who  are  example, the  family  culture  loss  and  (1975).  allowed  and  loss  i n a l l people  exhibiting  invoked  that  LOSS  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s reviewed  Marris'  that  theorizes  someone  CULTURAL  Change  researchers find  Or  people  Marris  The  culture  breakdown as  of  below),  the  (1982).  research;  TO  introduced i n Chapter  culture  behaviour.  of  and  thesis.  change.  (see  which  In  of  focus  and  behaviours  of  this  is inevitable  loss  people's  Loss  DUE  chapter.  The  believes  MEANING  theory,  of  field  innovative. he  of  (1975)  in this  In  PERSONAL  feels  the  find  upon  the  meaning  situation  helpless"  process  of  of  loss  of  is  something  or  and  purpose  in  their  where  someone  is  bereft  (page  grief  bereavement  in a  37). cultural  sense,  15  Marris  (1975)  provoked  states;  by t h e d i s r u p t i o n  displaced  onto  all  situations,  these  similar  collective  to g r i e v i n g  vulnerable  then,  change  have  been  survival  that  new  devised  that  impossible  adequate  Others  experienced  cultural is  level,  Marris  followed  within  both  new  by D e n i a l ;  64,65).  conflict loss  and  values  and/or  to p e r s o n a l  and l a n g u a g e  be  It i s  i s no  surroundings.  to the c o n f l i c t  disrupted  personal  and s h a r e d conflict  i s as  or d i s m i s s i t s  conflict,  refers  (pages  culture  meaning.  personal  He  grief"  customs,  customs  i n t h e new  t h e same  the process  Yet the o l d c u l t u r e  a solution  to the g r i e f  (1969,  when  beliefs,  personal  lives.  dilemma.... In  the fundamental  values,  i t i s a group  (1975)  personal  to the o l d c u l t u r e  to seek  process.  Kubler-Ross  as  becomes  fundamentally  o u t : and  and i t i s i m p e r a t i v e  meaning  t h e same  at once  analogous  ulation'  allow  in finding  meaning.  be  lost  i n people's  then,  itself  identity,  communities,  o f a common  behaviour  Cultural  beliefs,  will  necessary  will  o f human  to r e t u r n  signifigance  outcomes  and  of  an a m b i v a l e n c e  t h e o r i z e s upon  i s experienced.  language  expressions  i s working  i s the essence  confusion  of c u l t u r e s  I believe,  to a b o r t i v e  Marris, that  "The p e r s o n a l  culture  so t h a t  longer  It is  and f i n d will  this  have  conflict  by o t h e r s .  and a g r o u p  new  On  a  process  that  process. to the g r i e f  does  1 9 7 5 ) who Anger;  process  not o u t l i n e defines  i t s stages  process  Bargaining;  as a  stages  'reformas of  Depression;  does Loss  16  Acceptance; in  less  and  definitive  characteristics  1.  Hope.  No  one  2.  The  3.  While  knows  ways.  of  Reformulation  the  is what  the  meaningful  "Recovery  the  attachment  lost  finding  a  somehow  to  as  to  be  make  rewarding"  B.  PERSONAL  Mead that By  is  meaning and  (1955)  belonging in  to  loss  process  is by  for  state  grief  can  three  creates  process in  being  The  will and  and  conflict.  produce.  of  itself.  loss  is  the  only  behavior.  give  purpose  from  clear  experienced,  culture  depends  s t i l l  behaviors  process:  which  meaningful  these  on  Marris  restoring a  meaning  to  the  sense  present,  not has  and  feeling  i t expressed  i t s past  setting  and  future  behaviour  that  reformulated  interpretable  as  159).  MEANING  central  a  created  abstracted  (page  however,  to  grief/reformulation process,  from  present  by  is  point  the  substitute.  does,  reference  reformulation  process  reference  writes;  so  the  conflict  summarizing  makes  grief/reformulation  reformulation  resolving  In  He  generated  reformulation the  Marris  IN  THE  referred to a  their  its practical  CULTURAL  to  the  CONTEXT  identification  i n d i v i d u a l s i n many particular  role role  in in  piece  of  i t ' s usage, their  with  non-technical land, the  survival.  the  cultures.  individuals  prestige  land  find  attached  to  i  17  Culture transmitted  = values, from  beliefs,  individual  to i n d i v i d u a l  language.  Goodenough  (1963)  happiness  i s dependent  upon  that  is socially  approved  social  identity  life;  i t i s t h e means De  ization  Vos (1982)  He w r o t e  determines means  how  birth,  and  social  personal In powerful  self  by  i s innately  the f a m i l y ,  the c u l t u r a l  meaning i n  themselves. (1963)  conceptual-  personal  himself,  identity crises  meaning and a  culture  h i s past  determines  and  how a n  i n the l i f e  cycle,  such  De V o s f u r t h e r  stated  that  social, then  group.  This  beginning  extending  A l l  i n the  t o t h e community  the l e v e l s  of  interaction  group  enable  the d e f i n i t i o n of  work  (1984)  he d e f i n e d  meaning. Edward  Hall's  essence  interpersonal  recent  of a c u l t u r e  relations.  survival  i s determined  healthy,  active  with  about  death.  and t h e s o c i a l  personal  value  identity  culture.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  t o t h e common  group,  common  individual's  in their  between  feels  divorce,  a  a personal  of t h e i r  Cultural  of the s e l f  an  seeking  they  personal  and t h e y a r e  through  Goodenough's  an i n d i v i d u a l  marriage,  bounded  between  by w h i c h  that  that  by o t h e r s  confirmed  relates  development primary  their  the root  of s u r v i v i a l .  individual as  stated  of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p  culture.  his  i s then  and c u s t o m s ,  an e m p h a t i c  as i t s ' i n f o r m a l  Hall  by t h e i r  informal  stated degree  culture.  statement  that  an  culture'; individual's  of rootedness  A n d he c o n c l u d e d  of b e l i e f  t h e most  that  time,  in a h i s book  as we  see  i t  18  culturally The  is  a l l we  final  thorough,  work  imply  simultaneously  their  One  to  meaning  applied  it  ecological a  the  by  Hanson  other. to  culture  to  anthropological to  for and  meaning to  a  from  of  used  other  studies,  culture  personal  which  We  do  meaning  Berry  a  that  while  this and  by  truth.  conceptualization  cultures. of  is  stated  culture  his  one  meaning  Hanson a  culture.  Hanson  understand  ourselves.  (1975).  presuppositions  in  approach  culture  meaning  absolute  of  on  meaning  personal  applying  relative  find  treatise  conceptualizing is  to  reviewed  detailed  individuals  have  He  which  (1976,  also  is  the  1980)  used  as  occur  in  model.  C.  CULTURE  CHANGE  Moore society within which  or a  (1974)  crop  failure  change and more  is  the or  A  by  adjustment  fourth  is  social  Acculturation  may  be  technological the  fifth  certain  necessary form is  of the  in  for  the  of  transfer  of  changes  can  culture.  in  a  culture  social  order  within  is  forms  of  occur etc.,  due  form  These  of  to social  a  culture,  change  i n t e r n a l l y , and  are  survival*  acculturation.  cultural  elements  a  Secondly,  third  continuing  change  can  A  culture  their  culture  that  advances.  revolution. by  that  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , values,  necessary  breakdown  controlled  changes  autonomous  individuals  of  and  the  communication,  that  less  adaptive  in  or  defined  First,  determined  environmental  LOSS  clearly  culture.  culture  are  AND  from  one  are  19  culture  to  beginning  another. with  (adaptive) social past  to  the  systems  has  been  activity. of  the  transfer  simple  from  one  is  acceptance  extreme  of  forced  culture  accomplished  Presently,  by  viewed of  a  as  a  custom  continuum or  belief  transformations  to  another.  colonization,  acculturation  whole  Acculturation war  occurs  of  and  most  ;  in  the  missionary  often  in  the  form  'modernization'. Other  (1972);  similar  these  to  In  (1975); same  Moore  the  of  point  the  PSYCHOLOGICAL  1.  Theoretical  change  at  in  discovered  of  are  culture  and  &  Converse  Spindler  change  in  a  (1977)  manner  the  change,  degree  of  no  author  change  is  so  clearly great  that  OF  CULTURE  CHANGE  AND  LOSS  Work  culture  (1955)  she  the  that  writing  asked  what  fields  this  stated  While  technological  researched  Campbell  lost.  EFFECTS  Mead  that  of  as  (1976);  culture  which  individuals.  experienced  yet  Schneider  processes  culture  Margaret  such  (1974).  D.  through  literature  a l l discussions  defined parts  sociology  Kunkel  addressed  as  This  change of  area.  a l l social  about  patterns  of  occurred  for  in  culture.  their  psychiatry She  change  and  concluded  occurs  technical  individuals She  psychology that  who  had  not  pscyhological  20  disturbances  must  necessary  the  in  John  occur  Berry,  the  an  used  framework  (1976,  a  of  variables;  Canadian  to  Within  his  It  psychosomatic  symptoms  and  the  integration,  and  rejection.  model  detailed  the  contact  pattern,  the  diversity  settlement and  by  the  direction  are  not  Western of  clear,  well  increased  certain  documented;  concentrated  functioning  and  little  studying  time  psychologist  has  upon  referred the  in his to  or  which  as  the  of  contact.  the  contact  the He  of  exploitive  contact noted  And  in  the  in  family  while  acculturated  occur  group  disorganization,  child-rearing. work it  upon  as  social  perceptual-cognitive  exploratory.  and  emotional  He  few  recent  psychological  papers  stability  have after  addressed a  cultural  the  has  spent  variables  loss  loss  or  in  relationship  acculturation. A  culture  the  socialization will  culture.  an  assimilation,  contact  of  chang  several  feelings  of  he  culture  stress  with  attitudes  that  increase  model'  stress,  stratification  behaviours an  of  variables  dominant  diffficulties  Berry  were  included  pattern,  cultures  their  he  measured  of  four  s o c i a l i z a t i o n emphases  expectation  been  is  development  culture;  the  histories  acculturation  framework  acculturation.  Berry's  case  cross-cultural  understand  marginality,  and  clinical  'ecological-cultural-behavioural  1980).  outcome  that  field.  developed as  and  of change.  of  have and  21  Kirkness Native and  (1980)  Indian  placed  responses rejection, and  to  John  non-Native unfamiliar  confusion,  personal  research  the  increased  c h i l d r e n who  in to  noted  are  which  Berry.  His  Taft  cultures;  incompetency.  from  removed  homes.  moral  to  from  strain, over  He  a  used  these  source  identity their  (1977)  anxiety  draw  prime  personal  a  sense  cultural  variety  the  cultural  detailed  of  conclusions, was  crisis  U.S.  homes  six  of  for  coping  loss,  differences, literary  from  Peace  Victor  Frankl  Corps  experience. Pizer change the  and  and  Travers  (1975)  the  role  psychological  'culture  and  anthropologists, that in  this  school  values  and  (1963)  case  loss  of  result  study  harmony of  a  Erikson.  includes  scholars  Erik  has  is  firmly  the  individual.  of  the  Sioux  between  Indian change  they child in  Then, further and  using  a  that  a  change  change in  Erikson's  adult  socialization  to  and  concluded  Indian  that was  brought  the the  about  by  contact.  et  al  expression  of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n among A u s t r a l i a n  In  Chance  (1968)  and  have  Foster  psychopathology  i n Eskimos  their  Chance  society.  with  social  concluded  established  Cawte  Alaska,  They  of  referred  psychologists  interdependent  for  outline  v a r i a b l e s . They  which  tremendous  Euro-American  simplistic  of  practices  roles  a  personality' school  of  socialization  of  gave  investigated  (1962) who  (1968)  were later  the  studied  psychosomatic aborigines.  the  patterns  experiencing discussed  the  rapid  of changes  relationship  in  22  between He  personal  concluded  among  that  contact  with  and  conflict.  Pedersen, Cultural  Center  the c u l t u r a l  anthropological  dissertation  of p e r s o n a l  culture  change.  2.  Specific  The Native the  studies  authors  found  Native  Indian  was  situation.  Studies  included  in this  subjects.  generally  at l e a s t  i n part  used  used,  psychopathology.  and s t r e s s  Fransted  i n an  that  (1981) there  Native  section  were  Indians  intense during  of the r e v i e w  the b e l i e f  attributable  to  of the E a s t - W e s t  In the conclusions  discussed  there  of the t e c h n i q u e  amongst  Indian  that  the maladaption  confirmed  maladaption  stated  i n the techniques  (1981)  discussed  of  on by i n c r e a s i n g  he  considerable  and D r a g u n s  contact  periods  And  Irregardless  i n Hawaii  acculturation.  the problem  brought  and p a r e n t s  generates  Lonner,  were  society.  youth  with  of c u l t u r a l l y - i n d u c e d s t r e s s  conflict  western  the c o n f l i c t  forms  population  cognitive  modern  to this  however  of  Indian  v a r i a t i o n s among  adapt  and i d e n t i t y  t h e common  the Canadian  self-identity  were  adjustment  of the that  research  what  to c u l t u r e  used  had  been  change  and  loss. Ward attributed people  (1975)  i n a presentation  the high  of the a r e a ,  i  rate  of s u i c i d e  i n part  due  to a  coroner's  amongst  jury  the Native  to the s t r e s s  i n Ontario Indian  and d i s r u p t i o n of  23  the  culture In  a  Brandon, factors that  change  stress Blue  are  study  and  a  they  had with  Blue  culturally stress  national  student  average.  his  findings  that as  the  high  3.  Native  that  level  to  Indian  client  acculturative Native  was  Indian  people  Indian  leaders  of  the  the  found  use  and  University  certain  to  was  1979,  and  above 1980)  student  found  the  studied  populations.  acculturation,  of  stress  stress,  students  Indian  Native  from  Culture  that  discussed  Indian and  of  facilitating stress  that  (1978,  with  the  Some  and  i n Canada  the  of  concluded was  twice  student.  control  the  Change  a  clients, meaning  Indian  myths  therapy.  social  She  conflict  Loss  therapeutic  in a  in  and  cross-cultural  their  as  lives.  a means  also as  approach  Jilek-Aall  of  engaging  referred  relevant  to  issues  for  clients.  Empirically, Indian  stress  Native  regain  and  of  at  response  Sikand  Recovery  enable  ( 1 9 7 6 ) de s c r i b e d the  level  non-Native  article  would  setting  the  concluded  s e v e r a l Canadian  correlated  stress as  One  of  students  specific  general  levels  Cree  (1984)  the  stress  experienced.  are and  the  most  profound  self-help Native  programs  Indian  recovery that  culture.  process  incorporate These,  with  Native  Native  however,  are  24  seldom  researched  Therefore, in  this  E.  CULTURE  reference  CHANGE  AND  literature  to  was  but  indirectly  describing and  after Two  CONTACT  works AND  Indian  was  projects. included  stand  out  here  of  a  account  of  B.C.  emerged  was  in  beyond  this  the  and  and the  CULTURES  prior  to  OF  B.C.  anthropological.  change two  are  variables  relationship  others:  Wilson  readable, the  was  European  Robin  Duff's  made  by  contact  Fisher's  THE  ending  between  1870  and  1890  confirmed  control  over  the  land  and  Fisher  of  INDIAN  influxes  their  the  and  Indian-European  documentation  and  Large  an  well-referenced,  history  the  1774  1890.  as  loss  between  and  about  period  brief  culture  control  provided  INDIAN  HISTORY  (1964).  researched  Duff  was  lifestyles  (1977);  provided  beginning  NATIVE  contact.  COLUMBIA  What  THE  Generally,  CONFLICT  Fisher  same  referenced  programs  relationship  drawn.  European  IN  reviewed  the  Native  BRITISH  phases  these  LOSS  psychological effects  documented,  OF  academically  study.  The The  no  and  with of  of  cultural  change  in  cultural  Euro-Canadian  settlers  of  loss  relations  of  loss  the  carefully  Native  Indian  lifestyle.  anthropological, historical  account  and  He  continued  beyond  1890.  of  referred  the to  in  25  the  residential  and day s c h o o l  missionaries,  and  of  and  land  title  Other and  Duff.  Indian  families. family  Lewis  (1970)  which  He  was  James  and  Kwakiutl.  Sewid's  Blackman's  (1981)  detailed  present book,  loss  day H a i d a .  summary,  change  relationship  have  of  from  by  change  in  Indian  but  LaViolette  a cultural  change  Fisher  Native  implied,  and  are considered  been  Spradley  I t was  primarily  biographical  account from  Acculturative  meaning loss.  by u s i n g  upon  history  (1969)  adaptation  a review  and  life  successful  not f o c u s s e d  of p e r s o n a l  culture  only  of a  described.  cultural  her a c c u l t u r a t i o n  b u t were  In  books  change.  summarized  life  were  of c o n t a c t  of h i s f a c t s  study  the impact  factors  that  provided  survival  loss  inaccurate  and  generalized.  recent  loss  Sewid,  some  upon  for recognition  Euro-Canadians.  a case  anthropologically  concluded  though  Several cultural  was  from  r u n by  battle  the h i s t o r y  published  of t h e h i s t o r y  perspective.  account  upon  focussed  of education  political  rights  psychological  disruption  (1961) wrote  his  aboriginal elaborated  The  occurred,  the c o n t i n u i n g  works  village  system  told  to c u l t u r e  of F l o r e n c e  populations  Davidson's Haida  present  to a  i n the  demonstrated  identity i s strongly  Some  and  described.  of the l i t e r a t u r e and  of  conflict.  the t r a d i t i o n a l were  of  the s t o r y  anthropological  patterns and  accounts  related  studies  have  demonstrated  which  have  experienced  that  a  to this culture  26  change, which  then  strongly  studies, have  indicated  particularly  attributed  violent  occurred the  high  behaviours  literature  of  describing psychological behaviours,  amongst  studies  personal  Peter,Marris.  Native  degrees  of  culture  the  Native  after  His  central  in  Canada  other  loss.  The  anthropology  loss of  process and  to  Other  and  cultures  change  life.  suicide  culture  the  to  populations  and  that  Indian  culture is  Indian  stress,  considered  theory  response  change  demonstrated  reviewed  meaning  negative  with  to  clearly  a  behaviours  loss  the  and  B.C. of  change However,  none  recovering  occurred,  following  except  research.  27  CHAPTER  RESEARCH  A  case  considered the  the  cultural  subject, was  study  the  best  least for  Indian  was  of  AND  a white  reliable  people  have  the  and  been  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and  the oral  Native  Indian  approach  design  participants  The  the  case  be  were  most study  not  when  the  behaviours  with and  relevant  experimental 'why'  However, for  i t s lack  the of  examining  design  be  to  tradition, to  personal in  the  designs  to  say  so  the approach;  that  an  subjects.  A  control,  anyway  of  study;  powerful  is  the  was  were  active  therefore  preferred  manipulated  designs  study  research  or  Indian  years,  contemporary/historical  questions case  the  given  design.  cannot  research  research  high  in  mistrust,  oral  manipulated  effective  experimental  an  a Native  the  was  reasons:  subjected  over  appropriate  had  research  and  they  This  threatening  manipulative  highly  subjects  and  the  answer,  and  outcome  scientists  c u l t u r e s have  would  where  considered  and  study.  several  least  studied  particularly  question  for  valid  probing  a  many  this  researcher  intellectual  least,  by  for  approach  o f f e n s i v e and a  PROCEDURES  chosen  research  dynamics  important  Native  design  DESIGN  THREE  (Yin,  the  events  (Yin, study  1984).  answers  over where As 'how'  1984).  approach  rigor,  case  design  has  i t s small  been base  widely for  criticised scientific  28  generalization, Yin  (1984)  Yin  along  detailed studies the  the to  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  manner  of  the  necessary  and  and  unreadable  criticisms Stake  researchers  criticisms. need  strategy" conduct  to  be  (1984,  of  five  effective present  skills  case  although  choice.  Many  researcher,  life  method in  a  limits  the  their  far  greater  than  56).  case  skills  does  broad to  with  He  study  not  way,  elders  dictate this  were  physical availability.  It  who  made  represented  well  as  an for  the  design. choice  attempted to  of  random  the  elder's willingness was  a wide  interview  answers  57)  for  random  available  five  the  56,  study  study  both  therefore  range male  of  research:  appropriate  case  that  that  listed  necessary  the  elders  being  pages  i t was the  and  asserted  by  d i f f e r e n c e s , as  elders.  also  proceed  contacts  with  their  interview  to  study  subjects,  and  are  counselling psychologist,  researcher  The  to  perform  t h e a b i l i t y t o a s k g o o d q u e s t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t t h e a b i l i t y t o be a g o o d listener t h e a b i l i t y t o be a d a p t i v e and flexible a f i r m g r a s p of the i s s u e s b e i n g s t u d i e d f r e e from b i a s e d , p r e c o n c e i v e d emotions  these  talk  study  further  (ibid, As  case  the  Yiri  page  effective  However,  praised  the  may  documentation.  valid.  (1980)  appropriateness  researcher  to  three  (1975)  these  research  lengthy,  these  i n which  overcome  other  skills  Campbell  reliability  skills  "any  i t s usual  considerered with  validity,  and  to  possible  of  cultural  and  female  and  29  The is  that  are a  primary not  a l l attitudes,  discussed case  study,  replication first  Stake  and  The  Bertaux  case  was  Bertaux  of  results  persons  maintained  from that  society.  The  research  q u e s t i o n was  social  person's  life  recalled, best  Native  the  (Bertaux,  Indian  Each  cultural  person  reliable, were  replications  in in  the  33).  and  of  was  the  in  a  the  tradition,  i n t e r v i e w e d was  are  'how'  life  in  and loss  of  research is  the of  society,  able  'why'  of  a  in  a  meaning  history  was  the  provide  the  stated  asked  to  above.  respond  to  The  recorded  researcher in keeping as  t o KNOW as  change. would  to  life  study  life  the  first.  this  or  of  suggested  better  and  person's  The  goal  used  irretrievable  sources  as  occupations  structure  the  Both  the  obtaining  scientists  approach  a  p r o c e s s e s " , not  By  to  internally  of  that  social  study  conducted,  stated  (page  with  three  histories  1981).  shared  least  life  study.  life  events  but  existing  oral  considering  an  at  studies  certain  recovery  follow-up  in this  highly  being  social  following  interview  that  a l l levels  history  significant  answers  oral  life  process;  about  a  method  person's  interview,  done  case  as  Bertaux  scientific  histories  an  studies  a c q u i r e knowledge  produce  three  in a  as  in  interview  a m u l t i p l e - c a s e study.  state  collected  (1981).  not  as  events  existing/not  rigorous,  Therefore,  third  data  (1984)  for a  and  study,  However,  as  was  conducted  important  study.  verified  Yin  case  identified  Follow-up  and  the  interview.  be  was  to  beliefs  p a t t e r n s not  study  are  second  "to  one  could  (1980)  valid  by  in  interview. The  data  delimitation  the  with  as  30  following  "As  Native  European lives  question;  culture  more Then  people  there  European  their  lives  Most  years  ago, were  by and  their  have  lived  a long  found  ways  and  this  became  were  also  each  person  I'd parts of  confusing. has had  of  own  by  traditional  removed  as  they  these homes,  way  from  to l e a r n  of l i f e  Native  land  their  their  life.  a g o when  and d i s e a s e ,  schools  found  of  life  their  care  to become  white  were  150  know  i n a Native  a r e dead  Indian  or d y i n g  f o r themselves  and  i n both  culture people the  when are  traditional  personal  In  to  meaning  confused. order  find  to  i n the  T h e ways  live  a meaning  during  of  traditional t h e new  the past  f o r themselves  culture 100  years,  i n the  midst  and c o n f u s i o n .  like  where  their  way  with  culture.  once  loss  from  ways  ways  Everyone  this  people  i n their  children  life  meaning  t h e new  then  years  i n contact  lost.  to f i n d  and  Indian  100  to r e s i d e n t i a l  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  struggling  of  about  alcohol  and more  a different  outnumbered  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  culture  with  a time  disrupted  more  Native  newcomers, f o r c e d  men.  most  involved  came  f a r away  You  was  i n B.C.,  unacceptable,  sent  culture  themselves  white  and  here  and more  found  judged  Indian  to hear  you found  traditional  ways  the s t o r y meaning  of your  life,  for yourself  i n the midst  o f new  particularly  during  ways."  a time  the  of  loss  31  This each The  question  interview. elder  guiding  was  encouraged and  Indian  to t a l k  by  the i n t e r v i e w e r  was  conducted  freely  clarification  have  (55+) were  experienced  criterion  o f 55+ y e a r s  of age f o r s t u d y  population exception certain  that  live  structure The  long  found  were  Contact  their  elders  to out  be  elders  interviewed  o f town  study.  The  The mutually the  Letter,  permission.  five  t h e names The  place  these  because  f o r sometime  only  was  agreeable  to both  by  5%  meant  A  that  of the  would They  be t h e  would  be  the e l d e r the choice  contacts  as  t o be phone.  stated  with  the  well. one d e c l i n e d  and t h e s e c o n d  during  her  In the  were  call  initially,  too busy,  by  through  community.  persons  letter  consented  arranged  primarily  also  data.  of o b t a i n i n g  telephone  and u n a v a i l a b l e  interview  being  of these  contact  s h e was  three  and  the r i c h e s t  elders  Indian  follow-up  contacted  remaining  only  interviewed for  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  i n the N a t i v e  u s u a l l y mentioned  Of  with  lives.  contacted  Initial  these  s u c c e s s f u l means  i n their  and a s s o c i a t e s  with  or older,  some  friends  researcher.  length  purposes  and s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g .  