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Counselling clients with foreign accents : a comparison of counsellor anxiety with the accented and non-accented… Rungta, Susan A. 1987

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COUNSELLING CLIENTS WITH FOREIGN ACCENTS: A COMPARISON OF COUNSELLOR ANXIETY WITH THE ACCENTED AND NONACCENTED CLIENT By SUSAN A. RUNGTA B.A.  University of Western Ontario, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1987 (c) Susan A. Rungta, 1987  standard  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  partial fulfilment  of  British Columbia,  I agree  and study.  this  his  or  her  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  that the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  requirements  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  is  by the  understood be  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT  This research project was designed to determine whether  anxiety  in counsellors was higher with c l i e n t s with foreign accents, and i f so, whether this resulted in counsellors being less effective within  the  counselling session.  Other feelings experienced by  counsellors s p e c i f i c to counselling accented c l i e n t s  were  also  examined. Two  separate,  comparison made.  but  related  between two  One  group  studies  groups  of  counselled  while the other counselled a  client  a  Western  Subjects in both groups were presented with a of  the  with  place.  tape  a  session.  The  Canadian  region in which the study took 20-minute  c l i e n t presenting a problem.- Each  .subject was asked to respond verbally as they would counselling  was  a c l i e n t with a European accent,  style,  training  of  in which a  counsellors-in-training  speech  video  typical  were conducted  in a  real  video tapes shown to the two groups  were i d e n t i c a l with the exception of the accent variable. The findings in both studies significant  differences  were  were  similar.  found  No  statistically  between the two groups in  l e v e l of state anxiety as measured by the A-State of the "Results  from  a questionnaire constructed s p e c i f i c a l l y for this  research project however,  that  c l i e n t may have minutes  of  STAI.  supported counsellors experienced  these  findings.  It  did  appear,  presented with the foreign accented more  anxiety  in  the  first  few  the session resulting from their i n a b i l i t y to f u l l y  understand the accent.  iii  An unexpected finding emerged when both together.  It  was  studies  were  examined  found that a lower proportion of counsellors  exposed to the foreign accented c l i e n t expressed feelings frustrated/thwarted was were  dimension  the finding that higher correlated  (p<.05).  on  a  More expected however,  l e v e l s of counsellor  state  anxiety  with lower l e v e l s of counsellor functioning in  the session (p<.00l). The  results  cross-cultural relationship, results  of  this  study  counselling, and  question  are the  sociolinguistic several  discussed  in  anxiety-counsellor accent  assumptions  prevalent  be  client.  emerging  for  the  set  to  competence  research.  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e and suggest that a new may  relation  These in  of  the  issues  counsellor working with the minorty  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  • ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER I Introduction Purpose of the Study Background J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Study The Need for Research on Counsellor Anxiety The Need for Linguistic Research in Counselling D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  1 2 3 5 6 6 10  CHAPTER II Review of the Related Literature Anxiety State Versus Trait Anxiety Anxiety and Performance Background Anxiety and Counsellor Competence Methodological Issues in Counsellor Anxiety Research Counsellor Anxiety With Clients Who are Culturally Different Non Empirical Review Empirical Review Anxiety With Accents Chapter Summary CHAPTER III Methodology F i r s t Study Research Questions, Design, and Procedures Selection of Subjects Instrumentation S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis Second Study Research Questions, Design, and Procedures Selection of Subjects Instrumentation S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis CHAPTER IV Results F i r s t Study Results Pertaining to F i r s t Research Question  13 13 15 16 16 19 24 26 26 33 37 45  47 48 ... 48 54 56 61 62 ... 62 63 65 65 66 67 67  V  Results Pertaining to Second Research Question Results Pertaining to Third Research Question Summary of Results from F i r s t Study Second Study Results Pertaining to F i r s t Research Question Results Pertaining to Second Research Question Results Pertaining to Third Research Question Summary of Results from Second Study A n c i l l i a r y Findings Anxiety-Performance Relationship Analysis of Trends Found in Both Studies Differences Found Between the Two Studies Minority and Cross-Culturally Trained Counsellors  72 73 74 76 76 81 83 84 85 85 86 .... 87 88  CHAPTER V Discussion Summary of Central Findings Discussion of Results Discussion of Results in Relation to Cross-Cultural Counselling Discussion of Results in Relation to Anxiety and Counsellor Competence Discussion of Results in Relation to S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Accent Research Limitations of the Study Directions for Future Research Implications for Counselling  90 91 93  Notes  114  References  121  Appendices  137  93 100 101 103 107 109  vi  LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. TABLE 5.  TABLE 6.  TABLE 7.  TABLE 8. TABLE 9.  A-State and A-Trait Means and Standard Deviations (Study 1) Analysis of Covariance for State Anxiety (Study 1 )  67 68  Comfort Score Means and Standard Deviations (Study 1)  68  Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Highest Anxiety (Study 1)  69  Number of Subjects I l l u s t r a t i n g Avoidance, No Avoidance, or Ambivalence With Respect to Future Client Contact (Study 1)  70  Number of Subjects Who Gave Various Reasons to Explain Why They Were Anxious (Study 1 )  71  Competence Score Means and Standard Deviations With Associated F Value (Study 1)  72  Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Lowest Competence (Study 1)  73  Number of Subjects Reporting Other Feelings (Study 1)  74  TABLE 10. A-State and A-Trait Means and Standard Deviations (Study 2)  76  TABLE 11. Analysis of Covariance for State Anxiety (Study 2)  77  TABLE 12.  Comfort Score Means and Standard Deviations With Associated F Value (Study 2)  78  TABLE 13. Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Highest Anxiety (Study 2)  78  TABLE 14. Number of Subjects I l l u s t r a t i n g Avoidance, No Avoidance or Ambivalence With Respect to Future Client Contact (Study 2)  79  TABLE 15. Number of Subjects Who Gave Various Reasons to Explain Why They Were Anxious (Study 2) .  80  vii  TABLE 16. Competence Score Means and Standard Deviations With Associated F Value (Study 2)  82  TABLE 17. Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Lowest Competence (Study 2)  83  TABLE 18. Number of Subjects Reporting Other Feelings (Study 2)  83  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1.  Scatter Plot of the Negative Correlation Between A-State Scores and Counsellor Competence  148  ix  Acknowledgements I Dr.  would  like  to  express  Marvin J. Westwood.  invaluable  in  my  warmest  appreciation  to  His enthusiasm, support, and humor were  helping  me  retain  a  positive  frame  of mind  throughout this research project. I would also J. Douglas Willms  like  to  thank  Dr's. William A. Borgen  for their time and involvement.  and  I would l i k e  to especially thank Dr. Willms for his continual help  regarding  the  to  methodology.  Dianne Pollard  In  for  her  addition, interest  I and  would  like  assistance  thank  with  the  p r a c t i c a l aspects of running the study. I  would also l i k e to acknowledge the help and support from  several friends. and  Rhonda Margolis' willingness to read,  reread,  discuss various portions of my thesis was greatly valued.  I  would l i k e to thank Linda Alexander who I worked closely with in designing sharing  and the  appreciated.  implementing everyday  ups  Additionally,  the and I  study. downs  would  Exchanging ideas and with  like  her  was  greatly  to acknowledge the  encouragment I received from Susan DeBeck, Darryl Grigg and Lori Larsen. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to give a husband,  Kamal,  who  special  thank-you  to  my  not only encouraged me, but made personal  s a c r i f i c e s in order that I was able to complete this thesis.  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Canada, l i k e  the United  d e p e n d e n t upon a s t e a d y f l o w A recent  article  indicated  that  raised to allow Canada  as  century  are  decline  and  level  close to a quarter  immigrants  w h i c h h a s been  of immigrants s i n c e  the immigration  Mail  its  of a m i l l i o n  i n order  1987 h a s been  This  by t h e t u r n o f  many i m m i g r a n t s c o m i n g t o C a n a d a , l a n g u a g e  the  little  they  face.  Often  French.  O t h e r s , whose m o t h e r t o n g u e i s E n g l i s h , s p e a k This  have  which  differences  immigrants  distinguishes  newly  o r no k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h o r  them  as  being  with  an  foreigners  or  t o the Canadian c u l t u r e .  Most i m m i g r a n t s w i l l with adjusting in  their  on  counsellors  for counsellors  e n c o u n t e r enormous s t r e s s e s  t o a new s o c i e t y , a n d l e a v i n g f r i e n d s  country  individuals.  of o r i g i n . to  be  This  open  Associated  with  and  places  special  available  this  to  associated or  family  responsibility assist  responsibility  such  i s t h e need  t o be aware o f t h e i r own r e s p o n s e s t o l i n g u i s t i c ,  d i f f e r e n c e s which could these  i n f l u x of  t o compensate f o r a  arrived  outsiders  enter  1986).  one o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s  accent.  1986)  people to  i n t h e 1986-1987 p e r i o d . to continue  beginning.  (Malarek,  f o r the year  i n the Canadian population  (Malarek,  For  i s a country  i n Toronto's Globe  immigrants i s f o r c a s t e d projected  States,  individuals.  interfere with  the e f f e c t i v e helping  of  2  Purpose of the Study The  purpose  of  counsellors belonging group  this  two-part  study  to the majority  was to discover i f  racial,  ethnolinguistic  would experience more anxiety counselling a c l i e n t with a  foreign accent than counselling a c l i e n t typical  of  the  region  with  a  speech  style  in which the study took place (Western  Canada). Background Cross-cultural counseling differ  counselling  has  been  defined  as  "any  relationship in which two or more of the participants  with  lifestyle."  respect (D.W.  cross-cultural  to  cultural  Sue et a l . ,  counselling  1982,  describes  background, p. 47). an  values,  and  Traditionally,  encounter between an  ethnically or r a c i a l l y d i s s i m i l a r c l i e n t and  counsellor.  recently,  of cross-cultural  several  counseling Sue  et  experts  area  such as Pedersen (1977), Paradis  al.  differences  (1981),  and  D.W.  (1982), have expanded this view of cross-cultural  counselling beyond such  ethnic  or  as, age,  religion.  The suggestion  for  the  both  in the  More  client  racial  sex  i s that  and  the  application  to  include  role, socioeconomic status or differences counsellor  create  problems  in the counselling  relationship. Attention by the counselling profession to various populations  such as the handicapped or ethnic and r a c i a l groups,  began in the 1960's. such  groups  minority  appears  The increase to  in counsellor  concern for  have been a response to various human  rights movements which evolved  in the larger society  (Copeland,  3  1983;  Larson,  1982).  Since  the  1960's,  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a r t i c l e s pointing out various  special  M i l l e r , 1976; outlining  populations  Disman, 1983;  special  there specific  needs  (Alexander,  Workneh,  Klein,  Lofaro, 1982), as well  training  The  crux  appears to  Paradis,  1981).  of  problem  lie  dissimilar  the  in  the  clients  procedures  to  counsellors than those who 1981;  Griffith  D.W.  &  This  is  better  &  enable  Parker,  recognition receive  that  poorer  1977;  culturally  service  Neimeyer, &  (Block,  Gonzales,  1983;  (1977)  counselling  one contact at a rate of 50% in contrast to a rate of S i m i l a r l y , Sattler (1977, p.  after an extensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e on racial  similarity,  White  persons.  therapist-client  concluded: "Black persons do not partake in  They  States,  poor  P a d i l l a , Ruiz, and Alvarez  of  services.  At  clients  (1975), and  Lorion (1974), respectively, drew similar conclusions underutilization  do  discharges."  With respect to Spanish-speaking c l i e n t s and United  as  have higher drop-out rates, receive less  individual therapy, and are given quicker  the  30%  278),  the u t i l i z a t i o n of mental health services as extensively  their  1975,  Westwood,  highlighted by research done by S. Sue  for Anglo-American c l i e n t s .  in  from  P a d i l l a , Ruiz, & Alvarez,  which demonstrated that minority c l i e n t s terminated after  &  articles  belong to the majority group  Jones, 1979;  Sue et a l . , 1982;  1983).  to  as  of  for the counselling profession  growing  tend  been a  the  counsellors to work with such groups (McDavis Pedersen, 1977;  has  regarding  the same time these  authors pointed out that the need for help for members  of  such  groups i s most often greater due to their disadvantaged position  4  in society. Counsellor,  and  client  variables,  have been examined in  order to explain some of the reasons for the underutilization of s o c i a l services by minority around  the  recognition  groups.  that  those  particular special population have differ  from  clients  needs are often knowledge  not  of  counselling  1975).  Sue  special  by or  strategies  are necessary  Jones, 1979; D.W. Alvarez,  met  populations and  persons  variables  center  belonging  to a  needs  the majority culture.  being  such  models  interventions  of  Client  &  (Christensen,  D.  Westwood  Sue,  who  utilize  when  1977;  often  These special  counsellors who  which  have  no  traditional  other  types  1985;  Griffith  Padilla,  (1982), Hector and Fray  of  Ruiz,  & &  (1985), and  Lorion (1974), for example, pointed out that often c l i e n t s  from  d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l , ethnic, or socioeconomic groups have d i f f e r i n g expectations  of what should occur in counselling, and often tend  to prefer a more d i r e c t i v e advice giving approach. Other  needs  or  issues of c l i e n t s belonging  to a minority  group and requiring special attention by counsellors, are of  identity or self concept, self-esteem,  a need for validation  of personal experience, and a need for empowerment Rungta,  1986).  Smith  and  Stewart  those  (1983)  (Margolis  pointed  &  out that  discrimination, which often occurs in the form of exclusion from educational, p o l i t i c a l , and internalization powerlessness. often  struggle  of  a  economic  negative  Furthermore, for personal  rewards,  self-image  members  of  results  in an  and  feelings of  minority  populations  identity because others respond to  them on the basis of their group membership  rather  than  their  5  individual selves. Counsellor for creating Experts 1976;  in  related  difficulties the  D.W.  issues have also been held  area  Sue,  in  the  cross-cultural  1981;  Vontress,  the poor (Lorion, 1974;  & P u r c e l l , 1983; the  reactions  encounter.  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling (Pedersen, 1971),  concerned with other special populations or  responsible  Lofaro,  as  have  1982;  when  as  those  such as the handicapped Stohmer, Biggs, Haase,  Westwood & Vargo, 1985), counsellors  well  have  suggested  that  they encounter minority  c l i e n t s are partly to blame for the inadequate treatment members of such  groups  toward  receive.  minority  are stereotyping Atkinson,  typical  counsellor  reactions  c l i e n t s which have been cited to be of concern (Leong, 1986;  1981), preference  & Hutton, 1977; anxiety  Some  Wampold,  to work with their own  Larson, 1982;  (Christensen,  Satter, 1977;  Lorion, 1974), and  1981;  Kadushin,  1972;  Casas,  &  kind (Wright  discomfort Lofaro,  or 1982;  Westwood & Vargo, 1985). J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Study The Need for Research on Counsellor The  position  paper  competencies  stated  that  psychologist  i s one who  is  exist  between  beliefs."  (D.W.  the  on "a  Sue et  cross-cultural culturally  comfortable  counselor al.,  Anxiety  and 1982,  counselling  skilled  with  counseling  differences  that  c l i e n t in terms of race and p.  49).  Many  writers  including Pedersen (1976) and S a t t l e r (1977) have suggested that anxiety  or discomfort  in counsellors i s more l i k e l y to occur in  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l situations and subsequently create  problems  for  6  both  the  counsellor  and  the c l i e n t in the session.  (1974), for example, pointed out the counsellor client.  anxiety He  interaction  in  the  observed  that  conscious  that  what the c l i e n t had said.  negative  first  cross-cultural  consequences  anxious  counsellors  been  were  so  they were often unable to focus on  As a result, c l i e n t s often saw  these  1974).  (1981) noted that although i t i s assumed in the literature  that  counsellor anxiety with ethnic  and r a c i a l differences might a r i s e , the subject has not  of  interview with a d i s s i m i l a r  counsellors as lacking in s i n c e r i t y (Vontress, Christensen  Vontress  empirically  studied.  Helms  (1984)  cross-cultural  essentially  went  researchers  one on  step  further  by  criticizing  their  failure  to  investigate counsellor reactions such as anxiety or  discomfort. The Need for L i n g u i s t i c Research in Counselling Racial differences between counsellor and c l i e n t the  primary  &  Gonzales,  Sundberg  and  1983;  Sundberg,  Wolfgang  1981;  independently  contradictions within this body of research and variations  language,  or  systematic  research into these areas.  l i f e style.  appears  cross-cultural  Leong,  to  be  specialists  problems within a 1983;  Wolfgang,  commented suggested  on that  in research findings dealing with r a c i a l differences  might be due to uncontrolled factors  There  been  focus of research in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling to  date (Neimeyer 1984).  has  as  client  dialect,  Both authors c a l l e d for complete and  almost that  counselling  1986;  such  unanimous language  session  agreement  differences  (Block,  P a d i l l a , Ruiz, & Alvarez,  1981;  1975;  D.W.  among create Cannon, Sue &  7  D.  Sue, 1977; Paradis,  Wolfgang,  1984).  Despite  variables are considered interfere  with  very  studies  few  Banikiotes,  1981; Sundberg,  1976; Vontress,  the recognition  to be  important  that  factors  1976;  language  which  often  the counselling process, with the exception of (Thomas,  1972),  1979; Schumacher,  Banikiotes,  &  v i r t u a l l y no research has been done in this  area. Conville and Ivey (1975) pointed out that primarily  a  counselling i s  l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon because i t r e l i e s so heavily  on the communication process.  It i s because of t h i s  that  they  have c r i t i c i z e d counselling psychology, not only for the lack of research to  in the area of language differences, but for neglecting  focus  area  of  on  the existing knowledge which i s available in the  sociolinguists.  counsellors  must  move  Conville  beyond  and  solely  Ivey  insisted  viewing  language  vehicle for the c l i e n t to express ideas or feelings aware  of  the more  subtle  social  that as a  and become  implications  of  language  variation. Many l i n g u i s t s such as Rey (1977), Kess (1976), and Gumperz and Cook-Gumperz (1982) have described occuring  as  a  result  of  linguistic  native language.  Interference  second  learners  language  patterns Generally,  of  their  there  first appears  foreign speech styles as interference from their  i s described as the tendency  to transfer language to be  many  to their a  of  of the rules and new  discrepancy  language.  in the accent  l i t e r a t u r e as to what types of interference are to be considered "accent".  Several  Carranza,  &  Moffie  researchers  such  as Giles  (1977), and Bezooijen  (1973),  Ryan,  and Hout (1985), for  8  example,  have  included  interference  and  r e s t r i c t e d to  variation  researchers  only  have  (Mulac,  phonemic  narrowly from  defined  standard  Hanley,  &  melody.  the  of  purpose  "foreign  of  p. 18, 36),  this  accent"  prosodic variations in speech (1983,  as  being  pronunciation.  Other  Scarcella,  accent  which  1983)  included  of prosodic features such as intonation, pitch, or  For  definition  accent  Prigge, 1974;  have retained a much broader concept of interference  (pronunciation)  includes  which  typically  study,  are,  found  the both  operational phonemic  according  in non-native  to  and Hatch  speakers of  English. Counsellor reactions to a foreign accent could be viewed as one of the more important attention  in  language variables  cross-cultural  meriting  counselling.  research  Association  to  language through the retention of an accent i s considered to one  of  the  most  important  1980; Gudykunst & Kim, 1981).  Similarly,  1984,  p.  hearing  1982;  be  t i e s to ethnic identity (Clement, 145;  an  Gumperz,  Lambert,  1982;  Paradis,  accent versus standard English  signals to the listener c u l t u r a l difference Cook-Gumperz,  a  Hodgson,  (Jupp,  Roberts,  &  Gardner, & Fillenbaum,  1960) . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c research over the last 30 that  listeners  react  negatively  years  indicates  to individuals not only with  foreign accents but to within-nation differences in speech which might indicate Edwards,  1982;  Love, 1980;  class  differences  (Brennan  &  Giles, Baker, & F i e l d i n g , 1975;  Brennan,  Kalin, Rayko, &  Lambert, 1980; Mulac, Hanley, & Prigge, 1974;  Sebastian, 1980;  Ryan,  Carranza,  &  Moffie,  1981;  1977;  Ryan &  Tucker  &  9  Lambert,  1969).  In addition to attitude problems, problems in  understanding the speaker with an  accent  are  well  documented  (Chen Yong-pei, 1983;  Sebastian, Ryan, Keogh, & Schmidt, 1980).  Gumperz  Erickson  (1982)  and  (1979) indicated how  differences in speech style such as pausing and produce  even subtle  intonation  can  serious misinterpretations on the part of the l i s t e n e r ,  and often cause problems within the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l encounter. Anxiety as a individual  has  listener received  response almost  to  hearing  with  language  observations a r i s i n g suggested  that  discourse may  communication 1982;  Incidental  attitude  anxiety  ethnolinguistic Cook-Gumperz,  from  studies, analysis,  be  a  1983;  as  Ryan  findings well  as  however,  significant  (Erickson,  Scarella,  accented  no direct research attention,  even within the domain of s o c i o l i n g u i s t s . associated  an  1979;  have  factor  in  Gumperz  &  & Sebastian,  1980;  Sebastian, Ryan, Keogh, & Schmidt, 1980). Of added importance i s the fact play  a  role  Houston, 1979; 1970).  More  in  the formation  Cheponis, 1979; specifically,  Cook-Gumperz, 1982; have  suggested  an  Cooper & Singer, 1956; some  increase  response to hearing an ••accent may formation  of  negative  This would support  anxiety  appears  to  of negative attitudes (Burish &  Sebastian, Ryan,  that  that  attitudes  sociolinguists Keogh,  &  Griffith, (Gumperz  Schmidt,  &  1980)  in anxiety or discomfort in  be partly responsible for  the  toward an accented speaker.  the importance of studying anxiety arousal in  relation to hearing an  accent.  10  Definition of Terms  Accent: A way of  of speaking which i s t y p i c a l of the natives  a p a r t i c u l a r geographical  residents  region or social class.  is detected through variations in phonemic prosodic  or  An  accent  (pronunciation)  and  (see prosody) features of speech.  Dialect; Is  a  cluster  of  l i n g u i s t i c features t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated  with geographically dispersed groups. dialect  may  In  contrast  to  accent,  also include variations in l e x i c a l (vocabulary)  syntactic (grammatical) patterns.  (Berger & Bradac, 1982,  p.  or 65)  Ethnicity: "Membership in a group that i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on some  distinctive  characteristic,  r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c or r a c i a l " .  which  the  may  (Kadushin, 1972,  be  basis  of  cultural,  p.  88).  or  cultural  Minority: "A  group  of  people  characteristics,  are  who,  because  singled  out  of from  physical  others in society for  d i f f e r e n t i a l and unequal treatment" (Wirth, 1945, in Christensen,  p. 34,  cited  1981).  Prosody: According  to  Gumperz  (1982,  intonation, changes in loudness,  p. 100), stress,  prosody  variations  includes in  vowel  11  length, as  phrasing  well  as  speech  (this  accelerations  register.  considered features  includes and  rhythm,  c h u n k i n g by p a u s i n g ,  decelerations),  Similarly,  melody,  utterance  and  shifts  M u l a c , H a n l e y , and P r i g g e  tempo  and  pause  to  be  in  (1974) prosodic  of speech.  Race: An  arbitrary classification  actual  o f human p o p u l a t i o n s  o r assumed p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d g e n e t i c  Kallen,  on t h e b a s i s o f  differences  (Huges &  1974, p . 8 3 ) .  Sociolinguisties: "Sociolinguistics  is  language v a r i e t i e s ,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r  the  the  study  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r  interact,  change  and  change  community....Sociolinguistics r u l e s o r norms t h a t the 1972,  behavior  explain  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  speakers as these one seeks  another to  and c o n s t r a i n  toward language  functions, three  within  discover  and  constantly a  speech  the s o c i e t a l  language behavior  i n speech communities."  and  (Fishman,  Populations:  Groups which a r e c o n s i d e r e d the  minority and  the  p. 3-4).  Special  to  of  counsellor. groups  ethnic  t o be u n u s u a l and  often  unfamiliar  In c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e s e g r o u p s u s u a l l y mean  such as homosexuals, t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , o r  groups  (Larson,  1982).  racial  12  Speech A  Style;  particular  g r o u p of be  to  variations  That  describe  in  informal  of  Clair,  is  often characteristic  Speech s t y l e  is  a general  dialect and  formal  or a c c e n t  of  t e r m which  variation,  a  can  as w e l l  as  speech.  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e o n l y  speech.  legitimated system,  which  Speech:  which " i s  form  speaking  individuals.  used  Standard  way of  the 1982,  It  is  the  by t h e government public p.  164).  