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Coping skills of incest and sexual abuse victims Phillips, Cecilie Anne Bannatyne 1985

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COPING SKILLS OF INCEST AND SEXUAL ABUSE VICTIMS  by  Cecilie  Anne Bannatyne P h i l l i p s  B a c h e l o r o f A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, May 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, © Cecilie  1985  Anne Bannatyne P h i l l i p s ,  1985  «  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference  and study.  I further  agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may  be granted by the head of  department or by h i s or her representatives.  my  It i s  understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my permission.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956  Main M a l l  V6T  1Y3  Vancouver, Canada  written  Abstract  Childhood mine  the  recall  incest  coping  skills  of these  members  and  leaders,  abused  technique  was  sexual  used  events.  sexually  coping  and  by  abuse was  v i c t i m s , based  Eighteen were  children  used to i d e n t i f y  i n the eighty-one  i n depth t o  upon  a d u l t women, who  interviewed and  explored  about  adolescents.  their were  their The  descriptive  group  critical  collected.  therapy  experiences  what h i n d e r e d or f a c i l i t a t e d  abuse e x p e r i e n c e s  Three  c a t e g o r i e s of i d e n t i f i a b l e  the v i c t i m s  Each i n c i d e n t  stress  as  incident  c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r e s s , and the type o f method used.  deter-  emerged  was  coping  from  the  data which were l a b e l l e d o f f e n d e r s , s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and v i c t i m s .  Of  these,  by  the  largest  offenders. of Of  judges to  In t h i s  a c t i o n , and these,  found  of  incidents related  sample, v i c t i m s u t i l i z e d  to  direct  i n t r a p s y c h i c coping methods, but not  direct these  theoretical  sexual  number  action  was  most  frequently  categories r e l i a b l e .  frameworks i n c o p i n g  abuse.  ii  stress  created  action,  inhibition  information  employed.  Independent  R e s u l t s are examined  theory  and  seeking.  according  current perspectives  on  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents List  i i i  of Tables  vi  L i s t of Figures  v i i  Acknowledgements  viii  Dedication CHAPTER I .  CHAPTER I I .  ix INTRODUCTION  1  Overview  1  Research Q u e s t i o n s  3  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  4  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  7  T h e o r i e s o f Coping Behaviour  8  L a z a r u s ' Taxonomy o f Coping Responses  8  A p p l i c a t i o n t o Sexual Abuse  11  Summary  16  Shontz' Theory o f R e a c t i o n t o C r i s i s  16  A p p l i c a t i o n t o Sexual Abuse  17  Seligman's Learned H e l p l e s s n e s s Model  18  Wortman and Brehm's I n t e g r a t i v e Model  20  CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY  24  The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique Justification  f o r t h e Choice o f Methodology  C o l l e c t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Reliability  24  and V a l i d i t y  iii  o f Data  o f t h e Technique  24 25 27  Subjects  28  S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Sample  28  P r o f i l e o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s  30  General Information  30  Sexual Abuse I n f o r m a t i o n  30  Procedures and Data C o l l e c t i o n Assumptions  35  Interview  35  Pilot  CHAPTER IV.  35  Structure  Study  36  Data A n a l y s i s  38  Reliability  39  of Categories  RESULTS  40  S t r e s s C a t e g o r i e s and Coping Modes  42  Offender  42  Definition  42  Direct Action Hindering Facilitating  46 46 48  I n h i b i t i o n of Action Hindering Facilitating  50 51 53  Intrapsychic Hindering Facilitating  53 53 55  S i g n i f i c a n t Other  56  Definition  56  Direct Action Hindering Facilitating  56 57 60  I n h i b i t i o n of Action Hindering Facilitating  61 61 61  iv  Intrapsychic Hindering Facilitating Victim  Cognitive  CHAPTER V.  62 62 63 64  Definition  64  Direct Action Hindering  65 65  Intrapsychic Facilitating  65 66  Appraisals  67  Primary A p p r a i s a l  68  Secondary A p p r a i s a l  68  Emotions  69  Effectiveness  69  DISCUSSION AND Discussion  SUMMARY  71  of Results  71  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study  77  Theoretical Significance  77  Practical Significance  81  Recommendations  f o r F u t u r e Research  83  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  85  Summary  87  Appendix A.  C l i e n t Consent Form  89  Appendix B.  Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  90  Appendix C.  The I n t e r v i e w S t r u c t u r e  92  References  95  v  L i s t of Tables T a b l e 1.  Coping  Classification  Scheme  T a b l e 2.  Demographic Data:  General  T a b l e 3.  Demographic Data:  Sexual Abuse I n f o r m a t i o n  T a b l e 4.  R e l i a b i l i t y of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  T a b l e 5.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Coping Modes w i t h i n S t r e s s C a t e g o r i e s  vi  12  Information  System  31 32 39 41  L i s t of gure 1.  The  Figures  I n t e g r a t i v e Model  vii  Acknowledgement  I of  such  abuse. process  am  deeply  indebted  t o the  painful  memories  to  Their  suffering,  c o n t r i b u t e to  their  p r o f o u n d l y moved me.  eighteen women who the  wish  t o thank  encouragement taking.  Dr.  throughout  Bob the  Thanks a l s o t o Dr.  Armstrong process  of  viii  about  their I am  recall sexual  recovery  left  with  this  a  i n overcoming a d v e r s i t y .  f o r h i s c o n s i s t e n t support  Sharon Kahn and  c h a l l e n g i n g and v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  and  experiences,  g r e a t hope i n the s t r e n g t h of the human s p i r i t I  knowledge  resourcefulness,  From t h e i r  endured the  seemingly Dr.  endless  and  under-  John F r i e s e n f o r t h e i r  Dedication  To P e t e r — f o r your  sustenance  along the " c r i t i c a l p a t h . "  ix  1  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  Overview  Sexual and  i n t i m i d a t i o n by  with  that  traumatic in  abuse, f o r many p e o p l e ,  shadowy s t r a n g e r s and,  situation  seems t o be  a very  subtly and  1982,  p.  coercive, an  sexual  13).  Yet,  abused release  Sexual  Offenses  l y pervasive  surprisingly,  victims of  the  concern. and  people cope  C e r t a i n l y such sometimes r e s u l t  s t r e n g t h , and  endurance.  The  abuse, however, i s a n o n f o r c i b l e  the  sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  a  question  o f how  the  child victim  asked.  i s an  important  Offenses  Against  question  to  ask.  The  Children  (Committee  of  C h i l d r e n and Youths, 1984)  incidence of childhood  sexual  abuse.  r e v e a l e d an  alarming-  F i f t y - t w o recommenda-  report to health services, legal  systems, p o l i c e  e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge  understanding  effectively  coped Sexual  Against  t i o n s were made i n the s e r v i c e s and  how  a d u l t i n a proximate c a r e t a k i n g a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n ( S g r o i ,  recent  and  basic  s e c r e t i v e , ongoing  coped with t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s r a r e l y How  images o f f o r c e , a t t a c k  consequently,  e x t r a o r d i n a r y f e a t s o f human emotional  child  up  events r e q u i r e extreme methods o f c o p i n g  more common r e a l i t y o f c h i l d h o o d or  conjures  of  intervene  sexual for  abuse the  and  to  protection  integrate of  resources  children.  A  to  more  specific  2 recommendation  (#40) was made f o r more s y s t e m a t i c  research  o f sexual abuse t o f a c i l i t a t e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . report  legitimized  about  the r e a l i t y  t h e concern  o f many p i o n e e r  o f t h e abuse  victim's  The .importance o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g experience  o f sexual  abuse  workers  i n the f i e l d  experience  respond  to aversive l i f e  sexual  abuse,  systematically those  theory  events  t h e coping  i n sexual  field abuse,  or i g n o r e d .  which  the recent  of adult  focus o f  i n v e s t i g a t e s how  o f s e r i o u s magnitude.  responses  s t u d i e d (Burgess  in this  t h e v i c t i m ' s p e r s p e c t i v e toward t h e  i s h i g h l i g h t e d with  o f coping  T h i s Committee's  workers  which had p r e v i o u s l y been e i t h e r d e n i e d , minimized,  i n the area  rape  people  In t h e area o f  victims  have  been  & Holmstrom, 1974, 1976, 1979), whereas  o f the v i c t i m s o f c h i l d h o o d  sexual  a s s a u l t have  not.  However,  unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d h o o d sexual abuse such as r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o f f e n d e r , d u r a t i o n o f abuse, s e c r e c y , age o f t h e v i c t i m , e t c . , make this  experience  victim.  one t h a t  Consequently  experience  coping  specific  s t r e s s e s the coping  of stress  o f t h e myriad  i s proving  behaviour.  ability  a t t e n t i o n t o the v i c t i m ' s  under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i s v i t a l l y  Classification tions  severely  subjective  important.  o f responses  t h a t occur  t o be a c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k  The complexity  of the  under  situa-  for theorists of  o f i n t e r a c t i o n s o f numerous v a r i a b l e s  such as m o t i v a t i o n , c o g n i t i o n , and emotion, with t h e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s people ology moving  have t o trauma has r e s u l t e d  f o r research into  i n this  natural  field.  Increasingly,  s e t t i n g s and r e l y i n g  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s by v i c t i m s themselves, f o c u s on l a b o r a t o r y m a n i p u l a t i o n tive  examinations  of  stress,  i n t h e method-  i n v e s t i g a t o r s are  on d e s c r i p t i v e  accounts  of  as opposed t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l  of variables. emotion,  in a shift  Gradually these d e s c r i p -  and c o p i n g  responses  under  a  3  variety  of  behaviour to  crisis  situations  are  when viewed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  Burgess and Holmstroiti's (1976, 1979)  victims'  experiences,  knowledge  of  i n t i m a t e d e t a i l e d accounts o f a few of  increasing  silence  Brady,  around  1979).  initially  the  With  topic these  of  r e v e a l e d ; however,  sexual  abuse  (Allen, unique  individual  this  e x p e r i e n c e , which i s a major  goal  also  realizing  evaluations 1980 ).  of  There  how  the  importance  they  i s also  coped  a  factors that f a c i l i t a t e  with  growing  features of  or impair c o p i n g  research  knowledge  of  descriptive towards  is  coping accounts  the  coping  Holmstrom, 1974), and childhood incest of  coping  sampling tors  exists  and  intended  behaviour of  to in  victims.  behaviours  documenting  incest  crises  the  need  to  researchers  (Silver  personal  &  Workman,  to  identify  (Lazarus & L a u n i e r , 1978).  Questions  c o n t r i b u t e to aversive l i f e  the  of  sexual  abuse  growing  events, has  While  & Launier,  at p r e s e n t , no  1978), t h i s  study  body  of  on  the  based been  victims  even l e s s t o the u n i q u e l y s t r e s s f u l  (Lazarus  were  In a d d i t i o n  victims'  Limited attention  sexual abuse.  1980;  shared by v i c t i m s  in research.  these  the  s t u d i e s minimize  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the  Research  This  of  to  Armstrong,  c l a s s i f y i n g common f e a t u r e s of the e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o r i s t s and are  rape  broke the c o n s p i r a c y  1980;  case  Prior of  limited  p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x t r a c t i n g more u n i v e r s a l commonalities in  coping  examination was  i n d i v i d u a l s who  the  of  speculative causation.  descriptive  incest  works,  understanding  directed  (Burgess  &  experience  of  unified will  theory  present  a  of p e r s p e c t i v e s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g e x p l o r e d by prominent c o n t r i b u -  in this  field.  While  e x p l o r a t i v e i n n a t u r e , the  findings of  this  4 investigation behaviour. now  will  be  related  In t h i s way,  to  these r e s u l t s w i l l  e x i s t i n g on c o p i n g behaviour  1)  What  theory  concerning  coping  augment the l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h  i n the f i e l d o f s e x u a l abuse.  To p r o v i d e a focus f o r t h i s specifically  current  study, the  following questions w i l l  be  addressed:  common  features concerning  the  dynamics o f  sexual  abuse  are  d e r i v e d from the d e s c r i p t i v e accounts o f v i c t i m s ? 2)  What,  i f any,  are  the  predominant  coping  methods  used  by  these  abuse v i c t i m s ? 3)  What  characteristics  of  what seem t o f a c i l i t a t e 4)  What s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  these  methods  seem t o  hinder  coping,  and  coping?  i f any,  made by v i c t i m s about t h e i r  exist  i n the a p p r a i s a l s and  abusive  evaluations  experiences?  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  Sexual  abuse  Sexual "informed and  abuse  is  generally defined  consent"  on  the  implications  o f the  activities  type o f s e x u a l a c t i v i t y behaviour oral,  (e.g.  a n a l or  nature along t h i s power  occurs  exploited  without  therefore  occur  a l l people  sexual  activity  where  i n v o l v e d as t o the  nature  i s lacking.  disrobing, genital  sexual  continuum.  whereby  any  Abuse may  involve  any  along a continuum r a n g i n g from s e x u a l l y e x p l i c i t  nudity,  genital  part of  as  a  contact,  and  Of p r i m a r y  person's  necessarily  between people  either  to  is typically  importance  vulnerability  requiring of  exposure)  force  or  similar  any  manual,  progressive i n  i s t h a t an abuse of or  powerlessness  injury.  Abuse  or d i f f e r e n t  is may  ages i f  5 the  victim  Children  i s unable  to give  i n a l l cases  informed  are unable  consent  to give  (Sgroi,  "informed"  1982, p. 3 1 ) .  consent, which i s  f r e q u e n t l y e x a c t l y t h e advantage t h a t a t t r a c t s t h e o f f e n d e r  t o them.  Incest Incest  involves the c r u c i a l  psychosocial  dynamic o f a f a m i l i a l o r  proximate r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Specifically,  i n c e s t occurs w i t h i n t h e context of a close relationship between t h e o f f e n d e r and t h e v i c t i m ; i n c e s t i s o f t e n a p r o c e s s , not a s i n g l e event; and v i c t i m s see t h e i r f a m i l i e s a t stake and are t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e p o r t t h e a s s a u l t . ( B u t l e r , 1980) Coping Much current  confusion  has c e n t r e d  p o s i t i o n appears  placed  within  coping  responses  t o be t h a t  t h e context occur  response  i s unclear,  To begin  with,  around  the d e f i n i t i o n  the d e f i n i t i o n  of psychological  in stressful  uncertain, unavailable,  therefore, the prevalent  o f coping  stress.  situations  of coping.  In o t h e r  i n which  or d i f f i c u l t  an  The  must be words, adequate  to mobilize.  d e f i n i t i o n o f ' s t r e s s ' i s , "any  event i n which environmental or i n t e r n a l demands ( o r both) t a x o r exceed the  adaptive  (Lazarus events  & Launier,  that  adaptive values,  resources  that  determined  1978).  Environmental demands a r e viewed as e x t e r n a l  produce n e g a t i v e  response.  thwarted,  o f an i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l system o r t i s s u e system"  by  or  result  i n negative  removed.  the balance  p o s s i b l e resources  averted  I n t e r n a l demands a r e p e r s o n a l  likewise  denied  consequences u n l e s s  of  A  forces  o f the p e r s o n .  i n t e r e s t s , g o a l s , and  outcomes  stressful between  by a s u i t a b l e  f o r t h e person, i f  situation these  therefore  demands  is  and t h e  6 Coping b e h a v i o u r , t h e r e f o r e , i s d e f i n e d as  follows:  c o p i n g c o n s i s t s o f e f f o r t s , both a c t i o n o r i e n t e d and i n t r a p s y c h i c , t o manage ( t h a t i s , master, t o l e r a t e , reduce, minimi z e ) environmental and i n t e r n a l demands, and c o n f l i c t s among them, which tax or exceed a person's r e s o u r c e s . (Lazarus & L a u n i e r , 1978) T h i s broad d e f i n i t i o n for  a  vast  range  o f c o p i n g has p e r s i s t e d  of  possible  cognitive,  as i t attempts t o  emotional  and  account  physiological  responses i n a d d i t i o n t o o v e r t b e h a v i o u r s i n demanding s i t u a t i o n s . issue  of  utilized  the  effectiveness  or  i s addressed by S i l v e r  effective  ineffectiveness  the  and Wortman (1980).  c o p i n g methods a l l e v i a t e  distress.  of  the problem  coping  The  response  A c c o r d i n g t o them,  or reduce  the  resulting  I n e f f e c t i v e methods such as a l c o h o l or drug abuse exacerbate  the problem or become problems i n themselves.  Cognitive Appraisal Finally, theory  is  personal outcomes any  a concept t h a t  that and  of  study  of  cognitive  environmental  stressful of  experience.  i s emerging  appraisal. variables  encounters  coping  must  as c e n t r a l  i n s t r e s s and  Different  explore  this  assessments  significantly  (Holroyd & Lazarus, important  copng  influence 1982),  of the  therefore  dimension  of  the  C o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l i s d e f i n e d as:  the mental p r o c e s s o f p l a c i n g any event i n one o f a s e r i e s o f evaluative categories r e l a t e d e i t h e r to i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the person's w e l l b e i n g (primary a p p r a i s a l ) or t o the a v a i l a b l e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s and o p t i o n s ( s e c o n d a r y a p p r a i s a l ) . (Lazarus & L a u n i e r , 1978) The  importance  in  r e s e a r c h on  Holroyd Shontz,  &  of t h i s  divergent aspects  Lazarus,  1975;  concept i s i l l u s t r a t e d  1982;  of  Lazarus  Wortman & Brehm,  1975).  &  stress  by i t s r e c u r r i n g (Abramson,  Launier,  1978;  et  presence  a l . , 1980;  Seligman,  1975;  7  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Coping complexity  with where  severe  stress  frequently  has developed  contradictory  into  and c o n f l i c t i n g  about c a u s a l determinants o f behaviour r e s u l t . focused  on  specific,  attempts  to i s o l a t e  recently  has a  mediating for  the  Current  limited  occurred  relationships  theoretical  variability  of  towards  o f enormous speculations  D i f f e r e n t t h e o r i s t s have  behaviour  component p a r t s o f t h e complex  shift  seemingly  aspects  a field  searching  under  stress  interactions. for integrative  i n c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s , i n an attempt  opposing  results  of  stress  elicited  frameworks are s t r u g g l i n g t o account  i n reactions to crises  i n order t o p r e d i c t  in Only and  t o account behaviours.  for individual the behavioural  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact a r i s i n g from these e x p e r i e n c e s . Several  theoretical  models  a r e summarized  here  which  are repre-  sentative of the diverse speculative formulations e x i s t i n g i n the f i e l d . This s e l e c t i o n of theories i l l u s t r a t e s the h i s t o r i c a l integrative, reaction scope  of disciplines  limited is  t r a n s a c t i o n a l view o f t h e determinants o f human a c t i o n and  i n situations  experimental  of stress. which  must  In a d d i t i o n , they r e f l e c t account  psychology t o c l i n i c a l  for stress  beyond the scope  of t h i s  paper  t h e broad  experiences  psychology t o medicine.  r e s e a r c h done on c o p i n g behaviour r e l a t e d  clearly  t r e n d towards t h e  from  There i s  t o s e x u a l abuse.  It  t o e x p l o r e a l l t h e numerous  severe s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s t h a t can be encountered i n l i f e .  8 The  models  presented  responses  (Lazarus  reaction  to c r i s i s ;  al.,  1978;  here  & Launier,  are:  1978);  Lazarus' Shontz's  taxonomy  (1965,  of  1975)  coping  theory  of  Seligman's l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s model (Abramson, e t  Seligman,  1975); and  Wortman and  Brehm's  (1975)  integrative  model.  T h e o r i e s of C o p i n g  L a z a r u s ' Taxonomy o f Coping Lazarus the  past  two  features. valid  has  Behaviour  Responses  been the most prominent c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h i s  decades  and  his  extensive  work  includes  field  many  unique  B r e a k i n g with t r a d i t i o n t h a t l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h was  the o n l y  s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e (Lazarus & L a u n i e r , 1978), Lazarus  pioneer-  ed the movement toward d e s c r i p t i v e study o f coping p r o c e s s e s life  for  settings.  conditions  in  straints.  In an  his  perspective,  artificial  Animal  attempts  environment  research  is  not  are  to  limited  illustrative  create by  of  elements  of  influence control  Likewise, the  the  the  laboratory i s restrictive  environment  which  individual. reactions. as  processes,  often Lazarus  illusory  considered  a c r o s s numerous v a r i e d of r e s u l t s . dimensions  in  so  f r e q u e n t l y occur  Viewing respect  to  compilation  stressful  the  situations  issue  as  and  under t h e s e in  in  of  con-  varied  altering crises  to  experimental  psychodynamic and  stressful  ethical  u n i q u e l y human q u a l i t i e s t h a t so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e behaviour conditions.  in natural  and  classification providing a  social of  data  reliability  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s m a t e r i a l i s dynamic and r i c h i n r e v e a l i n g of  human  experience.  Primarily  s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s f r e q u e n t l y conducted  he  sought  to  avoid  the  i n laboratories that results i n  9 trivial,  static,  support  continues  approach,  isolated for  conclusions  this  process  as a v a l u a b l e p r e l u d e and  about  overt behaviours.  oriented, descriptive,  importance emotional crisis. the  of  the  outset,  Lazarus  cognitive appraisal  responses,  coping  as  strategies  coping p r o c e s s e s .  (1966)  emphasized  an  influential  and  success  of  the  central  determinant adjustment  of to  Spontaneous assessments are made by i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n i n g  element  deal  from  ecological  adjunct t o s p e c u l a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s t r e s s , emotion, and Uniquely,  Strong  with  occurring  or  degree o f  i t .  danger  Appraisals  intuitively  are  without  as not  w e l l as p o s s i b i l i t i e s necessarily  awareness,  and  depending  both  available  conscious, on  a  to  frequently the  circum-  s t a n c e s , c o n t i n u o u s l y change w i t h r e s p e c t t o the flow o f events  defining  personal safety. Another remarkable  f e a t u r e o f Lazarus' work i s the examination  v a r i e t y o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Launier,  1978).  actions coping  Expanding  exclusively, responses:  action,  and  the  Lazarus  i n coping,  such  thereby i l l u m i n a t i n g overt  behaviours  offender. quently mental passive  inhibition or  overt of  intrapsychic  compliance  such  inhibition  of  i s designed  to  or r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n  to  direct  Information  such  as  actually  is utilized  pretending  seeking  a t t e n d s a s e x u a l abuse  screaming  characteristics. as  overt  action,  actions could action  on  of  as when a v i c t i m  cope  researchers  categories  methods.  to  (Lazarus &  possible  aspects o f her e x p e r i e n c e .  used  Where  other four  seeking,  c o l l e c t more data f o r r e a p p r a i s a l assist  of  identifies  information  intrapsychic  focus  of a  Direct action refers to or  striking  increase  i n accordance In  t o be  the  lecture  sexual  out  at  dangers,  an  fre-  with  environ-  abuse  context,  a s l e e p w h i l e aware of  the  10 occurrence  of  category.  Finally,  processes  abuse  used  is the  representative intrapsychic  t o manage the  at the  An  phenomenon  intrapsychic  time  the  inhibition  category  includes  such  denial  situation  o c c u r r e d , or f a n t a s i z i n g extreme  of  o f the  as  of  action  a l l cognitive t h a t the  abuse  abuse t o d i s t a n c e o n e s e l f .  frequently  found  in violent  cases l i k e rape i s an out of body p r o j e c t i o n where the v i c t i m  abuse  claims to  be c o n s c i o u s l y s e p a r a t e from the e x p e r i e n c e , y e t aware o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e and  watching  experience  from  a  safe  i s required,  place.  yet  the  More  study  frequency  of  of  this  dissociative  i t s reported  occurrence  a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e s the r i c h , complex, and dynamic r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o p i n g with a d v e r s i t y which s u r f a c e s i n d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h . Table of  coping  stress  1 outlines responses  context,  complex  interrelationships  e l a b o r a t e d by  the  r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r  the  four  Lazarus  identified  and  Launier  coping  modes  o b j e c t , purpose or l o c a t i o n  can  avoid  be  the  between  c o n s i d e r e d as d i r e c t use  the  of  action.  v i o l e n c e thereby  victim  and  the  potential  the  can  ly  with  response  this  L i k e w i s e , both these purposes response.  