and p u r p o s e elders  to  by t h e  t o be  so, provide  i n a c u l t u r e where  t o be 65  in longevity  t o have  asked  the g r e a t e s t  change  lived  and  chosen  of c u l t u r a l  have  by t h e themself  questions  intensity  to  about  prior  1981).  elders  as t h e y  aloud  interview  (Bertaux,  Native study  read  Each  responses  interviewer  this  was  the time  was  of the  interviewed. The  time  and  place  and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , of the e l d e r .  The  with  first  was  32  interview  was  daughter,  the second  the  interview  third  conducted  Approximately  i n the l i v i n g r o o m  interview was  held  three  was  o f t h e woman's  conducted  i n my  i n the k i t c h e n  weeks  lapsed  office,  of the e l d e r ' s  between  each  and home.  case  interview. Each  interview  recorded.  The t a p e  The  initial  clarity of  lasted was  two h o u r s  t r a n s c r i b e d onto  was  then  as w e l l  edited.  a n d was  a word  processor.  The e d i t i n g  as o r g a n i z a t i o n  tape  provided  f o r the a n a l y s i s  the data. The  editing  was  interview  question  remaining  interview  were  omitted  Analysis  of the Case  foundation Each  easier  interviews  patterns  being  or a l t e r e d ,  to allow  The  as f o l l o w s ;  remained  purposes  all  then  transcription  to the reader,  approximately  were  the i n i t i a l  i n i t si n i t i a l  organized and t h e n  response  position  to the  with  chronologically.  primarily  understanding  the  Few  words  f o r grammatical  to the  reader.  Interviews  were  then  analyzed  analyzed  for patterns  against  the  (Stake  1 9 8 0 ) , and  theoretical  of M a r r i s . case  interview  was  analyzed  i n the order  they  were  conducted. The  1.  pattern  Patterns  a n a l y s i s was  of i r r e t r i e v a b l e  as f o l l o w s ;  loss  and change  i n t h e c u l t u r e as  33  indicated 2. by  Patterns  in  of  recovery  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  support 3.  i n the e l d e r ' s  and  These  of  on  Bargaining;  patterns  were  The  identification  and  line  4.  Cross-case  5.  Unmatched  Results  To elder  \  number  of  structural  the t e r m i n a l l y Depression;  i n the e l d e r ' s  elements  which  of each  i n the  pattern  life  provided  by  1975):  Acceptance;  Hope.  as  pattern  independent  i n the case  Kubler-Ross Denial;  variables.  was  cited  by  page  interview.  matching  cross-case  accuracy,  facts,  identified  i l l (1969,  a l l considered  was  patterns  the a n a l y s i s were  ensure  and  of key  meaning  g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n as  research  Anger;  of p e r s o n a l  guidance.  Patterns her  life.  then  were  performed. identified.  outlined.  the e d i t e d  spellings,  then  interview  etc. validated.  was  read  by  each  34  CHAPTER CASE  This  chapter  Indian  elders  hours,  was  The  daughter, and  Each  chosen  by  given  by  interview  the e l d e r  three  a n d was  was  i n t h e home  the second  interview  was  i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  interview recorded  editing  was  was  consolidated  was  interview  relatively  chronological  according order.  initially  i n the k i t c h e n  of the  transcribed  and  shared  to t o p i c  and t h e n  presented  responded  a discussion  tape elder's office,  of t h e i r  home.  then  material  elder  two  of the e l d e r ' s  simple;  Each  with  was  Native  lasted  interview  tape  question  the Interviews  i n a place  The  in  contains  INTERVIEWS  first  the t h i r d The  STUDY  to the r e s e a r c h e r .  held  recorded.  FOUR  edited.  by t h e e l d e r  to the  topically interview  residential  school  experience. In edited  a l l cases, interview  the interviewees with  clarity.  Repetitive  deleted.  Headings  of  presentation  clear In  a  some  words  were  been  included  for  the sake  being  from  have  changed  and i n c o m p l e t e  extracted  been  used  i n the  or r e - a r r a n g e d  sentences  the m a t e r i a l  have  for  been  f o r the sake  here.  few i n s t a n c e s ,  not  words  words  material  i n the e d i t e d  of anonymity  from  the o r i g i n a l  version.  or because  This  i t was  was  interview generally  too personal  has done  f o r the  35  elder  t o be The  comfortable  interviews  conducted. She  The  i s female,  community minimal was  other  parts The  in  other  of  the  they  to remain an  isolated  the p r o v i n c e . Indian  were  ,  anonymous. northern  Euro-Canadians  the N a t i v e  i n t e r v i e w was  i s Haida  of  order  has  been  This  contact  community  than  in  province.  raid-seventies.  Islands,  by  from  with  parts  i n the  wished  and  contact  controlled  second  her  where to  here  interviewee  i n her mid-60's  i n B.C.  more  i t s inclusion.  are presented  first  compared  also  about  She  and  has  with  was  Minnie  born  lived  Croft,  also  i n Skidegate,  the m a j o r i t y  female  Queen  of h e r  and  Charlotte  life  in  Vancouver. The  third  mid-seventies. Salish  and  Vancouver Each had  by  or  elder. the  He  was  lived  born  with on  his life  Arnold  Guerin,  t h e Musqueam in Native  male  Reserve,  Indian  and is  in his  Coast  communities  i n the  area. of  verified  friends the  has  i n t e r v i e w was  the e l d e r s me  as  a  relatives The  elder's  first  consented  trustworthy of  interviewed  person.  In each  the e l d e r ,  interview,  daughter.  t o be  I  but  case  d i d n o t know  in fact,  confirmed  after  the  was time  nor  formally and  I  they knew had  met  arranged  place.  36  A.  First  Interview  ANONYMOUS  Sent  to  Residential  School  To  begin  when  parents me  sent  learn  away.  I  school. own  down  and  used  to  to  go  room  At  end  I was  sick  used It  to  seemed  tasted  home.  my  in  i t .  There  was  school.  a  Residential  of I  eight  so  when  She  away  for  a  a  I  got  try in  cold!  school.  And  this  was  when  sleep.  were  and  f o r my  village  only  And  went  both  to  this  I  was  school  help  be  sent  the  didn't I  sat  missed  of  what  of  her  food.  small there  -  a  a  one  year.  School from  home  at  school  for  ten  months,  until  the  June. was  a  good  when  I  was  student 14.  And  and I  I  passed  couldn't  and  leave  I  finished  school;  I  our  white  a l l out  kinds I  I  my  to  missed  holiday  then go  in  a l l I  things  seven  to  first  food,  first  when  hard  of  of  would  create  was  own  alot  this.  was  Most  our  Mother  the I  of  I  home  my  girl  month  a l l about And  wee  It  from  there  little  education.  to  changed  would  school -  an  myself  Mother  schoolhouse  was  get  strange  But  told eat  cry  just  residential  think  buy  I  to and  It at  away ways  I  have  me  I was  white  food.  food.  with,  my had  grade to  I way  37  keep  going  until  you were  finished I  back.  went  The  we  I  never  to  was  us  was  really  really So what  she had  boys  And  rules.  this.  I never  what  I learned  separate i t was  back, me  used  and t h e l a s t  She  There  was  a n d we  no  were  together.  We  I t was We  us  never  talked  were  they lady  who  or smoking.  She  reading  alcohol  were  strict.  our p r i n c i p a l ,  t h e way  were  skills.  i n the v i l l a g e  taught  year  another  building.  A l l our s t a f f  They  to  t o go p l a y  us.  when y o u  secretarial  were  i s what  school  school  a l lg i r l s .  in residential  a t home.  quit  went  and g i r l s  this  tell  going  be o u t o f  r u n by m i s s i o n a r i e s  like  we  just  taught  C h r i s t i a n s and t h a t ' s  I learned  a and  a l l Christians,  they  school  taught  us.  went  together  They  weren't  with  similar.  Family  My legal  parents  were  parents;  residential let  me  our  own  me  when  would  against  good  -  o r men,  to o u r s e l v e s .  and  that  h a d o u r own  Even  couldn't  t o was  where  any boys  a missionary  writing  My  a n d we  saw  You  you couldn't  So I k e p t  things  school  any m a l e s .  kept  I went  a l l these  girls  days.  days  had a t e a c h e r  school  residential all  17 o r 1 8 .  i n those  back  taught  In those  I was  school,  forget ways.  she d i d n ' t  much  my  adopted.  my  own  older  Mother  culture.  A l l t h e summer send  me  away  than  I was.  Whenever always  s a t me  S h e made months  to s c h o o l  I g o t home  me  that  down  to erase  my  and she  there own  own  from  s i tthere I was  my  and she  never learn told  culture.  38  She  wanted  she  couldn't  wanted she  me  kept  me  to have read  and  to get t h i s this  an  with  me  education.  this  i s what  extra - my  She  never  went  to s c h o o l  she d i d n ' t  want  me  schooling. own  So w h e n e v e r  culture  t o d o . She  I came  and she t o l d  me  and  home  what  I  learned. Coming what  home  s h e was  cetain girl  Father  when  My  to  girl  was  There  talking  about  mustn't  were my  what do  my  i n what  what  I learned And  Father When  when there  about went  our c u l t u r e o u t o f my  those stayed  kind  tell  explained wasn't  older - like  girlhood  of t h i n g s .  there me  three how  t o me  right  why  things,  like  o r went  me  call me  being  n e a r ray  my  was  Mother  taught  I was  never  to our c h i e f s  home  I was  allowed  he h a d v i s i t o r s This  was  I  s i m i l a r to  me  different  things  o u t o f my  girlhood.  When  of hard.  i n a room  She p u t me -  I h a d t o be  for a girl  nobody  rules.  kind  p u t me  a lady  "The L a n d  talking  B u t when  a s I came  She  called  school.  i t was  days.  t o be  remind  would  i n our house.  he was  one o f t h e m a i n  in residential  as I g r e w  she'd  people  Father  they  chiefs  s i t on h i s l a p a n d e v e r y t h i n g . was  white  certain  with  always  business.  This  and t h e n  rest.  involved  t o go n e a r  couldn't.  and  me:  holidays,  sat at the table  Father  allowed  a  summer  he h a d t o  Question".  and  teaching  things;  I never  o n my  t o be w a l k i n g  own.  be  had r u l e s f o r  a l l by m y s e l f  on a f a s t  I couldn't on my  They  and w o u l d  sloppy. In those  the s t r e e t s  I  and I come i n  She days i t  a l l the  time.  a  39  I  had  nice  to  be  lady.  comfortable  could  learn,  whenever else.  I  look  at  the  bored  the  school  always  home  I'd  room  to  that  and  with  what  hopping  carry  I  or  out  needles  On  I  the at,  s i t , i t seemed  by  whatever  brought  given  So  thought  I was  14  wouldn't  restless.  time  she  to  I  me  I  let  Like  play.  when  put  when  a  something  Then  when  had  And  she  I was  hopscotch.  miserable.  I  she  me  myself;  day,  were  thing.  myself.  crochet hooks.  by  first  -  me  she  was  you  skipping same  I was  and  something  was  the  why  brought  i t was:  window.  where  was  she  knitting  that's  out  And  chair  like  got  And  me  was  a  There  I'd  go  in  this  became  a  woman. And  my  Mother  woman.  You  through  this  her  does In  went  tell  want  me  discipline now,  But  I  Mother  can  she  be  used  piece  of  wood  cover  me  up  i t for four  never  went  with  her  then  I'd  stay  home.  you  know,  rocked. put  me  she'd  that's  when  she  put  your  daughter  daughter  does  the  I  in a put  where  she I  you  big  I'd  my  hang  sleep.  at  me  up  And  When  to  a  to  anybody  Mother. go.  from  she  She  I she  would we  were  the  ceiling  i t was  time  had  and I'd  If  little,  when  part  my  home.  very  even  face  same  think  without  wanted  one.  became  daughters.  I was  remember  over  my  stayed  When  that  can  of  I don't  anywhere  go  to  thing  must  this  where  that  and  and  same  you  and  in cradles,  then  says  went  to  and  the  i t ' s different.  did  I never  me  that  forever  nap  my  through  culture  But  day  where  didn't  my  i t .  my  our  same  daughter.  else  and  see,  went  this  then wake  curved  she'd up  for  a l l I  40  did I  was  was  was  call  always  sent As  ning  a  salmon.  the  salmon.  that's I  they ies  allowed  pinks.  a  maybe  salmon,  she  Then  she'd  tell  We  called  i t  learned.  c a n n e r i e s we  remember  that  I was  way  So  so  seven  But  me  You  doing  help.  those  have  well.  and  Mother tell  smoke  the  my  I  fish  a  Father  to  the  smoked  and so  thin.  canneraccomoda-  smokehouse  want  myself.  in  canneries  The  had  language).  was  also  A l l the  part.  can-  them  the  didn't  them  I  We  cut  In  always  was  fillets  to  thin.  canning  Mother  to  to  to  she  because  smokehouses.  my  used  when  away  make  that  the  my  me  to  hard.  have  Mother  wanting  (own  were  I  until  my  chase  just  help.  so  Mom  there  to  land.  my  weren't  water,  to  to  really  people  the  wanted  used  they  out.  watch  certain  be  the  to  rae  school.  always  to  the  on  close  Mother was  on  were  nice  the  I  i t -  take  I would  There's  weren't  the  girl  supposed  always  she'd  residential  My  And  did  tions I  the  little  way.  and  physically  to  her  And  her  me  to  spoil  bring  in  the  That's  how  I  So  when  I n d i a n way  and  and  we  were  the  at  white  way. My  Mother  her  own.  She  on  their  then But  she  own  to  go  So  adopted own  legal near  kind.  raised  own.  i n my  my  was  them  her a  family  them  then,  kept  alot  and  they  never  adopted  girl  legal  She  family  and  a  boy,  family  I  was  until they  I  was  were  of  was  then the  about  children  left my  older  me.  I was  second 14.  strangers.  her  that until  I  they  brothers, the  oldest.  And  weren't  and  youngest. I  didn't  I t wasn't  were  never  knew  even  want  t i l l  after  41  my  Father I  was  working an  15,  working  I was  about  there  It  was  was  hard  had o t h e r  when  with  own  sisters  who  I f she had g i v e n  one  other  parents, But at  a n d my  before  passages.  When  came  t o me  back  helped  By just  to  would  never t o be  want  them  teaching  allow sent  away.  to leave  She  home.  she ended  and she w a s n ' t .  My  sisters, this  up  sister going  that  But I taught  me  I had  knew.  was  about  when  us.  close.  us. Dad  was  and c l o s e r . brought My  to s c h o o l  children.  me  I  close  mother t h e way  She  t o me  I  didn't  - when s h e  an i n s t i t u t i o n .  the younger  sort  i s what  My  language.  next  I was  the B i b l e  This  closer  my  hard.  everything  i s what  right  with  with  really  Like  My  own  stay  had taught  t o go  into  even  stayed  parents  so many  me  have  i n o u r own  lost  told  worked  I was  I would  they  any of h e r c h i l d r e n  when  my  I got pretty  I think them  Mother  I  than  So  that  cents  t o me  had t a u g h t  A n d my  o f them.  died  She made  my  10  summer.  I never  s o much  with  the faith  Father.  care  a teenager  taught  to stay  earning  I had l e a r n e d .  the teacher  out -  own  - I was  did,  was  my  took  them  over,  t h e e n d o f t h e summer,  like  really  me  closer  a choice  started  parents.  people  I had l e a r n e d  I went that  legal  were  I  Father  , my  and s i s t e r s .  was  school  my  b u t she d i d n ' t .  brothers  t h e summer  residential  really  aunts,  time.  every  with  me  them.  11 a n d I was  when  in  to l i v e  with  at  no w o r k my  time  at that  I was  and then  parents. o f my  first  the cannery  river  very  my  i n the cannery  at  to the  Mother  was  two summers  because go  That  i n the cannery  hour.  there  to  died.  ones.  I was And  that  of  42  was  what  really  And Mother own  I d i d this  i n o u r own  parents river. And  had  My  no  mother  next  in  and  marriage  - i t felt  court  forced.  Like  that  it  was  somebody  age. I could  in  the church.  a  The the  good  same  living  were  I n my  told- that  I know way  own  t o my  I ' d go  in  t o my  on t h e  repair  the nets.  men. they have  said, We  I  went  y o u were  nobody  here  came  and t h e  going  to g e t  cousins  who  than  me.  a bit.  You  older  So  by  the time  s e e i n my  cousins,  were  day,  they  happened, the o l d e r  around 'No',  t o my  time,  I guess.  i t got then  had to men g o t  i t was  somebody  But i t t u r n e d  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  out  way  and  wedding.  I got married,  a n d we  sitting  to  I h a d two  got married  a real  generation  going  i t wasn't  often  came  I was  better,  B u t my  That  who  a little  older  age.  told  You were  had eased  I t was year  I was  d a y , i t was  marriage.  river  home  t h e summer  She w o u l d  I wept!  that  B u t when  be  on  my  older  to  were  Ike t h a t .  tradition  own  come  going  now.  y o u were  before  my  We  arranged.  i n my  me,  pick.  years,  n e t woman.  strange!  to  first  three  i t .  was  f o r c e d , who  really  them.  Family  really  marry  to  and t h e n ,  down  was  y o u know, Well,  close  river.  you or s t u f f  thing  married.  village  the  interest  me  f o r about  I t ' sclosed my  My  to  on  Marriage  marry  brought  down  my  mother  to look  had gone  after  the  down  garden.  43  Everybody of  was  any k i n d ,  net.  We  catching spring  b u t he h a d a b o a t .  brought  I p u t them  when  had our f i r s t  floaters line  on.  about.  my  we  caught  bat I started Mother.  me.  I even I  alone  was  But  I  a n d he  kept  baby's  fish,  my  told  23 w h e n  didn't  was  was  around  I think how  me.  what  did really canning.  down  Mother  I was  really  a  the  this  was  to put the  Like  the  our f i g h t  good.  And  lead  was  right o f f  I d i d t h e same  i t , s h e was to  really  thing  as  proud  of  taste.  died  pretty  on my  together, bag.  t o t r y a n d make  believe  believe  her about  my  children.  bunting  He  own  the salmon  I was  that  h a d i t made.  oh we  brought  them  decided  he h a d no n e t  won!  I  that  husband,  We  didn't  So when  my  So we  t h e t o p and t h i s  doing  about  with  realized  my  than  fight.  But i n t h e end I  And the  together.  1 knew,  i s longer  My  out a l l the o l d webbing  house. we  salmon.  of cancer.  young  own.  then.  I missed  and t h a t ' s what  A n d I'm  still  t o make  a bunting  I t was  then  her very  I did -  kicking  I was a l l  much.  sewing,  myself  I  even  to  f o r not  keeping i t . I and  then  made the  used  an o l d c o a t  I had  the bunting  two  girls  together.  bag and t h e boys  f u r f o r around  the face.  to g e t i t , and t h e y o u n g e r  later  they  trapped  came  home w i t h  i t . I t was  told  was  me  they them  one s a i d ,  a weasel,  a white  That  So I a s k e d  going  bag.  weasel  a white with  I h a d two good were  where  y o u know. going they  "Oh........" weasel.  spots  on  boys, So I  to get were  Two  days  They'd  i t . So  they  went  44  over it  to  and  an  uncle  how  didn't  to  shopped in  when  I  was  thing. a  If  used  I'd  at  i t .  clothes sweaters The good,  they  did  from  like  had  two  village.  By  in  of  in  our  they  care.  and  mothers  residential  who or  would  with  a l l my  knit  We'd  dress  and  them  send  to  weren't  care. had  better  It  didn't  was  were  the  the  had  into  children kids  of  rooms had  the  my  the  or own  had  with  kids  and  in  homes  who  was  residential  like  hospital kind  I  good  young  residential  three  what  have  mostly  in  them  than  kids  taking  mothers Those  school  taking  They  their  a l l myself.  to  that  just  bought  ever  was  wash i t .  never  need  weren't  it  a l l  didn't  was  same  I made  were  that  made  children;  them  The  she  I'd  daughters  me.  from  but  and  boots.  me  the  nice,  i t up  start  them,  my  kids  school.  rip  one.  never  that  did  skin  i t  into  clothes  little  I  I  when  were  who  nice  up  came  really  to  another  a l l of  I  how  i t and  village  -  had  was just  a  sent  they  I  really  children  that  knitting.  I  mother  getting  them  catalog. for  homemade  way  I  order  training  get  growing  shoes  pick  store.  then  more  their  way  teachers  needed  my  and  were  mail  wore  clothing,  the  my  unless  homes  started  modern.  school  had  I  lots  school  i t was  school  always  the  kids  showed  I measured  try  getting  I  came  to  the  Mother's  catalog,  That's  and  through  he  dry  had  the  my  of  the  they  start  anything  and  i t was  we'd  when  article  look  copy  but  where  And  When  when  small.  herself.  trapper,  times  were  is  i t .  a  so  August;  this  is  good,  anywhere  about  And  dry  f i t very  There  who  who who  lost TB  there  who  were  then.  45  When  my  oldest  DIA  residential  two  oldest  grade  i t was  they  sent  the  They  just  place  want  them  to  them  myself.  My for  over  The Edmonton  and  the  sent  what  good  to  my  were When  them. thing  time.  They I made I f they  stamps 12  to  any  didn't  to  as  told  my  children.  village  home  forgot.  never wrote  me,  sure  they'd  moving  away  from  say  find  a  when the  i t came  same  of  kind  as  here  to  None  of  s i t down  with  them  forgot.  i n contact  with  letters  again. They  the v i l l a g e .  And  of  them  ever  me.  time  to  them  I'd w r i t e  for  me.  f a r away  came  place  happened.  did for  homes.  write  my  this.  didn't  but  so  in  If I  wha"t  I would  I kept  to  have  just  None  and  After  a  over  Mom  i n good  came  me  t o go  They  have  agree.  school,  have  a l l placed  didn't  I didn't  t o make  by  she d i d  to V a n c o u v e r , but  control  to  them  of;  I  have  school,  never  eight,  i n the  down  have  going  sure  school  came  just  have  they  grade  grade 8 i n the v i l l a g e .  would  happened  They  I  even  a l l got they  were  students. husband  fisherman. about  go  older  grade  My  do  to  a  One  you  I was  like  them  their all  where  was  her  Edmonton.  they  children  teach  all  and  I didn't  complained.  One  to  younger  Vancouver. ever  one  then  daughters  control  finished  them  like  There  placing.  other  decided  my  DIA  go,  felt  Mom  school.  daughters  8,  It  daughter f i n i s h e d  it.  was  I f the My  fishing  then,  s e a s o n was  husband  was  a highliner,  poor,  there  determined  was  a  really  nothing  h i s sons  good  you  would  could  get  a  good  46  start. to  On  fish.  my  Fishing  and  I helped  You  stay  given You I  side,  job,  get  you  you  determined  i s nothing  them  where  I was  a  are  have  but  trade.  can  keep  climbing  the  think  this  i s where  I wonder  duty  mechanics  anywhere. papers. years  My  decide  what  children  my  but  he's  the  going  chosen  a l l their  carpenter  son baby  to  you my  do  just  about  careers  and  and  that  going aren't  determined  to  go  got  And heavy  can  go  a l l his about  baby.  He  trade  10  can't  school.  connected  in for.  top.  They  to  in a  become  schooling  back  fishing.  to  the  have  he's  a  in  going  get  going  Whereas  papers.  his  he's  life.  boys  finished  were  I was  you're  until  boys  promotion  your  because  got  is a  youngest  he's  have  son  of  my So  no  whatever  ladder  they've  third  And  ago,  and  rest  or  of  gambling. There's  f o r the  papers  none  with  My the  land. My And  my  oldest  son  daughter  alot.  She I  gave  daughters. school  was  and  knows the  her  alot same  I did so  i s connected husband  about  girlhood  i t f o r my  strict  three  days.  When  home  right  after  school  go  school.  l e t her  day. And  I like  to  carried my  that  oldest  she  are,  too.  Land  Claim.  discipline  started I  And of  daughter  put  now,  you  her her  then our  Land  Question  They  that  daughters,  village,  and  part  the  four  i n our  than  to  the  with  travel  I had  but  period, back  she  i n her  around  to  with  couldn't  still.  be  my  my  fifth,  absent  had  to I  the  the  same  thing  culture  out  with  a l l my  she's  got  a young  come  room.  I did  girl  more  had next  girls. who's  47  ending on  her girlhood  what  t o do a n d s h e c a r r i e d  So follow the  i t was  missed  more  allowance, allowance  than  my  came  home  only They  missing  s o many  was  such  fifth  were  my  so s t r i c t  a b i g help  i t because  told  even  us t h a t they  though  that  still  I couldn't  would  children  c u t us o f f  days  our  the family  five  t o me.  i t changed.  dollars for  So i t was  So w h e n e v e r  i n h e r room.  carrying  about  i f our  i t was  do t h a t  put h e r r i g h t  I was  that  And i n t h o s e  l e t them  time  I  instructions  i n our v i l l a g e  of s c h o o l  allowance.  school  a n d s h e g o t my  one d a u g h t e r  They  days  daughter's  from  about  with  So I c o u l d n ' t  me  them o u t .  school.  our family  child.  just  badly  really  our c u l t u r e .  children  every  and she phoned  she  I didn't  out part  of  feel  i t  anyways. When house  kids  put  them  enjoyed  -  their there  kept  bought  because  the  on  we  me Oh,  the kids  were  up f o r s c h o o l  the house own. were  - I was  had time  so s m a l l .  ready  Right I was  time,  working  to enjoy the  from  t h e two o f us i n t h e r e .  I got  By t h e t i m e  So I r e a l l y  until  t h e house  the time  busy.  f o r bed m y s e l f .  always  A n d by t h a t just  I never  In the morning  t o b e d , I was  was  they  were  I  haven't  a l lout  t o o b i g f o r us  I guess  that's  what  going. we  h a d some b a d t i m e s ,  when  the kids  into  respectable  think  the house,  started  o f i t now  growing  young  men  sometimes  b u t we  up I was a n d women.  i t brings  got over  them.  determined This  a lump  was  into  I  guess  t o make my  my  them  dream. throat.  When I  I  48  think  I did well.  blessed.  They  I always  got  what  them.  It  and  seems  about  whether  way.  It  just  falls  Modern  that I  seems  I  to  like  how  f o r them  and  and  then  on  When felt  I  first  badly  everywhere girls  go  and  had  out  and  think  i f she  without  I  me I  on  to  badly  the  as  I got  sort  Like  diapers  the  the  With  persons  them  they  where  each  I  away  In  day  their  own,  I  knew  think,  I was  we  ones  did.  i t seems  to  from  were  wanted  when  had to  the  church  kids  my  I made  a  own  had  ones by  about  i t and  he  said,  times  you  know.  Just  I got  used  let  i n the  Mother  going  forget  my  I  felt  to  own,, a l l the  " W e l l , we're  l e t them  sort  house,  themselves.  