media,  of  only  'offically  language  a nation  for  use  recognized'  variety i n the  l i t e r a t u r e and g o v e r n m e n t . "  that  is  school (St.  13  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF  THE  RELATED LITERATURE  Anxiety Anxiety been  i s as  o l d a s man.  conceptualized  The  throughout  human  v a r i e d g r e a t l y d e p e n d i n g upon t h e period. the  P r i m i t i v e man  fulfilling  that  basis  of h i s b a s i c  the  is  well  has  also  of  time. with and from  The  physical  McReynolds,  threat  on  have c h a n g e d ,  a out  that  comfort  associated  with  the or  anxiety  psychological  hardships for  been  as  occuring  it  was  Such c h a n g e s i n  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept,  that  dependent orientation as  the  i n s o c i e t y at  that  example,  well  equated  anxiety  f o r C a t h o l i c s , a c c e p t a n c e of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e  the c o n f e s s i o n a l guilt  shelter,  r e v i e w , M c R e y n o l d s (1975) i n d i c a t e d  C h r i s t i a n viewpoint, and  concerning  12), p o i n t e d  i n d e f i n i t i o n a p p e a r t o have  threats  guilt  particular  i n v o l v i n g t h r e a t s to emotional  of a n x i e t y  describing  particular  has  f i n d i n g food,  L e v i t t ( 1 9 8 0 , p.  philosophical, religious,  those  however, the  documented i n the c l a s s i c a l Greek p e r i o d .  the  has  undergone tremendous f l u c t u a t i o n s i n c e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and upon  anxiety  being.  his historical  conceptualization  first  n e e d s s u c h as  minimized.  psychological  threat  of  p r i m a r y a n x i e t i e s o f human e x i s t e n c e  In the  which  history,  stresses  In modern t i m e s ,  t h e y have become s o c i a l , and  in  dealt with persistent anxiety  warmth, or p r o t e c t i o n . daily  way  were means by w h i c h man  related 1975).  anxieties.  O t h e r s , s u c h as  could  (Mandler Kirkegaard  &  find  relief  Watson, (1944,  1966; p.  138)  14  have  tied  the a n x i e t y concept to that of freedom and t h e o r i z e d  that a n x i e t y occured when man confronted freedom. living  in s e x u a l l y  arising  from  Freud  (1959),  repressed V i c t o r i a n times, viewed a n x i e t y  sexual  energy  which  as  was too t h r e a t e n i n g to the  i n d i v i d u a l to be allowed overt e x p r e s s i o n , whereas, Yalom (1980) formulated h i s notion of "death a n x i e t y "  in our  present  period  of atomic e s c a l a t i o n and encompassed the " f e a r of death" concept w i t h i n an e x i s t e n t i a l At  no  time  a t t e n t i o n as  framework.  in  history  in the l a s t  has  anxiety  four decades  received  (Beck & Emery,  so  much  1985;  May,  1950; Sarson et a l . ,  1960, p. 5; Tenenbaum, F u r s t , & Weingarten,  1985).  (1966, p. 4),  Spielberger  as w e l l as Sarson and others  (1960, p. 5) have p o i n t e d out that the concept of a n x i e t y a c e n t r a l spot in almost In  addition,  Spielberger  a  holds  a l l p e r s o n a l i t y developmental t h e o r i e s .  review  of  trends in a n x i e t y r e s e a r c h done by  (1966, p. 5) demonstrated that the  empirical  study  of a n x i e t y has i n c r e a s e d as much as ten times from the 1930's the  to  1960's. Despite  the  enormous  r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e o r i s t s , defining  anxiety  between fear Persky,  and  Korchin,  a c c o r d i n g to L e v i t t which  has  advancement  been l i m i t e d .  anxiety &  a t t e n t i o n a n x i e t y has been given by  is  Grinker,  in  Even to make  extremely 1955,  Spielberger's  Krause, regarded  questions  some of the c o n f u s i o n and complexity which s t i l l  and  distinctions  difficult  p. 4;  (1980, p. 9), should be  are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e .  conceptualizing  (Basowitz, 1961) as  and, terms  demonstrate  surrounds  the  a n x i e t y concept: "What i s the nature of a n x i e t y ? . . . . W h a t  basis is  there  15  for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between a n x i e t y and fear? Between anxiety and guilt? How many different kinds of a n x i e t y c a n be i d e n t i f i e d , a n d by what criteria may t h e s e be d i s t i n g u i s h e d ? . . . I s i t m e a n i n g f u l t o s p e a k o f conscious and u n c o n s c i o u s a n x i e t y ? Of bound a n d free floating anxiety?" ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966, p . 12).  Fischer (1972,  p.  consensus  (1970,  481)  a l l  on a n s w e r s  definition  of  theoretical  definition  by  a  p.  on  to  went one  findings  have to  of  a l l  the  i n much o f  discrepancy  researchers progress  was  were  the  Schier  (cited  called  considered anxious relation anxious  in  1958 a n d in  "trait" to  be  person), to before  a  Spielberger  p.  as  5)  an  agreed  upon  concluded or  the  often  selection  that  this  and  that  personal  Spielberger  add  reach  of  a  (1966,  may b e ,  in  contradictory  research.  p.  implied  12)  research  Anxiety that  findings  two d i f f e r e n t  identifying factor  Cattell,  a description state set  types two  analytic  that of  unknowingly,  types  two  reason  anxiety. of  of  Trait  of  anxiety  described  Jane  was is  anxiety  (ie.  and  anxiety  anxiety  (ie.  circumstances  Major  Cattell  forms  personality  anxiety of  additional  studies  These  anxiety. of  an  was  these  1966).  "state"  particular  Spielberger  i n a b i l i t y to  confusion  Trait  whereas  her  the  and  Versus  and  well  researcher.  for  1961  as  and  research,  with Levitt  studying  made  through  were  in  the  which influenced  anxiety  (1966,  on  (1980,  previous  particular  State  for  Levitt  factors  agree  (1964),  such questions  reasons  Spielberger  Sarbin  commented  orientation, were  part,  120),  anxiety.  experience  12)  p.  Jane  an in was  test). (1966,  1972,  1983)  further  clarified  1 6  distinctions Levitt  between  (1980),  popularizing to  was  these  Spielberger  "an  instrumental  unpleasant  state  emotional  states exist  when  individual  an  threatening  Spielberger at a given perceives  or dangerous  pertain  to  individuals 1983,  with  p. 1 ) .  have  opposed frequent  regard  Spielberger  who have h i g h who  relatively  trait  and  more  threatening  which  is  apprehension, nervous  i n t i m e and a r e  that  evoked  situation  trait  anxiety  enduring  t o be  (A-Trait)  differences  "anxiety-proneness"  (1972,  intense  as  1983) e m p h a s i z e d  particular  stable,  anxiety  defined  way.  Therefore, are  more  A-State  in  (Spielberger,  1983, p . 1) c o n s i d e r e d  anxiety.  t o low t r a i t  potentially  moment  and  According  of the autonomic  A - T r a i t t o be more v u l n e r a b l e  low  was  tension,  considered  to  research.  condition  (1972,  a  i n some  In c o n t r a s t , S p i e l b e r g e r to  or  w o r r y , and by a c t i v a t i o n o r a r o u s a l (p. 482).  entrenching  (A-State)  by s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s o f  system."  and, a c c o r d i n g t o  firmly  anxiety  state anxiety  emotional  anxiety  in  concepts within  (1972),  characterized and  s t a t e and t r a i t  persons  t o s t r e s s than persons with  likely  to  those  high as  experience  r e a c t i o n s when e x p o s e d t o  situations.  Anxiety  and P e r f o r m a n c e  Background Most o f us a r e feeling  of  familiar  anxiety,  and  how  on  personal  speaking  serves  report  given  a s a good  personal  i t can i n t e r f e r e  w h i c h we w i s h t o b e h a v e , p e r f o r m , This  a  o r be  with  perceived  by an i n d i v i d u a l  example:  basis  who  by  with  the  t h e way i n others.  fears public  17  As I stand talking to the audience,I hope that my mind and voice w i l l function properly, that I won't lose my balance, and everything else w i l l function. But, then my heart starts to pound, I feel pressure build up in my chest as though I'm ready to explode, my tongue feels thick and heavy, my mind feels foggy and then goes blank. I can't remember what I have just said or what I am supposed to say. Then I start to choke. I can barely push the words out. My body is swaying; my hands tremble. I start to sweat and I am ready to topple off the platform. I feel t e r r i f i e d and I think that I w i l l probably disgrace myself. (Beck & Emery, 1985, p. 3). In this example, the trembling hands, the foggy inability how  mind,  the  to r e c a l l what has transpired, are a l l indications of  anxiety interfered with this individual's a b i l i t y to give  a  speech. The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between anxiety and performance has been  researched extensively in a wide- variety Yerkes-Dodson p.98)  Law  originated  in  1908  and outlined two • p r i n c i p l e s  of  situations.  The  (cited in Levit,  1980,  which  are  central  to  the  anxiety  and  performance  is  c u r v i l i n e a r or takes the form of an inverted U.  Conditions  of  anxiety-performance relationship: 1)  no  the  or  relationship  between  low anxiety as well as very high anxiety are detrimental  to performance, whereas, a moderate amount of anxiety stimulates optimal performance. 2) Anxiety i s more of a disruptive force when the task difficult anxiety  or may  complex. facilitate  On  simple  tasks  performance,  a  however,  is  more  certain l e v e l of may  disrupt  performance when the task i s more d i f f i c u l t . One  theory  which  explains  phenomenon begins with the premise  the that  simple-complex when  individuals  task are  18  extremely  anxious,  they most often respond habitually, or with  well learned responses which are familiar and While  safe  for  them.  t h i s proves to be e f f e c t i v e with simple tasks where there  is a straight forward relationship  between  a  response,  complex  situatons  it  counselling) continually  is  detrimental  where  choices  required  in or  variations  (Levitt,  stimulus  of  and  a  (such as  responses  are  1980; Schauer, Seymore, & Geen,  1.985) . Despite recognized problems and inconsistencies within research,  the  general  consensus  appears  to  be that anxiety  s i g n i f i c a n t l y impairs performance in a wide range of and  within  found  to  a  wide  variety  interfere  with  of populations.  learning  and  the  situations  Anxiety has been  academic  achievement  ( C a t t e l l 1966; Chandler, Cosner, & Spies, 1979; Denado & Diener, 1986; G r i n n e l l & Kyte, 1979; Joesting & Whitehead, 1977; Turner, 1985;),  appropriate job interview behavior (Heimberg, Keller, &  Peca-Baker, 1986), healthy sexual successful  functioning  as  a  functioning  Siegman,  &  Blass,  1986),  group memeber (Melnick & Wicher,  1977), speech fluency (Pope, Blass, Pope,  (Barlow,  1970),  Siegman, and  &  Racher,  1970;  communicative functions  (Gibb, 1961; Gynther, 1957; Waser, 1977). Anxiety i s also viewed as playing a role in of  negative  Sebastian,  Gumperz  &  Cook-Gumperz,  Ryan, Keogh, & Schmidt, 1980).  group theorists such as Corey & Corey (1982, Gibb  (1964,  formation  as  formation  attitudes (Burish & Houston, 1979; Cheponis, 1979;  Cooper 6 Singer, 1956; 1969;  the  p.  283-285)  essential  viewed  building  p.  1982;  Locke,  Additionally, 101-104)  and  anxiety reduction and trust blocks  for  healthy  group  1 9  functioning; formation  o f a good w o r k i n g  Common anxiety  the implication  internal  have been  optimal  found  Mandler  thoughts  & Watson,  Watson,  t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s r u p t i o n in  most  example,  be  seen  escape  & Chassin, out  " t h i n k s about  more  The  1975; T u r n e r ,  1985). a  Gibb  person  how  he  may  cited.  events  (Barrell,  1985;  is  or  1985;  Mandler  (1961, p.  who  of  &  141),  anxious  for  when  t o o t h e r s , how he may  avoid  or  impress, or mitigate  a  o r an a n t i c i p a t e d a t t a c k . " presence  of  immediate memory  task  (Cattell,  information  and  task  recall  this or  as impeding  pertaining  the a b i l i t y (Sarason,  where t h e t a s k a t hand  presence  with  summarized  anxiety  e x p e r i e n c e as being a s e l f their  own  d i s t a n c e between t h e m s e l v e s  to  1975; T u r n e r ,  involves  personal  individual.  individual conscious  subjective  accounts process  space  the  to process  processes prevents  another  for  in  cues  f o c u s on i n t e r n a l  example,  i s known t o i n t e r f e r e  of i n f o r m a t i o n  (1985)  exist  thoughts  attend to salient  In s i t u a t i o n s  involvement,  off  1966), a s w e l l  communication,  persons  situations  t h e t a s k a t hand  how he a p p e a r s  and/or  with  1985).  the  f a v o r a b l y , how he may w i n , d o m i n a t e ,  punishment,  perceived  that  of  t o f o c u s on i n t e r n a l  1966; S a r a s o n ,  pointed  communicating  tend  r a t h e r than  1966; Z a t z  with the  processes a s s o c i a t e d with the presence of  performance  task  anxiety interferes  group.  I n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a n x i o u s off  i s that  total  Barrell of in  the which  and e x p e r i e n c e  and o t h e r s .  A n x i e t y and C o u n s e l l o r Competence For  t h e above c i t e d  reasons,  as  well  as  the  recognition  20  that  personal  determining Bergin  &  Carkhuff,  therapist  qualities  are important variables in  therapeutic outcome (Bandura, Soloman,  1970;  Sachs, 1983;  1956;  Bergin,  Schaffer, 1982;  1966; Truax &  1967), counsellor anxiety has been the subject of much  attention in the counselling l i t e r a t u r e . Despite example,  some  Brams,  inconsistencies 1961;  conclusion  among  counsellor  anxiety,  within  Carter, 1976;  those  who  is  have  that  the  research  Wogan, 1970), the general  reviewed  increased  the  levels  subject  process  1966;  McConnell,  1979;  Christensen,  Schauer, Seymore, & Geen, 1985). these  conclusions  that  In  1981; fact,  it  is  1982; is  anxiety  Fry, 1975;  that  (Bergin, 1976;  because  of  numerous researchers have also focused  their attention on finding methods which are most reducing  of  of anxiety in  counsellors i s detrimental to the counselling Cheponis,  (for  effective  in  in counsellors (Carter & Pappas, 1975; Dodge, McConnell, 1976;  Monke, 1971).  The  assumption  anxiety reduction in counsellors w i l l make them better  counsellors and more able to help their c l i e n t s . paragraphs  contain  a  review  counsellor anxiety i s thought  of to  the  The  specific  interfere  following  ways in which  with  the  helping  process and the a b i l i t y to be e f f e c t i v e within a session. Bandura  (1956)  therapists who were  also  and  Riley  (1976)  were rated as most e f f e c t i v e  those who  were less anxious.  (1973) found that the core conditions of respect, psychology treatment  and  both  concreteness  students aimed  at  who  or  discovered most  that  competent  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Fry empathy,  genuineness,  were present to a greater degree in had  decreasing  undergone socially  anxiety  reduction  conditioned fears of  21  intimate personal  interaction.  Some researchers have suggested that counsellor  to  be  empathic  anxiety in the counsellor. correlation  between  may  be  the  ability  affected  While Christensen  empathy  and  the  by the level of (1981)  anxiety,  of  found  no  Bergin and Solomon  (1970), Deardorff, Kendall, Finch, and Sitarz (1977), as well as Meyer  (1973),  correlation  found  there  between  to  empathy  be  and  a  significant  anxiety.  negative  Deardorff and his  colleagues (1977) pointed out the logic in such findings. indicated anxious,  that  because  the  focus  They  i s on the self when highly  i t is not surprising that s e n s i t i v i t y to the  needs  of  others occurs to a lesser degree. Although  little  between anxiety definition,  research  and  has  genuinenesss  explored within  the  counsellor,  genuineness i s viewed as a non^anxious state.  (1982, p. 127-131), for example, described non-defensive, Carkhuff  the relationship  spontaneous, and open.  (1967, p.  genuine  helpers  32) equated genuineness to a "naturalness",  (1980, p.  from  34) pointed out that the most common way  in which individuals defend against arousing  situation.  It  anxiety appears  therapists respond in much the same way to  as  insecurities.  Levitt  anxiety  Egan  Adding to t h i s , Truax and  and suggested that a r t i f i c i a l i t y within counsellors arises personal  by  avoid  themselves. discovered  discussion  of  material  is  advanced  lower anxiety surrounding  avoid  and w i l l also find  which  the  that counsellors or  is  Bandura, Lipsher, and M i l l e r (i960), that  to  threatening for  ways to  example,  c l i n i c a l psychology students who the expression of h o s t i l i t y were  had more  22  likely  to permit a c l i e n t the expression  session. most  In e a r l i e r writings, Bandura (1956) commented that the  frequent  reactions  therapists are threatened at are  of h o s t i l i t y within a  and  interventions  which  interpretations  when  in sessions with c l i e n t s are a l l aimed  avoiding the anxiety-producing questions  observed  divert  interactions. the  Examples given  discussion,  premature  which block further exploration of the subject,  unnecessary reassurance, or disapproval. S i m i l a r i l y , Yulis and Kiesler (1968) and  counselling  psychology  students  found  who  were  avoided topics which focused on either their the  client  or  their competence.  anxious counsellors, in contrast  that  clinical  more  anxious  relationship  with  For example, in their study, to  non-anxious  counsellors,  responded to a c l i e n t with the statement, "you are angry" rather than "you are angry with me." The  implication  from  research  linking  avoidance indicates that counsellors may prevent from  talking  about  their  with  clients  issues which concern them because of their  own anxieties surrounding such topics. further,  anxiety  i f the counsellor  felt  Taking  this  one  step  anxious counselling certain  c l i e n t s , i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that avoidance might  take  the  form of premature termination or r e f e r r a l to another service. Aside from the fact that counsellors, when anxious, are not able  to  recall  as  much of what the c l i e n t feels or says (Ho,  Hosford, & Johnson, 1985; M i l l i k e n & Kirchner, some  suggestion  may also occur. anxiety  1971),  that d i s t o r t i o n or misperception Cohen (1952) and Waite (1968) both  there  is  of the c l i e n t pointed  to  within the therapist as being a causative factor in the  23  counter-transference supported that  this  reaction.  assertion  therapists  who  Yulis  through were  and  Kiesler  research which  less  anxious  (1968)  demonstrated  showed  less  counter-transference toward their c l i e n t s . There i s some indication that counsellors may project blame or  develop negative attitudes toward c l i e n t s in response to the  discomfort or unpleasantness of (1982),  for  the  anxiety  reaction.  example, pointed out that anxious counsellors have  been observed to "lash out" which serves to take the themselves  and  make others look inadequate.  (1979), discovered that more  likely  person.  Dodge  to  anxious  counsellor  focus off  S i m i l a r i l y , Bugen trainees  appeared  project their own negative affect onto a dying  Those counsellors who were highly anxious saw the dying  person as more denying, more angry,  less  accepting,  and  less  hopeful. Anxiety,  like  many emotional states, has been shown to be  transmitted between persons in 1966;  Mattsson,  1960).  anxiety in communication  contact  Gibb as  (Bandura  (1961),  being  a  &  Rosenthal,  for example, described  circular  process,  where  anxiety in the o r i g i n a l communicator causes defensiveness in the listener  which  in  communicator and expressed  concern  counsellor who assuming  so  some  turn on. over  is of  raises With the  this  fact  counselling the  the  anxiety in  that  for  mind,  conflictual  issues  the  counsellor's  and  to  Monke  clients  consideration that one of the primary goals resolve  in the o r i g i n a l  first  faced with a time,  anxiety. in  (1971)  may With  therapy  be the  is  to  thereby reduce anxiety in  c l i e n t s , additional anxiety from another source may cause  added  24  confusion  and  be  detrimental  Bandura (1956) stressed this by permissive  to  the  counselling  saying  that  "the  process.  therapist's  and nonanxious response to the patient's anxious and  c o n f l i c t u a l expressions provides one of the important conditions that lead to the a l l e v i a t i o n of the  patient's  anxieties"  (p.  333). Other,  more  isolated  concerns  involving  effects of counsellor anxiety are that i t may counselling students 1982),  create  Carlson,  (Bowman, Roberts, &  therapeutic  1976)  inappropriate  or  cause  manner  and the  (Schauer,  indicated  that  Despite counsellor  counsellor  to  Seymore,  &  counsellors,  respond Geen,  whole  in  an  1985).  In  and  01k  Peca-Baker,  when  anxious, make less  be more disorganized.  anxiety  persuasive  research  findings  linking  to a variety of negative e f f e c t s within the  process,  serious  limitations  exist  interpretation of many studies due to methodological the  Dodge,  Issues in Counsellor Anxiety Research  rather  counselling  1978;  supervisory impasses (Mooney &  comprehensive plans and therefore, may  Methodological  negative  impede learning in  Giesen,  addition, a study by Friedlander, Keller, (1986),  the  anxiety-performance  area.  These  in  the  problems in  problems  can be  summarized under four headings: (1) Curvilinear Relationship C a t t e l l (1966) pointed neglected  to  measured  that  researchers  have  often  take into account the curvilinear relationship of  the anxiety-performance which  out  relationship.  counsellor  anxiety  in  Many  research  relation  to  studies level of  25  counsellor functioning did not take t h i s into account analysis  of  the data.  in their  The treatment of the relationship as a  linear one f a i l s to separate out the effects of low, moderate, or  high  anxiety  and thus, may give a false perception  of the  t o t a l relationship. (2) State-Trait D i s t i n c t i o n Spielberger confusion trait  (1966)  implied  that  some  of the existing  in anxiety research was due to the fact that state and  anxiety were not properly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Researchers in  the area of counselling Bowman  such  as Bowman  and Roberts  and Giesen (1982), and Cheponis (1979),in  counsellor anxiety studies, suggesting  have  agreed  with  (1978),  reviewing the  Spielberger  in  that comparison of studies i s hampered because often  two d i f f e r e n t types of anxiety were being measured. (3) Measurement In  1961, C a t t e l l  procedures  which  Sarbin,  1964).  motor,  and self  and Scheier  could  be  used  isolated  120  to measure anxiety  This, along with the fact  that  (Hodgson  (cited in  physiological,  report measures of anxiety have been found to  function independently and not necessarily correlate other  different  &  Rachman,  with  each  1974; Jackson & Bloomberg, 1958),  create enormous problems in attempting to compare studies  which  have used d i f f e r i n g measures of anxiety. Bowman  (Bowman,  1980; Bowman  &  Giesen,  1982; Bowman &  Roberts, 1978; 1979a; 1979b; Bowman, Roberts, & Giesen, as well as Mooney and Carlson that  there  were  serious  1978),  (1976), drew attention to the fact  problems  anxiety within counsellors, as well.  in attempting In none of their  to measure studies,  26  was  there  t o t a l a g r e e m e n t or c o n f o r m i t y  m u l t i p l e m e a s u r e s of a n x i e t y (4) C y c l i c  Diener  anxiety  (1986),  performance i s  have  a  &  Geen,  how  made  of  anxious  client  the  described  l e v e l of  mistakes  the  causes  further  the  turn  and  further  Counsellor  raises anxiety  Anxiety  with Non  A  recurring  well  as  counselling  counsellors often  prefer  experience  so  Empirical in  c l i e n t s who anxiety  in  his  the are  in  a  Schauer,  Schauer  realizing  counselling  the he  session  and  anxiety other. or is  she not  disorganized.  or her  ability  to  which  in  session  on.  C l i e n t s Who  theme  feels  interacting with  deterioration  function competently w i t h i n  competence  r e l a t i o n s h i p as c y c l i c ;  the  and  findings  Dodge, 1982;  p r o c e e d i n g w e l l , becomes e v e n more f l u s t e r e d and This  increased  studies.  anxious counsellor, that  poor  a fundamental  counsellor  as  functioning  and  some  inconsistent  1976;  Dodge,  that  that  that counsellor  the  (Carter,  1985).  A c c o r d i n g t o Dodge, t h e has  some  in anxiety-performance  have  counsellor  of  for  t o be  Dendado  assumption  asserting  responsible this  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and  the  by  have a l s o r e c o g n i z e d  with  associates, and  also  explanation  in fact influence  Seymore,  questioned  (1966) c o n s i d e r e d  w h i c h have o c c u r e d  session  Cattell  performance  perhaps  Counsellors  160),  a l l  poor  Cattell  overlooked  may  the  w h i c h were u s e d .  Emery ( 1 9 8 5 , p.  causes  anxiety.  r e s u l t s between  Relationship  Beck and and  of  are  Culturally Different  Review counselling similar  to  literature  i s that  themselves,  when w o r k i n g w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s  who  and are  27  unfamiliar or d i f f e r e n t . has ' been  cited  c l i e n t s who  are  1977;  &  (Lafaro, 1982;  or  1978;  physical  or anxiety  problematic  Hollwill,  Borgen,  confronting  be  racially  Pederson,  Westwood  to  Discomfort  Shapiro,  Wintrob,  differences  1978;  1976),  in  the  with  Several authors, such as Larson  counsellor  (Pederson,  Vontress, but  form  respect  status (Gomes-Schwartz, Hadley, & Strupp,  and  different  1974;  also  when  of d i s a b i l i t y  Strohmer, Biggs, Haase, & Purcell, 1983; Westwood  & Vargo, 1985), or differences  (1986),  counsellors  not only when encountering  ethnically &  in  Cheponis  (1979,  difficulties  in  to  1978;  socioeconomic  Lorion, 1974).  (1982), Margolis and Rungta  p. 10),  working  pointed  with  to  universal  various  minority  populations, of which discomfort with differences appeared to be one.  What  i s i t , then, about differences, or d i s s i m i l a r i t y in  general which might cause counsellors to become anxious? A review of the counselling l i t e r a t u r e  revealed  that  the  answer to such a question has not been addressed in a systematic fashion  by  cross-cultural specialists.  The  following i s an  attempt to consolidate some of the various reasons given for why counsellors might become anxious in  the  face  of  differences,  u t i l i z i n g the larger framework of anxiety theory and uncertainty reduction theory as a background. In  relation  unfamiliar, unknown" May,  1950,  infants  it  to is  anxiety generally  with  those who  assumed  that  are different or confronting  arouses  anxiety in individuals (Levitt, 1980,  p.11).  