i s directed  i n the second  In  the  first  may  Specifically,  may  nature  i t may  toward the o f f e n d e r (or the  the o b j e c t i s the v i c t i m  (or the  the  the  the  stress  provide  the  emotional  simultaneous-  object  environment),  self).  with  function to  of  be a c h i e v e d  situation,  any  utilized  v i c t i m with a sense of power and c o n t r o l t h e r e b y m o d i f y i n g the experience.  In  be  participation  f o r harm, or  features  (1978).  T h i s response  changing  other  i n time.  i n the c o n t e x t of s e x u a l abuse, a c t i v e compliant sex  of  Again  of  this  whereas  the o b j e c t  (or i n s t r u m e n t a l focus) can be both the s e l f and the environment i f both f u n c t i o n s are i n t e n d e d t o be a c h i e v e d . dealing  with  the  present  which  F i n a l l y , t h i s a c t i o n i s aimed at  i s perceived  as  harmful,  however  the  11 response result  a l s o i s designed  i n i n c r e a s e d v i o l e n c e toward  therefore thematic the  to a v e r t f u t u r e t h r e a t , i f noncompliance would  c h a r a c t e r on the t a b l e , which i n t h i s harm  and  scheme f a c i l i t a t e s  prevent  salient  environmental  features.  coping  common  strategies  Holmstrom  used  (1976, 1979)  undertaken  in  over  one  hours of the  d u r i n g , and  sexual  and  The  primary  abuse  has  whereby year  period  incident.  immediately  a l l rape were  Coping  i s to  of  unique  been  this  differing  the  Burgess  and  extensive project admitted  interviewed behaviours  of  examining  done by  An  the  situations  the  in  as  tolerate  summary, use  work  victims  orientation  labelled  minimizing  on the v i c t i m s o f rape.  1972-73 a  in  In  elements  processes  A p p l i c a t i o n t o S e x u a l Abuse.  hospital  Temporal  situation  future threat.  e x t r a c t i o n of  illuminating  within  victim.  i n f l u e n c e s the purpose of the c o p i n g response  present  coping  the  by  to  the  a  Boston  researchers  were a n a l y z e d  f o l l o w i n g the a t t a c k based on the  was  before,  recollections  of v i c t i m s , volunteered i n supportive counselling sessions. Considerable cognitive unique  corroboration  a p p r a i s a l was  cognitive  obtained.  appraisal  for  the  a  different  c o n j u n c t i o n with the immediate c o p i n g t a s k .  a s s a u l t was assessing  p e r c e i v e d as  the  assailant.  Subsequent  are  r e q u i r e d to  deal  extremely  reactions of others.  coping  response  r e a c t i o n to  with  danger, the to the the  job  of  coping  entire of  a in  I n i t i a l a p p r a i s a l o f danger flee,  however, once  i n e s c a p a b l e , the t a s k became t o s u r v i v e .  a termination of  rape can be  influence  Each stage of the a t t a c k i n i t i a t e d  requiring  b e f o r e the a t t a c k r e q u i r e d a q u i c k  predominant  task  was  o r d e a l , new  recovery.  The  t r a u m a t i c depending upon support  to  escape  coping  the Upon from  responses  aftermath  of  the  r e s o u r c e s and  the  These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t with the  theoretical  TABLE COPING  1  CLASSIFICATION  Temporal  SCHEME  o r i e n t a t i o n  Instrumental focus  Past-present  Future Functions  A l t e r i n g  t h e  t r a n s a c t i o n  troubled (instrumental)  2.  Regulating  the  a.  Information Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  seeking  action o f  action  Intrapsychic  a.  Information  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  t h e  t r a n s a t i o n Coping  b.  A l t e r i n g  emotion  ( p a l l i a t i o n )  2.  Regulating  t h e  emotion  (pal1iat i o n )  modes  seeking  action o f  t r o u b l e d  ( i n s t r u m e n t a l )  action  Intrapsychic  a.  Information  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  seeking  a c t i o n o f  a c t i o n  I n t r a p s y c h i c  a.  I n f o r m a t i o n  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  seekinq  action o f  action  I n t r a p s y c h i c  Functions Environment  A l t e r i n g  t h e  t r a n s a c t i o n  troubled (instrumental)  Regulating  t h e  emotion  a.  Information Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  seeking  action of  action  Intrapsychic  a.  Information  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  t h e  t r a n s a c t i o n Coping  b.  A l t e r i n g  ( p a l l i a t i o n )  2.  seeking action  Intrapsychic  a.  Information  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  Overcoming,  t o l e r a t i n g ,  r e i n t e r p r e t i n g  past  in  making present  r e s t i t u t i o n ,  t h e  emotion  (pal1iation)  seeking  a c t i o n o f  action  I n t r a p s y c h i c  a.  I n f o r m a t i o n  b.  Direct  c.  I n h i b i t i o n  d.  Appraisals  Thematic  Regulating  modes  action o f  t r o u b l e d ( i n s t r u m e n t a l )  Threat  o r  challenge;  maintenance  Preventive  o r  growth-oriented  character processes  seeking  a c t i o n o f  I n t r a p s y c h i c  action  13 p o s i t i o n taken by Lazarus  and L a u n i e r  (1978), t h a t the nature o f  a p p r a i s a l s , and t a s k s r e q u i r i n g coping s k i l l s change over Burgess peutic at  and  value  these  Holmstrom  exists  various  functional addition,  thereby  building  s o l v i n g r e p e r t o i r e o f the to  six  years  that  coping  These t e c h n i q u e s  a l t e r n a t i v e responses  Four  concluded  i n examining the  stages.  value,  (1976)  self  can be  d e a l with  time  the  required  thoughts, formed  for  assessed  basis  in  can  be v a l i d a t e d f o r t h e i r  esteem  for  maladaptive The situation  such self  as  In  problem  later,  a  follow-up  study  was  from  the  undertaken  Adaptive  i n terms o f  assault.  strategies  the  Recall  with  length  of  self  esteem,  Victims' coping defense  d e r i v e d from an i n t e r v i e w found  rape  that  recovery  trauma  can  and  esteem  assessment  be  strategies  mechanisms,  from  and were  actions  and  format. a multifactorial  facilitated  regarding  of  specific  a c t i o n s were v a l i d a t e d by the o r i g i n a l d a t a ,  of  researchers  victim.  e x p l o r e d t o i n c r e a s e the  for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  responses,  the  individual.  recovery  terms  thera-  s t r a t e g i e s used by v i c t i m s  trauma were e v a l u a t e d  f e e l i n g s , and  the  positive  rape  time.  considerable  these same v i c t i m s by Burgess and Holmstrom (1979). to  stress,  by  coping  the  stress  following:  throughout  the  e x p e r i e n c e ; use o f c o n s c i o u s c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s (such as e x p l a n a t i o n s , minimization,  suppression  actions  as  rape).  (such People  moving  unable  i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h r i s k Burgess  and  deal  with  the  away,  dramatization) travelling,  to m o b i l i z e  these  rape  and  increasing  seeking  responses  f o r slow r e c o v e r y by  Holmstrom  o f t h e dynamics of the to  and  information  may  be  more  coping about readily  clinicians.  have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to  knowledge  trauma syndrome and the e f f o r t s o f v i c t i m s  a s s a u l t and  the  recovery.  Their  classification  of  14 coping  responses,  actions  however,  pertaining  to  based  the  on  rape,  specific  in  precision  and  specific  detailed  illustrations  tend  results,  and  the  common  decipher.  and  to  is  to the  is  an  to  to  incest  to  processes  i n the  schema.  dilute  the  The  the  to  learn  innumerable  impact  characteristics  of  the  difficult a v o i d by  more  and  clarity,  to  urging  about  coping,  limited  applic-  incest.  Summit  and  to  these  adult  assailant  and  c h i l d of  refers  of  years  intercourse, disastrous  and  and  with  the  than  in  1984,  Vol  known proximate where the  physical offender  demand  single  of  and  known their  Holmstrom  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  (Committee 1,  p.  on  between  Sexual  218).  And  relationship.  The  i s frequently  the the  for  secrecy  and  augment the  at  burden  of  incest,  by  nature  of  fondling  to  threat  of  the  sexual  enjoyment  Offenses  primed over a  through stages o f  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  sensations, can  Burgess  most  i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y documented i n  victim  progressed  a  authority  association  Youths,  Active  While  familiar  sexual a s s a u l t  additional  and  the  Children  a  trust  the  Against  consequences.  from  incest  s t a t i s t i c s of  victims,  gradually an  the  activities.  present  coercive,  pleasurable  attention  to  violates  sexual not  Offenses  period  that  offender i s well  offenders  i s subtly  revealing  T y p i c a l l y , the  do  incest  in  rape s i t u a t i o n .  1979)  definition,  s e x u a l abuse and  rather  (1974, 1976,  Children  has  victimization,  the  Against  research  of  with  Sexual  this  childhood  process  victim,  the  that  instrumental  relationship  normal  Lazarus'  lacks  problem Lazarus hoped t o  note  experience of  ongoing  as  the  the  common  (1978) were  assault the  extract  important  Kryso  cases  inherent  by  cases  feelings,  than more about s p e c i f i c environmental c o n t e x t s .  It ability  make  This i s exactly  researchers rather  universality offered  both  thoughts,  of  activities, the  guilt  and  special shame  15 experienced  at t h e time  of disclosure.  The t r a u m a t i c  with t h e abuser may be f e l t as a profound victim the  i s relieved  incest  a  itself.  F r e q u e n t l y these  disclose  as c h i l d r e n ,  breakup pain  greater  hardship  t h e abuse  n o t b e l i e v e d when they d i d  t h e d i s a s t r o u s consequences  So c h i l d h o o d  sexual  fundamental ways from rape,  i n adulthood.  had  most l i k e l y  a single  followed  a s s a u l t event,  by immediate  minimizing  like  differs  These rape  family  events  and Youths,  obviously  greatly i n  victims primarily  by acquaintances  or strangers,  assistance.  t h e p a i n o f these women, t h e i n c e s t v i c t i m  when most i n c e s t u o u s Children  assault  c o u n s e l l i n g and m e d i c a l  unique s t r e s s e s t o cope w i t h .  While n o t  n e v e r t h e l e s s has  S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t between ages 6-11 i s  occur  (Committee on Sexual  1984, V o l . 1, p .  198), so  Offenses  coping  Against  ability  is  limited.  One major v a l u e were  term  restraints  o f Burgess and Holmstrom's (1976) r e s e a r c h i s t h a t  interviewed  r e c a l l o f events long  than  and p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e o f f e n d e r d i d o c c u r , which i n c r e a s e s t h e  tremendously.  victims  Therefore, d i s c l o s u r e of  for victims  women were e i t h e r  or else  formed  l o s s when removed, even i f t h e  t h a t t h e abuse has ended.  i s often  bonding  w i t h i n hours o f t h e a t t a c k ,  and l a t e r  i n 1979 were v a l i d a t e d by t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a .  secretive  nature  on i n t e r v i e w i n g  of childhood  child  abuse,  v i c t i m s , there  memory  Given t h e  and t h e e t h i c a l  i s often  a lapse o f  s e v e r a l y e a r s between t h e i n c i d e n t and t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n by a d u l t s , which presents  problems f o r v a l i d i t y  and r e l i a b i l i t y  however, t h e v i v i d nature o f t h e experience resulting quite  from s t r e s s and d i f f i c u l t y  graphic  reliving  and l o n g l a s t i n g .  the event,  of results.  and t h e impact  Generally,  on t h e v i c t i m  i n c o p i n g , make memory o f t h e event  In some c a s e s ,  even i n t h e t e l l i n g  of i t .  victims  appear  t o be  Therefore, despite the  drawbacks, the d i f f e r e n c e s and  a d u l t s who  i n b a s i c dynamics between a d u l t rape v i c t i m s  experienced  childhood incest  the v a l u e i n e x p l o r i n g the analogous Summary. in  research  stress  and  The on  c o p i n g has  &  and  Meichenbaum's  a n a l y s i s of the coping p r o c e s s has explore coping  effective response  recovery  factors.  examining  the  response  Stress research  adaptive processes  adversity.  arisen  f u n c t i o n i n g from repertoires,  Lazarus  has  process  as  establishing  (1982)  from  to  cur-  cognitive-functional  h i s work.  These  authors  aspects of c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l , deployment  factors,  and  stress  i s therefore providing a basis for  profoundly  a tradition  approach  oriented perspective  those  instrumental  c u r r e n t dynamic, i n t e g r a t i v e approaches i n s t r e s s well  felt  f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n -  as w e l l as i l l u m i n a t i n g  been  reinforce  strategies.  cognitive-phenomenological  oriented  Cameron  abuse,  work has been w i d e l y  provided a strong foundation  time  existing.  His  sexual  and d i v e r g e n t c o p i n g  of Lazarus' p r o l i f i c  stress.  al , mediational, rently  impact  or  and  elicited  i n shaping  these  coping t h e o r y ,  f o r documenting r e a l  life  by  events  as  in a  s y s t e m a t i c manner.  Shontz's Theory o f R e a c t i o n t o C r i s i s Working i n the m e d i c a l Shontz  (1975) focused on  through  as they attempted  crisis  differs  coping,  emotional  responses The  with p h y s i c a l  illness  and  t h e v a r i o u s stages t h a t people to cope with a c r i s i s .  disability,  appeared  to  go  While m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t  from s t r e s s i n the extent of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  requiring  crisis.  field  Shontz  the  characteristic  behavioural  and  t h a t occur b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the impact o f a  preimpact  c o p i n g mechanisms  outlined  phase c o n t i n u e s u n t i l  are not  realization  adequate, at which time  that ordinary  considerable anxiety  17 and  fear  is  experienced.  helplessness, of  the  d e s p a i r and  crisis.  characterized and  action  the  full  The  The loss  impact  full  as the person  stage  also  results  a c c e p t s the  produces:  can  occur  despite  this;  and  2)  an  The  retreat  or  existence  1)  feelings  postimpact  withdrawal or  stage a l s o  occurs  implications  shock  phase, thought  phase,  whereby  Panic, disorganization,  as the person appears t o r e l i v e the c o n t a i n s two  whereby  o f the  of  inevitability  a  encounter  f o r c e o f the emotional trauma i s f e l t .  trauma.  in  by d e p e r s o n a l i z e d detachment, a l t h o u g h remarkable  and h e l p l e s s n e s s are e x p e r i e n c e d now  way,  impact  the  dimensions.  person  critical  avoids or  situation.  Initially denies  the  Retreat, i n  one  seems t o o p e r a t e as a p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e , warding o f f the t h r e a t o f  total disorganization.  F i n a l l y , acknowledgement o f the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f  the  crisis  the  the  experience  retreat) in  o c c u r s , and in  cyclical  frequency and  crisis  i s used  a  person  dynamic  intensity until an  integrates  approach-avoidance  reorganizational  as  gradually  pattern  (that  over t i m e .  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r growth,  beneficial,  healthy  personality  Lazarus  and  Launier  (1978)  derived  from  crises  have been  concur  expansion that  critically  the  i s , encounterCycles decrease  stabilizes.  Shontz can  a l l aspects of  I f the  emphasizes  ultimately  effectiveness  underemphasized  in  that  result.  and  growth  comparison  with the p a t h o l o g y and f a i l u r e o f c o p i n g methods. A p p l i c a t i o n t o S e x u a l Abuse. the  Notman  and Nadelson  stages o f a n t i c i p a t o r y or t h r e a t phase,  (1976)  examined  impact phase, p o s t t r a u m a t i c  ' r e c o i l ' phase, and p o s t t r a u m a t i c r e c o n s t i t u t i o n phase i n the e x p e r i e n c e of  rape  ences. the  victims These  critical  and  found  responses  stages v a r i e d factors  of  characteristic  in intensity  unexpectedness  and of  of  duration, the  crisis  experi-  depending  misfortune,  and  upon the  18 variability  of  threatening  situation.  trauma  is  a  Perception  v i c t i m ' s coping A  positive  of adaptive  one's own stress  the  enhance  significant  or  negative  can  of  Burgess and  self  psychodynamic  crisis.  view  of  in  one's  esteem,  potentially  life  r e s o l u t i o n of  the  ability  to  assault in  considerations  f u t u r e c a p a c i t y to respond  whereas  perception  subsequent c o p i n g  of  of  rape  ability.  supports  the  of  responses  in  an  Consistent  g r e a t l y promote c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n , w i t h  review  importance  adaptive  to  maladaptive  s t r a t e g i e s used by v i c t i m s throughout the  Presentation  cope.  questioning  Holmstrom's (1976) p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s  e x p l o r i n g the coping the  influence  facilitate  responses damages s e l f esteem and with  in this  responses used d u r i n g the  reactions later  and  resources  of  stages  framework  of can  potential for personality  expansion.  Seligman's L e a r n e d H e l p l e s s n e s s From  the  postulated organism  that  a  state of impeded  experimental  psychological  experiences  emotional severely  o r i e n t a t i o n of  Model  an  aversive  depression with  state  repeated  of  event  results  psychology,  Seligman  helplessness that  and  is  future  exposure  to  occurs  (1975) when  uncontrollable.  an An  avoidance l e a r n i n g i s  uncontrollable  traumatic  experiences. The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h became e v i d e n t when a v e r s i v e  experiences dicted  with  emotional  human and  subjects  behavioural  failed  to  reactions  replicate of  the  helplessness,  and performance d e f i c i t s , d e r i v e d from work with animals. a reformulated appraisal  model was  model's  c e n t r a l to  the  theory  as  passivity  Consequently,  proposed by Abramson, e t a l . (1978).  became much more  pre-  Cognitive  helplessness  was  19 viewed  in  the  context  of  about t h e i r  situations.  dimensions  of  frequency tions.  of  a t t r i b u t i o n s of  These a p p r a i s a l s are  i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus  occurrence;  Using the  and  sexual  1)  i f the  control;  " i t ' s my  fault  people  make  according  to  stable-unstable across  situa-  abuse paradigm, the r e v i s e d model would p r e d i c t performance d e f i c i t s are more l i k e l y  f o l l o w i n g c o g n i t i v e b e l i e f s ensue from the that  person" ( i n t e r n a l 2)  of  categorized  global-specific generality  t h a t h e l p l e s s n e s s , p a s s i v i t y and result  c a u s a l i t y that  the  abuse  occurred  because  to  experience: I'm  such  a  bad  attribution).  "there's nothing  I can  do to change b e i n g  t r e a t e d t h i s way"  (stable  attribution). 3)  " a l l men  are p o t e n t i a l sex o f f e n d e r s "  Similarly, helplessness, 1)  "my  "I  according  was  just  "he's  the  (specific While learned  the  in  only  What  exactly  external,  of  the  f o r the  (external  area  person  in  I've  reformulated  the  ever  model  theory,  The  specificity  experience  to  produce  abuse because he  i s the  adult  and  attribution). wrong  place  at  the  wrong  time"  met  who  mistreated  me  sexually"  attribution).  d i r e c t l y studied. of  less likely  attribution).  helplessness  lack  would be  to the model:  control himself"  (unstable 3)  following b e l i e f s  father i s responsible  should 2)  the  (global a t t r i b u t i o n ) .  i t s therapeutic  and  about  enriches  the  model i s l i m i t e d  when p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t i o n s w i l l whether  rape makes i n t e r n a l , specific  a  victim stable,  ones, or  original  i m p l i c a t i o n s have not  p r e d i c t i v e power o f the  determines  unstable,  expands  facing and  an  global  some combination  be  been  by  the  made.  uncontrollable a t t r i b u t i o n s or of  both?  Also  20 the model r e s t r i c t s other  emotional  addressed.  itself  reactions  Nevertheless,  has  strong  the  experience  t o the  intuitive of  this theoretical  experience  and  this  appeal.  traumatic  possible  of helplessness. coping  work o f f e r s The  a  events  has  mechanisms  valuable  importance o f been  The  many  are  not  perspective  and  cognitive appraisal in  considerably  augmented  by  framework.  Wortman and Brehm's I n t e g r a t i v e Model Seligman's Brehm's when  (1975) h e l p l e s s n e s s  (1966) t h e o r y  freedom  aggression,  or  and  Wortman  of  control  Brehm  i s taken  away, p e o p l e  (1975)  developed  v a r i a b l e s determining  which  helplessness  influencing  the  or  emotional  and  conflicted  with  which p o s t u l a t e d  that  respond  with  hostility,  to restore i t .  i d e n t i f i e d mediating reactance  directly  p s y c h o l o g i c a l reactance  enhanced m o t i v a t i o n  and  model  would  an  integrative  that  the p r e c i s e c o n d i t i o n s under  occur.  behavioural  model  The  critical  factors  reactions to aversive  experi-  ences a r e : 1)  the  expectation  of  c o n t r o l over  the  outcome  (which  diminishes  as  the s t r e n g t h o f the harm or t h r e a t i n c r e a s e s ) ; 2)  the degree o f importance of the t h r e a t e n e d the i n d i v i d u a l ;  3)  and  the amount of exposure t o u n c o n t r o l l a b l e or a v e r s i v e Figure  ables .  1  Viewed  illustrates i n the  this  sixteen  hypothetical year  old  the  context  would p r e d i c t t h a t h o s t i l e in  or e l i m i n a t e d outcome t o  and  abuse  rape  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between of  sexual  aggressive  situation  victim  experiences.  (some  abuse,  the  reactance  (marked  these  vari-  i n t e g r a t i v e model  is likely  to  result  'A'  on  Figure  1):  expectation  of  control)  a  being  21 attacked  for  the  first  comes) by  an  integrity  i s high).  and  time  acquaintance on In  p a s s i v i t y would be  victim five  (minimal  this  (high  exposure  of  high).  p r e d i c t i v e accuracy of  not  been  formally  the  victim's  personal  researched,  'B'  uncontrollable  situation,  model:  a  ten  out-  safety  and  helplessness  year  old  incest  abused s e v e r a l times a week f o r  uncontrollable  (importance The  the  by  of control) to  to  (importance o f p e r s o n a l  hypothetical  predicted  (minimal e x p e c t a t i o n  years  a date  exposure  outcomes)  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  by  her  the  father  offender  these v a r i a b l e s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  at p r e s e n t ,  so these  examples are  is has  purely  speculative. Wortman  and  Brehm's  variables  m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d by individual tainty;  2)  choice  o f the  degree  of  degree of h e l p l e s s n e s s .  Lazarus and  coping  threat;  closely  mode. 3)  the  Uncertainty  correspond  Launier  and  the  (1978) which  These are: presence  to  of  1)  influence  degree o f  conflict;  t h r e a t approximate the  4)  of  of  threatened  exposure to p r e v i o u s l y r e f l e c t the v a l u e  and  process o r i e n t e d This influences In  addition,  work  as  extremes.  range may  be  obviously  personality variables Abramson, et  the  a l t h o u g h attempts two  r i g o r o f the p r e v a l e n t  degree  arises  These  from  similarities  transactional, mediational,  perspective.  like  addresses  helplessness  i n c u r r e d harmful e x p e r i e n c e s .  i n t e g r a t i v e model such  outcome; and  the  variable  o f c o n t r o l ; the presence o f c o n f l i c t o c c u r s i n the the  uncer-  and  of expectation importance  four  narrow  are  Silver  focus  of  Wortman  a t t r i b u t a b l e to  not  account  that  may  alter  a l . (1978), Wortman  made here to and  does  either  and  the  for  response.  Brehm's  i n v i g o r a t i o n or  (1975)  passivity,  e s t a b l i s h a continuum between (1980)  laboratory  and  speculate  that  this  animal r e s e a r c h ,  other  these  limited  upon which  22  Figure  Resultant Motivation to Exert Control  1:  The I n t e g r a t i v e Model  Expectation of No C o n t r o l  High  Reactance  Low ^  Importance Outcome Helplessness  Low  High  Importance Outcome  High Amount o f H e l p l e s s n e s s T r a i n i n g or Exposure t o U n c o n t r o l l a b l e Outcomes  23 t h i s work i s based.  Wortman and Brehm (1975) do,  acknowledge the  importance  experiences  and  the  particular,  they  however,  increasingly  o f c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s people make i n t h e i r  impact  identified  of  those  the  need  beliefs to  on  f u t u r e behaviour.  research people's  In  perspectives  on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s or i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the chosen c o p i n g method. In summary, the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these p r e c e d i n g models r e v e a l s t h e complexity the  and v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , elements,  analysis  of  coping  emerge and methodologies field  of  stress  tradition offered  by  inheritors beings.  of  and  of  the  people  While  new  questions  continue  change t o accommodate s h i f t i n g v i e w p o i n t s ,  coping  dedicated  these  behaviour.  