Mother  Dad  I  went  to  my  my  know, decision  always  with  be  they  culture,  their  to  don't  You  on  I used  Indian  i t s jus^t  out  around?"  the  today,  be.  first  little  " W e l l , what's  sending  to  decisions  today, i t  Today  girls I  big  done.  our  little  But  to  way  day  mothers  be  break  older  new  any  maintain  modern  had  to  the  the  or  step  had  like  way  little  whatever  my  t o make  the  way  do  i t .  new  of,  mothers.  used  told  modern  the  their  send  being  with  have  to  about  with  really  that's  rolls.  I went  go  wash  choice just  time.  wanted;  living.  the  I  that  Together  i t just  your to  Life  didn't  had  into  know  Pampers  of  they  them  ,  Traditional  don't  tell  hitting  our  culture." Well,  to  that.  And  whenever  they  had  to  go  out  49  anywhere then  I  or  was  sat  down  you  know,  able  and  shouldn't  my  ease  doing  I t ' s why alot  alot  of  that  won't and  never  then.  saw  school,  big  holidays,  i n my Like  do.  I'd on  my  experience.  boat  own  and  we  went  by  was  the  only  travelling  So  about  had  horses.  and  buggy  And  then and  down.  awhile.  older.  1925  was  when  There  was  First  the  road  going I'd  After  boat  up  see  them  That's And I  then had  I  down  to  i t was my  ever  saw  and in  then  that  children,  my  I  ago  but  why  about  like  that  It in  I  I  first  really  from  f o r me by  fifty  school,  trip  was  seen  I was  I was a  really  I couldn't  drove.  return  So  good  around  long  hard  I  besides,  haven't  thing  me  just  to gas  was I  home  go  to  home  for  boat.  had.  Prince  the  age  one  time  And  I've  Seattle.  i t was  I remember  after  We  them.  into.  my  very  that,  thing.  too.  take  down.  leave  same  pictures,  Avenue.  again  why  they  and we  the  world,  A l l the  When  to  like  decision.  that's  seen  valley,  back. gas  -  right  a  village  me,  way  able  rolled  I t ' s not  always  drove  our  i n the  husbands  ever  We  beyond by  ladies  I was  i t just  change  their  i t when  say,  leave.  never,  a  I  something  was  ladies  seen  old  and  other  something,  for  at  to V a n c o u v e r .  years  up  feel  or  t h e r e were  I'd  believe  That  a meeting  made  daughters  went  to  i t and  they  thought  to  go  about  alot,  because  to  thought  I?  I've seen  I had  I  Rupert remember  they'd distance i t so  never  husband  first.  get -  well. saw  seeing lost  the  a  for  They'd  go  horse  would  get until  there  only  awhile.  roads  i t again  would  They  to  go  lost I  was  do  our  50  big  shopping;  Prince down for me  Rupert  We  and  exciting.  I  first  husband. tied  up  was  from  my  That  really  my  over  new f o r the  to v i s i t  me  t o come  scared. o n e o f my  to keep  me  border.  my He  was  down t o  I'd  never  sons.  down - I s t a r t e d  a n d he w e n t  came  a big experience  down  and t o l d  just  I  I was- s c a r e d .  So I t o o k  son along  saw  So when  going  there.  travelling  was  was  I came  I was  home.  h i m i f he knew he  when  phoned  trip  i t was  I  p l a c e s , e v e r y t h i n g was  down  scared,  h i s round  asking  every  a n d he  before  a b i g change.  to S e a t t l e  fishing  I was  So I t o o k  kept  Then  away  that  to s c h o o l .  It  o u t on  company  back  Sunday I was  first  plane  ride.  h i s way  about  the a i r p o r t .  on t h e  and went scared.  after year  by p l a n e ,  things  f o r my  "Follow  that after  one  trip,  I was  able  to t r a v e l  that  I always  came  sometimes  by b u s .  I always  family  i n Vancouver,  down  by  myself.  by m y s e l f , carried  so I f o u n d  not  alot  i t easier  of to  travel  bus . I  season three  was  working  closed or four  I  says.  always  by  fall  A n d I was  I paid  everybody",  going  to Vancouver  home  Then  And  flew  a weekend  was  1948, t h e n ,  to S e a t t l e ,  shopping!  by m y s e l f ,  plane.  that  i n a l l these  f o r t e n days  Saturday.  I t was  went  He was  Vancouver. been  And  and t h e n  stopped  I really  sugar.  again.  to Vancouver me.  And  flour,  then  i n town  I would  come  years.  I stayed  at the cannery,  down.  I stayed  away  and a f t e r from  out of the v i l l a g e .  the  home f o r Our  village  51  roads  a r e bad f o r t r a v e l l i n g  out.  Those  before  were  Christmas,  herring  fleet.  home  a n d he was  just  tied  house.  What 60  gave  me  hitting  "Why  what  fishing  then.  up  anymore;  64 a n d s h e w a s n ' t  don't  you quit  "Oh",  she s a i d ,  they  g e t on t h e i r  1 just  wanting  quit  work  left?  I thought  about  notice  I wasn't  coming  about  that  because  more  work  just  packed  fruit Like  than up  trees. I didn't  have  well,  He  home  went  s o he  this  - I just  was  She'd  t o g e t my  home.  a telephone;  have  My  I weeded,  we  then  said,  to myself, I have  I just  do b e t t e r up my  TV.  why  years my  very  happy  work and mind.  put i n a garden,  have  know  been  gave  wasn't  w h e n I went  didn't  I don't  some g o o d  boss  B u t I made  of t h i n g s  turned  a n d s h e was  and  the t h i n g s  anybody.  year.  stopped.  and  retirement."  I still  told  work.  yourself?"  and e n j o y  people.  two w e e k s  And I t h o u g h t  while  1  home  t o h e r one t i m e  enjoy  next  to quit  from  work  the  did.  since  and j u s t  alot  to keep  year  work  was a t  s o he  fourth  i t ' s t h e o l d t i m e r s who  I missed  husband  i s my  i t , never  and went  My  with the  wanted  go home  the young  until  I just  I talked  back  up  stayed  that  well.  years  right  a l l that  home.  retirement.  t o do a l l t h e s e  so I  i n January  one o f t h e l a d i e s  " I want  work,  again  i n there,  of q u i t t i n g with  work  He w a s n ' t  this  months,  f o r Christmas.  a n d he w e n t  be i n t h e h o s p i t a l .  don't  started  ago I d e c i d e d  working  I would  home  had to l i v e  the idea  a n d 1 was  she'd  go  years work  we  I would  Somebody  couldn't  that  and t h e n  h i s boat  Three I  the years  i n the winter  home I  So I planted  though. missed  52  going  into  that.  Most  because out  and d o i n g  of a l l , I m i s s e d you don't  my  the f r e s h  get that.  shopping,  fruit  You  that  only  stuff  like  I liked  get that  t o buy  i f y o u go  of the v a l l e y .  just  I  f o r supper,  a t home  And  TV  town  the f i r s t  sitting  at  there.  t h e same  missed,  week  home  When  time.  I was  But  but I g o t used  I really  missed  i n town,  a t home, to i t .  town,  I would  i t was  I t didn't  so  especially  knit  quiet.  bother  me  and  watch  This  i s what  after  awhile. Well,  the next  good.  The  supper  I phoned  They  first  didn't have  we  and  an A m e r i c a n  learned  TV  about  right  up w i t h  don't  know  it's we  Because now So  we  down  keep  TV  to Vancouver. me  f o r a long  You  with  good.  drag used  as w e l l  i s that  that.  They time  can't  i t .  t o g e t good we  t h e news  now.  days  I was  with  can't  my  I  even  home. and  really We  husband,  days I  think  big batteries. things.  pick  up  But  a station.  on o u r T V . now  i s modern.  N o t many  o l d people  keep  i n town.  a n d some  those  even  at  t h e news.  i t ' s good  telling  still  thing  and g e t t h o s e  You  i n our v i l l a g e  i n t h e o l d ways  One  i n town.  get Edmonton  up w i t h  reception  can't.  We  was  after  I was  I was  g e t i t on r a d i o ,  Some  I t ' s why  thought  dish.  you can keep  so t h a t  i n ,right  that  as CBC.  out our o l d r a d i o  up w i t h  Everything lives  got our telephones,  got our t e l e p h o n e s  station  it's electric, we  we  too, a big satellite  what's  not that  should  d a y we  believe  Now  year  Hardly are  anyone left,  I  53  especially old. of  But them  think is  i n our  village.  everyone  will  turn  is turning to  i t ' s easier,  easier  had  to  the  way  today  make  that's  we  like  i t .  And  the  to  modern  especially  than  i t a  They  i t was  certain  i t and we  a l l my  age  the  modern  world.  world  with  i n my  way  then  don't  are  so  we  have  because  putting day.  i t keeps.  slap to  worry  But  about  very  I guess  food. to  i t i n the  not  most  i t is easier.  up  Like  now,'  Everything  store now,  deep  I  fish we  you  smoke  freeze  i t going  fish  and  bad.  Today  It Indian  makes way  happening own  like  traditions  That's  and  and  way,  carry  need  together  when  I  faster.  I  still  to  me.  don't  out  to  put  our  control  I do  But  But  I  stick  pass  this,  are  and  I'm  to  be  traditional  My  grandchildren listen  that.  greats My  now  and  a  third  granddaughters  rules.  due have  They  to  my  having them  always will  awhile.  these  to  I  they  made a  on  carry  grandmothers going  still  them  still  for  whiteman's  little.  tradition, them  the  was  g r a n d c h i l d r e n who  important  i t this  don't You  my  to  I did  faster  especially  do  sense  grow  up  grandmother.  next  to  me  with  i t just to  the  seems  alot  of  to  our  their  own  little  on.  I  tell  them,  why to I'm  tell  them "If  little  ones. to you  brats.  your be r e s p e c t a b l e . going  to two  stick  and  I've  got  little  the  same  discipline  month.  experienced  be  grandchildren,  become  That's  way  I  54  did  when  three time  they  or four came.  carried  doing  out.  the other  especially  about  themselves.  remain  pleased  able  pretty  It's  just  don't  they're to  happen  happen but  starting  to  with  They Lots  with  s e e what  i n even can't  of p e o p l e  the bridge we  Even  look  come  coming like  change  h a s no  and  about  them f o r  and paved  the road come  by  months can't  change  but  able  road.  they  land.  isn't  i t ' s going  So  going  to  I t might n o t ,  There  are  on t h e o p p o s i t e  across  down  connection  road.  fast.  were fast.  the planes and  we  really  the winter  now,  to change  always  t o me  because  In our v i l l a g e ,  with  daughter  questions,  ways  that  During  bridge  i t ' s going  me  didn't  now  a week.  t h e new  t o come  village.  Things  fast.  my  h e r i n h e r room.  can keep  people's  of out of i t even  really  I think  river.  think  sort  time,  that.  village  once  asking  home f o r  granddaughter's  talking  so t h e y  transportation.  there  fast  me,  the  much  still  with  isolated.  a ferry  have  doing,  to use w h i t e  -•- i s t h e o n l y  were  from  other  and she k e p t  daughters  you're  my  away  granddaughter's  home  d a y my  I stayed  home when  the t r a d i t i o n s ,  I'm  were  third  I was  thing  Since  I wasn't  B u t f o r my  t h e same  We  girlhood.  years,  that  Just  to  left  the r i v e r  tourists s i d e of  to the  they  don't  come  across.  i n , everybody's  going  t o be  curious  they'll  come  i n . We're  going  to get  stared at. My shop  daughter  f o r a year  and I have now.  I do  been things  talking with  my  about hands  opening -  a  I  gift  c r o c h e t i n g and  55  knitting.  I c a n do a l m o s t  myself  about  bark.  My  remember things, I  had  are  a  lady don't  i s 1 didn't  Mother what  knew  learned.  making,  unless  Another  care.  of people  One  village  nets.  now.  Me,  I know  make  oolichan  how  nets.  baskets  a young  girl  only  B u t now  when  I think  still  do  i t .  goes  really  is really  picking  t o make  young  salmon dying  with I  about  There's  dying  kick cedar  don't  old ladies  and g e t s  i t really  got very  I  out i n our v a l l e y  catches  That's  thing  to l e a r n .  that's  They've  only  want  and she s t i l l  thing  The  t o make  of dying  who  someone  oolichan  how  but I d i d n ' t  I t ' ssort  i n one v i l l a g e know.  learn  s h e d i d . As  so I d i d n ' t  couple  anything.  d i d those  i t , I  wish  fast.  There  one r e a l o l d cedar  bark.  I  out, i s basket  quick. up.  people  nets,  They're  making  a l l working  but I don't  out t o o , making  nets.  know  on  that  how  to  56  B.  Sent  take  begin  I didn't  us  away  with, from  because way  after  life.  were know  guided how  we  were  Then  we  punished were  to  And  took  that  onto  felt  that that.  o f f to  taken  they  that  own  should  that  family  was form  s c h o o l , most  traditions.  from  Native  We  o u r homes  until  everything Indian  we  school us;  were  own  and  language.  forget i t .  seemed  began  to f e e l  feel  people,  to  I t h i n k most  to  It didn't  bad  made  strapped  our  not  was  that  they  a l lIndian, e v e r y t h i n g  f o r us.  were  were  We  language,  Indians  we  and  f o r speaking  our  not good  thought  wrong  children  cases  e v e r y t h i n g about  We  felt  a r e , your  us  i n school  the Native  that  school.  in residential  was  you  the language.  i n many  that  i t was  t o be  right  I always  i n behaviour  i t was  to hang  of  self-respect. think  they  particularly  suppress  Indian.  Before  realized  teachers  Most  who  in residential  severely  Indian.  form  so w e l l  i t was  homes.  people  wrong  trying  The  think  our I n d i a n  your  of  suppressed,  many  CROFT  To  didn't  had  MINNIE  School  Indians  We  Interview  to R e s i d e n t i a l  wrong your  Second  feel of  i t was give  us  inferior  that  way.  the Indians  bad  feel  that  they  never  consulted  the N a t i v e  people. Many,  felt  Indian  be  any  that  way. I  to  about  I  57  what to  should  do w i t h  was  hard  probably  were  Of  during most  o f us d i d n ' t  s o many  things  that  school.  many  Some  h a d no  know  I  o f us w e r e  kept  what  just  i n school  taken  when  away,  t o do t h e time  as t h e n .  because  have we  that  few of o u r N a t i v e  wrong  should  choice  A  nothing  Some  at that  as e a r l y  were  we  had  and I f e e l  Course,  then,  s e e now  parents  say i n a n y t h i n g .  any b e t t e r .  even  h a d no  The  children  holidays.  about  o f them  own  up w e r e  though  s a y i n a n y way  course,  grew  t h e summer  concerned  children.  of t h e i r  Indians  as t h e y  were  no  to t h e i r  The N a t i v e  even,  work  people  taught  the education  wrong.  Indians,  had  be  There  our  parents  i n the s c h o o l .  were  taken  our parents  to  weren't  considered.  Childhood  I to  all to  was  live  about  at R e s i d e n t i a l  bring  United be  o l d when school  of s c h o o l i n g  taken  I didn't  kind  main  of  go  My  good  Skidegate  Coqualeetza.  mother  so I went  home,  from  Our f a t h e r d i e d  I went  so n e a r l y  couldn't  home  afford  every  t o a camp  I had  other at Ocean  nice.  o b j e c t i v e at r e s i d e n t i a l  Christians,  down  at Sardis;  to Coqualeetza.  The  summers  I came  there.  i n t h e summer,  I t was  be  years  us a l l home  Their  to  years  o f us w e r e  Park.  nine  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  seven  summer.  to  about  School  little  Church  of Canada.  The  t h e most  important  thing  Christians. teaching  school  was  to teach  O u r s was  of t h e word  to the t e a c h e r s .  us  r u n by t h e  o f God  seemed  58  As were the  we  got o l d e r ,  not r e a l l y church  ones  who  Coqualeetza many  hiring  The  themselves.  should  have  there,  we  picked  i t up  did  really who  taught  weren't  taught went  itself  school  on t h o u g h ,  waitresses pick there  up  That  was  In  taught  to wait and l e a r n  many  from  didn't  us  proper  i n a laundry  on t h e s t a f f to serve the r i g h t  things  the seven  they  years  they  was  very  that.  twelve  1920, i t began  t o work  dishes  were  found  east,  white  that  Nova  When  learn  anything  dining  the meal  room  older  They They  us a f t e r w a r d s  of s c h o o l i n g I had t h e r e ,  people  also We  were  from  that  had a  on t a b l e s .  as i f we  - I've f o r g o t t e n which  taught  A l l they  i n school.  to wait  correctly  great.  and d i d n ' t  1900. The  a n d how  just  of the  or older  nursing.  but  bad.  about  home  they  I was  that  Many  to improve.  images  succeed  language,  of i t wasn't  like  were  about  and they  Alot  they  said  taught  to the  the  and  back  well.  English  when  alive  were  that  from  with  to matter  us l i t t l e  the E n g l i s h  and t h i n g s  are s t i l l  u s how  of t h e t e a c h e r s  about  to r e a l l y  at i t sbeginning  gardening  began  had wanted  along.  ABC's.  taught  writing  came  t o make  the proper  their  hospital  seemed  researched  originally  t o want  learn  Later  we  I'm  many  had a f f i l i a t i o n s  that  The book  us t o l e a r n  a s we  teach  students  seemed  But i f they  school  was  there  They  thing  School;  that  Brunswick.  teachers  The  the o n l y  Residential  a n d New  o f us f e l t  teachers.  them.  of the teachers  Scotia  of  qualified  and t h a t ' s  were  many  the l e f t  way! was  i t was  But good. really  or  59  only  three  half  days  training learned school in  and a h a l f and then  was how  kind  the laundry  all of  left  or h o s p i t a l  on S a t u r d a y  we  could  finish  they  research  we  1930's I  French  life  on  that  i n B.C. school  I h a d no - we  more  than  were  And  what  got  half  the  school  we  and  could  Coqualeetza  s c h o o l . And from  high  i n our school i n  time. 9.  learning.  subjects  no way  graduated  the f u n n i e s t  I was  school  half.  high  I left  to h i g h  to  I finished thing  i s that  Algebra,  but d i d n ' t  without  know  a  many  geometry, much  about  any  through.  i n the s c h o o l  i n the o u t s i d e world.  few t i m e s  Indians  a t any o t h e r  had a l l t h e s e  shut  go  working  to get through  was  o r so a f t e r  high  i n the s c h o o l  9 because  enough  but t h e r e  a  turns  f o r the other  a t t h e end of g r a d e  idea  B u t we  you worked  smart  d i d l e t the students  c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp  very  further,  i n any s u b j e c t .  them. We  o f us w e r e  we  y o u went  to the p r o v i n c i a l  s c h o o l . A year  found  left  failure time  gone  because  because  to s c h o o l  vocational  I f y o u were  a t t h e end of grade  l e t us go  Alot  our high  though,  the  have  grades,  went  But that  t o o , I guess  to the c l a s s r o o m  wouldn't  Chilliwack.  half.  we  7, 8 o r 9 y o u h a d t o t a k e  Coqualeetza  in  or  f o r us  because  and h o u s e c l e a n .  i n grade  t h e day and went  government  of  the other  of good sew  of academic  day. But i n t h e younger  We  a  worked  to cook,  student,  years  Some  and were people  and a l l t h a t  y o u came  o u t on y o u r  sort own.  very said  ignorant i t was  of t h i n g .  about  like There  You d i d n ' t  a  jail  were  come  o u t on  60  your  own  you. had  to  When to  They girls one  in  little  boy  sister.  though  he  was  you  were  the  school. The  four so  much  room  a  accepting of  seemed  an  to  feel  us  you  things  Christmas  apple  things  that  about  see  girls to  boy me  and  things  our  own  I  remember  Percy  school  learning  French.  had  feel bad  We  Gladstone were  they  had  like  They  and  our I  writing  and  see  i t  even  only  time  lawn  i n front  were  in  his  of  made  But  grade  restricted across  a  tree.  the  you  like These  just feel  replace  bad.  i t with  times,  they  us  things,  teachers  happy  on  for  boys  didn't  were  into  The  side  i t off  they  own  miles  little  The  some  that. or  to  many  angry.  Yet  you  taken  people,  people  We  If  so  these  there.  smiling  for  do  go  remember  The  the  hours  to  I  punished  on  you  girls.  girls  sister.  of  who  wrong!  ourselves.  and  or  a  were  the  together.  boys  the  with  didn't  three  i n another.  separate.  from  we  school.  Sundays  punished  make  the  his  couple  together  from  teacher  You  marched  to  a  shopping  you.  We  back  on  not  and  d i d was  about  a  whatever  with  over  were  just  parties  anything  were  to was  us  Talking  s i n . We  Everything good  gave  boys  though!  run  march  us  boys  brought  visit  do  separate  the  to  to  to  of  there.  boys  wanting  to  i t was  was  sorts  be  had  to  bunch  back  and  He'd  classrooms  then  the  used  They  us  miles  who  allowed  they  somebody  whole  took  wing  just  -  Chilliwack  the  kept  one  comb  always  three  always  were  older  was  never  and  a  to  marched  They  Chilliwack  buy  went  there  they  things.  and  you  do,  alone,  go  like  didn't  teach  culture. at  the  the  board  board  in  high  whatever  61  the  teacher  people than  from  this, I  can  but  I  and  "I don't  i t better. but you  can't  And  write  Percy  went  said,  into  didn't.  us.  I don't  ourselves well. but  or  so  The weren't  be  so  we  My  never  and  young  easier  own  were  anything  rigid  were  because  Being  better, here. you  but  You  can  I  can't  speak,  we  don't  tribe so but so  that  very  of  talking  less  regimented  go  we  to  don't  English  express that  forgotten  and  sisters  to your  Haida,  but  I t was  Indian long  way was  or  my  friends  along.  o f e v e r y t h i n g we  together,  a l l day  speak  taught  had  to get  dictatorial.  the N a t i v e  because  I  my  i t a l l again.  i n order  suspicious  not  English  brothers  or  i t , but  a  English,  the Queen's  remember  more  spoke  I could  school  own  b u t I knew  to l e a r n  bad  use  out  t o my You  uncle  hard  we?"  Haida,  the proper  was  going  and  that  that  could  They  around  speaking  school  had  i t and  teachers doing  at  came  your  Haida  i n a f i x , aren't  father  first  by  i t ,  at n i n e  i t was  I  at  from  easygoing.  alot  1  and H a i d a ,  i n the s c h o o l .  suspicious. to  "Haida s  can w r i t e  think  got along  others  t o me,  our w o n d e r f u l  way  told  easily  I worked  friends  of  I t ' s the other  thought  B u t when  I  one  i f I can w r i t e  I was  I said,  I always  know  school  mother  as  said  "We're  b i t of E n g l i s h .  except  he  was  i t ! "  little  Haida.  Gladstone  isn't i t ? "  French,  you  Percy  Skidegate  said,  speak  speak  said.  they  did.  We  would  be  difficult  of  life  hard  to  f o r us  i s so take.  But  62  we  were  young  things  though  Things  like  The  worst I  i n our minds  parts  they  suppressed  else  was  alot  of o t h e r s  good  we  along  after  the  wasn't bit  don't  At  agree.  had had a  And  to  Generally,  I think  i t was  hard  because  they  hadn't  taught  We  didn't  know  like  good  limited  even  though  everything  f o r many u s how  know  o f us  to get  anything  about  what  that.  Skidegate  to S k i d e g a t e  out of s c h o o l . f o r three  I left.  easy.  we  so, but I  back  Vancouver,  entered  of very  least  i n a way.  or a n y t h i n g  there  out a l o t  and  does  store  things.  the obediance  government  came  we  two  culture.  Indian,  school.  first  turned  of our  forget.  everything  left  went  these  can't  alot.  we  I  were  we  a r e many  learned  f o r us  Home  that  and t h e l o s s  school  Before  years  There  we  graduated  Returning  I  of our e d u c a t i o n  a l l that.  t o t h e way.  a l l these  punishment  and i n s c h o o l  after  adapted  the r e s i d e n t i a l  after  education  a n d we  the cruel  think  students  people  After  of the o u t s i d e  to work I wanted  months.  I didn't getting world,  When  f o r about t o work  I had  a little  I wasn't  money  when  education happy  months  so I worked  enough  f i t i n a t home  three  to stay  seeing  there  i n the  t o come  I went  and  when  to  home. I t a  little  a n d do  nothing. There and  t o me  Vancouver.  was  nothing  t h e Queen But  to do.  Charlotte  s t i l l  I wanted  I liked Islands  my  own  family  are heaven  and  compared  to g e t out and work.  When  friends to you get  63  into why  the v i l l a g e most So  me  our m i n i s t e r  about  twelve  a dressmaking  were  i n domestic I  came  used  about  my  grandmother.  looked  after  things  for  aunt. and  forth  stayed  at  My settled  would  not happy.  That's  friends how  to get  I got started.  There  at the time;  o n e was  i n Vancouver was  i n Vancouver  i n an o f f i c e ,  b u t most  o f us  alot  my  because  I was  t o go home  t o be 1 0 6 .  mother, I think  whenever  my  used  father  I stayed with  when I  I could  I t ' s funny  but I always after  lonesome  that  to want  died  her alot  my  first  t o s e e my  I never  used  t o go a n d s e e  grandmother  and d i d l i t t l e  her.  mother  people  a t home  were  had r e m a r r i e d , so most  between  my  aunt's  a n d my  my  grandmother  of t h e time  grandmother's  a n d my  I was  house  back  though  I  mother's.  City.  go w i t h  used  her.  t o go a n d s e e w h i t e  Charlotte  They  used  Islands  to i n v i t e  Or t h e D o c t o r ' s  t e a a n d i f I was  They've  memories  prejudice  girls another  us m o r e .  afternoon  Nice  t o some  And t h a t ' s  I used  on t h e Q u e e n  D r . S.  you're  work.  grandmother  Charlotte  for  shop,  two f a v o u r i t e My  me  work.  She l i v e d  worry  My  sent  Haida  to the c i t y .  to  not working,  home.  t o go home  grandmother.  to  leave  a job - domestic  were in  Indians  i f you're  asked  - everybody  i n Skidegate.  home  us t o t e a . " mixed.  long  people  who h a d  ago, i n Queen  her f o r afternoon teas. mother she'd  would  my  say, "Minnie,  So we'd  Years  invite  aunt let's  go f o r t e a t h e r e .  ago, I never  I  saw a n y  go  64  I we  remember  called  airport  i t , at  i s .  there.  Queen  Charlotte  having  drinking, with  my  time.  the  just  every  like  to  have  to  have  a  big  because  i t s where  away,  but  b i g home  the  whole  dancing.  lived  in  anyways.  I  good  and  bread  excellent  I  my  i t or  a l l my paid  pies,  his  bunch  I t was  of  ranch the was  us  from  just  plain  dancing  today.  They  never  used  to  sex.  used  to  over  and  I  f o r the  and  baker.  we  cakes  I just  meals.  I t was  Prince  Rupert,  and  Just  old  a  school  go  chum,  and  we'd  hike  somewhere  on  my  hear  have  up,  have mix  white  sand  on  of  Long the  and  and  to  me  and  then  an  never In  have  Vancouver, run go  on  westcoast of  i t  be  food  from  very  l o t of  baked  I  the  up  stretches  surf,  a  built  I  help  place the  i f they  I didn't  and  gave  place  they  get  a I  had  things.  