Even as early as seven months of age,  develop  "the  p.  94;  normal  what is commonly termed "stranger anxiety" and  react with fear, avoidance, panic or even  severe  distress,  if  28  left  in the presence of a stranger (Perry & Bussey, 1984, p.  71-73). to  Social psychologists have discovered that this  adults  as  well,  in that  we  are most often attracted to  persons or things which are more familiar (Brickman 1975; Moreland & Zajonc, Uncertainty  other  reduction  person  &  theory  assumes  that  in the sense  that  one  must  interacting (Berger,  whom  1982,  p. 7). Berger and Bradac (1982, p. 8)  the person  1979; Berger & Bradac, pointed  out  that  predictions enable us to send messages which have less  chance of offending or embarrassing the other person that  "know"  we are able to explain  with  accurate  are  1973).  in order for  behavior and make f a i r l y accurate predictions about we  D'Amato,  1979; Saegert, Swap, & Zajonc,  interpersonal communication to be successful, the  applies  large  and  claim  predictive errors can produce serious "faux pas" in  i n i t i a l interactions. Uncertainty reduction theory goes on to postulate that  the  reduction of uncertainty in relationships i s the primary concern of individuals.  This i s especially true in i n i t i a l interactions  with  (Berger,  strangers  unpredictable behavior situations, knowledge explicitly  asking  stated  reduction  questions  novel or  techniques  are u t i l i z e d .  such  such as gaining Although not  in uncertainty reduction theory, i t would be  l o g i c a l to assume, because of the anxiety  when encountering  (Berger & Bradac, 1982, p. 15). In  uncertainty by  1979) or  intimate  connection  between  and uncertainty ( B a r r e l l , 1985; McReynolds, 1975), that  uncertainty  reduction  essentially  function with the purpose of making strangers known  to us, thereby  techniques  such  as  reducing anxieties regarding  asking  questions  the unfamiliar  or  29  unknown. Gudykunst  and  Kim  (1984,  understand  intercultural  recognize  that  differences  (and  racial,  when other  ethnic,  communication people  forms  emphasize the Gudykunst Nishida, theory because  to  group  in order  necessary  confronted  with  to to  cultural  differences,  such  and  Kim,  made  a  Sunberg  central  different  "strangers"  fact  they  unknown  has  the  of  is  culturally that  (Gudykunst, 1984)  are  "it  i s d i f f e r e n t as s t r a n g e r s . "  in a d d i t i o n to Gudykunst the  s t a t e d that  as  or c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s ) they tend to view people  from the group that  calling  p. 20)  1985;  are  and  Gudykunst & Kim,  r e c e n t l y begun to apply  cross-cultural  He  of  order  to  Gudykunst &  uncertainty  encounter.  point  unfamiliar.  1984;  the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t are strangers  sense, they evoke the highest  in  (1981),  reduction  suggested i n the  degree of u n c e r t a i n t y  that  strongest  (Gudykunst,  1985). In  reviewing  the  counselling  literature,  there  is  i n d i c a t i o n that c o u n s e l l o r s as w e l l , have shown some r e c o g n i t i o n that c o u n s e l l o r a n x i e t y confrontation (1976,  with d i f f e r e n c e s may  with u n c e r t a i n t i e s  p. 28),  for  example,  cross-cultural counselling anxiety  that  is  or  the  be p a r t l y caused by "unknown".  s a i d that one "the  Pedersen  of the b a r r i e r s in  typically  high  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l  level  encounters  where n e i t h e r person i s c e r t a i n what i s expected of him Lorion  (1974),  Haase, and of  common  populations  Kadushin  (1972),  as  or  first  increases discomfort  or  hand  or  her."  well as Strohmer, Biggs,  P u r c e l l (1983) a l s o commented on the background  of  fact  knowledge  anxiety  for  that of  lack  certain  counsellors.  30  More  indirectly,  counselling  specialists  may  be,  in  in  part,  the  area  of minority group  attempting  to  address  anxieties in counsellors in their unanimous c a l l for an in  knowledge  on  the  Ibrahim  & Arredendo, 1986;  Mussenden, 1986;  with  &  Kann,  1984;  Copeland,  1983;  Neimeyer, Fukuyama, Bingham, H a l l , &  cultural  explanation  of  anxiety  arousal  when  differences i s associated with threats to  our values, b e l i e f s , and self concept. fact,  various  P a d i l l a , Ruiz, & Alvarez, 1975).  An equally central faced  increase  part of the counsellor regarding  unfamiliar populatons (Carney  such  May  (1950,  p. 191),  in  defines anxiety as "the apprehension cued off by a threat  to some value  which  existence  a  as  the  personality."  position i s  found  change  transition  and  Revolution, the thought  to  create  the  within  Periods societies  or  "anxious  today's  essential  involved  rapid  such  as  (May,  p. 4). for  of  to  his  cultural the French  Western  societies"  Spielberger, 1966,  insecurities  holds  Support for such a theoretical  historically.  Renaissance,  McReynolds, 1975; noted  individual  world,  1950,  Wrenn  p.  (1962)  are 215; also  counsellors in times of  rapid social t r a n s i t i o n where counsellors are continually facing differing  values  encapsulation  on  i n a b i l i t y to  face  or  beliefs.  the the  part  of  He  suggested  the  .counsellor  insecurities  and  cultural  reflected  anxieties  associated with such a reexamination of self and In  that  an  naturally  values.  the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l interview, counsellors are forced to  continually lifestyle. techniques  deal Even  with our  differences traditional  in  beliefs, counselling  values,  or  model  and  are challenged by the fact that they are dependent on  31  a Western world view, and therefore, often are not applicable or e f f e c t i v e when facing differences (Christensen,  1985; D.W.  1978).  of  Pedersen (1976) noted  values,  counsellors,  as  that  in terms  beliefs  He went on to say that  assumptions  by  be  "threatened  an  these  alternative r e l i g i o n ,  p o l i t i c a l view, or c u l t u r a l value" causing us to "easily f e a r f u l or defensive" Gudykunst that  the  and  on  Kim  (1984), as well as Pedersen, suggested meeting  i s stressful  a personal basis.  shake  A review of the counselling explanations  differences  with  counsellors  may  as  to why  anxiety. worry  One  about  Some of  be  the  surprises  example,  mentioned  (p. 225). literature  revealed  counsellors  might  such  several react  explanation  sensitivity  status on the part of the c l i e n t . for  can  our self-concept and c u l t u r a l identity and bring the  anxiety of temporary rootlessness"  other  and  They wrote: "Encounters with  strangers bring surprises and stresses. may  become  (Pedersen, 1976, p. 23).  intercultural  threatening  and  well as others, make many assumptions  which are accepted without proof. can  Sue,  is  regarding  to that  minority  Fibush and Turnquest  (1970),  that for some c l i e n t s who are r a c i a l l y  d i f f e r e n t , discussion of issues  which  acknowledge  the  racial  difference can be threatening. Despite  the  fact  that  several  writers  in the area of  cross-cultural counselling have insisted that an open discussion of r a c i a l or ethnic differences i s often counselling  session  (Block,  necessary  1981; Christensen,  within  the  1985; S a t t l e r ,  1977), there i s indication that some counsellors avoid (Jackson, 1973)  or consider these topics to be such "touchy  issues"  that  32  they  are  rarely  discussed  Margolis and Rungta  openly  (1986)  (Kadushin, 1972, p. 91).  indicated  that  similar  occur when counsellors encounter disabled persons. example  of  counsellors  processes  They gave an  in training being unable to address a  fellow student's blindness  (even though the situation c a l l e d for  i t ) due to their discomfort  regarding  raising  such  potentially  sensitive issues with the i n d i v i d u a l . In  reviewing  the  literature  populations, Margolis and groups  singled  discriminated suggested  against  that  populations  out  for  (1986)  attention  in society.  some  because  Rungta  counsellors of  on  guilt  counselling noted  were  that those  Several  special all  the  typically  writers  have  experience anxiety with such  over  prejudices  which  they  themselves harbour (Carney & Kann, 1983; G r i f f i t h & Jones, 1979; Kadushin,  1972; S a t t l e r , 1977).  Vontress (1976) in p a r t i c u l a r ,  suggested that such prejudices or attitudes in a counsellor contradictory  to  the  are  image of the "good counsellor", and that  this i s what creates the c o n f l i c t for the counsellor. There prejudiced  i s indication  that  some  counsellors,  while not  themselves, do experience g u i l t and discomfort  their association to a majority group  which  assigns  about  secondary  status to minority groups (Cooper, 1973; G r i f f i t h & Jones, 1979; Sattler,  1977; Vontress,  1971).  Kadushin (1972, p. 89), wrote  that when counselling blacks the "white worker feels anxious and guilty about h i s complicity Cooper  with  the oppressor."  In  (1973), Helms (1984), G r i f f i t h and Jones (1979), as well  as Vontress (1971), a l l commented that counsellors, out of anxiety  fact,  and  guilt  such  may overcompensate for social i n j u s t i c e s by  33  giving these c l i e n t s special p r i v i l e g e s , avoiding which  might  concerns.  be  confrontation  misinterpreted, or overidentifying with r a c i a l  Cooper (1973), as well as G r i f f i t h and Jones  (1979),  suggested that such d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment and relaxed standards of behavior They  can seriously impair treatment of such individuals.  went on to say that c l i e n t s are often excused on the basis  of their culture or d i s a b i l i t y which results in  inattention  to  individual pathology.  Empirical Review Christensen  (1981)  noted  that  although  i t i s generally  assumed in the cross-cultural l i t e r a t u r e that counsellor anxiety with ethnic and r a c i a l differences would arise, the subject  has  essentially  not  the  scarcity of  studies  been  empirically in  the  studied.  area,  Because  closely  related  of  research  studies were also reviewed. Lowinger of  16  and  resident  randomly  p s y c h i a t r i s t s during  assigned  patients.  A  Likert-type  19  consecutively  scale  was Out of  with  39  completed the  anxiety-associated  39  items  which  immediately questions,  utilized  following three  Results  indicated  versus  black  each  descriptors (uncomfortable, tense  that there was  no  to  one  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s reactions white  a  questions  or anxious, relaxed), when factor analyzed were reduced dimension.  and  patient interviews with both black and white  questionnaire  i n i t a l interview. utilizing  Dobie (1966) investigated personal reactions  c l i e n t s on that one dimension.  to  One of the  problems in interpreting the study, however, i s that the race of  34  the p s y c h i a t r i s t s was not indicated. Johnson (1972) conducted a study which measured arousal in counsellors  when presented with videotapes  in which the pairing  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was varied according to sex and race, as well as  three  different  affectionate, were  30  affective  neutral).  white  counsellors.  males  situations  (hostility,  The counsellors u t i l i z e d in the study  who  were  employed  as  rehabilitation  Each counsellor was presented with 12 short video  taped segments, out of a possible 36 combinations of and  affect.  For example,  one  segment might have been black  female with black female with h o s t i l e would  have  affect.  been  Galvanic  white skin  male  with  response  race, sex  affect, black  was  whereas  another  female with neutral  monitored  during  the  watching of the tapes. The  results  of Johnson's study indicated that while there  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t G.S.R. the  various  affects  being  effects  portrayed  associated  with  (hostility  showing an  statistically  significant  increase in arousal), there were  no  differences  to the race or sex pairings.  found  in relation  Johnson (p. 58) suggested were  found  due to the large number of pairings  Limitations  was  which  were  in terms of researching counsellor anxiety  included the fact that a conversation situation  and sex pairings  to be nonsignificant factors, there s t i l l remained  some ambiguity shown.  that although race  than  counselling  portrayed and the fact that G.S.R.  i s a measure  of arousal and i s not s p e c i f i c  rather  to the measurement  of state  anxiety (see Chapter I I I ) . Cheponis  (1979)  measured  the effect of an amputee versus  35  non-amputee c l i e n t on the anxiety of  rehabilitation  trainees  interview.  in  a  live  counselling  counselling sessions of 10  minutes  duration,  apart took place for each counsellor. were  heart  rate  constructed  and  galvanic  counsellor  Two and  separate  seven  Measures of state anxiety  skin  response,  self-report rating scale.  as  well as a  Results indicated that no  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found on any measures.  Overall  period  report data indicated that  time,  counsellors  felt  comfortable with the amputee c l i e n t than with the other This, however, contrasted with G.S.R. at  the  two  minute  mark  in  the  of  the Self more  client.  data which indicated that  interview, counsellors were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anxious with the amputee c l i e n t limitation  of  e f f e c t s , however, were noted. over  days  (p<.05).  the study pointed out by the researcher was  A that  the personality of the two c l i e n t s could not be controlled for. He recommended that longer that  counsellors  be  at  anxiety in the c l i e n t may Christensen cross-cultural  various  be  utilized,  be a factor worth investigating. investigated  training  on  participants  during  black c l i e n t s .  sessions  stages of t r a i n i n g , and that  (1981)  attending, and anxiety dissimiar  counselling  live  the  effects  level  interviews  of  of  empathy,  with  racially  Thirty-one white graduate trainees in  counselling were randomly assigned to treatment and no treatment conditions following which they conducted 40-minute interviews  with  one week period.  both a black and white c l i e n t  counselling  (actor) within a  Both c l i e n t s were trained to play  standardized  roles; the content dealing with issues of discrimination on  the  part  the  of  both  clients.  State  anxiety was measured using  36  A-State scale of the STAI. subjects  were  counselled  a  black  control  client  than  those  who  had  received  (p=.0l).  and Armstrong (1981) researched the experiences  attitudes  of  racially  different  psychotherapists  psychotherapists who of  that  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anxious as a result of having  cross-cultural training Turner  The results indicated  professional  in  clients.  their  The  37  relationships black  and  participated on the average had  experience  with  c l i e n t s being of cross-race.  an  and  average  with  41  white  8.2  years  of 25% of their  Anonymous questionnaires with both  closed and open ended questions regarding their experience these  clients  therapists who found  to  however,  were  out.  In  comparison  counselled white c l i e n t s , white  pay  less  they  researchers  handed  attention  experienced  concluded  to  more  that  the  black  therapists were  r a c i a l issue (p<..00l),  subjective  white  to  with  discomfort.  The  therapists "reported higher  levels of subjective distress around race, during a l l phases treatment:  they f e l t unduly s o l i c i t o u s , less able to help black  c l i e n t s feel better about themselves, and confronting  and  about therapy"  working  in  be  reached  regarding  of increased counsellor anxiety in regard to the  c l i e n t who  is "different".  empirical  data are  comfortable  (p<.0l).  existence  findings  less  through a c l i e n t ' s negative attitudes  Taken together, few conclusions can the  of  dealing  Not only directly  contradictory.  Two  is  there  a  scarcity  of  with the issue, but as well, studies  described  here  supported  i t s existence (Christensen, 1981; Turner & Armstrong,  1981)  three  and  studies  did  not  (Lowinger  &  Dobie,  1966;  37  Johnson,  1972;  Cheponis,  1979).  that the two p o s i t i v e findings suggesting  that  measurement. primary racial  perhaps  utilized  this  self-report  measures,  might be the preferred means of  Worthy of mention, as well, i s the fact  focus  of  research  difference.  counselling  It should be noted, however,  the  in this area concerned i t s e l f with  Counsellor  the handicapped  that  anxiety client,  homosexual c l i e n t , or the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  with  the poor different  respect  to  client,  the  client  has  essentially not been studied.  Anxiety with Accents Conville  and  Ivey  (1975),  as well as Taylor (1980) have  noted the lack of attention which mainstream  social  psychology  and counselling psychology have paid to language variables. review  The  of l i t e r a t u r e on language differences and speech styles,  therefore, has been drawn primarily from the  fields  of  psycho  and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s . Language  difference  or  form of accents, d i a l e c t s , or lower  class,  variations in speech style in the even  speech  particular  are viewed as important markers which immediately  signal c u l t u r a l differences for people (Berger & p.  63;  (1983)  In  fact,  McKirnan,  1982,  individual  Smith,  and  reported that while a non-standard speech style  was a s i g n i f i c a n t factor in determining whether an  Bradac,  Jupp, Roberts, & Cook-Gumperz, 1982; Lambert, Hodgson,  Gardner, & Fillenbaum, 1960). Hamayan  to the  as  culturally  dissimilar,  persons  race was not.  viewed They  reasoned that language was a medium by which cultural allegience could sometimes be displayed.  Becoming b i l i n g u a l involved  some  38  "choice"  ,  whereas v i s i b l e differences did not and, therefore,  served to be a poor predictor of culture for most people. Gumperz and Cook-Gumperz's (1982) primary argument was that identity and ethnicity are e s s e n t i a l l y established and sustained through language. Lambert  Gudykunst and Rim (1984, p. 146), as well  as  (1978), have stressed that language acquisition is more  than merely learning a method verbally.  They  by  which  to  express  ourselves  argued that with the acquisition of a language  come changes in perceptions,  thinking, and behavior as well as a  sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l  or  ethnic  group to which the language belongs. Choices involving language, such as becoming b i l i n g u a l , are often  viewed  Clement  choices  (1980) and Lambert  progress favourable which  as  in  a  second  of  cultural  (1980)  language  pointed i s , in  out  that  part,  In fact, positive  determined by  attitudes the individual holds toward the culture  the  language  is  associated,  i d e n t i f i e d with the p a r t i c u l a r culture belongs.  affiliation.  Similarly,  reluctance  to  pronunciations  as well as the wish to be to  which  the  language  Chen Yong-pei (1983) indicated that often  imitate comes  to  foreign from  sounds  subconscious  and  learn  loyalty  new  to  the  of  the  s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c group that the individual belongs to. Acquiring fluency, and the standard host  country  speech  style  can also be seen as a rejection of the values and  b e l i e f s associated with an immigrant's o r i g i n a l  ethnic  group.  For example, Carranza and Ryan (1975) have stressed that because bilingualism  is  often seen as the means to assimilate and reap  the rewards associated with seemingly belonging to the  majority  39  group,  the b i l i n g u a l individual i s often viewed as a " s e l l  out"  by their o r i g i n a l ethnic group. It i s because of this strong and  culture  all  the  that hearing a foreign accent  anxieties  associated  previously discussed. or  connection  ethnic  with  between  is l i k e l y to trigger  "cultural  dissimilarity,  with  accent  a  review  of  the  sociolinguistic  alone  which  might  unique  exceptions,  they  and  Bradac  indicated  that  (1982, as  generally  communication.  increase  cited  rule,  e l i c i t s a judgment of d i s s i m i l a r i t y (such as a will  speaker.  p. 56)  a  uncertainty  factors  serve to increase  anxiety in persons communicating with an accented Although Berger  difference"  In addition to being a marker of c u l t u r a l  l i t e r a t u r e indicates that there are often other associated  language  a  language which foreign  in  Uncertainty i s also increased  few  accent)  interpersonal  because  a  great  deal of communicative information i s lost when persons encounter individuals pronunciation prosodic  with  differing  (Cutler, 1984;  features,  styles.  Raisler, 1976)  and  Different  differences  in  such as rhythm or stress placement within a  sentence (Chaika, 1982, p.  speech  p.  39; Erickson, 1979;  118-129; Hansell & Ajirotutu, 1982;  Gumperz,  Hatch, 1983,  p.  1982, 35-39),  both contribute to this information loss. Accurate  pronunciation  enables  a  listener  to recognize  words and therefore understand the content of the message given to  (Cutler,  give  information  (Gumperz, 1982, p.  1984).  135-137;  p.  being  Prosodic cues, on the other hand, serve regarding  intent,  100-118; Hatch, 1983,  Wilbur & Wilbur,  1980).  emotion, p.  or  meaning  35-37; Kess,  Gumperz (1982, p.  1976, 173),  40  for example, observed that Indian speakers of English asked  typically  a p a r t i c u l a r question with f a l l i n g intonation rather than  the accustomed  r i s i n g intonation.  This caused English l i s t e n e r s  to interpret the question as a statement, creating confusion and misunderstanding between them.  Along these  same  lines  Chaika  (1982, p, 40) indicated that because variations in speech styles carry  different prosodic features and are a departure from what  is normally expected, they can cause discomfort and uncertainty. Chaika wrote " i f those  cues  differ  from  the  ones  we  have  internalized then we do not quite know how to react" (p. 42). In  addition to Chaika, other prominent figures in the area  of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s have recognized that anxiety may be a factor when  encountering  (1979),  different  accents  or  dialects.  Erickson  in regard to i n t e r - r a c i a l interviews in which different  dialects  are  "uncomfortable  encountered,  described  moments".  Similarly,  a  high  Lambert  incidence  of  (1980), who  has  researched the French-English situation in Quebec, claimed reluctance  that  to move beyond one's own ethnolinguistic boundary i s  a result of f e e l i n g more peaceful and comfortable with one's own kind. Gumperz and Cook-Gumperez (1982) have labelled inter-ethnic communication misunderstood trust further  among in  as a s t r e s s f u l event and have claimed that even tone the  of  voice  or odd word can seriously affect  participants.  one  of  a  Gumperz's  Their case  point  is  studies  illustrated of  a  taped  interview-counselling situation in which both persons were noted to nervously laugh and become increasingly i l l at session  progressed.  ease  as  the  Gumperz attributed this discomfort to be a  41  result of the subtle language  differences  which  were  present  (Gumperz, 1982, p. 177). A  review  of  the research studies which have investigated  individual  or  social  reactions  variations  in  speech  style  to  accents,  dialects,  revealed that almost a l l research  attention has focused on the issue of language a t t i t u d e s . example,  Brennon  &  Brennon,  1981;  Prigge,  1974;  Rey,  1977;  Tucker & Lambert, 1969).  Ryan,  (for  Giles, Baker, & Fielding,  1975; Kalin, Rayko, & Love, 1980; Lambert, 1980; Mulac, &  or  Hanley,  Carranza, & Moffie, 1977;  The study of  anxiety  as  a  listener  response to varying speech styles has not been the primary focus of  any empirical study, however, several researchers have noted  i t s presence as an  ancilliary  finding.  The  following  is a  review of these findings. Giles  (1972)  investigated the relationship between degree  of accent and evaluative judgments of 21 year olds and olds.  Three as  independent  subjects  were  asked  variables.  in  regard  accents on audio-tape was, feel  (p. 263).  if  they  "how  were  to  of  One  of  the  interact  with  such  degree  evident  was  they  speakers"  While levels of discomfort toward each accent was not  of  accent,  findings  concluded  that  comparing 12  from  the  years olds It  was  the tabulated results that the stronger the  accent, the more discomfort a l l subjects experienced, this  imitated  comfortable-uncomfortable  experienced more discomfort than did the 21 year olds. also  questions  to the six different  noted in the results of the study, the effect  year  regional B r i t i s h accents of varyng intensity were  utilized  would  12  statistically  significant  in  and  that  five out of the eight  42  situations. Ryan and  Sebastian  undergraduate in  (1980)  presented  120  Anglo-American  students with four audio-taped recordings, varying  order of presentation. The recordings were 41 word passages  read by four different male Spanish  accented  English).  undergraduate  English  and  two  speakers  with  (two  standard  with  American  The purpose of the study was to determine the role of  s o c i a l class in downgrading accented speakers, however, in their discussion Ryan and Sebastian said the following: "Interestingly enough, on the speech measure, the lower-class standard [ i t a l i c s added] speaker was rated more favorably (his speech to  understand  and  was  easier  made the l i s t e n e r s less uncomfortable)..."  (Ryan & Sebastian, 1980, p. 232). did not indicate how  Unfortunately, the researchers  they discovered that  listeners  were  made  more uncomfortable when they heard the accented speaker. Sebastian, their  Ryan,  previous  uncomfortable  Keogh,  studies when  and Schmidt (1980) wrote that in  subjects  listening  to  had  reported  in  more  more  Spanish-accented speakers as  opposed to standard English, suggesting that such occured  feeling  findings  had  than just the Ryan and Sebastian (1980) study  c i t e d above. The Sebastian, Ryan, Keogh, study  set  out  to  explore  a  and  held  Their  if  was  that  (1980)  two-part  potential cause of the negative  attitudes which are commonly hypothesis  Schmidt  toward  accented  speakers.  the arousal of negative affect  occured in individuals while l i s t e n i n g to a speaker, they subsequently  devalue  or  dislike  the  speaker.  primary measures of negative affect arousal was  would  One of their the  degree  of  43  discomfort  experienced by the l i s t e n e r as indicated on a Likert  scale. In their f i r s t study, college students listened to two tape recordings of a male speaker of standard English, the difference being that one was noise bursts  of  noise.  free,  They  and  the  discovered  discomfort was experienced under the and  that  the  speaker  other  that  punctuated  significantly  noisy  condition  in the noisy situation was  by more  (p<.00l)  subsequently  viewed more negatively on a number of dimensions (p<,05). The second study was similar except for the fact that three tapes  were  addition  prepared  to  utilizing  Spanish-accented  English  the three u t i l i z i n g standard English.  