and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n v o l v e d i n  does  reflect  integrity. serves  as  awesome t a s k of  The a  an  exciting,  rich  source  of  dynamic,  foundation  of  to the  ongoing  knowledge  inspiration  for future  unraveling the mysteries  of n a t u r a l  24  CHAPTER THREE  METHODOLOGY  The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e C h o i c e o f Methodology The  critical  incident  technique  (Flanagan,  1954) i s d e s i g n e d t o  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l and analyze t h e spontaneous tendency recall  events  based  interactions. subjected  on t h e i r  Independent  t o an i n d u c t i v e  experiences  descriptions  t h i s , where t h e purpose refine  existing  and o b s e r v a t i o n s  o f important  categorization  e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f an i d e n t i f i e d aim.  o f people t o  process  o f human  occurrences are  which  captures the  In q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s such as  i s t o generate d e s c r i p t i v e data t o e l a b o r a t e and  t h e o r i e s r a t h e r than  test  statistical  hypotheses,  this  method i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . Flanagan studies  (1954)  developed  the technique  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A i r Force  or i n e f f e c t i v e i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a s p e c i f i c  this ogy  o r being  a good  leader.  t e c h n i q u e has proved  early  i n World War I I .  was found v a l u a b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t i c a l  fly  during  aviation  The procedure  f a c t o r s t h a t were e f f e c t i v e  a c t i v i t y , such as l e a r n i n g t o  Nearly t h i r t y  years  after  i t s inception,  t o be w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e as a u s e f u l methodol-  f o r psychological studies.  On a p r a c t i c a l  level,  Cohen  and Smith  (1976)  studied  leadership  group  processes  intervention;  important  aspects  (1981)  elicited  nurses.  For  collected  of  Rimon  their  critical  reveal  (1979)  role  conditions  theory  to  in  which  building,  i n c i d e n t s to  critical  examined  patient  care;  study the  an  impressive  critical  presupposition  of  these  phenomenological o r i e n t a t i o n . perceptions  dimensions measure pants  of  of  unique  human  life  quantitatively.  affirm  or  This  alter  varied  existing  (1979)  cognitions  (1978) conducted  incidents  studies  and  is  enables  difficult  trends  to  across  theoretical  Flanagan (1978) found t h a t s u b j e c t s ' u s e f u l source of  Lerman  between  6500  et a l .  t r a i n i n g of  a  defining  subjective,  approach l e g i t i m i z e s the  are  Recurring  and  of  o f Americans.  individuals,  which  Dachelot  Flanagan  compiling  f e a t u r e s of the q u a l i t y of l i f e  The  and  and  requiring  perceptions  clinical  connection  emotions i n achievement r e l a t e d c o n t e x t s . gathering  and  Russell,  and  study  nurses'  facilitated  Weiner,  points  or  experience  exploration  of  operationalize independent  objective  and  partici-  knowledge.  r e c a l l e d events p r o v i d e d  a rich  and  collection  and  information.  C o l l e c t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Data The to  the  Critical analysis  Incident of  data.  Technique r e f e r s both t o Flanagan  (1954) suggests t h a t  f o r o b t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l , through the use is  to  elicit  extreme  tribute,  either  studied.  These are  to  be  more  recalled  and  dramatic  positively  easily  incidents  or  of interviews  behaviours  negatively,  considered  'critical  identified  than  can  be  the  determined  to  the  the  significantly  con-  objectives  being  behaviours. ability  criterion  questionnaires,  i n c i d e n t s , ' which are  average by  that  or  the  of  believed  Accuracy the  person  of to  give  full,  precise details.  Vague r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n c i d e n t i s  not w e l l remembered, and data may be i n c o r r e c t . are  taken  to obtain  impressions,  detailed,  Flanagan  (1954)  factual  claims  I f suitable precautions  accounts  that  rather  recalled  than  general  incidents  can be  r e l i e d upon t o p r o v i d e adequate d a t a . Flanagan activity and  (1954)  that  defines  i s sufficiently  an  incident  complete  in itself  p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made about t h e person  critical, intent  an i n c i d e n t  must  o f the a c t seems  occur  fairly  as any o b s e r v a b l e  in a  performing  situation  clear  t o permit  lines  to c o l l e c t i n g  t o the observer  t o ensure  d a t a , Flanagan  objective,  clear  t i o n of s a l i e n t behaviours. negative,  which  doubt  concerning  expected  t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t  r e s e a r c h e r must  effect  would  to  are any a c t i o n s which  long p e r i o d o f time.  be  format,  specific  effect  the objectives being  directly  or i n d i r e c t l y  able  t o say with  or bad, t h e r e b y delineating  guide-  studied. could  excluding  over  be a  (1954) s t a t e s t h a t  some c o n f i d e n c e  t h e purpose  q u e s t i o n s , must be c a r e f u l l y determined  positive  on t h e t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n ,  However, i n t h i s case, Flanagan  be good  interview  (1954) d e t a i l s  e v a l u a t i o n , r e c o r d i n g and c l a s s i f i c a -  are r e l e v a n t  also  The  To be  and where i t s  These i n c l u d e a l l b e h a v i o u r s , both  Included  the  the a c t .  effects. Prior  and  inferences  where t h e purpose o r  consequences are s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e t o l e a v e l i t t l e its  human  whether  this  b o r d e r l i n e behaviours. o f the study  and t h e  i n advance t o encourage a c c u r a t e  e l i c i t a t i o n of the desired data. Following delineates  collection  a specific  of c r i t i c a l  incidents,  s e t o f procedures  e f f i c i e n t , s y s t e m a t i c manner.  Flanagan  (1954)  f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e data  also i n an  U s i n g an i n d u c t i v e p r o c e s s , i n c i d e n t s a r e  27 classified use  according  f o r the f i n d i n g s .  obtained  Generally,  categories,  t h e planned framework,  Strict  organization;  criteria  requirements  are o u t l i n e d ,  defined  i n positive  of a l l significant  incidents  i n each c a t e g o r y  are made with r e s p e c t using  incidents.  are t a l l i e d  the C r i t i c a l  rather  than  neutral  terms;  the s i z e  behaviours t h a t  require  obtained  of subjects  critical  a r e comprehensive frequency  and  counts o f  t h e sample  from  i s con-  the interviewing  interviewed.  Only one  Consequently t h e procedure f o r  i s t h e number  classification.  and no new c a t e g o r i e s  reflect-  i n tone, w i t h  Technique,  of incidents  o f t h e sample  the  problem.  Incident  t h e number  and  for  c l e a r c u t and l o g i c a l  Finally,  i s r e q u i r e d t o form a c a t e g o r y .  t o develop  a l l items  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e d a t a  t o the i d e n t i f i e d  t o be t h e number  determining  until  i n advance,  providing  o f importance; b e i n g  inclusive  procedure,  occurs  conveying meanings without needing e x p l a n a t i o n s ;  ing a s i m i l a r l e v e l  When  A process o f r e d e f i n i t i o n o f  of incidents,  headings o f c a t e g o r i e s , which i n c l u d e :  incident  from  a tentative classification  i s reviewed by o t h e r s .  and r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  distributed.  sidered  arising  by s o r t i n g a small number o f i n c i d e n t s i n t o p i l e s l a b e l l e d w i t h  descriptive t i t l e s ,  are  t o a frame o f r e f e r e n c e  o f new  critical  When r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n s  a r e formed, s u f f i c i e n t  begin  i n c i d e n t s have  been c o l l e c t e d .  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f t h e Technique Flanagan determined independent  (1954)  outlined  by t h e percentage raters  classification  that  reliability  o f agreement  of the categories i s  obtained  c l a s s i f y the i n c i d e n t s according  scheme.  Raters  are i n i t i a l l y  when one o r more to the researcher's  trained  i n t h e method o f  28 categorization  used  incidents  the appropriate  into  advance,  such  considered  as  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  80%  reliable.  and are i n s t r u c t e d  categories.  agreement,  With w e l l  A criterion  determines  whether  formed c a t e g o r i e s  t o sort the  established i n categories  and r a t e r s  are  adequately  t r a i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o the framework, good agreement can be e x p e c t e d . The been  reliability  subjected  analysis these  and v a l i d i t y o f t h e c r i t i c a l  to scrutiny  by Andersson  of the job of store  important  features  i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e has  and N i l s s o n  manager p r o v i d e d  o f t h e methodology.  (1964), where t h e  a vehicle Inspection  f o r exploring o f the c l a s s i -  fication of incidents  into categories  and r a t i n g o f d a t a by independent  judges,  inquiries  t h e importance  as w e l l  as  incidents resulted  into  i n the following  of the  elicited  conclusion:  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d here on t h e reliability and v a l i d i t y a s p e c t s o f t h e c r i t i c a l incident t e c h n i q u e , i t would appear j u s t i f i a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t information c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method i s both r e l i a b l e and valid. ( p . 402)  Subjects  S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Sample Volunteers group  treatment  Society  i n t h i s study were p r i m a r i l y women who were with  t h e Vancouver  (V.I.S.A.C.S.).  The r e s e a r c h e r  these treatment groups s i n c e , feature in  was a n t i c i p a t e d  t o be t h e i s s u e  familiar.  A l l t h e women  voluntarily  and a l l  had e x p e r i e n c e d  or e a r l y  and Sexual  worked  as a  Abuse  Centre  co-therapist  in  g i v e n t h e nature o f t h e t o p i c , a c r i t i c a l  someone  childhood  Incest  undergoing  adolescence.  o f t r u s t and a b i l i t y were  undergoing  sexual  In a d d i t i o n ,  abuse  group  and/or  two t h e r a p i s t s  to confide treatment incest i n who were  themselves  abuse  therapist  training  research.  Finally,  of  t h e focus  eously  survivors program,  confiding  treatment  volunteered  t o be  in a  V.I.S.A.C.S.  interviewed  for this  one woman from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , upon h e a r i n g  for this  Consequently,  and had p a r t i c i p a t e d  study, v o l u n t e e r e d  her early  abuse  the population  as w e l l as those  to participate  experiences  for this  who a c h i e v e d  study  after  spontan-  to the researcher.  consisted  o f women i n  a p e r s o n a l l y acceptable  degree  o f r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e abuse. For t h e group members, t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and t h e purpose o f t h e study was p r e s e n t e d of  treatment.  a t t h e l a s t group meeting a f t e r an e i g h t week course  The women were  approach t h e r e s e a r c h e r likewise  informed  Volunteers Due  after  asked  t h e meeting ended.  o f t h e purpose  were l a t e r  c o n t a c t e d t o arrange  at that  time  or to  The o t h e r women were  and r e s e a r c h  t o the i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l nature  taken  to volunteer  question  a convenient  i n advance.  i n t e r v i e w time.  o f t h e m a t e r i a l , extreme c a r e was  t o ensure u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r i v a c y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  In most c a s e s , t h e women p r e f e r r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e i r homes, and made advance arrangements t o ensure p r i v a c y . The A),  participants  which  were  read  were given aloud  d u p l i c a t e consent  outlining  v o l u n t a r y and c o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d taped,  however  completion involvement  a l l data  would  clearly  forms  that:  participation  w i t h V.I.S.A.C.S. kept one copy  research  be c o n f i d e n t i a l  would  and tapes  i n no way a f f e c t  A l l s u b j e c t s s i g n e d t h e consent  themselves.  was  a t any p o i n t ; t h e i n t e r v i e w s would be  o f the a n a l y s i s ; pseudo names c o u l d be used i n this  ( s e e Appendix  erased  upon  i f d e s i r e d ; and future  treatment  form i n d u p l i c a t e and  30 A  total  o f 18 a d u l t women were  anticipated initially arrange  25, from  volunteered  across  three  and l a t e r  the interview claimed  interviewed V.I.S.A.C.S.  their  Women  they  just  couldn't  bring  i n a research  and v a l i d a t e d .  who  i t a l l back up  Those who went through  the i n t e r -  a d e s i r e t o h e l p o t h e r s and r e c o g n i z e d speaking  experiences  heard,  groups.  changed t h e i r minds when telephoned t o  a g a i n , now t h a t t h e group was over. view expressed  a l t o g e t h e r , o u t o f an  study  out about  as a v a l u a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  P r o f i l e o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s The  detailed  demographic  questionnaire  (Appendix  B) produced t h e  f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e o f t h e s e x u a l abuse v i c t i m s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s Actual  s t a t i s t i c s a r e presented  General and  i n T a b l e s 2 and 3.  I n f o r m a t i o n . These Canadian women a r e an average age o f 32,  are most  dren.  study.  likely  t o be m a r r i e d  or l i v i n g  common law, w i t h  no c h i l -  C u r r e n t l y employed o u t s i d e t h e home i n t h e h e a l t h care p r o f e s s i o n  (as n u r s e s ,  t h e r a p i s t s , o r mental h e a l t h w o r k e r s ) ,  s t a t e Grade 12 g r a d u a t i o n as t h e i r p r e s e n t a c t i v e people  educational l e v e l .  These a r e  i n v o l v e d i n a wide v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s , and p u r s u i n g many  p e r s o n a l hobbies  and g o a l s .  Sexual Abuse I n f o r m a t i o n . female  t h e y most f r e q u e n t l y  in their  Seven  family of o r i g i n ,  with  both t h e o l d e s t and the youngest g i r l . s i b l i n g s was u n i f o r m .  another  women  were  s i x being  the only  respectively  B i r t h order w i t h r e g a r d t o other  A t t h e onset o f t h e sexual abuse, t h e average age  o f the v i c t i m was 5.3 y e a r s five  o f these  isolated  and t h a t o f t h e o f f e n d e r 37.  from  under  i n c i d e n t s t o prolonged  with  t h e average b e i n g 6.2 y e a r s .  Abuse  ranged  d u r a t i o n o f 15 y e a r s ,  While t h e frequency  l i k e w i s e ranged  TABLE 2 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA — Nationality  Marital Status  Canadian:  17  20-24:  3  Married  American:  1  25-29:  4  Single:  30-34:  6  Separated:  35-39:  3  Divorced:  40-44:  0  45-49:  1  50-55:  0  56-60:  1  average age:  Education Grade 9:  GENERAL INFORMATION  1  Therapist:  University  (Masters):  4  2:  5  3:  2  Homemaker:  Homemakers:  2  Status 14 2  Unemployed/seeking 3  F l i g h t attendant/air t r a f f i c 2  4  3  Secretary/Clerk: 1  4  O u t s i d e home:  8  (B.A.):  1:1  Nurse (RN): 4  Grade 12:  University  10  Employment  Mental h e a l t h worker:  5  0:  Occupation  1  (BCIT):  4  6  32.5  Grade 10:  College  o r Common Law:  Children  agent:  jobs:  TABLE 3 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA — Position Origin  Age o f V i c t i m at Onset o f Abuse  i n Family of  SEXUAL ABUSE INFORMATION Age o f Offender a t Onset o f Abuse  Sex o f O f f e n d e r  Relationship to Victim  as female:  5  16-20:  4  female:  4-5:  4  21-25:  2  neighbour:  5  6-7:  5  26-30:  2  brother:  4  8-9:  0  31-35:  2  uncle:  4  grandfather:  2  oldest g i r l :  6  2-3:  youngest  6  siblings:  11  male:  b i r t h -1 :  as  father:  3  7  girl:  33  13-15:  only g i r l :  1  4  acquaintance: 7  oldest/only g i r l :  3  10-11  2  36-40:  12  2nd born:  3  12-13  0  41-45:  2  aunt:  1  3rd born:  3  14-15  0  46-50:  3  stepfather:  1  youngest/only g i r l :  3  51-55:  4  babysitter:  1  56-60:  3  mother:  1  V i c t i m ' s average age: Offender's average age: T o t a l number"of o f f e n d e r s :  5.3 37 37  (7 v i c t i m s had more than one o f f e n d e r )  TABLE 3 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA —  SEXUAL ABUSE INFORMATION ( C o n t i n u e d )  Duration and Frequency of Abuse  Current Contact Contact with Offender  1-5 i n c i d e n t s ;  offender  under 1 year infrequent: frequent:  family v i s i t s infrequent: frequent:  5 4  no c o n t a c t :  2  3  1-2 years infrequent: frequent:  2  3-5 years infrequent: frequent:  3  6-10 years infrequent: frequent:  Type o f Abuse  fondling  only:  f o n d l i n g and/or o r a l sex:  f o n d l i n g and/or rape ( o r a l or vaginal): f o n d l i n g and/or vaginal intercourse f o n d l i n g and/or more than one o f the above: p h y s i c a l abuse:  10  emotional abuse: 11 (name c a l l i n g , v e r b a l abuse, e t c . )  deceased:  l i v e together  now:  Most H e l p f u l Counselling Received 6  group t h e r a p y :  Legal Action Against Offender 14  i n d i v i d u a l therapy:  2  no d i r e c t t h e r a p y c o n c e r n i n g abuse:  2  none:  1  1 5  11-15 years infrequent: frequent: over 15 years infrequent: frequent: Average d u r a t i o n : 6.2 y e a r s . (Frequent means o c c u r r i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , e i t h e r d a i l y , weekly, o r monthly.)  18  34 from  isolated  incidents  t h i r t e e n women r e p o r t e d abuse,  incidents  to  occurred  incidence  relationships  on  a  assault  by eleven  daughter, r e v e a l i n g t h a t  weekly  and monthly  basis.  abuse by f o u r  o f sexual  reported  weekly,  encounters,  t h a t a t some p o i n t throughout t h e course o f t h e  overwhelmingly male, however overlooked  daily,  The o f f e n d e r s  females  by women.  v i c t i m s was t h a t  i n c e s t was t h e p r e v a l e n t  were  addresses  an o f t e n  The most  frequent  of natural  f a t h e r and  form o f abuse i n t h i s  sample. Thirteen oral  women claimed  or vaginal  being  reported  abuse  including  abuse o c c u r r e d intercourse;  of force  or v i o l e n c e  utilized  some type  of fondling  or molestation.  physical  c a l l i n g , verbal The  severe  rape, o r a l sex o r v a g i n a l  the degree  others  that  beatings  i n t h e form o f the d i s t i n c t i o n  by t h e o f f e n d e r .  and emotional  The  Other t y p e s o f  cruelty  such  as name  abuse, and n e g l e c t , were a l s o h i g h l y d e t a i l e d .  current  level  of contact  with t h e o f f e n d e r  v a r i e s , but v i c t i m s  s t a t e d most o f t e n t h a t t h e i r abuser was now deceased.  Of those s t i l l i n  contact,  of d i f f i c u l t y i n  their  a l l t h e women  related  some  ongoing  degree  f a m i l i a l o r p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e o f f e n d e r . Sixteen  women had r e c e i v e d  counselling  directly  pertaining  abuse and most s t a t e d t h a t group c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h o t h e r most  helpful  treatment  modality.  What  they  liked  to the  v i c t i m s was t h e  t h e most  was t h e  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t they weren't alone i n h a v i n g had t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , a f t e r years o f being  i s o l a t e d i n secrecy  and shame.  Despite  the counselling,  these women c o n f i d e d p e r s i s t i n g problems such as low s e l f esteem; dysfunctions; assaults. of t h e i r  relationship  conflicts;  and f e a r  o f men  or  S e v e r a l v i c t i m s s a i d t h a t t h e abuse had a f f e c t e d every lives.  sexual future aspect  35 None  o f t h e wcmen  offender. to  had taken  the f a m i l y  deported  action  rape o f h i s s i x year  d e t a i n him f o r v e r b a l  or e l s e her f a t h e r  to t h e i r country o f o r i g i n .  abuser d i d i n f a c t spend one n i g h t oral  legal  against  their  In one c a s e , a woman who t r i e d t o charge h e r f a t h e r , was t o l d  drop t h e charges by a d e t e c t i v e  and  direct  in jail,  would be j a i l e d So she d i d .  One  when f o l l o w i n g t h e v i o l e n t  o l d daughter, h i s wife  c a l l e d the p o l i c e t o  abuse, u n t i l he sobered up.  Procedure and D a t a C o l l e c t i o n  Assumptions For the  many p a r t i c i p a n t s , a s i g n i f i c a n t l e n g t h  experience  interview.  o f t h e abuse  Given  this  o f time e x i s t s between  and t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n c i d e n t s  fact,  t h e assumptions  made by t h e  i n the  researcher  p r i o r t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e data are i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : 1)  subjects  will  recall  abusive  incidents  in detail  as  they  happened; 2)  the r e c a l l o f i n c i d e n t s w i l l be e s s e n t i a l l y f a c t u a l ; and  3)  subjects  w i l l be able t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c r i t i c a l  t h a t h i n d e r e d c o p i n g , and those t h a t  Interview  as age  coping.  Structure  Prior detailed  facilitated  incidents  t o commencing  demographic  age, m a r i t a l  the i n t e r v i e w ,  questionnaire  status,  at onset, duration,  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Appendix  and o c c u p a t i o n ,  were  B) , i n c l u d i n g  as w e l l  given  basics  a  such  as abuse f a c t s such as  frequency, r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o f f e n d e r ,  counselling  36 received, naire,  and l e g a l  consequences.  s u b j e c t s were then  Upon  interviewed  completion  of this  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ,  question-  according t o  the s t r u c t u r e d e t a i l e d i n Appendix C.  Pilot  Study The  pilot  study  participants  could  or  coping  hindering  was  recall with  volunteers,  a number  interview,  consequently  memory  recall  could  conducted specific  sexual  o f years  events  abuse  be.  Incident  study.  to helping  t h e abuse  as t o how d e t a i l e d was  i f the  F o r many o f these  between  t h e study  and t h e  and a c c u r a t e  intended  to test the  (Appendix C ) , which was based on  Flanagan's  Technique.  Three women, who had v o l u n t e e r e d for the p i l o t  determine  t h a t were c r u c i a l  had e l a p s e d  Also,  to  and i n c e s t .  i t was u n c l e a r  interview structure outline (1954) C r i t i c a l  primarily  to participate,  were  interviewed  One woman had been a group t h e r a p y member and t h e  o t h e r two were sexual abuse group l e a d e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s .  According to  the  initially in  demographic  childhood: extent, from  information,  a l l three  had been  one by her f a t h e r f o r t e n y e a r s ,  from  birth,  age seven; with  t h e second by both  v a r i e d frequency;  abused  almost parents  and the t h i r d  type  assault  o f abuse and c r u e l t y .  sentative  ranged  from  fondling  Therefore,  o f t h e range,  duration,  these  a t age twenty-two.  women were  and i n t e n s i t y  years,  acquaintances,  and m o l e s t a t i o n  three  day t o some  for fifteen  by two  once by a b a b y s i t t e r a t age t e n and l a t e r by a date The  every  to violent quite  of sexually  repreabusive  experiences. The in  researcher  Appendix  C.  adhered  The f o l l o w - u p  to the interview questions  structure  were s p e c i f i c a l l y  as o u t l i n e d designed t o  37 e x t r a c t both primary locus  and secondary  of control,  consistency  s i t u a t i o n s ; emotional effective  cognitive appraisals; attributions of of  occurrence  r e a c t i o n s throughout  and  generality  across  t h e stages o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ;  and i n e f f e c t i v e assessments o f coping  responses;  and p e r s o n a l  e v a l u a t i o n s o f these i n c i d e n t s from a l o n g term p e r s p e c t i v e . The  women had l i t t l e  difficulty  recalling  specific  incidents that  h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d c o p i n g with t h e abuse, with one e x c e p t i o n . experienced part  by one p a r t i c i p a n t  had become  such  an i n t e g r a l ,  o f her e x i s t e n c e , f o r so many y e a r s , t h a t s p e c i f i c  difficult  to  facilitate  isolate  recall  initially.  and g r a d u a l l y  Further critical  The abuse  probing  i n c i d e n t s were  was  experiences  everyday  required  began  to  emerging.  Otherwise t h e i n c i d e n t s were i n t e n s e l y p r e s e n t , g r a p h i c , and e m o t i o n a l l y a r o u s i n g f o r t h e women. The  recalled  provided  specific  entirety.  i n c i d e n t s tended details  details.  modified  the format  explored  i n detail  incidents  were  incidents  were  with  collected  had been  questions.  vivid  questions  One n e g a t i v e  pictures  study,  incident  questions,  questions  used  given,  t h e women  explored  i f available,  were  i n depth.  as t h e women  produced  o f the p i l o t  the probing with  lengthy  only  in their  considerably  the researcher  was r e q u e s t e d and  then  other  negative  to clarify  specific  the p i c t u r e o f the incident.  which was then  described,  Upon  As a r e s u l t  somewhat.  t o complete  incident  comprised  In a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w - u p  more g r a p h i c  details  which  t o be q u i t e  When a l l n e g a t i v e  r e d i r e c t e d t o one p o s i t i v e Further  b u t n o t examined  positive incidents with  the  follow-up  The i n t e r v i e w s t y p i c a l l y l a s t e d about one and a h a l f conclusion  of the interview,  the subjects  hours.  spontaneously  c l a i m e d t o have d e r i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r s o n a l v a l u e from undergoing  this  38 process.  Specifically,  and  helped  what  options  they  them  to  and r e s o u r c e s  s t a t e d t h a t c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g what  cope  under  offered  deeper  understanding  the circumstances,  than  they  hindered of  had  their  achieved  previously. In summary, the p i l o t interview dents  format.  