to  come the  I  I used  girlfriend  would  know  that  that.  fridge,  My  married  and  and  like  weekends.  I had  shut  roar  build  small  we'd  Ohhhhhhh! the  to  like  a  thing.  I got  because  the  coffee,  sister  beautiful  Charlottes. We'd  of  shut  on  holidays  I t was  everything  things  to  on  I don't  ask  me  expensive;  had  sort  Sometimes  beautiful!  you  did  and  served  as  over.  dancing  and  too  daily  it.  Queen  had  soon  helped  lumber  home  season.  took  never  relatives  and  As  brother I  I went  fishing  home.  what.  cooked  that.  during  came  and  strong,  and  i n Vancouver,  shop  time  building,  and  the  Not  used  now  invite  for  used  I was  coffee  brothers  an  moved  to  down  never  when  own  holiday up  good  I t s gone  had  used  teacher  everyone. Even  ran  he City  they  school  parents  And  a  the  Sandspit.  His  s t i l l  and  that  white  a of  sand,  just s i t  65  there  and l i s t e n Every  Sunday  existed. It  No  seemed  not  to i t . i n my  household  so q u i e t  overly  very  that  was  taught  But  one t h i n g  Skidegate; their It  own  was I  girls, home the  well,  very  remember  My  I'm  people  one  we'd  mother  are. hard  to take  taught  i t .  We  no  loud  quite  But they  an o l d e r  who  was  was  music.  religious,  lived  their  the white  person  at Coqualeetza  live  time  I know  own  religion a l l this.  a n d a t home i n  us t h e w o r d  always  I got i n trouble  go  began  row o f us was and mother  ministers  made  f u n o f them.  what  they  make  f u n o f some  said  think  about  white  people  ago.  They  was  was  We  Sunday  used  o f God  from  to n o t i c e  r  that.  s a y one t h i n g always  to us.  We  o f them  i t . I think  after Indians  i t was  we  to think  that.  lived  religion  their  existence  f o r us t o u n d e r s t a n d  t h e way  yet.  didn't  We live  We  used  I  often  to  than the  religion  before  And t h e our-  like  way  got out of church.  had a h i g h e r  spiritual  disgraced  they  in  agree  saying.  didn't  that  understand  actually  easy  B u t we  us  girlfriend's  didn't  h e was We  A l l  sat right  and a c t a n o t h e r  couldn't  d i d , and t h e y  had a h i g h e r  used  we  t h i n g s we  shaking.  annoyed.  at a  time  a t what  just  really  i n the v i l l a g e .  dinner  One  saying  laughing  giggling,  would  and I t h i n k  have  o f f to church.  and t h e p r e a c h e r  some  came  there  was  I noticed  a n d o n e o f us  selves  done,  1 7 , 1 8 , a n d 19 w o u l d  front  whole  work  atmosphere  puzzling.  and t h e n  with  a beautiful  so i t wasn't  didn't  ohhhhhhh!  house  no I n d i a n s  the very  -  mother's  us. Because  Bible,  beautiful  i n t h e home.  religious,  religion  Just  years  the whiteman Christianity.  66  The  older  nicest  part  govern  their  Really, young  ones  easier they  Rupert  own  people  you're  have  than  to have  r e m e m b e r my  Haida  was  learn  i t because  lost  Another  a  long  own  dressed  "We're  from  through. many in  a n d go  this  a n d we  dances  and  and  a l l went  we  then  they  we  t o do  seem t o  ones  today.  And  their  dance  girls  from  y e t , the  work  much  Years  ago  a great I was  home  left.  We  we  They  One  to h e r house  met  o u r way  anything of  and  than  many  Prince  then  in English.  i n Haida of them  because  the  are trying  to r e a l i z e  big battleship  a t my  i n Massett  after  there.  know  more  from  to  how  lost.  to the dance. paid  the r a d i o  are a l l getting  l e t the S k i d e g a t e  didn't  They  can get today, f a r  i n Haida  ago. Today  they've  realized  people  and y e t t h e y  over  first  I s l a n d s when  Skidegate",  A n d we  Massett  time  of J u l y  of us  and t h e  to run the v i l l a g e s .  I r e m e m b e r when  a big First  the young  they  seem  in English  culture  time  wise.  you can see t h a t .  speaking  I suppose  was  get  used  well,  problem.  speak  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Many  no  uncle  the  there.  than  don't  to the I n d i a n s  the l e a d e r s  of t h e i r  that  very  a r e so v e r y  far better  Yet they  Today  much  they  speak  had a l l the e d u c a t i o n  t h e ones  talking  they  a s o l d a s me  to ours.  seemed I  a t home  of i t i s t h a t  when  superior  leaders  coffeeshop.  and  and  they  just  got i n that  people about  i t .  We  We  l e t us didn't  and had a p a r t y  didn't  danced  girls  to  said  see  l e t the Massett  in.  the white  we  was  i n Massett  to the dance,  wouldn't  There  the b a t t l e s h i p  i n the hotel  went  came t o  came  people  accept  a few out w i t h  o f o u r own.  She  us  67  invited  some  judice  among  Sandspit the  Massett white  there  people  was  people  i n .  You  people  then,  none.  Basically  on t h e Q u e e n  see there  was  b u t i n o u r own there  Charlottes,  was  alot  of  villages no  but there  and i n  prejudice  was  pre-  among  i n the c i t y , i n  Vancouver. My couple and  brother of months  h i s age  lives all  that  came  came  Today  i s hereditary  White  used  have  people  ones  my  lived  that  feel  a l l these  Now  I go  home  have  Can I s t a y  sometimes always  I don't  invite  me.  turn  white  meet  come  on  the Queen  lives  village.  visit  i n the c i t y us  or  them. elsewhere.  because  i n Indian  out too w e l l .  people  knew h i m .  p r e j u d i c e i n our  t o do w i t h  of t h e i r  people  villages, And  they're the  once  a year.  I just  phone  with  you?"  even  have  They'll  someone  "Sure" to ask.  say  Since  they My  "Come  my  mother  and  always  brothers  o n , come  and  s a y , "I'm  coming  s a y , and and  their  on, you're  wives bed  empty." But  I ' l l tell  that  things.  about  died,  we  they  age  a l l their  These  of f r i e n d s h i p  us a n d we'd  alot  don't  Charlottes  because  kind  visit  - he  his burial.  t o be  whether  most  that  after  same  t h e p r e j u d i c e had  t h e ones  the Queen  used  t o come  who  home.  on  'Skedans  an i n v i t a t i o n  a l l friends  grandmother  i s  like  didn't  bad t r e a t m e n t  they're  and a l l t h e o l d t i m e r s , o l d g i r l s  have  There  maybe  a  have  Charlottes.  So  died  without  don't  We're  just  to the b i g f e a s t  along  they  ago  Chief  you where  I find  i t so h a r d .  I like  t o be  68  able  t o go home  can't  go home  when  because  restrictions  by  ridiculous.  I'm  used  to going  fact  that  go  home,  want a  like  I married  the white  i t and s t a y a non-Indian.  people  so i n d e p e n d e n t  e x a c t l y where  about  I want,  a little  with  friends  y o u go  somewhere.  some  of the white  people  who  back.  We  when  like  me.  the only  thing  I  i n our v i l l a g e  i f we  feel  That's  live  of  where  law I  was then  came  came  home  f o r my  at that  with  me,  their  and  back,  felt  was  the  i f I want  to  don't  always  Maybe  stay f o r  i n Hawaii,  that  i f you're  wrong  -  that  i t .  I fight  f o r the  other  country  does  go  that's  they're  I t ' sjust  a home do  you can't  I think  took  brother's  anniversary. different  a waltz  and d a n c e d  that's  them  No  You  can't  like  I'm  there  have  always  thing.  born.  are going  a l l the other  dance  darned  place  that  back  to your  ridiculous!  not paying  we  that  own A lot  attention  to  anymore.  went  nice  come  telling  you were  the Indians  that  then  of the whole citizens,  village  I want.  i n Skidegate.  and  their  i n Vancouver  or something  f o r a month  to  and I t h i n k i t s  a shack  like  principal  when  But I  There are  like  stay  can't  this  and a l o n e  to have  by m y s e l f .  I would  to s t a y  month  I feel  with  way  of  turns  My  50th  brother  brothers  or something.  me.  Natives  showing dancing  me with  wedding  know  that me.  first  anniversary. danced  just  came  Even  the young  how  they  with  and d i d a  t o show respect  It me,  slow  ones a l l  respect me.  and  A l l of  them  69  Life  i n the  The job,  minister  domestic  came  to  were  here  girls in  City  work,  the c i t y . awhile,  was  most  and We  we  were  doing  o f us w e r e  t o some  friends  t h a t ' s how  would went  just  along  many  do  i n Vancouver o f us  domestic  to o t h e r  f o r Coqualeetza  Another  of us, there  time,  me  stenographer  an o f f i c e .  rest  sent  work.  i n a dressmaking  twelve  Haida  domestic  work.  lonesome  girls  I used  f o r o u r home  One  we  of the t o work  at the  alot  first  we  But the  i n the c i t y  when  we  after  right  shop.  t o go home  when  Then  she went  worked  were  started  things. and  to get a  came  because to the  city. We St. to  used  Andrews Stanley  swimming your We  Park  clothes  o f f and  and  When  I was  girl  from  downtown.  then  home  this  they  would  One  time  when  employer  and  girl  right  she now."  into  keep  Then  to church that  time  b i g rocks  your  where  was you  Nobody behind  at  we'd  go  no could  take  cared. a  rock.  downtown.  I ' d s a y t o my I ' l l find  employers  h e r and f i n d  me  a nice  liked  another  to Vancouver,  "I've got  there  the beach  i s i t okay? i f my  to c h u r c h  and t h e n  swimsuit. on  dinner  f o r home,  I returned said,  At  our t h i n g s  summer,  Skidegate."  go  great  and have  lonesome  back  a  left  go  We'd  were  change  We  o u r d a y o f f a n d go  swimming.  but t h e r e  swim  t o go  on S u n d a y s ,  a n d go  worry.  want  got  Wesley  pool  didn't  We'd  t o meet  employer, you  another  h e r , when  I  place.  I called lady  " I do  my  former  f o r y o u . She  needs  70  This  woman was  and  was  the  and  had  three  abit.  We  last  she  look  good  and  So  stood  paid  good  strong. up  and  paid  $12  a  me,  she  $30  so  lived  I  went  on  over  Angus  a  month  which  "I  think  I ' l l have  Drive  was  quite  month.  you  said,  then  She  said,  recommendations,  Would  and  right  like  "If  you  speak  well  you  and  you  that?"  you  want  me  to  come,  I  would  be  come."  "And You  got  girls  interviewed.  children  got  You've  to  be  interviewed  in.  I  to  small  come  happy  one  usually  After  interviewing  by  see, And  the  my I  way"  former  said,  the  lady  employer  "I'm  a  said.  hadn't  Haida  "What  told  Indian,  nationality  her  a  I  was  are  you?"  Haida.  full-blooded  Haida  Indian." And I  she said,  realize  I  She  an  was  say  that  are  well" ,  said.  much." myself  said, And and  good  "I I  I  tell  references  I  difference, otherwise  when  I  anything  I did  she  a  Indian  stunned  surprise "Oh,  "Oo.ooooooooooooooh! "  "Makes  was  "Don't your  says,  else. an  you and  out.  out.  you  I  I  You  wouldn't  don't  carry  work  it?  that! didn't  have  hired  me."  this.  well  you  like  doesn't  Indian",  how  wouldn't  walked  walked  am  said  just  I  you  want  walked  you to  work  for  you  after  said. spoke  yourself  for  to  and  how  your  well  and  you  i f you the  paid  front  me  door,  dress  twice  as  opened  it  71  She sorry,  walked  out behind  I didn't  "I'm  mean  sorry.  I said.  I  my  phoned  gotten found I  along  My She's Serves  you.  want  f o r y o u , you were  And I s a i d , S h e was  f o r h e r f o r any money,  friend,  laughed  but she's  her r i g h t .  We'll  "I'm  so  t o know  "Fine,  and I w a l k e d  she her  o u t on h e r . "  " I t serves  employer  I had  I told  her  h a d an I n d i a n w o r k i n g  another  how  until  so s u r p r i s e d  and s a i d ,  never  find  said,  reconsider."  and she wanted  Indian.  employer  She  on w a l k i n g .  employer  a Haida  her baby.  Please  t o work  And I k e p t  former  work  former  my  holding  i n the i n t e r v i e w .  o u t I was  wouldn't  to o f f e n d  I don't  surprised",  me,  right.  for  her.  f o r you, don't  worry." I time.  They I  girl, She  learned  and  Indians  Vancouver.  and s a i d  boss  was  he  asked  said,  a  telephone  other  chose  h e r how  places.  pretty  prejudiced  they and  s h e knew  came  She was  Into  s h e was  at  that  her hotel  things?"  They  to those  fired  City.  her.  time from  came t o  spoke  to  when h e r home,  people? That  was  Alot  they  she always One  the  her father  a t when  of her f r i e n d s  to speak  beautiful  the Grosvenor,  Charlotte  to stay  a  she g o t m a r r i e d .  halfbreed;  i n Queen  hotels  t o some  Indian."  before  i n Vancouver,  "How's  how  Skidegate,  operator  school  better  she spoke  a Haida  were  from  hotels  to h i g h  "Hello"  around  "I'm  girlfriend  So when  them  people  prejudiced.  at the b e t t e r  so she went  Haida  white  very  a n d s h e was  Devonshire  of  were  r e m e m b e r my  worked  white  that  was  and  And she  72  prejudice much  Even  I married  when  they  was  always  hell  with  with  my  going  something  my  secretarial I  was  well  enough,  while school  about  I was  me  had  then  one  certificate.  after  a  me  still  t o go  an  out w i t h him.  the b e g i n n i n g , you  to  like  say that.  was  me,  I often  the a t t i t u d e  and  that's  like  graduated  University. because living  to went  we h a d .  pay any a t t e n t i o n  I am  know  to you.  me,  then  I  that. from  He  high  hasn't  he's been i n the c i t y  school  been  too  busy  has  too.  This  away,  I  took  to complete  the s e c r e t a r i a l I had  I decided  had n o t h i n g  myself.  but I wanted taking  t o go  don't  I think  through  I was  you  of h i s l i f e  passed  f o r this  was  that;  s o n . He  so  prejudiced  i f you don't  I won't  into  and w o r k i n g . i t  He  from  used  t h e way  were  a n d I met  want  and t h a t  right  most  husband  I  are l i k e  That's  and I  course.  paying  He  place,  attitude.  t o do w i t h  After  right  was  city.  and I w o u l d n ' t .  lady's  There  h i s family  t o me.  the attitude  people  to school  husband,  time  16 a n d w e n t  Native  to the  I n d i a n and I d i d n ' t  a damn.  he was  of t h a t .  of her husband's.  of Haida's  husband  think  came  to n i g h t c l u b s  care  alot  give  around  friend  you. That  husband  guess  when  had  my  out of t h a t  you don't  My  first  and g o t u s e d  thought  I walked  don't  a  we  him f o r a long  and  I  I  saw me  He  with  Indian  If  I o f t en  when  friend.  how  time.  prejudice  until  out  at that  been  t o do w i t h an my  a  Indian  achievement grades  course,  smart  to take  enough  Affairs;  test  11 a n d 12.'  I also t o go  took  my  to h i g h  and d i d So high school  73  when  I was  school. of  younger, They  didn't  wouldn't  l e t us  l e t us  continue;  they  in residential should  have  thought  that. When  teacher  I wrote  would  grammar. when  I'm  write  talking.  Alot  far  better  Native  At was  so  proud  Indian  essays'  of I n d i a n who  they  o f us  speak  that  I don't  we  courses,  compliment express  my  me  on  myself  people  my  well  age a r e l i k e  a l l their  older  my  that.  lives  have  a  do.  Together  us  that.  think  people English  than  gave  felt  and  but I c a n ' t  and W h i t e  Most  school I objected  teach  us a b o u t  about  our c u l t u r e .  lost  while  o u r own  we  the mesaage  that  I was  ashamed  never  I believed  i t .  to get out i n t o  to  be  religious  themselves.  Alot  They  the world.  were they  were  They  us  like  Most  And  They into  i n charge said.  never  resented  in school.  the o u t s i d e world. b u t we  o f us  and making  e v e r y t h i n g as  school  to a l l the t h i n g s  people.  were  us  meet  good  well,  11 a n d 12  t o be  Indian  of being  I've always  been  a a  person. At  was  grade  of E n g l i s h  Coqualeetza  bad.  Haida,  people  grasp  f o r my  'very  I could  the younger  Putting  essays  write  But  do  but they  that  they  didn't  taught  us  anything  the fact also,  s o much  little  white  just  took  But you weren't o f us w e r e  12 y e a r  they  were  and  olds.  16,  that  our  didn't  prepare  on t e a c h i n g us images  over  really  of  a n d we prepared  1 7 , 18 w h e n  You were  culture  really  we a  had to to left  child,  a  74  little  child  outside that. When  was  when  y o u came  a l l about;  We  lost  alot  they  took  us  unit.  There  out.  government  of t r a i n i n g  to school  were  our parents  separated  you a n y t h i n g .  young  lady  didn't  know  never  taught  you these  that  things.  this  parents  I t ' s a wonder!  like  give us. a  could  When  happened  I t ' s no  would  us a n d l o s t  that  taught  your  us w h a t t h e  or sex, or t h i n g s  things  nobody  world.  rules,  taught  many  i n school  outside  never  that  they  where  they  They  family  t e a c h you  y o u became  to you.  And  a they  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the  I t ' s a wonder  that  a n y o f us  i could  think And  we  then  came  Indians.  remember  Skidegate  Indian Affairs  Indian  village.  think.  don't  us  to a s s i m i l a t e I didn't.  We  looking  can't  think  I can't they  a g o , my He  uncle  tried  have  stand  when  done to  i t .  the  I f they  control  was  band  manager  t o g e t o u r money  can't t o be  thought  integrating,  that  don't  a l l white. that,  from  nobody  o u t s i d e the  be w h i t e ,  o f us w a n t e d  of  But I n d i a n  i n the o u t s i d e world,  us a n d n o n e  us  for ourselves.  on t h e p r i n c i p a l .  o f us w a n t e d  mind  after  them.  i f , i f you  don't  they  take  i t to him. I've always  to get along  many  We  i n something,  i t and work  I t ' s as  think  Affairs  f o r the t h i n g s  Village.  give  wrong.  f o r them,  35 y e a r s  invest  wouldn't t o want  wanted  about  Affairs,  thing.  t o do w i t h  Indian  seemed  I  finger  was  Indian  Affairs  worked  nothing  That  with  another  Indian  little  I have I  the  hated  I've never  their  away.  of course  out, that's  I've  ha ve  for ourselves.  I  bother!  They don't  but a s s i m i l a t i o n  is  75  something I done  quite  used  alot  a l l sorts  manager Indian  of  a  we  many  of  us  but  I'm  an  people,  I've life,  a  of  store,  store.  my  done  that.  person.  work  Indians no  that They  I  same.  a  hotel,  managed  that  alot  Native of  s c h o o l . The  in  a  way.  We  have  I know  At  us  I  think  think  obediance  least  I  different  that  I've  and  thought  views  because  I  from  guess  thinking.  that  no  white put  matter  people  i t on.  thoroughly  behalf  didn't  a white So  I don't  on  said  have;  agree.  with  of  work,  fact  Coqualeetza.  everything Indian,  us  i n my  at  there  what  for  an  company  I  evening,  I  And  when  I go  to  too.  You  have  to  keep,  my  own  live  well.  the  They  for  don't  retirement.  and  I  hire  I  good  I'm  the  in  got  a manager  residential  certain  myself  worked  that  to  When  myself,  but  at  white  made  very  much  I  office  from  a l l the  than  I enjoy  worlds  alot  been  general  so  people  always  I've  Aside  i t ' s not  enjoy  years  done  i t was  of  Indian!  truly  my  else,  Indian  I've  both  things.  learned  other,  schooling that  suppressed  alot  more  I'm  of  the  store,  were  everything  each  of  organizations.  that  so,  different.  said person  broke  Native  FOR  I was  Native  me  Indian  managed  because I  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n s most  Indians  until  f o r white work  for  i n Vancouver  stores  i f I didn't  down -  Indian  working  wanted  other  I'd  of  come  the  t r y to  and to  Indian help  no  had  other  and the  Native  two  managing  manage  a  ability  Indian  they  Affairs my  last  people,  them  manage  the  of  has  would  wanted  a  people.  have white But  76  it  was  very  Because,  difficult  do y o u know,  dealing  with  in  only.  name  looked  and to  doing  things.  home,  when  we  t o him;  teach  worlds.  i t .  I've always  I may  my  a s he  I think  y e t , you're  owned  very  t o be  was  friends  alot  Affairs I t was  very  be  store  independent  right,  b u t I TRY  well. business  home,  or  and s u c h  me  the  away.  and j o b  and i t i s I n d i a n ,  i s such  almost  who  been  not always  husband  taught  And  the c o n t r o l  I ' v e done  Indian.  But the I n d i a n  took  l e g i s ME  this  Indians  They  had I n d i a n  now  him j u s t  Native  and i t t e n d s  when  to t h i n k  to think white!  the board.  I do.  the other  own  And  explain  both  i n what  and  i n my  white.  to  stand  l e g i s white  oriented, Even  s a t on  I can't  right One  I t was  t h e money.  I enjoy be  They  i n business  you have  Indians.  after  terrible.  working  at  I had  relatives a way.  home.  to  live  to v i s i t , I always  of t h i n g s .  I've  I'  had  enjoyed  any j o b I ' v e had I ' v e e n j o y e d  very  much. I've for  a little  remember it  ways.  forget  you're And  have  You've  while,  Court  If  my  Haida  i t that  to white  talking  their  got to t h i n k  y o u come  easily.  I ' v e been  speaking  to think  when  You  at i t , you can.  o f B.C.  i f you're  language.  but then  i t and keep  y o u won't  Supreme  you  retained  ways,  two w o r l d s  back,  Because  t o do  people,  too!  i f y o u want  spoken  translated  i n the  you have  you l i v e I t ' skind  to  you've  that  yourselves  so t h a t  i t i n school  once  I've even  asked  among  forget  so I d i d . to t h i n k  their  (Native Indian), two  worlds!  of d i f f i c u l t  and  77  maybe talk  i t makes to white I  do  us  people  things  I can switch.  you,  you have you  think into to  that  I  think  told  " we  particular shouldn't  like.  I go  me  t o my  do a l o t  do  You  the I n d i a n people  from  insult  because  that  act accordingly. I  people  that's  t h e way  I must  put m y s e l f  doesn't we  awful  could  white  things me  atime  I feel  beside  why  to f i t o u r s e l v e s  I see i t . into  And  like  alot  know  I ' v e had  another  person u s , he  Native  Then  than  always  does  don't about  even u s ? Many  Indians you  about  worlds  and  people." "Oh, that  apologizing.  both  this  doesn't  I ' l l say,  I g e t so a n g r y  I've l i v e d  understand  o f them  thinking  I'm  I  anything  about  t o them.  because  because  a white  think  they  Y o u know,  o f my  person  friends  a p o l o g i z e , but I do. most  are.  of d i f f e r e n t  situation."  sits  they're  thinking.  a richer  he  s o how  I t ' s amazing.  somebody  things  t o o , when  as N a t i v e  home  like  to excuse  Vancouver Many  their  to l e a r n  we're  I ' l l s a y some have  of  we  that.  I do  time  and t h i n k where  because  I've talked  you'll  and t h e n  t r y to understand  to I n d i a n s ,  them  way  h a d t o do  a t t h e same  makes  You  the reason  atime  we've  s a y . And  i s there.  this  worlds.  speak  in  that  b i t i n e v e r y t h i n g we  At least  A n d when  our I n d i a n s ;  know  Or  had  any s i t u a t i o n .  situation  to  And  to think  we've  adapt.  both  because  to stop  stop  a  the white  way.  way  hesitate  very  I well  life. like  telling  I travel  alot  white on  you t h a t ' s white  people  what  i t ' s really  t h e bus and n e a r l y because  there  a r e no  always  78  Indians back  living  and  very,  They  forth  very  amazed  just  read  alot,  I  standing he  came  hurt  Haida  my had  guess  were  my  of  have  walked  "How  do  you  Hawaiian  Are  rings  for  me.  shirts  "Oh",  you  like  he to  another  of  I  there. at  sit? time  You in  the  them  Haidas.  -  So  I'm  don't  I'm even  are  quite  know.  so  they  kind  of  if  gathering.  My  a ways  where  hand  of  from  and  and  there d'  us  a  they're  son  just  and  I  he  held  came  and  have  can  be  was. i t .  Gee,  my  steak and  We  on  the  We  these  Queen maybe.  met  common  ancestry!  lady  Into  lobster. us, on  we're  you'd  his  a l l walked  and  "No,  my  the  brother,  said,  Inn,  had  climate  a l l had  s i t anywhere  Koona  I  has i t .  me.  over  people?"  have  Haida's  time;  son to  We  fingers.  brother  same  my  my  i t must  My  the  local  "We  of  area.  off  think  course.  said.  cut Many  maitre  you  my  going  arthritis.  own  niece,  i n , the  quite  shook  my  restaurants  do?  Indians"  And  and  best  we  folks  and  a l l i n Hawaii  When  and  us  that  some  Indians  myself.  election  hill  dampness  by  i t in  arthritis.  nephew  the  too  being  are  they  this  by  just  i t ' s the  We wife,  made  that  i t ' s partly  a  my  the  to  of  have  things  and  talk  like  hurt  about  that  don't  Turner's  He  Indians people  know  people  sort  right  rings  I  John on  to  but  the  I meet  many  encourage  hand.  Charlottes  one  to  see  to  are  Maybe  and  I don't  only  seem  there  know.  person  went  I  I  They  But  friendly,  he  aware.  really  I  university.  i t .  reserved  But  to  at  don't  were  nearby.  and  said,  muumuus  Haida Where  would  like!"  friend  and  I  had  79  just  had  dinner  luau  was  going  the  music.  on  And  "Compliments, "Oh,  you  just  like  gives how  I  told  on  after  I  it."  "I  to  a  pair",  he  else.  " I ' l l  you  treatment,  you  are  an  City  they  You  just  this  said  big  dish  to  to  and  said,  just  had  dinner.  me,  dinner,  a  me  when  for  and  listened  couldn't  refuse  dish  music and  I'd  You  finished  sat  that  can't  was  refuse i t somebody  and  I had  no to  matter say  into  jewelry  necklaces.  bad  you  don't  says  and  went  them  to  couldn't  time.  a  I  over  I've  I  the  earrings and  And  understand  and  told  have  you!"  Everytime  shop  got  been  one  man  there,  to  pair  from  gave  them  to  people  were  so  in Hawaii  of  match  a  he  how  got  I've  been  royally.  didn't  there  a  amber  give  friend  a l l the  I  you  made  I walked  "Too  lady  we  there  take i t .  i t ,  me  Charlotte  treated  and  So  have."  just  for  my  must  had  and  There's  "Why  I  where  gave  And  Indians,  pearl  have  treated  him much  beautiful  somewhere  Hawaiian  They  Lahina,  paid  outside  grounds.  i t , you  Native  those  kind  little  have  very  And  came the  something.  you  And  on  a  with  much  me!  we  compliments".  must  you  thank  and  and  you  I  say.  tell  They  try  Indian.  