indicated that subjects were  significantly  more  in  The results uncomfortable  and had s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative attitudes toward the speaker as a result of the accent variable (p<.05). The  researchers  concluded  that  the  negative feelings, such as discomfort or arising cause  from that  difficulty the  not  serve  as  an  frustration  (probably  in comprehension) most l i k e l y was  accented  conditions were d i s l i k e d .  arousal of internal  speakers  and  speakers  in  the  noisy  They stressed that stereotyping could  explanation  for  the fact that the  speakers  paired with noise were severely derogated. The importance of the Sebastian, Ryan, Keogh, study  (1980)  indicated as accented  lies a  not  only  significant  in factor  towards  persons  having  Schmidt  the fact that discomfort in  listeners  hearing  speaker, but also in the suggestion that i t may  causal role in the formation of held  and  negative an accent.  attitudes  was an  play a  which  are  It i s s i g n i f i c a n t to  44  mention that Gumperz observed  such  research. and  and  Cook-Gumperz  (1982)  as  well,  a relationship, through their discourse analysis  They wrote: "Many individuals from both the  the  minority  ethnic  recognize  other"  the  reasons,  conversational  (1983)  of  they  do  investigated  p.  8).  whether  the  degree  of  d i f f i c u l t i e s were greater between native and  native speakers versus measure  as  have various ways of blaming each  (Gumperz & Cook-Gumperz, 1982,  Scarcella  majority  groups do not cope well in s t r e s s f u l  situations of inter-ethnic communication and then, not  have  topic  between and  speakers,  a  for his  study consisted of 10 Spanish English speakers  and  English  speakers  a  California,  interruptions.  utilizing  Subjects  from  shifts  native  non  paired  conversational dyads were formed. significantly  more  linguistically  d i s s i m i l a r dyads,  reported  Aside from  "less  he  noted  comfortable"  than in conversations  the same l i n g u i s t i c  such  way  that  discovering  conversational d i f f i c u l t i e s occurred  feeling  conversation  in  10  that in  all  the  that in the  subjects  inter-ethnic  between speakers belonging  group (Scarcella, 1983,  p.  it  noteworthy  to mention discomfort  be  have  as a factor present  when persons encounter individuals with accents, may  to  218).  In summary, the fact that up to four research studies found  15  suggests  a relationshp between anxiety and accent.  there  It should  be  noted that out of the large c o n s t e l l a t i o n of words often used to describe feelings of anxiety, seemed  to  be  the  word  "discomfort"  subjects  or  "uncomfortable"  predominantly  responded to in relation to hearing an accent.  utilized  or  45  Chapter Summary H i s t o r i c a l l y , the study of anxiety has problems  of  definition,  been  conceptualization,  plagued  with  and measurement.  Researchers feel that the recent i s o l a t i o n of two separate  types  of anxiety (state anxiety and t r a i t anxiety) is a major step resolving  some of the d e f i n i t i o n a l and measurement d i f f i c u l t i e s  associated with the anxiety concept. as  in  anxiety  in  response  to  a  State anxiety  is  defined  particular situation or event,  whereas t r a i t anxiety i s a description of personality. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between anxiety and performance is one the most extensively studied areas i n anxiety research. methodological  problems  associated  with  this  of  Despite  research,  the  overall conclusion appears to be that anxiety negatively affects performance.  This conclusion  specifically  on  that higher  is  counsellors.  levels  of  reflected  These  counsellor  in  research  done  research results suggest  anxiety  interview are responsible for decreased  in  a  counselling  counsellor effectiveness  within the session. Cross-cultural s p e c i a l i s t s , as well as those writing in the area of minority populations, seem to feel that state anxiety in counsellors  would  be higher when counselling c l i e n t s  to special populations. "differences"  is  handicapped,  black,  It  central  appears to  that  explaining  homosexual,  or  anxiety why from  belonging  surrounding  c l i e n t s who a  are  different  socioeconomic group are said to evoke more anxiety or discomfort in counsellors than other c l i e n t s . A  foreign accent  for people.  immediately signals " c u l t u r a l difference"  Counselling c l i e n t s who  have accents, therefore, i s  46  likely  to t r i g g e r  client  who  a  w h i c h r e l i e s on  understanding  of  difficult  differences resulting  associated  is culturally different.  process  more  anxieties  in lack  e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  persons  who  have  pronunciation  and  prosodic  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  accurate  Communication  m i g h t be  an  accent  is  made  because of  features.  This  an a d d e d f a c t o r w h i c h  would f u r t h e r r a i s e c o u n s e l l o r s t a t e a n x i e t y have  encountering  In a d d i t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g i s  the c l i e n t ' s problems. with  with  with  clients  who  accents. Although  few  conclusions  have a d d r e s s e d s t a t e a n x i e t y "culturally  different" studies  i n d i c a t e that the  study  shows p r o m i s e .  be drawn f r o m s t u d i e s w h i c h  i n c o u n s e l l o r s as a r e s p o n s e t o  client,  sociolinguistic  accent  can  with  results a  from  non-counsellor  of a n x i e t y as a r e a c t i o n t o  the  several population hearing  an  47  CHAPTER III  METHODOLOGY  The whether  primary purpose of this investigation was to determine counsellors  ethnolinguistic  belonging  to  the  majority  racial,  group would experience more anxiety counselling  a c l i e n t who spoke English with a foreign accent, than a who  spoke  Canadian  English  with  region.  belonging  a speech style t y p i c a l of the Western  In this  to the majority  study,  counsellors  defined  America,  and grew  in regard  to this  region in which the study  typical  of  up in families in which both parents  also spoke English with an accent Also,  as  r a c i a l , ethnolinguistic group were  those who were white, spoke English with an accent North  client  typical  of North  America.  study, a speech s t y l e native to the was  conducted  i s referred  to as  "nonaccented". The review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggested majority counsellors would  be  more anxious counselling an accented c l i e n t , and that  these higher levels of anxiety would affect of  functioning  within the session.  counsellors'  To test these predictions,  two separate, but related studies were conducted a  pilot  study  in design.  This  chapter  for a  begins  methodology pertaining to the f i r s t study. then  described.  in addition  to  [(1), see notes, p. 114], The methodology was  almost i d e n t i c a l in both studies except changes  level  Only  by  few purposeful outlining the  The second study i s  the parts of the design which differed  from the f i r s t study are described for the second study.  48  F i r s t Study Research Questions, This study questions:  set out  Design, and Procedures  to answer  following  research  1.  Do majority counsellors experience counselling sessions with accented nonaccented c l i e n t s ?  2.  Do majority counsellors function less competently in sessions with accented as opposed to nonaccented clients? If so, i s t h i s lower level of functioning related to higher levels of counsellor anxiety within the session?  3.  What other dominant feelings do counsellors experience when counselling an accented client? Do their feelings differ from those experienced when counselling a nonaccented c l i e n t ?  These  client  more anxiety in as opposed to  three research questions were addressed by comparing  a group of  majority  counsellors  (experimental  who  primary  focus  counselled  an  (control  group).  addressed using several approaches.  question  the entire  determined between  whether  statistically analysis  and  included  by counsellors  session was measured. differences  the control  was  These are outlined below:  The degree of state anxiety experienced over  Because  of t h i s study was to investigate counsellor  anxiety with accented c l i e n t s , the f i r s t research  a)  accented  group) to a group of majority counsellors  who counselled a nonaccented c l i e n t the  the  and  in  state  experimental  substantively statistical  The analysis anxiety  group  significant.  were The  control for d i f f e r i n g  levels of t r a i t anxiety between the two groups. b)  The l e v e l of counsellor comfort over the t o t a l session  49  was  also  whether  assessed  (2).  the differences  The  analysis  determined  in level of comfort between  the experimental and control group were  statistically  significant. c)  The  period  or  periods  of  the session  counsellors experienced  the most  assessed.  Comparisons  between  then  and  made  period  in which  anxiety  was  also  the two groups were  differences  between  the  experimental and control groups were assessed in terms of s t a t i s t i c a l d)  The  wish  significance.  to avoid  future  contact  with the c l i e n t  served as an indirect measure of counsellor The  analysis  tested  whether the differences between  the experimental and control group were s t a t i s t i c a l l y e)  anxiety.  on  this  variable  significant.  Counsellors were asked d i r e c t l y what made them anxious during  the interview.  This  was  done  determine the r e l a t i v e contribution  in order to  "accent"  had in  creating anxiety for counsellors. f)  For those  subjects  who  did bring  up the issue of  accent or culture, any information pertaining to was  noted.  This  was  done  in an  this  attempt to gain  information as to what i t was about accent that did or did not make counsellors anxious. To  determine  whether  counsellors  functioned  less  competently in the session with the accented c l i e n t , counsellors  50  were  asked  to  rate  their counselling responses.  Comparisons  between the ratings of the control and experimental groups made  over  the entire interview.  with  respect  (beginning, competent.  to  the  middle,  end)  determine  dominant  in  segment  of  the  interview  which counsellors f e l t least  The analysis tested whether differences between  two groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y To  The groups were also compared  particular or  were  whether  feelings  nonaccented  when  client,  significant. counsellors  experienced  counselling  the  different  accented  versus  subjects were asked to r e c a l l the feelings  they experienced in the  counselling  both  and  the  the  experimental  interview.  Responses  control groups were compared.  The  analysis tested whether differences between the two groups statistically  of  were  significant.  Design The  first  University  of  resembled  a  posttest. groups  study  was  British control  conducted  Columbia. group  in  the  study.  The  The  design  An experimental and  in  March of 1986 design  with  control  most  proxy  group  at the closely  pretest  formed  the  in  two  subjects in the experimental group  were shown a videotape in which the c l i e n t spoke with a accent.  and  foreign  The control group subjects were shown an i d e n t i c a l tape  which  the  same  client  had no accent.  A measure of state  anxiety served as the primary posttest measure in the study. measure  of  equivalent  trait  anxiety  in  subjects  was  considered  A  to be  to a proxy pretest (see t r a i t anxiety, p. 56-57).  Cook and Campbell's (1979) major c r i t i c i s m of such a design is that proxy pretests do not correlate as  well  with  posttest  51  scores as compared to pretests which u t i l i z e the same instrument as  the posttest.  Thus the design may under adjust for i n i t i a l  differences between the two Campbell  (1979,  groups.  According  to Cook and  p. 113), a proxy pretest design i s , therefore,  less adequate  in relating  differences.  Despite this l i m i t a t i o n , these authors do view the  inclusion design.  of  a  proxy  posttest  pretest  scores  to  initial  group  as superior to a posttest only  Also, because subjects were randomly  assigned  to the  two groups, i n i t i a l differences were most l i k e l y small. Video t r a i n i n g tapes.  The  video training tapes were made  using a modification of the matched professional European The  who  had  technique  some  languages was hired to play the role  script  portrayed  (3). A  training in East of  the  client.  (Appendix I) was developed by the actor himself and a  client  who  moderately depressed. the  actor  Caucasian  guise  was  unemployed,  and  as  a  result,  The tapes were 26 minutes long (including  demonstration),  with  14  separate  segments.  After each  segment, a beep and fade-out, fade-in would occur followed by a 30-second to  pause.  This allowed time for counsellors to respond  the c l i e n t statement.  No counsellor was present in the tape.  In an attempt to control for d i f f e r i n g nonverbal cues, such as posture or f a c i a l expression, the tape was made rather  than  as  a  whole.  completed a  nonaccented  segment  the tape  of  That  segment, with  an  in segments  way, each time the actor had he  directly  accent.  did the same  The two segments were  reviewed to ensure that no major descrepancies  occured  them  variable.  on  anything  other  than  the accent  between  s i g n i f i c a n t differences were noted, the segment was redone.  When The  52  end result were two tapes which contained i d e n t i c a l content, and which  were  closely  matched  for  nonverbal  behavior  and  presentation. The  accent  in the accented  Russian speaker of English. however,  tape  was an imitation of a  The accent was  moderately  there was no d i f f i c u l t y in understanding the content.  In order that the accent would sound authentic, been  strong,  given  a  the actor had  tape recording of an East European man who spoke  with an accent to review and t r a i n with. In accordance with the operational d e f i n i t i o n utilized  (Chapter  differences  between  I ) , prosodic both  speech  as  well  styles  of  accent  as pronunciation  were  evident.  For  example, in the f i r s t sentence of the tape, "I don't know i f you can  help me."  Prosodic differences were evident by the greater  stress on the word "know" in the accented nonaccented.  Syntax  tape,  than  in the  (sentence grammer), lexicon (vocabulary),  and morphology (grammatical word  construction) were  identical  throughout both tapes. Procedures  for  Two  weeks  the  five  announced  prior  to the running of the study, instructors  sections  of  a  course  in counselling  to their classes that a departmental research project  would be taking  place  with  the purpose  of  counsellor responses in a t r a i n i n g situation. told  skills  norming  typical  The students were  that the study would take place during class time.  It was  stressed that the results would be kept confidential and not be used for evaluation purposes. During  the week  the study  was  run, the students were  53  approached at the beginning of each class. purpose  of  requested.  the  study  was  At  reiterated  and  Consent forms (Appendix C) were  that  time  the  volunteers  signed  were  along  with  written agreement that the study would not be discussed with any other student for a two-week period. Each  subject was taken individually into a small room with  a video hook-up and screen.  Individual instruction prior to the  commencement of the running of the took five minutes.  tape  was  standardized  and  The instruction began as follows:  "You will be viewing a videotape of a c l i e n t presenting a problem in the i n i t i a l interview (4). There are fourteen segments which are signalled by a beep at the begining and a beep at the end of t h i r t y seconds. During this time, you are to make a counselling response. What I want you to be aware of is that I have attempted to simulate a real c l i e n t presenting a problem. With this in mind, I would l i k e you to respond to the c l i e n t as you would i f this situation were r e a l . " A  two-minute  demonstration  questions answered. that  their  tape  was  Following t h i s , the subjects were  responses  would  be  audiotaped  correspond with the questionnaires they (5).  then shown and any  and  would  reminded  numbered  later  fill  They were instructed that once the videotape and  to out  audiotape  were in play, i t would not be necessary to touch the equipment. Subjects were then l e f t on their own  to view the actual training  tape. After  the  tape  was  finished,  each  series of questionnaires, one at a time.  subject was given a Subjects  were  first  asked to f i l l out the A-State Inventory (Appendix E) followed by the A-Trait Inventory (Appendix F ) . by  Spielberger  (1983,  p. 4)  when  This i s the order suggested giving  the inventories in  54  combination. next,  An attitude  followed  by  scale  (Alexander,  1987)  to  given  a questionnaire (Appendix B) which included  items pertaining to t h i s study and the Alexander Prior  was  (1987)  study.  leaving, subjects f i l l e d out a demographic data sheet  (Appendix  D).  Selection of Subjects Seventy-five percent of the students during  the  who  s k i l l s class volunteered as subjects.  the sample of 30 counsellors-in-training at British  Columbia  who  participated  in  the  "people  contact"  prior  program at the Masters l e v e l . and  19  was 33.  women  to  approached These formed  University  the study.  counsellors had a minimum of three years work involved  were  of  A l l of the  experience  which  entering the counselling  The sample consisted  with ages ranging from 24 to 45.  Only two of the subjects had taken  of  11  men  The median age  the  cross-cultural  training course offered in the counselling department. Of  the  30  subjects  who  participated,  22 were at least  second generation North American and were considered  to  to  Out of the  the  majority  racial,  ethnolinguistic  group.  belong  remaining eight, three students were Chinese (two with accents), one was a white South African with an accent, Australian  accent.  accents.  one  had  an  The remaining three had no detectable signs  of c u l t u r a l difference, however, one or both had  and  This  was  determined  from  of  their  parents  demographic  data  (Appendix D) which indicated that their parents immigrated  after  the age of 18 (6). A l l the subjects were enrolled in a f i r s t  year  compulsory  55  course  in  counselling  skills  at  the time of the study.  subjects were recruited from this course for  several  The  reasons.  One reason was that in this course audio and videotaped material were used to a great extent. some  This ensured that the subjects had  l e v e l of comfort with equipment which would be used during  the study.  In addition, the procedure the subjects  to  in  follow  the  study  (responding  were  to a training tape) was  applicable to the p r a c t i c a l nature of the course which the  practice  of  counselling  responses.  however, students taking t h i s course were the  position  asked  More  involved  importantly,  regularly  of being c l i e n t s to other students.  placed  in  This usually  required a great deal of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e within the  class.  It  was thought that such an atmosphere would be b e n e f i c i a l in terms of  encouraging open, honest answers on a self-report instrument  (7).  Instructors who taught the  course  in  counselling  divided their students into two matched groups. matched  accents.  The  students  in  the  matched according to grades received in the for  differing  groups.  The groups were  according to the number of men and women, the number of  v i s i b l e minority students, and the number of foreign  skills  levels  These two  of  matched  counselling groups  students  who  had  two groups were also course  skill  to  control  between  the two  became  the  treatment  study  was  thought  and  control group for the study. The  sample  obtained  in  this  representative of counsellors who had at least work  three  to be  years  of  experience and some i n i t i a l training in counselling at the  Masters  level.  56  Instrumentation This section outlines the variables measured in the and  describes  the way  doing both these things, inventories  (STAI  study  in which each was measured.  Prior to  an  the two  overall  description  and questionnaire)  which  of  were used in the  measurement of a l l the variables i s given. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), was developed Spielberger,  Gorsuch,  and Lushene  (1970).  Measurements Yearbook (Mitchell, 1985, p.  by  The Ninth Mental  18) reported the STAI  to be the fourth most frequently u t i l i z e d inventory in research, superceeded inventory  only by the MMPI, consists  the WISC,  of two.separate  and  the WAIS.  20-item scales, the A-State  and A-Trait, which measure t r a i t and state anxiety. both  scales  The  Scores  on  range from 20 to 80, with higher scores indicating  higher levels of anxiety. The questionnaire (Appendix and  B) was administered  a pen  paper instrument and consisted of a total of 10 questions.  Some of  the questions  (Alexander,  1987).  pertained  An  outline  to another of  be  found  in Appendix  G.  research  the questions  pertain to this study with the rationale can  as  behind  study  which did  the questions  To test for r e l i a b i l i t y of the  content analysis done on items on the questionnaire, every, f i f t h questionnaire measures  was  rated  in the form  by  a  second  marker.  Reliability  of percentage of agreement between the  raters are reported for each variable. T r a i t Anxiety The A-Trait scale (Appendix F) was used anxiety.  Reliability  coefficients  to measure  trait  for college students range  57  from .73  to  validity  with  Anxiety  .86  (Spielberger,  the  IPAT  1983,  p. 13)  Correlations  concurrent  anxiety scale and the Taylor  Scale (TMAS) ranges from .75 to .85  p. 15).  and  between  Manifest  (Spielberger,  1983,  the A-State and A-Trait measure  range from .59 to .75 and are noted to be t y p i c a l l y higher under conditions that pose threat to the psyche rather than physically threatening  situations (Spielberger, 1983,  p.  15).  T r a i t scales have been recommended for use in  research  distinguish highly anxious subjects from those who to  low  anxiety  (Levitt, 1980,  p.  66).  have moderate  The A-Trait measure i s  viewed as indicative of a predispositon stressful  to  become  anxious  A-State  reactions  as  well  as  higher  levels of state anxiety under stress (Spielberger, 1983, Spielberger  (1983)  A-Trait  unresponsive  i t was State  over  stressful  time or  and  showed  that  nonstressful  it  essentially  a pretest measure of anxiety-proneness even though  administered  following exposure to the "test" s i t u a t i o n .  Anxiety Form X of the  measure  state  consistency samples  A-State  anxiety  scale  (Appendix  E)  over the t o t a l interview  reliabilities  range  (Spielberger, 1970)  (9).  from  .83  to  was  used  (8). .92  in individuals in stress Spielberger,  1983,  versus p.  19).  to  Internal in  normal  The construct v a l i d i t y of the  A-State has been demonstrated by the s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  1970;  was  experimental  Because of t h i s , the t r a i t measure can  as  p. 1).  and Allen (1970) demonstrated the s t a b i l i t y  measure to  conditions. function  in  s i t u t i o n s . Persons with high A-Trait are more l i k e l y  to experience frequent  of the  to  nonstress  conditions  scores (Allen,  58  The  A-State has been recommended as a sensitive measure of  the transitory anxiety experienced  within a counselling  (Spielberger,  has  1983,  p. 2)  and  been  used  by  session numerous  researchers to s p e c i f i c a l l y measure counsellor anxiety within session  (Bowman,  Christensen, Keller,  1980;  1981;  Carter,  Peca-Baker,  Monke, 1971;  Bowman  &  Giesen,  1976;  & Oik,  1986;  Diblin,  1982; 1969;  4).  1979;  Friedlander,  McConnell, 1976;  Meyer,  1973;  statements  were  Riley, 1976).  The A-State instructions and tense of the changed  Bugen,  a  according  to  guidelines set by Spielberger  (1983, p.  As in the Carter (1976) study, statements on the instrument  were changed from  present  respondents  required  were  tense  to  past  tense  because  to complete the questionnaire  the after  the stress s i t u a t i o n . Level of Comfort Item number 10 on the A-State of the STAI (Appendix E) used to measure l e v e l of comfort in the Period of Highest  Anxiety  Answers  question  to  4  counsellors  first,  or  last  interview.  on the questionnaire were used to  determine whether middle,  was  felt  five  more  minutes  anxious  during  of  interview.  the  Percentage of rater agreement on t h i s item was  the  100%.  Avoidance of Future Counselling Sessions With the Client Three question  categories number  "ambivalence". either, refer  a) to  were  9:  "No  Statements  not another  wish  defined  to  based  avoidance",  which  indicated  on  responses  "avoidance", counsellors  to and would  work with the c l i e n t or b) prefer to  counsellor,  were  rated  as  "avoidance".  59  Conditional statements were considered to r e f l e c t  "ambivalence".  Examples were: "I would try to work with the c l i e n t and, i f for some reason, i t didn't seem optimal for the c l i e n t and I knew someone better suited, I would refer." "I would continue to see the assessment had been completed." Percentage of rater agreement on this item was  client  until  an  0.91.  Reasons Given for Presence of Anxiety Each  questionnaire was  reviewed  in  order  to  note  affirmative responses to question 4 (Were you feeling anxious?). In  addition,  words  descriptors, i f mentioned point  in  from  the  following  list  in response to question 4  of  anxiety  or  at  any  the questionnaire, indicated that anxiety was present  in the subject. Afraid Anxious Apprehensive Awkward Fearful Frightened 111 at ease  Jumpy Nervous On edge Panicky Petrified Restless Scared  Shaken Stressed Tense Terrified Uncomfortable Uneasy Worried  The reasons subjects gave as to why they f e l t above  terms  were  documented  for each subject.  any  subject  questionnaires.  Examples  are  the  The following  categorization of responses was made after a general all  of  review  given  for  of each  category: 1) Anxiety related to the c l i e n t ' s accent or culture: "Yes ( f e l t anxious) at f i r s t with h i s accent."  because  I  had  trouble  2) Anxiety related to performance: "I f e l t a b i t anxious because I was viewed by others."  ' o f f and w i l l be  60  "I f e l t anxious throughout because I didn't think i t would be so d i f f i c u l t to come up with appropriate responses in this s i t u a t i o n . " 3) Anxiety  related  to  client  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or  nature  of  problem: "I felt somewhat anxious throughout at the blaming/failure the c l i e n t was experiencing." "Yes...I have to admit not feeling t o t a l l y l i s t e n i n g to an older man cry." "It was almost a c r i s i s situation anxious."  