V i c t i m s were  which c l e a r l y  claimed  study r e s u l t e d i n v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s about t h e  assisted  to derive therapeutic benefit  t h e p r o t r a c t e d nature  exploration  of  questions. "critical  Sexual  occurred  abuse  vividly  specific  c o p i n g , and they  from  inci-  spontaneously  exploring coping  strategies  Fewer i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d as a r e s u l t  of these  dynamics  to r e c a l l  or impaired  i n the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . of  able  experiences,  however more  i n conjunction  experiences  appear  with  to  be  detailed  the e v a l u a t i v e by  their  nature  incidents."  Data A n a l y s i s Critical transcribed judged  to  incidents  onto be  pages  critical  from with  the taped one  i f the  interviews  incident subject  were  per page.  could  e x t r a c t e d and  An  recall  incident  details  of  was the  e x p e r i e n c e and remember what i t was about t h a t e x p e r i e n c e t h a t h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d coping with s e x u a l abuse. could  be a s c e r t a i n e d with  S e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s were i n c l u d e d t h a t  confidence  p o s i t i v e or a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t over  t o have had e i t h e r  a  significant  time.  I n i t i a l l y the i n c i d e n t s were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the predominant  theme  victim.  i n that Since  experience  coping  occurs  that  r e q u i r e d coping  i n response  to  c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f y the s t r e s s t o be coped w i t h ! categories,  incidents  were  again  classified  on  the p a r t  stress,  of the  these  initial  W i t h i n these  thematic  a c c o r d i n g t o Lazarus'  four  39 c o p i n g modes ( d i r e c t a c t i o n , i n h i b i t i o n o f a c t i o n , i n t r a p s y c h i c methods, and  i n f o r m a t i o n seeking)  victim  in this  both c l a s s i f i e d  t o determine  situation.  which  H i n d e r i n g and  was  primarily  facilitative  used  by  incidents  the were  i d e n t i c a l l y i n t h i s manner.  R e l i a b i l i t y of Categories The two  classification  independent  which  stress,  The  judges were t r a i n e d  r e q u i r e d making two  and  the  coping  agreement  by  incidents  provided  agreement was eighty-one  developed was  tested  judges, both o f whom were graduate  l i n g Psychology. used,  system  the  mode  judges the  with  by  i n the c a t e g o r y system  the  measure  of  the  incidents  were t e s t e d  The  investigator's reliability.  by each  A  minimum  judge.  The  following  RELIABILITY OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (Percentage Agreement) Category  of  r e l i a b l e categories.  TABLE 4  Stress  percentage  classification  were o b t a i n e d .  Judge  to  be  about the i d e n t i f i e d  victim.  d e c i d e d i n advance t o i n d i c a t e  by  students i n Counsel-  separate decisions  used  for r e l i a b i l i t y  Coping Mode  A  90%  83%  B  83%  80%  of of 80% All  results  40  CHAPTER FOUR  RESULTS  A  total  of  81  transcribed  from  pants.  these,  made  Of coping  independent  the  taped  sexual  subj ect was Initial  requiring  abuse  sorting resulted  coping  by  categories  Lazarus.  very  in  this  difficult,  situation tions  the  capture  will modes  be  according  h i n d e r i n g or  to  impact  a t l e n g t h to positive  the  to  and  partici-  factors  that  twenty-eight  to  average number o f i n c i d e n t s  Coping whether  and  coping  modes  suggested  by  o f c o p i n g modes used w i t h i n differentiated,  the  described  participant  coping.  Below  defini-  original  assump-  in precise, factual  detail.  the  are  descriptions, their  illustrate  this  the  Meeting  experiences  negative  signifi-  modes have been  categories.  o f these  offender,  stress  again c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n these  four  facilitating  stress  the profound  in  and  which were l a b e l l e d  distribution  women o f f e r e d t h e i r  provided  used  to  categories.  f o r each o f the  tions, To  as  The  Each i n c i d e n t was  r e v e a l s the  stress  table,  related  female  i n three categories of i d e n t i f i a b l e  the v i c t i m ,  according  Table 5  each of the  eighteen  extracted  four.  cant o t h e r , and v i c t i m . three  the  i n c i d e n t s were  f a c t o r s t h a t h e l p e d the v i c t i m t o cope. per  i n c i d e n t s were  interviews of  fifty-three  with  critical  the  c a t e g o r i e s and  incidents.  The  exact  words  the  coping  coping  mode,  TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF COPING MODES WITHIN THE STRESS CATEGORIES Direct Action Hindered Offender  12  Significant Other  17  Facilitated 11  I n h i b i t i o n of Action Hindered 15  Facilitated 1  Intrapsychic Hindered 6  I n f o r m a t i o n Seeking  Facilitated 3  Hindered 0  Total  Facilitated 0  48  26  Victim  Total  30  14  16  12  81  42 information  seeking,  was not u t i l i z e d  in this  sample  i n any c a t e g o r y ,  t h e r e f o r e i s not a b l e t o be e x p l o r e d .  S t r e s s C a t e g o r i e s and Coping  Modes  Offender As could  shown  be  mately  i n Table  classified  5,  forty-eight  in this  60% o f t h e d a t a .  stress  Of  out o f the eighty-one  category,  these,  thirty-three  i n c i d e n t s t h a t made c o p i n g v e r y d i f f i c u l t , helped  of  sexual  revealed  that  presupposed heading  of  identified  as  and f i f t e e n as i n c i d e n t s t h a t  T h i s c a t e g o r y was i n i t i a l l y d e r i v e d from the d e s c r i b e d abuse  suffered  specific,  by  the victims.  recurring  became ' o f f e n d e r ' r a t h e r than traits  age d i f f e r e n c e s  most  However,  characteristics  t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f abuse.  Distinctive and  were  for approxi-  coping.  Definition. acts  accounting  incidents  of  Consequently  trusting  frequently reported  between the v i c t i m  relationship;  offenders  the category  'abuse'. were:  physical  size  and the p e r p e t r a t o r ; t h e degree  i n f l u e n c e and a u t h o r i t y over t h e v i c t i m as determined  proximate,  the  re-sorting  by t h e type o f  t h e amount o f f o r c e o r c r u e l t y  used,  as w e l l as m a n i p u l a t i o n s , c o e r c i o n s and s e d u c t i o n ; t h e suddenness o f t h e a s s a u l t ; the extent o f pressure of  exposure,  time.  including  to maintain  s e c r e c y ; and the frequency  the progression o f the s e v e r i t y  o f abuse,  Examples r e f l e c t i n g these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e :  COERCION AND PRESSURE TO MAINTAIN SECRECY I was little  always coerced v e r b a l l y somehow i n t o c o o p e r a t i n g b i t more . . . I remember him s a y i n g t o me t h a t  a I  over  mustn't t e l l , i f I d i d , nobody would b e l i e v e me; i f my mother found out, i t would k i l l her and I would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r that. AGE,  FORCE, AND  SUDDENNESS -  I was e i g h t years o l d and he was 50, and i t was i n the middle of the n i g h t and I was a s l e e p . He had asked me t o come i n t o bed with him and s i n c e he was r e a l l y drunk, my mother s t r o n g l y suggested t h a t I not go but he was so g e n t l e and I o f t e n s l e p t w i t h e i t h e r my mother or f a t h e r so I went i n t o h i s bed. He had asthma and he coughed a l o t and i t woke him up. He never u s u a l l y got drunk although he drank a l o t . I t h i n k he was d e l i r i o u s and c r a z e d and out o f i t . I remember whining t h a t I was t i r e d and I wanted t o s l e e p and the next t h i n g I remember i s h i s p e n i s b e i n g d r i v e n down my t h r o a t and b e i n g unable t o breathe. PROGRESSION OF  SEVERITY AND  INFLUENCE OF RELATIONSHIP -  U s u a l l y t h e abuse was sex but t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , he wanted o r a l sex and I' d never encountered t h a t b e f o r e . I know I d i d n ' t do i t r i g h t but he c e r t a i n l y t r i e d t o get me t o do i t right. . . . I remember j u s t not wanting t o be t h e r e , not wanting t o do i t but f e e l i n g l i k e I had no c h o i c e . He was my f a t h e r and I had t o do as I was t o l d . FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE AND  PROGRESSION OF SEVERITY -  The abuse f o r me was always the s a m e — i t happened the same way at the same time i n the same p l a c e from the time I was s i x but i t got harder t o d e a l with as I got o l d e r and developed more. My f a t h e r ' s t e r m i n o l o g y f o r what we were doing would make me f l i n c h but h i s b i g word was ' s c r e w ' — h e ' d say over and over, "when you get t o be 15, we're going t o screw." Well when I was n i n e , f i f t e e n seemed l i k e ages away. I knew what he was t a l k i n g about though. . . . I can remember when I was 13, my f a t h e r d e c i d e d i t was t i m e , I was o l d enough, I was big enough, I c o u l d p h y s i c a l l y handle i n t e r c o u r s e and I can remember him s a y i n g t h i s t o me on the way home t o my f o s t e r home a f t e r our u s u a l evening t o g e t h e r ; he j u s t s a i d , " I t h i n k you're o l d enough now." I knew my f a t h e r w e l l enough t o know t h a t the next time we were t o g e t h e r he was going t o t r y i t . MANIPULATION  -  He s t a r t e d f e e d i n g me l u m i n a l or phenobarb t o r e l a x me. He kept i n s i s t i n g i f I would r e l a x i t wouldn't h u r t ; i f I would be a good g i r l and r e l a x . He always a c t e d l i k e i t was a m e d i c a l treatment I had t o have, l i k e shock treatment which o f course he' d had i n h o s p i t a l . So the i n t e r c o u r s e c o n t i n u e d w i t h me drugged and when he took me home, he'd j u s t say I'd f a l l e n a s l e e p on the way home. I was f i v e years o l d .  SEDUCTION I got a l o t of p r a i s e and a l o t of g i f t s from him and the other t h i n g he s a i d was, " t h i s i s what people do when t h e y l o v e each o t h e r , " so t h i s I t o o k as a s i g n t h a t he really l o v e d me. SEDUCTION AND  THREAT OF FORCE -  I was seven and we were l i v i n g i n a duplex and i t was the man next door. I used t o go and v i s i t him and h i s w i f e because he'd g i v e me c a n d i e s , and then when i t was j u s t him, he would g i v e me a q u a r t e r and then he t o l d me t o p u l l my pants down and then he would p l a y with me. I was s c a r e d because he d i d t h r e a t e n me. He s a i d "I'm going t o h u r t you and your mom's not going t o l i k e you anymore because o f you doing t h i s . " INFLUENCE OF PROXIMATE RELATIONSHIP I guess from the e a r l i e r i n c i d e n t s , I s h o u l d have been p r e pared f o r what happened when I was 14 but i t never c r o s s e d my mind t h a t a f a t h e r would want t o do t h a t with h i s daughter. But when I was 14, my dad had i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h me. . . . I s h o u l d have put i t a l l t o g e t h e r . But he was keeping t r a c k . He asked me a couple of weeks b e f o r e i f I'd l o s t my v i r g i n i t y because I needed my p a r e n t s ' p e r m i s s i o n t o go on the p i l l , and he wanted t o make sure I was on the p i l l when I s t a r t e d screwing around. So he knew, he was keeping t r a c k , and when I t u r n e d f o u r t e e n a few weeks b e f o r e , he s a i d , "now you're legal." So i t was a l l planned out on h i s p a r t as f a r as I can see. INFLUENCE OF  RELATIONSHIP AND  COERCION -  I was younger, about s i x , and my dad took a l l us k i d s out f o r a r i d e and s i n c e he was a car d e a l e r , t h i s was a new one, one with those windows i n the back t h a t go down. He had my b r o t h e r and s i s t e r i n the back and he was p l a y i n g w i t h the window with them so they would l o o k out the back. Then he t e l l s them t h a t I'm s i c k , t h a t I don't f e e l good and so I have to s t a y i n the f r o n t s e a t . . . . He would make me l i e out f l a t on the seat and w h i l e he was d r i v i n g , he would u n z i p h i s pants and make me p l a y with him and f o n d l e him. SEDUCTION AND  SUDDENNESS -  My g r a n d f a t h e r owned a s t o r e so he always had c a n d i e s and he put my f a v o u r i t e candy i n h i s pocket and t e l l me t o go i n and get i t . He had huge h o l e s i n h i s pockets and he d i d n ' t have any underwear on, so he would t e l l me t o put my hand i n a l i t t l e f a r t h e r and f o n d l e him.  45 SEDUCTION AND  INFLUENCE OF RELATIONSHIP -  He'd come knocking on my door and I'd be c r y i n g a f t e r one of our f i g h t s and I'd say, "What do you want?" And he'd j u s t say, " I want t o t a l k t o you," and he'd sound r e a l l y n i c e and g e n t l e and at t h a t p o i n t I was so d i s t r a u g h t t h a t I needed comfort. And he'd come i n and put h i s arm around me and k i s s me and a l l t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g and t e l l me 'everything's a l r i g h t ' and then he' d s t a r t . He' d go with h i s hand t o my b r e a s t and s t a r t squeezing i t and he'd always put h i s hand between my l e g s and s t a r t back and f o r t h and I'd p u l l h i s hand away and say 'don't, don't' and he'd say, 'oh come on, what's the matter, I'm your f a t h e r and I wouldn't do a n y t h i n g t o h u r t you' . . . o f course he'd s t a r t r u b b i n g h i s p e n i s a g a i n s t my v a g i n a and I'd say no and push him away and he'd get mad . . . I d i d n ' t want him t o go a l l the way and then he'd always make i t l i k e he d i d n ' t want t o go a l l the way and then he'd p u l l away and say, 'what's t h e matter with you, you t h i n k I wanted t o fuck you or something. What's your problem? You must have a v e r y d i r t y mind." I t ' s l i k e I had no way o u t . These  examples  offenders  and  forty-eight offenders  clearly  their  actions that  incidents  typically  illustrate  contain  utilize  a c h i e v e t h e i r purpose.  the  demand  aspects  coping  such  because  of  coping  the  by  i n a l l these  single-minded  goal  numerous r e s o u r c e s and advantages t o The  towards t h e i r was  be  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y victims'  victims.  and  shown, s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d had  All  reveal  that  simultaneously  to  a c t i v e p u r s u i t of the v i c t i m  further c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . incidents very of  the  Generally  difficult  perpetrators,  precisely and  their  demonstrated  a lack  succeed.  by  i n the  the  situation.  attribution  Generally  an  some impact  incident on  as  facilitating  r e d u c i n g or  coping  o f blame and r e s p o n s i -  f o r the abuse, p l a c e d on the v i c t i m by the p e r p e t r a t o r .  as v i c t i m s , they  the  f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , and a l a c k o f empathy  experience  made even more d i f f i c u l t  bility  these,  data r e v e a l s t h a t o f f e n d e r s overwhelmingly  o f acceptance  the  of  Subsequent s o r t i n g of t h i s c a t e g o r y i s p r e c l u d e d  by the o f f e n d e r would be obscured found  as  by  several characteristics  by t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , however t h e m u l t i l e v e l  subjects  characteristics  As  will  c o p i n g when,  eliminating  present  or  46 potential offender  abuse.  In  facilitating  this  category,  the  o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  victim's  only  one  coping  by  incident  pertains  demonstrating  to  an  some degree  abuse i n o f f e r i n g a method to a v e r t  continued  exploitation. I r e c a l l a note t h a t my b r o t h e r wrote t o me—why he wrote i t t o me, I don't know—but i t was a note t h a t s a i d i f he s h o u l d ever ask me again to have sex with him or to l e t him touch me, then I was t o go and t e l l my mother and t h a t he would pay me f i v e d o l l a r s . He gave me t h i s note and I kept i t and I had t o use i t once. Direct Action. and  the  In d e a l i n g  abuse, v i c t i m s most  attempts t o cope. category reveal towards the hindering  frequently  Twenty-three out  stress created utilized  o f the  by the  direct action  and  Of  eleven  these, as  offender in  their  forty-eight incidents in this  some form o f o v e r t b e h a v i o u r demonstrated by  perpetrator.  coping  with the  the v i c t i m  twelve i n c i d e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d  facilitating  coping.  Hindering: I remember waking up, knowing he was t h e r e and h i s mouth was on me. I remember scrambling to the other s i d e of the bed and s t a n d i n g up a g a i n s t my d r e s s e r and screaming at him to get out. I remember screaming at him not to t o u c h me again, screaming at him t h a t I would t e l l . I remember him s a y i n g t o me t h a t I mustn't t e l l , i f I d i d , nobody would b e l i e v e me, i f my mother found out, i t would k i l l her and I would be r e sponsible for that. And I was so scared t h a t something would happen t o h e r , she was the o n l y person who was n i c e t o me. So t h a t got me every time and i t meant I c o u l d n ' t t e l l anybody. I remember whining t h a t I was t i r e d and I wanted t o s l e e p and the next t h i n g I remember i s h i s p e n i s b e i n g d r i v e n down my t h r o a t and being unable to b r e a t h e . H i s body r e a l l y f e l t l i k e a dead weight t o me and he was so b i g and the one t h i n g I c o u l d do to s u r v i v e was t o b i t e and I have a f e e l i n g t h a t I brought b l o o d . So now he was r e a l l y c r a z e d and out o f i t and then he t r i e d to s t r a n g l e me. I remember b l o o d coming from my mouth and then b l a c k i n g o u t — i t f e l t l i k e I was d y i n g . I was a s l e e p but I was always on guard even i n my s l e e p . I never knew when I'd wake up and he'd be standing there, l o o k i n g at me. I remember once being so s t a r t l e d out o f my s l e e p and I h i t out at h i m — h e was j u s t s t a n d i n g t h e r e ready t o come a f t e r me and I h i t him and screamed at him t o get out  as  47 and he ran o f f laughing t h i s h o r r i b l e l a u g h t h a t s t i l l g i v e s me t h e creeps even now. He d i d t h i s every s i n g l e n i g h t — i t j u s t never stopped him. I g o t r e a l l y confused with the p r o j e c t i n g out o f my b o d y — I thought I c o u l d f l y and s i n c e t h e r e seemed no way t o escape the games he wanted t o p l a y , I d e c i d e d one time t h a t I would j u s t f l y away with t h e b i r d s and never come back. I t o l d my u n c l e I was going t o jump o f f t h e c l i f f s and f l y away and he thought I meant I was going t o commit s u i c i d e which wasn't what I meant a t a l l but I was confused with the p r o j e c t i n g . He asked me why I wanted t o do t h a t and I s a i d because i t was so p a i n f u l and t h i s was supposed t o be a game but i t hurt so much. He s a i d he wouldn't do t h a t anymore b u t i n s t e a d what he d i d was s t a r t f e e d i n g me l u m i n a l and phenobarb t o r e l a x me. My uncle was t h e f i r s t s e r i o u s abuser b u t t h e r e were times b e f o r e him when my f a t h e r would s i t me on h i s l a p when he had an e r e c t i o n which o f course i s sexual abuse. But i f my u n c l e hadn't been so l o v i n g at a l l times except f o r the rape p a r t s , I p r o b a b l y wouldn't have kept l o o k i n g f o r l o v e i n t h a t way. I t made i t worse when my f a t h e r s t a r t e d i n on me t h a t time when I was s i x . My mother was i n t h e h o s p i t a l and he'd been d r i n k i n g and had me on h i s l a p . He kept s a y i n g he needed a woman, he needed a woman and o f course I knew e x a c t l y what he was t a l k i n g about. So I t o l d him I c o u l d be h i s woman because I was r e a l l y c r a z y about him a t t h a t time, I thought v e r y h i g h l y o f him. So he went along with t h a t and he had an e r e c t i o n so I knew what he wanted, so I was a c t u a l l y t h e i n s t i g a t o r because I wanted t o p l e a s e him. But what I wasn't p r e p a r e d f o r and d i d n ' t expect was t h e p h y s i c a l abuse a f t e r wards. My u n c l e had always p r a i s e d me but my f a t h e r beat me up a f t e r he had sex w i t h me and demanded t o know where I ' d l e a r n e d t o do a l l t h a t . My u n c l e had s a i d i f I t o l d anyone and he knew how fond I was o f him, t h a t he would go back t o the mental h o s p i t a l and so would I . I ' d be l o c k e d up and they'd throw t h e key away, so I d i d n ' t t e l l him. So he punished me more a f t e r t h a t f o r knowing so much about sex and not t e l l i n g him where I l e a r n e d i t . He s a i d o n l y a whore knows s t u f f l i k e t h i s . A  range  of  overt  behaviours  such  as  pleading  and  screaming, s t r i k i n g out and t r y i n g t o g e t away; t h r e a t e n i n g spontaneously b i t i n g  i s presented  here,  protesting; t o t e l l ; and  i n a d d i t i o n t o the u n f o r t u n a t e  outcome o f l e a r n i n g t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the sex w i t h an offender. an  These  escalation  of  incidents abuse  resulted  or  a  initial  i n the o c c u r r e n c e o f abuse anyway,  stressful  change  i n the  perpetrator's  48 tactics.  These consequences account  pants i n these coping.  Consistent  the  biting  her  example  with  Silver  f a t h e r ' s penis)  of  actively  stated  that  they  aspects  of  the  abuse.  detrimental  one  on  despite their  reasons t h a t the  partici-  i n c i d e n t s p e r c e i v e d the use of d i r e c t a c t i o n as h i n d e r i n g  methods were i n e f f e c t i v e as they of  f o r the  felt  the  and  Wortman's  exacerbated  or  in  sex).  ineffective  Having offender,  had  in  either  they  opinion,  these  the problem (as i n the  became problems  participating truly  (1980)  were  no  i n themselves Victims,  overcoming impact  or  nevertheless  case  (as  in  themselves, the  various  a  negative  overpowered,  efforts.  Facilitating: When I. was f i f t e e n , my mother got my b r o t h e r and the two o f them f o r c e d me i n t o c u n n i l i n g u s with h e r — m y b r o t h e r was o l d e r than me and b i g g e r and i t was so d i s g u s t i n g and so abhorrent and I was so angry, I was p r a c t i c a l l y p u r p l e with rage. . . . I f i g u r e d I had to f i n d some way t o stop her . . . so I went i n t o the k i t c h e n and I got t h i s k n i f e and I made sure she was the o n l y person i n the apartment. She was l y i n g on the bed and I woke her up and I put the k n i f e to her t h r o a t and I said " i f you ever l a y a f i n g e r on me a g a i n , one f i n g e r , i f you ever touch me without my consent, I ' l l get you when you're a l o n e — y o u won't always have my b r o t h e r around, and I ' l l k i l l you and I mean i t . " And I d i d mean i t , I was dead s e r i o u s and she knew i t and having conveyed t h a t message, I p u l l e d the k n i f e back and I went out and she never touched me a g a i n . We went out t o the o i l r i g with my dad f o r the day when I was t e n but t h e r e was a problem so we had to s t a y o v e r n i g h t f o r two n i g h t s and we stayed i n our camper t r u c k . I was a f r a i d o f dad coming back to the t r u c k so I stayed awake a l l n i g h t because I f e l t as long as I s t a y e d awake then he wasn't going to touch me. He wouldn't ever molest me when I was awake, j u s t when I was a s l e e p . He d i d n ' t come to the t r u c k those two n i g h t s but I stayed awake anyway because I expected him t o come i n any moment. I planned to keep him occupied by t a l k i n g when he d i d come i n and i t r e a l l y helped to have a p l a n . What I l e a r n e d to do even at the age o f f i v e was t o — i t was t h e depth of p e n e t r a t i o n t h a t was the most p a i n f u l . What I l e a r n e d to do was t o c o n t r o l t h a t by b e i n g c o o p e r a t i v e , by a c t u a l l y doing what he wanted me to do and a c t u a l l y making l o v e to him more. I was able t o manipulate enough so t h a t I c o u l d be on top f o r i n s t a n c e and c o n t r o l the p e n e t r a t i o n  49 eventually. A f t e r weeks I was able t o manage t h i s w i t h o u t n r o j e c t i n g out o f my body. I c o u l d be t h e r e and cooperate i n the sex and o f c o u r s e I got a l o t o f p r a i s e and a l o t o f g i f t s from himI was the o l d e s t and I s t a r t e d t a k i n g care o f t h e young ones and then I wasn't alone much. I always had someone e l s e i n tow and I avoided the basement as much as I c o u l d but i t wasn't always p o s s i b l e . One time when I was t e n , Gramma s a i d go down i n the basement and get p i c k l e s out o f t h e basement cupboard f o r d i n n e r — t h a t was r i g h t b e s i d e Grandpa's room where he'd grab us and molest u s . . . . I asked my s i s t e r t o come with me, she's a year younger and I made h e r go downs t a i r s f i r s t — t h a t sounds t e r r i b l e but my p l a n was i f she went f i r s t and he grabbed her then I'd go get h e l p . I d i d n ' t know t h a t i f I went f i r s t and he grabbed me, I d i d n ' t know i f she'd go get h e l p . So I would take c o n t r o l o r t r y t o t a k e c o n t r o l and I ' d be the one t o go get h e l p . I'd check t o make sure the door t o h i s room under t h e s t a i r s was c l o s e d and then we'd go through i t t o the s t o r a g e a r e a , g e t t h e p i c k l e s and run l i k e h e l l a l l t h e way back u p s t a i r s . My f a t h e r f e d me a l c o h o l from ages s i x t o twelve so I wouldn't be a f r a i d o f him, and i f I had enough, I wasn't a f r a i d anymore, and I t h i n k t h a t ' s what broke the whole p a t t e r n . The l a s t time I was abused by him when I was t w e l v e , he was s l a p p i n g me around a f t e r w a r d s but he'd g i v e n me a l o t t o d r i n k and I was q u i t e drunk and I wasn't t h e l e a s t b i t a f r a i d o f him because t h i s was the r o u t i n e — h e was c a l l i n g me a s l u t and a whore and I s a i d t o him, " i f I'm a s l u t , you're a b i g g e r one because you always s t a r t i t , " and t h a t was a t e r r i b l e shock t o him. He immediately backed o f f and went away—he knew I r e a l i z e d t h a t I d i d not b e l i e v e him when he s a i d I was t h e one who seduced him . . . but a f t e r t h a t t h e abuse stopped because I t h i n k he was so a f r a i d I might t e l l . I t h i n k he thought I blanked i t o u t because i t was never d i s c u s s e d and because I t h i n k he blanked ->t out from d r i n k i n g so much. He d i d n ' t remember t h e t h i n g s he'd done and I t h i n k t h a t ' s why he f e d me a l c o h o l as w e l l , hoping I ' d blank i t out t o o . I r e c a l l a note t h a t my b r o t h e r wrote t o me . . . t h a t s a i d i f he s h o u l d ever ask me again t o have sex w i t h him or l e t him touch me, then I was t o go and t e l l my mother and he would pay me f i v e d o l l a r s . He gave me t h i s note and I kept i t and I had to use i t once. He came t o me and wanted t o do i t and I brought out the note and I swore I would t e l l mom and he got so mad. And I asked him f o r t h e f i v e d o l l a r s and he d i d n ' t have i t and he stormed out o f t h e house. And t h a t was t h e l a s t time he ever came near me. These alleviated  excerpts are characterized or reduced t h e problem,  by a c t i o n s  which  i s Silver  of the victims  that  and Wortman's (1980)  50 definition quences coping,  of  of  effective  their  behaviour.  