married  telling  them  especially to  girl  was  royally."  have an  Hawaiian  you  were  They give  and That  do  them  those  the to  way  their  best the  sides you  boy  this.  Hawaiian?  both  the  a white  about  treat  going  work is  her  to  nicer  get  and  Queen  she  would  people  tables  of  And  They own  in  said, have  very  very  well  good  places.  both  worlds  along.  I  because have  always,  80  had  one  l e g i n one  have  been  so  that  I've  shifted  side  than  the I n d i a n  as  I grow  cause when I  I'm I'm  made  I'm  long  culture,  older.  button  very  associated one  way now.  proud  blankets of b e i n g  my  l e g i n the o t h e r  both  cultures  or the o t h e r . Course,  I Ipse  to wear  one  with  I can s h i f t  i n the c i t y asked  and  that's  either alot  costume,  f o r my Haida.  Maybe  way  o f my and  s o n and That's  that  more  because  I'm  do w h a t e v e r me.  My  crest  important  to  know  the  white  not  a t home  t o , but  ways.  I  I don't  on  i f I want Indian  culture.  be-  I dress  I have is me.  to  raven.  up do.  81  Third  Interview  ARNOLD  The the  Native  loss  holds it.  of  As  you  "think to  language.  from  1920  to  until  There and  away  from  were  speak  school  together.  speak  quite  i t . There  I t seems  i s no  two  to  hard  be  as  of  you  that ways  what  to  you've about  got  i t . I  Indian.  those  out  and  we  were  not  residential  allowed  school  to  speak  i n the G u l f  Indian.  I  Islands  1926. 100  acres  who  farm  behind  i n heating  looked  I learned  of  to  i n t h e woods.  after speak After  the  the s c h o o l . u s , we  my  could  Indian  some  school And speak  language;  years  I spoke  school  i n the  and  we  being  c a n remember  coming  home  from  hauled  so f a r  Indian. out  i n the  fluent  Cowichan! I  with  the h e a r t  t r a n s l a t e them  language.  along  seems  t o be  i t becomes  or  lost  language  I t seems  language  Indian  Island  cut i t to use  where  fields,  to  totally  see, the  sentences  i n the  the Kuper  wood  You  been  Experiences  went  to  to  almost  the I n d i a n  them  learn  went  That's  culture  Indian"  Schooling  I  use  has  t r a n s l a t e some  understand  had  our  the Native  properly  to  culture  GUERIN  summer  82  holidays  and  back  laugh  in I  and  English became  talking a t me  Indian  t o my  stepmother.  because  I was  translating.  and s p e a k i n g  strongly  Indian.  determined  Because  to l e a r n  She w o u l d I was  of t h a t  to speak  just s i t  thinking  experience  my  language  properly. My the me  Mom,  English t o be  best,  might  have  Being  Roman  I lived  Arch  Alec  no  had  the choice  choice  Catholic,  a good  halfbreed.  me  to speak  going  of going either  visiting  Park.  playing  wife.  We  My  speaker  Dad  English.  those  of  wanted So  I  d i d my  circumstances.  to s c h o o l ,  no  choice.  to the North  Vancouver  Kuper  or N o r t h  Island  George Then  and took began  I was I was  drove  when me  I also  when  hugged  lived  to s c h o o l  back  holiday  from  me  mother,  my  Uncle  I school.  July June  oldest  Bill,  brother  and t o o k  t o Lummi with  land.  Island.  me  my  who Dad's  my  That  with  mother's was  at  picked  I was  10. There  He  h i m and  lived  Dad  July,  came.  with  and I  the 4 t h , 1920. until  Matilda  i n t h e Lumberman's  t o Musqueam,  at Kuper  in July,  my  there  o l d grandfather's I came  with  on a h i l l  i n h i s R i o down  school  summer  there  up  o f f the swings,  on my  Ed Sparrow's  on t h e s w i n g s  f o r sometime.  month's  t o be  do u n d e r  about  i t was  me  f o r me.  up  I  Dad was  wanted  was  me  Point.  wanted  a l l I could  and h i s w i f e .  area  there  mother  about  i n Stanley  picked his  My  r e m e m b e r I was  brother  mother  language.  that's  Vancouver  Indian  Indian,  There  up  my  him  brother,  Sandy me  was  and I s t a r t e d  a then.  83  But took She  me  I  never  across  was  saw  to  my  Musqueam.  i n Musqueam  and  mother  passed  away  in  I  stayed  with  my  holidays.  One  someone  to  help  four  us  who  of  When  I  the  window  eat  you  got  so  the  bottle. When  was  much  people. remember when  I  boys  walking cows  and My  were  too  Somehow other  I  stayed  with  school  I a  first  last  on  after  in  the  vacation,  time  Kuper  that  school  cattle  of  that  could  than  on  I  saw  Dad  Mom.  Island.  My  during  because  on  the  summer  they  farm.  needed  There  were  Within  there  forty  was  girls  around  were the  gone,  children.  five  you  came  boys  would  come  do  i t .  in  hour  Kuper  Everytime  o i l on  i t first  front  wrong  when  of  so,  our  they  with  Island  boys.  i n f l u e n z a was  anybody  or  kiss  I  around  the  was  me  There the  a  boy.  had  in  enough  I  hall  bed.  were only  but  Indian  recreation  and  only  hit  had  me.  then  They  and  We  \  Spanish when  in  into  forty ones to  left  milk  the  pigs.  schoolmates  other  at  codliver  the  kill  nothing  room.  of  Horrible stuff!  been  an  bottle  o i l .  the  steps  a  codliver  never  i t had  the  was  dining  schoolboy  sick.  far  my  the  school  there  the  i t though  sitting  or  in  influenza didn't  slop  was  usually  teaspoonful  was  that  and  was  Dad  inside  weaker  got  Before  a  to  But  The  That  1921,  stayed.  to  I  In  1957.  around  sill  used  I  holiday  went  took  mother.  were they  also would  catching be  sent  tuberculosis. home,  my  r e s i s t a n c e kept  me  We  were  codliver  a l l taking  from  sent  home  catching o i l from  When to  they  die.  i t from the  the  same  84  bottle there  and  they  were  no  or  the  let  go  to  they of  blamed  the  did  old  they So  there  were  We  a  for  the  rest  and  French they  French, one of  at  staff  at  They  another  them. the  I  and  speak  fast  wondered  Some whatever  children  North  Vancouver,  Douglas  Lake.  religious  instruction  altar  the  Bishop  of  Victoria.  Kuper  were  directly  from  and  they  had  one  up so  many  a  heard and the  word,  Quebec.  rectory  near  We  at  he  as  spoke  ways  They  had  the  try  ' s c h e d u l e ' was  St. They  in  also  remember  the  Fathers  saying,  "Make  learn  with  the  were said  i t hard."  were  English  hallways.  French  things  to  no  Besides  well. us  times;  the  Duncan,  teach  didn't  through  -  Island.  Comox didn't  many  Canadian  Vancouver  they  of  French  boy  for  'sched-UUle'. I  to  and  deaths.  as  Murphy,  little  when  a l l the  Musqueam,  and  a l l you  remember  too  the  and  school  i t themselves.  Father  for  refused  served  Dutch,  was  funny  and  Quebec  Island,  Canadian  French  came  between  Kuper  at  school. I  school  dying  years  either  parents  eucharist  from  services  at  two  from  a l l the were  or  bread.  Kamloops  and  could  the  one  Island  religion  I was  staff  Irishman,  pronounced;  that  and  perhaps  but  of  the  Fathers.  school  until  was  the  their  mainland;  was  headquarters  Anne's, all  I  school,  Montfort  the  the  were  children  blamed  years  prayers  s i x years  and  piece  Chilliwack,  the  other  few  There  because  Their  even  that  from  had  All  Islands  priests  in  out.  a t t e n d i n g Kuper  school.  people  put  Chehalis,  Gulf  the  for  dying  children  Cowichan them  were  By  There  85  saying  that  until  they  proper  alot  formal  white  man  100  years  behind  we  your  best'.  seems  in  school. said,  school  And  a  the  That  didn't  click  with  me  priest,  but  care  go  I Fathers  De  you  this that  never  rules 100  Island  not -  there  a  strong  get  the  white  years  and  you're  we  were  wasn't  allowed  not  of  school  which  did  in  was  a  no  to  quite  of  man. still  leave  equivalent  public way  a  school  i f  furthering  that. was  quite Murphy,  to  one  Arnold,  see  you  i f we  can  work  later  Wert, way  he  the  student  of  my  you've can  came  great  somehow  your  and  way  get  to  me  to  promise up  and  and  quite  came  you  through  back  did  teachers got  missionary,  you're  This  is  going  the  deserve. is  me as  one a  high  get  into  said,  "No.  the  one  to  only  get  way  I don't chance  once an  that say  to  me,  education you  that  that  said  you  will  you  get  must  will  is  to the  become  get."  I  a  didn't  route.  went  wanted  here  who  way."  only  that  were  myself  the  Reader  couldn't  year  seminary.  education  to  no  of  Kuper  know,  so  A  Father  "Arnold,  I  going  school." there's  You  like  been  Fifth You  "You  enough  in  because  Father  I'm  enter  the  that  people  At  beyond  student.  No,  us"!  Indian.  It  and  high  your  "We've  grade.  education  well day  fifth  were  good  says,  completed  the  you  of  education  The  to  'Do  later. There's  when  meant  me  back to  and  do.  finished I  did  go  the back  schooling to  night  that school  the when  I  86  was  older  and w o r k i n g  and  I went  and  equivalent eight.  Our  of g r a d e  my  One  standard.  eight,  But I d i d w e l l  o f t h e nuns She  but I don't  said  taught  upgrading  i t was t h e  think  i t was  a full  grade  there.  Losses  We them the  have  lost  because  of  Musqueam  tidal  flats  salmon on  raised  at Kuper.  Our  Harbours  reserve  a t t h e mouth  the f l a t s  a n d when tidal  flat  out i n f r o n t  ours  now,  b u t we  was  been  to look  of us h e r e do  I think,  claim  We  o u t we  used  taken  after,  that  we  over  cannot  live  s e t our  traps up o u r  to the  a large  tidal  use anymore.  It's  i t i n our h e a r t s .  That  on  salmon,  and p i c k e d  have  on  of the g r e a t  and g i v e n  s o we  We  to t r a p We  went  t o move  people.  because  arm o f t h e F r a s e r .  have  f o r them  and o u r f r e e d o m  of t h e w h i t e  here,  the t i d e  flats  us  of the r i v e r .  i n the north  Board  around  the encroachment  Indian  coming  catch.  the lands  i s one  not  of the  things. Looking years He  back  o l d when  used  to speak  years  change. Musqueam. out  years  Vancouver  Queeensborough 100  100  t o me and  my  burned.  about  a l lthose  ago, but a c c o r d i n g One  -  Dad  At that  Gastown, places. t o Dad  of our o l d p a t r i a r c h s ,  'Quyupelenuxw'  to C a p i l a n o ,  was  born time  about  this  was  Granville,  I don't  there  i n 1 8 7 4 . He  must  know have  old Khapilahno,  to save  about  been  about  quite  he was  his fishing  12  Gastown.  t o o much  ( K h a p i l a h n o ) h i s name w a s .  the Capilano River  was  He  a moved  creek.  a  87  He  moved  when  ways  of  said  that  to  he  taking was  found  over  that  everything  the reason  the Squamish  the white  people,  and  he m o v e d .  man  forceful  claiming We  of course.  was  have  That  i t unto lost  i nhis himself.  that  river  Dad  now  i s one o f t h e t h i n g s  I  know. Now, knocked  we  speak  the Indian  epidemic,  Gus  "There  were  times  didn't  bother  when  were  dying  a child,  broth  lady  o f my  people  those  hospitals  came  after  that,  hospital.  Sardis. after  the h o s p i t a l  stepmother's  t o o many  for soldiers that  was  When five  an o l d  and gave  us t h e  and  that's a l l  was  nothing  Johnny. there  years.  was  to  Then the Indians. Lytton,  War,  turned  I worked  i n , they  and I h a v e  open  and  there  We  wrap  the smallpox.  f o r tubercular then  me,  mother,  broke  the (Second) World  of the people  them  roots  tuberculosis  And  of  -  to  to h a r d l y  our people  sores  smallpox  i n the n i g h t .  and t h r e w  because  and  of the  said  bother  i s t h e same  f o r t o o many,  I think  Many  brother  contracted  -  once  stinging nettle little  struck  I became a  funerals  troubled My  when  didn't  I t was  i n f o r Indians,  Chilliwack  -  We  back.  those  My  people  first  Nanaimo  having  still  some  And  g o t o f t h e pox.  help  fast."  boiled  to d r i n k .  Many  were  that  s e e much  Island  dug b i g g r a v e s  smallpox  i n the center  Squamish  I  o f f that  around  of Kuper  we  We  I didn't  still  t o box a n y b o d y .  i n a blanket.  pox  the diseases  over.  was  Sylvester  them  was  people  but s m a l l p o x  schoolboy.  I  of d i s e a s e s ,  with  and  there  into  a  There  was  later  was  tubercular  had been  i n the  88  place  a long  medicine started men, of  to open  life  with  guess with  whiteman's  was  I had.  a  have  My  like  I attended  carrots  and  always.  turnips  raw  carrot.  other  with  curing  now,  we're  the change  of people  The meats because  school. This  carrots no  I was  -  was  that  their only,  them,  medicine  they  that  a cow no  me  men  a cure.  do  helped  there rancid killed  Idid  I could  e a t them times  eat  than  a  when  way.  their  There  have  for stealing  that  those  that  you  at the time  thief  I'd sooner  being  that  and y o u  turnips.  during  used  refrigeration  little  raw  life  would  got p r e t t y  one o f t h e t h i n g s  helped  making  was  a great  at a l l .  failed  that  vegetables,  and t h a t  There  Indian  to the  f o r s i x years  you k i l l e d  raw - a n d  trouble  over  the foods  were  they  that.  one o f t h e t h i n g s  There  kind  h a d a l o t t o do  everything  Island  full.  walk  the t r a d i t i o n a l  to buy be  of the  But then  of  the  they  some  missing. free  found  that  So  i n our d i e t  take  might  were  time  you changed  to e a t i t , a l l .  health  watched  from  t h e money  I imagine  people's I've  So  I mean,  they  a r e o l d enough, ribs  transition  them  turnips.  I liked  two  that  at Kuper  that  that  some  that.  you f i n i s h e d  about  have  But that  meals  years  and o p e r a t e .  but you d i d n ' t  p i g and you had  while  those  helped.  a student  everything  before  chests  diseases.  didn't  by b e i n g  they  i n those  I t was  the whiteman  you s t r o n g .  that  today,  i n that  way,  You  kept me  that  us h a v i n g  know.  their  because  a drug I  them.  up  y o u s e e them  found  a n d i t was  f o r curing  lopsided  to  time  work;  was  shamans.  nothing  there  The  89  that r e a l l y astonished almost  a little  t h a t was; people.  me.  b i t late  the b e l i e f s  I t h i n k t h a t my span of l i f e  was  to see and to be able to understand a l l  of the I n d i a n  I d i d n ' t r e a l l y see t h a t .  d o c t o r s , the b e l i e f s  of the  Dad was a staunch C a t h o l i c .  He t o l d me that one day he heard the beat of drums.  This  lady  shaman was c u r i n g someone i n the longhouse and was s i n g i n g her Indian  doctor  song.  He could hear the b e a t i n g of s t i c k s  rhythym of her song.  He thought i t was an o r d i n a r y cure and  wanted to see i t and so he walked i n . t h e r e were two cedar p o l e s , the  But when he got i n t h e r e ,  'kwuxwtun', h i t t i n g  roof of the house w i t h nobody h o l d i n g them.  the beat of her song. bit  to the  the underside of And they were  He s a i d when he saw t h a t i t was a l i t t l e  too much f o r him, so he walked out. That was o n l y one of the  t h i n g s Dad d i d t e l l  me.  So when you speak about the o l d c u l t u r e , there wasn't too much of i t that I can r e a l l y speak about because there was much of i t t h a t was gone by the time I was a boy. day  of the p o t l a t c h .  My o l d e r s i s t e r s  how much I missed by those that But  the dances, the w i n t e r  few y e a r s .  and b r o t h e r s  did.  This i s  A l o t of people s t i l l  think  dances of today a r e p o t l a t c h t h i n g s .  they a r e n o t . I do not speak about t h e i r  I'm not a dancer.  I d i d n ' t see the  dances because  Once a dancer, you're a dancer f o r l i f e .  You're i n i t i a t e d and you go through q u i t e an a u s t e r e w i n t e r o r two. to  So that part of i t , I don't have the knowledge to be able  speak on.  I f I wanted to go and ask a dancer what i t ' s a l l  90  about, you a  he'll  have  t o do  dancer. My  were  the  a n d knows  even  mother  Musqueam lived  man.  live  the of  brother He  about My  right  over  breakfast.  So  I've l i v e d  what He  down  tells  left  Island  up  to the side  up  t h e d a y when trolled  in their  the b e l l s f o r go  and h e l p When  with my  Dad and  D a d - a n d he  hadn't  life  from  myself  o f my  and have  t o go  place  I lived  in a  i n my  to s t a r t  up i n  i n the top barefeet,  my  fire  by t h e c a n o e ,  out of P o r l i e r  about  to. w o r k .  I woke  the smokehole snow  30  a  a  across  b e d when  I've l i v e d  canoes,  Shakers  an I n d i a n  used  people  a  i n 1961.  some wood  the I n d i a n  on  died  i n that  i n longhouses.  was  the  i n Chemainus,  through  t o g e t up  and p i c k  we  here  Dad  to e s t a b l i s h  I t came  when  i n 1917.  as a l o n g s h o r e m a n  He  s a t b e s i d e my  I lived  that  born  i n 1917.  with  t o be  of the o l d people  me  left  here,  here  boat  was  and r i n g  he  y o u want  i t ' s a l l about."  A n d he w o u l d  Then  came  that  the p o t l a t c h .  there  not one.  Bob  he  I ' v e had  my  hand  Dad  i n longhouses.  make  i t ' s a l l about, a l l  them  i n 1917.  had a c o n v e r s a t i o n  since  a n d go  trolled,  t o go  he was  clothed  seen  dance.  sometimes.  the roof.  quickly  home  knows  I had a n i c e  morning  I've  He  used  and t o work  h a d snow  and t e l l  pretty  left  what  a b i t more' o f t h e c u l t u r e  At Kuper  longhouse. I've  my  t o know  there  i n the b i g house.  Musqueam.  I've  to  he  died,  spoken  young  know  do.  though  dancing  spoke  down  of t h e masked  around,  them,  i s go  brother  I actually  dancer  " I f y o u want  You w i l l  oldest  Musqueam than  say,  canoes  get  and  and  Pass i n the  91  evening. Little would in  You'd dugouts.  stand  up  the Pass.  when  s e e 30 o r 40 And when to haul  They  one o f t h e m  lying  i n the pass,  catch  a  one w o u l d  i t i n and  were  had  canoes  so s u r e  caught  there  salmon  something  on  are turbulent  of t h e m s e l v e s .  trolling. his line waters  You always  - he'd stand  up  he  there  knew  i nh i s  canoe! I've lived cod,  lived  on  on c l a m s ,  I've l i v e d  I've watched  piece  the the i s l a n d s  o f wood.  stepmother's  used  t o s e e h i m when  cod,  other  small  interesting  that.  When  a  into he  was  of d r i e d  the water  could  how  there  he  look  saw  it  would  My  Life  read carry-  down.  blur  I've  this  salmon  I t was i t .  on  really  smooth kind  how  t o do  i t .  spearing  became  along  fish the  And I  cod, rock That  was  at  doing  good  and y o u c o u l d n ' t  a  see  t h e s h o r e l i n e , he h a d  now  o f an o i l y  and  then  he  he'd  spit  f o r awhile  thing.  the o i l wasn't what  to  lingcod with  o f f the surface  so t h a t ' s  I s l a n d s . I've  a spear.  the water  i s down  I guess  his vision,  cod w i t h  r o e and e v e r y  and i t w o u l d  through  and  now  used  the beach  I never  a breeze  of catching  o l d Dad  along  the Gulf  I've l e a r n e d  way  and s m a l l  thing.  to the bottom,  mouthful  h e ' d go  salmon  pretty  down  on s a l m o n ,  the o l d I n d i a n  My  there,  I don't  that  strong  so  know that  used.  Family  lived  by, where our water  a life you had up  hill  when  the coal  to carry  your  because  after  o i l lamp water. we  was My  a l l I  wife  got married,  could  and I had to we  lived  in  '1  92  her of  Dad's  the h i l l .  down on  house. We  He  had  had  at the bottom;  nice  house  to c a r r y  water  climb  the h i l l  up  name  mother  was  was  George  a Lummi,  Tiyulish.  before  h i m . H i s name  before  h i m , t h e o n e who  up h i l l  and  even  I t was  up  the w e l l  when  there  mother  came  from  was  h e r Dad  was  the c h i e f  His father  was  the c h i e f  Tthiyulikw. signed  that  land.  A n d my  i s Khapilahno's older  great  grandmother;  great  warrior great  lady. were,  and  wife On  her mother's  a l l seem they're  when But  He  to have  was  a foreman  he w o u l d n ' t  kind  longshore  a  on t o p  was  was  snow  side,  go.  never  a man  folks,  He  never  mother,  was a  S o , h e ' d be my  carry  said  my  know  great  our geneology.  Her mother how  a l l have  that  was  a Nanaimo  many  large  sisters  there  families,  and  So y o u go  never  f o r 56  tried  94 w h e n  to Nanaimo  had a day o f  years.  Of  those He  to g e t him back he  cigarette  wouldn't  So  her  be  S t e v e d o r e s f o r 35 y e a r s .  and t h e y He  folks.  Janie.  longshoreman  smoked,  o f a man.  to  Lummi  his father  She w o u l d  i n Na,naimo.  cousins was  f a r we  I don't  stayed  of  white  father's  family.  They  o f Lummi. H i s  Khapialahno, the great  Island.  f o r Empire  74 y e a r s  man,  i s how  a dozen.  father-in-law  he was  Strong that  half  a l l first  schooling. was  This  with  sister.  man,  of t h a t  i s from Kuper  at l e a s t  My  this  the youngest  granduncle. My  they  was  A n d I know  the t r e a t y  grandmother  he  at Kuper.  the ground. My  my  a  swear  a profane  two y e a r s  never  dangled  word.  he was Just  years  retired  sometimes.  died  though  56  ago. off his  lips,  around the  a great  man.  I  93  admired  him very  When were  no h o u s e s  streets and  were  Dunbar  Avenue  little  in.  y o u went Y o u went  or G r a n v i l l e  garage  tanks,  but  the Chinese  My  I lived  big 5 gallon gardens  We  There  a l l their  to a  Cambie  was a took you  t o the main reserve.  depot.  There  t o go up t o t h e  i t home  There  So t o  seemed t o  car that  used  bring  with  leanto's.  i t was  on t h e M u s q u e a m  i n our c a r .  b u t two  interurban  Street  cans  on 4 1 s t  and you t o o k  to another  We'd  was i n  the s t r e e t c a r  bridge.  no w a t e r .  The  here  just  whether  or H a s t i n g s  t h e r e was  i n tanks,  was w a t e r  fertilizers,  here  made i t  to use our water.  first  j o b was just  i n the h e r r i n g  of s c h o o l  job  i n 1926, O c t o b e r ,  salted  -  there  a n d t h e r e was  nothing  This  of a b r i d g e ,  Street  out  herring  one h o u s e ,  and you took  a steel  area.  one h o u s e  and 4 1 s t ,  to get our water.  big  difficult  Just  of a b r i d g e  t h e way  up h e r e  only  Reserve,  4 1 s t Avenue  f o r the s t r e e t c a r  - i t was  no e l e c t r i c i t y ,  was  in,  the interurban.  i n the middle  that's  was  i n this  on up t o K e r r i s d a l e ,  down t o G r a n v i l l e So  There  up t h e r e  and you took  transfer  Drive  of Dunbar  stations  on t h e M u s q u e a m  the reserve  and D u n b a r .  us o f f i n t h e m i d d l e  Bridge  was  was  here  waiting  Kerrisdale.  on  outside  at the corner  transfer  boy h e r e  cut i n ; Marine  Street  t o town,  dump  a little here  between  nothing  go  I was  highly.  out here them  as t h e G r e a t  In these  great  I happened  Depression h i tus.  i n a Japanese  o f f Galiano  saltery.  herring  and a r o u n d  big salteries  Pender they  to get  So I g o t a  saltery.  They  i n seines  caught  and  had a t the n o r t h  94  end  of G a l i a n o .  camp, ton  the s a l t e r y  tanks  scows. 125  days,  A n d we  You'd  worked  some  itself  then,  reason  net wasn't  gillnetter.  I  went  team  teams  getting  had  And  would  be  Twelve  ton  sacks after  of four  i n water,  i n scoops,  tons  playing  a 32  trolling,  quite  I quit  World foot  down  War  my  salmon  I wasn't  love  net  of h e r r i n g .  and p l a y e d  a  scoops.  I was  16.  We  f o r 12 y e a r s  the other  a little  a boat.  a good  trolling.  boat  working  the tides  there  have  good  a l l these  luck  so  a n d g o t a j o b as a organized  and I had  a men's  competitive my  soccer, first  with  grandchildren.  the That  he's  player.  a n d my I was that  as  years,  playing  with  For properly  end o f t h e c h e s t e r f i e l d ,  soccer  longshoring  gillnetter.  I t was  work  i n Rivers  a good  didn't  I stopped  I still  River,  f o r soccer  i n Nanaimo.  I built  boat,  make  properly...I  48 w h e n  i n Nanaimo.  t o be  After  up  coaching  g r a n d s o n way  Second  p u t 60  ton tank.  i n the Skeena  I didn't  Island  I was  I went  division  one  450  whether  fixed  out to Kuper  then  up  I had a great  longshoreman.  best  hold  I gillnetted  or o t h e r ,  a  and  could  i n i n sixty  ton tanks;  and t h e y  i n the  i n b i g tanks.  brought  out of the tanks  and on t h e F r a s e r .  my  was  a twelve  out of t h e r e them  and I w o r k e d  the herrings  i n twelve  into  boats  hard.  So Inlet  take  salting  them  of s a l t them  i n seine  The h e r r i n g  salted  each  saltery  camp,  were.  you took  brine.  or  they  pounds  The  So I w o r k e d  logging, quite  during  a boat  I had b u i l t .  And, oh, I had a hard  I  the  builder. went  time  making  I  95  enough  money  year.  More  you,  you  for  my  than  know.  They  end  the  sudden  overnight.  of  small  cramped.  the  some  whole  overboard.  there  went  I I  was  back  a  discrimination. My  tongue  side  and  is the  people  lived  versus  the  whatever kind  of  they  don't  me.  But  You  that  couldn't I  Fathers  bit  never  think  enouugh,  the  So  wanted  won't  The  children  I  then  wasn't  the  next  help  a l l of  then  But  there  people  that's  took  a  became  our  a  boat  enough  was  room  turns  boat.  They you  argue  with  got  exactly  be.  Then  don't  from  joke  along.  But  in  same  that  back  and  finished  to.  But  when  I  the  about  my  own  of  them  place  how  white Indianness, if I  maybe,  afraid  to  hurt  with  anybody.  worked  side  by  are  other  side  people  way. schooling at  one  fight  there  worked  of  one  of  today,  they're  to  You  the  anytime.  understood  is  b i t out  anyone.  I  at  That  Some  have  fight  understanding  because  didn't  to  recall  And  an  little  have  can't  lived.  could  a  I  have  anyone.  to  and  to  with  way,  me  So  day.  sell  the  wrong"...but  and  to  I  that  went  a  of  highliner  gear.  I did,  then  smile.  live  a  I didn't  i t had  seemed  want,  people,  trollers  i s what's  to  fortunate.  other  have  other  advised  and  even  boat.  half  longshoring.  something  with  the  I  being  didn't  on  old  own  children  other.  you  say  $100  don't  Indian.  