and  comfortable  this  4) Anxiety related to the simulated nature of the  self  made  me  interview:  "The only anxiety I f e l t was around the role playing nature of the exercise, that i t was so unlike a real situation." "I felt s l i g h t l y nervous because I was limited time to respond." Percentage of rater agreement somewhat  lower  score  on  this  appeared  item  due  to  distinguishing performance anxiety from  was rater  the  other  aware of the  0.82.  This  problems  in  sources  of  anxiety. Level of Competence The  self-ratings  were t o t a l l e d  to  give  of a  counselling score  responses in question 2  out  of  30  over  the  whole  interview. Period of Lowest Competence Self-ratings  of  counsellor  used to determine the period or  responses periods  f e l t they had functioned most poorly. the  at  in question 2 were which  counsellors  Periods were divided into  f i r s t , middle, and last five minutes of the interview.  The  period in which the counsellors gave themselves the lowest score (on a scale of 1-10)  was considered  as  the  period  of  lowest  61  competence. Other Dominant Emotions Present in Counsellors Answers counsellors  to felt  question while  in  3  were  the  used  to  counselling  following categorization of emotional  determine session.  how The  responses was made after a  general review of a l l subject questionnaires. 1) Compassion/Concern Caring Concern Compassion Empathy 2)  Sad Sorry Sympathy Understanding  Frustrated/Thwarted Angry Annoyed Cheated Controlled Frustrated  Impatient Restrained Restricted Rushed  3) Challenged/Interested Challenged Curious Eager Engrossed  Enthusiastic Interested Involved Stimulated  Percentage of rater agreement on this item was  100%.  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis A  one-way  analysis  of  covariance  was  performed on the  A-State measure using the A-Trait measure as the covariate. analysis  of  variance  was  An  u t i l i z e d to determine whether there  were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two groups with respect to degree of comfort experienced and l e v e l of competence. A chi-square was between  the  two  used  to  determine  groups  on  the  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : 1) period  whether  following of  differences  variables  greatest  anxiety;  were 2)  62  avoidance  of  future  counselling  sessions with the c l i e n t ;  3)  period of lowest competence; 4) dominant feelings present in the counsellors. An alpha l e v e l of .05 was differences  between  statistically  the  employed  experimental  significant.  to and  determine  whether  control group were  The only exception to this  occurred  in chi-square analyses in which expectancy values were less than 5.  In such instances an alpha level of .01 was employed (10).  Second Study The  differences between the f i r s t and second study include  a) nature  of  the  sample,  b) recruitment  subjects,  c) type of accent, d) degree of accent, and e) length  and pace of the training tape.  process  These differences  to  are  select  outlined  more f u l l y below.  Research Questions, Design, and  Procedures  The research questions and procedures remain the same as in the f i r s t  study.  Design The  only  design  change  occured in relation to the video  training tapes and i s outlined below. Video t r a i n i n g tapes.  In l i g h t of research which indicated  that degree of accent may  be an important factor in  the  of  nature  and  extent  persons (Giles, 1972; additional  tapes  Ryan,  were  more pronounced both in  made terms  determining  individuals' reactions to accented Carranza,  &  Moffie,  1977),  two  in which the accented version was of  pronunciation  and  prosodic  63  features. In  addition,  the  German than Russian. which  the  accent  accent i t s e l f was noted to be closer to  In contrast to the f i r s t accented tape did  in  not interfere with the understanding of  words at any portion of the tape, this was meant to occasionally occur in the second accented tape.  One other notable difference  between the two sets of tapes was quickly  that  the  actor  more  with a l i t t l e less emotion, making the tapes 20 minutes  instead of 26 minutes including the demonstration. the  spoke  actor,  remained  and  the  way  in  The  script,  which the tapes were constructed  the same as in the f i r s t  study.  Selection of Subjects A total of 29 counsellors-in-training at the University British 1986.  Columbia  participated  in  the  The demographic data indicated  students  consisted  taken  the  second study in May of  that  the  of 8 men and 21 women.  to 49, the median age being 34. cross-cultural  Eight of  course  of  of  29  Ages ranged from 25  the  offered  sample  counsellors  in  had  the counselling  department. Twenty-two out of the 29 subjects were considered to belong to  the  majority  counsellors  the  group.  All  of  these  22  were at least second generation North American with  the exception of 2, before  ethnolinguistic  whose  age of 13.  parents  arrived  in  America  Out of the remaining seven counsellors,  one was Iranian with an accent,  another  nonaccented,  a German accent.  and  North  another  had  was  East  four grew up in homes in which one or both parents  Indian  and  The remaining had  accents  64  which were not t y p i c a l of North America. In  contrast  to  the subjects in the f i r s t  study, at least  75% of the students in this sample had completed coursework  for the program.  a l l of  their  They were either in the process of  taking, or had completed their practicum  experience.  Fifteen of  the 29 counsellors reported that they were presently working counsellors and currently seeing Recruitment counselling  student  counselling  subjects  clients. was  consulting  board  requesting  subjects,  which  in  those  classes  a  volunteered,  week period were set up.  notice  were  subjects were then telephoned.  who  by  placing  used to explain the study and request subjects  done  directory,  bulletin  announcement in potential  of  as  the  on  the  and  session.  A standard  by All  format  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For  was  those  individual appointments during a one  Eighty-three  percent  of  the  subjects  with appointments actually showed up and completed the study. The  subjects  in  the  second study were not enrolled in a  course which assessed level of counsellor s k i l l at the the  study.  were, however, matched according who  of  The experimental and control group, therefore, were  unable to be matched in terms of counsellor s k i l l  those  time  level.  to the number of men  They  and women,  belonged to a v i s i b l e r a c i a l minority, those who were  accented, and the number  of  subjects  who  had  cross-cultural  training. The  sample obtained  in t h i s second study was  representative of counsellors who work  experience  and  were  had at least  presently  in  thought to be  three  years  of  t r a n s i t i o n between  completion of a Masters level program and working as counsellors  65  in the community.  Instrumentation The instrumentation remained  the  same  as  in the  first  study.  Statistical The study.  analysis  s t a t i s t i c a l analysis remained the same as in the f i r s t  66  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS  The purpose of  this  two-part  study  was  to  investigate  whether: 1) counsellor anxiety i s higher in counselling sessions with  clients  who  have  foreign  accents than in sessions with  c l i e n t s ; 2) counsellors as a  nonaccented competently  in sessions  with  result  function  less  c l i e n t s ; 3) there are  accented  dominant feelings, other than anxiety which distinguish the way in  which  counsellors  respond  to accented versus  nonaccented  clients. To address these questions, the experience of counsellors  who  compared to  the experience  counselled  a  counselled  nonaccented  a  group of  a c l i e n t with a foreign accent was of  a  client.  group  of  counsellors who  The study limited i t s e l f to  the reactions of those counsellors who were considered to belong to the majority r a c i a l , ethnolinguistic  group.  Data  obtained  from minority counsellors were excluded in the analysis. This  chapter  pertaining to the according III.  i s organized in the following way. first  study  are presented  first,  Results ordered  to the l i s t of research questions outlined in Chapter  The results from the second study  same manner.  are presented  They are followed by a n c i l l i a r y  findings.  in the  67  F i r s t Study Results Pertaining to F i r s t Research Question State Anxiety The  A-State  'scale  of  anxiety in counsellors during A-Trait  scale  of  the STAI  the STAI was used to measure state the counselling was  used  as  and  session.  The  a measure of t r a i t  anxiety.  Table 1 displays the means  standard  deviations  obtained  for the experimental and control group on both these  variables. Table 1 A-State and A-Trait Means and Standard Deviations (Study 1)  Group Variable  Experimental (n=14) Control (n=8)  A-Trait Mean Standard deviat ion  41.14 5.46  41 .88 6.69  A-State Mean Standard deviat ion  40. 14 7.14  40. 13 8.95  Note. A-Trait and A-State scores range from a possible 20-80. Higher scores indicate higher levels of anxiety. An analysis of covariance measure,  using  was  performed  on  the  the A-Trait measure as the covariate.  A-State Table 2  summarizes this analysis. The results displayed in Table 2 indicate that there was no significant  difference  counsellors  who  were  in the  level  of  state  anxiety  of  shown the accented tape versus those who  68  viewed  the  demonstrate  nonaccented  version.  that  was  there  The  table  does,  however,  a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between  individual state and t r a i t scores (f=4.70, p=0.04). Table 2 Analysis of Covariance for State Anxiety (Study 1)  Source  df  Covariate ( t r a i t ) Between groups Within groups Total  1 1 19 21  SS  242.25 1.02 979.31 1222.59  MS  F  242.25 1.02 51.54 58.22  4.70* 0.02  *p<.05 Level of Comfort Table -3  displays the means and standard deviations on the  comfort variable for both the experimental and The  F  value  control  group.  obtained through the analysis of variance i s also  presented in the table.  (The F-test with one degree of  freedom  in the numerator i s equivalent to a t - t e s t ) . Table 3 Comfort Score Means and Standard Deviations (Study 1) Group Comfort Level  Mean Standard deviation  Experimental  2.07 .62  (n=14)  Control (n=8)  2.25 1.17.  Note. Comfort scores range from a possible 1-4. indicate a higher level of discomfort.  F Value  0.23  Higher  scores  69  As  Table  3 indicates, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  found between the groups on  the  comfort  variable,  F(1,20)  =  0.23, p=0.64. Period of Highest Anxiety Table  4  summarizes subject responses to question 4, which  asked at what  time  predominant.  In  interval  feelings  "yes",  anxiety  were  most  Table 4, the figures under the "yes" and "no"  columns indicate the number of either,  of  subjects  who  found  they  were  most anxious in the particular period, or "no",  not most anxious in that period. Table 4 Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Highest Anxiety (  s  t  u  d  y  1 }  Group Period  Experimental (n=14) Yes No  1(1'st 5 min) 2(middle) 3(last 5 min)  10 1 1  4 13 13  Control (n=8) Yes No  3 1 2  7  ChiSquare  5 6  2.42 0.18 1 .38  Note. Numbers do not total because some subjects denied anxiety in any period. One subject indicated two periods were most stressful. As indicated in Table 4,  a  chi-square  analysis  revealed  that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the groups on this variable in any of the three periods. Avoidance Table  of Future Counselling Sessions With the C l i e n t 5  i s a tabulation of results from question 9 which  asked i f counsellors would prefer to continue to see the  client  70  or  refer the c l i e n t to another counsellor.  the c l i e n t was  Preference to refer  seen as a potential means to avoid future contact  with the c l i e n t . Table 5 Number of Subjects I l l u s t r a t i n g Avoidance, No Avoidance, or Ambivalence With Respect to Future Client Contact (Study iT G r Q U  Future Contact  Avoidance Ambivalence No Avoidance  Experimental  (n=14)  0 0 14  p Control (n=8)  ChiSquare  1 2 5  6.09*  _________ A chi-square analysis revealed that differences between the groups on this variable was determined  to be nonsignificant when  an alpha l e v e l of .01 was used.  more  level  was  used  because  The  conservative  four out of the six expectancy  alpha values  were under 5. Reasons Given for Feeling Anxious Table 6 reports the number reasons  listed  the interview.  as  of  counsellors  the  The table indicates that concern regarding their issues  associated  with  c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or the content were the major  sources of anxiety for counsellors in both groups. one-fifth of a l l the counsellors f e l t some the  gave  being cause for them to feel anxious during  performance in the session, as well as particular  who  simulated  nature  of  the  experience.  In addition,  anxiety  surrounding  Only  1 out of 14  subjects in the experimental group reported accent or culture as  71  creating some anxiety for them. Table 6 Number of Subjects Who Gave Various Reasons to Explain Why They Were Anxious  1T  (Study  Group Reasons  Experimental (n=14)  Performance related Simulated experience Client c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or content Accent or culture No anxiety or no given reason  5 4 5  3 1 3  1 4  0 4  Note. Numbers do not add up because several reasons why they were anxious.  some  Control (n=8)  subjects  reported  Anxiety Associated With Accent Out  of  the  14  subjects  in the experimental group, four  (29%) mentioned the issue of accent or culture somewhere in the questionnaire.  The  following  are  quotations  from  these  subjects: 1)  (Characteristics that stood out most of you. Did i t make you feel uncomfortable?) "Possible culture or language problems. No"  2)  "Client had an accent. that."  3)  "I was not sure what ethnic background he was from and felt that I needed more information about h i s culture before I could be e f f e c t i v e .  4)  " F i r s t five minutes (most anxious). I was aware...of the fact the c l i e n t had an accent and I might misunderstand something he said."  No,  I  was  comfortable  Generally, l i t t l e anxiety with respect to accent was among  these  subjects.  Statements  with  noted  1 and 2 were denials of any  connection between anxiety and accent.  Statement  3,  did  note  72  problems  associated  with the c u l t u r a l variable, however, these  were  connection  with  in  statement accent.  4  indicated  This anxiety  counsellor  effectiveness.  Only  there to be anxiety associated with the occured  within  relation to fear of misunderstanding  period  1,  and  was  in  the c l i e n t .  Results Pertaining to Second Research  Question  Level of Competence The measure  self-ratings of  session.  how  of  counsellor  competently  counsellors  functioned  in  the  Table 7 displays the means and standard deviations on  the competence variable for both the group.  responses were used as a  experimental  and  control  The F value obtained through the analysis of variance i s  also presented in the table. Table 7 Competence Score Means and Standard Deviations With Associated Value (Study iT F  Competence Level  Experimental  Mean Standard deviation  20.21 3.64  Group (n=14)  Control  20.88 4.22  Note. Competence scores range from a possible scores indicate a higher level of competence. As found  Table between  (n=8) F Value  0.15  0-30.  Higher  7 indicates, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference the  F(1,20)=0.15, p=0.70.  groups  on  the  competence  variable,  73  Period of Lowest Competence Self-ratings  of  counsellor responses at various intervals  were used to determine the period or periods of the interview in which counsellors f e l t they had performed most poorly. indicates  the number of subjects in each group who  Table  8  f e l t , "yes",  they had performed most poorly in that p a r t i c u l a r portion of the session or, "no",  they had  not.  Table 8 Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Lowest Competence (Study 1 )" G  Period  r  o  Experimental (n=14) Yes No  1 (1st 5 min) 2 (middle) 3 (last 5 min)  7 5 2  7 9 12  u  p  Control (n=8) Yes No 3 1 3  7  ChiSquare  5  0.31 1.38 1.55  5  Note. Numbers do not t o t a l because some subjects f e l t they did not have a p a r t i c u l a r period in which they functioned less competently. Table 8 indicates that when a chi-square analysis was done, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences found between  the  groups  on t h i s variable in any of these periods.  Results Pertaining to Third Research Question Other Dominant Emotions Present  in Counsellors  Answers to question .3, which asked subjects to r e c a l l their feelings  during  the  interview,  i s summarized in Table 9.  Table 9, the numbers under the "Yes" and "No" the  number  of  subjects  who  columns  did (Yes) or did not  In  indicate  (No) mention  74  feeling It  a particular should to  frustrated  d i d so  not  d u r i n g the  be m e n t i o n e d  responses  and  way  this  that  in  q u e s t i o n , some of  in relation  necessarily  interview.  only  to the  in regard Table  reviewing those  the  who  counsellor  reported  simulation  t o the c l i e n t  or  feeling  themselves  (11).  9  Number of S u b j e c t s R e p o r t i n g  Other  F e e l i n g s (Study  1)  Group Feeling  Category  Experimental Yes No  Frustrated/Thwarted Interested/Challenged Compassion/Caring Note. during  any  12 12 6  Some s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d the s e s s i o n .  Table no  2 2 8  9  the  differences  feeling  Research a)  No  between t h e  No  than  1.55 1.55 .78 one  emotion  was  done,  g r o u p s were f o u n d  on  dimensions.  significant  the  anxiety  b)  5 5 5  more  two  ChiSquare  from  First  Study  Question  control of  3 3 3  feeling  Summary of R e s u l t s First  C o n t r o l (n=8) Yes No  r e v e a l s t h a t when a c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s  significant of  (n=14)  and  differences  experimental  A-State over  which  were  g r o u p on  found  between  the primary  assessed  the  level  the  measure of  state  groups  were  t h e whole s e s s i o n .  significant  differences  between  the  75  found  in  relation  to  the  level  of c o m f o r t  over  the  total session.  c)  No  d)  significant  found  in  evoked  t h e most a n x i e t y .  No  in  client.  Only  1 out  Four  of  of  mentioned  the  these  with  connect  feeling  reported  this  associated  denied  No  the  significant  the  experimental  for being  group  anxious.  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l or  accent.  experiencing  anxious  The  one  with  i n the  anxiety with  differences  of  the o v e r a l l  session.  might  any  first fear  group  Two  who  the  did  accent,  f i v e minutes, of  of  discomfort  subject  hearing  and  misunderstanding  say.  control  were f o u n d  g r o u p and  A comparison  competently  also  between t h e  experimental of the  the p e r i o d or p e r i o d s i n which they  the l e a s t  found  Question  competence  to  with  the a c c e n t .  some of what t h e c l i e n t  Second R e s e a r c h  to avoid future contact  culture  to occur  were  the  subjects  i s s u e of  groups  between  as a r e a s o n  directly  associated  were  14 s u b j e c t s i n  14  the  w h i c h p e r i o d of t h e i n t e r v i e w  tendency  accent  out  to  between  differences  the  the  reported f)  relation  significant  groups  e)  differences  r e v e a l e d no  two  felt  level  of  group s u b j e c t s i n groups  t h e y had  significant  in  relation  functioned  differences.  76  Third Research No with  Question  significant  respect  to  differences  other  were found between the groups  dominant  feelings  experienced  by  counsellors in the session.  Second Study Results Pertaining to F i r s t Research  Question  State Anxiety The  means  and  standard  deviations  experimental and control group on the displayed in Table  A-State  obtained and  for  A-Trait  the is  10. Table 10  A-State and A-Trait Means and Standard Deviations (Study 2) Group Variable  Experimental  (n=13)  Control  A-Trait Mean Standard deviation  36. 1 5 6.97  36.67 2.35  A-State Mean Standard deviat ion  40.08 12.95  42.00 5.52  (n=9)  Note. A-Trait and A-State scores range from a possible 20-80. Higher scores indicate higher levels of anxiety. An analysis of covariance measure,  using  was  performed  on  the  the A-Trait measure as the covariate.  is a summary of this analysis.  A-State Table 11  77  Table 11 Analysis of Covariance for State Anxiety (Study 2) Source  DF  SS  MS  F  Covariate Between groups Within groups Total  1 1 19 21  317.75 12.95 1943.90 2274.59  317.75 12.95 102.31 108.31  3.11 0.13  Results from the analysis Table  of covariance,  illustrated  in  11, indicate that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in  the level of state anxiety of counsellors accented  tape  version.  versus  When  who  the counsellors  cross-cultural there s t i l l  those  training  course  were who  were  who shown  were  shown the  the nonaccented  had participated taken  out of the study,  remained no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in state  between the groups.  in a  anxiety  F(1,14)=0.045; p=0.84.  Level of Comfort Table  12 displays the means and standard deviations on the  comfort variable for both the experimental and control The  F  value  group.  obtained through the analysis of variance i s also  presented in the table. As Table 12 indicates, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t found  difference  between the groups on the comfort variable, F(1,20)=0.14,  p=0.72.  When  those  subjects  who  had participated  in the  cross-cultural course were eliminated from the study there s t i l l remained  no  significant  difference  between  the groups with  respect to l e v e l of comfort, F(1 ,14)=0.24, p=0.64.  78  Table 12 Comfort Score Means and Standard Deviations With Associated F Value (Study 2) Group Comfort Level  Experimental  Mean Standard deviation  (n=13)  Control (n=9)  2.08 1 .04  2.22 .67  Note. Comfort scores range from a possible 1-4. indicate a higher level of discomfort.  F Value 0.14  Higher  scores  Period of Highest Anxiety Table  13  asked at what  summarizes subject responses to question 4 which time  interval  feelings  of  anxiety  were  most  predominant. Table 13 Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Highest Anxiety (Study 2) Group Period  Experimental Yes No  1 (1st 5 min) 2 (middle) 3 (last 5 min)  10 0 2  (n=l3)  Control (n=9) Yes No  3 13 11  6 0 1  3 9 8  ChiSquare 0.28 0.00 0.08  Note. Numbers do not t o t a l because some subjects denied anxiety in any period. In reviewing the table, i t i s evident that more subjects in both  the experimental and control group found period 1 to evoke  the most anxiety for them. the  two  groups  were  No s i g n i f i c a n t  found  on  any  differences  between  period when a chi-square  79  analysis  was  Avoidance  of  Table asked or  done.  if  Future Counselling  14 i s  a tabulation  counsellors  r e f e r the c l i e n t  S e s s i o n s With  of  results  the  from q u e s t i o n  would p r e f e r t o c o n t i n u e  to another  Client  to  9  which  see t h e  client  counsellor.  Table  14  Number o f S u b j e c t s I l l u s t r a t i n g A v o i d a n c e , No A v o i d a n c e or A m b i v a l e n c e W i t h R e s p e c t t o F u t u r e C l i e n t C o n t a c t ( S t u d y 2) Group Future Contact  Experimental  Avoidance Ambivalence No a v o i d a n c e  Table showed no client. on t h i s  0 0 13  indication  of  There c l e a r l y  (n=9)  that  all  wanting  0 0 0  the c o u n s e l l o r s  to avoid  Chi-Square  in both  future contact  groups  with  was no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two  the  groups  item.  Table reasons  for  Feeling  15 r e p o r t s  listed  as  Anxious  t h e number of being cause  for  counsellors  who  them t o  anxious  feel  gave  the  during  interview. A r e v i e w of  the  Control  0 0 9  14 i n d i c a t e s  Reasons Given  the  (n=13)  subjects  Table  group.  was It  the l e a d i n g is  that  at  who v i e w e d t h e a c c e n t e d t a p e  or c u l t u r e was a r e a s o n this  15 i n d i c a t e s  for  some of  reason  for  a l s o worth n o t i n g  their  subjects  that  least  one-third  i n d i c a t e d that anxiety.  approximately  accent  In  t o be a n x i o u s  of  fact, in  one-third  this of  80  all  subjects  experienced  s i m u l a t e d n a t u r e of t h e  some  associated  with  the  experience. Table  Number o f S u b j e c t s Who  anxiety  15  Gave V a r i o u s R e a s o n s t o E x p l a i n Why  Were A n x i o u s  (Study  They  2T Group  Reasons  Experimental  Performance r e l a t e d Simulated experience Client characteristics or c o n t e n t Accent or c u l t u r e No a n x i e t y o r no g i v e n reason  4 4 4  3 4 2  5 1  3  Note. Numbers do n o t add up s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why t h e y were  Anxiety Associated with Out mentioned  of t h e the  questionnaire.  because anxious.  (n=13)  some  Control  subjects  The  reported  Accent  13 s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , issue  (n=9)  of  accent  following  or are  culture  10  (77%),  somewhere i n t h e  quotations  from  these  subjects: 1)  ( O t h e r comments?) " I t was s o m e t i m e s h a r d t o him b e c a u s e of h i s a c c e n t . "  understand  2)  "Yes, I felt a n x i o u s a t f i r s t b e c a u s e I had t r o u b l e with h i s accent." ( c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that stood out most f o r you?) " H i s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and f a m i l y t i e s , h i s a c c e n t and h i s p r i d e . "  3)  "I f e l t s l i g h t l y f r u s t r a t e d i n that I found i t hard t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m . . . . F i r s t few m i n u t e s I f e l t a n x i o u s or more frustrated because I found i t difficult to understand him....I was q u i t e s u r p r i s e d about his a c c e n t and t h a t I w a s n ' t t o l d . "  4)  (Client c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s t o o d o u t most f o r y o u ? ) "Cultural."  81  5)  "I had trouble understanding uncomfortable at f i r s t . "  him.  It  made  me  6)  " D i f f i c u l t y at f i r s t understanding his accent. I was uncomfortable in that I missed some of what he was saying.  7)  (Did you identify with c l i e n t in any way?) "Not on any real deep l e v e l . I believe that his accent acted as a barrier for most of the interview, since I f e l t I had to l i s t e n very very hard."  8)  (Client c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that stood out most for you?) "His s l i d i n g eyes. He seemed uncomfortable, but that's pretty natural - made me want to ask more (or find out later) what his c u l t u r a l background was."  9)  (At what time interval was anxiety most predominant for you?) "Immediately - I thought he was speaking a foreign language and i t was a t r i c k tape in i n t e r - c u l t u r a l counselling... ignorance of cultural implications to presenting problem."  