actions  define  as d i d what h i n d e r e d  Once the  again,  perception  plans  and  of the  coping  were  of  what  facilitates  characterized  Several  by  i n c i d e n t s viewed  premeditated,  This  was  o f t e n the  p o i n t at which the  as  predesigned  where s u c c e s s f u l , v i c t i m s seemed t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e  offenders.  conse-  coping.  Having a p l a n appears t o h e l p v i c t i m s . facilitating  t h e r e f o r e , the  the  power  abuse ceased,  completely. Overt ate,  actions perceived  frantic,  impulsive  Those p e r c e i v e d  as  as h i n d e r i n g  q u a l i t y and  coping  result  in ineffective  are e f f e c t i v e i n outcome.  are  same as  sex,  presented  by  the  the  depth  of  i n one  abuse s i t u a t i o n by  penetration  abuser who  and p r a i s e .  used her  sexually.  rather  than  actual behaviours,  coping  with  by  and  pleasing  Therefore  what h i n d e r s  coping. to  offender  who  involvement  actions, after  consequences o f o v e r t  define  the  e n a b l i n g her  this  p h y s i c a l l y f o r her the  in  helping  T h i s same knowledge and  beat her  having  hindering  and  themselves  active participation  her  enraged her  sexual  of  as  gifts  the  case  behaviours  woman  rewarded her with next  i n the  The  same  A c t i v e involvement helped control  consequences.  f a c i l i t a t i v e have c o n t r o l l e d , p r e d e t e r m i n e d , p r e c i s e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f r e q u e n t l y the  seem t o have a desper-  and  actions,  facilitates  abuse.  I n h i b i t i o n of Action Sixteen category,  i n c i d e n t s , out  reveal  that  of  the  inhibition  q u e n t l y used coping mode.  f o r t y - e i g h t i n the of  Since overt  action  was  a c t i o n s can  the  offender second  stress  most  fre-  i n c r e a s e danger  (and  were g r a p h i c a l l y shown to have done so i n examples c i t e d  above), use  of  51 inhibition the  context  o f a c t i o n may o f t e n be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e c o p i n g method i n of sexual  were p e r c e i v e d i n t h i s ing  abuse.  Nevertheless,  fifteen  o f these  incidents  study as h i n d e r i n g c o p i n g ; o n l y one as f a c i l i t a t -  coping. Hindering: He f o r c e d me down on the bed and was on t o p o f me f o r a m i n u t e — I t r i e d s t r u g g l i n g b u t I c o u l d n ' t get out from under him and i n f a c t my s t r u g g l e s had moved me halfway o f f t h e bed so t h a t t h e upper p a r t o f my s h o u l d e r s and my head were p i n n e d between the bed and the bedside t a b l e . My neck was t w i s t e d sideways and I c o u l d n ' t b r e a t h e h a r d l y a t a l l . So I stopped s t r u g g l i n g and j u s t l e t i t happen and waited f o r i t t o be over. But i t went on and on and my n o t b e i n g r e s p o n s i v e made him even more f o r c e f u l — n o t h i n g I c o u l d do h e l p e d . I was t h r e e years o l d and my f a t h e r was f i f t y - e i g h t . . . . We were s i t t i n g s i d e - b y - s i d e watching T V — I s t i l l had c h o c o l a t e i n my mouth--I don't remember how he got me between h i s l e g s but somehow he bent down and exposed h i s p e n i s — i t happened r e a l l y q u i c k l y . . . he put h i s p e n i s i n s i d e my mouth and p u t i t i n t o my l e f t cheek a t f i r s t and then i t went down my throat. I remember l o o k i n g up a t him and i t was l i k e he was an a n i m a l — h e was g r u n t i n g and groaning and he s m e l l e d o f g a r l i c and onions and wine, and I remember these s m e l l s . I f e l t t e r r i b l e p a i n i n my jaw and when i t went down my t h r o a t , I cut o f f . I c o u l d n ' t breathe and I was c h o k i n g — e v e r y t h i n g went dark and I c o u l d n ' t hear a n y t h i n g anymore. The next t h i n g I remember was a l o t o f p r e s s u r e on my c h e s t w i t h t h e s e f i n g e r t i p s b e a r i n g down on m e — I ' d stopped b r e a t h i n g and he was t r y i n g t o r e v i v e me. I can remember him coming i n t o t h e room and I would be v e r y f r i g h t e n e d and he would come i n t o bed and I would p r e t e n d I was a s l e e p . I j u s t d i d n ' t acknowledge t h a t i t was happening, and I would l i e t h e r e r i g i d w i t h my eyes shut l i k e I was sleeping. I j u s t d i d n ' t know what e l s e t o do. So i t cont i n u e d u n t i l he was f i n i s h e d with what he wanted t o do, and then he would go t o my s i s t e r because we were i n the same bed. I was f o u r years o l d and some boys t o l d me t h a t ghosts were going t o come and get me i f I d i d n ' t l e t them touch my body. I was r e a l l y s c a r e d by t h a t ; they were s i x t e e n or seventeen and t h e r e were f o u r o f them and they took me t o t h e i r c l u b house. They were t o u c h i n g me a l l over my body and t o u c h i n g me down t h e r e and I j u s t l a y t h e r e . I c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g except c r y - - I was r e a l l y s c a r e d . And then I went t o bed, and my f a t h e r came i n t o bed w i t h me, behind me, had i n t e r c o u r s e , got up and l e f t . I was l a y i n g  52 t h e r e i n d i s b e l i e f t h e whole t i m e — I j u s t c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e i t r i g h t up t o the l a s t moment—so I d i d n ' t s t r u g g l e , I d i d n ' t f i g h t , I d i d n ' t say one word . . . i t was a l l planned o u t on h i s p a r t as f a r as I can see, and i t a l l happened so f a s t , i t was over b e f o r e I knew i t . I was e i g h t and he was s i x t e e n and he would sneak i n t o my room t h a t I shared w i t h my l i t t l e s i s t e r and he touched me a l l over and put h i s f i n g e r s i n s i d e me. I would l a y t h e r e and p r e t e n d to be a s l e e p , w i s h i n g f o r i t t o be over, w i s h i n g f o r him t o l e a v e , w i s h i n g f o r my s i s t e r t o wake up o r my p a r e n t s who were a c r o s s t h e h a l l t o c a t c h him. . . . They never d i d f i n d o u t about t h i s . I never t o l d them o r anyone because somehow I thought i t was my f a u l t or a t l e a s t I was e q u a l l y t o blame. Inhibition  of action,  in this  stress  category,  i s typically  u t i l i z e d when v i c t i m s p e r c e i v e themselves as h a v i n g no o t h e r o p t i o n s , o r when o v e r t  a c t i o n s would  increase the s t r e s s .  along with i t , l e t i t happen, and endure i t . of  They  being  r e p o r t e d was t h e t e c h n i q u e  aware  o f the a c t i v i t i e s  of pretending  t o be a s l e e p  of the p e r p e t r a t o r .  while  unable  to  they  sleep.  discover  other  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g ,  These  options  f o r coping,  then, and  go  inhibition  or passing out.  r e v e a l t h e degree o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f v i c t i m s t o v i o l a t i o n beds,  to just  In t h e extreme,  a c t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d bv becoming unconscious  frequently  appear  Most while  incidents  i n t h e i r own  that  they  considered  were these  i n c i d e n t s as h i n d e r i n g c o p i n g . The  consequences  generally  were  completely of these the  that  the abuse  victimized  of  action,  continued.  coping  One woman c l a i m e d  mode  events, of  as  Subjects  and h e l p l e s s i n these  i n c i d e n t s were i s o l a t e d  characteristic  sample.  of inhibition  a  coping  saw themselves as  situations.  with  it.  long  that pretending  Unfortunately  e i t h e r , f o r ten years.  While s e v e r a l  i n h i b i t i o n o f a c t i o n was o f t e n term  abuse  victims  in  this  t o be a s l e e p meant t h a t she  never had t o acknowledge i t was happening, and c o n s e q u e n t l y deal  method,  f o r her, that  meant  never had t o  i t never  stopped  53 Facilitating: I f i n a l l y got my own bedroom . . . but i t wasn't such a b e a u t i f u l t h i n g because I was i s o l a t e d , and I can remember b e i n g awakened by the s e n s a t i o n t h a t t h e r e was e i t h e r someone i n the room . . . and t h a t my body was b e i n g touched i n private places. My f a t h e r would touch my b r e a s t s and my v a g i n a with h i s hands . . . and then h i s mouth was on me t h e r e . A l l I c o u l d do was t r y and m a i n t a i n my b r e a t h i n g as i f I were a s l e e p , as i f I were not awake—and e v e n t u a l l y he was gone. And then t h e r e weren't any v i o l e n t i n t e r c h a n g e s , any arguments. I t helped because i f I woke up suddenly and I knew I was awake and he was t o u c h i n g my body, then at t h a t stage I would become v e r b a l l y abusive o f h i s t o u c h i n g me and maybe get i n t o f i g h t s , and t h a t would make i t worse. The  same  facilitating underlying  technique  coping  of  when  feature  of  i t reduced  this  awareness of a c h o i c e , and through this  was  awareness the  only  of  pretending  other  incident  the  incident  gained  be  asleep  problem  was  that  was  f o r the the  and  their  inhibition  perceived victim.  victim  a measure of c o n t r o l  options where  to  i n the  consequences. of  had  a c t i o n was  as The  some  incident However,  viewed  as  h e l p i n g the v i c t i m to cope with the o f f e n d e r . Intrapsychic.  Intrapsychic  techniques,  including  a l l cognitive  p r o c e s s e s , were used i n nine i n c i d e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the o f f e n d e r .  Of  t h e s e , s i x were r e p o r t e d i n s i t u a t i o n s as h i n d e r i n g c o p i n g , and t h r e e  as  facilitating  coping.  Hindering: When I was two years o l d , and I t h i n k t h a t , t h e r e was some k i n d o f a f i g h t t h a t went on i n the household, and my f a t h e r t u r n e d up and I guess i t was a l l h i s h a t r e d towards women d i r e c t e d towards me, and what he t r i e d t o do was b i t e my vagina out. I t u r n e d i n t o a f r o g — t h a t was my experience—I became a f r o g l i k e I j u s t d i s t a n c e d myself from the whole t h i n g and I had these huge b u l g i n g eyes . . . I c o u l d keep everyone away with the power of the r a y s coming from my eyes. I t made coping v e r y d i f f i c u l t because I became more and more a l i e n a t e d and i s o l a t e d and a l o n e . Grandpa had a s e c r e t room i n the basement under the s t a i r s where he kept the wheelbarrow and s h o v e l s and t o o l s , and t h e r e was a c u r t a i n t h a t hung over the rod and he had a c h a i r i n  54 t h e r e . We were p l a y i n g h i d e and seek and he would grab one o f us and take us i n t h e r e . I would be s i t t i n g on h i s l a p and he'd be f o n d l i n g me and p r e s s i n g me a g a i n s t him and t o u c h i n g me and I never thought o f c r y i n g o u t — i t never e n t e r e d my mind to cry out. In my mind, i t was l i k e I wasn't t h e r e — I was t e r r i f i e d , I was hoping someone would f i n d me. But i n my mind, I was u p s t a i r s or out i n the y a r d , out o f the house somewhere where I f e l t s a f e and almost l i k e a n o n p a r t i c i p a n t , almost l i k e s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e m y s e l f sometimes watching what was going on, sometimes b e i n g elsewhere away from t h e r e . I never thought o f screaming because I wasn't t h e r e . I t wasn't happening t o me. I t wasn't me. I was f i v e and my u n c l e was e i g h t e e n — h e ' d j u s t been r e l e a s e d from a mental h o s p i t a l but I was v e r y fond o f him and we spent a l o t o f time t o g e t h e r . Because he was q u i t e s i c k a t t h a t time, he supposedly f e l t I was h i s l o v e r and d i d n ' t seem t o r e a l i z e at a l l t h a t he was harming me, and he t i e d me down s p r e a d e a g l e d and t h e r e was a l o t o f f o r e p l a y and a l o t o f a c t u a l lovemaking and i t would always end up i n r a p e . The f i r s t time e s p e c i a l l y , the t h i n g t h a t made i t so d i f f i c u l t f o r me was o f course the p a i n and coping w i t h t h a t , and then the r e s u l t i n g d e p r e s s i o n because t h e r e seemed t o be no way t o get away from him. He was t h e r e every dayTo cope w i t h t h a t , I p r o j e c t e d out o f my b o d y — I watched e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happened from above but I was c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e d as f a r as the p a i n was concerned. I s t a r t e d t o do t h a t p r o j e c t i n g out as soon as the p a i n and f e a r came but i t wasn't a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n o r a n y t h i n g — i t j u s t happened i n i t i a l l y . While I was out o f my body, I wasn't s c a r e d at a l l . I f e l t calm and s a f e and I was s i t t i n g up i n t h i s t r e e watching and I saw e v e r y t h i n g he d i d . T h i s f i r s t time, I saw him c a r r y i n g my body down t o the l a k e t o wash me o f f a f t e r w a r d s and when he put me i n the c o l d water, then I came t o . I thought he was t r y i n g t o drown me so I immediately whipped back i n t o my body. I t was a l s o the c o l d water t h a t brought me back. The  remarkable power o f the mind i s e x e m p l i f i e d  characteristic these  of  incidents  the  intrapsychic  primarily  by  the  category. extreme  o f f e n d e r , r a t h e r than the consequences mode c a t e g o r i e s . these examples,  i n these  Coping  force  and  incidents  i s hindered i n  brutality  of  the  o f a c t i o n s as i n the o t h e r c o p i n g  The unique f e a t u r e o f the i n t r a p s y c h i c c o p i n g mode, i n i s t h a t t h e v i c t i m s g a i n e d some sense o f power, s a f e t y ,  o r d i s t a n c e through seemingly i n s t i n c t i v e  dissociative  means.  While t h e s e methods appear t o be e f f e c t i v e  severe  stress  at  the  time  as  evidenced  i n these  or  psychological  f o r d e a l i n g w i t h such examples.  ultimately  55 they three  were  ineffective i n alleviating  subjects  or e l i m i n a t i n g  were long term abuse v i c t i m s o f t h r e e  t h e abuse. to fifteen  These years.  Facilitating: I can remember l y i n g t h e r e and j u s t not f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s was happening. I am l y i n g on t h e bed and he's s i m u l a t i n g sex and I would be i n the female p o s i t i o n on my back and I l a y t h e r e and j u s t would p r e t e n d t h a t t h i s i s not happening, and t h i s i s not my f a t h e r . I j u s t wouldn't equate t h e a c t w i t h t h e person. I j u s t would not allow myself t o f e e l any f e e l i n g s about t h e whole t h i n g at a l l — e m o t i o n a l l y I was dead. I was n i n e and i t was h e l p f u l t o not f e e l t h e emotions because i f I f e l t them, I would p r o b a b l y f e e l anger. I knew I had t o do t h i s because he was my f a t h e r and I d i d n ' t l i k e i t , b u t i t would have been worse t o get mad at him because he would have beaten me up. When I was eleven and I was d e v e l o p i n g , t h e t h i n g s t h a t my f a t h e r d i d t o me were a c t u a l l y p a i n f u l and I remember t h e t h i n g t h a t h e l p e d me t h e most was t o daydream and f a n t a s i z e and t o wish t h a t my f a t h e r would g e t m a r r i e d o r f i n d another woman and then he would stop u s i n g me. That kept me going through t h a t time because I j u s t got absorbed i n t h i s f a n t a s y and d i d n t f e e l so overwhelmed by what was going on. 1  Under  less  severe  conditions,  intrapsychic  emotional d i s t a n c i n g , d e n i a l , f a n t a s i z i n g , and s e l f help  victims  cope by a l l o w i n g  a safe  retreat  processes  such as  reassurance  seem t o  into  v i c t i m s t y p i c a l l y f e e l overwhelmed and without o p t i o n s preoccupations Similar  seem  to characterize  to the i n h i b i t i o n  endure t h e abuse and wait  of action  their coping  f o r i t t o end.  seem t o f u n c t i o n  involvement  experiences  Those  relying  these  explained  self-oriented by one woman:  resources  helps  here  time.  seem t o  however, a r e  of self t a l k or fantasizing and a detachment from  e x c l u s i v e l y on i n h i b i t i o n o f  a c t i o n appear more bound t o t h e abuser and t h e sexual ing  at t h i s  mode, v i c t i m s  t o p r e s e r v e a sense o f s e l f  i n t h e abuse.  Again,  y e t a c t i v e mental  The c a t e g o r i e s ,  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e a l e r t mental e x e r c i s e s that  the s e l f .  actions.  t o provide  an  Activat-  escape,  as  56 The one t h i n g he wanted t o know was what was going on i n my m i n d — h e knew t h e r e was something he c o u l d n ' t get i n m e — a n d I wouldn't t e l l him. I guarded t h a t — I was a f r a i d o f a l o t o f t h i n g s he might do t o me but when I f a n t a s i z e d about these t h i n g s , I would f e e l v e r y powerful and o p t i m i s t i c . And I would p r o t e c t i t , I d i d n ' t c a r e i f he wanted t o k i l l me—he c o u l d have my body but he c o u l d never have my mind. Significant  Others  Twenty-six stress Of  incidents  category,  these,  which  nineteen  difficult,  Definition. Twenty-one reactions convey  accounts  were  and seven  were  classified  significant  f o r 32% o f t h e e n t i r e  presented  as i n c i d e n t s  as f a c i l i t a t i n g  data  t h a t made  T h i s c a t e g o r y can be d e f i n e d i n t h e word  of the twenty-six of s i g n i f i c a n t  items  other  f o r the v i c t i m !  other  collected. coping  very  coping.  i n this  people  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e abuse.  helpful  i n the  category  t o attempts  Only  pertain  to the  by t h e v i c t i m  t h r e e o f these  Another two s i t u a t i o n s  'disclosure.'  attempts  addressed  to  were  d e c i s i o n s by  the v i c t i m not t o d i s c l o s e , one o f which was n e v e r t h e l e s s h e l p f u l t o t h e victim.  Clearly  these  experiences  compounded  e x i s t i n g by t h e o f f e n d e r , thereby w a r r a n t i n g examination. involved life,  Incidents  the c r i t i c a l  were  sorted  this  stress person  o c c u r r i n g simultaneously with the d i s c l o s u r e .  resulting  factor,  Because o f t h i s ,  as o f t e n  Direct Action.  others.  attempts Twenty  the case  category  which  i n the victim's  The v i c t i m ' s c o p i n g  i n t h e i n c i d e n t r a t h e r than a  i n the o f f e n d e r  stress  category.  examples i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s c a t e g o r y w i l l be r e v e a l e d i n  the coping mode e x c e r p t s  their  factor  already  s e p a r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  r e a c t i o n by a s i g n i f i c a n t  mode was t h e r e f o r e t h e d e t e r m i n i n g  in  into  the stress  themselves.  T a b l e 5 shows t h a t v i c t i m s were remarkably t o r e v e a l t h e abuse  incidents  of overt  and get h e l p  efforts  were  made  o r support  active from  by s u b j e c t s t o  57 disclose seventeen  the  abuse,  received  only  negative  three  of  which  reactions,  d e n i a l , blame, punishment, and  no  were  helpful.  which were p r i m a r i l y  The  other  disbelief,  protection.  Hindering: As I s t a r t e d to get s e x u a l l y a c t i v e , I s t a r t e d g e t t i n g more and more anxious as we got i n t o the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s because i t was b r i n g i n g up more and more m e m o r i e s — I hadn't been b o t h e r e d by them much up to t h a t p o i n t and because i t was so d i s t r e s s i n g and my first sexual e x p e r i e n c e , except f o r my b r o t h e r , I t a l k e d about i t with him. I t o l d him about the i n c i d e n t s and how t h i s made i t so uncomfortable because i t was so s i m i l a r i n s e n s a t i o n s and he f r e a k e d out, then d i s a p p e a r e d f o r four to f i v e days. . . . H i s whole r e a c t i o n was so nuts, so c r a z y . . . i n the context of h a v i n g t o l d him and h a v i n g got t h i s response, i t k i n d of firmed up a l l the g u i l t t h e r e was. . . . I t was the f i r s t time I'd ever r i s k e d t e l l i n g anybody and what t h i s t o l d me was t h a t i t was so t e r r i b l e t h a t people c o u l d n ' t d e a l with i t , so from then on, I r e a l i z e d i t was r e a l l y important not to t e l l anyone because I d i d n ' t want t o d e a l with t h e i r r e a c t i o n s . I also r e a l i z e d I couldn't expect any c a r i n g or n u r t u r i n g around these e x p e r i e n c e s . My nerves were g e t t i n g r e a l l y bad, so my mother took me to see a p s y c h i a t r i s t and I t o l d him what was wrong and why I d i d n ' t want t o l i v e t h e r e and he asked i f anyone knew about i t and I s a i d no. I t o l d him what I was a f r a i d would happen i f I t o l d my m o t h e r — t h a t i t would k i l l her because t h a t ' s always what my f a t h e r s a i d to me. F i n a l l y he s a i d , ' w e l l , I ' l l j u s t ask y o " r mother seme q u e s t i o n s ' and he s a i d , 'I won't t e l l her but I ' l l ask her some q u e s t i o n s and w e ' l l see how she handles things.' So he c a l l e d her i n and he asked her some q u e s t i o n s which were r e a l l y p r e t t y p o i n t e d questions but he wasn't t e l l i n g her o u t r i g h t . And she sat t h e r e and she bawled and s a i d , 'no, no, oh no, oh no' and she went on and on l i k e t h a t . I never went to see him a g a i n — I never got t o go back. I t was my mother's d e c i s i o n and t h a t made i t r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r me. When my best f r i e n d announced t h a t she'd been abused, I s a i d "sure i t happens a l l the t i m e — i t ' s been happening t o me f o r ages.' But when they f o r c e d her t o r e t r a c t her statement, even though i t was t r u e , her f a t h e r asked her where she came up with a s t o r y l i k e t h a t anyway and she s a i d , ' w e l l my f r i e n d s a i d i t happened to her.' So I went to her p l a c e one day and my f r i e n d had s a i d , 'I l i e d , i t never happened, I made i t a l l up,' and her dad looked at me and s a i d , 'now I don't know i f t h i s i s happening to you or not, but i f i t i s , i t ' s something you keep i n your own home. You never t e l l other p e o p l e . ' So I l e a r n e d you don't t e l l anybody so I never t a l k e d about i t  a g a i n — i n f a c t I don't t h i n k I even mentioned i t u n t i l s i x months ago when we went t o the abuse group.  