way  I made  had  and  became  days  to  sharp  I my  I was  I  "this  year  year  the  making  I  little  first  was  family  falling  say  second  I  and  the  Trollers,  won't  my  highliner  for  for  half.  toward  and  gas  Kuper,  that  the  I went  to  96  night go  school  into  My  I'm  I was glad  Indian  A were  teaching  I did.  linguist  Victoria,  take  came  from  stayed  with  the next  ferry  I did pretty  I had  to have guys  nobody  fails,  better  work  understand  to  break  doing;  this  i s what  linguistics That's  I took  that  t o me  about  up  helped  me  1970 , maybe  an a s p e c t  o f my  life  linguistics.  well.  done  what  i t down they  demonstratives,  He  he  going  me he  Came  across  f o r a number  years  came  So  he  by  back,  they  will  about  are recording  The  come  of  years, he  boy!  He  was  He  thing.  a Jew,  I work  and I  and t h e n  them. they t r y  of the language themselves  determine  one  You  so t h a t  t o me  away.  was  "Being  and c a n work w i t h  parts  would  h e ' d go  So much  articles They  on t h e  when  t o me,  t h e Musqueam,  the l i t t l e  are determiners.  said  from  the time  i s t h e same  f o r me.  talking  are i n there.  out to Kuper  homework  an E n g l i s h m a n  what  and h i s w i f e  to l e t you o f f easy.  hard.  linguists;  into  d i d that  left  he  o r s o , and t h e n  or three  did well  they're  both  a week,  of hours  when  worked  and b e i n g  hard."  twice  two He  a week,  of V i c t o r i a .  And  like  wasn't  and  linguists  why  twice  a couple  that  professional  The  glad  out.  something  Jewish-English  with  came  me  quit.  these  I'm  the U n i v e r s i t y  t o me  of  into  i n 1971.  t o me  He  seems  And  And  Language  linguists.  ferry,  there.  l i n g u i s t i c s . . . I went  earlier. that  and I d i d w e l l  are  are  something  - not  97  just  'as',  'a',  that  we're  talking  don't as  say  that  which with  'a  for  one  'the'.  One  about,  may  and  grandmother'. grandfather.  I  work  with  he's  The But  i t i s , masculine  when  show  or  or  for  other  We  it's a  determiner Those  break  masculine  present.  So  grandmother  feminine.  linguists.  that  absent  word  the  you  the  tells  are  down  is  you  you  things  the  same  we  work  whole  language. Starting I  had  out  one  the  person. is  of  a  verbs,  to  pick  Alot  when As  had  to  the  use  learn  to  Everything names.  The  in to  coming  even  out  the  the of  some  a l l so  different.  second  And  write i t ,  to  pick  person,  is  not  third  used,  this  makes  quite  hard  i t  but very  i t becomes  or  translate  language. There's  no  them  as  to  you  It  seems  that  two  ways  about  you've i t .  got  I  Indian.  do,  are  to  pronouns,  pronoun  sentence.  sentences  i t .  the  my  person,  person  language  speak  beach,  starting  out.  Indian  the  out  first  the  the  in  language, pick  third  Indian  speak you  Indian  to  starting  translate  Indian  time  aspect  the  them  the  times,  you're  understand think  of  by  you  properly  to  with  heck  implied  hard  out  or  of  hauling  everything  a  up  canoe of  They  to  your each  you  the  beach,  canoes are  use,  onto  i t has the the  different  its  own  departure beach.  from  These  Indian  terminology. From Indian  the  names.  past,  our  People's  culture Indian  has names  to  do  are  with not  the  just  retention given  names  of  98  like  the  English  names.  ancestors.  Only  And  people,  alot  of  a  pronunciation  has  come  say,  long  because  and  you  pronunciation know, have  so  you  like  I  i s not can't  our  them.  The  teacher  Reserve And  write  then  white  I  student didn't  have  taken  Which  I  myself, 'more  I  of You  sisters,  used  i s so darn  then  of  those  up  me  to  think  i f a white  remember they  to  teach And  here  of  he we  so", that  have  are  by  Island  three.  "If I  them  that  class  I  worked  at  here  Point  white us,  right  speaks  we  white  kids.  why  give  either.  some  Indian,  number  well  teach  alphabet  There  quite  don't  for a  could  Secondary.  from  away,  names,  I d i d very  me,  then  the  you  the  School  Grey my  the  his  Indian  used  name.  someone  right  i s wrong,  School  away  person  well  your  hear  Southlands  teach  was  you  and  use  your  language,  at  attended  everything  friend  say  can  from  'Tswassassen'.  Kuper and  take  Indian when  where  two  can  at P o i n t  that  the  So  at  be."  worked  want  didn't  a  many  to  you  I'd  taught  here  him.  you  yours  that  know But  grades  like  happy  and  right.  language  children  how  of  So  that  of  I n d i a n name  names;  with  have,  loss  ' C a p i l a n o ' , 'Nanaimo',  taught  and  the  eroded.  help  years  read  with  "My  names  descendent  I n d i a n , you  Indian place  people  direct  been  speak  They're  on  the  with  them  that  to  you Musqueam  Elementary. was  Grey.  only  one  The  people  "The  white  people  them  our  I  language?!"  thought that  to  person  becomes  yours.  your  a l l speak  language good  once  Indian.  you  have  They  learned  didn't  of  when  i t . they  My were  99  younger. to  show  always you.  It  seems  like  when  that  they  were  I n d i a n . Dad  be  I n d i a n . " To  Remember,  remember  you're  the  from  good  me  you're  he'd  going  Indian.  the  they  I n d i a n " , he  get  the  younger  used  say,  to  Take  were  "Don't along  good  used  to  to  they  say  to  from  the  "You'll  sisters  when  sway  you  whiteman,  t o me.  want  them,  l e t your  better  say  didn't  "Put  take  those  two  together."  Today  -  Indian  Alcohol I  thought  Indians, they'd  I  seem  that  that  don't  when  thought enough i t will drink,  think  loss  and  Then  you've  like  the  White  that's  that  had  I  -  and  that  been they  that and  to  European  people  and  wouldn't  that  way.  be  use  there's alot meaning  of  that  came  were  segregated  So  bounds,  the  Indian  of  our  parlours  up  to  a  of  time  until  i t  doesn't  matter  alcohol. alot  good  here  of  and  people  people  that  drink.  i n the  culture  Indian.  left  his  You're  society  right  you  came w i t h i n  reserve boundaries,  you  had  walk got  out to  of act  those like  boundaries, one,  speak  of  to  those  become  you  like  not You  as  soon  of  country.  rest  as  midst itself.  the  then,  from  the  good  the  and  But  people.  of  for yourself  white  out  curses  There's  mixed,  land.  You've  only  become  own  man.  i t would  beer  loss  your  white  the  great  i s the  in  you  the  this  a  When  of  opened  finding  are  Indian.  that  one  they  work  confusion got  Together  an  become one.  a  You  100  split  -  you  sides.  have  You're  you're  over  different  not  of  half  a  There  the  whiteman.  today,  dual  one  here.  to  Even  kind  or  are  I notice  type  half  the  things  among  of  a  other.  where  the  c u l t u r e . You  the  You  are  Indian  c h i l d r e n when  work here  is  I'm  both or  so  out  in  the  .'if,  schools,  you  friction  between  I  think  They  are  Indian it. is  the  i t ' s hard on  think  both  there  death  is  a  reserves;  Chehalis,  with  the  death,  Sports amount as the  a  of  them  in  takes -  we  keep  still  any  a  weather  gets  They warm  of  the  by  a  or  is  So  alot  have  one  phone  with  body  over thing  and  contact  when  or  the  Gulf  Chilliwack,  taken  We  their  this  Lummi  of  Musqueam,  alot.  way.  other.  reserves  way,  racing.  a  argument  that  canoe  in  little  with  other  corridors.  nature,  in  and  the  Indian  the  collection  in  of  Indian  Cowichan  Victoria,  bit  i t because  contact  one  a  more  doing  side  there  collection  have  from  up  little  others  their  today,  quite  touch  the  put  one  of  a  becoming  to  alot  There's  e x e r c i s i n g and  crewmember.  not  expenses.  places  is  he  to  Nanaimo,  funeral  and  apt  Lummi.  a l l the  around a  or  and  Indianness,  they're  Now,  there's  kids  c h i l d r e n are  sides,  on  that  Indian  there's  State.  see  their  And  Washington  offset  the  retaining  working  Island  already  younger  pride.  And  I  can  here  to  try  you're  in  contact  man  here  people.  who  When  and  goes there's  delivers i t . You've  building  never  seen  the  goes  into  taking  that  really  work  themselves  up.  enough,  then  the  go  canoes  As into  soon the  part  as water  101  and  they  have  sports  then  days.  Lake,  and  one, then t i l l  the  They  Indians.  a n d i t was host  down  different  late We  of the p l a c e s ,  might  go  the soccer  quite  One  procession,  the r e g a t t a would  Cultus  on  training.  a Eucharist  their  had  start  tournaments  soccer  Soccer  and t h e y  r e g a t t a , and  then  maybe  And when  and  things  i s a great  work  hard  would  as o n e o f  canoe  that.  begin  Duncan,  held  t o Lummi,  like  i n t h e summer.  like  always  the f i r s t  maybe  places  like  up t o  everyone's are going  game  to b u i l d  with up a  . team. We walk  cross  across.  really it  have  We've any  t o be e a s i e r  somebody I of  the Canadian  didn't  hated  six  that  years  even  learn  with  you a l l those  show  i t to anybody, there  everybody I  am  strongly. religious  be  crossing  we  i t i s .  And I s t i l l  do  after  A  but there a l l those  As  just  simply  ignore  i t .  I  course,  t o be who  a matter  nuns  i s the f e e l i n g  I'd  never  of f a c t ,  But I g e t a l o n g  I  kind  I t ' sa  I t stays  you  inside,  by  s i x years;  I have. Oh,  like  left!"  and p r i e s t s .  b i t angry.  don't  stopped  of those  the f e e l i n g  little  years.  Of  like  because  French  to s a y , but t h a t ' s years.  can't  "Visitors  -  with  can't  I don't  stopping!  to l i v e  we  the border.  to s p e a k F r e n c h .  the F r e n c h .  of a t h i n g  always  than  I should  heck  border;  got to r e p o r t ,  trouble  of having  - U.S.  don't  and i t ' s with  else! at heart  still  a Roman  But not a p r a c t i s i n g instruction  Catholic, Catholic.  f o r s i x years  I am  at heart  I mean,  and i t ' s p r e t t y  very  you have hard  to  pass  102  it off. To when  split  you're  time.  o f y o u when  as good  become  ones  that  to s t a r t  strengthens understand they've  person wasn't  with  your why  by  quite  become  Y o u know town  You  time.  research.  t o o , because  then  I was And  what's  can d r i v e  a richer  person  a t one  and y o u r  the language,  a t one  a r e done  and a w h i t e  f o r a person  around  strong.  studying  written  hard  of h a b i t .  You  the language  things  been  walking  else.  English,  g o t to be.  have  you're  as a n y b o d y  on t h e r e s e r v e  a matter  has become  a richer  language  might  i t ' s just  the language  car  an I n d i a n  o f f , that  B u t now  expected of  a n d be  command a  person.  motor You  too, that one  this  first  research  you b e g i n  say, i n the E n g l i s h  of the  to language.  Why  103  CHAPTER CASE  Each  case  following  1.  identified  of  Patterns  are  identified and  identified  *  In  indicate  5. then  through  patterns  by  using  analysis first  are  Patterns  the  of  key  are  elder's  personal  according  loss  and  life  history.  meaning  structural  the  to  change  the  in  elements  the  are  elder's  which  life  provided  (1969,  PAGE,  and  pattern  analysis across  that  not  do  of  STAGES:  be  the  patterns  in  Denial;  Hope.  beside  LINE(S)  found  are  in  each  on  each  each  pattern  which case  case  study.  study,  the  cases.  match  discussed.  numbers  then may  1975)  Acceptance;  f o l l o w i n g , the  matched  then  g r i e f / r e f o r m u l a t i o n process  Kubler-Ross'  the  the  of  identified.  RESULTS  RESULTS  analyzed  cultural  Depression;  the  of  Following  patterns  was  AND  guidance.  verification  4.  in  recovery  Bargaining;  the  order  irretrievable  of  Emotional  Anger;  in  specifically  2.  3.  study,  ANALYSIS  criteria;  Patterns  support  STUDY  FIVE  across  the  three  case  studies  are  104  ANALYSIS  OF F I R S T  CASE  STUDY  "ANONYMOUS" Pages  1.  PATTERNS  a.  Childhood  white "She she  OF I R R E T R I E V A B L E  schooling  went  to s c h o o l  didn't  want  me  the natural  Both  family  stress  cultural  children  now i n c l u d e d  formal  going  /  4 1 : 1 3 - 15  and a d o p t e d  and p e r h a p s ,  right  into  next  me  and t h i s  to get t h i s  / 3 6 : 1 5 - 18  family  chaotic  t o me - w h e n  an i n s t i t u t i o n . "  "My M o t h e r was k i n d . own."  She w a n t e d  read  i s what  extra  / 3 7 : 1 - 17  of the e l d e r  conditions,  indicate  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  change.  sister  She k e p t  s h e was a t e e n a g e r  she ended  41:24,25 alot  of c h i l d r e n  that  weren't her  40:19-21 - 7, 11 - 12 / 4 0 : 1 9 - 25  The c l o s e  each  CHANGE  38:1 - 3  b.  c.  AND  and she c o u l d n ' t  t o do.  / 4 1 : 2 1 - 23  41:4  of young  never  36:1,2,3  up  LOSS  education.  schooling."  "My  36 - 55  year  school.  nurturance  of h e r parents  f o rapproximately  ten years  was while  lost  f o r t e n months of  attending  residential  105  "I  think  I was  school.  I used  37:3,4,  d.  sick  15  -  to  18  /  Transmission  of  for cry  our  this  same  discipline  culture  But  does  it."  39:13  -  16  55:1  -  55:6  -  10  &  e.  Loss  "...who 44:24  f.  of  health  of  first  in  the  36:4,5  this  traditions  must  put  daughter  -  ended.  your does  daughter the  I don't  28  / 46:1  same  think  -  10  through to  her  anybody  / 47:3  -  else  13  8  mothers -  you  / 42:17  good  was  sleep."  i t ' s different.  -  had  to  I  4  says  53:1  / 46:8  Loss  now,  when  cultural  and  daughter.  52:24,25  -  many  see,  /  myself  37:1  "You  5  a month  in  to  disease.  the  hospital  with  TB."  46:  9  10  control  over  the  education  and  nurturance  of  the  next  generation. "One  came  down  other  one  place  them  36:15,16  to V a n c o u v e r ,  to Edmonton. and  & 37:1  a  you  just  -4  g.  Received  to  a Euro-Canadian  /  formal  but  they  sent  I didn't  have  a  have  finished  my  white  grade  leave  school;  I had  to  say  agree."  in  this.  44:23  -  They  just  25  45:1-12  formal  "...I  to  the  education  which  probably  was  inferior  education.  eight keep  when going  I was back."  14.  And  I  36:16,17  couldn't &  37:1  -  4  106  37:5  h.  -  15  I n c l u s i o n of w h i t e  "But the it  now,  we  deep going  smoke  bad."  53:6  - 8  /  50:all  42:20  -2 2  4 0 : 1.6  -  18  /  that's  KEY  ELEMENTS  WHICH  a.  The  constant  strong  as  others  "I  used  it  and  t o be he  with  said,  my  l e t them  36:8  -  /  11  compatibly what  38:6  39:17  3 -  -  Indian i t and  don't  /  15  /  RECOVERY  OF  culture. then  have  52:all 47:7  we  slap  to worry  / 53:9  -  23  /  -  i t in  about  11  48:12  -  Native  38:1  20  53:9-11  / /  hitting  our  /  22  39:17  - 25  and  I told  48:20  & 40:1  environment  as  well  my  Dad  times -  /  about  you  know.  23 43:13  which  -  16  N  was  white.  in residential  school  went  17  /  38:18  8  /  44:7  together  with  what  37:16,17  - 3  53:23  MEANING  of h e r Mother  the modern  culture."  structured  Indian  42:10  guidance  a l l the time.  we're  10  a t home." /  and  PERSONAL  generation.  forget -  I learned  learned -  44:4  Mother  A well-disciplined,  36:1  we  51:all  support  "Well,  don't  I  like  And  /  ENABLED  of the o l d e r  Just  "So  we  i t .  /  Native  20  2.  b.  into  t h e way  and  / 49:all  -  fish  freeze  48:all  49:13  culture  / - 23  & 54:1  38:12 & 43:1 -  8  -  - 9  25 /  & 39:1  -  11  49:8  -  10  107  c.  A valued  knowledge  "So  whenever  I came  and  she t o l d  me  38:6  d.  - 25  A  /  sense  of h e r N a t i v e  home  what  this  I learned."  39:all  /  of h e r s e l f  successfully  she kept  40:1  as  -  Indian  17  both  with  me  - my  own  culture  38:3 - 5 /  primarily  incorporating  culture.  53:12 -  a Native  the white  15  /  54:5 - 8  Indian  culture  person  who i s  and t h e modern  world. "So  when  I came  big  experience  down  to Vancouver  f o r me.  everything  was  44:4  / 4 6 : 1 8 - 25  -  48:24  15  & 49:1  -  new  We  14  53:9  - end & 54:1  e.  A  pride  "I  guess  make 43:9 46:2  f.  -  14  / /  Continuity  and  with  "But  I  them  on  having  t o my their  -  - 22  43:16  in  13  /  -  o f many  a  places,  50:2 - 5  4 7 : 2 2 - 25  & 48:1  - 12  5 1 : 2 4 - e n d & 5 2 : 1 - 23  growing  end  &  44:1  & 48:1  cultural  generation, to a l o t  men -  up I was  little  15  /  to  4 7 : 2 2 - 24  44:22,23  /  45:16  -  22  - 4  traditions including  o f o u r own  ones.  determined  a n d women."  That's  throughout  the  my  the  lifetime  language.  traditions  grandchildren, especially own  i t was  life.  started  4 7 : 1 4 - 25  stick  i n a l l these  /  r e s p e c t a b l e young  the next  s t i l l  & 47:1  to S e a t t l e ,  10  the kids  into  12  -  stopped  and e x c i t i n g . "  / 50:7  i n her role  when  them  f o r me  and t h e n  and I  still  pass  g r a n d c h i l d r e n who a r e  important  t o me."  53:12  -  108  15 53:15  - e n d & 54:1  53:5  g.  - 8  /  the f i r s t  sitting got  & 42:1  47:3  -  13  50:8  -  17  3.  /  OF  stages  DEPRESSION  Depression  my  to  sent  be  /  I really  /  13  /  after  / -  case  town,  especially  -  awhile."  18  48:24 25  &  I missed,  /  52:5  45:13  & 49:1  -5,  -  just but I - 9 22  6 - 1 8  52:all  PROCESS.  study  and o c c u r i n  order:  1975, p.  occurs  parents away.  minimally  when  I was  sent  who  me  I think  I was  health, physical  distress  161)  told 10  -  i s what  43:13  51:15  in this  "I  9,  /  me  GRIEF/REFORMULATION  to s l e e p . . . I missed  42:  This  48:11,12  myself was  missed  bother  - 22  - 22  prevail  & 47:1  adapt.  so q u i e t .  42:20  THE  with,  seven  was  and  - L o n e l i n e s s , poor  (Kubler-Ross,  begin  home  47:22  chronological  "To  /  - end  / 4 0 : 16  It didn't  & 50:18  STAGES  Three  week  to i t .  41:all  46:18  to s u r v i v e  used  /  41 : 2 0 , 21  A willingness  "And  - 8  i n this  just  away I was  a little  study.  wee  to r e s i d e n t i a l sick  o u r own  going  case  of  school...It  f o r a month...I used  food."  to marry  girl  36:1  - i t felt  was  ha  to c r y  -6 strange!  I  wept  109  "I  was  about  realized much."  23  that  43:13  when  my  I was -  really  - Awareness  of  the  The  in  major  of  I  finished  to *  keep of  males  talked  to  near  go  *  of  of  two  doing *  of  go,  then  myself." *  of  her  they  when  -  life  *  modern  of  of  the  is  her  then  I  very  a  good  ...And  I  couldn't  &  "So  the  -  way  told  and  leave  I  passed  school;  and  I  10)  to  saw  any  and  " I was  separation  boys  or  men...We  never  allowed  business...This  was  we  were  and  me  at  the  whiteman's -  canneries way."  "If I didn't  to  find  a  place  we  were  40:16,17 want for  them  to  them  8  situation  -  "Oh,  we  had  some  bad  times,  but  we  47:22 white  modern  had  16).  whiteraan  have  student  was... t a l k i n g  when  p.161).  pertaining  I never  -  assessment  37:1  (37:8 he  present,  acceptance;  " I was  (38:12  Indian  would  45:6  I missed  particularly  males"  rules"  the  study  strict.  Father  control  them."  "...the  any  main  over of  to  fish  c a n c e r . . . I t was  own.  reality  36:16,17  cultures -  the the  eight  " I t was  my  the  -  discipline,  never  the  case  school  back."  -  my  of  ( K u b l e r - R o s s , 1975 ,  this  grade  going  strict  from  one  in  residential my  of  present  stage  *  on  died  15  ACCEPTANCE self  Mother  day  and  traditional  today,  i t just  Native falls  Indian into  lifestyles -  your  living."  got  110  48:7  ,8  BARGAINING  - Gradual  (Kubler-Ross,  1975,  This  case  study  than  not,  occurs  This  elder  about  to  occur  people's  is  didn't  happen  fast...I  get with  stared the  talking  at"  influx about  It  of  change think  of  the the  to  business  in  forceful  encroachment  been  we  a  gift  a  This  generations;  the  fight  land "My  Question'.  our  to  she  daughter a year  for  There  i t ' s going  to  in  the  This of  has  case  and i t ' s Is Native continuued  i n what  chiefs  in  to to  been  54:24,25).  culture  involved  the  bargain  of u n f i n i s h e d  life.  always  going  I have  (  points  bargaining  were  about  isolated.  and  recognition  was  sees  white  plans  now"  pattern  Indian  use  fast...We're  previous  Father  often  bridge  pretty  However,  for  she  and  village,  change  title  more  concerned  Euro-Canadian  Native  the  able  remain  "My  two  road  i s most  to  to  shop  in  to  to  Land  able  which  change  new  were  continuous  upon  a  fast...In  occurs be  rapid  She  tourists;  Indian  'The  consequences  Depression.  the  "We  I t ' s going  relationship  land  real  Bargaining,  because  built.  really  in  called  of  with  were  evident  several  of  stage  change;  particularly  for  stage  village  white  also  appears  title  the  (54:9,10,16,22,23).  opening  Bargaining study.  have  because  Things  in  bargaining  i n her  of  161)  BEFORE  rapidity ways  p.  ends  (modernization) increased  realization  they pur  Ill  house"  (38:11,12).  Question travel  still.  around  And  alot"  "My my  oldest  son  daughter  (46:15  -  i s connected  and  17).  her  husband  with are,  the  Land  too.  They  112  ANALYSIS  OF  CASE  "MINNIE Pages  1.  PATTERNS  a.  Transmission  children "I  guided  59:22 74:3  that  /  from  CHANGE  by f a m i l y  because  members  your  ended  people  o f f t o s c h o o l , most  /  66:14  /  form  Native  and t r a d i t i o n s . "  62:3,4  her Haida  t h e age o f n i n e  nine  afford  every -  years  -  12  / /  56:2  when  who  Indians - 5  73:11 -  school  summer."  14  63:14 -  17  /  of i n c r e a s e d  seven  i n school.  down  from  Skidegate  at...Coqualeetza...My  -  13  to  mother  i n t h e summer,  so I  /  /  went  60:21  -  23  61:18  -  73:6 - 8  family  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c so n e a r l y  of  5 7 : 1 3 - 19 60:7  died  while  I came  us a l l home  /  which  f o r the m a j o r i t y  to s i x t e e n  58:8,9  Indications  father  family  o l d when  to bring  other  23  conditions "Our  wrong  us  /  AND  school.  i n behaviour  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  57:20  c.  from  about  couldn't  62:10  took  - 80  - 5  was  home  was  60:23,24  Nurturance  live  that  they  so w e l l  - 25  years  "I  felt  56  culture  residential  TWO  CROFT"  LOSS  of the Haida  are...Before  were  b.  IRRETRIEVABLE  attended  always  you  OF  STUDY  stress  and p e r h a p s  of c u l t u r e  a l l o f us w e r e  taken  chaotic  change. to  Coqualeetza."  20  113  57:15,16 60:8  -  11  66:1  -  8  /  d.  Formal  "We  were  62:14  o u r own  language,  not  60:25,26  & 61:1  e.  23  transmission  strapped  speaking  -  Formal  and  & 63:1,2  of  punished  -  white  17  /  were  56:8 66:9  education  -  -  -  language  severely  We  it."  63:10  the Haida  language.  forget  /  18  67:16  -  19  ended.  i n many  trying  /  cases f o r  t o hang  onto  our  10  14  became  /  73:4  a part  - 9  of N a t i v e  Indian  training. "I  was  to  live  about  about  seven /  -  73 : 1 1  /  21  the  next feel  should with  /  64:1 /  Parental  do  o l d when  58:all /  I came  school  of s c h o o l i n g  57:all  13 -  years  f.  "I  years  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  56:all 62:1  nine  57:13  59:all  71:18,19  from  Skidegate  at S a r d i s : Coqualeetza.  there." /  down  /  /  72:15  -  15  60:all -  I had  /  61:all  19  /  73:4  - 6  and  nurturance  78: 1 ,2  loss  of  control  over  education  of  generation. that  be  they  taught  never  to t h e i r  the e d u c a t i o n  wrong...Some considered."  consulted  o f us 56:19  of  were  the N a t i v e  children. their  just  & 57:1  -  own  taken 12  The  Indian  parents  children away,  and I  had  what  nothing  feel  our p a r e n t s /  about  that  weren't  to was  114  56:1  -  73:15  g.  10 -  59:all  formal  formal  have  high -  23  73:18  -  25  Loss  "...they  Alot gone  on  /  of  to  be  56:11  inferior  -  19  /  69:22  /  74:17  -  /  77:4  i.  Loss we act  of  -  /  62:1  -  12  to  Euro-Canadian's  -  nine  because  provincial  enough  there  was  high  the school  to  get  through  no  way  we  in  and  could  we  finish  -  8  /  relationship  of  the  25  /  -  24  22  59:16  /  about  Native -  20  /  others,  us;  72:23  i.e.  -  25  whites  a l l Indian,  Indians  began  to  feel  i t  14  60:1 &  to  -  -  70:all  77:12  -  6 &  /  60:14  -  71:all  22  /  21  /  /  66:15  72:2  -  -  end  &  say  one  thing  78:17  -  6 79:1  -  6  respect  didn't another  that  grade  the  smart  56:11  67:1  14  to  but  in  Indian." 59:22  of  59:1  Most  /  23  think  was  everything  18  -  and  61:all  13  /  -  73:11  "But  -  suppress  was  go  further,  58:all  Indian.  &  /  end  were  self-respect  had  to  us  59:9  everything bad  the  l e t us  of  school."  57:20  26  education  at  wouldn't  Chilliwack.  h.  white  Coqualeetza  government  our  60:all  education.  left  could  /  17  The  "We  /  they  like way  for  others,  the  way  yet.  didn't  some We  live  i.e.  m i n i s t e r s would  made what  whites  fun  they  of said  them. to  We  us.  always We  used  couldn't  to  115  understand 57:1  -  62:1  -4  74:13  j.  3  go  /  -  16  65:8 /  think  tell  when  - 22  57:3  & 10  have big  of a d u l t  like  I  of white  after  72:20  - 25  find  by  67:26  Minnie  /  -  20  /  61:21  -  25  able  to  7 3 : 1 5 - 22  i t so h a r d .  I like  by m y s e l f .  the white & 68:1  / 75:23  culture  t o be  But I can't  people  about  this  go and  - 4  - 25  into  /  68:1  76:3 - 6  - 9  /  /  73:4  /  65:12 - e n d  ELEMENTS  WHICH  maintained  never  17  ashamed  /  they  my  knew  7 4 : 1 7 - 22  of being  OF  came  / /  PERSONAL  so t h a t  to the along  67:6-9  70:all  Haida  that  a l l came  & 2 3 - 2 5  i n being  a Haida,  people  /  RECOVERY  her pride  lives  him."  18  culture,  age and h i s age  white  69:1 -  ENABLED  Indian  a l ltheir  These  because -  Native  like  Charlottes  his burial.  /  63:19-26  a.  60:18  17  i t and s t a y  7 4 : 1 7 - 22  on t h e Q u e e n  - end  KEY  /  decision-making.  are r e s t r i c t i o n s  an i n v i t a t i o n  2.  12  68:12 -  the o l d t i m e r s , o l d g i r l s  feast  was  /  -  - 12  66:15  "I  58:8  y o u where  /  lived  without  - end  I feel  Inclusion  "...all  /  i t ' s ridiculous."  