10)  (Client c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that stood out most for you?) "Possibly cross-cultural issues which didn't seem appropriate to broach through the interview I watched."  Out of the five persons who stated that the c l i e n t ' s accent was a cause for some anxiety, a l l attributed being most predominant "immediately" #5,  #6).  In  addition,  four  this  anxiety  (#9) or "at f i r s t "  of these five statements  anxiety associated with hearing the accent to the fact was d i f f i c u l t  to understand the c l i e n t .  acknowledged  the  accent  as  being  Statements  problematic  understanding, however, did not link this to should  (#2,  any  as #3,  linked  that  it  1 and 7 also in  terms  anxiety.  of It  be noted, however, that the subject who made statement 7  had the highest anxiety score of anyone on the A-State. Results Pertaining to Second Research Question Level of Competence The s e l f - r a t i n g s of counsellor responses  were  used  as  a  82  measure  of  session.  Table  the  how  competence  group. also  competently  16 d i s p l a y s variable  The F v a l u e  presented  in  the  for  means a n d  both  obtained  the  counsellors  the  through  standard  analysis  the  deviations  experimental the  in  and of  on  control  variance  is  table.  Table Competence  functioned  16  S c o r e Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s W i t h V a l u e ( S t d u y 2)  Associated F  Group Competence Mean Standard Note. scores  Level  16  (n= 8 )  the p=0.40.  cross-cultural remained  competence  Period  of  two  no  were  interview  in  poorly.  Table  were  significant  0.73  F(1,  no  on  0-30.  significant  the  difference  competence  subjects  who  eliminated  from  difference  between  variable,  had the  Higher  taken study,  the  the there  groups  on  1 4)=0.93,p=0.35.  Competence  Self-ratings intervals  groups  variable,  Lowest  t h e r e was  When t h o s e  course  F Value  16.67 4.09  indicates,  between  F(1,20)=0.73,  who  Control  Competence scores range from a p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t e a higher l e v e l of competence.  found  still  (n=14)  18.31 4.64  deviation  As T a b l e  the  Experimental  of  used  to  which  counsellor determine counsellors  17 i n d i c a t e s  felt,  "Yes",  particular  portion  the  they of  the  the  had  responses  at  p e r i o d or  periods  felt  number  they of  performed  session  or,  the  various of  the  had performed  most  subjects most  "No", they  i n each  poorly had  in  not.  group that  83  Table 17 Number of Subjects Indicating Period of Lowest Competence (Study 2) Group Period  Experimental Yes No  1 (1st 5 min) 2 (middle) 3 (last 5 min)  9 3 4  (n=l3)  Control (n=9) ChiYes No Square  4 10 9  7 1 2  8  2  0.19 0.52 0.19  7  Note. Numbers do not t o t a l because some subjects indicated they functioned least competently in two periods. A  review  of  Table  17  indicates  that when a chi-square  analysis was done, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  found  between the groups on t h i s variable in any of the three periods.  Results Pertaining to Third Research Question Other Dominant Emotions Present  in Counsellors  Answers to question 3, which asked subjects to r e c a l l their feelings during the interview, are summarized in Table 18. Table 18 Number of Subjects Reporting Other Feelings  Feeling Category  Experimental Yes No  Frustrated/thwarted Interested/challenged Compassion/caring  4 1 4  Note. Some subjects reported during the interview.  Group (n=13~5 Control (n = 9) ChiYes No Square  9 12 9 feeling  6 1 2 more  3 8 7 than  one  2.76 0.07 0.28 emotion  84  Table  18 reveals that when a chi-square analysis was done,  no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two groups were found any of the feeling  on  dimensions.  Summary of Results from Second Study F i r s t Research a)  No  Question significant  differences  were  found  between the  control and experimental group on the primary of  the A-State  which  assessed  the  measure  level of state  anxiety over the whole session. b)  No s i g n i f i c a n t differences found  in relation  to  between  the groups  were  the level of comfort over the  t o t a l session. c)  No s i g n i f i c a n t differences found  in relation  between  the groups  were  to which period of the interview  evoked the most anxiety. d)  No s i g n i f i c a n t groups  differences  in the tendency  were  found  between the  to avoid future contact with  the c l i e n t . e)  Five out of the 13 subjects in the experimental reported  accent  as a reason for being anxious.  .group More  subjects cited the accent as a cause for their anxiety than any other reason. f)  Ten out of the 13 subjects in the experimental mentioned  the  issue  of culture or accent.  group  The five  85  subjects who did connect feeling anxious with  hearing  the  at  the  difficulty  in  accent,  beginning  a l l reported  of  understanding  the  this  session.  to  occur  A  the accented c l i e n t was reported as the  major reason for the arousal of anxiety.  Second Research Question No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the level competence  of  of  control group and experimental group subjects in  the overall session.  A comparison  of the two groups in relation  to the period or periods in which they f e l t they had the least competently  functioned  also revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences.  Third Research Question No with  significant  respect  to  differences  other  were found between the groups  dominant  feelings  experienced  by  counsellors in the session.  A n c i l l i a r y Findings Anxiety-Performance Relationship Self-ratings  of  interview  were  Subject's  scores  with  exception  the  product-moment  counsellor  correlated from of  both two  correlation  with  responses  individual  perceived  p<.001). H.  A  A-State  outliers  (n=57).  total  scores.  A  Pearson  c o e f f i c i e n t indicated there to be a state  anxiety  scores  counsellor competence in the interview (r=-0.57,  A scatterplot of the scores can be found review  the  studies were used in the analysis  s i g n i f i c a n t negative correlation between and  over  of  this  scatterplot  graph  in  Appendix  indicates that the  86  anxiety-counsellor resemblance  to  competence being  a  relationship bears  linear  as  opposed  a  to  closer  curvilinear  relationship. The questionnaire intent  of  results  determining  were  also  examined  with  the  whether there was a relationship between  the period in which counsellors f e l t most anxious and period  of  poorest  of  level  of  counsellors who  functioning.  It  was  stated they experienced  found  that  highest  69%  anxiety  at  a  p a r t i c u l a r period also f e l t they gave their poorest responses at that  time.  A  chi-square  analysis indicated the relationship  between highest period anxiety and lowest period performance  in  this percentage of subjects to be s i g n i f i c a n t , ot=25. 5, p<. 001 . Subject  statements on the questionnaire were also reviewed  in order to gain information as to anxiety-performance subjects who reported  relationship.  spoke  that  the  of  anxiety  causal While  with  (was anxious),  I  poorly. did  of  majority  to  the of  performance  they were anxious because they feared  of actually performing  because I was  the  respect  poorly, a few reported that they experienced  "Yes  nature  performing  anxiety as a result  Examples of such statements are:  not  challenge."  "A  bit  anxious  off..."  Analysis of Trends Found in Both Studies While  no  significant  differences  were found within each  study on certain variables, several trends were noted over studies.  These  subjects  reported  proportion  both  were: 1) a greater proportion of control group feeling  of experimental  more  frustration;  2)  a  greater  group subjects reported feeling more  87  compassion; subjects To data A  3)  a  greater  found p e r i o d determine  obtained  whether  analysis  s t u d i e s were  with  to  differences  values  were period  higher between the  the  anxiety. subject  number of  during  the  accented  or  were (no  who  in  who  greater  values  were a l s o  mentioned greater  the  issue  number of  was  No  Two  and  x=4.37,  significant  the  compassion  number  subject  study  subjects  in  had  in  the  second  respect  the  i n the  study,  to  frustration client  analysis revealed  first  the  Differences with  whether  used  significantly  experiencing  subjects  t o the  was  that  second  a  study  x=6.68,  p<.01  5). results  in relation of  pool  p=0.0l.  of  of  were below the  Studies  a l s o evident  A chi-square  between found  the  reported  f r u s t r a t e d in comparison  study  both  differences  frustration,  g r o u p s on  first  regardless  nonaccented.  Differences  from  of c o n t r o l g r o u p  participated  the  population  interview  expectancy  results  5).  F(1,57)=7.14,  subjects  significantly  variables.  significant  between t h e  those  Subjects  trait  these  when  the  Found Between  (n=30) and  (n=29).  on  above  between  D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d  study  pooled  the  1 anxiety.  Differences  study  were s i g n i f i c a n t ,  number  all  group  trends  experienced  were  found  experimental  stressful.  were  the  who  of  that  there  respect  p<.05 ( e x p e c t a n c y  first  most  these  group s u b j e c t s  or  the  revealed  considered,  experimental  variable  1 t o be  from b o t h s t u d i e s was  chi-square  discovered  proportion  accent i n the  of  to the or  the  number of  culture.  second  first  study  A  and  second  subjects  who  significantly  mentioned  accent  88  or  culture in their  values  questionnaires,  Scores  and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l l y T r a i n e d  and  questionnaire  who were n o t i n c l u d e d well  as  results  i n the study  results  cross-cultural  were r e v i e w e d  pertaining  training.  to  those  was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  trends  be n o t e d .  Of i n t e r e s t ,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n how m i n o r i t y  cross-cultural compared  to  training  independently,  sample  size,  appropriate,  was i f t h e r e  to  the  appeared  of the m a j o r i t y  accented  a  and o n l y t o be  c o u n s e l l o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s  responded  counsellors  counsellors  c o u n s e l l o r s who had  Because of the s m a l l  comparison  could  Counsellors  of m i n o r i t y  statistical  any  (no e x p e c t a n c y  were below 5 ) .  Minority  as  x=6.32, p<.02  with  client  as  e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c group  who had no c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . T h e r e were s i x c o u n s e l l o r s t e r m e d m i n o r i t y , accented on  tape  the A-State  over both s t u d i e s . f o r these  lower  than  viewed  the accented  in  study  the  2).  cross-cultural  mean  A-State  (36.75).  trained  The subjects  The mean s t a t e a n x i e t y was 38.17.  scores  of the tape  It  was  of m a j o r i t y  should  be  would  lower  call  score  slightly  had  who  1, 40.08 received  c o u n s e l l o r s ) and who mean  mentioned minority  the  subjects  (40.14 i n s t u d y  ( a l l were m a j o r i t y  e i t h e r the  which  This  t h e f o u r c o u n s e l l o r s who  t a p e had an even  within  subjects  mean s c o r e  version  training  the accented  extreme s c o r e s  A-State  Similarly,  viewed  subjects  who v i e w e d  score  that  or  there  on  the  were no  cross-culturally  into question  t h e use of a  statistic.  only  other  from o t h e r s  observation who v i e w e d  which d i s t i n g u i s h e d the m i n o r i t y the accented  version  of the tape  89  was  in relation  potential minority with  t o the  avoidance subjects  the  to  conditions  attached  ( n - 2 7 ) who accented  of  (50%)  the  to  refer  100%  for' future client.  client  Only three  s t a t e d they wished to  accented c l i e n t .  preferred  compared  desire  the  Of  the  client,  other while  out  majority  counsellors  six  working  stated  other  two  had  or not.  This  over both  s t a t e d they would u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y c o n t i n u e client.  the  or  one  to whether they would continue of  of  continue  three, the  contact  they  studies  with  the  90  CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION  This whether  two-part  study  counsellors  ethnolinguistic  was  set  belonging  up  to  primarily the  to discover  majority  racial,  group would feel more anxious with a c l i e n t  who  had a foreign accent than with a c l i e n t who spoke in a way which was t y p i c a l of the region in which the study took place. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e indicated that counsellors would tend to experience more anxiety with an accented was  based  way.  considered  This  on theories which linked an increase in anxiety with  the encountering of persons who are some  client.  The to  "different"  in  problem of understanding accented speakers  was  be  an  additional  considered  reason  to  suspect  that  counsellors might be more anxious with these c l i e n t s . The  body  effects  of  counsellor anxiety on the counselling process indicated that  if  counsellor  of  anxiety  research  were  which  explored  the  higher with accented c l i e n t s , chances  are they might not receive the quality of help that they deserve or  that  concerns  other  clients  receive.  These  issues  are  central  within the area of cross-cultural counselling and have  important implications with respect to trying  to  better  serve  minority c l i e n t s . In  discussing the overall results i t was necessary to take  into account findings from whole,  similarities  in  both  the  results  outweighed differences, i t i s  studies. between  important  to  While the  be  on  the  studies far aware  of  the  91  design  and  procedural  likely  were  differences  responsible  for  in  slight  t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h most  discrepancies  in  the  findings. The  most o b v i o u s d e s i g n  both d i f f e r e n t major  difference  populations.  time  i n the  pertained  Subjects  experienced, the  and s t r o n g e r  d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t t h e a c c e n t  to  second  differences  i n the second study  w i t h h a l f o f them s e e i n g  of  the  study  (12).  o b s e r v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  study.  frustration was  were  expressed,  accented  study,  also  clients  (p< . 0 1 ) .  between  essentially  t h e same.  type  different  is particularly  (p=0.0l)  of accent.  review not  two  This  studies,  to  be  similarity  nonsignificant  was  the  group  of  subject  t o t h e amount o f the  client  results  t o be more g e n e r a l i z a b l e  with  results  across  or d i f f e r e n c e s  of these  that  in  findings.  Findings  had s u g g e s t e d .  higher  were  i n r e s u l t s suggests  f r o m t h e two s t u d i e s d i d n o t c o n f i r m  i n t e r v i e w was v i e w e d a s a t o t a l the  anxiety  ( 1 3 ) . The  the  counsellor populations  of the l i t e r a t u r e  found  at  i n s p i t e of the o b v i o u s  The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary  results  own  f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n ( 1 4 ) .  Summary o f C e n t r a l The  their  in  respect  noteworthy, that  the  i n student  with  subject  T w i c e a s many c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e s e c o n d  f i n d i n g s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  differences  on  r e g a r d l e s s of whether o r not  differences  the  the  In a d d i t i o n , t r a i t  lower  f o r example, expressed  It  in  second  were f o u n d t o be more  s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e c o n d s t u d y populations  The  was  Counsellor  the  accented  entity.  This  on t h e A - S t a t e  what t h e  anxiety  client  was  when t h e  was a p p a r e n t  from  measure, as w e l l as  92  more  specifically,  addition,  in  no  of  A-State, which indicated that accented  client  than those who  did  would  either  In  with  This  from  comfort.  counsellors had a greater tendency to avoid future contact client.  evidence  level  that  accented  was  to  study  the  there  relation  support  counsellors  findings  who  counselled  the  counselled the nonaccented c l i e n t .  been period differences which may  was  the  not experience more anxiety or discomfort  There remains some question as to whether  A-State  on  there  may  have  not have been picked up by the  which assessed anxiety over the t o t a l interview.  There  indication from the questionnaire items that counsellors  were presented with the accented more  anxiety  throughout.  initially This was  anxiety  may  have  experienced  the interview, but not necessarily  i l l u s t r a t e d in the questionnaire responses  of the six subjects who, their  in  client  who  without  being  directly  to the presence of an accent  asked,  linked  in the c l i e n t .  six also claimed that the anxiety associated  with  accent  This might account  occurred  "at f i r s t " or " i n i t i a l l y " .  for the fact that experimental time  when  was  significant,  greater  proportion  of  subjects  in  the  the  group over both studies reported period 1 to be the they  difference  experienced not  this  size and the way study  a  hearing  All  the  determined  most to  have  anxiety. been  While  this  statistically  was most l i k e l y due to both the small sample  in which " i n i t i a l anxiety" was measured in this  (15). With respect to the reason, or reasons, why at  counsellors initially,  experienced  more  least  anxiety with the accented  anxiety associated with not understanding  the  some client speech  93  of  the  accented c l i e n t was the only reason given by subjects.  Anxiety associated with encountering "cultural not  mentioned  by  any  difference"  was  of the subjects who viewed the accented  tape.  Discussion of Results Discussion of Results in Relation to Cross-Cultural Counselling Several p o s s i b i l i t i e s these  findings.  One  exist  with  respect  to  explaining  explanation i s , that i f counsellors were  i n i t i a l l y anxious with respect to not understanding the they  got  used  to  the accent as the interview progressed, and  were then able to understand interpretation  would  accent,  the  suggest  client  more  clearly.  This  that i f the language differences  were greater and involved more than just s t y l i s t i c  differences,  anxiety might be even higher and perhaps more prolonged. Such  an . interpretation  counselling  student  however,  populations.  might  Bordin  only  (1968,  apply p.  to  222),  pointed out, for example, that inexperienced counsellors tend to pay  a  disproportionate amount of emphasis to content and often  neglect other cues from which they can also This  suggests  gain  information.  that when counselling students are' in situations  in which content i s lost, their tendency  to become anxious might  be higher than with other groups of counsellors. Several explanations session,  exist  as  to  over  the  total  counsellor anxiety was not found to be higher with the  accented c l i e n t .  One clue to this may  fact  of  having  why,  that any  none  anxiety  the  subjects  associated  lie  in  the  surprising  over both studies mentioned  with  counselling  a  client  94  culturally  "different"  from  themselves.  One p o s s i b i l i l t y i s  that counsellors in the study found areas of s i m i l a r i t y and ways in  which  they  different  were  client.  an explanation.  able  to  identify  with- the  culturally  Results from the questionnaire support such  In reviewing question 5, "Did you identify with  the c l i e n t in any way?"  Alexander (1987) noted that only a very  small proportion of the subjects in both studies indicated were  not  able  to  nonaccented c l i e n t . degree  to  identify Related  with  to  this  was  the the  or  intensity  Examples to  illustrate  1) "I i d e n t i f i e d with the situation he was  experienced his desperation." $30.00 in the bank empathize  accented  and  which this i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , especially in relation to  the unemployment issue, occurred. were:  either  they  with  and  his  in and v i v i d l y  2) "I know what i t ' s l i k e to have  monthly  payments  to  keep.  despair and humiliation."  l a i d off from my teaching job  this  four  times  in  I  could  3) "I have been the  last  three  years, so I can identify with his f r u s t r a t i o n and anger." It i s quite possible that in finding common ground with the c l i e n t , counsellors were able to transcend the issue of culture, and thus a l l e v i a t e some of their anxieties. While this appears, on  the  dangers  surface, associated  culturally  to  be with  different  counsellors may  an  optimistic  identifying client  as  finding, there may  with, similar.  In  viewing  the  doing  so,  either ignore or minimize the effects of culture  in the assessment and treatment  of their c l i e n t s .  With respect to this issue, Ibrahim and outlined  and  be  Arredonedo  (1986)  e t h i c a l standards for cross-cultural counselling which  stressed that c u l t u r a l differences must not only  be  recognized  95  but  responded to.  In terms of assessment, they emphasized that  "counsellors need to appraise the c l i e n t as before  any  cultural  entity  other assessment strategy is undertaken" (Ibrahim &  Arredonedo, 1986, researching  p. 350).  the  Margolis  level  of  (1987)  cultural  counsellors, that lack of attention certain  a  to  concluded  awareness cultural  instances could lead to misdiagnosis  in  after student  variables  in  and rather serious  misinterpretations of behavior. It is important to recognize used  in  the  This may more  study contained  that  statements  have further allowed counsellors to see the  similar than d i f f e r e n t .  in  client  no reference to c u l t u r a l issues.  the  Christensen  client  as  If the accented c l i e n t had talked  about either his c u l t u r a l background or as  the  study  discrimination  issues,  (1981), one wonders whether the  counsellors might not have had a harder  time  identifying  with  the c l i e n t and subsequently been more anxious. Another  possibility  i s that counsellors may  not have f e l t  more anxious with respect to the issue of " c u l t u r a l because for  the  them.  client, Canada  counsellors  not  in fact, may is  only  a  not have been that different  multicultural  may  society,  in  which  have come into contact with numerous  immigrant c l i e n t s , but also may  have friends who  different  Affirmative  from  difference"  themselves.  counselling profession has pushed  for  the  are  action  culturally within  admission  of  the more  minority counsellors in counsellor training programs (Atkinson & Wampold,  1981).  The  fact  that  majority  counsellors may  constantly interacting with fellow students who ethnically  different  may  are r a c i a l l y  be or  further desensitize them to the issue  96  of c u l t u r a l difference in their c l i e n t s . It i s generally agreed upon by researchers  that counselling  is a s t r e s s f u l a c t i v i t y on i t s own (Bowman, Roberts, 1978).  Anxiety  anxious  within  questionnaires, with  respect  the  counsellors  interview.  In  i t was often surprising to note to what  created  anxiety  which brought up personal  for them.  had to  reviewing  the  the variation  for subjects.  counsellors picked out very p a r t i c u l a r statements client  Giesen,  with respect to c u l t u r a l difference, then, may  only have been one of the numerous reasons feel  &  made  Some by the  issues and subsequent c o n f l i c t  One student, for example said i t reminded her of her  own past poverty and this made her very uncomfortable during the interview.  Taking  into  account  the numerous  counsellors to be anxious within an interview, that  anxiety  in relation  reasons for  i t i s possible  to c u l t u r a l difference may not have  assumed substantial added importance for most counsellors. Helms (1984), and Carney developed  theoretical  counsellors  go  relationship  different cultures. suggestion  that  models  through  with  and Kahn which  in their  opposite Common  (1984)  outlined  have various  stages  of a  working  development  race  clients  to both  these  recently  or  clients  theories  certain reactions such as anxiety only  at p a r t i c u l a r stages in a counsellor's development.  counsellor  overall increase  was  at, may  in anxiety  have  was  been present  noted  i s the surface  In terms of  t h i s study, such individual v a r i a t i o n s , depending on what each  from  stage  such that no  in the group  which  encountered the accented c l i e n t . When  both  studies  were  taken into account, i t was found  97  that a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower proportion of presented  with  the  frustrated-thwarted was  accented  client  counsellors  would  dimension (p<.05).  occur.  tend to be, and listeners  are  is, not  Logic usually  were  reported feelings on the This was  not only unexpected, but opposite to  assumed  who  what  a finding which one  might  have  indicates that f r u s t r a t i o n would higher  in  situations  able to understand everything  in  which  that i s being  said and communicated (Sebastian, Ryan, Keogh, & Schmidt,  1980)  (16). The  differences in f r u s t r a t i o n that were found between the  counsellors who  saw  the  client  are  study.  She discovered an  counsellors  supported  accented by  as  findings overall  opposed from  for  the  majority  in this study to view the accented c l i e n t in a more  contradict  literature  nonaccented  the Alexander (1987)  tendency  p o s i t i v e l i g h t on a number of dimensions. findings  to  the  assumption  in  Taken together, the  these  cross-cultural  that counsellors would tend to react more negatively  toward r a c i a l or e t h n i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s and thus give them i n f e r i o r treatment (Wampold, Casas, & Atkinson, 1977). study  One  exception  which  Sattler,  to t h i s was Merluzzi and Merluzzi's  (1978)  discovered that cases involving the label of black  c l i e n t versus white c l i e n t received counsellors.  They  that  more  concluded  overcompensated to avoid suggests  1981;  negative  counsellors  s o c i a l or internal pressures  in  positive  that bias.  this  counsellors This  study may  to respond in  ratings  a  by had  interpretation have yielded to  way  which  would  c l e a r l y be viewed as nonprejudiced. It  is  difficult  to  assess  whether  this was  the reason  98  counsellors in this study reported more positive emotion in accented  situation.  Counsellors  may  have,  demonstrating s e n s i t i v i t y to the fact that the  instead,  been  minority  client  finds himself in a more disadvantaged position in society. may  have  felt  less  frustration  in  with  finding  him  unemployed  and  They  relation to the minority  c l i e n t because they held him less responsible himself  the  considered  respect  to  less able to  remedy the situation in the context of a society which t y p i c a l l y discriminates against such individuals. Such a response on the part of the minority  client,  however,  has  counsellor  associated  toward  dangers.  