about  One time when we were a l l l i v i n g i n the same house which was r e a l l y s m a l l , I s l e p t on the f l o o r and my b r o t h e r s l e p t on t h e couch and a t n i g h t he was d o i n g the same t h i n g t o m e — s n e a k i n g up t o touch me when I was a s l e e p . T h i s time he p u l l e d my p a n t i e s down and I t u r n e d on t h e l i g h t and I s t i l l had my p a n t i e s down and my dad saw t h i s . W e l l o f c o u r s e , he d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was my b r o t h e r ' s f a u l t because my b r o t h e r had jumped back on the couch. He thought i t was me t r y i n g t o make advances t o my b r o t h e r . He blamed me and made i t seem l i k e I was the a g g r e s s o r . T h i s made i t even worse f o r m e — I had t u r n e d on t h e l i g h t so they c o u l d s e e — I mean how do you e x p l a i n a s i t u a t i o n when you're a k i d except t o show p e o p l e . A f t e r t h a t whenever he got drunk, my f a t h e r would c a l l me a whore, so I l o s t a l l c o n f i d e n c e i n my f a t h e r h e l p i n g me o u t . People were so unaware, so s t u p i d and unable t o p i c k up t h e clues. I t r i e d t o t e l l my f o s t e r mother s e v e r a l times b e f o r e t h i s but she never got t h e message. I t r i e d a l l kinds o f excuses t o get out o f our r e g u l a r v i s i t s e v e r y t h i r d Tuesday at my f a t h e r ' s house because we'd always end up h a v i n g sex. None o f the excuses worked though and I always ended up going out with him. One time when I p r o t e s t e d a l o t , my f o s t e r mother s a i d , 'Oh no, no, your f a t h e r r e a l l y wants t o see you, e s p e c i a l l y now t h a t you're o l d e r . ' I s a i d t o h e r , 'yea, i f you o n l y knew.' But she d i d n ' t pursue i t — l i k e i f someone s a i d t h a t t o me, I'd say, ' i f I o n l y knew what??' And a l i t t l e w h i l e l a t e r , my f a t h e r arranged t h i s o v e r n i g h t t r i p t o V i c t o r i a f o r t h e two o f us. I begged and p l e a d e d t o have my f o s t e r mom's daughter come w'th us s I ' d be s a f e because then he wouldn't do a n y t h i n g . She s a i d , 'no, I don't t h i n k t h a t ' s a good i d e a , b e s i d e s you'd t h i n k vou'd be happy t o go away and be s p o i l e d r o t t e n by your f a t h e r , on your own.' I j u s t knew i f I went alone, we'd have a whole n i g h t o f sex and t h a t ' s e x a c t l y what happened. She never seemed t o wonder what was b e h i n d some o f those t h i n g s . But i n t h i s i n c i d e n t , when I was s i x , what made i t most d i f f i c u l t f o r me was t o be blamed f o r t h e sex and my mother ••• then turned i t around, once I r e c o v e r e d from the rape, and s a i d i t was my f a u l t and he had a r i g h t t o d i s c i p l i n e me any way he saw f i t — h e had almost k i l l e d me. I s a i d w e l l he d i d n ' t have t h e r i g h t t o rape me (I d i d n ' t use the word r a p e , but I t o l d her i n my own words what he'd done t o me) and she s a i d t h a t she d i d n ' t b e l i e v e he'd done t h a t . She s a i d she asked him and he s a i d he hadn't. She a l s o s a i d i f I t o l d anyone those l i e s about my f a t h e r , she'd l e t him g e t me next t i m e — w h i c h meant she'd l e t him k i l l me. In any sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t I had i n my a d u l t l i f e , I used t o get f l a s h b a c k s and i n my m a r r i a g e when t h i n g s s t a r t e d t o go bad and t h e s t r e s s began t o b u i l d up, t h e f l a s h b a c k s  59 became more f r e q u e n t . And i t was something I c o u l d never t a l k to my ex-husband about, although I d i d t e l l him once when we were having a f i g h t over sex. One of the t h i n g s he used t o do was t r y t o wake me i n the middle of the n i g h t with h i s hand between my l e g s and i t used to d r i v e me f r e a k i n g r i g h t out because i t brought back a l l those memories o f the n i g h t v i s i t s and t o u c h i n g my b r o t h e r d i d t o me when I was e i g h t . Anyway I had t o l d my husband about a hundred times not to do t h a t t o me and one time when we were having a b a t t l e over our sex l i f e , I t o l d him I'd been s e x u a l l y abused as a c h i l d . And he asked, 'how o l d ' and I s a i d ' e i g h t ' and he asked, 'who by' and I s a i d 'a s t r a n g e r . ' And he t r i e d to p r y f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n but i t was p r y i n g and I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y t e l l him about i t and knowing him b e t t e r today, T'm g l a d I never d i d . But t h a t made me r e a l l y w a t c h f u l of p e o p l e — w h o I c o u l d t e l l , and who I could t r u s t . Taking can  be  a very  of being to  a c t i o n i n the  r i s k y venture,  blamed, e x p e c t i n g  describe  what they the  direct  the  abuse  feared  established Obviously  a  as  the most.  tenacious  t h i s hindered  experienced  rejection,  itself,  trauma, i t e f f e c t i v e l y  form of d i s c l o s i n g the  time  and  these v i c t i m s .  s t r u g g l i n g to  and  N ^ only  by  again,  d i d the  these  coping  of  shame,  f o r these  abuse, i n the  necessity The  to  flashbacks  f o r d i s c l o s u r e and  v i c t i m continues  others, long is  form o f  a f t e r the  that victims interpret  i n c r e a s i n g the  to  be  subsequent  isolation,  risk  attempts  damage to the v i c t i m .  are worse than the abuse i t s e l f ,  with  compound  for coping and  and  alienation.  e f f e c t s created  the  taking  i n t o the  reactions of  abuse i t s e l f - .  f r e q u e n t l y make attempts Other  words  memories which perpetuate  to  c e s s a t i o n o f the  correctly.  the  subjects.  and  vulnerable  Fearful  support  eliminated external resources  pattern  find  others  v i c t i m s met  lack of  These i n c i d e n t s r e v e a l the l o n g term d e t r i m e n t a l the  abuse t o  by the  present.  significant  Illustrated  also  t o d i s c l o s e which o t h e r s  fail  are  misinterpreted,  For many, the  as r e p r e s e n t e d  reactions of  thereby others  by t h i s woman:  Three months a f t e r my f a t h e r raped me, I t o l d my b e s t f r i e n d what had happened, and she t o l d the s c h o o l mouth who t o l d the whole s c h o o l . My o l d e r b r o t h e r heard about i t at s c h o o l and  60 t h a t j u s t about k i l l e d me. My o l d e r b r o t h e r never t a l k e d t o me about i t , but he hated me f o r i t . My mother d i d n ' t care about me e i t h e r a f t e r t h a t — s h e c o u l d see I was an a l c o h o l i c by then and she d i d n ' t even t r y t o g i v e me any h e l p . My younger b r o t h e r felt sorry f o r me, and my s i s t e r didn't b e l i e v e i t had happened. . . . The impression I got from my f a m i l y was t h e damage was done and I was a w r i t e o f f . Nobody expected anything from me a f t e r t h a t — t h a t ' s what really b o t h e r e d me about t h e whole t h i n g . I never understood t h a t p a r t — w h y was I r u i n e d ? Facilitating: I was s i x t e e n and I t o l d t h i s guy I was going out with what my f a t h e r d i d and he j u s t hated my f a t h e r and got angry and everything. I t f e l t good t o t e l l him but then I got mad a t him because I d i d n ' t want him h a v i n g anger towards my f a t h e r when i t happened t o me and I'm the one t h a t has t o d e a l with it. So I was w o r r i e d about t e l l i n g my f i a n c e e t h i s time b u t the way he r e a c t e d was p r e t t y g o o d — i t was d i f f e r e n t w i t h him. He d i d n ' t r e a l l y l i k e my f a t h e r t h a t much but he was r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g — h e comforted me and r e a s s u r e d me t h a t t e l l i n g him d i d n ' t have any i n t e r f e r e n c e with our r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t h e l p s a l o t t o t a l k about i t u n l e s s t h e person's r e a c t i o n becomes a problem because a f t e r t h a t f i r s t time, I d i d n ' t r e a l l y want t o t e l l anyone. I'm g l a d my f i a n c e e i s able t o leave i t between me and my d a d — h e doesn't have t o r e s p e c t him but I'm g l a d he doesn't take i t out on him or g i v e him d i r t y looks or whatever. He's s t i l l my f a t h e r a f t e r a l l . When I was t w e l v e , t a l k i n g t o a few f r i e n d s about t h e rape r e a l l y h e l p e d m e — a n d they blamed him and s a i d what an a s s h o l e he was, t h a t h e l p e d . I t was about a week a f t e r the rape and I was a t my g i r l f r i e n d ' s house and we were t a l k i n g about o u r summer . . . and I j u s t b l u r t e d i t o u t . She was an o l d e r g i r l f r i e n d and so she knew about these t h i n g s and she s a i d , 'oh you should have t o l d somebody.' She j u s t made me f e e l b e t t e r — g a v e me hugs and I was so r e l i e v e d t h a t I c o u l d t e l l somebody because the other t i m e s , I never t o l d anybody. But t h i s time I d i d t a l k about i t and I t h i n k t h a t ' s why I f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y about t h i s i n c i d e n t than t h e o t h e r s . I t h e l p e d me p e r s o n a l l y b u t no steps were taken s t i l l t o d e a l with him about i t . What comfort? respect last  appeared being  to help  believed,  these  subjects  was  receiving  and h a v i n g a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i r  t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the abuse.  support  and  innocence w i t h  J u d g i n g from the words i n t h e  example, genuine support at t h e time o f d i s c l o s u r e appears t o have  61 immediate ately,  so  and  longlasting beneficial  few  p o s i t i v e way. effects  women  in  this  sample  are  The m a j o r i t y experienced  from  their  r e a c t i o n s they  attempts  in this  category,  own  reasons,  One  experience  to  for the v i c t i m .  able  to  confirm  i n s t a n t and enduring  disclose,  as  a  result  of  Unfortunthis  in  a  detrimental the  negative  encountered.  I n h i b i t i o n of A c t i o n . fied  results  these  both  Only two  i n c i d e n t s were a b l e t o  of which r e l a t e d  to d i s c l o s u r e .  be  classi-  For  their  s u b j e c t s decided not t o d i s c l o s e the abuse t o o t h e r s .  still  b e n e f i t e d the, woman; the o t h e r i n c r e a s e d her  pain.  Hindering: My o l d e r s i s t e r , whenever we had a c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f any k i n d , used to c a l l me a s l u t which used to h i t r i g h t to the h e a r t . At the time, I d i d n ' t t h i n k she understood but now I know t h a t she d i d and i t seems even more c r u e l now. She was being abused a l s o by my b r o t h e r and she knew t h a t he was doing i t t o m e — t h a t ' s what r e a l l y h u r t s me s t i l l . I remember one time when we were i n t o one o f our t y p i c a l teenage rows and j u s t s p a r r i n g back and f o r t h and she f i n a l l y came out with c a l l i n g me a s l u t and I stomped out of the house. I just f e l t that she knew but I wasn't sure and I c o u l d n ' t come out and ask her i f she d i d — a n d I f e l t v e r y much a s l u t because o f the abuse, and I thought she knew t h a t . And she was c a l l i n g me t h a t name and was g u i l t y of i t h e r s e l f , what r e a l l y h u r t s i s t h a t apart from t h i s , my s i s t e r was my b e s t f r i e n d but she h u r t me so much t h i s way t h a t I f e e l more b e t r a y e d bv her than by anybody. She should have p r o t e c t e d m e — s h e was t h e r e and she knew about i t . Even though she was young, and I was t o o , we c o u l d have helped each o t h e r out. But we never even d i s c u s s e d it. Facilitating: A f t e r my f a t h e r raped me and I b i t h i s p e n i s and he t r i e d t o s t r a n g l e me because I'd done t h a t and I almost d i e d , my mother c l e a n e d me up and t o l d me not t o t e l l anyone. He d i e d a few months l a t e r and she proceeded to have a nervous breakdown and went t o t a l l y b e r s e r k and became l i k e the B e t t e Davis-Joan Crawford movies, t h a t s o r t o f b i z a r r e i n s a n i t y and she t r i e d t o k i l l me with a k n i f e . So I had a l l these s e c r e t s t h a t I c o u l d n ' t or shouldn't or wouldn't t e l l and I became v e r y s i l e n t . . . and i n s c h o o l I c o u l d n ' t l e a r n — I c o u l d n ' t l e t a n y t h i n g e l s e i n , i t was l i k e — d o n ' t l e t a n y t h i n g e l s e good, bad, or i n d i f f e r e n t i n because I was t o t a l l y f u l l , o f what I could carry. So I ended up mostly j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e i n  62 s c h o o l s t a r i n g o f f i n t o space and was c o n s t a n t l y h o l l e r e d a t by t e a c h e r s who had no i d e a what was going on. F i n a l l y my t e a c h e r sent me t o a p r i n c i p a l which was p r o b a b l y a t u r n i n g point. I c o u l d n ' t c r y e v e n — I was i n l i k e a w a l k i n g c a t a tonia. The p r i n c i p a l who was a r e a l l y f i n e man knew t h a t some major change had taken p l a c e because here I was i n t h e 4 t h Grade and I had never been l i k e t h i s b e f o r e . I was a v e r y good c h i l d and now I was w e i r d . He got me t o s i t down and he looked a t me with t e a r s i n h i s eyes and he j u s t s a i d , 'are you having problems a t home?" I j u s t thought 'oh no, don't say t h a t t o me' but I j u s t l e t go and t o r e i n t o a t o r r e n t o f t e a r s but again I c o u l d not t e l l what had happened. But I c o u l d a t l e a s t s i t t h e r e with these b l u e eyes l o o k i n g a t me with t e a r s brimming i n h i s eyes and him f e e l i n g as h e l p l e s s as I d i d . That p r o b a b l y saved my l i f e r e a l l y — i t j u s t meant I had one p l a c e i n time when somebody was t h e r e . As  i n the direct  action  examples,  example was t o f e a r f u r t h e r r e p r i s a l protection; concern, sequences these the  and what  helped  was  and experience  In both  of disclosure influenced their  experiences  The r i s k s o f other  hindered  to i n t u i t i v e l y  and a f f i r m a t i o n o f p a i n .  people.  what  were c o n s i d e r e d  i n t h e above  a lack of supportive  sense  cases,  genuine  fear  caring,  o f t h e con-  decisions to not confide i n too g r e a t ,  women who d i d take  and, j u d g i n g  the r i s k ,  these  from  two most  l i k e l y made a wise d e c i s i o n ! Intrapsychic. processes, category.  Four  in relation  incidents, to  One woman r e c a l l e d  other  r e v e a l i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f mental people,  were  classified  an i n c i d e n t t h a t h i n d e r e d  and t h r e e where i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s had f a c i l i t a t e d  into  coping  this  f o r her,  coping.  Hindering: My s t e p f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d came i n t o my room. I was t h i r t e e n and had a b i t o f a body and t h i s guy wanted me t o show him what I had, and my grandmother came i n and was f u r i o u s , she was r e a l l y p i s s e d o f f . And I r e a l l y thought Why? Why i s she so angry a t t h i s guy? He d i d n ' t even want t o touch me, he j u s t wanted t o look a t my b r e a s t s and y e t I knew t h a t she knew more t h i n g s were going on and t h a t my g r a n d f a t h e r was b e i n g sexual w i t h me. So I was l e f t t h i n k i n g t h a t o n l y c e r t a i n people d i d i t and i t was OK f o r these people t o do i t t o me. That's t h e  63 o n l y way I c o u l d tion. Inconsistent ing  out the c o n f u s i o n  r e a c t i o n s by t h e same nerson  for the v i c t i m  about  sort  who  the c o n f l i c t i n g  then  seems compelled  messages.  As  c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t abuse by some people  seen,  caused  by h e r r e a c -  can be extremely to c l a r i f y this  woman's  confus-  her t h i n k i n g unfortunate  i s acceptable.  Facilitating: I a l s o had a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my g r a n d f a t h e r . He was v e r y r e s p e c t f u l o f me. He t r e a t e d me l i k e I was smart. He t o l d me s t o r i e s and whenever my dad m i s t r e a t e d m e — l i k e he never saw my dad abuse me b u t t h e r e was a p o i n t when I was 5 and 6 t h a t he l i v e d with u s , him and my grandmother, and whenever my p a r e n t s got mad, he'd t e l l them t o l e a v e me a l o n e . He would i n t e r v e n e on my b e h a l f , and he r e a l l y l o v e d me. He's the o n l y man who c o u l d l o v e me without t o u c h i n g me wrong. He h e l p e d me t o f e e l s a f e r and f e e l good about myself a l s o . My f a t h e r abused me and my mother r e j e c t e d me by p l a c i n g me i n my room f o r hours a t a time day a f t e r day and I would have t o s t a y t h e r e , f o r two t o t h r e e hours a t a time a l o n e . I remember f e e l i n g p a n i c — I would f e e l r e j e c t e d by my m o t h e r — I would f e e l myself i n s i d e an emotional box and I would c u t r i g h t o f f . I would get i n t o bed under the s h e e t s , c l o s e my eyes and not be aware o f much t h a t was going on around me. I was f e e l i n g h y s t e r i c a l b e f o r e and then I c u t the f e e l i n g s o f f — i t helped me t o r e j e c t my mother and not have t o accept t h a t she's t r e a t i n g me t h i s way, t h a t she's j u s t p u t t i n g me i n h e r e , c l o s i n g t h e door and walking away. So i t would slow t h i n g s down, s t o p t h e f e e l i n g s and I ' d l i e t h e r e and t h i n k about squares, figures—mostly squares—and I'd f e e l vibrations through my b o d y — I ' d keep myself o c c u p i e d with these t h i n g s for hours. I'd study t h e w a l l p a p e r , t h e shape o f t h e r o o m — I d i d n ' t move much. And e v e n t u a l l y my mother would come t o t h e door and say I c o u l d come out now. When I s t a y e d with my aunt and u n c l e , I had t o s l e e p on the couch because I almost f e l l o u t o f t h e t o p bunk one time and i t s c a r e d them so much, they put me on the couch. But I would s t a r t o f f s l e e p i n g i n t h e i r bed and my uncle would come i n and s l e e p w i t h me. My aunt would stay up watching TV i n t h e l i v i n g room and when she came t o bed, she'd move me t o t h e couch. The f e a r I had then was t h i s was h i s way o f g e t t i n g me c l o s e t o him and t h e f i r s t r e a c t i o n I had was 'oh now h e ' l l start.' But he never d i d a n y t h i n g t o me. Most o f t h e time, I never knew he was t h e r e . And I remember t h i n k i n g a t t h e time, how n i c e t h i s was because i f he wasn't doing i t t o me, he wasn't doing i t t o h i s g i r l s e i t h e r . I was n i n e a t t h e time and I remember t h i n k i n g how wonderful i t was t o get a hug  64 without g e t t i n g a hand down my pants as w e l l . I used t o to go t h e r e and I'd go t h e r e every chance I c o u l d g e t . I secure t h e r e . The  above  beneficial  impact  relationship mentally  with  incidents on  the  These  environmental  that  factors  were  victims  a significant  self-stimulating;  tion .  two  are  and  appear  viewed  over  time  adult; learning not to  being  as  having  significant  including; t o be  a  abused i n a v u l n e r a b l e  function  as  expanding  with  the  offender.  I t helped  these  c o n t r a s t t o the  women t o r e a l i z e  and  situa-  personal  and  Interestingly,  o f the t h r e e i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v e d having a t r u s t i n g , secure important  positive  self-reliant  r e s o u r c e s to a i d i n c o p i n g f o r the v i c t i m .  with a male which p r o v i d e d an  like felt  experience  abusive c o n t a c t  t h a t not  a l l men  abuse c h i l d r e n .  Victim The  stress  categories of offender  and  significant  other  contained  74 i n c i d e n t s , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 91% of the d a t a c o l l e c t e d .  While  a l l items  c o u l d r e a l i s t i c a l l y be t r a c e d back t o the abuse caused a few r e m a i n i " of  the  i n c i d e n t s p e r t a i n e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  victim.  with  only  definitive.  However,  incident  classified  was  remaining  of  subsequent the  the to  individual  beneficial  an  seven  This victim  the  as  are  effect.  hindering  which,  category  f e a t u r e of coping  i s defined  i n essence,  Specifically  e l a b o r a t e d here The  the  i s by  i t i s that  for  the  victim  no  means  only  one  and  the  coping.  category  abuse.  entries,  interesting  s i x as f a c i l i t a t i n g  Definition. aspects  by the o f f e n d e r ,  potential  primarily  determined  the  her  inner p r i v a t e  which have exists  by  either  for stress  the  personal  coping  style  resources  of  a detrimental  or  t o be  augmented  by  65 these  aspects,  Fortunately,  in this  mostly helped the In  depending  six  of  determined  time  the  victim  perceives  the  to  (Flanagan,  g i v e n the  items  in  this  category  are  a  One  victim taking direct  which  fact that  unreliable.  classified  as  P r i m a r i l y these e n t r i e s r e v e a l a s p e c t s t h a t can significant  positive  or  negative  1954), r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c c r i t i c a l  Direct Action.  experience.  r e s o u r c e s were so overwhelmingly  seven  have  her  inner resources  them t o cope, which i s understandable  e x t e r n a l environmental fact,  how  sample, the s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d  i n t r a p s y c h i c phenomena. be  on  item was  classified  impact  over  incidents.  here t h a t demonstrated  the  a c t i o n a g a i n s t h e r s e l f i n a d e t r i m e n t a l manner.  Hindering: I found t h a t as soon as I s t a r t e d t o t h i n k about i t o r was reminded of i t , then I wasn't c o p i n g , so I d i d n ' t t h i n k of i t . And I drank a l o t and got myself i n a l l k i n d s o f other t r o u b l e , p r o b a b l y t o make t h a t t r o u b l e seem minimal. I was upset f o r so l o n g , I c o u l d n ' t d e c i d e t o l i v e or d i e . D r i n k i n g was slow death but I d i d n ' t know how t o do a n y t h i n g e l s e but drink. But n o t h i n g helped at t h a t t i m e . For me the b i g tragedy wasn't even the f a c t t h a t i t h a p p e n e d — i t was the way my f a m i l y took i t . I j u s t was always s t r u g g l i n g t o f i n d out i f something c o u l d be done about t h i s , whether the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be helped or not or whether I s h o u l d g i v e u p — a s i n , die. Obviously however inner  when the  trauma stems back t o coping  techniques  s t r e s s e s of the v i c t i m  self-defeating and  the  the  cycle  seemingly  perpetuate  nature  abuse  and  become problems an  e v e n t u a l l y obscures  willful  the  of  J  the  i n themselves,  compound the  the  disclosure,  original  damage.  source  self-destructive  the This  of  pain,  behaviour  dim-  i n i s h e s empathy from o t h e r s f o r t h e v i c t i m ' s p l i g h t . Intrapsychic. psychic  Most  classification,  of  this  a l l of  which  subjects.  The  long  evident  the  following excerpts.  in  term  category  damaging  i s contained  facilitated  consequences Victims  of  i n the  coping sexual  continue  to  intra-  for  these  abuse  are  strive  for  66 workable methods t o manage the p a i n f u l , r e c u r r i n g thoughts long after  the  perspectives  abuse has  occurred.  haracteristic  F o r t u n a t e l y the  and memories,  inner strengths  o f t h e s e women h e l p e d them t o cope  and  success-  fully, facilitating: I became v e r y withdrawn but I developed a v e r y a c t i v e f a n t a s y l i f e and t h a t was f u e l e d by the books I r e a d . I always l i k e d r e a d i n g books on s t r o n g women and s e e i n g TV shows on s t r o n g women—to be s t r o n g they had t o go through some k i n d o f rough c h i l d h o o d or a rough l i f e and they came through i t . I was always v e r y much a t t r a c t e d t o t h a t . I always had a model, someone I wanted to be l i k e . The c l e a r e s t one I remember i s the B i o n i c Woman—to me at t h a t age, she was amazing, I thought she was b e a u t i f u l , she was honest, but s t r o n g at the same time. I mean she always s a i d she had these f e e l i n g s , t h e s e v u l n e r a b l e f e e l i n g s , she allowed h e r s e l f t o c r y , she'd been through t h i s rough time, I guess when she d i e d and came back as the B i o n i c Woman; she'd been orphaned and she made a l i f e f o r h e r s e l f , and she hadn't been dependent on a man. I used t o watch how she d i d e v e r y t h i n g . . . she r e p r e s e n t e d a l i f e I c o u l d have. And at the time o f the abuse, I would t h i n k about i t and f a n t a s i z e about her and sometimes I would f a n t a s i z e , i f I were B i o n i c what I would do t o my dad. I'd punch him out, throw him over the . . . whatever, j u s t a bunch of t h i n g s . I a l s o read about c o u n t r i e s . I knew every c a p i t a l c i t y i n every c o u n t r y i n Europe and I used t o dream about going t o f a r off places. And I'd dream about the k i n d o f c a r e e r I'd h a v e — l i k e a f l i g h t attendant. I always l o v e d my mind. I always l i k e d the i n s i d e o f me b e t t e r than the o u t s i d e and t h a t ' s what h e l p e d . The o n l y method o f coping I had up u n t i l my mid-20's was t o j u s t suppress i t and t o i g n o r e i t as much as p o s s i b l e and I u s u a l l y managed to do t h a t . The time t h a t I was r e a l l y c l e a r about d o i n g t h a t p a r t l y because I had t o work a t i t h a r d e r than u s u a l was when I was working at an a d o l e s c e n t u n i t and we would o c c a s i o n a l l y get i n c e s t c a s e s . I would work with the k i d s w i t h i t and found t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e I had was u s e f u l although I d i d n ' t t a l k t o them about i t . But i t gave me an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t h e l p e d me work w i t h them, but then you'd f e e l a l l the c r a p from the p s y c h i a t r i s t who'd suggest t h a t t h e female was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c e s t t a k i n g p a ~ an I would want so b a d l y t o say, 'now j u s t a minute, t h a t ' s b u l l s h i t , I've been through i t ' and I'd r e a l i z e I c o u l d n ' t do t h a t . I c o u l d n ' t t a l k about i t so I would j u s t suppress i t . Then I d i d n ' t have t o d e a l w i t h r e a c t i o n s — w h a t f r i g h t e n e d me more than the f a c t t h a t i t happened was how people would r e a c t t o  67 i t , so i f I d i d n ' t t e l l them I wouldn't have t o d e a l w i t h i t . I f I f e l t those p h y s i c a l a r o u s i n g s e n s a t i o n s , a l s o , I ' d j u s t imagine i t was a dream or b l o c k i t out t o stop t h e memories o r j u s t say i t d i d n ' t happen and not t h i n k about i t . And a l l those t h i n g s worked u n t i l I c o u l d handle d e a l i n g w i t h i t directly. They gave me the time I needed. Everybody s t i l l t h i n k s I'm r u i n e d i n my f a m i l y and i f I say 'oh I'm going back t o school when the k i d s get t o a c e r t a i n age' everyone says, ' w e l l don't get your hopes up because you're o n l y C-.' But I know I can do a l o t . I was always t o p o f my c l a s s , I was at t h e t o p o f my s c h o o l . I was r e a l l y proud o f the f a c t i n Grade 8. I got an award f o r b e i n g the smartest k i d o u t o f about 30 0, and the next year I f a i l e d because o f the rape and a l l t h a t happened a f t e r w a r d s w i t h my parents s p l i t t i n g up. I smoked dope, and drank and screwed a r o u n d — t h e whole t h i n g f e l l apart and nobody seems t o remember what I was l i k e , except me. I f e l t smart as a k i d and I f e l t happy about myself up u n t i l I was 12. My books, s c h o o l , being o u t d o o r s , l o t s o f t h i n g s were good up u n t i l I was 12 and I remember a l l these t h i n g s — I c l i n g t o them as r e p r e s e n t i n g the r i g h t t r a c k f o r me. They h e l p me keep a l l o f i t i n perspective. Active remembering  mental  processes  good t h i n g s ,  involving  daydreaming,  and even d e n i a l appear t o h e l p  fantasizing, v i c t i m s manage  or t o l e r a t e the s t r e s s c r e a t e d by t h e memory o f p a i n f u l m a t e r i a l . any  number o f e x t e r n a l  content,  these  stimuli  intrapsychic  can t r i g g e r t h e s u r f a c i n g o f  resources  likely  function  as  Since  traumatic invaluable  t o o t s i n s u s t a i n i n g emotional e q u i l i b r i u m f o r t h e v i c t i m .  