72:20  k.  7  7 7 : 1 2 - 17  home...there I  -  of c o n t r o l  I ' l l  home  6 5 : 1 8 - 21  58:1  /  Loss  "But  that."  and  71:all 64:9 - e n d  MEANING  herself.  I don't  think  I  116  believed  it.  I've always been a proud person." 73:12 - 14  61:2 - I I  62:21 - 23  /  70:12 - 24 & 71:3 - 12  b. The language "You  /  65:4 - 7  /  66:1,2  72:8 - 14  /  75:12,13  Because  68:18 -24 /  80:6 - 9  i s relearned.  forget i t i n school f o r l i t t l e  come back,  /  w h i l e , but then when you  i f you want to remember i t and keep at i t , you can.  once you've spoken i t you won't f o r g e t i t that  easily."  76:17 - 21 78:17  c.  /  61:16,17  /  66:11,12  Some support and guidance from members of the o l d e r  g e n e r a t i o n and her f a m i l y . "I  used  lived  to go home whenever I c o u l d to see my grandmother.  to be 106...I always used to want to go and see my  grandmother...I her."  s t a y e d w i t h her a l o t  and d i d l i t t l e  things f o r  63:9 - 14  61:18 - 20  /  63:3,4  67:20-25  /  68:18 - 24  d.  She  Sense  /  63:19 - 24  /  64:13 - 16  /  65:17,18  of h e r s e l f as p r i m a r i l y a N a t i v e I n d i a n who has  s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n e d how to be a white person. "I've  always made c e r t a i n that no matter what company I keep,  an I n d i a n ! " "If  75:12,13  you're speaking to white p e o p l e , you have to t h i n k  ways.  I'm  their  And i f you're t a l k i n g among y o u r s e l v e s , you have to t h i n k  117  t h e i r ways, so that you l i v e  two w o r l d s !  You've got to t h i n k two  w o r l d s t o o ! " 76:22 - 25 76:9  - 16  /  76:22 - 25  62:5 - 10/63:3 - 1 1  /  77:all  64:7,8  74:23 - 25 & 75:2 - I I  /  /  79:24,25 & 80:1 - 6  64:9,10 & 16 - 23  58:23,24  /  59:2 - 4  /  /  72:4 - 6  75:9,10  75:12 - 16  e. A w i l l i n g n e s s to s u r v i v e and adapt. "I do t h i n g s  the white way and then I do t h i n g s  I can s w i t c h .  have to stop and t h i n k where they're  you  stop  to t h i n k of t h e i r t h i n k i n g .  from because that way  You a c t a c c o r d i n g l y .  t h i n k that we've had to l e a r n as N a t i v e  69:11  /66:9 - 12  - 17  16  /  57:5,6  /  /  58:10 -12  /  /  66:22 - 25  69:18 - 21  76:22 - 25 & 77:1,2  /  77:3 - 10  59:16 - 20 /  /  67:9 - 14  72:8 - 14 /  I  people to f i t o u r s e l v e s  i n t o any s i t u a t i o n . . . 1 ' v e had to adapt."  62:5 - 9  way.  And a t the same time t o o , when people i n s u l t you,  you  56:5 - I I  the I n d i a n  77:11 - 14  /  61:21 - 25  /  68:15 - 17  75:11 - 15 /  /  76:9 -  79:24,25 & 80:1 -  end  3.  STAGES OF THE GRIEF/REFORMULATION  Three stages  of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n  PROCESS.  process  occur  i n this  case  study;  ANGER - r e g r e t , h o s t i l i t y 161)  towards others  (Kubler-Ross, 1975, p.  Anger  predominates  She  begins  that  they  and  continues  Affairs and  should  with  different  -  life  history.  begin  us away  with,  from  I didn't  our I n d i a n  i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order  about  thinking  they  than  have  day,  Native  Then  I g e t so  angry  atime  and  you p e o p l e ' .  I ' l l  to I n d i a n s "  "Many  told Or  that  (56:1,2) Indian  (74:13,14)  I've talked  t o my  them  alot  'we  do  I ' l l s a y some  s a y , 'Oh, y o u ' l l  about  i t was r i  homes"  to "I've hated  done  Indians  think  have  particular  of  awful  to excuse  situation  me  '" ( 7 7  18) .  DEPRESSION  - loneliness,  (Kubler-Ross,  Depression  young  1975, p.  appears  Minnie a  take  t o them.  because  "To  the present  friends  things  with,  f o r the t h i n g s  ends  white  Minnie's  health,  being  "I used  i n this  lonely  I first  came  to the c i t y "  when  she r e t u r n e d  to Skidegate  there  f i t i n a t home when a n d do  Minnie "...he own  hurt  rings  nothing" also my  c u t o f f my  He  fingers"  study.  working  i n the c i t y  alot  because  I was  after  lonesome  and n o t b e i n g  residential  home...I w a s n ' t  as  happy  school; happy  "I to  stay  - 20).  refers hurt  case  (63:8,9)  I went  (62:17  briefly  hand.  distress  while  t o go home  when  didn't  physical  161)  minimally  mentions  woman;  poor  to the a r t h r i t i s  my  i n her hands  a r t h r i t i s . . . I had t o have  (78:12,13).  my  119  At to a  t h e end  of the i n t e r v i e w ,  her behaviour reserved  friendly,  self  person  richer  i s interwoven  appears  but i s angry has w i t h  person  doesn't  think  we  a r e " (77:11 sides  is  -  like  of both  i s anger.  something  u s , he  quite  worlds  does  because  (79:24,25). "We  don't  1975,  case  different"  study.  i n order  the this  makes  this  to our I n d i a n s ;  you  the reason  a r e an price  &  75:1).  me  a  t r y to because  we're  like  to t r y and work  Indian.  for this  integrating,  (74:25  You  "you have  to  Euro-Canadian  worlds.  that  i f they're  p.161).  culture  know  of  assessment  both  The  mind  even  kind  (78:6 - 8 ) .  "I t h i n k  doesn't  accepts  So  of the p r e s e n t ,  i n this  culture.  reference  "...I'm  "  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  person  1 4 ) . She  area  the white  I understand  a white  you get a l o n g "  however,  about  her Haida  because  he  anger  to accept  brief  the bus;  i t i n that  with  makes  by m y s e l f .  (Kubler-Ross,  why  way  encourage  being  i n the present  understand  both  like  on  of the r e a l i t y  Minnie  culture  I  people  - awareness  Acceptance  survive,  white  and  I don't  ACCEPTANCE of  with  Minnie  but  That  i s the  acceptance, assimilation  120  ANALYSIS  OF  CASE  "ARNOLD Pages  1.  PATTERNS  a.  IRRETRIEVABLE  Transmission  "So of  OF  when  you  i t that  that the  was  86:6  b.  speak  I  can  gone  -  25  /  16  /  Formal  about  the  time -  18  90:14  -  22  -  "The  Native  culture  loss  of  language.  holds not  the  allowed  81:13  c.  -  18  to  are I  24  never  You  -  of  my  102  AND  CHANGE  a  because  boy.  90:23  87:1  the  /  family  -  -  5  been the  81:1  82:7  -  stress  mother.  25  /  &  -  88:24,25  too  much  much the  of i t  day  of  20  & 89:1  -  14  ends. lost  went 3 &  along  seems  to  to  school  with be  the  what  and  we  were  9  10  /  and  perhaps,  1921,  was see  91:1  language  cultural In  there  totally  -  ends.  wasn't  I didn't  language  see,  of  traditions  c u l t u r e , there  together...I  characteristic saw  /  Indian." 3  -  about  almost  culture  & 82:1  a  &  of  has  speak  Indications  which "But  Native  old  I was  89:15  86:22  81  cultural  speak  transmission  our  the  THREE  GUERIN"  LOSS  specific  really  by  potlatch."  89:18  of  STUDY  97:24,25  & 98:1  chaotic  -  10  conditions  change. my  first  vacation,  Dad  took  121  me  across  in  Musqueam  passed 82:15  d.  a n d I was  away -  That  i n 1957."  24  /  cross  across.  82:27  83:4-7  We've  82:6  - 8  92:19  got  that  / /  - US  on K u p e r  & 83:1  /  time  I should /•  93:all  I saw  Mom.  Island.  My  She  was  mother  - 3  99:9-14  into  Indian  border;  we  be  like  stopping!  83:6  -  13  / 94:all  / /  lifestyle.  can't  to r e p o r t . . . I don't  83:5,6  - 22  the l a s t  culture  the Canadian  somebody  was  i n school  I n c l u s i o n of white  "We  by  t o Lummi.  just t o be  101:10 84:all  95:1  -  simply  -  stopped 14  / 88:7  10  walk  /  -  99:9  12 -  14  101:all  e. "I  White began  month's  education school  summer  becomes  in July, holiday  a part  July from  of N a t i v e  Indian  the 4 t h , 1920.  There  June  until  July,  and  training. was  a  I started  then."  82:25,26 81:9  -  19  86:1  -  4  f.  / /  Formal  82:10 98:11  white  -  13 23  education  / /  83:9 100:5  - end -  12  i s substandard  / /  84:all 95:24,25  /  85:all  & 96:1  to E u r o - C a n a d i a n  - 4  formal  education. "There's  alot  of  good  people  like  myself  who  d i d not g e t a  proper  122  formal  education  Island  school  Reader..." 85:11  g.  while "I  -  of  4  /  great  2.  -  KEY  - 8  when  of t h e w h i t e  we  completed  man.-  the  At  Kuper  Fifth  residential  to  87:19  - 25  of s i x  years  81:9  -  school  i n the  Gulf  12  disease.  threw of  25  school.  to h a r d l y  and  -  f o r the m a j o r i t y  1926."  health  because  ELEMENTS  rules  84:14  Island  83:5  /  /  nurturing  until  I t was  leave  - 4  1920  bother  18  to  the  residential  b i g graves  fast.* 87:6  86:1  of good  didn't  of  - 8  parental  from  Loss  "'We  were  to the Kuper  Islands  h.  /  attending  went  83:1  we  85:3  - end  Loss  because  wrap  them  them  i n a blanket.  i n , they  were  the s m a l l p o x . " & 88:1  WHICH E N A B L E D  -  6  /  87:11 83:14  RECOVERY  dying  OF  -  We  dug  o f f that  13  - end  / 84:1  PERSONAL  MEANING  - 4  i  a.  Musqueam  "I  had  my  Indian  language  to l e a r n  to  is  speak  language;  learned. I n d i a n . . . T h a t ' s where  out  i n the  18  /  fields,  out  I  learned  to  i n the woods."  speak 81:8,  16,17 81:6  - 8  /  81:13  98:all  / 99:1  b.  Musqueam  "You  The  become  -  82:1  - 5  /  96:all  /  97:all  - 7 culture  a richer  and  person  language by  is  studying  valued.  the language,  too, that  123  language ones  to  81:1  -  10  that  wasn't  start  with  /  90:14  8  / 96:all  /  Guidance  and  written  the  ats one  language  - end  97:all  /  /  time.  I was  research."  91:1  99:1  -  -  20  7  /  one  102:7  /  92:5  100:9  -  of  -  the  first  10  -  18  12  /  /  102:7  100:13  -  21  c.  "'Remember, you're  you're  Indian.  from  the  99:5  -  support  7  going  Take  Indian',  given  the  he -  to  9  get  good  used  to  /  82:6  /  of  himself  as  successfully  i n both  white  by  parents  along  from say  91:23,24  better  the  to  family  when  whiteman,  me." &  and  99:2  92:1  you  remember  take  -  /  members.  the  good  5  92:14  -  end  &  93:1  d.  Sense  "You're  not  country. society  like  You  Indian.  man.  99:17  -  people  Indian you  You've  own  to  that  land.  So  act  those like  out  who  then,  here  as  you  and from  soon had  boundaries, one,  can  function  cultures.  segregated  boundaries, of  person  Indian  came  were  out  got  Native  that  reserve  walk  Indian  speak  his  the  rest  you  came  become  an  as  to  left  you  like  become  a  one."  23  101:9-13  "I  a  and  European  i n your  When  white  e.  are  right  within...the  the  a Native  /  102:2  W i l l i n g n e s s to seemed  to  have  -  adapt an  end  and  survive.  understanding  of  how  one  people  lived  and  of  124  the  other  Indian. way  people So  lived,  then  you want,  y o u know.  I could  with  joke  anyone."  95:17  - 23  /  94:22  - 25  96:12  -  /  98:11  - 23  19  That  about 95:14  & 95:1 /  my  i s the white own  versus  Indianness,  the  whatever  - 17  -  10  99:15  /  93:all  /  - e n d & 100:1  94:1  - 4  - 9  / 102:2  -  end  3.  PATTERNS  This  case  ANGER  OF  THE  GRIEF/REFORMULATION  study  has  three  - regret,  stages  hostility  PROCESS  of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n  towards  others  process;  (Kubler-Ross,  1975,  p.161) Arnold learn  to speak  French. years heck It  it's  And  I still  show  As  but deep, a matter  because with  you a l l t h o s e  French  years.  of f a c t ,  a l l those  else!"  (101:15  - 22).  but t h i s  anger  has been  nuns  I kind  s i x years  of h a t e d  But I get along  maintained  - loneliness,  poor  you  with  t h e age o f  distress  have.  and  or h o s t i l i t y  since  health, physical  I  Oh,  inside,  sixteen.  DEPRESSION  It'sa  b i t angry.  anger  the  y o u know, s i x  the f e e l i n g  i s the f e e l i n g  other  "I didn't  and p r i e s t s .  little  years. No  anger;  y o u know, A  but t h e r e  after  everybody  there  emphatic  of those  to say, but t h a t ' s ,  i t to anybody,  always  apparent  do  to l i v e  of a thing with  brief  French.  of h a v i n g  stays  don't  expresses  is  125  (Kubler-Ross,  One  1975, p. 161)  of the primary  discussions  of t h i s  case  study  i s that  of  disease.  Arnold  describes  and  h i s own  and  "within  poor  health  an h o u r  with  smallpox  broke  open  and t h a t ' s  and as an a d u l t  been  i n that that  they  of Native  Spanish  i n bed"  (83:18),  a special  broth  a l l I g o t of t h e pox"  "many  found  b u t many  of the people  (TB h o s p i t a l )  a long  the medicine  Indian  contracts  h a d me  tuberculosis,  died  years  a boy; he  but drank  contracting  place  as  diseases  or so, they  brush  escapes  t h e many  and  people influenza has a  "little  (87:17,18).  sores He  of h i s schoolmates  that time  I worked  with  a n d i t was  f o r curing  them"  had  i n those  (87:25  &  88:1,2). Alcohol  consumption  is referred  curses  of our p e o p l e . . . T h e r e ' s  drink,  and t h e r e ' s  alot  of good  alot  t o as o f good  people  that  "one o f t h e  great  people  that  don't  drink,  y o u know"  (99:9,13,14).  ACCEPTANCE of  self  Arnold live  - awareness  i n the present  has reached  i n t h e same  culture culture.  i  of the r e a l i t y (Kubler-Ross,  a point  land  of the p r e s e n t , 1975, p. 161)  of a c c e p t a n c e  and t h a t  that  interaction  has l e d to the i r r e t r i e v a b l e  assessment  loss  t h e two  with  cultures  Euro-Canadian  and change  of h i s  126  Arnold cultures he his  describes ways  means  reserve  t o an a c c e p t a n c e  in his life.  He  He  does  the whiteman's  of t a k i n g  (87:1,2). it  h a s come  over  accepts  for his life; and a w h i t e  so i n a m a t t e r  characteristics  everything  the white "  person  of the melding  when  of f a c t  split you're  manner as  of " b e i n g  and c l a i m i n g  culture  o f t h e two  f o r what  i t unto  himself  i t i s and what  a n d be a n I n d i a n off..."  forceful  on t h e  (102:2,3).  127  CROSS  A.  P A T T E R N S OF  SPECIFIC  - CASE  IRRETRIEVABLE  PATTERN  LOSS AND  MATCHING  CHANGE  FORMS:  formal  OCCURS  1.  White  2.  Family  3.  Loss of p a r e n t a l nurturance while attending residential school  4.  T r a n s m i s s i o n o f many traditions ended  stress  of good  education  part  of s c h o o l i n g  and c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s .  health  IN  CASE:  2  3  2  3  cultural 3  5.  Loss  6.  Loss of c o n t r o l over the e d u c a t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e o f t h e n e x t generation  7.  Received  8.  Formal ended  9.  Loss ship  10.  Loss of r e s p e c t whites  f o r others i . e .  11.  Loss of c o n t r o l making  over  12.  I n c l u s i o n of white Indian lifestyle  3  to d i s e a s e  an i n f e r i o r  transmission  white of  education  language  of s e l f - r e s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n with others i . e . whites  adult  decision-  culture  i n Native 2  3  128  PATTERNS  KEY  OF  RECOVERY  OF  PERSONAL  OCCURS  CHARACTERISTICS:  1.  Support parents  2.  Well-disciplined structured e n v i r o n m e n t which combined both cultures  3.  V a l u e d k n o w l e d g e o f own traditional culture  4.  Sense of being and successful both cultures  and g u i d a n c e and f a m i l y  5.  Pride  6.  Continuity traditions  7.  Willingness adapt  8.  MEANING  from  primarily Indian at operating i n  i n oneself  Language  I N CASE:  in life  of Native  to survive  maintained  role  2  3  2  3  2  3  2  3  Indian  and 1  STAGES  EMOTIONAL  LOSS  OCCURS  ASPECTS:  OF  REFORMULATION  OCCURS  1  IN  CASE  2  3  2  3  DENIAL  ANGER  BARGAINING  DEPRESSION  ACCEPTANCE  HOPE  1  1  2  3  1  2  3  130  1.  THAT  DO  NOT  MATCH  not match  with  the others;  LOSS  Three a.  PATTERNS  patterns  loss  of s e l f  do  - respect  in relationship  to others  i . e . white  (2) b.  loss  of r e s p e c t  f o r others  i . e . white  c.  loss  of c o n t r o l  over  decision-making  2.  RECOVERY  Two a.  patterns  do n o t m a t c h  well-disciplined  cultures  with  the o t h e r s ;  structured  environment  c o n t i n u i t y of Native  3.  STAGES  stage  (2)  which  combined  (1 )  b.  One  adult  (2)  OF  Indian  traditions  (1)  REFORMULATION  d i d not match  any o t h e r ;  Bargaining.  (1)  both  131  RESULTS  PATTERNS  OF  Specific  Forms:  1. -  The  first  eight  losses  in  her  environment Arnold his  The and  her  losses of  making.  lived  thereby states  that  This  the  Minnie,  same was  lives  an  others may  also  highly  This  Two  her  related  in  number  aware  and  her  relate  the  of  of  losses  eleven  Haida  of to  control her  he  area  main  white  of  the  has  limit  the  occurred  recalls.  of  and  (81:26  loss  a  culture  structured would  in  loss.  number  isolated  pride:  loss  life  his  experienced  culture,  to  in  dynamic  has  her  cultural  losses then  is  of  her  limiting  Study for  majority  many  contact.  pride  for  the  culture  Case  appear  related  elder,  increasing  elder  Native  respect  second  lifetime,  Minnie,  elders  lifetime.  first  expresses  third  the  has  Euro-Canadian  2.  and  while  Minnie  before  LOSS  controlled  her  most &  province  losses.  losses.  82:1)  and  the  self-respect,  over stage  adult of  She  loss  decision-  Anger  (118).  132  3.  There  A.  are  Native  Six  Indian  Euro-Canadian  B.  Native  Many  were  D.  in  Forms  culture  now  of  Loss  and  includes  Change;  y  elements  of  the  inferior  formal  culture.  Indian  education  C.  Primary  the  Native  children  received  residential  Indian  an  white  schools.  traditions,  including  language  for  a  time,  lost.  Loss  years  of  of  parental  nurturance  during  the  stress  perhaps,  growing  developmental  childhood.  E.  Increased  F.  White  family  formal  education  and  became  a  chaotic  part  of  conditions.  Native  Indian  training.  Of  lesser  1.  Loss  2.  Loss  importance  of of  health control  in  to  the  forms  of  loss  and  disease.  over  the  education  and  nurturance  generation. 3.  Formal  change;  transmission  of  the  language  ended.  of  the  next  133  PATTERNS OF RECOVERY  Key  Characteristics:  1.  There a r e e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c o v e r y and Case Study  One has e x p e r i e n c e d Minnie  2.  a l l eight.  The second  and A r n o l d have e x p e r i e n c e d  The two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  disciplined  and t h i r d  f i v e of these  elders,  characteristics.  t h a t do no match any other - a w e l l  s t r u c t u r e d environment which i n c o r p o r a t e s both  c u l t u r e s , and a c o n t i n u i t y i n N a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s - a r e both experienced  by the f i r s t  elder.  She l i v e s  i n a more c o n t r o l l e d  t r a d i t i o n a l environment than the other two e l d e r s .  3.  The Primary  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Recovery a r e ;  A.  Support  B.  Sense of being p r i m a r i l y N a t i v e I n d i a n and s u c c e s s f u l at  and guidance  of parents and f a m i l y  o p e r a t i n g i n both Euro-Canadian  C.  Pride i n oneself i n l i f e  and N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s  role  134  D.  A willingness  E.  The N a t i v e  to s u r v i v e  Indian  language  Of  lesser  importance i s ;  1.  Valued  knowledge  STAGES  OF  Emotional  1. and  A l lthree  of t r a d i t i o n a l  elders  culture  experience  the emotions  of Loss,  Depression  Acceptance.  elders  3.  The  elder  first  have  modernization  4.  second  The  EXPERIENCING  she i s u s u a l l y the French, (103:6  -  says 13)  also  i n her  and t h i r d  ANGER.  reached  i s now  current  it.  i s maintained  Aspects:  A l lthree  for  adapt  REFORMULATION  2.  says  and  Acceptance.  experiencing Bargaining  have  expresses  reserved. he  of  due t o  valley.  elders  Minnie  the stage  Arnold  i s 'a l i t t l e  experienced her anger, briefly  AND  although  states  b i t angry'  ARE  STILL she  h i s hatred  and does  n o t show  135  5.  The  first  involved  in  Bargaining  elder  does  Bargaining.  stage  (112  not  been  experienced.  6.  None  of  looking Arnold  to  elders  future  seems  students has  the  in  observed  to the  be  &  events  experience  Perhaps 113)  have or  in  the  by  the  Anger  the  planning this  teaching  in  but  was  stage  of  for-future as  Musqueam  defending  rather  is  a multi-generational  stage  stage  the  corridors  Anger,  being  entered  approaching  schools  them  not  he  shortened  Hope  and  or  are  generations. works  language. their  with He  Indian also  Indianness.  136  CHAPTER S I X DISCUSSION  A.  SUMMARY  DISCUSSION  I.  This  loss  and change  primary Indian  study  from  then  primary related  states  that  bereavement  This  S I X PRIMARY CULTURES  was  forms  process  FORMS  Indian  i n B.C. a n d  of primary  meaning  of l o s s  of three  Native  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Theory  of Loss  i s invoked  that  Marris  Native  elements  Indian  elders.  of recovery  and Change.  culture  by  forms and  by e x t r a c t i n g k e y , r e p e a t e d  interviews  five  loss  This  theory  or change,  refers  were  a  t o as a  of meaning.  OF LOSS  the i n t e r v i e w s  Native  cultures  identification  an i r r e t r i e v a b l e  f o l l o w i n g forms  from  Indian  forms of  of p e r s o n a l  to M a r r i s ' after  s i x primary  of r e c o v e r y  made  history  'reformulation'  The  i n the Native  people.  the l i f e  These  has i d e n t i f i e d  characteristics  characteristics  1.  AND  AND  CHANGE  of c u l t u r e  loss  of a l l three  children  in  IN N A T I V E  and change  INDIAN  were  extracted  elders;  residential  schools  lost  the  137  guidance years  and s u p p o r t  of c h i l d h o o d .  teaching  staffs  of t h e i r  parents  Guidance  and  d i d not r e p l a c e  2.  Formal  Euro-Canadian  of  Native  Indian  children.  3.  Native  Indian  children  Euro-Canadian in  terms  when is  of time  also  suggested  days  level  many  their  from  of the  became  an  residential  parents.  inferior  of the  schools  or e i g h t  of t h e p a r o c h i a l  education  formal  i n the classroom, of f i v e  developmental  the  a part  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  grade that  that  received  i . e .half  an e l e m e n t a r y  support  education  education  during  -  and  was  particularly graduation  attained. It  teachers  were  poorly  trained.  4. Many  parts  including  of the N a t i v e  the language,  potlatching,  netmaking,  5.  increased  There  home  characterized  inability could well  was  of a parent  decrease  and  school.  were  of parents,  stress  the e a r l y  and  death  to f u l f i l l  lost,  religion,  also  their  parenting  of N a t i v e increase  already  chaotic  conditions  of a p a r e n t ,  and g u i d a n c e  the degree  stress  culture  basketmaking.  family  I t could  experienced;  residential  the role  the support  as d e c r e a s i n g  transmission. child  by  Indian  Indian  by  This  by t h e c h i l d  cultural  the degree  increased  or the  role.  received  at  of s t r e s s the  attending  as  138  6.  Native  Indian  cultures  include  smoked  fish  Euro-Canadian  culture  cars  for transportation,  the  are  used  diet,  educated  English  of  i s spoken  i n Euro-Canadian  Secondary two  -  now  forms  the  SECONDARY  of  three  MEANS  loss  and  1.  Loss  of  good  2.  Loss  of  control  LOSS  health  and  over  AND  to  is  frozen  Euro-Canadian  written,  and  of  the  in  the  deep  food  freeze,  i s part  children  are  change with  i n the  cultures  elders.  CHANGE  IN  They  NATIVE  emerged  from  are;  INDIAN  CULTURES:  disease.  the  e d u c a t i o n and  guidance  of  the  next  generation. 3.  Formal  older  FIVE  The  transmission  g e n e r a t i o n to  PRIMARY  the  extracted  Native  children  CHARACTERISTICS  following  were  the  of  OF  characteristics from  the  life  Indian  from  The  support  and  guidance  OF  recovery  history  of  the  PERSONAL  MEANING  ended.  RECOVERY  of  language  of  personal  interviews  of  meaning  a l l three  elders;  1.  of  schools.  interviews  OF  elements  parents  and  extended  family  139  was  2.  provided  There  whenever  i s a sense  successful  possible.  of being  at operating  primarily  i n both  Native  Euro-Canadian  Indian  and  and N a t i v e  Indian  cultures.  3.  Encouragement  survive  and a d a p t  4.  The N a t i v e  5.  There  One  A  was  II.  a pride  A valued  The  cultures  from  maintained  in their  of r e c o v e r y It  OF  role  to  cultures.  or r e l e a r n e d .  in  life.  emerged  i n two o u t o f  i s ;  RECOVERY  to support that  two  generation  OF  Marris'  PERSONAL  MEANING:  culture.  Theory  of Loss  and  i t i s a p p l i c a b l e to the N a t i v e  i n B.C.. three  process  studies  the older  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  a n d show  states  reformulation case  lives.  appears  Indian  was  i n oneself  knowledge  (1975)  Marris  language  CHARACTERISTIC  study  from  the best  characteristic  Change  the  t o take  of the e l d e r s '  SECONDARY  I.  -  received  Indian  secondary  three  was  characteristics  and t h e s e  and the above  will  be  findings.  of the  grief/  discussed  i n the  light  140  1.  Reformulation No  one  Each Native  knows  of  identified cultural  In Native  in  their  was  i.e.  womanhood  village  be  children own  must  ritual And  without  she  I was  around?" She  she  when  is a  she  older mother  sister have  sent  40  the  they  of  conflict.  produce.  of  their  a l l shared generated  cultural  far  away  world to  elder  with  and  as by  these  personal  hold  experiences  the from  and  she on  to  world  home  continue  to  has  no  say  her  traditional  values  comes  to  accept  her  on  their  own, "In  &  kids  out  my  that away day  her  'modern  conflicting  Mother  on  their  own,  ways  the  contrary  never  going  where  young  her,  I never  my  with  own  from  about  to  to  went  think i f  without  me  50). the  stress  of  losses  with  her  'legal'  parents  and  she  i s very  afraid;  institutionalized;  conflicting  parts  conflict  set  will  of  experiences live  creates  spite  the  teen-ager is  a  Mother...what's  (pages  must  The  upbringing.  sending  further  family:  my  time  which  conflict  tries  in  of  as  white  she  spend  traditional  knew  are  She  which  meaningful  study,  in  the  loss  life.  case  being  sent.  anywhere  being  expressed  in  school.  