the  Vontress  (1976), for example, describes such a reaction in counsellors to be part of "The Great White Father Syndrome". this  syndrome  Associated  i s the tendency on the part of the counsellor to  be overly sympathetic and measure achievement using a yardstick.  with  It  was  mentioned  in  the  different  l i t e r a t u r e review that  d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment in t h i s form can lead to the excusing  of  individual pathology and relaxed standards of behavior which can be detrimental in the helping of the minority c l i e n t . Observations  in  those who had taken mention.  Caution  relation  the must  to the minority counsellors and  cross-cultural  course  deserves  some  be taken, however, with respect to the  interpretation of this data due to the  extremely  small  sample  size of minority counsellors and those with training who saw the accented  client  in  this  study.  In  comparison  counsellors, the scores on the A-State of both these counsellors  when  This  to  tends  counselling support  the  to majority groups  of  the accented c l i e n t were lower. literature  which  suggests  that  99  minority  counsellors  and  those  cross-cultural training might be minority  client  (Atkinson,  McDavis & Parker, 1984).  1977;  counsellors  better  1983;  equiped  Atkinson  Pedersen,  who  1977;  to  &  have  had  help  the  Wampold,  Terrell  &  1981;  Terrell,  Of interest, however, i s the fact that three out of six  within  the  minority  ambivalence client.  counsellor  expressed  either  or did not wish to continue counselling the minorty  Counsellor education  services,  often  counsellors  in  (Atkinson,  1983;  attention  group  specifically order  has  programs, as well  to  better  Atkinson  not  hire  been  or  serve  as  recruit  the  to  the  minority  minority  & Wampold, 1981). paid  counselling  client  Perhaps adequate  feelings  of  minority  counsellors in relation to this issue. Only one major difference existed in the results of the studies.  A  s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger proportion of the subjects in  the second study who issue  of  culture  (p<0.02). is This  viewed or  the  accent  the  tape  the  Carranza, and Moffie  conclusions  mentioned  somewhere in their  of  Giles  difference  notably (1972),  stronger. and  Ryan,  (1977) stating that the degree of accent i s  an important variable in accent  research.  concern in relation to counsellors, i s the tendency for  the c u l t u r a l variable to assume more importance i f  the  signs  Taking  of  difference  are  more  pronounced.  consideration the fact that often c u l t u r a l hidden  the  questionnaire  for such a  accent in the second study was  supports  Of  accented  The most plausible explanation  that  two  and  not  differences  overtly detectable at f i r s t glance,  outward  may  into be  neglecting  the issue of culture in such circumstances raises some concern.  100  On the other hand, too much emphasis on culture who  with  a  client  might look or sound d i f f e r e n t but does not necessarily feel  different may also be detrimental  to both  the formation  of a  good relationship and the helping of such an i n d i v i d u a l .  Discussion of Results in Relation to Anxiety and Counsellor Competence The  results indicate that counsellors who saw the accented  c l i e n t did not view themselves as functioning less adequately in the session as compared to those who saw the nonaccented c l i e n t . This coincides with the finding higher  that  state  anxiety  was not  in the group of counsellors who counselled the accented  client. A c o r r e l a t i o n between anxiety and performance ratings on  a l l the  subjects  revealed  that  a  correlation existed between the two variables  moderate  done  negative There  (p<0.00l).  was also a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between the period of highest anxiety These  and  period of poorest  results  indicated  support  that  counsellor responses  previous  research  and  (p<0.00l).  theory  which  counsellor anxiety negatively a f f e c t s the level  of functioning of the counsellor in a counselling session. It was mentioned in the review of the l i t e r a t u r e contrast  that  in  to the Yerks-Dodson Law which postulated a curvilinear  relationship between anxiety and performance, researchers  in the  area of counselling have often assumed  linear  there  to be  a  relationship between anxiety and counsellor effectiveness. would  mean  that  low  levels  of  This  state anxiety in counsellors  during a session would be more b e n e f i c i a l than moderate levels. The  results from this study supported such an assumption.  101  The most probable  reason for  the  anxiety  and  counsellor  competence relationship not to have followed the t y p i c a l pattern outlined  by  the  Yerks-Dodson  Law  was  that levels of anxiety  within the session tended to be on the whole, A-State rank  score  for  indicates  of  normal that  anxiety  adults the  was  surprising that  The  mean  around 40 f a l l s close to the 70th percentile (Speilberger,  activity  was  a  counsellors, and that the proportion state  high.  very  an  small.  examination  1983,  p.  stressful of  6). one  This  for most  counsellors  with  low  With this in mind, i t is not of  moderate  and  high  state  anxiety scores with respect to counsellor functioning revealed a linear-type relationship. Several  participants  in the study revealed that they were  anxious in part because they made mistakes during the session or had performed poorly. regarding  the  causal  This lends support nature  of  to more recent thought  the  anxiety-performance  relationship, and views i t more as a c i r c u l a r relationship, with both elements constantly interacting with the other.  Discussion of Results in Relation to S o c i o l i n q u i s t i c Accent Research Some population individuals  sociolinguistic indicated when  that  research more  done  discomfort  these  a  previous  this  noncounsellor  was  they encountered a person who  While at f i r s t glance, the results from contradict  on  present  had an  study  in  accent.  appear  to  reports, methodological differences  with respect to design might explain such a descrepancy. Almost a l l s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c research on reactions to accents  1 02  that has been done to date has u t i l i z e d of  accented and nonaccented speakers  audio-taped  reading standard passages,  not more than a few minutes in length. study  indicate  studies, differences may yielding  observed  The  as  those  a  the speaker.  shown  similar  in  the  accent  results to what has previously been  version  This  studies  content  in  this  study  great deal of personal information with respect to contrasts  in  which  dramatically  the  speakers  contains no personal information at a l l . being  of  with read In  most  of  addition  to  less  focus  on  As well as taking some of the focus  away from the speech variable, the  added  personal  information  have allowed l i s t e n e r s to more easily connect with, and of  the  a personal nature, the fact that visual cues  speech of the speaker.  areas  the  a passage which  were also included in the present study, placed  may  this  in such studies.  contained  the  from  have possibly been found on the A-State  Both the accented and nonaccented  accent  results  that had the counsellors only been shown a tape  which was of a similar length  measure,  recordings  find  s i m i l a r i t y with the accented speaker making them seem  less foreign or d i f f e r e n t .  Subsequently, anxiety may  have  been  reduced. The  results  of  this  study,  therefore,  question  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of many previous s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c studies have  researched  subjects  reactions  only  the  voice  which  to persons with accents.  G i l e s , Baker, and Fielding (1975) have already pointed out hearing  the  that  of the individual placed too great an  emphasis on the "accent" variable, and tended to be u n r e a l i s t i c . The attempt to make the content neutral in the accent studies by  103  having subjects read passages and thereby not give any information  regarding  many  of  types  situations  taking place. previous  the speaker would also be u n r e a l i s t i c in  interactions.  in  which  any  This  type  The results of  accent  is  of  especially  true  of  "relationship building" i s  this  study  then,  suggest  research using such methodology may  findings to situations in which the interaction is impersonal,  personal  and with l i t t l e face to face contact  that  l i m i t their very  brief,  (17).  Limitations of the Study There  are  some  limitations  associated with the research  design and instrumentation which might account for the  lack  of  s i g n i f i c a n t difference in l e v e l of state anxiety between the  two  groups. Once the minority counsellors were excluded from the sample size in both studies was for  differences  to  be  small.  signficant  scores of the experimental  This meant that in order at the .05 l e v e l , the mean  and control  groups  would have had to d i f f e r by approximately In  addition  to  the  small  limitations which resulted from experience.  While  associated concerns,  a  live  were  to  the  results  which  the  A-State  eight points. size, there were also  would  nature  of  the  have had i t s own  mention  the  ways  in  have affected the r e s u l t s .  unable  to  ask  the  repeat his statements or speak more slowly so have understood him.  on  simulated  interview  i t i s important  which the taped session may Counsellors  sample the  study,  accented c l i e n t to that  they  could  This issue gains importance in the face of associated some counsellor anxiety with not  1 04  understanding suggestion  the c l i e n t .  Additionally,  there  is  that the anxieties associated with not understanding  the c l i e n t in a real situation would stem from different Vontress (1976) for example, indicated experience  conflict  over  that  the c l i e n t s  whether to ask an accented c l i e n t to  speech.  situation might get more counsellor  the  longer  issues.  often counsellors  repeat statements and reveal the fact that they were understand  some  He  confusing the c l i e n t  suggested  and  unable  that  embarrassing  is left  to  such  to a  for the  talk without  clarification. The simulated nature of the experience also problematic  proved  to be  in that many subjects reported experiencing anxiety  in relation to i t not being a real s i t u a t i o n .  For example,  one  respondent mentioned that she was anxious because she was unable to  do  the usual  small talk she did with c l i e n t s i n i t i a l l y to  break the i c e . An additional source of anxiety for counsellors was associated with "performance" the  researchers.  and fear of being evaluated by  This occurred despite considerable effort to  downplay this aspect by stressing the c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of the experiment and through the numbering Unfortunately,  the A-State  system  which  was  used.  would have been unable to separate  out anxiety associated with these factors.  Anxiety  from  these  additional  sources would have a tendency to raise state anxiety  scores  a  as  whole  such  that  means  of  detecting  finer  d i s t i n c t i o n s between the groups with respect to anxiety may have been necessary. In  the review  of  the l i t e r a t u r e five reasons as to why  counsellors might be more anxious with respect to the c l i e n t who  105  was c u l t u r a l l y different were outlined. surrounding  the  "unknown"  or  These were: 1)  anxiety  associated with uncertainty; 2)  threat to b e l i e f s or values upon which we define  ourselves;  3)  fear of encroaching on "taboo areas" of conversation by d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y acknowledging that the c l i e n t i s d i f f e r e n t in some way;  4)  anxiety  with  respect to harbouring prejudices toward  such c l i e n t s which c o n f l i c t with counsellor  i s ; 5)  fear  of  the  notion  of  what  a  good  being viewed as prejudiced by the  c l i e n t even i f the counsellor i s not. It i s clear in reviewing these reasons, that associated with c u l t u r a l difference may of  the  simulated  nature  some  not have emerged because  of the experience.  For example, the  fear of encroaching on 'taboo areas' of conversation sensitive  for  the  client  and  anxiety  viewed as prejudiced by the c l i e n t with  the  client's  reaction  are  which  both  fears associated  to the counsellor's statements or  It i s reasonable to assume that anxiety with  to  issues  respect  would only occur in a l i v e situation in which  there was an actual interaction between counsellor and Kazdin  (1978)  difficult  to  are  with respect to being  behavior. these  anxiety  pointed  client.  out that such differences often make i t  generalize  results  beyond  the  experimental  situation and should be done with caution. Limitations  to  instrumentation. Krause,  1961)  the  study  Researchers have  noted  (Johnsen,  by  the  exist in r e l a t i o n to the Tracy,  &  Hohn,  1983;  that the major problem in u t i l i z i n g  self-report measures i s that reporting  also  subjects.  they  are  dependent  upon  honest  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Redfering and  Jones (1978) suggested that a major l i m i t a t i o n of the  STAI  was  106  that  a  correction  included  in  factor  order  to  or measure of defensiveness was not compensate  for  the  inventory's  v u l n e r a b i l i t y to d i s t o r t i o n by subjects who become defensive. In addition, subjects need to be aware of their feelings in order  to  defended  report them. against  Anxiety which was either unconscious or  successfully  through  mechanisms  such  as  projection or denial were unable to be measured. In  reviewing  the  individual  items on the A-State, i t i s  evident that the scale would have been sensitive to feelings frustration.  of  For example, i f a person were feeling frustrated  i t might have affected their scores on the following items: 1) I f e l t calm; 3) I was tense; 5) I f e l t at ease; 6) 10)  I  felt  comfortable;  14)  I  was  upset;  I f e l t "high strung"; 15) I was  relaxed; 16) I f e l t content; 19)  I  pleasant.  important in l i g h t of the fact  This  issue  becomes  felt  joyful;  20)  that twice as many control group subjects reported frustration.  This  may  have  I  felt  feelings  of  caused their scores to have been  a r t i f i c i a l l y raised and masked a difference which d i d occur  in  anxiety between the groups. Few  limitations  format. out  in relation  to the matched guise  Brown, Strong, and Rencher (1975), however,  that  with  on  did point  b i l i n g u a l speakers, there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that  individuals actually taking  exist  feel  differently  about  themselves  when  the c u l t u r a l role associated with each "guise", and  that somehow t h i s i s subtly transmitted to the l i s t e n e r s .  It i s  possible that a similar process may have occurred in this study. Unconsciously some of the actor's own images what  an  immigrant  is like,  may  or  stereotype  of  have seeped through at some  1 07  l e v e l , causing  subtle differences  in the acting  of  the two  c l i e n t roles. Limitations fact  that  accurate  in relation  preceived  to the questionnaire  competence  In addition,  with  does  the c l i e n t  other factors as well. a  not necessarily  not  avoidance  of  future  sessions  only r e f l e c t increased anxiety but  Other factors which may  be  responsible  greater tendency to refer c l i e n t s are negative attitudes  or perceived  i n a b i l i t y to adequately help certain individuals.  A last l i m i t a t i o n of the study was that counsellor with  be an  appraisal of the counsellor's actual competence within  the session (18).  for  may  include the  persons,  other  than  parents,  who  contact  have accents was not  controlled for or assessed.  Directions for Future Research The  results  directions  of  this  future  study  research  investigation as to whether counsellor accented Related  versus  might  several  take.  differences  A  interesting  more  exist  thorough  in levels . of  in the i n i t i a l period of the interview with  nonaccented  clients  would  be  worthwhile.  to this would be how counsellors may be able to overcome  anxiety This  anxiety  suggest  which  might  similarity  initially  involve or  means  d i f f e r e n t can be perceived  used  differences  i s experienced with accented c l i e n t s .  attention of as  to whether  identifying a  which  way  to  with  finding a  transcend  areas  of  client  who i s  some  of the  serve to create a barrier between  counsellor and c l i e n t . The problems associated with the simulated  nature  of  this  108  study more  suggest  that  closely  a  r e p l i c a t i o n of the study using a set-up  resembling  investigating.  a  real  situation  would  be  worth  This would have to be done using a large number  of real accented and nonaccented c l i e n t s in order to control for personality variables of the c l i e n t . actor/client  could  be  nonaccented c l i e n t standardized In  in  hired a  to  live  In play  role  the  a l t e r n a t i v e , an  both  session  the accented using  a  fairly  role.  l i g h t of some association between anxiety and not being  able to understand the c l i e n t , research attention to of  and  counsellor  the  issue  anxiety in situations in which understanding  c l i e n t i s even more problematic  could be  warranted.  the  Realistic  examples are situations in which an immigrant c l i e n t ' s knowledge of  the  English  language  is  limited,  causing  communication problems than those of accent  more  alone.  As noted in the l i t e r a t u r e review, theory with why  respect  to  counsellors might react to differences with anxiety has not  been addressed systematically even though i t question clients  "What which  interesting were  serious  is  creates  to  members  it  about anxiety  research, of  any  dissimilarity  and  special  for  is  assumed.  The  or differences in  counsellors?"  would  be  have application to c l i e n t s  who  population,  and  not  only  a  particular r a c i a l or ethnic group. The  fact  that  counsellors  who  encountered the  c l i e n t in this study reported a notably more positive response  (less  accented emotional  frustration) lends i t s e l f to some very exciting  avenues of research.  The most important  what effect t h i s might have on the way  would be to investigate  counsellors interact  and  109  treat their c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s . less  of  these  minority  Do counsellors expect  c l i e n t s and do they excuse individual  pathology in these c l i e n t s as several c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t s have suggested? to  themselves  Do majority counsellors feel as free and  others  that  able to confront c l i e n t s who  e a s i l y , or are  they  afraid  admit  they do not l i k e a c l i e n t  happens to belong to a p a r t i c u l a r race they  to  or  ethnic  who  group? • Are  belong to a minority group as  this  will  be  misinterpreted  as  prejudice? This  study  as  well, raised questions  concerning  minority  counsellor's desire to work with other minority group  members.  It  concerning  i s possible that minority counsellors have issues  their own  c u l t u r a l heritage or departure  make  unappealing  it  for  them  to  from  it  counsel  which  might  a member of their  o r i g i n a l ethnic group or any minority c l i e n t .  Further  research  in t h i s area might reveal interesting findings.  Implications for Counselling Cross-cultural on the  t r a i n i n g courses have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  differences  minority  client.  that  exist  Counsellors  between are  counsellors  focused and  the  taught to pay attention to  c u l t u r a l cues, and to become increasingly aware of the d i f f e r i n g values and b e l i e f s which c l i e n t s from d i f f e r e n t with  them  into  the  counselling  counsellors to work with needs  to  be  special  session.  cultures  In the training of  populations,  more  attention  paid to the fact that counsellors and c l i e n t s are  similar in that we are a l l human and share at least some of same  bring  feelings,  reactions, and even stresses.  the  Counsellors need  1 10  to be made aware that there are always ways in which we are able to identify and feel empathy with almost any of  the differences,  client  regardless  and that this may be an important way for  anxiety surrounding counselling the c u l t u r a l l y different c l i e n t , or any d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t , to be a l l e v i a t e d . At the same time, however, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l eductors need continue  to  remind  differences  should  connection  with  counsellors not  be  that  ignored.  different  cultural In  clients  and  finding  to  language  areas  i t is c r i t i c a l  that  counsellors do not become color blind or  accent  important  the cues which signal  that  difference,  counsellors  however,  not  attend  to  necessarily  jump  deaf.  of  to  It i s  conclusions  regarding how d i f f e r e n t the c l i e n t i s on the basis of such cues. Similarily,  counsellors  need  to pay  attention  to potential  c u l t u r a l issues in their c l i e n t s even when no v i s i b l e  cues are  present. The  issue  of  not understanding the speech of an accented  c l i e n t appears to be important in terms of arousing anxiety for some counsellors. often  be  In c r o s s - c u l t u r a l situations counsellors w i l l  faced  with much greater language barriers than those  which accent pose.  Many newly arrived immigrants w i l l barely be  able to speak the English language, and w i l l have rather serious grammatical as well as vocabulary counsellors  may  require  some  deficits.  It appears  i n s t r u c t i o n as to how to handle  such situations in order that their anxiety might be Counsellors  need  that  lessened.  to find alternate ways in which they can gain  information  from  their  clients,  involvement  of  family  members  whether or  paying  i t be  through the  more  attention to  111 non-verbal cues. ways  of  Perhaps some expertise in developing  communicating  interaction  could  therapists who  which  be  rely  obtained  less  heavily  alternate  on  verbal  from other d i s c i p l i n e s .  work with persons with  expressive  Speech  aphasia,  for  example,  are s k i l l e d in f a c i l i t a t i n g communication with persons  who  speech  have  deficits.  Some  of  these  skills  could  be  transferred to the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l context. Writers  and  educators  in  the  area  of  cross-cultural  conselling have focused on the issues of negative absorbed  prejudices  in  counsellors,  and  cause minority c l i e n t s to receive poorer that  the  counsellors  in  positive feelings in the raises  some  concerns  this  study  situation  reactions  and  others, which might  treatment.  The  fact  were noted to have more  with  the  accented  client  which need to be addressed in counsellor  .educat ion. The  f i r s t concern i s the fact that counsellors may  able to be reactions  honest  advocation  presenting an image sensitive  have an increasingly emotions  and  others  which  they  of  of the  to  minority good  to  through  and issues.  minority group needs, counsellors  may  appears that additional care may  time  as  expressing  toward  one  In is  feel  counsellor  their  education  reactions  rights  feel  who  difficult may  as  are d i f f e r e n t . Counsellor  be inadvertently promoting such  strong  especially  themselves  with c l i e n t s who  programs may their  with  not  any  negative  a minority c l i e n t .  need to be taken to  allow  It for  such open discussion to occur. Margolis  and Rungta (1986) indicated that the singling out  of minority groups for special attention  in  counselling  might  1 12  have  some  detrimental  effects.  Several  minority  population  s p e c i a l i s t s (Pedersen, 1983; Wilgosh, 1983), for example, pointed  out  that  such  added  attention  promote new forms of racism or emotional  response  toward  alternatives  to  the minority  special  single out minority populations addition,  counsellor  paradoxically  discrimination.  could be used as support for such mind,  might  The  differing  c l i e n t in this study  assertions. courses  have  With  this  in  in counselling which  deserve some consideration.  educators  must  become  aware  In that  counsellors may have already responded or even over responded to the cry that minority  clients  treatment by counsellors. which  may  are given  poorer  service  and  The effects of d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment  favor and excuse the minority c l i e n t on the basis of  culture or d i s a b i l i t y demands serious attention  and  discussion  in counselling programs. It i s important that the issue of anxiety with differences, and with persons with accents in p a r t i c u l a r , be discussed counsellor  training.  Open  awareness as to causes of counsellors barriers.  to  focus  discussion,  counsellor  during  along with increasing  anxiety  will  only  help  on ways in which they can overcome these  Additionally,  the  influx  of  minority  counsellors  within programs w i l l continue to help desensitize counsellors to persons  who  are "different" and in this way may a l l e v i a t e some  anxieties when counselling such persons. It appears, however, that anxiety reduction on i t s own  may  not be enough to be of s i g n i f i c a n t help to the counsellor in the inter-cultural  interview.  Diener, 1986; McConnell  Several  1976) have  researchers discovered  (Dendato that  &  anxiety  1 13  reduction  teachings combined with either increased knowledge or  s k i l l i s the most e f f e c t i v e way This  may  be  a  reflection  in  which  "performance" is also responsible  some  anxiety.  of  this,  counsellors have available to them to client,  or  client  order that they Counsellor  perceive  education  simultaneously  who  reduce  anxiety.  of the findings which suggest that  poorer  Because  to  i s accented, themselves  programs  must  for  the  increasing deal  with  creation the the  of  skills minority  appears to be essential in to  be  more  competent.  continue their efforts to  increase level of s k i l l , knowledge, and awareness  in counsellors working with various minority populations.  1 14  NOTES  1.  A p i l o t study was run the day before the commencement of the  actual study. counselling Individual  Six undergraduate skills  course  appointments  The study ran smoothly,  students who were enrolled in a  volunteered  to  be  subjects.  to participate in the study were made. and  the response  from  students  was  enthusiast i c . As  a result of the p i l o t study, the o r i g i n a l questionnaire  (Appendix A) was modified (Appendix B). from  a  five  point  found that there was narrower  scale.  