Cognitive  Appraisals  Cognitive ally  a p p r a i s a l s o f d e t a i l e d i n c i d e n t s were e x t r a c t e d  from t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s 1)  A t t h e time o f t h i s personal  2)  asked i n the i n t e r v i e w :  i n c i d e n t , how d i d you assess  s a f e t y or w e l l being?  A t t h e time t h i s terms o f coping?  specific-  (primary  appraisal)  sense o f  appraisal)  happened, how d i d you assess (secondary  your  your o p t i o n s i n  68 Other  questions  experience, The  pertained  t o emotional  responses  throughout  and e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r  coping  the mode.  f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . Primary A p p r a i s a l .  The i n c i d e n t s were overwhelmingly s t r e s s f u l t o  the women, r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e i r Their  primary  referring  assessments  t o past  as  extremely  harm o r l o s s ,  abuse.  Repeatedly,  safety:  extremely  coping  stressful  secondary control  life  threatening,  help  them  during  that  there  controlled  seemed  the abuse  t o be no way  e v e r y t h i n g , every  to  assess lonely,  fearful. coping, v i c t i m s '  resources.  no o p t i o n s , no  Nothing  and the f r e q u e n t  out.  aspect;  used  s t a t e d as h a v i n g  or environmental  or a f t e r  them.  incidents  terrifying,  In i n c i d e n t s t h a t h i n d e r e d  a p p r a i s a l s were predominantly  and no p e r s o n a l  included  d e s c r i p t i o n s were  l o s t , t o t a l l y u n s a f e , overwhelmed, and v e r y Secondary A p p r a i s a l .  or hindered  and f u t u r e t h r e a t , as w e l l as p r e s e n t  the following threatened,  helped  seemed t o  description  was  In one woman's e x p e r i e n c e ,  "he  t h e way I thought,  relationships,  e v e r y t h i n g ; he p e r v e r t e d every p o s i t i v e t h i n g i n my l i f e  and r u i n e d i t ,  he made i t a l l bad." In  incidents that  frequently  claimed  some p e r s o n a l time;  facilitated  t o have  some o p t i o n s ,  or external resources.  t h e r e would come a time  be  "Everything  victims  more  and a sense o f  d i d n ' t work a l l t h e  working and I'd go on t o  some way t o keep my head above water."  r e l a t i o n s h i p between o p t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s t h e r e f o r e appears t o  direct.  options;  however,  some c o n t r o l ,  when i t stopped  something e l s e but I always found The  coping,  and  Existence  of  internal  or  deprivation of personal  creases options f o r coping.  Options,  external  resources  or environmental  i n essence,  increases  resources  are resources.  de-  69 Emotions. response  As noted  i n primary  appraisal findings,  t o i n c i d e n t s h i n d e r i n g c o p i n g was t y p i c a l l y  t h e emotional  fear, terror, hurt,  shock, b e t r a y a l , and d e s p e r a t i o n . V i c t i m s more f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e optimism, although time.  relief,  power,  and  control  f e a r , t e r r o r , and emotional  Apparently  emotional  having  responses,  which  most  i n incidents  upset  some o p t i o n s  feelings  helping  were e x p e r i e n c e d  and r e s o u r c e s  likely  involving  hope,  coping,  a t t h e same  increases  positive  r e i n f o r c e s use o f t h e chosen  c o p i n g method. Effectiveness. incidents was  else  bility the  they  which  t o take  although  could  The predominant  helplessness, efforts  evaluated  h i n d e r i n g coping,  nothing  stances.  Victims  was  have  done  by  factors i n e l i c i t i n g a helplessness  report  incidents their  facilitating  or minimizing  tiveness,  as d i d r e s u l t i n g  optimism,  even  most  i f unable  frequently  actance response  provided  responses was s t i l l  were  under  low  there  t h e circumsituation  self-esteem,  was  despite  Most women a t t r i b u t e d r e s p o n s i Notably  the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f o f t h e abuser t o t h e  i n c i d e n t s were t h e most  significant  response.  coping,  c o p i n g mode as e f f e c t i v e .  preventing  as i n e f f e c t i v e i n  overwhelming  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  v i c t i m , and the frequency o f abusive  of  very  f o r t h e abuse t o t h e o f f e n d e r .  In  differently  to this  a c t i o n t o a v e r t harm.  a s s a u l t s , t h e importance  coping  a number were r e s o l v e d t h a t  response followed  their  victims  were  more  likely  The consequences noted  to  earlier  abuse c o n t r i b u t e d t o e v a l u a t i o n s o f e f f e c emotional  t o prevent these  evident  responses abuse.  empowering  The i n t r a p s y c h i c methods feelings.  in facilitative  one o f h e l p l e s s n e s s .  o f power, c o n t r o l , and  Despite  While  incidents,  more r e -  the primary  s e l f r e p o r t s o f power,  c o n t r o l , and f e e l i n g good, v i c t i m s predominantly having  very  ineffective trauma  low s e l f - e s t e e m i n coping  o f being  impressions  i n these  d e s c r i b e d themselves  situations.  with  abuse doesn't  appear  victimized  i n the f i r s t  place.  Being  effective or  t o counterbalance the And f o r many,  persist:  I feel whipped—like I had no c o n t r o l , someone e l s e had complete c o n t r o l . I was n o t h i n g , j u s t a p i e c e o f meat and I was used. There was n o t h i n g about me t h e r e . The b i g g e s t t h i n g t h e abuse d i d t o me was i t made me f e e l o u t o f c o n t r o l o f my l i f e . I t w i l l never  be gone.  It will  as  always be t h e r e .  these  71 CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION AND  SUMMARY  Discussion of Results  The  four r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s  to provide  initially  a focus f o r the statement o f  Research Q u e s t i o n  #1.  posed w i l l  be  experiences  domination, time o f  and  What common f e a t u r e s c o n c e r n i n g  of these women r e p e a t e d l y express  submission  abuse, the  offenders  t a c t i c s , which allowed met  within  a  sexual  problem,  child  these  a theme o f power, Typically  at  the  having  many advantages  and  were viewed as  V i c t i m s were overpowered, and  sexual  abuse  has  f i n d i n g s appear  which c h a l l e n g e s t h i s  of victims?  context.  i n e f f e c t i v e i n c o u n t e r a c t i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n While  the dynamics  them to s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y pursue h a v i n g  through the c h i l d .  to  here  results.  of s e x u a l abuse are d e r i v e d from t h e d e s c r i p t i v e accounts The  presented  f o r the most p a r t ,  of offenders.  p r i m a r i l y been support  t h e i r needs  the  treated  view  of  as  Sgroi  a  sexual (1982),  perception:  C h i l d sexual abuse tends t o be c l a s s i f i e d as a sexual problem. . . . However i n d i v i d u a l s who are sexual o f f e n d e r s a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n do not seem to be motivated p r i m a r i l y by sexual d e s i r e s ; i n s t e a d . . . they tend to engage i n sexual b e h a v i o u r with c h i l d r e n i n the s e r v i c e o f nonsexual needs, e s p e c i a l l y the need to f e e l powerful and i n c o n t r o l . Thus t h e dynamics o f c h i l d sexual abuse i n v o l v e a sexual e x p r e s s i o n or a c t i n g out o f nonsexual i s s u e s . I n e v i t a b l y , the o f f e n d e r ' s power p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the c h i l d v i c t i m and the child's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e are the p r i n c i p a l determinants o f what o c c u r s between them, how i t occurs, where, when, and why i t o c c u r s , whether or not the a c t i v i t y i s kept s e c r e t , when and under what circumstances ( i f ever) the s e c r e t i s d i s c l o s e d and f i n a l l y , what o c c u r s a f t e r t h e d i s closure . Within t h i s context i t i s f a r more a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e g a r d c h i l d sexual abuse as a power problem. . . . (p. 2)  72 These women r e l a t e d a l s o compounded tion and  that  trauma depending on  . Issues jealousy  report  of can  that  informa-  such as blame, g u i l t , p r o t e c t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  rivalry,  of  victim's  abuse. have  reactions of others  attention  Disclosure  far-reaching  often  clouded  the  forces a  disastrous  impact  why  the  tendency  ( S g r o i , 1982,  p.  towards  consequences.  disbelief  the  and  dealt  Little  with  wonder,  f o r the e n t i r e f a m i l y ,  denial  is  so  pervasive  33).  Other dynamics of c h i l d h o o d this  of  s i t u a t i o n t o be  then, t h a t d i s c l o s u r e o f t e n p r e c i p i t a t e s a c r i s i s and  to  disclosure  the  special  the  a c c i d e n t a l or p u r p o s e f u l  sexual  abuse t h a t were s u b s t a n t i a t e d  by  sample were: 1«  the by  2.  abuse was  o f t e n the  someone who  the o f f e n d e r daily  had  was  r e s u l t of  ready access  frequent,  to the  planned  encounters  child;  t y p i c a l l y someone w i t h i n the c h i l d ' s sphere o f  activities,  and  most  likely  to  be  within  the  family  circle; 3.  the  acceptable  s o c i a l patterns  e x p l o i t e d and misused by 4.  inducements  such  as  a  o f a u t h o r i t y over  engaging the c h i l d misrepresentation  c h i l d r e n were  i n sexual of  moral  activity; standards,  p l a y i n g a game, b r i b e s , or rewards were o f t e n u t i l i z e d , meaning  5.  t h a t f o r c e o f t e n was  not  i f n e c e s s a r y though;  and  the  sexual  activity  required.  F o r c e or t h r e a t s were used  u s u a l l y progressed  exposure to f o n d l i n g to some form of Research Q u e s t i o n #2.  What, i f any,  methods used by t h e s e abuse v i c t i m s ?  along  a continuum  from  penetration.  are  the  predominant  coping  73 These  r e s u l t s " suggest  attempting support  to  after  deal  these  the  i t happened.  mode c a t e g o r y critical  with  that  with  subjects  abuse  Direct  forty-four  incidents.  While  victims at  the  remarkably  time,  or  to  active  in  help  and  get  a c t i o n emerged as the l a r g e s t  items,  accounting  experiencing  nevertheless  were  tried  f o r 54%  varying  of  degrees  energetically  to  the  of  deal  coping total  success,  with  these  d i f f i c u l t stresses. Secondly, fairly  (or 22%)  that  incidents respectively.  active  p a s s i v e and and  i n h i b i t i o n of a c t i o n c o p i n g methods were  evenly r e p r e s e n t e d , c o n t a i n i n g n i n e t e e n  eighteen given  i n t r a p s y c h i c and  resistance could  compliant  techniques  may  ( o r 23% of the t o t a l )  As  stated e a r l i e r ,  escalate  the  abuse,  o f t e n have proved  use  of  these  adaptive.  that  children  seek  or  want  sexual  seek and want l o v e , a f f e c t i o n , experience what they able.  of  these  are hoping  These  f o r , even  this  involvement  know t h a t  i f the  actively  revealed  eleven of whom were e i t h e r Research Q u e s t i o n #3.  adults.  sexual  to  avoid about why  keep the  thirteen  i g n o r e d , misunderstood,  who  i s not  contact,  not  keep the  to pressure did  by  disclose,  or not b e l i e v e d .  What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e  h i n d e r c o p i n g , and what seem t o f a c i l i t a t e  the  are p l e a s u r -  children  s e c r e t due  victims  Children  involvement  this  myths  based on  p h y s i c a l sensations  sought  While many do  study  with  social  c a r i n g from a d u l t s and,  l i k e w i s e are confused  s e c r e t or don't t e l l . abuser,  and  v i c t i m s , they  subjects  encourage i t . People  to  however,  more a p p r o p r i a t e  These f i n d i n g s c o n t r a d i c t some of the more p e r s i s t e n t  the  and  coping?  methods  seem  74 Hindering  Coping  Methods h i n d e r i n g coping by  a  desperate,  stinctively to  frantic,  with  the abuse  haphazard  itself  quality  where  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d victims  o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e a c t e d t o p r o t e c t themselves  assault.  No i n t e r n a l ,  intrapsychic  thought  process  almost i n i n response  or decisions o f  what t o do and what the consequences might be, appeared  to occur.  suddenness and s e v e r i t y o f t h e a s s a u l t as w e l l as t h e imbalance between this  the v i c t i m  spontaneous  and the o f f e n d e r reflex.  may  account  Unfortunately  o f power  f o r the n e c e s s i t y o f  these  reactive  responses  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e s c a l a t e d the abuse, which o b v i o u s l y h i n d e r e d for  the victims.  method  was  considered  helpful  or harmful;  c o p i n g method  harmful.  support  were  victims  experienced.  experienced Sixteen  The  caused  After  blamed, n o t b e l i e v e d or not o f f e r e d  t h e most  suffering  detrimental  the v i o l a t i o n  reactions  that  o f t h e abuser, t h e  by t h e r e a c t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s people  as b e t r a y a l ,  out o f eighteen  course  circum-  the n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s made  Being  characteristically  doubly powerless  and the i n d i v i d u a l  t h e methods a v a i l a b l e .  With the d i s c l o s u r e attempts,  disappointment  coping  The consequences o f t h e abuse d e f i n e d whether a c o p i n g  s t a n c e s determined  the  The  closing women  off a vital i n this  as a r e s u l t o f such of victimization  was  avenue o f hope and h e l p .  study  perceived  themselves  as  experiences. becomes  complete  i n t e r n a l i z e t h e damaging dynamics o f t h e abuse.  when  individuals  A l l women i n t h i s  study  r e p o r t e d low s e l f - e s t e e m and low s e l f - w o r t h as a r e s u l t o f t h e abuse and the  l a c k o f e x t e r n a l support.  recall,  Aftereffects  f l a s h b a c k s , and i s o l a t i o n  such  significantly  as i n s e c u r i t y , memory  i n f l u e n c e d the v i c t i m ' s  functioning  subsequent  to  the  abuse.  Consequently  image r e s u l t i n g from t h i s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s important woman  f a c t o r hindering coping.  who  trates  embarked  the  process.  severity  She  tive  hatred  and  these  hinders  a l l i n n e r and  of  by  self-abuse,  this  an the  illus-  internalization  environmental r e s o u r c e s  Despite  are unable t o c o u n t e r a c t  in efforts to  increase  coping  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  o u t l i n e r e v e a l s t h a t v i c t i m s , i n these  self-blame  three  created  i n essence p w e r l e s s .  vulnerable  exponential of  are  thwarted  intensely  stress  self-  as  f e l t , t o t a l l y powerless t o manage the r e c u r r i n g p a i n .  attempts, they  Being  the  negative  extreme example, o f f e r e d by  self-destructive cycle  of  summary, t h i s  situations,  a  came to p e r c e i v e  d e l e t e r i o u s , and In  on  The  the  to  elicit  abuse, can  of  and  render  the  powerlessness  levels,  signifies  final  them  the  instinctive self-protec-  the  strength  power o f the  from  others,  isolation,  most  offender.  they  internalization  completely  and  noncoping  become  of  self-  victimized.  The  o c c u r r i n g at  critical  feature  of  each what  f o r the v i c t i m .  F a c i l i t a t i n g Coping Methods f a c i l i t a t i n g i z e d by plan,  coping  with  the  abuse  a controlled, precise q u a l i t y , often  which  resulted  in  a  reduction  or  itself  were  character-  i n d i c a t i n g a predetermined  cessation  of  abuse.  Many  v i c t i m s , a f t e r years o f abuse, appeared to reach a p o i n t where they s t r o n g enough or angry enough t o d e v i s e a method t o c o u n t e r a c t of the o f f e n d e r that  the  victim's  and were s u c c e s s f u l as a r e s u l t .  underlying discovery  application  of  power of  these  imbalance  internal resources.  or  i n the external Victims  were  the power  These f i n d i n g s suggest  abuse was  corrected  strengths, appeared  to  and  by  the  subsequent  experience  an  76 increase  in  control,  potency,  and  self  esteem  as  a  result  of  the  p r e c i s i o n and success of these p l a n s . With r e s p e c t to the r e a c t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , the c h a r a c t e r istic  feature  which  reassurance,  and  lieved.  others  That  immediate  and  subjects.  They  feelings them.  helped  comfort  by  others  b e l i e v e d them  longlasting  about  not the  only  the  risks  cope  but  and  help  were  not  was  most  being  to  effects,  deal  with  v a l i d a t e d and  have c o n t r o l  given  important  o f f e r e d support  beneficial  had  trauma  S i n c e v i c t i m s do  obviously,  victims  over  was and  support, being  caring,  according the  abuser,  this  be-  helped  had  to  these  but  their  to  resolve  the r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s ,  o f d i s c l o s u r e e x i s t e d i n these  situations  as  well  creating self-stress  was  as those h i n d e r i n g c o p i n g . Finally managed more techniques  the  internalization  successfully  when t h e  d e v i s e d to m a i n t a i n  appear  cognitive  processes.  helpful  subject  i n coping  experience  An  with  to  T h e r e f o r e low  monitoring  internal  the  victims exercised intrapsychic  a p o s i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e about  or to d i s t a n c e p a i n f u l memories. feelings  process  and  s e l f - e s t e e m and can  the  characteristics  not  frequently support Sexual  altered  aftereffects  of  sexual  abuse.  some sense of c o n t r o l over themselves i n these  experiences, which  be  o f methods  victims realized only  helped  resulted  Sgroi's  them  i n the  and cope  which  through  and  (1982) a s s e r t i o n t h a t  internal  feel of  more  abuse.  sexual  seems  Subjects  did  situations.  c o n t r o l emerged again  facilitated  utilized  termination  abuse o c c u r r e d when the  negative  e q u i l i b r i u m i s s u s t a i n e d which  In summary, the u n d e r l y i n g theme o f power and in  themselves,  coping. and  these  e x t e r n a l means  control, These  In  but  which  findings also  abuse i s a power problem.  abuser overpowered the v i c t i m ,  and  often  stopped  when the v i c t i m was a b l e t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e  aftereffects  were  managed  more  successfully  the i n e q u a l i t y .  with  The  the use o f methods  which i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n a l power. Research Q u e s t i o n  #4.  What s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  i f any, e x i s t  i n the  c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s and e v a l u a t i o n s made by v i c t i m s about t h e i r  abusive  experiences? Support  f o r S g r o i ' s (1982) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t power  i s the u n d e r l y i n g  c r i t i c a l dynamic o f sexual abuse e x i s t s a l s o i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s and  e v a l u a t i o n s made by these  s u b j e c t s about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s .  a p p r a i s a l s showed t h a t v i c t i m s e x p e r i e n c e d stressful  and  appraisals  revealed victims  and  no  personal  coping.  In  facilitating and  this  the  abusive  powerful  or  their  some  environmental judgement,  c o p i n g , they  dynamics.  felt  life  sexual  threatening.  resources were  in  Secondary  as having  no  incidents  powerless.  In  extremely  options  hindering situations  they had some o p t i o n s and some r e s o u r c e s enabled  them t o i n t e r v e n e  They were more  f i n d i n g s support  s i t u a t i o n s as  themselves  they  and i n c o n t r o l , a t these  underlying  even  perceived  p e r c e p t i o n o f power  These problem  terrifying,  these  Primary  likely  that  they  felt  times.  the h y p o t h e s i s abuse,  to claim  successfully in  but  t h a t power  i s not o n l y the  i t i s also the s o l u t i o n  to the  problem as w e l l .  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  Theoretical Significance These r e s u l t s support the d e f i n i t i o n o f c o p i n g , proposed by Lazarus and  Launier  (1978).  As shown, c o p i n g  occurred  i n response  to s p e c i f i c  78 stresses  which  classified. other  must  be  identified  before  the  In t h i s study, both environmental  categories)  t h a t taxed and  and  internal  (victim  exceeded i n d i v i d u a l  (90%, and 83%  and  category)  evident  reliabil-  o b t a i n e d by the s u b s t a n t i a l  agreement  independent  Both  action  described  clearly  by  the  subjects, enabling  according  t o Lazarus  and  Launier's  intrapsychic  (1978)  judges  judges.  coping  responses  classification  scheme.  was  of  Reliability  acceptable  two  a t 83%  agreement, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s became apparent  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s which s u b s t a n t i a t e d the t h e o r e t i c a l of  Lazarus  1.  and L a u n i e r  the  extraction  the unique 2.  of  environmental  location  context; 3.  the  problem  i n time,  of  changed  changing  nature  in  80%  during  framework  and  facili-  contexts;  t h e r e f o r e were  of t h e i r o b j e c t , purpose a p p l i c a b l e i n any  stress, over  appraisals, time,  so  that  and  tasks  at  any  e x p e r i e n c e , a d i f f e r e n t coping method may A  and  stress  and  nature  skills  the  s a l i e n t coping processes, while minimizing  a l l four c o p i n g modes were independent or  of  (1978):  four coping modes were s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  tated  were  methods  c o p i n g mode c a t e g o r i e s by the The  be  significant  demands were  Support  can  f o r the  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) of the two oriented  methods  ( o f f e n d e r and  resources.  i t y o f these s t r e s s c a t e g o r i e s was  coping  classification  of coping over  of  time.  coping  modes  be  requiring point  can  arise  Burgess and Holmstrom  stages o f rape a s s a u l t , observed  coping  particular  tasks  at  each  during  the  utilized.  d e l i n e a t e d the d i f f e r e n t to c o i n c i d e w i t h  coping  stage.  from  the  (1976),  who  the changes i n The  critical  incident  technique  seems p a r t i c u l a r l y  s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the e x p e r i e n c e stage.  One  broken  down  critical to  classification  classify  in less  result  from  the  therefore  coping  enabling  technically  skill  used  at  may  each  need  of  c a t e g o r i e s by  sometimes  intrapsychic  overlapping  classified  uses more than  judges.  nature  the  depth  problems, t h i s  sexual  offer  abuse,  ecological The appeared  work o f  In a d d i t i o n , the  and  with  these  theoretical  Lazarus.  consequently  i n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , by two  Despite for  characteristics,  of  the  was  instrumental  The  goal  of  both  Furthermore,  for  identified  their  mediating  variables  i n t e g r a t i v e model.  elicit 1.  a response the  be  c o n s i d e r a b l e support  of  coping  behaviour convey a  of  encouraging  helpful  of  and  options  c o p i n g , d e s p i t e the  the s i t u a t i o n as s t r e s s f u l . the  could  judges.  experience  in  modes.  by rich  victims  of  descriptive,  harmful  incidents  r o l e of c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s i n c o p i n g  perceptions  in f a c i l i t a t i n g  the  also  situations.  exploration  stress.  into  Lazarus'  to c o n f i r m the important  severe  classification  can  can  accordance  incident  independent  study determined  insights  study of s t r e s s f u l indepth  the  coping  used  coping in  be  Also,  one  Confusion  incidents p r e v i o u s l y presented  profound which  the  on  to  stage.  I n h i b i t i o n of a c t i o n , f o r example, i s f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d with  focus  f o r c e d c h o i c e o f the predominant technique  agreement  the  at  i d e n t i f y i n g c o p i n g s k i l l s a t each  i s encumbered when the v i c t i m  method at once, and result  incident  and  efficient  and  resources  initial  assessment  these f i n d i n g s suggest by  Wortman  and  Brehm  was of  support  (1975) i n  As p r e d i c t e d , these women were most l i k e l y  to  of h e l p l e s s n e s s under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :  assault  was  o f c o n t r o l was  sudden, low);  u n p r e d i c t a b l e , or  severe  (expectation  80 2.  the  offender  (importance 3.  was  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e outcomes was  some s u b j e c t s , r e v e a l i n g  in  Abramson  prediction  of  behaviour  model  to  were  p e r c e i v e d themselves abuse  experienced  abuse  and  the  helplessness.  