forms  elder's  as  schooling will  her  studies.  children  they  lost  the  Anonymous  Her  elders  case  a  reformulation process  six  culture  today'.  three  i n each  the  the  by  culture,  losses  conflicts  what  the  Indian  i s generated  outlooks  on  her  in  the  her  adoptive  schooling  within  summers  natural  Mother  for  the  their  and  legal  children;  1  141  and  her adoptive Minnie's  her  school  from  childhood  years  degrading  behavior  not  with  gain  the  city  him  f o r a long  didn't  want  conflict  best  people Arnold's  expressed  when what  taught  i n English  primary wants  i t ' s really  like.  wants  language  (third  case  (page atime  him to speak  i s French. Musqueam.  English  b u t n o t h i s own  Salish  she l i v e s  me  I feel  with with which  does  learn  dialect  in  behaviour her courtship  t o go an  out  expresses  like  her  telling  (page 7 9 ) .  culture  loss i s  h i s language. he  with  Indian...and  74). Minnie  school  does  with her  into  still  His half-Indian He  when  I t ' s amazing" study)  loses  and  conflict  after  I was  i n h i s experience  She  and d e g r a d i n g  was  at the r e s i d e n t i a l  him to l e a r n  language,  "Many  particularly  mother  him"  and  i n the  continues  "He  of the  of h e r  her language,  Her  from  supportive  discipline  as f u l l y  like.  she s t a t e s  conflict  Indian  forgets  conflict  out with  Because  i n the s c h o o l .  and I w o u l d n ' t .  t o go  evolves  f o r seven  is intensified  a non-Indian;  time  harsh  discrimination  This  study)  continuous  to f u n c t i o n  world  woman.  system.  and g r a n d m o t h e r  as s h e w o u l d  she i s H a i d a . with  she l o s e s  culture,  skills  case  school  the teachers  i n the white  marriage  (second  experiencing  from  world  and  white  while  and e x p e r i e n c e s  because  I  her mother  adequate  Indianness  years,  her Haida  Euro-Canadian  she i s a young  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  parenting  contact  d i e when  s e t of c o n f l i c t s  experience  residential  parents  does.  by p r i e s t s father, to speak  initially.  His  He i s whose  however, an  Indian  He  first  142  learns  Cowichan  situation are  -  at  rather the  forbidden.  attempts. teaches the  He  previously one  had  point,  could  do  The  stepmother  laughs  at  in  those  of  these  grief-like  lived  seems  like  however,  living" discuss  describes  her  people,  among  yourselves  -  that you  you  have  sides. you're It  over  I  process  did  my  a  sort  life of,  and  (Native  live kind  two of  not  here"  appears,  to  a  dual  (page  type  one  or  day  second  follows; their  (page of  a  half  who a  that's  hierarchy  with  the  At  a l l I  have 78).  both  and  the  others.  The  you're  And  falls  Minnie speaking  i f you're  think  Arnold  other.  "It  elders,  sides'.  "If  to  i t just  third  both  the  specific  today,  culture.  bi-cultural  the  compatability;  ways.  the  that  education.  You  their  outcome  ways,  "You  work  both  You  are  of  to  talking  says,  101).  that  and  represent  about  sharing  outcome  you  language  individualizes  'working  Indian),  worlds!"  half  then  think  translation  84).  while  The  languages  bi-culturalism in  modern  49).  'splitting'  have  best,  bi-cultural  the  Native  professors  elder  and  of  his  (page  Each  the  Euro-Canadian  produces  elders.  (page  you  You're  "So  conflictual  hierarchy,  complete  b i - c u l t u r a l i s m as  white  so  a  process  elder  your  him  the  first  i t just  educational  a  Musqueam  University -  i t s ' outcome  of  has  the  and  characteristics  into  the  in  circumstances"  three  process  expert  the  says,  reformulation  lives  an  denied  under  in  where  from  Arnold  and  school  becomes  level  Musqueam,  residential  His  linguists  highest  than  here  split  or  143  successful  reformulation  integration;  from  compatability requiring  2.  The  Each  to a r e l a t i v e l y  reformulation  appears  while  experiencing  about  becoming  cultures. in  life  to  feel  i n both  (recovery  characteristic  "I think  3.  While  reference  states  meaning  The  worlds"  the c o n f l i c t  meaningful  give  this  2).  that  makes  experience  5)  lives  A l l talk both  i n their  role  in successfully  lived  Indian  cultures  a life  of  to M a r r i s a richer  full  experienced  and N a t i v e  Having  me  conflict.  i n themself and  itself.  meaningful,  f o r having pride  of  (1975),  person  personal/  Minnie  because  says  of  I  (page 7 9 ) .  process  created  point  by  i s being  culture  f o r behavior.  the l o s t  to the present  conflict  cultural  i n and  lived  personal  according  the r e f o r m u l a t i o n  resolving  Marris  both  and  Euro-Canadian  herself,  psychological of  conflictual  have  persons"  operating  understand  they  characteristic  reformulation  experience  i s meaningful  exhibits  cultural  of  splitting.  cultural  elder  (recovery  high  process  "richer  Each  a continuum  a low c o n f l i c t u a l  psychological  elder  c a n be  of c u l t u r e  attachment (Marris,  loss  experienced,  loss  i s the  In order  must  be  only  t o do  found  to  this, still  1975, p. 1 5 9 ) .  f o r Anonymous  (case  study  one)  144  is  fitting  the  modern  culture.  She  wants  that  has  maintained  she  cultural by  the  She  values  modern  sees  Native  to  world  of  Indian  onto  in  as  to a  spite  give  grandchildren.  Her  sense  what  remains  her  culture  this  way,  they  will  don't  become  she  maintains  the  modern  world  residential  a  using  school  the  of  received in  one  and  i n whatever  tells  white  this  her  research,  of  life  at  school  the  treatment  she  in she  sees  the  other  husband  of  to  whenever  is  her  own  her  the  Indian as  case  about  having  in the  one  leg  but  always  being  Being  Haida,  she  of  Indian  can.  experience  people  treatment  Native  stance,  family.  bitter  culture,  she  this  successfully  herself  their  tradition,  incorporating  of  live  she  using  about  sense  her  " i t  our  her  herself.  about  conducting  of  Native  She  thinks  people' is  time,  finds  is  taking  centers  makes  and  white  Minnie  loss  She  on  great-  Indian,  lives  same  what  'Indian  the  the  leg  By  primarily  cultural  situation  her  55).  out  the  present.  passing and  uses  somewhat  the  present  carry  (page  in  grandchildren  don't  and  gained  the  her  At  one  people  teaches  helps  you  being  her  city.  Haida  and  tell  Euro-Canadians.  culture  people,  of  she  culture  from  to  in  values  She  altered  life  grandmother  meaning  experience.  skills  Haida  of  her  Indian  cultural  womanhood, to  Native  loss.  grandchildren  brats"  sense  conflict  Euro-Canadian  loss  little  into  and  her  this...if  her  Minnie's  by  do  cultural  meaning  to  traditional traditional  of  traditional  traditions  of  her the  childraising  world  herself  hold  with  And  Indian  culture, adjunct  study  to  research  145  of  former  be  the  students  basis  of  Arnold's language. Musqueam Native  sets  cultural  i n the  into  Euro-Canadian  children.  He  traditional become  a  to  that start  strengthens Each  as  particular use  accomplished cultural present conflict  life. and  made  them  i n a new  i t , as  share to  sense  elder  reference  elders  enabled  Each  use  to  has  the  five the  young by  time.  I  research. (pages  the  form,  And  resolved (1975)  and  his  setting. too,  "You  that  one  that  loss  of  the  first  research  conflict, This  give their  -  which  is  has  one  Each and  by  using  meaning  to  primary  states, (page  which  they  reformulation  159).  in their  lost  and  lives  the  is lost  their  cultural  "...the  characteristics attachment  whom  language  using  lives.  for behavior"  uses  103-104).  conflict to  He  Musqueam  was  culture  generates  of  Musqueam  language,  in their  Marris  point  will  his  for education  the  for reformulation.  making  attachment,  meaningful three  by  focus  which  t h r e e ) was  Euro-Canadian  experienced  conflict  loss  research  succeeds.  purpose  one  too..."  has  This  e x p e r t , someone  teaches  and  at  language  then,  personal  the  and  and  an  takes  studying  written  the  central  as  by  as look  he  meaning  English,  elder,  expressed  then  wasn't with  And  study  Musqueam  i n a modern,  person  your  (case  presently  schools  found  language  richer  language ones  has  loss  learn  language.  school.  future.  Euro-Canadians  guidance the  to  known  and  residential  i n the  out  become  Indians  the  book  prime  He to  a  at  only And a l l which  successfully  146  reformulate  To  create  elements 1975)  i t .  of  was  becomes  a more  the  used  in  this  loss;  Hope.  co-exist  elder  the  emotional  Kubler-Ross  specificity  the  process.  because  where  (1969,  Marris'  theory  reach  cultural  of  theory loss  completed  of  in  he  occur  i n the  the  may  experienced  of  of anger.  Kubler-Ross'  emotional emotion  drastic final  emotions  Bargaining,  of  initial  after  Acceptance  of  cultural  emotional In  elements, Denial, change  element  fact,  one  and of  elder  future.  process  may  frame  the  stages  reformulation process.  the  when  three  central  the  occur  234-236).  Anger,  this  they  incompleteness  reformulation Marris'  Using  did  in Kubler-Ross'  the  that  p a t t e r n , but  experienced  the  born  Hope  The  are  stages  Depression,  above  pages  of  were  Nor  fear  Two  they  began.  the  1969,  experienced  loss  expresses  Bargaining,  bargaining.  Acceptance  elders  emotional  interviewed  experienced  reformulation  perhaps  (ibid,  acceptance.  and  six  generally follow  elders  and  Depression  of  identifies  overlap  three  depression  not  for  D e n i a l , Anger,  These and  All  none  study  process  of  vague.  after'a  One  understanding  grief/reformulation  Kubler-Ross  and  specific  the  the  lives  implies over  lifespan  emotional of  that  several of  one  elements  these  the  of  elders  the  fits  r e f o r m u l a t i o n of  generations individual  and  is  (Marris,  with a perhaps 1975,  147  159).  III.  The  outcome  framework  useful  individuals By that  using  people  Marris'  with  process:  creates  can  identity; for  that  be  have  end  i n a poor  at  also  stress to  that  least  however,  at  the  and  experience  every  this  as  of  Native  before  experience same  has  be  or w i l l  level.  reformulation  at  m e a n i n g u l ways  confusion  cognitive  framework  a normal a t one  and  i s as  and time  Indian  culture  loss  a personal  also  about  creates  i s shared  loss;  an  a  with  others  vulnerable  and  universal experience,  individuals and at  change a  creates  a  greater  need  receive  grief.  Native  experience  other  experience  that  cultural  to  within  individual;  their  i s personal  person  who  the  that i s  reformulation  meaning  personal  understood  or are  process  any  be  level. This  Indian  i t can  had  This  personal  within  understood  personal  others  of  articulate  the  have  invoked  creates  individual  be  lives  process.  resolved  undertaken;  outcome  is a cognitive  framework,  universally  be  experienced  the  heritage  conflict  must  i s an  who  process  a  individual  can  Indian  bereavement  increases  support;  It  the  points  theoretical  a normal,  that  two  Columbia.  of N a t i v e  individual  above  i n understanding  analogous  life  the  in British  experiencing  of  of  cultural  to  148  psychological  understanding  Indian  i n B.C.  some  people  major  home,  t o be  traumatic  of a parent  natural  parents  childhood, ineffective  from  parents  a boarding  school  parenting  lack  world  culture,  view,  also  lasting  elder  early during  effects;  the  removal from  from  others,  of the  and r e s p e c t ,  of the  of sexes,  and  high  influence  Euro-Canadian  their  style.  and  years  schools  will  early  parents  separation  experiences  transmitted  survived  the developmental  understanding  with  Native  are generally  i t was  experience,  parenting  be  have  separation  understanding  their  study  of  personal  These  to the next  traumatic generation i n  form. The  elders  experiences and  their  and  will  long  traumatic  interaction  relationships,  some  These  i n this  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  of e m o t i o n a l  their  experiences  styles  experience  l o s s e s which  ( f o r the f i r s t  authoritarianism. their  with  and a d o p t i o n ) ,  separation  rigidity,  elders  psychological losses,  understood death  The  of the l i f e  change  cognitive enormous.  and  support older  survived  survived  i n addition. strength  distress  members  to these  generation  high  these  early  families due  elders. have  degree  survival were  to c u l t u r e  of the o l d e r  must  these  traumatic  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock The  that  The e l d e r s '  psychological distress,  have  The  of e m o t i o n a l  tasks  also  demanded  exhibiting  change.  generation  of c u l t u r e  gave  high,  as  well.  and must  be  s i g n s of  Yet i n s p i t e guidance  psychological strength  been  loss  of  and this  of the  149  Culturally, Euro-Canadian degrading into  culture  manner.  their  lives  reformulation.  psychological relationship The  and  Native  and  as  their  signfigance their  and  signifigant  others  LIMITATIONS  This limited  study  This  the  larger  share  THE  i s an  study  lives  some  common  high.  that  enable  their  receiving  and  sometimes  foreign culture forced  the need f o r  with  i s occurring. tasks  this  culture c a n be support  demand  study  three  meaning  people  The in  identifies to  overcome  successfully. seen and  from  as  1)  guidance  their  from  traditional  culture.  exploratory,  Indian  i n this  and  and  the  STUDY  is limited  Native  i s very  gaining  time  i n the f o l l o w i n g  I.  elders'  OF  2)  and 3)  i n the present  these  can  experienced  to l i v e  that  characteristics  self-esteem  has  process  of recovery  lives  maintaining  B.  stress  i f they  these  of t h i s  are forced  to Euro-Canadians  Psychologically,  culture  they  have  conflictual  c u l t u r e which  the r e f o r m u l a t i o n  strength  reformulate  people  I t i s the entrance  characteristics  have  Indian  i n a negative,  Further,  Euro-Canadians  must  these  which i s  ways;  i n i t s ' scope population.  study  factors  t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g study  overlap,  which  of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  While  elements  the e l d e r s  exclude  other  of the  interviewed  Native  to  Indian  here  150  people:  they  residential cultures.  a r e of  school,  t h e same and  Therefore,  generallzable *  Native  *  t h e few  they  the  generation, are from  results  of  a l l attended  coastal Native the  study  Indian  must  be  cautiously  to:  Indians  i n the younger  Native  Indian  elders  generations who  d i d not  attend  residential  school *  other  II.  The  analyzed  Native  research  life  retrieved  i n the  the e l d e r s  and  in *  to  the l i f e  history  limits  Interviews  the f i n d i n g s i n the  based  events.  upon  Events  a person's forgotten  naturally  could  not  be  history.  limiting  once No  life  with  further  history  the study  to  one  follow-up  information  over  any  discussion was  lengthy  the events  extracted  period  of  recalled  interview.  histories  individual  the  complete  *  or i n Canada  history.  the i n i t i a l  one  question  of  was  interviewed  life  thereby,  the f i r s t  life  were  edited  added  time,  method  history  recollection  the  i n B.C.  manner;  the recorded  of  used  study  selective  *  cultures  method  i n the case  following *  Indian  as  were  shared  objectivity  i n case  the i n t e r v i e w e r  study  was  used with of  as an  the  subjective experience  objective  the r e s e a r c h e r  method  than  Euro-Canadian  researcher.  However,  i s more  to  open  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  of  cultural  method.  attitudes,  151  interaction, wished  III.  to  i n f l u e n c e what  information  the elder  share.  Other  archival  e t c . would  research  analysis  methodologies  could  readily  available  methods  of research  well  disclose  i n the case have  such  study  not been  as s u r v e y  further  method.  used,  method  or  i n f o r m a t i o n not A l lp o s s i b l e  thereby  limiting  the  findings.  C.  IMPLICATIONS  This in  study  a person's  interaction little The  I.  STUDY  some  of the a s p e c t s  have  occurred  has been i s very  f o r Theories  Theory  of Loss  supported  to N a t i v e  the theory  Indian  in originating  theory  has a l s o  been  loss  conducted  important  characteristics  and Change  i n three  Loss  (1975),  and  an  and t h e r e f o r m u l a t i o n cultures other  h i s theory expanded.  (British  I t i s now  cultural Very  subject. areas:  Change  innovative process  and i n d i v i d u a l s than  of  and change.  on t h i s  of C u l t u r a l  to c u l t u r e s  Marris  and  as t h e o u t c o m e  in irretrievable  research  has been  applying  that  therefore,  Marris'  applicable  reveals  life  Implications  theory,  THE  resulting  direct  study,  OF  appears  i n B.C.  the c u l t u r e s used and A f r i c a n ) ,  seen  By by  Marris'  as a p p l i c a b l e t o  152  the  interaction  Canadian  lack  grief work  -  of  theory  his specific  reformulation  emotions  lives.  Theory  Practical  Based tasks find  reformulation  1.  Gain  support  generation, family,  of  the  offer  and  and  Euro-  theory  and  guidance then  living  of  Some  this  and of  guidance  community  of the  The  central  i . e . depression,  present  i n the  Native  supports  the  and  specificity  study  adds  there  could  these  from  the  readily be  and/or  to  guidance.  The  older  i n order  to  cultural  generation. from  i n the  the  of  course  live  If older  extended  professional  guidance to  specific  are;  sought  could,  necessary  the  available  the  are  perform  complete  'parents'  skills  emotions  Study  individuals  are not  and  areas.  Change.  s u b s t i t u t e s can  support  i n some  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the  study.  process  were  and  by  this  therefore  in life  process.  substitute  specific  into  vague  stages  addressed  acceptance  results  meaning  of  bereavement  1  Indian  the I n d i a n  These and  cultures  therefore,  A p p l i c a t i o n s of T h i s  support and  1975)  study,  of Loss  Native  personal  was  reformulation  upon  that  and  This  bereavement-like  II.  Indian  definition  (1969,  anger,  and,  process  of K u b l e r - R o s s  bargaining,  Marris'  Native  i s broad  of K u b l e r - R o s s  elder's  B.C.  culture.  Marris' The  between  community.  also  could i n both  reach  take the  the  out form  Native  153  Indian  culture  2.  Fully  3.  Become  Indian 4.  and  accept  the  the  Euro-Canadian  primary  s u c c e s s f u l at  culture  Develop  and  the  the  culture.  foundation  operating  to  adapt  one's  Indianness.  bi-culturally  Euro-Canadian  skills  of  in  both  the  culture.  and  survive  in  a  cross-cultural  lifestyle. 5.  Maintain  or  relearn  the  Native  Indian  language  and/or  traditions. 6.  Develop  tasks  that  situation 7.  being  that  Come  culture  Native  are  and  part  meaning  usually  9.  the  others  in  thus  reduce  the  Increase  11.  Use  new  form  in  the  order  of  accomplishing and  living  in  length  of  the a  rich  set  of  cross-cultural  increase and  lost the  present  a the  support  intensity in  been  cultural  of  order  and  conflict  with  natural progression  of  future.  and  reformulation understanding  of  the  to  discover  and  process. what  prime  lost.  attachment time.  depression  reformulation.  personal  has for  the  personal/cultural  self-awareness has  and  i n hope  with  process  current  i s normal  to  coping  normal  that  ending  attachment the  of  experience  with  cultural  in  Indian  means  understand  emotions,  10.  oneself  effective  to  Share  in  demands.  Develop  anger 8.  pride  identified  above  (10)  in  a  154  A for  Euro-Canadian  example,  tasks  1.  takes  a Euro-Canadian  to perform  Canadian.  who  beyond  These  would  that  of working  of the N a t i v e  order  to a s s i s t  i n the task  awareness  interaction disrespect 3.  An  and  subjective 4.  make  inhibit  culture  a  fellow  would  as,  have  Euro-  and  community i n  bi-cultural.  elements  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  through  experience another  to see the N a t i v e  t o l e a r n more  of  cross-cultural  and  create  mistrust,  and  understand  person's  (negative)  about  Indian  client  Euro-Canadian  a s an  culture  and  Native  culture.  A willingness personal  Practical the  following;  1.  Teach  With  to reach  out, enter  Native  Indian  homes  and  contact.  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o u n s e l l i n g  the r e f o r m u l a t i o n  universality, 2.  with  tasks  experience.  opportunity  5.  psychologist  culture  of becoming  to o b j e c t i v e l y  A willingness  Indian  the above  misunderstanding.  ability  Euro-Canadian  Indian  of the h i s t o r i c a l  which  of  be;  knowledge  An  i n any  counselling  A  2.  part  normality  the Native  and  Indian  process  with  setting  i t s emphasis  would  on  hopefulness. client,  develop  a plan  that  will  be  155  increase 3.  their  Enable  and  bi-cultural  the c l i e n t  rebuild  their  the c l i e n t  sense  Use t h e group  6. U s e N a t i v e cultural 7.  to d i s c o v e r  and l e a d what  to  they  hopefulness.  have  lost,  culturally  personally.  4. U s e t h e l o s s  5.  skills  traditional Hugh  process  Indian  about  MAPS  to i n c r e a s e  elders  upon  which to  support  as s o u r c e s  and  sharing.  of s u p p o r t ,  g u i d a n c e , and  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s or f o r groups.  Native  culture  Brody's  as t h e g r o u n d  of meaning.  information  Use books  identifies  Indian  as t h e  AND  experiences,  beginning  DREAMS  (1981)  to write  down  legends,  of d i s c u s s i o n  and  and  i s a particularly  sharing.  effective  book. 8. E n c o u r a g e feelings. also 9.  This  be e d i t e d  Build  diary  bridges  or groups  already  learned  III.  Further  This  study  1.  experiences  and i t  Native  Indian  experiences  reformulation  applications  and E u r o - C a n a d i a n  o f what  has been  has r e q u i r e d .  to the c o u n s e l l i n g  skills  Research  A continuation  many  opportunities  of t h i s  studies  study,  of Native  can  others.  between  that  and  and u s e d .  creates  multiple-case  with  by s h a r i n g  and t h e s t r e n g t h  10. T o a d d t h e a b o v e  their  c a n be p e r s o n a l l y ^ t h e r a p e u t i c ,  and s h a r e d  cultural  individuals lost,  clients  that Indian  f o r further  research;  i s a replication elders  with  to v e r i f y the  156  present 2.  A  patterns  continuation  individuals coastal  from  One  in  this  this  study  as  ones.  above  generations  conduct  of  one  emotional anger.  4.  To  of  younger  5.  To  conduct and  apply  Canada  by  but  of  found  and  but  with  Native  cultures  other  Indian than  older  a  using  the  study  a  in  study  would  processes  younger  with  personal the  be  with  the  those  generation  found  reach  the  Native  meaning  and  reformulation  study  with  Indian  people  who  who  are  process  patterns  maintaining  i.e.  of  have  depression  reformulation  generations. Theory  similar  Marris'  such  hope?  comparltive  Marris'  using  apply  Canada,  a  Does  similar  place  for  reformulation  stage  a  successfully  or  focus  study.  not  To  of  possible  affective  6.  additional  younger  comparison  To  find  B.C.  a.  3.  and  Theory  other  of case of  Loss  and  study Loss  research  and  Change  to  immigrants  in  to  immigrants  in  approach. Change  methodology.  157  D.  SUMMARY  T h i s study has i n v e s t i g a t e d what occurs  i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  l i f e when t h e i r c u l t u r e has been changed and p a r t s of i t l o s t ; and  how an i n d i v i d u a l r e g a i n s p e r s o n a l meaning i n a time of  cultural  l o s s and change.  M a r r i s ' Theory of Loss  and Change  was used as the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the study. t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t people irreversible process  i n c u l t u r e s that  l o s s and change a r e invoked  This  experience  to e n t e r a r e f o r m u l a t i o n  t h a t i s analogous to bereavement.  The N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s of B r i t i s h Columbia were used as the c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . e l d e r s , 55+ y e a r s , male and female,  Three N a t i v e  r e p r e s e n t i n g three  Indian  different  c o a s t a l I n d i a n c u l t u r e s were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r two hours each and their  life The  history  recorded.  data c o l l e c t e d was then t r a n s c r i b e d , some minimal  e d i t i n g performed, and the i n t e r v i e w confirmed elder.  The l i f e  as c o r r e c t by each  h i s t o r y was then a n a l y z e d u s i n g the case  study approach developed  by Y i n (1984) and Stake (1980).  elements of c u l t u r a l l o s s and change were i d e n t i f i e d characteristics The  Key  and  of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning were i d e n t i f i e d .  second and t h i r d  case s t u d i e s r e p l i c a t e d the f i r s t .  C r o s s matching of p a t t e r n s of l o s s and change, and p a t t e r n s of r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning r e v e a l e d a s t r o n g  158  o v e r l a p between case s t u d i e s . change were i d e n t i f i e d  and  S i x primary  f i v e primary  forms of l o s s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  r e c o v e r y of p e r s o n a l meaning were i d e n t i f i e d . characteristics  i n each area were i d e n t i f i e d  M a r r i s ' Theory of Loss s t u d i e s show the emotional  and Change was  of b i - c u l t u r a l i s m .  Salient  supported.  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