scale  Question 2 was  changed  to a ten point scale because i t was  little  variance  Question  in responses  with the  8 was expanded to give five choices  instead of three choices for the same reason.  Question 5, "What  is i t about this c l i e n t that stood out the most for you?" changed  to, "Other  than  the c l i e n t ' s presenting problem what  other c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s stood out for you they make you feel uncomfortable?" it  was  found  was  the most?  Did  This change was made because  that the students had focused almost e n t i r e l y on  content, rather than answering  in terms of  appearance,  manner,  or perhaps the accent/cultural variable.  2.  Level  of  comfort  was  indicated that"discomfort" or most  measured  because of studies which  "uncomfortable"  were  the words  often used to describe anxiety related feelings associated  with hearing or interacting with accented speakers (Chapter I I ) .  3.  According to Edwards (1982), the matched guise technique i s  115  both the best known and most widely u t i l i z e d method in assessing subjective  reactions  technique  was  to language v a r i e t i e s .  Gardner,  and  audiotapes  of  b i l i n g u a l speakers reading the same message in two languages  and  Fillenbaum  developed  (i960).  by  Lambert,  The matched guise  These  Hodgson,  researchers  made  showed them to subjects who were unaware that both versions were actually the same person. format and  was  purpose  of  utilizing  such  a  to control for some of the effects of voice quality  content  matched  The  (Lambert et a l . , 1960).  Since  this  time,  the  guise technique has been employed in accent research by  having the same individual audiotaped  give  version of a script  an  accented  and  nonaccented  (Fielding & Evered, 1980;  Giles,  1972; G i l e s , 1973; Tucker & Lambert, 1969). Giles, Baker , and Fielding (1975) have noted that a problem  with  such a technique i s that the stimulus material i s  an audiotape recording.  They stated that this provided subjects  with only vocal cues and placed an  unnatural  emphasis  vocal variations in speech than would normally occur. in  mind,  the  matched  guise  The i n i t i a l  critical  interview  importance,  not  on  the  With t h i s  procedure was modified so that a  videotape instead of an audiotape was  4.  major  was  used.  chosen  only  in  because  of. i t s  counselling  in  noted  general  (Lowinger & Dobie, 1966; Perez, 1968), but more p a r t i c u l a r l y the  cross-cultural  1979; S.  5.  Sue,  counselling  experience  in  ( G r i f f i t h & Jones,  1977).  The audiotapes were not actually u t i l i z e d  in  this  study.  116  The  subject  responses  some pressure  were  audiotaped in order that there be  on the subjects to  behave  and  respond  as  they  would in a real session.  6.  Seliger,  Krashen,  and  Ladefoged (1975) demonstrated that  there i s a c r i t i c a l age for individuals to learn a new  language  such  research  that  they  will  not  retain  an  indicates that after the age of 18, retention  would  be  extremely  accent.  the  high  Their  likelihood  of  accent  in individuals learning a  second language.  7.  Researchers (Johnsen, Tracy, &  considered  the  lack  of  Hohn,  honesty  of  1983;  Krause,  subjects  1961)  on self report  measures to be the major problem associated with the use of such instruments.  8.  Introspective reports are considered  as  well  as  most  state anxiety 1966).  widely  it  is  common,  accepted basis upon which to measure  (Krause, 1961;  Although  to be the most  L e v i t t , 1980,  often  p.  50;  Spielberger,  recommended that physiological  measures be u t i l i z e d in conjunction  with  a  subjective  report  (Bowman & Roberts, 1978), a physiological measure of anxiety  was  not  out  done for several reasons.  Levitt (1980, p. 49) pointed  that the attachment to unfamiliar apparatus e s s e n t i a l to all  forms  stressful  of  experience  experimental noted that  physiological for  measurement such  recording  measurement  subjects of anxiety. apparatus'  and  may can  in  almost  i t s e l f be a confuse  the  S i m i l a r l y , Krause (1961) restrict  the  subjects  1 17  movement  and  often  preclude  spontaneity  or  naturalness  of  behavior. Further confusion associated physiological measures  of  measure  with  the  sympathetic  increases  nervous  system  in  frustration,  Fazio, 1984;  arousal  the  most  and  not For  blood pressure, heart rate, and GSR  are  other  pleasure, excitment,  Hirschman & Katkin, 1971;  Seymore, & Geen, 1985). is  a  Sarbin, 1964).  not only indicative of anxiety but of anger,  of  includes the fact that such measures are  s p e c i f i c a l l y anxiety (Lipper & McNair, 1972; example,  utilization  emotions  such  as  or interest (Cooper &  Krause,  1961;  Schauer,  Levitt (1980, p. 157) claimed that this  l i k e l y reason for the lack of correlation between  physiological and self-report measures of anxiety  so  typically  encountered within research studies.  9.  Test-retest  reliability  coefficients,  as expected  measurement of transitory anxiety which is sensitive to in  circumstances,  tend to be low  and range from .16 to .62  in the changes  (Johnsen, Tracy, & Hohn,  (Spielberger, 1983, p.  consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s are, therefore,  13).  considered  1983)  Internal to  be  a  more meaningful index of r e l i a b i l i t y .  10.  Spatz  expected of  Type  expected  and  Johnston  (1984, p. 273) pointed out that with  frequencies under 5, there i s concern that I  errors  would  be increased.  level.  number  For t h i s reason, when  frequencies were under 5, the alpha level  u t i l i z e d instead of the .05  the  of  .01  was  118  11.  With  many  of  the subject  discriminate between frustration  or  frustration  anger  answers, i t was d i f f i c u l t to with  the simulation  to toward the c l i e n t .  Examples were, "I  f e l t frustrated and annoyed because I had to s i t and him  talk,  talk,  wasn't responding  12.  Thompson  experience  talk."  "Felt  (1986)  reported  that  level  of  training  of  responses  which  were  c l i e n t s , as well as counsellors level of confidence  and  variable in made  toward  in interview  S i m i l a r i l y , Jackson (1973, p. 274) pointed out the  effects of therapist experience interracial  interview.  on  level  of  anxiety  to be upset by s t r i k i n g Jackson  went  in the  He wrote that a novice i s "more l i k e l y  to doubt his a b i l i t y to help people and consequently  patient."  to  to what I said."  the type  situations.  listen  frustrated because the c l i e n t  in counselling students was an important  determining  versus  differences  between  more l i k e l y  himself  and h i s  on to say that as the therapist gains  confidence through experience,  "differences" are less l i k e l y  to  be perceived as threatening.  13.  The  most  likely  explanation  study having lower t r a i t anxiety subjects  was  done  i s that  have  recruitment  in a different manner.  second study was not done during class may  for subjects in the second  time,  Recruitment in the therefore,  been less group pressure to enter the study.  subjects, therefore, may have had an with respect to p a r t i c i p a t i n g .  easier  of the  time  there Anxious  saying  "no"  119  14.  The greater amount of frustration expressed by subjects in  the second study may experienced may  be related to the fact that they were  and many were working counsellors.  either be a symptom of "burn out"  place  more  responsibility  anxious  the  frustration tendency  on the c l i e n t for helping  Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that because less  and/or  The  these  more  to  himself.  counsellors  were  group (as measured by the A - T r a i t ) , they may  a  have  been less defensive, and therfore more honest in their reporting of negative  feelings such as f r u s t r a t i o n .  15.  In l i g h t of the fact that the majority  of  counsellors  the  control group, as well as the experimental group, found the  f i r s t period to be the most s t r e s s f u l part of the finer  means  of  in  interview,  a  detecting differences between the groups would  have been to ask counsellors to  rate  their  level  of  anxiety  during the period, rather than having asked them to indicate the period  of  highest  counsellors  who  "immediately" minutes may  anxiety.  reported  meant  have  been  In addition, i t is possible that  anxiety  to  occur  "at  first"  within the f i r s t one or two minutes. too  long  a  period  to  have  or Five  detected  di f ferences.  16.  It could be argued that because the frustration reported  the  counsellors  was  often  stated  to  be  in relation to the  simulation, i t had l i t t l e to do with the c l i e n t . pointed out, however, that when emotions experienced  by  the  psychotherapist,  onto the experimental design.  such  by  Bergman as  (1966)  anxiety  are  they are often displaced  He stated that a research set  up  1 20  "easily  leads  the  therapist  to displace his concern from the  more sensitive sources of anxiety to the less sensitive Similarily,  Sebastian, et a l .  (1980) commented with respect to  accent in p a r t i c u l a r , that subjects in their blame  ones."  study  the quality of tapes rather than the accented  tended  to  individual  for their subsequent lack of understanding.  17.  The limitations associated with  previous  accent  research  would not apply to discourse analysis which e s s e n t i a l l y involves an in-depth observation of real situations.  18.  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Journal of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 53, 393-401.  1 37  Appendix A (PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE)  Provide Brief Answers For The Following: (please print)  Do you feel you displayed good counselling s k i l l s in responding to the simulated interview?  Rate your counselling responses on a scale of 1-5 (1=1OW, 5=high), what would you give yourself during: a) b) c)  the f i r s t 5 minutes (beginning) the second 5 minutes (middle) the t h i r d 5 minutes (end)  Try and think back to how you were feeling during the interview. Using feelinqs words, describe the feelings you had. Example:  I felt  or I f e l t  because -  Were you feeling anxious during the interview? If yes, can you mention the reasons why and at what time interval the the feeling was most predominant (1st 5 minutes, middle, last 5 minutes)?  What i s i t about this c l i e n t that stood out the most for you?  138  D i d you i d e n t i f y explain.  with  this  7.  How m o t i v a t e d do you t h i n k help himself?  8.  Would you e n j o y w o r k i n g somewhat  9.  10.  client  this  with  client  this  moderately  i n any way?  will  be  Please  in  trying  client? a great  deal  I f you were g i v e n a c h o i c e , would y o u c o n t i n u e t o see c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r would y o u r e f e r t o a n o t h e r counsellor?  Do you have counselling  any o t h e r comments experience?  to  regarding  this  this  particular  139  Appendix B (QUESTIONNAIRE) Provide Brief Answers For the Following; (please print)  Do you feel you displayed good counselling s k i l l s in responding to the simulated interview?  Rate your counselling responses on a scale of 1-10 (1=1OW, 10=high), what would you give yourself during: a) b) c)  the f i r s t 5 minutes (beginning) the second 5 minutes (middle) the t h i r d 5 minutes (end)  Try to think back to how you wre feeling during the interview Using feeling words, describe the feelings you had. Example:  I felt  or I f e l t  because  Were you feeling anxious during the interview? If yes, can you mention the reasons why and at what time interval the feeling was most predominant (1st 5 minutes, middle, last 5 minutes)?  Other than the c l i e n t ' s presenting problem, what other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s stood out for you the most? Did they make you feel uncomfortable?  140  6.  D i d you i d e n t i f y explain.  with t h i s  7.  How m o t i v a t e d do help himself?  you  8.  Would you  enjoy not  client  think this  working with  i n any  way?  client will  this  be  Please  in trying  to  cilent?  at a l l  somewhat moderately considerably •a g r e a t d e a l 9.  10.  I f you were g i v e n a c h o i c e , w o u l d you c o n t i n u e t o see c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r w o u l d you r e f e r t o a n o t h e r counsellor?  Do you have any o t h e r comments r e g a r d i n g t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g experience?  this  particular  141  Appendix C  CONSENT FORM Title:  C o u n s e l l o r Responses to C l i e n t s S i t u a t ion  in a Training  R e s e a r c h e r s : Linda Alexander Susan Rungta I v o l u n t a r i l y agree to p a r t i c i p a t e in t h i s research p r o j e c t which w i l l take 3 5 minutes of my time. I understand that the aim of this study is to investigate counsellors' typical responses to c l i e n t s in a t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I am aware that the study is being conducted to partially fulfill the requirements for a M a s t e r ' s Degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I f u r t h e r understand that my involvement in t h i s project requires that I complete a form r e q u e s t i n g c e r t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as answering q u e s t i o n s which deal with the experience. In addition, I am aware that my responses to the simulated c l i e n t i n t e r v i e w w i l l be a u d i o t a p e d . I have been assured that the information c o l l e c t e d from t h i s study w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l and not be used f o r e v a l u a t i v e purposes. I understand that on completion of the p r o j e c t , the audiotape w i l l be destroyed and the remaining data w i l l remain anonymous. I am aware that I may withdraw my consent and discontinue my p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time without i n f l u e n c i n g my c l a s s standing i n any way. I am aware that the i n s t r u c t o r s of the course at no time, present or f u t u r e , w i l l be made aware of my performance. I have read the contents of this Consent Form and understand my p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h i s project. For my part I agree to uphold the e t h i c of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and not d i s c u s s t h i s p r o j e c t u n t i l I have been advised i t has been completed. I acknowledge  Date  r e c e i p t to t h i s Consent  Signature  form.  142  Appendix D DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION  Age: Sex:  M  F  Place of B i r t h : Birthplace of Parents:  Mother Father  •—  *If other than Canada, age when she/he emigrated  Upbringing:  Rural Cultural/Ethnic  Area of Concentration (CNPS): Family Adolescent College & Adult Elementary Women Other  Clinical  Experience  Number of years: Setting & Client Population  Urban affiliation  143  Appendix  E  A-State Scale ( S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch, & Lushene)  SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE t (Developed by C D . S p i e l b e r g e r , R.L. Gorsuch and R. Lushene) DIRECTIONS: A number of statements which people have used t o d e s c r i b e themselves a r e g i v e n below. Read each statement and then c i r c l e the number t o t h e r i g h t of the statement t o i n d i c a t e how you f e l t d u r i n g the c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w , that is, how you f e l t d u r i n g t h e 15 minute p e r i o d i n which the v i d e o t a p e was i n p l a y . There a r e no r i g h t o r wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any one statement but g i v e the answer which seems to d e s c r i b e your f e e l i n g s b e s t . 1.  I f e l t calm  1 2  3  4  2.  I f e l t secure  1  2  3  A  3.  I was tense  1  2  3  A  A.  I was r e g r e t f u l  1  2  3  A  5.  I f e l t a t ease  1  2  3  A  6.  I was upset  1  2  3  A  7.  I was w o r r y i n g over p o s s i b l e m i s f o r t u n e s  1  2  3  A  8.  I f e l t rested  1  2  3  A  9.  I f e l t anxious  1  2  3  A  10.  I f e l t comfortable  1  2  3  A  11.  I felt self-confident  1  2  3  A  12.  I f e l t nervous  1  2  3  A  13.  I was j i t t e r y  1  2  3  A  1A.  I f e l t "high strung"  1  2  3  A  15.  I was r e l a x e d  1  2  3  A  16.  I f e l t content  1  2  3  A  17.  I was w o r r i e d  1  2  3  A  18.  I f e l t o v e r - G x c i t e d and " r a t t l e d "  1  2  3  A  19.  I felt joyful  1  2  3  A  20.  I f e l t pleasant  1  2  3  A  Appendix F A-Trait (Spielberger,  Scale  Gorsuch, & Lushene)  DIRECTIONS: A number of statements which people have used t o d e s c r i b e themselves a r e g i v e n below. Read each statement and circle the a p p r o p r i a t e number t o the r i g h t of the statement t o i n d i c a t e how you g e n e r a l l y f e e l . There a r e no r i g h t o r wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any one statement but g i v e the answer which seems t o d e s c r i b e how you g e n e r a l l y f e e l .  21.  I f e e l pleasant  22.  I t i r e quickly  23.  I feel l i k e crying  24.  I w i s h I c o u l d be as happy as o t h e r s seem t o be  25.  I am l o s i n g out on t h i n g s because I c a n ' t make up my mind soon enough  26.  I f e e l rested  27.  I am "calm, c o o l , and c o l l e c t e d "  28.  I f e e l t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e p i l i n g up so t h a t I cannot overcome them  29.  I worry too much over something t h a t r e a l l y doesn't matter  30.  I am happy  31.  I am i n c l i n e d  32.  I lack self-confidence  33.  I f e e l secure  34.  I t r y to avoid f a c i n g a c r i s i s or d i f f i c u l t y  35.  I f e e l blue  36.  I am c o n t e n t  37.  Some unimportant thought runs through my mind and  t o take t h i n g s hard  b o t h e r s me 38.  I t a k e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s so k e e n l y t h a t I can't put them out o f my mind  39.  I am a steady person  40.  I get i n a s t a t e of t e n s i o n or t u r m o i l as I t h i n k over my r e c e n t concerns and i n t e r e s t s  1 45  Appendix G (Rationale for Questions) Question 2: Rate your counselling responses on a scale of I0=high), what would you give yourself during: a) The f i r s t five minutes (beginning) b) The second five minutes (middle)  1-10  (1=1OW,  c) The t h i r d five minutes (end) This  question  effective,  or  interview.  was  skilled  Of  included  in  counsellors  interest,  was  felt  whether  themselves to be less effective with well  as  the  of  being  responses  to  the  of  determine were  counsellors accented  anxiety  determined  beginning, middle, and end, allowed terms  to  they  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  (performance in t h i s case self-ratings  order  client).  in  the  perceived client,  and by  how  as  performance  good  or  poor  The breakdown of  for finer discrimination  in  performance at various i n t e r v a l s of the session which  could be related to anxiety experienced  at  a  particular  time  interval. Question 3: Try and think back to how you were feeling during the Using feeling words, describe the feelings you had. The purpose of t h i s question was were  present  among  the  interview.  to determine what emotions  counsellors during the interview.  particular interest were the reasons given i f anxiety was as  a  predominant  emotions such as reactions  to  format "I  feel  because  it  as  frustration,  the  was  emotion,  Of  cited  well as the existence of other which  may  have  differentiated  accented versus the nonaccented c l i e n t . because  "  was  The  utilized  very familiar to a l l the counsellors taking the  counselling s k i l l s  course.  1 46  Question  4:  Were y o u f e e l i n g a n x i o u s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w ? I f yes, can you mention the reasons why a n d a t w h a t t i m e i n t e r v a l t h e f e e l i n g was m o s t p r e d o m i n a n t ( f i r s t five minutes, middle, last five minutes)? This time  question  intervals  important of  during  both  performance  in  may b e  versus  nonaccented  addressed  which  Question  created  Question  for and  was  the to  a  interval  to  reactions  detected  to  whether accented  portion  by  the  be  ratings  indicate  particular  included  against  more  indirect  the  for  of  STAI  the which  if  the  in  order  "accent" accent  to  to  was  be  allow  the  addressed  mentioned,  by  whether  counsellor.  review is  the  unpleasant  would not  of  the  of  nature  anxiety.  allow  of  It  the  and  means the  with  counsellors  work w i t h  anxiety  primary  was c o n s t r u c t e d  measure  to  choice, w o u l d you c o n t i n u e t o see this would you refer to another counsellor?  i n the  then,  question wished  of  determine,  avoidance  question,  they  to  to  9:  This  the  thought  various  whole.  issue  discomfort  indicated  literature,  of  as  in anxiety  be  a  was  information well  at  presenting problem, what other client out f o r you the most? D i d t h e y make y o u  If you were given a c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g or  defend  at  not  i n t e r v i e w as  question  counsellors  As  2, a s  This  anxiety  5:  opportunity  this  such  persons might  differentiate  interview.  differences  Other than the c l i e n t ' s characteristics stood feel uncomfortable? This  to  relating  finer  the  the  in question  there  interview  served  was the  client  by w h i c h  anxiety  the  performance  aim  felt  that  experience. of the  opportunity i n an  people  being  a  wording to  say  acceptable  way,  147  which might even appear to client.  be  in  the  best  interest  of  the  For example, a counsellor might say, "I would refer to  a counsellor who had more experience  with unemployment."  148  Appendix  H  Figure 1 Scatter  63.0  P l o t o f t h e N e g a t i v e C o r r e l a t i o n Between A - S t a t e and C o u n s e l l o r Competence  Scores  +  50.7 0)  S_i 0  4  6  6  o  in (0 -P  1  38.4  90  10.7  12.4  14.1  15.8  Counsellor  17.5  19.2  Competence  20.9  Rating  22^6  24.3  26.0  149  Appendix I  CLIENT SCRIPT  Segment 1 I don't know i f you can help me. A friend of mine said you could...I don't know. I feel awkward and s i l l y coming here. But I f e l t that I had to do something before i t ' s too late. Things aren't so great right now. My l i f e , my family, everything seems to be f a l l i n g apart...I feel so helpless...I don't seem to be able to do anything to stop i t from happening. I'm not a drunk. I don't use any drugs. It's just that I can't seem to do anything right anymore. Ever since I lost my job.  Segment 2 ...Well...I've been out of work now for almost two years...22 months tomorrow. I've looked everywhere for a job but for some reason nobody wants to hire me. I try to think of why I can't get work. It's almost as though there's someone... someone's making sure I don't get a job. I am not stupid. I've done a l l kinds of work. I've worked at a l l kinds of jobs. I've got experience in almost everything. Why...is what I don't understand...Why i s t h i s happening to me?  Segment 3 ...My friend t o l d me that I looked depressed...that I shouldn't do anything foolish. Of course I am depressed...who wouldn't be...but suicide has never entered my mind. I could never do anything l i k e that. I never have been a coward and I am determined to see t h i s thing right through to the end. Besides my family needs me, I could never desert them...  Segment 4 Things used to be so good for us. The wife and I we used to plan for the future. We scrimped...put money into savings plans. The children's college money has been spent...I felt  150  l i k e a thief taking i t . But what could I do, the b i l l s had to be paid. I didn't want to lose the house.  Segment 5 We started s e l l i n g things... started out with a garage sale s e l l i n g itmes we didn't want...just s e l l i n g items that we had to sell. It's funny though...I had a...I used to have a stamp c o l l e c t i o n that I thought was worth thousands...When I took i t in to s e l l i t the man laughed at me and said f i f t y dollars tops. Can you beat that?  Segment 6 My family's very supportive of me but there are some things that they just don't understand. Number one is money. They a l l know how to spend it...no that isn't fair...it isn't true. I t ' s me. I get so frustrated I want to blame someone...I should have seen i t coming, I have no one to blame but myself. I get so angry.  Segment 7 I thought that being out of work was just a temporary thing so I borrowed a couple of dollars here and there. Now I don't have the courage to face them u n t i l I can pay them back. I owe everybody i t seems. I t r i e d to work some of i t off. But i t seems everybody's hurting they just want the money. I won't take charity, not as long as I can work that's why...that's why I am here. I need help...I need to get control of myself.  Segment 8 I am so b i t t e r I'm angry at my previous employer for l e t t i n g me go and I'm mad at the government for causing me to lose my job, and most of a l l I'm mad at myself for allowing this thing to happen to me.  Segment 9  151  One good thing that has come out of a l l this i s that we are much closer family. It was decided that hiding the problems from the kids wasn't a good idea. The other day the kids and I walked down to the freeway with some garbage bags. We collected beer bottles and pop bottles and whatever else we could find that would bring in some money. My youngest found a stone ginger beer bottle. My wife got so excited about i t , she c o l l e c t s bottles. It was nice to see her laughing for a change.  Segment 10 It's difficult to think positive after so many disappointments. In fact, I have the feeling that I am doing something that deliberately prevents me from getting the job. If there was something to help me relax. I don't mean drugs, I just want to feel good about myself.  Segment 11 The other day I found that somebody had l e f t a box of groceries on the porch. I suppose the neighbours meant well. It was bound to get around. But i t made me f e e l t e r r i b l e . I appreciate their generousity but i t made me feel angry to know that they know that I am not able to provide for my family.  Segment 12 It wasn't very long ago that I f e l t that those people on welfare were just taking advantage of the system. I was so wrong. I can imagine how hard i t must have been for them when I don't even have the courage to go myself.  Segment 13 My youngest son refused to go to school today. It seems a l l of h i s friends have Chex. That i s some kind of running shoe that costs eighty d o l l a r s a p a i r . None of the kids go to parties, they can't afford a show. They fight among themselves, start screaming at each other and that in turn starts a chain reaction. Pretty soon the wife and I get in there screaming too. We have a very tough time and I am not painting the picture with a black brush...it r e a l l y i s this  152  desperate...  Segment 14 Yet s t i l l out of our d i f f i c u l t y has come a great r a l l y i n g and crazy kind of humour that has at times made the most impossible... bearable. Without this crazy, happy family of mine I don't think I could have made i t this f a r .  

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