given  to  the  findings  under  operates  high).  restrictive  stress.  more  obtained  of the model.  ability  t h a t the  focus  Even  on  victims,  duration of  exposure,  fact  facilitate  in incidents  these  Further  offer  to  research  reactance  that  this  encouraging  as  helplessness adequate  Brehm's  (1975)  i t s continuum not  checking  enough  the  h e l p i n g coping,  of  reac-  predictive  the  subjects  Most l i k e l y the s e v e r i t y o f  well  as  accounts  i s required  responses  model  with  experiences  enable  and  Unfortunately,  p r i m a r i l y as h e l p l e s s .  by  predict  Wortman  effectively  helplessness responses.  responses  natural father  and  e t a l ' s (1978) r e f o r m u l a t e d model does not  integrative  ability  high);  a  were e v i d e n t i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  by  tance  in particular  e x p e r i e n c e d numerous p r e v i o u s a s s a u l t s (exposure  Reactance responses  reactance  relative,  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p was  t h e v i c t i m had to  a  their f o r the  to  under  age  onset  of  predominance  of  determine stress.  at  the  model's  Nevertheless,  i s previously untested,  these  initial  c o r r o b o r a t i o n f o r these t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i -  tions . F i n a l l y , the r e p o r t s by the s u b j e c t s c o n f i r m many o f the c h a r a c t e r istic his  behavioural  theory  obviously  of do  and  reaction  not  emotional to  comprise  responses  crisis. the  entire  While  o u t l i n e d by isolated  process  the p a n i c , d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , h e l p l e s s n e s s , and these v i c t i m s confirms experience.  t h a t s e x u a l abuse  Shontz  (1975) i n  critical  incidents  of reaction  and  recovery,  shock r e p o r t e d by many o f  f o r them c o n s t i t u t e d  C o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s o f Notman and Nadelson  a  crisis (1976),  81 subsequent  coping  ability  appeared  to  depend  assessments of one's r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g the  on  negative  or  positive  crisis.  Practical Significance Similar Notman  to  and  the  conclusions  Nadelson  (1976),  of  these  importance of e x p l o r i n g the coping abuse.  Burgess  and  results  support  of sexual  abuse enables  cognitive  evaluations,  ability.  Also  alternative repertoire  this  the  i f any,  and  greatly process  that  individual.  refute  some of  of  the  these  more  and  therapeutic  can  increase  the  focusing  methods,  within alter  future  encourages  Therefore  coping  appropriate  influence  f a c i l i t a t e s r e s o l u t i o n of the trauma of sexual Classification  the  v i c t i m s to p o s i t i v e l y  will  counselling  responses, of  which  (1976),  s t r a t e g i e s used by v i c t i m s d u r i n g  Knowing t h a t responses were adaptive  power c o n t e x t  Holmstrom  the the  their coping  exploration  of  problem  solving  coping  methods  on  abuse. as  shown,  p e r s i s t e n t common myths  about  has  served  sexual  to  abuse.  T h i s study demonstrated t h a t c h i l d r e n were remarkably a c t i v e i n attempts to  deal  with,  avoid,  or  p r o t e c t themselves  numerous d i s c l o s u r e attempts r e v e a l e d i n the the  secrecy  sexual  here,  as p r e v i o u s l y thought.  abuse  itself  disbelief  and  lack  of  Children  are  perfect  may  be  support targets  the  by  abuse.  they may  not  Also,  from  be  invested  so  However, a d i s t u r b i n g adjunct compounded  other  for  from  people  trauma  caused  by  i n a p o s i t i o n to  v i c t i m i z a t i o n with  this  the  to the  help. double  j eopardy. The to  deal  position  r e c u r r i n g theme of power and with that  abuse has sexual  been r e p e a t e d l y  abuse  should  be  c o n t r o l i n the shown to viewed  as  victims'  attempts  support  Sgroi's  a power  problem.  (1982) The  82 practical  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t i f s e x u a l abuse i s a  power problem, then  the  t i o n , knowledge, and  r e s o u r c e s t o enable them to p r o t e c t themselves from  b e i n g abused.  As  solution  i s to  empower c h i l d r e n  shown i n t h i s study, v i c t i m s who  realized  i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s a c h i e v e d much more success and to  even s t o p p i n g the abuse. Recommendation  (Committee  on  1984), which  2  Sexual  with  informa-  and  utilized  i n coping  with  These f i n d i n g s g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l i d i t y  proposed Offences  in  Sexual  Against  Offenses  Children  Against  and  Children  Youths,  Vol.  1.,  states:  one o f the p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the program . . . t h a t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the O f f i c e of the Commissioner . . . be concerned w i t h the development and implementation o f a c o n t i n u i n g n a t i o n a l program of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h promotion f o c u s s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on the needs of young c h i l d r e n and youths i n r e l a t i o n to the prevent i o n of sexual o f f e n c e s and a f f o r d i n g b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , youths and a d u l t s who are v i c t i m s . (p. 44) Empowering can  o n l y occur  children  recognizes  children.  Many  victims  by  being  friends  and  affords  the  educational  the  unable  to  3) their  believe  That yet  incestuous  awareness  someone  without  unwittingly  opportunity  presentations.  touching;  adults  some  increased that  their  know;  2)  bodies  permission;  The  of  abuse  their  problems  television  these  happens  among  offered  own  with  say  'no'  no  one  should  i t ' s important  to  power  public  and  1) abuse can  to  and  the  tell  no  recommendation  programs,  know t h a t :  for  of  yet  Committee's  sexual  options  suffering  believed  those  i t ' s important  4)  self-protection  f r e q u e n t l y p r e d i c t a b l e given  films,  are  the  sexual  adults  C h i l d r e n themselves w i l l you  for  i n c r e a s i n g coping  circumvent  through  skills  pervasive occurrence  of  family.  to  and  the  importance  i s intolerable, of  with  the  relatives.  dynamics  knowledge  when s o c i e t y accepts  abuse, and  protection  with  to  school occur  unwanted  touch  someone  them about  83 unwanted  touching  and t o keep t e l l i n g  finally,  5) i t ' s n o t the c h i l d ' s f a u l t  until  someone b e l i e v e s  that  bad t o u c h i n g  you; and  happens, t h e  adult i s responsible. These r e s u l t s s i g n i f y the c r i t i c a l people  a t the time o f d i s c l o s u r e .  education their  spontaneous  reaction  impact upon the c h i l d .  While  nevertheless, the  child  further critical 1982, would  considerable  adults  child,  will  may  be  undergo that  a beneficial  In a d d i t i o n , a d u l t s have disclosure  the p r o t e c t i o n o f the c h i l d  support  other  and a l s o  have  t h e consequences o f t h i s  the primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n being abuse.  their  to the d i s c l o s u r e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to confront  by s i g n i f i c a n t  I t i s important t h a t  and awareness so they can b e l i e v e  r a t h e r than d e t r i m e n t a l a  r o l e played  required  with  from f u r t h e r  t o achieve  this,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o i n t e r c e p t the v i c t i m i z a t i o n p r o c e s s o f  rather  abuse  than  contribute  and c o n f r o n t i n g  change  p . 144). likely  to i t .  have  recovery  experiencing  an impact  of the c h i l d  the consequences o f abuse  i n t h e treatment Therefore,  Protection  process  this  on t h e v i c t i m  from  constitutes  of victims  a  (Sgroi,  a t t h e time o f d i s c l o s u r e i n a profoundly  beneficial  way.  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e Research  Replication hood sexual  study  with  adult  women who e x p e r i e n c e d  abuse would r e v e a l the r e l i a b i l i t y  memory r e c a l l , this  of this  child-  and accuracy o f long  which i s a concern i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  term  Also r e p l i c a t i o n o f  study w i t h v i c t i m s who r e c e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d abuse would r e v e a l any  similarities recall.  or differences created  Finally,  a  criterion  by long  could  be  term  and s h o r t  established  such  term memory as  having  84 experienced view.  In  correlated  abuse b e f o r e or a f t e r this to  way,  the  determine  one  two  groups  the  effects  year  from the  time  c o u l d be  compared  of  on  time  the  o f the  and  the  memory  interresults  recall  of  c o p i n g methods used d u r i n g abuse. Considerable  value  exists  i n repeating t h i s  r e c e n t abuse, r e g a r d l e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g would be  important  study  with  victims of  the e f f e c t o f memory r e c a l l .  to know whether c u r r e n t awareness of sexual  abuse i s  h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to cope with the s t r e s s o f abuse, d i s c l o s u r e , and aftereffects. protective  We  need to know whether s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r people  o f v i c t i m s or  as i n t h i s study.  We  whether they  i s important.  that  information  significant ability, has  positive  whereas not  intuitive  i f they  appeal  I t may  about  effect seeking  t o compound the damage,  are b e i n g h e l p e d by the  be  p o s s i b l e t o t e s t the  dynamics  of  self-esteem  i n f o r m a t i o n has  sexual  and  of  and  a negative  the  self-blame.  of  helplessness  model o f response tions  of  to s t r e s s  cognitive beliefs  generalizability tions  (Abramson,  must  of v i c t i m s .  be  Also  et  as  enhancing  a l . , 1978),  locus  of  s t u d i e d t o more f u l l y the  a  coping  effect.  process  This  relieve  the  and  increase  options.  and  (Wortman & Brehm, 1975). such  has  I t a l s o can reduce the  victimization  resources f o r coping, thereby  hypothesis  subsequent  Other r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to more c l o s e l y examine the model  informa-  abuse  s i n c e l e a r n i n g about the dynamics can  characteristic  environmental  the  on  v i c t i m of g u i l t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , isolation  are more  That no women i n t h i s study used i n f o r m a t i o n seeking  as a r e s o u r c e seeking  other  a l s o need to know i f v i c t i m s are u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  seeking as a c o p i n g method and t i o n they r e c e i v e .  continue  It  the  reformulated integrative  Specific  control,  attribu-  stability,  understand  the  c o n d i t i o n s under which r e a c t a n c e  and  percepresponses  85 occur must be  e s t a b l i s h e d , and  teristics  victims  of  reactance.  who  comparisons e x p l o r e d between the  respond  Both these models can  with  helplessness  dynamics of  knowledge c o u l d be gained compiling  into  the  i n c i d e n t s by  treatment  shed  important  researched.  sexual  of abusive  significant  p e r s p e c t i v e s of  abuse would  with  abuse  itself,  considerable  from e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s , s i m i l a r to t h i s  d e s c r i p t i v e accounts  disclosure  those  serve to c l a r i f y and p r e d i c t  a s p e c t s of r e a c t i o n s to s t r e s s , i f adequately In r e f e r e n c e to the  and  charac-  these  experiences  other  people.  influential  even more l i g h t  groups c u r r e n t l y b e i n g  on  by  i n the  what the v i c t i m  conducted  offenders,  Independent  figures  and  studies  dynamics  copes w i t h .  for offenders  i n g p a r e n t s , t h i s work i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  one,  and  of  With  nonoffend-  feasible.  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study  The long  primary  term memory r e c a l l  these  critical  subjects, suspect. others  The however, critical  the  of  of  this  accuracy  While  and  were  i s that  incidents. still  reliability  verification i n these  study  abusive  experiences  involved  virtually  the  drawback  of  i t i s based Despite  profoundly of  facts  i n c i d e n t s would  long  by be  the  upon fact  arousing  term  the that  for  memory r e c a l l  offenders  and  the is  significant  invaluable, this  data  is  i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n . importance by  the  events.  classification  of  focus  long on  term the  memory  i s diminished  subjective,  descriptive  P e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s are b e i n g procedures  are  designed  in this  to  elicited  study,  accounts  of  as d a t a ,  and  accommodate  individual  86 differences.  The goal  o f t h i s study i s t o evoke t h e s u b j e c t i v e  ence o f p e o p l e , even with t h e i r b i a s e s , f a c t u a l accuracy o f events. this the 1.  rather  recall  methods. be  abuse may be d i f f e r e n t f o r  reasons:  the d i f f e r e n t i a l memory  verifiable  Nevertheless, r e p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f  study with v i c t i m s who j u s t e x p e r i e n c e d following  than t o o b t a i n  experi-  exposure  of  to uncontrollable  critical  incidents  events  depicting  may  influence  specific  coping  F o r example, an i n c i d e n t where d i r e c t a c t i o n was used may  e a s i e r t o remember than twenty i n c i d e n t s r e v e a l i n g i n h i b i t i o n o f  action,  however  inhibition  of  f o r the v i c t i m action  would  of  be  a  recent  readily  isolated  assault,  identified.  Therefore  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f coping methods may appear s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t with long 2.  term and short  term memory r e c a l l .  t h e c u r r e n t media a t t e n t i o n on sexual protection victims  skills  having  producing sible,  i s likely  suffered  greatly  abuse w i t h i n  different results  influence  the l a s t  a  sample  few y e a r s ,  i n a r e p l i c a t i o n study.  or of  thereby  I t i s pos-  f o r example, t h a t the r e a c t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t o the  d i s c l o s u r e may be l e s s due  to  abuse i n c l u d i n g p r e v e n t i o n  to  greater  children. utilized  s t r e s s f u l f o r a sample o f r e c e n t  awareness  I t i s also  and  possible  readiness that  of  adults  information  victims,  to  seeking  protect would be  more as a coping method now, s i n c e more knowledge e x i s t s  about the e n t i r e  subject.  Another l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study r e f e r s t o the u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the  this help  research.  sample. of a  These therapy,  Therefore  subjects support  were  action-oriented  group  and who  the action-oriented  nature  women who  participated of t h e i r  sought  in this  coping  with  87 sexual abuse may their  involvement  types  of  group  members.  r e f l e c t a p e r s o n a l s t y l e towards l i f e i n group therapy may  abuse memories, depending  limited,  General i z a b i l i t y  therefore,  until  have t r i g g e r e d  on of  the  shared  the  results  replication  of  this  v i c t i m s , p r e f e r a b l y those not i n therapy groups, of  these  recall  of  experiences of  this  research  Also  certain  of  other  study with  are other  c l a r i f i e s the i n f l u e n c e  variables.  Finally,  s i n c e no  the  results  was  to probe and  compile  i n general.  of t h i s  statistical  study  are not  hypotheses  were  decisive.  e x p l o r e an important  the data i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The  formed  and  tested,  purpose of t h i s  study  aspect of human e x p e r i e n c e , and scheme.  to  Subsequent r e s e a r c h w i t h  q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology i s r e q u i r e d t o produce c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s .  Summary  The  results  experienced manifested  as a  this  stress  research situation  i n environmental  o t h e r s , and of  of  show t h a t c h i l d h o o d of  sexual  s e r i o u s magnitude.  demands i n v o l v i n g the abuser  The and  abuse i s stress i s  significant  i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s of the s e l f , d u r i n g an e s c a l a t i n g  process  victimization. Specifically this  study suggests  and the s o l u t i o n , are f l i p  t h a t the problem of s e x u a l  s i d e s of the same u n d e r l y i n g dynamic of power  i n h e r e n t i n t h i s p r o c e s s of v i c t i m i z a t i o n . powerlessness children  are  implications  Abuse o c c u r s because o f the  and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n , empowered with of  this  abuse,  knowledge and  p e r s p e c t i v e encourage  and  l i k e w i s e can  self-protective and  stop when  skills.  The  c o n t r i b u t e t o the  need  88 for  p u b l i c education  programs t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n  through  knowledge  and  awareness. The  descriptive  and complexity utilized  accounts  present  the power imbalance of the  they  extremely  great  active  in  abusive  their  with d i s a s t r o u s consequences.  excerpts  Considerable  the  to  T h i s u n y i e l d i n g nature  support  of coping behaviour  rigor  cidents  of  of  the  for  i s suggested  and  behaviour.  show the  Finally, f o c u s on of  the  this coping  research behaviour  c h i l d h o o d sexual abuse and  a t t e n t i o n due  s u r v i v e i n the  themselves,  coping  research  contributes sexual  i n c e s t has  these  face of  relief  and  frameworks  by t h i s r e s e a r c h .  to i t s u n i q u e l y s t r e s s f u l  V  protect  theoretical  modes of is  reactions to  of  Remarkably,  such  awe,  in  in  the  people.  importance  Further  o t h e r aspects o f a p p r a i s a l s and  of  to  evokes both  various  classification  abuse,  influencing  variety  D e s p i t e the power imbalance,  r e v e a l a remarkable human w i l l  adversity.  experiences.  attempts  our compassion f o r the s u f f e r i n g of these  field  the  Wherever p o s s i b l e , v i c t i m s employed methods t o  counteract  often  of  of r e s o u r c e s subsumed i n the t h r e e c o p i n g mode c a t e g o r i e s  i n t h i s sample.  were  numerous examples  Results reveal  across  critical  in-  cognitive appraisals in recommended  highlighting  stress.  substantially abuse v i c t i m s .  to The  the  experience  been shown t o warrant characteristics.  limited  specific  89  APPENDIX A CLIENT CONSENT FORM TITLE OF PROJECT:  Coping S k i l l s o f I n c e s t and Sexual Abuse V i c t i m s  The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o e x p l o r e i n depth t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s and methods used by t h e v i c t i m s o f i n c e s t and s e x u a l abuse t o cope w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f abuse. I agree i n t h i s study t o be i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e s e a s p e c t s o f my abusive e x p e r i e n c e s , by C e c i l i e P h i l l i p s . I am aware t h a t C e c i l i e P h i l l i p s i s a t r a i n e d t h e r a p i s t and group l e a d e r f o r t h e Vancouver I n c e s t and Sexual Abuse S o c i e t y . I understand t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour i n d u r a t i o n , w i l l be audio tape r e c o r d e d , and t h a t my i d e n t i t y and i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be e n t i r e l y confidential. I am aware t h a t , depending on my p r e f e r e n c e , o n l y my f i r s t name o r a pseudo-name can be used t o p r o t e c t my i d e n t i t y and t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d e s t r o y e d from the tapes upon completion o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . I know t h a t any i n q u i r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s can be made at any time b e f o r e or d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w as w e l l as any q u e s t i o n s upon completion o f t h e study. I have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study o r withdraw a t any time i n t h e i n t e r v i e w without jeopardy t o f u r t h e r treatment a t V.I.S.A.C.S. I hereby consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s  I form.  CP:pg  hereby  acknowledge t h a t  I have  study  received  a copy  o f t h e consent  90  APPENDIX B DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE PARTICIPANT NUMBER: General  Information:  1. What i s your  nationality?  2. What i s your e t h n i c o r i g i n ? 3. What i s your age? 4. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 5. What i s your  occupation?  6. A r e you p r e s e n t l y employed o u t s i d e the home? 7. Do you have sex.  any b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s ?  I f so, g i v e t h e i r  8. Were any o f them abused a l s o ? 9. Do you have any c h i l d r e n ?  I f so, how many?  10. What i s your c u r r e n t l e v e l o f education? 11. What are your f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n p l a n s , i f any? 12. what are your i n t e r e s t s or hobbies? Sexual Abuse  Information:  1. What was your age at the onset o f t h e abuse? 2. How l o n g d i d t h e abuse  last?  3. How f r e q u e n t l y d i d the abuse  occur?  4. What was t h e sex of t h e o f f e n d e r ? 5. What was the age o f the o f f e n d e r when t h e abuse began? 6. What r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i f any, d i d you have with t h e o f f e n d e r ?  ages and  91 7. what i s your c u r r e n t l e v e l o f c o n t a c t with t h e o f f e n d e r ? 8. What c o u n s e l l i n g , i f any, d i d you r e c e i v e r e l a t e d t o the abuse? 9. What was t h e most h e l p f u l c o u n s e l l i n g you r e c e i v e d ? 10. What l e g a l  a c t i o n , i f any, was taken  i n connection  with t h e abuse?  11. What was t h e outcome o f any l e g a l a c t i o n taken? 12. Have you experienced any other k i n d o f abuse ( i n a d d i t i o n t o sexual abuse)? I f so, p l e a s e be s p e c i f i c .  92  APPENDIX C Procedures: "Before we b e g i n , I w i l l  e x p l a i n t o you t h e procedures  that I  am r e q u i r e d t o f o l l o w . "I  am  taping  the i n t e r v i e w  so  that  I can  listen  i n t e r v i e w again and w r i t e down t h e main i d e a s from i t . will  listen  t h i s study.  t o the tape  and I w i l l  erase  i t after  completion  of  confidentiality.  are not r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h and your  involvement you  No one e l s e  You may r e f e r t o y o u r s e l f and o t h e r s with pseudo names  i f you wish o r not use any names a t a l l t o ensure "You  t o the  will  decide,  not a f f e c t  a t any time,  l e t me know and I w i l l  f u t u r e treatment  with V.I.S.A.C.S.  t h a t you do not wish  If  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ,  stop t h e i n t e r v i e w .  "Do you have any q u e s t i o n s you would l i k e  t o ask me b e f o r e we  begin?"  Introduction: "The  study  didn't  help  sexual  abuse.  learned well  I am  people  t o cope  I'd l i k e  or discovered  as the s p e c i f i c  coping more."  doing  difficult,  i s to find with  their  out what experiences  t o know i n s p e c i f i c  that  helped  o r what  o f i n c e s t and  detail  t h e ways you  you t o cope with  t h e abuse as  t h i n g s t h a t you d i d o r o t h e r s  o r made  helped  you f e e l  like  d i d t h a t made  you c o u l d n ' t  cope  any  93 Negative Incidents: "We'll  start  with  the t h i n g s  made c o p i n g v e r y d i f f i c u l t . found i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t to  make you f e e l t h i s  incident  i n mind c l e a r l y ,  happened  that  hindered or  Think back t o a s p e c i f i c time when you  t o cope. way?  i n as much d e t a i l  that  What d i d you do o r what happened  Take t h e time t o t h i n k o f a s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e .  When you have an  incident  l e t me know. . . ."  Follow-up Q u e s t i o n s : "At  t h e time o f t h i s  incident,  how d i d you a s s e s s your  sense  of p e r s o n a l s a f e t y or w e l l being? "Also,  a t the time  this  happened,  how  d i d you a s s e s s  your  o p t i o n s i n terms o f coping? "To  what extent  d i d you f e e l  you had c o n t r o l  in this  situa-  tion? "How important was t h i s  incident  t o you a t t h e time?  "Who d i d you f e e l was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s a  incident  a t the time, as  child?" "Who do you f e e l was r e s p o n s i b l e  for this  incident  now, as an  adult? "Was t h e r e cope d i f f e r e n t l y "If  anything  anyone e l s e  in this  situation?  you c o u l d  wish  could  f o r or fantasize  have done t o h e l p you  f o r something  t o have  h e l p e d you a t the time, what would i t have been? "Did tive?  you f e e l t h a t the way you coped was e f f e c t i v e  Why was i t e f f e c t i v e  (ineffective)?  or i n e f f e c -  94 "What  were  the predominant  and a f t e r t h e abuse  feelings  you had b e f o r e ,  during,  incident?  "Were you aware o f your f e e l i n g s a t t h e time? "How d i d you f e e l  about y o u r s e l f i n t h i s  i n c i d e n t a t t h e time,  as a c h i l d ? "How d i d you f e e l  about t h e o f f e n d e r  in this  incident  at the  time, as a c h i l d ? "How  do  you f e e l  about  yourself  now,  looking  back  at  this  i n c i d e n t as an a d u l t ? "How do you f e e l  about the o f f e n d e r now, l o o k i n g back a t t h i s  i n c i d e n t as an a d u l t ? "What does t h i s  i n c i d e n t mean t o you now?  "How r e s o l v e d do you f e e l you are about t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s ? "Do you have a n y t h i n g e l s e you'd l i k e t o add? "Think o f another t i m e . . . ." e t c .  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